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Sample records for natural product inhibitors

  1. Natural products as aromatase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Balunas, Marcy J; Su, Bin; Brueggemeier, Robert W; Kinghorn, A Douglas

    2008-08-01

    With the clinical success of several synthetic aromatase inhibitors (AIs) in the treatment of postmenopausal estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer, researchers have also been investigating the potential of natural products as AIs. Natural products from terrestrial and marine organisms provide a chemically diverse array of compounds not always available through current synthetic chemistry techniques. Natural products that have been used traditionally for nutritional or medicinal purposes (e.g., botanical dietary supplements) may also afford AIs with reduced side effects. A thorough review of the literature regarding natural product extracts and secondary metabolites of plant, microbial, and marine origin that have been shown to exhibit aromatase inhibitory activity is presented herein.

  2. Natural Products as Aromatase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Balunas, Marcy J.; Su, Bin; Brueggemeier, Robert W.; Kinghorn, A. Douglas

    2010-01-01

    With the clinical success of several synthetic aromatase inhibitors (AIs) in the treatment of postmenopausal estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer, researchers have also been investigating also the potential of natural products as AIs. Natural products from terrestrial and marine organisms provide a chemically diverse array of compounds not always available through current synthetic chemistry techniques. Natural products that have been used traditionally for nutritional or medicinal purposes (e.g., botanical dietary supplements) may also afford AIs with reduced side effects. A thorough review of the literature regarding natural product extracts and secondary metabolites of plant, microbial, and marine origin that have been shown to exhibit aromatase inhibitory activity is presented herein. PMID:18690828

  3. Hit identification of IKKβ natural product inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) proteins are a small group of heterodimeric transcription factors that play an important role in regulating the inflammatory, immune, and apoptotic responses. NF-κB activity is suppressed by association with the inhibitor IκB. Aberrant NF-κB signaling activity has been associated with the development of cancer, chronic inflammatory diseases and auto-immune diseases. The IKK protein complex is comprised of IKKα, IKKβ and NEMO subunits, with IKKβ thought to play the dominant role in modulating NF-κB activity. Therefore, the discovery of new IKKβ inhibitors may offer new therapeutic options for the treatment of cancer and inflammatory diseases. Results A structure-based molecular docking approach has been employed to discover novel IKKβ inhibitors from a natural product library of over 90,000 compounds. Preliminary screening of the 12 highest-scoring compounds using a luciferase reporter assay identified 4 promising candidates for further biological study. Among these, the benzoic acid derivative (1) showed the most promising activity at inhibiting IKKβ phosphorylation and TNF-α-induced NF-κB signaling in vitro. Conclusions In this study, we have successfully identified a benzoic acid derivative (1) as a novel IKKβ inhibitor via high-throughput molecular docking. Compound 1 was able to inhibit IKKβ phosphorylation activity in vitro, and block IκBα protein degradation and subsequent NF-κB activation in human cells. Further in silico optimization of the compound is currently being conducted in order to generate more potent analogues for biological tests. PMID:23294515

  4. Botulinum neurotoxin A protease: discovery of natural product exosite inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Silhár, Peter; Capková, Katerina; Salzameda, Nicholas T; Barbieri, Joseph T; Hixon, Mark S; Janda, Kim D

    2010-03-10

    A new mechanistic class of BoNT/A zinc metalloprotease inhibitors, from Echinacea, exemplified by the natural product d-chicoric acid (I1) is disclosed. A detailed evaluation of chicoric acid's mechanism of inhibition reveals that the inhibitor binds to an exosite, displays noncompetitive partial inhibition, and is synergistic with a competitive active site inhibitor when used in combination. Other components found in Echinacea, I3 and I4, were also inhibitors of the protease.

  5. Natural product inhibitors of ocular angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Sulaiman, Rania S.; Basavarajappa, Halesha D.; Corson, Timothy W.

    2014-01-01

    Natural products are characterized by high chemical diversity and biochemical specificity; therefore, they are appealing as lead compounds for drug discovery. Given the importance of angiogenesis to many pathologies, numerous natural products have been explored as potential anti-angiogenic drugs. Ocular angiogenesis underlies blinding eye diseases such as retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in children, proliferative diabetic retinopathy (DR) in adults of working age, and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in the elderly. Despite the presence of effective therapy in many cases, these diseases are still a significant health burden. Anti-VEGF biologics are the standard of care, but may cause ocular or systemic side effects after intraocular administration and patients may be refractory. Many anti-angiogenic compounds inhibit tumor growth and metastasis alone or in combination therapy, but a more select subset of them has been tested in the context of ocular neovascular diseases. Here, we review the promise of natural products as anti-angiogenic agents, with a specific focus on retinal and choroidal neovascularization. The multifunctional curcumin and the chalcone isoliquiritigenin have demonstrated promising anti-angiogenic effects in mouse models of DR and choroidal neovascularization (CNV) respectively. The homoisoflavanone cremastranone and the flavonoid deguelin have been shown to inhibit ocular neovascularization in more than one disease model. The isoflavone genistein and the flavone apigenin on the other hand are showing potential in the prevention of retinal and choroidal angiogenesis with long-term administration. Many other products with antiangiogenic potential in vitro such as the lactone withaferin A, the flavonol quercetin, and the stilbenoid combretastatin A4 are awaiting investigation in different ocular disease relevant animal models. These natural products may serve as lead compounds for the design of more specific, efficacious, and affordable

  6. Marine Natural Products as Inhibitors of Hypoxic Signaling in Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Nagle, Dale G.; Zhou, Yu-Dong

    2010-01-01

    Marine natural products have become a major source of new chemical entities in the discovery of potential anticancer agents that potently suppress various antitumor molecular targets. As a consequence of insufficient vascularization, hypoxic regions form within rapidly growing solid tumor masses. Specific alterations of gene expression in these hypoxic tumor cells help facilitate the survival and metastatic spread of solid tumors. The transcriptional response to cellular hypoxia is primarily mediated by the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) that regulates the expression of more than 100 genes involved in cellular adaptation and survival under hypoxic stress. Clinical studies in cancer patients indicate that HIF-1 activation is directly correlated with advanced disease stages and treatment resistance. HIF-1 has emerged as an important tumor-selective molecular target for anticancer drug discovery. As a result, natural product-based inhibitors of HIF-1 activation have been identified from plants and microorganisms. Recently, structurally unique natural products from marine sponges, crinoids, and algae have been identified as HIF-1 activation inhibitors. The US National Cancer Institute’s Open Repository of marine invertebrate and algae extracts has proven to be a valuable source of natural product HIF-1 inhibitors. Among the active compounds identified, certain marine natural products have also been shown to suppress the hypoxic induction of HIF-1 target genes such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Some of these marine HIF-1 inhibitors act by interfering with the generation of mitochondrial signaling molecules in hypoxic cells. However, the precise mechanisms of action for many newly identified marine natural product HIF-1 inhibitors remain unresolved. PMID:20622986

  7. Recent progress in natural products as DPP-4 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Yong; Zhu, Jianming; Li, Bo; Li, Zhao; Zhu, Weiliang; Shi, Jiye; Jia, Qi; Li, Yiming

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease affecting patients' daily life and increasing patients' risk of other complication. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) is a serine aminopeptidase, which is one of the validated targets for Type 2 diabetes therapy due to its regulatory effect of incretin hormone. Seven DPP-4 inhibitors are commercially available nowadays on the market as Type 2 diabetes drugs. They are all chemically synthesized compounds with good therapeutic effects, but long-term safety remains unknown. On the other hand, nature provides a rich source for search of desired safe and effective medications; and actually more than half of the drugs on market are natural product related. Therefore, a systematic search for new DPP-4 inhibitors from nature sources seems to be of great utility for developing novel antidiabetic drugs. This review summarized recent progress of DPP-4 inhibitors from natural products, revealed that both pure natural products and the crude extracts of herbs or the hydrolyzates of proteins are active as DPP-4 inhibitors. Therefore, both could be served as useful clues for developing next generation of antidiabetes medicines via inhibiting DPP-4 activity.

  8. Marine Natural Products with P-Glycoprotein Inhibitor Properties

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Dioxelis; Martinez-Luis, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a protein belonging to the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters superfamily that has clinical relevance due to its role in drug metabolism and multi-drug resistance (MDR) in several human pathogens and diseases. P-gp is a major cause of drug resistance in cancer, parasitic diseases, epilepsy and other disorders. This review article aims to summarize the research findings on the marine natural products with P-glycoprotein inhibitor properties. Natural compounds that modulate P-gp offer great possibilities for semi-synthetic modification to create new drugs and are valuable research tools to understand the function of complex ABC transporters. PMID:24451193

  9. Characterization of the Annonaceous acetogenin, annonacinone, a natural product inhibitor of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1

    PubMed Central

    Pautus, Stéphane; Alami, Mouad; Adam, Fréderic; Bernadat, Guillaume; Lawrence, Daniel A.; De Carvalho, Allan; Ferry, Gilles; Rupin, Alain; Hamze, Abdallah; Champy, Pierre; Bonneau, Natacha; Gloanec, Philippe; Peglion, Jean-Louis; Brion, Jean-Daniel; Bianchini, Elsa P.; Borgel, Delphine

    2016-01-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is the main inhibitor of the tissue type and urokinase type plasminogen activators. High levels of PAI-1 are correlated with an increased risk of thrombotic events and several other pathologies. Despite several compounds with in vitro activity being developed, none of them are currently in clinical use. In this study, we evaluated a novel PAI-1 inhibitor, annonacinone, a natural product from the Annonaceous acetogenins group. Annonacinone was identified in a chromogenic screening assay and was more potent than tiplaxtinin. Annonacinone showed high potency ex vivo on thromboelastography and was able to potentiate the thrombolytic effect of tPA in vivo in a murine model. SDS-PAGE showed that annonacinone inhibited formation of PAI-1/tPA complex via enhancement of the substrate pathway. Mutagenesis and molecular dynamics allowed us to identify annonacinone binding site close to helix D and E and β-sheets 2A. PMID:27876785

  10. Characterization of the Annonaceous acetogenin, annonacinone, a natural product inhibitor of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pautus, Stéphane; Alami, Mouad; Adam, Fréderic; Bernadat, Guillaume; Lawrence, Daniel A.; de Carvalho, Allan; Ferry, Gilles; Rupin, Alain; Hamze, Abdallah; Champy, Pierre; Bonneau, Natacha; Gloanec, Philippe; Peglion, Jean-Louis; Brion, Jean-Daniel; Bianchini, Elsa P.; Borgel, Delphine

    2016-11-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is the main inhibitor of the tissue type and urokinase type plasminogen activators. High levels of PAI-1 are correlated with an increased risk of thrombotic events and several other pathologies. Despite several compounds with in vitro activity being developed, none of them are currently in clinical use. In this study, we evaluated a novel PAI-1 inhibitor, annonacinone, a natural product from the Annonaceous acetogenins group. Annonacinone was identified in a chromogenic screening assay and was more potent than tiplaxtinin. Annonacinone showed high potency ex vivo on thromboelastography and was able to potentiate the thrombolytic effect of tPA in vivo in a murine model. SDS-PAGE showed that annonacinone inhibited formation of PAI-1/tPA complex via enhancement of the substrate pathway. Mutagenesis and molecular dynamics allowed us to identify annonacinone binding site close to helix D and E and β-sheets 2A.

  11. Natural Product Inhibitors of Topoisomerases: Review and Docking Study.

    PubMed

    Scotti, L; Mendonça Júnior, F J B; Ribeiro, F F; Tavares, J F; Da Silva, M S; Barbosa Filho, J M; Scotti, M T

    2017-01-11

    Since ancient times, natural products have been used in treating various diseases effectively and safely. Nowadays, these natural compounds are submitted to sophisticated methodologies from isolation, computing, analytical, and even serving as pharmacophore suggestions for synthesis. The substances extracted from marine species, plants, and microorganisms present activities beneficial to our health, including protection against malignant tumors. The topoisomerase enzymes play an important role in DNA metabolism, and searching for enzyme inhibitors is an important target in the search for new anticancer drugs. This review discusses this problem, reporting research involving alkaloids, terpenes, flavonoids, xanthones, coumarins, acetogenins, and in addition, includes a docking study with our Brazilian diterpenes to topoisomerases I and II. The better compound, the trachylobane 1, forms one hydrogen bond when submitted to docking with Topo I (with the ASP533 residue) and two with residues in Topo II (THR213 and TYR188). The difference observed in the energy of formation can be attributed to hydrogen-bond interactions. The difference observed in the energy of formation can be attributed to hydrogen-bond interactions.

  12. New natural product carbonic anhydrase inhibitors incorporating phenol moieties.

    PubMed

    Karioti, Anastasia; Ceruso, Mariangela; Carta, Fabrizio; Bilia, Anna-Rita; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2015-11-15

    Carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1) catalyze the fundamental reaction of CO2 hydration in all living organisms, being actively involved in the regulation of a plethora of patho/physiological conditions. They represent a typical example of enzyme convergent evolution, as six genetically unrelated families of such enzymes were described so far. The need to find selective CA inhibitors (CAIs) triggered the investigation of natural product libraries, which proved to be a valid source of agents with such an activity, as demonstrated for the phenols, polyamines and coumarins. Herein we report an in vitro inhibition study of human (h) CA isoforms hCAs I, II, IV, VII and XII with a panel of natural polyphenols including flavones, flavonols, flavanones, flavanols, isoflavones and depsides, some of which extracted from Quercus ilex and Salvia miltiorrhiza. Several of the investigated derivatives showed interesting inhibition activity and selectivities for inhibiting some important isoforms over the off-target ones hCA I and II.

  13. Marine Natural Product Inhibitors of Neutrophil-Associated Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chun-Yu; Tsai, Yung-Fong; Chang, Wen-Yi; Yang, Shun-Chin; Hwang, Tsong-Long

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophils are widely recognized to play an important role in acute inflammatory responses, and recent evidence has expanded their role to modulating chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and microbicidal compounds released from neutrophils that are recruited to the site of inflammation contribute to the pathogenesis of multiple inflammation-associated diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, atherosclerosis, and hepatitis. Marine organisms are a valuable source of bioactive compounds with potential for industrial and pharmaceutical application. Marine natural products that inhibit neutrophil activation could be used as drugs for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Numerous studies investigating marine natural products have reported novel anti-inflammatory agents. Nevertheless, the detailed mechanisms underlying their actions, which could facilitate our understanding of the molecular events occurring in neutrophils, have not been reported in most of the associated research studies. Therefore, in this review, we will present marine products that inhibit neutrophil-associated inflammation. Furthermore, we will be limiting the detailed discussion to agents with well-investigated molecular targets. PMID:27472345

  14. Marine Natural Product Inhibitors of Neutrophil-Associated Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Yu; Tsai, Yung-Fong; Chang, Wen-Yi; Yang, Shun-Chin; Hwang, Tsong-Long

    2016-07-26

    Neutrophils are widely recognized to play an important role in acute inflammatory responses, and recent evidence has expanded their role to modulating chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and microbicidal compounds released from neutrophils that are recruited to the site of inflammation contribute to the pathogenesis of multiple inflammation-associated diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, atherosclerosis, and hepatitis. Marine organisms are a valuable source of bioactive compounds with potential for industrial and pharmaceutical application. Marine natural products that inhibit neutrophil activation could be used as drugs for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Numerous studies investigating marine natural products have reported novel anti-inflammatory agents. Nevertheless, the detailed mechanisms underlying their actions, which could facilitate our understanding of the molecular events occurring in neutrophils, have not been reported in most of the associated research studies. Therefore, in this review, we will present marine products that inhibit neutrophil-associated inflammation. Furthermore, we will be limiting the detailed discussion to agents with well-investigated molecular targets.

  15. Virtual screening and optimization of Type II inhibitors of JAK2 from a natural product library.

    PubMed

    Ma, Dik-Lung; Chan, Daniel Shiu-Hin; Wei, Guo; Zhong, Hai-Jing; Yang, Hui; Leung, Lai To; Gullen, Elizabeth A; Chiu, Pauline; Cheng, Yung-Chi; Leung, Chung-Hang

    2014-11-21

    Amentoflavone has been identified as a JAK2 inhibitor by structure-based virtual screening of a natural product library. In silico optimization using the DOLPHIN model yielded analogues with enhanced potency against JAK2 activity and HCV activity in cellulo. Molecular modeling and kinetic experiments suggested that the analogues may function as Type II inhibitors of JAK2.

  16. Marine natural products as breast cancer resistance protein inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Cherigo, Lilia; Lopez, Dioxelis; Martinez-Luis, Sergio

    2015-04-03

    Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) is a protein belonging to the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily that has clinical relevance due to its multi-drug resistance properties in cancer. BCRP can be associated with clinical cancer drug resistance, in particular acute myelogenous or acute lymphocytic leukemias. The overexpression of BCRP contributes to the resistance of several chemotherapeutic drugs, such as topotecan, methotrexate, mitoxantrone, doxorubicin and daunorubicin. The Food and Drugs Administration has already recognized that BCRP is clinically one of the most important drug transporters, mainly because it leads to a reduction of clinical efficacy of various anticancer drugs through its ATP-dependent drug efflux pump function as well as its apparent participation in drug resistance. This review article aims to summarize the different research findings on marine natural products with BCRP inhibiting activity. In this sense, the potential modulation of physiological targets of BCRP by natural or synthetic compounds offers a great possibility for the discovery of new drugs and valuable research tools to recognize the function of the complex ABC-transporters.

  17. Marine Natural Products as Breast Cancer Resistance Protein Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Cherigo, Lilia; Lopez, Dioxelis; Martinez-Luis, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) is a protein belonging to the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily that has clinical relevance due to its multi-drug resistance properties in cancer. BCRP can be associated with clinical cancer drug resistance, in particular acute myelogenous or acute lymphocytic leukemias. The overexpression of BCRP contributes to the resistance of several chemotherapeutic drugs, such as topotecan, methotrexate, mitoxantrone, doxorubicin and daunorubicin. The Food and Drugs Administration has already recognized that BCRP is clinically one of the most important drug transporters, mainly because it leads to a reduction of clinical efficacy of various anticancer drugs through its ATP-dependent drug efflux pump function as well as its apparent participation in drug resistance. This review article aims to summarize the different research findings on marine natural products with BCRP inhibiting activity. In this sense, the potential modulation of physiological targets of BCRP by natural or synthetic compounds offers a great possibility for the discovery of new drugs and valuable research tools to recognize the function of the complex ABC-transporters. PMID:25854646

  18. Natural Product Inspired N-Terminal Hsp90 Inhibitors: From Bench to Bedside?

    PubMed

    Khandelwal, Anuj; Crowley, Vincent M; Blagg, Brian S J

    2016-01-01

    The 90 kDa heat shock proteins (Hsp90) are responsible for the conformational maturation of nascent polypeptides and the rematuration of denatured proteins. Proteins dependent upon Hsp90 are associated with all six hallmarks of cancer. Upon Hsp90 inhibition, protein substrates are degraded via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Consequentially, inhibition of Hsp90 offers a therapeutic opportunity for the treatment of cancer. Natural product inhibitors of Hsp90 have been identified in vitro, which have served as leads for the development of more efficacious inhibitors and analogs that have entered clinical trials. This review highlights the development of natural product analogs, as well as the development of clinically important inhibitors that arose from natural products.

  19. Understanding molecular interactions between scavenger receptor A and its natural product inhibitors through molecular modeling studies.

    PubMed

    Pagare, Piyusha P; Zaidi, Saheem A; Zhang, Xiaomei; Li, Xia; Yu, Xiaofei; Wang, Xiang-Yang; Zhang, Yan

    2017-08-16

    Scavenger receptor A (SRA), as an immune regulator, has been shown to play important roles in lipid metabolism, cardiovascular diseases, and pathogen recognition. Several natural product inhibitors of SRA have been studied for their potential application in modulating SRA functions. To understand the binding mode of these inhibitors on SRA, we conducted systematic molecular modeling studies in order to identify putative binding domain(s) that may be responsible for their recognition to the receptor as well as their inhibitory activity. Treatment of SRA with one of the natural product inhibitors, rhein, led to significant dissociation of SRA oligomers to its trimer and dimer forms, which further supported our hypothesis on their putative mechanism of action. Such information is believed to shed light on design of more potent inhibitors for the receptor in order to develop potential therapeutics through immune system modulation. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Identification of baicalein as a ferroptosis inhibitor by natural product library screening.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yangchun; Song, Xinxin; Sun, Xiaofang; Huang, Jin; Zhong, Meizuo; Lotze, Michael T; Zeh, Herbert J; Kang, Rui; Tang, Daolin

    2016-05-13

    Ferroptosis, a novel form of regulated cell death, is characterized by oxidative injury from iron accumulation and lipid peroxidation. In a natural product library screening for ferroptosis inhibitor, we found that baicalein is a potent inhibitor of erastin-induced ferroptosis in pancreatic cancer cells. Baicalein (also termed 5,6,7-trihydroxyflavone) is a flavonoid originally obtained from the roots of Scutellaria baicalensis and Scutellaria lateriflora. We showed that baicalein exhibits remarkable anti-ferroptosis activity compared with well-known ferroptosis inhibitors such as ferrostatin-1, liproxstatin-1, deferoxamine mesylate, and β-mercaptoethanol. At the biochemistry level, baicalein limits erastin-induced ferrous iron production, glutathione depletion, and lipid peroxidation. At the protein level, baicalein suppresses erastin-mediated degradation of glutathione peroxidase 4, a phospholipid hydroperoxidase that protects cells against membrane lipid peroxidation. Thus, baicalein enhances cellular anti-ferroptosis capacity and could be a potential therapeutic agent for ferroptosis-associated tissue injury.

  1. Natural Product-Based Inhibitors of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1 (HIF-1)

    PubMed Central

    Nagle, Dale G.; Zhou, Yu-Dong

    2010-01-01

    The transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) regulates the expression of more than 70 genes involved in cellular adaptation and survival under hypoxic stress. Activation of HIF-1 is associated with numerous physiological and pathological processes that include tumorigenesis, vascular remodeling, inflammation, and hypoxia/ischemia-related tissue damage. Clinical studies suggested that HIF-1 activation correlates directly with advanced disease stages and treatment resistance among cancer patients. Preclinical studies support the inhibition of HIF-1 as a major molecular target for antitumor drug discovery. Considerable effort is underway, in government laboratories, industry and academia, to identify therapeutically useful small molecule HIF-1 inhibitors. Natural products (low molecular weight organic compounds produced by plants, microbes, and animals) continue to play a major role in modern antitumor drug discovery. Most of the compounds discovered to inhibit HIF-1 are natural products or synthetic compounds with structures that are based on natural product leads. Natural products have also served a vital role as molecular probes to elucidate the pathways that regulate HIF-1 activity. Natural products and natural product-derived compounds that inhibit HIF-1 are summarized in light of their biological source, chemical class, ancd effect on HIF-1 and HIF-mediated gene regulation. When known, the mechanism(s) of action of HIF-1 inhibitors are described. Many of the substances found to inhibit HIF-1 are non-druggable compounds that are too cytotoxic to serve as drug leads. The application of high-throughput screening methods, complementary molecular-targeted assays, and structurally diverse chemical libraries hold promise for the discovery of therapeutically useful HIF-1 inhibitors. PMID:16515532

  2. Potential of Natural Products of Herbal Origin as Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Orhan, Ilkay Erdogan

    2016-01-01

    Monoamine oxidase (MAO, E.C. 1.4.3.4) is a flavin-adenine type of enzyme with two isoforms referred to MAO-A and MAO-B that function for oxidation of monoamines. While MAO-A inhibitors are effective as antidepressant and anxiolytic drugs (e.g. chlorgyline, moclobemide, and lazabemide), inhibitors of MAO-B (e.g. Ldeprenyl, pargyline, and rasagiline) are used against neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. Considering the need for novel MAO inhibitors due to side effects of the current ones, natural products have become attractive targets for researchers. Up till now, many studies revealed strong MAO inhibitory activity of flavonoid, xanthone, alkaloid, and coumarin derivatives from herbal sources, which also become good models for the synthetic MAO inhibitors. For this purpose, the present review focuses on examples of in vitro and in vivo MAO-inhibiting natural compounds of plant origin from a wide variety of chemical classes isolated mainly between 2000 - 2015.

  3. Matrix Metalloproteinase Inhibitors (MMPIs) from Marine Natural Products: the Current Situation and Future Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chen; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2009-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of more than twenty five secreted and membrane-bound zinc-endopeptidases which can degrade extracellular matrix (ECM) components. They also play important roles in a variety of biological and pathological processes. Matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors (MMPIs) have been identified as potential therapeutic candidates for metastasis, arthritis, chronic inflammation and wrinkle formation. Up to present, more than 20,000 new compounds have been isolated from marine organisms, where considerable numbers of these naturally occurring derivatives are developed as potential candidates for pharmaceutical application. Eventhough the quantity of marine derived MMPIs is less when compare with the MMPIs derived from terrestrial materials, huge potential for bioactivity of these marine derived MMPIs has lead to large number of researches. Saccharoids, flavonoids and polyphones, fatty acids are the most important groups of MMPIs derived from marine natural products. In this review we focus on the progress of MMPIs from marine natural products. PMID:19597572

  4. Natural products as inhibitors of recombinant cathepsin L of Leishmania mexicana.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Lorena R F; Wu, Hongmei; Nebo, Liliane; Fernandes, João B; da Silva, Maria F das G F; Kiefer, Werner; Schirmeister, Tanja; Vieira, Paulo C

    2015-09-01

    Cysteine proteinases (cathepsins) from Leishmania spp. are promising molecular targets against leishmaniasis. Leishmania mexicana cathepsin L is essential in the parasite life cycle and a pivotal in virulence factor in mammals. Natural products that have been shown to display antileishmanial activity were screened as part of our ongoing efforts to design inhibitors against the L. mexicana cathepsin L-like rCPB2.8. Among them, agathisflavone (1), tetrahydrorobustaflavone (2), 3-oxo-urs-12-en-28-oic acid (3), and quercetin (4) showed significant inhibitory activity on rCPB2.8 with IC50 values ranging from 0.43 to 18.03 µM. The mechanisms of inhibition for compounds 1-3, which showed Ki values in the low micromolar range (Ki = 0.14-1.26 µM), were determined. The biflavone 1 and the triterpene 3 are partially noncompetitive inhibitors, whereas biflavanone 2 is an uncompetitive inhibitor. The mechanism of action established for these leishmanicidal natural products provides a new outlook in the search for drugs against Leishmania. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The antimalarial natural product symplostatin 4 is a nanomolar inhibitor of the food vacuole falcipains.

    PubMed

    Stolze, Sara Christina; Deu, Edgar; Kaschani, Farnusch; Li, Nan; Florea, Bogdan I; Richau, Kerstin H; Colby, Tom; van der Hoorn, Renier A L; Overkleeft, Hermen S; Bogyo, Matthew; Kaiser, Markus

    2012-12-21

    The marine natural product symplostatin 4 (Sym4) has been recognized as a potent antimalarial agent. However, its mode of action and, in particular, direct targets have to date remained elusive. We report a chemical synthesis of Sym4 and show that Sym4-treatment of P. falciparum-infected red blood cells (RBCs) results in the generation of a swollen food vacuole phenotype and a reduction of parasitemia at nanomolar concentrations. We furthermore demonstrate that Sym4 is a nanomolar inhibitor of the P. falciparum falcipains in infected RBCs, suggesting inhibition of the hemoglobin degradation pathway as Sym4's mode of action. Finally, we reveal a critical influence of the unusual methyl-methoxypyrrolinone (mmp) group of Sym4 for potent inhibition, indicating that Sym4 derivatives with such a mmp moiety might represent viable lead structures for the development of antimalarial falcipain inhibitors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Antimalarial Natural Product Symplostatin 4 Is a Nanomolar Inhibitor of the Food Vacuole Falcipains

    PubMed Central

    Stolze, Sara Christina; Deu, Edgar; Kaschani, Farnusch; Li, Nan; Florea, Bogdan I.; Richau, Kerstin H.; Colby, Tom; van der Hoorn, Renier A.L.; Overkleeft, Hermen S.; Bogyo, Matthew; Kaiser, Markus

    2013-01-01

    The marine natural product symplostatin 4 (Sym4) has been recognized as a potent antimalarial agent. However, its mode of action and, in particular, direct targets have to date remained elusive. We report a chemical synthesis of Sym4 and show that Sym4-treatment of P. falciparum-infected red blood cells (RBCs) results in the generation of a swollen food vacuole phenotype and a reduction of parasitemia at nanomolar concentrations. We furthermore demonstrate that Sym4 is a nanomolar inhibitor of the P. falciparum falcipains in infected RBCs, suggesting inhibition of the hemoglobin degradation pathway as Sym4’s mode of action. Finally, we reveal a critical influence of the unusual methylmethoxypyrrolinone (mmp) group of Sym4 for potent inhibition, indicating that Sym4 derivatives with such a mmp moiety might represent viable lead structures for the development of antimalarial falcipain inhibitors. PMID:23261598

  7. Virtual screening of protein kinase C inhibitors from natural product library to modulate general anaesthetic effects.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Junhui; Zhou, Chuixian

    2015-01-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) plays a key role in neurotransmission in the central nervous system, and targeting PKC domain is considered as a strategy to modulate the anaesthetic effects. In this study, we described a synthetic pipeline to perform high-throughput virtual screening against a large library of 3D structural natural products released recently in order to discover those potential PKC modulators. A total of 100 natural products with top scores were raised, from which 12 promising candidates were tested to determine their inhibitory potencies against PKC. As might be expected, the promiscuous kinase inhibitor staurosporine showed a high PKC inhibitory activity (IC50 = 64 nM), and other two tested compounds, i.e. fisetin and tetrahydropapaverine, were also highly potent with their activities at nanomolar level (IC50 = 370 and 190, respectively).

  8. Optimizing natural products by biosynthetic engineering: discovery of nonquinone Hsp90 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming-Qiang; Gaisser, Sabine; Nur-E-Alam, Mohammad; Sheehan, Lesley S; Vousden, William A; Gaitatzis, Nikolaos; Peck, Gerrard; Coates, Nigel J; Moss, Steven J; Radzom, Markus; Foster, Teresa A; Sheridan, Rose M; Gregory, Matthew A; Roe, S Mark; Prodromou, Chrisostomos; Pearl, Laurence; Boyd, Susan M; Wilkinson, Barrie; Martin, Christine J

    2008-09-25

    A biosynthetic medicinal chemistry approach was applied to the optimization of the natural product Hsp90 inhibitor macbecin. By genetic engineering, mutants have been created to produce novel macbecin analogues including a nonquinone compound (5) that has significantly improved binding affinity to Hsp90 (Kd 3 nM vs 240 nM for macbecin) and reduced toxicity (MTD > or = 250 mg/kg). Structural flexibility may contribute to the preorganization of 5 to exist in solution in the Hsp90-bound conformation.

  9. Zebrafish bioassay-guided natural product discovery: isolation of angiogenesis inhibitors from East African medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Alexander D; Liekens, Sandra; Kamuhabwa, Appolinary R; Maes, Jan; Munck, Sebastian; Busson, Roger; Rozenski, Jef; Esguerra, Camila V; de Witte, Peter A M

    2011-02-17

    Natural products represent a significant reservoir of unexplored chemical diversity for early-stage drug discovery. The identification of lead compounds of natural origin would benefit from therapeutically relevant bioassays capable of facilitating the isolation of bioactive molecules from multi-constituent extracts. Towards this end, we developed an in vivo bioassay-guided isolation approach for natural product discovery that combines bioactivity screening in zebrafish embryos with rapid fractionation by analytical thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and initial structural elucidation by high-resolution electrospray mass spectrometry (HRESIMS). Bioactivity screening of East African medicinal plant extracts using fli-1:EGFP transgenic zebrafish embryos identified Oxygonum sinuatum and Plectranthus barbatus as inhibiting vascular development. Zebrafish bioassay-guided fractionation identified the active components of these plants as emodin, an inhibitor of the protein kinase CK2, and coleon A lactone, a rare abietane diterpenoid with no previously described bioactivity. Both emodin and coleon A lactone inhibited mammalian endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and tube formation in vitro, as well as angiogenesis in the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. These results suggest that the combination of zebrafish bioassays with analytical chromatography methods is an effective strategy for the rapid identification of bioactive natural products.

  10. Zebrafish Bioassay-Guided Natural Product Discovery: Isolation of Angiogenesis Inhibitors from East African Medicinal Plants

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, Alexander D.; Liekens, Sandra; Kamuhabwa, Appolinary R.; Maes, Jan; Munck, Sebastian; Busson, Roger; Rozenski, Jef; Esguerra, Camila V.; de Witte, Peter A. M.

    2011-01-01

    Natural products represent a significant reservoir of unexplored chemical diversity for early-stage drug discovery. The identification of lead compounds of natural origin would benefit from therapeutically relevant bioassays capable of facilitating the isolation of bioactive molecules from multi-constituent extracts. Towards this end, we developed an in vivo bioassay-guided isolation approach for natural product discovery that combines bioactivity screening in zebrafish embryos with rapid fractionation by analytical thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and initial structural elucidation by high-resolution electrospray mass spectrometry (HRESIMS). Bioactivity screening of East African medicinal plant extracts using fli-1:EGFP transgenic zebrafish embryos identified Oxygonum sinuatum and Plectranthus barbatus as inhibiting vascular development. Zebrafish bioassay-guided fractionation identified the active components of these plants as emodin, an inhibitor of the protein kinase CK2, and coleon A lactone, a rare abietane diterpenoid with no previously described bioactivity. Both emodin and coleon A lactone inhibited mammalian endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and tube formation in vitro, as well as angiogenesis in the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. These results suggest that the combination of zebrafish bioassays with analytical chromatography methods is an effective strategy for the rapid identification of bioactive natural products. PMID:21379387

  11. High-content screening of natural products reveals novel nuclear export inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Cautain, Bastien; de Pedro, Nuria; Murillo Garzón, Virginia; Muñoz de Escalona, María; González Menéndez, Victor; Tormo, José R; Martin, Jesús; El Aouad, Noureddine; Reyes, Fernando; Asensio, Francisco; Genilloud, Olga; Vicente, Francisca; Link, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Natural products are considered an extremely valuable source for the discovery of new drugs against diverse pathologies. As yet, we have only explored a fraction of the diversity of bioactive compounds, and opportunities for discovering new natural products leading to new drugs are huge. In the present study, U2nesRELOC, a previously established cell-based imaging assay, was employed to screen a collection of extracts of microbial origin for nuclear export inhibition activity. The fluorescent signal of untreated U2nesRELOC cells localizes predominantly to the cytoplasm. Upon treatment with the nuclear export inhibitor leptomycin B, the fluorescent-tagged reporter proteins appear as speckles in the nucleus. A proprietary collection of extracts from fungi, actinomycetes, and unicellular bacteria that covers an uncommonly broad chemical space was used to interrogate this nuclear export assay system. A two-step image-based analysis allowed us to identify 12 extracts with biological activities that are not associated with previously known active metabolites. The fractionation and structural elucidation of active compounds revealed several chemical structures with nuclear export inhibition activity. Here we show that substrates of the nuclear export receptor CRM1, such as Rev, FOXO3a and NF-κB, accumulate in the nucleus in the presence of the fungal metabolite MDN-0105 with an IC50 value of 3.4 µM. Many important processes in tumor formation and progression, as well as in many viral infections, critically depend on the nucleocytoplasmic trafficking of proteins and RNA molecules. Therefore, the disruption of nuclear export is emerging as a novel therapeutic approach with enormous clinical potential. Our work highlights the potential of applying high-throughput phenotypic imaging on natural product extracts to identify novel nuclear export inhibitors.

  12. An overview on the potential of natural products as ureases inhibitors: A review☆

    PubMed Central

    Modolo, Luzia V.; de Souza, Aline X.; Horta, Lívia P.; Araujo, Débora P.; de Fátima, Ângelo

    2014-01-01

    Ureases, enzymes that catalyze urea hydrolysis, have received considerable attention for their impact on living organisms’ health and life quality. On the one hand, the persistence of urease activity in human and animal cells can be the cause of some diseases and pathogen infections. On the other hand, food production can be negatively affected by ureases of soil microbiota that, in turn, lead to losses of nitrogenous nutrients in fields supplemented with urea as fertilizer. In this context, nature has proven to be a rich resource of natural products bearing a variety of scaffolds that decrease the ureolytic activity of ureases from different organisms. Therefore, this work compiles the state-of-the-art researches focused on the potential of plant natural products (present in extracts or as pure compounds) as urease inhibitors of clinical and/or agricultural interests. Emphasis is given to ureases of Helicobacter pylori, Canavalia ensiformis and soil microbiota although the active site of this class of hydrolases is conserved among living organisms. PMID:25685542

  13. A luminescence assay for natural product inhibitors of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis proteasome.

    PubMed

    Gunderwala, Amber; Porter, John

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) causes a large global burden of disease, with a high mortality rate in healthy and immuno-compromised patients. A number of molecular targets have been identified for treatment of this disease, including the Mtb proteasome. The Mtb proteasome enhances Mtb survival during nitrosative and oxidative stress in the latent, non-replicative phase. Therefore, Mtb proteasome inhibition could help to combat Mtb infections that do not respond to current therapies. To develop and validate a novel biochemical assay to assess Mtb proteasome activity in the presence of organic and aqueous plant test extracts. Fluorescence (photoluminescence) and luminescence (chemiluminescence) assays were investigated as potential methods to determine the robustness and repeatability for use in screening natural product extracts for Mtb proteasome inhibitors. The fluorescence assay, used widely for Mtb proteasome activity assays, was subject to interference due to the natural fluorescence of compounds in many of the extracts; there is little interference with the luminescence approach. As proof of principle, we used the luminescence assay to screen a small set of plant test extracts. Luminescence is the more suitable assay for assay of plant natural product extracts. The sensitivities of the luminescence and fluorescence assays are comparable. A Z'-factor of 0.58 for the luminescence assay makes it suitable for medium-to-high throughput screening efforts. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. The Natural Product Honokiol Inhibits Calcineurin Inhibitor-induced and Ras-mediated Tumor Promoting Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Pallavi; Basu, Aninda; Arbiser, Jack L.; Pal, Soumitro

    2013-01-01

    Although calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) are very useful in preventing allograft rejection, they can mediate a rapid progression of post-transplantation malignancies. The CNI cyclosporine A (CsA) can promote renal tumor growth through activation of the proto-oncogene ras and over-expression of the angiogenic cytokine VEGF; the ras activation also induces over-expression of the cytoprotective enzyme HO-1, which promotes survival of renal cancer cells. Here, we show that the natural product honokiol significantly inhibited CsA-induced and Ras-mediated survival of renal cancer cells through the down-regulations of VEGF and HO-1. Thus, honokiol treatment may help to prevent tumor-promoting effects of CsA in transplant patients. PMID:23752066

  15. The natural product honokiol inhibits calcineurin inhibitor-induced and Ras-mediated tumor promoting pathways.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Pallavi; Basu, Aninda; Arbiser, Jack L; Pal, Soumitro

    2013-09-28

    Although calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) are very useful in preventing allograft rejection, they can mediate a rapid progression of post-transplantation malignancies. The CNI cyclosporine A (CsA) can promote renal tumor growth through activation of the proto-oncogene ras and over-expression of the angiogenic cytokine VEGF; the ras activation also induces over-expression of the cytoprotective enzyme HO-1, which promotes survival of renal cancer cells. Here, we show that the natural product honokiol significantly inhibited CsA-induced and Ras-mediated survival of renal cancer cells through the down-regulations of VEGF and HO-1. Thus, honokiol treatment may help to prevent tumor-promoting effects of CsA in transplant patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Inhibitors of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B from Marine Natural Products.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yue; Zhang, Weirui; Liu, Xiaoyu; Yu, Haobing; Lu, Xiaoling; Jiao, Binghua

    2017-07-01

    The ocean is a capacious area with the most abundant biological resources on the earth. The particularity of the marine ecological environment (high pressure, high salt, and hypoxia) makes the marine species survival competition fiercely, forcing many marine organisms in the process of life to produce a great deal of secondary metabolites with special structures and biological activities. In this article, 118 natural products which were isolated from four kinds of marine organisms, sponges, algae, soft corals and fungus, showing PTP1B inhibitory activity were summarized from 2010 to 2016, which may become the leading compounds towards treating Diabetes mellitus (DM). What's more, we briefly summarized the structure-activity relationship of PTP1B inhibitors. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  17. Identification of kazinol Q, a natural product from Formosan plants, as an inhibitor of DNA methyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Weng, Jing-Ru; Lai, I-Lu; Yang, Hsiao-Ching; Lin, Chun-Nan; Bai, Li-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    DNA methylation plays a pivotal role in the epigenetic regulation of the transcription of a number of cancer-related genes, thereby representing an important target for cancer prevention and treatment. In our search for DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitors from Formosan plants, by screening against a library consisting of 12 structurally distinct natural products, we identified kazinol Q {4-[6-(1,1-dimethyl-allyl)-7-hydroxy-chroman-2-yl]-3,6-bis-(3-methyl-but-2-enyl)-benzene-1,2-diol} as an inhibitor of recombinant DNMT1 with IC50 of 7 μM. The effect of kazinol Q on DNMT inhibition was validated by its ability to reactivate the expression of a DNA methylation-silenced gene, E-cadherin, in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Moreover, kazinol Q suppressed the proliferation of MCF-7 breast and LNCaP prostate cancer cells, in part, through apoptosis induction. The role of DNMT1 inhibition in mediating kazinol Q's antiproliferative effect was supported by the protective effect of ectopic expression of DNMT1 on kazinol Q-induced cell death. Molecular modeling analysis suggests that kazinol Q inhibited DNMT activity by competing with cytosine binding, a mechanism similar to that described for (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). Relative to EGCG, kazinol Q exhibits several desirable features for drug development, including chemical stability and increased hydrophobicity, and might have therapeutic relevance to cancer treatment.

  18. Inhibitors of neutrophil recruitment identified using transgenic zebrafish to screen a natural product library.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xingang; Robertson, Anne L; Li, Jingyu; Chai, Ruth Jinfen; Haishan, Wang; Sadiku, Pranvera; Ogryzko, Nikolay V; Everett, Martin; Yoganathan, Kanagasundaram; Luo, Hongbo Robert; Renshaw, Stephen A; Ingham, Philip W

    2014-01-01

    Cell migration is fundamental to the inflammatory response, but uncontrolled cell migration and excess recruitment of neutrophils and other leukocytes can cause damage to the tissue. Here we describe the use of an in vivo model - the Tg(mpx:GFP)(i114) zebrafish line, in which neutrophils are labelled by green fluorescent protein (GFP) - to screen a natural product library for compounds that can affect neutrophil migratory behaviour. Among 1040 fungal extracts screened, two were found to inhibit neutrophil migration completely. Subfractionation of these extracts identified sterigmatocystin and antibiotic PF1052 as the active components. Using the EZ-TAXIScan chemotaxis assay, both compounds were also found to have a dosage-dependent inhibitory effect on murine neutrophil migration. Furthermore, neutrophils treated with PF1052 failed to form pseudopods and appeared round in shape, suggesting a defect in PI3-kinase (PI3K) signalling. We generated a transgenic neutrophil-specific PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 (PIP3) reporter zebrafish line, which revealed that PF1052 does not affect the activation of PI3K at the plasma membrane. In human neutrophils, PF1052 neither induced apoptosis nor blocked AKT phosphorylation. In conclusion, we have identified an antibiotic from a natural product library with potent anti-inflammatory properties, and have established the utility of the mpx:GFP transgenic zebrafish for high-throughput in vivo screens for novel inhibitors of neutrophil migration.

  19. Inhibitors of neutrophil recruitment identified using transgenic zebrafish to screen a natural product library

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xingang; Robertson, Anne L.; Li, Jingyu; Chai, Ruth Jinfen; Haishan, Wang; Sadiku, Pranvera; Ogryzko, Nikolay V.; Everett, Martin; Yoganathan, Kanagasundaram; Luo, Hongbo Robert; Renshaw, Stephen A.; Ingham, Philip W.

    2014-01-01

    Cell migration is fundamental to the inflammatory response, but uncontrolled cell migration and excess recruitment of neutrophils and other leukocytes can cause damage to the tissue. Here we describe the use of an in vivo model – the Tg(mpx:GFP)i114 zebrafish line, in which neutrophils are labelled by green fluorescent protein (GFP) – to screen a natural product library for compounds that can affect neutrophil migratory behaviour. Among 1040 fungal extracts screened, two were found to inhibit neutrophil migration completely. Subfractionation of these extracts identified sterigmatocystin and antibiotic PF1052 as the active components. Using the EZ-TAXIScan chemotaxis assay, both compounds were also found to have a dosage-dependent inhibitory effect on murine neutrophil migration. Furthermore, neutrophils treated with PF1052 failed to form pseudopods and appeared round in shape, suggesting a defect in PI3-kinase (PI3K) signalling. We generated a transgenic neutrophil-specific PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 (PIP3) reporter zebrafish line, which revealed that PF1052 does not affect the activation of PI3K at the plasma membrane. In human neutrophils, PF1052 neither induced apoptosis nor blocked AKT phosphorylation. In conclusion, we have identified an antibiotic from a natural product library with potent anti-inflammatory properties, and have established the utility of the mpx:GFP transgenic zebrafish for high-throughput in vivo screens for novel inhibitors of neutrophil migration. PMID:24291762

  20. Salinosporamide Natural Products: Potent 20S Proteasome Inhibitors as Promising Cancer Chemotherapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Gulder, Tobias A. M.

    2010-01-01

    Proteasome inhibitors are rapidly evolving as potent treatment options in cancer therapy. One of the most promising drug candidates of this type is salinosporamide A from the bacterium Salinispora tropica. This marine natural product possesses a complex, densely functionalized γ-lactam-β-lactone pharmacophore, which is responsible for its irreversible binding to its target, the β subunit of the 20S proteasome. Salinosporamide A entered phase I clinical trials for the treatment of multiple myeloma only three years after its discovery. The strong biological activity and the challenging structure of this compound have fueled intense academic and industrial research in recent years, which has led to the development of more than ten syntheses, the elucidation of its biosynthetic pathway, and the generation of promising structure–activity relationships and oncological data. Salinosporamide A thus serves as an intriguing example of the successful interplay of modern drug discovery and biomedical research, medicinal chemistry and pharmacology, natural product synthesis and analysis, as well as biosynthesis and bioengineering. PMID:20927786

  1. Natural Product Inspired Hsp90 N-Terminal Inhibitors for the Treatment of Cancer: From Bench to Bedside

    PubMed Central

    Blagg, Brian S. J.

    2015-01-01

    The 90 kDa heat shock proteins (Hsp90) are responsible for the conformational maturation of nascent polypeptides and the rematuration of denatured proteins. Proteins dependent upon Hsp90 are associated with all six hallmarks of cancer. Upon Hsp90 inhibition, protein substrates are degraded via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Consequentially, inhibition of Hsp90 offers a therapeutic opportunity for the treatment of cancer. Natural product inhibitors of Hsp90 have been identified in vitro, which have served as leads for the development of more efficacious inhibitors and analogs that have entered clinical trials. This review highlights the development of natural product analogs, as well as the development of clinically important inhibitors that arose from natural products. PMID:26010985

  2. Discovery of a Natural Product-Like iNOS Inhibitor by Molecular Docking with Potential Neuroprotective Effects In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Cheong-Meng; Lu, Lihua; Wang, Modi; Chan, Daniel Shiu-Hin; Chan, Philip Wai Hong; Lee, Simon Ming-Yuen; Ma, Dik-Lung; Leung, Chung-Hang

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we applied structure-based virtual screening techniques to identify natural product or natural product-like inhibitors of iNOS. The iNOS inhibitory activity of the hit compounds was characterized using cellular assays and an in vivo zebrafish larvae model. The natural product-like compound 1 inhibited NO production in LPS-stimulated Raw264.7 macrophages, without exerting cytotoxic effects on the cells. Significantly, compound 1 was able to reverse MPTP-induced locomotion deficiency and neurotoxicity in an in vivo zebrafish larval model. Hence, compound 1 could be considered as a scaffold for the further development of iNOS inhibitors for potential anti-inflammatory or anti-neurodegenerative applications. PMID:24690920

  3. High-Throughput Screen of Natural Product Libraries for Hsp90 Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Davenport, Jason; Balch, Maurie; Galam, Lakshmi; Girgis, Antwan; Hall, Jessica; Blagg, Brian S. J.; Matts, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    Hsp90 has become the target of intensive investigation, as inhibition of its function has the ability to simultaneously incapacitate proteins that function in pathways that represent the six hallmarks of cancer. While a number of Hsp90 inhibitors have made it into clinical trials, a number of short-comings have been noted, such that the search continues for novel Hsp90 inhibitors with superior pharmacological properties. To identify new potential Hsp90 inhibitors, we have utilized a high-throughput assay based on measuring Hsp90-dependent refolding of thermally denatured luciferase to screen natural compound libraries. Over 4,000 compounds were screen with over 100 hits. Data mining of the literature indicated that 51 compounds had physiological effects that Hsp90 inhibitors also exhibit, and/or the ability to downregulate the expression levels of Hsp90-dependent proteins. Of these 51 compounds, seven were previously characterized as Hsp90 inhibitors. Four compounds, anthothecol, garcinol, piplartine, and rottlerin, were further characterized, and the ability of these compounds to inhibit the refolding of luciferase, and reduce the rate of growth of MCF7 breast cancer cells, correlated with their ability to suppress the Hsp90-dependent maturation of the heme-regulated eIF2α kinase, and deplete cultured cells of Hsp90-dependent client proteins. Thus, this screen has identified an additional 44 compounds with known beneficial pharmacological properties, but with unknown mechanisms of action as possible new inhibitors of the Hsp90 chaperone machine. PMID:24833337

  4. Development of natural product-derived receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors based on conservation of protein domain fold.

    PubMed

    Kissau, Lars; Stahl, Petra; Mazitschek, Ralph; Giannis, Athannasios; Waldmann, Herbert

    2003-07-03

    Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) such as Tie-2, IGF1R, Her-2/Neu, EGFR, and VEGFR1-3 play crucial roles in the control of cell growth and differentiation. Inhibition of such RTKs has become a major focus of current anticancer drug development, and therefore the discovery of new classes of inhibitors for these signal-transducing proteins is of prime importance. We have recently proposed a novel concept for improving the hit-finding process by employing natural products as biologically validated starting points in structural space for compound library development. In this concept, natural products are regarded as evolutionary chosen ligands for protein domains which are structurally conserved yet genetically mobile. Here we report on the discovery of novel and highly selective VEGFR-2 and -3, Tie-2, and IGF1R inhibitors derived from the naturally occurring Her-2/Neu kinase inhibitor nakijiquinone C and developed on the basis of this concept. Based on the structure of the natural product, a small library (74 members) was synthesized and investigated for inhibition of kinases with highly similar ATP-binding domains. The library yielded inhibitors with IC(50)s in the low micromolar range with high frequency (7 out of 74). In particular, four inhibitors of Tie-2 were found, a kinase critically involved in the formation of new blood vessels from preexisting ones (angiogenesis) and believed to be a new promising target in antitumor therapy. These results support the "domain concept". To advance the development of improved inhibitors, extensive molecular modeling studies were undertaken, including the construction of new homology models for VEGFR-2 and Tie-2. These studies revealed residues in the kinase structure which are crucial to the development of tailor-made receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

  5. Applications of integrated data mining methods to exploring natural product space for acetylcholinesterase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Daniela; Kern, Lisa; Hristozov, Dimitar P; Terfloth, Lothar; Bienfait, Bruno; Laggner, Christian; Kirchmair, Johannes; Grienke, Ulrike; Wolber, Gerhard; Langer, Thierry; Stuppner, Hermann; Gasteiger, Johann; Rollinger, Judith M

    2010-01-01

    Nature, especially the plant kingdom, is a rich source for novel bioactive compounds that can be used as lead compounds for drug development. In order to exploit this resource, the two neural network-based virtual screening techniques novelty detection with self-organizing maps (SOMs) and counterpropagation neural network were evaluated as tools for efficient lead structure discovery. As application scenario, significant descriptors for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors were determined and used for model building, theoretical model validation, and virtual screening. Top-ranked virtual hits from both approaches were docked into the AChE binding site to approve the initial hits. Finally, in vitro testing of selected compounds led to the identification of forsythoside A and (+)-sesamolin as novel AChE inhibitors.

  6. Applications of Integrated Data Mining Methods to Exploring Natural Product Space for Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Schuster, Daniela; Kern, Lisa; Hristozov, Dimitar P.; Terfloth, Lothar; Bienfait, Bruno; Laggner, Christian; Kirchmair, Johannes; Grienke, Ulrike; Wolber, Gerhard; Langer, Thierry; Stuppner, Hermann; Gasteiger, Johann; Rollinger, Judith M.

    2013-01-01

    Nature, especially the plant kingdom, is a rich source for novel bioactive compounds that can be used as lead compounds for drug development. In order to exploit this resource, the two neural network-based virtual screening techniques novelty detection with self-organizing maps (SOMs) and counterpropagation neural network were evaluated as tools for efficient lead structure discovery. As application scenario, significant descriptors for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors were determined and used for model building, theoretical model validation, and virtual screening. Top-ranked virtual hits from both approaches were docked into the AChE binding site to approve the initial hits. Finally, in vitro testing of selected compounds led to the identification of forsythoside A and (+)-sesamolin as novel AChE inhibitors. PMID:20214575

  7. Natural product inhibitors of carbonic anhydrase I and II isoenzymes: osajin and pomiferin.

    PubMed

    Dilek, Esra; Erol, Hüseyin Serkan; Cakir, Ahmet; Koc, Murat; Halici, Mesut Bünyami

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study is to purify carbonic anhydrase I and II isoenzymes from human erythrocyte, isolate two natural products osajin (OSJ) and pomiferin (PMF) from Maclura pomifera fruits, and evaluate the in vitro effect of these natural metabolites on these isoenzymes. These natural products may be used as starting points for drug discovery (like drugs used in several therapeutic applications, including antiglaucoma activity). For the purification procedure, the Sepharose-4B-l-tyrosine-sulphonamide affinity chromatography was used. Column chromatography and thin layer chromatography methods were used for isolation of OSJ and PMF from M. pomifera fruits and their chemical structures were elucidated by IR, 1D, and 2D NMR methods. We compared inhibitory effects of these natural products with inhibitory effects of phenolic compounds and found that these products demonstrated average inhibition effects. We thought that this study will give inspiration to scientists interested in this issue.

  8. Flavone-based analogues inspired by the natural product simocyclinone D8 as DNA gyrase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Verghese, Jenson; Nguyen, Thuy; Oppegard, Lisa M; Seivert, Lauren M; Hiasa, Hiroshi; Ellis, Keith C

    2013-11-01

    The increasing occurrence of drug-resistant bacterial infections in the clinic has created a need for new antibacterial agents. Natural products have historically been a rich source of both antibiotics and lead compounds for new antibacterial agents. The natural product simocyclinone D8 (SD8) has been reported to inhibit DNA gyrase, a validated antibacterial drug target, by a unique catalytic inhibition mechanism of action. In this work, we have prepared simplified flavone-based analogues inspired by the complex natural product and evaluated their inhibitory activity and mechanism of action. While two of these compounds do inhibit DNA gyrase, they do so by a different mechanism of action than SD8, namely DNA intercalation.

  9. Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) Inhibitors from Natural Products: Discovery of Next-Generation Antihyperglycemic Agents.

    PubMed

    Choi, Chang-Ik

    2016-08-27

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic condition associated with the metabolic impairment of insulin actions, leading to the development of life-threatening complications. Although many kinds of oral antihyperglycemic agents with different therapeutic mechanisms have been marketed, their undesirable adverse effects, such as hypoglycemia, weight gain, and hepato-renal toxicity, have increased demand for the discovery of novel, safer antidiabetic drugs. Since the important roles of the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) for glucose homeostasis in the kidney were recently elucidated, pharmacological inhibition of SGLT2 has been considered a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Since the discovery of the first natural SGLT2 inhibitor, phlorizin, several synthetic glucoside analogs have been developed and introduced into the market. Furthermore, many efforts to find new active constituents with SGLT2 inhibition from natural products are still ongoing. This review introduces the history of research on the development of early-generation SGLT2 inhibitors, and recent progress on the discovery of novel candidates for SGLT2 inhibitor from several natural products that are widely used in traditional herbal medicine.

  10. Privileged structure-based quinazolinone natural product-templated libraries: identification of novel tubulin polymerization inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ji-Feng; Wilson, Christopher J; Ye, Ping; Sprague, Kevin; Sargent, Katie; Si, Ying; Beletsky, Galina; Yohannes, Daniel; Ng, Shi-Chung

    2006-02-01

    A focused quinazolinone natural product-templated library was designed and synthesized. Compounds from this privileged structure-based library were identified as antimitotic agents acting through destabilization of tubulin polymerization. The results suggested that 2 could be a privileged substructure.

  11. Natural products as a gold mine for selective matrix metalloproteinases inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liyan; Li, Xi; Zhang, Shoude; Lu, Weiqiang; Liao, Sha; Liu, Xiaofeng; Shan, Lei; Shen, Xu; Jiang, Hualiang; Zhang, Weidong; Huang, Jin; Li, Honglin

    2012-07-01

    Nineteen natural compounds with diverse structures are identified as potential MMPIs using structure-based virtual screening from 4000 natural products. Hydroxycinnamic acid or analogs of natural products are important for potent inhibitory and selectivity against MMPs, and the solvent effect in the S1' pocket can affect the hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonds between MMPIs and MMPS, making MMPIs exhibit certain selectivity for a specific MMP isoenzyme. Furthermore, compound 5 can reduce the expression of both MMP-2 and active-MMP-9, and suppress the migration of MDA-MB-231 tumor cell in a wound healing assay, which may be further developed as an anticancer agent. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Eriocitrin and Apigenin as New Carbonic Anhydrase VA Inhibitors from a Virtual Screening of Calabrian Natural Products.

    PubMed

    Gidaro, Maria Concetta; Alcaro, Francesca; Carradori, Simone; Costa, Giosuè; Vullo, Daniela; Supuran, Claudiu T; Alcaro, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    In this work, we performed a structure-based virtual screening against five carbonic anhydrase isoforms using, as a ligand library, natural components of Citrus bergamia (Bergamot) and Allium cepa var. Tropea (red onion) sources, which are some typical Calabrian products. The most relevant Bergamot and red onion components, identified as potentially new hits by means of the computational work, were submitted to in vitro tests in order to confirm the ability to exert the predicted biological activity. Apigenin and eriocitrin were identified as new potent inhibitors of human carbonic anhydrase VA isozyme.

  13. A novel multi-hyphenated analytical method to simultaneously determine xanthine oxidase inhibitors and superoxide anion scavengers in natural products.

    PubMed

    Qi, Jin; Sun, Li-Qiong; Qian, Steven Y; Yu, Bo-Yang

    2017-09-01

    Natural products, such as rosmarinic acid and apigenin, can act as xanthine oxidase inhibitors (XOIs) as well as superoxide anion scavengers, and have potential for treatment of diseases associated with high uric acid levels and oxidative stress. However, efficient simultaneous screening of these two bioactivities in natural products has been challenging. We have developed a novel method by assembling a multi-hyphenated high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system that combines a photo-diode array, chemiluminescence detector and a HPLC system with a variable wavelength detector, to simultaneously detect components that act as both XOIs and superoxide anion scavengers in natural products. Superoxide anion scavenging activity in the analyte was measured by on-line chemiluminescence chromatography based on pyrogallol-luminol oxidation, while xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity was determined by semi-on-line HPLC analysis. After optimizing multiple elements, including chromatographic conditions (e.g., organic solvent concentration and mobile phase pH), concentrations of xanthine/xanthine oxidase and reaction temperature, our validated analytical method was capable of mixed sample analysis. The final results from our method are presented in an easily understood visual format including comprehensive bioactivity data of natural products. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Focused library with a core structure extracted from natural products and modified: application to phosphatase inhibitors and several biochemical findings.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Go; Sodeoka, Mikiko

    2015-05-19

    Synthesis of a focused library is an important strategy to create novel modulators of specific classes of proteins. Compounds in a focused library are composed of a common core structure and different diversity structures. In this Account, we describe our design and synthesis of libraries focused on selective inhibitors of protein phosphatases (PPases). We considered that core structures having structural and electronic features similar to those of PPase substrates, phosphate esters, would be a reasonable choice. Therefore, we extracted core structures from natural products already identified as PPase inhibitors. Since many PPases share similar active-site structures, such phosphate-mimicking core structures should interact with many enzymes in the same family, and therefore the choice of diversity structures is pivotal both to increase the binding affinity and to achieve specificity for individual enzymes. Here we present case studies of application of focused libraries to obtain PPase inhibitors, covering the overall process from selection of core structures to identification and evaluation of candidates in the focused libraries. To synthesize a library focused on protein serine-threonine phosphatases (PPs), we chose norcantharidin as a core structure, because norcantharidin dicarboxylate shows a broad inhibition profile toward several PPs. From the resulting focused library, we identified a highly selective PP2B inhibitor, NCA-01. On the other hand, to find inhibitors of dual-specificity protein phosphatases (DSPs), we chose 3-acyltetronic acid extracted from natural product RK-682 as a core structure, because its structure resembles the transition state in the dephosphorylation reaction of DSPs. However, a highly selective inhibitor was not found in the resulting focused library. Furthermore, an inherent drawback of compounds having the highly acidic 3-acyltetronic acid as a core structure is very weak potency in cellulo, probably due to poor cell membrane

  15. Chemical Editing of Macrocyclic Natural Products and Kinetic Profiling Reveal Slow, Tight-Binding Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors with Picomolar Affinities.

    PubMed

    Kitir, Betül; Maolanon, Alex R; Ohm, Ragnhild G; Colaço, Ana R; Fristrup, Peter; Madsen, Andreas S; Olsen, Christian A

    2017-09-26

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are validated targets for treatment of certain cancer types and play numerous regulatory roles in biology, ranging from epigenetics to metabolism. Small molecules are highly important as tool compounds for probing these mechanisms as well as for the development of new medicines. Therefore, detailed mechanistic information and precise characterization of the chemical probes used to investigate the effects of HDAC enzymes are vital. We interrogated Nature's arsenal of macrocyclic nonribosomal peptide HDAC inhibitors by chemical synthesis and evaluation of more than 30 natural products and analogues. This furnished surprising trends in binding affinities for the various macrocycles, which were then exploited for the design of highly potent class I and IIb HDAC inhibitors. Furthermore, thorough kinetic investigation revealed unexpected inhibitory mechanisms of important tool compounds as well as the approved drug Istodax (romidepsin). This work provides novel inhibitors with varying potencies, selectivity profiles, and mechanisms of inhibition and, importantly, affords insight into known tool compounds that will improve the interpretation of their effects in biology and medicine.

  16. Natural Products Screening for the Identification of Selective Monoamine Oxidase-B Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Zarmouh, Najla O.; Messeha, Samia S.; Elshami, Faisel M.; Soliman, Karam F. A.

    2016-01-01

    Aims Monoamine oxidase-B inhibitors (MAO-BIs) are used for the initial therapy of Parkinson’s disease. Also, MAO-BIs have shown to be effective neuroprotective agents in several neurodegenerative diseases. However, some concerns exist regarding the long-term use of these compounds. Meanwhile, natural compounds showed potential MAO-B selective inhibitions. To date, few selective natural MAO-BIs have been identified. Therefore, the current study is designed to identify plants with potent and specific MAO-B inhibition. Study Design In this work, we utilized high throughput screening to evaluate the different plants ethanolic extract for their effectiveness to inhibit recombinant human (h)MAO-A and hMAO-B and to determine the relative selectivity of the top MAO-BI. Methodology Recombinant human isozymes were verified by Western blotting, and the 155 plants were screened. A continuous fluorometric screening assay was performed followed by two separate hMAO-A and hMAO-B microtiter screenings and IC50 determinations for the top extracts. Results In the screened plants, 9% of the extracts showed more than 1.5-fold relative inhibition of hMAO-B (RIB) and another 9% showed more than 1.5-fold relative inhibition of hMAO-A. The top extracts with the most potent RIBs were Psoralea corylifolia seeds, Phellodendron amurense bark, Glycyrrhiza uralensis roots, and Ferula assafoetida roots, with the highest RIB of 5.9-fold. Furthermore, extensive maceration of the promising extracts led to increase inhibitory effects with a preserved RIB as confirmed with luminescence assay. The top four extracts hMAO-BIs were equally potent (IC50= 1.3 to 3.8 μg/mL) with highly significant relative selectivities to inhibit hMAO-B (4.1- to 13.4-fold). Conclusion The obtained results indicate that Psoralea corylifolia seeds, Ferula assafoetida, Glycyrrhiza uralensis roots, and Phellodendron amurense ethanolic extracts have selective inhibitions for human MAO-B. Investigating these plant extracts as

  17. Olive leaf extracts are a natural source of advanced glycation end product inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kontogianni, Vassiliki G; Charisiadis, Pantelis; Margianni, Evangelia; Lamari, Fotini N; Gerothanassis, Ioannis P; Tzakos, Andreas G

    2013-09-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs), which are readily formed and accumulated with sustained hyperglycemia, contribute to the development of diabetic complications. As a consequence, inhibition of AGE formation constitutes an attractive therapeutic/preventive target. In the current study, we explored the phytochemical composition and the in vitro effect of two different olive leaf extracts (an aqueous and a methanolic) on AGE formation. The methanolic olive leaf extract inhibited fluorescent AGE formation in a bovine serum albumin (BSA)-ribose system, whereas the aqueous extract had no effect in both BSA-fructose and BSA-ribose systems. The phytochemical profile was investigated with liquid chromatography-ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) diode array coupled to electrospray ionization multistage mass spectrometry (LC/DAD/ESI-MS(n)). Quantification of the major phenolic compounds was performed with high performance liquid chromatography with UV-Vis diode array detection and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Among the major phenolic components (luteolin, hydroxytyrosol, luteolin-4'-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, luteolin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, and oleuropein), luteolin and luteolin-4'-O-β-D-glucopyranoside were assigned as potent inhibitors of AGE formation. The extraction procedure greatly affects the composition and therefore the anti-glycation potential of olive leaves.

  18. Olive Leaf Extracts Are a Natural Source of Advanced Glycation End Product Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Charisiadis, Pantelis; Margianni, Evangelia; Lamari, Fotini N.; Gerothanassis, Ioannis P.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Advanced glycation end products (AGEs), which are readily formed and accumulated with sustained hyperglycemia, contribute to the development of diabetic complications. As a consequence, inhibition of AGE formation constitutes an attractive therapeutic/preventive target. In the current study, we explored the phytochemical composition and the in vitro effect of two different olive leaf extracts (an aqueous and a methanolic) on AGE formation. The methanolic olive leaf extract inhibited fluorescent AGE formation in a bovine serum albumin (BSA)-ribose system, whereas the aqueous extract had no effect in both BSA-fructose and BSA-ribose systems. The phytochemical profile was investigated with liquid chromatography-ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) diode array coupled to electrospray ionization multistage mass spectrometry (LC/DAD/ESI-MSn). Quantification of the major phenolic compounds was performed with high performance liquid chromatography with UV-Vis diode array detection and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Among the major phenolic components (luteolin, hydroxytyrosol, luteolin-4′-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, luteolin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, and oleuropein), luteolin and luteolin-4′-O-β-D-glucopyranoside were assigned as potent inhibitors of AGE formation. The extraction procedure greatly affects the composition and therefore the anti-glycation potential of olive leaves. PMID:24044491

  19. Natural inhibitors of thrombin.

    PubMed

    Huntington, James A

    2014-04-01

    The serine protease thrombin is the effector enzyme of blood coagulation. It has many activities critical for the formation of stable clots, including cleavage of fibrinogen to fibrin, activation of platelets and conversion of procofactors to active cofactors. Thrombin carries-out its multiple functions by utilising three special features: a deep active site cleft and two anion binding exosites (exosite I and II). Similarly, thrombin inhibitors have evolved to exploit the unique features of thrombin to achieve rapid and specific inactivation of thrombin. Exogenous thrombin inhibitors come from several different protein families and are generally found in the saliva of haematophagous animals (blood suckers) as part of an anticoagulant cocktail that allows them to feed. Crystal structures of several of these inhibitors reveal how peptides and proteins can be targeted to thrombin in different and interesting ways. Thrombin activity must also be regulated by endogenous inhibitors so that thrombi do not occlude blood flow and cause thrombosis. A single protein family, the serpins, provides all four of the endogenous thrombin inhibitors found in man. The crystal structures of these serpins bound to thrombin have been solved, revealing a similar exosite-dependence on complex formation. In addition to forming the recognition complex, serpins destroy the structure of thrombin, allowing them to be released from cofactors and substrates for clearance. This review examines how the special features of thrombin have been exploited by evolution to achieve inhibition of the ultimate coagulation protease.

  20. Titration-based screening for evaluation of natural product extracts: identification of an aspulvinone family of luciferase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Patricia G.; Auld, Douglas S.; Schultz, Pamela J.; Lovell, Scott; Battaile, Kevin P.; MacArthur, Ryan; Shen, Min; Tamayo-Castillo, Giselle; Inglese, James; Sherman, David H.

    2011-01-01

    The chemical diversity of nature has tremendous potential for discovery of new molecular probes and medicinal agents. However, sensitivity of HTS assays to interfering components of crude extracts derived from plants, macro- and microorganisms has curtailed their use in lead discovery efforts. Here we describe a process for leveraging the concentration-response curves (CRCs) obtained from quantitative HTS to improve the initial selection of “actives” from a library of partially fractionated natural product extracts derived from marine actinomycetes and fungi. By using pharmacological activity, the first-pass CRC paradigm aims to improve the probability that labor-intensive subsequent steps of re-culturing, extraction and bioassay-guided isolation of active component(s) target the most promising strains and growth conditions. We illustrate how this process identified a family of fungal metabolites as potent inhibitors of firefly luciferase, subsequently resolved in molecular detail by x-ray crystallography. PMID:22118678

  1. Titration-based screening for evaluation of natural product extracts: identification of an aspulvinone family of luciferase inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Cruz, P.G.; Auld, D.S.; Schultz, P.J.; Lovell, S.; Battaile, K.P.; MacArthur, R.; Shen, M.; Tamayo-Castillo, G.; Inglese, J.; Sherman, D.H.

    2011-11-28

    The chemical diversity of nature has tremendous potential for the discovery of molecular probes and medicinal agents. However, sensitivity of HTS assays to interfering components of crude extracts derived from plants, and macro- and microorganisms has curtailed their use in lead discovery. Here, we describe a process for leveraging the concentration-response curves obtained from quantitative HTS to improve the initial selection of actives from a library of partially fractionated natural product extracts derived from marine actinomycetes and fungi. By using pharmacological activity, the first-pass CRC paradigm improves the probability that labor-intensive subsequent steps of reculturing, extraction, and bioassay-guided isolation of active component(s) target the most promising strains and growth conditions. We illustrate how this process identified a family of fungal metabolites as potent inhibitors of firefly luciferase, subsequently resolved in molecular detail by X-ray crystallography.

  2. Using natural product inhibitors to validate Hsp90 as a molecular target in cancer.

    PubMed

    Neckers, Len

    2006-01-01

    Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a molecular chaperone whose association is required for stability and function of multiple mutated, chimeric, and over-expressed signaling proteins that promote cancer cell growth and/or survival. Hsp90 client proteins include telomerase, mutated p53, Bcr-Abl, Raf-1, Akt, HER2/Neu (ErbB2), mutated B-Raf, mutated EGF receptor, and HIF-1alpha. Hsp90 inhibitors, by interacting specifically with a single molecular target, cause inactivation, destabilization and eventual degradation of Hsp90 client proteins, and they have shown promising anti-tumor activity in various preclinical tumor models. One Hsp90 inhibitor, 17-AAG, is currently in Phase II clinical trial and other inhibitors will shortly be entering the clinic. Hsp90 inhibitors are unique in that, although they are directed towards a specific molecular target, they simultaneously inhibit multiple signaling pathways on which cancer cells depend for growth and survival. Identification of benzoquinone ansamycins as the first Hsp90 inhibitors allowed investigators to determine the biologic effects, at first in vitro and then in vivo, of pharmacologic inhibition of Hsp90. These studies rapidly enhanced our understanding of Hsp90 function and led to the identification of radicicol as a structurally distinct Hsp90 inhibitor. Additional target-based screening uncovered novobiocin as a third structurally distinct small molecule with Hsp90 inhibitory properties. Use of novobiocin, in turn, led to identification of a previously uncharacterized C-terminal ATP binding site in the chaperone. Small molecule inhibitors of Hsp90 have been very useful in understanding Hsp90 biology and in validating this protein as a molecular target for anti-cancer drug development.

  3. Natural Product Kongensin A is a Non-Canonical HSP90 Inhibitor that Blocks RIP3-dependent Necroptosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Dianrong; Li, Chao; Li, Lin; Chen, She; Wang, Lei; Li, Qiang; Wang, Xiaodong; Lei, Xiaoguang; Shen, Zhirong

    2016-02-18

    RIP3-dependent necroptosis has recently garnered significant interest because of the unique signaling mechanisms and pathologic functions involved in this process. Accordingly, a number of chemical screens have identified several effective small-molecule inhibitors that specifically block necroptosis. Here, we report the discovery that kongensin A (KA), a natural product isolated from Croton kongensis, is a potent inhibitor of necroptosis and an inducer of apoptosis. Using a new bioorthogonal ligation method (TQ ligation), we reveal that the direct cellular target of KA is heat shock protein 90 (HSP90). Further studies demonstrate that KA covalently binds to a previously uncharacterized cysteine 420 in the middle domain of HSP90 and dissociates HSP90 from its cochaperone CDC37, which leads to inhibition of RIP3-dependent necroptosis and promotion of apoptosis in multiple cancer cell lines. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that KA is an effective HSP90 inhibitor that has potential anti-necroptosis and anti-inflammation applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Ultra-High-Throughput Screening of Natural Product Extracts to Identify Proapoptotic Inhibitors of Bcl-2 Family Proteins.

    PubMed

    Hassig, Christian A; Zeng, Fu-Yue; Kung, Paul; Kiankarimi, Mehrak; Kim, Sylvia; Diaz, Paul W; Zhai, Dayong; Welsh, Kate; Morshedian, Shana; Su, Ying; O'Keefe, Barry; Newman, David J; Rusman, Yudi; Kaur, Harneet; Salomon, Christine E; Brown, Susan G; Baire, Beeraiah; Michel, Andrew R; Hoye, Thomas R; Francis, Subhashree; Georg, Gunda I; Walters, Michael A; Divlianska, Daniela B; Roth, Gregory P; Wright, Amy E; Reed, John C

    2014-09-01

    Antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins are validated cancer targets composed of six related proteins. From a drug discovery perspective, these are challenging targets that exert their cellular functions through protein-protein interactions (PPIs). Although several isoform-selective inhibitors have been developed using structure-based design or high-throughput screening (HTS) of synthetic chemical libraries, no large-scale screen of natural product collections has been reported. A competitive displacement fluorescence polarization (FP) screen of nearly 150,000 natural product extracts was conducted against all six antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins using fluorochrome-conjugated peptide ligands that mimic functionally relevant PPIs. The screens were conducted in 1536-well format and displayed satisfactory overall HTS statistics, with Z'-factor values ranging from 0.72 to 0.83 and a hit confirmation rate between 16% and 64%. Confirmed active extracts were orthogonally tested in a luminescent assay for caspase-3/7 activation in tumor cells. Active extracts were resupplied, and effort toward the isolation of pure active components was initiated through iterative bioassay-guided fractionation. Several previously described altertoxins were isolated from a microbial source, and the pure compounds demonstrate activity in both Bcl-2 FP and caspase cellular assays. The studies demonstrate the feasibility of ultra-high-throughput screening using natural product sources and highlight some of the challenges associated with this approach.

  5. Targeting FASN in Breast Cancer and the Discovery of Promising Inhibitors from Natural Products Derived from Traditional Chinese Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Chien-shan; Wang, Zhiyu; Chen, Jianping

    2014-01-01

    Molecular targeted therapy has been developed for cancer chemoprevention and treatment. Cancer cells process a fundamental change in its bioenergetic metabolism from normal cells on an altered lipid metabolism, also known as the de novo fatty acid synthesis, for sustaining their high proliferation rates. Fatty acid synthesis is now associated with clinically aggressive tumor behavior and tumor cell growth and has become a novel target pathway for chemotherapy development. Although the underlying mechanisms of the altered de novo fatty acid synthesis still remains unclear, recent progress has shown that by targeting Fatty acid synthase (FASN), a key enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of endogenous long chain fatty acid could be a critical target for drug discovery. However, relatively few FASN inhibitors have been discovered. With the long history of clinical practices and numerous histological case study reports, traditional Chinese medicine enjoys an important role in seeking bioactive anticancer natural compounds. Herein, we will give an overall picture of the current progress of molecular targeted therapy in cancer fatty acid synthesis, describe the advances in the research on natural products-derived FASN inhibitors and their potential for enhancing our understanding of fatty acids in tumor biology, and may provide new therapeutic moieties for breast cancer patient care. PMID:24778702

  6. An overview on natural cholinesterase inhibitors--a multi-targeted drug class--and their mass production.

    PubMed

    Orhan, I Erdogan; Orhan, G; Gurkas, E

    2011-09-01

    Cholinesterase enzyme family consisting of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butrylcholinesterase (BChE) is important in pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), explained by "cholinergic hypothesis". Accordingly, deficiency of the neuromediator called "acetylcholine" excessive amount of BChE has been well-described in the brains of AD patients. Consequently, cholinesterase inhibition has become one of the most-prescribed treatment strategies for AD. In fact, cholinesterase inhibitors have been also reported for their effectiveness in some other diseases including glaucoma, myasthenia gravies, as well as Down syndrome, lately. They play a role in the action of mechanism of insecticidal drugs such as carbamate derivatives as well as nerve gases such as malathion and parathion. All these utilizations can make them a multi-targeted drug class putting a special emphasis on AD therapy in the first place. Several inhibitors of cholinesterases with synthetic and natural origins are available in drug market; however, the reasons including side effects, relatively low bioavailability, etc. limit their uses in medicine and there is still a great demand to discover new cholinesterase inhibitors. Galanthamine, an alkaloid derivative isolated from snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis L.), is the latest anticholinesterase drug used against AD. Huperzine A, isolated from Huperzia serrata (Thunb.) Trev. is the most-promising drug candidate with potent anticholinesterase effect and it is a licensed anti-AD drug in China. In this review, a short introduction will be given on known cholinesterase inhibitors and, then, galanthamine and huperzine A will be covered in regard with their cholinesterase inhibitory potentials and mass productions by organic synthesis and in vitro culture techniques.

  7. Screening of the Pan-African Natural Product Library Identifies Ixoratannin A-2 and Boldine as Novel HIV-1 Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Tietjen, Ian; Ntie-Kang, Fidele; Mwimanzi, Philip; Onguéné, Pascal Amoa; Scull, Margaret A.; Idowu, Thomas Oyebode; Ogundaini, Abiodun Oguntuga; Meva’a, Luc Mbaze; Abegaz, Berhanu M.; Rice, Charles M.; Andrae-Marobela, Kerstin; Brockman, Mark A.; Brumme, Zabrina L.; Fedida, David

    2015-01-01

    The continued burden of HIV in resource-limited regions such as parts of sub-Saharan Africa, combined with adverse effects and potential risks of resistance to existing antiretroviral therapies, emphasize the need to identify new HIV inhibitors. Here we performed a virtual screen of molecules from the pan-African Natural Product Library, the largest collection of medicinal plant-derived pure compounds on the African continent. We identified eight molecules with structural similarity to reported interactors of Vpu, an HIV-1 accessory protein with reported ion channel activity. Using in vitro HIV-1 replication assays with a CD4+ T cell line and peripheral blood mononuclear cells, we confirmed antiviral activity and minimal cytotoxicity for two compounds, ixoratannin A-2 and boldine. Notably, ixoratannin A-2 retained inhibitory activity against recombinant HIV-1 strains encoding patient-derived mutations that confer resistance to protease, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase, or integrase inhibitors. Moreover, ixoratannin A-2 was less effective at inhibiting replication of HIV-1 lacking Vpu, supporting this protein as a possible direct or indirect target. In contrast, boldine was less effective against a protease inhibitor-resistant HIV-1 strain. Both ixoratannin A-2 and boldine also inhibited in vitro replication of hepatitis C virus (HCV). However, BIT-225, a previously-reported Vpu inhibitor, demonstrated antiviral activity but also cytotoxicity in HIV-1 and HCV replication assays. Our work identifies pure compounds derived from African plants with potential novel activities against viruses that disproportionately afflict resource-limited regions of the world. PMID:25830320

  8. Screening of the Pan-African natural product library identifies ixoratannin A-2 and boldine as novel HIV-1 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Tietjen, Ian; Ntie-Kang, Fidele; Mwimanzi, Philip; Onguéné, Pascal Amoa; Scull, Margaret A; Idowu, Thomas Oyebode; Ogundaini, Abiodun Oguntuga; Meva'a, Luc Mbaze; Abegaz, Berhanu M; Rice, Charles M; Andrae-Marobela, Kerstin; Brockman, Mark A; Brumme, Zabrina L; Fedida, David

    2015-01-01

    The continued burden of HIV in resource-limited regions such as parts of sub-Saharan Africa, combined with adverse effects and potential risks of resistance to existing antiretroviral therapies, emphasize the need to identify new HIV inhibitors. Here we performed a virtual screen of molecules from the pan-African Natural Product Library, the largest collection of medicinal plant-derived pure compounds on the African continent. We identified eight molecules with structural similarity to reported interactors of Vpu, an HIV-1 accessory protein with reported ion channel activity. Using in vitro HIV-1 replication assays with a CD4+ T cell line and peripheral blood mononuclear cells, we confirmed antiviral activity and minimal cytotoxicity for two compounds, ixoratannin A-2 and boldine. Notably, ixoratannin A-2 retained inhibitory activity against recombinant HIV-1 strains encoding patient-derived mutations that confer resistance to protease, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase, or integrase inhibitors. Moreover, ixoratannin A-2 was less effective at inhibiting replication of HIV-1 lacking Vpu, supporting this protein as a possible direct or indirect target. In contrast, boldine was less effective against a protease inhibitor-resistant HIV-1 strain. Both ixoratannin A-2 and boldine also inhibited in vitro replication of hepatitis C virus (HCV). However, BIT-225, a previously-reported Vpu inhibitor, demonstrated antiviral activity but also cytotoxicity in HIV-1 and HCV replication assays. Our work identifies pure compounds derived from African plants with potential novel activities against viruses that disproportionately afflict resource-limited regions of the world.

  9. Marine sponge derived natural products as inhibitors of mycothiol-S-conjugate amidase.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Akansha; Mishra, Sanjay

    2017-01-01

    Marine sponges have potential sources for secondary metabolites and are considered as a drug treasure house. In this work, 3D model of Mycothiol-S-conjugate amidase (Mca) was determined by comparative homology modeling program MODELLER based on the crystal structure of 1-D-myo-inositol 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-alpha-D-glucopyranoside deacetylase (MshB) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis as a template. The computed model's energy was minimized and validated to obtain a stable model structure. Stable model was used for docking of nineteen bioactive compounds isolated from marine sponges against Mca using AutoDock 4.2. The docked complexes were validated and enumerated based on the AutoDock Scoring function to pick out the best marine inhibitors based on binding energy. Thus from the entire marine compounds which were docked, we got best one (Arenosclerin E) of them with optimal binding energy -13.11 kcal/mol. Further the best-docked complex was analyzed through Python Molecular Viewer software for their interaction studies. The docked protein - inhibitor complex structure was optimized using molecular dynamics simulation for 5 ps with the CHARMM-22 force field using NAMD incorporated in VMD 1.9.2 and then evaluating the stability of complex structure by calculating RMSD values. Thus from the Complex scoring and binding ability its deciphered that this marine derived compound could be promising inhibitor for Mca as drug target yet pharmacological studies have to confirm it.

  10. Virtual screening for novel Staphylococcus Aureus NorA efflux pump inhibitors from natural products.

    PubMed

    Thai, Khac-Minh; Ngo, Trieu-Du; Phan, Thien-Vy; Tran, Thanh-Dao; Nguyen, Ngoc-Vinh; Nguyen, Thien-Hai; Le, Minh-Tri

    2015-01-01

    NorA is a member of the Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS) drug efflux pumps that have been shown to mediate antibiotic resistance in Staphylococcus aureus (SA). In this study, QSAR analysis, virtual screening and molecular docking were implemented in an effort to discover novel SA NorA efflux pump inhibitors. Originally, a set of 47 structurally diverse compounds compiled from the literature was used to develop linear QSAR models and another set of 15 different compounds were chosen for extra validation. The final model which was estimated by statistical values for the full data set (n = 45, Q(2) = 0.80, RMSE = 0.20) and for the external test set (n = 15, R(2) = 0.60, |res|max = 0.75, |res|min = 0.02) was applied on the collection of 182 flavonoides and the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) database to screen for novel NorA inhibitors. Finally, 33 lead compounds that met the Lipinski's rules of five/three and had good predicted pIC50 values from in silico screening process were employed to analyze the binding ability by docking studies on NorA homology model in place of its unavailable crystal structures at two active sites, the central channel and the Walker B.

  11. Substituent effects on the binding of natural product anthocyanidin inhibitors to influenza neuraminidase with mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Swaminathan, Kavya; Müller, Patrick; Downard, Kevin M

    2014-05-30

    The binding of three closely related anthocyanins within the 430-cavity of influenza neuraminidase is studied using a combination of mass spectrometry and molecular docking. Despite their similar structures, which differ only in the number and position of the hydroxyl substituents on the phenyl group attached to the chromenylium ring, subtle differences in their binding characteristics are revealed by mass spectrometry and molecular docking that are in accord with their inhibitory properties by neuraminidase inhibition assays. The cyanidin and delphinidin, with the greatest number of hydroxyl groups, bind more strongly and are better inhibitors than pelargonidin that contains a lone hydroxyl group at the 4' position. The study demonstrates, for the first time, the sensitivity of the mass spectrometry based approach for investigating the molecular basis and relative affinity of antiviral inhibitors, with subtly different structures, to their target protein. It has broader application for the screening of other protein interactions more generally with reasonable high-throughput. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Exploration of natural product ingredients as inhibitors of human HMG-CoA reductase through structure-based virtual screening

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shih-Hung; Huang, Kao-Jean; Weng, Ching-Feng; Shiuan, David

    2015-01-01

    Cholesterol plays an important role in living cells. However, a very high level of cholesterol may lead to atherosclerosis. HMG-CoA (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A) reductase is the key enzyme in the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway, and the statin-like drugs are inhibitors of human HMG-CoA reductase (hHMGR). The present study aimed to virtually screen for potential hHMGR inhibitors from natural product to discover hypolipidemic drug candidates with fewer side effects and lesser toxicities. We used the 3D structure 1HWK from the PDB (Protein Data Bank) database of hHMGR as the target to screen for the strongly bound compounds from the traditional Chinese medicine database. Many interesting molecules including polyphenolic compounds, polisubstituted heterocyclics, and linear lipophilic alcohols were identified and their ADMET (absorption, disrtibution, metabolism, excretion, toxicity) properties were predicted. Finally, four compounds were obtained for the in vitro validation experiments. The results indicated that curcumin and salvianolic acid C can effectively inhibit hHMGR, with IC50 (half maximal inhibitory concentration) values of 4.3 µM and 8 µM, respectively. The present study also demonstrated the feasibility of discovering new drug candidates through structure-based virtual screening. PMID:26170618

  13. Exploration of natural product ingredients as inhibitors of human HMG-CoA reductase through structure-based virtual screening.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shih-Hung; Huang, Kao-Jean; Weng, Ching-Feng; Shiuan, David

    2015-01-01

    Cholesterol plays an important role in living cells. However, a very high level of cholesterol may lead to atherosclerosis. HMG-CoA (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A) reductase is the key enzyme in the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway, and the statin-like drugs are inhibitors of human HMG-CoA reductase (hHMGR). The present study aimed to virtually screen for potential hHMGR inhibitors from natural product to discover hypolipidemic drug candidates with fewer side effects and lesser toxicities. We used the 3D structure 1HWK from the PDB (Protein Data Bank) database of hHMGR as the target to screen for the strongly bound compounds from the traditional Chinese medicine database. Many interesting molecules including polyphenolic compounds, polisubstituted heterocyclics, and linear lipophilic alcohols were identified and their ADMET (absorption, disrtibution, metabolism, excretion, toxicity) properties were predicted. Finally, four compounds were obtained for the in vitro validation experiments. The results indicated that curcumin and salvianolic acid C can effectively inhibit hHMGR, with IC50 (half maximal inhibitory concentration) values of 4.3 µM and 8 µM, respectively. The present study also demonstrated the feasibility of discovering new drug candidates through structure-based virtual screening.

  14. Revisiting AI-2 quorum sensing inhibitors: direct comparison of alkyl-DPD analogues and a natural product fimbrolide.

    PubMed

    Lowery, Colin A; Abe, Takumi; Park, Junguk; Eubanks, Lisa M; Sawada, Daisuke; Kaufmann, Gunnar F; Janda, Kim D

    2009-11-04

    Quorum sensing (QS) systems have been discovered in a wide variety of bacteria, and mediate both intra- and interspecies communication. The AI-2-based QS system represents the most studied of these proposed interspecies systems and has been shown to regulate diverse functions such as bioluminescence, expression of virulence factors, and biofilm formation. As such, the development of modulatory compounds, both agonists and antagonists, is of great interest for the study of unknown AI-2-based QS systems and the potential treatment of bacterial infections. The fimbrolide class of natural products has exhibited excellent inhibitory activity against AI-2-based QS and as such may be considered the "gold standard" of AI-2 inhibitors. Thus, we sought to include a fimbrolide as a control compound for our recently developed alkyl-DPD panel of AI-2 modulators. Herein, we present a revised synthesis of a commonly studied fimbrolide as well as a direct comparison between the fimbrolide and alkyl-DPD analogues. We demonstrate that our alkyl-DPD analogues are more potent inhibitors of QS in both Vibrio harveyi and Salmonella typhimurium, the two organisms with defined AI-2 QS systems, and in doing so call into question the widely accepted use of fimbrolide-derived compounds as the "gold standard" of AI-2 inhibition.

  15. Identification of a novel 11β-HSD1 inhibitor from a high-throughput screen of natural product extracts.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung Bum; Park, Ji Seon; Jung, Won Hoon; Park, Areum; Jo, Sae Rom; Kim, Hee Youn; Dal Rhee, Sang; Ryu, Shi Yong; Jeong, Hye Gwang; Park, Seongsoon; Lee, Hyuk; Kim, Ki Young

    2015-12-01

    Selective inhibitors of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) have considerable potential as a treatment for metabolic syndrome including type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity. To identify 11β-HSD1 inhibitors, we conducted high-throughput screening (HTS) of active natural product extracts from the Korea Chemical Bank, including Tanshinone I, Tanshinone IIA, and flavanone derivatives, and 2- and 3-phenyl-4H-chromen-4-one. Then Tanshinone IIA and its derivatives were targeted for the development of a lead compound according to the HTS results. However, the mechanism for anti-adipogenic effect through 11β-HSD1 enzyme inhibition by Tanshinone IIA is not clear. Tanshinone IIA (2a) concentration-dependently inhibited 11β-HSD1 activity in human and mouse 11β-HSD1 overexpressed cells and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Tanshinone IIA (2a) also inhibited 11β-HSD1 enzyme activities in murine liver and fats. Furthermore, Tanshinone IIA (2a)-suppressed adipocyte differentiation of cortisone-induced adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells was associated with the suppression of the cortisone-induced adipogenesis-specific markers mRNA and protein expression. In 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, Tanshinone IIA (2a)-inhibited cortisone induced reactive oxygen species formation in a concentration-dependent manner. Thus, these results support the therapeutic potential of Tanshinone IIA (2a) as a 11β-HSD1 inhibitor in metabolic syndrome patients.

  16. Improved TLC Bioautographic Assay for Qualitative and Quantitative Estimation of Tyrosinase Inhibitors in Natural Products.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jinge; Tang, Qingjiu; Wu, Tao; Cheng, Zhihong

    2017-03-01

    TLC bioautography for tyrosinase inhibitors has made recent progress; however, an assay with a relative low consumption of enzyme and quantitative capability would greatly advance the efficacy of related TLC bioautographic assays. An improved TLC bioautographic assay for detecting tyrosinase inhibitors was developed and validated in this study. L-DOPA (better water-solubility than L-tyrosine) was used as the substrate instead of reported L-tyrosine. The effects of enzyme and substrate concentrations, reaction temperatures and times, and pH values of the reaction system as well as different plate types on the TLC bioautographic assay were optimised. The quantitative analysis was conducted by densitometric scanning of spot areas, and expressed as the relative tyrosinase inhibitory capacity (RTIC) using a positive control (kojic acid) equivalent. The limit of detection (LOD) of this assay was 1.0 ng for kojic acid. This assay has acceptable accuracy (101.73-102.90%), intra- and inter-day, and intra- and inter-plate precisions [relative standard deviation (RSD), less than 7.0%], and ruggedness (RSD, less than 3.5%). The consumption of enzyme (75 U/mL) is relatively low. Two tyrosinase inhibitory compounds including naringenin and 1-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-4-allylbenzene have been isolated from Rhodiola sacra guided by this TLC bioautographic assay. Our improved assay is a relatively low-cost, sensitive, and quantitative method compared to the reported TLC bioautographic assays. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Calmodulin inhibitors from natural sources: an update.

    PubMed

    Mata, Rachel; Figueroa, Mario; González-Andrade, Martín; Rivera-Chávez, José Alberto; Madariaga-Mazón, Abraham; Del Valle, Paulina

    2015-03-27

    Calmodulin (CaM) plays a central role in regulating a myriad of cellular functions in physiological and pathophysiological processes, thus representing an important drug target. In previous reviews, our group has reported relevant information regarding natural anti-CaM compounds up to 2009. Natural sources continue to provide a diverse and unique reservoir of CaM inhibitors for drug and research tool discovery. This review provides an update of natural products with reported CaM inhibitory properties, which includes around 70 natural products and some synthetic analogues, belonging to different structural classes. Most of these natural inhibitors were isolated from fungi and plants and belong to the stilbenoid, polyketide, alkaloid, and peptide structural classes. These products were discovered mainly using a fluorescence-based method on rationally designed biosensors, which are highly specific, low-cost, and selective and have short reaction times. The effect of several antimitotic drugs on Ca(2+)-hCaM is also described.

  18. Library-based discovery of DYRK1A/CLK1 inhibitors from natural product extracts.

    PubMed

    Grabher, Patrick; Durieu, Emilie; Kouloura, Eirini; Halabalaki, Maria; Skaltsounis, Leandros A; Meijer, Laurent; Hamburger, Matthias; Potterat, Olivier

    2012-06-01

    The dual specificity tyrosine-phosphorylation-regulated kinase DYRK1A possesses diverse roles in neuronal development and adult brain physiology, and increased activity has been linked to neurodegenerative diseases. Very few inhibitors of this kinase have been reported up to now. Screening of a library of > 900 plant and fungal extracts afforded 25 extracts with IC₅₀s < 10 µg/mL against DYRK1A. To identify the active constituents, the extracts were submitted to a process integrating physicochemical data with biological information, referred to as HPLC-based activity profiling. Follow-up investigation of four extracts led to the targeted isolation of harmine (1, IC₅₀ 0.022 µM) from Peganum harmala, emodin (3, IC₅₀ 4.2 µM) from Cassia nigricans, kaempferol (4, IC₅₀ 0.91 µM) from Cuscuta chinensis, and 3,8-di-O-methylherbacetin (11, IC₅₀ 8.6 µM), 3,3',4'-tri-O-methylmyricetin (12, IC₅₀ 7.1 µM) and ombuin (15, IC₅₀ 1.7 µM) from Larrea tridentata as the active constituents. Active extracts and compounds were also tested on the closely related cdc2-like kinase CLK1. Finally, the selectivity profile of compounds was evaluated by including other members of the DYRKs and CLKs families. While the flavonoids and emodin did not show significant differences in the potency of their activities, harmine (1) was most active against DYRK1A, CLK1, and CLK4, and less potent against the other kinases, with selectivity ranging from 2- to 20-fold.

  19. Natural Inhibitors of Maillard Browning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    development for ration and commercial items that deteriorate from Maillard browning effects while in storage. Figure 15: Avocado 96 h after being...MAILLARD BROWNING by Nicole Favreau Farhadi Lauren Pecukonis and Jacqueline LeBlanc December 2013 Final Report...2009- September 2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE NATURAL INHIBITORS OF MAILLARD BROWNING 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT

  20. Natural products isolated from Mexican medicinal plants: novel inhibitors of sulfotransferases, SULT1A1 and SULT2A1.

    PubMed

    Mesía-Vela, S; Sańchez, R I; Estrada-Muñiz, E; Alavez-Solano, D; Torres-Sosa, C; Jiménez, M; Estrada; Reyes-Chilpa, R; Kauffman, F C

    2001-11-01

    Calophyllum brasiliense, Lonchocarpus oaxacensis, and Lonchocarpus guatemalensis are used in Latin American folk medicine. Four natural xanthones, an acetylated derivative, and two coumarins were obtained from C. brasiliense. Two flavanones were extracted from L. oaxacensis and one chalcone from L guatemalensis. These compounds were tested as substrates and inhibitors for two recombinant sulfotransferases (SULTs) involved in the metabolism of many endogenous compounds and foreign chemicals. Assays were performed using recombinant phenolsulfotransferase (SULT1A1) and hydroxysteroidsulfotransferase (SULT2A1). Three of the five xanthones, one of the flavonoids and the coumarins tested were substrates for SULT1A1. None of the xanthones or the flavonoids were sulfonated by SULT2A1, whereas the coumarin mammea A/BA was a substrate for this enzyme. The natural xanthones reversibly inhibited SULT1A1 with IC50 values ranging from 1.6 to 7 microM whereas much higher amounts of these compounds were required to inhibit SULT2A1 (IC50 values of 26-204 microM). The flavonoids inhibited SULT1A1 with IC50 values ranging from 9.5 to 101 microM, which compared with amounts needed to inhibit SULT2A1 (IC50 values of 11 to 101 microM). Both coumarins inhibited SULT1A1 with IC50 values of 47 and 185 pM, and SULT2A1 with IC50 values of 16 and 31 microM. The acetylated xanthone did not inhibit either SULT1AI or SULT2A1 activity. Rotenone from a commercial source had potency comparable to that of the flavonoids isolated from Lonchocarpus for inhibiting both SULTs. The potency of this inhibition depends on the position and number of hydroxyls. The results indicate that SULT1A1, but not SULT2A1, is highly sensitive to inhibition by xanthones. Conversely, SULT2A1 is 3-6 times more sensitive to coumarins than SULT1A1. The flavonoids are non-specific inhibitors of the two SULTs. Collectively, the results suggest that these types of natural products have the potential for important

  1. Screening of mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors in natural product extracts by capillary electrophoresis in combination with high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanmei; Li, Feng; Li, Mingxia; Kang, Jingwu

    2015-04-03

    In this study, capillary electrophoresis (CE) combined with HPLC-MS/MS were used as a powerful platform for screening of inhibitors of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in natural product extracts. The screening system has been established by using 5-carboxyfluorescein labeled substrate peptide F-4EBP1, a known mTOR inhibitor AZD8055, and a small chemical library consisted of 18 natural product extracts. Biochemical screening of natural product extracts was performed by CE with laser induced fluorescence detection. The CE separation allowed a quantitative measurement of the phosphorylated product, hence the quantitation of enzymatic inhibition as well as inhibition kinetics. The hits are readily identified as long as the peak area of the phosphorylated product is reduced in comparison with the negative control. Subsequent assay-guided isolation of the active natural product extract was performed with HPLC-MS/MS to track the particular active components. The structures of the identified active components were elucidated by the molecular ions and fragmentation information provided by MS/MS analysis. The CE-based assay method only requires minute pure compounds, which can be readily purified by HPLC. Therefore, the combination of CE and HPLC-MS/MS provides a high-throughput platform for screening bioactive compounds from the crude nature extracts. By taking the advantage of the screening system, salvianolic acid A and C in extract of Salvia miltiorrhiza were discovered as the new mTOR inhibitors.

  2. Identification of novel Ebola virus (EBOV) VP24 inhibitor from Indonesian natural products through in silico drug design approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tambunan, U. S. F.; Nasution, M. A. F.

    2017-07-01

    Ebola remains as one of the deadliest diseases in the world, with almost 29,000 cases were reported and kill 11,000 of them, and yet neither treatment nor vaccine that can combat this disease effectively. This disease is caused by ebolavirus (EBOV), a primary member of Filoviridae family. The life cycle of this virus has been operated by several key proteins, one of them is VP24 protein, which has been known for its crucial role in the transcription and replication of EBOV. Therefore, targeting VP24 protein can be a solution for treating this pathogenic disease. In this study, virtual screening of Indonesian natural products as EBOV VP24 inhibitor was performed. About 2,020 ligands from many sources, including HerbalDB database, were obtained and screened by using DataWarrior software to measure its molecular and pharmacological properties, resulting 301 ligands in the process. Then, the molecular docking simulation was performed to check the ligand's binding interaction and affinity with EBOV VP24 protein; this simulation was done by using MOE 2014.09 software. This study resulted that cycloartocarpin was the best ligand to inhibit the EBOV VP24 protein. Therefore, this ligand should be checked its stability through molecular dynamics simulation and performed in vitro test to verify its bioactivity against the EBOV VP24 protein.

  3. Stilbene glucoside from Polygonum multiflorum Thunb.: a novel natural inhibitor of advanced glycation end product formation by trapping of methylglyoxal.

    PubMed

    Lv, Lishuang; Shao, Xi; Wang, Liyan; Huang, Derong; Ho, Chi-Tang; Sang, Shengmin

    2010-02-24

    Methylglyoxal (MGO), the reactive dicarbonyl intermediate generated during the nonenzymatic glycation between reducing sugars and amino groups of proteins, lipids, and DNA, is the precursor of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Many studies have shown that AGEs play a major pathogenic role in diabetes and its complications. This study found that 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxystilbene 2-O-beta-D-glucoside (THSG), the major bioactive compound from Polygonum multiflorum Thunb., can efficiently inhibit the formation of AGEs in a dose-dependent manner by trapping reactive MGO under physiological conditions (pH 7.4, 37 degrees C). More than 60% MGO was trapped by THSG within 24 h, which was much more effective than resveratrol and its methylated derivative, pterostilbene, the two major bioactive dietary stilbenes. The major mono- and di-MGO adducts of THSG were successfully purified and found to be mixtures of tautomers. LC-MS and NMR data showed that positions 4 and 6 of the A ring were the major active sites for trapping MGO. It was also found that THSG could significantly inhibit the formation of AGEs in the human serum albumin (HSA)-MGO assay and both mono- and di-MGO adducts of THSG were detected in this assay using LC-MS. The results suggest that the ability of THSG to trap reactive dicarbonyl species makes it a potential natural inhibitor of AGEs.

  4. Discovery of Dual Inhibitors for Wild Type and D816V Mutant of c-KIT Kinase through Virtual and Biochemical Screening of Natural Products.

    PubMed

    Park, Hwangseo; Lee, Soyoung; Hong, Sungwoo

    2016-02-26

    Although stem cell factor receptor (c-KIT) kinase is responsible for various malignant human cancers, the presence of constitutively active gain-of-function mutants has made it difficult to discover new anticancer agents using c-KIT as the target protein. To identify the common inhibitors of wild-type c-KIT and the most abundant gain-of-function mutant (D816V), the virtual screening of natural products was performed for the two target proteins in parallel with the scoring function improved by implementing a sophisticated solvation free energy term. As a result, four common inhibitors of natural origin are found with biochemical potencies ranging from low micromolar to submicromolar levels. The results of extensive docking simulations show that although the natural-product inhibitors establish weaker hydrophobic interactions with the D816V mutant than with the wild type, they exhibit a little higher inhibitory activity for the former than the latter by strengthening the hydrogen-bond interactions to a sufficient extent. Of the four natural-product inhibitors, (Z)-6-hydroxy-2-(4-methoxybenzylidene)benzofuran-3(2H)-one (3) is anticipated to serve as a new molecular core for the structure-activity relationship studies to optimize the biochemical potencies because it exhibits good inhibitory activity against both the wild type and D816V mutant despite its low molecular weight (268.3 amu).

  5. Multiple receptor-ligand based pharmacophore modeling and molecular docking to screen the selective inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinase-9 from natural products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Qi; Wang, Yijun; Hou, Jiaying; Yao, Qizheng; Zhang, Ji

    2017-07-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is an attractive target for cancer therapy. In this study, the pharmacophore model of MMP-9 inhibitors is built based on the experimental binding structures of multiple receptor-ligand complexes. It is found that the pharmacophore model consists of six chemical features, including two hydrogen bond acceptors, one hydrogen bond donor, one ring aromatic regions, and two hydrophobic (HY) features. Among them, the two HY features are especially important because they can enter the S1' pocket of MMP-9 which determines the selectivity of MMP-9 inhibitors. The reliability of pharmacophore model is validated based on the two different decoy sets and relevant experimental data. The virtual screening, combining pharmacophore model with molecular docking, is performed to identify the selective MMP-9 inhibitors from a database of natural products. The four novel MMP-9 inhibitors of natural products, NP-000686, NP-001752, NP-014331, and NP-015905, are found; one of them, NP-000686, is used to perform the experiment of in vitro bioassay inhibiting MMP-9, and the IC50 value was estimated to be only 13.4 µM, showing the strongly inhibitory activity of NP-000686 against MMP-9, which suggests that our screening results should be reliable. The binding modes of screened inhibitors with MMP-9 active sites were discussed. In addition, the ADMET properties and physicochemical properties of screened four compounds were assessed. The found MMP-9 inhibitors of natural products could serve as the lead compounds for designing the new MMP-9 inhibitors by carrying out structural modifications in the future.

  6. The isolation, total synthesis and structure elucidation of chlorofusin, a natural product inhibitor of the p53-MDM2 protein-protein interaction

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Ryan C.; Lee, Sang Yeul; Searcey, Mark; Boger, Dale L.

    2009-01-01

    Inhibitors of key protein-protein interactions are emerging as exciting therapeutic targets for the treatment of cancer. One such interaction between MDM2 (HDM2) and p53, that silences the tumour suppression activities of p53, was found to be inhibited by the recently isolated natural product chlorofusin. Synthetic studies on this complex natural product summarized herein have served to reassign its chromophore relative stereochemistry, assign its absolute stereochemistry, and provided access to a series of key analogues and partial structures for biological evaluation. PMID:19642417

  7. Natural Products from Microalgae with Potential against Alzheimer’s Disease: Sulfolipids Are Potent Glutaminyl Cyclase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Hielscher-Michael, Stephanie; Griehl, Carola; Buchholz, Mirko; Demuth, Hans-Ulrich; Arnold, Norbert; Wessjohann, Ludger A.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, many new enzymes, like glutaminyl cyclase (QC), could be associated with pathophysiological processes and represent targets for many diseases, so that enzyme-inhibiting properties of natural substances are becoming increasingly important. In different studies, the pathophysiology connection of QC to various diseases including Alzheimer’s disease (AD) was described. Algae are known for the ability to synthesize complex and highly-diverse compounds with specific enzyme inhibition properties. Therefore, we screened different algae species for the presence of QC inhibiting metabolites using a new “Reverse Metabolomics” technique including an Activity-correlation Analysis (AcorA), which is based on the correlation of bioactivities to mass spectral data with the aid of mathematic informatics deconvolution. Thus, three QC inhibiting compounds from microalgae belonging to the family of sulfolipids were identified. The compounds showed a QC inhibition of 81% and 76% at concentrations of 0.25 mg/mL and 0.025 mg/mL, respectively. Thus, for the first time, sulfolipids are identified as QC inhibiting compounds and possess substructures with the required pharmacophore qualities. They represent a new lead structure for QC inhibitors. PMID:27827845

  8. Screening inhibitors of xanthine oxidase from natural products using enzyme immobilized magnetic beads by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting; Li, Dapeng; Yu, Boyang; Qi, Jin

    2017-03-06

    In this study, high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry was used to assess the results of bioactive compound screening from natural products using immobilized enzyme magnetic beads. We compared three commercial magnetic beads with modified amino, carboxy and N-hydroxysuccinimide groups, respectively. Amino magnetic beads performed best for immobilization and were selected for further experiments. Xanthine oxidase was immobilized on amino magnetic beads and applied to screen potential inhibitors in fresh Zingiber officinale Roscoe, extracts of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi and Pueraria lobata Ohwi. In total, 12 potential xanthine oxidase ligands were identified from fresh Zingiber root and Scutellaria root extracts, of which eight were characterized and the concentration required for 50% inhibition was determined. Preliminary structure-function relationships were discussed based on these results. A convenient and effective method was therefore developed for the identification of active compounds from complex natural product mixtures. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Identification of resveratrol oligomers as inhibitors of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator by high-throughput screening of natural products from chinese medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yaofang; Yu, Bo; Sui, Yujie; Gao, Xin; Yang, Hong; Ma, Tonghui

    2014-01-01

    Inhibitors of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) have been widely used for characterizing CFTR function in epithelial fluid transport and in diseases such as secretory diarrhea, polycystic kidney disease and cystic fibrosis. Few small molecule CFTR inhibitors have been discovered so far from combinatorial compound library. In the present study, we used a high throughput screening (HTS)-based natural product discovery strategy to identify new CFTR inhibitors from Chinese medicinal herbs. By screening 40,000 small molecule fractions from 500 herbal plants, we identified 42 positive fractions from 5 herbs and isolated two compounds that inhibited CFTR conductance from Chinese wild grapevine (Vitis amurensis Rupr). Mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies determined the two active compounds as trans-ε-viniferin (TV) and r-2-viniferin (RV), respectively. Both compounds dose-dependently blocked CFTR-mediated iodide influx with IC50 around 20 μM. Further analysis by excised inside-out patch-clamp indicated strong inhibition of protein kinase A (PKA)-activated CFTR chloride currents by TV and RV. In ex vivo studies, TV and RV inhibited CFTR-mediated short-circuit Cl- currents in isolated rat colonic mucosa in a dose-dependent manner. In a closed-loop mouse model, intraluminal applications of TV (2.5 μg) and RV (4.5 μg) significantly reduced cholera toxin-induced intestinal fluid secretion. The present study identified two resveratrol oligomers as new CFTR inhibitors and validates our high-throughput screening method for discovery of bioactive compounds from natural products with complex chemical ingredients such as herbal plants.

  10. Identification of Resveratrol Oligomers as Inhibitors of Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator by High-Throughput Screening of Natural Products from Chinese Medicinal Plants

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yaofang; Yu, Bo; Sui, Yujie; Gao, Xin; Yang, Hong; Ma, Tonghui

    2014-01-01

    Inhibitors of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) have been widely used for characterizing CFTR function in epithelial fluid transport and in diseases such as secretory diarrhea, polycystic kidney disease and cystic fibrosis. Few small molecule CFTR inhibitors have been discovered so far from combinatorial compound library. In the present study, we used a high throughput screening (HTS)-based natural product discovery strategy to identify new CFTR inhibitors from Chinese medicinal herbs. By screening 40,000 small molecule fractions from 500 herbal plants, we identified 42 positive fractions from 5 herbs and isolated two compounds that inhibited CFTR conductance from Chinese wild grapevine (Vitis amurensis Rupr). Mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies determined the two active compounds as trans-ε-viniferin (TV) and r-2-viniferin (RV), respectively. Both compounds dose-dependently blocked CFTR-mediated iodide influx with IC50 around 20 μM. Further analysis by excised inside-out patch-clamp indicated strong inhibition of protein kinase A (PKA)-activated CFTR chloride currents by TV and RV. In ex vivo studies, TV and RV inhibited CFTR-mediated short-circuit Cl− currents in isolated rat colonic mucosa in a dose-dependent manner. In a closed-loop mouse model, intraluminal applications of TV (2.5 μg) and RV (4.5 μg) significantly reduced cholera toxin–induced intestinal fluid secretion. The present study identified two resveratrol oligomers as new CFTR inhibitors and validates our high-throughput screening method for discovery of bioactive compounds from natural products with complex chemical ingredients such as herbal plants. PMID:24714160

  11. Screening α-glucosidase inhibitor from natural products by capillary electrophoresis with immobilised enzyme onto polymer monolith modified by gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Aizhu; Ye, Fanggui; Lu, Junyu; Zhao, Shulin

    2013-12-01

    A novel strategy for screening α-glucosidase inhibitors (AGIs) from natural products by capillary electrophoresis (CE) with an immobilised enzyme microreactor was developed. In this approach, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) was first covalently attached to surface of the pores of the porous polymer capillary monolith via the formation of an Au-S bond, and α-glucosidase was then simply and stably immobilised onto AuNPs through the strong affinity of gold for amino groups of the enzyme. In order to profiling the activity of the immobilised α-glucosidase, the natural substrate was hydrolyzed by it and the yield of product was determined by CE. The amount of covalently attached α-glucosidase to the monolith was calculated to be about 30.0 μg/mg. The immobilised enzyme exhibited 80% activity after 25 runs, and only lost 7.6% of activity after 6 runs within 31 days. Screening of AGIs present in extracts of natural products by the proposed method was demonstrated.

  12. Ligand-based virtual screening and inductive learning for identification of SIRT1 inhibitors in natural products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yunan; Zhou, Hui; Zhu, Hongmei; Leung, Siu-Wai

    2016-01-01

    Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) is a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent deacetylase, and its dysregulation can lead to ageing, diabetes, and cancer. From 346 experimentally confirmed SIRT1 inhibitors, an inhibitor structure pattern was generated by inductive logic programming (ILP) with DMax Chemistry Assistant software. The pattern contained amide, amine, and hetero-aromatic five-membered rings, each of which had a hetero-atom and an unsubstituted atom at a distance of 2. According to this pattern, a ligand-based virtual screening of 1 444 880 active compounds from Chinese herbs identified 12 compounds as inhibitors of SIRT1. Three compounds (ZINC08790006, ZINC08792229, and ZINC08792355) had high affinity (-7.3, -7.8, and -8.6 kcal/mol, respectively) for SIRT1 as estimated by molecular docking software AutoDock Vina. This study demonstrated a use of ILP and background knowledge in machine learning to facilitate virtual screening.

  13. Probing the bioactive conformation of an archetypal natural product HDAC inhibitor with conformationally homogeneous triazole-modified cyclic tetrapeptides.

    PubMed

    Horne, W Seth; Olsen, Christian A; Beierle, John M; Montero, Ana; Ghadiri, M Reza

    2009-01-01

    Fooling enzymes with mock amides: Analogues of apicidin, a cyclic-tetrapeptide inhibitor of histone deacetylase (HDAC), were designed with a 1,4- or 1,5-disubstituted 1,2,3-triazole in place of a backbone amide bond to fix the bond in question in either a trans-like or a cis-like configuration. Thus, the binding affinity of distinct peptide conformations (see picture) could be probed. One analogue proved in some cases to be superior to apicidin as an HDAC inhibitor.

  14. In silico identification of novel kinase inhibitors by targeting B-Raf(v660e) from natural products database.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zi-jie; Wan, Zhi-ning; Chen, Xu-dong; Wu, Chuan-fang; Gao, Guo-long; Liu, Rong; Shi, Zheng; Bao, Jin-ku

    2015-04-01

    The Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK (MAPK) signaling pathway has gained much attention from scientific community for therapeutic intervention in the past decades, specifically in oncology. Notably, a most prevalent B-Raf(v600e) mutant in Raf kinase family exhibits elevated kinase activity and results in constitutive activation of the MAPK pathway, thus making it a promising drug target for cancer therapy. Herein, virtual screening is applied to identify its potential inhibitors. Following the 25 ns molecular dynamic (MD) simulations, ZINC38541768, ZINC38541767, and ZINC12496469 are identified as B-Raf(v600e) potential inhibitors in a DFG-in conformation. Furthermore, according to the molecular mechanics/generalized born surface area (MM/GBSA) method, these three small molecules exhibit similar and good binding affinity toward B-Raf(v600e) (-38.76 kcal mol(-1), -42.60 kcal mol(-1), and -39.04 kcal mol(-1)). At the same time, several critical residues, such as I463, V471 in the P-loop, and DFG motif residue D594 within the A-loop, are also well clarified. All these results may not only indicate some future applications of inhibitors targeting B-Raf(v600e), but also benefit B-Raf(v600e) harboring cancer patients.

  15. Ligand-based virtual screening and inductive learning for identification of SIRT1 inhibitors in natural products

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yunan; Zhou, Hui; Zhu, Hongmei; Leung, Siu-wai

    2016-01-01

    Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) is a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent deacetylase, and its dysregulation can lead to ageing, diabetes, and cancer. From 346 experimentally confirmed SIRT1 inhibitors, an inhibitor structure pattern was generated by inductive logic programming (ILP) with DMax Chemistry Assistant software. The pattern contained amide, amine, and hetero-aromatic five-membered rings, each of which had a hetero-atom and an unsubstituted atom at a distance of 2. According to this pattern, a ligand-based virtual screening of 1 444 880 active compounds from Chinese herbs identified 12 compounds as inhibitors of SIRT1. Three compounds (ZINC08790006, ZINC08792229, and ZINC08792355) had high affinity (−7.3, −7.8, and −8.6 kcal/mol, respectively) for SIRT1 as estimated by molecular docking software AutoDock Vina. This study demonstrated a use of ILP and background knowledge in machine learning to facilitate virtual screening. PMID:26805727

  16. Natural products as starting materials for development of second-generation SERCA inhibitors targeted towards prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Søhoel, Helmer; Jensen, Anne-Marie Lund; Møller, Jesper V; Nissen, Poul; Denmeade, Samuel R; Isaacs, John T; Olsen, Carl Erik; Christensen, S Brøgger

    2006-04-15

    An analysis of the binding of the 8-O-N-tert-butoxycarbonyl-12-aminododecanoyl derivative of 8-O-debutanoylthapsigargin to the target molecule, the SERCA pump, has revealed the importance of the length and flexibility of the side chain attached to O-8. Based on the analysis a series of analogues to the 2-unsubstituted analogue trilobolide has been constructed and shown to be equipotent with thapsigargin as SERCA inhibitors. Only the 12-Boc-aminododecaonoyl derivative, however, was found to be apoptotic.

  17. Discovery and preliminary structure-activity relationship of the marine natural product manzamines as herpes simplex virus type-1 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Palem, Jayavardhana R; Mudit, Mudit; Hsia, Shao-Chung V; Sayed, Khalid A El

    2017-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) is a member of alpha-herpesviridae family and is known to cause contagious human infections. The marine habitat is a rich source of structurally unique bioactive secondary metabolites. A small library of marine natural product classes 1-10 has been screened to discover a new hit entity active against HSV-1. Manzamine A showed potent activity against HSV-1 via targeting the viral gene ICP0. Manzamine A is a β-carboline alkaloid isolated from the Indo-Pacific sponge Acanthostrongylophora species. Currently, acyclovir is the drug of choice for HSV-1 infections. Compared with 50 µM acyclovir, manzamine A at 1 µM concentration produced potent repressive effects on viral replication and release of infectious viruses in SIRC cells in recent studies. The potent anti-HSV-1 activity of manzamine A prompted a preliminary structure-activity relationship study by testing targeted manzamines. These included 8-hydroxymanzamine A (11), to test the effect of the C-8 hydroxy substitution at the β-carboline moiety; manzamine E (12), to assess the importance of substitution at the azacyclooctane ring; and ircinal A (13), to determine whether the β-carboline ring is required for the activity. Manzamine A was chemically transformed to its salt forms, manzamine A monohydrochloride (14) and manzamine A monotartrate (15), to test whether improving water solubility and hydrophilicity will positively affect the activity. Compounds were tested for activity against HSV-1 using fluorescent microscopy and plaque assay. The results showed the reduced anti-HSV-1 activity of 11, suggesting that C-8 hydroxy substitution might adversely affect the activity. Similarly, manzamines 12 and 13 showed no activity against HSV-1, indicating the preference of the unsubstituted azacylcooctane and β-carboline rings to the activity. Anti-HSV-1 activity was significantly improved for the manzamine A salts 14 and 15, suggesting that improving the overall water solubility

  18. Characterization of Cardiac Glycoside Natural Products as Potent Inhibitors of DNA Double-Strand Break Repair by a Whole-Cell Double Immunofluorescence Assay.

    PubMed

    Surovtseva, Yulia V; Jairam, Vikram; Salem, Ahmed F; Sundaram, Ranjini K; Bindra, Ranjit S; Herzon, Seth B

    2016-03-23

    Small-molecule inhibitors of DNA repair pathways are being intensively investigated as primary and adjuvant chemotherapies. We report the discovery that cardiac glycosides, natural products in clinical use for the treatment of heart failure and atrial arrhythmia, are potent inhibitors of DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. Our data suggest that cardiac glycosides interact with phosphorylated mediator of DNA damage checkpoint protein 1 (phospho-MDC1) or E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase ring finger protein 8 (RNF8), two factors involved in DSB repair, and inhibit the retention of p53 binding protein 1 (53BP1) at the site of DSBs. These observations provide an explanation for the anticancer activity of this class of compounds, which has remained poorly understood for decades, and provide guidance for their clinical applications. This discovery was enabled by the development of the first high-throughput unbiased cellular assay to identify new small-molecule inhibitors of DSB repair. Our assay is based on the fully automated, time-resolved quantification of phospho-SER139-H2AX (γH2AX) and 53BP1 foci, two factors involved in the DNA damage response network, in cells treated with small molecules and ionizing radiation (IR). This primary assay is supplemented by robust secondary assays that establish lead compound potencies and provide further insights into their mechanisms of action. Although the cardiac glycosides were identified in an evaluation of 2366 small molecules, the assay is envisioned to be adaptable to larger compound libraries. The assay is shown to be compatible with small-molecule DNA cleaving agents, such as bleomycin, neocarzinostatin chromophore, and lomaiviticin A, in place of IR.

  19. Natural Product Total Synthesis in the Organic Laboratory: Total Synthesis of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester (CAPE), a Potent 5-Lipoxygenase Inhibitor from Honeybee Hives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Touaibia, Mohamed; Guay, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Natural products play a critical role in modern organic synthesis and learning synthetic techniques is an important component of the organic laboratory experience. In addition to traditional one-step organic synthesis laboratories, a multistep natural product synthesis is an interesting experiment to challenge students. The proposed three-step…

  20. Natural Product Total Synthesis in the Organic Laboratory: Total Synthesis of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester (CAPE), a Potent 5-Lipoxygenase Inhibitor from Honeybee Hives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Touaibia, Mohamed; Guay, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Natural products play a critical role in modern organic synthesis and learning synthetic techniques is an important component of the organic laboratory experience. In addition to traditional one-step organic synthesis laboratories, a multistep natural product synthesis is an interesting experiment to challenge students. The proposed three-step…

  1. DNA Methyltransferases Inhibitors from Natural Sources.

    PubMed

    Zwergel, Clemens; Valente, Sergio; Mai, Antonello

    2016-01-01

    DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) catalyze the methylation at cytosine-C5 mainly in a CpG dinucleotide context. Although DNA methylation is essential for fundamental processes like embryonic development or differentiation, aberrant expression and/or activities of DNMTs are involved in several pathologies, from neurodegeneration to cancer. DNMTs inhibition can arrest tumor growth, cells invasiveness and induce differentiation, whereas their increased expression is shown in numerous cancer types. Moreover, hypermethylated promoters of tumor suppressor genes lead to their silencing. Hence, the use of specific inhibitors of DNMT might reactivate those genes and stop or even reverse the aberrant cell processes. To date, the only approved DNMTs inhibitors for therapy belong to the nucleoside-based family of drugs, but they display relevant side effects as well as high chemical instability. Thus, there is a keen interest actually exists to develop novel, potent and safe inhibitors possessing a nonnucleoside structure. Increasing literature evidence is highlighting that natural sources could help the researchers to achieve this goal. Indeed, several polyphenols, flavonoids, antraquinones, and others are described able to inhibit DNMTs activity and/or expression, thus decreasing the methylation/silencing of different genes involved in tumorigenesis. These events can lead to re-expression of such genes and to cell death in diverse cancer cell lines. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (1) and laccaic acid A (11) resulted the most effective DNMT1 inhibitors with submicromolar IC50 values, acting as competitive inhibitors. Compound 1 and 11 both displayed gene demethylation and re-activation in several cancers. However, all of the natural compounds described in this review showed important results, from gene reactivation to cell growth inhibition. Moreover, some of them displayed interesting activity even in rodent cancer models and very recently entered clinical trials.

  2. Recent Patents on Proteasome Inhibitors of Natural Origin.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Daniela Correia; Andrade, Paula B; Ribeiro, Vera; Valentao, Patricia; Pereira, David M

    2017-01-01

    The proteasome is the major proteolytic site on the eukaryotic cell, degrading most of its short-lived or misfolded polypeptides. The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway has been found to play a fundamental role in the development of several pathologies, from cancer to neurodegenerative diseases, or even retroviral infections. Nature remains a powerful source for the discovery of bioactive compounds. Recently, a number of molecules of natural origin, as well as natural product derivatives, have been described as proteasome inhibitors. Most of these molecules directly block one or more catalytic sites of the 20S proteasome, but some of them act upstream of proteolytic degradation, for instance, inhibiting the ubiquitin tagging process. The present review focuses on recent patents on proteasome inhibitors of natural origin, their derivatives and synthetic routes to obtain such molecules, as well as their application as a tool in chemotherapy. With several of these modulators of the ubiquitin-proteasome system under clinical trials, we hope that the next few years lead to the development of new pharmaceutical drugs and characterization of new proteasome inhibitors of natural origin or inspiration. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  3. Natural Products for Antithrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Cen; Zhang, Qian; Wang, Feng-Qin; Hu, Yuan-Jia; Xia, Zhi-Ning

    2015-01-01

    Thrombosis is considered to be closely related to several diseases such as atherosclerosis, ischemic heart disease and stroke, as well as rheumatoid arthritis, hyperuricemia, and various inflammatory conditions. More and more studies have been focused on understanding the mechanism of molecular and cellular basis of thrombus formation as well as preventing thrombosis for the treatment of thrombotic diseases. In reality, there is considerable interest in the role of natural products and their bioactive components in the prevention and treatment of thrombosis related disorders. This paper briefly describes the mechanisms of thrombus formation on three aspects, including coagulation system, platelet activation, and aggregation, and change of blood flow conditions. Furthermore, the natural products for antithrombosis by anticoagulation, antiplatelet aggregation, and fibrinolysis were summarized, respectively. PMID:26075003

  4. Natural products as photoprotection.

    PubMed

    Saewan, Nisakorn; Jimtaisong, Ampa

    2015-03-01

    The rise in solar ultraviolet radiation on the earth's surface has led to a depletion of stratospheric ozone over recent decades, thus accelerating the need to protect human skin against the harmful effects of UV radiation such as erythema, edema, hyperpigmentation, photoaging, and skin cancer. There are many different ways to protect skin against UV radiation's harmful effects. The most popular way to reduce the amount of UV radiation penetrating the skin is topical application of sunscreen products that contain UV absorbing or reflecting active molecules. Based on their protection mechanism, the active molecules in sunscreens are broadly divided into inorganic and organic agents. Inorganic sunscreens reflect and scatter UV and visible radiation, while organic sunscreens absorb UV radiation and then re-emit energy as heat or light. These synthetic molecules have limited concentration according to regulation concern. Several natural compounds with UV absorption property have been used to substitute for or to reduce the quantity of synthetic sunscreen agents. In addition to UV absorption property, most natural compounds were found to act as antioxidants, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory agents, which provide further protection against the damaging effects of UV radiation exposure. Compounds derived from natural sources have gained considerable attention for use in sunscreen products and have bolstered the market trend toward natural cosmetics. This adds to the importance of there being a wide selection of active molecules in sunscreen formulations. This paper summarizes a number of natural products derived from propolis, plants, algae, and lichens that have shown potential photoprotection properties against UV radiation exposure-induced skin damage. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. An optimized micro-assay of myosin II ATPase activity based on the molybdenum blue method and its application in screening natural product inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong-Lin; Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Guan-Jun; Kou, Jun-Ping; Yu, Bo-Yang

    2016-06-01

    Myosin II plays multiple roles in physiological and pathological functions through its ATPase activity. The present study was designed to optimize a micro-assay of myosin II ATPase activity based on molybdenum blue method, using a known myosin II ATPase inhibitor, blebbistatin. Several parameters were observed in the enzymatic reaction procedure, including the concentrations of the substrate (ATP) and calcium chloride, pH, and the reaction and incubation times. The proportion of coloration agent was also investigated. The sensitivity of this assay was compared with the malachite green method and bioluminescence method. Additionally, 20 natural compounds were studied for myosin II ATPase inhibitory activity using the optimized method. Our results showed that ATP at the concentration of 5 mmol·L(-1) and ammonium molybdate : stannous chloride at the ratio of 15 : 1 could greatly improve the sensitivity of this method. The IC50 of blebbistatin obtained by this method was consistent with literature. Compound 8 was screened with inhibitory activity on myosin II ATPase. The optimized method showed similar accuracy, lower detecting limit, and wider linear range, which could be a promising approach to screening myosin II ATPase inhibitors in vitro.

  6. Marine natural products.

    PubMed

    Blunt, John W; Copp, Brent R; Keyzers, Robert A; Munro, Murray H G; Prinsep, Michèle R

    2015-02-01

    This review covers the literature published in 2013 for marine natural products (MNPs), with 982 citations (644 for the period January to December 2013) referring to compounds isolated from marine microorganisms and phytoplankton, green, brown and red algae, sponges, cnidarians, bryozoans, molluscs, tunicates, echinoderms, mangroves and other intertidal plants and microorganisms. The emphasis is on new compounds (1163 for 2013), together with the relevant biological activities, source organisms and country of origin. Reviews, biosynthetic studies, first syntheses, and syntheses that lead to the revision of structures or stereochemistries, have been included.

  7. Marine natural products.

    PubMed

    Blunt, John W; Copp, Brent R; Keyzers, Robert A; Munro, Murray H G; Prinsep, Michèle R

    2014-01-17

    This review covers the literature published in 2012 for marine natural products, with 1035 citations (673 for the period January to December 2012) referring to compounds isolated from marine microorganisms and phytoplankton, green, brown and red algae, sponges, cnidarians, bryozoans, molluscs, tunicates, echinoderms, mangroves and other intertidal plants and microorganisms. The emphasis is on new compounds (1241 for 2012), together with the relevant biological activities, source organisms and country of origin. Biosynthetic studies, first syntheses, and syntheses that lead to the revision of structures or stereochemistries, have been included.

  8. Coking products as corrosion inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Antonov, A.V.; Petrenko, V.G.; Frolova, R.P.; Kurinnaya, S.N.

    1982-11-06

    Activated sludge and froth from the biological treatment of coke plant waste waters has been determined to be a corrosion inhibitor in both neutral and acidic media, due to the presence of unreacted coking derived inhibitors, bacteriological formation of inhibitors, bacterial organisms, humic-type organics and traces of germanium, zinc, mercury and manganese. The corrosive liquids tested were, river water, technical system water, gas cooler aqueous condensate, gas collector condensate and coking waste water before and after treatment, the substrate being St 3 steel plates (45 X 45 X 5 M) (time 24-30 hr (acid media) and 934 hr (neutral media)). The activated sludge (25 g/l) reduced acid media corrosion rate by 10/sup 3/, the protective effect being 99% for the test liquids: Sludge is more effective than the froth.

  9. Natural Product Molecular Fossils.

    PubMed

    Falk, Heinz; Wolkenstein, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    The natural products synthesized by organisms that were living a long time ago gave rise to their molecular fossils. These can consist of either the original unchanged compounds or they may undergo peripheral transformations in which their skeletons remain intact. In cases when molecular fossils can be traced to their organismic source, they are termed "geological biomarkers".This contribution describes apolar and polar molecular fossils and, in particular biomarkers, along the lines usually followed in organic chemistry textbooks, and points to their bioprecursors when available. Thus, the apolar compounds are divided in linear and branched alkanes followed by alicyclic compounds and aromatic and heterocyclic molecules, and, in particular, the geoporphyrins. The polar molecular fossils contain as functional groups or constituent units ethers, alcohols, phenols, carbonyl groups, flavonoids, quinones, and acids, or are polymers like kerogen, amber, melanin, proteins, or nucleic acids. The final sections discuss the methodology used and the fundamental processes encountered by the biomolecules described, including diagenesis, catagenesis, and metagenesis.

  10. Marine natural products.

    PubMed

    Blunt, John W; Copp, Brent R; Hu, Wan-Ping; Munro, Murray H G; Northcote, Peter T; Prinsep, Michèle R

    2009-02-01

    This review covers the literature published in 2007 for marine natural products, with 948 citations(627 for the period January to December 2007) referring to compounds isolated from marine microorganisms and phytoplankton, green algae, brown algae, red algae, sponges, cnidarians,bryozoans, molluscs, tunicates, echinoderms and true mangrove plants. The emphasis is on new compounds (961 for 2007), together with the relevant biological activities, source organisms and country of origin. Biosynthetic studies, first syntheses, and syntheses that lead to the revision of structures or stereochemistries, have been included.1 Introduction, 2 Reviews, 3 Marine microorganisms and phytoplankton, 4 Green algae, 5 Brown algae, 6 Red algae, 7 Sponges, 8 Cnidarians, 9 Bryozoans, 10 Molluscs, 11 Tunicates (ascidians),12 Echinoderms, 13 Miscellaneous, 14 Conclusion, 15 References.

  11. Use of a recombinant fluorescent substrate with cleavage sites for all botulinum neurotoxins in high-throughput screening of natural product extracts for inhibitors of serotypes A, B, and E.

    PubMed

    Hines, Harry B; Kim, Alexander D; Stafford, Robert G; Badie, Shirin S; Brueggeman, Ernst E; Newman, David J; Schmidt, James J

    2008-02-01

    The seven serotypes of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNTs) are zinc metalloproteases that cleave and inactivate proteins critical for neurotransmission. The synaptosomal protein of 25 kDa (SNAP-25) is cleaved by BoNTs A, C, and E, while vesicle-associated membrane protein (VAMP) is the substrate for BoNTs B, D, F, and G. BoNTs not only are medically useful drugs but also are potential bioterrorist and biowarfare threat agents. Because BoNT protease activity is required for toxicity, inhibitors of that activity might be effective for antibotulinum therapy. To expedite inhibitor discovery, we constructed a hybrid gene encoding (from the N terminus to the C terminus, with respect to the expressed product) green fluorescent protein, then a SNAP-25 fragment encompassing residues Met-127 to Gly-206, and then VAMP residues Met-1 to Lys-94. Cysteine was added as the C terminus. The expressed product, which contained the protease cleavage sites for all seven botulinum serotypes, was purified and coupled covalently through the C-terminal sulfhydryl group to maleimide-activated 96-well plates. The substrate was readily cleaved by BoNTs A, B, D, E, and F. Using this assay and an automated 96-well pipettor, we screened 528 natural product extracts for inhibitors of BoNT A, B, and E protease activities. Serotype-specific inhibition was found in 30 extracts, while 5 others inhibited two serotypes.

  12. Pest management with natural products

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The 2012 Philadelphia ACS Symposium on Natural Products for Pest Management introduced recent discoveries and applications of natural products from insect, terrestrial plant, microbial, and synthetic sources for the management of insects, weeds, plant pathogenic microbes, and nematodes. The symposiu...

  13. A Natural Love of Natural Products

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Recent research on the chemistry of natural products from the author’s group that led to the receipt of the ACS Ernest Guenther Award in the Chemistry of Natural Products is reviewed. REDOR NMR and synthetic studies established the T-taxol conformation as the bioactive tubulin-binding conformation, and these results were confirmed by the synthesis of compounds which clearly owed their activity or lack of activity to whether or not they could adopt the T-taxol conformation. Similar studies with the epothilones suggest that the current tubulin-binding model needs to be modified. Examples of natural products discovery and biodiversity conservation in Suriname and Madagascar are also presented, and it is concluded that natural products chemistry will continue to make significant contributions to drug discovery. PMID:18459734

  14. Natural Products for Cancer Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Greenlee, Heather

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To review the clinical trial literature on the use and effects of natural products for cancer prevention. DATA SOURCES Clinical trials published in PubMed. CONCLUSION There is a growing body of literature on the use of natural products for cancer prevention. To date, few trials have demonstrated conclusive benefit. Current guidelines recommend against the use of natural products for cancer prevention. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING PRACTICE Clinicians should ask patients about their use of natural products and motivations for use. If patients are using natural products specifically for cancer prevention, they should be counseled on the current guidelines, as well as their options for other cancer prevention strategies. PMID:22281308

  15. Natural Products Discovered in a High-Throughput Screen Identified as Inhibitors of RGS17 and as Cytostatic and Cytotoxic Agents for Lung and Prostate Cancer Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Bodle, Christopher R; Mackie, Duncan I; Hayes, Michael P; Schamp, Josephine H; Miller, Michael R; Henry, Michael D; Doorn, Jonathan A; Houtman, Jon C D; James, Michael A; Roman, David L

    2017-07-28

    Regulator of G Protein Signaling (RGS) 17 is an overexpressed promoter of cancer survival in lung and prostate tumors, the knockdown of which results in decreased tumor cell proliferation in vitro. Identification of drug-like molecules inhibiting this protein could ameliorate the RGS17's pro-tumorigenic effect. Using high-throughput screening, a chemical library containing natural products was interrogated for inhibition of the RGS17-Gαo interaction. Initial hits were verified in control and counter screens. Leads were characterized via biochemical, mass spectrometric, Western blot, microscopic, and cytotoxicity measures. Four known compounds (1-4) were identified with IC50 values ranging from high nanomolar to low micromolar. Three compounds were extensively characterized biologically, demonstrating cellular activity determined by confocal microscopy, and two compounds were assessed via ITC exhibiting high nanomolar to low micromolar dissociation constants. The compounds were found to have a cysteine-dependent mechanism of binding, verified through site-directed mutagenesis and cysteine reactivity assessment. Two compounds, sanguinarine (1) and celastrol (2), were found to be cytostatic against lung and prostate cancer cell lines and cytotoxic against prostate cancer cell lines in vitro, although the dependence of RGS17 on these phenomena remains elusive, a result that is perhaps not surprising given the multimodal cytostatic and cytotoxic activities of many natural products.

  16. Production of nitrogen oxide derivatives under the influence of NO-synthase inhibitors and natural compounds in mice with transplanted tumors.

    PubMed

    Deryagina, V P; Ryzhova, N I; Golubkina, N A

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the dynamics of nitric oxide derivative (NOD) formation in mice with transplanted tumors and to analize whether synthetic NO-synthase inhibitors, NO-donors and natural compounds could modulate NOD synthesis. In the study F(1)(C(57)BlxCBA), CBA/Lac, BDF and Balb/c mice were used. Endogenous NOD synthesis in mice with transplanted Ehrlich carcinoma (EC) and Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) was estimated by measuring urine nitrates (NA) and nitrites (NI) excretion and their concentration in tumor tissue determined by cadmium-reduction method. It is shown that EC development is accompanied by increased endogenous NOD formation whereas LLC growth - by its decrease. Total NOD excretion with urine in EC-bearing mice during tumor development was in the range of 1.1x10(-7)-7.0x10(-6) mol/kg body weight that was 1.7-6.8 times higher than that in LLC-bearing mice. Treatment of EC-bearing animals with N(ώ)-nitro-L-arginine and aminoguanidine resulted in decreased NOD formation causing moderate tumor growth retardation. Effect of treatment with nitroprusside was shown to be dependent on the rout of its administration and dosage. Treatment of EC-bearing mice with picnogenol, tannic acid, spirulina and paprika enriched with selenium resulted in tumor growth inhibition at the early stage of EC growth accompanied by stimulation of endogenous NOD formation. Regulation of endogenous NOD formation towards normal physiological levels or hyperproduction of these compounds may result in tumor growth suppression.

  17. Pancreatic lipase inhibitors from natural sources: unexplored potential.

    PubMed

    Birari, Rahul B; Bhutani, Kamlesh K

    2007-10-01

    The prevalence of obesity is increasing at an alarming rate, but, unfortunately, only a few medications are currently on the market. Obesity is primarily regarded as a disorder of lipid metabolism and the enzymes involved in this process could be selectively targeted to develop antiobesity drugs. Recently, newer approaches for the treatment of obesity have involved inhibition of dietary triglyceride absorption via inhibition of pancreatic lipase (PL) as this is the major source of excess calories. Natural products provide a vast pool of PL inhibitors that can possibly be developed into clinical products. This article reviews various extracts and secondary metabolites from plants and microbial origin with PL inhibitory activity that can be focused for drug development programs.

  18. Natural products as potential human ether-a-go-go-related gene channel inhibitors - outcomes from a screening of widely used herbal medicines and edible plants.

    PubMed

    Schramm, Anja; Jähne, Evelyn A; Baburin, Igor; Hering, Steffen; Hamburger, Matthias

    2014-08-01

    Inhibition of the human ether-a-go-go-related gene channel is the single most important risk factor leading to acquired long QT syndrome. Drug-induced QT prolongation can cause severe cardiac complications, including arrhythmia, and is thus a liability in drug development. Considering the importance of the human ether-a-go-go-related gene channel as an antitarget and the daily intake of plant-derived foods and herbal products, surprisingly few natural products have been tested for channel blocking properties. In an assessment of possible human ether-a-go-go-related gene liabilities, a selection of widely used herbal medicines and edible plants (vegetables, fruits, and spices) was screened by means of a functional two-microelectrode voltage-clamp assay with Xenopus oocytes. The human ether-a-go-go-related gene channel blocking activity of selected extracts was investigated with the aid of a high-performance liquid chromatography-based profiling approach, and attributed to tannins and alkaloids. Major European medicinal plants and frequently consumed food plants were found to have a low risk for human ether-a-go-go-related gene toxicity. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Hh signaling inhibitors from Vitex negundo; naturally occurring inhibitors of the GLI1-DNA complex.

    PubMed

    Arai, Midori A; Fujimatsu, Teruhisa; Uchida, Kyoko; Sadhu, Samir K; Ahmed, Firoj; Ishibashi, Masami

    2013-05-01

    The hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway has crucial roles in embryonic development, cell maintenance and proliferation, and is also known to contribute to cancer cell growth. New naturally occurring Hh inhibitors (1, 7 and 9) were isolated from Vitex negundo using our previously constructed cell-based assay. Bioactivity guided isolation provided 9 natural compounds including a new diterpene, nishindanol (9). Compounds 7 and 9 showed cytotoxicity against cancer cell lines in which Hh signaling was aberrantly activated. Vitetrifolin D (7; GLI1 transcriptional inhibition IC50 = 20.2 μM) showed inhibition of Hh related protein (PTCH and BCL2) production. Interestingly, the constructed electrophoresis mobility shift assay revealed that vitetrifolin D (7) disrupted GLI1 binding on its DNA binding domain. epi-Sclareol (8; inactive), possessing a similar structure to 7, did not show inhibition of GLI1–DNA complex formation. This is the first example of naturally occurring inhibitors of GLI1–DNA complex formation.

  20. A Cross-over Inhibitor of the Botulinum Neurotoxin Light Chain B: A Natural Product Implicating an Exosite Mechanism of Action

    PubMed Central

    Salzameda, Nicholas T.; Eubanks, Lisa M.; Zakhari, Joseph S.; Tsuchikama, Kyoji; DeNunzio, Nicholas J.; Allen, Karen N.; Hixon, Mark S.

    2011-01-01

    Clostridium botulinum produces the most leathal toxins known to man, as such they are high risk terrorist threats, and alarmingly there is no approved therapeutic. We report the first cross-over small molecule inhibitor of these neurotoxins and propose a mechanism by which it may impart its inhibitory activity. PMID:21203627

  1. Calyculins and Related Marine Natural Products as Serine-Threonine Protein Phosphatase PP1 and PP2A Inhibitors and Total Syntheses of Calyculin A, B, and C

    PubMed Central

    Fagerholm, Annika E.; Habrant, Damien; Koskinen, Ari M. P.

    2010-01-01

    Calyculins, highly cytotoxic polyketides, originally isolated from the marine sponge Discodermia calyx by Fusetani and co-workers, belong to the lithistid sponges group. These molecules have become interesting targets for cell biologists and synthetic organic chemists. The serine/threonine protein phosphatases play an essential role in the cellular signalling, metabolism, and cell cycle control. Calyculins express potent protein phosphatase 1 and 2A inhibitory activity, and have therefore become valuable tools for cellular biologists studying intracellular processes and their control by reversible phosphorylation. Calyculins might also play an important role in the development of several diseases such as cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and type 2-diabetes mellitus. The fascinating structures of calyculins have inspired various groups of synthetic organic chemists to develop total syntheses of the most abundant calyculins A and C. However, with fifteen chiral centres, a cyano-capped tetraene unit, a phosphate-bearing spiroketal, an anti, anti, anti dipropionate segment, an α-chiral oxazole, and a trihydroxylated γ-amino acid, calyculins reach versatility that only few natural products can surpass, and truly challenge modern chemists’ asymmetric synthesis skills. PMID:20161975

  2. Natural disturbance production functions

    Treesearch

    Jeffrey P. Prestemon; D. Evan Mercer; John M. Pye

    2008-01-01

    Natural disturbances in forests are driven by physical and biological processes. Large, landscape scale disturbances derive primarily from weather (droughts, winds, ice storms, and floods), geophysical activities (earthquakes, volcanic eruptions), fires, insects, and diseases. Humans have invented ways to minimize their negative impacts and reduce their rates of...

  3. Natural products: Taming reactive benzynes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasker, Sarah Z.; Hergenrother, Paul J.

    2017-06-01

    Natural products often serve as sources of new drugs, either directly or after synthetic modification, but site-selective functionalization of complex small molecules is challenging. Now, a method has been developed that enables selective modification of a wide range of natural products by engaging a benzyne intermediate in a variety of reaction modes.

  4. Natural cholinesterase inhibitors from Myristica cinnamomea King.

    PubMed

    Abdul Wahab, Siti Mariam; Sivasothy, Yasodha; Liew, Sook Yee; Litaudon, Marc; Mohamad, Jamaludin; Awang, Khalijah

    2016-08-01

    A new acylphenol, malabaricone E (1) together with the known malabaricones A-C (2-4), maingayones A and B (5 and 6) and maingayic acid B (7) were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of the fruits of Myristica cinnamomea King. Their structures were determined by 1D and 2D NMR techniques and LCMS-IT-TOF analysis. Compounds 3 (1.84±0.19 and 1.76±0.21μM, respectively) and 4 (1.94±0.27 and 2.80±0.49μM, respectively) were identified as dual inhibitors, with almost equal acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) enzymes inhibiting potentials. The Lineweaver-Burk plots of compounds 3 and 4 indicated that they were mixed-mode inhibitors. Based on the molecular docking studies, compounds 3 and 4 interacted with the peripheral anionic site (PAS), the catalytic triad and the oxyanion hole of the AChE. As for the BChE, while compound 3 interacted with the PAS, the catalytic triad and the oxyanion hole, compound 4 only interacted with the catalytic triad and the oxyanion hole.

  5. Natural fatty acid synthase inhibitors as potent therapeutic agents for cancers: A review.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jia-Sui; Lei, Jie-Ping; Wei, Guo-Qing; Chen, Hui; Ma, Chao-Ying; Jiang, He-Zhong

    2016-09-01

    Context Fatty acid synthase (FAS) is the only mammalian enzyme to catalyse the synthesis of fatty acid. The expression level of FAS is related to cancer progression, aggressiveness and metastasis. In recent years, research on natural FAS inhibitors with significant bioactivities and low side effects has increasingly become a new trend. Herein, we present recent research progress on natural fatty acid synthase inhibitors as potent therapeutic agents. Objective This paper is a mini overview of the typical natural FAS inhibitors and their possible mechanism of action in the past 10 years (2004-2014). Method The information was collected and compiled through major databases including Web of Science, PubMed, and CNKI. Results Many natural products induce cancer cells apoptosis by inhibiting FAS expression, with fewer side effects than synthetic inhibitors. Conclusion Natural FAS inhibitors are widely distributed in plants (especially in herbs and foods). Some natural products (mainly phenolics) possessing potent biological activities and stable structures are available as lead compounds to synthesise promising FAS inhibitors.

  6. Natural products and diabetes treatment.

    PubMed

    Gori, M; Campbell, R K

    1998-01-01

    Many natural products are promoted to improve the health status of patients with diabetes by people making a profit on these products. Few of these claims have any scientific basis. Certain natural products are potentially damaging to patients with chronic diseases, especially if the products are used instead of proven scientific treatment regimens. Many individuals believe that if a product is natural it must be effective and safe. What is ironic is that if the products were safe and effective, and if studies would have been done on humans to prove safety and effectiveness, the sales of the products would greatly increase (as opposed to present limited sales as herbs from health food stores). Some of the products do have a beneficial effect, especially as a placebo if the patient believes that the product is going to work. As can be seen from the summary of products that are listed here that claim to improve the treatment of patients with diabetes, very few are available in a standard form that would produce a known positive effect. The few products that do have a mild impact on lowering blood glucose levels are much less effective than standard treatments. In a recent review of the role of plant-derived drugs and herbal medicines in healthcare, no natural products were listed as having a beneficial effect on diabetes. Diabetes care providers need to confront the issue of the use of natural products with their patients. Patients should be taught the importance of using proven, effective treatment regimens. Any patient who decides to use a natural product should be followed closely to make sure that no toxic effects occur and that treatment objectives are achieved.

  7. Bioactive natural products from Lysobacter

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yunxuan; Wright, Stephen; Shen, Yuemao

    2012-01-01

    The gliding Gram-negative Lysobacter bacteria are emerging as a promising source of new bioactive natural products. These ubiquitous freshwater and soil microorganisms are fast growing, simple to use and maintain, and genetically amenable for biosynthetic engineering. This Highlight reviews a group of biologically active and structurally distinct natural products from the genus Lysobacter, with a focus on their biosyntheses. Although Lysobacter sp. are known as prolific producers of bioactive natural products, detailed molecular mechanistic studies of their enzymatic assembly have been surprisingly scarce. We hope to provide a snapshot of the important work done on the lysobacterial natural products and to provide useful information for future biosynthetic engineering of novel antibiotics in Lysobacter. PMID:22898908

  8. Forest Products Laboratory natural finish

    Treesearch

    J. M. Black; D. F. Laughnan; E. A. Mraz

    1979-01-01

    A simple and durable exterior natural finish developed at the Forest Products Laboratory is described. The finish is classified as a semi-transparent oil-base penetrating stain that effectively retains much of the natural grain and texture of wood when exposed to the weather. The directions for preparation are included as are the recommendations for application to both...

  9. Identification of α-glucosidase inhibitors from the leaves of Pluchea indica (L.) Less., a traditional Indonesian herb: promotion of natural product use.

    PubMed

    Arsiningtyas, Ines Septi; Gunawan-Puteri, Maria D P T; Kato, Eisuke; Kawabata, Jun

    2014-01-01

    A promising approach for treating diabetes mellitus (DM) is to decrease postprandial hyperglycaemia by suppressing carbohydrate digestion using α-glucosidase inhibitors. Pluchea indica leaf extracts possess inhibitory activity against intestinal maltase. Enzyme assay-guided fractionation by chromatography yielded five active caffeoylquinic acid derivatives (1-5). Their structures were elucidated by mass spectrometry and NMR analysis and completed by comparison with reference data. 3,5-Di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (1), 4,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid methyl ester (2), 3,4,5-tri-O-caffeoylquinic acid methyl ester (3), 3,4,5-tri-O-caffeoylquinic acid (4) and 1,3,4,5-tetra-O-caffeoylquinic acid (5) were isolated. Comparison of the activities of each isolate suggested that both methyl esterification of quinic acid and the number of caffeate groups in the molecule were important for the inhibitory activity. This study provides basic information for further examination of the suitability of P. indica as a functional food and medicinal supplement for the treatment and prevention of diabetes.

  10. Natural products used for diabetes.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Karen; Gong, William C

    2002-01-01

    To review the efficacy and safety of natural products commonly used for diabetes. English and Spanish-language journals retrieved through a MEDLINE search of articles published between 1960 and December 2001 using these index terms: Opuntia, karela, gymnema, tecoma, alpha lipoic acid, thioctic acid, ginseng, panaxans, and diabetes. Natural products have long been used in traditional systems of medicine for diabetes. Products in common use include nopal (prickly pear cactus), fenu-greek, karela (bitter melon), gymnema, ginseng, tronadora, chromium, and alpha-lipoic acid. The popularity of these products varies among people of different ethnicities. Nopal is the most commonly used herbal hypoglycemic among persons of Mexican descent. Karela is more commonly used by persons from Asian countries. Some of these agents have gained universal appeal. For a select number of products, studies have revealed single or multiple mechanisms of action. For several of these, high soluble fiber content is a contributing factor. Based on the available evidence, several natural products in common use can lower blood glucose in patients with diabetes. Commonly used natural products often have a long history of traditional use, and pharmacists who have a stronger understanding of these products are better positioned to counsel patients on their appropriate use.

  11. Affinity Crystallography: A New Approach to Extracting High-Affinity Enzyme Inhibitors from Natural Extracts.

    PubMed

    Aguda, Adeleke H; Lavallee, Vincent; Cheng, Ping; Bott, Tina M; Meimetis, Labros G; Law, Simon; Nguyen, Nham T; Williams, David E; Kaleta, Jadwiga; Villanueva, Ivan; Davies, Julian; Andersen, Raymond J; Brayer, Gary D; Brömme, Dieter

    2016-08-26

    Natural products are an important source of novel drug scaffolds. The highly variable and unpredictable timelines associated with isolating novel compounds and elucidating their structures have led to the demise of exploring natural product extract libraries in drug discovery programs. Here we introduce affinity crystallography as a new methodology that significantly shortens the time of the hit to active structure cycle in bioactive natural product discovery research. This affinity crystallography approach is illustrated by using semipure fractions of an actinomycetes culture extract to isolate and identify a cathepsin K inhibitor and to compare the outcome with the traditional assay-guided purification/structural analysis approach. The traditional approach resulted in the identification of the known inhibitor antipain (1) and its new but lower potency dehydration product 2, while the affinity crystallography approach led to the identification of a new high-affinity inhibitor named lichostatinal (3). The structure and potency of lichostatinal (3) was verified by total synthesis and kinetic characterization. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example of isolating and characterizing a potent enzyme inhibitor from a partially purified crude natural product extract using a protein crystallographic approach.

  12. Natural Products as Chemical Probes

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Erin E.

    2010-01-01

    Natural products have evolved to encompass a broad spectrum of chemical and functional diversity. It is this diversity, along with their structural complexity, that enables nature’s small molecules to target a nearly limitless number of biological macromolecules and to often do so in a highly selective fashion. Because of these characteristics, natural products have seen great success as therapeutic agents. However, this vast pool of compounds holds much promise beyond the development of future drugs. These features also make them ideal tools for the study of biological systems. Recent examples of the use of natural products and their derivatives as chemical probes to explore biological phenomena and assemble biochemical pathways are presented here. PMID:20509672

  13. Synthesis of Polycyclic Natural Products

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Tuan Hoang

    2003-01-01

    With the continuous advancements in molecular biology and modern medicine, organic synthesis has become vital to the support and extension of those discoveries. The isolations of new natural products allow for the understanding of their biological activities and therapeutic value. Organic synthesis is employed to aid in the determination of the relationship between structure and function of these natural products. The development of synthetic methodologies in the course of total syntheses is imperative for the expansion of this highly interdisciplinary field of science. In addition to the practical applications of total syntheses, the structural complexity of natural products represents a worthwhile challenge in itself. The pursuit of concise and efficient syntheses of complex molecules is both gratifying and enjoyable.

  14. Pectin as an Extraordinary Natural Kinetic Hydrate Inhibitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shurui; Fan, Shuanshi; Fang, Songtian; Lang, Xuemei; Wang, Yanhong; Chen, Jun

    2016-03-01

    Pectin as a novel natural kinetic hydrate inhibitor, expected to be eco-friendly and sufficiently biodegradable, was studied in this paper. The novel crystal growth inhibition (CGI) and standard induction time methods were used to evaluate its effect as hydrate inhibitor. It could successfully inhibit methane hydrate formation at subcooling temperature up to 12.5 °C and dramatically slowed the hydrate crystal growth. The dosage of pectin decreased by 66% and effective time extended 10 times than typical kinetic inhibitor. Besides, its maximum growth rate was no more than 2.0%/h, which was far less than 5.5%/h of growth rate for PVCap at the same dosage. The most prominent feature was that it totally inhibited methane hydrate crystal rapid growth when hydrate crystalline occurred. Moreover, in terms of typical natural inhibitors, the inhibition activity of pectin increased 10.0-fold in induction time and 2.5-fold in subcooling temperature. The extraordinary inhibition activity is closely related to its hydrogen bonding interaction with water molecules and the hydrophilic structure. Finally, the biodegradability and economical efficiency of pectin were also taken into consideration. The results showed the biodegradability improved 75.0% and the cost reduced by more than 73.3% compared to typical commercial kinetic inhibitors.

  15. Pectin as an Extraordinary Natural Kinetic Hydrate Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shurui; Fan, Shuanshi; Fang, Songtian; Lang, Xuemei; Wang, Yanhong; Chen, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Pectin as a novel natural kinetic hydrate inhibitor, expected to be eco-friendly and sufficiently biodegradable, was studied in this paper. The novel crystal growth inhibition (CGI) and standard induction time methods were used to evaluate its effect as hydrate inhibitor. It could successfully inhibit methane hydrate formation at subcooling temperature up to 12.5 °C and dramatically slowed the hydrate crystal growth. The dosage of pectin decreased by 66% and effective time extended 10 times than typical kinetic inhibitor. Besides, its maximum growth rate was no more than 2.0%/h, which was far less than 5.5%/h of growth rate for PVCap at the same dosage. The most prominent feature was that it totally inhibited methane hydrate crystal rapid growth when hydrate crystalline occurred. Moreover, in terms of typical natural inhibitors, the inhibition activity of pectin increased 10.0-fold in induction time and 2.5-fold in subcooling temperature. The extraordinary inhibition activity is closely related to its hydrogen bonding interaction with water molecules and the hydrophilic structure. Finally, the biodegradability and economical efficiency of pectin were also taken into consideration. The results showed the biodegradability improved 75.0% and the cost reduced by more than 73.3% compared to typical commercial kinetic inhibitors. PMID:26996773

  16. Pectin as an Extraordinary Natural Kinetic Hydrate Inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shurui; Fan, Shuanshi; Fang, Songtian; Lang, Xuemei; Wang, Yanhong; Chen, Jun

    2016-03-21

    Pectin as a novel natural kinetic hydrate inhibitor, expected to be eco-friendly and sufficiently biodegradable, was studied in this paper. The novel crystal growth inhibition (CGI) and standard induction time methods were used to evaluate its effect as hydrate inhibitor. It could successfully inhibit methane hydrate formation at subcooling temperature up to 12.5 °C and dramatically slowed the hydrate crystal growth. The dosage of pectin decreased by 66% and effective time extended 10 times than typical kinetic inhibitor. Besides, its maximum growth rate was no more than 2.0%/h, which was far less than 5.5%/h of growth rate for PVCap at the same dosage. The most prominent feature was that it totally inhibited methane hydrate crystal rapid growth when hydrate crystalline occurred. Moreover, in terms of typical natural inhibitors, the inhibition activity of pectin increased 10.0-fold in induction time and 2.5-fold in subcooling temperature. The extraordinary inhibition activity is closely related to its hydrogen bonding interaction with water molecules and the hydrophilic structure. Finally, the biodegradability and economical efficiency of pectin were also taken into consideration. The results showed the biodegradability improved 75.0% and the cost reduced by more than 73.3% compared to typical commercial kinetic inhibitors.

  17. Natural products: DNA double whammy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gates, Kent S.

    2014-06-01

    The lomaiviticins are exceedingly potent antibiotic agents, but the mechanism responsible for this activity has so far been unclear. Now, efficient generation of double-strand breaks in DNA by lomaiviticin A has been linked to the remarkable cytotoxicity of these diazobenzofluorene-containg natural products.

  18. EIA's Natural Gas Production Data

    EIA Publications

    2009-01-01

    This special report examines the stages of natural gas processing from the wellhead to the pipeline network through which the raw product becomes ready for transportation and eventual consumption, and how this sequence is reflected in the data published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA).

  19. Marine natural products: synthetic aspects.

    PubMed

    Morris, Jonathan C; Phillips, Andrew J

    2008-02-01

    An overview of marine natural products synthesis during 2006 is provided. As with earlier installments in this series, the emphasis is on total syntheses of molecules of contemporary interest, new total syntheses, and syntheses that have resulted in structure confirmation or stereochemical assignments.

  20. Marine natural products: synthetic aspects.

    PubMed

    Morris, Jonathan C; Nicholas, Gillian M; Phillips, Andrew J

    2007-02-01

    An overview of marine natural products synthesis during 2005 is provided. In a similar vein to earlier installments in this series, the emphasis is on total syntheses of molecules of contemporary interest, new total syntheses, and syntheses that have resulted in structure confirmation or stereochemical assignments.

  1. White Paper on Natural Products.

    PubMed

    Gabay, Michael; Smith, Judith A; Chavez, Mary L; Goldwire, Micheline; Walker, Scot; Coon, Scott A; Gosser, Rena; Hume, Anne L; Musselman, Megan; Phillips, Jennifer; Abe, Andrew M

    2017-01-01

    The American College of Clinical Pharmacy (ACCP) published an initial white paper on herbal products in 2000. Since then, the global market for natural products has continued to expand, with tens of millions of consumers using such products on an annual basis in the United States alone. However, despite this expansion, natural products remain largely unregulated compared with prescription medications, have moderate- to low-level clinical evidence for efficacy, and continue to have safety concerns, including adulteration and misbranding. As comprehensive medication management experts, clinical pharmacists are uniquely qualified to navigate these concerns and advise patients appropriately. To develop and recommend a suitable care plan involving natural products, clinical pharmacists must establish a strong pharmacist-patient relationship, assess the appropriateness of therapy, educate the patient regarding key issues, and continuously monitor and follow up on the effectiveness of the care plan. This process should not only occur in an individual community or hospital setting, but also whenever a patient transitions from one care setting to another in cooperation with other clinicians.

  2. Natural Products from Mangrove Actinomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Dong-Bo; Ye, Wan-Wan; Han, Ying; Deng, Zi-Xin; Hong, Kui

    2014-01-01

    Mangroves are woody plants located in tropical and subtropical intertidal coastal regions. The mangrove ecosystem is becoming a hot spot for natural product discovery and bioactivity survey. Diverse mangrove actinomycetes as promising and productive sources are worth being explored and uncovered. At the time of writing, we report 73 novel compounds and 49 known compounds isolated from mangrove actinomycetes including alkaloids, benzene derivatives, cyclopentenone derivatives, dilactones, macrolides, 2-pyranones and sesquiterpenes. Attractive structures such as salinosporamides, xiamycins and novel indolocarbazoles are highlighted. Many exciting compounds have been proven as potential new antibiotics, antitumor and antiviral agents, anti-fibrotic agents and antioxidants. Furthermore, some of their biosynthetic pathways have also been revealed. This review is an attempt to consolidate and summarize the past and the latest studies on mangrove actinomycetes natural product discovery and to draw attention to their immense potential as novel and bioactive compounds for marine drugs discovery. PMID:24798926

  3. Glycosylation and Activities of Natural Products.

    PubMed

    Huang, Gangliang; Lv, Meijiao; Hu, Jinchuan; Huang, Kunlin; Xu, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Natural products are widely found in nature, their number and variety are numerous, the structures are complex and diverse. These natural products have many physiological and pharmacological activities. Glycosylation can increase the diversity of structure and function of natural product, it has become the focus of drug research and development. The impacts of glycosylation of natural products to water solubility, pharmacological activities, bioavailability, or others were described in this review, which provides a reference for the development and application of glycosylated natural products.

  4. Search method for inhibitors of Staphyloxanthin production by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Kent; Koyama, Nobuhiro; Fukuda, Takashi; Mori, Yukiko; Onaka, Hiroyasu; Tomoda, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Staphyloxanthin, a yellow pigment produced by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), is a virulent factor escaping from the host immune system. A new screening method for inhibitors of staphyloxanthin production by MRSA was established using paper disks. By this screening method, inhibitors of staphyloxanthin production were selected from the natural product library (ca. 300) and from actinomycete culture broths (ca. 1000). From the natural product library, four known inhibitors of lipid metabolism, cerulenin, dihydrobisvertinol, xanthohumol and zaragozic acid, were found to inhibit staphyloxanthin production; however, typical antibiotics used clinically, including vancomycin, had no effect on staphyloxanthin production. From actinomycete culture broths, two known anthraquinones, 6-deoxy-8-O-methylrabelomycin and tetrangomycin, were found to inhibit staphyloxanthin production by MRSA in the paper disk assay. These results suggested that this screening method is useful and effective to find compounds targeting staphyloxanthin production, leading to a new type of chemotherapeutics against MRSA infection.

  5. Marine natural products: synthetic aspects.

    PubMed

    Morris, Jonathan C; Phillips, Andrew J

    2009-02-01

    An overview of marine natural products synthesis during 2007 is provided. As with earlier installments in this series, the emphasis is on total syntheses of molecules of contemporary interest, new total syntheses, and syntheses that have resulted in structure confirmation or stereochemical assignments.1 Introduction, 2 Review articles, 3 Azaspiracid, 4 Polyethers, 5 Guanidinium alkaloids, 6 Amphidinolides, 7 Total syntheses of other compounds, 8 Acknowledgements, 9 References.

  6. Natural and synthetic inhibitors of kallikrein-related peptidases (KLKs)

    PubMed Central

    Goettig, Peter; Magdolen, Viktor; Brandstetter, Hans

    2010-01-01

    Including the true tissue kallikrein KLK1, kallikrein-related peptidases (KLKs) represent a family of fifteen mammalian serine proteases. While the physiological roles of several KLKs have been at least partially elucidated, their activation and regulation remain largely unclear. This obscurity may be related to the fact that a given KLK fulfills many different tasks in diverse fetal and adult tissues, and consequently, the timescale of some of their physiological actions varies significantly. To date, a variety of endogenous inhibitors that target distinct KLKs have been identified. Among them are the attenuating Zn2+ ions, active site-directed proteinaceous inhibitors, such as serpins and the Kazal-type inhibitors, or the huge, unspecific compartment forming α2-macroglobulin. Failure of these inhibitory systems can lead to certain pathophysiological conditions. One of the most prominent examples is the Netherton syndrome, which is caused by dysfunctional domains of the Kazal-type inhibitor LEKTI-1 which fail to appropriately regulate KLKs in the skin. Small synthetic inhibitory compounds and natural polypeptidic exogenous inhibitors have been widely employed to characterize the activity and substrate specificity of KLKs and to further investigate their structures and biophysical properties. Overall, this knowledge leads not only to a better understanding of the physiological tasks of KLKs, but is also a strong fundament for the synthesis of small compound drugs and engineered biomolecules for pharmaceutical approaches. In several types of cancer, KLKs have been found to be overexpressed, which makes them clinically relevant biomarkers for prognosis and monitoring. Thus, down regulation of excessive KLK activity in cancer and in skin diseases by small inhibitor compounds may represent attractive therapeutical approaches. PMID:20615447

  7. Natural antimicrobial production by the amnion.

    PubMed

    Stock, Sarah J; Kelly, Rodney W; Riley, Simon C; Calder, Andrew A

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the expression of natural antimicrobials in primary cultured amnion epithelial cells and to examine their regulation by interleukin-1 beta (IL-1beta). Primary amnion epithelial cells were cultured from samples that were obtained at prelabor cesarean section (n = 12) and stimulated with IL-1beta. Natural antimicrobial messenger RNA expression was determined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and protein was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Data was analyzed by analysis of variance. Primary amnion epithelial cells express messenger RNA for human beta defensin (HBD) 1 to 3, secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor and elafin, but not HBD4. IL-1beta 10 ng/mL stimulates HBD2 messenger RNA in a biphasic pattern, with a 51-fold increase at 6 hours and a 67-fold at 12 hours (P < .001). HBD2 protein production is significantly increased by 24 hours (P < .05). The amnion produces potent natural antimicrobials that may help protect the pregnancy from infection. HBD2 production is dramatically upregulated by the labor-associated inflammatory cytokine IL-1beta.

  8. Molecular recognition between pancreatic lipase and natural and synthetic inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Bello, Martiniano; Basilio-Antonio, Lucia; Fragoso-Vázquez, Jonathan; Avalos-Soriano, Anaguiven; Correa-Basurto, José

    2017-05-01

    Pancreatic lipase (PL) is a primary lipase critical for triacylglyceride digestion in humans and is considered as a promising target for the treatment of obesity. Although the current synthetic drugs available for treating obesity have been demonstrated to be effective in inhibiting PL, their prolonged usage results in severe side effects. Based on this argument, in this study, we evaluated the structural and energetic features linked to molecular recognition between two well-known PL inhibitors, orlistat (ORL, synthetic inhibitor) and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG, natural inhibitor) and PL through molecular dynamics simulations and free energy calculations of ORL and EGCG at the PL binding site when it is isolated (PL) from the heterodimer complex, forming the heterodimer complex with colipase (PLCL) and lacking structural calcium. Our study showed that the binding free energy of ORL and EGCG to the target correlates with their experimental affinity tendency. The presence of the heterodimer PLCL state, the presence of structural calcium and the type of inhibitor resulted in differences in structural stability and in the map of protein-ligand and protein-protein interactions. Overall, our results suggest that the heterodimer complex and structural calcium are linked to the binding properties of PL.

  9. Natural products for cancer chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Demain, Arnold L.; Vaishnav, Preeti

    2011-01-01

    Summary For over 40 years, natural products have served us well in combating cancer. The main sources of these successful compounds are microbes and plants from the terrestrial and marine environments. The microbes serve as a major source of natural products with anti‐tumour activity. A number of these products were first discovered as antibiotics. Another major contribution comes from plant alkaloids, taxoids and podophyllotoxins. A vast array of biological metabolites can be obtained from the marine world, which can be used for effective cancer treatment. The search for novel drugs is still a priority goal for cancer therapy, due to the rapid development of resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs. In addition, the high toxicity usually associated with some cancer chemotherapy drugs and their undesirable side‐effects increase the demand for novel anti‐tumour drugs active against untreatable tumours, with fewer side‐effects and/or with greater therapeutic efficiency. This review points out those technologies needed to produce the anti‐tumour compounds of the future. PMID:21375717

  10. Natural Inhibitors of Snake Venom Metalloendopeptidases: History and Current Challenges.

    PubMed

    Bastos, Viviane A; Gomes-Neto, Francisco; Perales, Jonas; Neves-Ferreira, Ana Gisele C; Valente, Richard H

    2016-08-26

    The research on natural snake venom metalloendopeptidase inhibitors (SVMPIs) began in the 18th century with the pioneering work of Fontana on the resistance that vipers exhibited to their own venom. During the past 40 years, SVMPIs have been isolated mainly from the sera of resistant animals, and characterized to different extents. They are acidic oligomeric glycoproteins that remain biologically active over a wide range of pH and temperature values. Based on primary structure determination, mammalian plasmatic SVMPIs are classified as members of the immunoglobulin (Ig) supergene protein family, while the one isolated from muscle belongs to the ficolin/opsonin P35 family. On the other hand, SVMPIs from snake plasma have been placed in the cystatin superfamily. These natural antitoxins constitute the first line of defense against snake venoms, inhibiting the catalytic activities of snake venom metalloendopeptidases through the establishment of high-affinity, non-covalent interactions. This review presents a historical account of the field of natural resistance, summarizing its main discoveries and current challenges, which are mostly related to the limitations that preclude three-dimensional structural determinations of these inhibitors using "gold-standard" methods; perspectives on how to circumvent such limitations are presented. Potential applications of these SVMPIs in medicine are also highlighted.

  11. Natural Inhibitors of Snake Venom Metalloendopeptidases: History and Current Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Bastos, Viviane A.; Gomes-Neto, Francisco; Perales, Jonas; Neves-Ferreira, Ana Gisele C.; Valente, Richard H.

    2016-01-01

    The research on natural snake venom metalloendopeptidase inhibitors (SVMPIs) began in the 18th century with the pioneering work of Fontana on the resistance that vipers exhibited to their own venom. During the past 40 years, SVMPIs have been isolated mainly from the sera of resistant animals, and characterized to different extents. They are acidic oligomeric glycoproteins that remain biologically active over a wide range of pH and temperature values. Based on primary structure determination, mammalian plasmatic SVMPIs are classified as members of the immunoglobulin (Ig) supergene protein family, while the one isolated from muscle belongs to the ficolin/opsonin P35 family. On the other hand, SVMPIs from snake plasma have been placed in the cystatin superfamily. These natural antitoxins constitute the first line of defense against snake venoms, inhibiting the catalytic activities of snake venom metalloendopeptidases through the establishment of high-affinity, non-covalent interactions. This review presents a historical account of the field of natural resistance, summarizing its main discoveries and current challenges, which are mostly related to the limitations that preclude three-dimensional structural determinations of these inhibitors using “gold-standard” methods; perspectives on how to circumvent such limitations are presented. Potential applications of these SVMPIs in medicine are also highlighted. PMID:27571103

  12. Natural Product Compounds with Aromatase Inhibitory Activity: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Balunas, Marcy J.; Kinghorn, A. Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Several synthetic aromatase inhibitors are currently in clinical use for the treatment of postmenopausal women with hormone-receptor positive breast cancer. However, these treatments may lead to untoward side effects and so a search for new aromatase inhibitors continues, especially those for which the activity is promoter-specific, targeting the breast-specific promoters I.3 and II. Recently, numerous natural product compounds have been found to inhibit aromatase in non-cellular, cellular, and in vivo studies. These investigations, covering the last two years, as well as additional studies that have focused on the evaluation of natural product compounds as promoter-specific aromatase inhibitors or as aromatase inducers, are described in this review. PMID:20635310

  13. Natural and engineered biosynthesis of fluorinated natural products.

    PubMed

    Walker, Mark C; Chang, Michelle C Y

    2014-09-21

    Both natural products and synthetic organofluorines play important roles in the discovery and design of pharmaceuticals. The combination of these two classes of molecules has the potential to be useful in the ongoing search for new bioactive compounds but our ability to produce site-selectively fluorinated natural products remains limited by challenges in compatibility between their high structural complexity and current methods for fluorination. Living systems provide an alternative route to chemical fluorination and could enable the production of organofluorine natural products through synthetic biology approaches. While the identification of biogenic organofluorines has been limited, the study of the native organisms and enzymes that utilize these compounds can help to guide efforts to engineer the incorporation of this unusual element into complex pharmacologically active natural products. This review covers recent advances in understanding both natural and engineered production of organofluorine natural products.

  14. Therapeutic application of natural inhibitors against snake venom phospholipase A2

    PubMed Central

    Perumal Samy, Ramar; Gopalakrishnakone, Ponnampalam; Chow, Vincent TK

    2012-01-01

    Natural inhibitors occupy an important place in the potential to neutralize the toxic effects caused by snake venom proteins and enzymes. It has been well recognized for several years that animal sera, some of the plant and marine extracts are the most potent in neutralizing snake venom phospholipase A2 (svPLA2). The implication of this review to update the latest research work which has been accomplished with svPLA2 inhibitors from various natural sources like animal, marine organisms presents a compilation of research in this field over the past decade and revisiting the previous research report including those found in plants. In addition to that the bioactive compounds/inhibitor molecules from diverse sources like aristolochic alkaloid, flavonoids and neoflavonoids from plants, hydrocarbones ­2, 4 dimethyl hexane, 2 methylnonane, and 2, 6 dimethyl heptane obtained from traditional medicinal plants Tragia involucrata (Euphorbiaceae) member of natural products involved for the inhibitory potential of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) enzymes in vitro and also decrease both oedema induced by snake venom as well as human synovial fluid PLA2. Besides marine natural products that inhibit PLA2 are manoalide and its derivatives such as scalaradial and related compounds, pseudopterosins and vidalols, tetracylne from synthetic chemicals etc. There is an overview of the role of PLA2 in inflammation that provides a rationale for seeking inhibitors of PLA2 as anti-inflammatory agents. However, more studies should be considered to evaluate antivenom efficiency of sera and other agents against a variety of snake venoms found in various parts of the world. The implications of these new groups of svPLA2 toxin inhibitors in the context of our current understanding of snake biology as well as in the development of new novel antivenoms therapeutics agents in the efficient treatment of snake envenomations are discussed. PMID:22359435

  15. Hot springs and cool natural products.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Ho Jeong; Lee, Choong Hwan; Osada, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Minoru; Imoto, Masaya

    2008-08-01

    Natural products have played a unique role in providing new tools and insights in chemical biology. The tremendous value of natural products was highlighted by scientists from Korea and Japan at the 4(th) Korea-Japan Chemical Biology symposium.

  16. Phenolic compounds from plants as nitric oxide production inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Conforti, F; Menichini, F

    2011-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a diatomic free radical produced from L-arginine by constitutive and inducible nitric oxide synthase (cNOS and iNOS) in numerous mammalian cells and tissues. Nitric oxide (NO), superoxide (O2-) and their reaction product peroxynitrite (ONOO-) may be generated in excess during the host response against viral and antibacterial infections and contribute to some pathogenesis by promoting oxidative stress, tissue injury and, even, cancer. Oxidative damage, caused by action of free radicals, may initiate and promote the progression of a number of chronic diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular diseases, Alzheimer's disease, diabetes and inflammation. The mechanism of inflammation injury is attributed, in part, to release of reactive oxygen species from activated neutrophils and macrophages. ROS propagate inflammation by stimulating release of mediators such as NO and cytokines. The interest of the research is motivated by the current need to find new substances of natural origin which have demonstrated effectiveness in the described fields of application and low degree of toxicity for humans. Natural products provide a vast pool of NO inhibitors that can possibly be developed into clinical products. This article reviews some plenolic secondary metabolites from plants with NO inhibitory properties and their structure-activity relationship studies that can be focused for drug development programs.

  17. Natural Corrosion Inhibitors for Steel Reinforcement in Concrete — a Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raja, Pandian Bothi; Ghoreishiamiri, Seyedmojtaba; Ismail, Mohammad

    2015-04-01

    Reinforced concrete is one of the widely used construction materials for bridges, buildings, platforms and tunnels. Though reinforced concrete is capable of withstanding a large range of severe environments including marine, industrial and alpine conditions, there are still a large number of failures in concrete structures for many reasons. Either carbonation or chloride attack is the main culprit which is due to depassivation of reinforced steel and subsequently leads to rapid steel corrosion. Among many corrosion prevention measures, application of corrosion inhibitors play a vital role in metal protection. Numerous range of corrosion inhibitors were reported for concrete protection that were also used commercially in industries. This review summarizes the application of natural products as corrosion inhibitors for concrete protection and also scrutinizes various factors influencing its applicability.

  18. Enantiomeric Natural Products: Occurrence and Biogenesis**

    PubMed Central

    Finefield, Jennifer M.; Sherman, David H.; Kreitman, Martin; Williams, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    In Nature, chiral natural products are usually produced in optically pure form; however, on occasion Nature is known to produce enantiomerically opposite metabolites. These enantiomeric natural products can arise in Nature from a single species, or from different genera and/or species. Extensive research has been carried out over the years in an attempt to understand the biogenesis of naturally occurring enantiomers, however, many fascinating puzzles and stereochemical anomalies still remain. PMID:22555867

  19. Mating of natural Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains for improved glucose fermentation and lignocellulosic inhibitor tolerance.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Trudy; Hoff, Justin Wallace; Jolly, Neil; van Zyl, Willem Heber

    2017-09-08

    Natural Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolates from vineyards in the Western Cape, South Africa were evaluated for ethanol production in industrial conditions associated with the production of second-generation biofuels. The strains displayed high phenotypic diversity including the ability to grow at 45 °C and in the presence of 20% (v/v) ethanol, strain YI13. Strains HR4 and YI30 were inhibitor-tolerant under aerobic and oxygen-limited conditions, respectively. Spore-to-spore hybridization generated progeny that displayed heterosis, including increased ethanol productivity and improved growth in the presence of a synthetic inhibitor cocktail. Hybrid strains HR4/YI30#6 and V3/YI30#6 were able to grow at a high salt concentration (2 mol/L NaCl) with V3/YI30#6 also able to grow at a high temperature (45 °C). Strains HR4/YI30#1 and #3 were inhibitor-tolerant, with strain HR4/YI30#3 having similar productivity (0.36 ± 0.0036 g/L per h) as the superior parental strain, YI30 (0.35 ± 0.0058 g/L per h). This study indicates that natural S. cerevisiae strains display phenotypic variation and heterosis can be achieved through spore-to-spore hybridization. Several of the phenotypes (temperature-, osmo-, and inhibitor tolerance) displayed by both the natural strains and the generated progeny were at the maximum conditions reported for S. cerevisiae strains.

  20. Misassigned natural products and their revised structures.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Hye-Dong; Nam, Sang-Jip; Chin, Young-Won; Kim, Min-Sun

    2016-02-01

    Natural products are a major pipeline for drug development and are responsible for more than 50 % of drugs on the market. NMR is a fundamental and powerful tool for the structure determination of natural products. It is essential to provide unambiguous chemical structure information on natural products in drug development research, including the structure-activity relationship, derivatization and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic studies. Advancement of NMR instruments has made it possible to deal with nanomole-scale natural products for structure elucidation, but misinterpretation of NMR spectra still occurs. We review 21 natural products with revised chemical structures and the methods used for those revisions.

  1. Discover natural compounds as potential phosphodiesterase-4B inhibitors via computational approaches.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Zhou, Nan; Liu, Wen; Li, Jianzong; Feng, Yu; Wang, Xiaoyun; Wu, Chuanfang; Bao, Jinku

    2016-05-01

    cAMP, intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate, is a ubiquitous second messenger that plays a key role in many physiological processes. PDE4B which can reduce the cAMP level by hydrolyzing cAMP to 5'-AMP has become a therapeutic target for the treatment of human diseases such as respiratory disorders, inflammation diseases, neurological and psychiatric disorders. However, the use of currently available PDE4B inhibitors is restricted due to serious side effects caused by targeting PDE4D. Hence, we are attempting to find out subfamily-selective PDE4B inhibitors from natural products, using computer-aided approaches such as virtual screening, docking, and molecular dynamics simulation. Finally, four potential PDE4B-selective inhibitors (ZINC67912770, ZINC67912780, ZINC72320169, and ZINC28882432) were found. Compared to the reference drug (roflumilast), they scored better during the virtual screening process. Binding free energy for them was -317.51, -239.44, -215.52, and -165.77 kJ/mol, better than -129.05 kJ/mol of roflumilast. The pharmacophore model of the four candidate inhibitors comprised six features, including one hydrogen bond donor, four hydrogen bond acceptors, and one aromatic ring feature. It is expected that our study will pave the way for the design of potent PDE4B-selective inhibitors of new drugs to treat a wide variety of diseases such as asthma, COPD, psoriasis, depression, etc.

  2. Total synthesis and development of bioactive natural products

    PubMed Central

    TATSUTA, Kuniaki

    2008-01-01

    The first total synthesis and development of a variety of bioactive natural products have been accomplished by using carbohydrates as a chiral source. In addition, practically useful intermediates have been created, analogs of natural products have been prepared, their structure-activity relationships studied, and the large-scale preparations of medicinally useful compounds established. The key target molecules have been the “Big Four” antibiotics (macrolides, aminoglycosides, β-lactams and tetracyclines), pyranonaphthoquinone antibiotics, glycosidase inhibitors, and a side-chain of cephem antibiotics. PMID:18941289

  3. Natural flavonoid derivatives as oral human epidermoid carcinoma cell inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Gunda, Shravan Kumar; Kongaleti, Sofia Florence; Shaik, Mahmood

    2015-01-01

    Natural flavonoid derivatives against cancer for selective KB cell lines (oral human epidermoid carcinoma) are analysed to determine the relationship between biological activities and structural properties of these molecules. Molecular alignment was performed for 88 natural flavonoid derivatives; out of these 88 molecules, 69 molecules were taken into training set and rest of the 19 molecules were used in test set prediction. We describe our elucidation of their structure activity relation (SAR) using three-dimensional quantitative structure activity relationship (3D-QSAR) models. A predictive comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) model of q² = 0.888 and r² = 0.940 was obtained and a comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA) model q² = 0.778 and r² = 0.971 was used to describe the non-linearly combined affinity of each functional group in the inhibitors. The contour maps obtained from 3D-QSAR studies were evaluated for the activity trends of the molecules analysed.

  4. Effects of Food Natural Products on the Biotransformation of PCBs

    PubMed Central

    James, Margaret O.; Sacco, James C.; Faux, Laura R

    2008-01-01

    Many food products, particularly fruits and vegetables, contain natural products that affect biotransformation enzymes. These may be expected to affect the rate of biotransformation of PCBs that are metabolized by the affected enzymes. The first step in PCB metabolism is cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenation. Natural products present in cruciferous vegetables have been shown to selectively up-regulate CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 isozymes on chronic ingestion, and may lead to increased metabolism of those PCB congeners that are substrates for the induced P450s. On the other hand, several natural products selectively inhibit monooxygenation, especially in the intestine, and may lead to increased bioavailability and reduced metabolism of dietary PCBs. Food natural products are known to affect phase II pathways important in the detoxication of hydroxylated PCBs, namely UDP-glucuronosyltransferase and PAPS-sulfotransferase. Continual dietary exposure to chrysin and quercetin, found in fruits and vegetables, induces UGT1A1 and may reduce exposure to hydroxylated PCBs through increased glucuronidation. These and other natural products are also inhibitors of glucuronidation and sulfonation, potentially leading to transient decreases in the elimination of hydroxylated PCBs. In summary, the expected effects of food natural products on PCB biotransformation are complex and may be biphasic, with initial inhibition followed by enhanced biotransformation through monooxygenation and conjugation pathways. PMID:19255595

  5. Effects of Food Natural Products on the Biotransformation of PCBs.

    PubMed

    James, Margaret O; Sacco, James C; Faux, Laura R

    2008-03-01

    Many food products, particularly fruits and vegetables, contain natural products that affect biotransformation enzymes. These may be expected to affect the rate of biotransformation of PCBs that are metabolized by the affected enzymes. The first step in PCB metabolism is cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenation. Natural products present in cruciferous vegetables have been shown to selectively up-regulate CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 isozymes on chronic ingestion, and may lead to increased metabolism of those PCB congeners that are substrates for the induced P450s. On the other hand, several natural products selectively inhibit monooxygenation, especially in the intestine, and may lead to increased bioavailability and reduced metabolism of dietary PCBs. Food natural products are known to affect phase II pathways important in the detoxication of hydroxylated PCBs, namely UDP-glucuronosyltransferase and PAPS-sulfotransferase. Continual dietary exposure to chrysin and quercetin, found in fruits and vegetables, induces UGT1A1 and may reduce exposure to hydroxylated PCBs through increased glucuronidation. These and other natural products are also inhibitors of glucuronidation and sulfonation, potentially leading to transient decreases in the elimination of hydroxylated PCBs. In summary, the expected effects of food natural products on PCB biotransformation are complex and may be biphasic, with initial inhibition followed by enhanced biotransformation through monooxygenation and conjugation pathways.

  6. Super Natural II--a database of natural products.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Priyanka; Erehman, Jevgeni; Gohlke, Björn-Oliver; Wilhelm, Thomas; Preissner, Robert; Dunkel, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    Natural products play a significant role in drug discovery and development. Many topological pharmacophore patterns are common between natural products and commercial drugs. A better understanding of the specific physicochemical and structural features of natural products is important for corresponding drug development. Several encyclopedias of natural compounds have been composed, but the information remains scattered or not freely available. The first version of the Supernatural database containing ∼ 50,000 compounds was published in 2006 to face these challenges. Here we present a new, updated and expanded version of natural product database, Super Natural II (http://bioinformatics.charite.de/supernatural), comprising ∼ 326,000 molecules. It provides all corresponding 2D structures, the most important structural and physicochemical properties, the predicted toxicity class for ∼ 170,000 compounds and the vendor information for the vast majority of compounds. The new version allows a template-based search for similar compounds as well as a search for compound names, vendors, specific physical properties or any substructures. Super Natural II also provides information about the pathways associated with synthesis and degradation of the natural products, as well as their mechanism of action with respect to structurally similar drugs and their target proteins. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  7. Biodegradation of corrosion inhibitors and their influence on petroleum product pipeline.

    PubMed

    Rajasekar, Aruliah; Maruthamuthu, Sundaram; Palaniswamy, Narayanan; Rajendran, Annamalai

    2007-01-01

    The present study enlightens the role of Bacillus cereus ACE4 on biodegradation of commercial corrosion inhibitors (CCI) and the corrosion process on API 5LX steel. Bacillus cereus ACE4, a dominant facultative aerobic species was identified by 16S rDNA sequence analysis, which was isolated from the corrosion products of refined diesel-transporting pipeline in North West India. The effect of CCI on the growth of bacterium and its corrosion inhibition efficiency were investigated. Corrosion inhibition efficiency was studied by rotating cage test and the nature of biodegradation of corrosion inhibitors was also analyzed. This isolate has the capacity to degrade the aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbon present in the corrosion inhibitors. The degraded products of corrosion inhibitors and bacterial activity determine the electrochemical behavior of API 5LX steel.

  8. Counting on natural products for drug design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Tiago; Reker, Daniel; Schneider, Petra; Schneider, Gisbert

    2016-06-01

    Natural products and their molecular frameworks have a long tradition as valuable starting points for medicinal chemistry and drug discovery. Recently, there has been a revitalization of interest in the inclusion of these chemotypes in compound collections for screening and achieving selective target modulation. Here we discuss natural-product-inspired drug discovery with a focus on recent advances in the design of synthetically tractable small molecules that mimic nature's chemistry. We highlight the potential of innovative computational tools in processing structurally complex natural products to predict their macromolecular targets and attempt to forecast the role that natural-product-derived fragments and fragment-like natural products will play in next-generation drug discovery.

  9. Natural product modulators to overcome multidrug resistance in cancer.

    PubMed

    Cort, Aysegul; Ozben, Tomris

    2015-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a condition that makes cells simultaneously unresponsive to different drugs, unrelated to their chemical structure and mechanism of action. MDR caused by the presence and overexpression of ABC transporters makes obstacles in cancer treatment and lower the effectiveness of chemotherapy. Natural products are investigated by many researchers as MDR modulators for their low toxicity and potent, selective behavior. When coadministered, MDR modulators compete with cytotoxic agents for binding to the active site of the membrane transporters and reduce drug efflux. Natural product-based drugs are important in struggling against drug resistance during cancer therapy. This review is focused on the potential mechanisms against drug resistance, the development of inhibitors for ABC drug transporters, natural product modulators, and nanoparticle drug delivery.

  10. Natural substances (acetogenins) from the family Annonaceae are powerful inhibitors of mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I).

    PubMed Central

    Degli Esposti, M; Ghelli, A; Ratta, M; Cortes, D; Estornell, E

    1994-01-01

    Natural products from the plants of the family Annonaceae, collectively called Annonaceous acetogenins, are very potent inhibitors of the NADH-ubiquinone reductase (Complex I) activity of mammalian mitochondria. The properties of five of such acetogenins are compared with those of rotenone and piericidin, classical potent inhibitors of Complex I. Rolliniastatin-1 and rolliniastatin-2 are more powerful than piericidin in terms of both their inhibitory constant and the protein-dependence of their titre in bovine submitochondrial particles. These acetogenins could be considered therefore the most potent inhibitors of mammalian Complex I. Squamocin and otivarin also have an inhibitory constant lower than that of piericidin, but display a larger protein-dependence of the titre. Squamocin and otivarin, contrary to the other acetogenins, behave qualitatively like rotenone. Rolliniastatin-2 shows unique properties as its interaction, although mutually exclusive to that of piericidin, appears to be mutually non-exclusive to that of rotenone. It is the first time that a potent inhibitor of Complex I is found not to overlap the active site of rotenone. PMID:8037664

  11. Macrolactam analogues of macrolide natural products.

    PubMed

    Hügel, Helmut M; Smith, Andrew T; Rizzacasa, Mark A

    2016-12-07

    The chemical modification of macrolide natural products into aza- or lactam analogues is a strategy employed to improve their metabolic stability and biological activity. The methods for the synthesis of several lactam analogues of macrolide natural products are highlighted and aspects of their biological properties presented.

  12. Functional chromatographic technique for natural product isolation†

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Eric C.; Mason, Damian J.; Eichhorst, Nicole; Engelder, Pearce; Mesa, Celestina; Kithsiri Wijeratne, E. M.; Gunaherath, G. M. Kamal B.; Leslie Gunatilaka, A. A.

    2015-01-01

    Natural product discovery arises through a unique interplay between chromatographic purification and biological assays. Currently, most techniques used for natural product purification deliver leads without a defined biological action. We now describe a technique, referred to herein as functional chromatography, that deploys biological affinity as the matrix for compound isolation. PMID:25588099

  13. Natural products against cancer angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Khalid, El Bairi; Ayman, El-Meghawry El-Kenawy; Rahman, Heshu; Abdelkarim, Guaadaoui; Najda, Agnieszka

    2016-11-01

    The process of angiogenesis is quite well-known nowadays. Some medicines and extracts affecting this process are already used routinely in supporting the conventional treatment of many diseases that are considered angiogenic such as cancer. However, we must be aware that the area of currently used drugs of this type is much narrower than the theoretical possibilities existing in therapeutic angiogenesis. Plant substances are a large and diverse group of compounds that are found naturally in fruits, vegetables, spices, and medicinal plants. They also have different anticancer properties. The aim of this literature review article is to present the current state of knowledge concerning the molecular targets of tumor angiogenesis and the active substances (polyphenols, alkaloids, phytohormones, carbohydrates, and terpenes) derived from natural sources, whose activity against cancer angiogenesis has been confirmed.

  14. Stereoselective Halogenation in Natural Product Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Chung, Won-jin; Vanderwal, Christopher D

    2016-03-24

    At last count, nearly 5000 halogenated natural products have been discovered. In approximately half of these compounds, the carbon atom to which the halogen is bound is sp(3) -hybridized; therefore, there are an enormous number of natural products for which stereocontrolled halogenation must be a critical component of any synthesis strategy. In this Review, we critically discuss the methods and strategies used for stereoselective introduction of halogen atoms in the context of natural product synthesis. Using the successes of the past, we also attempt to identify gaps in our synthesis technology that would aid the synthesis of halogenated natural products, as well as existing methods that have not yet seen application in complex molecule synthesis. The chemistry described herein demonstrates yet again how natural products continue to provide the inspiration for critical advances in chemical synthesis.

  15. Synthesis of natural product inspired compound collections.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Kamal; Waldmann, Herbert

    2009-01-01

    Natural products, their derivatives, and their analogues are among the most important sources for new drug candidates and tools for chemical biology and medicinal chemistry research. Therefore, there is a need for the development of efficient synthesis methods which give access to natural product derived and inspired compound collections. To meet this challenge, the requirements of multistep stereoselective syntheses, and the logic and methodology of natural product total synthesis need to be translated and adapted to the methods and formats for the synthesis of compound collections. Recent developments in the synthesis of natural product inspired compound collections having carbocyclic and heterocyclic scaffolds highlight the fact that this goal can be successfully attained. The progress made has paved the way for the integration of natural product inspired compound collections into medicinal chemistry and chemical biology research.

  16. Bioactive natural products from novel microbial sources.

    PubMed

    Challinor, Victoria L; Bode, Helge B

    2015-09-01

    Despite the importance of microbial natural products for human health, only a few bacterial genera have been mined for the new natural products needed to overcome the urgent threat of antibiotic resistance. This is surprising, given that genome sequencing projects have revealed that the capability to produce natural products is not a rare feature among bacteria. Even the bacteria occurring in the human microbiome produce potent antibiotics, and thus potentially are an untapped resource for novel compounds, potentially with new activities. This review highlights examples of bacteria that should be considered new sources of natural products, including anaerobes, pathogens, and symbionts of humans, insects, and nematodes. Exploitation of these producer strains, combined with advances in modern natural product research methodology, has the potential to open the way for a new golden age of microbial therapeutics.

  17. Natural products: Hunting microbial metabolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Eric W.

    2015-05-01

    Symbiotic bacteria synthesize many specialized small molecules; however, establishing the role these chemicals play in human health and disease has been difficult. Now, the chemical structure and mechanism of the Escherichia coli product colibactin provides insight into the link between this secondary metabolite and colorectal cancer.

  18. Podoverine A--a novel microtubule destabilizing natural product from the Podophyllum species.

    PubMed

    Tran, Tuyen Thi Ngoc; Gerding-Reimers, Claas; Schölermann, Beate; Stanitzki, Bettina; Henkel, Thomas; Waldmann, Herbert; Ziegler, Slava

    2014-09-15

    Natural products represent compound classes with high chemical and structural diversity and various biological activities. Libraries based on natural products are valuable starting point in the search for novel biologically active substances. Here we report on the identification of the natural product podoverine A from the plant Podophyllum versipelle Hance as a novel tubulin-acting agent. A natural product compound collection was subjected to a high-content screen that monitors changes in cytoskeleton and DNA and podoverine A was identified as inhibitor of mitosis. This natural product causes mitotic arrest and inhibits microtubule polymerization in vitro and in cells by targeting the vinca binding site on tubulin.

  19. Discovery of Novel Antiangiogenic Marine Natural Product Scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahim, Hassan Y.; El Sayed, Khalid A.

    2016-01-01

    Marine natural products (MNPs) are recognized for their structural complexity, diversity, and novelty. The vast majority of MNPs are pharmacologically relevant through their ability to modulate macromolecular targets underlying human diseases. Angiogenesis is a fundamental process in cancer progression and metastasis. Targeting angiogenesis through selective modulation of linked protein kinases is a valid strategy to discover novel effective tumor growth and metastasis inhibitors. An in-house marine natural products mini-library, which comprises diverse MNP entities, was submitted to the Lilly’s Open Innovation Drug Discovery platform. Accepted structures were subjected to in vitro screening to discover mechanistically novel angiogenesis inhibitors. Active hits were subjected to additional angiogenesis-targeted kinase profiling. Some natural and semisynthetic MNPs, including multiple members of the macrolide latrunculins, the macrocyclic oxaquinolizidine alkaloid araguspongine C, and the sesquiterpene quinone puupehenone, showed promising results in primary and secondary angiogenesis screening modules. These hits inhibited vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-mediated endothelial tube-like formation, with minimal cytotoxicity at relevant doses. Secondary kinase profiling identified six target protein kinases, all involved in angiogenesis signaling pathways. Molecular modeling and docking experiments aided the understanding of molecular binding interactions, identification of pharmacophoric epitopes, and deriving structure-activity relationships of active hits. Marine natural products are prolific resources for the discovery of chemically and mechanistically unique selective antiangiogenic scaffolds. PMID:26978377

  20. Discovery of Novel Antiangiogenic Marine Natural Product Scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Ebrahim, Hassan Y; El Sayed, Khalid A

    2016-03-11

    Marine natural products (MNPs) are recognized for their structural complexity, diversity, and novelty. The vast majority of MNPs are pharmacologically relevant through their ability to modulate macromolecular targets underlying human diseases. Angiogenesis is a fundamental process in cancer progression and metastasis. Targeting angiogenesis through selective modulation of linked protein kinases is a valid strategy to discover novel effective tumor growth and metastasis inhibitors. An in-house marine natural products mini-library, which comprises diverse MNP entities, was submitted to the Lilly's Open Innovation Drug Discovery platform. Accepted structures were subjected to in vitro screening to discover mechanistically novel angiogenesis inhibitors. Active hits were subjected to additional angiogenesis-targeted kinase profiling. Some natural and semisynthetic MNPs, including multiple members of the macrolide latrunculins, the macrocyclic oxaquinolizidine alkaloid araguspongine C, and the sesquiterpene quinone puupehenone, showed promising results in primary and secondary angiogenesis screening modules. These hits inhibited vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-mediated endothelial tube-like formation, with minimal cytotoxicity at relevant doses. Secondary kinase profiling identified six target protein kinases, all involved in angiogenesis signaling pathways. Molecular modeling and docking experiments aided the understanding of molecular binding interactions, identification of pharmacophoric epitopes, and deriving structure-activity relationships of active hits. Marine natural products are prolific resources for the discovery of chemically and mechanistically unique selective antiangiogenic scaffolds.

  1. Natural products as sources of new lead compounds for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ling; Su, Tao; Li, Xingshu

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent form of dementia and affects approximately 24 million people worldwide. One possible approach for the treatment of this disease is the restoration of the level of acetylcholine (ACh) through the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) with reversible inhibitors. Naturally occurring alkaloids are an important source of AChE inhibitors. Galantamine and huperzine A have been used for the clinical treatment of AD patients. In this review, we summarise the natural products and their derivatives that were reported to act as AChE inhibitors for the treatment of AD in 2010-2013. Several characteristics were summarised from the literature results: 1) Amongst all of the natural products with AChE inhibitory activity, alkaloids appear to be the most promising compound class. 2) Coumarins, flavonoids, stilbenes, and other natural products are also important AChE inhibitors from natural products. Among these inhibitors, 146 (IC50 = 0.573 µM) was identified as the most potent AChE inhibitor. 3) A coumarin derivative (117, IC50 = 0.11 nM) exhibited more than 100-fold superior activity compared with the reference drug donepezil hydrochloride (IC50 = 14 nM). In conclusion, natural products and their derivatives are promising leads for the development of new drugs for the future treatment of AD.

  2. Targeting nuclear receptors with marine natural products.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chunyan; Li, Qianrong; Li, Yong

    2014-01-27

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) are important pharmaceutical targets because they are key regulators of many metabolic and inflammatory diseases, including diabetes, dyslipidemia, cirrhosis, and fibrosis. As ligands play a pivotal role in modulating nuclear receptor activity, the discovery of novel ligands for nuclear receptors represents an interesting and promising therapeutic approach. The search for novel NR agonists and antagonists with enhanced selectivities prompted the exploration of the extraordinary chemical diversity associated with natural products. Recent studies involving nuclear receptors have disclosed a number of natural products as nuclear receptor ligands, serving to re-emphasize the translational possibilities of natural products in drug discovery. In this review, the natural ligands of nuclear receptors will be described with an emphasis on their mechanisms of action and their therapeutic potentials, as well as on strategies to determine potential marine natural products as nuclear receptor modulators.

  3. Targeting Nuclear Receptors with Marine Natural Products

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chunyan; Li, Qianrong; Li, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) are important pharmaceutical targets because they are key regulators of many metabolic and inflammatory diseases, including diabetes, dyslipidemia, cirrhosis, and fibrosis. As ligands play a pivotal role in modulating nuclear receptor activity, the discovery of novel ligands for nuclear receptors represents an interesting and promising therapeutic approach. The search for novel NR agonists and antagonists with enhanced selectivities prompted the exploration of the extraordinary chemical diversity associated with natural products. Recent studies involving nuclear receptors have disclosed a number of natural products as nuclear receptor ligands, serving to re-emphasize the translational possibilities of natural products in drug discovery. In this review, the natural ligands of nuclear receptors will be described with an emphasis on their mechanisms of action and their therapeutic potentials, as well as on strategies to determine potential marine natural products as nuclear receptor modulators. PMID:24473166

  4. Electrophilic natural products and their biological targets.

    PubMed

    Gersch, Malte; Kreuzer, Johannes; Sieber, Stephan A

    2012-06-01

    The study of biologically active natural products has resulted in seminal contributions to our understanding of living systems. In the case of electrophilic natural products, the covalent nature of their interaction has largely facilitated the identification of their biological binding partners. In this review, we provide a comprehensive compilation of electrophilic natural products from all major chemical classes together with their biological targets. Covering Michael acceptor systems, ring-strained compounds and other electrophiles, such as esters or carbamates, we highlight representative and instructive examples for over 20 electrophilic moieties. The fruitful cooperation of natural product chemistry, medicinal chemistry and chemical biology has produced a collection of well-studied examples for how electrophilic natural products exert their biological functions that range from antibiotic to antitumor effects. Special emphasis is put on the elucidation of their respective biological targets via activity-based protein profiling, which together with the recent advancements in mass spectrometry has been crucial to the success of the field. The wealth of naturally occurring electrophilic moieties and their chemical complexity enables binding of a large variety of biological targets, such as enzymes of all classes, nonenzymatic proteins, DNA and other cellular compounds. With approximately 30,000 genes in the human genome but only 266 confirmed protein drug targets, the study of biologically active, electrophilic natural products has the potential to provide insights into fundamental biological processes and to greatly aid the discovery of new drug targets.

  5. Natural gas production verification tests

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared by the Department of Energy (DOE) in compliance with the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969. The Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to fund, through a contract with Petroleum Consulting Services, Inc. of Canton, Ohio, the testing of the effectiveness of a non-water based hydraulic fracturing treatment to increase gas recovery from low-pressure, tight, fractured Devonian Shale formations. Although Devonian Shales are found in the Appalachian, Michigan, and Illinois Basins, testing will be done only in the dominant, historical five state area of established production. The objective of this proposed project is to assess the benefits of liquid carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2})/sand stimulations in the Devonian Shale. In addition, this project would evaluate the potential nondamaging (to the formation) properties of this unique fracturing treatment relative to the clogging or chocking of pores and fractures that act as gas flow paths to the wellbore in the target gas-producing zones of the formation. This liquid CO{sub 2}/sand fracturing process is water-free and is expected to facilitate gas well cleanup, reduce the time required for post-stimulation cleanup, and result in improved production levels in a much shorter time than is currently experienced.

  6. Production of plant virus inhibitor by Phytolacca americana suspension culture.

    PubMed

    Misawa, M; Hayashi, M; Tanaka, H

    1975-09-01

    The inhibitory activity of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) infection was assayed with the extracts of various callus tissues derived from the intact plants. Phytolacca americana callus was selected as a producer of the virus inhibitor and its cultural conditions in suspension were examined for cell growth and the inhibitor production. A modified liquid medium containing twofold concentrations of all components in that of Murashige and Skoog plus2,4-D (1.0 mg/liter) and sucrose (6%), but without any vitamins and glycine was chosen for production of higher levels of the inhibitor. TMV infections in tobacco, bean, and tomato plants were markedly inhibited by the introduction of the disrupted whole broth of suspension cultured P. americana.

  7. Identification of Novel Human Dipeptidyl Peptidase-IV Inhibitors of Natural Origin (Part II): In Silico Prediction in Antidiabetic Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Guasch, Laura; Sala, Esther; Ojeda, María José; Valls, Cristina; Bladé, Cinta; Mulero, Miquel; Blay, Mayte; Ardévol, Anna; Garcia-Vallvé, Santiago; Pujadas, Gerard

    2012-01-01

    Background Natural extracts play an important role in traditional medicines for the treatment of diabetes mellitus and are also an essential resource for new drug discovery. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inhibitors are potential candidates for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, and the effectiveness of certain antidiabetic extracts of natural origin could be, at least partially, explained by the inhibition of DPP-IV. Methodology/Principal Findings Using an initial set of 29,779 natural products that are annotated with their natural source and an experimentally validated virtual screening procedure previously developed in our lab (Guasch et al.; 2012) [1], we have predicted 12 potential DPP-IV inhibitors from 12 different plant extracts that are known to have antidiabetic activity. Seven of these molecules are identical or similar to molecules with described antidiabetic activity (although their role as DPP-IV inhibitors has not been suggested as an explanation for their bioactivity). Therefore, it is plausible that these 12 molecules could be responsible, at least in part, for the antidiabetic activity of these extracts through their inhibitory effect on DPP-IV. In addition, we also identified as potential DPP-IV inhibitors 6 molecules from 6 different plants with no described antidiabetic activity but that share the same genus as plants with known antidiabetic properties. Moreover, none of the 18 molecules that we predicted as DPP-IV inhibitors exhibits chemical similarity with a group of 2,342 known DPP-IV inhibitors. Conclusions/Significance Our study identified 18 potential DPP-IV inhibitors in 18 different plant extracts (12 of these plants have known antidiabetic properties, whereas, for the remaining 6, antidiabetic activity has been reported for other plant species from the same genus). Moreover, none of the 18 molecules exhibits chemical similarity with a large group of known DPP-IV inhibitors. PMID:23028712

  8. New Synthetic Methods for Hypericum Natural Products

    SciTech Connect

    Jeon, Insik

    2006-01-01

    Organic chemistry has served as a solid foundation for interdisciplinary research areas, such as molecular biology and medicinal chemistry. An understanding of the biological activities and structural elucidations of natural products can lead to the development of clinically valuable therapeutic options. The advancements of modern synthetic methodologies allow for more elaborate and concise natural product syntheses. The theme of this study centers on the synthesis of natural products with particularly challenging structures and interesting biological activities. The synthetic expertise developed here will be applicable to analog syntheses and to other research problems.

  9. Biodegradation potential of a modified natural product

    SciTech Connect

    Sajjad, W.

    1996-12-31

    Biodegradation potential of a modified natural product for treating petroleum contaminated soils was investigated along with some commercially available microbial cultures in three different scales from a laboratory to pilot to case studies. The modified natural product is lignocellulosic in nature and proprietary product of a company in Iowa. The production process of this product involves mechanical size reduction, blending/coating, and aerobic digestion of hay, corn cob residue, straw or crop residue in presence of poultry manure. The degradation kinetics of the petroleum products in the contaminated soils were measured both directly and indirectly. Residual petroleum products in different soils (treated and untreated) at various time periods were quantified by gas chromatographic (GC) analysis on extracted samples. The indirect assessment of the kinetics of biological activity involved the measurement of CO{sub 2} evolved from flasks (250 ml capacity) containing contaminated soil (about 50 ml) with various treatments. The results indicated that the biodegradation kinetics of petroleum products in the contaminated soils were significantly improved by treatment with this modified natural product. In most cases tested, this product performed significantly better than the available commercial bacterial cultures for biological removal of petroleum products from contaminated soils. This study also demonstrated the significance of temperature and moisture content in biodegradation kinetics.

  10. Capillary electrophoresis of natural products: 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Tubaon, Ria Marni S; Rabanes, Heide; Haddad, Paul R; Quirino, Joselito P

    2014-01-01

    Bioactive natural products are major sources of lead compounds for drug discovery and pharmaceutical development, therefore, innovative and current separation and characterization techniques are important for these compounds. Here, CE methods applied for the analysis of natural products published during 2011-2012 are reviewed. This is an updated version of an earlier review paper in this journal, which highlighted developments during 2006-2010. The major method developments over the review period centered on derivatization, chiral analysis, modes of detection, stacking or on-line sample concentration, and sample preparation (predominantly using extraction methods). The samples analyzed were herbal products, foods, soil, and biological samples. Developments also occurred in the areas of quality control, toxicology assessment, and enzyme-inhibitor screening. A table that summarizes the areas, source of natural product, nature of the bioactive analyte, CE conditions, LODs, and corresponding reference is provided. A short description on the theory of CE and insights on future activities of CE on natural products are also presented. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Search for β-Secretase Inhibitors from Natural Spices.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Shinichi; Murata, Kazuya; Yoshioka, Yuri; Matsuda, Hideaki

    2016-04-01

    The growing number of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients prompted us to seek effective natural resources for the prevention of AD. We focused on the inhibition of β-secretase, which is known to catalyze the production of senile plaque. Sixteen spices used in Asian countries were selected for the screening. Among the extracts tested, hexane extracts obtained from turmeric, cardamom, long pepper, cinnamon, Sichuan pepper, betel, white turmeric and aromatic ginger showed potent inhibitory activities. Their active principles were identified as sesquiterpenoids, monoterpenoids, fatty acid derivatives and phenylpropanoids using GC-MS analyses. The chemical structures and IC50 values of the compounds are disclosed. The results suggest that long-term consumption'of aromatic compounds from spices could be effective in the prevention of AD.

  12. Marine actinomycete diversity and natural product discovery.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Paul R; Mincer, Tracy J; Williams, Philip G; Fenical, William

    2005-01-01

    Microbial natural products remain an important resource for drug discovery yet the microorganisms inhabiting the world's oceans have largely been overlooked in this regard. The recent discovery of novel secondary metabolites from taxonomically unique populations of marine actinomycetes suggests that these bacteria add an important new dimension to microbial natural product research. Continued efforts to characterize marine actinomycete diversity and how adaptations to the marine environment affect secondary metabolite production will create a better understanding of the potential utility of these bacteria as a source of useful products for biotechnology.

  13. Cancer wars: natural products strike back

    PubMed Central

    Basmadjian, Christine; Zhao, Qian; Bentouhami, Embarek; Djehal, Amel; Nebigil, Canan G.; Johnson, Roger A.; Serova, Maria; de Gramont, Armand; Faivre, Sandrine; Raymond, Eric; Désaubry, Laurent G.

    2014-01-01

    Natural products have historically been a mainstay source of anticancer drugs, but in the 90's they fell out of favor in pharmaceutical companies with the emergence of targeted therapies, which rely on antibodies or small synthetic molecules identified by high throughput screening. Although targeted therapies greatly improved the treatment of a few cancers, the benefit has remained disappointing for many solid tumors, which revitalized the interest in natural products. With the approval of rapamycin in 2007, 12 novel natural product derivatives have been brought to market. The present review describes the discovery and development of these new anticancer drugs and highlights the peculiarities of natural product and new trends in this exciting field of drug discovery. PMID:24822174

  14. Cancer wars: Natural products strike back

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basmadjian, Christine; Zhao, Qian; Djehal, Amel; Bentouhami, Embarek; Nebigil, Canan; Johnson, Roger; Serova, Maria; De Gramont, Armand; Faivre, Sandrine; Raymond, Eric; Désaubry, Laurent

    2014-05-01

    Natural products have historically been a mainstay source of anticancer drugs, but in the 90’s they fell out of favor in pharmaceutical companies with the emergence of targeted therapies, which rely on antibodies or small synthetic molecules identified by high throughput screening. Although targeted therapies greatly improved the treatment of a few cancers, the benefit has remained disappointing for many sol¬¬id tumors, which revitalized the interest in natural products. With the approval of rapamycin in 2007, twelve novel natural product derivatives have been brought to market. The present review describes the discovery and development of these new anticancer drugs and highlights the peculiarities of natural product and new trends in this exciting field of drug discovery.

  15. Biosynthesis of terpenoid natural products in fungi.

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Dannert, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Tens of thousands of terpenoid natural products have been isolated from plants and microbial sources. Higher fungi (Ascomycota and Basidiomycota) are known to produce an array of well-known terpenoid natural products, including mycotoxins, antibiotics, antitumor compounds, and phytohormones. Except for a few well-studied fungal biosynthetic pathways, the majority of genes and biosynthetic pathways responsible for the biosynthesis of a small number of these secondary metabolites have only been discovered and characterized in the past 5-10 years. This chapter provides a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge on fungal terpenoid biosynthesis from biochemical, genetic, and genomic viewpoints. Enzymes involved in synthesizing, transferring, and cyclizing the prenyl chains that form the hydrocarbon scaffolds of fungal terpenoid natural products are systematically discussed. Genomic information and functional evidence suggest differences between the terpenome of the two major fungal phyla--the Ascomycota and Basidiomycota--which will be illustrated for each group of terpenoid natural products.

  16. Sources for Leads: Natural Products and Libraries.

    PubMed

    van Herwerden, Eric F; Süssmuth, Roderich D

    2016-01-01

    Natural products have traditionally been a major source of leads in the drug discovery process. However, the development of high-throughput screening led to an increased interest in synthetic methods that enabled the rapid construction of large libraries of molecules. This resulted in the termination or downscaling of many natural product research programs, but the chemical libraries did not necessarily produce a larger amount of drug leads. On one hand, this chapter explores the current state of natural product research within the drug discovery process. On the other hand it evaluates the efforts made to increase the amount of leads generated from chemical libraries and considers what role natural products could play here.

  17. Total synthesis of alkyl citrate natural products.

    PubMed

    Rizzacasa, Mark A; Sturgess, Dayna

    2014-03-07

    This review highlights the synthesis of members of the alkyl citrate family of natural products. The focus is on the stereoselective construction of the alkyl citrate moiety common to these compounds.

  18. Cancer wars: natural products strike back.

    PubMed

    Basmadjian, Christine; Zhao, Qian; Bentouhami, Embarek; Djehal, Amel; Nebigil, Canan G; Johnson, Roger A; Serova, Maria; de Gramont, Armand; Faivre, Sandrine; Raymond, Eric; Désaubry, Laurent G

    2014-01-01

    Natural products have historically been a mainstay source of anticancer drugs, but in the 90's they fell out of favor in pharmaceutical companies with the emergence of targeted therapies, which rely on antibodies or small synthetic molecules identified by high throughput screening. Although targeted therapies greatly improved the treatment of a few cancers, the benefit has remained disappointing for many solid tumors, which revitalized the interest in natural products. With the approval of rapamycin in 2007, 12 novel natural product derivatives have been brought to market. The present review describes the discovery and development of these new anticancer drugs and highlights the peculiarities of natural product and new trends in this exciting field of drug discovery.

  19. High impact technologies for natural products screening.

    PubMed

    Koehn, Frank E

    2008-01-01

    Natural products have historically been a rich source of lead molecules in drug discovery. However, natural products have been de-emphasized as high throughput screening resources in the recent past, in part because of difficulties in obtaining high quality natural products screening libraries, or in applying modern screening assays to these libraries. In addition, natural products programs based on screening of extract libraries, bioassay-guided isolation, structure elucidation and subsequent production scale-up are challenged to meet the rapid cycle times that are characteristic of the modern HTS approach. Fortunately, new technologies in mass spectrometry, NMR and other spectroscopic techniques can greatly facilitate the first components of the process - namely the efficient creation of high-quality natural products libraries, bimolecular target or cell-based screening, and early hit characterization. The success of any high throughput screening campaign is dependent on the quality of the chemical library. The construction and maintenance of a high quality natural products library, whether based on microbial, plant, marine or other sources is a costly endeavor. The library itself may be composed of samples that are themselves mixtures - such as crude extracts, semi-pure mixtures or single purified natural products. Each of these library designs carries with it distinctive advantages and disadvantages. Crude extract libraries have lower resource requirements for sample preparation, but high requirements for identification of the bioactive constituents. Pre-fractionated libraries can be an effective strategy to alleviate interferences encountered with crude libraries, and may shorten the time needed to identify the active principle. Purified natural product libraries require substantial resources for preparation, but offer the advantage that the hit detection process is reduced to that of synthetic single component libraries. Whether the natural products library

  20. Adulteration of purported herbal and natural sexual performance enhancement dietary supplements with synthetic phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Neil; Clark, John P; Stecher, Vera J; Thomas, John W; Callanan, Amy C; Donnelly, Brian F; Goldstein, Irwin; Kaminetsky, Jed C

    2013-07-01

    Many products labeled "herbal" or "all natural" (herbal/natural) that claim to enhance sexual performance and imply use for the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED) are marketed as over-the-counter (OTC) dietary supplements. However, adulteration with undeclared phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors appears widespread. To assess the availability, cost, origin, categorical content, and adulteration with PDE5 inhibitors of purported herbal/natural OTC dietary supplements claiming to naturally enhance sexual performance. Pfizer Global Security coordinated sample collection (all from convenience stores and filling stations in two U.S. metropolitan areas except for seven from U.S. Customs seizures) and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry examination. Adulteration with synthetic PDE5 inhibitors. Ninety-one samples labeled as 58 distinct products and priced from $2.99 to $17.99 were evaluated. Origin/manufacture was claimed as United States (n = 62), apparently Asian (n = 15), and not clearly identified (n = 14). Although no sample claimed to include synthetic substances, 74 (81%) contained PDE5-inhibitor pharmaceutical ingredients, including tadalafil and/or sildenafil (n = 40, of which 18 contained >110% of the highest approved drug product strength) or PDE5-inhibitor analogs (n = 34). Pronounced heterogeneity of contents between samples within individual products indicated minimal quality control during manufacture. Labeling was inadequate (e.g., lacking lot number and/or expiry date) for 17 products (23 samples) and inconsistent between samples within a given product (e.g., in manufacturer, lot number, and/or expiry date) for seven of 17 products having multiple samples. Only 14 samples warned against concomitant nitrate use. Ethical pharmaceutical companies are concerned for an unsuspecting public when their products are counterfeited, mislabeled, and illegally offered for sale in an unsafe manner. Because of the dangers of adulteration with synthetic PDE5

  1. Natural products from the genus tephrosia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yinning; Yan, Tao; Gao, Chenghai; Cao, Wenhao; Huang, Riming

    2014-01-27

    The genus Tephrosia, belonging to the Leguminosae family, is a large pantropical genus of more than 350 species, many of which have important traditional uses in agriculture. This review not only outlines the source, chemistry and biological evaluations of natural products from the genus Tephrosia worldwide that have appeared in literature from 1910 to December 2013, but also covers work related to proposed biosynthetic pathways and synthesis of some natural products from the genus Tephrosia, with 105 citations and 168 new compounds.

  2. Natural haemozoin induces expression and release of human monocyte tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1.

    PubMed

    Polimeni, Manuela; Valente, Elena; Ulliers, Daniela; Opdenakker, Ghislain; Van den Steen, Philippe E; Giribaldi, Giuliana; Prato, Mauro

    2013-01-01

    Recently matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and its endogenous inhibitor (tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1, TIMP-1) have been implicated in complicated malaria. In vivo, mice with cerebral malaria (CM) display high levels of both MMP-9 and TIMP-1, and in human patients TIMP-1 serum levels directly correlate with disease severity. In vitro, natural haemozoin (nHZ, malarial pigment) enhances monocyte MMP-9 expression and release. The present study analyses the effects of nHZ on TIMP-1 regulation in human adherent monocytes. nHZ induced TIMP-1 mRNA expression and protein release, and promoted TNF-α, IL-1β, and MIP-1α/CCL3 production. Blocking antibodies or recombinant cytokines abrogated or mimicked nHZ effects on TIMP-1, respectively. p38 MAPK and NF-κB inhibitors blocked all nHZ effects on TIMP-1 and pro-inflammatory molecules. Still, total gelatinolytic activity was enhanced by nHZ despite TIMP-1 induction. Collectively, these data indicate that nHZ induces inflammation-mediated expression and release of human monocyte TIMP-1 through p38 MAPK- and NF-κB-dependent mechanisms. However, TIMP-1 induction is not sufficient to counterbalance nHZ-dependent MMP-9 enhancement. Future investigation on proteinase-independent functions of TIMP-1 (i.e. cell survival promotion and growth/differentiation inhibition) is needed to clarify the role of TIMP-1 in malaria pathogenesis.

  3. High-throughput bioluminescence screening of ubiquitin-proteasome pathway inhibitors from chemical and natural sources.

    PubMed

    Ausseil, Frederic; Samson, Arnaud; Aussagues, Yannick; Vandenberghe, Isabelle; Creancier, Laurent; Pouny, Isabelle; Kruczynski, Anna; Massiot, Georges; Bailly, Christian

    2007-02-01

    To discover original inhibitors of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, the authors have developed a cell-based bioluminescent assay and used it to screen collections of plant extracts and chemical compounds. They first established a DLD-1 human colon cancer cell line that stably expresses a 4Ubiquitin-Luciferase (4Ub-Luc) reporter protein, efficiently targeted to the ubiquitin-proteasome degradation pathway. The assay was then adapted to 96- and 384-well plate formats and calibrated with reference proteasome inhibitors. Assay robustness was carefully assessed, particularly cell toxicity, and the statistical Z factor value was calculated to 0.83, demonstrating a good performance level of the assay. A total of 18,239 molecules and 15,744 plant extracts and fractions thereof were screened for their capacity to increase the luciferase activity in DLD-1 4Ub-Luc cells, and 21 molecules and 66 extracts inhibiting the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway were identified. The fractionation of an active methanol extract of Physalis angulata L. aerial parts was performed to isolate 2 secosteroids known as physalin B and C. In a cell-based Western blot assay, the ubiquitinated protein accumulation was confirmed after a physalin treatment confirming the accuracy of the screening process. The method reported here thus provides a robust approach to identify novel ubiquitin-proteasome pathway inhibitors in large collections of chemical compounds and natural products.

  4. Marine Natural Products as Models to Circumvent Multidrug Resistance.

    PubMed

    Long, Solida; Sousa, Emília; Kijjoa, Anake; Pinto, Madalena M M

    2016-07-08

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) to anticancer drugs is a serious health problem that in many cases leads to cancer treatment failure. The ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp), which leads to premature efflux of drugs from cancer cells, is often responsible for MDR. On the other hand, a strategy to search for modulators from natural products to overcome MDR had been in place during the last decades. However, Nature limits the amount of some natural products, which has led to the development of synthetic strategies to increase their availability. This review summarizes the research findings on marine natural products and derivatives, mainly alkaloids, polyoxygenated sterols, polyketides, terpenoids, diketopiperazines, and peptides, with P-gp inhibitory activity highlighting the established structure-activity relationships. The synthetic pathways for the total synthesis of the most promising members and analogs are also presented. It is expected that the data gathered during the last decades concerning their synthesis and MDR-inhibiting activities will help medicinal chemists develop potential drug candidates using marine natural products as models which can deliver new ABC transporter inhibitor scaffolds.

  5. Detection of enzyme inhibitors in crude natural extracts using droplet-based microfluidics coupled to HPLC.

    PubMed

    Ochoa, Abraham; Álvarez-Bohórquez, Enrique; Castillero, Eduardo; Olguin, Luis F

    2017-04-04

    Natural product screening for new bioactive compounds can greatly benefit from low reagents consumption and high throughput capacity of droplet-based microfluidic systems. However, the creation of large droplet libraries in which each droplet carries a different compound is a challenging task. A possible solution is to use an HPLC coupled to a droplet generating microfluidic device to sequentially encapsulate the eluting compounds. In this work we demonstrate the feasibility of carrying out enzyme inhibiting assays inside nano-liter droplets with the different components of a natural crude extract after being separated by a coupled HPLC column. In the droplet formation zone, the eluted components are mixed with an enzyme and a fluorogenic substrate that permits to follow the enzymatic reaction in the presence of each chromatographic peak and identify those inhibiting the enzyme activity. Using a fractal shape channel design and automated image analysis we were able to identify inhibitors of Clostridium perfringens neuraminidase present in a root extract of the Pelargonium sidoides plant. This work demonstrates the feasibility of bioprofiling a natural crude extract after being separated in HPLC using microfluidic droplets on-line and represents an advance in the miniaturization of natural products screening.

  6. How EIA Estimates Natural Gas Production

    EIA Publications

    2004-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) publishes estimates monthly and annually of the production of natural gas in the United States. The estimates are based on data EIA collects from gas producing states and data collected by the U. S. Minerals Management Service (MMS) in the Department of Interior. The states and MMS collect this information from producers of natural gas for various reasons, most often for revenue purposes. Because the information is not sufficiently complete or timely for inclusion in EIA's Natural Gas Monthly (NGM), EIA has developed estimation methodologies to generate monthly production estimates that are described in this document.

  7. Discovery and Rational Design of Natural-Product-Derived 2-Phenyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-benzo[f]chromen-3-amine Analogs as Novel and Potent Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4 (DPP-4) Inhibitors for the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Li, Shiliang; Xu, Hongling; Cui, Shichao; Wu, Fangshu; Zhang, Youli; Su, Mingbo; Gong, Yinghui; Qiu, Shaobing; Jiao, Qian; Qin, Chun; Shan, Jiwei; Zhang, Ming; Wang, Jiawei; Yin, Qiao; Xu, Minghao; Liu, Xiaofeng; Wang, Rui; Zhu, Lili; Li, Jia; Xu, Yufang; Jiang, Hualiang; Zhao, Zhenjiang; Li, Jingya; Li, Honglin

    2016-07-28

    Starting from the lead isodaphnetin, a natural product inhibitor of DPP-4 discovered through a target fishing docking based approach, a series of novel 2-phenyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-benzo[f]chromen-3-amine derivatives as potent DPP-4 inhibitors are rationally designed utilizing highly efficient 3D molecular similarity based scaffold hopping as well as electrostatic complementary methods. Those ingenious drug design strategies bring us approximate 7400-fold boost in potency. Compounds 22a and 24a are the most potent ones (IC50 ≈ 2.0 nM) with good pharmacokinetic profiles. Compound 22a demonstrated stable pharmacological effect. A 3 mg/kg oral dose provided >80% inhibition of DPP-4 activity within 24 h, which is comparable to the performance of the long-acting control omarigliptin. Moreover, the efficacy of 22a in improving the glucose tolerance is also comparable with omarigliptin. In this study, not only promising DPP-4 inhibitors as long acting antidiabetic that are clinically on demand are identified, but the target fish docking and medicinal chemistry strategies were successfully implemented.

  8. From a natural product lead to the identification of potent and selective benzofuran-3-yl-(indol-3-yl)maleimides as glycogen synthase kinase 3beta inhibitors that suppress proliferation and survival of pancreatic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Gaisina, Irina N; Gallier, Franck; Ougolkov, Andrei V; Kim, Ki H; Kurome, Toru; Guo, Songpo; Holzle, Denise; Luchini, Doris N; Blond, Sylvie Y; Billadeau, Daniel D; Kozikowski, Alan P

    2009-04-09

    Recent studies have demonstrated that glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK-3beta) is overexpressed in human colon and pancreatic carcinomas, contributing to cancer cell proliferation and survival. Here, we report the design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of benzofuran-3-yl-(indol-3-yl)maleimides, potent GSK-3beta inhibitors. Some of these compounds show picomolar inhibitory activity toward GSK-3beta and an enhanced selectivity against cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK-2). Selected GSK-3beta inhibitors were tested in the pancreatic cancer cell lines MiaPaCa-2, BXPC-3, and HupT3. We determined that some of these compounds, namely compounds 5, 6, 11, 20, and 26, demonstrate antiproliferative activity against some or all of the pancreatic cancer cells at low micromolar to nanomolar concentrations. We found that the treatment of pancreatic cancer cells with GSK-3beta inhibitors 5 and 26 resulted in suppression of GSK-3beta activity and a distinct decrease of the X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) expression, leading to significant apoptosis. The present data suggest a possible role for GSK-3beta inhibitors in cancer therapy, in addition to their more prominent applications in CNS disorders.

  9. Naturally occurring products in cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Rajesh, E.; Sankari, Leena S.; Malathi, L.; Krupaa, Jayasri R.

    2015-01-01

    Natural products have been used for the treatment of various diseases and are becoming an important research area for drug discovery. These products, especially phytochemicals have been extensively studies and have exhibited anti-carcinogenic activities by interfering with the initiation, development and progression of cancer through the modulation of various mechanisms including cellular proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and metastasis. This concept is gaining attention because it is a cost-effective alternative to cancer treatment. In this article, we have discussed some of the naturally occurring products used in cancer treatment. PMID:26015704

  10. Natural product discovery: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Katz, Leonard; Baltz, Richard H

    2016-03-01

    Microorganisms have provided abundant sources of natural products which have been developed as commercial products for human medicine, animal health, and plant crop protection. In the early years of natural product discovery from microorganisms (The Golden Age), new antibiotics were found with relative ease from low-throughput fermentation and whole cell screening methods. Later, molecular genetic and medicinal chemistry approaches were applied to modify and improve the activities of important chemical scaffolds, and more sophisticated screening methods were directed at target disease states. In the 1990s, the pharmaceutical industry moved to high-throughput screening of synthetic chemical libraries against many potential therapeutic targets, including new targets identified from the human genome sequencing project, largely to the exclusion of natural products, and discovery rates dropped dramatically. Nonetheless, natural products continued to provide key scaffolds for drug development. In the current millennium, it was discovered from genome sequencing that microbes with large genomes have the capacity to produce about ten times as many secondary metabolites as was previously recognized. Indeed, the most gifted actinomycetes have the capacity to produce around 30-50 secondary metabolites. With the precipitous drop in cost for genome sequencing, it is now feasible to sequence thousands of actinomycete genomes to identify the "biosynthetic dark matter" as sources for the discovery of new and novel secondary metabolites. Advances in bioinformatics, mass spectrometry, proteomics, transcriptomics, metabolomics and gene expression are driving the new field of microbial genome mining for applications in natural product discovery and development.

  11. SF2312 is a natural phosphonate inhibitor of Enolase

    PubMed Central

    Maxwell, David; Lin, Yu-Hsi; Hammoudi, Naima; Peng, Zhenghong; Pisaneschi, Federica; Link, Todd M.; Lee, Gilbert R.; Sun, Duoli; Prasad, Basvoju A. Bhanu; Di Francesco, Maria Emilia; Czako, Barbara; Asara, John M.; Wang, Y. Alan; Bornmann, William; DePinho, Ronald A.; Muller, Florian L.

    2016-01-01

    Despite being critical for energy generation in most forms of life, few if any microbial antibiotics specifically inhibit glycolysis. To develop a specific inhibitor of the glycolytic enzyme Enolase 2 for the treatment of cancers with deletion of Enolase 1, we modeled the synthetic tool compound inhibitor, Phosphonoacetohydroxamate (PhAH) into the active site of human ENO2. A ring-stabilized analogue of PhAH, with the hydroxamic nitrogen linked to the alpha-carbon by an ethylene bridge, was predicted to increase binding affinity by stabilizing the inhibitor in a bound conformation. Unexpectedly, a structure based search revealed that our hypothesized back-bone-stabilized PhAH bears strong similarity to SF2312, a phosphonate antibiotic of unknown mode of action produced by the actinomycete Micromonospora, which is active under anaerobic conditions. Here, we present multiple lines of evidence, including a novel X-ray structure, that SF2312 is a highly potent, low nM inhibitor of Enolase. PMID:27723749

  12. Using Genomics for Natural Product Structure Elucidation.

    PubMed

    Tietz, Jonathan I; Mitchell, Douglas A

    2016-01-01

    Natural products (NPs) are the most historically bountiful source of chemical matter for drug development-especially for anti-infectives. With insights gleaned from genome mining, interest in natural product discovery has been reinvigorated. An essential stage in NP discovery is structural elucidation, which sheds light not only on the chemical composition of a molecule but also its novelty, properties, and derivatization potential. The history of structure elucidation is replete with techniquebased revolutions: combustion analysis, crystallography, UV, IR, MS, and NMR have each provided game-changing advances; the latest such advance is genomics. All natural products have a genetic basis, and the ability to obtain and interpret genomic information for structure elucidation is increasingly available at low cost to non-specialists. In this review, we describe the value of genomics as a structural elucidation technique, especially from the perspective of the natural product chemist approaching an unknown metabolite. Herein we first introduce the databases and programs of interest to the natural products chemist, with an emphasis on those currently most suited for general usability. We describe strategies for linking observed natural product-linked phenotypes to their corresponding gene clusters. We then discuss techniques for extracting structural information from genes, illustrated with numerous case examples. We also provide an analysis of the biases and limitations of the field with recommendations for future development. Our overview is not only aimed at biologically-oriented researchers already at ease with bioinformatic techniques, but also, in particular, at natural product, organic, and/or medicinal chemists not previously familiar with genomic techniques.

  13. Computational approaches to natural product discovery

    PubMed Central

    Medema, Marnix H.; Fischbach, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    From the earliest Streptomyces genome sequences, the promise of natural product genome mining has been captivating: genomics and bioinformatics would transform compound discovery from an ad hoc pursuit to a high-throughput endeavor. Until recently, however, genome mining has advanced natural product discovery only modestly. Here, we argue that the development of algorithms to mine the continuously increasing amounts of (meta)genomic data will enable the promise of genome mining to be realized. We review computational strategies that have been developed to identify biosynthetic gene clusters in genome sequences and predict the chemical structures of their products. We then discuss networking strategies that can systematize large volumes of genetic and chemical data, and connect genomic information to metabolomic and phenotypic data. Finally, we provide a vision of what natural product discovery might look like in the future, specifically considering long-standing questions in microbial ecology regarding the roles of metabolites in interspecies interactions. PMID:26284671

  14. Computational approaches to natural product discovery.

    PubMed

    Medema, Marnix H; Fischbach, Michael A

    2015-09-01

    Starting with the earliest Streptomyces genome sequences, the promise of natural product genome mining has been captivating: genomics and bioinformatics would transform compound discovery from an ad hoc pursuit to a high-throughput endeavor. Until recently, however, genome mining has advanced natural product discovery only modestly. Here, we argue that the development of algorithms to mine the continuously increasing amounts of (meta)genomic data will enable the promise of genome mining to be realized. We review computational strategies that have been developed to identify biosynthetic gene clusters in genome sequences and predict the chemical structures of their products. We then discuss networking strategies that can systematize large volumes of genetic and chemical data and connect genomic information to metabolomic and phenotypic data. Finally, we provide a vision of what natural product discovery might look like in the future, specifically considering longstanding questions in microbial ecology regarding the roles of metabolites in interspecies interactions.

  15. Rapid screening natural-origin lipase inhibitors from hypolipidemic decoctions by ultrafiltration combined with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Shun; Yu, Runru; Ai, Ni; Fan, Xiaohui

    2015-02-01

    Lipase inhibitors generate hypolipidemic effect that is helpful to control or treat some obesity diseases by inactivating catalytic activity of human pancreatic lipase, a key enzyme involved in triglyceride hydrolysis in vivo. Many traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formulae have been effectively used to treat obesity and other fat related diseases for centuries and modern biological experiments demonstrate therapeutic effect of these formulae can be linked to their lipid-lowering capability in blood. These observations suggest that these hypolipidemic decoctions (HDs) could be a promising resource of natural-origin lipase inhibitors. This work described a rapid approach for screening lipase inhibitors from four widely used HDs, including Wu-Ling-San (WLS), Ze-Xie decoction (ZX), Xiao-Xian-Xiong decoction (XXX) and Xiao-Chai-Hu decoction (XCH), by ultrafiltration combing with high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). Our results showed sixteen natural-origin lipase inhibitors were discovered and identified by high resolution and multistage mass spectrometry. Inhibitory activities of two compounds were confirmed by a functional assay of lipase, which validated the reliability of our approach. Molecular docking simulation was then performed to investigate potential mechanism of action for these compounds. Together we present an efficient method for rapid screening lipase inhibitors from complex natural products, which can be easily accommodated to other important enzymatic system with therapeutic values.

  16. Natural products as sources for new pesticides.

    PubMed

    Cantrell, Charles L; Dayan, Franck E; Duke, Stephen O

    2012-06-22

    Natural products as pesticides have been reviewed from several perspectives in the past, but no prior treatment has examined the impact of natural product and natural product-based pesticides on the U.S. market, as a function of new active ingredient registrations with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Thus, EPA registration details of new active ingredients for all conventional pesticide registrations and biopesticide registrations were compiled from the years 1997-2010. Conventional pesticide registrations and biopesticide registrations were examined both collectively and independently for all 277 new active ingredients (NAI) and subsequently categorized and sorted into four types: biological (B), natural product (NP), synthetic (S), and synthetic natural derived (SND). When examining conventional pesticides alone, the S category accounted for the majority of NAI registrations, with 78.0%, followed by SND with 14.7%, NP with 6.4%, and B with 0.9%. Biopesticides alone were dominated by NPs with 54.8%, followed by B with 44.6%, SND with 0.6%, and 0% for S. When examining conventional pesticides and biopesticides combined, NPs accounted for the majority of NAI registrations, with 35.7%, followed by S with 30.7%, B with 27.4%, and SND with 6.1%. Despite the common perception that natural products may not be the best sources for NAI as pesticides, when both conventional and biopesticides are examined collectively, and considering that NP, SND, and B all have origins from natural product research, it can be argued that their combined impact with the EPA from 1997 to 2010 accounted for 69.3% of all NAI registrations.

  17. Synthetic Biological Approaches to Natural Product Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Winter, Jaclyn M; Tang, Yi

    2012-01-01

    Small molecules produced in Nature continue to be an inspiration for the development of new therapeutic agents. These natural products possess exquisite chemical diversity, which gives rise to their wide range of biological activities. In their host organism, natural products are assembled and modified by dedicated biosynthetic pathways that Nature has meticulously developed. Often times, the complex structures or chemical modifications instated by these pathways are difficult to replicate using traditional synthetic methods. An alternative approach for creating or enhancing the structural variation of natural products is through combinatorial biosynthesis. By rationally reprogramming and manipulating the biosynthetic machinery responsible for their production, unnatural metabolites that were otherwise inaccessible can be obtained. Additionally, new chemical structures can be synthesized or derivatized by developing the enzymes that carry out these complicated chemical reactions into biocatalysts. In this review, we will discuss a variety of combinatorial biosynthetic strategies, their technical challenges, and highlight some recent (since 2007) examples of rationally designed unnatural metabolites, as well as platforms that have been established for the production and modification of clinically important pharmaceutical compounds. PMID:22221832

  18. High throughput Screening to Identify Natural Human Monoamine Oxidase B Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Mazzio, E; Deiab, S; Park, K; Soliman, KFA

    2012-01-01

    Age-related increase in monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) may contribute to CNS neurodegenerative diseases. Moreover, MAO-B inhibitors are used in the treatment of idiopathic Parkinson disease as preliminary monotherapy or adjunct therapy with L-dopa. To date, meager natural sources of MAO-B inhibitors have been identified, and the relative strength, potency and rank of many plants relative to standard drugs such as Selegiline (L-deprenyl, Eldepryl) are not known. In this work, we developed and utilized a high throughput enzyme microarray format to screen and evaluate 905 natural product extracts (0.025–.7 mg/ml) to inhibit human MAO-B derived from BTI-TN-5B1-4 cells infected with recombinant baculovirus. The protein sequence of purified enzyme was confirmed using 1D gel electrophoresis-matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight-tandem mass spectroscopy, and enzyme activity was confirmed by [1] substrate conversion (3-mM benzylamine) to H202 and [2] benzaldehyde. Of the 905 natural extracts tested, the lowest IC50s [<0.07 mg/ml] were obtained with extracts of Amur Corktree (Phellodendron amurense), Bakuchi Seed(Cyamopsis psoralioides), Licorice Root (Glycyrrhiza glabra/uralensis), Babchi (Psoralea corylifolia seed). The data also show, albeit to a lesser extent, inhibitory properties of herbs originating from the mint family (Lamiaceae) and Turmeric, Comfrey, Bringraj, Skullcap, Kava-kava, Wild Indigo, Gentian and Green Tea. In conclusion, the data reflect relative potency information by rank of commonly used herbs and plants that contain human MAO-B inhibitory properties in their natural form. PMID:22887993

  19. Discovery of Potent 17β-Hydroxywithanolides for Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer by High-Throughput Screening of a Natural Products Library for Androgen-Induced Gene Expression Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ya-Ming; Liu, Manping X; Grunow, Nathan; Wijeratne, E M Kithsiri; Paine-Murrieta, Gillian; Felder, Stephen; Kris, Richard M; Gunatilaka, A A Leslie

    2015-09-10

    Prostate cancer (PC) is the second most prevalent cancer among men in Western societies, and those who develop metastatic castration-resistant PC (CRPC) invariably succumb to the disease. The need for effective treatments for CRPC is a pressing concern, especially due to limited durable responses with currently employed therapies. Here, we demonstrate the successful application of a high-throughput gene-expression profiling assay directly targeting genes of the androgen receptor pathway to screen a natural products library leading to the identification of 17β-hydroxywithanolides 1-5, of which physachenolide D (5) exhibited potent and selective in vitro activity against two PC cell lines, LNCaP and PC-3. Epoxidation of 5 afforded physachenolide C (6) with higher potency and stability. Structure-activity relationships for withanolides as potential anti-PC agents are presented together with in vivo efficacy studies on compound 6, suggesting that 17β-hydroxywithanolides are promising candidates for further development as CRPC therapeutics.

  20. Metalloproteinases and their natural inhibitors in inflammation and immunity.

    PubMed

    Khokha, Rama; Murthy, Aditya; Weiss, Ashley

    2013-09-01

    Over the past 50 years, steady growth in the field of metalloproteinase biology has shown that the degradation of extracellular matrix components represents only a fraction of the functions performed by these enzymes and has highlighted their fundamental roles in immunity. Metalloproteinases regulate aspects of immune cell development, effector function, migration and ligand-receptor interactions. They carry out ectodomain shedding of cytokines and their cognate receptors. Together with their endogenous inhibitors TIMPs (tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases), these enzymes regulate signalling downstream of the tumour necrosis factor receptor and the interleukin-6 receptor, as well as that downstream of the epidermal growth factor receptor and Notch, which are all pertinent for inflammatory responses. This Review discusses the metalloproteinase family as a crucial component in immune cell development and function.

  1. Naturally occurring polyphenolic inhibitors of amyloid beta aggregation.

    PubMed

    Churches, Quentin I; Caine, Joanne; Cavanagh, Kate; Epa, Vidana Chandana; Waddington, Lynne; Tranberg, C Elisabet; Meyer, Adam G; Varghese, Jose N; Streltsov, Victor; Duggan, Peter J

    2014-07-15

    Alzheimer's disease is the most common neurodegenerative disease and is one of the main causes of death in developed countries. Consumption of foods rich in polyphenolics is strongly correlated with reduced incidence of Alzheimer's disease. Our study has investigated the biological activity of previously untested polyphenolic compounds in preventing amyloid β aggregation. The anti-aggregatory potential of these compounds was assessed using the Thioflavin-T assay, transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering and size exclusion chromatography. Two structurally related compounds, luteolin and transilitin were identified as potent inhibitors of Aβ fibril formation. Computational docking studies with an X-ray derived oligomeric structure offer a rationale for the inhibitory activity observed and may facilitate development of improved inhibitors of Aβ aggregation and toxicity.

  2. Naturally Efficient Emitters: Luminescent Organometallic Complexes Derived from Natural Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wen-Hua; Young, David J.

    2013-08-01

    Naturally occurring molecules offer intricate structures and functionality that are the basis of modern medicinal chemistry, but are under-represented in materials science. Herein, we review recent literature describing the use of abundant and relatively inexpensive, natural products for the synthesis of ligands for luminescent organometallic complexes used for organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) and related technologies. These ligands are prepared from the renewable starting materials caffeine, camphor, pinene and cinchonine and, with the exception of caffeine, impart performance improvements to the emissive metal complexes and resulting OLED devices, with emission wavelengths that span the visible spectrum from blue to red. The advantages of these biologically-derived molecules include improved solution processibility and phase homogeneity, brighter luminescence, higher quantum efficiencies and lower turn-on voltages. While nature has evolved these carbon-skeletons for specific purposes, they also offer some intriguing benefits in materials science and technology.

  3. Countercurrent Separation of Natural Products: An Update.

    PubMed

    Friesen, J Brent; McAlpine, James B; Chen, Shao-Nong; Pauli, Guido F

    2015-07-24

    This work assesses the current instrumentation, method development, and applications in countercurrent chromatography (CCC) and centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC), collectively referred to as countercurrent separation (CCS). The article provides a critical review of the CCS literature from 2007 since our last review (J. Nat. Prod. 2008, 71, 1489-1508), with a special emphasis on the applications of CCS in natural products research. The current state of CCS is reviewed in regard to three continuing topics (instrumentation, solvent system development, theory) and three new topics (optimization of parameters, workflow, bioactivity applications). The goals of this review are to deliver the necessary background with references for an up-to-date perspective of CCS, to point out its potential for the natural product scientist, and thereby to induce new applications in natural product chemistry, metabolome, and drug discovery research involving organisms from terrestrial and marine sources.

  4. Countercurrent Separation of Natural Products: An Update

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This work assesses the current instrumentation, method development, and applications in countercurrent chromatography (CCC) and centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC), collectively referred to as countercurrent separation (CCS). The article provides a critical review of the CCS literature from 2007 since our last review (J. Nat. Prod.2008, 71, 1489–1508), with a special emphasis on the applications of CCS in natural products research. The current state of CCS is reviewed in regard to three continuing topics (instrumentation, solvent system development, theory) and three new topics (optimization of parameters, workflow, bioactivity applications). The goals of this review are to deliver the necessary background with references for an up-to-date perspective of CCS, to point out its potential for the natural product scientist, and thereby to induce new applications in natural product chemistry, metabolome, and drug discovery research involving organisms from terrestrial and marine sources. PMID:26177360

  5. Early state research on antifungal natural products.

    PubMed

    Negri, Melyssa; Salci, Tânia P; Shinobu-Mesquita, Cristiane S; Capoci, Isis R G; Svidzinski, Terezinha I E; Kioshima, Erika Seki

    2014-03-07

    Nosocomial infections caused by fungi have increased greatly in recent years, mainly due to the rising number of immunocompromised patients. However, the available antifungal therapeutic arsenal is limited, and the development of new drugs has been slow. Therefore, the search for alternative drugs with low resistance rates and fewer side effects remains a major challenge. Plants produce a variety of medicinal components that can inhibit pathogen growth. Studies of plant species have been conducted to evaluate the characteristics of natural drug products, including their sustainability, affordability, and antimicrobial activity. A considerable number of studies of medicinal plants and alternative compounds, such as secondary metabolites, phenolic compounds, essential oils and extracts, have been performed. Thus, this review discusses the history of the antifungal arsenal, surveys natural products with potential antifungal activity, discusses strategies to develop derivatives of natural products, and presents perspectives on the development of novel antifungal drug candidates.

  6. Natural Products and Ion Channel Pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Teichert, Russell W.; Olivera, Baldomero M.

    2014-01-01

    An accelerated rate of natural-product discovery is critical for the future of ion channel pharmacology. For the full potential of natural products to be realized, an interdisciplinary initiative is required that combines chemical ecology and ion channel physiology. A prime source of future drug leads targeted to ion channels is the vast assortment of compounds that mediate biotic interactions in the marine environment. Many animals have evolved a chemical strategy to change the behavior of their prey, predators or competitors, which appears to require a large set of ion-channel targeted compounds acting in concert. Some of these compounds (e.g. Ziconotide (Prialt)) have already found important biomedical applications. The elucidation of molecular mechanisms mediating biotic interactions should yield a rich stream of potent and selective natural products for the drug pipeline. PMID:21426200

  7. Natural Product Sugar Biosynthesis and Enzymatic Glycodiversification**

    PubMed Central

    Thibodeaux, Christopher J.; Melançon, Charles E.; Liu, Hung-wen

    2009-01-01

    Many biologically active small molecule natural products produced by microorganisms derive their activities from sugar substituents. Changing the structures of these sugars can have a profound impact on the biological properties of the parent compounds. This realization has inspired attempts to derivatize the sugar moieties of these natural products through exploitation of the sugar biosynthetic machinery. This approach requires an understanding of the biosynthetic pathway of each target sugar and detailed mechanistic knowledge of the key enzymes. Scientists have begun to unravel the biosynthetic logic behind the assembly of many glycosylated natural products, and have found that a core set of enzyme activities is mixed and matched to synthesize the diverse sugar structures observed in nature. Remarkably, many of these sugar biosynthetic enzymes and glycosyltransferases also exhibit relaxed substrate specificity. The promiscuity of these enzymes has prompted efforts to modify the sugar structures and/or alter the glycosylation patterns of natural products via metabolic pathway engineering and/or enzymatic glycodiversification. In applied biomedical research, these studies will enable the development of new glycosylation tools and generate novel glycoforms of secondary metabolites with useful biological activity. PMID:19058170

  8. Natural products as probes in pharmaceutical research.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Esther K; Hoepfner, D; Krastel, P

    2016-03-01

    From the start of the pharmaceutical research natural products played a key role in drug discovery and development. Over time many discoveries of fundamental new biology were triggered by the unique biological activity of natural products. Unprecedented chemical structures, novel chemotypes, often pave the way to investigate new biology and to explore new pathways and targets. This review summarizes the recent results in the area with a focus on research done in the laboratories of Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research. We aim to put the technological advances in target identification techniques in the context to the current revival of phenotypic screening and the increasingly complex biological questions related to drug discovery.

  9. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Natural Products.

    PubMed

    Azab, Abdullatif; Nassar, Ahmad; Azab, Abed N

    2016-10-01

    This article presents highlights of the published literature regarding the anti-inflammatory activities of natural products. Many review articles were published in this regard, however, most of them have presented this important issue from a regional, limited perspective. This paper summarizes the vast range of review and research articles that have reported on the anti-inflammatory effects of extracts and/or pure compounds derived from natural products. Moreover, this review pinpoints some interesting traditionally used medicinal plants that were not investigated yet.

  10. Antiviral Natural Products and Herbal Medicines

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Liang-Tzung; Hsu, Wen-Chan; Lin, Chun-Ching

    2014-01-01

    Viral infections play an important role in human diseases, and recent outbreaks in the advent of globalization and ease of travel have underscored their prevention as a critical issue in safeguarding public health. Despite the progress made in immunization and drug development, many viruses lack preventive vaccines and efficient antiviral therapies, which are often beset by the generation of viral escape mutants. Thus, identifying novel antiviral drugs is of critical importance and natural products are an excellent source for such discoveries. In this mini-review, we summarize the antiviral effects reported for several natural products and herbal medicines. PMID:24872930

  11. Natural gas product and strategic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Layne, A.W.; Duda, J.R.; Zammerilli, A.M.

    1993-12-31

    Product and strategic analysis at the Department of Energy (DOE)/Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) crosscuts all sectors of the natural gas industry. This includes the supply, transportation, and end-use sectors of the natural-gas market. Projects in the Natural Gas Resource and Extraction supply program have been integrated into a new product focus. Product development facilitates commercialization and technology transfer through DOE/industry cost-shared research, development, and demonstration (RD&D). Four products under the Resource and Extraction program include Resource and Reserves; Low Permeability Formations; Drilling, Completion, and Stimulation: and Natural Gas Upgrading. Engineering process analyses have been performed for the Slant Hole Completion Test project. These analyses focused on evaluation of horizontal-well recovery potential and applications of slant-hole technology. Figures 2 and 3 depict slant-well in situ stress conditions and hydraulic fracture configurations. Figure 4 presents Paludal Formation coal-gas production curves used to optimize the hydraulic fracture design for the slant well. Economic analyses have utilized data generated from vertical test wells to evaluate the profitability of horizontal technology for low-permeability formations in Yuma County, Colorado, and Maverick County, Texas.

  12. A synthetic derivative of the natural product rocaglaol is a potent inhibitor of cytokine-mediated signaling and shows neuroprotective activity in vitro and in animal models of Parkinson's disease and traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Fahrig, T; Gerlach, I; Horváth, E

    2005-05-01

    Many acute and chronic neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by a localized inflammatory response and constitutive activation of the transcription factors nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B) and activator protein-1 (AP-1) as well as their upstream activating signaling cascades. Ample evidence indicates the implication of these processes in the pathogenesis of several diseases of the central nervous system. In this study, we show that a synthetic derivative of the natural product rocaglaol (compound A) displays potent anti-inflammatory properties in human endothelial and murine glial cells in vitro. Compound A inhibited cytokine- and lipopolysaccharide-induced release of various cytokines/chemokines and of nitric oxide as well as expression of the adhesion molecule endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule-1 and the inducible enzymes nitric-oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2. As shown by immunocytochemistry and immunoblotting, compound A inhibited NF-kappa B and AP-1 activity in mixed glial cultures. Compound A exhibited neuroprotective activity in vitro and in vivo. 1-Methyl-4-phenylpyridinium-induced damage of mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons was significantly decreased, and long-term treatment of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6,-tetrahydropyridine-injected mice with compound A significantly and dose-dependently reduced dopaminergic neuronal cell death. In addition, shortterm application of compound A to rats suffering from traumatic brain injury induced by subdural hematoma resulted in a significant reduction of the cerebral infarct volume. These results suggest that by inhibiting NF-kappa B and AP-1 signaling, compound A is able to reduce tissue inflammation and neuronal cell death, resulting in significant neuroprotection in animal models of neurodegeneration.

  13. Natural antioxidants in meat and poultry products.

    PubMed

    Karre, Liz; Lopez, Keyla; Getty, Kelly J K

    2013-06-01

    In response to recent claims that synthetic antioxidants have the potential to cause toxicological effects and consumers' increased interest in purchasing natural products, the meat and poultry industry has been seeking sources of natural antioxidants. Due to their high phenolic compound content, fruits and other plant materials provide a good alternative to conventional antioxidants. Plum, grape seed extract, cranberry, pomegranate, bearberry, pine bark extract, rosemary, oregano, and other spices functions as antioxidants in meat and poultry products. Pomegranate, pine bark extract, cinnamon, and cloves have exhibited stronger antioxidant properties than some synthetic options. Plum products, grape seed extract, pine bark extract, rosemary, and some spices all have been shown to affect the color of finished meat or poultry products; however, in some products such as pork sausage or uncured meats, an increase in red color may be desired. When selecting a natural antioxidant, sensory and quality impact on the product should be considered to achieve desired traits. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Metabolic Engineering for the Production of Natural Products

    PubMed Central

    Pickens, Lauren B.; Tang, Yi; Chooi, Yit-Heng

    2014-01-01

    Natural products and natural product derived compounds play an important role in modern healthcare as frontline treatments for many diseases and as inspiration for chemically synthesized therapeutics. With advances in sequencing and recombinant DNA technology, many of the biosynthetic pathways responsible for the production of these chemically complex and pharmaceutically valuable compounds have been elucidated. With an ever expanding toolkit of biosynthetic components, metabolic engineering is an increasingly powerful method to improve natural product titers and generate novel compounds. Heterologous production platforms have enabled access to pathways from difficult to culture strains; systems biology and metabolic modeling tools have resulted in increasing predictive and analytic capabilities; advances in expression systems and regulation have enabled the fine-tuning of pathways for increased efficiency, and characterization of individual pathway components has facilitated the construction of hybrid pathways for the production of new compounds. These advances in the many aspects of metabolic engineering have not only yielded fascinating scientific discoveries but also make it an increasingly viable approach for the optimization of natural product biosynthesis. PMID:22432617

  15. Preclinical characterization of naturally occurring polyketide cyclophilin inhibitors from the sanglifehrin family.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Matthew A; Bobardt, Michael; Obeid, Susan; Chatterji, Udayan; Coates, Nigel J; Foster, Teresa; Gallay, Philippe; Leyssen, Pieter; Moss, Steven J; Neyts, Johan; Nur-e-Alam, Mohammad; Paeshuyse, Jan; Piraee, Mahmood; Suthar, Dipen; Warneck, Tony; Zhang, Ming-Qiang; Wilkinson, Barrie

    2011-05-01

    Cyclophilin inhibitors currently in clinical trials for hepatitis C virus (HCV) are all analogues of cyclosporine (CsA). Sanglifehrins are a group of naturally occurring cyclophilin binding polyketides that are structurally distinct from the cyclosporines and are produced by a microorganism amenable to biosynthetic engineering for lead optimization and large-scale production by fermentation. Preclinical characterization of the potential utility of this class of compounds for the treatment of HCV revealed that the natural sanglifehrins A to D are all more potent than CsA at disrupting formation of the NS5A-CypA, -CypB, and -CypD complexes and at inhibition of CypA, CypB, and CypD isomerase activity. In particular, sanglifehrin B (SfB) was 30- to 50-fold more potent at inhibiting the isomerase activity of all Cyps tested than CsA and was also shown to be a more potent inhibitor of the 1b subgenomic replicon (50% effective concentrations [EC50s] of 0.070 μM and 0.16 μM in Huh 5-2 and Huh 9-13 cells, respectively). Physicochemical and mouse pharmacokinetic analyses revealed low oral bioavailability (F<4%) and low solubility (<25 μM), although the half-lives (t1/2) of SfA and SfB in mouse blood after intravenous (i.v.) dosing were long (t1/2>5 h). These data demonstrate that naturally occurring sanglifehrins are suitable lead compounds for the development of novel analogues that are less immunosuppressive and that have improved metabolism and pharmacokinetic properties.

  16. An automated Genomes-to-Natural Products platform (GNP) for the discovery of modular natural products.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Chad W; Skinnider, Michael A; Wyatt, Morgan A; Li, Xiang; Ranieri, Michael R M; Yang, Lian; Zechel, David L; Ma, Bin; Magarvey, Nathan A

    2015-09-28

    Bacterial natural products are a diverse and valuable group of small molecules, and genome sequencing indicates that the vast majority remain undiscovered. The prediction of natural product structures from biosynthetic assembly lines can facilitate their discovery, but highly automated, accurate, and integrated systems are required to mine the broad spectrum of sequenced bacterial genomes. Here we present a genome-guided natural products discovery tool to automatically predict, combinatorialize and identify polyketides and nonribosomal peptides from biosynthetic assembly lines using LC-MS/MS data of crude extracts in a high-throughput manner. We detail the directed identification and isolation of six genetically predicted polyketides and nonribosomal peptides using our Genome-to-Natural Products platform. This highly automated, user-friendly programme provides a means of realizing the potential of genetically encoded natural products.

  17. An automated Genomes-to-Natural Products platform (GNP) for the discovery of modular natural products

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Chad W.; Skinnider, Michael A.; Wyatt, Morgan A.; Li, Xiang; Ranieri, Michael R. M.; Yang, Lian; Zechel, David L.; Ma, Bin; Magarvey, Nathan A.

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial natural products are a diverse and valuable group of small molecules, and genome sequencing indicates that the vast majority remain undiscovered. The prediction of natural product structures from biosynthetic assembly lines can facilitate their discovery, but highly automated, accurate, and integrated systems are required to mine the broad spectrum of sequenced bacterial genomes. Here we present a genome-guided natural products discovery tool to automatically predict, combinatorialize and identify polyketides and nonribosomal peptides from biosynthetic assembly lines using LC–MS/MS data of crude extracts in a high-throughput manner. We detail the directed identification and isolation of six genetically predicted polyketides and nonribosomal peptides using our Genome-to-Natural Products platform. This highly automated, user-friendly programme provides a means of realizing the potential of genetically encoded natural products. PMID:26412281

  18. Chocolate: A Marvelous Natural Product of Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tannenbaum, Ginger

    2004-01-01

    The study of chocolate, a natural product, can be beneficial for the chemistry students as they ask frequently about the relevancy of their chemistry classes. The history of chocolate, its chemical and physical changes during processing, its composition, different crystalline forms, tempering and its viscosity are discussed.

  19. Flow chemistry syntheses of natural products.

    PubMed

    Pastre, Julio C; Browne, Duncan L; Ley, Steven V

    2013-12-07

    The development and application of continuous flow chemistry methods for synthesis is a rapidly growing area of research. In particular, natural products provide demanding challenges to this developing technology. This review highlights successes in the area with an emphasis on new opportunities and technological advances.

  20. Marine Natural Products as Prototype Agrochemical Agents

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Jiangnan; Shen, Xiaoyu; El Sayed, Khalid A.; Dunbar, D. C Harles; Perry, Tony L.; Wilkins, Scott P.; Hamann, Mark T.; Bobzin, Steve; Huesing, Joseph; Camp, Robin; Prinsen, Mike; Krupa, Dan; Wideman, Margaret A.

    2016-01-01

    In the interest of identifying new leads that could serve as prototype agrochemical agents, 18 structurally diverse marine-derived compounds were examined for insecticidal, herbicidal, and fungicidal activities. Several new classes of compounds have been shown to be insecticidal, herbicidal, and fungicidal, which suggests that marine natural products represent an intriguing source for the discovery of new agrochemical agents. PMID:12670165

  1. Plants as natural antioxidants for meat products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomović, V.; Jokanović, M.; Šojić, B.; Škaljac, S.; Ivić, M.

    2017-09-01

    The meat industry is demanding antioxidants from natural sources to replace synthetic antioxidants because of the negative health consequences or beliefs regarding some synthetic ones. Plants materials provide good alternatives. Spices and herbs, generally used for their flavouring characteristics, can be added to meat products in various forms: whole, ground, or as isolates from their extracts. These natural antioxidants contain some active compounds, which exert antioxidative potential in meat products. This antioxidant activity is most often due to phenolic acids, phenolic diterpenes, flavonoids and volatile oils. Each of these compounds often has strong H-donating activity, thus making them extremely effective antioxidants; some compounds can chelate metals and donate H to oxygen radicals, thus slowing oxidation via two mechanisms. Numerous studies have demonstrated the efficacy of natural antioxidants when used in meat products. Based on this literature review, it can be concluded that natural antioxidants are added to fresh and processed meat and meat products to delay, retard, or prevent lipid oxidation, retard development of off-flavours (rancidity), improve colour stability, improve microbiological quality and extend shelf-life, without any damage to the sensory or nutritional properties.

  2. New Methodology for Natural Gas Production Estimates

    EIA Publications

    2010-01-01

    A new methodology is implemented with the monthly natural gas production estimates from the EIA-914 survey this month. The estimates, to be released April 29, 2010, include revisions for all of 2009. The fundamental changes in the new process include the timeliness of the historical data used for estimation and the frequency of sample updates, both of which are improved.

  3. Chocolate: A Marvelous Natural Product of Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tannenbaum, Ginger

    2004-01-01

    The study of chocolate, a natural product, can be beneficial for the chemistry students as they ask frequently about the relevancy of their chemistry classes. The history of chocolate, its chemical and physical changes during processing, its composition, different crystalline forms, tempering and its viscosity are discussed.

  4. Natural Products as Promising Therapeutics for Treatment of Influenza Disease.

    PubMed

    Sencanski, Milan; Radosevic, Draginja; Perovic, Vladimir; Gemovic, Branislava; Stanojevic, Maja; Veljkovic, Nevena; Glisic, Sanja

    2015-01-01

    The influenza virus represents a permanent global health threat because it circulates not only within but also between numerous host populations, thereby frequently causing unexpected outbreaks in animals and humans with a generally unpredictable course of disease and epidemiology. Conventional influenza therapy is directed against the viral neuraminidase protein, which promotes virus release from infected cells, and the viral ion channel M2, which facilitates viral uncoating. However, these drugs, albeit effective, have a major drawback: their targets are of a highly variable sequence. As a consequence, the virus can readily acquire resistance by mutating the drug targets. Indeed, most seasonal A/H1N1 viruses and the 2009 H1N1 virus are resistant to M2 inhibitors, and a significant proportion of the seasonal A/H1N1 viruses are resistant to the neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir. Development of new effective drugs for treatment of disease during the regular influenza seasons and the possible influenza pandemic represents an important goal. The results presented here point out natural products as a promising source of low toxic and widely accessible drug candidates for treatment of the influenza disease. Natural products combined with new therapeutic targets and drug repurposing techniques, which accelerate development of new drugs, serve as an important platform for development of new influenza therapeutics.

  5. Galanthamine, a natural product for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Marco, Luis; do Carmo Carreiras, Maria

    2006-01-01

    (-)-Galanthamine is a selective, reversible competitive acetylcholinesterase inhibitor that has been recently approved for the symptomatic treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Galanthamine is a natural product belonging to the Amaryllidaceae family of alkaloids. The pharmacological history of galanthamine shows that the bioactive compound was discovered accidentally in the early 1950s, and the plant extracts were initially used to treat nerve pain and poliomyelitis. In addition, galanthamine had since been tested for use in anesthesiology, from facial nerve paralysis to schizophrenia. Galanthamine is a long-acting, selective, reversible and competitive AChE inhibitor that has recently been tested in AD patients and found to be readily absorbed, to be a performance enhancer on memory tests in some patients, and to be well tolerated, although some cholinergic side effects were observed. A number of total synthetic approaches have been reported, and a method for the industrial scale-up preparation of galanthamine is now being developed and patented. A variety of galanthamine derivatives have also been synthesized aiming to develop an agent free from cholinergic adverse effects. Galanthamine is a natural product that complements other synthetic drugs for the management of AD. In this account we will review the recent patent literature showing the most important advance on the chemistry of galanthamine.

  6. Natural Products for Chemoprevention of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Eun-Yi; Moon, Aree

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the primary cause of cancer death in women. Although current therapies have shown some promise against breast cancer, there is still no effective cure for the majority of patients in the advanced stages of breast cancer. Development of effective agents to slow, reduce, or reverse the incidence of breast cancer in high-risk women is necessary. Chemoprevention of breast cancer by natural products is advantageous, as these compounds have few side effects and low toxicity compared to synthetic compounds. In the present review, we summarize natural products which exert chemopreventive activities against breast cancer, such as curcumin, sauchinone, lycopene, denbinobin, genipin, capsaicin, and ursolic acid. This review examines the current knowledge about natural compounds and their mechanisms that underlie breast cancer chemopreventive activity both in vitro and in vivo. The present review may provide information on the use of these compounds for the prevention of breast cancer. PMID:26734584

  7. Natural products in modern life science

    PubMed Central

    Göransson, Ulf; Alsmark, Cecilia; Wedén, Christina; Backlund, Anders

    2010-01-01

    With a realistic threat against biodiversity in rain forests and in the sea, a sustainable use of natural products is becoming more and more important. Basic research directed against different organisms in Nature could reveal unexpected insights into fundamental biological mechanisms but also new pharmaceutical or biotechnological possibilities of more immediate use. Many different strategies have been used prospecting the biodiversity of Earth in the search for novel structure–activity relationships, which has resulted in important discoveries in drug development. However, we believe that the development of multidisciplinary incentives will be necessary for a future successful exploration of Nature. With this aim, one way would be a modernization and renewal of a venerable proven interdisciplinary science, Pharmacognosy, which represents an integrated way of studying biological systems. This has been demonstrated based on an explanatory model where the different parts of the model are explained by our ongoing research. Anti-inflammatory natural products have been discovered based on ethnopharmacological observations, marine sponges in cold water have resulted in substances with ecological impact, combinatory strategy of ecology and chemistry has revealed new insights into the biodiversity of fungi, in depth studies of cyclic peptides (cyclotides) has created new possibilities for engineering of bioactive peptides, development of new strategies using phylogeny and chemography has resulted in new possibilities for navigating chemical and biological space, and using bioinformatic tools for understanding of lateral gene transfer could provide potential drug targets. A multidisciplinary subject like Pharmacognosy, one of several scientific disciplines bridging biology and chemistry with medicine, has a strategic position for studies of complex scientific questions based on observations in Nature. Furthermore, natural product research based on intriguing scientific

  8. Natural products in modern life science.

    PubMed

    Bohlin, Lars; Göransson, Ulf; Alsmark, Cecilia; Wedén, Christina; Backlund, Anders

    2010-06-01

    With a realistic threat against biodiversity in rain forests and in the sea, a sustainable use of natural products is becoming more and more important. Basic research directed against different organisms in Nature could reveal unexpected insights into fundamental biological mechanisms but also new pharmaceutical or biotechnological possibilities of more immediate use. Many different strategies have been used prospecting the biodiversity of Earth in the search for novel structure-activity relationships, which has resulted in important discoveries in drug development. However, we believe that the development of multidisciplinary incentives will be necessary for a future successful exploration of Nature. With this aim, one way would be a modernization and renewal of a venerable proven interdisciplinary science, Pharmacognosy, which represents an integrated way of studying biological systems. This has been demonstrated based on an explanatory model where the different parts of the model are explained by our ongoing research. Anti-inflammatory natural products have been discovered based on ethnopharmacological observations, marine sponges in cold water have resulted in substances with ecological impact, combinatory strategy of ecology and chemistry has revealed new insights into the biodiversity of fungi, in depth studies of cyclic peptides (cyclotides) has created new possibilities for engineering of bioactive peptides, development of new strategies using phylogeny and chemography has resulted in new possibilities for navigating chemical and biological space, and using bioinformatic tools for understanding of lateral gene transfer could provide potential drug targets. A multidisciplinary subject like Pharmacognosy, one of several scientific disciplines bridging biology and chemistry with medicine, has a strategic position for studies of complex scientific questions based on observations in Nature. Furthermore, natural product research based on intriguing scientific

  9. Natural production of biological optical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Seung Ho; Kim, Young L.

    2015-03-01

    Synthesis and production in nature often provide ideas to design and fabricate advanced biomimetic photonic materials and structures, leading to excellent physical properties and enhanced performance. In addition, the recognition and utilization of natural or biological substances have been typical routes to develop biocompatible and biodegradable materials for medical applications. In this respect, biological lasers utilizing such biomaterials and biostructures have been received considerable attention, given a variety of implications and potentials for bioimaging, biosensing, implantation, and therapy. However, without relying on industrial facilities, eco-friendly massive production of such optical components or systems has not yet been investigated. We show examples of bioproduction of biological lasers using agriculture and fisheries. We anticipate that such approaches will open new possibilities for scalable eco-friendly `green' production of biological photonics components and systems.

  10. Alphavirus protease inhibitors from natural sources: A homology modeling and molecular docking investigation.

    PubMed

    Byler, Kendall G; Collins, Jasmine T; Ogungbe, Ifedayo Victor; Setzer, William N

    2016-10-01

    Alphaviruses such as Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), O'Nyong-Nyong virus (ONNV), Ross River virus (RRV), Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV), Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), and Western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV), are mosquito-transmitted viruses that can cause fevers, rash, and rheumatic diseases (CHIKV, ONNV, RRV) or potentially fatal encephalitis (EEEV, VEEV, WEEV) in humans. These diseases are considered neglected tropical diseases for which there are no current antiviral therapies or vaccines available. The alphavirus non-structural protein 2 (nsP2) contains a papain-like protease, which is considered to be a promising target for antiviral drug discovery. In this work, molecular docking analyses have been carried out on a library of 2174 plant-derived natural products (290 alkaloids, 664 terpenoids, 1060 polyphenolics, and 160 miscellaneous phytochemicals) with the nsP2 proteases of CHIKV, ONNV, RRV, EEEV, VEEV, WEEV, as well as Aura virus (AURV), Barmah Forest Virus (BFV), Semliki Forest virus (SFV), and Sindbis virus (SINV) in order to identity structural scaffolds for inhibitor design or discovery. Of the 2174 phytochemicals examined, a total of 127 showed promising docking affinities and poses to one or more of the nsP2 proteases, and this knowledge can be used to guide experimental investigation of potential inhibitors.

  11. The possible presence of natural β-D-glucosidase inhibitors in jujube leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Jo, Youngje; Lim, Seokwon; Chang, Pahn-Shick; Choi, Young Jin

    2016-03-01

    Isoquercitrin is a phenolic compound well-known for having greater health benefits than quercitin, its aglycone derivative, and other related glycosides. However, isoquercitrin is rarely found in nature. Here, we optimized the conditions for the enzymatic transformation of isoquercitrin from rutin that was extracted from jujube leaf using the hesperidinase, enzyme complex containing β-D-glucosidase and α-L-rhamnosidase. The maximum productivity (2.57±0.16mg/mL) was experimentally found under the following conditions: 47.3°C, 52.16h, and pH 5.31, which agreed well with the predicted value (2.65mg/mL). However, the achievement of this maximum yield was due to the absence of β-D-glucosidase activity. Further investigations using a β-D-glucosidase assay and reaction measurements under various conditions revealed that the β-D-glucosidase activity was not blocked by denaturation or known inhibitory factors. Currently, there are no recognized β-D-glucosidase inhibitors present in the jujube leaf; however, our observations strongly suggest that an unidentified β-D-glucosidase inhibitor exists in jujube leaf extract.

  12. Design of O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase inhibitors by mimicking Nature

    PubMed Central

    Salsi, Enea; Bayden, Alexander S.; Spyrakis, Francesca; Amadasi, Alessio; Campanini, Barbara; Bettati, Stefano; Dodatko, Tetyana; Cozzini, Pietro; Kellogg, Glen E.; Cook, Paul F.; Roderick, Steven L.; Mozzarelli, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    The inhibition of cysteine biosynthesis in prokaryotes and protozoa has been proposed to be relevant for the development of antibiotics. Haemophilus influenzae O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase (OASS), catalyzing L-cysteine formation, is inhibited by the insertion of the C-terminal pentapeptide (MNLNI) of serine acetyltransferase into the active site. 400 MNXXI pentapeptides were generated, docked into OASS active site using GOLD and scored with HINT. The terminal P5 Ile accounts for about 50% of the binding energy. Glu or Asp at position P4, and to a lesser extent, at position P3, also significantly contribute to the binding interaction. The predicted affinity of 14 selected pentapeptides correlated well with the experimentally determined dissociation constants. The X-ray structure of three high affinity pentapeptides-OASS complexes were compared with the docked poses. These results, combined with a GRID analysis of the active site, allowed us to define a pharmacophoric scaffold for the design of peptidomimetic inhibitors. PMID:19928859

  13. [Status of libraries and databases for natural products at abroad].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Li-Mei; Tan, Ning-Hua

    2015-01-01

    For natural products are one of the important sources for drug discovery, libraries and databases of natural products are significant for the development and research of natural products. At present, most of compound libraries at abroad are synthetic or combinatorial synthetic molecules, resulting to access natural products difficult; for information of natural products are scattered with different standards, it is difficult to construct convenient, comprehensive and large-scale databases for natural products. This paper reviewed the status of current accessing libraries and databases for natural products at abroad and provided some important information for the development of libraries and database for natural products.

  14. The re-emergence of natural products for drug discovery in the genomics era.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Alan L; Edrada-Ebel, RuAngelie; Quinn, Ronald J

    2015-02-01

    Natural products have been a rich source of compounds for drug discovery. However, their use has diminished in the past two decades, in part because of technical barriers to screening natural products in high-throughput assays against molecular targets. Here, we review strategies for natural product screening that harness the recent technical advances that have reduced these barriers. We also assess the use of genomic and metabolomic approaches to augment traditional methods of studying natural products, and highlight recent examples of natural products in antimicrobial drug discovery and as inhibitors of protein-protein interactions. The growing appreciation of functional assays and phenotypic screens may further contribute to a revival of interest in natural products for drug discovery.

  15. Regulation of natural health products in Canada.

    PubMed

    Smith, Alysyn; Jogalekar, Sumedha; Gibson, Adam

    2014-12-02

    In Canada, all natural health products (NHPs) are regulated by Health Canada (HC) under the Food and Drugs Act and the Natural Health Product Regulations. All authorized products undergo pre-market assessment for safety, efficacy and quality and the degree of pre-market oversight varies depending on the risk of the product. In Canada, over 70,000 products have been authorized for sale and over 2000 sites have been licensed to produce NHPs. In the management of NHPs on the Canadian market, HC employs a number of active and collaborative methods to address the most common issues such as contamination, adulteration and deceptive or misleading advertising practices. HC is currently evolving its approaches to NHPs to recognize them as part of the larger group of health products available without a prescription. As such, the regulatory responsibility for all over-the-counter (OTC) drugs, including non-prescription drugs and NHPs, has been transferred to a single federal division. As a result of this transition a number of benefits are being realized with respect to government efficiency, clarity for industry, support for new innovations and consolidated government interactions with the Canadian market. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Natural gas production and consumption 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    Total marketed production of natural gas in the United States during 1979 was 20,471 billion cubic feet, an increase of approximately 497 billion cubic feet, or 2.5 percent over 1978. Texas and Louisiana, the two leading producing states, accounted for 70.5 percent of total 1979 marketed production. In 1979, deliveries of natural gas to residential, commercial, industrial, electric utilities, and other consumers totaled 18,141 billion cubic feet. Total consumption, which includes lease, plant, and pipeline fuel in addition to deliveries to consumers, was 20,241 billion cubic feet in 1979 compared to 19,627 billion cubic feet in 1978, an increase of 3.1 percent. Movements of natural gas into and out of each state are presented. Louisiana accounted for the largest quantity of net deliveries, 5,107 billion cubic feet, followed by Texas and Oklahoma with net deliveries of 2,772 billion cubic feet and 914 billion cubic feet, respectively. Imports of natural gas by pipeline from Canada and as liquefied natural gas (LNG) from Algeria totaled 1,253 billion cubic feet in 1979. Total imports increased 288 billion cubic feet, or 29.8 percent, from 1978 levels. Exports of LNG to Japan and pipeline shipments to Canada and Mexico increased 6.0 percent from 52.5 billion cubic feet in 1978 to 55.7 billion cubic feet in 1979. LNG shipments to Japan accounted for 92.1 percent of total exports in 1979.

  17. Natural Product Anacardic Acid from Cashew Nut Shells Stimulates Neutrophil Extracellular Trap Production and Bactericidal Activity.

    PubMed

    Hollands, Andrew; Corriden, Ross; Gysler, Gabriela; Dahesh, Samira; Olson, Joshua; Raza Ali, Syed; Kunkel, Maya T; Lin, Ann E; Forli, Stefano; Newton, Alexandra C; Kumar, Geetha B; Nair, Bipin G; Perry, J Jefferson P; Nizet, Victor

    2016-07-01

    Emerging antibiotic resistance among pathogenic bacteria is an issue of great clinical importance, and new approaches to therapy are urgently needed. Anacardic acid, the primary active component of cashew nut shell extract, is a natural product used in the treatment of a variety of medical conditions, including infectious abscesses. Here, we investigate the effects of this natural product on the function of human neutrophils. We find that anacardic acid stimulates the production of reactive oxygen species and neutrophil extracellular traps, two mechanisms utilized by neutrophils to kill invading bacteria. Molecular modeling and pharmacological inhibitor studies suggest anacardic acid stimulation of neutrophils occurs in a PI3K-dependent manner through activation of surface-expressed G protein-coupled sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors. Neutrophil extracellular traps produced in response to anacardic acid are bactericidal and complement select direct antimicrobial activities of the compound.

  18. Natural Product Anacardic Acid from Cashew Nut Shells Stimulates Neutrophil Extracellular Trap Production and Bactericidal Activity*

    PubMed Central

    Hollands, Andrew; Corriden, Ross; Gysler, Gabriela; Dahesh, Samira; Olson, Joshua; Raza Ali, Syed; Kunkel, Maya T.; Lin, Ann E.; Forli, Stefano; Newton, Alexandra C.; Kumar, Geetha B.; Nair, Bipin G.; Perry, J. Jefferson P.; Nizet, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Emerging antibiotic resistance among pathogenic bacteria is an issue of great clinical importance, and new approaches to therapy are urgently needed. Anacardic acid, the primary active component of cashew nut shell extract, is a natural product used in the treatment of a variety of medical conditions, including infectious abscesses. Here, we investigate the effects of this natural product on the function of human neutrophils. We find that anacardic acid stimulates the production of reactive oxygen species and neutrophil extracellular traps, two mechanisms utilized by neutrophils to kill invading bacteria. Molecular modeling and pharmacological inhibitor studies suggest anacardic acid stimulation of neutrophils occurs in a PI3K-dependent manner through activation of surface-expressed G protein-coupled sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors. Neutrophil extracellular traps produced in response to anacardic acid are bactericidal and complement select direct antimicrobial activities of the compound. PMID:27226531

  19. Biologically active proteins from natural product extracts.

    PubMed

    O'Keefe, B R

    2001-10-01

    The term "biologically active proteins" is almost redundant. All proteins produced by living creatures are, by their very nature, biologically active to some extent in their homologous species. In this review, a subset of these proteins will be discussed that are biologically active in heterologous systems. The isolation and characterization of novel proteins from natural product extracts including those derived from microorganisms, plants, insects, terrestrial vertebrates, and marine organisms will be reviewed and grouped into several distinct classes based on their biological activity and their structure.

  20. An Update on Natural Products with Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitory Activity.

    PubMed

    Karioti, Anastasia; Carta, Fabrizio; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2016-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1) catalyze the fundamental reaction of CO2 hydration in all living organisms, being actively involved in the regulation of a plethora of patho/physiological processes. They represent a typical example of enzyme convergent evolution, as six genetically unrelated families of such enzymes were described so far. It is more than 70 years that synthetic compounds, mainly sulfonamides, have been used in clinical practice as diuretics and systemic acting antiglaucoma drugs. Recent studies using natural product libraries and isolated constituents from natural sources (such as fungi and plants) have disclosed novel chemotypes possessing carbonic anhydrase inhibition activities. These natural sources offer new opportunities in the search for new and more effective carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, and may serve as new leads for the design and development of future drugs. This review will discuss the most recent advances in the search of naturally occurring products and their synthetic derivatives that inhibit the CAs and their mechanisms of action at molecular level. Plant extracts are not considered in the present review.

  1. Natural Products at Work: Structural Insights into Inhibition of the Bacterial Membrane Protein MraY.

    PubMed

    Koppermann, Stefan; Ducho, Christian

    2016-09-19

    Natural(ly) fit: The X-ray crystal structure of the bacterial membrane protein MraY in complex with its natural product inhibitor muraymycin D2 is discussed. MraY catalyzes one of the membrane-associated steps in peptidoglycan biosynthesis and, therefore, represents a promising target for novel antibiotics. Structural insights derived from the protein-inhibitor complex might now pave the way for the development of new antimicrobial drugs. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Natural and synthetic geiparvarins are strong and selective MAO-B inhibitors. Synthesis and SAR studies.

    PubMed

    Carotti, Angelo; Carrieri, Antonio; Chimichi, Stefano; Boccalini, Marco; Cosimelli, Barbara; Gnerre, Carmela; Carotti, Andrea; Carrupt, Pierre Alain; Testa, Bernard

    2002-12-16

    Natural geiparvarin 1 and a number of its analogues were prepared and tested as inhibitors of both monoamine oxidase isoforms, MAO-B and MAO-A. The desmethyl congener 6 of geiparvarin, proved potent and selective MAO-B inhibitor (pIC(50)=7.55 vs 4.62). X-ray crystallography and molecular modelling studies helped the understanding of the observed structure-activity relationships.

  3. New chemistry from natural product biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Hubert, Catherine B; Barry, Sarah M

    2016-06-15

    Catalysts are a vital part of synthetic chemistry. However, there are still many important reactions for which catalysts have not been developed. The use of enzymes as biocatalysts for synthetic chemistry is growing in importance due to the drive towards sustainable methods for producing both bulk chemicals and high value compounds such as pharmaceuticals, and due to the ability of enzymes to catalyse chemical reactions with excellent stereoselectivity and regioselectivity. Such challenging transformations are a common feature of natural product biosynthetic pathways. In this mini-review, we discuss the potential to use biosynthetic pathways as a starting point for biocatalyst discovery. We introduce the reader to natural product assembly and tailoring, then focus on four classes of enzyme that catalyse C─H bond activation reactions to functionalize biosynthetic precursors. Finally, we briefly discuss the challenges involved in novel enzyme discovery.

  4. Trypanocidal Activity of Marine Natural Products

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Amy J.; Grkovic, Tanja; Sykes, Melissa L.; Avery, Vicky M.

    2013-01-01

    Marine natural products are a diverse, unique collection of compounds with immense therapeutic potential. This has resulted in these molecules being evaluated for a number of different disease indications including the neglected protozoan diseases, human African trypanosomiasis and Chagas disease, for which very few drugs are currently available. This article will review the marine natural products for which activity against the kinetoplastid parasites; Trypanosoma brucei brucei, T.b. rhodesiense and T. cruzi has been reported. As it is important to know the selectivity of a compound when evaluating its trypanocidal activity, this article will only cover molecules which have simultaneously been tested for cytotoxicity against a mammalian cell line. Compounds have been grouped according to their chemical structure and representative examples from each class were selected for detailed discussion. PMID:24152565

  5. Genome Mining for Ribosomally Synthesized Natural Products

    PubMed Central

    Velásquez, Juan E.; van der Donk, Wilfred

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, the number of known peptide natural products that are synthesized via the ribosomal pathway has rapidly grown. Taking advantage of sequence homology among genes encoding precursor peptides or biosynthetic proteins, in silico mining of genomes combined with molecular biology approaches has guided the discovery of a large number of new ribosomal natural products, including lantipeptides, cyanobactins, linear thiazole/oxazole-containing peptides, microviridins, lasso peptides, amatoxins, cyclotides, and conopeptides. In this review, we describe the strategies used for the identification of these ribosomally-synthesized and posttranslationally modified peptides (RiPPs) and the structures of newly identified compounds. The increasing number of chemical entities and their remarkable structural and functional diversity may lead to novel pharmaceutical applications. PMID:21095156

  6. Natural products from filamentous fungi and production by heterologous expression.

    PubMed

    Alberti, Fabrizio; Foster, Gary D; Bailey, Andy M

    2017-01-01

    Filamentous fungi represent an incredibly rich and rather overlooked reservoir of natural products, which often show potent bioactivity and find applications in different fields. Increasing the naturally low yields of bioactive metabolites within their host producers can be problematic, and yield improvement is further hampered by such fungi often being genetic intractable or having demanding culturing conditions. Additionally, total synthesis does not always represent a cost-effective approach for producing bioactive fungal-inspired metabolites, especially when pursuing assembly of compounds with complex chemistry. This review aims at providing insights into heterologous production of secondary metabolites from filamentous fungi, which has been established as a potent system for the biosynthesis of bioactive compounds. Numerous advantages are associated with this technique, such as the availability of tools that allow enhanced production yields and directing biosynthesis towards analogues of the naturally occurring metabolite. Furthermore, a choice of hosts is available for heterologous expression, going from model unicellular organisms to well-characterised filamentous fungi, which has also been shown to allow the study of biosynthesis of complex secondary metabolites. Looking to the future, fungi are likely to continue to play a substantial role as sources of new pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals-either as producers of novel natural products or indeed as platforms to generate new compounds through synthetic biology.

  7. Isolation of bioactive natural products from myxomycetes.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Masami

    2005-11-01

    The Myxomycetes (true slime molds) are an unusual group of primitive organisms that may be assigned to one of the lowest classes of eukaryotes. As their fruit bodies are very small and it is very difficult to collect much quantity of slime molds, few studies have been made on the chemistry of myxomycetes. Cultivation of the plasmodium of myxomycetes in a practical scale for natural products chemistry studies is known only for very limited species. Here is described a review on the recent results on isolation of bioactive natural products from myxomycetes obtained in these two years in the laboratories. Spore germination experiments were studied of hundreds of field-collected myxomycetes collected in Japan and succeeded in laboratory culture of plasmodia of several myxomycetes in a practical scale for natural products chemistry studies. As a result, pyrroloiminoquinones, polyene yellow pigments, and a peptide lactone from cultured plasmodia of Didymium iridis, Physarum rigidum and P. melleum, respectively were isolated. New naphthoquinone pigments, cycloanthranilylprolines, tyrosine-kinase inhibitory bisindoles, and a cytotoxic triterpenoid aldehyde lactone were also isolated from field-collected fruit bodies of Cribraria purpurea, Fuligo candida, Tubifera casparyi, and Tubifera dimorphotheca, respectively.

  8. Natural and Heterologous Production of Bacteriocins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cintas, Luis M.; Herranz, Carmen; Hernández, Pablo E.

    Bacteriocins are ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial peptides produced by bacteria, and their use as natural and nontoxic food preservatives has been the source of considerable interest for the research community. In addition, bacteriocins have been investigated for their potential use in human and veterinary applications and in the animal production field. In the native bacterial strain, most bacteriocins are synthesized as biologically inactive precursors, with N-terminal extensions, that are cleaved concomitantly during export of the bacteriocin by dedicated ABC transporters, or the general secretory pathway (GSP) or Sec-dependent pathway. However, a few bacteriocins are synthesized without an N-terminal extension, and others are circularized through a head-to-tail peptide bond, complicating the elucidation of their processing and transport across the cytoplasmic membrane. The high cost of synthetic bacteriocin synthesis and their low yields from many natural producers recommends the exploration of recombinant microbial systems for the heterologous production of bacteriocins. Other advantages of such systems include production of bacteriocins in safer hosts, increased bacteriocin production, control of bacteriocin gene expression, production of food ingredients with antimicrobial activity, construction of multibacteriocinogenic strains with a wider antagonistic spectrum, a better adaptation of the selected hosts to food environments, and providing antagonistic properties to lactic acid bacteria (LAB) used as starter, protective, or probiotic cultures. The recombinant production of bacteriocins mostly relies on the use of expression vectors that replicate in Gram-negative bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria, and yeasts, whereas the production of bacteriocins in heterologous LAB hosts may be essentially based on the expression of native biosynthetic genes, by exchanging or replacing leader peptides and/or dedicated processing and secretion systems (ABC transporters

  9. Natural and Synthetic Polymers as Inhibitors of Drug Efflux Pumps

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Inhibition of efflux pumps is an emerging approach in cancer therapy and drug delivery. Since it has been discovered that polymeric pharmaceutical excipients such as Tweens® or Pluronics® can inhibit efflux pumps, various other polymers have been investigated regarding their potential efflux pump inhibitory activity. Among them are polysaccharides, polyethylene glycols and derivatives, amphiphilic block copolymers, dendrimers and thiolated polymers. In the current review article, natural and synthetic polymers that are capable of inhibiting efflux pumps as well as their application in cancer therapy and drug delivery are discussed. PMID:17896100

  10. Natural diterpenes from Croton ciliatoglanduliferus as photosystem II and photosystem I inhibitors in spinach chloroplasts.

    PubMed

    Morales-Flores, Félix; Aguilar, María Isabel; King-Díaz, Beatriz; de Santiago-Gómez, Jesús-Ricardo; Lotina-Hennsen, Blas

    2007-01-01

    In our search for new natural photosynthetic inhibitors that could lead to the development of "green herbicides" less toxic to environment, the diterpene labdane-8alpha,15-diol (1) and its acetyl derivative (2) were isolated for the first time from Croton ciliatoglanduliferus Ort. They inhibited photophosphorylation, electron transport (basal, phosphorylating and uncoupled) and the partial reactions of both photosystems in spinach thylakoids. Compound 1 inhibits the photosystem II (PS II) partial reaction from water to Na(+) Silicomolibdate (SiMo) and has no effect on partial reaction from diphenylcarbazide (DPC) to 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol (DCPIP), therefore 1 inhibits at the water splitting enzyme and also inhibits PS I partial reaction from reduced phenylmetasulfate (PMS) to methylviologen (MV). Thus, it also inhibits in the span of P(700) to Iron sulfur center X (F(X)). Compound 2 inhibits both, the PS II partial reactions from water to SiMo and from DPC to DCPIP; besides this, it inhibits the photosystem I (PS I) partial reaction from reduced PMS to MV. With these results, we concluded that the targets of the natural product 2 are located at the water splitting enzyme, and at P(680) in PS II and at the span of P(700) to F(X) in PS I. The results of compounds 1 and 2 on PS II were corroborated by chlorophyll a fluorescence.

  11. Neurotrophic Natural Products: Chemistry and Biology

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jing; Lacoske, Michelle H.

    2014-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases and spinal cord injury affect approximately 50 million people worldwide, bringing the total healthcare cost to over 600 billion dollars per year. Nervous system growth factors, that is, neurotrophins, are a potential solution to these disorders, since they could promote nerve regeneration. An average of 500 publications per year attests to the significance of neurotrophins in biomedical sciences and underlines their potential for therapeutic applications. Nonetheless, the poor pharmacokinetic profile of neurotrophins severely restricts their clinical use. On the other hand, small molecules that modulate neurotrophic activity offer a promising therapeutic approach against neurological disorders. Nature has provided an impressive array of natural products that have potent neurotrophic activities. This Review highlights the current synthetic strategies toward these compounds and summarizes their ability to induce neuronal growth and rehabilitation. It is anticipated that neurotrophic natural products could be used not only as starting points in drug design but also as tools to study the next frontier in biomedical sciences: the brain activity map project. PMID:24353244

  12. Natural products as potential anticonvulsants: caffeoylquinic acids.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyo Geun; Oh, Myung Sook

    2012-03-01

    Current anticonvulsant therapies are generally directed at symptomatic treatment by suppressing excitability within the brain. Consequently, they have adverse effects such as cognitive impairment, dependence, and abuse. The need for more effective and less toxic anticonvulsants has generated renewed interest in natural products for the treatment of convulsions. Caffeoylquinic acids (CQs) are naturally occurring phenolic acids that are distributed widely in plants. There has been increasing interest in the biological activities of CQs in diseases of the central nervous system. In this issue, Nugroho et al. give evidence for the anticonvulsive effect of a CQ-rich extract from Aster glehni Franchet et Sckmidt. They optimized the extract solvent conditions, resulting in high levels of CQs and peroxynitrite-scavenging activity. Then, they investigated the sedative and anticonvulsive effects in pentobarbital- and pentylenetetrazole-induced models in mice. The CQ-rich extract significantly inhibited tonic convulsions as assessed by onset time, tonic extent, and mortality. They suggested that the CQ-rich extract from A. glehni has potential for treating convulsions. This report provides preclinical data which may be used for the development of anticonvulsants from natural products.

  13. Natural Inhibitors of Cholinesterases: Implications for Adverse Drug Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Krasowski, Matthew D.; McGehee, Daniel S.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase are two closely related enzymes important in the metabolism of acetylcholine and anaesthetic drugs, including succinylcholine, mivacurium, and cocaine. The solanaceous glycoalkaloids (SGAs) are naturally occurring steroids in potatoes and related plants that inhibit both acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase. There are many clinical examples of direct SGA toxicity due to cholinesterase inhibition. The aim of this study was to review the hypotheses that (1) SGAs may be the evolutionary driving force for atypical butyrylcholinesterase alleles and that (2) SGAs may adversely influence the actions of anaesthetic drugs that metabolized by acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase. Source The information was obtained by Medline search and consultation with experts in the study of SGAs and cholinesterases. Principal findings The SGAs inhibit both acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase in numerous in vitro and in vivo experiments. Although accurate assays of SGA levels are difficult, published data indicate human serum SGA concentrations at least ten-fold lower than required to inhibit acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase in vitro. However, we review evidence that suggests the dietary ingestion of SGAs can initiate a cholinergic syndrome in humans. This syndrome occurs at SGA levels lower than those which interfere with anaesthetic drug catabolism. The world distribution of solanaceous plants parallels the distribution of atypical alleles of butyrylcholinesterase and may explain the genetic diversity of the butyrylcholinesterase gene. Conclusion Correlative evidence suggests that dietary SGAs may be the driving force for atypical butyrylcholinesterase alleles. In addition, SGAs may influence the metabolism of anaesthetic drugs and this hypothesis warrants experimental investigation. PMID:9161749

  14. Competitive product inhibition of aromatase by natural estrogens.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Y; Yarborough, C; Osawa, Y

    1993-03-01

    In order to better understand the function of aromatase, we carried out kinetic analyses to assess the ability of natural estrogens, estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), 16 alpha-OHE1, and estriol (E3), to inhibit aromatization. Human placental microsomes (50 micrograms protein) were incubated for 5 min at 37 degrees C with [1 beta-3H]testosterone (1.24 x 10(3) dpm 3H/ng, 35-150 nM) or [1 beta-3H,4-14C]androstenedione (3.05 x 10(3) dpm 3H/ng, 3H/14C = 19.3, 7-65 nM) as substrate in the presence of NADPH, with and without natural estrogens as putative inhibitors. Aromatase activity was assessed by tritium released to water from the 1 beta-position of the substrates. Natural estrogens showed competitive product inhibition against androgen aromatization. The Ki of E1, E2, 16 alpha-OHE1, and E3 for testosterone aromatization was 1.5, 2.2, 95, and 162 microM, respectively, where the Km of aromatase was 61.8 +/- 2.0 nM (n = 5) for testosterone. The Ki of E1, E2, 16 alpha-OHE1, and E3 for androstenedione aromatization was 10.6, 5.5, 252, and 1182 microM, respectively, where the Km of aromatase was 35.4 +/- 4.1 nM (n = 4) for androstenedione. These results show that estrogen inhibit the process of androgen aromatization and indicate that natural estrogens regulate their own synthesis by the product inhibition mechanism in vivo. Since natural estrogen binds to the active site of human placental aromatase P-450 complex as competitive inhibitors, natural estrogens might be further metabolized by aromatase. This suggests that human placental estrogen 2-hydroxylase activity is catalyzed by the active site of aromatase cytochrome P-450 and also agrees with the fact that the level of catecholestrogens in maternal plasma increases during pregnancy. The relative affinities and concentration of androgens and estrogens would control estrogen and catecholestrogen biosynthesis by aromatase.

  15. Microbial production of natural raspberry ketone.

    PubMed

    Beekwilder, Jules; van der Meer, Ingrid M; Sibbesen, Ole; Broekgaarden, Mans; Qvist, Ingmar; Mikkelsen, Joern D; Hall, Robert D

    2007-10-01

    Raspberry ketone is an important compound for the flavour industry. It is frequently used in products such as soft drinks, sweets, puddings and ice creams. The compound can be produced by organic synthesis. Demand for "natural" raspberry ketone is growing considerably. However, this product is extremely expensive. Consequently, there is a remaining desire to better understand how raspberry ketone is synthesized in vivo, and which genes and enzymes are involved. With this information we will then be in a better position to design alternative production strategies such as microbial fermentation. This article focuses on the identification and application of genes potentially linked to raspberry ketone synthesis. We have isolated candidate genes from both raspberry and other plants, and these have been introduced into bacterial and yeast expression systems. Conditions have been determined that result in significant levels of raspberry ketone, up to 5 mg/L. These results therefore lay a strong foundation for a potentially renewable source of "natural" flavour compounds making use of plant genes.

  16. Phylogenetic approaches to natural product structure prediction.

    PubMed

    Ziemert, Nadine; Jensen, Paul R

    2012-01-01

    Phylogenetics is the study of the evolutionary relatedness among groups of organisms. Molecular phylogenetics uses sequence data to infer these relationships for both organisms and the genes they maintain. With the large amount of publicly available sequence data, phylogenetic inference has become increasingly important in all fields of biology. In the case of natural product research, phylogenetic relationships are proving to be highly informative in terms of delineating the architecture and function of the genes involved in secondary metabolite biosynthesis. Polyketide synthases and nonribosomal peptide synthetases provide model examples in which individual domain phylogenies display different predictive capacities, resolving features ranging from substrate specificity to structural motifs associated with the final metabolic product. This chapter provides examples in which phylogeny has proven effective in terms of predicting functional or structural aspects of secondary metabolism. The basics of how to build a reliable phylogenetic tree are explained along with information about programs and tools that can be used for this purpose. Furthermore, it introduces the Natural Product Domain Seeker, a recently developed Web tool that employs phylogenetic logic to classify ketosynthase and condensation domains based on established enzyme architecture and biochemical function. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Production of natural products through metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Krivoruchko, Anastasia; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-12-01

    Many high-value metabolites are produced in nature by organisms that are not ideal for large-scale production. Therefore, interest exists in expressing the biosynthetic pathways of these compounds in organisms that are more suitable for industrial production. Recent years have seen developments in both the discovery of various biosynthetic pathways, as well as development of metabolic engineering tools that allow reconstruction of complex pathways in microorganisms. In the present review we discuss recent advances in reconstruction of the biosynthetic pathways of various high-value products in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a commonly used industrial microorganism. Key achievements in the production of different isoprenoids, aromatics and polyketides are presented and the metabolic engineering strategies underlying these accomplishments are discussed.

  18. Bacterial self-resistance to the natural proteasome inhibitor salinosporamide A

    PubMed Central

    Kale, Andrew J.; McGlinchey, Ryan P.; Lechner, Anna; Moore, Bradley S.

    2011-01-01

    Proteasome inhibitors have recently emerged as a therapeutic strategy in cancer chemotherapy but susceptibility to drug resistance limits their efficacy. The marine actinobacterium Salinispora tropica produces salinosporamide A (NPI-0052, marizomib), a potent proteasome inhibitor and promising clinical agent in the treatment of multiple myeloma. Actinobacteria also possess 20S proteasome machinery, raising the question of self-resistance. We identified a redundant proteasome β-subunit, SalI, encoded within the salinosporamide biosynthetic gene cluster and biochemically characterized the SalI proteasome complex. The SalI β-subunit has an altered substrate specificity profile, 30-fold resistance to salinosporamide A, and cross-resistance to the FDA-approved proteasome inhibitor bortezomib. An A49V mutation in SalI correlates to clinical bortezomib resistance from a human proteasome β 5-subunit A49T mutation, suggesting that intrinsic resistance to natural proteasome inhibitors may predict clinical outcomes. PMID:21882868

  19. Insights into structure and activity of natural compound inhibitors of pneumolysin

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hongen; Zhao, Xiaoran; Deng, Xuming; Wang, Jianfeng; Song, Meng; Niu, Xiaodi; Peng, Liping

    2017-01-01

    Pneumolysin is the one of the major virulence factor of the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae. In previous report, it is shown that β-sitosterol, a natural compound without antimicrobial activity, is a potent antagonist of pneumolysin. Here, two new pneumolysin natural compound inhibitors, with differential activity, were discovered via haemolysis assay. To explore the key factor of the conformation for the inhibition activity, the interactions between five natural compound inhibitors with differential activity and pneumolysin were reported using molecular modelling, the potential of mean force profiles. Interestingly, it is found that incorporation of the single bond (C22-C23-C24-C25) to replace the double bond (hydrocarbon sidechain) improved the anti-haemolytic activity. In view of the molecular modelling, binding of the five inhibitors to the conserved loop region (Val372, Leu460, and Tyr461) of the cholesterol binding sites led to stable complex systems, which was consistent with the result of β-sitosterol. Owing to the single bond (C22-C23-C24-C25), campesterol and brassicasterol could form strong interactions with Val372 and show higher anti-haemolytic activity, which indicated that the single bond (C22-C23-C24-C25) in inhibitors was required for the anti-haemolytic activity. Overall, the current molecular modelling work provides a starting point for the development of rational design and higher activity pneumolysin inhibitors. PMID:28165051

  20. Natural products from microbes associated with insects

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Huijuan; Rischer, Maja; Poulsen, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Summary Here we review discoveries of secondary metabolites from microbes associated with insects. We mainly focus on natural products, where the ecological role has been at least partially elucidated, and/or the pharmaceutical properties evaluated, and on compounds with unique structural features. We demonstrate that the exploration of specific microbial–host interactions, in combination with multidisciplinary dereplication processes, has emerged as a successful strategy to identify novel chemical entities and to shed light on the ecology and evolution of defensive associations. PMID:26977191

  1. Metabolomics and dereplication strategies in natural products.

    PubMed

    Tawfike, Ahmed Fares; Viegelmann, Christina; Edrada-Ebel, Ruangelie

    2013-01-01

    Metabolomic methods can be utilized to screen diverse biological sources of potentially novel and sustainable sources of antibiotics and pharmacologically-active drugs. Dereplication studies by high resolution Fourier transform mass spectrometry coupled to liquid chromatography (LC-HRFTMS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy can establish the chemical profile of endophytic and/or endozoic microbial extracts and their plant or animal sources. Identifying the compounds of interest at an early stage will aid in the isolation of the bioactive components. Therefore metabolite profiling is important for functional genomics and in the search for new pharmacologically active compounds. Using the tools of metabolomics through the employment of LC-HRFTMS as well as high resolution NMR will be a very efficient approach. Metabolomic profiling has found its application in screening extracts of macroorganisms as well as in the isolation and cultivation of suspected microbial producers of bioactive natural products.Metabolomics is being applied to identify and biotechnologically optimize the production of pharmacologically active secondary metabolites. The links between metabolome evolution during optimization and processing factors can be identified through metabolomics. Information obtained from a metabolomics dataset can efficiently establish cultivation and production processes at a small scale which will be finally scaled up to a fermenter system, while maintaining or enhancing synthesis of the desired compounds. MZmine (BMC Bioinformatics 11:395-399, 2010; http://mzmine.sourceforge.net/download.shtml ) and SIEVE ( http://www.vastscientific.com/resources/index.html ; Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 22:1912-1918, 2008) softwares are utilized to perform differential analysis of sample populations to find significant expressed features of complex biomarkers between parameter variables. Metabolomes are identified with the aid of existing high resolution MS and NMR

  2. Gas extrusion in natural products total synthesis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xuefeng; Shi, Lei; Liu, Hui; Khan, Akbar H; Chen, Jason S

    2012-11-14

    The thermodynamic driving force from the release of a gaseous molecule drives a broad range of synthetic transformations. This review focuses on gas expulsion in key reactions within natural products total syntheses, selected from the past two decades. The highlighted examples survey transformations that generate sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide, carbonyl sulfide, or nitrogen through polar, radical, pericyclic, photochemical, or organometallic mechanisms. Of particular interest are applications wherein the gas extrusion enables formation of a synthetically challenging motif, such as an unusually hindered or strained bond.

  3. The chemistry of isoindole natural products

    PubMed Central

    Speck, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Summary This review highlights the chemical and biological aspects of natural products containing an oxidized or reduced isoindole skeleton. This motif is found in its intact or modified form in indolocarbazoles, macrocyclic polyketides (cytochalasan alkaloids), the aporhoeadane alkaloids, meroterpenoids from Stachybotrys species and anthraquinone-type alkaloids. Concerning their biological activity, molecular structure and synthesis, we have limited this review to the most inspiring examples. Within different congeners, we have selected a few members and discussed the synthetic routes in more detail. The putative biosynthetic pathways of the presented isoindole alkaloids are described as well. PMID:24204418

  4. Cyclic Lipodepsipeptides Produced by Pseudomonas spp. Naturally Present in Raw Milk Induce Inhibitory Effects on Microbiological Inhibitor Assays for Antibiotic Residue Screening

    PubMed Central

    Reybroeck, Wim; De Vleeschouwer, Matthias; Marchand, Sophie; Sinnaeve, Davy; Heylen, Kim; De Block, Jan; Madder, Annemieke; Martins, José C.; Heyndrickx, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Two Pseudomonas strains, identified as closely related to Pseudomonas tolaasii, were isolated from milk of a farm with frequent false-positive Delvotest results for screening putative antibiotic residues in raw milk executed as part of the regulatory quality programme. Growth at 5 to 7°C of these isolates in milk resulted in high lipolysis and the production of bacterial inhibitors. The two main bacterial inhibitors have a molecular weight of 1168.7 and 1140.7 Da respectively, are heat-tolerant and inhibit Geobacillus stearothermophilus var. calidolactis, the test strain of most of the commercially available microbiological inhibitor tests for screening of antibiotic residues in milk. Furthermore, these bacterial inhibitors show antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and B. subtilis and also interfere negatively with yoghurt production. Following their isolation and purification with RP-HPLC, the inhibitors were identified by NMR analysis as cyclic lipodepsipeptides of the viscosin group. Our findings bring to light a new challenge for quality control in the dairy industry. By prolonging the refrigerated storage of raw milk, the keeping quality of milk is influenced by growth and metabolic activities of psychrotrophic bacteria such as pseudomonads. Besides an increased risk of possible spoilage of long shelf-life milk, the production at low temperature of natural bacterial inhibitors may also result in false-positive results for antibiotic residue screening tests based on microbial inhibitor assays thus leading to undue production loss. PMID:24853676

  5. Fungal natural products in research and development.

    PubMed

    Schueffler, Anja; Anke, Timm

    2014-10-01

    To date approximately 100 000 fungal species are known although far more than one million are expected. The variety of species and the diversity of their habitats, some of them less exploited, allow the conclusion that fungi continue to be a rich source of new metabolites. Besides the conventional fungal isolates, an increasing interest in endophytic and in marine-derived fungi has been noticed. In addition new screening strategies based on innovative chemical, biological, and genetic approaches have led to novel fungal metabolites in recent years. The present review focuses on new fungal natural products published from 2009 to 2013 highlighting the originality of the structures and their biological potential. Furthermore synthetic products based on fungal metabolites as well as new developments in the uses or the biological activity of known compounds or new derivatives are discussed.

  6. Multimodular biocatalysts for natural product assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarzer, Dirk; Marahiel, Mohamed A.

    2001-03-01

    Nonribosomal peptides and polyketides represent a large class of natural products that show an extreme structural diversity and broad pharmacological relevance. They are synthesized from simple building blocks such as amino or carboxy acids and malonate derivatives on multimodular enzymes called nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) and polyketide synthases (PKSs), respectively. Although utilizing different substrates, NRPSs and PKSs show striking similarities in the modular architecture of their catalytic domains and product assembly-line mechanism. Among these compounds are well known antibiotics (penicillin, vancomycin and erythromycin) as well as potent immunosuppressive agents (cyclosporin, rapamycin and FK 506). This review focuses on the modular organization of NRPSs, PKSs and mixed NRPS/PKS systems and how modules and domains that build up the biosynthetic templates can be exploited for the rational design of recombinant enzymes capable of synthesizing novel compounds.

  7. Structural basis of sialidase in complex with geranylated flavonoids as potent natural inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Youngjin; Ryu, Young Bae; Youn, Hyung-Seop; Cho, Jung Keun; Kim, Young Min; Park, Ji-Young; Lee, Woo Song; Park, Ki Hun; Eom, Soo Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Sialidase catalyzes the removal of a terminal sialic acid from glycoconjugates and plays a pivotal role in nutrition, cellular interactions and pathogenesis mediating various infectious diseases including cholera, influenza and sepsis. An array of antiviral sialidase agents have been developed and are commercially available, such as zanamivir and oseltamivir for treating influenza. However, the development of bacterial sialidase inhibitors has been much less successful. Here, natural polyphenolic geranylated flavonoids which show significant inhibitory effects against Cp-NanI, a sialidase from Clostridium perfringens, are reported. This bacterium causes various gastrointestinal diseases. The crystal structure of the Cp-NanI catalytic domain in complex with the best inhibitor, diplacone, is also presented. This structure explains how diplacone generates a stable enzyme–inhibitor complex. These results provide a structural framework for understanding the interaction between sialidase and natural flavonoids, which are promising scaffolds on which to discover new anti-sialidase agents. PMID:24816104

  8. Structural basis of sialidase in complex with geranylated flavonoids as potent natural inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Youngjin; Ryu, Young Bae; Youn, Hyung-Seop; Cho, Jung Keun; Kim, Young Min; Park, Ji-Young; Lee, Woo Song; Park, Ki Hun; Eom, Soo Hyun

    2014-05-01

    Sialidase catalyzes the removal of a terminal sialic acid from glycoconjugates and plays a pivotal role in nutrition, cellular interactions and pathogenesis mediating various infectious diseases including cholera, influenza and sepsis. An array of antiviral sialidase agents have been developed and are commercially available, such as zanamivir and oseltamivir for treating influenza. However, the development of bacterial sialidase inhibitors has been much less successful. Here, natural polyphenolic geranylated flavonoids which show significant inhibitory effects against Cp-NanI, a sialidase from Clostridium perfringens, are reported. This bacterium causes various gastrointestinal diseases. The crystal structure of the Cp-NanI catalytic domain in complex with the best inhibitor, diplacone, is also presented. This structure explains how diplacone generates a stable enzyme-inhibitor complex. These results provide a structural framework for understanding the interaction between sialidase and natural flavonoids, which are promising scaffolds on which to discover new anti-sialidase agents.

  9. Capturing the essence of organic synthesis: from bioactive natural products to designed molecules in today's medicine.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Arun K

    2010-12-03

    In this Perspective, I outline my group's research involving the chemical syntheses of medicinally important natural products, exploration of their bioactivity, and the development of new asymmetric carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions. This paper also highlights our approach to molecular design and synthesis of conceptually novel inhibitors against target proteins involved in the pathogenesis of human diseases, including AIDS and Alzheimer's disease.

  10. Flexibility of the Thrombin-activatable Fibrinolysis Inhibitor Pro-domain Enables Productive Binding of Protein Substrates*

    PubMed Central

    Valnickova, Zuzana; Sanglas, Laura; Arolas, Joan L.; Petersen, Steen V.; Schar, Christine; Otzen, Daniel; Aviles, Francesc X.; Gomis-Rüth, F. Xavier; Enghild, Jan J.

    2010-01-01

    We have previously reported that thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) exhibits intrinsic proteolytic activity toward large peptides. The structural basis for this observation was clarified by the crystal structures of human and bovine TAFI. These structures evinced a significant rotation of the pro-domain away from the catalytic moiety when compared with other pro-carboxypeptidases, thus enabling access of large peptide substrates to the active site cleft. Here, we further investigated the flexible nature of the pro-domain and demonstrated that TAFI forms productive complexes with protein carboxypeptidase inhibitors from potato, leech, and tick (PCI, LCI, and TCI, respectively). We determined the crystal structure of the bovine TAFI-TCI complex, revealing that the pro-domain was completely displaced from the position observed in the TAFI structure. It protruded into the bulk solvent and was disordered, whereas TCI occupied the position previously held by the pro-domain. The authentic nature of the presently studied TAFI-inhibitor complexes was supported by the trimming of the C-terminal residues from the three inhibitors upon complex formation. This finding suggests that the inhibitors interact with the active site of TAFI in a substrate-like manner. Taken together, these data show for the first time that TAFI is able to form a bona fide complex with protein carboxypeptidase inhibitors. This underlines the unusually flexible nature of the pro-domain and implies a possible mechanism for regulation of TAFI intrinsic proteolytic activity in vivo. PMID:20880845

  11. Artificial neural network cascade identifies multi-P450 inhibitors in natural compounds.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhangming; Li, Yan; Sun, Lu; Tang, Yun; Liu, Lanru; Zhu, Wenliang

    2015-01-01

    Substantial evidence has shown that most exogenous substances are metabolized by multiple cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes instead of by merely one P450 isoform. Thus, multi-P450 inhibition leads to greater drug-drug interaction risk than specific P450 inhibition. Herein, we innovatively established an artificial neural network cascade (NNC) model composed of 23 cascaded networks in a ladder-like framework to identify potential multi-P450 inhibitors among natural compounds by integrating 12 molecular descriptors into a P450 inhibition score (PIS). Experimental data reporting in vitro inhibition of five P450 isoforms (CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4) were obtained for 8,148 compounds from the Cytochrome P450 Inhibitors Database (CPID). The results indicate significant positive correlation between the PIS values and the number of inhibited P450 isoforms (Spearman's ρ = 0.684, p < 0.0001). Thus, a higher PIS indicates a greater possibility for a chemical to inhibit the enzyme activity of at least three P450 isoforms. Ten-fold cross-validation of the NNC model suggested an accuracy of 78.7% for identifying whether a compound is a multi-P450 inhibitor or not. Using our NNC model, 22.2% of the approximately 160,000 natural compounds in TCM Database@Taiwan were identified as potential multi-P450 inhibitors. Furthermore, chemical similarity calculations suggested that the prevailing parent structures of natural multi-P450 inhibitors were alkaloids. Our findings show that dissection of chemical structure contributes to confident identification of natural multi-P450 inhibitors and provides a feasible method for virtually evaluating multi-P450 inhibition risk for a known structure.

  12. Artificial neural network cascade identifies multi-P450 inhibitors in natural compounds

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhangming; Li, Yan; Sun, Lu; Tang, Yun; Liu, Lanru

    2015-01-01

    Substantial evidence has shown that most exogenous substances are metabolized by multiple cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes instead of by merely one P450 isoform. Thus, multi-P450 inhibition leads to greater drug-drug interaction risk than specific P450 inhibition. Herein, we innovatively established an artificial neural network cascade (NNC) model composed of 23 cascaded networks in a ladder-like framework to identify potential multi-P450 inhibitors among natural compounds by integrating 12 molecular descriptors into a P450 inhibition score (PIS). Experimental data reporting in vitro inhibition of five P450 isoforms (CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4) were obtained for 8,148 compounds from the Cytochrome P450 Inhibitors Database (CPID). The results indicate significant positive correlation between the PIS values and the number of inhibited P450 isoforms (Spearman’s ρ = 0.684, p < 0.0001). Thus, a higher PIS indicates a greater possibility for a chemical to inhibit the enzyme activity of at least three P450 isoforms. Ten-fold cross-validation of the NNC model suggested an accuracy of 78.7% for identifying whether a compound is a multi-P450 inhibitor or not. Using our NNC model, 22.2% of the approximately 160,000 natural compounds in TCM Database@Taiwan were identified as potential multi-P450 inhibitors. Furthermore, chemical similarity calculations suggested that the prevailing parent structures of natural multi-P450 inhibitors were alkaloids. Our findings show that dissection of chemical structure contributes to confident identification of natural multi-P450 inhibitors and provides a feasible method for virtually evaluating multi-P450 inhibition risk for a known structure. PMID:26719820

  13. Amorfrutins are potent antidiabetic dietary natural products.

    PubMed

    Weidner, Christopher; de Groot, Jens C; Prasad, Aman; Freiwald, Anja; Quedenau, Claudia; Kliem, Magdalena; Witzke, Annabell; Kodelja, Vitam; Han, Chung-Ting; Giegold, Sascha; Baumann, Matthias; Klebl, Bert; Siems, Karsten; Müller-Kuhrt, Lutz; Schürmann, Annette; Schüler, Rita; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H; Schroeder, Frank C; Büssow, Konrad; Sauer, Sascha

    2012-05-08

    Given worldwide increases in the incidence of obesity and type 2 diabetes, new strategies for preventing and treating metabolic diseases are needed. The nuclear receptor PPARγ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma) plays a central role in lipid and glucose metabolism; however, current PPARγ-targeting drugs are characterized by undesirable side effects. Natural products from edible biomaterial provide a structurally diverse resource to alleviate complex disorders via tailored nutritional intervention. We identified a family of natural products, the amorfrutins, from edible parts of two legumes, Glycyrrhiza foetida and Amorpha fruticosa, as structurally new and powerful antidiabetics with unprecedented effects for a dietary molecule. Amorfrutins bind to and activate PPARγ, which results in selective gene expression and physiological profiles markedly different from activation by current synthetic PPARγ drugs. In diet-induced obese and db/db mice, amorfrutin treatment strongly improves insulin resistance and other metabolic and inflammatory parameters without concomitant increase of fat storage or other unwanted side effects such as hepatoxicity. These results show that selective PPARγ-activation by diet-derived ligands may constitute a promising approach to combat metabolic disease.

  14. Amorfrutins are potent antidiabetic dietary natural products

    PubMed Central

    Weidner, Christopher; de Groot, Jens C.; Prasad, Aman; Freiwald, Anja; Quedenau, Claudia; Kliem, Magdalena; Witzke, Annabell; Kodelja, Vitam; Han, Chung-Ting; Giegold, Sascha; Baumann, Matthias; Klebl, Bert; Siems, Karsten; Müller-Kuhrt, Lutz; Schürmann, Annette; Schüler, Rita; Pfeiffer, Andreas F. H.; Schroeder, Frank C.; Büssow, Konrad; Sauer, Sascha

    2012-01-01

    Given worldwide increases in the incidence of obesity and type 2 diabetes, new strategies for preventing and treating metabolic diseases are needed. The nuclear receptor PPARγ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma) plays a central role in lipid and glucose metabolism; however, current PPARγ-targeting drugs are characterized by undesirable side effects. Natural products from edible biomaterial provide a structurally diverse resource to alleviate complex disorders via tailored nutritional intervention. We identified a family of natural products, the amorfrutins, from edible parts of two legumes, Glycyrrhiza foetida and Amorpha fruticosa, as structurally new and powerful antidiabetics with unprecedented effects for a dietary molecule. Amorfrutins bind to and activate PPARγ, which results in selective gene expression and physiological profiles markedly different from activation by current synthetic PPARγ drugs. In diet-induced obese and db/db mice, amorfrutin treatment strongly improves insulin resistance and other metabolic and inflammatory parameters without concomitant increase of fat storage or other unwanted side effects such as hepatoxicity. These results show that selective PPARγ-activation by diet-derived ligands may constitute a promising approach to combat metabolic disease. PMID:22509006

  15. Natural Products: Insights into Leishmaniasis Inflammatory Response

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Igor A.; Mazotto, Ana Maria; Cardoso, Verônica; Alves, Renan L.; Amaral, Ana Claudia F.; Silva, Jefferson Rocha de Andrade; Pinheiro, Anderson S.; Vermelho, Alane B.

    2015-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease that affects several populations worldwide, against which there are no vaccines available and the chemotherapy is highly toxic. Depending on the species causing the infection, the disease is characterized by commitment of tissues, including the skin, mucous membranes, and internal organs. Despite the relevance of host inflammatory mediators on parasite burden control, Leishmania and host immune cells interaction may generate an exacerbated proinflammatory response that plays an important role in the development of leishmaniasis clinical manifestations. Plant-derived natural products have been recognized as bioactive agents with several properties, including anti-protozoal and anti-inflammatory activities. The present review focuses on the antileishmanial activity of plant-derived natural products that are able to modulate the inflammatory response in vitro and in vivo. The capability of crude extracts and some isolated substances in promoting an anti-inflammatory response during Leishmania infection may be used as part of an effective strategy to fight the disease. PMID:26538837

  16. Plant cell culture strategies for the production of natural products.

    PubMed

    Ochoa-Villarreal, Marisol; Howat, Susan; Hong, SunMi; Jang, Mi Ok; Jin, Young-Woo; Lee, Eun-Kyong; Loake, Gary J

    2016-03-01

    Plants have evolved a vast chemical cornucopia to support their sessile lifestyles. Man has exploited this natural resource since Neolithic times and currently plant-derived chemicals are exploited for a myriad of applications. However, plant sources of most high-value natural products (NPs) are not domesticated and therefore their production cannot be undertaken on an agricultural scale. Further, these plant species are often slow growing, their populations limiting, the concentration of the target molecule highly variable and routinely present at extremely low concentrations. Plant cell and organ culture constitutes a sustainable, controllable and environmentally friendly tool for the industrial production of plant NPs. Further, advances in cell line selection, biotransformation, product secretion, cell permeabilisation, extraction and scale-up, among others, are driving increases in plant NP yields. However, there remain significant obstacles to the commercial synthesis of high-value chemicals from these sources. The relatively recent isolation, culturing and characterisation of cambial meristematic cells (CMCs), provides an emerging platform to circumvent many of these potential difficulties. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(3): 149-158].

  17. Plant cell culture strategies for the production of natural products

    PubMed Central

    Ochoa-Villarreal, Marisol; Howat, Susan; Hong, SunMi; Jang, Mi Ok; Jin, Young-Woo; Lee, Eun-Kyong; Loake, Gary J.

    2016-01-01

    Plants have evolved a vast chemical cornucopia to support their sessile lifestyles. Man has exploited this natural resource since Neolithic times and currently plant-derived chemicals are exploited for a myriad of applications. However, plant sources of most high-value natural products (NPs) are not domesticated and therefore their production cannot be undertaken on an agricultural scale. Further, these plant species are often slow growing, their populations limiting, the concentration of the target molecule highly variable and routinely present at extremely low concentrations. Plant cell and organ culture constitutes a sustainable, controllable and environmentally friendly tool for the industrial production of plant NPs. Further, advances in cell line selection, biotransformation, product secretion, cell permeabilisation, extraction and scale-up, among others, are driving increases in plant NP yields. However, there remain significant obstacles to the commercial synthesis of high-value chemicals from these sources. The relatively recent isolation, culturing and characterisation of cambial meristematic cells (CMCs), provides an emerging platform to circumvent many of these potential difficulties. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(3): 149-158] PMID:26698871

  18. Total Synthesis of Natural Products Using Hypervalent Iodine Reagents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maertens, Gaetan; L'homme, Chloe; Canesi, Sylvain

    2014-12-01

    We present a review of natural product syntheses accomplished in our laboratory during the last five years. Each synthetic route features a phenol dearomatization promoted by an environmentally benign hypervalent iodine reagent. The dearomatizations demonstrate the “aromatic ring umpolung” concept, and involve stereoselective remodeling of the inert unsaturations of a phenol into a highly functionalized key intermediate that may contain a quaternary carbon center and a prochiral dienone system. Several new oxidative strategies were employed, including transpositions (1,3-alkyl shift and Prins-pinacol), a polycyclization, an ipso rearrangement, and direct nucleophilic additions at the phenol para position. Several alkaloids, heterocyclic compounds, and a polycyclic core have been achieved, including sceletenone (a serotonin reuptake inhibitor), acetylaspidoalbidine (an antitumor agent), fortucine (antiviral and antitumor), erysotramidine (curare-like effect), platensimycin (an antibiotic), and the main core of a kaurane diterpene (immunosuppressive agent and stimulator of apoptosis). These concise and in some cases enantioselective syntheses effectively demonstrate the importance of hypervalent iodine reagents in the total synthesis of bioactive natural products.

  19. A natural-product switch for a dynamic protein interface.

    PubMed

    Scheepstra, Marcel; Nieto, Lidia; Hirsch, Anna K H; Fuchs, Sascha; Leysen, Seppe; Lam, Chan Vinh; in het Panhuis, Leslie; van Boeckel, Constant A A; Wienk, Hans; Boelens, Rolf; Ottmann, Christian; Milroy, Lech-Gustav; Brunsveld, Luc

    2014-06-16

    Small ligands are a powerful way to control the function of protein complexes via dynamic binding interfaces. The classic example is found in gene transcription where small ligands regulate nuclear receptor binding to coactivator proteins via the dynamic activation function 2 (AF2) interface. Current ligands target the ligand-binding pocket side of the AF2. Few ligands are known, which selectively target the coactivator side of the AF2, or which can be selectively switched from one side of the interface to the other. We use NMR spectroscopy and modeling to identify a natural product, which targets the retinoid X receptor (RXR) at both sides of the AF2. We then use chemical synthesis, cellular screening and X-ray co-crystallography to split this dual activity, leading to a potent and molecularly efficient RXR agonist, and a first-of-kind inhibitor selective for the RXR/coactivator interaction. Our findings justify future exploration of natural products at dynamic protein interfaces. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Prevention of microbial communities: novel approaches based natural products.

    PubMed

    Mogosanu, George D; Grumezescu, Alexandru M; Huang, Keng-Shiang; Bejenaru, Ludovic E; Bejenaru, Cornelia

    2015-01-01

    Firmly attached to different living or non-living, solid or fluid surfaces rich in nutrients and moisture, microbial biofilm is a matter of great interest due to its major importance for the healthcare community. Depending on common strategies such as mutual protection and hibernation (quiescent bacteria), the resistance, survival and virulence of microbial communities have large implications for human pathology, clinical environment and biomedical devices. The microbial biofilm is continuously changing, stimulating inflammation, increasing vascular permeability and preventing the action of macrophages. About 80% of human infections affecting the gastrointestinal, genitourinary and respiratory systems, oral mucosa and teeth, eyes, middle ear and skin are caused by biofilm-associated microorganisms. Therefore, the search for modern strategies is even more important as microbial biofilms resistant to conventional antibiotics, antiseptics and disinfectants are involved in the frequent treatment failures of some chronic inflammatory diseases and wounds. Natural products containing secondary metabolites, such as aromatic compounds, sulphurated derivatives, terpenoids (essential oils) and alkaloids as quorum-sensing inhibitors and biofilm disruptors, are promising alternatives for the prophylaxis and treatment of chronic infections. Surface modification of medical devices with non-polar functionalized nanoparticles stabilizes the natural compounds antibiofilm activity and inhibits microbial adhesion and biofilm formation and growth for a longer period of time. In this regard, an interdisciplinary approach is needed due to the large number of natural derivatives alone or in combination with biocompatible and biodegradable micro-/ nano-engineered materials.

  1. Antibacterial natural products in medicinal chemistry--exodus or revival?

    PubMed

    von Nussbaum, Franz; Brands, Michael; Hinzen, Berthold; Weigand, Stefan; Häbich, Dieter

    2006-08-04

    To create a drug, nature's blueprints often have to be improved through semisynthesis or total synthesis (chemical postevolution). Selected contributions from industrial and academic groups highlight the arduous but rewarding path from natural products to drugs. Principle modification types for natural products are discussed herein, such as decoration, substitution, and degradation. The biological, chemical, and socioeconomic environments of antibacterial research are dealt with in context. Natural products, many from soil organisms, have provided the majority of lead structures for marketed anti-infectives. Surprisingly, numerous "old" classes of antibacterial natural products have never been intensively explored by medicinal chemists. Nevertheless, research on antibacterial natural products is flagging. Apparently, the "old fashioned" natural products no longer fit into modern drug discovery. The handling of natural products is cumbersome, requiring nonstandardized workflows and extended timelines. Revisiting natural products with modern chemistry and target-finding tools from biology (reversed genomics) is one option for their revival.

  2. Natural product synthesis at the interface of chemistry and biology

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Nature has evolved to produce unique and diverse natural products that possess high target affinity and specificity. Natural products have been the richest sources for novel modulators of biomolecular function. Since the chemical synthesis of urea by Wöhler, organic chemists have been intrigued by natural products, leading to the evolution of the field of natural product synthesis over the past two centuries. Natural product synthesis has enabled natural products to play an essential role in drug discovery and chemical biology. With the introduction of novel, innovative concepts and strategies for synthetic efficiency, natural product synthesis in the 21st century is well poised to address the challenges and complexities faced by natural product chemistry and will remain essential to progress in biomedical sciences. PMID:25043880

  3. Natural product synthesis at the interface of chemistry and biology.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jiyong

    2014-08-11

    Nature has evolved to produce unique and diverse natural products that possess high target affinity and specificity. Natural products have been the richest sources for novel modulators of biomolecular function. Since the chemical synthesis of urea by Wöhler, organic chemists have been intrigued by natural products, leading to the evolution of the field of natural product synthesis over the past two centuries. Natural product synthesis has enabled natural products to play an essential role in drug discovery and chemical biology. With the introduction of novel, innovative concepts and strategies for synthetic efficiency, natural product synthesis in the 21st century is well poised to address the challenges and complexities faced by natural product chemistry and will remain essential to progress in biomedical sciences. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Production of a protease inhibitor from edible mushroom Agaricus bisporus and its statistical optimization by response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Vishvakarma, Reena; Mishra, Abha

    2017-01-31

    The production of a protease inhibitor from Agaricus bisporus through solid state fermentation was studied. The purpose was to produce protease inhibitor from natural, cheap and readily available carbon and nitrogen sources. Solid state fermentation enhanced the mycelia growth and also gave a higher yield of the product. Further, fungal growth and other production parameters were statistically optimized. The specificity of the inhibitor was tested and was effective against trypsin. Screening of significant factors (wheat bran, cyanobacterial biomass, initial pH, temperature, incubation period, and moisture content and inoculum size) was done using Plackett-Burman Design. Central Composite Design was used to determine the optimized values of the significant variables which were found to be temperature (27.5 °C), incubation time (156 hrs.), cyanobacterial biomass (1 g) and moisture content (50%) and gave a statistical yield of 980 PIU/g which was 25.6% higher than experimental yield (780 PIU/g). The inhibitor was purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation and DEAE cellulose chromatography (yield 43.89% and 0.21% respectively) and subjected to Reversed-phase HPLC to validate its identity. Since protease inhibitors act against proteases, finding ample therapeutic roles; the isolated protease inhibitor from A. bisporus can also be a probable medicinal agent after its further characterization.

  5. Natural products - modifying metabolite pathways in plants.

    PubMed

    Staniek, Agata; Bouwmeester, Harro; Fraser, Paul D; Kayser, Oliver; Martens, Stefan; Tissier, Alain; van der Krol, Sander; Wessjohann, Ludger; Warzecha, Heribert

    2013-10-01

    The diversity of plant natural product (PNP) molecular structures is reflected in the variety of biochemical and genetic pathways that lead to their formation and accumulation. Plant secondary metabolites are important commodities, and include fragrances, colorants, and medicines. Increasing the extractable amount of PNP through plant breeding, or more recently by means of metabolic engineering, is a priority. The prerequisite for any attempt at metabolic engineering is a detailed knowledge of the underlying biosynthetic and regulatory pathways in plants. Over the past few decades, an enormous body of information about the biochemistry and genetics of biosynthetic pathways involved in PNPs production has been generated. In this review, we focus on the three large classes of plant secondary metabolites: terpenoids (or isoprenoids), phenylpropanoids, and alkaloids. All three provide excellent examples of the tremendous efforts undertaken to boost our understanding of biosynthetic pathways, resulting in the first successes in plant metabolic engineering. We further consider what essential information is still missing, and how future research directions could help achieve the rational design of plants as chemical factories for high-value products. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Natural alkaloids as P-gp inhibitors for multidrug resistance reversal in cancer.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Prashant; Vishwakarma, Ram A; Bharate, Sandip B

    2017-09-29

    The biggest challenge associated with cancer chemotherapy is the development of cross multi-drug resistance to almost all anti-cancer agents upon chronic treatment. The major contributing factor for this resistance is efflux of the drugs by the p-glycoprotein pump. Over the years, inhibitors of this pump have been discovered to administer them in combination with chemotherapeutic agents. The clinical failure of first and second generation P-gp inhibitors (such as verapamil and cyclosporine analogs) has led to the discovery of third generation potent P-gp inhibitors (tariquidar, zosuquidar, laniquidar). Most of these inhibitors are nitrogenous compounds and recently a natural alkaloid CBT-01(®) (tetrandrine) has advanced to the clinical phase. CBT-01 demonstrated positive results in Phase-I study in combination with paclitaxel, which warranted conducting it's Phase II/III trial. Apart from this, there exist a large number of natural alkaloids possessing potent inhibition of P-gp efflux pump and other related pumps responsible for the development of resistance. Despite the extensive contribution of alkaloids in this area, has never been reviewed. The present review provides a comprehensive account on natural alkaloids possessing P-gp inhibition activity and their potential for multidrug resistance reversal in cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Marine and soil derived natural products: a new source of novel cardiovascular protective agents targeting the endothelin system.

    PubMed

    Planes, Nadir; Caballero-George, Catherina

    2015-06-01

    Inhibition of the endothelin system is a recognized therapeutic approach for treating complex cardiovascular diseases. The search for natural inhibitors of the endothelin system has focused mainly on land, with recent, emerging data suggesting the underestimated potential of marine microorganisms for producing leads with cardioprotective potential. The present work reviews natural products identified as inhibitors of the endothelin system, their origin, their mechanism of action, and their ecological significance. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Scaffold Diversity Inspired by the Natural Product Evodiamine: Discovery of Highly Potent and Multitargeting Antitumor Agents.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shengzheng; Fang, Kun; Dong, Guoqiang; Chen, Shuqiang; Liu, Na; Miao, Zhenyuan; Yao, Jianzhong; Li, Jian; Zhang, Wannian; Sheng, Chunquan

    2015-08-27

    A critical question in natural product-based drug discovery is how to translate the product into drug-like molecules with optimal pharmacological properties. The generation of natural product-inspired scaffold diversity is an effective but challenging strategy to investigate the broader chemical space and identify promising drug leads. Extending our efforts to the natural product evodiamine, a diverse library containing 11 evodiamine-inspired novel scaffolds and their derivatives were designed and synthesized. Most of them showed good to excellent antitumor activity against various human cancer cell lines. In particular, 3-chloro-10-hydroxyl thio-evodiamine (66c) showed excellent in vitro and in vivo antitumor efficacy with good tolerability and low toxicity. Antitumor mechanism and target profiling studies indicate that compound 66c is the first-in-class triple topoisomerase I/topoisomerase II/tubulin inhibitor. Overall, this study provided an effective strategy for natural product-based drug discovery.

  9. Spectroscopic Characterization of a Natural Product: Anethole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barber, Victoria P.; Newby, Josh J.

    2013-06-01

    Anethole [(E)-1-methoxy-4-(1-propenyl)benzene] is a natural product molecule that is commonly recognized as the flavor component of anise, fennel, and licorice. Early jet-cooled spectroscopy of anethole showed the existence of two possible conformations, but did not address details of the vibronic structure. Here, we report the jet-cooled, laser-induced fluorescence and single vibronic level fluorescence spectra of anethole. Analysis of the spectra confirms the existence of two rotamers in the expansion that differ by the relative orientation of the methoxy and propenyl groups. The observed vibronic activity is similar to that of styrene and indicates planar symmetry of both rotamers. Vibrational assignments of anethole are assisted by density functional theory calculations and the results are compared with the analogous motions in styrene. V. H. Grassian, E. R. Bernstein, H. V. Secor and J. I. Seeman J. Phys. Chem. {93, 3470 (1989).

  10. Natural products: a safest approach for obesity.

    PubMed

    Vasudeva, Neeru; Yadav, Neerja; Sharma, Surendra Kumar

    2012-06-01

    Obesity is recognized as a social problem, associated with serious health risks and increased mortality. Numerous trials have been conducted to find and develop new anti-obesity drugs through herbal sources to minimize adverse reactions associated with the present anti-obesity drugs. The use of natural products as medicine has been documented for hundreds of years in various traditional systems of medicines throughout the world. This review focuses on the medicinal plants such as Achyranthus aspera, Camellia sinensis, Emblica officinalis, Garcinia cambogia, Terminalia arjuna, etc., being used traditionally in Ayurvedic, Unani, Siddha and Chinese, etc., systems of medicine. The review also highlights recent reported phytochemicals such as escins, perennisosides, dioscin, gracillin, etc., and the various extracts of the plants like Nelumbo nucifera, Panax japonicas, Cichorium intybus, Cyperus rotundus, Paeonia suffruticosa, etc., which have been successfully identified for the treatment of obesity.

  11. Didemnins, tamandarins and related natural products.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jisun; Currano, Judith N; Carroll, Patrick J; Joullié, Madeleine M

    2012-03-01

    Since the discovery and isolation of the didemnin family of marine depsipeptides in 1981, the synthesis and biological activity of its congeners have been of great interest to the scientific community. The didemnins have demonstrated antitumor, antiviral, and immunosuppressive activity at low nano- and femtomolar levels. Of the congeners, didemnin B was the first marine natural product to reach phase II clinical trials in the United States, stimulating many analogue syntheses to date. About two decades later, tamandarins A and B were isolated, and were found to possess very similar structure and biological activity to that of the didemnin B. These compounds have shown impressive biological activity and some progress has been made in establishing structure-activity relationships. However, their molecular mechanism of action still remains unclear. This review highlights the long-standing study of didemnins and its critical application towards the understanding of the molecular mechanism of action of tamandarins and their potential use as therapeutic agents.

  12. Novel Chemical Space Exploration via Natural Products

    PubMed Central

    Rosén, Josefin; Gottfries, Johan; Muresan, Sorel; Backlund, Anders; Oprea, Tudor I.

    2009-01-01

    Natural products (NPs) are a rich source of novel compound classes and new drugs. In the present study we have used the chemical space navigation tool ChemGPS-NP to evaluate the chemical space occupancy by NPs and bioactive medicinal chemistry compounds from the database WOMBAT. The two sets differ notable in coverage of chemical space, and tangible lead-like NPs were found to cover regions of chemical space that lack representation in WOMBAT. Property based similarity calculations were performed to identify NP neighbours of approved drugs. Several of the NPs revealed by this method, were confirmed to exhibit the same activity as their drug neighbours. The identification of leads from a NP starting point may prove a useful strategy for drug discovery, in the search for novel leads with unique properties. PMID:19265440

  13. Mixed fermentation for natural product drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Pettit, Robin K

    2009-05-01

    Natural products continue to play a major role in drug discovery and development. However, chemical redundancy is an ongoing problem. Genomic studies indicate that certain groups of bacteria and fungi have dozens of secondary metabolite pathways that are not expressed under standard laboratory growth conditions. One approach to more fully access the metabolic potential of cultivatable microbes is mixed fermentation, where the presence of neighboring microbes may induce secondary metabolite synthesis. Research to date indicates that mixed fermentation can result in increased antibiotic activity in crude extracts, increased yields of previously described metabolites, increased yields of previously undetected metabolites, analogues of known metabolites resulting from combined pathways and, importantly, induction of previously unexpressed pathways for bioactive constituents.

  14. Novel chemical space exploration via natural products.

    PubMed

    Rosén, Josefin; Gottfries, Johan; Muresan, Sorel; Backlund, Anders; Oprea, Tudor I

    2009-04-09

    Natural products (NPs) are a rich source of novel compound classes and new drugs. In the present study we have used the chemical space navigation tool ChemGPS-NP to evaluate the chemical space occupancy by NPs and bioactive medicinal chemistry compounds from the database WOMBAT. The two sets differ notably in coverage of chemical space, and tangible leadlike NPs were found to cover regions of chemical space that lack representation in WOMBAT. Property based similarity calculations were performed to identify NP neighbors of approved drugs. Several of the NPs revealed by this method were confirmed to exhibit the same activity as their drug neighbors. The identification of leads from a NP starting point may prove a useful strategy for drug discovery in the search for novel leads with unique properties.

  15. Ikarugamycin: A Natural Product Inhibitor of Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Elkin, Sarah R.; Oswald, Nathaniel W.; Reed, Dana K.; Mettlen, Marcel; MacMillan, John B.; Schmid, Sandra L.

    2017-01-01

    Ikarugamycin (IKA) is a previously discovered antibiotic, which has been shown to inhibit the uptake of oxidized low-density lipoproteins in macrophages. Furthermore, several groups have previously used IKA to inhibit clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) in plant cell lines. However, detailed characterization of IKA has yet to be performed. Consequently, we performed biochemistry and microscopy experiments to further characterize the effects of IKA on CME. We show that IKA has an IC50 of 2.7 µm in H1299 cells and acutely inhibits CME, but not other endocytic pathways, in a panel of cell lines. Although long-term incubation with IKA has cytotoxic effects, the short-term inhibitory effects on CME are reversible. Thus, IKA can be a useful tool for probing routes of endocytic trafficking. PMID:27392092

  16. Use of natural health products in children

    PubMed Central

    Pike, Andrea; Etchegary, Holly; Godwin, Marshall; McCrate, Farah; Crellin, John; Mathews, Maria; Law, Rebecca; Newhook, Leigh Anne; Kinden, Jody

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To gain a more thorough understanding of why parents choose to give their children natural health products (NHPs), parents’ sources of information about NHPs, and the extent of disclosure and conversation with family doctors about the use of NHPs. Design Qualitative study. Setting Newfoundland and Labrador. Participants Parents of children who were using NHPs (N = 20). Methods Individual, semistructured interviews were carried out with parents to obtain a better understanding of the reasoning behind the use of NHPs. Key themes emerging from the qualitative data were identified according to a number of criteria, including relevance to the research objectives, frequency with which a theme was mentioned, relative importance of the themes based on the amount of text taken up to address an issue, and emphasis (eg, emphatic or emotional speech). Main findings The types of NHPs used by parents participating in this study varied, except for the use of multivitamins. In addition, use of the products themselves was variable and inconsistent. Parents reported few concerns about the use of NHPs. The most commonly reported source of information about NHPs was family and friends. Most participants had not spoken to their family doctors about the use of NHPs. Conclusion Participants considered NHPs to be “natural” and seemed to equate this assessment with safety. This might explain why these parents sought advice and information from family and friends rather than from their family doctors and often failed to disclose the use of NHPs to their children’s family doctors. PMID:23946044

  17. Chocolate: A Marvelous Natural Product of Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tannenbaum, Ginger

    2004-08-01

    Chocolate is a natural product as ubiquitous as television. Of course, it is eaten, but it is also found in air fresheners, marking pens, flavoring in a multitude of products including soda pop, and as an aroma in "chocolate-dyed" T-shirts. However, most of us are completely unaware of the complex chemical reactions that take place to produce chocolate and the necessary technology that has evolved to produce chocolate and all its byproducts. Processing results in a mixture of many components, an interesting contrast to most of the simple, one-step reactions introduced at the high school level. This article is a survey of chocolate from tree to table. After a brief introduction to the history of chocolate and how and where it is grown, the manufacturing process is examined, and the chemistry is explored. A bit of the jargon used in the industry is mentioned. Cocoa butter is a significant ingredient in chocolate, and an investigation of it introduces triglycerides, fatty acids, polymorphic behavior, and molecular packing of the fats in chocolate and how they affect the tempering process. There is a brief discussion of chocolate's non-Newtonian behavior and the resulting challenges presented in the manufacturing process. See Featured Molecules Featured on the Cover

  18. Natural Products as a Foundation for Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Beutler, John A.

    2009-01-01

    Natural products have contributed to the development of many drugs for diverse indications. While most U.S. pharmaceutical companies have reduced or eliminated their in-house natural product groups, new paradigms and new enterprises have evolved to carry on a role for natural products in the pharmaceutical industry. Many of the reasons for the decline in popularity of natural products are being addressed by the development of new techniques for screening and production. This overview aims to inform pharmacologists of current strategies and techniques that make natural products a viable strategic choice for inclusion in drug discovery programs. PMID:20161632

  19. Cordyceps fungi: natural products, pharmacological functions and developmental products.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xuanwei; Gong, Zhenghua; Su, Ying; Lin, Juan; Tang, Kexuan

    2009-03-01

    Parasitic Cordyceps fungi, such as Cordyceps sinensis, is a parasitic complex of fungus and caterpillar, which has been used for medicinal purposes for centuries particularly in China, Japan and other Asian countries. This article gives a general idea of the latest developments in C. sinensis research, with regard to the active chemical components, the pharmacological effects and the research and development of products in recent years. The common names for preparations include DongChongXiaCao in Chinese, winter worm summer grass in English. It has many bioactive components, such as 3'-deoxyadenosine, cordycepic acid and Cordyceps polysaccharides. It is commonly used to replenish the kidney and soothe the lung, and for the treatment of fatigue. It also can be used to treat conditions such as night sweating, hyposexuality, hyperglycaemia, hyperlipidaemia, asthenia after severe illness, respiratory disease, renal dysfunction, renal failure, arrhythmias and other heart disease and liver disease. Because of its rarity and outstanding curative effects, several mycelia strains have been isolated from natural Cordyceps and manufactured by fermentation technology, and are commonly sold as health food products. In addition, some substitutes such as C. militaris and adulterants also have been used; therefore, quality control of C. sinensis and its products is very important to ensure their safety and efficacy. Recent research advances in the study of Cordyceps, including Cordyceps mushrooms, chemical components, pharmacological functions and developmental products, has been reviewed and discussed. Developing trends in the field have also been appraised.

  20. New advanced glycation end-products inhibitors from Dichrostachys cinerea Wight & Arn.

    PubMed

    Suresh, G; Tiwari, Ashok K; Radha Krishna Murthy, M; Anand Kumar, D; Rajendra Prasad, K; Ranga Rao, R; Zehra Ali, A; Suresh Babu, K

    2012-01-01

    Free radical scavenging and advanced glycation end-product (AGE) inhibitory potential were evaluated in the crude methanol extract of Dichrostachys cinerea. Bioassay-guided isolation led to the identification of four flavan-3-ols, namely (-)-mesquitol (1), oritin (2), (-)-festidinol (3) and (-)-epicatechin (4). Analysis of structure-activity relationships revealed that the presence of 7,8-dihydroxyl groups in the A-ring of flavan-3-ols in conjunction with 3',4'-dihydroxyls in the B-ring (1) is an important criterion for displaying potent AGE inhibitory activity along with free radical scavenging properties. (-)-Mesquitol (1), oritin (2), and (-)-festidinol (3) were found to be new natural AGE inhibitors. (-)-Mesquitol (1) displayed the most potent AGE inhibitory activity. Results suggest that (-)-mesquitol (1) may serve as an important natural organic lead compound for future development of antiglycating agents along with potent antioxidant activity.

  1. Recent progress in the discovery of natural inhibitors against human carboxylesterases.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan-Dan; Zou, Li-Wei; Jin, Qiang; Hou, Jie; Ge, Guang-Bo; Yang, Ling

    2017-03-01

    Mammalian carboxylesterases (CEs) are important serine hydrolases catalyzing the hydrolysis of ester- or amide-containing compounds into the corresponding alcohols and carboxylic acids. In human, two primary carboxylesterases including hCE1 and hCE2 have been identified and extensively studied in the past decade. hCE1 is known to play crucial roles in the metabolism of a wide variety of endogenous esters, clinical drugs and insecticides, while hCE2 plays a key role in the metabolic activation of anticancer agents including irinotecan and capecitabine. The key roles of hCEs in both human health and xenobiotic metabolism arouse great interest in the discovery of potent and selective hCEs inhibitors to modulate endobiotic metabolism or to improve the outcomes of patients administrated with ester drugs. This review covers the significance and recent progress in the discovery of natural inhibitors against hCEs. The tools for screening and characterization of inhibitors against human CEs, including traditional LC-based approaches and the newly developed optical substrate-based assays, are summarized and discussed for the first time. Furthermore, the structural information and inhibitory capacities of all reported hCEs inhibitors including fatty acids, flavonoids, tanshinones and triterpenoids have been systematically summarized. All information and knowledge presented in this review will be very helpful for medicinal chemists to develop more potent and highly selective inhibitors against hCEs for potential biomedical applications.

  2. Naturally occurring small-molecule inhibitors of hedgehog/GLI-mediated transcription.

    PubMed

    Hosoya, Takahiro; Arai, Midori A; Koyano, Takashi; Kowithayakorn, Thaworn; Ishibashi, Masami

    2008-05-05

    The aberrant hedgehog (Hh)/GLI signaling pathway causes the formation and progression of a variety of tumors. To search for Hh/GLI inhibitors, we screened for naturally occurring inhibitors of the transcriptional activator GLI1 by using a cell-based assay. We identified zerumbone (1), zerumbone epoxide (2), staurosporinone (9), 6-hydroxystaurosporinone (10), arcyriaflavin C (11) and 5,6-dihydroxyarcyriaflavin A (12) as inhibitors of GLI-mediated transcription. In addition, we isolated physalins F (17) and B (18) from Physalis minima, which are also potent inhibitors. These compounds also inhibited GLI2-mediated transactivation. Semiquantitative RT-PCR and Western blotting analysis further revealed that 1, 9, 17, and 18 decreased Hh-related component expressions. We also show that inhibitors of GLI-mediated transactivation reduce the level of the antiapoptosis Bcl2 expression. Finally, these identified compounds were cytotoxic to PANC1 pancreatic cancer cells, which express Hh/GLI components. These results strongly suggest that the cytotoxicity of the compounds to PANC1 cells correlates with their inhibition of GLI-mediated transcription.

  3. Structure-based design of non-natural amino-acid inhibitors of amyloid fibril formation

    SciTech Connect

    Sievers, Stuart A.; Karanicolas, John; Chang, Howard W.; Zhao, Anni; Jiang, Lin; Zirafi, Onofrio; Stevens, Jason T.; Münch, Jan; Baker, David; Eisenberg, David

    2011-09-20

    Many globular and natively disordered proteins can convert into amyloid fibrils. These fibrils are associated with numerous pathologies as well as with normal cellular functions, and frequently form during protein denaturation. Inhibitors of pathological amyloid fibril formation could be useful in the development of therapeutics, provided that the inhibitors were specific enough to avoid interfering with normal processes. Here we show that computer-aided, structure-based design can yield highly specific peptide inhibitors of amyloid formation. Using known atomic structures of segments of amyloid fibrils as templates, we have designed and characterized an all-D-amino-acid inhibitor of the fibril formation of the tau protein associated with Alzheimer's disease, and a non-natural L-amino-acid inhibitor of an amyloid fibril that enhances sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus. Our results indicate that peptides from structure-based designs can disrupt the fibril formation of full-length proteins, including those, such as tau protein, that lack fully ordered native structures. Because the inhibiting peptides have been designed on structures of dual-{beta}-sheet 'steric zippers', the successful inhibition of amyloid fibril formation strengthens the hypothesis that amyloid spines contain steric zippers.

  4. Use of natural health products in children

    PubMed Central

    Godwin, Marshall; Crellin, John; Mathews, Maria; Chowdhury, Nurun L.; Newhook, Leigh Anne; Pike, Andrea; McCrate, Farah; Law, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine how common it is for parents to give natural health products (NHPs) to their children, which NHPs are being used, why they are being used, and parents’ assessments of the benefits and side effects of NHPs. Design Survey. Setting Newfoundland and Labrador. Participants Parents waiting in their family doctors’ offices. Main outcome measures Parent and child demographic characteristics; pediatric chronic medical conditions affecting the children; prescribed medications, over-the-counter medications, and NHPs used by the children; why the medications and NHPs were being used, the dose, and parents’ assessments of the effectiveness and side effects; and where parents had heard about the NHPs, whether they had told their physicians that the children were taking the products, and where they had obtained the products. Results A total of 202 (53.4%) of the 378 eligible adults who were approached completed the survey. This represented 333 children. Mean (SD) age of the children was 5.1 (3.3) years. Overall, 28.7% of parents reported using nonvitamin NHPs for their children. A total of 137 children (41.1%) had taken NHPs (including vitamins); 61.1% of the NHPs being used were vitamins. The remainder fell under teas (primarily chamomile and green teas), echinacea, fish or omega-3 oils, and a large category of “other” products. These NHPs were most commonly used to improve general health, improve immunity, and prevent colds and infections. Approximately half of the parents (51.7%) believed their children had benefited from taking NHPs, and 4.4% believed their children had experienced adverse side effects. Slightly less than half of the parents (45.0%) had informed their physicians that their children were taking NHPs. Conclusion Overall, 45.5% of parents attending physicians’ offices reported using NHPs in their children. If vitamins are not included in the definition of NHPs, this rate drops to 28.7%. Parents most commonly use NHPs

  5. [The recent research progress of chemistry of marine natural products].

    PubMed

    Shi, Qing-wen; Li, Li-geng; Wang, Yu-fang; Huo, Chang-hong; Zhang, Man-li

    2010-10-01

    Ocean is a unique and excellent resource that provides a diverse array of intriguing natural products. Marine natural products have demonstrated significant and extremely potent biological activities and have captured the attention of natural products chemists in the past few decades. It is increasingly recognized that a wealth of fascinating natural products and novel chemical entities will play a dominant role in the discovery of useful leads for the development of pharmaceutical agents and provide useful probes to lead to breakthroughs in a variety of life-science fields. This article focused on the research progress of chemistry of marine natural products in recent five years.

  6. Identification of natural inhibitors of Entamoeba histolytica cysteine synthase from microbial secondary metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Mihoko; Jeelani, Ghulam; Masuda, Yui; Sakai, Kazunari; Tsukui, Kumiko; Waluyo, Danang; Tarwadi; Watanabe, Yoshio; Nonaka, Kenichi; Matsumoto, Atsuko; Ōmura, Satoshi; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi; Shiomi, Kazuro

    2015-01-01

    Amebiasis is a common worldwide diarrheal disease, caused by the protozoan parasite, Entamoeba histolytica. Metronidazole has been a drug of choice against amebiasis for decades despite its known side effects and low efficacy against asymptomatic cyst carriers. E. histolytica is also capable of surviving sub-therapeutic levels of metronidazole in vitro. Novel drugs with different mode of action are therefore urgently needed. The sulfur assimilatory de novo L-cysteine biosynthetic pathway is essential for various cellular activities, including the proliferation and anti-oxidative defense of E. histolytica. Since the pathway, consisting of two reactions catalyzed by serine acetyltransferase (SAT) and cysteine synthase (CS, O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase), does not exist in humans, it is a rational drug target against amebiasis. To discover inhibitors against the CS of E. histolytica (EhCS), the compounds of Kitasato Natural Products Library were screened against two recombinant CS isozymes: EhCS1 and EhCS3. Nine compounds inhibited EhCS1 and EhCS3 with IC50 values of 0.31–490 μM. Of those, seven compounds share a naphthoquinone moiety, indicating the structural importance of the moiety for binding to the active site of EhCS1 and EhCS3. We further screened >9,000 microbial broths for CS inhibition and purified two compounds, xanthofulvin and exophillic acid from fungal broths. Xanthofulvin inhibited EhCS1 and EhCS3. Exophillic acid showed high selectivity against EhCS1, but exhibited no inhibition against EhCS3. In vitro anti-amebic activity of the 11 EhCS inhibitors was also examined. Deacetylkinamycin C and nanaomycin A showed more potent amebicidal activity with IC50 values of 18 and 0.8 μM, respectively, in the cysteine deprived conditions. The differential sensitivity of trophozoites against deacetylkinamycin C in the presence or absence of L-cysteine in the medium and the IC50 values against EhCS suggest the amebicidal effect of deacetylkinamycin C is due to

  7. Oxygen-containing fragments in natural products.

    PubMed

    Titarenko, Zoya; Vasilevich, Natalya; Zernov, Vladimir; Kirpichenok, Michael; Genis, Dmitry

    2013-02-01

    An analysis of the chemical environment of the oxygen atoms in the DNP database compared to the CMC and SCD databases was performed. Some structural clusters were identified which are predominant among the natural products and can be considered as distinctive features of NPs. Fifty-three oxygen-containing structural fragments that are distinctive for the DNP (distinctive set of fragments DSF) in comparison with the SCD have been identified. A new descriptor Mc was introduced for describing the ratio of atoms involved in the DSF to the total number of heavy atoms. A significant difference in the Mc values among the reference databases allowed the use of a specific cluster of the DSF as a tool for performing similarity searches for oxygen-containing NP molecules, or for evaluation or comparison of databases according to their NP-likeness. An example illustrating that the suggested approach could allow not only estimating the NP-likeness, but also serve as a tool for designing new NP-like compounds is provided. The suggested approach for NP-likeness evaluation moves away from the traditional ideas of scaffolds, cycles, linkers and substituents.

  8. Oxygen-containing fragments in natural products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titarenko, Zoya; Vasilevich, Natalya; Zernov, Vladimir; Kirpichenok, Michael; Genis, Dmitry

    2013-02-01

    An analysis of the chemical environment of the oxygen atoms in the DNP database compared to the CMC and SCD databases was performed. Some structural clusters were identified which are predominant among the natural products and can be considered as distinctive features of NPs. Fifty-three oxygen-containing structural fragments that are distinctive for the DNP (distinctive set of fragments DSF) in comparison with the SCD have been identified. A new descriptor Mc was introduced for describing the ratio of atoms involved in the DSF to the total number of heavy atoms. A significant difference in the Mc values among the reference databases allowed the use of a specific cluster of the DSF as a tool for performing similarity searches for oxygen-containing NP molecules, or for evaluation or comparison of databases according to their NP-likeness. An example illustrating that the suggested approach could allow not only estimating the NP-likeness, but also serve as a tool for designing new NP-like compounds is provided. The suggested approach for NP-likeness evaluation moves away from the traditional ideas of scaffolds, cycles, linkers and substituents.

  9. Identification of natural allosteric inhibitor for Akt1 protein through computational approaches and in vitro evaluation.

    PubMed

    Pragna Lakshmi, T; Kumar, Amit; Vijaykumar, Veena; Natarajan, Sakthivel; Krishna, Ramadas

    2017-03-01

    Akt, a serine/threonine protein kinase, is often hyper activated in breast and prostate cancers, but with poor prognosis. Allosteric inhibitors regulate aberrant kinase activity by stabilizing the protein in inactive conformation. Several natural compounds have been reported as inhibitors for kinases. In this study, to identify potential natural allosteric inhibitor for Akt1, we generated a seven-point pharmacophore model and screened it through natural compound library. Quercetin-7-O-β-d-glucopyranoside or Q7G was found to be the best among selected molecules based on its hydrogen bond occupancy with key allosteric residues, persistent polar contacts and salt bridges that stabilize Akt1 in inactive conformation and minimum binding free energy during molecular dynamics simulation. Q7G induced dose-dependent inhibition of breast cancer cells (MDA MB-231) and arrested them in G1 and sub-G phase. This was associated with down-regulation of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2, up-regulation of cleaved caspase-3 and PARP. Expression of p-Akt (Ser473) was also down-regulated which might be due to Akt1 inhibition in inactive conformation. We further confirmed the Akt1 and Q7G interaction which was observed to have a dissociation constant (Kd) of 0.246μM. With these computational, biological and thermodynamic studies, we suggest Q7G as a lead molecule and propose for its further optimization.

  10. Natural products and combinatorial chemistry: back to the future.

    PubMed

    Ortholand, Jean-Yves; Ganesan, A

    2004-06-01

    The introduction of high-throughput synthesis and combinatorial chemistry has precipitated a global decline in the screening of natural products by the pharmaceutical industry. Some companies terminated their natural products program, despite the unproven success of the new technologies. This was a premature decision, as natural products have a long history of providing important medicinal agents. Furthermore, they occupy a complementary region of chemical space compared with the typical synthetic compound library. For these reasons, the interest in natural products has been rekindled. Various approaches have evolved that combine the power of natural products and organic chemistry, ranging from the combinatorial total synthesis of analogues to the exploration of natural product scaffolds and the design of completely unnatural molecules that resemble natural products in their molecular characteristics.

  11. A Historical Overview of Natural Products in Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Daniel A.; Urban, Sylvia; Roessner, Ute

    2012-01-01

    Historically, natural products have been used since ancient times and in folklore for the treatment of many diseases and illnesses. Classical natural product chemistry methodologies enabled a vast array of bioactive secondary metabolites from terrestrial and marine sources to be discovered. Many of these natural products have gone on to become current drug candidates. This brief review aims to highlight historically significant bioactive marine and terrestrial natural products, their use in folklore and dereplication techniques to rapidly facilitate their discovery. Furthermore a discussion of how natural product chemistry has resulted in the identification of many drug candidates; the application of advanced hyphenated spectroscopic techniques to aid in their discovery, the future of natural product chemistry and finally adopting metabolomic profiling and dereplication approaches for the comprehensive study of natural product extracts will be discussed. PMID:24957513

  12. Inhibition of the 20S proteosome by a protein proteinase inhibitor: evidence that a natural serine proteinase inhibitor can inhibit a threonine proteinase.

    PubMed

    Yabe, Kimihiko; Koide, Takehiko

    2009-02-01

    The 20S proteasome (20S) is an intracellular threonine proteinase (Mr 750,000) that plays important roles in many cellular regulations. Several synthetic peptide inhibitors and bacteria-derived inhibitors such as lactacystin and epoxomicin have been identified as potent proteasome inhibitors. However, essentially no protein proteinase inhibitor has been characterized. By examining several small size protein proteinase inhibitors, we found that a well-known serine proteinase inhibitor from bovine pancreas, basic pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI), inhibits the 20S in vitro and ex vivo. Inhibition of the 20S by BPTI was time- and concentration-dependent, and stoichiometric. To inhibit the 20S activity, BPTI needs to enter into the interior of the 20S molecule. The molar ratio of BPTI to the 20S in the complex was estimated as approximately six BPTI to one 20S, thereby two sets of three peptidase activities (trypsin-like, chymotrypsin-like and caspase-like) of the 20S were all inhibited. These results indicate that an entrance hole to the 20S formed by seven alpha-subunits is sufficiently large for BPTI to enter. This report is essentially the initial description of the inhibition of a threonine proteinase by a protein serine proteinase inhibitor, suggesting a common mechanism of inhibition between serine and threonine proteinases by a natural protein proteinase inhibitor.

  13. Synthetic and Natural Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors as Potential Lead Compounds for Effective Therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Ashish; Srivastava, Amit K; Singour, Pradeep K; Gouda, Panchanan

    2016-01-01

    Monoamine oxidases A and B (MAO-A and B) play a critical role in the metabolism of intracellular neurotransmitters of the central nervous system. For decades, MAO inhibitors have proven their clinical efficacy as potential drug targets for several neurological and neurodegenerative diseases. Use of first generation non selective MAO inhibitors as neuropsychiatric drugs elicited several side effects like hypertensive crisis and cheese reaction. Therefore their use is now limited due to non-selectivity towards MAO isoforms and inhibition of metabolizing enzymes like cytochrome P450. Development of selective and specific MAO inhibitors like moclobemide, toloxatone improves their efficacy as disease-modifying effects in monotherapy as well as adjunctive therapy. Recently a lot of research has been done to elucidate the pharmacological potential of medicinal plants and their isolated bioactive constituents having MAO inhibitory activity. Herbs containing MAO inhibitors are extensively used for the development of potent synthetic drugs and as safe and effective alternatives to the available synthetic drugs in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as depression, Parkinson and Alzheimer's. In several diseases like Parkinson natural MAO inhibitors prevented the neuron denaturalization by their dual action via enhancing neurotransmission of dopamine as well as lowering the generation of free radicals and toxins. Currently development of selective MAO inhibitors is still under study to achieve more effective therapies by using Computer Aided Drug Designing, Ligand-based models and structure-activity hypothesis. These approaches also facilitate understanding the interaction of newly designed molecule with MAO enzymes and the rationalization of probable mechanisms of action.

  14. Construction of a 3D-shaped, natural product like fragment library by fragmentation and diversification of natural products.

    PubMed

    Prescher, Horst; Koch, Guido; Schuhmann, Tim; Ertl, Peter; Bussenault, Alex; Glick, Meir; Dix, Ina; Petersen, Frank; Lizos, Dimitrios E

    2017-02-01

    A fragment library consisting of 3D-shaped, natural product-like fragments was assembled. Library construction was mainly performed by natural product degradation and natural product diversification reactions and was complemented by the identification of 3D-shaped, natural product like fragments available from commercial sources. In addition, during the course of these studies, novel rearrangements were discovered for Massarigenin C and Cytochalasin E. The obtained fragment library has an excellent 3D-shape and natural product likeness, covering a novel, unexplored and underrepresented chemical space in fragment based drug discovery (FBDD). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Capillary electrophoresis as a novel technique for screening natural flavonoids as kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Nehmé, Reine; Nehmé, Hala; Roux, Grégory; Destandau, Emilie; Claude, Bérengère; Morin, Philippe

    2013-11-29

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) was used for the first time to evaluate the inhibition activity of aglycone flavonoids (such as quercetin and isorhamnetin) and some of their glycosylated derivatives toward human kinases. The cyclin-dependant kinase 5 (CDK5/p25) and the glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) were chosen since they are very promising biological targets for developing treatments against neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. In a previous work, we developed an in-capillary kinase CE assay where the capillary was used as an enzymatic nanoreactor in which the kinase, its substrate, adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) and its potential inhibitor were mixed by using transverse diffusion of laminar flow profiles (TDLFP). The product adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP) was then detected at 254nm and quantified. In this work, this assay was improved to reduce, for the first time, the dilution effect commonly observed with the TDLFP approach. Under the new conditions established herein, IC50 values for quercetin, kaempferol and flavopiridol were successfully obtained and were in the same order of magnitude of those reported in the literature using the conventional assay using radioactive (33)P-ATP. It was shown that aglycone flavonoids have an inhibition activity more important than their glycosylated derivatives. CE was also proved to be very efficient for evaluating inhibition activity of complex samples such as crude extracts of sea buckthorn (SBT) berries obtained by solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME). This novel approach to combine SFME technique to a CE-based enzymatic assay is very interesting for evaluating the biological activity of natural material in a fast, simple, economic (no use of neither fluorescent nor radiometric labels) and green (no organic solvents) manner. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. New synthetic strategies towards psammaplin A, access to natural product analogues for biological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Baud, Matthias G J; Leiser, Thomas; Meyer-Almes, Franz-Josef; Fuchter, Matthew J

    2011-02-07

    New synthetic routes towards the natural product psammaplin A were developed with the particular view to preparing diverse analogues for biological assessment. These routes utilize cheap and commercially available starting materials, and allowed access to psammaplin A analogues not accessible via currently reported methods. Preliminary biological studies revealed these compounds to be the most potent non peptidic inhibitors of the enzyme histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1, class I) discovered so far. Interestingly, psammaplin A and our synthetic analogues show class I selectivity in vitro, an important feature for the design and synthesis of future isoform selective inhibitors.

  17. Natural Gas Evolution in a Gas Hydrate Melt: Effect of Thermodynamic Hydrate Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Sujith, K S; Ramachandran, C N

    2017-01-12

    Natural gas extraction from gas hydrate sediments by injection of hydrate inhibitors involves the decomposition of hydrates. The evolution of dissolved gas from the hydrate melt is an important step in the extraction process. Using classical molecular dynamics simulations, we study the evolution of dissolved methane from its hydrate melt in the presence of two thermodynamic hydrate inhibitors, NaCl and CH3OH. An increase in the concentration of hydrate inhibitors is found to promote the nucleation of methane nanobubbles in the hydrate melt. Whereas NaCl promotes bubble formation by enhancing the hydrophobic interaction between aqueous CH4 molecules, CH3OH molecules assist bubble formation by stabilizing CH4 bubble nuclei formed in the solution. The CH3OH molecules accumulate around the nuclei leading to a decrease in the surface tension at their interface with water. The nanobubbles formed are found to be highly dynamic with frequent exchange of CH4 molecules between the bubble and the surrounding liquid. A quantitative analysis of the dynamic behavior of the bubble is performed by introducing a unit step function whose value depends on the location of CH4 molecules with respect to the bubble. It is observed that an increase in the concentration of thermodynamic hydrate inhibitors reduces the exchange process, making the bubble less dynamic. It is also found that for a given concentration of the inhibitor, larger bubbles are less dynamic compared to smaller ones. The dependence of the dynamic nature of nanobubbles on bubble size and inhibitor concentration is correlated with the solubility of CH4 and the Laplace pressure within the bubble. The effect of CO2 on the formation of nanobubble in the CH4-CO2 mixed gas hydrate melt in the presence of inhibitors is also examined. The simulations show that the presence of CO2 molecules significantly reduces the induction time for methane nanobubble nucleation. The role of CO2 in the early nucleation of bubble is explained

  18. Role of natural product diversity in chemical biology.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jiyong

    2011-06-01

    Through the natural selection process, natural products possess a unique and vast chemical diversity and have been evolved for optimal interactions with biological macromolecules. Owing to their diversity, target affinity, and specificity, natural products have demonstrated enormous potential as modulators of biomolecular function, been an essential source for drug discovery, and provided design principles for combinatorial library development.

  19. Is There Consistency between the Binding Affinity and Inhibitory Potential of Natural Polyphenols as α-amylase Inhibitors?

    PubMed

    Xu, Wei; Shao, Rong; Xiao, Jianbo

    2016-07-26

    The inhibitory potential of natural polyphenols for α-amylases has attracted great interests among researchers. The structure-affinity properties of natural polyphenols binding to α-amylase and the structure-activity relationship of dietary polyphenols inhibiting α-amylase were deeply investigated. There is a lack of consistency between the structure-affinity relationship and the structure-activity relationship of natural polyphenols as α-amylase inhibitors. Is it consistent between the binding affinity and inhibitory potential of natural polyphenols as with α-amylase inhibitors? It was found that the consistency between the binding affinity and inhibitory potential of natural polyphenols as with α-amylase inhibitors is not equivocal. For example, there is no consistency between the binding affinity and the inhibitory potential of quercetin and its glycosides as α-amylase inhibitors. However, catechins with higher α-amylase inhibitory potential exhibited higher affinity with α-amylase.

  20. Natural Product Biosynthetic Diversity and Comparative Genomics of the Cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Dittmann, Elke; Gugger, Muriel; Sivonen, Kaarina; Fewer, David P

    2015-10-01

    Cyanobacteria are an ancient lineage of slow-growing photosynthetic bacteria and a prolific source of natural products with intricate chemical structures and potent biological activities. The bulk of these natural products are known from just a handful of genera. Recent efforts have elucidated the mechanisms underpinning the biosynthesis of a diverse array of natural products from cyanobacteria. Many of the biosynthetic mechanisms are unique to cyanobacteria or rarely described from other organisms. Advances in genome sequence technology have precipitated a deluge of genome sequences for cyanobacteria. This makes it possible to link known natural products to biosynthetic gene clusters but also accelerates the discovery of new natural products through genome mining. These studies demonstrate that cyanobacteria encode a huge variety of cryptic gene clusters for the production of natural products, and the known chemical diversity is likely to be just a fraction of the true biosynthetic capabilities of this fascinating and ancient group of organisms. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Discovering Natural Product Modulators to Overcome Multidrug Resistance in Cancer Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chung-Pu; Ohnuma, Shinobu; Ambudkar, Suresh V.

    2012-01-01

    Multidrug resistance caused by the overexpression of ABC drug transporters is a major obstacle in clinical cancer chemotherapy. For several years, it appeared that direct inhibition of ABC transporters would be the cheapest and most efficient way to combat this problem. Unfortunately, progress in finding a potent, selective inhibitor to modulate ABC transporters and restore drug sensitivity in multidrug-resistant cancer cells has been slow and challenging. Candidate drugs should ideally be selective, potent and relatively non-toxic. Many researchers in recent years have turned their attention to utilizing natural products as the building blocks for the development of the next generation of inhibitors, especially after the disappointing results obtained from inhibitors of the first three generations at the clinical trial stage. The first step is to discover natural substances (distinct from the first three generation inhibitors) that are potent, selective and relatively non-toxic in order to be used clinically. Here, we present a brief overview of the prospect of using natural products to modulate the function of ABC drug transporters clinically and their impact on human physiology and pharmacology. PMID:21118092

  2. Natural products as a foundation for drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Beutler, John A

    2009-09-01

    Natural products have provided chemical leads for the development of many drugs for diverse indications. While most U.S. pharmaceutical firms have reduced or eliminated their in-house natural product groups, there is a renewed interest in this source of new chemical entities. Many of the reasons for the past decline in popularity of natural products are being addressed by the development of new techniques for screening and production. The aim of this unit is to review current strategies and techniques that increase the value of natural products as a source for novel drug candidates.

  3. P-glycoprotein inhibitors of natural origin as potential tumor chemo-sensitizers: A review

    PubMed Central

    Abdallah, Hossam M.; Al-Abd, Ahmed M.; El-Dine, Riham Salah; El-Halawany, Ali M.

    2014-01-01

    Resistance of solid tumors to treatment is significantly attributed to pharmacokinetic reasons at both cellular and multi-cellular levels. Anticancer agent must be bio-available at the site of action in a cytotoxic concentration to exert its proposed activity. P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a member of the ATP-dependent membrane transport proteins; it is known to pump substrates out of cells in ATP-dependent mechanism. The over-expression of P-gp in tumor cells reduces the intracellular drug concentrations, which decreases the cytotoxicity of a broad spectrum of antitumor drugs. Accordingly, P-gp inhibitors/blockers are potential enhancer for the cellular bioavailability of several clinically important anticancer drugs such as, anthracyclines, taxanes, vinca alkaloids, and podophyllotoxins. Besides several chemically synthesized P-gp inhibitors/blockers, some naturally occurring compounds and plant extracts were reported for their modulation of multidrug resistance; however, this review will focus only on major classes of naturally occurring inhibitors viz., flavonoids, coumarins, terpenoids, alkaloids and saponins. PMID:25685543

  4. Rapid Optimization of Mcl-1 Inhibitors using Stapled Peptide Libraries Including Non-Natural Side Chains.

    PubMed

    Rezaei Araghi, Raheleh; Ryan, Jeremy A; Letai, Anthony; Keating, Amy E

    2016-05-20

    Alpha helices form a critical part of the binding interface for many protein-protein interactions, and chemically stabilized synthetic helical peptides can be effective inhibitors of such helix-mediated complexes. In particular, hydrocarbon stapling of peptides to generate constrained helices can improve binding affinity and other peptide properties, but determining the best stapled peptide variant often requires laborious trial and error. Here, we describe the rapid discovery and optimization of a stapled-helix peptide that binds to Mcl-1, an antiapoptotic protein that is overexpressed in many chemoresistant cancers. To accelerate discovery, we developed a peptide library synthesis and screening scheme capable of identifying subtle affinity differences among Mcl-1-binding stapled peptides. We used our method to sample combinations of non-natural amino-acid substitutions that we introduced into Mcl-1 inhibitors in the context of a fixed helix-stabilizing hydrocarbon staple that increased peptide helical content and reduced proteolysis. Peptides discovered in our screen contained surprising substitutions at sites that are conserved in natural binding partners. Library-identified peptide M3d is the most potent molecule yet tested for selectively triggering mitochondrial permeabilization in Mcl-1 dependent cell lines. Our library approach for optimizing helical peptide inhibitors can be readily applied to the study of other biomedically important targets.

  5. Matrix metalloproteinase enzymes and their naturally derived inhibitors: novel targets in photocarcinoma therapy.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Anshita; Kaur, Chanchal Deep; Jangdey, Manmohan; Saraf, Swarnlata

    2014-01-01

    The continuous exposure of skin to ultraviolet radiations generates reactive oxygen species leading to photoaging in which degradation of dermal collagen and degeneration of elastic fibers occurs. Matrix metalloproteinase [MMP] enzymes are the proteolytic enzymes which have significant potentiality of cleaving extracellular matrix [ECM] against Ultraviolet [UV] radiation. The important MMPs are MMP1, MMP2 and MMP7 which promote skin cancer when irradiated by UV rays. In lieu of this, the investigation of MMPs and their inhibitors are constantly being studied for successive results. Recent researches have focused on some traditionally used bioactive moieties as natural matrix metalloproteinases inhibitors (MMPIs) and emphasized on the need of more extensive and specific studies on MMPIs, so that a good combination of natural or synthetic MMPIs with the conventional drugs can be evolved for cancer chemotherapy. In this review, we discuss the current view on the feasibility of MMPs as targets for therapeutic intervention in cancer. This review also summarizes the role of small molecular weight natural MMPIs and a clinical update of those natural MMPIs that are under clinical trial stage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Industrial natural product chemistry for drug discovery and development.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Armin; Brönstrup, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Covering: up to March 2013. In addition to their prominent role in basic biological and chemical research, natural products are a rich source of commercial products for the pharmaceutical and other industries. Industrial natural product chemistry is of fundamental importance for successful product development, as the vast majority (ca. 80%) of commercial drugs derived from natural products require synthetic efforts, either to enable economical access to bulk material, and/or to optimize drug properties through structural modifications. This review aims to illustrate issues on the pathway from lead to product, and how they have been successfully addressed by modern natural product chemistry. It is focused on natural products of current relevance that are, or are intended to be, used as pharmaceuticals.

  7. Harnessing osteopontin and other natural inhibitors to mitigate ectopic calcification of bioprosthetic heart valve material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohri, Rachit

    Dystrophic calcification has been the long-standing major cause of bioprosthetic heart valve failure, and has been well studied in terms of the underlying causative mechanisms. Such understanding has yielded several anti-calcification strategies involving biomaterial modification at the preparation stage: chemical alteration, extraction of calcifiable components, or material modification with small-molecule anti-calcific agents. However, newer therapeutic opportunities are offered by the growing illustration of the pathology as a dynamic, actively regulated process involving several gene products, such as osteopontin (OPN), matrix-gla protein (MGP) and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Osteopontin, a multi-functional matricellular glycosylated phosphoprotein has emerged as a prime candidate for the role of an in vivo inhibitor of ectopic calcification with two putative mechanisms: crystal poisoning and mineral-dissolution. The full therapeutic realization of its potential necessitates a better understanding of the mechanisms of anti-calcification by osteopontin, as well as appropriate in vivo models in which to evaluate its efficacy, potency and molecular mechanisms. In this work, we pursued the development and characterization of a reliable in vivo model with the OPN-null mouse to simulate the calcification of bioprosthetic valve material, namely glutaraldehyde-fixed bovine pericardium (GFBP) tissue. Subsequently, we used the calcification model to evaluate hypotheses based on the anti-calcific potential of osteopontin. Several modes of administering exogenous OPN to the implant site in OPN-null mice were explored, including soluble injected OPN, OPN covalently immobilized on the biomaterial, and OPN adsorbed onto the biomaterial. An investigation of the structure-function aspects of the anti-calcific ability of OPN was also pursued in the in vivo model. The OPN-null mouse was also used as an in vivo test-bed to evaluate the anti-calcific potential of other biomolecules

  8. Natural AChE Inhibitors from Plants and their Contribution to Alzheimer’s Disease Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Ana Paula; Faraoni, María Belén; Castro, María Julia; Alza, Natalia Paola; Cavallaro, Valeria

    2013-01-01

    As acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors are an important therapeutic strategy in Alzheimer’s disease, efforts are being made in search of new molecules with anti-AChE activity. The fact that naturally-occurring compounds from plants are considered to be a potential source of new inhibitors has led to the discovery of an important number of secondary metabolites and plant extracts with the ability of inhibiting the enzyme AChE, which, according to the cholinergic hypothesis, increases the levels of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the brain, thus improving cholinergic functions in patients with Alzheimer’s disease and alleviating the symptoms of this neurological disorder. This review summarizes a total of 128 studies which correspond to the most relevant research work published during 2006-2012 (1st semester) on plant-derived compounds, plant extracts and essential oils found to elicit AChE inhibition. PMID:24381530

  9. Natural cysteine protease inhibitors in protozoa: Fifteen years of the chagasin family.

    PubMed

    Costa, Tatiana F R; Lima, Ana Paula C A

    2016-03-01

    Chagasin-type inhibitors comprise natural inhibitors of papain-like cysteine proteases that are distributed among Protist, Bacteria and Archaea. Chagasin was identified in the pathogenic protozoa Trypanosoma cruzi as an approximately 11 kDa protein that is a tight-binding and highly thermostable inhibitor of papain, cysteine cathepsins and endogenous parasite cysteine proteases. It displays an Imunoglobulin-like fold with three exposed loops to one side of the molecule, where amino acid residues present in conserved motifs at the tips of each loop contact target proteases. Differently from cystatins, the loop 2 of chagasin enters the active-site cleft, making direct contact with the catalytic residues, while loops 4 and 6 embrace the enzyme from the sides. Orthologues of chagasin are named Inhibitors of Cysteine Peptidases (ICP), and share conserved overall tri-dimensional structure and mode of binding to proteases. ICPs are tentatively distributed in three families: in family I42 are grouped chagasin-type inhibitors that share conserved residues at the exposed loops; family I71 contains Plasmodium ICPs, which are large proteins having a chagasin-like domain at the C-terminus, with lower similarity to chagasin in the conserved motif at loop 2; family I81 contains Toxoplasma ICP. Recombinant ICPs tested so far can inactivate protozoa cathepsin-like proteases and their mammalian counterparts. Studies on their biological roles were carried out in a few species, mainly using transgenic protozoa, and the conclusions vary. However, in all cases, alterations in the levels of expression of chagasin/ICPs led to substantial changes in one or more steps of parasite biology, with higher incidence in influencing their interaction with the hosts. We will cover most of the findings on chagasin/ICP structural and functional properties and overview the current knowledge on their roles in protozoa.

  10. Use of natural health products in children

    PubMed Central

    Godwin, Marshall; McCrate, Farah; Newhook, Leigh Anne; Pike, Andrea; Crellin, John; Law, Rebecca; Mathews, Maria; Chowdhury, Nurun L.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine the experiences of family physicians in Newfoundland and Labrador with parents’ use of natural health products (NHPs) for their children and to assess physicians’ attitudes toward use of NHPs in children. Design A survey using the Dillman approach. Setting Newfoundland and Labrador. Participants All family physicians in the province. Main outcome measures Physician demographic characteristics; whether physicians inquire about the use of NHPs in children; the degree to which they think patients disclose use of NHPs in children; whether they counsel parents about the potential benefits or harms of NHPs; their own opinions about the usefulness of NHPs; whether they recommend NHPs in children and for what reasons; and the particular NHPs they have seen used in children and for what reasons. Results A total of 159 (33.1%) family physicians responded; 65.4% were men, 71.7% were Canadian medical graduates, and 46.5% practised in rural areas. Overall, 18.8% of family physicians said they regularly or frequently asked about NHP use; 24.7% counseled patients about potential harms. Only 1.9% of physicians believed NHPs were usually beneficial, but a similarly small number (8.4%) thought they were usually harmful. Most respondents were somewhat neutral; 59.7% said they never recommend NHPs for children, and a further 37.0% said they would only “sometimes” recommend NHPs. Conclusion Most physicians believed that NHPs were probably of little benefit but not likely to be harmful. Most NHPs used were vitamins and minerals. Physicians recognized that NHPs were often used by parents for children, but in general they believed NHPs had little effect on their day-to-day medical practices. Thirty-eight (24.7%) of the 154 physicians had at least once recommended an NHP (including vitamins) for their pediatric patients. Physicians believed that parents did not often disclose use of NHPs for their children, but at the same time physicians generally

  11. Machine Learning Estimates of Natural Product Conformational Energies

    PubMed Central

    Rupp, Matthias; Bauer, Matthias R.; Wilcken, Rainer; Lange, Andreas; Reutlinger, Michael; Boeckler, Frank M.; Schneider, Gisbert

    2014-01-01

    Machine learning has been used for estimation of potential energy surfaces to speed up molecular dynamics simulations of small systems. We demonstrate that this approach is feasible for significantly larger, structurally complex molecules, taking the natural product Archazolid A, a potent inhibitor of vacuolar-type ATPase, from the myxobacterium Archangium gephyra as an example. Our model estimates energies of new conformations by exploiting information from previous calculations via Gaussian process regression. Predictive variance is used to assess whether a conformation is in the interpolation region, allowing a controlled trade-off between prediction accuracy and computational speed-up. For energies of relaxed conformations at the density functional level of theory (implicit solvent, DFT/BLYP-disp3/def2-TZVP), mean absolute errors of less than 1 kcal/mol were achieved. The study demonstrates that predictive machine learning models can be developed for structurally complex, pharmaceutically relevant compounds, potentially enabling considerable speed-ups in simulations of larger molecular structures. PMID:24453952

  12. Marine Natural Products: A Way to New Drugs

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The investigation of marine natural products (low molecular weight bioregulators) is a rapidly developing scientific field at the intersection of biology and chemistry. Investigations aimed at detecting, identifying, and understanding the structure of marine natural products have led to the discovery of 20,000 new substances, including those characterized by an extremely high physiological activity. Some results and prospects of works aimed at creating new drugs on the basis of marine natural products are discussed herein. PMID:22649599

  13. Dearomatization Strategies in the Synthesis of Complex Natural Products

    PubMed Central

    Roche, Stéphane P.; Porco, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Evolution in the field of the total synthesis of natural products has led to exciting developments over the last decade. Numerous chemo-selective and enantioselective methodologies have emerged from total syntheses, resulting in efficient access to many important natural product targets. This Review highlights recent developments concerning dearomatization, a powerful strategy for the total synthesis of architecturally complex natural products wherein planar, aromatic scaffolds are converted to three-dimensional molecular architectures. PMID:21506209

  14. Marine natural products: a way to new drugs.

    PubMed

    Stonik, V A

    2009-07-01

    The investigation of marine natural products (low molecular weight bioregulators) is a rapidly developing scientific field at the intersection of biology and chemistry. Investigations aimed at detecting, identifying, and understanding the structure of marine natural products have led to the discovery of 20,000 new substances, including those characterized by an extremely high physiological activity. Some results and prospects of works aimed at creating new drugs on the basis of marine natural products are discussed herein.

  15. Biosynthesis of therapeutic natural products using synthetic biology.

    PubMed

    Awan, Ali R; Shaw, William M; Ellis, Tom

    2016-10-01

    Natural products are a group of bioactive structurally diverse chemicals produced by microorganisms and plants. These molecules and their derivatives have contributed to over a third of the therapeutic drugs produced in the last century. However, over the last few decades traditional drug discovery pipelines from natural products have become far less productive and far more expensive. One recent development with promise to combat this trend is the application of synthetic biology to therapeutic natural product biosynthesis. Synthetic biology is a young discipline with roots in systems biology, genetic engineering, and metabolic engineering. In this review, we discuss the use of synthetic biology to engineer improved yields of existing therapeutic natural products. We further describe the use of synthetic biology to combine and express natural product biosynthetic genes in unprecedented ways, and how this holds promise for opening up completely new avenues for drug discovery and production.

  16. Synthesis of Antimicrobial Natural Products Targeting FtsZ: (±)-Dichamanetin and (±)-2″′-Hydroxy-5″-benzylisouvarinol-B

    PubMed Central

    Urgaonkar, Sameer; La Pierre, Henry S.; Meir, Israel; Lund, Henrik; RayChaudhuri, Debabrata; Shaw, Jared T.

    2008-01-01

    Two natural products have been synthesized using a ZnCl2-mediated benzylic coupling reaction. Both are potent inhibitors of the GTPase activity of FtsZ, a protein that is essential for bacterial cytokinesis. PMID:16321003

  17. Towards the elusive structure of kotalanol, a naturally occurring glucosidase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Sankar; Pinto, B Mario

    2010-04-01

    This Highlight describes the detailed approach used to determine the absolute stereochemistry of the stereogenic centers in the acyclic side chain of kotalanol, a naturally occurring glucosidase inhibitor isolated from the plant Salacia reticulata. The plant extract itself is used in Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of Type 2 diabetes. We highlight the syntheses of proposed candidates based on structure-activity relationships, the total synthesis of kotalanol, and crystallographic studies of kotalanol and its de-O-sulfonated derivative complexed with recombinant human maltase glucoamylase (MGA), a critical intestinal glucosidase involved in the breakdown of glucose oligomers into glucose.

  18. A Culture-Based Method for Determining the Production of Secreted Protease Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Quintero, David; Bermudes, David

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a culture-based method for determining the production of secreted protease inhibitors. The assay utilizes standard proteolysis detection plates to support microbial growth followed by infiltrating the plate with a protease and subsequently detecting the remaining protein by trichloroacetic acid (TCA) precipitation, or by bromocreosol green (BCG) or Ponseau S (PS) staining. The presence of a protease inhibitor can be observed in the form of a protected zone of protein around the protease inhibitor-producing strain. Using the protease inhibitors α-2-macroglobulin, aprotinin, leupeptin, and bestatin and the primary and secondary forms of Photorhabdus luminescens in combination with the protease trypsin, we were able to demonstrate that the assay is specific for the cognate inhibitor of the protease and for bacteria secreting protease inhibitors. In addition, when casein-containing plates were used, the size of the diffusion zone was inversely correlated with the molecular weight of the inhibitor allowing a relative estimation of the protease inhibitor molecular weight. This assay is useful for detecting the presence of microbial secreted protease inhibitors and may reveal their production by microorganisms that were not previously recognized to produce them. PMID:24632514

  19. Collective synthesis of natural products by means of organocascade catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Spencer B.; Simmons, Bryon; Mastracchio, Anthony; MacMillan, David W. C.

    2012-01-01

    Organic chemists are now able to synthesize small quantities of almost any known natural product, given sufficient time, resources and effort. However, translation of the academic successes in total synthesis to the large-scale construction of complex natural products and the development of large collections of biologically relevant molecules present significant challenges to synthetic chemists. Here we show that the application of two nature-inspired techniques, namely organocascade catalysis and collective natural product synthesis, can facilitate the preparation of useful quantities of a range of structurally diverse natural products from a common molecular scaffold. The power of this concept has been demonstrated through the expedient, asymmetric total syntheses of six well-known alkaloid natural products: strychnine, aspidospermidine, vincadifformine, akuammicine, kopsanone and kopsinine. PMID:21753848

  20. Collective synthesis of natural products by means of organocascade catalysis.

    PubMed

    Jones, Spencer B; Simmons, Bryon; Mastracchio, Anthony; MacMillan, David W C

    2011-07-13

    Organic chemists are now able to synthesize small quantities of almost any known natural product, given sufficient time, resources and effort. However, translation of the academic successes in total synthesis to the large-scale construction of complex natural products and the development of large collections of biologically relevant molecules present significant challenges to synthetic chemists. Here we show that the application of two nature-inspired techniques, namely organocascade catalysis and collective natural product synthesis, can facilitate the preparation of useful quantities of a range of structurally diverse natural products from a common molecular scaffold. The power of this concept has been demonstrated through the expedient, asymmetric total syntheses of six well-known alkaloid natural products: strychnine, aspidospermidine, vincadifformine, akuammicine, kopsanone and kopsinine. ©2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved

  1. Engineered Biosynthesis of Natural Products in Heterologous Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yunzi; Li, Bing-Zhi; Liu, Duo; Zhang, Lu; Chen, Yan; Jia, Bin; Zeng, Bo-Xuan; Zhao, Huimin; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Natural products produced by microorganisms and plants are a major resource of antibacterial and anticancer drugs as well as industrially useful compounds. However, the native producers often suffer from low productivity and titers. Here we summarize the recent applications of heterologous biosynthesis for the production of several important classes of natural products such as terpenoids, flavonoids, alkaloids, and polyketides. In addition, we will discuss the new tools and strategies at multi-scale levels including gene, pathway, genome and community levels for highly efficient heterologous biosynthesis of natural products. PMID:25960127

  2. The natural production of organobromine compounds.

    PubMed

    Gribble, G W

    2000-03-01

    Organobromine chemicals are produced naturally by an array of biological and other chemical processes in our environment. Some of these compounds are identical to man-made organobromine compounds, such as methyl bromide, bromoform, and bromophenols, but many others are entirely new moleclar entities, often possessing extraordinary and important biological properties. Although only a few natural organobromine compounds had been discovered up to 1968, this number as of early 1999 is more than 1,600, and new examples are being discovered continually. Organobromine compounds are produced naturally by marine creatures (sponges, corals, sea slugs, tunicates, sea fans) and seaweed, plants, fungi, lichen, algae, bacteria, microbes, and some mammals. Many of these organobromine compounds are used in chemical defense, to facilitate food gathering, or as hormones.

  3. α-glucosidase inhibitors from plants: A natural approach to treat diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sunil; Narwal, Smita; Kumar, Vipin; Prakash, Om

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes is a common metabolic disease characterized by abnormally high plasma glucose levels, leading to major complications, such as diabetic neuropathy, retinopathy, and cardiovascular diseases. One of the effective managements of diabetes mellitus, in particular, non–insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) to decrease postprandial hyperglycemia, is to retard the absorption of glucose by inhibition of carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes, such as α-glucosidase and α-amylase, in the digestive organs. α-Glucosidase is the key enzyme catalyzing the final step in the digestive process of carbohydrates. Hence, α-glucosidase inhibitors can retard the liberation of d-glucose from dietary complex carbohydrates and delay glucose absorption, resulting in reduced postprandial plasma glucose levels and suppression of postprandial hyperglycemia. In recent years, many efforts have been made to identify effective α-glucosidase inhibitors from natural sources in order to develop a physiologic functional food or lead compounds for use against diabetes. Many α-glucosidase inhibitors that are phytoconstituents, such as flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids,anthocyanins, glycosides, phenolic compounds, and so on, have been isolated from plants. In the present review, we focus on the constituents isolated from different plants having α-glucosidase inhibitory potency along with IC50 values. PMID:22096315

  4. In Silico Discovery of Potential VEGFR-2 Inhibitors from Natural Derivatives for Anti-Angiogenesis Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Zhou, Nan; Luo, Kun; Zhang, Wei; Li, Xinru; Wu, Chuanfang; Bao, Jinku

    2014-01-01

    Angiogenesis is the growth of new capillaries from existing blood vessels that supply oxygen and nutrients and provide gateways for immune surveillance. Abnormal vessel growth in term of excessive angiogenesis is a hallmark of cancer, inflammatory and eye diseases. VEGFR-2 (vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2) dominating the process of angiogenesis has led to approval of therapeutic inhibitors and is becoming a promising target for anti-angiogenic drugs. Notwithstanding these successes, the clinical use of current VEGFR-2 blockers is more challenging than anticipated. Taking axitinib as a reference drug, in our study we found three potent VEGFR-2 inhibitors (ZINC08254217, ZINC08254138, and ZINC03838680) from natural derivatives. Each of the three inhibitors acquired a better grid score than axitinib (−62.11) when docked to VEGFR-2. Molecular dynamics simulations demonstrated that ZINC08254217– and ZINC08254138–VEGFR-2 complexes were more stable than axitinib. Similar to bind free energy for axitinib (−54.68 kcal/mol), such for ZINC03838680, ZINC08254217, and ZINC08254138 was −49.37, −43.32, and −32.73 kcal/mol respectively. These results suggested these three compounds could be candidate drugs against angiogenesis, with comparable VEGFR-2 binding affinity of axitinib. Hence findings in our study are able to provide valuable information on discovery of effective anti-angiogenesis therapy. PMID:25216334

  5. Proteases of Stored Product Insects and their Inhibition by Specific Protease Inhibitors from Soybeans and Wheat Grain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-31

    CHYMOTRYPSINS; BOWMAN-BIRK TRYPSIN-CHYMOTRYPSIN INHIBITOR (SOYBEANS); CHICKPEAS TRYPSIN-CHYMOTRYPSIN INHIBITOR; SOYBEAN PROTEASE INHIBITORS 20. ABSTRACT...could be fully inhibited at a 1:1 molar ratio by the naturally-occuring proteinaceous trypsin inhibitors BBI from soybeans and CI from chickpeas ...substrates. These activities were fully inhibited by the proteinaceous trypsin-chymotrypsin inhibitors BBI from soybeans and CI from chickpeas when assayed

  6. Structure Elucidation of a Natural Product.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Letcher, Roy M.

    1983-01-01

    Describes an experiment simulating a real-life structure elucidation problem through isolation, characterization, and chemical transformation of an "unknown," naturally occurring monoterpene, with extensive use being made of spectroscopy and aided by biogenetic considerations. Information given to students, procedures, results, and discussion of…

  7. Structure Elucidation of a Natural Product.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Letcher, Roy M.

    1983-01-01

    Describes an experiment simulating a real-life structure elucidation problem through isolation, characterization, and chemical transformation of an "unknown," naturally occurring monoterpene, with extensive use being made of spectroscopy and aided by biogenetic considerations. Information given to students, procedures, results, and discussion of…

  8. Sansanmycin natural product analogues as potent and selective anti-mycobacterials that inhibit lipid I biosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Anh T.; Watson, Emma E.; Pujari, Venugopal; Conroy, Trent; Dowman, Luke J.; Giltrap, Andrew M.; Pang, Angel; Wong, Weng Ruh; Linington, Roger G.; Mahapatra, Sebabrata; Saunders, Jessica; Charman, Susan A.; West, Nicholas P.; Bugg, Timothy D. H.; Tod, Julie; Dowson, Christopher G.; Roper, David I.; Crick, Dean C.; Britton, Warwick J.; Payne, Richard J.

    2017-03-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is responsible for enormous global morbidity and mortality, and current treatment regimens rely on the use of drugs that have been in use for more than 40 years. Owing to widespread resistance to these therapies, new drugs are desperately needed to control the TB disease burden. Herein, we describe the rapid synthesis of analogues of the sansanmycin uridylpeptide natural products that represent promising new TB drug leads. The compounds exhibit potent and selective inhibition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the etiological agent of TB, both in vitro and intracellularly. The natural product analogues are nanomolar inhibitors of Mtb phospho-MurNAc-pentapeptide translocase, the enzyme responsible for the synthesis of lipid I in mycobacteria. This work lays the foundation for the development of uridylpeptide natural product analogues as new TB drug candidates that operate through the inhibition of peptidoglycan biosynthesis.

  9. Sansanmycin natural product analogues as potent and selective anti-mycobacterials that inhibit lipid I biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Anh T.; Watson, Emma E.; Pujari, Venugopal; Conroy, Trent; Dowman, Luke J.; Giltrap, Andrew M.; Pang, Angel; Wong, Weng Ruh; Linington, Roger G.; Mahapatra, Sebabrata; Saunders, Jessica; Charman, Susan A.; West, Nicholas P.; Bugg, Timothy D. H.; Tod, Julie; Dowson, Christopher G.; Roper, David I.; Crick, Dean C.; Britton, Warwick J.; Payne, Richard J.

    2017-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is responsible for enormous global morbidity and mortality, and current treatment regimens rely on the use of drugs that have been in use for more than 40 years. Owing to widespread resistance to these therapies, new drugs are desperately needed to control the TB disease burden. Herein, we describe the rapid synthesis of analogues of the sansanmycin uridylpeptide natural products that represent promising new TB drug leads. The compounds exhibit potent and selective inhibition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the etiological agent of TB, both in vitro and intracellularly. The natural product analogues are nanomolar inhibitors of Mtb phospho-MurNAc-pentapeptide translocase, the enzyme responsible for the synthesis of lipid I in mycobacteria. This work lays the foundation for the development of uridylpeptide natural product analogues as new TB drug candidates that operate through the inhibition of peptidoglycan biosynthesis. PMID:28248311

  10. Sansanmycin natural product analogues as potent and selective anti-mycobacterials that inhibit lipid I biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Tran, Anh T; Watson, Emma E; Pujari, Venugopal; Conroy, Trent; Dowman, Luke J; Giltrap, Andrew M; Pang, Angel; Wong, Weng Ruh; Linington, Roger G; Mahapatra, Sebabrata; Saunders, Jessica; Charman, Susan A; West, Nicholas P; Bugg, Timothy D H; Tod, Julie; Dowson, Christopher G; Roper, David I; Crick, Dean C; Britton, Warwick J; Payne, Richard J

    2017-03-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is responsible for enormous global morbidity and mortality, and current treatment regimens rely on the use of drugs that have been in use for more than 40 years. Owing to widespread resistance to these therapies, new drugs are desperately needed to control the TB disease burden. Herein, we describe the rapid synthesis of analogues of the sansanmycin uridylpeptide natural products that represent promising new TB drug leads. The compounds exhibit potent and selective inhibition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the etiological agent of TB, both in vitro and intracellularly. The natural product analogues are nanomolar inhibitors of Mtb phospho-MurNAc-pentapeptide translocase, the enzyme responsible for the synthesis of lipid I in mycobacteria. This work lays the foundation for the development of uridylpeptide natural product analogues as new TB drug candidates that operate through the inhibition of peptidoglycan biosynthesis.

  11. Influence of natural zeolite and nitrification inhibitor on organics degradation and nitrogen transformation during sludge composting.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junya; Sui, Qianwen; Li, Kun; Chen, Meixue; Tong, Juan; Qi, Lu; Wei, Yuansong

    2017-04-01

    Sludge composting is one of the most widely used treatments for sewage sludge resource utilization. Natural zeolite and nitrification inhibitor (NI) are widely used during composting and land application for nitrogen conservation, respectively. Three composting reactors (A-the control, B-natural zeolite addition, and C-3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP) addition) were established to investigate the influence of NI and natural zeolite addition on organics degradation and nitrogen transformation during sludge composting conducted at the lab scale. The results showed that, in comparison with the control, natural zeolite addition accelerated organics degradation and the maturity of sludge compost was higher, while the DMPP addition slowed down the degradation of organic matters. Meanwhile, the nitrogen transformation functional genes including those responses for nitrification (amoA and nxrA) and denitrification (narG, nirS, nirK, and nosZ) were quantified through quantitative PCR (qPCR) to investigate the effects of natural zeolites andDMPP addition on nitrogen transformation. Although no significant difference in the abundance of nitrogen transformation functional genes was observed between treatments, addition of both natural zeolite and DMPP increases the final total nitrogen content by 48.6% and 23.1%, respectively. The ability of natural zeolite for nitrogen conservation was due to the absorption of NH3 by compost, and nitrogen conservation by DMPP was achieved by the source reduction of denitrification. Besides, it was assumed that the addition of natural zeolite and DMPP may affect the activity of these genes instead of the abundance.

  12. Influence of natural zeolite and nitrification inhibitor on organics degradation and nitrogen transformation during sludge composting.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junya; Sui, Qianwen; Li, Kun; Chen, Meixue; Tong, Juan; Qi, Lu; Wei, Yuansong

    2016-01-01

    Sludge composting is one of the most widely used treatments for sewage sludge resource utilization. Natural zeolite and nitrification inhibitor (NI) are widely used during composting and land application for nitrogen conservation, respectively. Three composting reactors (A--the control, B--natural zeolite addition, and C--3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP) addition) were established to investigate the influence of NI and natural zeolite addition on organics degradation and nitrogen transformation during sludge composting conducted at the lab scale. The results showed that, in comparison with the control, natural zeolite addition accelerated organics degradation and the maturity of sludge compost was higher, while the DMPP addition slowed down the degradation of organic matters. Meanwhile, the nitrogen transformation functional genes including those responses for nitrification (amoA and nxrA) and denitrification (narG, nirS, nirK, and nosZ) were quantified through quantitative PCR (qPCR) to investigate the effects of natural zeolites and DMPP addition on nitrogen transformation. Although no significant difference in the abundance of nitrogen transformation functional genes was observed between treatments, addition of both natural zeolite and DMPP increases the final total nitrogen content by 48.6% and 23.1%, respectively. The ability of natural zeolite for nitrogen conservation was due to the absorption of NH3 by compost, and nitrogen conservation by DMPP was achieved by the source reduction of denitrification. Besides, it was assumed that the addition of natural zeolite and DMPP may affect the activity of these genes instead of the abundance.

  13. New natural products as new leads for antibacterial drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Brown, Dean G; Lister, Troy; May-Dracka, Tricia L

    2014-01-15

    Natural products have been a rich source of antibacterial drugs for many decades, but investments in this area have declined over the past two decades. The purpose of this review article is to provide a recent survey of new natural product classes and the mechanisms by which they work.

  14. Harnessing natural product assembly lines: structure, promiscuity, and engineering

    PubMed Central

    Ladner, Christopher C; Williams, Gavin J

    2015-01-01

    Many therapeutically relevant natural products are biosynthesized by the action of giant mega-enzyme assembly lines. By leveraging the specificity, promiscuity, and modularity of assembly lines, a variety of strategies have been developed that enable the biosynthesis of modified natural products. This review briefly summarizes recent structural advances related to natural product assembly lines, discusses chemical approaches to probing assembly line structures in the absence of traditional biophysical data, and surveys efforts that harness the inherent or engineered promiscuity of assembly lines for the synthesis of non-natural polyketides and nonribosomal peptide analogues. PMID:26527577

  15. Naturally occurring PDGF receptor inhibitors with potential anti-atherosclerotic properties.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Chiara; Ferri, Nicola

    2015-07-01

    Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) represents one of the most prominent inducer of smooth muscle cell (SMC) migration and proliferation. Homo- and heterodimers of PDGF-A, PDGF-B, PDGF-C and PDGF-D subunits act by binding to homo- or heterodimers of the PDGF tyrosine kinase receptors, PDGFR-α and PDGFR-β. The essential role of PDGFR signaling on restenosis post-angioplasty or atherosclerosis has been demonstrated by using blocking antibodies to PDGF or the tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib. More specifically, molecular studies have defined the intracellular signaling pathways activated by PDGF, inducing the cell cycle progression and the migration of SMCs. Considering the relevant role of PDGF in atherogenesis, several studies have been performed to investigate the effect of naturally occurring compounds on both in vitro and in vivo experimental models of atherogenesis. The present review will briefly summarize the pathophysiological role of PDGF and the studies of natural inhibitors tested in in vivo experimental models of restenosis in response to vascular injury and/or atherosclerosis.

  16. High rate of methane leakage from natural gas production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2013-10-01

    Natural gas production is growing as the United States seeks domestic sources of relatively clean energy. Natural gas combustion produces less carbon dioxide emissions than coal or oil for the amount of energy produced. However, one source of concern is that some natural gas leaks to the atmosphere from the extraction point, releasing methane, a potent greenhouse gas.

  17. Marinopyrroles: Unique Drug Discoveries Based on Marine Natural Products.

    PubMed

    Li, Rongshi

    2016-01-01

    Natural products provide a successful supply of new chemical entities (NCEs) for drug discovery to treat human diseases. Approximately half of the NCEs are based on natural products and their derivatives. Notably, marine natural products, a largely untapped resource, have contributed to drug discovery and development with eight drugs or cosmeceuticals approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency, and ten candidates undergoing clinical trials. Collaborative efforts from drug developers, biologists, organic, medicinal, and natural product chemists have elevated drug discoveries to new levels. These efforts are expected to continue to improve the efficiency of natural product-based drugs. Marinopyrroles are examined here as a case study for potential anticancer and antibiotic agents. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Natural Products Version 2.0: Connecting Genes to Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Christopher T.; Fischbach, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    Natural products have played a prominent role in the history of organic chemistry, and they continue to be important as drugs, biological probes, and targets of study for synthetic and analytical chemists. In this perspective, we explore how connecting Nature’s small molecules to the genes that encode them has sparked a renaissance in natural product research, focusing primarily on the biosynthesis of polyketides and nonribosomal peptides. We survey monomer biogenesis, coupling chemistries from templated and non-templated pathways, and the broad set of tailoring reactions and hybrid pathways that give rise to the diverse scaffolds and functionalization patterns of natural products. We conclude by considering two questions: What would it take to find all natural product scaffolds? What kind of scientists will be studying natural products in the future? PMID:20121095

  19. Capturing Biological Activity in Natural Product Fragments by Chemical Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Erika A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Natural products have had an immense influence on science and have directly led to the introduction of many drugs. Organic chemistry, and its unique ability to tailor natural products through synthesis, provides an extraordinary approach to unlock the full potential of natural products. In this Review, an approach based on natural product derived fragments is presented that can successfully address some of the current challenges in drug discovery. These fragments often display significantly reduced molecular weights, reduced structural complexity, a reduced number of synthetic steps, while retaining or even improving key biological parameters such as potency or selectivity. Examples from various stages of the drug development process up to the clinic are presented. In addition, this process can be leveraged by recent developments such as genome mining, antibody–drug conjugates, and computational approaches. All these concepts have the potential to identify the next generation of drug candidates inspired by natural products. PMID:26833854

  20. Capturing Biological Activity in Natural Product Fragments by Chemical Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Crane, Erika A; Gademann, Karl

    2016-03-14

    Natural products have had an immense influence on science and have directly led to the introduction of many drugs. Organic chemistry, and its unique ability to tailor natural products through synthesis, provides an extraordinary approach to unlock the full potential of natural products. In this Review, an approach based on natural product derived fragments is presented that can successfully address some of the current challenges in drug discovery. These fragments often display significantly reduced molecular weights, reduced structural complexity, a reduced number of synthetic steps, while retaining or even improving key biological parameters such as potency or selectivity. Examples from various stages of the drug development process up to the clinic are presented. In addition, this process can be leveraged by recent developments such as genome mining, antibody-drug conjugates, and computational approaches. All these concepts have the potential to identify the next generation of drug candidates inspired by natural products.

  1. Antimycobacterial susceptibility testing methods for natural products research

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Juan Gabriel Bueno; Kouznetsov, Vladimir V.

    2010-01-01

    The emergence of multidrug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis underscores the need of continuous developments on new and efficient methods to determine the susceptibility of isolates of M. tuberculosis in the search for novel antimicrobial agents. Natural products constitute an important source of new drugs, but design and implementation of antimycobacterial susceptibility testing methods are necessary for evaluate the different extracts and compounds. A number of biological assay methodologies are in current use, ranging from the classical disk diffusion and broth dilution assay format, to radiorespirometric (BACTEC), dye-based, and fluorescent/luminescence reporter assays. This review presents an analysis on the in vitro susceptibility testing methods developed for determinate antitubercular activity in natural products and related compounds (semi-synthetic natural products and natural products-derived compounds) and the criteria to select the adequate method for determination of biological activity of new natural products. PMID:24031490

  2. Bioactive natural products from Papua New Guinea marine sponges.

    PubMed

    Noro, Jeffery C; Kalaitzis, John A; Neilan, Brett A

    2012-10-01

    The discovery of novel natural products for drug development relies heavily upon a rich biodiversity, of which the marine environment is an obvious example. Marine natural product research has spawned several drugs and many other candidates, some of which are the focus of current clinical trials. The sponge megadiversity of Papua New Guinea is a rich but underexplored source of bioactive natural products. Here, we review some of the many natural products derived from PNG sponges with an emphasis on those with interesting biological activity and, therefore, drug potential. Many bioactive natural products discussed here appear to be derived from non-ribosomal peptide and polyketide biosynthesis pathways, strongly suggesting a microbial origin of these compounds. With this in mind, we also explore the notion of sponge-symbiont biosynthesis of these bioactive compounds and present examples to support the working hypothesis.

  3. Novel Artificial Natural Products Against Breast Cancer Through Combinatorial Biosynthesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-07-01

    compounds normally produced by a certain strain. Our investigations on the discovery of novel natural metabolites using type II polyketide synthase ...limitations, shall be included on any reproduction hereof which includes any part of the portions subject to such limitations. THIS TECHNICAL REPORT HAS... polyketides remain the central group of natural products in this research area, since this class of natural products form one of the largest and most

  4. Marine actinobacteria: new opportunities for natural product search and discovery.

    PubMed

    Bull, Alan T; Stach, James E M

    2007-11-01

    It is widely accepted that new drugs, especially antibiotics, are urgently required, and that the most propitious source remains natural products. We argue that in exploring new sources of bioactive natural products the marine environment warrants particular attention, in view of the remarkable diversity of microorganisms and metabolic products. Recent reports of new chemical entities and first-in-class drug candidates, and confirmation of indigenous marine actinobacteria, make exciting discoveries even more likely given the unrivalled capacity of this class of bacteria to produce exploitable natural products.

  5. Endogenous C1-inhibitor production and expression in the heart after acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Emmens, Reindert W; Baylan, Umit; Juffermans, Lynda J M; Karia, Rashmi V; Ylstra, Bauke; Wouters, Diana; Zeerleder, Sacha; Simsek, Suat; van Ham, Marieke; Niessen, Hans W M; Krijnen, Paul A J

    2016-01-01

    Complement activation contributes significantly to inflammation-related damage in the heart after acute myocardial infarction. Knowledge on factors that regulate postinfraction complement activation is incomplete however. In this study, we investigated whether endogenous C1-inhibitor, a well-known inhibitor of complement activation, is expressed in the heart after acute myocardial infarction. C1-inhibitor and complement activation products C3d and C4d were analyzed immunohistochemically in the hearts of patients who died at different time intervals after acute myocardial infarction (n=28) and of control patients (n=8). To determine putative local C1-inhibitor production, cardiac transcript levels of the C1-inhibitor-encoding gene serping1 were determined in rats after induction of acute myocardial infarction (microarray). Additionally, C1-inhibitor expression was analyzed (fluorescence microscopy) in human endothelial cells and rat cardiomyoblasts in vitro. C1-inhibitor was found predominantly in and on jeopardized cardiomyocytes in necrotic infarct cores between 12h and 5days old. C1-inhibitor protein expression coincided in time and colocalized with C3d and C4d. In the rat heart, serping1 transcript levels were increased from 2h up until 7days after acute myocardial infarction. Both endothelial cells and cardiomyoblasts showed increased intracellular expression of C1-inhibitor in response to ischemia in vitro (n=4). These observations suggest that endogenous C1-inhibitor is likely involved in the regulation of complement activity in the myocardium following acute myocardial infarction. Observations in rat and in vitro suggest that C1-inhibitor is produced locally in the heart after acute myocardial infarction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The FDA-approved natural product dihydroergocristine reduces the production of the Alzheimer’s disease amyloid-β peptides

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Xiling; Yu, Jing; Niu, Qi; Liu, Jianhua; Fraering, Patrick C.; Wu, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Known γ-secretase inhibitors or modulators display an undesirable pharmacokinetic profile and toxicity and have therefore not been successful in clinical trials for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). So far, no compounds from natural products have been identified as direct inhibitors of γ-secretase. To search for bioactive molecules that can reduce the amount of amyloid-beta peptides (Aβ) and that have better pharmacokinetics and an improved safety profile, we completed a screen of ~400 natural products by using cell-based and cell-free γ-secretase activity assays. We identified dihydroergocristine (DHEC), a component of an FDA- (Food and Drug Administration)-approved drug, to be a direct inhibitor of γ-secretase. Micromolar concentrations of DHEC substantially reduced Aβ levels in different cell types, including a cell line derived from an AD patient. Structure-activity relationship studies implied that the key moiety for inhibiting γ-secretase is the cyclized tripeptide moiety of DHEC. A Surface Plasmon Resonance assay showed that DHEC binds directly to γ-secretase and Nicastrin, with equilibrium dissociation constants (Kd) of 25.7 nM and 9.8 μM, respectively. This study offers DHEC not only as a new chemical moiety for selectively modulating the activity of γ-secretase but also a candidate for drug repositioning in Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:26567970

  7. Challenges and Triumphs to Genomics-Based Natural Product Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Paul R.; Chavarria, Krystle L.; Fenical, William; Moore, Bradley S.; Ziemert, Nadine

    2013-01-01

    Genome sequencing is rapidly changing the field of natural products research by providing opportunities to assess the biosynthetic potential of strains prior to chemical analysis or biological testing. Ready access to sequence data is driving the development of new bioinformatic tools and methods to identify the products of silent or cryptic pathways. While genome mining has fast become a useful approach to natural product discovery, it has also become clear that identifying pathways of interest is much easier than finding the associated products. This has led to bottlenecks in the discovery process that must be overcome for the potential of genomics-based natural product discovery to be fully realized. In this perspective, we address some of these challenges in the context of our work with the marine actinomycete genus Salinispora, which is proving to be a useful model with which to apply genome mining as an approach to natural product discovery. PMID:24104399

  8. Strategies for target identification of antimicrobial natural products.

    PubMed

    Farha, Maya A; Brown, Eric D

    2016-05-04

    Covering: 2000 to 2015Despite a pervasive decline in natural product research at many pharmaceutical companies over the last two decades, natural products have undeniably been a prolific and unsurpassed source for new lead antibacterial compounds. Due to their inherent complexity, natural extracts face several hurdles in high-throughout discovery programs, including target identification. Target identification and validation is a crucial process for advancing hits through the discovery pipeline, but has remained a major bottleneck. In the case of natural products, extremely low yields and limited compound supply further impede the process. Here, we review the wealth of target identification strategies that have been proposed and implemented for the characterization of novel antibacterials. Traditionally, these have included genomic and biochemical-based approaches, which, in recent years, have been improved with modern-day technology and better honed for natural product discovery. Further, we discuss the more recent innovative approaches for uncovering the target of new antibacterial natural products, which have resulted from modern advances in chemical biology tools. Finally, we present unique screening platforms implemented to streamline the process of target identification. The different innovative methods to respond to the challenge of characterizing the mode of action for antibacterial natural products have cumulatively built useful frameworks that may advocate a renovated interest in natural product drug discovery programs.

  9. Spatial and Temporal Control of Fungal Natural Product Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Fang Yun; Keller, Nancy P.

    2014-01-01

    Despite their oftentimes-elusive ecological role, fungal natural products have, for better or worse, impacted our daily lives tremendously owing to their diverse and potent bioactive properties. This Janus-faced nature of fungal natural products inevitably ushered in a field of research dedicated towards understanding the ecology, organisms, genes, enzymes, and biosynthetic pathways that give rise to this arsenal of diverse and complex chemistry. Ongoing research in fungal secondary metabolism has not only increased our appreciation for fungal natural products as an asset but also sheds light on the pivotal role that these once-regarded “metabolic wastes” play in fungal biology, defense, and stress response in addition to their potential contributions towards human mycoses. Full orchestration of secondary metabolism requires not only the seamless coordination between temporal and spatial control of SM-associated machineries (e.g. enzymes, cofactors, intermediates, and end-products) but also integration of these machineries into primary metabolic processes and established cellular mechanisms. An intriguing, but little known aspect of microbial natural product synthesis lies in the spatial organization of both pathway intermediates and enzymes responsible for the production of these compounds. In this highlight, we summarize some major breakthroughs in understanding the genes and regulation of fungal natural product synthesis and introduce the current state of knowledge on the spatial and temporal control of fungal natural product synthesis. PMID:25142354

  10. Spatial and temporal control of fungal natural product synthesis.

    PubMed

    Lim, Fang Yun; Keller, Nancy P

    2014-10-01

    Despite their oftentimes-elusive ecological role, fungal natural products have, for better or worse, impacted our daily lives tremendously owing to their diverse and potent bioactive properties. This Janus-faced nature of fungal natural products inevitably ushered in a field of research dedicated towards understanding the ecology, organisms, genes, enzymes, and biosynthetic pathways that give rise to this arsenal of diverse and complex chemistry. Ongoing research in fungal secondary metabolism has not only increased our appreciation for fungal natural products as an asset but also sheds light on the pivotal role that these once-regarded "metabolic wastes" play in fungal biology, defense, and stress response in addition to their potential contributions towards human mycoses. Full orchestration of secondary metabolism requires not only the seamless coordination between temporal and spatial control of SM-associated machineries (e.g. enzymes, cofactors, intermediates, and end-products) but also integration of these machineries into primary metabolic processes and established cellular mechanisms. An intriguing, but little known aspect of microbial natural product synthesis lies in the spatial organization of both pathway intermediates and enzymes responsible for the production of these compounds. In this highlight, we summarize some major breakthroughs in understanding the genes and regulation of fungal natural product synthesis and introduce the current state of knowledge on the spatial and temporal control of fungal natural product synthesis.

  11. Natural-product-derived fragments for fragment-based ligand discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Over, Björn; Wetzel, Stefan; Grütter, Christian; Nakai, Yasushi; Renner, Steffen; Rauh, Daniel; Waldmann, Herbert

    2013-01-01

    Fragment-based ligand and drug discovery predominantly employs sp2-rich compounds covering well-explored regions of chemical space. Despite the ease with which such fragments can be coupled, this focus on flat compounds is widely cited as contributing to the attrition rate of the drug discovery process. In contrast, biologically validated natural products are rich in stereogenic centres and populate areas of chemical space not occupied by average synthetic molecules. Here, we have analysed more than 180,000 natural product structures to arrive at 2,000 clusters of natural-product-derived fragments with high structural diversity, which resemble natural scaffolds and are rich in sp3-configured centres. The structures of the cluster centres differ from previously explored fragment libraries, but for nearly half of the clusters representative members are commercially available. We validate their usefulness for the discovery of novel ligand and inhibitor types by means of protein X-ray crystallography and the identification of novel stabilizers of inactive conformations of p38α MAP kinase and of inhibitors of several phosphatases.

  12. From nature to market: examples of natural products that became drugs.

    PubMed

    de Fátima, Angelo; Terra, Bruna Silva; da Silva, Cleiton Moreira; da Silva, Daniel Leite; Araujo, Debora Pereira; da Silva Neto, Leonardo; Nascimento de Aquino, Roney Anderson

    2014-01-01

    Nature is an irrefutable source of inspiration for the modern man in many aspects. The observation and understanding of nature have allowed the development of new materials, new sources of energies, new drugs etc. Specifically, natural products provide a great contribution to the development of new agents for the treatment of infections and antitumor agents. However, obtaining natural products directly from animals, fungi, bacteria, plants etc has been considered not enough to attend the high demand by pharmaceutical industries. In this regard, various strategies based on biotechnological processes or synthetic approaches have been developed. In this scenario the total synthesis can be undoubtedly a useful and powerful tool for obtaining higher amounts of natural products and/or structural modifications thereof. Herein, we emphasize successful examples of total synthesis of galanthamine, morphine, paclitaxel and podophyllotoxin - natural products approved as pharmaceuticals.

  13. Naturally occurring conjugated octadecatrienoic acids are strong inhibitors of prostaglandin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Nugteren, D H; Christ-Hazelhof, E

    1987-03-01

    Fatty acids from natural sources (mostly seed oils) were isolated and assayed for their effect on the bioconversion of arachidonic acid into prostaglandin E2, using sheep vesicular gland microsomes. Homologues and isomers of the naturally occurring fatty acids, obtained by chemical modification and/or organic synthetic methods, were also tested. Two very active cyclooxygenase inhibitors were discovered, namely jacarandic acid (8Z, 10E, 12Z-octadecatrienoic acid), isolated from Jacaranda mimosifolia, the concentration which gives 50% inhibition ([I]50) being 2.4 microM and the synthetic 8Z, 10E, 12E-octadecatrienoic acid, having an [I]50 of 1.0 microM. Under the conditions of the assay (75 microM substrate), earlier described potent inhibitors showed the following [I]50's: indomethacin: 1.3 microM; 9,12-octadecadiynoic acid: 1.3 microM, 8Z, 12E, 14Z-eicosatrienoic acid: 2.7 microM; 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraynoic acid: 4.4 microM. At a concentration of about half that of the substrate, the following naturally occurring fatty acids revealed inhibition ([I]50): columbinic acid (29 microM), calendulic acid (31 microM), liagoric acid (31 microM), ximenynic acid (39 microM), crepenynic acid (40 microM) and timnodonic acid (43 microM). Other fatty acids, and some of the above acids, were converted themselves more or less rapidly, mostly into conjugated monohydroxy fatty acids.

  14. Fungi as a source of natural coumarins production.

    PubMed

    Costa, Tania Maria; Tavares, Lorena Benathar Ballod; de Oliveira, Débora

    2016-08-01

    Natural coumarins and derivatives are compounds that occur naturally in several organisms (plant, bacteria, and fungi) consisting of fused benzene and α-pyrone rings. These compounds show high technological potential applications in agrochemical, food, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics industries. Therefore, the need for bulk production of coumarins and the advancement of the chemical and pharmaceutical industries led to the development of synthetic coumarin. However, biotransformation process, synthetic bioengineering, metabolic engineering, and bioinformatics have proven effective in the production of natural products. Today, these biological systems are recognized as green chemistry innovation and business strategy. This review article aims to report the potential of fungi for synthesis of coumarin. These microorganisms are described as a source of natural products capable of synthesizing many bioactive metabolites. The features, classification, properties, and industrial applications of natural coumarins as well as new molecules obtained by basidiomycetes and ascomycetes fungi are reported in order to explore a topic not yet discussed in the scientific literature.

  15. Natural gas production verification tests. Environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared by the Department of Energy (DOE) in compliance with the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969. The Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to fund, through a contract with Petroleum Consulting Services, Inc. of Canton, Ohio, the testing of the effectiveness of a non-water based hydraulic fracturing treatment to increase gas recovery from low-pressure, tight, fractured Devonian Shale formations. Although Devonian Shales are found in the Appalachian, Michigan, and Illinois Basins, testing will be done only in the dominant, historical five state area of established production. The objective of this proposed project is to assess the benefits of liquid carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2})/sand stimulations in the Devonian Shale. In addition, this project would evaluate the potential nondamaging (to the formation) properties of this unique fracturing treatment relative to the clogging or chocking of pores and fractures that act as gas flow paths to the wellbore in the target gas-producing zones of the formation. This liquid CO{sub 2}/sand fracturing process is water-free and is expected to facilitate gas well cleanup, reduce the time required for post-stimulation cleanup, and result in improved production levels in a much shorter time than is currently experienced.

  16. Identification of triptolide, a natural diterpenoid compound, as an inhibitor of lung inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Hoyle, Christine I.; Chen, Jing; Chang, Weiyuan; Williams, Ronald W.; Rando, Roy J.

    2010-01-01

    Inflammation is associated with various pulmonary diseases and contributes to the pathogenesis of acute lung injury. We previously identified a proinflammatory signaling pathway triggered by G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in which stimulation of Gq-coupled GPCRs results in activation of the transcription factor NF-κB. Because damage to the lung causes the release of multiple mediators acting through Gq-coupled GPCRs, this signaling pathway is likely to contribute to inflammatory processes in the injured lung. In an effort to identify novel inhibitors of lung inflammation, the National Institutes of Health Clinical Collection, a library of 446 compounds, was screened for inhibitory activity toward production of IL-8 induced by stimulation of the Gq-coupled tachykinin 1 receptor with substance P in A549 cells. Twenty-eight compounds that significantly inhibited substance P-induced IL-8 production were identified. The most potent inhibitor was triptolide, a diterpenoid compound from Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F, a vine used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. Triptolide inhibited IL-8 production induced by substance P with an IC50 of 2.3 × 10−8 M and inhibited NF-κB activation in response to an agonist of the protease-activated receptor 2 with an IC50 of 1.4 × 10−8 M. Anti-inflammatory effects of triptolide were assessed in vivo using a chlorine gas lung injury model in mice. Triptolide inhibited neutrophilic inflammation and the production of KC (Cxcl1) in the lungs of chlorine-exposed mice. The results demonstrate that triptolide exhibits anti-inflammatory activity in cultured lung cells and in an in vivo model of acute lung injury. PMID:20348278

  17. Solid-phase enrichment and analysis of electrophilic natural products

    PubMed Central

    Wesche, Frank; He, Yue

    2017-01-01

    In search for new natural products, which may lead to the development of new drugs for all kind of applications, novel methods are needed. Here we describe the identification of electrophilic natural products in crude extracts via their reactivity against azide as a nucleophile followed by their subsequent enrichment using a cleavable azide-reactive resin (CARR). Using this approach, natural products carrying epoxides and α,β-unsaturated enones as well as several unknown compounds were identified in crude extracts from entomopathogenic Photorhabdus bacteria. PMID:28382178

  18. Genetic regulation and manipulation for natural product discovery.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianwei; Wu, Qihao; Hawas, Usama W; Wang, Hong

    2016-04-01

    Natural products are an important source of modern medical development, e.g., antibiotics, anticancers, immune modulators, etc. and will continue to be a powerful driving force for the discovery of novel potential drugs. In the heterologous hosts, natural products are biosynthesized using dedicated metabolic networks. By gene engineering, pathway reconstructing, and enzyme engineering, metabolic networks can be modified to synthesize novel compounds containing enhanced structural feature or produce a large quantity of known valuable bioactive compounds. The review introduces some important technical platforms and relevant examples of genetic regulation and manipulation to improve natural product titers or drive novel secondary metabolite discoveries.

  19. Ribosomal Peptide Natural Products: Bridging the Ribosomal and Nonribosomal Worlds

    PubMed Central

    McIntosh, John A.; Donia, Mohamed S.; Schmidt, Eric W.

    2010-01-01

    Ribosomally synthesized bacterial natural products rival the nonribosomal peptides in their structural and functional diversity. The last decade has seen substantial progress in the identification and characterization of biosynthetic pathways leading to ribosomal peptide natural products with new and unusual structural motifs. In some of these cases, the motifs are similar to those found in nonribosomal peptides, and many are constructed by convergent or even paralogous enzymes. Here, we summarize the major structural and biosynthetic categories of ribosomally synthesized bacterial natural products and, where applicable, compare them to their homologs from nonribosomal biosynthesis. PMID:19642421

  20. Biosynthetic engineering of natural products for lead optimization and development.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Barrie; Moss, Steven J

    2005-11-01

    It is now possible to rapidly and rationally modify, at a genetic level, the machinery responsible for natural product biosynthesis. This provides the opportunity to design new structures and to optimize natural product lead compounds in a way that would be extremely difficult through synthetic chemistry means alone. The technology can also be used to overcome limitations of compound supply, which might otherwise preclude natural products from progressing into clinical trials. Described herein are some recent examples which highlight how biosynthetic engineering has been applied to drug discovery and development, and which attempt, in particular, to demonstrate how the technology functions most effectively when combined with synthetic organic and medicinal chemistry.

  1. Accessing the Hidden Majority of Marine Natural Products Through Metagenomics

    PubMed Central

    Donia, Mohamed S.; Ruffner, Duane E.; Cao, Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Tiny marine animals represent an untapped reservoir for undiscovered, bioactive natural products. However, their small size and extreme chemical variability preclude traditional chemical approaches to discovering new bioactive compounds. Here, we use a metagenomic method to directly discover and rapidly access cyanobactin class natural products from these variable samples, providing proof-of-concept for genome based discovery and supply of marine natural products. We also address practical optimization of complex, multistep ribosomal peptide pathways in heterologous hosts, which is still very challenging. The resulting methods and concepts will be applicable to ribosomal peptide and other biosynthetic pathways. PMID:21542088

  2. Manufacturing Natural Killer Cells as Medicinal Products.

    PubMed

    Chabannon, Christian; Mfarrej, Bechara; Guia, Sophie; Ugolini, Sophie; Devillier, Raynier; Blaise, Didier; Vivier, Eric; Calmels, Boris

    2016-01-01

    Natural Killer (NK) cells are innate lymphoid cells (ILC) with cytotoxic and regulatory properties. Their functions are tightly regulated by an array of inhibitory and activating receptors, and their mechanisms of activation strongly differ from antigen recognition in the context of human leukocyte antigen presentation as needed for T-cell activation. NK cells thus offer unique opportunities for new and improved therapeutic manipulation, either in vivo or in vitro, in a variety of human diseases, including cancers. NK cell activity can possibly be modulated in vivo through direct or indirect actions exerted by small molecules or monoclonal antibodies. NK cells can also be adoptively transferred following more or less substantial modifications through cell and gene manufacturing, in order to empower them with new or improved functions and ensure their controlled persistence and activity in the recipient. In the present review, we will focus on the technological and regulatory challenges of NK cell manufacturing and discuss conditions in which these innovative cellular therapies can be brought to the clinic.

  3. Manufacturing Natural Killer Cells as Medicinal Products

    PubMed Central

    Chabannon, Christian; Mfarrej, Bechara; Guia, Sophie; Ugolini, Sophie; Devillier, Raynier; Blaise, Didier; Vivier, Eric; Calmels, Boris

    2016-01-01

    Natural Killer (NK) cells are innate lymphoid cells (ILC) with cytotoxic and regulatory properties. Their functions are tightly regulated by an array of inhibitory and activating receptors, and their mechanisms of activation strongly differ from antigen recognition in the context of human leukocyte antigen presentation as needed for T-cell activation. NK cells thus offer unique opportunities for new and improved therapeutic manipulation, either in vivo or in vitro, in a variety of human diseases, including cancers. NK cell activity can possibly be modulated in vivo through direct or indirect actions exerted by small molecules or monoclonal antibodies. NK cells can also be adoptively transferred following more or less substantial modifications through cell and gene manufacturing, in order to empower them with new or improved functions and ensure their controlled persistence and activity in the recipient. In the present review, we will focus on the technological and regulatory challenges of NK cell manufacturing and discuss conditions in which these innovative cellular therapies can be brought to the clinic. PMID:27895646

  4. Taxonomy, Physiology, and Natural Products of Actinobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Vatsa, Parul; Sanchez, Lisa; Gaveau-Vaillant, Nathalie; Jacquard, Cedric; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Clément, Christophe; Ouhdouch, Yder

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Actinobacteria are Gram-positive bacteria with high G+C DNA content that constitute one of the largest bacterial phyla, and they are ubiquitously distributed in both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Many Actinobacteria have a mycelial lifestyle and undergo complex morphological differentiation. They also have an extensive secondary metabolism and produce about two-thirds of all naturally derived antibiotics in current clinical use, as well as many anticancer, anthelmintic, and antifungal compounds. Consequently, these bacteria are of major importance for biotechnology, medicine, and agriculture. Actinobacteria play diverse roles in their associations with various higher organisms, since their members have adopted different lifestyles, and the phylum includes pathogens (notably, species of Corynebacterium, Mycobacterium, Nocardia, Propionibacterium, and Tropheryma), soil inhabitants (e.g., Micromonospora and Streptomyces species), plant commensals (e.g., Frankia spp.), and gastrointestinal commensals (Bifidobacterium spp.). Actinobacteria also play an important role as symbionts and as pathogens in plant-associated microbial communities. This review presents an update on the biology of this important bacterial phylum. PMID:26609051

  5. Production of Substitute Natural Gas from Coal

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew Lucero

    2009-01-31

    The goal of this research program was to develop and demonstrate a novel gasification technology to produce substitute natural gas (SNG) from coal. The technology relies on a continuous sequential processing method that differs substantially from the historic methanation or hydro-gasification processing technologies. The thermo-chemistry relies on all the same reactions, but the processing sequences are different. The proposed concept is appropriate for western sub-bituminous coals, which tend to be composed of about half fixed carbon and about half volatile matter (dry ash-free basis). In the most general terms the process requires four steps (1) separating the fixed carbon from the volatile matter (pyrolysis); (2) converting the volatile fraction into syngas (reforming); (3) reacting the syngas with heated carbon to make methane-rich fuel gas (methanation and hydro-gasification); and (4) generating process heat by combusting residual char (combustion). A key feature of this technology is that no oxygen plant is needed for char combustion.

  6. Taxonomy, Physiology, and Natural Products of Actinobacteria.

    PubMed

    Barka, Essaid Ait; Vatsa, Parul; Sanchez, Lisa; Gaveau-Vaillant, Nathalie; Jacquard, Cedric; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Clément, Christophe; Ouhdouch, Yder; van Wezel, Gilles P

    2016-03-01

    Actinobacteria are Gram-positive bacteria with high G+C DNA content that constitute one of the largest bacterial phyla, and they are ubiquitously distributed in both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Many Actinobacteria have a mycelial lifestyle and undergo complex morphological differentiation. They also have an extensive secondary metabolism and produce about two-thirds of all naturally derived antibiotics in current clinical use, as well as many anticancer, anthelmintic, and antifungal compounds. Consequently, these bacteria are of major importance for biotechnology, medicine, and agriculture. Actinobacteria play diverse roles in their associations with various higher organisms, since their members have adopted different lifestyles, and the phylum includes pathogens (notably, species of Corynebacterium, Mycobacterium, Nocardia, Propionibacterium, and Tropheryma), soil inhabitants (e.g., Micromonospora and Streptomyces species), plant commensals (e.g., Frankia spp.), and gastrointestinal commensals (Bifidobacterium spp.). Actinobacteria also play an important role as symbionts and as pathogens in plant-associated microbial communities. This review presents an update on the biology of this important bacterial phylum. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Actinonin, a naturally occurring antibacterial agent, is a potent deformylase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Chen, D Z; Patel, D V; Hackbarth, C J; Wang, W; Dreyer, G; Young, D C; Margolis, P S; Wu, C; Ni, Z J; Trias, J; White, R J; Yuan, Z

    2000-02-15

    Peptide deformylase (PDF) is essential in prokaryotes and absent in mammalian cells, thus making it an attractive target for the discovery of novel antibiotics. We have identified actinonin, a naturally occurring antibacterial agent, as a potent PDF inhibitor. The dissociation constant for this compound was 0.3 x 10(-)(9) M against Ni-PDF from Escherichia coli; the PDF from Staphylococcus aureus gave a similar value. Microbiological evaluation revealed that actinonin is a bacteriostatic agent with activity against Gram-positive and fastidious Gram-negative microorganisms. The PDF gene, def, was placed under control of P(BAD) in E. coli tolC, permitting regulation of PDF expression levels in the cell by varying the external arabinose concentration. The susceptibility of this strain to actinonin increases with decreased levels of PDF expression, indicating that actinonin inhibits bacterial growth by targeting this enzyme. Actinonin provides an excellent starting point from which to derive a more potent PDF inhibitor that has a broader spectrum of antibacterial activity.

  8. Monte Carlo method based QSAR modelling of natural lipase inhibitors using hybrid optimal descriptors.

    PubMed

    Kumar, A; Chauhan, S

    2017-03-08

    Obesity is one of the most provoking health burdens in the developed countries. One of the strategies to prevent obesity is the inhibition of pancreatic lipase enzyme. The aim of this study was to build QSAR models for natural lipase inhibitors by using the Monte Carlo method. The molecular structures were represented by the simplified molecular input line entry system (SMILES) notation and molecular graphs. Three sets - training, calibration and test set of three splits - were examined and validated. Statistical quality of all the described models was very good. The best QSAR model showed the following statistical parameters: r(2) = 0.864 and Q(2) = 0.836 for the test set and r(2) = 0.824 and Q(2) = 0.819 for the validation set. Structural attributes for increasing and decreasing the activity (expressed as pIC50) were also defined. Using defined structural attributes, the design of new potential lipase inhibitors is also presented. Additionally, a molecular docking study was performed for the determination of binding modes of designed molecules.

  9. Analogs of natural aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase inhibitors clear malaria in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Novoa, Eva Maria; Camacho, Noelia; Tor, Anna; Wilkinson, Barrie; Moss, Steven; Marín-García, Patricia; Azcárate, Isabel G.; Bautista, José M.; Mirando, Adam C.; Francklyn, Christopher S.; Varon, Sònia; Royo, Miriam; Cortés, Alfred; Ribas de Pouplana, Lluís

    2014-01-01

    Malaria remains a major global health problem. Emerging resistance to existing antimalarial drugs drives the search for new antimalarials, and protein translation is a promising pathway to target. Here we explore the potential of the aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (ARS) family as a source of antimalarial drug targets. First, a battery of known and novel ARS inhibitors was tested against Plasmodium falciparum cultures, and their activities were compared. Borrelidin, a natural inhibitor of threonyl-tRNA synthetase (ThrRS), stands out for its potent antimalarial effect. However, it also inhibits human ThrRS and is highly toxic to human cells. To circumvent this problem, we tested a library of bioengineered and semisynthetic borrelidin analogs for their antimalarial activity and toxicity. We found that some analogs effectively lose their toxicity against human cells while retaining a potent antiparasitic activity both in vitro and in vivo and cleared malaria from Plasmodium yoelii-infected mice, resulting in 100% mice survival rates. Our work identifies borrelidin analogs as potent, selective, and unexplored scaffolds that efficiently clear malaria both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:25489076

  10. Evaluation of Potential Genotoxicity of HIV Entry Inhibitors Derived from Natural Sources

    PubMed Central

    Paskaleva, Elena E.; Arra, Manoj; Liu, Yanze; Guo, Huijun; Swartz, Glenn; Kennedy, Jeffrey S.; Breneman, Curt; Shekhtman, Alexander; Canki, Mario

    2014-01-01

    AIDS is a global pandemic that has seen the development of novel and effective treatments to improve the quality of life of those infected and reduction of spread of the disease. Palmitic Acid (PA), which we identified and isolated from Sargassum fusiforme, is a naturally occurring fatty acid that specifically inhibits HIV entry by binding to a novel pocket on the CD4 receptor. We also identified a structural analogue, 2-bromopalmitate (2-BP), as a more effective HIV entry inhibitor with a 20-fold increase in efficacy. We have used the structure-activity relationship (SAR) of 2-BP as a platform to identify new small chemical molecules that fit into the various identified active sites in an effort to identify more potent CD4 entry inhibitors. To validate further drug development, we tested the PA and 2-BP scaffold molecules for genotoxic potential. The FDA and International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) recommends using a standardized 3-test battery for testing compound genotoxicity consisting of the bacterial reverse mutation assay, mouse lymphoma assay, and rat micronucleus assay. PA and 2-BP and their metabolites tested negative in all three genotoxicty tests. 2-BP is the first derivative of PA to undergo pre-clinical screening, which will enable us to now test multiple simultaneous small chemical structures based on activity in scaffold modeling across the dimension of pre-clinical testing to enable transition to human testing. PMID:24667334

  11. Evaluation of potential genotoxicity of HIV entry inhibitors derived from natural sources.

    PubMed

    Paskaleva, Elena E; Arra, Manoj; Liu, Yanze; Guo, Huijun; Swartz, Glenn; Kennedy, Jeffrey S; Breneman, Curt; Shekhtman, Alexander; Canki, Mario

    2014-01-01

    AIDS is a global pandemic that has seen the development of novel and effective treatments to improve the quality of life of those infected and reduction of spread of the disease. Palmitic Acid (PA), which we identified and isolated from Sargassum fusiforme, is a naturally occurring fatty acid that specifically inhibits HIV entry by binding to a novel pocket on the CD4 receptor. We also identified a structural analogue, 2-bromopalmitate (2-BP), as a more effective HIV entry inhibitor with a 20-fold increase in efficacy. We have used the structure-activity relationship (SAR) of 2-BP as a platform to identify new small chemical molecules that fit into the various identified active sites in an effort to identify more potent CD4 entry inhibitors. To validate further drug development, we tested the PA and 2-BP scaffold molecules for genotoxic potential. The FDA and International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) recommends using a standardized 3-test battery for testing compound genotoxicity consisting of the bacterial reverse mutation assay, mouse lymphoma assay, and rat micronucleus assay. PA and 2-BP and their metabolites tested negative in all three genotoxicty tests. 2-BP is the first derivative of PA to undergo pre-clinical screening, which will enable us to now test multiple simultaneous small chemical structures based on activity in scaffold modeling across the dimension of pre-clinical testing to enable transition to human testing.

  12. Computational Study on New Natural Compound Inhibitors of Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiaoli; Yu, Shanshan; Su, Jing; Sun, Liankun

    2016-01-01

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases (PDKs) are key enzymes in glucose metabolism, negatively regulating pyruvate dehyrogenase complex (PDC) activity through phosphorylation. Inhibiting PDKs could upregulate PDC activity and drive cells into more aerobic metabolism. Therefore, PDKs are potential targets for metabolism related diseases, such as cancers and diabetes. In this study, a series of computer-aided virtual screening techniques were utilized to discover potential inhibitors of PDKs. Structure-based screening using Libdock was carried out following by ADME (adsorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion) and toxicity prediction. Molecular docking was used to analyze the binding mechanism between these compounds and PDKs. Molecular dynamic simulation was utilized to confirm the stability of potential compound binding. From the computational results, two novel natural coumarins compounds (ZINC12296427 and ZINC12389251) from the ZINC database were found binding to PDKs with favorable interaction energy and predicted to be non-toxic. Our study provide valuable information of PDK-coumarins binding mechanisms in PDK inhibitor-based drug discovery. PMID:26959013

  13. Momordin Ic, a new natural SENP1 inhibitor, inhibits prostate cancer cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Caixia; Wang, Weiwei; Xu, Hanzhang; Xiao, Weilie; Gu, Wenli; Wu, Yingli

    2016-01-01

    SUMO-specific protease 1 (SENP1), a member of the de-SUMOylation protease family, is elevated in prostate cancer (PCa) cells and is involved in PCa pathogenesis. Momordin Ιc (Mc), a natural pentacyclic triterpenoid, inhibited SENP1 in vitro, as reflected by reduced SENP1C-induced cleavage of SUMO2-ΔRanGAP1. Mc also altered the thermal stability of SENP1 in a newly developed cellular thermal shift assay, indicating that Mc directly interacts with SENP1 in PCa cells. Consistent with SENP1 inhibition, Mc increased SUMOylated protein levels, which was further confirmed by the accumulation of two known SUMOylated proteins, hypoxia inducible factor-1a and nucleus accumbens associated protein 1 in PC3 cells. Compared to LNCaP and normal prostate epithelial RWPE-1 cells, PC3 cells had higher levels of SENP1 mRNA and were more sensitive to Mc-induced growth inhibition. Mc also reduced SENP1 mRNA levels in PCa cells. Overexpression of SENP1 rescued PC3 cells from Mc-induced apoptosis. Finally, Mc suppressed cell proliferation and induced cell death in vivo in a xenograft PC3 tumor mouse model. These findings demonstrate that Mc is a novel SENP1 inhibitor with potential therapeutic value for PCa. Investigation of other pentacyclic triterpenoids may aid in the development of novel SENP1 inhibitor drugs. PMID:27449295

  14. Momordin Ic, a new natural SENP1 inhibitor, inhibits prostate cancer cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jingjing; Lei, Hu; Zhang, Jinfu; Chen, Xiangyun; Tang, Caixia; Wang, Weiwei; Xu, Hanzhang; Xiao, Weilie; Gu, Wenli; Wu, Yingli

    2016-09-13

    SUMO-specific protease 1 (SENP1), a member of the de-SUMOylation protease family, is elevated in prostate cancer (PCa) cells and is involved in PCa pathogenesis. Momordin Ιc (Mc), a natural pentacyclic triterpenoid, inhibited SENP1 in vitro, as reflected by reduced SENP1C-induced cleavage of SUMO2-ΔRanGAP1. Mc also altered the thermal stability of SENP1 in a newly developed cellular thermal shift assay, indicating that Mc directly interacts with SENP1 in PCa cells. Consistent with SENP1 inhibition, Mc increased SUMOylated protein levels, which was further confirmed by the accumulation of two known SUMOylated proteins, hypoxia inducible factor-1a and nucleus accumbens associated protein 1 in PC3 cells. Compared to LNCaP and normal prostate epithelial RWPE-1 cells, PC3 cells had higher levels of SENP1 mRNA and were more sensitive to Mc-induced growth inhibition. Mc also reduced SENP1 mRNA levels in PCa cells. Overexpression of SENP1 rescued PC3 cells from Mc-induced apoptosis. Finally, Mc suppressed cell proliferation and induced cell death in vivo in a xenograft PC3 tumor mouse model. These findings demonstrate that Mc is a novel SENP1 inhibitor with potential therapeutic value for PCa. Investigation of other pentacyclic triterpenoids may aid in the development of novel SENP1 inhibitor drugs.

  15. Analogs of natural aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase inhibitors clear malaria in vivo.

    PubMed

    Novoa, Eva Maria; Camacho, Noelia; Tor, Anna; Wilkinson, Barrie; Moss, Steven; Marín-García, Patricia; Azcárate, Isabel G; Bautista, José M; Mirando, Adam C; Francklyn, Christopher S; Varon, Sònia; Royo, Miriam; Cortés, Alfred; Ribas de Pouplana, Lluís

    2014-12-23

    Malaria remains a major global health problem. Emerging resistance to existing antimalarial drugs drives the search for new antimalarials, and protein translation is a promising pathway to target. Here we explore the potential of the aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (ARS) family as a source of antimalarial drug targets. First, a battery of known and novel ARS inhibitors was tested against Plasmodium falciparum cultures, and their activities were compared. Borrelidin, a natural inhibitor of threonyl-tRNA synthetase (ThrRS), stands out for its potent antimalarial effect. However, it also inhibits human ThrRS and is highly toxic to human cells. To circumvent this problem, we tested a library of bioengineered and semisynthetic borrelidin analogs for their antimalarial activity and toxicity. We found that some analogs effectively lose their toxicity against human cells while retaining a potent antiparasitic activity both in vitro and in vivo and cleared malaria from Plasmodium yoelii-infected mice, resulting in 100% mice survival rates. Our work identifies borrelidin analogs as potent, selective, and unexplored scaffolds that efficiently clear malaria both in vitro and in vivo.

  16. Technology development for natural product biosynthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Billingsley, John M; DeNicola, Anthony B; Tang, Yi

    2016-12-01

    The explosion of genomic sequence data and the significant advancements in synthetic biology have led to the development of new technologies for natural products discovery and production. Using powerful genetic tools, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been engineered as a production host for natural product pathways from bacterial, fungal, and plant species. With an expanding library of characterized genetic parts, biosynthetic pathways can be refactored for optimized expression in yeast. New engineering strategies have enabled the increased production of valuable secondary metabolites by tuning metabolic pathways. Improvements in high-throughput screening methods have facilitated the rapid identification of variants with improved biosynthetic capabilities. In this review, we focus on the molecular tools and engineering strategies that have recently empowered heterologous natural product biosynthesis.

  17. The polygenic nature of inhibitors in hemophilia A: results from the Hemophilia Inhibitor Genetics Study (HIGS) Combined Cohort.

    PubMed

    Astermark, Jan; Donfield, Sharyne M; Gomperts, Edward D; Schwarz, John; Menius, Erika D; Pavlova, Anna; Oldenburg, Johannes; Kessing, Bailey; DiMichele, Donna M; Shapiro, Amy D; Winkler, Cheryl A; Berntorp, Erik

    2013-02-21

    Studies of determinants of development of inhibitory Abs to factor VIII in people with hemophilia A indicate a complex process involving multiple factors. The Hemophilia Inhibitor Genetics Study (HIGS) Combined Cohort was formed to extend our understanding of the genetic background of risk. The study group contains 833 subjects from 3 independent cohorts: brother pairs and singletons with and without a history of inhibitors, as well as 104 brother pairs discordant for inhibitor status. Using an Illumina iSelect platform, 13 331 single-nucleotide polymorphisms from 1081 genes, primarily immune response and immune modifier genes, were typed. Each cohort was analyzed separately with results combined using a meta-analytic technique. After adjustment for potential confounders, 53 single-nucleotide polymorphisms were found to be significant predictors of inhibitor status using the criteria of odds ratios in the same direction in all cohorts or allowing for a 20% interval around an odds ratio = 1 in 1 of the 3 and significant in at least 2. Of the 53 markers, 13 had meta P < .001. Eight of the 53 were significant predictors among the discordant pairs. Results support the complexity of the immune response and encourage further research with the goal of understanding the pathways involved.

  18. The polygenic nature of inhibitors in hemophilia A: results from the Hemophilia Inhibitor Genetics Study (HIGS) Combined Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Donfield, Sharyne M.; Gomperts, Edward D.; Schwarz, John; Menius, Erika D.; Pavlova, Anna; Oldenburg, Johannes; Kessing, Bailey; DiMichele, Donna M.; Shapiro, Amy D.; Winkler, Cheryl A.; Berntorp, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Studies of determinants of development of inhibitory Abs to factor VIII in people with hemophilia A indicate a complex process involving multiple factors. The Hemophilia Inhibitor Genetics Study (HIGS) Combined Cohort was formed to extend our understanding of the genetic background of risk. The study group contains 833 subjects from 3 independent cohorts: brother pairs and singletons with and without a history of inhibitors, as well as 104 brother pairs discordant for inhibitor status. Using an Illumina iSelect platform, 13 331 single-nucleotide polymorphisms from 1081 genes, primarily immune response and immune modifier genes, were typed. Each cohort was analyzed separately with results combined using a meta-analytic technique. After adjustment for potential confounders, 53 single-nucleotide polymorphisms were found to be significant predictors of inhibitor status using the criteria of odds ratios in the same direction in all cohorts or allowing for a 20% interval around an odds ratio = 1 in 1 of the 3 and significant in at least 2. Of the 53 markers, 13 had meta P < .001. Eight of the 53 were significant predictors among the discordant pairs. Results support the complexity of the immune response and encourage further research with the goal of understanding the pathways involved. PMID:23223434

  19. Opportunities for natural products in 21(st) century antibiotic discovery.

    PubMed

    Wright, Gerard D

    2017-07-01

    Natural products and their derivatives are mainstays of our antibiotic drugs, but they are increasingly in peril. The combination of widespread multidrug resistance in once susceptible bacterial pathogens, disenchantment with natural products as sources of new drugs, lack of success using synthetic compounds and target-based discovery methods, along with shifting economic and regulatory issues, conspire to move investment in research and development away from the antibiotics arena. The result is a growing crisis in antibiotic drug discovery that threatens modern medicine. 21(st) century natural product research is perfectly positioned to fill the antibiotic discovery gap and bring new drug candidates to the clinic. Innovations in genomics and techniques to explore new sources of antimicrobial chemical matter are revealing new chemistry. Increasing appreciation of the value of narrow-spectrum drugs and re-examination of once discarded chemical scaffolds coupled with synthetic biology methods to generate new compounds and improve yields offer new strategies to revitalize once moribund natural product programs. The increasing awareness that the combination of antibiotics with adjuvants, non-antibiotic compounds that overcome resistance and enhance drug activity, can rescue older chemical scaffolds, and concepts such as blocking pathogen virulence present orthogonal strategies to traditional antibiotics. In all these areas, natural products offer chemical matter, shaped by natural selection, that is privileged in this therapeutic area. Natural product research is poised to regain prominence in delivering new drugs to solve the antibiotic crisis.

  20. Biosynthesis of natural products containing β-amino acids.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Fumitaka; Miyanaga, Akimasa; Eguchi, Tadashi

    2014-08-01

    Covering: up to January, 2014. We focus here on β-amino acids as components of complex natural products because the presence of β-amino acids produces structural diversity in natural products and provides characteristic architectures beyond those of ordinary α-L-amino acids, thus generating significant and unique biological functions in nature. In this review, we first survey the known bioactive β-amino acid-containing natural products including nonribosomal peptides, macrolactam polyketides, and nucleoside-β-amino acid hybrids. Next, the biosynthetic enzymes that form β-amino acids from α-amino acids and the de novo synthesis of β-amino acids are summarized. Then, the mechanisms of β-amino acid incorporation into natural products are reviewed. Because it is anticipated that the rational swapping of the β-amino acid moieties with various side chains and stereochemistries by biosynthetic engineering should lead to the creation of novel architectures and bioactive compounds, the accumulation of knowledge regarding β-amino acid-containing natural product biosynthetic machinery could have a significant impact in this field. In addition, genome mining of characteristic β-amino acid biosynthetic genes and unique β-amino acid incorporation machinery could lead to the discovery of new β-amino acid-containing natural products.

  1. Raman spectra of carotenoids in natural products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Withnall, Robert; Chowdhry, Babur Z.; Silver, Jack; Edwards, Howell G. M.; de Oliveira, Luiz F. C.

    2003-08-01

    Resonance Raman spectra of naturally occurring carotenoids have been obtained from nautilus, periwinkle ( Littorina littorea) and clam shells under 514.5 nm excitation and these spectra are compared with the resonance Raman spectra obtained in situ from tomatoes, carrots, red peppers and saffron. The tomatoes, carrots and red peppers gave rise to resonance Raman spectra exhibiting a ν1 band at ca. 1520 cm -1, in keeping with its assignment to carotenoids with ca. nine conjugated carboncarbon double bonds in their main chains, whereas the resonance Raman spectrum of saffron showed a ν1 band at 1537 cm -1 which can be assigned to crocetin, having seven conjugated carboncarbon double bonds. A correlation between ν1 wavenumber location and effective conjugated chain length has been used to interpret the data obtained from the shells, and the wavenumber position (1522 cm -1) of the ν1 band of the carotenoid in the orange clam shell suggests that it contains nine conjugated double bonds in the main chain. However, the black periwinkle and nautilus shells exhibit ν1 bands at 1504 and 1496 cm -1, respectively. On the basis of the correlation between ν1 wavenumber location and effective conjugated chain length, this indicates that they contain carotenoids with longer conjugated chains, the former having ca. 11 double bonds and the latter ca. 13 or even more. Raman spectra of the nautilus, periwinkle and clam shells also exhibited a strong band at 1085 cm -1 and a doublet with components at 701 and 705 cm -1, which can be assigned to biogenic calcium carbonate in the aragonite crystallographic form.

  2. Systems-based discovery of tomatidine as a natural small molecule inhibitor of skeletal muscle atrophy.

    PubMed

    Dyle, Michael C; Ebert, Scott M; Cook, Daniel P; Kunkel, Steven D; Fox, Daniel K; Bongers, Kale S; Bullard, Steven A; Dierdorff, Jason M; Adams, Christopher M

    2014-05-23

    Skeletal muscle atrophy is a common and debilitating condition that lacks an effective therapy. To address this problem, we used a systems-based discovery strategy to search for a small molecule whose mRNA expression signature negatively correlates to mRNA expression signatures of human skeletal muscle atrophy. This strategy identified a natural small molecule from tomato plants, tomatidine. Using cultured skeletal myotubes from both humans and mice, we found that tomatidine stimulated mTORC1 signaling and anabolism, leading to accumulation of protein and mitochondria, and ultimately, cell growth. Furthermore, in mice, tomatidine increased skeletal muscle mTORC1 signaling, reduced skeletal muscle atrophy, enhanced recovery from skeletal muscle atrophy, stimulated skeletal muscle hypertrophy, and increased strength and exercise capacity. Collectively, these results identify tomatidine as a novel small molecule inhibitor of muscle atrophy. Tomatidine may have utility as a therapeutic agent or lead compound for skeletal muscle atrophy.

  3. Study of Henna (Lawsonia inermis) as Natural Corrosion Inhibitor for Aluminum Alloy in Seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nik, W. B. Wan; Zulkifli, F.; Sulaiman, O.; Samo, K. B.; Rosliza, R.

    2012-09-01

    Commercial henna (Lawsonia inermis) was investigated to inhibit the corrosion of aluminum alloy through immersion in seawater. The aluminum alloy (5083) was prepared in size of 25mm × 25mm × 3mm. The immersion test was conducted in seawater with different concentration of henna, 100ppm, 300ppm, 500ppm for duration of 60 days. Four characterizations were performed in this study which was weight loss study, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and adsorption isotherm. The results indicated that henna has major constituents of lawsone which contributed to the chemisorptions or adsorption process by forming an isolation layers on the aluminum alloy surface which follows the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. It was found that the protection layer attached on metal was not permanent and precipitation occurred as the time increases. The highest inhibition efficiency was found at 88% (500ppm). This research found that henna is an excellent natural inhibitor for aluminum alloy in seawater.

  4. Systems-based Discovery of Tomatidine as a Natural Small Molecule Inhibitor of Skeletal Muscle Atrophy*

    PubMed Central

    Dyle, Michael C.; Ebert, Scott M.; Cook, Daniel P.; Kunkel, Steven D.; Fox, Daniel K.; Bongers, Kale S.; Bullard, Steven A.; Dierdorff, Jason M.; Adams, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscle atrophy is a common and debilitating condition that lacks an effective therapy. To address this problem, we used a systems-based discovery strategy to search for a small molecule whose mRNA expression signature negatively correlates to mRNA expression signatures of human skeletal muscle atrophy. This strategy identified a natural small molecule from tomato plants, tomatidine. Using cultured skeletal myotubes from both humans and mice, we found that tomatidine stimulated mTORC1 signaling and anabolism, leading to accumulation of protein and mitochondria, and ultimately, cell growth. Furthermore, in mice, tomatidine increased skeletal muscle mTORC1 signaling, reduced skeletal muscle atrophy, enhanced recovery from skeletal muscle atrophy, stimulated skeletal muscle hypertrophy, and increased strength and exercise capacity. Collectively, these results identify tomatidine as a novel small molecule inhibitor of muscle atrophy. Tomatidine may have utility as a therapeutic agent or lead compound for skeletal muscle atrophy. PMID:24719321

  5. Exploration of natural enzyme inhibitors with hypoglycemic potentials amongst Eucalyptus Spp. by in vitro assays

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Baishakhi; Mitra, Analava; Katakam, Prakash; Singla, Rajeev K

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the presence and potency of natural enzyme inhibitors with hypoglycemic potentials amongst Eucalyptus Spp. by in vitro assays. METHODS: The leaf extracts of the three different Eucalyptus species [E. globulus (EG), E. citriodora (EC), E. camaldulensis (ECA)] were subjected to in vitro assay procedures to explore the prevalence of natural enzyme inhibitors (NEIs) after preliminary qualitative and quantitative phytochemical evaluations, to study their inhibitory actions against the enzymes like α-amylase, α-glucosidase, aldose reductase, angiotensin converting enzyme and dipeptidyl peptidase 4 playing pathogenic roles in type 2 diabetes. The antioxidant potential and total antioxidant capacity of the species were also evaluated. RESULTS: Major bioactive compounds like polyphenols (341.75 ± 3.63 to 496.85 ± 3.98) and flavonoids (4.89 ± 0.01 to 7.15 ± 0.02) were found in appreciable quantity in three species. Based on the IC50 values of the extracts under investigation, in all assays the effectivity was in the order of EG > ECA > EC. The results of the ferric reducing antioxidant power assay showed that the reducing ability of the species was also in the order of EG > ECA > EC. A strong correlation (R2 = 0.81-0.99) was found between the phenolic contents and the inhibitory potentials of the extracts against the targeted enzymes. CONCLUSION: These results show immense hypoglycemic potentiality of the Eucalyptus Spp. and a remarkable source of NEIs for a future phytotherapeutic approach in Type 2 diabetes. PMID:24748933

  6. Natural product proteomining, a quantitative proteomics platform, allows rapid discovery of biosynthetic gene clusters for different classes of natural products.

    PubMed

    Gubbens, Jacob; Zhu, Hua; Girard, Geneviève; Song, Lijiang; Florea, Bogdan I; Aston, Philip; Ichinose, Koji; Filippov, Dmitri V; Choi, Young H; Overkleeft, Herman S; Challis, Gregory L; van Wezel, Gilles P

    2014-06-19

    Information on gene clusters for natural product biosynthesis is accumulating rapidly because of the current boom of available genome sequencing data. However, linking a natural product to a specific gene cluster remains challenging. Here, we present a widely applicable strategy for the identification of gene clusters for specific natural products, which we name natural product proteomining. The method is based on using fluctuating growth conditions that ensure differential biosynthesis of the bioactivity of interest. Subsequent combination of metabolomics and quantitative proteomics establishes correlations between abundance of natural products and concomitant changes in the protein pool, which allows identification of the relevant biosynthetic gene cluster. We used this approach to elucidate gene clusters for different natural products in Bacillus and Streptomyces, including a novel juglomycin-type antibiotic. Natural product proteomining does not require prior knowledge of the gene cluster or secondary metabolite and therefore represents a general strategy for identification of all types of gene clusters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Natural and within-farmland biodiversity enhances crop productivity.

    PubMed

    Carvalheiro, Luísa Gigante; Veldtman, Ruan; Shenkute, Awraris Getachew; Tesfay, Gebreamlak Bezabih; Pirk, Christian Walter Werner; Donaldson, John Sydney; Nicolson, Susan Wendy

    2011-03-01

    Ongoing expansion of large-scale agriculture critically threatens natural habitats and the pollination services they offer. Creating patches with high plant diversity within farmland is commonly suggested as a measure to benefit pollinators. However, farmers rarely adopt such practice, instead removing naturally occurring plants (weeds). By combining pollinator exclusion experiments with analysis of honeybee behaviour and flower-visitation webs, we found that the presence of weeds allowed pollinators to persist within sunflower fields, maximizing the benefits of the remaining patches of natural habitat to productivity of this large-scale crop. Weed diversity increased flower visitor diversity, hence ameliorating the measured negative effects of isolation from natural habitat. Although honeybees were the most abundant visitors, diversity of flower visitors enhanced honeybee movement, being the main factor influencing productivity. Conservation of natural patches combined with promoting flowering plants within crops can maximize productivity and, therefore, reduce the need for cropland expansion, contributing towards sustainable agriculture.

  8. Use of Brown Algae to Demonstrate Natural Products Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Lee A.

    1985-01-01

    Background information is provided on the natural products found in marine organisms in general and the brown algae in particular. Also provided are the procedures needed to isolate D-mannitol (a primary metabolite) and cholesterol from brown algae. (JN)

  9. Revealing the macromolecular targets of complex natural products.

    PubMed

    Reker, Daniel; Perna, Anna M; Rodrigues, Tiago; Schneider, Petra; Reutlinger, Michael; Mönch, Bettina; Koeberle, Andreas; Lamers, Christina; Gabler, Matthias; Steinmetz, Heinrich; Müller, Rolf; Schubert-Zsilavecz, Manfred; Werz, Oliver; Schneider, Gisbert

    2014-12-01

    Natural products have long been a source of useful biological activity for the development of new drugs. Their macromolecular targets are, however, largely unknown, which hampers rational drug design and optimization. Here we present the development and experimental validation of a computational method for the discovery of such targets. The technique does not require three-dimensional target models and may be applied to structurally complex natural products. The algorithm dissects the natural products into fragments and infers potential pharmacological targets by comparing the fragments to synthetic reference drugs with known targets. We demonstrate that this approach results in confident predictions. In a prospective validation, we show that fragments of the potent antitumour agent archazolid A, a macrolide from the myxobacterium Archangium gephyra, contain relevant information regarding its polypharmacology. Biochemical and biophysical evaluation confirmed the predictions. The results obtained corroborate the practical applicability of the computational approach to natural product 'de-orphaning'.

  10. Public databases of plant natural products for computational drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Tung, Chun-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Plant natural products have been intensively investigated during the past decades with a considerable amount of generated data. Databases are subsequently developed to facilitate the management and analysis of accumulated information including plant species, chemical compounds, structures and bioactivities. With the support of databases, the screening of novel bioactivities for plant natural products can benefit from advanced computational methods to accelerate the progress of drug discovery. This overview describes the contents of publicly available databases useful for computational research of plant natural products. Based on the databases, quantitative structure-activity relationship models and protein-ligand docking methods can be developed and applied to analyze and screen bioactive compounds. More public and structured databases with unique contents, search functions and links to major databases are needed for efficiently exploring the chemical space of plant natural products.

  11. Use of Brown Algae to Demonstrate Natural Products Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Lee A.

    1985-01-01

    Background information is provided on the natural products found in marine organisms in general and the brown algae in particular. Also provided are the procedures needed to isolate D-mannitol (a primary metabolite) and cholesterol from brown algae. (JN)

  12. Protein Engineering Towards Natural Product Synthesis and Diversification

    PubMed Central

    Zabala, Angelica O.; Cacho, Ralph A.; Tang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    A dazzling array of enzymes is used by nature in making structurally complex natural products. These enzymes constitute a molecular toolbox that may be used in the construction and fine-tuning of pharmaceutically active molecules. Aided by technological advancements in protein engineering, it is now possible to tailor the activities and specificities of these enzymes as biocatalysts in the production of both natural products and their unnatural derivatives. These efforts are crucial in drug discovery and development, where there is a continuous quest for more potent agents. Both rational and random evolution techniques have been utilized in engineering these enzymes. This review will highlight some examples from several large families of natural products. PMID:22006344

  13. Revealing the macromolecular targets of complex natural products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reker, Daniel; Perna, Anna M.; Rodrigues, Tiago; Schneider, Petra; Reutlinger, Michael; Mönch, Bettina; Koeberle, Andreas; Lamers, Christina; Gabler, Matthias; Steinmetz, Heinrich; Müller, Rolf; Schubert-Zsilavecz, Manfred; Werz, Oliver; Schneider, Gisbert

    2014-12-01

    Natural products have long been a source of useful biological activity for the development of new drugs. Their macromolecular targets are, however, largely unknown, which hampers rational drug design and optimization. Here we present the development and experimental validation of a computational method for the discovery of such targets. The technique does not require three-dimensional target models and may be applied to structurally complex natural products. The algorithm dissects the natural products into fragments and infers potential pharmacological targets by comparing the fragments to synthetic reference drugs with known targets. We demonstrate that this approach results in confident predictions. In a prospective validation, we show that fragments of the potent antitumour agent archazolid A, a macrolide from the myxobacterium Archangium gephyra, contain relevant information regarding its polypharmacology. Biochemical and biophysical evaluation confirmed the predictions. The results obtained corroborate the practical applicability of the computational approach to natural product ‘de-orphaning’.

  14. Protein engineering towards natural product synthesis and diversification.

    PubMed

    Zabala, Angelica O; Cacho, Ralph A; Tang, Yi

    2012-02-01

    A dazzling array of enzymes is used by nature in making structurally complex natural products. These enzymes constitute a molecular toolbox that may be used in the construction and fine-tuning of pharmaceutically active molecules. Aided by technological advancements in protein engineering, it is now possible to tailor the activities and specificities of these enzymes as biocatalysts in the production of both natural products and their unnatural derivatives. These efforts are crucial in drug discovery and development, where there is a continuous quest for more potent agents. Both rational and random evolution techniques have been utilized in engineering these enzymes. This review will highlight some examples from several large families of natural products.

  15. Mining the Metabiome: Identifying Novel Natural Products from Microbial Communities

    PubMed Central

    Milshteyn, Aleksandr; Schneider, Jessica S.; Brady, Sean F.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Microbial-derived natural products provide the foundation for most of the chemotherapeutic arsenal available to contemporary medicine. In the face of a dwindling pipeline of new lead structures identified by traditional culturing techniques and an increasing need for new therapeutics, surveys of microbial biosynthetic diversity across environmental metabiomes have revealed enormous reservoirs of as yet untapped natural products chemistry. In this review we touch on the historical context of microbial natural product discovery and discuss innovations and technological advances that are facilitating culture-dependent and culture-independent access to new chemistry from environmental microbiomes with the goal of re-invigorating the small molecule therapeutics discovery pipeline. We highlight the successful strategies that have emerged and some of the challenges that must be overcome to enable the development of high-throughput methods for natural product discovery from complex microbial communities. PMID:25237864

  16. Isocoumarins, miraculous natural products blessed with diverse pharmacological activities.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Aamer

    2016-06-30

    Isocoumarins are lactonic natural products abundant in microbes and higher plants. These are considered an amazing scaffold consecrated with more or less all types of pharmacological applications. This review is complementary to the earlier reviews and aims to focus the overlooked aspects of their fascinating chemistry with special emphasis on their classification and diverse biological activities with some SAR conclusions. The most recent available literature on the structural diversity and biological activity of these natural products has been reviewed.

  17. Marine natural products sourced from marine-derived Penicillium fungi.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hong-Guang; Liu, Qiang; Zhu, Guo-Liang; Liu, Hai-Shan; Zhu, Wei-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Marine micro-organisms have been proven to be a major source of marine natural products (MNPs) in recent years, in which filamentous fungi are a vital source of bioactive natural products for their large metagenomes and more complex genetic backgrounds. This review highlights the 390 new MNPs from marine-derived Penicillium fungi during 1991 to 2014. These new MNPs are categorized based on the environment sources of the fungal hosts and their bioactivities are summarized.

  18. Application of MALDI Mass Spectrometry in Natural Products Analysis.

    PubMed

    Silva, Ricardo; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; Silva, Denise Brentan

    2016-05-01

    This article presents the utility of mass spectrometry with a MALDI ionization source in natural products analysis. The advantages and drawbacks of this technique for natural products analyses will be presented and discussed. In addition, the structural determination of secondary metabolites using MALDI-MS/MS will be explored, which can guide MALDI experimental methods and stimulate new research in this area. Finally, several important approaches for MALDI data processing will be discussed.

  19. Syntheses of Cyclic Guanidine-Containing Natural Products.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yuyong; De, Saptarshi; Chen, Chuo

    2015-02-25

    Naturally occurring guanidine derivatives frequently display medicinally useful properties. Among them, the higher order pyrrole-imidazole alkaloids, the dragmacidins, the crambescidins/batzelladines, and the saxitoxins/tetradotoxins have stimulated the development of many new synthetic methods over the past decades. We provide here an overview of the syntheses of these cyclic guanidine-containing natural products.

  20. A comprehensive review of glycosylated bacterial natural products

    PubMed Central

    Elshahawi, Sherif I.; Shaaban, Khaled A.; Kharel, Madan K.

    2015-01-01

    A systematic analysis of all naturally-occurring glycosylated bacterial secondary metabolites reported in the scientific literature up through early 2013 is presented. This comprehensive analysis of 15 940 bacterial natural products revealed 3426 glycosides containing 344 distinct appended carbohydrates and highlights a range of unique opportunities for future biosynthetic study and glycodiversification efforts. PMID:25735878

  1. Syntheses of Cyclic Guanidine-Containing Natural Products

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yuyong; De, Saptarshi; Chen, Chuo

    2014-01-01

    Naturally occurring guanidine derivatives frequently display medicinally useful properties. Among them, the higher order pyrrole-imidazole alkaloids, the dragmacidins, the crambescidins/batzelladines, and the saxitoxins/tetradotoxins have stimulated the development of many new synthetic methods over the past decades. We provide here an overview of the syntheses of these cyclic guanidine-containing natural products. PMID:25684829

  2. Biotechnological production of natural zero-calorie sweeteners.

    PubMed

    Philippe, Ryan N; De Mey, Marjan; Anderson, Jeff; Ajikumar, Parayil Kumaran

    2014-04-01

    The increasing public awareness of adverse health impacts from excessive sugar consumption has created increasing interest in plant-derived, natural low-calorie or zero-calorie sweeteners. Two plant species which contain natural sweeteners, Stevia rebaudiana and Siraitia grosvenorii, have been extensively profiled to identify molecules with high intensity sweetening properties. However, sweetening ability does not necessarily make a product viable for commercial applications. Some criteria for product success are proposed to identify which targets are likely to be accepted by consumers. Limitations of plant-based production are discussed, and a case is put forward for the necessity of biotechnological production methods such as plant cell culture or microbial fermentation to meet needs for commercial-scale production of natural sweeteners.

  3. Natural Product Biosynthesis in Escherichia coli: Mentha Monoterpenoids.

    PubMed

    Toogood, H S; Tait, S; Jervis, A; Ní Cheallaigh, A; Humphreys, L; Takano, E; Gardiner, J M; Scrutton, N S

    2016-01-01

    The era of synthetic biology heralds in a new, more "green" approach to fine chemical and pharmaceutical drug production. It takes the knowledge of natural metabolic pathways and builds new routes to chemicals, enables nonnatural chemical production, and/or allows the rapid production of chemicals in alternative, highly performing organisms. This route is particularly useful in the production of monoterpenoids in microorganisms, which are naturally sourced from plant essential oils. Successful pathways are constructed by taking into consideration factors such as gene selection, regulatory elements, host selection and optimization, and metabolic considerations of the host organism. Seamless pathway construction techniques enable a "plug-and-play" switching of genes and regulatory parts to optimize the metabolic functioning in vivo. Ultimately, synthetic biology approaches to microbial monoterpenoid production may revolutionize "natural" compound formation. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Selective molecular sequestration with concurrent natural product functionalization and derivatization: from crude natural product extracts to a single natural product derivative in one step.

    PubMed

    Krchňák, Viktor; Zajíček, Jaroslav; Miller, Patricia A; Miller, Marvin J

    2011-12-16

    A resin-bound nitroso compound sequestered a single unexpected component from crude plant seed extracts. Several plants, including Piper nigrum, Eugenia caryophyllata, and Pimenta dioica, were extracted with organic solvent in the presence of a nitroso-containing resin. The nitroso resin selectively sequestered a single compound, β-caryophyllene, via a chemo- and regioselective ene reaction. The ene product was released from the resin, and proper selection of the solid-phase linker and cleavage cocktail allowed concomitant further transformation of the primary ene product to a novel functionalized polycycle. Preliminary studies indicate that the new hydroxylamine-containing natural product derivatives have antibiotic activity.

  5. Structure-based modelling, scoring, screening, and in vitro kinase assay of anesthetic pkc inhibitors against a natural medicine library.

    PubMed

    Shi, B X; Chen, F R; Sun, X

    2017-02-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) is an intracellular effector of the inositol phosphate-mediated signal transduction pathway. Evidence is emerging that certain general anaesthetics can influence the activity of PKC by interacting with the regulatory domain of the enzyme, and targeting PKC kinase domain is considered as a strategy to modulate the anaesthetic effects. Here, an integrated method was used to perform virtual screening against a large library of natural compounds for the discovery of new and potent PKC modulators. A number of hits were identified and their inhibitory activity against PKC kinase domain was measured by using a standard kinase assay protocol. Three and five compounds were determined to have high and moderate activities with IC50 values at nanomolar and micromolar levels, respectively. These compounds can be considered as promising lead molecular entities to develop efficacious anaesthetic modulators. Structural examination revealed a variety of nonbonded interactions such as hydrogen bonds, cation-π contacts, and hydrophobic forces across the complex interface of PKC with the identified compounds. This study helps to establish an integrative approach to rational kinase inhibitor discovery by efficiently exploiting various existing natural products.

  6. Zileuton, an oral 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor, directly reduces sebum production.

    PubMed

    Zouboulis, Ch C; Saborowski, A; Boschnakow, A

    2005-01-01

    Zileuton, a 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor, reduces the number of inflammatory lesions in moderate acne and inhibits the synthesis of sebaceous lipids. To detect whether zileuton directly reduces sebum synthesis. A 40-year-old female with mild disseminated sebaceous gland hyperplasia and seborrhea was treated with zileuton 4 x 600 mg/day over 2 weeks, was followed-up for 6 weeks after discontinuation of zileuton and was re-treated with low-dose isotretinoin 10 mg/2nd day over 5 weeks. Casual skin surface lipids and sebum synthesis were determined. Under treatment with zileuton increased casual skin surface lipids were normalized and synthesis of facial sebum was decreased. Six weeks after discontinuation of treatment casual skin surface lipids were increased again and synthesis of sebum returned to baseline. Subsequent low-dose isotretinoin treatment led to similar changes of casual skin surface lipids and sebum synthesis with zileuton already after 2 weeks. Zileuton directly inhibits sebum synthesis in a transient manner with a potency similar to low-dose isotretinoin at least in our patient.

  7. Charting biologically relevant chemical space: A structural classification of natural products (SCONP)

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Marcus A.; Schuffenhauer, Ansgar; Scheck, Michael; Wetzel, Stefan; Casaulta, Marco; Odermatt, Alex; Ertl, Peter; Waldmann, Herbert

    2005-01-01

    The identification of small molecules that fall within the biologically relevant subfraction of vast chemical space is of utmost importance to chemical biology and medicinal chemistry research. The prerequirement of biological relevance to be met by such molecules is fulfilled by natural product-derived compound collections. We report a structural classification of natural products (SCONP) as organizing principle for charting the known chemical space explored by nature. SCONP arranges the scaffolds of the natural products in a tree-like fashion and provides a viable analysis- and hypothesis-generating tool for the design of natural product-derived compound collections. The validity of the approach is demonstrated in the development of a previously undescribed class of selective and potent inhibitors of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 with activity in cells guided by SCONP and protein structure similarity clustering. 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 is a target in the development of new therapies for the treatment of diabetes, the metabolic syndrome, and obesity. PMID:16301544

  8. Evolution of inhibitor-resistant natural mutant forms of HIV-1 protease probed by pre-steady state kinetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Zakharova, Maria Yu; Kuznetsova, Alexandra A; Kaliberda, Elena N; Dronina, Maria A; Kolesnikov, Alexander V; Kozyr, Arina V; Smirnov, Ivan V; Rumsh, Lev D; Fedorova, Olga S; Knorre, Dmitry G; Gabibov, Alexander G; Kuznetsov, Nikita A

    2017-08-23

    Pre-steady state kinetic analysis of mechanistic features of substrate binding and processing is crucial for insight into the evolution of inhibitor-resistant forms of HIV-1 protease. These data may provide a correct vector for rational drug design assuming possible intrinsic dynamic effects. These data should also give some clues to the molecular mechanism of protease action and resistance to inhibitors. Here we report pre-steady state kinetics of the interaction of wild type or mutant forms of HIV-1 protease with a FRET-labeled peptide. The three-stage "minimal" kinetic scheme with first and second reversible steps of substrate binding and with following irreversible peptide cleavage step adequately described experimental data. For the first time, a set of "elementary" kinetic parameters of wild type HIV-1 protease and its natural mutant inhibitor-resistant forms MDR-HM, ANAM-11 and prDRV4 were compared. Inhibitors of the first and second generation were used to estimate the inhibitory effects on HIV-1 protease activity. The resulting set of kinetic data supported that the mutant forms are kinetically unaffected by inhibitors of the first generation, proving their functional resistance to these compounds. The second generation inhibitor darunavir inhibited mutant forms MDR-HM and ANAM-11, but was ineffective against prDRV4. Our kinetic data revealed that these inhibitors induced different conformational changes in the enzyme and, thereby they have different mode of binding in the enzyme active site. These data confirmed hypothesis that the driving force of the inhibitor-resistance evolution is disruption of enzyme-inhibitor complex by changing of the contact network in the inhibitor binding site. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  9. Natural fiber production, harvesting, and preliminary processing: options and opportunities

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The utilization of natural fibers and plant oils in bio-products introduces numerous logistical challenges not typically encountered with non-agricultural resources. Once it has been determined that a plant material is suitable for commercial development, the production, harvesting, and processing s...

  10. Plant-Derived Natural Products for Parkinson's Disease Therapy.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, T; Vinayagam, J; Singh, R; Jaisankar, P; Mohanakumar, K P

    2016-01-01

    Plant-derived natural products have made their own niche in the treatment of neurological diseases since time immemorial. Parkinson's disease (PD), the second most prevalent neurodegenerative disorder, has no cure and the treatment available currently is symptomatic. This chapter thoughtfully and objectively assesses the scientific basis that supports the increasing use of these plant-derived natural products for the treatment of this chronic and progressive disorder. Proper considerations are made on the chemical nature, sources, preclinical tests and their validity, and mechanisms of behavioural or biochemical recovery observed following treatment with various plants derived natural products relevant to PD therapy. The scientific basis underlying the neuroprotective effect of 6 Ayurvedic herbs/formulations, 12 Chinese medicinal herbs/formulations, 33 other plants, and 5 plant-derived molecules have been judiciously examined emphasizing behavioral, cellular, or biochemical aspects of neuroprotection observed in the cellular or animal models of the disease. The molecular mechanisms triggered by these natural products to promote cell survivability and to reduce the risk of cellular degeneration have also been brought to light in this study. The study helped to reveal certain limitations in the scenario: lack of preclinical studies in all cases barring two; heavy dependence on in vitro test systems; singular animal or cellular model to establish any therapeutic potential of drugs. This strongly warrants further studies so as to reproduce and confirm these reported effects. However, the current literature offers scientific credence to traditionally used plant-derived natural products for the treatment of PD.

  11. Natural product-based nanomedicine: recent advances and issues.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Rebekah; Wu, Ling; Zhang, Chenming; Davis, Richey M; Xu, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Natural products have been used in medicine for many years. Many top-selling pharmaceuticals are natural compounds or their derivatives. These plant- or microorganism-derived compounds have shown potential as therapeutic agents against cancer, microbial infection, inflammation, and other disease conditions. However, their success in clinical trials has been less impressive, partly due to the compounds' low bioavailability. The incorporation of nanoparticles into a delivery system for natural products would be a major advance in the efforts to increase their therapeutic effects. Recently, advances have been made showing that nanoparticles can significantly increase the bioavailability of natural products both in vitro and in vivo. Nanotechnology has demonstrated its capability to manipulate particles in order to target specific areas of the body and control the release of drugs. Although there are many benefits to applying nanotechnology for better delivery of natural products, it is not without issues. Drug targeting remains a challenge and potential nanoparticle toxicity needs to be further investigated, especially if these systems are to be used to treat chronic human diseases. This review aims to summarize recent progress in several key areas relevant to natural products in nanoparticle delivery systems for biomedical applications.

  12. Natural product-based nanomedicine: recent advances and issues

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, Rebekah; Wu, Ling; Zhang, Chenming; Davis, Richey M; Xu, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Natural products have been used in medicine for many years. Many top-selling pharmaceuticals are natural compounds or their derivatives. These plant- or microorganism-derived compounds have shown potential as therapeutic agents against cancer, microbial infection, inflammation, and other disease conditions. However, their success in clinical trials has been less impressive, partly due to the compounds’ low bioavailability. The incorporation of nanoparticles into a delivery system for natural products would be a major advance in the efforts to increase their therapeutic effects. Recently, advances have been made showing that nanoparticles can significantly increase the bioavailability of natural products both in vitro and in vivo. Nanotechnology has demonstrated its capability to manipulate particles in order to target specific areas of the body and control the release of drugs. Although there are many benefits to applying nanotechnology for better delivery of natural products, it is not without issues. Drug targeting remains a challenge and potential nanoparticle toxicity needs to be further investigated, especially if these systems are to be used to treat chronic human diseases. This review aims to summarize recent progress in several key areas relevant to natural products in nanoparticle delivery systems for biomedical applications. PMID:26451111

  13. Screening strategies for discovery of antibacterial natural products.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sheo B; Young, Katherine; Miesel, Lynn

    2011-08-01

    Microbial-derived natural products have been a traditional source of antibiotics and antibiotic leads and continue to be effective sources of antibiotics today. The most important of these discoveries were made about 50 years ago. Chemical modifications of natural products discovered during those years continue to produce new clinical agents but their value is now, unfortunately, fading away owing to the exhaustion of opportunities of chemical modifications. The discovery of new natural antibiotics is directly linked to new screening technologies, particularly technologies that can help to eliminate the rediscovery of known antibiotics. In this article, we have reviewed the screening technologies from recent literature as well as originating from authors laboratories that were used for the screening of natural products. The article covers the entire spectrum of screening strategies, including classical empiric whole-cell assays to more sophisticated antisense based hypersensitive Staphylococcus aureus Fitness Test assays designed to screen all targets simultaneously. These technologies have led to the discovery of a series of natural product antibiotics, which have been summarized, including the discovery of platensimycin, platencin, nocathiacins, philipimycin, cyclothialidine and muryamycins. It is quite clear that natural products provide a tremendous opportunity to discover new antibiotics when combined with new hyper-sensitive whole-cell technologies.

  14. The chemical logic of plant natural product biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Anarat-Cappillino, Gülbenk; Sattely, Elizabeth S

    2014-06-01

    Understanding the logic of plant natural product biosynthesis is important for three reasons: it guides the search for new natural products and pathways, illuminates the function of existing pathways in the context of host biology, and builds an enabling 'parts list' for plant and microbial metabolic engineering. In this review, we highlight the chemical themes that underlie a broad range of plant pathways, dividing pathways into two parts: scaffold-generating steps that draw on a limited set of chemistries, and tailoring reactions that produce a wide range of end products from a small number of common scaffolds.

  15. Metabolic engineering of natural product biosynthesis in actinobacteria.

    PubMed

    Bilyk, Oksana; Luzhetskyy, Andriy

    2016-12-01

    Actinomycetes are known to produce over two-thirds of all known secondary metabolites. We review here recent progress in the metabolic engineering of streptomycetes for natural product biosynthesis. Several examples of the yield improvement of polyketides (mithramycin and tylactone) and non-ribosomal peptides (balhimycin and daptomycin) demonstrate the power of precursor supply engineering. Another example is the manipulation of a regulatory network for increased production of nystatin and teicoplanin. The second part highlights new approaches in the derivatization of natural products via combination of mutasynthesis and genomic engineering.

  16. Natural Products Improving Hyperuricemia with Hepatorenal Dual Effects

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Shijun; Zhang, Chunlei

    2016-01-01

    This review aims to put forth an overview of natural products reducing uric acid level with hepatorenal dual effects. The prevalence of hyperuricemia increased rapidly in recent years and has closely interdependent relationship with other metabolic disorders. Current therapeutically used drugs including a few uricostatic and uricosuric chemical drugs are proved efficient to control serum uric acid level. However, their side effects as well as contraindication in some cases with liver, kidney injury, or other conditions frequently limit their clinic application. More attention thus has been paid to natural products as an alternative means in treating hyperuricemia. Many natural products have been proved efficient in downregulating uric acid level, among which some can improve hyperuricemia with hepatorenal dual effects. It means these natural products can regulate both the production and the excretion of uric acid by targeting the key metabolic enzymes mainly in liver or uric acid transporters in kidneys. Thus, these natural products could have stronger efficacy and broader application, which may be developed for the treatment of hyperuricemia in clinic. PMID:27847526

  17. Bioengineering natural product biosynthetic pathways for therapeutic applications.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ming-Cheng; Law, Brian; Wilkinson, Barrie; Micklefield, Jason

    2012-12-01

    With the advent of next-generation DNA sequencing technologies, the number of microbial genome sequences has increased dramatically, revealing a vast array of new biosynthetic gene clusters. Genomics data provide a tremendous opportunity to discover new natural products, and also to guide the bioengineering of new and existing natural product scaffolds for therapeutic applications. Notably, it is apparent that the vast majority of biosynthetic gene clusters are either silent or produce very low quantities of the corresponding natural products. It is imperative therefore to devise methods for activating unproductive biosynthetic pathways to provide the quantities of natural products needed for further development. Moreover, on the basis of our expanding mechanistic and structural knowledge of biosynthetic assembly-line enzymes, new strategies for re-programming biosynthetic pathways have emerged, resulting in focused libraries of modified products with potentially improved biological properties. In this review we will focus on the latest bioengineering approaches that have been utilised to optimise yields and increase the structural diversity of natural product scaffolds for future clinical applications.

  18. Proresolving Actions of Synthetic and Natural Protease Inhibitors Are Mediated by Annexin A1.

    PubMed

    Vago, Juliana P; Tavares, Luciana P; Sugimoto, Michelle A; Lima, Graziele Letícia N; Galvão, Izabela; de Caux, Thais R; Lima, Kátia M; Ribeiro, Ana Luíza C; Carneiro, Fernanda S; Nunes, Fernanda Freire C; Pinho, Vanessa; Perretti, Mauro; Teixeira, Mauro M; Sousa, Lirlândia P

    2016-02-15

    Annexin A1 (AnxA1) is a glucocorticoid-regulated protein endowed with anti-inflammatory and proresolving properties. Intact AnxA1 is a 37-kDa protein that may be cleaved in vivo at the N-terminal region by neutrophil proteases including elastase and proteinase-3, generating the 33-kDa isoform that is largely inactive. In this study, we investigated the dynamics of AnxA1 expression and the effects of synthetic (sivelestat [SIV]; Eglin) and natural (secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor [SLPI]; Elafin) protease inhibitors on the resolution of LPS-induced inflammation. During the settings of LPS inflammation AnxA1 cleavage associated closely with the peak of neutrophil and elastase expression and activity. SLPI expression increased during resolving phase of the pleurisy. Therapeutic treatment of LPS-challenge mice with recombinant human SLPI or Elafin accelerated resolution, an effect associated with increased numbers of apoptotic neutrophils in the pleural exudates, inhibition of elastase, and modulation of the survival-controlling proteins NF-κB and Mcl-1. Similar effects were observed with SIV, which dose-dependently inhibited neutrophil elastase and shortened resolution intervals. Mechanistically, SIV-induced resolution was caspase-dependent, associated to increased levels of intact AnxA1 and decreased expression of NF-κB and Mcl-1. The proresolving effect of antiproteases was also observed in a model of monosodium urate crystals-induced inflammation. SIV skewed macrophages toward resolving phenotypes and enhanced efferocytosis of apoptotic neutrophils. A neutralizing antiserum against AnxA1 and a nonselective antagonist of AnxA1 receptor abolished the accelerated resolution promoted by SIV. Collectively, these results show that elastase inhibition not only inhibits inflammation but actually promotes resolution, and this response is mediated by protection of endogenous intact AnxA1 with ensuing augmentation of neutrophil apoptosis.

  19. Brevenal Is a Natural Inhibitor of Brevetoxin Action in Sodium Channel Receptor Binding Assays

    PubMed Central

    Bourdelais, Andrea J.; Campbell, Susan; Jacocks, Henry; Naar, Jerome; Wright, Jeffery L. C.; Carsi, Jigani; Baden, Daniel G.

    2009-01-01

    Summary 1. Florida red tides produce profound neurotoxicity that is evidenced by massive fish kills, neurotoxic shellfish poisoning, and respiratory distress. Red tides vary in potency, potency that is not totally governed by toxin concentration. The purpose of the study was to understand the variable potency of red tides by evaluating the potential for other natural pharmacological agents which could modulate or otherwise reduce the potency of these lethal environmental events. 2. A synaptosome binding preparation with 3-fold higher specific brevetoxin binding was developed to detect small changes in toxin binding in the presence of potential antagonists. Rodent brain labeled in vitro with tritiated brevetoxin shows high specific binding in the cerebellum as evidenced by autoradiography. Synaptosome binding assays employing cerebellum-derived synaptosomes illustrate 3-fold increased specific binding. 3. A new polyether natural product from Florida's red tide dinoflagellate Karenia brevis, has been isolated and characterized. Brevenal, as the nontoxic natural product is known, competes with tritiated brevetoxin for site 5 associated with the voltage-sensitive sodium channel (VSSC). Brevenal displacement of specific brevetoxin binding is purely competitive in nature. 4. Brevenal, obtained from either laboratory cultures or field collections during a red tide, protects fish from the neurotoxic effects of brevetoxin exposure. 5. Brevenal may serve as a model compound for the development of therapeutics to prevent or reverse intoxication in red tide exposures. PMID:15233378

  20. Does species diversity limit productivity in natural grassland communities?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grace, J.B.; Anderson, T.M.; Smith, M.D.; Seabloom, E.; Andelman, S.J.; Meche, G.; Weiher, E.; Allain, L.K.; Jutila, H.; Sankaran, M.; Knops, J.; Ritchie, M.; Willig, M.R.

    2007-01-01

    Theoretical analyses and experimental studies of synthesized assemblages indicate that under particular circumstances species diversity can enhance community productivity through niche complementarity. It remains unclear whether this process has important effects in mature natural ecosystems where competitive feedbacks and complex environmental influences affect diversity-productivity relationships. In this study, we evaluated diversity-productivity relationships while statistically controlling for environmental influences in 12 natural grassland ecosystems. Because diversity-productivity relationships are conspicuously nonlinear, we developed a nonlinear structural equation modeling (SEM) methodology to separate the effects of diversity on productivity from the effects of productivity on diversity. Meta-analysis was used to summarize the SEM findings across studies. While competitive effects were readily detected, enhancement of production by diversity was not. These results suggest that the influence of small-scale diversity on productivity in mature natural systems is a weak force, both in absolute terms and relative to the effects of other controls on productivity. ?? 2007 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  1. Advanced glycation end-products inhibitors isolated from Schisandra grandiflora.

    PubMed

    Poornima, B; Kumar, D Anand; Siva, Bandi; Venkanna, A; Vadaparthi, P R Rao; Kumar, K; Tiwari, Ashok K; Babu, K Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Free radicals scavenging and advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) inhibitory potentials in crude chloroform extract of Schisandra grandiflora were evaluated. Bioassay-guided isolation of the chloroform extract led to the identification of 24 compounds. Among the isolates, ( ± ) gomisin M1, arisantetralone C and D, macelignan, saurulignan B and SZ-MO displayed potent-free radical scavenging as well as AGEs inhibitory potentials. This is the first report identifying the presence of AGEs inhibitory activity and assigning AGEs inhibitory activity to these compounds. Therefore, our research finds new application of traditional medicinal plant S. grandiflora having capacity to reduce formation and accumulation of AGEs in diabetes.

  2. A Growing Disconnection From Nature Is Evident in Cultural Products.

    PubMed

    Kesebir, Selin; Kesebir, Pelin

    2017-03-01

    Human connection with nature is widely believed to be in decline even though empirical evidence is scarce on the magnitude and historical pattern of the change. Studying works of popular culture in English throughout the 20th century and later, we have documented a cultural shift away from nature that begins in the 1950s. Since then, references to nature have been decreasing steadily in fiction books, song lyrics, and film storylines, whereas references to the human-made environment have not. The observed temporal pattern is consistent with the explanatory role of increased virtual and indoors recreation options (e.g., television, video games) in the disconnect from nature, and it is inconsistent with a pure urbanization account. These findings are cause for concern, not only because they imply foregone physical and psychological benefits from engagement with nature, but also because cultural products are agents of socialization that can evoke curiosity, respect, and concern for the natural world.

  3. Computer-Aided Drug Design of Bioactive Natural Products.

    PubMed

    Prachayasittikul, Veda; Worachartcheewan, Apilak; Shoombuatong, Watshara; Songtawee, Napat; Simeon, Saw; Prachayasittikul, Virapong; Nantasenamat, Chanin

    2015-01-01

    Natural products have been an integral part of sustaining civilizations because of their medicinal properties. Past discoveries of bioactive natural products have relied on serendipity, and these compounds serve as inspiration for the generation of analogs with desired physicochemical properties. Bioactive natural products with therapeutic potential are abundantly available in nature and some of them are beyond exploration by conventional methods. The effectiveness of computational approaches as versatile tools for facilitating drug discovery and development has been recognized for decades, without exception, in the case of natural products. In the post-genomic era, scientists are bombarded with data produced by advanced technologies. Thus, rendering these data into knowledge that is interpretable and meaningful becomes an essential issue. In this regard, computational approaches utilize the existing data to generate knowledge that provides valuable understanding for addressing current problems and guiding the further research and development of new natural-derived drugs. Furthermore, several medicinal plants have been continuously used in many traditional medicine systems since antiquity throughout the world, and their mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. Therefore, the utilization of computational approaches and advanced synthetic techniques would yield great benefit to improving the world's health population and well-being.

  4. Culture-independent discovery of natural products from soil metagenomes.

    PubMed

    Katz, Micah; Hover, Bradley M; Brady, Sean F

    2016-03-01

    Bacterial natural products have proven to be invaluable starting points in the development of many currently used therapeutic agents. Unfortunately, traditional culture-based methods for natural product discovery have been deemphasized by pharmaceutical companies due in large part to high rediscovery rates. Culture-independent, or "metagenomic," methods, which rely on the heterologous expression of DNA extracted directly from environmental samples (eDNA), have the potential to provide access to metabolites encoded by a large fraction of the earth's microbial biosynthetic diversity. As soil is both ubiquitous and rich in bacterial diversity, it is an appealing starting point for culture-independent natural product discovery efforts. This review provides an overview of the history of soil metagenome-driven natural product discovery studies and elaborates on the recent development of new tools for sequence-based, high-throughput profiling of environmental samples used in discovering novel natural product biosynthetic gene clusters. We conclude with several examples of these new tools being employed to facilitate the recovery of novel secondary metabolite encoding gene clusters from soil metagenomes and the subsequent heterologous expression of these clusters to produce bioactive small molecules.

  5. The Traditional Medicine and Modern Medicine from Natural Products.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Haidan; Ma, Qianqian; Ye, Li; Piao, Guangchun

    2016-04-29

    Natural products and traditional medicines are of great importance. Such forms of medicine as traditional Chinese medicine, Ayurveda, Kampo, traditional Korean medicine, and Unani have been practiced in some areas of the world and have blossomed into orderly-regulated systems of medicine. This study aims to review the literature on the relationship among natural products, traditional medicines, and modern medicine, and to explore the possible concepts and methodologies from natural products and traditional medicines to further develop drug discovery. The unique characteristics of theory, application, current role or status, and modern research of eight kinds of traditional medicine systems are summarized in this study. Although only a tiny fraction of the existing plant species have been scientifically researched for bioactivities since 1805, when the first pharmacologically-active compound morphine was isolated from opium, natural products and traditional medicines have already made fruitful contributions for modern medicine. When used to develop new drugs, natural products and traditional medicines have their incomparable advantages, such as abundant clinical experiences, and their unique diversity of chemical structures and biological activities.

  6. Nepeta japonica Maximowicz extract from natural products inhibits lipid accumulation.

    PubMed

    Roh, Changhyun; Jung, Uhee

    2012-08-15

    To develop novel and crude anti-obesity drugs from natural products is a promising field to approach the solution to a global health problem such as obesity. The aim of this study was to screen crude anti-obesity drugs from 400 natural products on lipase inhibition activity in vitro. Among the natural products examined, 31 extracts showed significantly inhibition activity against porcine pancreatic lipase (triacylglycerol lipase, EC 3.1.1.3) by using spectrophotometry with 2,4-dinitrophenylbutyrate as a substrate. Furthermore, 31 natural products were investigated with regard to their lipid inhibition in 3T3-L1 cells. Among these, one of most promising was Nepeta japonica Maximowicz extract, which showed inhibition of triglyceride accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, suggesting anti-obesity activity. Also, the amount of glycerol released from cells into the medium was increased by treatment of Nepeta japonica Maximowicz extract at a concentration of 100 µg mL(-1) . The present study suggests that a promising crude anti-obesity drug screened from 400 natural products might be of therapeutic interest with respect to the treatment of obesity. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Nucleophilic 1,4-additions for natural product discovery.

    PubMed

    Cox, Courtney L; Tietz, Jonathan I; Sokolowski, Karol; Melby, Joel O; Doroghazi, James R; Mitchell, Douglas A

    2014-09-19

    Natural products remain an important source of drug candidates, but the difficulties inherent to traditional isolation, coupled with unacceptably high rates of compound rediscovery, limit the pace of natural product detection. Here we describe a reactivity-based screening method to rapidly identify exported bacterial metabolites that contain dehydrated amino acids (i.e., carbonyl- or imine-activated alkenes), a common motif in several classes of natural products. Our strategy entails the use of a commercially available thiol, dithiothreitol, for the covalent labeling of activated alkenes by nucleophilic 1,4-addition. Modification is easily discerned by comparing mass spectra of reacted and unreacted cell surface extracts. When combined with bioinformatic analysis of putative natural product gene clusters, targeted screening and isolation can be performed on a prioritized list of strains. Moreover, known compounds are easily dereplicated, effectively eliminating superfluous isolation and characterization. As a proof of principle, this labeling method was used to identify known natural products belonging to the thiopeptide, lanthipeptide, and linaridin classes. Further, upon screening a panel of only 23 actinomycetes, we discovered and characterized a novel thiopeptide antibiotic, cyclothiazomycin C.

  8. Single crystal x-ray structural determination of natural products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fun, Hoong-Kun; Boonnak, Nawong; Chantrapromma, Suchada

    2012-06-01

    Bioactive natural products have been extensively studied worldwide because natural products compounds with their great structural diversity have traditionally provided most of the drugs in use. Nevertheless the most important step in the drug discovery process is the structural characterization of isolated compounds with interesting biological activities. X-ray structure determination is a powerful technique for characterization because this technique is able to provide a lot of informations on stereochemistry and the detailed three-dimension structures made available can be corelated to activities of these structures. The advancement of X-ray crystallography makes the characterization procedure more precise, much easier and less time consumable. Moreover, this technique can directly and easily confirm whether these compounds are enantiomerically pure or racemate. In addition the absolute configuration of a natural products molecule can be easily determined by this technique. This work shall be based on the results from our natural products research. The absolute configuration of 6-Hydroxysalvinolone and Horminone, which were isolated from Premna obtusifolia will be presented. Three racemates, namely Panduratin A, Caged xanthone and Murrayazoline, which were isolated from the natural products sources will also be presented.

  9. Microbial genomics for the improvement of natural product discovery.

    PubMed

    Van Lanen, Steven G; Shen, Ben

    2006-06-01

    The quest for the discovery of novel natural products has entered a new chapter with the enormous wealth of genetic data that is now available. This information has been exploited by using whole-genome sequence mining to uncover cryptic pathways, or biosynthetic pathways for previously undetected metabolites. Alternatively, using known paradigms for secondary metabolite biosynthesis, genetic information has been 'fished out' of DNA libraries resulting in the discovery of new natural products and isolation of gene clusters for known metabolites. Novel natural products have been discovered by expressing genetic data from uncultured organisms or difficult-to-manipulate strains in heterologous hosts. Furthermore, improvements in heterologous expression have not only helped to identify gene clusters but have also made it easier to manipulate these genes in order to generate new compounds. Finally, and perhaps the most crucial aspect of the efficient and prosperous use of the abundance of genetic information, novel enzyme chemistry continues to be discovered, which has aided our understanding of how natural products are biosynthesized de novo, and enabled us to rework the current paradigms for natural product biosynthesis.

  10. Potential antimalarials from African natural products: A reviw

    PubMed Central

    Lawal, Bashir; Shittu, Oluwatosin Kudirat; Kabiru, Adamu Yusuf; Jigam, Ali Audu; Umar, Maimuna Bello; Berinyuy, Eustace Bonghan; Alozieuwa, Blessing Uchenna

    2015-01-01

    Malaria remains an overwhelming infectious disease with significant health challenges in African and other endemic countries globally. Resistance to antimalarial drugs has become one of the most momentous challenges to human health, and thus has necessitated the hunt for new and effective drugs. Consequently, few decades have witnessed a surfeit of research geared to validate the effectiveness of commonly used traditionally medicines against malaria fever. The present review work focuses on documenting natural products from African whose activity has been reported in vivo or in vitro against malaria parasite. Literature was collected using electronic search of published articles (Google Scholar, PubMed, Medline, Sciencedirect, and Science domain) that report on antiplasmodial activity of natural products from differernts Africa region. A total of 652 plant taxa from 146 families, 134 isolated antimalarial compounds from 39 plants species, 2 herbal formulations and 4 insect/products were found to be reported in literature from 1996 to 2015. Plants species from family Asteraceae (11.04%), Fababceae (8.128%), Euphorbiaceae (5.52%), Rubiaceas (5.52%), and Apocyanaceae (5.214%), have received more scientific validation than others. African natural products possess remarkable healing properties as revealed in the various citations as promising antimalarial agents. Some of these natural products from Africa demonstrate high, promising or low activities against Plasmodium parasite. This study also shows that natural products from Africa have a huge amount of novel antimalarial compounds that could serve as a leads for the development of new and effective antiplasmodial drugs. However, in a view of bridging the gap in knowledge, clinical validation of these natural products are of paramount importance. PMID:26649238

  11. The Natural Product N-Palmitoyl-l-leucine Selectively Inhibits Late Assembly of Human Spliceosomes.

    PubMed

    Effenberger, Kerstin A; James, Robert C; Urabe, Veronica K; Dickey, Bailey J; Linington, Roger G; Jurica, Melissa S

    2015-11-13

    The spliceosome is a dynamic complex of five structural RNAs and dozens of proteins, which assemble together to remove introns from nascent eukaryotic gene transcripts in a process called splicing. Small molecules that target different components of the spliceosome represent valuable research tools to investigate this complicated macromolecular machine. However, the current collection of spliceosome inhibitors is very limited. To expand the toolkit we used a high-throughput in vitro splicing assay to screen a collection of pre-fractions of natural compounds derived from marine bacteria for splicing inhibition. Further fractionation of initial hits generated individual peaks of splicing inhibitors that interfere with different stages of spliceosome assembly. With additional characterization of individual peaks, we identified N-palmitoyl-l-leucine as a new splicing inhibitor that blocks a late stage of spliceosome assembly. Structure-activity relationship analysis of the compound revealed that length of carbon chain is important for activity in splicing, as well as for effects on the cytological profile of cells in culture. Together these results demonstrate that our combination of in vitro splicing analysis with complex natural product libraries is a powerful strategy for identifying new small molecule tools with which to probe different aspects of spliceosome assembly and function.

  12. The Natural Product N-Palmitoyl-l-leucine Selectively Inhibits Late Assembly of Human Spliceosomes*

    PubMed Central

    Effenberger, Kerstin A.; James, Robert C.; Urabe, Veronica K.; Dickey, Bailey J.; Linington, Roger G.; Jurica, Melissa S.

    2015-01-01

    The spliceosome is a dynamic complex of five structural RNAs and dozens of proteins, which assemble together to remove introns from nascent eukaryotic gene transcripts in a process called splicing. Small molecules that target different components of the spliceosome represent valuable research tools to investigate this complicated macromolecular machine. However, the current collection of spliceosome inhibitors is very limited. To expand the toolkit we used a high-throughput in vitro splicing assay to screen a collection of pre-fractions of natural compounds derived from marine bacteria for splicing inhibition. Further fractionation of initial hits generated individual peaks of splicing inhibitors that interfere with different stages of spliceosome assembly. With additional characterization of individual peaks, we identified N-palmitoyl-l-leucine as a new splicing inhibitor that blocks a late stage of spliceosome assembly. Structure-activity relationship analysis of the compound revealed that length of carbon chain is important for activity in splicing, as well as for effects on the cytological profile of cells in culture. Together these results demonstrate that our combination of in vitro splicing analysis with complex natural product libraries is a powerful strategy for identifying new small molecule tools with which to probe different aspects of spliceosome assembly and function. PMID:26408199

  13. Exploring cyanobacterial genomes for natural product biosynthesis pathways.

    PubMed

    Micallef, Melinda L; D'Agostino, Paul M; Al-Sinawi, Bakir; Neilan, Brett A; Moffitt, Michelle C

    2015-06-01

    Cyanobacteria produce a vast array of natural products, some of which are toxic to human health, while others possess potential pharmaceutical activities. Genome mining enables the identification and characterisation of natural product gene clusters; however, the current number of cyanobacterial genomes remains low compared to other phyla. There has been a recent effort to rectify this issue by increasing the number of sequenced cyanobacterial genomes. This has enabled the identification of biosynthetic gene clusters for structurally diverse metabolites, including non-ribosomal peptides, polyketides, ribosomal peptides, UV-absorbing compounds, alkaloids, terpenes and fatty acids. While some of the identified biosynthetic gene clusters correlate with known metabolites, genome mining also highlights the number and diversity of clusters for which the product is unknown (referred to as orphan gene clusters). A number of bioinformatic tools have recently been developed in order to predict the products of orphan gene clusters; however, in some cases the complexity of the cyanobacterial pathways makes the prediction problematic. This can be overcome by the use of mass spectrometry-guided natural product genome mining, or heterologous expression. Application of these techniques to cyanobacterial natural product gene clusters will be explored.

  14. JadX is a Disparate Natural Product Binding Protein.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Andrew W; Forget, Stephanie M; Martinez-Farina, Camilo F; McCormick, Nicole E; Syvitski, Raymond T; Jakeman, David L

    2016-02-24

    We report that JadX, a protein of previously undetermined function coded for in the jadomycin biosynthetic gene cluster of Streptomyces venezuelae ISP5230, affects both chloramphenicol and jadomycin production levels in blocked mutants. Characterization of recombinant JadX through protein-ligand interactions by chemical shift perturbation and WaterLOGSY NMR spectroscopy resulted in the observation of binding between JadX and a series of jadomycins and between JadX and chloramphenicol, another natural product produced by S. venezuelae ISP5230. These results suggest JadX to be an unusual class of natural product binding protein involved in binding structurally disparate natural products. The ability for JadX to bind two different natural products in vitro and the ability to affect production of these secondary metabolites in vivo suggest a potential role in regulation or signaling. This is the first example of functional characterization of these JadX-like proteins, and provides insight into a previously unobserved regulatory process.

  15. Production of xylitol from biomass using an inhibitor-tolerant fungal strain

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Inhibitory compounds arising from physical–chemical pretreatment of biomass feedstock can interfere with fermentation of biomass sugars to product. A fungus, Coniochaeta ligniaria NRRL30616 improves fermentability of biomass sugars by metabolizing a variety of microbial inhibitors including furan al...

  16. Culture conditions supporting inhibitor tolerance and rapid production of ethanol by P. stipitis NRRL Y-7124

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To expand the biomass to fuel ethanol industry, process strategies are needed to foster the production and utilization of microorganisms which can survive and ferment hexose and pentose sugars while exposed to inhibitors (such as ethanol, furfural, and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF)). Furfural and HMF...

  17. Establishment of new crops for the production of natural rubber.

    PubMed

    van Beilen, Jan B; Poirier, Yves

    2007-11-01

    Natural rubber is a unique biopolymer of strategic importance that, in many of its most significant applications, cannot be replaced by synthetic alternatives. The rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis is the almost exclusive commercial source of natural rubber currently and alternative crops should be developed for several reasons, including: a disease risk to the rubber tree that could potentially decimate current production, a predicted shortage of natural rubber supply, increasing allergic reactions to rubber obtained from the Brazilian rubber tree and a general shift towards renewables. This review summarizes our knowledge of plants that can serve as alternative sources of natural rubber, of rubber biosynthesis and the scientific gaps that must be filled to bring the alternative crops into production.

  18. Plant extracts as natural antioxidants in meat and meat products.

    PubMed

    Shah, Manzoor Ahmad; Bosco, Sowriappan John Don; Mir, Shabir Ahmad

    2014-09-01

    Antioxidants are used to minimize the oxidative changes in meat and meat products. Oxidative changes may have negative effects on the quality of meat and meat products, causing changes in their sensory and nutritional properties. Although synthetic antioxidants have already been used but in recent years, the demand for natural antioxidants has been increased mainly because of adverse effects of synthetic antioxidants. Thus most of the recent investigations have been directed towards the identification of natural antioxidants from various plant sources. Plant extracts have been prepared using different solvents and extraction methods. Grape seed, green tea, pine bark, rosemary, pomegranate, nettle and cinnamon have exhibited similar or better antioxidant properties compared to some synthetic ones. This review provides the recent information on plant extracts used as natural antioxidants in meat and meat products, specifically red meat.

  19. Anti-cancer natural products isolated from chinese medicinal herbs

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, a number of natural products isolated from Chinese herbs have been found to inhibit proliferation, induce apoptosis, suppress angiogenesis, retard metastasis and enhance chemotherapy, exhibiting anti-cancer potential both in vitro and in vivo. This article summarizes recent advances in in vitro and in vivo research on the anti-cancer effects and related mechanisms of some promising natural products. These natural products are also reviewed for their therapeutic potentials, including flavonoids (gambogic acid, curcumin, wogonin and silibinin), alkaloids (berberine), terpenes (artemisinin, β-elemene, oridonin, triptolide, and ursolic acid), quinones (shikonin and emodin) and saponins (ginsenoside Rg3), which are isolated from Chinese medicinal herbs. In particular, the discovery of the new use of artemisinin derivatives as excellent anti-cancer drugs is also reviewed. PMID:21777476

  20. Bioactive natural products from Chinese marine flora and fauna.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhen-Fang; Guo, Yue-Wei

    2012-09-01

    In recent decades, the pharmaceutical application potential of marine natural products has attracted much interest from both natural product chemists and pharmacologists. Our group has long been engaged in the search for bioactive natural products from Chinese marine flora (such as mangroves and algae) and fauna (including sponges, soft corals, and mollusks), resulting in the isolation and characterization of numerous novel secondary metabolites spanning a wide range of structural classes and various biosynthetic origins. Of particular interest is the fact that many of these compounds show promising biological activities, including cytotoxic, antibacterial, and enzyme inhibitory effects. By describing representative studies, this review presents a comprehensive summary regarding the achievements and progress made by our group in the past decade. Several interesting examples are discussed in detail.

  1. Natural Products: An Alternative to Conventional Therapy for Dermatophytosis?

    PubMed

    Lopes, Graciliana; Pinto, Eugénia; Salgueiro, Lígia

    2017-02-01

    The increased incidence of fungal infections, associated with the widespread use of antifungal drugs, has resulted in the development of resistance, making it necessary to discover new therapeutic alternatives. Among fungal infections, dermatophytoses constitute a serious public health problem, affecting 20-25 % of the world population. Medicinal plants represent an endless source of bioactive molecules, and their volatile and non-volatile extracts are clearly recognized for being the historical basis of therapeutic health care. Because of this, the research on natural products with antifungal activity against dermatophytes has considerably increased in recent years. However, despite the recognized anti-dermatophytic potential of natural products, often advantageous face to commercial drugs, there is still a long way to go until their use in therapeutics. This review attempts to summarize the current status of anti-dermatophytic natural products, focusing on their mechanism of action, the developed pharmaceutical formulations and their effectiveness in human and animal models of infection.

  2. Dietary Natural Products for Prevention and Treatment of Liver Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Zhou, Tong; Zheng, Jie; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Liver cancer is the most common malignancy of the digestive system with high death rate. Accumulating evidences suggests that many dietary natural products are potential sources for prevention and treatment of liver cancer, such as grapes, black currant, plum, pomegranate, cruciferous vegetables, French beans, tomatoes, asparagus, garlic, turmeric, ginger, soy, rice bran, and some edible macro-fungi. These dietary natural products and their active components could affect the development and progression of liver cancer in various ways, such as inhibiting tumor cell growth and metastasis, protecting against liver carcinogens, immunomodulating and enhancing effects of chemotherapeutic drugs. This review summarizes the potential prevention and treatment activities of dietary natural products and their major bioactive constituents on liver cancer, and discusses possible mechanisms of action. PMID:26978396

  3. Microwave-assisted extraction in natural products isolation.

    PubMed

    Delazar, Abbas; Nahar, Lutfun; Hamedeyazdan, Sanaz; Sarker, Satyajit D

    2012-01-01

    Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) or simply microwave extraction is a relatively new extraction technique that combines microwave and traditional solvent extraction. Application of microwaves for heating the solvents and plant tissues in extraction process, which increases the kinetic of extraction, is called microwave-assisted extraction. MAE has a number of advantages, e.g., shorter extraction time, less solvent, higher extraction rate and lower cost, over traditional method of extraction of compounds from various matrices, especially natural products. The use of MAE in natural products extraction started in the late 1980s, and through the technological developments, it has now become one of the popular and cost-effective extraction methods available today, and several advanced MAE instrumentations and methodologies have become available, e.g., pressurized microwave-assisted extraction (PMAE) and solvent-free microwave-assisted extraction (SFMAE). This chapter provides an overview of the MAE and presents a number of specific protocols for natural products extraction.

  4. Dietary Natural Products for Prevention and Treatment of Liver Cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Zhou, Tong; Zheng, Jie; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-03-10

    Liver cancer is the most common malignancy of the digestive system with high death rate. Accumulating evidences suggests that many dietary natural products are potential sources for prevention and treatment of liver cancer, such as grapes, black currant, plum, pomegranate, cruciferous vegetables, French beans, tomatoes, asparagus, garlic, turmeric, ginger, soy, rice bran, and some edible macro-fungi. These dietary natural products and their active components could affect the development and progression of liver cancer in various ways, such as inhibiting tumor cell growth and metastasis, protecting against liver carcinogens, immunomodulating and enhancing effects of chemotherapeutic drugs. This review summarizes the potential prevention and treatment activities of dietary natural products and their major bioactive constituents on liver cancer, and discusses possible mechanisms of action.

  5. Genomic basis for natural product biosynthetic diversity in the actinomycetes†

    PubMed Central

    Nett, Markus; Ikeda, Haruo; Moore, Bradley S.

    2010-01-01

    The phylum Actinobacteria hosts diverse high G + C, Gram-positive bacteria that have evolved a complex chemical language of natural product chemistry to help navigate their fascinatingly varied lifestyles. To date, 71 Actinobacteria genomes have been completed and annotated, with the vast majority representing the Actinomycetales, which are the source of numerous antibiotics and other drugs from genera such as Streptomyces, Saccharopolyspora and Salinispora. These genomic analyses have illuminated the secondary metabolic proficiency of these microbes – underappreciated for years based on conventional isolation programs – and have helped set the foundation for a new natural product discovery paradigm based on genome mining. Trends in the secondary metabolomes of natural product-rich actinomycetes are highlighted in this review article, which contains 199 references. PMID:19844637

  6. In situ natural product discovery via an artificial marine sponge.

    PubMed

    La Clair, James J; Loveridge, Steven T; Tenney, Karen; O'Neil-Johnson, Mark; Chapman, Eli; Crews, Phillip

    2014-01-01

    There is continuing international interest in exploring and developing the therapeutic potential of marine-derived small molecules. Balancing the strategies for ocean based sampling of source organisms versus the potential to endanger fragile ecosystems poses a substantial challenge. In order to mitigate such environmental impacts, we have developed a deployable artificial sponge. This report provides details on its design followed by evidence that it faithfully recapitulates traditional natural product collection protocols. Retrieving this artificial sponge from a tropical ecosystem after deployment for 320 hours afforded three actin-targeting jasplakinolide depsipeptides that had been discovered two decades earlier using traditional sponge specimen collection and isolation procedures. The successful outcome achieved here could reinvigorate marine natural products research, by producing new environmentally innocuous sources of natural products and providing a means to probe the true biosynthetic origins of complex marine-derived scaffolds.

  7. Discovery of Sanggenon G as a natural cell-permeable small-molecular weight inhibitor of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP).

    PubMed

    Seiter, Maximilian A; Salcher, Stefan; Rupp, Martina; Hagenbuchner, Judith; Kiechl-Kohlendorfer, Ursula; Mortier, Jérémie; Wolber, Gerhard; Rollinger, Judith M; Obexer, Petra; Ausserlechner, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Defects in the regulation of apoptosis are one main cause of cancer development and may result from overexpression of anti-apoptotic proteins such as the X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP). XIAP is frequently overexpressed in human leukemia and prostate and breast tumors. Inhibition of apoptosis by XIAP is mainly coordinated through direct binding to the initiator caspase-9 via its baculovirus-IAP-repeat-3 (BIR3) domain. XIAP inhibits caspases directly making it to an attractive target for anti-cancer therapy. In the search for novel, non-peptidic XIAP inhibitors in this study we focused on the chemical constituents of sāng bái pí (mulberry root bark). Most promising candidates of this plant were tested biochemically in vitro by a fluorescence polarization (FP) assay and in vivo via protein fragment complementation analysis (PCA). We identified the Diels Alder adduct Sanggenon G (SG1) as a novel, small-molecular weight inhibitor of XIAP. As shown by FP and PCA analyses, SG1 binds specifically to the BIR3 domain of XIAP with a binding affinity of 34.26 μM. Treatment of the transgenic leukemia cell line Molt3/XIAP with SG1 enhances caspase-8, -3 and -9 cleavage, displaces caspase-9 from XIAP as determined by immunoprecipitation experiments and sensitizes these cells to etoposide-induced apoptosis. SG1 not only sensitizes the XIAP-overexpressing leukemia cell line Molt3/XIAP to etoposide treatment but also different neuroblastoma cell lines endogenously expressing high XIAP levels. Taken together, Sanggenon G (SG1) is a novel, natural, non-peptidic, small-molecular inhibitor of XIAP that can serve as a starting point to develop a new class of improved XIAP inhibitors.

  8. BET inhibitors block pancreatic stellate cell collagen I production and attenuate fibrosis in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Krishan; DeCant, Brian T.; Grippo, Paul J.; Hwang, Rosa F.; Bentrem, David J.; Ebine, Kazumi

    2017-01-01

    The fibrotic reaction, which can account for over 70%–80% of the tumor mass, is a characteristic feature of human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) tumors. It is associated with activation and proliferation of pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs), which are key regulators of collagen I production and fibrosis in vivo. In this report, we show that members of the bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) family of proteins are expressed in primary PSCs isolated from human PDAC tumors, with BRD4 positively regulating, and BRD2 and BRD3 negatively regulating, collagen I expression in primary cancer-associated PSCs. We show that the inhibitory effect of pan-BET inhibitors on collagen I expression in primary cancer-associated PSCs is through blocking of BRD4 function. Importantly, we show that FOSL1 is repressed by BRD4 in primary cancer-associated PSCs and negatively regulates collagen I expression. While BET inhibitors do not affect viability or induce PSC apoptosis or senescence, BET inhibitors induce primary cancer-associated PSCs to become quiescent. Finally, we show that BET inhibitors attenuate stellate cell activation, fibrosis, and collagen I production in the EL-KrasG12D transgenic mouse model of pancreatic tumorigenesis. Our results demonstrate that BET inhibitors regulate fibrosis by modulating the activation and function of cancer-associated PSCs. PMID:28194432

  9. Marine actinobacteria: an important source of bioactive natural products.

    PubMed

    Manivasagan, Panchanathan; Kang, Kyong-Hwa; Sivakumar, Kannan; Li-Chan, Eunice C Y; Oh, Hyun-Myung; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2014-07-01

    Marine environment is largely an untapped source for deriving actinobacteria, having potential to produce novel, bioactive natural products. Actinobacteria are the prolific producers of pharmaceutically active secondary metabolites, accounting for about 70% of the naturally derived compounds that are currently in clinical use. Among the various actinobacterial genera, Actinomadura, Actinoplanes, Amycolatopsis, Marinispora, Micromonospora, Nocardiopsis, Saccharopolyspora, Salinispora, Streptomyces and Verrucosispora are the major potential producers of commercially important bioactive natural products. In this respect, Streptomyces ranks first with a large number of bioactive natural products. Marine actinobacteria are unique enhancing quite different biological properties including antimicrobial, anticancer, antiviral, insecticidal and enzyme inhibitory activities. They have attracted global in the last ten years for their ability to produce pharmaceutically active compounds. In this review, we have focused attention on the bioactive natural products isolated from marine actinobacteria, possessing unique chemical structures that may form the basis for synthesis of novel drugs that could be used to combat resistant pathogenic microorganisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The impact of natural products upon modern drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Ganesan, A

    2008-06-01

    In the period 1970-2006, a total of 24 unique natural products were discovered that led to an approved drug. We analyze these successful leads in terms of drug-like properties, and show that they can be divided into two equal subsets. The first falls in the 'Lipinski universe' and complies with the Rule of Five. The second is a 'parallel universe' that violates the rules. Nevertheless, the latter compounds remain largely compliant in terms of logP and H-bond donors, highlighting the importance of these two metrics in predicting bioavailability. Natural products are often cited as an exception to Lipinski's rules. We believe this is because nature has learned to maintain low hydrophobicity and intermolecular H-bond donating potential when it needs to make biologically active compounds with high molecular weight and large numbers of rotatable bonds. In addition, natural products are more likely than purely synthetic compounds to resemble biosynthetic intermediates or endogenous metabolites, and hence take advantage of active transport mechanisms. Interestingly, the natural product leads in the Lipinski and parallel universe had an identical success rate (50%) in delivering an oral drug.

  11. NATURAL PRODUCTS: A CONTINUING SOURCE OF NOVEL DRUG LEADS

    PubMed Central

    Cragg, Gordon M.; Newman, David J.

    2013-01-01

    1. Background Nature has been a source of medicinal products for millennia, with many useful drugs developed from plant sources. Following discovery of the penicillins, drug discovery from microbial sources occurred and diving techniques in the 1970s opened the seas. Combinatorial chemistry (late 1980s), shifted the focus of drug discovery efforts from Nature to the laboratory bench. 2. Scope of Review This review traces natural products drug discovery, outlining important drugs from natural sources that revolutionized treatment of serious diseases. It is clear Nature will continue to be a major source of new structural leads, and effective drug development depends on multidisciplinary collaborations. 3. Major Conclusions The explosion of genetic information led not only to novel screens, but the genetic techniques permitted the implementation of combinatorial biosynthetic technology and genome mining. The knowledge gained has allowed unknown molecules to be identified. These novel bioactive structures can be optimized by using combinatorial chemistry generating new drug candidates for many diseases. 4 General Significance: The advent of genetic techniques that permitted the isolation / expression of biosynthetic cassettes from microbes may well be the new frontier for natural products lead discovery. It is now apparent that biodiversity may be much greater in those organisms. The numbers of potential species involved in the microbial world are many orders of magnitude greater than those of plants and multi-celled animals. Coupling these numbers to the number of currently unexpressed biosynthetic clusters now identified (>10 per species) the potential of microbial diversity remains essentially untapped. PMID:23428572

  12. Myxobacterial natural product assembly lines: fascinating examples of curious biochemistry.

    PubMed

    Wenzel, Silke Christine; Müller, Rolf

    2007-12-01

    Over the last 20 years myxobacteria have made their way from highly exotic organisms to one of the major sources of microbial natural products with interesting biological activities. Recent progress towards achieving a better understanding of the genetics and the biochemistry of myxobacterial secondary metabolism, revealed the involvement of numerous exceptional combinations of polyketide synthases and nonribosomal peptide synthetases operating far from textbook biosynthetic logic. In this Highlight, selected examples of recently described systems are discussed in comparison to all myxobacterial natural product assembly lines known to date.

  13. Natural Product-Based Antibiotics: Synthesis and SAR-Studies.

    PubMed

    Prusov, Evgeny V

    2016-01-01

    Efficient control of the infectious diseases in the era of the emerging bacterial resistance demands consistent development of new antibiotic agents with novel modes of action. With some notable exceptions, the majority of the currently used antibiotics are natural product-derived compounds which were elaborated upon lead structures discovered by screening of various isolates. In this review, we summarized some selected examples of recent advances in the area of natural product based antibiotic development with particular emphasis on the synthetic and SAR-elucidation aspects.

  14. Diversifying Complexity by Domino Benzannulation of Polycyclic Natural Products.

    PubMed

    Tejedor, David; Delgado-Hernández, Samuel; Carballo, Rubén M; Dapueto, Rosina; Mena-Rejón, Gonzalo J; García-Tellado, Fernando

    2017-05-19

    Herein we describe a salicylaldehyde-annulation reaction as a plug and play toolkit to diversify the complexity of naturally occurring ketones. The protocol entails the transformation of the polycyclic natural ketone into its propargyl vinyl ether derivative (two synthetic steps) and its microwave-assisted imidazole-catalyzed domino rearrangement to generate the salicylaldehyde ring. This annexed unit allows further synthetic transformations: e.g., the installation of a pharmacophore module to generate natural product-pharmacophore hybrids endowed with unknown biological (pharmaceutical) annotations.

  15. Emerging Trends in the Discovery of Natural Product Antibacterials

    PubMed Central

    Bologa, Cristian G.; Ursu, Oleg; Oprea, Tudor; Melançon, Charles E.; Tegos, George P.

    2013-01-01

    This article highlights current trends and advances in exploiting natural sources for the deployment of novel and potent anti-infective countermeasures. The key challenge is to therapeutically target microbial pathogens exhibiting a variety of puzzling and evolutionary complex resistance mechanisms. Special emphasis is given to the strengths, weaknesses, and opportunities in the natural product antimicrobial drug discovery arena, and to emerging applications driven by advances in bioinformatics, chemical biology, and synthetic biology in concert with exploiting the microbial phenotype. These orchestrated efforts have identified a critical mass of lead natural antimicrobials chemical scaffolds and discovery technologies with high probability of successful implementation against emerging microbial pathogens. PMID:23890825

  16. An innovative model for regulating supplement products: natural health products in Canada.

    PubMed

    Nestmann, Earle R; Harwood, Melody; Martyres, Stephanie

    2006-04-03

    On 1 January 2004, Health Canada officially added a new term to the global list of synonyms for dietary supplements: natural health products (NHP). Developed with the intent of providing Canadian consumers with ready access to NHP that are safe, effective, and of high quality, the Natural Health Products Regulations (the NHP regulations) are applicable to the sale, manufacture, packaging, labelling, importation, distribution, and storage of NHP, and are administered by the recently formed Natural Health Products Directorate (NHPD) within Health Canada. This paper provides an overview of the process for regulating supplement products in Canada.

  17. Second generation 2-aminoimidazole based advanced glycation end product inhibitors and breakers.

    PubMed

    Furlani, Robert E; Richardson, Mike A; Podell, Brendan K; Ackart, David F; Haugen, Jessica D; Melander, Roberta J; Basaraba, Randall J; Melander, Christian

    2015-11-01

    The formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGE) as a result of the action of reducing sugars on host macromolecules plays a role in increased morbidity of diabetic patients. There are currently no clinically available therapeutics for the prevention or eradication of AGEs. Following our previous identification of 2-aminoimidazole (2-AI) based AGE inhibitors and breakers, we now report the use of a rapid, scalable, two-step procedure to access a second generation of 2-AI based anti-AGE compounds from commercially available amino acids. Several second generation compounds exhibit increased AGE inhibition and breaking activty compared to the first generation compounds and to the known AGE inhibitor aminoguanidine.

  18. Recent developments in automated structure elucidation of natural products.

    PubMed

    Steinbeck, Christoph

    2004-08-01

    Advancements in the field of Computer-Assisted Structure Elucidation (CASE) of Natural Products achieved in the past five years are discussed. This process starts with a dereplication procedure, supported by structure-spectrum databases. Both commercial and free products are available to support the procedure. A number of new programs,as well as advancements in existing ones, are presented. Finally, the option to validate the result by an independent procedure, a high quality ab initio quantum mechanical calculation, is discussed.

  19. Computational models for 5αR inhibitors for treatment of prostate cancer: review of previous works and screening of natural inhibitors of 5αR2.

    PubMed

    Jayadeepa, Rajamani M; Sharma, Surbhi

    2011-12-01

    Taking into consideration the high importance of the drug target 5-α-reductase (5αR) in prostate cancer in this work we are going first to review previous works and discuss works related to the computer aided drug design of 5αR inhibitors. We report new results in the in silico screening of natural 5αR inhibitors. Traditionally, drugs were discovered by testing compounds synthesized in time consuming multi-step processes against a battery of in vivo biological screens. Promising compounds were then further studied in development, where their pharmacokinetic properties, metabolism and potential toxicity were investigated. Here we present a study on herbal lead compounds and their potential binding affinity to the effectors molecules of major disease like Prostate Cancer. Clinical studies demonstrate a positive correlation between the extent of 5αR type 2 (5αR2) and malignant progression of precancerous lesions in prostate. Therefore, identification of effective, well-tolerated 5αR inhibitors represents a rational chemo preventive strategy. This study has investigated the effects of naturally occurring non-protein compounds berberine and monocaffeyltartaric acid that inhibits 5αR type2. Our results reveal that these compounds use less energy to bind to 5αR and inhibit its activity. Their high ligand binding affinity to 5αR introduce the prospect for their use in chemopreventive applications; in addition they are freely available natural compounds that can be safely used to prevent prostate cancer.

  20. Idaho Habitat and Natural Production Monitoring : Annual Report 1989.

    SciTech Connect

    Kiefer, Russell B.; Forster, Katharine A.

    1991-01-01

    Project 83-7 was established under the Northwest Power Planning Council's 1982 Fish and Wildlife Program to monitor natural production of anadromous fish, evaluate Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) habitat improvement projects, and develop a credit record for off-site mitigation projects in Idaho. Project 83-7 is divided into two subprojects: general and intensive monitoring. Primary objectives of the general monitoring subproject (Part 1) are to determine natural production increases due to habitat improvement projects in terms of parr production and to determine natural production status and trends in Idaho. The second objective is accomplished by combining parr density data from monitoring and evaluation of BPA habitat projects and from other Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) management and research activities. Primary objectives of the intensive monitoring subproject (Part 2) are to determine the number of returning chinook and steelhead adults necessary to achieve optimal smolt production and to develop mitigation accounting based on increases in smolt production. Two locations are being intensively studied to meet these objectives. Field work began in 1987 in the upper Salmon River and Crooked River (South Fork Clearwater River tributary). 22 refs., 10 figs., 17 tabs.