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Sample records for natural sic moissanite

  1. Ultra-reducing conditions in average mantle peridotites and in podiform chromitites: a thermodynamic model for moissanite (SiC) formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golubkova, Anastasia; Schmidt, Max W.; Connolly, James A. D.

    2016-05-01

    Natural moissanite (SiC) is reported from mantle-derived samples ranging from lithospheric mantle keel diamonds to serpentinites to podiform chromitites in ophiolites related to suprasubduction zone settings (Luobusa, Dongqiao, Semail, and Ray-Iz). To simulate ultra-reducing conditions and the formation of moissanite, we compiled thermodynamic data for alloys (Fe-Si-C and Fe-Cr), carbides (Fe3C, Fe7C3, SiC), and Fe-silicides; these data were augmented by commonly used thermodynamic data for silicates and oxides. Computed phase diagram sections then constrain the P- T- fO2 conditions of SiC stability in the upper mantle. Our results demonstrate that: Moissanite only occurs at oxygen fugacities 6.5-7.5 log units below the iron-wustite buffer; moissanite and chromite cannot stably coexist; increasing pressure does not lead to the stability of this mineral pair; and silicates that coexist with moissanite have X Mg > 0.99. At upper mantle conditions, chromite reduces to Fe-Cr alloy at fO2 values 3.7-5.3 log units above the moissanite-olivine-(ortho)pyroxene-carbon (graphite or diamond) buffer (MOOC). The occurrence of SiC in chromitites and the absence of domains with almost Fe-free silicates suggest that ultra-reducing conditions allowing for SiC are confined to grain scale microenvironments. In contrast to previous ultra-high-pressure and/or temperature hypotheses for SiC origin, we postulate a low to moderate temperature mechanism, which operates via ultra-reducing fluids. In this model, graphite-/diamond-saturated moderately reducing fluids evolve in chemical isolation from the bulk rock to ultra-reducing methane-dominated fluids by sequestering H2O into hydrous phases (serpentine, brucite, phase A). Carbon isotope compositions of moissanite are consistent with an origin of such fluids from sediments originally rich in organic compounds. Findings of SiC within rocks mostly comprised by hydrous phases (serpentine + brucite) support this model. Both the hydrous phases

  2. Moissanite (SiC) with metal-silicide and silicon inclusions from tuff of Israel: Raman spectroscopy and electron microscope studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrzhinetskaya, Larissa; Mukhin, Pavel; Wang, Qin; Wirth, Richard; O'Bannon, Earl; Zhao, Wenxia; Eppelbaum, Lev; Sokhonchuk, Tatiana

    2018-06-01

    Here, we present studies of natural SiC that occurs in situ in tuff related to the Miocene alkaline basalt formation deposited in northern part of Israel. Raman spectroscopy, SEM and FIB-assisted TEM studies revealed that SiC is primarily hexagonal polytypes 4H-SiC and 6H-SiC, and that the 4H-SiC polytype is the predominant phase. Both SiC polytypes contain crystalline inclusions of silicon (Sio) and inclusions of metal-silicide with varying compositions (e.g. Si58V25Ti12Cr3Fe2, Si41Fe24Ti20Ni7V5Zr3, and Si43Fe40Ni17). The silicides crystal structure parameters match Si2TiV5 (Pm-3m space group, cubic), FeSi2Ti (Pbam space group, orthorhombic), and FeSi2 (Cmca space group, orthorhombic) respectively. We hypothesize that SiC was formed in a local ultra-reduced environment at respectively shallow depths (60-100 km), through a reaction of SiO2 with highly reducing fluids (H2O-CH4-H2-C2H6) arisen from the mantle "hot spot" and passing through alkaline basalt magma reservoir. SiO2 interacting with the fluids may originate from the walls of the crustal rocks surrounding this magmatic reservoir. This process led to the formation of SiC and accompanied by the reducing of metal-oxides to native metals, alloys, and silicides. The latter were trapped by SiC during its growth. Hence, interplate "hot spot" alkali basalt volcanism can now be included as a geological environment where SiC, silicon, and silicides can be found.

  3. In Situ Optical Observation of High-Temperature Geological Processes With the Moissanite Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walte, N.; Keppler, H.

    2005-12-01

    A major drawback of existing techniques in experimental earth and material sciences is the inability to observe ongoing high-temperature processes in situ during an experiment. Examples for important time-dependent processes include the textural development of rocks and oxide systems during melting and crystallization, solid-state and melt-present recrystallization and Ostwald ripening, and bubble nucleation and growth during degassing of glasses and melts. The investigation of these processes by post-mortem analysis of a quenched microstructure is time consuming and often unsatisfactory. Here, we introduce the moissanite cell that allows optical in situ observation of long-term experiments at high temperatures. Moissanite is a transparent gem-quality type of SiC that is characterized by its hardness and superior chemical and thermal resistance. Two moissanite windows with a thickness and diameter of several millimeters are placed into sockets of fired pyrophyllite and fixed onto two opposite metal plates. The sockets are wrapped with heating wire and each window is connected to a thermocouple for temperature control. The sample is placed directly between the moissanite windows and the cell is assembled similarly to a large diamond anvil cell. In situ observation of the sample is done with a microscope through observation windows and movies are recorded with an attached digital camera. Our experiments with the new cell show that temperatures above 1200°C can be maintained and observed in a sample for several days without damaging the cell nor the windows. Time-lapse movies of melting and crystallizing natural and synthetic rocks and of degassing glasses and melts will be presented to show the potential of the new technique for experimental earth and material science.

  4. SEM and TEM Analyses of Minerals Xifengite, Gupeiite, Fe2Si (Hapkeite?), Titanium Carbide (TiC) and Cubic Moissanite (SiC) from the Subsoil in the Alpine Foreland: Are they Cosmochemical?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiltl, M.; Bauer, F.; Ernstson, K.; Mayer, W.; Neumair, A.; Rappenglück, M. A.

    2011-03-01

    SEM and TEM analyses of millimeter- to centimeter-sized particles from Holocene soils reveal a multi-stoichiometric iron silicide matrix containing purest crystals of titanium carbide and cubic moissanite. A cosmochemical origin is suggested.

  5. Historical and New Perspective of Moissanite in the Canyon Diablo Meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, I. S.; Winston, R.

    2004-12-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) was reportedly found in the residue of a 50-kg sample of the Canyon Diablo meteorite dissolved in acid by Henri Moissan, and, in his honor, George F. Kunz coined the mineral name moissanite in 1904. Scholars of the same meteorite, unable to find SiC, believed that Moissan's sample might have been contaminated by synthetic SiC used in tools and abrasives. Thus, an intriguing mineralogical controversy ensued to this day. Recently, occurrence of SiC in carbonaceous chondrites has been confirmed. We present in this paper our finding of three varieties of SiC crystals in the Canyon Diablo meteorite. We found 5 crystals of SiC (size 70-150 microns) in a black nodule (1 cm in size), composed mostly of disordered graphite and diamond/lonsdaleite. The crystals are pale blue, but some have dark overgrowths of uneven thickness, and black spotty or feathery inclusions. Their forms are rounded and resorbed. Our second specimen is oxidized and friable, bearing a 2-cm nodule showing sandy and black magnetic layers. We found 3 apple-green crystals, up to 200 microns in size. Scattered over two of the sandy layers are many minute emerald-green SiC crystals. Carbon in these crystals might have a terrestrial origin. As Moissan's crystals are no longer available for re-examination, a study of large carbon nodules housed in museums might at least lend credence that meteoritic SiC crystals could be as large as ones reported by Moissan.

  6. The intensive terahertz electroluminescence induced by Bloch oscillations in SiC natural superlattices

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    We report on efficient terahertz (THz) emission from high-electric-field-biased SiC structures with a natural superlattice at liquid helium temperatures. The emission spectrum demonstrates a single line, the maximum of which shifts linearly with increases in bias field. We attribute this emission to steady-state Bloch oscillations of electrons in the SiC natural superlattice. The properties of the THz emission agree fairly with the parameters of the Bloch oscillator regime, which have been proven by high-field electron transport studies of SiC structures with natural superlattices. PMID:23043773

  7. Diamond and moissanite in ophiolitic mantle rocks and podiform chromitites: A deep carbon source?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J.; Xu, X.; Wiedenbeck, M.; Trumbull, R. B.; Robinson, P. T.

    2010-12-01

    Diamonds are known from a variety of occurreces, mainly from mantle-derived kimberlites, meteorite impact craters, and continental deep subduction and collision zones. Recently, an unusual mineral group was discovered in the Luobusa ophiolitic chromitites from the Yarlung Zangbu suture, Tibet, which probably originated from a depth of over 300 km in the mantle. Minerals of deep origin include coesite apparently pseudomorphing stishovite, and diamond as individual grains or inclusions in OsIr alloy. To determine if such UHP and unusual minerals occur elsewhere, we collected about 1.5 t of chromitite from two orebodies in an ultramafic body in the Polar Urals. Thus far, more than 60 different mineral species have been separated from these ores. The most exciting discovery is the common occurrence of diamond, a typical UHP mineral in the Luobusa chromitites. These minerals are very similar in composition and structure to those reported from the Luobusa chromitites. So far diamond and/or moissanite have been discovered from many different ophiolitic ultramafic rocks, including in-situ grains in polished chromitite fragments. These discoveries demonstrate that the Luobusa ophiolite is not a unique diamond-bearing massif. Secondary ion mass spectrometric (SIMS) analysis shows that the ophiolite-hosted diamond has a distinctive 13C-depleted isotopic composition (δ13C from -18 to -28‰, n=70), compatible to the ophiolite-hosted moissanite (δ13C from -18 to -35‰, n=36), both are much lighter than the main carbon reservoir in the upper mantle (δ13C near -5‰). The compiled data from moissanite from kimberlites and other mantle settings share the characteristic of strongly 13C-depleted isotopic composition. This suggests that diamond and moissanite originates from a separate carbon reservoir in the mantle or that its formation involved strong isotopic fractionation. Subduction of biogenic carbonaceous material could potentially satisfy both the unusual isotopic and

  8. Carbon isotopic composition and origin of SiC from kimberlites of Yakutia, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathez, E. A.; Fogel, R. A.; Hutcheon, I. D.; Marshintsev, V. K.

    1995-02-01

    The stability of moissanite (SiC) has been computed for upper mantle conditions using the internally optimized thermodynamic dataset for the MgSiO compounds of Fei et al. (1990). The computations consider the effects of pressure and temperature on the elastic properties of phases involved in the reactions. The maximum stability of moissanite throughout the upper mantle is typically five to six orders of magnitude lower in oxygen fugacity ( fO2) than the Fe metal-wüstite oxygen buffer at equivalent temperature and pressure, in agreement with previous calculations. Under conditions of SiC stability, silicates will be Fe-free, Fe metal will contain substantial amounts of Si but little C in solution, and Mg-rich sulfides will be stable. Moissanite from the heavy mineral concentrate of the Mir and Aikhal kimberlite pipes, Yakutia, has been studied. Moissanite crystals are gemmy and vary in color from a characteristic blue-green to pale green to nearly colorless to blue-black. Most exhibit crystallographic faces and are in the size range 0.5 to 1 mm in long dimension. Their compositions include small quantities of Fe, which is ubiquitous, Al, Ca, V, Cr, and Mn, all of which may be present in concentrations > 100 ppmwt. Mineral inclusions are present in some crystals. Silicon metal is the most common; inclusions of ferrosilicite (Fe 3Si 7), FeTi silicides, REE silicate, and sinoite (Si 2N 2O) have also been observed. The carbon isotopic compositions of individual moissanite grains have been determined by ion microprobe. The nine analyzed crystals from Aikhal and fourteen from Mir are characterized by a narrow range in δ 13C values of -22 to -29‰; the majority of crystals fall within a more restricted range of -24 to -27‰. Two grains were analyzed for N and found to have a δ 15N of +9.7 ± 4.0 and +5.6 ± 2.0‰. Five mechanisms for the formation of moissanite are considered. Moissanite may be a relict of a reduced, primordial Earth and now present only as

  9. Dimension towers of SICs. I. Aligned SICs and embedded tight frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appleby, Marcus; Bengtsson, Ingemar; Dumitru, Irina; Flammia, Steven

    2017-11-01

    Algebraic number theory relates SIC-POVMs in dimension d > 3 to those in dimension d(d - 2). We define a SIC in dimension d(d - 2) to be aligned to a SIC in dimension d if and only if the squares of the overlap phases in dimension d appear as a subset of the overlap phases in dimension d(d - 2) in a specified way. We give 19 (mostly numerical) examples of aligned SICs. We conjecture that given any SIC in dimension d, there exists an aligned SIC in dimension d(d - 2). In all our examples, the aligned SIC has lower dimensional equiangular tight frames embedded in it. If d is odd so that a natural tensor product structure exists, we prove that the individual vectors in the aligned SIC have a very special entanglement structure, and the existence of the embedded tight frames follows as a theorem. If d - 2 is an odd prime number, we prove that a complete set of mutually unbiased bases can be obtained by reducing an aligned SIC to this dimension.

  10. SiC Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neudeck, Philip G.

    1998-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC)-based semiconductor electronic devices and circuits are presently being developed for use in high-temperature, high-power, and/or high-radiation conditions under which conventional semiconductors cannot adequately perform. Silicon carbide's ability to function under such extreme conditions is expected to enable significant improvements to a far-ranging variety of applications and systems. These range from greatly improved high-voltage switching [1- 4] for energy savings in public electric power distribution and electric motor drives to more powerful microwave electronics for radar and communications [5-7] to sensors and controls for cleaner-burning more fuel-efficient jet aircraft and automobile engines. In the particular area of power devices, theoretical appraisals have indicated that SiC power MOSFET's and diode rectifiers would operate over higher voltage and temperature ranges, have superior switching characteristics, and yet have die sizes nearly 20 times smaller than correspondingly rated silicon-based devices [8]. However, these tremendous theoretical advantages have yet to be realized in experimental SiC devices, primarily due to the fact that SiC's relatively immature crystal growth and device fabrication technologies are not yet sufficiently developed to the degree required for reliable incorporation into most electronic systems [9]. This chapter briefly surveys the SiC semiconductor electronics technology. In particular, the differences (both good and bad) between SiC electronics technology and well-known silicon VLSI technology are highlighted. Projected performance benefits of SiC electronics are highlighted for several large-scale applications. Key crystal growth and device-fabrication issues that presently limit the performance and capability of high temperature and/or high power SiC electronics are identified.

  11. SIC mirrors polishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodolfo, J.; Ruch, E.; Tarreau, M.; Merceron, J.-M.; Ferré, J.; Rousselet, N.; Leplan, H.; Geyl, R.; Harnisch, B.

    2017-11-01

    Silicon Carbide is a material of high interest in the design and manufacturing of space telescopes, thanks to its mechanical and thermal properties. Since many years, Reosc has gathered a large experience in the polishing, testing, integration and coating of large size Silicon Carbide mirrors as well as in the integration of full SiC TMAs.

  12. Bulk Thermoelectric Materials Reinforced with SiC Whiskers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akao, Takahiro; Fujiwara, Yuya; Tarui, Yuki; Onda, Tetsuhiko; Chen, Zhong-Chun

    2014-06-01

    SiC whiskers have been incorporated into Zn4Sb3 compound as reinforcements to overcome its extremely brittle nature. The bulk samples were prepared by either hot-extrusion or hot-pressing techniques. The obtained products containing 1 vol.% to 5 vol.% SiC whiskers were confirmed to exhibit sound appearance, high density, and fine-grained microstructure. Mechanical properties such as the hardness and fracture resistance were improved by the addition of SiC whiskers, as a result of dispersion strengthening and microstructural refinement induced by a pinning effect. Furthermore, crack deflection and/or bridging/pullout mechanisms are invoked by the whiskers. Regarding the thermoelectric properties, the Seebeck coefficient and electrical resistivity values comparable to those of the pure compound are retained over the entire range of added whisker amount. However, the thermal conductivity becomes large with increasing amount of SiC whiskers because of the much higher conductivity of SiC relative to the Zn4Sb3 matrix. This results in a remarkable degradation of the dimensionless figure of merit in the samples with addition of SiC whiskers. Therefore, the optimum amount of SiC whiskers in the Zn4Sb3 matrix should be determined by balancing the mechanical properties and thermoelectric performance.

  13. The impact resistance of SiC and other mechanical properties of SiC and Si3N4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradt, R. C.

    1984-01-01

    Studies focused on the impact and mechanical behavior of SiC and Si3N4 at high temperatures are summarized. Instrumented Charpy impact testing is analyzed by a compliance method and related to strength; slow crack growth is related to processing, and creep is discussed. The transient nature of flaw populations during oxidation under load is emphasized for both SiC and Si3N4.

  14. Oxidation of SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, James A.

    1997-03-01

    SiC is a wide band gap hexagonal anisotropic semiconductor which is attractive for use in high voltage, high temperature, or high power applications. SiC is also the only compound semiconductor that can be thermally oxidized to form SiO_2, making it possible to construct many conventional MOS devices in this material. The electrical quality of the SiO_2/SiC interface is far from ideal, however, and considerable research is presently directed to understanding and improving this interface. Electrical characterization of the SiC MOS interface is complicated by the wide band gap, since most interface states are energetically too far removed from the conduction or valence bands to respond to electrical stimulation at room temperature. Moreover, very little information is yet available on the properties of the MOS interface on the 4H polytype of SiC (preferred because of it's higher bulk electron mobility) or on interfaces on crystalline surfaces perpendicular to the basal plane (where an equal number of Si and C atoms are present). Finally, electron mobilities in inversion layers on 4H-SiC reported to date are anomolously low, especially in consideration of the relatively high bulk mobilities in this polytype. In this talk we will discuss MOS characterization techniques for wide band gap semiconductors and review the current understanding of the physics of the MOS interface on thermally oxidized SiC.

  15. Study of Erosive Wear Behaviour on SIC/SIC Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suh, Min-Soo

    In the field of aerospace propulsion system, erosive wear on continuous silicon carbide (SiC) fibre-reinforced SiC (SiC/SiC) composites is of significant issue to achieve high energy efficiency. This paper proposes a crucial factor and a design guideline of SiC/SiC composites for higher erosion performance regarding cost effectiveness. Fabrication and evaluation of impacts and wear on SiC/SiC composites are successfully carried out. Erosive wear behaviours of the CVI and the LPS composites evidently show that the crucial fabrication factor against solid particle erosion (SPE). Erosive wear mechanisms on various SiC/SiC composites are determined based on the analysis of erosive wear behaviour. Designing guideline for the SiC/SiC composites for pursuit of high erosion performance is also proposed as focusing on the followings; volume fraction of matrix, strength of the matrix, bonding strength, and PyC interface.

  16. Observations of Ag diffusion in ion implanted SiC

    DOE PAGES

    Gerczak, Tyler J.; Leng, Bin; Sridharan, Kumar; ...

    2015-03-17

    The nature and magnitude of Ag diffusion in SiC has been a topic of interest in connection with the performance of tristructural isotropic (TRISO) coated particle fuel for high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors. Ion implantation diffusion couples have been revisited to continue developing a more complete understanding of Ag fission product diffusion in SiC. Ion implantation diffusion couples fabricated from single crystal 4H-SiC and polycrystalline 3C-SiC substrates and exposed to 1500–1625°C, were investigated in this study by transmission electron microscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). The high dynamic range of SIMS allowed for multiple diffusion régimes to be investigated,more » including enhanced diffusion by implantation-induced defects and grain boundary (GB) diffusion in undamaged SiC. Lastly, estimated diffusion coefficients suggest GB diffusion in bulk SiC does not properly describe the release observed from TRISO fuel.« less

  17. The Commercialization of the SiC Flame Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedison, Jeffrey B.

    2002-03-01

    The technical and scientific steps required to produce large quantities of SiC flame sensors is described. The technical challenges required to understand, fabricate, test and package SiC photodiodes in 1990 were numerous since SiC device know how was embryonic. A sense of urgency for a timely replacement of the Geiger Muller gas discharge tube soon entered the scene. New dual fuel GE Power Systems gas turbines, which were designed to lean burn either natural gas or oil for low NOx emissions required a much higher sensitivity sensor. Joint work between GE CRD and Cree Research sponsored by the GE Aircraft Engine Division developed the know how for the fabrication of high sensitivity, high yield, reliable SiC photodiodes. Yield issues were uncovered and overcome. The urgency for system insertion required that SiC diode and sensor circuitry development needed to be carried out simultaneously with power plant field tests of laboratory or prototype sensor assemblies. The sensor and reliability specifications were stringent since the sensors installed on power plant turbine combustor walls are subjected to high levels of vibration, elevated temperatures, and high pressures. Furthermore a fast recovery time was required to sense flame out in spite of the fact that the amplifier circuit needed have high gain and high dynamic range. SiC diode technical difficulties were encountered and overcome. The science of hydrocarbon flames will also be described together with the fortunate overlap of the strong OH emission band with the SiC photodiode sensitivity versus wavelength characteristic. The extremely low dark current (<1pA/cm^2) afforded by the wide band gap and the 3eV sensitivity cutoff at 400nm made if possible to produce low amplifier offsets, high sensitivity and high dynamic range along with immunity to black body radiation from combustor walls. Field tests at power plants that had experienced turbine tripping, whenever oil fuel and/or oil with steam injection for

  18. 29 CFR 510.21 - SIC codes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false SIC codes. 510.21 Section 510.21 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE... Classification of Industries § 510.21 SIC codes. (a) The Conference Report specifically cites Puerto Rico's...

  19. 40 CFR 372.23 - SIC and NAICS codes to which this Part applies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...); 211112Natural Gas Liquid Extraction Limited to facilities that recover sulfur from natural gas (previously classified under SIC 2819, Industrial Inorganic chemicals, NEC (recovering sulfur from natural gas... engaged in providing combinations of electric, gas, and other services, not elsewhere classified (N.E.C...

  20. 40 CFR 372.23 - SIC and NAICS codes to which this Part applies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...); 211112Natural Gas Liquid Extraction Limited to facilities that recover sulfur from natural gas (previously classified under SIC 2819, Industrial Inorganic chemicals, NEC (recovering sulfur from natural gas... engaged in providing combinations of electric, gas, and other services, not elsewhere classified (N.E.C...

  1. 40 CFR 372.23 - SIC and NAICS codes to which this Part applies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...); 211112Natural Gas Liquid Extraction Limited to facilities that recover sulfur from natural gas (previously classified under SIC 2819, Industrial Inorganic chemicals, NEC (recovering sulfur from natural gas... engaged in providing combinations of electric, gas, and other services, not elsewhere classified (N.E.C...

  2. Photoluminescence of etched SiC nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Polite D., Jr.; Rich, Ryan; Zerda, T. W.

    2010-10-01

    SiC nanowires were produced from carbon nanotubes and nanosize silicon powder in a tube furnace at temperatures between 1100^oC and 1350^oC. SiC nanowires had average diameter of 30 nm and very narrow size distribution. The compound possesses a high melting point, high thermal conductivity, and excellent wear resistance. The surface of the SiC nanowires after formation is covered by an amorphous layer. The composition of that layer is not fully understood, but it is believed that in addition to amorphous SiC it contains various carbon and silicon compounds, and SiO2. The objective of the research was to modify the surface structure of these SiC nanowires. Modification of the surface was done using the wet etching method. The etched nanowires were then analyzed using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and photoluminescence (PL). FTIR and TEM analysis provided valid proof that the SiC nanowires were successfully etched. Also, the PL results showed that the SiC nanowire core did possess a fluorescent signal.

  3. Refractory Oxide Coatings on Sic Ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Kang N.; Jacobson, Nathan S.; Miller, Robert A.

    1994-01-01

    Silicon carbide with a refractory oxide coating is potentially a very attractive ceramic system. It offers the desirable mechanical and physical properties of SiC and the environmental durability of a refractory oxide. The development of a thermal shock resistant plasma-sprayed mullite coating on SiC is discussed. The durability of the mullite/SiC in oxidizing, reducing, and molten salt environments is discussed. In general, this system exhibits better behavior than uncoated SiC. Areas for further developments are discussed.

  4. The Abundance of SiC2 in Carbon Star Envelopes: Evidence that SiC2 is a gas-phase precursor of SiC dust.

    PubMed

    Massalkhi, Sarah; Agúndez, M; Cernicharo, J; Velilla Prieto, L; Goicoechea, J R; Quintana-Lacaci, G; Fonfría, J P; Alcolea, J; Bujarrabal, V

    2018-03-01

    Silicon carbide dust is ubiquitous in circumstellar envelopes around C-rich AGB stars. However, the main gas-phase precursors leading to the formation of SiC dust have not yet been identified. The most obvious candidates among the molecules containing an Si-C bond detected in C-rich AGB stars are SiC 2 , SiC, and Si 2 C. To date, the ring molecule SiC 2 has been observed in a handful of evolved stars, while SiC and Si 2 C have only been detected in the C-star envelope IRC +10216. We aim to study how widespread and abundant SiC 2 , SiC, and Si 2 C are in envelopes around C-rich AGB stars and whether or not these species play an active role as gas-phase precursors of silicon carbide dust in the ejecta of carbon stars. We carried out sensitive observations with the IRAM 30m telescope of a sample of 25 C-rich AGB stars to search for emission lines of SiC 2 , SiC, and Si 2 C in the λ 2 mm band. We performed non-LTE excitation and radiative transfer calculations based on the LVG method to model the observed lines of SiC 2 and to derive SiC 2 fractional abundances in the observed envelopes. We detect SiC 2 in most of the sources, SiC in about half of them, and do not detect Si 2 C in any source, at the exception of IRC +10216. Most of these detections are reported for the first time in this work. We find a positive correlation between the SiC and SiC 2 line emission, which suggests that both species are chemically linked, the SiC radical probably being the photodissociation product of SiC 2 in the external layer of the envelope. We find a clear trend in which the denser the envelope, the less abundant SiC 2 is. The observed trend is interpreted as an evidence of efficient incorporation of SiC 2 onto dust grains, a process which is favored at high densities owing to the higher rate at which collisions between particles take place. The observed behavior of a decline in the SiC 2 abundance with increasing density strongly suggests that SiC 2 is an important gas

  5. Development of Sic Gas Sensor Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, G. W.; Neudeck, P. G.; Okojie, R. S.; Beheim, G. M.; Thomas, V.; Chen, L.; Lukco, D.; Liu, C. C.; Ward, B.; Makel, D.

    2002-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) based gas sensors have significant potential to address the gas sensing needs of aerospace applications such as emission monitoring, fuel leak detection, and fire detection. However, in order to reach that potential, a range of technical challenges must be overcome. These challenges go beyond the development of the basic sensor itself and include the need for viable enabling technologies to make a complete gas sensor system: electrical contacts, packaging, and transfer of information from the sensor to the outside world. This paper reviews the status at NASA Glenn Research Center of SiC Schottky diode gas sensor development as well as that of enabling technologies supporting SiC gas sensor system implementation. A vision of a complete high temperature microfabricated SiC gas sensor system is proposed. In the long-term, it is believed that improvements in the SiC semiconductor material itself could have a dramatic effect on the performance of SiC gas sensor systems.

  6. The Abundance of SiC2 in Carbon Star Envelopes⋆: Evidence that SiC2 is a gas-phase precursor of SiC dust

    PubMed Central

    Massalkhi, Sarah; Agúndez, M.; Cernicharo, J.; Velilla Prieto, L.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Quintana-Lacaci, G.; Fonfría, J. P.; Alcolea, J.; Bujarrabal, V.

    2017-01-01

    Context Silicon carbide dust is ubiquitous in circumstellar envelopes around C-rich AGB stars. However, the main gas-phase precursors leading to the formation of SiC dust have not yet been identified. The most obvious candidates among the molecules containing an Si–C bond detected in C-rich AGB stars are SiC2, SiC, and Si2C. To date, the ring molecule SiC2 has been observed in a handful of evolved stars, while SiC and Si2C have only been detected in the C-star envelope IRC +10216. Aims We aim to study how widespread and abundant SiC2, SiC, and Si2C are in envelopes around C-rich AGB stars and whether or not these species play an active role as gas-phase precursors of silicon carbide dust in the ejecta of carbon stars. Methods We carried out sensitive observations with the IRAM 30m telescope of a sample of 25 C-rich AGB stars to search for emission lines of SiC2, SiC, and Si2C in the λ 2 mm band. We performed non-LTE excitation and radiative transfer calculations based on the LVG method to model the observed lines of SiC2 and to derive SiC2 fractional abundances in the observed envelopes. Results We detect SiC2 in most of the sources, SiC in about half of them, and do not detect Si2C in any source, at the exception of IRC +10216. Most of these detections are reported for the first time in this work. We find a positive correlation between the SiC and SiC2 line emission, which suggests that both species are chemically linked, the SiC radical probably being the photodissociation product of SiC2 in the external layer of the envelope. We find a clear trend in which the denser the envelope, the less abundant SiC2 is. The observed trend is interpreted as an evidence of efficient incorporation of SiC2 onto dust grains, a process which is favored at high densities owing to the higher rate at which collisions between particles take place. Conclusions The observed behavior of a decline in the SiC2 abundance with increasing density strongly suggests that SiC2 is an important

  7. Electrospinning β-SiC fibers from SiC nanoparticles dispersed in various polymer solutions as the electrospinning agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuad, A.; Fatriani, N.; Yogihati, C. I.; Taufiq, A.; Latifah, E.

    2018-04-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) fibers were synthesized by electrospinning method from SiC nanoparticles dispersed in polymer solutions, i.e., polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). The SiC nanoparticle used in this research was synthesized from sucrose and natural silica via a sonochemical method. The natural silica was extracted from local pyrophyllite by a sol-gel method. The characterization was performed via x-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The XRD characterization results showed that the sample possessed a β-SiC phase and formed a cubic-structured crystal with a lattice parameter of a = b = c = 4.3448 Å. The use of PEG and PVA in the electrospinning process resulted in fractal and fiber structured SiC, respectively.

  8. Electron Microprobe Measurements of Nitrogen in SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, K.

    2007-12-01

    Methods have been developed for the measurement of low abundances of nitrogen in SiC films. These techniques were developed for measurements of synthetic thin-film samples prepared by materials scientists but the technique can also be applied to natural SiC grains in meteorites. One problem associated with measuring nitrogen at low abundance levels is the low count rates due to strong absorption of the nitrogen signal in the matrix material. In thin film samples, (SiC deposited on elemental Si) it is preferable to limit x-ray production and emission to the overlayer. This eliminates the need for data reduction using thin-film methods. Thin film data reduction is inevitably less accurate than bulk material data reduction methods. In order to limit x-ray emission to the film layer, data has been collected at 5 kV and 3.5 kV accelerating voltage (depending on film thickness estimates provided by scientists who prepared these samples). These low beam energies also promote production of x-rays in the shallow region of the samples, and this minimizes strong absorption, leading to more abundant nitrogen x-ray detection, which improves counting statistics and overall precision. The CASINO monte carlo modeling program was used to model electron penetration and x-ray production as a function of beam energy and depth in the sample in order to ensure that the excited volume is limited to the film. The beam was set to 200 nA beam current. This high beam current also improves counting statistics by providing more abundant count rates. One drawback of these beam conditions is the limited spatial resolution provided. In our Cameca probe, a 5 kV, 200 nA beam is approximately 10 microns in diameter. SiC samples and standard were not carbon coated (they are conducting). AlN was used as the nitrogen standard. These films contained 0.3 to 0.7 wt. per cent nitrogen, with analytical uncertainties in the range of 10-20 per cent relative errors. The Si:C ratios were very near 1

  9. Structural, thermal, dielectric spectroscopic and AC impedance properties of SiC nanoparticles doped PVK/PVC blend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alghunaim, Naziha Suliman

    2018-06-01

    Nanocomposite films based on poly (N-vinylcarbazole)/polyvinylchloride (PVK/PVC) blend doped with different concentrations of Silicon Carbide (SiC) nanoparticles have been prepared. The X-ray diffraction, Ultra violet-visible spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and electrical spectroscopic has been used to characterize these nanocomposites. The X-ray analysis confirms the semi-crystalline nature of the films. The intensity of the main X-ray peak is decreased due to the interaction between the PVK/PVC and SiC. The main SiC peaks are absent due to complete dissolution of SiC in polymeric matrices. The UV-Vis spectra indicated that the band gap optical energy is affected by adding SiC nanoparticles because the charges transfer complexes between PVK/PVC with amount of SiC. The thermal stability is improved and the estimated values of ε‧ and ε″ are increased with increasing for SiC content due to the free charge carriers which in turn increase the ionic conductivity of the doped samples. The plots of tan δ with frequency are studied. A single peak from the plot between tan δ and Log (f) is appeared and shifted towards the higher frequency confirmed the presence of relaxing dipoles moment.

  10. Ultralight, Recoverable, and High-Temperature-Resistant SiC Nanowire Aerogel.

    PubMed

    Su, Lei; Wang, Hongjie; Niu, Min; Fan, Xingyu; Ma, Mingbo; Shi, Zhongqi; Guo, Sheng-Wu

    2018-04-24

    Ultralight ceramic aerogels with the property combination of recoverable compressibility and excellent high-temperature stability are attractive for use in harsh environments. However, conventional ceramic aerogels are usually constructed by oxide ceramic nanoparticles, and their practical applications have always been limited by the brittle nature of ceramics and volume shrinkage at high temperature. Silicon carbide (SiC) nanowire offers the integrated properties of elasticity and flexibility of one-dimensional (1D) nanomaterials and superior high-temperature thermal and chemical stability of SiC ceramics, which makes it a promising building block for compressible ceramic nanowire aerogels (NWAs). Here, we report the fabrication and properties of a highly porous three-dimensional (3D) SiC NWA assembled by a large number of interweaving 3C-SiC nanowires of 20-50 nm diameter and tens to hundreds of micrometers in length. The SiC NWA possesses ultralow density (∼5 mg cm -3 ), excellent mechanical properties of large recoverable compression strain (>70%) and fatigue resistance, refractory property, oxidation and high-temperature resistance, and thermal insulating property (0.026 W m -1 K -1 at room temperature in N 2 ). When used as absorbents, the SiC NWAs exhibit an adsorption selectivity of low-viscosity organic solvents with high absorption capacity (130-237 g g -1 ). The successful fabrication of such an attractive material may provide promising perspectives to the design and fabrication of other compressible and multifunctional ceramic NWAs.

  11. SiC: filter for extreme ultraviolet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitrofanov, Alexander V.; Pudonin, Fedor A.; Zhitnik, Igor A.

    1994-09-01

    It is proposed to use thin films of silicon carbide as Extreme Ultraviolet bandpass filters transparent within 135-304 A band and with excellent cutoff blocking of the strong L(subscript (alpha) ) 1216 A line radiation. Mesh or particle track porous membrane supporting 200-800 A thickness SiC filters have been made by RF sputtering techniques. We describe the design and performance of these filters. Such type SiC filter was used in front of the microchannel plate detector of the TEREK X-Ray Telescope mounted on the Solar Observatory CORONAS-I which was successfully launched on March 2, 1994.

  12. Saturn V S-IC (First) Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This cutaway illustration shows the Saturn V S-IC (first) stage with detailed callouts of the components. The S-IC Stage is 138 feet long and 33 feet in diameter, producing 7,500,000 pounds of thrust through five F-1 engines that are powered by liquid oxygen and kerosene. Four of the engines are mounted on an outer ring and gimbal for control purposes. The fifth engine is rigidly mounted in the center. When ignited, the roar produced by the five engines equals the sound of 8,000,000 hi-fi sets.

  13. 29 CFR 510.21 - SIC codes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... annual Census of Manufacturing Industries as a source of average hourly wage data by industry. Industries in that census are organized by Standard Industrial Classification (SIC), the statistical... stated that data “should be at a level of specificity comparable to the four digit Standard Industry Code...

  14. 29 CFR 510.21 - SIC codes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... annual Census of Manufacturing Industries as a source of average hourly wage data by industry. Industries in that census are organized by Standard Industrial Classification (SIC), the statistical... stated that data “should be at a level of specificity comparable to the four digit Standard Industry Code...

  15. 29 CFR 510.21 - SIC codes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... annual Census of Manufacturing Industries as a source of average hourly wage data by industry. Industries in that census are organized by Standard Industrial Classification (SIC), the statistical... stated that data “should be at a level of specificity comparable to the four digit Standard Industry Code...

  16. 29 CFR 510.21 - SIC codes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... annual Census of Manufacturing Industries as a source of average hourly wage data by industry. Industries in that census are organized by Standard Industrial Classification (SIC), the statistical... stated that data “should be at a level of specificity comparable to the four digit Standard Industry Code...

  17. Development of SiC Large Tapered Crystal Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neudeck, Phil

    2010-01-01

    Majority of very large potential benefits of wide band gap semiconductor power electronics have NOT been realized due in large part to high cost and high defect density of commercial wafers. Despite 20 years of development, present SiC wafer growth approach is yet to deliver majority of SiC's inherent performance and cost benefits to power systems. Commercial SiC power devices are significantly de-rated in order to function reliably due to the adverse effects of SiC crystal dislocation defects (thousands per sq cm) in the SiC wafer.

  18. SiC Seeded Crystal Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glass, R. C.; Henshall, D.; Tsvetkov, V. F.; Carter, C. H., Jr.

    1997-07-01

    The availability of relatively large (30 mm) SiC wafers has been a primary reason for the renewed high level of interest in SiC semiconductor technology. Projections that 75 mm SiC wafers will be available in 2 to 3 years have further peaked this interest. Now both 4H and 6H polytypes are available, however, the micropipe defects that occur to a varying extent in all wafers produced to date are seen by many as preventing the commercialization of many types of SiC devices, especially high current power devices. Most views on micropipe formation are based around Frank's theory of a micropipe being the hollow core of a screw dislocation with a huge Burgers vector (several times the unit cell) and with the diameter of the core having a direct relationship with the magnitude of the Burgers vector. Our results show that there are several mechanisms or combinations of these mechanisms which cause micropipes in SiC boules grown by the seeded sublimation method. Additional considerations such as polytype variations, dislocations and both impurity and diameter control add to the complexity of producing high quality wafers. Recent results at Cree Research, Inc., including wafers with micropipe densities of less than 1 cm - 2 (with 1 cm2 areas void of micropipes), indicate that micropipes will be reduced to a level that makes high current devices viable and that they may be totally eliminated in the next few years. Additionally, efforts towards larger diameter high quality substrates have led to production of 50 mm diameter 4H and 6H wafers for fabrication of LEDs and the demonstration of 75 mm wafers. Low resistivity and semi-insulating electrical properties have also been attained through improved process and impurity control. Although challenges remain, the industry continues to make significant progress towards large volume SiC-based semiconductor fabrication.

  19. Erosion and strength degradation of biomorphic SiC.

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Fernandez, J.; de Arellano-Lopez, A. R; Varela-Feria, F. M.

    2004-05-01

    Solid-particle-erosion studies were conducted on biomorphic SiC based on eucalyptus and pine, reaction-bonded (RB) SiC, and hot-pressed (HP) SiC. The erodents were angular SiC abrasives of average diameter 63, 143, or 390 {mu}m and the impact velocity was 100 m s{sup -1}. Impact occurred at normal incidence. Material loss in all targets occurred by brittle fracture. The biomorphic specimens eroded by formation of both lateral and radial cracks and their erosion rates were higher than both conventional SiCs. The RB SiC eroded as a classic brittle material, by formation and propagation of lateral cracks. The HP SiC, the hardest target,more » was the most erosion resistant. In erosion of the HP SiC, the abrasive particles, especially the largest ones, fragmented upon impact. The resulting dissipation of energy led to relatively low erosion rates. Flexural strength before and after erosion was measured for the biomorphic eucalyptus, RB SiC, and HP SiC. Erosion damage reduced the flexural strengths of all of the specimens. The relative strength reductions were lowest for the biomorphic eucalyptus and highest for the HP SiC. The hot-pressed SiC responded as predicted by accepted models of impact damage in brittle solids. The responses of the biomorphic and reaction-bonded SiC specimens were modeled as if they consisted of only SiC and porosity. This approximation agreed reasonably well with observed degradations of strength.« less

  20. Coordinated EDX and micro-Raman analysis of presolar silicon carbide: A novel, nondestructive method to identify rare subgroup SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Nan; Steele, Andrew; Nittler, Larry R.; Stroud, Rhonda M.; De Gregorio, Bradley T.; Alexander, Conel M. O'D.; Wang, Jianhua

    2017-12-01

    We report the development of a novel method to nondestructively identify presolar silicon carbide (SiC) grains with high initial 26Al/27Al ratios (>0.01) and extreme 13C-enrichments (12C/13C ≤ 10) by backscattered electron-energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and micro-Raman analyses. Our survey of a large number of presolar SiC demonstrates that (1) 80% of core-collapse supernova and putative nova SiC can be identified by quantitative EDX and Raman analyses with >70% confidence; (2) 90% of presolar SiC are predominantly 3C-SiC, as indicated by their Raman transverse optical (TO) peak position and width; (3) presolar 3C-SiC with 12C/13C ≤ 10 show lower Raman TO phonon frequencies compared to mainstream 3C-SiC. The downward shifted phonon frequencies of the 13C-enriched SiC with concomitant peak broadening are a natural consequence of isotope substitution. 13C-enriched SiC can therefore be identified by micro-Raman analysis; (4) larger shifts in the Raman TO peak position and width indicate deviations from the ideal 3C structure, including rare polytypes. Coordinated transmission electron microscopy analysis of one X and one mainstream SiC grain found them to be of 6H and 15R polytypes, respectively; (5) our correlated Raman and NanoSIMS study of mainstream SiC shows that high nitrogen content is a dominant factor in causing mainstream SiC Raman peak broadening without significant peak shifts; and (6) we found that the SiC condensation conditions in different stellar sites are astonishingly similar, except for X grains, which often condensed more rapidly and at higher atmospheric densities and temperatures, resulting in a higher fraction of grains with much downward shifted and broadened Raman TO peaks.

  1. SiC challenging parts for GAIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bougoin, M.

    2017-11-01

    GAIA is one of the cornerstone ESA missions which aims at compiling a catalogue of about one billion stars of our galaxy. Reaching the highly demanding scientific requirements lead ASTRIUM engineers to design a mechanically and thermally ultra-stable instrument. This is the reason why, thanks to its physical properties, the SiC turned out to be indispensable. The GAIA payload includes the following hardware which is mainly made of SiC i) the 3 meters quasi octagonal torus structure, ii) two identical 1.5 meters TMA type telescopes, iii) the central sub-assembly which holds several folding mirrors and the "Radial Velocity Spectrometer", iv) the focal plane and v) the "Basic Angle Monitoring". Due to the required large size (1 - 3 meters class), accuracy and shape complexity, developing and manufacturing these SiC parts was a real challenge for BOOSTEC. It is reviewed in this paper.

  2. Vibrational response and mechanical properties characterization of aluminium alloy 6061/Sic composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumbhar, A. P.; Vyavahare, R. T.; Kulkarni, S. G.

    2018-05-01

    Aluminium alloy based metal matrix composites (AAMMC) are mainly used in sliding wear application, automobile, Aircraft and aerospace components, Marine fittings, Transport and other industry are becoming highly advantageous due to their excellent wear resistance, lighter weight, higher strength and durability. In this paper the effect of reinforcement percentage on vibration response and mechanical properties of metal matrix composite has been investigated. Composite material was prepared by varying Sic (0, 3, 6, and 9 wt. %) by stir casting method. Natural frequency, tensile strength, rockwell hardness and compressive strength were analyzed. The result shows that, addition of sic in aluminium matrix increases natural frequency, hardness, tensile strength, compressive strength and 9 wt. % showed maximum natural frequency, hardness, tensile strength, compressive strength.

  3. Paralinear Oxidation of CVD SiC in Water Vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Opila, Elizabeth J.; Hann, Raiford E., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    The oxidation kinetics of CVD SiC were monitored by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) in a 50% H2O/50% O2 gas mixture flowing at 4.4 cm/s for temperatures between 1200 and 1400 C. Paralinear weight change kinetics were observed as the water vapor oxidized the SiC and simultaneously volatilized the silica scale. The long-term degradation rate of SiC is determined by the volatility of the silica scale. Rapid SiC surface recession rates were estimated from these data for actual aircraft engine combustor conditions.

  4. Corrosion pitting of SiC by molten salts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, N. S.; Smialek, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    The corrosion of SiC by thin films of Na2CO3 and Na2SO4 at 1000 C is characterized by a severe pitting attack of the SiC substrate. A range of different Si and SiC substrates were examined to isolate the factors critical to pitting. Two types of pitting attack are identified: attack at structural discontinuities and a crater-like attack. The crater-like pits are correlated with bubble formation during oxidation of the SiC. It appears that bubbles create unprotected regions, which are susceptible to enhanced attack and, hence, pit formation.

  5. Abundance of SiC2 in carbon star envelopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massalkhi, S.; Agúndez, M.; Cernicharo, J.; Velilla Prieto, L.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Quintana-Lacaci, G.; Fonfría, J. P.; Alcolea, J.; Bujarrabal, V.

    2018-03-01

    Context. Silicon carbide dust is ubiquitous in circumstellar envelopes around C-rich asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. However, the main gas-phase precursors leading to the formation of SiC dust have not yet been identified. The most obvious candidates among the molecules containing an Si-C bond detected in C-rich AGB stars are SiC2, SiC, and Si2C. To date, the ring molecule SiC2 has been observed in a handful of evolved stars, while SiC and Si2C have only been detected in the C-star envelope IRC +10216. Aim. We aim to study how widespread and abundant SiC2, SiC, and Si2C are in envelopes around C-rich AGB stars, and whether or not these species play an active role as gas-phase precursors of silicon carbide dust in the ejecta of carbon stars. Methods: We carried out sensitive observations with the IRAM 30 m telescope of a sample of 25 C-rich AGB stars to search for emission lines of SiC2, SiC, and Si2C in the λ 2 mm band. We performed non-LTE excitation and radiative transfer calculations based on the LVG method to model the observed lines of SiC2 and to derive SiC2 fractional abundances in the observed envelopes. Results: We detect SiC2 in most of the sources, SiC in about half of them, and do not detect Si2C in any source except IRC +10216. Most of these detections are reported for the first time in this work. We find a positive correlation between the SiC and SiC2 line emission, which suggests that both species are chemically linked; the SiC radical is probably the photodissociation product of SiC2 in the external layer of the envelope. We find a clear trend where the denser the envelope, the less abundant SiC2 is. The observed trend is interpreted as evidence of efficient incorporation of SiC2 onto dust grains, a process that is favored at high densities owing to the higher rate at which collisions between particles take place. Conclusions: The observed behavior of a decline in the SiC2 abundance with increasing density strongly suggests that SiC2 is an

  6. Nanocrystalline SiC and Ti 3SiC 2 Alloys for Reactor Materials: Diffusion of Fission Product Surrogates

    SciTech Connect

    Henager, Charles H.; Jiang, Weilin

    2014-11-01

    MAX phases, such as titanium silicon carbide (Ti 3SiC 2), have a unique combination of both metallic and ceramic properties, which make them attractive for potential nuclear applications. Ti 3SiC 2 has been suggested in the literature as a possible fuel cladding material. Prior to the application, it is necessary to investigate diffusivities of fission products in the ternary compound at elevated temperatures. This study attempts to obtain relevant data and make an initial assessment for Ti 3SiC 2. Ion implantation was used to introduce fission product surrogates (Ag and Cs) and a noble metal (Au) in Ti 3SiC 2,more » SiC, and a dual-phase nanocomposite of Ti 3SiC 2/SiC synthesized at PNNL. Thermal annealing and in-situ Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) were employed to study the diffusivity of the various implanted species in the materials. In-situ RBS study of Ti 3SiC 2 implanted with Au ions at various temperatures was also performed. The experimental results indicate that the implanted Ag in SiC is immobile up to the highest temperature (1273 K) applied in this study; in contrast, significant out-diffusion of both Ag and Au in MAX phase Ti 3SiC 2 occurs during ion implantation at 873 K. Cs in Ti 3SiC 2 is found to diffuse during post-irradiation annealing at 973 K, and noticeable Cs release from the sample is observed. This study may suggest caution in using Ti 3SiC 2 as a fuel cladding material for advanced nuclear reactors operating at very high temperatures. Further studies of the related materials are recommended.« less

  7. Natural occurrence of silicon carbide in a diamondiferous kimberlite from Fuxian

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leung, I.; Guo, W.; Friedman, I.; Gleason, J.

    1990-01-01

    Considerable debate surrounds the existence of silicon carbide in nature, mostly owing to the problem of possible contamination by man-made SiC. Recently, Gurney1 reviewed reports of rare SiC inclusions in diamonds, and noted that SiC can only be regarded as a probable rather than proven cogenetic mineral. Here we report our observation of clusters of SiC coexisting with diamond in a kimberlite from Fuxian, China. Macrocrysts of ??-SiC are overgrown epitaxially by ??-SiC, and both polymorphs are structurally well ordered. We have also measured the carbon isotope compositions of SiC and diamonds from Fuxian. We find that SiC is more enriched in 12C than diamond by 20% relative to the PDB standard. Isotope fractionation might have occurred through an isotope exchange reaction in a common carbon reservoir. Silicon carbide may thus ultimately provide information on carbon cycling in the Earth's mantle.

  8. SIC material and technology for space optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bougoin, Michel

    2017-11-01

    Taking benefit from its very high specific stiffness and its exclusive thermal stability, the SiCSPACE material is now used for the fabrication of scientific and commercial lightweight space telescopes. This paper gives a review of the characteristics of this sintered silicon carbide. The BOOSTEC facilities and the technology described here allow to manufacture large structural components or mirrors (up to several meters) at cost effective condition, from a single part to mass production. Several examples of SiC space optical components are presented.

  9. Effect of Steam Activation on Development of Light Weight Biomorphic Porous SiC from Pine Wood Precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manocha, Satish M.; Patel, Hemang; Manocha, L. M.

    2013-02-01

    Biomorphic SiC materials with tailor-made microstructure and properties similar to ceramic materials manufactured by conventional method are a new class of materials derived from natural biopolymeric cellulose templates (wood). Porous silicon carbide (SiC) ceramics with wood-like microstructure have been prepared by carbothermal reduction of charcoal/silica composites at 1300-1600 °C in inert Ar atmosphere. The C/SiO2 composites were fabricated by infiltrating silica sol into porous activated biocarbon template. Silica in the charcoal/silica composite, preferentially in the cellular pores, was found to get transformed in forms of fibers and rods due to shrinkage during drying. The changes in the morphology of resulting porous SiC ceramics after heat treatment to 1600 °C, as well as the conversion mechanism of wood to activated carbon and then to porous SiC ceramic have been investigated using scanning electron microscope, x-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, and differential scanning calorimetry. Activation of carbon prior to silica infiltration has been found to enhance conversion of charcoal to SiC. The pore structure is found to be uniform in these materials than in those made from as-such charcoal/silica composites. This provides a low-cost and eco-friendly route to advanced ceramic materials, with near-net shape potential.

  10. The Paralinear Oxidation of SiC in Combustion Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Opila, Elizabeth J.; Greenbauer-Seng, Leslie (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    SiC is proposed for structural applications in high pressure, high temperature. high gas velocity environments of turbine and rocket engines. These environments are typically composed of complex gas mixtures containing carbon dioxide, oxygen, water vapor, and nitrogen. It is known that the primary oxidant for SiC in these environments is water vapor.

  11. Processing of sintered alpha SiC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storm, R. S.

    1984-01-01

    Processing methods of sintered alpha SiC for engine applications are developed in a cost effective manner, using a submicron sized powder blended with sintering aids (boron and carbon). The processes for forming a green powder compact, such as dry pressing, cold isostatic pressing and green machining, slip casting, aqueous extrusion, plastic extrusion, and injection molding, are described. Dry pressing is the simplest route to component fabrication, and is carried out at approximately 10,000 psi pressure, while in the cold isostatic method the pressure could go as high as 20,000 psi. Surfactants are added to control settling rates and casting characteristics in the slip casting. The aqueous extrusion process is accomplished by a hydraulic ram forcing the aqueous mixture through a die. The plastic forming processes of extrusion and injection molding offer the potential of greater diversity in shape capacity. The physical properties of sintered alpha SiC (hardness, Young's modulus, shear modulus, and thermal diffusivity) are extensively tested. Corrosion resistance test results of silicon carbide are included.

  12. Porous silicon carbide (SiC) semiconductor device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shor, Joseph S. (Inventor); Kurtz, Anthony D. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A semiconductor device employs at least one layer of semiconducting porous silicon carbide (SiC). The porous SiC layer has a monocrystalline structure wherein the pore sizes, shapes, and spacing are determined by the processing conditions. In one embodiment, the semiconductor device is a p-n junction diode in which a layer of n-type SiC is positioned on a p-type layer of SiC, with the p-type layer positioned on a layer of silicon dioxide. Because of the UV luminescent properties of the semiconducting porous SiC layer, it may also be utilized for other devices such as LEDs and optoelectronic devices.

  13. New constructions of approximately SIC-POVMs via difference sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Gaojun; Cao, Xiwang

    2018-04-01

    In quantum information theory, symmetric informationally complete positive operator-valued measures (SIC-POVMs) are related to quantum state tomography (Caves et al., 2004), quantum cryptography (Fuchs and Sasaki, 2003) [1], and foundational studies (Fuchs, 2002) [2]. However, constructing SIC-POVMs is notoriously hard. Although some SIC-POVMs have been constructed numerically, there does not exist an infinite class of them. In this paper, we propose two constructions of approximately SIC-POVMs, where a small deviation from uniformity of the inner products is allowed. We employ difference sets to present the first construction and the dimension of the approximately SIC-POVMs is q + 1, where q is a prime power. Notably, the dimension of this framework is new. The second construction is based on partial geometric difference sets and works whenever the dimension of the framework is a prime power.

  14. Biomorphous SiC ceramics prepared from cork oak as precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yukhymchuk, V. O.; Kiselov, V. S.; Valakh, M. Ya.; Tryus, M. P.; Skoryk, M. A.; Rozhin, A. G.; Kulinich, S. A.; Belyaev, A. E.

    2016-04-01

    Porous ceramic materials of SiC were synthesized from carbon matrices obtained via pyrolysis of natural cork as precursor. We propose a method for the fabrication of complex-shaped porous ceramic hardware consisting of separate parts prepared from natural cork. It is demonstrated that the thickness of the carbon-matrix walls can be increased through their impregnation with Bakelite phenolic glue solution followed by pyrolysis. This decreases the material's porosity and can be used as a way to modify its mechanical and thermal characteristics. Both the carbon matrices (resulted from the pyrolysis step) and the resultant SiC ceramics are shown to be pseudomorphous to the structure of initial cork. Depending on the synthesis temperature, 3C-SiC, 6H-SiC, or a mixture of these polytypes, could be obtained. By varying the mass ratio of initial carbon and silicon components, stoichiometric SiC or SiC:C:Si, SiC:C, and SiC:Si ceramics could be produced. The structure, as well as chemical and phase composition of the prepared materials were studied by means of Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy.

  15. Active Oxidation of SiC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.; Myers,Dwight L.; Harder, Bryan J.

    2011-01-01

    The high temperature oxidation of silicon carbide occurs in either a passive or active mode, depending on temperature and oxygen potential. Passive oxidation forms a protective oxide film which limits attack of the SiC:SiC(s) + 3/2 O2(g) = SiO2(s) + CO(g.) Active oxidation forms a volatile oxide and leads to extensive attack of the SiC: SiC(s) + O2(g) = SiO(g) + CO(g). The transition points and rates of active oxidation are a major issue. Previous studies are reviewed and the leading theories of passive/active transitions summarized. Comparisons are made to the active/passive transitions in pure Si, which are relatively well-understood. Critical questions remain about the difference between the active-to-passive transition and passive-to-active transition. For Si, Wagner [2] points out that the active-to-passive transition is governed by the criterion for a stable Si/SiO2 equilibria and the passive-to-active transition is governed by the decomposition of the SiO2 film. This suggests a significant oxygen potential difference between these two transitions and our experiments confirm this. For Si, the initial stages of active oxidation are characterized by the formation of SiO(g) and further oxidation to SiO2(s) as micron-sized rods, with a distinctive morphology. SiC shows significant differences. The active-to-passive and the passive-to-active transitions are close. The SiO2 rods only appear as the passive film breaks down. These differences are explained in terms of the reactions at the SiC/SiO2 interface. In order to understand the breakdown of the passive film, pre-oxidation experiments are conducted. These involve forming dense protective scales of 0.5, 1, and 2 microns and then subjecting the samples with these scales to a known active oxidation environment. Microstructural studies show that SiC/SiO2 interfacial reactions lead to a breakdown of the scale with a distinct morphology.

  16. The Effect of Fiber Architecture on Matrix Cracking in Sic/sic Cmc's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morscher, Gregory N.

    2005-01-01

    Applications incorporating silicon carbide fiber reinforced silicon carbide matrix composites (CMC's) will require a wide range of fiber architectures in order to fabricate complex shape. The stress-strain response of a given SiC/SiC system for different architectures and orientations will be required in order to design and effectively life-model future components. The mechanism for non-linear stress-strain behavior in CMC's is the formation and propagation of bridged-matrix cracks throughout the composite. A considerable amount of understanding has been achieved for the stress-dependent matrix cracking behavior of SiC fiber reinforced SiC matrix systems containing melt-infiltrated Si. This presentation will outline the effect of 2D and 3D architectures and orientation on stress-dependent matrix-cracking and how this information can be used to model material behavior and serve as the starting point foe mechanistic-based life-models.

  17. Fabrication of large aperture SiC brazing mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ang; Wang, Peipei; Dong, Huiwen; Wang, Peng

    2016-10-01

    The SiC brazing mirror is the mirror whose blank is made by assembling together smaller SiC pieces with brazing technique. Using such kinds of joining techniques, people can manufacture large and complex SiC assemblies. The key technologies of fabricating and testing SiC brazing flat mirror especially for large aperture were studied. The SiC brazing flat mirror was ground by smart ultrasonic-milling machine, and then it was lapped by the lapping smart robot and measured by Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM). After the PV of the surface below 4um, we did classic coarse polishing to the surface and studied the shape of the polishing tool which directly effects removal amount distribution. Finally, it was figured by the polishing smart robot and measured by Fizeau interferometer. We also studied the influence of machining path and removal functions of smart robots on the manufacturing results and discussed the use of abrasive in this process. At last, an example for fabricating and measuring a similar SiC brazing flat mirror with the aperture of 600 mm made by Shanghai Institute of Ceramics was given. The mirror blank consists of 6 SiC sectors and the surface was finally processed to a result of the Peak-to-Valley (PV) 150nm and Root Mean Square (RMS) 12nm.

  18. Heterojunction photodiode on cleaved SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solovan, Mykhailo M.; Farah, John; Kovaliuk, Taras T.; Brus, Viktor V.; Mostovyi, Andrii I.; Maistruk, Eduard V.; Maryanchuk, Pavlo D.

    2018-01-01

    Graphite/n-SiC Shottky diodes were prepared by means of the recently proposed technique based on the transferring of drawn graphite films onto the n-SiC single crystal substrate. Current-voltage characteristics were measured and analyzed. High quality ohmic contancts were prepared by the DC magnetron sputtering of Ni thin films onto cleaved n-type SiC single crystal substrates. The height of the potential barrier and the series resistance of the graphite/n-SiC junctions were measured and analysed. The dominant current transport mechanisms through the diodes were determined. There was shown that the dominant current transport mechanisms through the graphite/n-SiC Shottky diodes were the multi-step tunnel-recombination at forward bias and the tunnelling mechanisms at reverse bias.

  19. SiC Composite Turbine Vanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calomino, Anthony M.; Verilli, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    Turbine inlet guide vanes have been fabricated from composites of silicon carbide fibers in silicon carbide matrices. A unique design for a cloth made from SiC fibers makes it possible to realize the geometric features necessary to form these vanes in the same airfoil shapes as those of prior metal vanes. The fiber component of each of these vanes was made from SiC-fiber cloth coated with boron nitride. The matrix was formed by chemical-vapor infiltration with SiC, then slurry-casting of SiC, followed by melt infiltration with silicon. These SiC/SiC vanes were found to be capable of withstanding temperatures 400 F (222 C) greater than those that can be withstood by nickel-base-superalloy turbine airfoils now in common use in gas turbine engines. The higher temperature capability of SiC/SiC parts is expected to make it possible to use them with significantly less cooling than is used for metallic parts, thereby enabling engines to operate more efficiently while emitting smaller amounts of NOx and CO. The SiC/SiC composite vanes were fabricated in two different configurations. Each vane of one of the configurations has two internal cavities formed by a web between the suction and the pressure sides of the vane. Each vane of the other configuration has no web (see Figure 1). It is difficult to fabricate components having small radii, like those of the trailing edges of these vanes, by use of stiff stoichiometric SiC fibers currently preferred for SiC/SiC composites. To satisfy the severe geometric and structural requirements for these vanes, the aforementioned unique cloth design, denoted by the term Y-cloth, was conceived (see Figure 2). In the regions away from the trailing edge, the Y-cloth features a fiber architecture that had been well characterized and successfully demonstrated in combustor liners. To form a sharp trailing edge (having a radius of 0.3 mm), the cloth was split into two planes during the weaving process. The fiber tows forming the trailing

  20. Synthesis of SiC nanoparticles by SHG 532 nm Nd:YAG laser ablation of silicon in ethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khashan, Khawla S.; Ismail, Raid A.; Mahdi, Rana O.

    2018-06-01

    In this work, colloidal spherical nanoparticles NPs of silicon carbide SiC have been synthesized using second harmonic generation 532 nm Nd:YAG laser ablation of silicon target dipped in ethanol solution at various laser fluences (1.5-5) J/cm2. X-Ray diffraction XRD, scanning electron microscopy SEM, transmission electron microscope TEM, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy FT-IR, Raman spectroscopy, photoluminescence PL spectroscopy, and UV-Vis absorption were employed to examine the structural, chemical and optical properties of SiC NPs. XRD results showed that all synthesised SiC nanoparticles are crystalline in nature and have hexagonal structure with preferred orientation along (103) plane. Raman investigation showed three characteristic peaks 764,786 and 954 cm-1, which are indexing to transverse optic TO phonon mode and longitudinal optic LO phonon mode of 4H-SiC structure. The optical absorption data showed that the values of optical energy gap of SiC nanoparticles prepared at 1.5 J/cm2 was 3.6 eV and was 3.85 eV for SiC synthesised at 5 J/cm2. SEM investigations confirmed that the nanoparticles synthesised at 5 J/cm2 are agglomerated to form larger particles. TEM measurements showed that SiC particles prepared at 1.5 J/cm2 have spherical shape with average size of 25 nm, while the particles prepared at 5 J/cm2 have an average size of 55 nm.

  1. Characteristics of Commercial SiC and Synthetic SiC as an Aggregate in Geopolymer Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irfanita, R.; Afifah, K. N.; Asrianti; Subaer

    2017-03-01

    This main objective of this study is to investigate the effect silicon carbide (SiC) as an aggregate on the mechanical strength and microstructure of the geopolymer composites. The geopolymers binder were produced by using alkaline activation method of metakaolin and cured at 70oC for 2 hours. In this study commercial and synthetic SiC were used as aggregate to produce composite structure. Synthetic SiC was produced from rice husk ash and coconut shell carbon calcined at 750oC for 2 hours. The addition of SiC in geopolymers paste was varied from 0.25g, 0.50g to 0.75g to form geopolymers composites. The chemical compositions and crystallinity level of SiC and the resulting composites were measured by means of Rigaku MiniFlexII X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The microstructure of SiC and the composites were examined by using Tescan Vega3SB Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The physical and mechanical properties of the samples were determined based on apparent porosity, bulk density, and three bending flexural strength measurements. The results showed that the commercial and synthetic SiC were effectively produced geopolymers composites with different microstructure, physical and mechanical strength.

  2. An Extension of SIC Predictions to the Wiener Coactive Model

    PubMed Central

    Houpt, Joseph W.; Townsend, James T.

    2011-01-01

    The survivor interaction contrasts (SIC) is a powerful measure for distinguishing among candidate models of human information processing. One class of models to which SIC analysis can apply are the coactive, or channel summation, models of human information processing. In general, parametric forms of coactive models assume that responses are made based on the first passage time across a fixed threshold of a sum of stochastic processes. Previous work has shown that that the SIC for a coactive model based on the sum of Poisson processes has a distinctive down-up-down form, with an early negative region that is smaller than the later positive region. In this note, we demonstrate that a coactive process based on the sum of two Wiener processes has the same SIC form. PMID:21822333

  3. An Extension of SIC Predictions to the Wiener Coactive Model.

    PubMed

    Houpt, Joseph W; Townsend, James T

    2011-06-01

    The survivor interaction contrasts (SIC) is a powerful measure for distinguishing among candidate models of human information processing. One class of models to which SIC analysis can apply are the coactive, or channel summation, models of human information processing. In general, parametric forms of coactive models assume that responses are made based on the first passage time across a fixed threshold of a sum of stochastic processes. Previous work has shown that that the SIC for a coactive model based on the sum of Poisson processes has a distinctive down-up-down form, with an early negative region that is smaller than the later positive region. In this note, we demonstrate that a coactive process based on the sum of two Wiener processes has the same SIC form.

  4. Development of SiC Large Tapered Crystal Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neudeck, Phil

    2011-01-01

    Research Focus Area: Power Electronics, Temperature Tolerant Devices. Demonstrate initial feasibility of totally new "Large Tapered Crystal" (LTC) process for growing vastly improved large-diameter wide-band gap wafers. Addresses Targets: The goal of this research is to experimentally investigate and demonstrate feasibility of the key unproven LTC growth processes in SiC. Laser-assisted growth of long SiC fiber seeds. Radial epitaxial growth enlargement of seeds into large SiC boules. Uniqueness and Impacts open a new technology path to large-diameter SiC and GaN wafers with 1000-fold defect density improvement at 2-4 fold lower cost. Leapfrog improvement in wide band gap power device capability and cost.

  5. Nanocrystalline SiC film thermistors for cryogenic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitin, V. F.; Kholevchuk, V. V.; Semenov, A. V.; Kozlovskii, A. A.; Boltovets, N. S.; Krivutsa, V. A.; Slepova, A. S.; Novitskii, S. V.

    2018-02-01

    We developed a heat-sensitive material based on nanocrystalline SiC films obtained by direct deposition of carbon and silicon ions onto sapphire substrates. These SiC films can be used for resistance thermometers operating in the 2 K-300 K temperature range. Having high heat sensitivity, they are relatively low sensitive to the magnetic field. The designs of the sensors are presented together with a discussion of their thermometric characteristics and sensitivity to magnetic fields.

  6. SiC Protective Coating for Photovoltaic Retinal Prostheses

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Xin; Kane, Sheryl; Cogan, Stuart; Lorach, Henri; Galambos, Ludwig; Huie, Philip; Mathieson, Keith; Kamins, Theodore; Harris, James; Palanker, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate PECVD SiC as a protective coating for retinal prostheses and other implantable devices, and to study their failure mechanisms in vivo. Approach Retinal prostheses were implanted in rats subretinally for up to 1 year. Degradation of implants was characterized by optical and scanning electron microscopy. Dissolution rates of SiC, SiNx and thermal SiO2 were measured in accelerated soaking tests in saline at 87°C. Defects in SiC films were revealed and analyzed by selectively removing the materials underneath those defects. Main results At 87°C SiNx dissolved at 18.3±0.3nm/day, while SiO2 grown at high temperature (1000°C) dissolved at 1.04±0.08A/day. SiC films demonstrated the best stability, with no quantifiable change after 112 days. Defects in thin SiC films appeared primarily over complicated topography and rough surfaces. Significance SiC coatings demonstrating no erosion in accelerated aging test for 112 days at 87°C, equivalent to about 10 years in vivo, can offer effective protection of the implants. Photovoltaic retinal prostheses with PECVD SiC coatings exhibited effective protection from erosion during the 4-month follow-up in vivo. The optimal thickness of SiC layers is about 560nm, as defined by anti-reflective properties and by sufficient coverage to eliminate defects. PMID:27323882

  7. Preparation of Sic/AIN Solid Solutions Using Organometallic Precursors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-02-15

    pyrolysis of organoaluminum and organosilicon compounds was investigated as a potential source of SiC /AUI solid solutions. Using two different co... pyrolysis methods, homogeneous mixtures of organoaluminum amides and both a vinylic polysilane and a poly- carbosilane were convertec to a preceramic ...solid that transformed to crystalline SiC /AiN solid solutions at 򒸀 C. Moreover, the liquid, polymeric , form of these precursor mixtures provides a

  8. Synthesis of micro-sized interconnected Si-C composites

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Donghai; Yi, Ran; Dai, Fang

    2016-02-23

    Embodiments provide a method of producing micro-sized Si--C composites or doped Si--C and Si alloy-C with interconnected nanoscle Si and C building blocks through converting commercially available SiO.sub.x (0

  9. SiC As An Energetic Particle Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yan, F.; Hicks, J.; Shappirio, Mark D.; Brown, S.; Smith, C.; Xin, X.; Zhao, J. H.

    2005-01-01

    Several new technologies have been introduced recently in the region of semiconductor material for solid state detectors (SSD). Of particular interest is silicon carbide (SIC) since its band gap is larger than that of pure silicon, reducing its dark current and making SIC capable of operating at high temperatures and more tolerant of radiation damage. But the trade off is that a higher band gap also means fewer electron hole pairs generated, and thus a smaller signal, for detecting incident radiation. To determine what the lower limit of SiC detectors to energetic particles is, we irradiated a SiC diode with particles ranging in energy from 50 keV to 1.6 MeV and masses from 1 to 16 amu. We found that the SiC detectors sensitivity was comparable to that of pure silicon, with the SiC detector being able to measure particles down to 50 keV/amu and possibly lower.

  10. Thermomechanical Performance of C and SiC Multilayer, Fiber-Reinforced, CVI SiC Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morscher, Gregory N.; Singh, Mrityunjay

    2004-01-01

    Hybrid fiber approaches have been attempted in the past to alloy desirable properties of different fiber-types for mechanical properties, thermal stress management, and oxidation resistance. Such an approach has potential for the CrSiC and SiCrSiC composite systems. SiC matrix composites with different stacking sequences of woven C fiber (T300) layers and woven Sic fiber (Hi-NicalonTM) layers were fabricated using the standard CVI process. Delamination occurred to some extent due to thermal mismatch for all of the composites. However, for the composites with a more uniform stacking sequence, minimal delamination occurred, enabling tensile properties to be determined at room temperature and elevated temperatures (stress-rupture in air). Composites were seal-coated with a CVI SiC layer as well as a proprietary C-B-Si (CBS) layer. Definite improvement in rupture behavior was observed in air for composites with increasing SiC fiber content and a CBS layer. The results will be compared to standard C fiber reinforced CVI SiC matrix and Hi-Nicalon reinforced CVI SiC matrix composites.

  11. A dual-phase microstructural approach to damage and fracture of Ti 3SiC 2/SiC joints

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Henager, Charles H.; Kurtz, Richard J.

    We investigate the microcracking mechanisms responsible for Ti 3SiC 2/SiC joint damage observed at the macroscopic scale after neutron irradiation experiments in detail. A dual-phase microstructural approach to damage and fracture of Ti 3SiC 2/SiC joints is developed that uses a finely discretized two-phase domain based on a digital image of an actual microstructure involving embedded Ti 3SiC 2 and SiC phases. The behaviors of SiC and Ti 3SiC 2 in the domain are described by the continuum damage mechanics (CDM) model reported in Nguyen et al., J. Nucl. Mater., 2017, 495:504–515. This CDM model describes microcracking damage in brittlemore » ceramics caused by thermomechanical loading and irradiation-induced swelling. The dual-phase microstructural model is applied to predict the microcracking mechanisms occurring in a typical Ti 3SiC 2/SiC joint subjected to heating to 800 °C followed by irradiation-induced swelling at this temperature and cooling to room temperature after the applied swelling has reached the maximum swelling levels observed in the experiments for SiC and Ti 3SiC 2. The model predicts minor damage of the joint after heating but significant microcracking in the SiC phase and along the boundaries between SiC and Ti 3SiC 2 as well as along the bonding joint during irradiation-induced swelling and cooling to room temperature. Our predictions qualitatively agree with the limited experimental observations of joint damage at this irradiation temperature.« less

  12. A dual-phase microstructural approach to damage and fracture of Ti 3SiC 2/SiC joints

    DOE PAGES

    Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Henager, Charles H.; Kurtz, Richard J.

    2017-12-05

    We investigate the microcracking mechanisms responsible for Ti 3SiC 2/SiC joint damage observed at the macroscopic scale after neutron irradiation experiments in detail. A dual-phase microstructural approach to damage and fracture of Ti 3SiC 2/SiC joints is developed that uses a finely discretized two-phase domain based on a digital image of an actual microstructure involving embedded Ti 3SiC 2 and SiC phases. The behaviors of SiC and Ti 3SiC 2 in the domain are described by the continuum damage mechanics (CDM) model reported in Nguyen et al., J. Nucl. Mater., 2017, 495:504–515. This CDM model describes microcracking damage in brittlemore » ceramics caused by thermomechanical loading and irradiation-induced swelling. The dual-phase microstructural model is applied to predict the microcracking mechanisms occurring in a typical Ti 3SiC 2/SiC joint subjected to heating to 800 °C followed by irradiation-induced swelling at this temperature and cooling to room temperature after the applied swelling has reached the maximum swelling levels observed in the experiments for SiC and Ti 3SiC 2. The model predicts minor damage of the joint after heating but significant microcracking in the SiC phase and along the boundaries between SiC and Ti 3SiC 2 as well as along the bonding joint during irradiation-induced swelling and cooling to room temperature. Our predictions qualitatively agree with the limited experimental observations of joint damage at this irradiation temperature.« less

  13. A dual-phase microstructural approach to damage and fracture of Ti3SiC2/SiC joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Henager, Charles H.; Kurtz, Richard J.

    2018-02-01

    The microcracking mechanisms responsible for Ti3SiC2/SiC joint damage observed at the macroscopic scale after neutron irradiation experiments are investigated in detail. A dual-phase microstructural approach to damage and fracture of Ti3SiC2/SiC joints is developed that uses a finely discretized two-phase domain based on a digital image of an actual microstructure involving embedded Ti3SiC2 and SiC phases. The behaviors of SiC and Ti3SiC2 in the domain are described by the continuum damage mechanics (CDM) model reported in Nguyen et al., J. Nucl. Mater., 2017, 495:504-515. This CDM model describes microcracking damage in brittle ceramics caused by thermomechanical loading and irradiation-induced swelling. The dual-phase microstructural model is applied to predict the microcracking mechanisms occurring in a typical Ti3SiC2/SiC joint subjected to heating to 800 °C followed by irradiation-induced swelling at this temperature and cooling to room temperature after the applied swelling has reached the maximum swelling levels observed in the experiments for SiC and Ti3SiC2. The model predicts minor damage of the joint after heating but significant microcracking in the SiC phase and along the boundaries between SiC and Ti3SiC2 as well as along the bonding joint during irradiation-induced swelling and cooling to room temperature. These predictions qualitatively agree with the limited experimental observations of joint damage at this irradiation temperature.

  14. Construction Progress of the S-IC Test Stand-Pumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    At its founding, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) inherited the Army's Jupiter and Redstone test stands, but much larger facilities were needed for the giant stages of the Saturn V. From 1960 to 1964, the existing stands were remodeled and a sizable new test area was developed. The new comprehensive test complex for propulsion and structural dynamics was unique within the nation and the free world, and they remain so today because they were constructed with foresight to meet the future as well as on going needs. Construction of the S-IC Static test stand complex began in 1961 in the west test area of MSFC, and was completed in 1964. The S-IC static test stand was designed to develop and test the 138-ft long and 33-ft diameter Saturn V S-IC first stage, or booster stage, weighing in at 280,000 pounds. Required to hold down the brute force of a 7,500,000-pound thrust produced by 5 F-1 engines, the S-IC static test stand was designed and constructed with the strength of hundreds of tons of steel and 12,000,000 pounds of cement, planted down to bedrock 40 feet below ground level. The foundation walls, constructed with concrete and steel, are 4 feet thick. The base structure consists of four towers with 40-foot-thick walls extending upward 144 feet above ground level. The structure was topped by a crane with a 135-foot boom. With the boom in the upright position, the stand was given an overall height of 405 feet, placing it among the highest structures in Alabama at the time. This photo, taken April 4, 1961, shows the S-IC test stand dry once again when workers resumed construction after a 6 month delay due to booster size reconfiguration back in September of 1961. The disturbance of a natural spring during the excavation of the site required water to be pumped from the site continuously. The site was completely flooded after the pumps were shut down during the construction delay.

  15. Hysteresis in the Active Oxidation of SiC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.; Harder, Bryan J.; Myers, Dwight L.

    2011-01-01

    Si and SiC show both passive oxidation behavior where a protective film of SiO2 forms and active oxidation behavior where a volatile suboxide SiO(g) forms. The active-to-passive and passive-to-active oxidation transitions are explored for both Si and SiC. Si shows a dramatic difference between the P(O2) for the two transitions of 10-4 bar. The active-to-passive transition is controlled by the condition for SiO2/Si equilibrium and the passive-to-active transition is controlled by the decomposition of SiO2. In the case of SiC, the P(O2) for these transitions are much closer. The active-to-passive transition appears to be controlled by the condition for SiO2/SiC equilibrium. The passive-to-active transition appears to be controlled by the interfacial reaction of SiC and SiO2 and subsequent generation of gases at the interface which leads to scale breakdown.

  16. Chemical reactivity of SiC fibre-reinforced SiC with beryllium and lithium ceramic breeder materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleykamp, H.

    2000-12-01

    SiC fibre-reinforced SiC fabrics (f-SiC/SiC) are considered for structural materials of advanced fusion blanket concepts. Priority tasks are compatibility studies of SiC with Li breeder ceramics and the Be neutron multiplier. Isothermal and anisothermal powder reactions by DTA up to 1220°C were examined between Li 4SiO 4, Li 2ZrO 3 and Li 2TiO 3, respectively, and SiC and SiC/SiO 2 mixtures, respectively. The SiC/SiO 2 mixture simulated the chemical state of Nicalon fibres. Solid state reactions between SiC and Be pellets were studied by capsule experiments. The reaction products Be 2C and Si were observed between the initial phases after annealing at 800°C and 900°C. A parabolic time law with a chemical diffusion coefficient D˜=2.6×10 -15 m 2/s of Be in the products was deduced at 900°C. Additional oxygen released from SiO 2 as a component of the simulated fibres oxidised the reaction products via the gas phase by formation of a Be 2SiO 4 layer. All reactions are kinetically hindered below 700°C.

  17. SIC-POVMS and MUBS: Geometrical Relationships in Prime Dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appleby, D. M.

    2009-03-01

    The paper concerns Weyl-Heisenberg covariant SIC-POVMs (symmetric informationally complete positive operator valued measures) and full sets of MUBs (mutually unbiased bases) in prime dimension. When represented as vectors in generalized Bloch space a SIC-POVM forms a d2-1 dimensional regular simplex (d being the Hilbert space dimension). By contrast, the generalized Bloch vectors representing a full set of MUBs form d+1 mutually orthogonal d-1 dimensional regular simplices. In this paper we show that, in the Weyl-Heisenberg case, there are some simple geometrical relationships between the single SIC-POVM simplex and the d+1 MUB simplices. We go on to give geometrical interpretations of the minimum uncertainty states introduced by Wootters and Sussman, and by Appleby, Dang and Fuchs, and of the fiduciality condition given by Appleby, Dang and Fuchs.

  18. Modeling the Thermostructural Stability of Melt-infiltrated Sic/sic Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiCarlo, James A.; Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.; McCue, Terry R.

    2003-01-01

    SiC/SiC composites developed by NASA with Sylramic-iBN fibers and melt-infiltrated (MI) SiC-Si matrices have demonstrated 1000-hour rupture life in air at 100 MPa and 1315OC. Recently it has been determined that a major factor controlling the long-term rupture life of these composites is not environment or stress, but an intrinsic microstructural and strength instability caused by a thermally-induced silicon attack of the Sic fibers. The objective of this paper is to present a simple diffusion-based analytical model which predicts well the observed effects of stress-free thermal exposure on the residual tensile strength of Sylramic-iBN/SiC-Si composites. The practical implications of the model for SiC/SiC composites with MI matrices are discussed.

  19. Rare earth element abundances in presolar SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ireland, T. R.; Ávila, J. N.; Lugaro, M.; Cristallo, S.; Holden, P.; Lanc, P.; Nittler, L.; Alexander, C. M. O'D.; Gyngard, F.; Amari, S.

    2018-01-01

    Individual isotope abundances of Ba, lanthanides of the rare earth element (REE) group, and Hf have been determined in bulk samples of fine-grained silicon carbide (SiC) from the Murchison CM2 chondrite. The analytical protocol involved secondary ion mass spectrometry with combined high mass resolution and energy filtering to exclude REE oxide isobars and Si-C-O clusters from the peaks of interest. Relative sensitivity factors were determined through analysis of NIST SRM reference glasses (610 and 612) as well as a trace-element enriched SiC ceramic. When normalised to chondrite abundances, the presolar SiC REE pattern shows significant deficits at Eu and Yb, which are the most volatile of the REE. The pattern is very similar to that observed for Group III refractory inclusions. The SiC abundances were also normalised to s-process model predictions for the envelope compositions of low-mass (1.5-3 M⊙) AGB stars with close-to-solar metallicities (Z = 0.014 and 0.02). The overall trace element abundances (excluding Eu and Yb) appear consistent with the predicted s-process patterns. The depletions of Eu and Yb suggest that these elements remained in the gas phase during the condensation of SiC. The lack of depletion in some other moderately refractory elements (like Ba), and the presence of volatile elements (e.g. Xe) indicates that these elements were incorporated into SiC by other mechanisms, most likely ion implantation.

  20. Packaging Technology for SiC High Temperature Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Liang-Yu; Neudeck, Philip G.; Spry, David J.; Meredith, Roger D.; Nakley, Leah M.; Beheim, Glenn M.; Hunter, Gary W.

    2017-01-01

    High-temperature environment operable sensors and electronics are required for long-term exploration of Venus and distributed control of next generation aeronautical engines. Various silicon carbide (SiC) high temperature sensors, actuators, and electronics have been demonstrated at and above 500 C. A compatible packaging system is essential for long-term testing and application of high temperature electronics and sensors in relevant environments. This talk will discuss a ceramic packaging system developed for high temperature electronics, and related testing results of SiC integrated circuits at 500 C facilitated by this high temperature packaging system, including the most recent progress.

  1. Nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinhorst, Sabine; Cannon, Gordon

    1997-01-01

    The fact that two of the original articles by this year's Nobel laureates were published in Nature bears witness to the pivotal role of this journal in documenting pioneering discoveries in all areas of science. The prize for Physiology or Medicine was awarded to immunologists Peter C. Doherty (University of Tennessee) and Rolf M. Zinkernagel (University of Zurich, Switzerland), honoring work that, in the 1970s, laid the foundation for our current understanding of the way in which our immune system differentiates between healthy cells and virus-infected ones that are targeted for destruction (p 465 in the October 10 issue of vol. 383). Three researchers share the Chemistry award for their discovery of C60 buckminsterfullerenes. The work by Robert Curl, Richard Smalley (both at Rice University), and Harry Kroto (University of Sussex, UK) has led to a burst of new approaches to materials development and in carbon chemistry (p 561 of the October 17 issue of vol. 383). This year's Nobel prize in physics went to three U.S. researchers, Douglas Osheroff (Stanford University) and David M. Lee and Robert C. Richardson (Cornell University), who were honored for their work on superfluidity, a frictionless liquid state, of supercooled 3He (p 562 of the October 17 issue of vol. 383).

  2. Synthesis of Al4SiC4 powders from kaolin grog, aluminum and carbon black by carbothermal reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Wenjie; Yu, Chao; Deng, Chengji; Zhu, Hongxi

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, the synthesis of Al4SiC4 used as natural oxide materials by carbothermal reduction was investigated in order to explore the synthesis route with low costs. The samples were calcined by using kaolin grog, aluminum and carbon black as raw materials with the selected proportion at the temperature from 1500 to 1800 ° C for 2 hours under flow argon atmosphere. The phase composition of reaction products were determined by X-ray diffraction. The microstructure and elemental composition of different phases were observed and identified by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The mechanism of reaction processing was discussed. The results show that Al4SiC4 powders composed of hexagonal plate-like particulates with various sizes and the thickness of less than 20 μm are obtained when the temperature reaches 1800 °C.

  3. Stress Analysis of SiC MEMS Using Raman Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ness, Stanley J.; Marciniak, M. A.; Lott, J. A.; Starman, L. A.; Busbee, J. D.; Melzak, J. M.

    2003-03-01

    During the fabrication of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS), residual stress is often induced in the thin films that are deposited to create these systems. These stresses can cause the device to fail due to buckling, curling, or fracture. Industry is looking for ways to characterize the stress during the deposition of thin films in order to reduce or eliminate device failure. Micro-Raman spectroscopy has been successfully used to characterize poly-Si MEMS devices made with the MUMPS® process. Raman spectroscopy was selected because it is nondestructive, fast and has the potential for in situ stress monitoring. This research attempts to use Raman spectroscopy to analyze the stress in SiC MEMS made with the MUSiC® process. Raman spectroscopy is performed on 1-2-micron-thick SiC thin films deposited on silicon, silicon nitride, and silicon oxide substrates. The most common poly-type of SiC found in thin film MEMS made with the MUSiC® process is 3C-SiC. Research also includes baseline spectra of 6H, 4H, and 15R poly-types of bulk SiC.

  4. High Temperature Silicon Carbide (SiC) Traction Motor Drive

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-09

    UNCLASSIFIED Distribution Statement A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. UNCLASSIFIED HIGH TEMPERATURE SILICON CARBIDE...be modular and conveniently distributed. Small component size and operation with high - temperature liquid coolant are essential factors in the...these densities, power modules capable of high - temperature operation were developed using SiC normally-off JFETs. This paper will discuss the unique

  5. Advanced Capacitor with SiC for High Temperature Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsao, B. H.; Ramalingam, M. L.; Bhattacharya, R. S.; Carr, Sandra Fries

    1994-07-01

    An advanced capacitor using SiC as the dielectric material has been developed for high temperature, high power, and high density electronic components for aircraft and aerospace application. The conventional capacitor consists of a large number of metallized polysulfone films that are arranged in parallel and enclosed in a sealed metal case. However, problems with electrical failure, thermal failure, and dielectric flow were experienced by Air Force suppliers for the component and subsystem for lack of suitable properties of the dielectric material. The high breakdown electrical field, high thermal conductivity, and high temperature operational resistance of SiC compared to similar properties of the conventional ceramic and polymer capacitor would make it a better choice for a high temperature, and high power capacitor. The quality of the SiC film was evaluated. The electrical parameters, such as the capacitance, dissipation factor, equivalent series resistance, and dielectric withstand voltage, were evaluated. The prototypical capacitors are currently being fabricated using SiC film.

  6. Fabrication And Evaluation Of Sic/Sic Tubes With Various Fiber Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yun, H. M.; DiCarlo, J. A.; Fox, D. S.

    2003-01-01

    SiC/SiC composites are excellent material candidates for high temperature applications where the performance requirements are high strength, high creep-rupture resistance, high environmental durability, and high thermal conductivity. In the past, the NASA UEET program has demonstrated fabrication of high-performance SiC/SiC flat panels reinforced by Sylramic-iBN SiC fibers. Currently NASA UEET is scaling up this SiC/SiC system by fabrication of more complex shaped components using the same fiber type. This paper reports the effects of various fiber architectures on the processing, mechanical, and durability behavior of small-diameter 0.5" ID SiC/SiC tubes, which are potential sub-elements for leading edges and cooling channels in turbine vanes and blades. Nine different fiber architectures were utilized for construction of seamless tube preforms, from simple 2D jelly-rolling to complex braiding, pin-weaving, filament-winding and 3D orthogonal weaving with approximately 5% fibers in the thru-thickness direction. Using the BN interphase and Sic matrix processing steps established for the flat panels, SiC/SiC tubes were fabricated with wall thicknesses of approximately 60 mils and total fiber fractions of approximately 35%. The "D" split ring tests for hoop tensile properties, micro-structural examinations for relationship between fiber architecture formation and matrix infiltration, and the low-pressure burner rig tests for the high temperature durability under thru-thickness thermal gradient were conducted. The better matrix infiltration and higher hoop strength were achieved using the tri-axial braided and the three-float pin woven SiC/SiC tubes. In general, it needs not only higher hoop direction fibers but also axial direction fibers for the higher hoop strength and the better infiltration, respectively. These results are analyzed to offer general guidelines for selecting fiber pre-form architectures and SiC/SiC processes that maximize tube hoop strength, thru

  7. Improved BN Coatings on SiC Fibers in SiC Matrices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morscher, Gregory N.; Bhatt, Ramakrishna; Yun, Hee-Mann; DiCarlo, James A.

    2004-01-01

    Modifications of BN-based coatings that are used as interfacial layers between the fibers and matrices of SiCfiber/SiC-matrix composite materials have been investigated to improve the thermomechanical properties of these materials. Such interfacial coating layers, which are also known as interphases (not to be confused with interphase in the biological sense), contribute to strength and fracture toughness of a fiber/matrix composite material by providing for limited amounts of fiber/matrix debonding and sliding to absorb some of the energy that would otherwise contribute to the propagation of cracks. Heretofore, the debonding and sliding have been of a type called inside debonding because they have taken place predominantly on the inside surfaces of the BN layers that is, at the interfaces between the SiC fibers and the interphases. The modifications cause the debonding and sliding to include more of a type, called outside debonding, that takes place at the outside surfaces of the BN layers that is, at the interfaces between the interphases and the matrix (see figure). One of the expected advantages of outside debonding is that unlike in inside debonding, the interphases would remain on the crack-bridging fibers. The interphases thus remaining should afford additional protection against oxidation at high temperature and should delay undesired fiber/fiber fusion and embrittlement of the composite material. A secondary benefit of outside debonding is that the interphase/matrix interfaces could be made more compliant than are the fiber/interphase interfaces, which necessarily incorporate the roughness of the SiC fibers. By properly engineering BN interphase layers to favor outside debonding, it should be possible, not only to delay embrittlement at intermediate temperatures, but also to reduce the effective interfacial shear strength and increase the failure strain and toughness of the composite material. Two techniques have been proposed and partially experimentally

  8. PhySIC: a veto supertree method with desirable properties.

    PubMed

    Ranwez, Vincent; Berry, Vincent; Criscuolo, Alexis; Fabre, Pierre-Henri; Guillemot, Sylvain; Scornavacca, Celine; Douzery, Emmanuel J P

    2007-10-01

    This paper focuses on veto supertree methods; i.e., methods that aim at producing a conservative synthesis of the relationships agreed upon by all source trees. We propose desirable properties that a supertree should satisfy in this framework, namely the non-contradiction property (PC) and the induction property (PI). The former requires that the supertree does not contain relationships that contradict one or a combination of the source topologies, whereas the latter requires that all topological information contained in the supertree is present in a source tree or collectively induced by several source trees. We provide simple examples to illustrate their relevance and that allow a comparison with previously advocated properties. We show that these properties can be checked in polynomial time for any given rooted supertree. Moreover, we introduce the PhySIC method (PHYlogenetic Signal with Induction and non-Contradiction). For k input trees spanning a set of n taxa, this method produces a supertree that satisfies the above-mentioned properties in O(kn(3) + n(4)) computing time. The polytomies of the produced supertree are also tagged by labels indicating areas of conflict as well as those with insufficient overlap. As a whole, PhySIC enables the user to quickly summarize consensual information of a set of trees and localize groups of taxa for which the data require consolidation. Lastly, we illustrate the behaviour of PhySIC on primate data sets of various sizes, and propose a supertree covering 95% of all primate extant genera. The PhySIC algorithm is available at http://atgc.lirmm.fr/cgi-bin/PhySIC.

  9. LOW ACTIVATION JOINING OF SIC/SIC COMPOSITES FOR FUSION APPLICATIONS: MODELING DUAL-PHASE MICROSTRUCTURES AND DISSIMILAR MATERIAL JOINTS

    SciTech Connect

    Henager, Charles H.; Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Kurtz, Richard J.

    2016-03-31

    Finite element continuum damage models (FE-CDM) have been developed to simulate and model dual-phase joints and cracked joints for improved analysis of SiC materials in nuclear environments. This report extends the analysis from the last reporting cycle by including results from dual-phase models and from cracked joint models.

  10. Chemical reactivity of CVC and CVD SiC with UO2 at high temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Chinthaka M.; Katoh, Yutai; Voit, Stewart L.; Snead, Lance L.

    2015-05-01

    Two types of silicon carbide (SiC) synthesized using two different vapor deposition processes were embedded in UO2 pellets and evaluated for their potential chemical reaction with UO2. While minor reactivity between chemical-vapor-composited (CVC) SiC and UO2 was observed at comparatively low temperatures of 1100 and 1300 °C, chemical-vapor-deposited (CVD) SiC did not show any such reactivity. However, both CVD and CVC SiCs showed some reaction with UO2 at a higher temperature (1500 °C). Elemental maps supported by phase maps obtained using electron backscatter diffraction indicated that CVC SiC was more reactive than CVD SiC at 1500 °C. Furthermore, this investigation indicated the formation of uranium carbides and uranium silicide chemical phases such as UC, USi2, and U3Si2 as a result of SiC reaction with UO2.

  11. Wafer-scale epitaxial graphene on SiC for sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlsson, Mikael; Wang, Qin; Zhao, Yichen; Zhao, Wei; Toprak, Muhammet S.; Iakimov, Tihomir; Ali, Amer; Yakimova, Rositza; Syväjärvi, Mikael; Ivanov, Ivan G.

    2015-12-01

    The epitaxial graphene-on-silicon carbide (SiC-G) has advantages of high quality and large area coverage owing to a natural interface between graphene and SiC substrate with dimension up to 100 mm. It enables cost effective and reliable solutions for bridging the graphene-based sensors/devices from lab to industrial applications and commercialization. In this work, the structural, optical and electrical properties of wafer-scale graphene grown on 2'' 4H semi-insulating (SI) SiC utilizing sublimation process were systemically investigated with focus on evaluation of the graphene's uniformity across the wafer. As proof of concept, two types of glucose sensors based on SiC-G/Nafion/Glucose-oxidase (GOx) and SiC-G/Nafion/Chitosan/GOx were fabricated and their electrochemical properties were characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements. In addition, a few similar glucose sensors based on graphene by chemical synthesis using modified Hummer's method were also fabricated for comparison.

  12. Role of SiC substrate surface on local tarnishing of deposited silver mirror stacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limam, Emna; Maurice, Vincent; Seyeux, Antoine; Zanna, Sandrine; Klein, Lorena H.; Chauveau, Grégory; Grèzes-Besset, Catherine; Savin De Larclause, Isabelle; Marcus, Philippe

    2018-04-01

    The role of the SiC substrate surface on the resistance to the local initiation of tarnishing of thin-layered silver stacks for demanding space mirror applications was studied by combined surface and interface analysis on model stack samples deposited by cathodic magnetron sputtering and submitted to accelerated aging in gaseous H2S. It is shown that suppressing the surface pores resulting from the bulk SiC material production process by surface pretreatment eliminates the high aspect ratio surface sites that are imperfectly protected by the SiO2 overcoat after the deposition of silver. The formation of channels connecting the silver layer to its environment through the failing protection layer at the surface pores and locally enabling H2S entry and Ag2S growth as columns until emergence at the stack surface is suppressed, which markedly delays tarnishing initiation and thereby preserves the optical performance. The results revealed that residual tarnishing initiation proceeds by a mechanism essentially identical in nature but involving different pathways short circuiting the protection layer and enabling H2S ingress until the silver layer. These permeation pathways are suggested to be of microstructural origin and could correspond to the incompletely coalesced intergranular boundaries of the SiO2 layer.

  13. A comparative study on electrical characteristics of 1-kV pnp and npn SiC bipolar junction transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okuda, Takafumi; Kimoto, Tsunenobu; Suda, Jun

    2018-04-01

    We investigate the electrical characteristics of 1-kV pnp SiC bipolar junction transistors (BJTs) and compare them with those of npn SiC BJTs. The base resistance, current gain, and blocking capability are characterized. It is found that the base resistance of pnp SiC BJTs is two orders of magnitude lower than that of npn SiC BJTs. However, the obtained current gains are low below unity in pnp SiC BJTs, whereas npn SiC BJTs exhibit a current gain of 14 without surface passivation. The reason for the poor current gain of pnp SiC BJTs is discussed.

  14. Technological state of the art of SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyc, Stdphane

    1993-10-01

    In a recent paper [1], Locatelli and Gamal describe the technological state of the art of SiC compared with Si. I would like to bear witness to the rapid advancement of SiC technology by giving a slighty updated account of SiC technology. The boule growth of SiC now achieves diameters up to 60 mm. One of the most problematic standing issues is the presence of micropipes in the wafers with a density of the order of 100 cm^{-2} or more [2]. The doping range available in epilayers is now wider. CAFE Research [3] accepts orders for doping densities from 5 × 10^{15} cm^{-3} to 1 × 10^{19} cm^{-3} in both N and P type. However their state of the art is better (we have received P type with doping 4 × 10^{14} cm^{-3} and N type with doping over 2 × 10^{19} cm^{-3} and they have also delivered [4] N type doping of 5 × 10^{14} cm^{-3}). As for large P dopings, Dmitriev has published [5] dopings over 10^{20} cm^{-3} The specific resistance of contacts on N type layers has also rapidly improved. Kelner has published results of 3 × 10^{-6} Ohm.cm2 with Ni contacts [6]. We have obtained with molybdenum [7] specific resistances of 2 × 10^{-5} Ohm.cm2 on epitaxies doped to 5 × 10^{18} cm^{-3} This value should be rapidly lowered as higher doped layers are used. In sum, I do agree with the authors of [1] that the technology of 6H SiC is rapidly advancing, thanks to breakthroughs in material growth and to a wide ranging renewed interest in this material. The pace may actually be higher than hitherto realized. References: [1] Locatelli and Gamal, J. Phys. III France 3 (1993) 1101. [2] Barret D. L. et al., Tenth Int. Conf. on Crystal Growth, San Diego, CA, USA 16-21 (August 1992). [3] CREE Research Inc., 2810 Meridian Parkway, Durham, NC 27713, USA. [4] Parrish M., private communication. [5] Dmitriev et al., Ext. Abstracts of the Electrochemical Soc. Meeting, 4, 89-2 (1989) 711. [6] Workshop on SiC Material and Devices (Charlottesville, September 10-11 1992) VA 22901. [7] Tyc

  15. Pd/CeO2/SiC Chemical Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Weijie; Collins, W. Eugene

    2005-01-01

    The incorporation of nanostructured interfacial layers of CeO2 has been proposed to enhance the performances of Pd/SiC Schottky diodes used to sense hydrogen and hydrocarbons at high temperatures. If successful, this development could prove beneficial in numerous applications in which there are requirements to sense hydrogen and hydrocarbons at high temperatures: examples include monitoring of exhaust gases from engines and detecting fires. Sensitivity and thermal stability are major considerations affecting the development of high-temperature chemical sensors. In the case of a metal/SiC Schottky diode for a number of metals, the SiC becomes more chemically active in the presence of the thin metal film on the SiC surface at high temperature. This increase in chemical reactivity causes changes in chemical composition and structure of the metal/SiC interface. The practical effect of the changes is to alter the electronic and other properties of the device in such a manner as to degrade its performance as a chemical sensor. To delay or prevent these changes, it is necessary to limit operation to a temperature <450 C for these sensor structures. The present proposal to incorporate interfacial CeO2 films is based partly on the observation that nanostructured materials in general have potentially useful electrical properties, including an ability to enhance the transfer of electrons. In particular, nanostructured CeO2, that is CeO2 with nanosized grains, has shown promise for incorporation into hightemperature electronic devices. Nanostructured CeO2 films can be formed on SiC and have been shown to exhibit high thermal stability on SiC, characterized by the ability to withstand temperatures somewhat greater than 700 C for limited times. The exchanges of oxygen between CeO2 and SiC prevent the formation of carbon and other chemical species that are unfavorable for operation of a SiC-based Schottky diode as a chemical sensor. Consequently, it is anticipated that in a Pd

  16. Effects of SiC on Properties of Cu-SiC Metal Matrix Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efe, G. Celebi; Altinsoy, I.; Ipek, M.; Zeytin, S.; Bindal, C.

    2011-12-01

    This paper was focused on the effects of particle size and distribution on some properties of the SiC particle reinforced Cu composites. Copper powder produced by cementation method was reinforced with SiC particles having 1 and 30 μm particle size and sintered at 700 °C. SEM studies showed that SiC particles dispersed in copper matrix homogenously. The presence of Cu and SiC components in composites were verified by XRD analysis technique. The relative densities of Cu-SiC composites determined by Archimedes' principle are ranged from 96.2% to 90.9% for SiC with 1 μm particle size, 97.0 to 95.0 for SiC with 30 μm particle size. Measured hardness of sintered compacts varied from 130 to 155 HVN for SiC having 1 μm particle size, 188 to 229 HVN for SiC having 1 μm particle size. Maximum electrical conductivity of test materials was obtained as 80.0% IACS (International annealed copper standard) for SiC with 1 μm particle size and 83.0% IACS for SiC with 30 μm particle size.

  17. Intermediate Temperature Stress Rupture of Woven SiC Fiber, BN Interphase, SiC Matrix Composites in Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morscher, Gregory N.; Levine, Stanley (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Tensile stress-rupture experiments were performed on woven Hi-Nicalon reinforced SiC matrix composites with BN interphases in air. Modal acoustic emission (AE) was used to monitor the damage accumulation in the composites during the tests and microstructural analysis was performed to determine the amount of matrix cracking that occurred for each sample. Fiber fractograph), was also performed for individual fiber failures at the specimen fracture surface to determine the strengths at which fibers failed. The rupture strengths were significantly worse than what would have been expected front the inherent degradation of the fibers themselves when subjected to similar rupture conditions. At higher applied stresses the rate of rupture "?as larger than at lower applied stresses. It was observed that the change in rupture rate corresponded to the onset of through-thickness cracking in the composites themselves. The primary cause of the sen,ere degradation was the ease with which fibers would bond to one another at their closest separation distances, less than 100 nanometers, when exposed to the environment. The near fiber-to-fiber contact in the woven tows enabled premature fiber failure over large areas of matrix cracks due to the stress-concentrations created b), fibers bonded to one another after one or a few fibers fail. i.e. the loss of global load sharing. An@, improvement in fiber-to-fiber separation of this composite system should result in improved stress- rupture properties. A model was den,eloped in order to predict the rupture life-time for these composites based on the probabilistic nature of indin,idual fiber failure at temperature. the matrix cracking state during the rupture test, and the rate of oxidation into a matrix crack. Also incorporated into the model were estimates of the stress-concentration that would occur between the outer rim of fibers in a load-bearing bundle and the unbridged region of a matrix crack after Xia et al. For the lower stresses

  18. Creep behavior for advanced polycrystalline SiC fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Youngblood, G.E.; Jones, R.H.; Kohyama, Akira

    1997-04-01

    A bend stress relaxation (BSR) test has been utilized to examine irradiation enhanced creep in polycrystalline SiC fibers which are under development for use as fiber reinforcement in SiC/SiC composite. Qualitative, S-shaped 1hr BSR curves were compared for three selected advanced SiC fiber types and standard Nicalon CG fiber. The temperature corresponding to the middle of the S-curve (where the BSR parameter m = 0.5) is a measure of a fiber`s thermal stability as well as it creep resistance. In order of decreasing thermal creep resistance, the measured transition temperatures were Nicalon S (1450{degrees}C), Sylramic (1420{degrees}C), Hi-Nicalon (1230{degrees}C) and Nicalonmore » CG (1110{degrees}C).« less

  19. Oxidation of ZrB2-SiC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Opila, Elizabeth J.; Halbig, Michael C.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper the oxidation behavior of ZrB2-20 vol% SiC is examined. Samples were exposed in stagnant air in a zirconia furnace (Deltech, Inc.) at temperatures of 1327, 1627, and 1927 C for ten ten-minute cycles. Samples were removed from the furnace after one, five, and ten cycles. Oxidized material was characterized by mass change when possible, x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Oxidation kinetics, oxide scale development, and matrix recession were monitored as a function of time and temperature. Oxidation and recession rates of ZrB2 - 20 vol% SiC were adequately modeled by parabolic kinetics. Oxidation rates of this material are rapid, allowing only very short-term application in air or other high oxygen partial pressure environments.

  20. Excited States of the divacancy in SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bockstedte, Michel; Garratt, Thomas; Ivady, Viktor; Gali, Adam

    2014-03-01

    The divacancy in SiC - a technologically mature material that fulfills the necessary requirements for hosting defect based quantum computing - is a good candidate for implementing a solid state quantum bit. Its ground state is isovalent to the NV center in diamond as demonstrated by density functional theory (DFT). Furthermore, coherent manipulation of divacancy spins in SiC has been demonstrated. The similarities to NV might indicate that the same inter system crossing (ICS) from the high to the low spin state is responsible for its spin-dependent fluorescent signal. By DFT and a DFT-based multi-reference hamiltonian we analyze the excited state spectrum of the defects. In contrast to the current picture of the spin dynamics of the NV center, we predict that a static Jahn-Teller effect in the first excited triplet states governs an ICS both with the excited and ground state of the divacancy.

  1. Intercalated europium metal in epitaxial graphene on SiC

    DOE PAGES

    Anderson, Nathaniel; Hupalo, Myron; Keavney, David; ...

    2017-10-25

    X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) reveals the magnetic properties of intercalated europium metal under graphene on SiC(0001). Intercalation of Eu nanoclusters (average size 2.5 nm) between graphene and SiC substate are formed by deposition of Eu on epitaxially grown graphene that is subsequently annealed at various temperatures while keeping the integrity of the graphene layer. Using sum-rules analysis of the XMCD of Eu M 4,5 edges at T = 15 K, our samples show paramagnetic-like behavior with distinct anomaly at T ≈ 90 K, which may be related to the Nèel transition, T N = 91 K, of bulk metalmore » Eu. Here, we find no evidence of ferromagnetism due to EuO or antiferromagnetism due to Eu 2 O 3, indicating that the graphene layer protects the intercalated metallic Eu against oxidation over months of exposure to atmospheric environment.« less

  2. Molten salt corrosion of SiC: Pitting mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, N. S.; Smialek, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    Thin films of Na2SO4 and Na2CO3 at 1000 C lead to severe pitting of sintered alpha-SiC. These pits are important as they cause a strength reduction in this material. The growth of product layers is related to pit formation for the Na2CO3 case. The early reaction stages involve repeated oxidation and dissolution to form sodium silicate. This results in severe grain boundary attack. After this a porous silica layer forms between the sodium silicate melt and the SiC. The pores in this layer appear to act as paths for the melt to reach the SiC and create larger pits.

  3. Study on extrusion process of SiC ceramic matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Xiao-Yuan; Shen, Fan; Ji, Jia-You; Wang, Shu-Ling; Xu, Man

    2017-11-01

    In this thesis, the extrusion process of SiC ceramic matrix has been systematically studied.The effect of different cellulose content on the flexural strength and pore size distribution of SiC matrix was discussed.Reselts show that with the increase of cellulose content, the flexural strength decreased.The pore size distribution in the sample was 1um-4um, and the 1um-2um concentration was more concentrated. It is found that the cellulose content has little effect on the pore size distribution.When the cellulose content is 7%, the flexural strength of the sample is 40.9Mpa. At this time, the mechanical properties of the sample are the strongest.

  4. Intercalated europium metal in epitaxial graphene on SiC

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Nathaniel; Hupalo, Myron; Keavney, David

    X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) reveals the magnetic properties of intercalated europium metal under graphene on SiC(0001). Intercalation of Eu nanoclusters (average size 2.5 nm) between graphene and SiC substate are formed by deposition of Eu on epitaxially grown graphene that is subsequently annealed at various temperatures while keeping the integrity of the graphene layer. Using sum-rules analysis of the XMCD of Eu M 4,5 edges at T = 15 K, our samples show paramagnetic-like behavior with distinct anomaly at T ≈ 90 K, which may be related to the Nèel transition, T N = 91 K, of bulk metalmore » Eu. Here, we find no evidence of ferromagnetism due to EuO or antiferromagnetism due to Eu 2 O 3, indicating that the graphene layer protects the intercalated metallic Eu against oxidation over months of exposure to atmospheric environment.« less

  5. Normal Isocurvature Surfaces and Special Isocurvature Circles (SIC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manoussakis, Gerassimos; Delikaraoglou, Demitris

    2010-05-01

    An isocurvature surface of a gravity field is a surface on which the value of the plumblines' curvature is constant. Here we are going to study the isocurvature surfaces of the Earth's normal gravity field. The normal gravity field is a symmetric gravity field therefore the isocurvature surfaces are surfaces of revolution. But even in this case the necessary relations for their study are not simple at all. Therefore to study an isocurvature surface we make special assumptions to form a vector equation which will hold only for a small coordinate patch of the isocurvature surface. Yet from the definition of the isocurvature surface and the properties of the normal gravity field is possible to express very interesting global geometrical properties of these surfaces without mixing surface differential calculus. The gradient of the plumblines' curvature function is vertical to an isocurvature surface. If P is a point of an isocurvature surface and "Φ" is the angle of the gradient of the plumblines' curvature with the equatorial plane then this direction points to the direction along which the curvature of the plumbline decreases / increases the most, and therefore is related to the strength of the normal gravity field. We will show that this direction is constant along a line of curvature of the isocurvature surface and this line is an isocurvature circle. In addition we will show that at each isocurvature surface there is at least one isocurvature circle along which the direction of the maximum variation of the plumblines' curvature function is parallel to the equatorial plane of the ellipsoid of revolution. This circle is defined as a Special Isocurvature Circle (SIC). Finally we shall prove that all these SIC lye on a special surface of revolution, the so - called SIC surface. That is to say, a SIC is not an isolated curve in the three dimensional space.

  6. 1 GHz, 200 C, SiC MESFET Clapp Oscillator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponchak, George E.; Schwartz, Zachary D.

    2005-01-01

    A SiC Clapp oscillator frabricated on an alumina substrate with chip capacitors and spiral inductors is designed for high temperature operation at 1 gigahertz. The oscillator operated from 30 to 200 C with an output power of 21.8 dBm at 1 gigahertz and 200 C. The efficiency at 200 C is 15 percent. The frequency variation over the temperature range is less than 0.5 percent.

  7. SiC Composite for Fuel Structure Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Yueh, Ken

    Extensive evaluation was performed to determine the suitability of using SiC composite as a boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel channel material. A thin walled SiC composite box, 10 cm in dimension by approximately 1.5 mm wall thickness was fabricated using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) for testing. Mechanical test results and performance evaluations indicate the material could meet BWR channel mechanical design requirement. However, large mass loss of up to 21% was measured in in-pile corrosion test under BWR-like conditions in under 3 months of irradiation. A fresh sister sample irradiated in a follow-up cycle under PWR conditions showed no measureablemore » weight loss and thus supports the hypothesis that the oxidizing condition of the BWR-like coolant chemistry was responsible for the high corrosion rate. A thermodynamic evaluation showed SiC is not stable and the material may oxidize to form SiO 2 and CO 2. Silica has demonstrated stability in high temperature steam environment and form a protective oxide layer under severe accident conditions. However, it does not form a protective layer in water under normal BWR operational conditions due to its high solubility. Corrosion product stabilization by modifying the SiC CVD surface is an approach evaluated in this study to mitigate the high corrosion rate. Titanium and zirconium have been selected as stabilizing elements since both TiSiO 4 and ZrSiO 4 are insoluble in water. Corrosion test results in oxygenated water autoclave indicate TiSiO4 does not form a protective layer. However, zirconium doped test samples appear to form a stable continuous layer of ZrSiO 4 during the corrosion process. Additional process development is needed to produce a good ZrSiC coating to verify functionality of the mitigation concept.« less

  8. Decomposition of silicon carbide at high pressures and temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Daviau, Kierstin; Lee, Kanani K. M.

    We measure the onset of decomposition of silicon carbide, SiC, to silicon and carbon (e.g., diamond) at high pressures and high temperatures in a laser-heated diamond-anvil cell. We identify decomposition through x-ray diffraction and multiwavelength imaging radiometry coupled with electron microscopy analyses on quenched samples. We find that B3 SiC (also known as 3C or zinc blende SiC) decomposes at high pressures and high temperatures, following a phase boundary with a negative slope. The high-pressure decomposition temperatures measured are considerably lower than those at ambient, with our measurements indicating that SiC begins to decompose at ~ 2000 K at 60more » GPa as compared to ~ 2800 K at ambient pressure. Once B3 SiC transitions to the high-pressure B1 (rocksalt) structure, we no longer observe decomposition, despite heating to temperatures in excess of ~ 3200 K. The temperature of decomposition and the nature of the decomposition phase boundary appear to be strongly influenced by the pressure-induced phase transitions to higher-density structures in SiC, silicon, and carbon. The decomposition of SiC at high pressure and temperature has implications for the stability of naturally forming moissanite on Earth and in carbon-rich exoplanets.« less

  9. Fractographic Analysis of HfB2-SiC and ZrB2-SiC Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mecholsky, J.J., Jr.; Ellerby, D. T.; Johnson, S. M.; Stackpoole, M. M.; Loehman, R. E.; Arnold, Jim (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Hafnium diboride-silicon carbide and zirconium diboride-silicon carbide composites are potential materials for high temperature leading edge applications on reusable launch vehicles. In order to establish material constants necessary for evaluation of in-situ fracture, bars fractured in four point flexure were examined using fractographic principles. The fracture toughness was determined from measurements of the critical crack sizes and the strength values, and the crack branching constants were established to use in forensic fractography of materials for future flight applications. The fracture toughnesses range from about 13 MPam (sup 1/2) at room temperature to about 6 MPam (sup 1/2) at 1400 C for ZrB2-SiC composites and from about 11 MPam (sup 1/2) at room temperature to about 4 MPam (sup 1/2) at 1400 C for HfB2-SiC composites.

  10. Epitaxial graphene on SiC(0001): functional electrical microscopy studies and effect of atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Kazakova, O; Burnett, T L; Patten, J; Yang, L; Yakimova, R

    2013-05-31

    Surface potential distribution, V(CPD), and evolution of atmospheric adsorbates on few and multiple layers (FLG and MLG) of graphene grown on SiC(0001) substrate have been investigated by electrostatic and Kelvin force microscopy techniques at T = 20-120 °C. The change of the surface potential distribution, ΔV(CPD), between FLG and MLG is shown to be temperature dependent. The enhanced ΔV(CPD) value at 120 °C is associated with desorption of adsorbates at high temperatures and the corresponding change of the carrier balance. The nature of the adsorbates and their evolution with temperature are considered to be related to the process of adsorption and desorption of the atmospheric water on MLG domains. We demonstrate that both the nano- and microscale wettability of the material are strongly dependent on the number of graphene layers.

  11. Effects of Temperature and Steam Environment on Fatigue Behavior of Three SIC/SIC Ceramic Matrix Composites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    Infiltration (CVI), Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) and polymer impregnation/ pyrolysis (PIP) [5:20, 32]. The SiC fibers currently... composite was infiltrated with a mixture of polymer , filler particles and solvent. During pyrolysis under nitrogen at temperatures > 1000 °C, the...using polymer infiltration and pyrolysis (PIP) method. Polymer infiltration and pyrolysis processing method allows near-net-shape molding and

  12. SiC Optically Modulated Field-Effect Transistor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tabib-Azar, Massood

    2009-01-01

    An optically modulated field-effect transistor (OFET) based on a silicon carbide junction field-effect transistor (JFET) is under study as, potentially, a prototype of devices that could be useful for detecting ultraviolet light. The SiC OFET is an experimental device that is one of several devices, including commercial and experimental photodiodes, that were initially evaluated as detectors of ultraviolet light from combustion and that could be incorporated into SiC integrated circuits to be designed to function as combustion sensors. The ultraviolet-detection sensitivity of the photodiodes was found to be less than desired, such that it would be necessary to process their outputs using high-gain amplification circuitry. On the other hand, in principle, the function of the OFET could be characterized as a combination of detection and amplification. In effect, its sensitivity could be considerably greater than that of a photodiode, such that the need for amplification external to the photodetector could be reduced or eliminated. The experimental SiC OFET was made by processes similar to JFET-fabrication processes developed at Glenn Research Center. The gate of the OFET is very long, wide, and thin, relative to the gates of typical prior SiC JFETs. Unlike in prior SiC FETs, the gate is almost completely transparent to near-ultraviolet and visible light. More specifically: The OFET includes a p+ gate layer less than 1/4 m thick, through which photons can be transported efficiently to the p+/p body interface. The gate is relatively long and wide (about 0.5 by 0.5 mm), such that holes generated at the body interface form a depletion layer that modulates the conductivity of the channel between the drain and the source. The exact physical mechanism of modulation of conductivity is a subject of continuing research. It is known that injection of minority charge carriers (in this case, holes) at the interface exerts a strong effect on the channel, resulting in amplification

  13. SiC (SCS-6) Fiber Reinforced-Reaction Formed SiC Matrix Composites: Microstructure and Interfacial Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, M.; Dickerson, R. M.; Olmstead, Forrest A.; Eldridge, J. I.

    1997-01-01

    Microstructural and interfacial characterization of unidirectional SiC (SCS-6) fiber reinforced-reaction formed SiC (RFSC) composites has been carried out. Silicon-1.7 at.% molybdenum alloy was used as the melt infiltrant, instead of pure silicon, to reduce the activity of silicon in the melt as well as to reduce the amount of free silicon in the matrix. Electron microprobe analysis was used to evaluate the microstructure and phase distribution in these composites. The matrix is SiC with a bi-modal grain-size distribution and small amounts of MoSi2, silicon, and carbon. Fiber push-outs tests on these composites showed that a desirably low interfacial shear strength was achieved. The average debond shear stress at room temperature varied with specimen thickness from 29 to 64 MPa, with higher values observed for thinner specimens. Initial frictional sliding stresses showed little thickness dependence with values generally close to 30 MPa. Push-out test results showed very little change when the test temperature was increased to 800 C from room temperature, indicating an absence of significant residual stresses in the composite.

  14. Seroprevalence of Streptococcal Inhibitor of Complement (SIC) suggests association of streptococcal infection with chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Group A streptococcus (GAS) is an etiological agent for the immune mediated sequela post streptococcal glomerulonephritis (PSGN). In some populations PSGN is recognized as a risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). It was found that a significantly greater proportion of subjects with past history of PSGN than without the history exhibited seroreactions to streptococcal antigens called streptococcal inhibitor of complement (SIC) and to distantly related SIC (DRS). These antigens are expressed by major PSGN-associated GAS types. We therefore predicted that in populations such as India, which is endemic for streptococcal diseases and which has high prevalence of CKD and ESRD, greater proportions of CKD and ESRD patients exhibit seroreaction to SIC and DRS than healthy controls. Methods To test this we conducted a SIC and DRS seroprevalence study in subjects from Mumbai area. We recruited 100 CKD, 70 ESRD and 70 healthy individuals. Results Nineteen and 35.7% of CKD and ESRD subjects respectively were SIC antibody-positive, whereas only 7% of healthy cohort was seropositive to SIC. Furthermore, significantly greater proportion of the ESRD patients than the CKD patients is seropositive to SIC (p=0.02; odds ratio 2.37). No association was found between the renal diseases and DRS-antibody-positivity. Conclusions Past infection with SIC-positive GAS is a risk factor for CKD and ESRD in Mumbai population. Furthermore, SIC seropositivity is predictive of poor prognosis of CKD patients. PMID:23642030

  15. SiC Nanoparticles Toughened-SiC/MoSi2-SiC Multilayer Functionally Graded Oxidation Protective Coating for Carbon Materials at High Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdollahi, Alireza; Ehsani, Naser; Valefi, Zia; Khalifesoltani, Ali

    2017-05-01

    A SiC nanoparticle toughened-SiC/MoSi2-SiC functionally graded oxidation protective coating on graphite was prepared by reactive melt infiltration (RMI) at 1773 and 1873 K under argon atmosphere. The phase composition and anti-oxidation behavior of the coatings were investigated. The results show that the coating was composed of MoSi2, α-SiC and β-SiC. By the variations of Gibbs free energy (calculated by HSC Chemistry 6.0 software), it could be suggested that the SiC coating formed at low temperatures by solution-reprecipitation mechanism and at high temperatures by gas-phase reactions and solution-reprecipitation mechanisms simultaneously. SiC nanoparticles could improve the oxidation resistance of SiC/MoSi2-SiC multiphase coating. Addition of SiC nanoparticles increases toughness of the coating and prevents spreading of the oxygen diffusion channels in the coating during the oxidation test. The mass loss and oxidation rate of the SiC nanoparticle toughened-SiC/MoSi2-SiC-coated sample after 10-h oxidation at 1773 K were only 1.76% and 0.32 × 10-2 g/cm3/h, respectively.

  16. Homoepitaxial and Heteroepitaxial Growth on Step-Free SiC Mesas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neudeck, Philip G.; Powell, J. Anthony

    2004-01-01

    homojunction and heterojunction devices. In addition, these experiments offer important insights into the nature of polytypism during SiC crystal growth.

  17. Effect of cutting temperature on hardness of SiC and diamond in the nano-cutting process of monocrystalline silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiachun; Li, Yuntao; Liu, Xiaoxuan; Lv, Maoqiang

    2016-10-01

    In the process of cutting silicon by natural diamond tools, groove wear happens on the flank face of cutting tool frequently.Scholars believe that one of the wear reasons is mechanical scratching effect by hard particles like SiC. To reveal the mechanical scratching mechanism, it is essential to study changes in the mechanical properties of hard particles and diamond, especially the effect of cutting temperature on hardness of diamond and hard particles. Molecular dynamics (MD) model that contact-zone temperature between tool and workpiece was calculated by dividing zone while nano-cutting monocrystalline silicon was established, cutting temperature values in different regions were computed as the simulation was carried out.On this basis, the models of molecular dynamics simulation of SiC and diamond were established separately with setting the initial temperature to room temperature. The laws of length change of C-C bond and Si-C bond varing with increase of simulation temperature were studied. And drawing on predecessors' research on theoretical calculation of hardness of covalent crystals and the relationship between crystal valence electron density and bond length, the curves that the hardness of diamond and SiC varing with bond length were obtained. The effect of temperature on the hardness was calculated. Results show that, local cutting temperature can reach 1300K.The rise in cutting temperature leaded to a decrease in the diamond local atomic clusters hardness,SiC local atomic clusters hardness increased. As the cutting temperature was more than 1100K,diamond began to soften, the local clusters hardness was less than that of SiC.

  18. Processing of laser formed SiC powder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haggerty, J. S.; Bowen, H. K.

    1985-01-01

    Superior SiC characteristics can be achieved through the use of ideal constituent powders and careful post-synthesis processing steps. High purity SiC powders of approx. 1000 A uniform diameter, nonagglomerated and spherical were produced. This required major revision of the particle formation and growth model from one based on classical nucleation and growth to one based on collision and coalescence of Si particles followed by their carburization. Dispersions based on pure organic solvents as well as steric stabilization were investigated. Although stable dispersions were formed by both, subsequent part fabrication emphasized the pure solvents since fewer problems with drying and residuals of the high purity particles were anticipated. Test parts were made by the colloidal pressing technique; both liquid filtration and consolidation (rearrangement) stages were modeled. Green densities corresponding to a random close packed structure (approx. 63%) were achieved; this highly perfect structure has a high, uniform coordination number (greater than 11) approaching the quality of an ordered structure without introducing domain boundary effects. After drying, parts were densified at temperatures ranging from 1800 to 2100 C. Optimum densification temperatures will probably be in the 1900 to 2000 C range based on these preliminary results which showed that 2050 C samples had experienced substantial grain growth. Although overfired, the 2050 C samples exhibited excellent mechanical properties. Biaxial tensile strengths up to 714 MPa and Vickers hardness values of 2430 kg/sq mm 2 were both more typical of hot pressed than sintered SiC. Both result from the absence of large defects and the confinement of residual porosity (less than 2.5%) to small diameter, uniformly distributed pores.

  19. Low Activation Joining of SiC/SiC Composites for Fusion Applications: Modeling Thermal and Irradiation-induced Swelling Effects on Integrity of Ti3SiC2/SiC Joint

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Henager, Charles H.; Kurtz, Richard J.

    This work developed a continuum damage mechanics model that incorporates thermal expansion combined with irradiation-induced swelling effects to study the origin of cracking observed in recent irradiation experiments. Micromechanical modeling using an Eshelby-Mori-Tanaka approach was used to compute the thermoelastic properties of the Ti3SiC2/SiC joint needed for the model. In addition, a microstructural dual-phase Ti3SiC2/SiC model was developed to determine irradiation-induced swelling of the composite joint at a given temperature resulting from differential swelling of SiC and the Ti3SiC2 MAX phase. Three cases for the miniature torsion hourglass (THG) specimens containing a Ti3SiC2/SiC joint were analyzed corresponding to three irradiationmore » temperatures: 800oC, 500oC, and 400oC.« less

  20. Demonstration of a 4H SiC betavoltaic cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrashekhar, M. V. S.; Thomas, Christopher I.; Li, Hui; Spencer, M. G.; Lal, Amit

    2006-01-01

    A betavoltaic cell in 4H SiC is demonstrated. A p-n diode structure was used to collect the charge from a 1mCi Ni-63 source. An open circuit voltage of 0.72V and a short circuit current density of 16.8nA /cm2 were measured in a single p-n junction. A 6% lower bound on the power conversion efficiency was obtained. A simple photovoltaic-type model was used to explain the results. Fill factor and backscattering effects were included in the efficiency calculation. The performance of the device was limited by edge recombination.

  1. Ultra High Temperature (UHT) SiC Fiber (Phase 2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dicarlo, James A.; Jacobson, Nathan S.; Lizcano, Maricela; Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.

    2015-01-01

    Silicon-carbide fiber-reinforced silicon-carbide ceramic matrix composites (SiCSiC CMC) are emerginglightweight re-usable structural materials not only for hot section components in gas turbine engines, but also for controlsurfaces and leading edges of reusable hypersonic vehicles as well as for nuclear propulsion and reactor components. Ithas been shown that when these CMC are employed in engine hot-section components, the higher the upper usetemperature (UUT) of the SiC fiber, the more performance benefits are accrued, such as higher operating temperatures,reduced component cooling air, reduced fuel consumption, and reduced emissions. The first generation of SiCSiC CMC with a temperature capability of 2200-2400F are on the verge of being introduced into the hot-section components ofcommercial and military gas turbine engines.Today the SiC fiber type currently recognized as the worlds best in terms ofthermo-mechanical performance is the Sylramic-iBN fiber. This fiber was previously developed by the PI at NASA GRC using patented processes to improve the high-cost commercial Sylramic fiber, which in turn was derived from anotherlow-cost low-performance commercial fiber. Although the Sylramic-iBN fiber shows state-of-the art creep and rupture resistance for use temperatures above 2550oF, NASA has shown by fundamental creep studies and model developmentthat its microstructure and creep resistance could theoretically be significantly improved to produce an Ultra HighTemperature (UHT) SiC fiber.This Phase II Seedling Fund effort has been focused on the key objective of effectively repeating the similar processes used for producing the Sylramic-iBN fiber using a design of experiments approach to first understand the cause of the less than optimum Sylramic-iBN microstructure and then attempting to develop processconditions that eliminate or minimize these key microstructural issues. In so doing, it is predicted that that theseadvanced process could result in an UHT SiC

  2. Corrosion of SiC by Molten Salt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.; Smialek, James L.

    1987-01-01

    Advanced ceramic materials considered for wide range of applications as in gas turbine engines and heat exchangers. In such applications, materials may be in corrosive environments that include molten salts. Very corrosive to alloys. In order to determine extent of problem for ceramic materials, corrosion of SiC by molten salts studied in both jet fuel burners and laboratory furnaces. Surface of silicon carbide corroded by exposure to flame seeded with 4 parts per million of sodium. Strength of silicon carbide decreased by corrosion in flame and tube-furnace tests.

  3. Measured Attenuation of Coplanar Waveguide on 6H, p-type SiC and High Purity Semi-Insulating 4H SiC through 800 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponchak, George E.; Schwartz, Zachary D.; Alterovitz, Samuel A.; Downey, Alan N.

    2004-01-01

    Wireless sensors for high temperature applications such as oil drilling and mining, automobiles, and jet engine performance monitoring require circuits built on wide bandgap semiconductors. In this paper, the characteristics of microwave transmission lines on 4H-High Purity Semi-Insulating SiC and 6H, p-type SiC is presented as a function of temperature and frequency. It is shown that the attenuation of 6H, p-type substrates is too high for microwave circuits, large leakage current will flow through the substrate, and that unusual attenuation characteristics are due to trapping in the SiC. The 4H-HPSI SiC is shown to have low attenuation and leakage currents over the entire temperature range.

  4. SiC Integrated Circuits for Power Device Drivers Able to Operate in Harsh Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godignon, P.; Alexandru, M.; Banu, V.; Montserrat, J.; Jorda, X.; Vellvehi, M.; Schmidt, B.; Michel, P.; Millan, J.

    2014-08-01

    The currently developed SiC electronic devices are more robust to high temperature operation and radiation exposure damage than correspondingly rated Si ones. In order to integrate the existent SiC high power and high temperature electronics into more complex systems, a SiC integrated circuit (IC) technology capable of operation at temperatures substantially above the conventional ones is required. Therefore, this paper is a step towards the development of ICs-control electronics that have to attend the harsh environment power applications. Concretely, we present the development of SiC MESFET-based digital circuitry, able to integrate gate driver for SiC power devices. Furthermore, a planar lateral power MESFET is developed with the aim of its co-integration on the same chip with the previously mentioned SiC digital ICs technology. And finally, experimental results on SiC Schottky-gated devices irradiated with protons and electrons are presented. This development is based on the Tungsten-Schottky interface technology used for the fabrication of stable SiC Schottky diodes for the European Space Agency Mission BepiColombo.

  5. Reliability Concerns for Flying SiC Power MOSFETs in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galloway, K. F.; Witulski, A. F.; Schrimpf, R. D.; Sternberg, A. L.; Ball, D. R.; Javanainen, A.; Reed, R. A.; Sierawski, B. D.; Lauenstein, J.-M.

    2018-01-01

    SiC power MOSFETs are space-ready in terms of typical reliability measures. However, single event burnout (SEB) often occurs at voltages 50% or lower than specified breakdown. Data illustrating burnout for 1200 V devices is reviewed and the space reliability of SiC MOSFETs is discussed.

  6. The Social Interactive Coding System (SICS): An On-Line, Clinically Relevant Descriptive Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Mabel L.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    The Social Interactive Coding System (SICS) assesses the continuous verbal interactions of preschool children as a function of play areas, addressees, script codes, and play levels. This paper describes the 26 subjects and the setting involved in SICS development, coding definitions and procedures, training procedures, reliability, sample…

  7. Computational Modeling of Radiation Phenomenon in SiC for Nuclear Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Hyunseok

    Silicon carbide (SiC) material has been investigated for promising nuclear materials owing to its superior thermo-mechanical properties, and low neutron cross-section. While the interest in SiC has been increasing, the lack of fundamental understanding in many radiation phenomena is an important issue. More specifically, these phenomena in SiC include the fission gas transport, radiation induced defects and its evolution, radiation effects on the mechanical stability, matrix brittleness of SiC composites, and low thermal conductivities of SiC composites. To better design SiC and SiC composite materials for various nuclear applications, understanding each phenomenon and its significance under specific reactor conditions is important. In this thesis, we used various modeling approaches to understand the fundamental radiation phenomena in SiC for nuclear applications in three aspects: (a) fission product diffusion through SiC, (b) optimization of thermodynamic stable self-interstitial atom clusters, (c) interface effect in SiC composite and their change upon radiation. In (a) fission product transport work, we proposed that Ag/Cs diffusion in high energy grain boundaries may be the upper boundary in unirradiated SiC at relevant temperature, and radiation enhanced diffusion is responsible for fast diffusion measured in post-irradiated fuel particles. For (b) the self-interstitial cluster work, thermodynamically stable clusters are identified as a function of cluster size, shape, and compositions using a genetic algorithm. We found that there are compositional and configurational transitions for stable clusters as the cluster size increases. For (c) the interface effect in SiC composite, we investigated recently proposed interface, which is CNT reinforced SiC composite. The analytical model suggests that CNT/SiC composites have attractive mechanical and thermal properties, and these fortify the argument that SiC composites are good candidate materials for the cladding

  8. CVD SiC deformable mirror with monolithic cooling channels.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Kyohoon; Rhee, Hyug-Gyo; Yang, Ho-Soon; Kihm, Hagyong

    2018-04-16

    We propose a novel deformable mirror (DM) for adaptive optics in high power laser applications. The mirror is made of a Silicon carbide (SiC) faceplate, and cooling channels are embedded monolithically inside the faceplate with the chemical vapor desposition (CVD) method. The faceplate is 200 mm in diameter and 3 mm in thickness, and is actuated by 137 stack-type piezoelectric transducers arranged in a square grid. We also propose a new actuator influence function optimized for modelling our DM, which has a relatively stiffer faceplate and a higher coupling ratio compared with other DMs having thin faceplates. The cooling capability and optical performance of the DM are verified by simulations and actual experiments with a heat source. The DM is proved to operate at 1 kHz without the coolant flow and 100 Hz with the coolant flow, and the residual errors after compensation are less than 30 nm rms (root-mean-square). This paper presents the design, fabrication, and optical performance of the CVD SiC DM.

  9. Processing of laser formed SiC powder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haggerty, J. S.; Bowen, H. K.

    1987-01-01

    Processing research was undertaken to demonstrate that superior SiC characteristics could be achieved through the use of ideal constituent powders and careful post-synthesis processing steps. Initial research developed the means to produce approximately 1000 A uniform diameter, nonagglomerated, spherical, high purity SiC powders. Accomplishing this goal required major revision of the particle formation and growth model from one based on classical nucleation and growth to one based on collision and coalescence of Si particles followed by their carburization. Dispersions based on pure organic solvents as well as steric stabilization were investigated. Test parts were made by the colloidal pressing technique; both liquid filtration and consolidation (rearrangement) stages were modeled. Green densities corresponding to a random close packed structure were achieved. After drying, parts were densified at temperatures ranging from 1800 to 2100 C. This research program accomplished all of its major objectives. Superior microstructures and properties were attained by using powders having ideal characteristics and special post-synthesis processing procedures.

  10. Amorphization resistance of nano-engineered SiC under heavy ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imada, Kenta; Ishimaru, Manabu; Xue, Haizhou; Zhang, Yanwen; Shannon, Steven C.; Weber, William J.

    2016-09-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) with a high-density of planar defects (hereafter, 'nano-engineered SiC') and epitaxially-grown single-crystalline 3C-SiC were simultaneously irradiated with Au ions at room temperature, in order to compare their relative resistance to radiation-induced amorphization. It was found that the local threshold dose for amorphization is comparable for both samples under 2 MeV Au ion irradiation; whereas, nano-engineered SiC exhibits slightly greater radiation tolerance than single crystalline SiC under 10 MeV Au irradiation. Under 10 MeV Au ion irradiation, the dose for amorphization increased by about a factor of two in both nano-engineered and single crystal SiC due to the local increase in electronic energy loss that enhanced dynamic recovery.

  11. Research on Antiphonic Characteristic of AlMg10-SiC Ultralight Composite Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusu, O.; Rusu, I.

    2018-06-01

    The paper presents the results on the absorption sound testing of an ultralight cellular composite material AlMg10-SiC, obtained by sputtering method. We have chosen this type of material because its microstructure generally comprises open cells (and relatively few semi-open cells), evenly distributed in the material, a structure that, at least theoretically, has a favorable behavior in relation to sound damping. The tests were performed on three types of samples, namely P11 – AlMg10 – 5%SiC, P12 – AlMg10 – 10%SiC şi P13 – AlMg10 – 15%SiC. The 15% SiC (P13) cellular material sample has the best sound-absorbing characteristics and the highest practical absorption degree.

  12. Improved Method of Manufacturing SiC Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okojie, Robert S.

    2005-01-01

    The phrase, "common-layered architecture for semiconductor silicon carbide" ("CLASSiC") denotes a method of batch fabrication of microelectromechanical and semiconductor devices from bulk silicon carbide. CLASSiC is the latest in a series of related methods developed in recent years in continuing efforts to standardize SiC-fabrication processes. CLASSiC encompasses both institutional and technological innovations that can be exploited separately or in combination to make the manufacture of SiC devices more economical. Examples of such devices are piezoresistive pressure sensors, strain gauges, vibration sensors, and turbulence-intensity sensors for use in harsh environments (e.g., high-temperature, high-pressure, corrosive atmospheres). The institutional innovation is to manufacture devices for different customers (individuals, companies, and/or other entities) simultaneously in the same batch. This innovation is based on utilization of the capability for fabrication, on the same substrate, of multiple SiC devices having different functionalities (see figure). Multiple customers can purchase shares of the area on the same substrate, each customer s share being apportioned according to the customer s production-volume requirement. This makes it possible for multiple customers to share costs in a common foundry, so that the capital equipment cost per customer in the inherently low-volume SiC-product market can be reduced significantly. One of the technological innovations is a five-mask process that is based on an established set of process design rules. The rules provide for standardization of the fabrication process, yet are flexible enough to enable multiple customers to lay out masks for their portions of the SiC substrate to provide for simultaneous batch fabrication of their various devices. In a related prior method, denoted multi-user fabrication in silicon carbide (MUSiC), the fabrication process is based largely on surface micromachining of poly SiC

  13. Streptococcal inhibitor of complement (SIC) inhibits the membrane attack complex by preventing uptake of C567 onto cell membranes

    PubMed Central

    Fernie-King, Barbara A; Seilly, David J; Willers, Christine; Würzner, Reinhard; Davies, Alexandra; Lachmann, Peter J

    2001-01-01

    Streptococcal inhibitor of complement (SIC) was first described in 1996 as a putative inhibitor of the membrane attack complex of complement (MAC). SIC is a 31 000 MW protein secreted in large quantities by the virulent Streptococcus pyogenes strains M1 and M57, and is encoded by a gene which is extremely variable. In order to study further the interactions of SIC with the MAC, we have made a recombinant form of SIC (rSIC) in Escherichia coli and purified native M1 SIC which was used to raise a polyclonal antibody. SIC prevented reactive lysis of guinea pig erythrocytes by the MAC at a stage prior to C5b67 complexes binding to cell membranes, presumably by blocking the transiently expressed membrane insertion site on C7. The ability of SIC and clusterin (another putative fluid phase complement inhibitor) to inhibit complement lysis was compared, and found to be equally efficient. In parallel, by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay both SIC and rSIC bound strongly to C5b67 and C5b678 complexes and to a lesser extent C5b-9, but only weakly to individual complement components. The implications of these data for virulence of SIC-positive streptococci are discussed, in light of the fact that Gram-positive organisms are already protected against complement lysis by the presence of their peptidoglycan cell walls. We speculate that MAC inhibition may not be the sole function of SIC. PMID:11454069

  14. SiC nanoparticles as potential carriers for biologically active substances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guevara-Lora, Ibeth; Czosnek, Cezary; Smycz, Aleksandra; Janik, Jerzy F.; Kozik, Andrzej

    2009-01-01

    Silicon carbide SiC thanks to its many advantageous properties has found numerous applications in diverse areas of technology. In this regard, its nanosized forms often with novel properties have been the subject of intense research in recent years. The aim of this study was to investigate the binding of biologically active substances onto SiC nanopowders as a new approach to biomolecule immobilization in terms of their prospective applications in medicine or for biochemical detection. The SiC nanoparticles were prepared by a two-stage aerosol-assisted synthesis from neat hexamethyldisiloxane. The binding of several proteins (bovine serum albumin, high molecular weight kininogen, immunoglobulin G) on SiC particle surfaces was demonstrated at the levels of 1-2 nanograms per mg of SiC. These values were found to significantly increase after suitable chemical modifications of nanoparticle surfaces (by carbodiimide or 3-aminopropyltrietoxysilane treatment). The study of SiC biocompatibility showed a lack of cytotoxicity against macrophages-like cells below the concentration of 1 mg nanoparticles per mL. In summary, we demonstrated the successful immobilization of the selected substances on the SiC nanoparticles. These results including the cytotoxicity study make nano-SiC highly attractive for potential applications in medicine, biotechnology or molecular detection.

  15. Additive Manufacturing of SiC Based Ceramics and Ceramic Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halbig, Michael Charles; Singh, Mrityunjay

    2015-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) ceramics and SiC fiber reinforcedSiC ceramic matrix composites (SiCSiC CMCs) offer high payoff as replacements for metals in turbine engine applications due to their lighter weight, higher temperature capability, and lower cooling requirements. Additive manufacturing approaches can offer game changing technologies for the quick and low cost fabrication of parts with much greater design freedom and geometric complexity. Four approaches for developing these materials are presented. The first two utilize low cost 3D printers. The first uses pre-ceramic pastes developed as feed materials which are converted to SiC after firing. The second uses wood containing filament to print a carbonaceous preform which is infiltrated with a pre-ceramic polymer and converted to SiC. The other two approaches pursue the AM of CMCs. The first is binder jet SiC powder processing in collaboration with rp+m (Rapid Prototyping+Manufacturing). Processing optimization was pursued through SiC powder blending, infiltration with and without SiC nano powder loading, and integration of nanofibers into the powder bed. The second approach was laminated object manufacturing (LOM) in which fiber prepregs and laminates are cut to shape by a laser and stacked to form the desired part. Scanning electron microscopy was conducted on materials from all approaches with select approaches also characterized with XRD, TGA, and bend testing.

  16. Chemical reactivity of CVC and CVD SiC with UO 2 at high temperatures

    DOE PAGES

    Silva, Chinthaka M.; Katoh, Yutai; Voit, Stewart L.; ...

    2015-02-11

    Two types of silicon carbide (SiC) synthesized using two different vapor deposition processes were embedded in UO 2 pellets and evaluated for their potential chemical reaction with UO 2. While minor reactivity between chemical-vapor-composited (CVC) SiC and UO 2 was observed at comparatively low temperatures of 1100 and 1300 C, chemical-vapor-deposited (CVD) SiC did not show any such reactivity, according to microstructural investigations. But, both CVD and CVC SiCs showed some reaction with UO 2 at a higher temperature (1500 C). Elemental maps supported by phase maps obtained using electron backscatter diffraction indicated that CVC SiC was more reactive thanmore » CVD SiC at 1500 C. Moreover, this investigation indicated the formation of uranium carbides and uranium silicide chemical phases such as UC, USi 2, and U 3Si 2 as a result of SiC reaction with UO 2.« less

  17. Demonstration of SiC Pressure Sensors at 750 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okojie, Robert S.; Lukco, Dorothy; Nguyen, Vu; Savrun, Ender

    2014-01-01

    We report the first demonstration of MEMS-based 4H-SiC piezoresistive pressure sensors tested at 750 C and in the process confirmed the existence of strain sensitivity recovery with increasing temperature above 400 C, eventually achieving near or up to 100% of the room temperature values at 750 C. This strain sensitivity recovery phenomenon in 4H-SiC is uncharacteristic of the well-known monotonic decrease in strain sensitivity with increasing temperature in silicon piezoresistors. For the three sensors tested, the room temperature full-scale output (FSO) at 200 psig ranged between 29 and 36 mV. Although the FSO at 400 C dropped by about 60%, full recovery was achieved at 750 C. This result will allow the operation of SiC pressure sensors at higher temperatures, thereby permitting deeper insertion into the engine combustion chamber to improve the accurate quantification of combustor dynamics.

  18. 4H SiC betavoltaic powered temperature transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrashekhar, M. V. S.; Duggirala, Rajesh; Spencer, Michael G.; Lal, Amit

    2007-07-01

    The change in open-circuit voltage of a 4H SiC p-n diode betavoltaic cell in response to temperature was used to sense temperature. A linear sensitivity of 2.7mV /K was obtained from 24to86°C. This was achieved with only 2.5μCi of active nickel-63 as the β source, giving a short circuit current of 21pA, a low-enough activity for civilian applications. The measured sensitivity of 2.7mV/K was lower than the 5.5mV/K predicted from the theory. The 28GΩ shunt resistance of the betavoltaic cell was used to explain the lower sensitivity.

  19. SiC MOSFET Switching Power Amplifier Project Summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Kenneth E.; Ziemba, Timothy; Prager, James; Slobodov, Ilia; Henson, Alex

    2017-10-01

    Eagle Harbor Technologies has completed a Phase I/II program to develop SiC MOSFET based Switching Power Amplifiers (SPA) for precision magnet control in fusion science applications. During this program, EHT developed several units have been delivered to the Helicity Injected Torus (HIT) experiment at the University of Washington to drive both the voltage and flux circuits of the helicity injectors. These units are capable of switching 700 V at 100 kHz with an adjustable duty cycle from 10 - 90% and a combined total output current of 96 kA for 4 ms (at max current). The SPAs switching is controlled by the microcontroller at HIT, which adjusts the duty cycle to maintain a specific waveform in the injector. The SPAs include overcurrent and shoot-through protection circuity. EHT will present an overview of the program including final results for the SPA waveforms. With support of DOE SBIR.

  20. Fatigue behavior of SiC reinforced titanium composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatt, R. T.; Grimes, H. H.

    1979-01-01

    The low cycle axial fatigue properties of 25 and 44 fiber volume percent SiC/Ti(6Al-4V) composites were measured at room temperature and at 650 deg C. The S-N curves for the composites showed no anticipated improvement over bulk matrix behavior at room temperature. Although axial and transverse tensile strength results suggest a degradation in SiC fiber strength during composite fabrication, it appears that the poor fatigue life of the composites was caused by a reduced fatigue resistance of the reinforced Ti(6Al-4V) matrix. The reduced matrix behavior was due, to the presence of flawed and fractured fibers created near the specimen surfaces by preparation techniques and to the large residual tensile stresses that can exist in fiber reinforced matrices. The effects of fatigue testing at high temperature are discussed.

  1. Creep of chemically vapor deposited SiC fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dicarlo, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    The creep, thermal expansion, and elastic modulus properties for chemically vapor deposited SiC fibers were measured between 1000 and 1500 C. Creep strain was observed to increase logarithmically with time, monotonically with temperature, and linearly with tensile stress up to 600 MPa. The controlling activation energy was 480 + or - 20 kJ/mole. Thermal pretreatments near 1200 and 1450 C were found to significantly reduce fiber creep. These results coupled with creep recovery observations indicate that below 1400 C fiber creep is anelastic with neglible plastic component. This allowed a simple predictive method to be developed for describing fiber total deformation as a function of time, temperature, and stress. Mechanistic analysis of the property data suggests that fiber creep is the result of beta-SiC grain boundary sliding controlled by a small percent of free silicon in the grain boundaries.

  2. Comparative study of SiC- and Si-based photovoltaic inverters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, Yuji; Oku, Takeo; Yasuda, Masashi; Shirahata, Yasuhiro; Ushijima, Kazufumi; Murozono, Mikio

    2017-01-01

    This article reports comparative study of 150-300 W class photovoltaic inverters (Si inverter, SiC inverter 1, and SiC inverter 2). In these sub-kW class inverters, the ON-resistance was considered to have little influence on the efficiency. The developed SiC inverters, however, have exhibited an approximately 3% higher direct current (DC)-alternating current (AC) conversion efficiency as compared to the Si inverter. Power loss analysis indicated a reduction in the switching and reverse recovery losses of SiC metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors used for the DC-AC converter is responsible for this improvement. In the SiC inverter 2, an increase of the switching frequency up to 100 kHz achieved a state-of-the-art combination of the weight (1.25 kg) and the volume (1260 cm3) as a 150-250 W class inverter. Even though the increased switching frequency should cause the increase of the switching losses, the SiC inverter 2 exhibited an efficiency comparable to the SiC inverter 1 with a switching frequency of 20 kHz. The power loss analysis also indicated a decreased loss of the DC-DC converter built with SiC Schottky barrier diodes led to the high efficiency for its increased switching frequency. These results clearly indicated feasibility of SiC devices even for sub-kW photovoltaic inverters, which will be available for the applications where compactness and efficiency are of tremendous importance.

  3. Detection and analysis of particles with failed SiC in AGR-1 fuel compacts

    DOE PAGES

    Hunn, John D.; Baldwin, Charles A.; Gerczak, Tyler J.; ...

    2016-04-06

    As the primary barrier to release of radioactive isotopes emitted from the fuel kernel, retention performance of the SiC layer in tristructural isotropic (TRISO) coated particles is critical to the overall safety of reactors that utilize this fuel design. Most isotopes are well-retained by intact SiC coatings, so pathways through this layer due to cracking, structural defects, or chemical attack can significantly contribute to radioisotope release. In the US TRISO fuel development effort, release of 134Cs and 137Cs are used to detect SiC failure during fuel compact irradiation and safety testing because the amount of cesium released by a compactmore » containing one particle with failed SiC is typically ten or more times higher than that released by compacts without failed SiC. Compacts with particles that released cesium during irradiation testing or post-irradiation safety testing at 1600–1800 °C were identified, and individual particles with abnormally low cesium retention were sorted out with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Irradiated Microsphere Gamma Analyzer (IMGA). X-ray tomography was used for three-dimensional imaging of the internal coating structure to locate low-density pathways through the SiC layer and guide subsequent materialography by optical and scanning electron microscopy. In addition, all three cesium-releasing particles recovered from as-irradiated compacts showed a region where the inner pyrocarbon (IPyC) had cracked due to radiation-induced dimensional changes in the shrinking buffer and the exposed SiC had experienced concentrated attack by palladium; SiC failures observed in particles subjected to safety testing were related to either fabrication defects or showed extensive Pd corrosion through the SiC where it had been exposed by similar IPyC cracking.« less

  4. Thermostructural Properties Of Sic/Sic Panels With 2.5d And 3d Fiber Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yun, H. M.; DeCarlo, J. A.; Bhatt, R. H.; Jaskowiak, M. H.

    2005-01-01

    CMC hot-section components in advanced engines for power and propulsion will typically require high cracking strength, high ultimate strength and strain, high creep- rupture resistance, and high thermal conductivity in all directions. In the past, NASA has demonstrated fabrication of a variety of SiC/SiC flat panels and round tubes with various 2D fiber architectures using the high-modulus high-performance Sylramic-iBN Sic fiber and Sic-based matrices derived by CVI, MI, and/or PIP processes. The thermo- mechanical properties of these CMC have shown state-of-the-art performance, but primarily in the in-plane directions. Currently NASA is extending the thermostructural capability of these SiC/SiC systems in the thru-thickness direction by using various 2.5D and 3D fiber architectures. NASA is also using specially designed fabrication steps to optimize the properties of the BN-based interphase and Sic-based matrices. In this study, Sylramic-iBN/SiC panels with 2D plain weave, 2.5D satin weave, 2.5D ply-to-ply interlock weave, and 3D angle interlock fiber architectures, all woven at AITI, were fabricated using matrix densification routes previously established between NASA and GEPSC for CVI-MI processes and between NASA and Starfire-Systems for PIP processes. Introduction of the 2.5 D fiber architecture along with an improved matrix process was found to increase inter-laminar tensile strength from 1.5 -2 to 3 - 4 ksi and thru-thickness thermal conductivity from 15-20 to 30-35 BTU/ft.hr.F with minimal reduction in in-plane strength and creep-rupture properties. Such improvements should reduce thermal stresses and increase the thermostructural operating envelope for SiC/SiC engine components. These results are analyzed to offer general guidelines for selecting fiber architectures and constituent processes for high-performance SiC/SiC engine components.

  5. A New Method to Grow SiC: Solvent-Laser Heated Floating Zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodworth, Andrew A.; Neudeck, Philip G.; Sayir, Ali

    2012-01-01

    The solvent-laser heated floating zone (solvent-LHFZ) growth method is being developed to grow long single crystal SiC fibers. The technique combines the single crystal fiber growth ability of laser heated floating zone with solvent based growth techniques (e.g. traveling solvent method) ability to grow SiC from the liquid phase. Initial investigations reported in this paper show that the solvent-LHFZ method readily grows single crystal SiC (retains polytype and orientation), but has a significant amount of inhomogeneous strain and solvent rich inclusions.

  6. Nucleation of uniform mono- and bilayer epitaxial graphene on SiC(0001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiaosong; Zhang, Rui; Dong, Yunliang; Guo, Shuai; Kong, Wenjie; Liao, Zhimin; Yu, Dapeng

    2012-02-01

    Early stage of epitaxial graphene growth on SiC(0001) has been investigated. Using the confinement controlled sublimation (CCS) method, we has achieved well controlled growth and been able to see the formation of mono- and bilayer graphene islands. The growth features reveal the intriguing growth mechanism. In particular, a new ``stepdown'' growth mode has been identified. Graphene can propagate tens of micrometers across many SiC steps, while, most importantly, step bunching is avoided and the initial regular stepped SiC surface morphology is preserved. The stepdown growth demonstrates a route towards uniform epitaxial graphene in wafer size without sacrificing the initial substrate surface morphology.

  7. A Novel Polymeric Organosilazane Precursor to Si3N4/SiC Ceramics.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-02-06

    prepared by pyrolysis of the appropriately-shaped polymeric precursor. These polysilazanes also may prove to be useful as dispersants for SiC and Si3N4...I[AD-Ri58 748 A NOVEL POLYMERIC ORGANOSILAZANE PRECURSOR TO S13N4/ SIC i/I CERRMICS(U) MASSACHUSETTS INST OF TECH CAMBRIDGE DEPT OF CHEMISTRY D...Security C ificatlion" 0322 A Novel Polymeric Organosilazane Precursor to Si3N/ SiC C_ramics._I 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Dietmar Seyferth and Gary H. Wiseman 13

  8. Isolated Spin Qubits in SiC with a High-Fidelity Infrared Spin-to-Photon Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christle, David J.; Klimov, Paul V.; de las Casas, Charles F.; Szász, Krisztián; Ivády, Viktor; Jokubavicius, Valdas; Ul Hassan, Jawad; Syväjärvi, Mikael; Koehl, William F.; Ohshima, Takeshi; Son, Nguyen T.; Janzén, Erik; Gali, Ádám; Awschalom, David D.

    2017-04-01

    The divacancies in SiC are a family of paramagnetic defects that show promise for quantum communication technologies due to their long-lived electron spin coherence and their optical addressability at near-telecom wavelengths. Nonetheless, a high-fidelity spin-photon interface, which is a crucial prerequisite for such technologies, has not yet been demonstrated. Here, we demonstrate that such an interface exists in isolated divacancies in epitaxial films of 3C-SiC and 4H-SiC. Our data show that divacancies in 4H-SiC have minimal undesirable spin mixing, and that the optical linewidths in our current sample are already similar to those of recent remote entanglement demonstrations in other systems. Moreover, we find that 3C-SiC divacancies have a millisecond Hahn-echo spin coherence time, which is among the longest measured in a naturally isotopic solid. The presence of defects with these properties in a commercial semiconductor that can be heteroepitaxially grown as a thin film on Si shows promise for future quantum networks based on SiC defects.

  9. D-region ion-neutral coupled chemistry (Sodankylä Ion Chemistry, SIC) within the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM 4) - WACCM-SIC and WACCM-rSIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovács, Tamás; Plane, John M. C.; Feng, Wuhu; Nagy, Tibor; Chipperfield, Martyn P.; Verronen, Pekka T.; Andersson, Monika E.; Newnham, David A.; Clilverd, Mark A.; Marsh, Daniel R.

    2016-09-01

    This study presents a new ion-neutral chemical model coupled into the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM). The ionospheric D-region (altitudes ˜ 50-90 km) chemistry is based on the Sodankylä Ion Chemistry (SIC) model, a one-dimensional model containing 307 ion-neutral and ion recombination, 16 photodissociation and 7 photoionization reactions of neutral species, positive and negative ions, and electrons. The SIC mechanism was reduced using the simulation error minimization connectivity method (SEM-CM) to produce a reaction scheme of 181 ion-molecule reactions of 181 ion-molecule reactions of 27 positive and 18 negative ions. This scheme describes the concentration profiles at altitudes between 20 km and 120 km of a set of major neutral species (HNO3, O3, H2O2, NO, NO2, HO2, OH, N2O5) and ions (O2+, O4+, NO+, NO+(H2O), O2+(H2O), H+(H2O), H+(H2O)2, H+(H2O)3, H+(H2O)4, O3-, NO2-, O-, O2, OH-, O2-(H2O), O2-(H2O)2, O4-, CO3-, CO3-(H2O), CO4-, HCO3-, NO2-, NO3-, NO3-(H2O), NO3-(H2O)2, NO3-(HNO3), NO3-(HNO3)2, Cl-, ClO-), which agree with the full SIC mechanism within a 5 % tolerance. Four 3-D model simulations were then performed, using the impact of the January 2005 solar proton event (SPE) on D-region HOx and NOx chemistry as a test case of four different model versions: the standard WACCM (no negative ions and a very limited set of positive ions); WACCM-SIC (standard WACCM with the full SIC chemistry of positive and negative ions); WACCM-D (standard WACCM with a heuristic reduction of the SIC chemistry, recently used to examine HNO3 formation following an SPE); and WACCM-rSIC (standard WACCM with a reduction of SIC chemistry using the SEM-CM method). The standard WACCM misses the HNO3 enhancement during the SPE, while the full and reduced model versions predict significant NOx, HOx and HNO3 enhancements in the mesosphere during solar proton events. The SEM-CM reduction also identifies the important ion-molecule reactions that affect the partitioning of

  10. Effect of SiC particle size on the microstructure and properties of cold-sprayed Al/SiCp composite coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Min; Hua, Junwei

    2017-07-01

    The Al5056/SiC composite coatings were prepared by cold spraying. Experimental results show that the SiC content in the composite coating deposited with the SiC powder having an average size of 67 μm (Al5056/SiC-67) is similar to that deposited with the SiC powder having an average size of 27 μm (Al5056/SiC-27). The microhardness and cohesion strength of Al5056/SiC-67 coating are higher than those of the Al5056/SiC-27 coating. In addition, the Al5056/SiC-67 coating having a superior wear resistance because of the coarse SiC powder with a superior kinetic energy contributes to the deformation resistance of the matrix Al5056 particles.

  11. Fabrication of mullite-bonded porous SiC ceramics from multilayer-coated SiC particles through sol-gel and in-situ polymerization techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebrahimpour, Omid

    In this work, mullite-bonded porous silicon carbide (SiC) ceramics were prepared via a reaction bonding technique with the assistance of a sol-gel technique or in-situ polymerization as well as a combination of these techniques. In a typical procedure, SiC particles were first coated by alumina using calcined powder and alumina sol via a sol-gel technique followed by drying and passing through a screen. Subsequently, they were coated with the desired amount of polyethylene via an in-situ polymerization technique in a slurry phase reactor using a Ziegler-Natta catalyst. Afterward, the coated powders were dried again and passed through a screen before being pressed into a rectangular mold to make a green body. During the heating process, the polyethylene was burnt out to form pores at a temperature of about 500°C. Increasing the temperature above 800°C led to the partial oxidation of SiC particles to silica. At higher temperatures (above 1400°C) derived silica reacted with alumina to form mullite, which bonds SiC particles together. The porous SiC specimens were characterized with various techniques. The first part of the project was devoted to investigating the oxidation of SiC particles using a Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) apparatus. The effects of particle size (micro and nano) and oxidation temperature (910°C--1010°C) as well as the initial mass of SiC particles in TGA on the oxidation behaviour of SiC powders were evaluated. To illustrate the oxidation rate of SiC in the packed bed state, a new kinetic model, which takes into account all of the diffusion steps (bulk, inter and intra particle diffusion) and surface oxidation rate, was proposed. Furthermore, the oxidation of SiC particles was analyzed by the X-ray Diffraction (XRD) technique. The effect of different alumina sources (calcined Al2O 3, alumina sol or a combination of the two) on the mechanical, physical, and crystalline structure of mullite-bonded porous SiC ceramics was studied in the

  12. Toxicity assessment of SiC nanofibers and nanorods against bacteria.

    PubMed

    Szala, Mateusz; Borkowski, Andrzej

    2014-02-01

    In the present study, evidence of the antibacterial effects of silicon carbide (SiC) nanofibers (NFSiC) and nanorods (NRSiC) obtained by combustion synthesis has been presented. It has been shown that the examined bacteria, Pseudomonas putida, could bind to the surface of the investigated SiC nanostructures. The results of respiration measurements, dehydrogenase activity measurements, and evaluation of viable bacteria after incubation with NFSiC and NRSiC demonstrated that the nanostructures of SiC affect the growth and activity of the bacteria examined. The direct count of bacteria stained with propidium iodide after incubation with SiC nanostructures revealed that the loss of cell membrane integrity could be one of the main effects leading to the death of the bacteria. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Precursor Selection for Property Optimization in Biomorphic SiC Ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varela-Feria, F. M.; Lopez-Robledo, M. J.; Martinez-Fernandez, J.; deArellano-Lopez, A. R.; Singh, M.; Gray, Hugh R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Biomorphic SiC ceramics have been fabricated using different wood precursors. The evolution of volume, density and microstructure of the woods, carbon performs, and final SiC products are systematically studied in order to establish experimental guidelines that allow materials selection. The wood density is a critical characteristic, which results in a particular final SiC density, and the level of anisotropy in mechanical properties in directions parallel (axial) and perpendicular (radial) to the growth of the wood. The purpose of this work is to explore experimental laws that can help choose a type of wood as precursor for a final SiC product, with a given microstructure, density and level of anisotropy. Preliminary studies of physical properties suggest that not only mechanical properties are strongly anisotropic, but also electrical conductivity and gas permeability, which have great technological importance.

  14. Amorphization resistance of nano-engineered SiC under heavy ion irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Imada, Kenta; Ishimaru, Manabu; Xue, Haizhou

    Silicon carbide (SiC) with a high-density of planar defects (hereafter, ‘nano-engineered SiC’) and epitaxially-grown single-crystalline 3C-SiC were simultaneously irradiated with Au ions at room temperature, in order to compare their relative resistance to radiation-induced amorphization. Furthermore, it was found that the local threshold dose for amorphization is comparable for both samples under 2 MeV Au ion irradiation; whereas, nano-engineered SiC exhibits slightly greater radiation tolerance than single crystalline SiC under 10 MeV Au irradiation. Under 10 MeV Au ion irradiation, the dose for amorphization increased by about a factor of two in both nano-engineered and single crystal SiC due tomore » the local increase in electronic energy loss that enhanced dynamic recovery.« less

  15. Highly flexible, nonflammable and free-standing SiC nanowire paper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jianjun; Liao, Xin; Wang, Mingming; Liu, Zhaoxiang; Zhang, Judong; Ding, Lijuan; Gao, Li; Li, Ye

    2015-03-01

    Flexible paper-like semiconductor nanowire materials are expected to meet the criteria for some emerging applications, such as components of flexible solar cells, electrical batteries, supercapacitors, nanocomposites, bendable or wearable electronic or optoelectronic components, and so on. As a new generation of wide-bandgap semiconductors and reinforcements in composites, SiC nanowires have advantages in power electronic applications and nanofiber reinforced ceramic composites. Herein, free-standing SiC nanowire paper consisting of ultralong single-crystalline SiC nanowires was prepared through a facile vacuum filtration approach. The ultralong SiC nanowires were synthesized by a sol-gel and carbothermal reduction method. The flexible paper composed of SiC nanowires is ~100 nm in width and up to several hundreds of micrometers in length. The nanowires are intertwisted with each other to form a three-dimensional network-like structure. SiC nanowire paper exhibits high flexibility and strong mechanical stability. The refractory performance and thermal stability of SiC nanowire paper were also investigated. The paper not only exhibits excellent nonflammability in fire, but also remains well preserved without visible damage when it is heated in an electric oven at a high temperature (1000 °C) for 3 h. With its high flexibility, excellent nonflammability, and high thermal stability, the free-standing SiC nanowire paper may have the potential to improve the ablation resistance of high temperature ceramic composites.Flexible paper-like semiconductor nanowire materials are expected to meet the criteria for some emerging applications, such as components of flexible solar cells, electrical batteries, supercapacitors, nanocomposites, bendable or wearable electronic or optoelectronic components, and so on. As a new generation of wide-bandgap semiconductors and reinforcements in composites, SiC nanowires have advantages in power electronic applications and nanofiber

  16. A new concept in telescope design SIC as the only material for mirrors and structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fruit, Michel; Antoine, Pascal; Bougoin, Michel

    2018-04-01

    This paper, "A new concept in telescope design SIC as the only material for mirrors and structure," was presented as part of International Conference on Space Optics—ICSO 1997, held in Toulouse, France.

  17. Dangling bond defects in SiC: An ab initio study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuttle, Blair R.

    2018-01-01

    We report first-principles microscopic calculations of the properties of defects with dangling bonds in crystalline 3 C -SiC. Specifically, we focus on hydrogenated Si and C vacancies, divacancies, and multivacancies. The latter is a generic model for an isolated dangling bond within a bulk SiC matrix. Hydrogen serves to passivate electrically active defects to allow the isolation of a single dangling-bond defect. We used hybrid density-functional methods to determine energetics and electrical activity. The present results are compared to previous 3 C -SiC calculations and experiments. Finally, we identify homopolar carbon dangling-bond defects as the leakage causing defects in nanoporous SiC alloys.

  18. Amorphization resistance of nano-engineered SiC under heavy ion irradiation

    DOE PAGES

    Imada, Kenta; Ishimaru, Manabu; Xue, Haizhou; ...

    2016-06-19

    Silicon carbide (SiC) with a high-density of planar defects (hereafter, ‘nano-engineered SiC’) and epitaxially-grown single-crystalline 3C-SiC were simultaneously irradiated with Au ions at room temperature, in order to compare their relative resistance to radiation-induced amorphization. Furthermore, it was found that the local threshold dose for amorphization is comparable for both samples under 2 MeV Au ion irradiation; whereas, nano-engineered SiC exhibits slightly greater radiation tolerance than single crystalline SiC under 10 MeV Au irradiation. Under 10 MeV Au ion irradiation, the dose for amorphization increased by about a factor of two in both nano-engineered and single crystal SiC due tomore » the local increase in electronic energy loss that enhanced dynamic recovery.« less

  19. Nanoporous SiC: a candidate semi-permeable material for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Rosenbloom, A J; Sipe, D M; Shishkin, Y; Ke, Y; Devaty, R P; Choyke, W J

    2004-12-01

    We have fabricated free-standing SiC nanoporous membranes in both p -type and n -type material. We showed that these membranes will permit the diffusion of proteins up to 29000 Daltons, while excluding larger proteins. By using radioactively labeled albumin, we also show that porous SiC has very low protein adsorption, comparable to the best commercially available polymer nanoporous membrane.

  20. Effect of high temperature annealing on the microstructure of SCS-6 SiC fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ning, X. J.; Pirouz, P.; Bhatt, R. T.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of annealing the SCS-6 SiC fiber for one hour at 2000 C in an argon atmosphere is reported. The SiC grains in the fiber coarsen appreciably and the intergranular carbon films segregate to the grain junctions. It would appear that grain growth in the outer part of the fiber is primarily responsible for the loss in fiber strength and improvement in fiber creep resistance.

  1. Ultra-Low-Cost Room Temperature SiC Thin Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faur, Maria

    1997-01-01

    The research group at CSU has conducted theoretical and experimental research on 'Ultra-Low-Cost Room Temperature SiC Thin Films. The effectiveness of a ultra-low-cost room temperature thin film SiC growth technique on Silicon and Germanium substrates and structures with applications to space solar sells, ThermoPhotoVoltaic (TPV) cells and microelectronic and optoelectronic devices was investigated and the main result of this effort are summarized.

  2. Modeling the Elastic Modulus of 2D Woven CVI SiC Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morscher, Gregory N.

    2006-01-01

    The use of fiber, interphase, CVI SiC minicomposites as structural elements for 2D-woven SiC fiber reinforced chemically vapor infiltrated (CVI) SiC matrix composites is demonstrated to be a viable approach to model the elastic modulus of these composite systems when tensile loaded in an orthogonal direction. The 0deg (loading direction) and 90deg (perpendicular to loading direction) oriented minicomposites as well as the open porosity and excess SiC associated with CVI SiC composites were all modeled as parallel elements using simple Rule of Mixtures techniques. Excellent agreement for a variety of 2D woven Hi-Nicalon(TradeMark) fiber-reinforced and Sylramic-iBN reinforced CVI SiC matrix composites that differed in numbers of plies, constituent content, thickness, density, and number of woven tows in either direction (i.e, balanced weaves versus unbalanced weaves) was achieved. It was found that elastic modulus was not only dependent on constituent content, but also the degree to which 90deg minicomposites carried load. This depended on the degree of interaction between 90deg and 0deg minicomposites which was quantified to some extent by composite density. The relationships developed here for elastic modulus only necessitated the knowledge of the fractional contents of fiber, interphase and CVI SiC as well as the tow size and shape. It was concluded that such relationships are fairly robust for orthogonally loaded 2D woven CVI SiC composite system and can be implemented by ceramic matrix composite component modelers and designers for modeling the local stiffness in simple or complex parts fabricated with variable constituent contents.

  3. Low CTE glass, SiC & Beryllium for lightweight mirror substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geyl, Roland; Cayrel, Marc

    2005-10-01

    This paper is intended to analyze the relative merits of low CTE glass, SiC and Beryllium as candidates for lightweight mirror substrates in connection with real practical experience and example or three major projects using these three materials and running presently at SAGEM-REOSC. Beryllium and SiC have nice thermal and mechanical properties but machined glass ceramic can still well compete technically or economically in some cases.

  4. SICS: the Southern Inland and Coastal System interdisciplinary project of the USGS South Florida Ecosystem Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2011-01-01

    State and Federal agencies are working jointly on structural modifications and improved water-delivery strategies to reestablish more natural surface-water flows through the Everglades wetlands and into Florida Bay. Changes in the magnitude, duration, timing, and distribution of inflows from the headwaters of the Taylor Slough and canal C-111 drainage basins have shifted the seasonal distribution and extent of wetland inundation, and also contributed to the development of hypersaline conditions in nearshore embayments of Florida Bay. Such changes are altering biological and vegetative communities in the wetlands and creating stresses on aquatic habitat. Affected biotic resources include federally listed species such as the Cape Sable seaside sparrow, American crocodile, wood stork, and roseate spoonbill. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is synthesizing scientific findings from hydrologic process studies, collecting data to characterize the ecosystem properties and functions, and integrating the results of these efforts into a research tool and management model for this Southern Inland and Coastal System(SICS). Scientists from all four disciplinary divisions of the USGS, Biological Resources, Geology, National Mapping, and Water Resources are contributing to this interdisciplinary project.

  5. Review of - SiC wide-bandgap heterostructure properties as an alternate semiconductor material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajput Priti, J.; Patankar, Udayan S.; Koel, Ants; Nitnaware, V. N.

    2018-05-01

    Silicon substance (is also known as Quartz) is an abundant in nature and the electrical properties it exhibits, plays a vital role in developing its usage in the field of semiconductor. More than decades we can say that Silicon has shown desirable signs but at the later parts it has shown some research potential for development of alternative material as semiconductor devices. This need has come to light as we started scaling down in size of the Silicon material and up in speed. This semiconductor material started exhibiting several fundamental physical limits that include the minimum gate oxide thickness and the maximum saturation velocity of carriers which determines the operation frequency. Though the alternative semiconductors provide some answers (such as III-V's for high speed devices) for a path to skirt these problems, there also may be some ways to extend the life of silicon itself. Two paths are used as for alternative semiconductors i.e alternative gate dielectrics and silicon-based heterostructures. The SiC material has some strength properties under different conditions and find out the defects available in the material.

  6. The Development of SiC MOSFET-based Switching Power Amplifiers for Fusion Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prager, James; Ziemba, Timothy; Miller, Kenneth; Picard, Julian

    2015-11-01

    Eagle Harbor Technologies (EHT), Inc. is developing a switching power amplifier (SPA) based on silicon carbide (SiC) metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET). SiC MOSFETs offer many advantages over IGBTs including lower drive energy requirements, lower conduction and switching losses, and higher switching frequency capabilities. When comparing SiC and traditional silicon-based MOSFETs, SiC MOSFETs provide higher current carrying capability allowing for smaller package weights and sizes and lower operating temperature. EHT has conducted single device testing that directly compares the capabilities of SiC MOSFETs and IGBTs to demonstrate the utility of SiC MOSFETs for fusion science applications. These devices have been built into a SPA that can drive resistive loads and resonant tank loads at 800 V, 4.25 kA at pulse repetition frequencies up to 1 MHz. During the Phase II program, EHT will finalize the design of the SPA. In Year 2, EHT will replace the SPAs used in the HIT-SI lab at the University of Washington to allow for operation over 100 kHz. SPA prototype results will be presented. This work is supported under DOE Grant # DE-SC0011907.

  7. U.S. Department of Energy Accident Resistant SiC Clad Nuclear Fuel Development

    SciTech Connect

    George W. Griffith

    2011-10-01

    A significant effort is being placed on silicon carbide ceramic matrix composite (SiC CMC) nuclear fuel cladding by Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Advanced Light Water Reactor Nuclear Fuels Pathway. The intent of this work is to invest in a high-risk, high-reward technology that can be introduced in a relatively short time. The LWRS goal is to demonstrate successful advanced fuels technology that suitable for commercial development to support nuclear relicensing. Ceramic matrix composites are an established non-nuclear technology that utilizes ceramic fibers embedded in a ceramic matrix. A thin interfacial layer between the fibers and the matrix allows formore » ductile behavior. The SiC CMC has relatively high strength at high reactor accident temperatures when compared to metallic cladding. SiC also has a very low chemical reactivity and doesn't react exothermically with the reactor cooling water. The radiation behavior of SiC has also been studied extensively as structural fusion system components. The SiC CMC technology is in the early stages of development and will need to mature before confidence in the developed designs can created. The advanced SiC CMC materials do offer the potential for greatly improved safety because of their high temperature strength, chemical stability and reduced hydrogen generation.« less

  8. Velcro-Inspired SiC Fuzzy Fibers for Aerospace Applications.

    PubMed

    Hart, Amelia H C; Koizumi, Ryota; Hamel, John; Owuor, Peter Samora; Ito, Yusuke; Ozden, Sehmus; Bhowmick, Sanjit; Syed Amanulla, Syed Asif; Tsafack, Thierry; Keyshar, Kunttal; Mital, Rahul; Hurst, Janet; Vajtai, Robert; Tiwary, Chandra Sekhar; Ajayan, Pulickel M

    2017-04-19

    The most recent and innovative silicon carbide (SiC) fiber ceramic matrix composites, used for lightweight high-heat engine parts in aerospace applications, are woven, layered, and then surrounded by a SiC ceramic matrix composite (CMC). To further improve both the mechanical properties and thermal and oxidative resistance abilities of this material, SiC nanotubes and nanowires (SiCNT/NWs) are grown on the surface of the SiC fiber via carbon nanotube conversion. This conversion utilizes the shape memory synthesis (SMS) method, starting with carbon nanotube (CNT) growth on the SiC fiber surface, to capitalize on the ease of dense surface morphology optimization and the ability to effectively engineer the CNT-SiC fiber interface to create a secure nanotube-fiber attachment. Then, by converting the CNTs to SiCNT/NWs, the relative morphology, advantageous mechanical properties, and secure connection of the initial CNT-SiC fiber architecture are retained, with the addition of high temperature and oxidation resistance. The resultant SiCNT/NW-SiC fiber can be used inside the SiC ceramic matrix composite for a high-heat turbo engine part with longer fatigue life and higher temperature resistance. The differing sides of the woven SiCNT/NWs act as the "hook and loop" mechanism of Velcro but in much smaller scale.

  9. Packaging Technologies for 500C SiC Electronics and Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Liang-Yu

    2013-01-01

    Various SiC electronics and sensors are currently under development for applications in 500C high temperature environments such as hot sections of aerospace engines and the surface of Venus. In order to conduct long-term test and eventually commercialize these SiC devices, compatible packaging technologies for the SiC electronics and sensors are required. This presentation reviews packaging technologies developed for 500C SiC electronics and sensors to address both component and subsystem level packaging needs for high temperature environments. The packaging system for high temperature SiC electronics includes ceramic chip-level packages, ceramic printed circuit boards (PCBs), and edge-connectors. High temperature durable die-attach and precious metal wire-bonding are used in the chip-level packaging process. A high temperature sensor package is specifically designed to address high temperature micro-fabricated capacitive pressure sensors for high differential pressure environments. This presentation describes development of these electronics and sensor packaging technologies, including some testing results of SiC electronics and capacitive pressure sensors using these packaging technologies.

  10. Hydrogen generation due to water splitting on Si - terminated 4H-Sic(0001) surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qingfang; Li, Qiqi; Yang, Cuihong; Rao, Weifeng

    2018-02-01

    The chemical reactions of hydrogen gas generation via water splitting on Si-terminated 4H-SiC surfaces with or without C/Si vacancies were studied by using first-principles. We studied the reaction mechanisms of hydrogen generation on the 4H-SiC(0001) surface. Our calculations demonstrate that there are major rearrangements in surface when H2O approaches the SiC(0001) surface. The first H splitting from water can occur with ground-state electronic structures. The second H splitting involves an energy barrier of 0.65 eV. However, the energy barrier for two H atoms desorbing from the Si-face and forming H2 gas is 3.04 eV. In addition, it is found that C and Si vacancies can form easier in SiC(0001)surfaces than in SiC bulk and nanoribbons. The C/Si vacancies introduced can enhance photocatalytic activities. It is easier to split OH on SiC(0001) surface with vacancies compared to the case of clean SiC surface. H2 can form on the 4H-SiC(0001) surface with C and Si vacancies if the energy barriers of 1.02 and 2.28 eV are surmounted, respectively. Therefore, SiC(0001) surface with C vacancy has potential applications in photocatalytic water-splitting.

  11. The microstructures of SCS-6 and SCS-8 SiC reinforcing fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Sattler, M.L.; Kinney, J.H.; Zywicz, E.

    The microstructures of SCS-6 and SCS-8 SiC fibers have been examined and analyzed using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), microdiffraction, parallel electron energy loss spectroscopy (PEELS), x-ray diffraction and x-ray spectroscopy. The results of the study confirm findings from earlier studies wherein the microstructure of the fibers have been described as consisting of {beta}-SiC grown upon a monofilament turbostratic carbon core. The present study, however, provides much more detail regarding this microstructure. For example, PEELS spectroscopy and x-ray microscopy indicate that the composition of the SiC varies smoothly from SiC plus free C near the carbon core to SiCmore » at the midradial boundary. The SiC stoichiometry is roughly preserved from the midradial boundary to the exterior interface. HRTEM, microdiffraction, and dark field images provide evidence that the excess carbon is amorphous free carbon which is most likely situated at the grain boundaries of the SiC. The x-ray microscopy results are also consistent with the presence of two phases near the core which consist of SiC and free carbon having density less than graphite (2.25 g/cc). This complex microstructure may explain the recent observations of nonplanar failure in composites fabricated with SCS fibers.« less

  12. Si/C hybrid nanostructures for Li-ion anodes: An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terranova, Maria Letizia; Orlanducci, Silvia; Tamburri, Emanuela; Guglielmotti, Valeria; Rossi, Marco

    2014-01-01

    This review article summarizes recent and increasing efforts in the development of novel Li ion cell anode nanomaterials based on the coupling of C with Si. The rationale behind such efforts is based on the fact that the Si-C coupling realizes a favourable combination of the two materials properties, such as the high lithiation capacity of Si and the mechanical and conductive properties of C, making Si/C hybrid nanomaterials the ideal candidates for innovative and improved Li-ion anodes. Together with an overview of the methodologies proposed in the last decade for material preparation, a discussion on relationship between organization at the nanoscale of the hybrid Si/C systems and battery performances is given. An emerging indication is that the enhancement of the batteries efficiency in terms of mass capacity, energy density and cycling stability, resides in the ability to arrange Si/C bi-component nanostructures in pre-defined architectures. Starting from the results obtained so far, this paper aims to indicate some emerging directions and to inspire promising routes to optimize fabrication of Si/C nanomaterials and engineering of Li-ion anodes structures. The use of Si/C hybrid nanostructures could represents a viable and effective solution to the foreseen limits of present lithium ion technology.

  13. CTE homogeneity, isotropy and reproducibility in large parts made of sintered SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bougoin, Michel; Castel, Didier; Levallois, Franck

    2017-11-01

    For Herschel SiC primary mirror purpose, a new approach of comparative CTE measurement has been developed; it is based on the well known bimetallic effect ("biceramic" in this case) and also optical measurements. This method offers a good CTE comparison capability in the range of 170-420K (extensible to 5-420K) depending of the thermal test facilities performance, with a resolution of only 0.001 μm/m.K. The Herschel primary mirror is made of 12 SiC segments which are brazed together. The CTE of each segment has been compared with the one of a witness sample and no visible change, higher than the measurement accuracy, has been observed. Furthermore, a lot of samples have been cut out from a spare segment, from different places and also from all X, Y and Z direction of the reference frame. No deviation was seen in all of these tests, thus demonstrating the very good homogeneity, reproducibility and isotropy of the Boostec® SiC material. Some recent literature about SiC material measurements at cryogenic temperature shows a better behaviour of Boostec® SiC material in comparison with other kind of SiC which are also candidate for space optics, in particular for isotropy purpose. After a review of the available literature, this paper describes the comparative CTE measurement method and details the results obtained during the measurement campaigns related to Herschel project.

  14. A SiC MOSFET Based Inverter for Wireless Power Transfer Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Onar, Omer C; Chinthavali, Madhu Sudhan; Campbell, Steven L

    2014-01-01

    In a wireless power transfer (WPT) system, efficiency of the power conversion stages is crucial so that the WPT technology can compete with the conventional conductive charging systems. Since there are 5 or 6 power conversion stages, each stage needs to be as efficient as possible. SiC inverters are crucial in this case; they can handle high frequency operation and they can operate at relatively higher temperatures resulting in reduces cost and size for the cooling components. This study presents the detailed power module design, development, and fabrication of a SiC inverter. The proposed inverter has been tested at threemore » center frequencies that are considered for the WPT standardization. Performance of the inverter at the same target power transfer level is analyzed along with the other system components. In addition, another SiC inverter has been built in authors laboratory by using the ORNL designed and developed SiC modules. It is shown that the inverter with ORNL packaged SiC modules performs simular to that of the inverter having commercially available SiC modules.« less

  15. Effects of SiC whiskers and particles on precipitation in aluminum matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papazian, John M.

    1988-12-01

    The age-hardening precipitation reactions in aluminum matrix composites reinforced with discontinuous SiC were studied using a calorimetric technique. Composites fabricated with 2124, 2219, 6061, and 7475 alloy matrices were obtained from commercial sources along with unreinforced control materials fabricated in a similar manner. The 7475 materials were made by a casting process while the others were made by powder metallurgy: the SiC reinforcement was in the form of whiskers or particulate. It was found that the overall age-hardening sequence of the alloy was not changed by the addition of SiC, but that the volume fractions of various phases and the precipitation kinetics were substantially modified. Precipitation and dissolution kinetics were generally accelerated. A substantial portion of this acceleration was found to be due to the powder metallurgy process employed to make the composites, but the formation kinetics of some particular precipitate phases were also strongly affected by the presence of SiC. It was observed that the volume fraction of GP zones able to form in the SiC containing materials was significantly reduced. The presence of SiC particles also caused normally quench insensitive materials such as 6061 to become quench sensitive. The microstructural origins of these effects are discussed.

  16. Modeling and testing miniature torsion specimens for SiC joining development studies for fusion

    DOE PAGES

    Henager, Jr., C. H.; Nguyen, Ba N.; Kurtz, Richard J.; ...

    2015-08-05

    The international fusion community has designed a miniature torsion specimen for neutron irradiation studies of joined SiC and SiC/SiC composite materials. For this research, miniature torsion joints based on this specimen design were fabricated using displacement reactions between Si and TiC to produce Ti 3SiC 2 + SiC joints with SiC and tested in torsion-shear prior to and after neutron irradiation. However, many miniature torsion specimens fail out-of-plane within the SiC specimen body, which makes it problematic to assign a shear strength value to the joints and makes it difficult to compare unirradiated and irradiated strengths to determine irradiation effects.more » Finite element elastic damage and elastic–plastic damage models of miniature torsion joints are developed that indicate shear fracture is more likely to occur within the body of the joined sample and cause out-of-plane failures for miniature torsion specimens when a certain modulus and strength ratio between the joint material and the joined material exists. The model results are compared and discussed with regard to unirradiated and irradiated test data for a variety of joint materials. The unirradiated data includes Ti 3SiC 2 + SiC/CVD-SiC joints with tailored joint moduli, and includes steel/epoxy and CVD-SiC/epoxy joints. Finally, the implications for joint data based on this sample design are discussed.« less

  17. Structural changes of Ti3SiC2 induced by helium irradiation with different doses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongliang; Su, Ranran; Shi, Liqun; O'Connor, Daryl J.; Wen, Haiming

    2018-03-01

    In this study, the microstructure changes of Ti3SiC2 MAX phase material induced by helium irradiation and evolution with a sequence of different helium irradiation doses of 5 × 1015, 1 × 1016, 5 × 1016 and 1 × 1017 cm-2 at room temperature (RT) were characterized with grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) and Raman spectra analysis. The irradiation damage process of Ti3SiC2 can be roughly divided into three stages according to the level of helium irradiation dose: (1) for a low damage dose, only crystal and damaged Ti3SiC2 exit; (2) at a higher irradiation dose, there is some damaged TiC phase additionally; (3) with a much higher irradiation dose, crystal TiC phase could be found inside the samples as well. Moreover, the 450 °C 5 × 1016 cm-2 helium irradiation on Ti3SiC2 has confirmed that Ti3SiC2 has much higher irradiation tolerance at higher temperature, which implies that Ti3SiC2 could be a potential future structural and fuel coating material working at high temperature environments.

  18. Amplifiers dedicated for large area SiC photodiodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doroz, P.; Duk, M.; Korwin-Pawlowski, M. L.; Borecki, M.

    2016-09-01

    Large area SiC photodiodes find applications in optoelectronic sensors working at special conditions. These conditions include detection of UV radiation in harsh environment. Moreover, the mentioned sensors have to be selective and resistant to unwanted signals. For this purpose, the modulation of light at source unit and the rejection of constant current and low frequency component of signal at detector unit are used. The popular frequency used for modulation in such sensor is 1kHz. The large area photodiodes are characterized by a large capacitance and low shunt resistance that varies with polarization of the photodiode and can significantly modify the conditions of signal pre-amplification. In this paper two pre-amplifiers topology are analyzed: the transimpedance amplifier and the non-inverting voltage to voltage amplifier with negative feedback. The feedback loops of both pre-amplifiers are equipped with elements used for initial constant current and low frequency signals rejections. Both circuits are analyzed and compared using simulation and experimental approaches.

  19. Exciton-polariton state in nanocrystalline SiC films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenov, A. V.; Lopin, A. V.

    2016-05-01

    We studied the features of optical absorption in the films of nanocrystalline SiC (nc-SiC) obtained on the sapphire substrates by the method of direct ion deposition. The optical absorption spectra of the films with a thickness less than ~500 nm contain a maximum which position and intensity depend on the structure and thickness of the nc-SiC films. The most intense peak at 2.36 eV is observed in the nc-SiC film with predominant 3C-SiC polytype structure and a thickness of 392 nm. Proposed is a resonance absorption model based on excitation of exciton polaritons in a microcavity. In the latter, under the conditions of resonance, there occurs strong interaction between photon modes of light with λph=521 nm and exciton of the 3С polytype with an excitation energy of 2.36 eV that results in the formation of polariton. A mismatch of the frequencies of photon modes of the cavity and exciton explains the dependence of the maximum of the optical absorption on the film thickness.

  20. Development of Cu Reinforced SiC Particulate Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Harshpreet; Kumar, Lailesh; Nasimul Alam, Syed

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents the results of Cu-SiCp composites developed by powder metallurgy route and an attempt has been made to make a comparison between the composites developed by using unmilled Cu powder and milled Cu powder. SiC particles as reinforcement was blended with unmilled and as-milled Cu powderwith reinforcement contents of 10, 20, 30, 40 vol. % by powder metallurgy route. The mechanical properties of pure Cu and the composites developed were studied after sintering at 900°C for 1 h. Density of the sintered composites were found out based on the Archimedes' principle. X-ray diffraction of all the composites was done in order to determine the various phases in the composites. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and EDS (electron diffraction x-ray spectroscopy) was carried out for the microstructural analysis of the composites. Vickers microhardness tester was used to find out the hardness of the samples. Wear properties of the developed composites were also studied.

  1. Apparent Yield Strength of Hot-Pressed SiCs

    SciTech Connect

    Daloz, William L; Wereszczak, Andrew A; Jadaan, Osama M.

    2008-01-01

    Apparent yield strengths (YApp) of four hot-pressed silicon carbides (SiC-B, SiC-N,SiC-HPN, and SiC-SC-1RN) were estimated using diamond spherical or Hertzian indentation. The von Mises and Tresca criteria were considered. The developed test method was robust, simple and quick to execute, and thusly enabled the acquisition of confident sampling statistics. The choice of indenter size, test method, and method of analysis are described. The compressive force necessary to initiate apparent yielding was identified postmortem using differential interference contrast (or Nomarski) imaging with an optical microscope. It was found that the YApp of SiC-HPN (14.0 GPa) was approximately 10% higher than themore » equivalently valued YApp of SiC-B, SiC-N, and SiC-SC-1RN. This discrimination in YApp shows that the use of this test method could be insightful because there were no differences among the average Knoop hardnesses of the four SiC grades.« less

  2. Report on the deuterium retention in CVD coated W on SiC in support of the Ultramet Company’s Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) project: SOW DE-FG02-07ER84941

    SciTech Connect

    Masashi Shimada

    2012-06-01

    A tungsten (W) coated (0.0005-inch thickness) silicon carbide (SiC) (1.0-inch diameter and 0.19-inch thickness) sample was exposed to a divertor relevant high-flux (~1022 m-2s-1) deuterium plasma at 200 and 400°C in the Idaho National Laboratory’s (INL’s) Tritium Plasma Experiment (TPE), and the total deuterium retention was subsequently measured via the thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) method. The deuterium retentions were 6.4x1019 m-2 and 1.7x1020 m-2, for 200 and 400°C exposure, respectively. The Tritium Migration Analysis Program (TMAP) was used to analyze the measured TDS spectrum to investigate the deuterium behavior in the W coated SiC, and the results indicated that mostmore » of the deuterium was trapped in the W coated layer even at 400°C. This thin W layer (0.0005-inch ~ 13µm thickness) prevented deuterium ions from bombarding directly into the SiC substrate, minimizing erosion of SiC and damage creation via ion bombardment. The shift in the D desorption peak in the TDS spectra from 200 C to 400°C can be attributed to D migration to the bulk material. This unexpectedly low deuterium retention and short migration might be due to the porous nature of the tungsten coating, which can decrease the solution concentration of deuterium atoms.« less

  3. Wear Behaviour of Al-6061/SiC Metal Matrix Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Ashok Kumar; Srivastava, Rajesh Kumar

    2017-04-01

    Aluminium Al-6061 base composites, reinforced with SiC particles having mesh size of 150 and 600, which is fabricated by stir casting method and their wear resistance and coefficient of friction has been investigated in the present study as a function of applied load and weight fraction of SiC varying from 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40 %. The dry sliding wear properties of composites were investigated by using Pin-on-disk testing machine at sliding velocity of 2 m/s and sliding distance of 2000 m over a various loads of 10, 20 and 30 N. The result shows that the reinforcement of the metal matrix with SiC particulates up to weight percentage of 35 % reduces the wear rate. The result also show that the wear of the test specimens increases with the increasing load and sliding distance. The coefficient of friction slightly decreases with increasing weight percentage of reinforcements. The wear surfaces are examined by optical microscopy which shows that the large grooved regions and cavities with ceramic particles are found on the worn surface of the composite alloy. This indicates an abrasive wear mechanism, which is essentially a result of hard ceramic particles exposed on the worn surfaces. Further, it was found from the experimentation that the wear rate decreases linearly with increasing weight fraction of SiC and average coefficient of friction decreases linearly with increasing applied load, weight fraction of SiC and mesh size of SiC. The best result has been obtained at 35 % weight fraction and 600 mesh size of SiC.

  4. SiC JFET Transistor Circuit Model for Extreme Temperature Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neudeck, Philip G.

    2008-01-01

    A technique for simulating extreme-temperature operation of integrated circuits that incorporate silicon carbide (SiC) junction field-effect transistors (JFETs) has been developed. The technique involves modification of NGSPICE, which is an open-source version of the popular Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis (SPICE) general-purpose analog-integrated-circuit-simulating software. NGSPICE in its unmodified form is used for simulating and designing circuits made from silicon-based transistors that operate at or near room temperature. Two rapid modifications of NGSPICE source code enable SiC JFETs to be simulated to 500 C using the well-known Level 1 model for silicon metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs). First, the default value of the MOSFET surface potential must be changed. In the unmodified source code, this parameter has a value of 0.6, which corresponds to slightly more than half the bandgap of silicon. In NGSPICE modified to simulate SiC JFETs, this parameter is changed to a value of 1.6, corresponding to slightly more than half the bandgap of SiC. The second modification consists of changing the temperature dependence of MOSFET transconductance and saturation parameters. The unmodified NGSPICE source code implements a T(sup -1.5) temperature dependence for these parameters. In order to mimic the temperature behavior of experimental SiC JFETs, a T(sup -1.3) temperature dependence must be implemented in the NGSPICE source code. Following these two simple modifications, the Level 1 MOSFET model of the NGSPICE circuit simulation program reasonably approximates the measured high-temperature behavior of experimental SiC JFETs properly operated with zero or reverse bias applied to the gate terminal. Modification of additional silicon parameters in the NGSPICE source code was not necessary to model experimental SiC JFET current-voltage performance across the entire temperature range from 25 to 500 C.

  5. Oxidation of SiC Fiber-Reinforced SiC Matrix Composites with a BN Interphase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Opila, Elizabeth; Boyd, Meredith K.

    2010-01-01

    SiC-fiber reinforced SiC matrix composites with a BN interphase were oxidized in reduced oxygen partial pressures of oxygen to simulate the environment for hypersonic vehicle leading edge applications. The constituent fibers as well as composite coupons were oxidized in oxygen partial pressures ranging from 1000 ppm O2 to 5% O2 balance argon. Exposure temperatures ranged from 816 C to 1353 C (1500 F to 2450 F). The oxidation kinetics of the coated fibers were monitored by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). An initial rapid transient weight gain was observed followed by parabolic kinetics. Possible mechanisms for the transient oxidation are discussed. One edge of the composite coupon seal coat was ground off to simulate damage to the composite which allowed oxygen ingress to the interior of the composite. Oxidation kinetics of the coupons were characterized by scanning electron microscopy since the weight changes were minimal. It was found that sealing of the coupon edge by silica formation occurred. Differences in the amount and morphology of the sealing silica as a function of time, temperature and oxygen partial pressure are discussed. Implications for use of these materials for hypersonic vehicle leading edge materials are summarized.

  6. Processing and Properties of SiC/MoSi2-SiC Composites Fabricated by Melt Infiltration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.; Hebsur, Mohan G.

    2000-01-01

    Hi-Nicalon SiC fiber reinforced MoSi2-SiC matrix composites (SiC/MoSi2-SiC) have been fabricated by the melt infiltration approach. The composite consists of approximately 60 vol%, 2-D woven BN/SiC coated Hi-Nicalon SiC fibers and approximately 40 vol% MoSi2-SiC matrix. The room temperature tensile properties and thermal conductivity of the SiC/MoSi2-SiC composites were measured and compared with those of the melt infiltrated SiC/SiC composites. The influence oi fiber architecture on tensile properties was also evaluated. Results indicate that the primary modulus, stress corresponding to deviation from linearity, and transverse thermal conductivity values for the SiC/MoSi2-SiC composites are significantly lower than those for the SiC/SiC composites. Microcracking of the matrix due to the large difference in thermal expansion between MoSi2 and SiC appears to be the reason for the lower matrix dominated properties of SiC/MoSi2-SiC composites.

  7. Ba isotopic compositions in stardust SiC grains from the Murchison meteorite: Insights into the stellar origins of large SiC grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ávila, Janaína N.; Ireland, Trevor R.; Gyngard, Frank; Zinner, Ernst; Mallmann, Guilherme; Lugaro, Maria; Holden, Peter; Amari, Sachiko

    2013-11-01

    We report barium isotopic measurements in 12 large (7-58 μm) stardust silicon carbide grains recovered from the Murchison carbonaceous chondrite. The C-, N-, and Si-isotopic compositions indicate that all 12 grains belong to the mainstream population and, as such, are interpreted to have condensed in the outflows of low-mass carbon-rich asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars with close-to-solar metallicity. Barium isotopic analyses were carried out on the Sensitive High Resolution Ion Microprobe - Reverse Geometry (SHRIMP-RG) with combined high mass resolution and energy filtering to eliminate isobaric interferences from molecular ions. Contrary to previous measurements in small (<5 μm) mainstream grains, the analyzed large SiC grains do not show the classical s-process enrichment, having near solar Ba isotopic compositions. While contamination with solar material is a common explanation for the lack of large isotopic anomalies in stardust SiC grains, particularly for these large grains which have low trace element abundances, our results are consistent with previous observations that Ba isotopic ratios are dependent on grain size. We have compared the SiC data with theoretical predictions of the evolution of Ba isotopic ratios in the envelopes of low-mass AGB stars with a range of stellar masses and metallicities. The Ba isotopic measurements obtained for large SiC grains from the LS + LU fractions are consistent with grain condensation in the envelope of very low-mass AGB stars (1.25 M⊙) with close-to-solar metallicity, which suggests that conditions for growth of large SiC might be more favorable in very low-mass AGB stars during the early C-rich stages of AGB evolution or in stable structures around AGB stars whose evolution was cut short due to binary interaction, before the AGB envelope had already been largely enriched with the products of s-process nucleosynthesis.

  8. Pre-Finishing of SiC for Optical Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rozzi, Jay; Clavier, Odile; Gagne, John

    2011-01-01

    13 Manufacturing & Prototyping A method is based on two unique processing steps that are both based on deterministic machining processes using a single-point diamond turning (SPDT) machine. In the first step, a high-MRR (material removal rate) process is used to machine the part within several microns of the final geometry. In the second step, a low-MRR process is used to machine the part to near optical quality using a novel ductile regime machining (DRM) process. DRM is a deterministic machining process associated with conditions under high hydrostatic pressures and very small depths of cut. Under such conditions, using high negative-rake angle cutting tools, the high-pressure region near the tool corresponds to a plastic zone, where even a brittle material will behave in a ductile manner. In the high-MRR processing step, the objective is to remove material with a sufficiently high rate such that the process is economical, without inducing large-scale subsurface damage. A laser-assisted machining approach was evaluated whereby a CO2 laser was focused in advance of the cutting tool. While CVD (chemical vapor deposition) SiC was successfully machined with this approach, the cutting forces were substantially higher than cuts at room temperature under the same machining conditions. During the experiments, the expansion of the part and the tool due to the heating was carefully accounted for. The higher cutting forces are most likely due to a small reduction in the shear strength of the material compared with a larger increase in friction forces due to the thermal softening effect. The key advantage is that the hybrid machine approach has the potential to achieve optical quality without the need for a separate optical finishing step. Also, this method is scalable, so one can easily progress from machining 50-mm-diameter samples to the 250-mm-diameter mirror that NASA desires.

  9. InP-based photonic integrated circuit platform on SiC wafer.

    PubMed

    Takenaka, Mitsuru; Takagi, Shinichi

    2017-11-27

    We have numerically investigated the properties of an InP-on-SiC wafer as a photonic integrated circuit (PIC) platform. By bonding a thin InP-based semiconductor on a SiC wafer, SiC can be used as waveguide cladding, a heat sink, and a support substrate simultaneously. Since the refractive index of SiC is sufficiently low, PICs can be fabricated using InP-based strip and rib waveguides with a minimum bend radius of approximately 7 μm. High-thermal-conductivity SiC underneath an InP-based waveguide core markedly improves heat dissipation, resulting in superior thermal properties of active devices such as laser diodes. The InP-on-SiC wafer has significantly smaller thermal stress than InP-on-SiO 2 /Si wafer, which prevents the thermal degradation of InP-based devices during high-temperature processes. Thus, InP on SiC provides an ideal platform for high-performance PICs.

  10. Surface characteristics and corrosion behaviour of WE43 magnesium alloy coated by SiC film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, M.; Cheng, Y.; Zheng, Y. F.; Zhang, X.; Xi, T. F.; Wei, S. C.

    2012-01-01

    Amorphous SiC film has been successfully fabricated on the surface of WE43 magnesium alloy by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) technique. The microstructure and elemental composition were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), glancing angle X-ray diffraction (GAXRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. The immersion test indicated that SiC film could efficiently slow down the degradation rate of WE43 alloy in simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37 ± 1 °C. The indirect toxicity experiment was conducted using L929 cell line and the results showed that the extraction medium of SiC coated WE43 alloys exhibited no inhibitory effect on L929 cell growth. The in vitro hemocompatibility of the samples was investigated by hemolysis test and blood platelets adhesion test, and it was found that the hemolysis rate of the coated WE43 alloy decreased greatly, and the platelets attached on the SiC film were slightly activated with a round shape. It could be concluded that SiC film prepared by PECVD made WE43 alloy more appropriate to biomedical application.

  11. Friction Stir Processing of Copper-Coated SiC Particulate-Reinforced Aluminum Matrix Composite

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chih-Wei; Aoh, Jong-Ning

    2018-01-01

    In the present work, we proposed a novel friction stir processing (FSP) to produce a locally reinforced aluminum matrix composite (AMC) by stirring copper-coated SiC particulate reinforcement into Al6061 alloy matrix. Electroless-plating process was applied to deposit the copper surface coating on the SiC particulate reinforcement for the purpose of improving the interfacial adhesion between SiC particles and Al matrix. The core-shell SiC structure provides a layer for the atomic diffusion between aluminum and copper to enhance the cohesion between reinforcing particles and matrix on one hand, the dispersion of fine copper in the Al matrix during FSP provides further dispersive strengthening and solid solution strengthening, on the other hand. Hardness distribution and tensile results across the stir zone validated the novel concept in improving the mechanical properties of AMC that was realized via FSP. Optical microscope (OM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) investigations were conducted to investigate the microstructure. Energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were explored to analyze the atomic inter-diffusion and the formation of intermetallic at interface. The possible strengthening mechanisms of the AMC containing Cu-coated SiC particulate reinforcement were interpreted. The concept of strengthening developed in this work may open a new way of fabricating of particulate reinforced metal matrix composites. PMID:29652846

  12. Ag Transport Through Non-Irradiated and Irradiated SiC

    SciTech Connect

    Szlufarska, Izabela; Morgan, Dane; Blanchard, James

    Silicon carbide is the main barrier to diffusion of fission products in the current design of TRistuctural ISOtropic (TRISO) coated fuel particles, and Ag is one of the few fission products that have been shown to escape through this barrier. Because the SiC coating in TRISO is exposed to radiation throughout the lifetime of the fuel, understanding of how radiation changes the transport of the fission products is essential for the safety of the reactor. The goals of this project are: (i) to determine whether observed variation in integral release measurements of Ag through SiC can be explained by differencesmore » in grain size and grain boundary (GB) types among the samples; (2) to identify the effects of irradiation on diffusion of Ag through SiC; (3) to discover phenomena responsible for significant solubility of Ag in polycrystalline SiC. To address these goals, we combined experimental analysis of SiC diffusion couples with modeling studies of diffusion mechanisms through bulk and GBs of this material. Comparison between results obtained for pristine and irradiated samples brings in insights into the effects of radiation on Ag transport.« less

  13. Pore Formation Process of Porous Ti3SiC2 Fabricated by Reactive Sintering

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huibin; Liu, Xinli; Jiang, Yao

    2017-01-01

    Porous Ti3SiC2 was fabricated with high purity, 99.4 vol %, through reactive sintering of titanium hydride (TiH2), silicon (Si) and graphite (C) elemental powders. The reaction procedures and the pore structure evolution during the sintering process were systematically studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Our results show that the formation of Ti3SiC2 from TiH2/Si/C powders experienced the following steps: firstly, TiH2 decomposed into Ti; secondly, TiC and Ti5Si3 intermediate phases were generated; finally, Ti3SiC2 was produced through the reaction of TiC, Ti5Si3 and Si. The pores formed in the synthesis procedure of porous Ti3SiC2 ceramics are derived from the following aspects: interstitial pores left during the pressing procedure; pores formed because of the TiH2 decomposition; pores formed through the reactions between Ti and Si and Ti and C powders; and the pores produced accompanying the final phase synthesized during the high temperature sintering process. PMID:28772515

  14. Silicon Carbide (SiC) MOSFET-based Full-Bridge for Fusion Science Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziemba, Timothy; Miller, Kenneth; Prager, James; Picard, Julian; Hashim, Akel

    2014-10-01

    Switching power amplifiers (SPAs) have a wide variety of applications within the fusion science community, including feedback and control systems for dynamic plasma stabilization in tokamaks, inductive and arc plasma sources, Radio Frequency (RF) helicity and flux injection, RF plasma heating and current drive schemes, ion beam generation, and RF pre-ionizer systems. SiC MOSFETs offer many advantages over IGBTs including lower drive energy requirements, lower conduction and switching losses, and higher switching frequency capabilities. When comparing SiC and traditional silicon-based MOSFETs, SiC MOSFETs provide higher current carrying capability allowing for smaller package weights and sizes and lower operating temperature. Eagle Harbor Technologies (EHT) is designing, constructing, and testing a SiC MOSFET-based full-bridge SPA. EHT will leverage the proprietary gate drive technology previously developed with the support of a DOE SBIR, which will enable fast, efficient switching in a small form factor. The primary goal is to develop a SiC MOSFET-based SPA for fusion science applications. Work supported in part by the DOE under Contract Number DE-SC0011907.

  15. Creep deformation of grain boundary in a highly crystalline SiC fibre.

    PubMed

    Shibayama, Tamaki; Yoshida, Yutaka; Yano, Yasuhide; Takahashi, Heishichiro

    2003-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) matrix composites reinforced by SiC fibres (SiC/SiC composites) are currently being considered as alternative materials in high Ni alloys for high-temperature applications, such as aerospace components, gas-turbine energy-conversion systems and nuclear fusion reactors, because of their high specific strength and fracture toughness at elevated temperatures compared with monolithic SiC ceramics. It is important to evaluate the creep properties of SiC fibres under tensile loading in order to determine their usefulness as structural components. However, it would be hard to evaluate creep properties by monoaxial tensile properties when we have little knowledge on the microstructure of crept specimens, especially at the grain boundary. Recently, a simple fibre bend stress relaxation (BSR) test was introduced by Morscher and DiCarlo to address this problem. Interpretation of the fracture mechanism at the grain boundary is also essential to allow improvement of the mechanical properties. In this paper, effects of stress applied by BSR test on microstructural evolution in advanced SiC fibres, such as Tyranno-SA including small amounts of Al, are described and discussed along with the results of microstructure analysis on an atomic scale by using advanced microscopy.

  16. CVD of SiC and AlN using cyclic organometallic precursors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Interrante, L. V.; Larkin, D. J.; Amato, C.

    1992-01-01

    The use of cyclic organometallic molecules as single-source MOCVD precursors is illustrated by means of examples taken from our recent work on AlN and SiC deposition, with particular focus on SiC. Molecules containing (AlN)3 and (SiC)2 rings as the 'core structure' were employed as the source materials for these studies. The organoaluminum amide, (Me2AlNH2)3, was used as the AlN source and has been studied in a molecular beam sampling apparatus in order to determine the gas phase species present in a hot-wall CVD reactor environment. In the case of SiC CVD, a series of disilacyclobutanes (Si(XX')CH2)2 (with X and X' = H, CH3, and CH2SiH2CH3), were examined in a cold-wall, hot-stage CVD reactor in order to compare their relative reactivities and prospective utility as single-source CVD precursors. The parent compound, disilacyclobutane, (SiH2CH2)2, was found to exhibit the lowest deposition temperature (ca. 670 C) and to yield the highest purity SiC films. This precursor gave a highly textured, polycrystalline film on the Si(100) substrates.

  17. Anodization Mechanism on SiC Nanoparticle Reinforced Al Matrix Composites Produced by Power Metallurgy.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Sonia C; Conde, Ana; Arenas, María A; Rocha, Luis A; Velhinho, Alexandre

    2014-12-19

    Specimens of aluminum-based composites reinforced by silicon carbide nanoparticles (Al/SiC np ) produced by powder metallurgy (PM) were anodized under voltage control in tartaric-sulfuric acid (TSA). In this work, the influence of the amount of SiC np on the film growth during anodizing was investigated. The current density versus time response and the morphology of the porous alumina film formed at the composite surface are compared to those concerning a commercial aluminum alloy (AA1050) anodized under the same conditions. The processing method of the aluminum alloys influences the efficiency of the anodizing process, leading to a lower thicknesses for the unreinforced Al-PM alloy regarding the AA1050. The current density versus time response is strongly dependent on the amount of SiC np . The current peaks and the steady-state current density recorded at each voltage step increases with the SiC np volume fraction due to the oxidation of the SiC np . The formation mechanism of the anodic film on Al/SiC np composites is different from that occurring in AA1050, partly due the heterogeneous distribution of the reinforcement particles in the metallic matrix, but also to the entrapment of SiC np in the anodic film.

  18. Examination of the Atomic Pair Distribution Function (PDF) of SiC Nanocrystals by In-situ High Pressure Diffraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grzanka, E.; Stelmakh, S.; Gierlotka, S.; Zhao, Y.; Palosz, B.; Palosz, W.

    2003-01-01

    Key properties of nanocrystals are determined by their real atomic structure, therefore a reasonable understanding and meaningful interpretation of their properties requires a realistic model of the structure. In this paper we present an evidence of a complex response of the lattice distances to external pressure indicating a presence of a complex structure of Sic nanopowders. The experiments were performed on nanocrystalline Sic subjected to hydrostatic or isostatic pressure using synchrotron and neutron powder diffraction. Elastic properties of the samples were examined based on X-ray diffraction data using a Diamond Anvil Cell (DAC) in HASYLAB at DESY. The dependence'of the lattice parameters and of the Bragg reflections width with pressure exhibits a ha1 nature of the properties (compressibilities) of the powders and indicates a complex structure of the grains. We interpreted tws behaviour as originating from different elastic properties of the grain interior and surface. Analysis of the dependence of individual interatomic distances on pressure was based on in-situ neutron diffraction measurements done with HbD diffractometer at LANSCE in Los Alamos National Laboratory with the Paris-Edinburgh cell under pressures up to 8 GPa (Qmax = 26/A). Interatomic distances were obtained by PDF analysis using the PDFgetN program. We have found that the interatomic distances undergo a complex, non-monotonic changes. Even under substantial pressures a considerable relaxation of the lattice may take place: some interatomic distances increase with an increase in pressure. We relate this phenomenon to: (1), changes of the microstructure of the densified material, in particular breaking of its fractal chain structure and, (2), its complex structure resembling that of a material composed of two phases, each with its distinct elastic properties.

  19. Microporous layer based on SiC for high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobato, Justo; Zamora, Héctor; Cañizares, Pablo; Plaza, Jorge; Rodrigo, Manuel Andrés

    2015-08-01

    This work reports the evaluation of Silicon Carbide (SiC) for its application in microporous layers (MPL) of HT-PEMFC electrodes and compares results with those obtained using conventional MPL based on Vulcan XC72. Influence of the support load on the MPL prepared with SiC was evaluated, and the MPL were characterized by XRD, Hg porosimetry and cyclic voltammetries. In addition, a short lifetest was carried out to evaluate performance in accelerated stress conditions. Results demonstrate that SiC is a promising alternative to carbonaceous materials because of its higher electrochemical and thermal stability and the positive effect on mass transfer associated to its different pore size distribution. Ohmic resistance is the most significant challenge to be overcome in further studies.

  20. Men Working on Mock-Up of S-IC Thrust Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    This photograph depicts Marshall Space Flight Center employees, James Reagin, machinist (top); Floyd McGinnis, machinist; and Ernest Davis, experimental test mechanic (foreground), working on a mock up of the S-IC thrust structure. The S-IC stage is the first stage, or booster, of the 364-foot long Saturn V rocket that ultimately took astronauts to the Moon. The S-IC stage, burned over 15 tons of propellant per second during its 2.5 minutes of operation to take the vehicle to a height of about 36 miles and to a speed of about 6,000 miles per hour. The stage was 138 feet long and 33 feet in diameter. Operating at maximum power, all five of the engines produced 7,500,000 pounds of thrust.

  1. Identification of dominant scattering mechanism in epitaxial graphene on SiC

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jingjing; Guo, Liwei, E-mail: lwguo@iphy.ac.cn, E-mail: chenx29@aphy.iphy.ac.cn; Jia, Yuping

    2014-05-05

    A scheme of identification of scattering mechanisms in epitaxial graphene (EG) on SiC substrate is developed and applied to three EG samples grown on SiC (0001), (112{sup ¯}0), and (101{sup ¯}0) substrates. Hall measurements combined with defect detection technique enable us to evaluate the individual contributions to the carrier scatterings by defects and by substrates. It is found that the dominant scatterings can be due to either substrate or defects, dependent on the substrate orientations. The EG on SiC (112{sup ¯}0) exhibits a better control over the two major scattering mechanisms and achieves the highest mobility even with a highmore » carrier concentration, promising for high performance graphene-based electronic devices. The method developed here will shed light on major aspects in governing carrier transport in EG to harness it effectively.« less

  2. Growth and characterization of high-purity SiC single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augustine, G.; Balakrishna, V.; Brandt, C. D.

    2000-04-01

    High-purity SiC single crystals with diameter up to 50 mm have been grown by the physical vapor transport method. Finite element analysis was used for thermal modeling of the crystal growth cavity in order to reduce stress in the grown crystal. Crystals are grown in high-purity growth ambient using purified graphite furniture and high-purity SiC sublimation sources. Undoped crystals up to 50 mm in diameter with micropipe density less than 100 cm -2 have been grown using this method. These undoped crystals exhibit resistivities in the 10 3 Ω cm range and are p-type due to the presence of residual acceptor impurities, mainly boron. Semi-insulating SiC material is obtained by doping the crystal with vanadium. Vanadium has a deep donor level located near the middle of the band gap, which compensates the residual acceptor resulting in semi-insulating behavior.

  3. Methods for growth of relatively large step-free SiC crystal surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neudeck, Philip G. (Inventor); Powell, J. Anthony (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A method for growing arrays of large-area device-size films of step-free (i.e., atomically flat) SiC surfaces for semiconductor electronic device applications is disclosed. This method utilizes a lateral growth process that better overcomes the effect of extended defects in the seed crystal substrate that limited the obtainable step-free area achievable by prior art processes. The step-free SiC surface is particularly suited for the heteroepitaxial growth of 3C (cubic) SiC, AlN, and GaN films used for the fabrication of both surface-sensitive devices (i.e., surface channel field effect transistors such as HEMT's and MOSFET's) as well as high-electric field devices (pn diodes and other solid-state power switching devices) that are sensitive to extended crystal defects.

  4. Update on Development of SiC Multi-Chip Power Modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lostetter, Alexander; Cilio, Edgar; Mitchell, Gavin; Schupbach, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    Progress has been made in a continuing effort to develop multi-chip power modules (SiC MCPMs). This effort at an earlier stage was reported in 'SiC Multi-Chip Power Modules as Power-System Building Blocks' (LEW-18008-1), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 31, No. 2 (February 2007), page 28. The following recapitulation of information from the cited prior article is prerequisite to a meaningful summary of the progress made since then: 1) SiC MCPMs are, more specifically, electronic power-supply modules containing multiple silicon carbide power integrated-circuit chips and silicon-on-insulator (SOI) control integrated-circuit chips. SiC MCPMs are being developed as building blocks of advanced expandable, reconfigurable, fault-tolerant power-supply systems. Exploiting the ability of SiC semiconductor devices to operate at temperatures, breakdown voltages, and current densities significantly greater than those of conventional Si devices, the designs of SiC MCPMs and of systems comprising multiple SiC MCPMs are expected to afford a greater degree of miniaturization through stacking of modules with reduced requirements for heat sinking; 2) The stacked SiC MCPMs in a given system can be electrically connected in series, parallel, or a series/parallel combination to increase the overall power-handling capability of the system. In addition to power connections, the modules have communication connections. The SOI controllers in the modules communicate with each other as nodes of a decentralized control network, in which no single controller exerts overall command of the system. Control functions effected via the network include synchronization of switching of power devices and rapid reconfiguration of power connections to enable the power system to continue to supply power to a load in the event of failure of one of the modules; and, 3) In addition to serving as building blocks of reliable power-supply systems, SiC MCPMs could be augmented with external control circuitry to make them

  5. Stellar Origins of C-13 and N-15-Enriched Presolar SiC Grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Nan; Nittler, Larry R.; Alexander, Conel M. O’D.; Wang, Jianhua; Pignatari, Marco; Jose, Jordi; Nguyen, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Extreme excesses of 13 C ( C (12 C/ 13 C<10) and 15 N ( N (14 N/ 15 N< 20) in rare presolar SiC 20) in rare presolar SiClar SiC grains have been considered diagnostic of an origin in classical novae [1], though an origin in core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe) has also been proposed [2]. We report multi-element isotopic data for 19 13 C- and 15 N-enriched presolar SiC grains(12 C/13 C<16 and 14 N/ 15 N<150) from an acid resistant residue of the Murchison meteorite. These grains are enriched in 13 C and15 N, but with quite diverse Si isotopic signatures. Four grains with isotopic signatures. Four grains with isotopic signatures. Four grains with isotopic signatures. Four grains with isotopic signatures.

  6. The Oxidation Rate of SiC in High Pressure Water Vapor Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Opila, Elizabeth J.; Robinson, R. Craig

    1999-01-01

    CVD SiC and sintered alpha-SiC samples were exposed at 1316 C in a high pressure burner rig at total pressures of 5.7, 15, and 25 atm for times up to 100h. Variations in sample emittance for the first nine hours of exposure were used to determine the thickness of the silica scale as a function of time. After accounting for volatility of silica in water vapor, the parabolic rate constants for Sic in water vapor pressures of 0.7, 1.8 and 3.1 atm were determined. The dependence of the parabolic rate constant on the water vapor pressure yielded a power law exponent of one. Silica growth on Sic is therefore limited by transport of molecular water vapor through the silica scale.

  7. Accounting for Uncertainties in Strengths of SiC MEMS Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemeth, Noel; Evans, Laura; Beheim, Glen; Trapp, Mark; Jadaan, Osama; Sharpe, William N., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    A methodology has been devised for accounting for uncertainties in the strengths of silicon carbide structural components of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). The methodology enables prediction of the probabilistic strengths of complexly shaped MEMS parts using data from tests of simple specimens. This methodology is intended to serve as a part of a rational basis for designing SiC MEMS, supplementing methodologies that have been borrowed from the art of designing macroscopic brittle material structures. The need for this or a similar methodology arises as a consequence of the fundamental nature of MEMS and the brittle silicon-based materials of which they are typically fabricated. When tested to fracture, MEMS and structural components thereof show wide part-to-part scatter in strength. The methodology involves the use of the Ceramics Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structures Life (CARES/Life) software in conjunction with the ANSYS Probabilistic Design System (PDS) software to simulate or predict the strength responses of brittle material components while simultaneously accounting for the effects of variability of geometrical features on the strength responses. As such, the methodology involves the use of an extended version of the ANSYS/CARES/PDS software system described in Probabilistic Prediction of Lifetimes of Ceramic Parts (LEW-17682-1/4-1), Software Tech Briefs supplement to NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 30, No. 9 (September 2006), page 10. The ANSYS PDS software enables the ANSYS finite-element-analysis program to account for uncertainty in the design-and analysis process. The ANSYS PDS software accounts for uncertainty in material properties, dimensions, and loading by assigning probabilistic distributions to user-specified model parameters and performing simulations using various sampling techniques.

  8. Advantages and Limits of 4H-SIC Detectors for High- and Low-Flux Radiations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sciuto, A.; Torrisi, L.; Cannavò, A.; Mazzillo, M.; Calcagno, L.

    2017-11-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) detectors based on Schottky diodes were used to monitor low and high fluxes of photons and ions. An appropriate choice of the epilayer thickness and geometry of the surface Schottky contact allows the tailoring and optimizing the detector efficiency. SiC detectors with a continuous front electrode were employed to monitor alpha particles in a low-flux regime emitted by a radioactive source with high energy (>5.0 MeV) or generated in an ion implanter with sub-MeV energy. An energy resolution value of 0.5% was measured in the high energy range, while, at energy below 1.0 MeV, the resolution becomes 10%; these values are close to those measured with a traditional silicon detector. The same SiC devices were used in a high-flux regime to monitor high-energy ions, x-rays and electrons of the plasma generated by a high-intensity (1016 W/cm2) pulsed laser. Furthermore, SiC devices with an interdigit Schottky front electrode were proposed and studied to overcome the limits of the such SiC detectors in the detection of low-energy (˜1.0 keV) ions and photons of the plasmas generated by a low-intensity (1010 W/cm2) pulsed laser. SiC detectors are expected to be a powerful tool for the monitoring of radioactive sources and ion beams produced by accelerators, for a complete characterization of radiations emitted from laser-generated plasmas at high and low temperatures, and for dosimetry in a radioprotection field.

  9. An audit of the knowledge and attitudes of doctors towards Surgical Informed Consent (SIC).

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Bushra; Tasnim, Nasira; Saaiq, Muhammad; Zaman, Khaleeq-Uz-

    2014-11-01

    The Surgical Informed Consent (SIC) is a comprehensive process that establishes an information-based agreement between the patient and his doctor to undertake a clearly outlined medical or surgical intervention. It is neither a casual formality nor a casually signed piece of paper. The present study was designed to audit the current knowledge and attitudes of doctors towards SIC at a tertiary care teaching hospital in Pakistan. This cross-sectional qualitative investigation was conducted under the auspices of the Department of Medical Education (DME), Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS), Shaheed Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto Medical University (SZABMU), Islamabad over three months period. A 19-item questionnaire was employed for data collection. The participants were selected at random from the list of the surgeons maintained in the hospital and approached face-to-face with the help of a team of junior doctors detailed for questionnaire distribution among them. The target was to cover over 50% of these doctors by convenience sampling. Out of 231 respondents, there were 32 seniors while 199 junior doctors, constituting a ratio of 1:6.22. The respondents variably responded to the questions regarding various attributes of the process of SIC. Overall, the junior doctors performed poorer compared to the seniors. The knowledge and attitudes of our doctors particularly the junior ones, towards the SIC are less than ideal. This results in their failure to avail this golden opportunity of doctor-patient communication to guide their patients through a solidly informative and legally valid SIC. They are often unaware of the essential preconditions of the SIC; provide incomplete information to their patients; and quite often do not ensure direct involvement of their patients in the process. Additionally they lack an understanding of using interactive computer-based programs as well as the concept of nocebo effect of informed consent.

  10. Comparison of ocular comfort, vision, and SICS during silicone hydrogel contact lens daily wear.

    PubMed

    Diec, Jennie; Evans, Victoria E; Tilia, Daniel; Naduvilath, Thomas; Holden, Brien A; Lazon de la Jara, Percy

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between solution-induced corneal staining (SICS) and silicone hydrogel contact lens comfort and vision. A retrospective analysis of a series of open-label studies were conducted with 24 groups of approximately 40 participants, each wearing 1 of 6 silicone hydrogel contact lenses with 1 of 4 lens care products bilaterally for 3 months of daily wear. The presence of SICS and subjective ocular ratings were collected at 2 weeks and at 1 and 3 months. A total of 1,051 participants were enrolled. The participants with SICS rated significantly less favorably than did the participants without SICS for comfort during the day (7.9±1.7 vs. 8.5±1.4, P=0.03), comfort at the end of the day (6.6±2.1 vs. 7.4±1.9, P=0.03), overall dryness (7.4±1.9 vs. 8.0±1.7, P=0.04), dryness at the end of the day (6.7±2.2 vs. 7.5±2.1, P=0.01), feelings of burning and stinging (8.5±2.0 vs. 8.9±1.8, P=0.02), and overall vision (8.2±1.6 vs. 8.7±1.3, P<0.001). The participants with SICS had lower subjective comfort and vision compared with those who did not experience SICS.

  11. Diodes of nanocrystalline SiC on n-/n+-type epitaxial crystalline 6H-SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Junding; Wei, Wensheng; Zhang, Chunxi; He, Mingchang; Li, Chang

    2018-03-01

    The diodes of nanocrystalline SiC on epitaxial crystalline (n-/n+)6H-SiC wafers were investigated, where the (n+)6H-SiC layer was treated as cathode. For the first unit, a heavily boron doped SiC film as anode was directly deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition method on the wafer. As to the second one, an intrinsic SiC film was fabricated to insert between the wafer and the SiC anode. The third one included the SiC anode, an intrinsic SiC layer and a lightly phosphorus doped SiC film besides the wafer. Nanocrystallization in the yielded films was illustrated by means of X-ray diffraction, transmission electronic microscope and Raman spectrum respectively. Current vs. voltage traces of the obtained devices were checked to show as rectifying behaviors of semiconductor diodes, the conduction mechanisms were studied. Reverse recovery current waveforms were detected to analyze the recovery performance. The nanocrystalline SiC films in base region of the fabricated diodes are demonstrated as local regions for lifetime control of minority carriers to improve the reverse recovery properties.

  12. Effect of hot plastic deformation on the structural state of a Al-10%SiC composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pugacheva, N. B.; Vichuzhanin, D. I.; Michurov, N. S.; Smirnov, A. S.

    2017-12-01

    The paper studies the microstructure of honeycomb aluminum matrix composites with a granulated Al-Zn-Cu-Mg alloy matrix filled SiC particles amounting to 10 vol % after hot plastic deformation at near-solidus temperatures. It demonstrates the possibility of the collapse of the SiC filler network and the formation of filler clusters separated from each other.

  13. Temperature dependence of the elastocaloric effect in natural rubber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Zhongjian; Sebald, Gael; Guyomar, Daniel

    2017-07-01

    The temperature dependence of the elastocaloric (eC) effect in natural rubber (NR) has been studied. This material exhibits a large eC effect over a broad temperature range from 0 °C to 49 °C. The maximum adiabatic temperature change (ΔT) occurred at 10 °C and the behavior could be predicted by the temperature dependence of the strain-induced crystallization (SIC) and the temperature-induced crystallization (TIC). The eC performance of NR was then compared with that of shape memory alloys (SMAs). This study contributes to the SIC research of NR and also broadens the application of elastomers.

  14. Two new constructions of approximately SIC-POVMs from multiplicative characters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Gaojun; Cao, Xiwang

    2017-12-01

    In quantum information theory, symmetric informationally complete positive operator-valued measures (SIC-POVMs) are relevant to quantum state tomography [8], quantum cryptography [15], and foundational studies [16]. In general, it is hard to construct SIC-POVMs and only a few classes of them existed, as we know. Moreover, we do not know whether there exists an infinite class of them. Many researchers tried to construct approximately symmetric informationally complete positive operator-valued measures (ASIC-POVMs). In this paper, we propose two new constructions of ASIC-POVMs for prime power dimensions only by using multiplicative characters over finite fields.

  15. PhySIC_IST: cleaning source trees to infer more informative supertrees

    PubMed Central

    Scornavacca, Celine; Berry, Vincent; Lefort, Vincent; Douzery, Emmanuel JP; Ranwez, Vincent

    2008-01-01

    Background Supertree methods combine phylogenies with overlapping sets of taxa into a larger one. Topological conflicts frequently arise among source trees for methodological or biological reasons, such as long branch attraction, lateral gene transfers, gene duplication/loss or deep gene coalescence. When topological conflicts occur among source trees, liberal methods infer supertrees containing the most frequent alternative, while veto methods infer supertrees not contradicting any source tree, i.e. discard all conflicting resolutions. When the source trees host a significant number of topological conflicts or have a small taxon overlap, supertree methods of both kinds can propose poorly resolved, hence uninformative, supertrees. Results To overcome this problem, we propose to infer non-plenary supertrees, i.e. supertrees that do not necessarily contain all the taxa present in the source trees, discarding those whose position greatly differs among source trees or for which insufficient information is provided. We detail a variant of the PhySIC veto method called PhySIC_IST that can infer non-plenary supertrees. PhySIC_IST aims at inferring supertrees that satisfy the same appealing theoretical properties as with PhySIC, while being as informative as possible under this constraint. The informativeness of a supertree is estimated using a variation of the CIC (Cladistic Information Content) criterion, that takes into account both the presence of multifurcations and the absence of some taxa. Additionally, we propose a statistical preprocessing step called STC (Source Trees Correction) to correct the source trees prior to the supertree inference. STC is a liberal step that removes the parts of each source tree that significantly conflict with other source trees. Combining STC with a veto method allows an explicit trade-off between veto and liberal approaches, tuned by a single parameter. Performing large-scale simulations, we observe that STC+PhySIC_IST infers much

  16. A Techno-Economic Look at SiC WBG from Wafer to Motor Drive

    SciTech Connect

    Bench Reese, Samantha R; Horowitz, Kelsey A; Remo, Timothy W

    Techno-economic analysis helps benchmark and deliver supply chain and manufacturing insights that can be leveraged by decision-makers to inform investment strategies, policy, and other decisions to promote economic growth and competitiveness. Silicon Carbide (SiC) wide-band gap (WBG) technologies is poised to be an integral contributor to the clean energy economy. We use bottoms-up regional manufacturing cost models to show SiC power electronics, manufactured in volume, could result in final product cost parity with those manufactured with silicon. The models are further leveraged to show innovation pathways to lower cost and potentially expanded technology adoption.

  17. PhySIC_IST: cleaning source trees to infer more informative supertrees.

    PubMed

    Scornavacca, Celine; Berry, Vincent; Lefort, Vincent; Douzery, Emmanuel J P; Ranwez, Vincent

    2008-10-04

    Supertree methods combine phylogenies with overlapping sets of taxa into a larger one. Topological conflicts frequently arise among source trees for methodological or biological reasons, such as long branch attraction, lateral gene transfers, gene duplication/loss or deep gene coalescence. When topological conflicts occur among source trees, liberal methods infer supertrees containing the most frequent alternative, while veto methods infer supertrees not contradicting any source tree, i.e. discard all conflicting resolutions. When the source trees host a significant number of topological conflicts or have a small taxon overlap, supertree methods of both kinds can propose poorly resolved, hence uninformative, supertrees. To overcome this problem, we propose to infer non-plenary supertrees, i.e. supertrees that do not necessarily contain all the taxa present in the source trees, discarding those whose position greatly differs among source trees or for which insufficient information is provided. We detail a variant of the PhySIC veto method called PhySIC_IST that can infer non-plenary supertrees. PhySIC_IST aims at inferring supertrees that satisfy the same appealing theoretical properties as with PhySIC, while being as informative as possible under this constraint. The informativeness of a supertree is estimated using a variation of the CIC (Cladistic Information Content) criterion, that takes into account both the presence of multifurcations and the absence of some taxa. Additionally, we propose a statistical preprocessing step called STC (Source Trees Correction) to correct the source trees prior to the supertree inference. STC is a liberal step that removes the parts of each source tree that significantly conflict with other source trees. Combining STC with a veto method allows an explicit trade-off between veto and liberal approaches, tuned by a single parameter.Performing large-scale simulations, we observe that STC+PhySIC_IST infers much more informative

  18. Elevated temperature mechanical behavior of monolithic and SiC whisker-reinforced silicon nitrides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salem, Jonathan A.; Choi, Sung R.; Sanders, William A.; Fox, Dennis S.

    1991-01-01

    The mechanical behavior of a 30 volume percent SiC whisker reinforced silicon nitride and a similar monolithic silicon nitride were measured at several temperatures. Measurements included strength, fracture toughness, crack growth resistance, dynamic fatigue susceptibility, post oxidation strength, and creep rate. Strength controlling defects were determined with fractographic analysis. The addition of SiC whiskers to silicon nitride did not substantially improve the strength, fracture toughness, or crack growth resistance. However, the fatigue resistance, post oxidation strength, and creep resistance were diminished by the whisker addition.

  19. Rapid Fabrication of Lightweight SiC Optics using Reactive Atom Plasma (RAP) Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiske, Peter S.

    2006-01-01

    Reactive Atom Plasma (RAP) processing is a non-contact, plasma-based processing technology that can be used to generate damage-free optical surfaces. We have developed tools and processes using RAP that allow us to shape extremely lightweight mirror Surfaces made from extremely hard-to-machine materials (e.g. SiC). We will describe our latest results using RAP in combination with other technologies to produce finished lightweight SiC mirrors and also discuss applications for RAP in the rapid fabrication of mirror segments for reflective and grazing incidence telescopes.

  20. Methylhydridopolysilazane and its Pyrolytic Conversion to Si3N4/SiC Ceramics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-20

    development of inorganic and organometallic polymers as preceramic materials for the synthesis of silicon carbide ( SiC ) and silicon nitride (Si 3N 4...disproportionation in the pyrolysis of preceramic polymers . The lack of a -50 ppm resonance in the CP-MAS NMR spectra of the MHPS systems is 12...1992); Chem. Abstr. 1992, 116, 220226g. 6. (a) Semen, J.; Loop, J.G., "A Preceramic Polymer Route to Molded SiC Ceramic Parts," Ceram. Eng. Sci. Proc

  1. Construction Progress of the S-IC Test Stand Complex Bunker House

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    At its founding, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) inherited the Army's Jupiter and Redstone test stands, but much larger facilities were needed for the giant stages of the Saturn V. From 1960 to 1964, the existing stands were remodeled and a sizable new test area was developed. The new comprehensive test complex for propulsion and structural dynamics was unique within the nation and the free world, and they remain so today because they were constructed with foresight to meet the future as well as on going needs. Construction of the S-IC Static test stand complex began in 1961 in the west test area of MSFC, and was completed in 1964. The S-IC static test stand was designed to develop and test the 138-ft long and 33-ft diameter Saturn V S-IC first stage, or booster stage, weighing in at 280,000 pounds. Required to hold down the brute force of a 7,500,000-pound thrust produced by 5 F-1 engines, the S-IC static test stand was designed and constructed with the strength of hundreds of tons of steel and 12,000,000 pounds of cement, planted down to bedrock 40 feet below ground level. The foundation walls, constructed with concrete and steel, are 4 feet thick. The base structure consists of four towers with 40-foot-thick walls extending upward 144 feet above ground level. The structure was topped by a crane with a 135-foot boom. With the boom in the upright position, the stand was given an overall height of 405 feet, placing it among the highest structures in Alabama at the time. In addition to the S-IC stand, additional related facilities were built during this time frame. Built to the east of the S-IC stand, the block house served as the control room. To the south of the blockhouse was a newly constructed pump house used for delivering water to the S-IC stand during testing. North of the massive test stand, the F-1 Engine test stand was built for testing a single F-1 engine. Just southeast of the S-IC stand a concrete bunker house was constructed. The bunker housed

  2. System for the growth of bulk SiC crystals by modified CVD techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steckl, Andrew J.

    1994-01-01

    The goal of this program was the development of a SiC CVD growth of films thick enough to be useful as pseudo-substrates. The cold-walled CVD system was designed, assembled, and tested. Extrapolating from preliminary evaluation of SiC films grown in the system at relatively low temperatures indicates that the growth rate at the final temperatures will be high enough to make our approach practical. Modifications of the system to allow high temperature growth and cleaner growth conditions are in progress. This program was jointly funded by Wright Laboratory, Materials Directorate and NASA LeRC and monitored by NASA.

  3. SiC Multi-Chip Power Modules as Power-System Building Blocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lostetter, Alexander; Franks, Steven

    2007-01-01

    The term "SiC MCPMs" (wherein "MCPM" signifies "multi-chip power module") denotes electronic power-supply modules containing multiple silicon carbide power devices and silicon-on-insulator (SOI) control integrated-circuit chips. SiC MCPMs are being developed as building blocks of advanced expandable, reconfigurable, fault-tolerant power-supply systems. Exploiting the ability of SiC semiconductor devices to operate at temperatures, breakdown voltages, and current densities significantly greater than those of conventional Si devices, the designs of SiC MCPMs and of systems comprising multiple SiC MCPMs are expected to afford a greater degree of miniaturization through stacking of modules with reduced requirements for heat sinking. Moreover, the higher-temperature capabilities of SiC MCPMs could enable operation in environments hotter than Si-based power systems can withstand. The stacked SiC MCPMs in a given system can be electrically connected in series, parallel, or a series/parallel combination to increase the overall power-handling capability of the system. In addition to power connections, the modules have communication connections. The SOI controllers in the modules communicate with each other as nodes of a decentralized control network, in which no single controller exerts overall command of the system. Control functions effected via the network include synchronization of switching of power devices and rapid reconfiguration of power connections to enable the power system to continue to supply power to a load in the event of failure of one of the modules. In addition to serving as building blocks of reliable power-supply systems, SiC MCPMs could be augmented with external control circuitry to make them perform additional power-handling functions as needed for specific applications: typical functions could include regulating voltages, storing energy, and driving motors. Because identical SiC MCPM building blocks could be utilized in a variety of ways, the cost

  4. Comparison of the dynamic fatigue behavior of two monolithic SiC and an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/SiC composite

    SciTech Connect

    Breder, K.; Tennery, V.J.

    1994-09-01

    Two monolithic silicon carbides, NT230 siliconized SiC from Norton Saint Gobain and sintered {beta}-SiC from Coors, and a silicon carbide particulate reinforced alumina ceramic composite from Lanxide, which all are candidate materials for pressurized heat exchangers in coal-fired power plants have been evaluated. The fast fracture flexure strength was measured as a function of temperature. All candidate materials retained a sufficient strength level up to 1400C. The susceptibility to slow crack growth (SCG) was evaluated by the dynamic fatigue method at 1100C and 1400C. None of the materials exhibited SCG at 1100C. At 1400C the siliconized SiC ceramic showed limitedmore » SCG and the composite ceramic exhibited creep damage when stressed to 50% of fast fracture strength at the intermediate and slow stressing rates. This prevented the evaluation of the SCG properties of this material at 1400C. Fractography supported the mechanical observations and with the exception of the specimens which exhibited creep damage, only the siliconized SiC showed a small SCG damage zone at long times at 1400C.« less

  5. Injected ion energy dependence of SiC film deposited by low-energy SiC3H9+ ion beam produced from hexamethyldisilane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimura, Satoru; Sugimoto, Satoshi; Takeuchi, Takae; Murai, Kensuke; Kiuchi, Masato

    2018-04-01

    We mass-selected SiC3H9+ ions from various fragments produced through the decomposition of hexamethyldisilane, and finally produced low-energy SiC3H9+ ion beams. The ion beams were injected into Si(1 0 0) substrates and the dependence of deposited films on injected ion energy was then investigated. Injected ion energies were 20, 100, or 200 eV. Films obtained were investigated with X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of the substrates obtained following the injection of 20 eV ions demonstrated the occurrence of silicon carbide film (3C-SiC) deposition. On the other hand, Raman spectroscopy showed that the films deposited by the injection of 100 or 200 eV ions included 3C-SiC plus diamond-like carbon. Ion beam deposition using hexamethyldisilane-derived 20 eV SiC3H9+ ions is an efficient technique for 3C-SiC film formation on Si substrates.

  6. Mechanical property degradation of high crystalline SiC fiber–reinforced SiC matrix composite neutron irradiated to ~100 displacements per atom

    DOE PAGES

    Koyanagi, Takaaki; Nozawa, Takashi; Katoh, Yutai; ...

    2017-12-20

    For the development of silicon carbide (SiC) materials for next-generation nuclear structural applications, degradation of material properties under intense neutron irradiation is a critical feasibility issue. This paper evaluated the mechanical properties and microstructure of a chemical vapor infiltrated SiC matrix composite, reinforced with a multi-layer SiC/pyrolytic carbon–coated Hi-Nicalon TM Type S SiC fiber, following neutron irradiation at 319 and 629 °C to ~100 displacements per atom. Both the proportional limit stress and ultimate flexural strength were significantly degraded as a result of irradiation at both temperatures. After irradiation at 319 °C, the quasi-ductile fracture behavior of the nonirradiated compositemore » became brittle, a result that was explained by a loss of functionality of the fiber/matrix interface associated with the disappearance of the interphase due to irradiation. Finally, the specimens irradiated at 629 °C showed increased apparent failure strain because the fiber/matrix interphase was weakened by irradiation-induced partial debonding.« less

  7. Mechanical property degradation of high crystalline SiC fiber–reinforced SiC matrix composite neutron irradiated to ~100 displacements per atom

    SciTech Connect

    Koyanagi, Takaaki; Nozawa, Takashi; Katoh, Yutai

    For the development of silicon carbide (SiC) materials for next-generation nuclear structural applications, degradation of material properties under intense neutron irradiation is a critical feasibility issue. This paper evaluated the mechanical properties and microstructure of a chemical vapor infiltrated SiC matrix composite, reinforced with a multi-layer SiC/pyrolytic carbon–coated Hi-Nicalon TM Type S SiC fiber, following neutron irradiation at 319 and 629 °C to ~100 displacements per atom. Both the proportional limit stress and ultimate flexural strength were significantly degraded as a result of irradiation at both temperatures. After irradiation at 319 °C, the quasi-ductile fracture behavior of the nonirradiated compositemore » became brittle, a result that was explained by a loss of functionality of the fiber/matrix interface associated with the disappearance of the interphase due to irradiation. Finally, the specimens irradiated at 629 °C showed increased apparent failure strain because the fiber/matrix interphase was weakened by irradiation-induced partial debonding.« less

  8. Properties of thin SiC membrane for x-ray mask

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoki, Tsutomu; Nagasawa, Hiroyuki; Kosuga, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Yoichi; Annaka, Noromichi; Amemiya, Isao; Nagarekawa, Osamu

    1993-06-01

    We have investigated the effects of film thickness, anti-reflective (AR) coating and surface roughness on the optical transparency of silicon carbide (SiC) membrane. Peak transmittances monotonously increased as the thickness decreased. The transmittance at 633 nm for 1.05 micrometers thick SiC membrane adjusted by reactive ion etching was 70%, and increased up to 80% by an AR coating. SiC membrane with extremely smooth surface of 0.12 nm (Ra) has been obtained by polishing, and had peak transmittances of 69% and 80% at 633 nm for 2.0 micrometers and 1.0 micrometers in thickness, respectively. Poly-crystalline (beta) -SiC membrane in the suitable tensile stress range of 0.3 to 2.0 X 108 Pa and with high Young's modulus of 4.5 X 1011 Pa has been prepared by a hot wall type low pressure chemical vapor deposition, and been found to need to have thickness over 0.7 micrometers to maintain sufficient mechanical strength in processing.

  9. Non-destructive characterization of SiC coated carbon-carbon composites by multiple techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nixon, Thomas D.; Hemstad, Stan N.; Pfeifer, William H.

    SiC coated carbon-carbon composites were evaluated using several non-destructive techniques as a means of quantifying the quality of both the coating and substrate. The techniques employed included dye penetrant infiltration, eddy current measurement, C-scan, and computed tomography (CT). The NDE results were then correlated to oxidation performance and destructive evaluations by electron and optical microscopy.

  10. Zirconia toughened SiC whisker reinforced alumina composites small business innovation research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loutfy, R. O.; Stuffle, K. L.; Withers, J. C.; Lee, C. T.

    1987-01-01

    The objective of this phase 1 project was to develop a ceramic composite with superior fracture toughness and high strength, based on combining two toughness inducing materials: zirconia for transformation toughening and SiC whiskers for reinforcement, in a controlled microstructure alumina matrix. The controlled matrix microstructure is obtained by controlling the nucleation frequency of the alumina gel with seeds (submicron alpha-alumina). The results demonstrate the technical feasibility of producing superior binary composites (Al2O3-ZrO2) and tertiary composites (Al2O3-ZrO2-SiC). Thirty-two composites were prepared, consolidated, and fracture toughness tested. Statistical analysis of the results showed that: (1) the SiC type is the key statistically significant factor for increased toughness; (2) sol-gel processing with a-alumina seed had a statistically significant effect on increasing toughness of the binary and tertiary composites compared to the corresponding mixed powder processing; and (3) ZrO2 content within the range investigated had a minor effect. Binary composites with an average critical fracture toughness of 6.6MPam sup 1/2, were obtained. Tertiary composites with critical fracture toughness in the range of 9.3 to 10.1 MPam sup 1/2 were obtained. Results indicate that these composites are superior to zirconia toughened alumina and SiC whisker reinforced alumina ceramic composites produced by conventional techniques with similar composition from published data.

  11. Creep and Rupture Strength of an Advanced CVD SiC Fiber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldsby, J. C.; Yun, H. M.; DiCarlo, J. A.

    1997-01-01

    In the as-produced condition the room temperature strength (approx. 6 GPa) of Textron Specialty Materials' 50 microns CVD SiC fiber represents the highest value thus far obtained for commercially produced polycrystalline SiC fibers. To understand whether this strength can be maintained after composite processing conditions, high temperature studies were performed on the effects of time, stress, and environment on 1400 deg. C tensile creep strain and stress rupture on as-produced, chemically vapor deposited SiC fibers. Creep strain results were consistent, allowing an evaluation of time and stress effects. Test environment had no influence on creep strain but I hour annealing at 1600 deg. C in argon gas significantly reduced the total creep strain and increased the stress dependence. This is attributed to changes in the free carbon morphology and its distribution within the CVD SiC fiber. For the as-produced and annealed fibers, strength at 1400 deg. C was found to decrease from a fast fracture value of 2 GPa to a 100-hr rupture strength value of 0. 8 GPa. In addition a loss of fast fracture strength from 6 GPa is attributed to thermally induced changes in the outer carbon coating and microstructure. Scatter in rupture times made a definitive analysis of environmental and annealing effects on creep strength difficult.

  12. Quantifying Appropriate De-rating of SiC MOSFETs Subject to Cosmic Rays

    SciTech Connect

    Chatty, Kiran

    Terrestrial Cosmic Radiation (TCR) is known to cause failures in high-voltage Si devices resulting in de-rating of the maximum reverse blocking voltage. In this work, a test setup was developed and unaccelerated TCR testing was performed on 1200V Si IGBTs, 1200V SiC MOSFETs and 1200V SiC Schottky diodes. Failures due to TCR were generated on 1200V Si IGBTs at reverse voltages from 900V to 1175V. Si IGBTs investigated in this work will need to be operated at a maximum voltage of 800V to achieve a Failure in Time (FIT) rate of 100. No failures were observed on 1200V SiC MOSFETsmore » and Schottky diodes after testing at 1200V for over 1.5 years demonstrating low FIT rates compared to Si IGBTs. 1200V SiC Schottky diodes were fabricated in this program and the packaged devices were used in the TCR testing.« less

  13. Conformal Thin Film Packaging for SiC Sensor Circuits in Harsh Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scardelletti, Maximilian C.; Karnick, David A.; Ponchak, George E.; Zorman, Christian A.

    2011-01-01

    In this investigation sputtered silicon carbide annealed at 300 C for one hour is used as a conformal thin film package. A RF magnetron sputterer was used to deposit 500 nm silicon carbide films on gold metal structures on alumina wafers. To determine the reliability and resistance to immersion in harsh environments, samples were submerged in gold etchant for 24 hours, in BOE for 24 hours, and in an O2 plasma etch for one hour. The adhesion strength of the thin film was measured by a pull test before and after the chemical immersion, which indicated that the film has an adhesion strength better than 10(exp 8) N/m2; this is similar to the adhesion of the gold layer to the alumina wafer. MIM capacitors are used to determine the dielectric constant, which is dependent on the SiC anneal temperature. Finally, to demonstrate that the SiC, conformal, thin film may be used to package RF circuits and sensors, an LC resonator circuit was fabricated and tested with and without the conformal SiC thin film packaging. The results indicate that the SiC coating adds no appreciable degradation to the circuits RF performance. Index Terms Sputter, silicon carbide, MIM capacitors, LC resonators, gold etchants, BOE, O2 plasma

  14. SiC lightweight telescopes for advanced space applications. II - Structures technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anapol, Michael I.; Hadfield, Peter; Tucker, Theodore

    1992-01-01

    A critical technology area for lightweight SiC-based telescope systems is the structural integrity and thermal stability over spaceborne environmental launch and thermal operating conditions. Note, it is highly desirable to have an inherently athermal design of both SiC mirrors and structure. SSG has developed an 8 inch diameter SiC telescope system for brassboard level optical and thermal testing. The brassboard telescope has demonstrated less than 0.2 waves P-V in the visible wavefront change over +50 C to -200 C temperature range. SSG has also fabricated a SiC truss structural assembly and successfully qualified this hardware at environmental levels greater than 3 times higher than normal Delta, Titan, and ARIES launch loads. SSG is currently developing two SiC telescopes; an 20 cm diameter off-axis 3 mirror re-imaging and a 60 cm aperture on-axis 3 mirror re-imager. Both hardware developments will be tested to flight level environmental, optical, and thermal specifications.

  15. Theoretical investigation of the breakdown electric field of SiC polymorphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Kikou; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Tomoyuki; Hirose, Kazuyuki

    2018-03-01

    The breakdown electric field of several SiC polymorphs has been investigated theoretically using a concept of "recovery rate," which is obtained by first principles calculations. A good relationship between the experimental breakdown electric fields and the calculated recovery rate of 4H-, 6H-, and 3C-SiC was obtained. In order to examine the stability of SiC polymorphs, the total electronic energies of various types of SiC crystal structures were calculated. Here, two candidates of polymorphs-GeS-type- and 2H-SiC-with energies comparable to those of experimentally well-established structures, have been obtained. The breakdown electric fields of these two polymorphs were estimated using a relationship obtained from the results of 4H-, 6H-, and 3C-SiC. This indicates that one of these polymorphs, GeS-type-SiC, has higher breakdown electric field than any other SiC polymorphs. In addition to the investigation with the recovery rate, relationship between experimental breakdown electric field and calculated band gap with recently developed accurate electron-correlation potential has been also discussed.

  16. Combined TEM and NanoSIMS Analysis of Subgrains in a SiC AB Grain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hynes, K. M.; Amari, S.; Bernatowicz, T. J.; Lebsack, E.; Gyngard, F.; Nittler, L. R.

    2011-03-01

    We report the results of NanoSIMS and TEM analysis, including isotopic, structural, chemical, and subgrain data, on a SiC AB grain. This grain contains the first oldhamite subgrains observed in a presolar grain, as well as TiC- and Fe-rich subgrains.

  17. TEM Observation of the Ti Interlayer Between SiC Substrates During Diffusion Bonding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsuda, Hiroshi; Mori, Shigeo; Halbig, Michael C.; Singh, Mori

    2012-01-01

    Diffusion bonding was carried out to join SiC to SiC substrates using titanium interlayers. In this study, 10 m and 20 m thick physical vapor deposited (PVD) Ti surface coatings, and 10 and 20 m thick Ti foils were used. Diffusion bonding was performed at 1250 C for PVD Ti coatings and 1200 C for Ti foil. This study investigates the microstructures of the phases formed during diffusion bonding through TEM and selected-area diffraction analysis of a sample prepared with an FIB, which allows samples to be taken from the reacted area. In all samples, Ti3SiC2, Ti5Si3Cx and TiSi2 phases were identified. In addition, TiC and unknown phases also appeared in the samples in which Ti foils were used as interlayers. Furthermore, Ti3SiC2 phases show high concentration and Ti5Si3Cx formed less when samples were processed at a higher temperature and thinner interlayer samples were used. It appears that the formation of microcracks is caused by the presence of intermediate phase Ti5Si3Cx, which has anisotropic thermal expansion, and by the presence of an unidentified Ti-Si-C ternary phase with relatively low Si content.

  18. Effect of SiC interlayer between Ti6Al4V alloy and hydroxyapatite films.

    PubMed

    Azem, Funda Ak; Birlik, Isil; Braic, Viorel; Toparli, Mustafa; Celik, Erdal; Parau, Anca; Kiss, Adrian; Titorencu, Irina; Vladescu, Alina

    2015-04-01

    Bioactive coatings are frequently used to improve the osseointegration of the metallic implants used in dentistry or orthopaedics. Among different types of bioactive coatings, hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) is one of the most extensively used due to its chemical similarities to the components of bones and teeth. In this article, production and characterization of hydroxyapatite films deposited on Ti6Al4V alloy prepared by magnetron sputtering were reported. Besides, SiC was deposited on substrate surface to study the interlayer effect. Obtained coatings were annealed at 600 °C for 30 and 120 min in a mixed atmosphere of N2 + H2O vapours with the heating rate of 12 °C min(-1). The effects of SiC interlayer and heat treatment parameters on the structural, mechanical and corrosion properties were investigated. After heat treatment process, the crystalline hydroxyapatite was obtained. Additionally, cell viability tests were performed. The results show that the presence of the SiC interlayer contributes a decrease in surface roughness and improves the mechanical properties and corrosion performance of the hydroxyapatite coatings. Biological properties were not affected by the presence of the SiC interlayer. © IMechE 2015.

  19. Microstructural and strength stability of a developmental CVD SiC fiber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.; Garg, Anita; Hull, David R.

    1995-01-01

    The effects of thermal exposure on the room temperature tensile strength and microstructure of a developmental 50 micron CVD SiC fiber have been studied. The fibers were heat treated between 600 and 2000 C in 0.1 MPa argon and air environments for up to 100 hr. In the as-fabricated condition, the fibers showed approximately 6 GPa tensile strength. After argon treatment, the fibers showed strength degradation after 1 hr exposure beyond 1000 C, but those exposed between 1600 and 2000 C retained approximately 2 GPa strength. TEM results showed microstructural changes both in the surface coating and SiC sheath. Flaws created by the rearrangement of carbon in the surface coating and growth of equiaxed SiC grain zone in the SiC sheath are the suggested mechanisms of strength degradation. After air treatment, fibers showed strength degradation after only 2 min exposure at 600 C. Strength retention after 2 min at 1500 C was approximately 2 GPa. Oxidation of the surface coating is the primary reason for strength degradation.

  20. Magnetic anisotropy of rare-earth magnets calculated by SIC and OEP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akai, Hisazumi; Ogura, Masako

    We have pointed out in our previous study that the chemical bonding between N and Sm plays an important role in the magnetic anisotropy change of Sm2Fe17 from in-plane to uniaxial ones caused by the introducing of N. This effect of N insertion was discussed in terms of change in the electronic structure calculated in the framework of LDA+SIC. The main issue here is whether the 4f states are dealt with properly in SIC. In the present study, we examine the applicability of SIC for the evaluation of the magnetic anisotropy of rare-earth (RE) magnets by comparing the results with various methods, in particular, the optimized effective potential (OEP) method. In this study, OEP is applied only on the RE sites. Admittedly, this is a drawback from the viewpoint of the consistent treatment of uncertainly inherent in the so-called KLI (Krieger-Li-Iafrate) constants. Putting this aside for the moment, we have calculated the electronic structure of RE magnets R2Fe17Nx and RCo5 (R=light RE), by OEP with exact-exchange (EXX) combined with Colle-Salvetti correlation. Our preliminary results have shown considerable differences between the SIC and OEP calculations. We will discuss the meaning of this discrepancy. This work was supported by the Elements Strategy Initiative Center for Magnetic Materials under the outsourcing project of MEXT and by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (No. 26400330) from MEXT.

  1. Positron annihilation spectroscopy investigation of vacancy defects in neutron-irradiated 3 C -SiC

    DOE PAGES

    Hu, Xunxiang; Koyanagi, Takaaki; Katoh, Yutai; ...

    2017-03-10

    We described positron annihilation spectroscopy characterization results for neutron-irradiated 3 C -SiC, with a specific focus on explaining the size and character of vacancy clusters as a complement to the current understanding of the neutron irradiation response of 3 C -SiC. Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy was used to capture the irradiation temperature and dose dependence of vacancy defects in 3 C -SiC following neutron irradiation from 0.01 to 31 dpa in the temperature range from 380C °to 790C .° The neutral and negatively charged vacancy clusters were identified and quantified. The results suggest that the vacancy defects that were measuredmore » by positron annihilation spectroscopy technique contribute very little to the transient swelling of SiC. Additionally, we used coincidence Doppler broadening measurement to investigate the chemical identity surrounding the positron trapping sites.Finally, we found that silicon vacancy-related defects dominate in the studied materials and the production of the antisite defect C Si may result in an increase in the probability of positron annihilation with silicon core electrons.« less

  2. Relaxations of fluorouracil tautomers by decorations of fullerene-like SiCs: DFT studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouchaki, Alireza; Gülseren, Oğuz; Hadipour, Nasser; Mirzaei, Mahmoud

    2016-06-01

    Decorations of silicon carbide (SiC) fullerene-like nanoparticles by fluorouracil (FU) and its tautomers are investigated through density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Two models of fullerene-like particles including Si12C8 and Si8C12 are constructed to be counterparts of decorated hybrid structures, FU@Si12C8 and FU@Si8C12, respectively. The initial models including original FU and tautomeric structures and SiC nanoparticles are individually optimized and then combined for further optimizations in the hybrid forms. Covalent bonds are observed for FU@Si12C8 hybrids, whereas non-covalent interactions are seen for FU@Si8C12 ones. The obtained properties indicated that Si12C8 model could be considered as a better counterpart for interactions with FU structures than Si8C12 model. The results also showed significant effects of interactions on the properties of atoms close to the interacting regions in nanoparticles. Finally, the tautomeric structures show different behaviors in interactions with SiC nanoparticles, in which the SiC nanoparticles could be employed to detect the situations of tautomeric processes for FU structures.

  3. Temperature Dependence of Attenuation of Coplanar Waveguide on 4H High Resistivity SIC Through 540C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponchak, G. E.; Schwartz, Z.; Alterovitz, S. A.; Downey, A. N.; Freeman, J. C.

    2003-01-01

    For the first time, the temperature and frequency dependence of the attenuation of a Coplanar Waveguide (CPW) on 4H, High Resistivity Sic substrate is reported. The low frequency attenuation increases by 2 dB/cm at 500 C and the high frequency attenuation increases by 3.3 dB/cm at 500 C compared to room temperature.

  4. Nanoparticle-density-dependent field emission of surface-decorated SiC nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Qizheng; School of Materials and Chemical Engineering, Ningbo University of Technology, Ningbo City 315016; State Key Lab of New Fine Ceramics and Fine Processing, Tsinghua University, Beijing City 100084

    2016-08-22

    Increasing the electron emission site density of nanostructured emitters with limited field screening effects is one of the key issues for improving the field emission (FE) properties. In this work, we reported the Au-nanoparticles-density-dependent field emission behaviors of surface-decorated SiC nanowires. The Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) decorated around the surface of the SiC nanowires were achieved via an ion sputtering technique, by which the densities of the isolated AuNPs could be adjusted by controlling the fixed sputtering times. The measured FE characteristics demonstrated that the turn-on fields of the SiC nanowires were tuned to be of 2.06, 1.14, and 3.35 V/μm withmore » the increase of the decorated AuNPs densities, suggesting that a suitable decorated AuNPs density could render the SiC nanowires with totally excellent FE performances by increasing the emission sites and limiting the field screening effects.« less

  5. Wear behavior of AA 5083/SiC nano-particle metal matrix composite: Statistical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain Idrisi, Amir; Ismail Mourad, Abdel-Hamid; Thekkuden, Dinu Thomas; Christy, John Victor

    2018-03-01

    This paper reports study on statistical analysis of the wear characteristics of AA5083/SiC nanocomposite. The aluminum matrix composites with different wt % (0%, 1% and 2%) of SiC nanoparticles were fabricated by using stir casting route. The developed composites were used in the manufacturing of spur gears on which the study was conducted. A specially designed test rig was used in testing the wear performance of the gears. The wear was investigated under different conditions of applied load (10N, 20N, and 30N) and operation time (30 mins, 60 mins, 90 mins, and 120mins). The analysis carried out at room temperature under constant speed of 1450 rpm. The wear parameters were optimized by using Taguchi’s method. During this statistical approach, L27 Orthogonal array was selected for the analysis of output. Furthermore, analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to investigate the influence of applied load, operation time and SiC wt. % on wear behaviour. The wear resistance was analyzed by selecting “smaller is better” characteristics as the objective of the model. From this research, it is observed that experiment time and SiC wt % have the most significant effect on the wear performance followed by the applied load.

  6. SiC nanoparticles cyto- and genotoxicity to Hep-G2 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barillet, Sabrina; Jugan, Mary-Line; Simon-Deckers, Angélique; Leconte, Yann; Herlin-Boime, Nathalie; Mayne-l'Hermite, Martine; Reynaud, Cécile; Carrière, Marie

    2009-05-01

    While emerging nanotechnologies have seen significant development in recent years, knowledge on exposure levels as well as data on toxicity of nanoparticles are still quite limited. Indeed, there is a general agreement that development of nanotechnologies may lead to considerable dissemination of nanoparticles in the environment. Nevertheless, questions relative to toxicity versus innocuousness of such materials still remain. Our present study has thus been carried out with the purpose of assessing some aspects of toxicological capacities of three kinds of nano-sized particles: TiO2 and SiC nanoparticles, as well as multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNT). In order to address the question of their potential toxicity toward living cells, we chose several cellular models. Assuming inhalation as the most probable exposure scenario, we used A549 alveolar epithelial cells as a model for mammalian primary target organ (lung). Furthermore, we considered that nanoparticles that would deposit into the pulmonary system may be translocated to the circulatory system. Thus, we decided to study the effect of nanoparticles on potentially secondary target organs: liver (WIF-B9, Can-10, HepG2) and kidneys (NRK-52E, LLC-PK1). Herein, we will focus our attention on results obtained on the HepG2 cell line exposed to SiC nanoparticles. Scarce literature exists on SiC nanotoxicology. According to the authors that have already carried out studies on this particular nanoparticle, it would seem that SiC nanoparticles do not induce cytotoxicity. That is one of the reasons of the potential use of these nanoparticles as biological labels [1]. We thus were interested in acquiring more data on biological effects induced by SiC nanoparticles. Furthermore, one of the particular aspects of the present study lies in the fact that we tried to specify the influence of physico-chemical characteristics of nanoparticles on toxicological endpoints (cytotoxicity and genotoxicity).

  7. X-ray micro computed tomography characterization of cellular SiC foams for their applications in chemical engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Ou, Xiaoxia

    Open-cell SiC foams clearly are promising materials for continuous-flow chemical applications such as heterogeneous catalysis and distillation. X-ray micro computed tomography characterization of cellular β-SiC foams at a spatial voxel size of 13.6{sup 3} μm{sup 3} and the interpretation of morphological properties of SiC open-cell foams with implications to their transport properties are presented. Static liquid hold-up in SiC foams was investigated through in-situ draining experiments for the first time using the μ-CT technique providing thorough 3D information about the amount and distribution of liquid hold-up inside the foam. This will enable better modeling and design of structured reactors basedmore » on SiC foams in the future. In order to see more practical uses, μ-CT data of cellular foams must be exploited to optimize the design of the morphology of foams for a specific application. - Highlights: •Characterization of SiC foams using novel X-ray micro computed tomography. •Interpretation of structural properties of SiC foams regarding to their transport properties. •Static liquid hold-up analysis of SiC foams through in-situ draining experiments.« less

  8. Epitaxial Growth of beta-Silicon Carbide (SiC) on a Compliant Substrate via Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Sharanda L.

    1996-01-01

    Many lattice defects have been attributed to the lattice mismatch and the difference in the thermal coefficient of expansion between SiC and silicon (Si). Stacking faults, twins and antiphase boundaries are some of the lattice defects found in these SiC films. These defects may be a partial cause of the disappointing performance reported for the prototype devices fabricated from beta-SiC films. The objective of this research is to relieve some of the thermal stress due to lattice mismatch when SiC is epitaxially grown on Si. The compliant substrate is a silicon membrane 2-4 microns thick. The CVD process includes the buffer layer which is grown at 1360 C followed by a very thin epitaxial growth of SiC. Then the temperature is raised to 1500 C for the subsequent growth of SiC. Since silicon melts at 1415 C, the SiC will be grown on molten Silicon which is absorbed by a porous graphite susceptor eliminating the SiC/Si interface. We suspect that this buffer layer will yield less stressed material to help in the epitaxial growth of SiC.

  9. Dip-coating of nano-sized CeO2 on SiC membrane and its effect on thermal diffusivity.

    PubMed

    Park, Jihye; Jung, Miewon

    2014-05-01

    CeO2-SiC mixed composite membrane was fabricated with porous SiC ceramic and cerium oxide powder synthesized by sol-gel process. This CeO2-SiC membrane and SiC membrane which is made by the purified SiC ceramic were pressed and sintered in Ar atmosphere. And then, the SiC membrane was dip-coated by cerium oxide precursor sol solution and heat-treated in air. The surface morphology, particle size, porosity and structure analysis of the mixing and dip-coating SiC membrane were monitored by FE-SEM and X-ray diffraction analysis. Surface area, pore volume and pore diameter were determined by BET instrument. Thermal diffusivity was measured by laser flash method with increasing temperature. The relation between porosity and thermal diffusivity from different preparation process has been discussed on this study.

  10. Interface and interaction of graphene layers on SiC(0001[combining macron]) covered with TiC(111) intercalation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Wang, Qiang; Huang, Jianmei; Li, Wei-Qi; Chen, Guang-Hui; Yang, Yanhui

    2017-10-11

    It is important to understand the interface and interaction between the graphene layer, titanium carbide [TiC(111)] interlayer, and silicon carbide [SiC(0001[combining macron])] substrates in epitaxial growth of graphene on silicon carbide (SiC) substrates. In this study, the fully relaxed interfaces which consist of up to three layers of TiC(111) coatings on the SiC(0001[combining macron]) as well as the graphene layers interactions with these TiC(111)/SiC(0001[combining macron]) were systematically studied using the density functional theory-D2 (DFT-D2) method. The results showed that the two layers of TiC(111) coating with the C/C-terminated interfaces were thermodynamically more favorable than one or three layers of TiC(111) on the SiC(0001[combining macron]). Furthermore, the bonding of the Ti-hollow-site stacked interfaces would be a stronger link than that of the Ti-Fcc-site stacked interfaces. However, the formation of the C/Ti/C and Ti/C interfaces implied that the first upper carbon layer can be formed on TiC(111)/SiC(0001[combining macron]) using the decomposition of the weaker Ti-C and C-Si interfacial bonds. When growing graphene layers on these TiC(111)/SiC(0001[combining macron]) substrates, the results showed that the interaction energy depended not only on the thickness of the TiC(111) interlayer, but also on the number of graphene layers. Bilayer graphene on the two layer thick TiC(111)/SiC(0001[combining macron]) was thermodynamically more favorable than a monolayer or trilayer graphene on these TiC(111)/SiC(0001[combining macron]) substrates. The adsorption energies of the bottom graphene layers with the TiC(111)/SiC(0001[combining macron]) substrates increased with the decrease of the interface vertical distance. The interaction energies between the bottom, second and third layers of graphene on the TiC(111)/SiC(0001[combining macron]) were significantly higher than that of the freestanding graphene layers. All of these findings provided

  11. Aluminum acceptor four particle bound exciton complex in 4H, 6H, and 3C SiC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clemen, L. L.; Devaty, R. P.; Macmillan, M. F.; Yoganathan, M.; Choyke, W. J.; Larkin, D. J.; Powell, J. A.; Edmond, J. A.; Kong, H. S.

    1993-01-01

    Evidence is presented for a four particle acceptor complex in 3C, 6H, and 4H SiC, obtained in low-temperature photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence experiments. The new lines were observed in p-type films lightly doped with aluminum, of 6H, 4H, and 3C SiC grown on the silicon (0001) face of 6H SiC under special conditions. The lines increase in intensity as more aluminum is added during growth. The multiplicity of observed lines is consistent with symmetry-based models similar to those which have been proposed to describe 4A centers in p-type zincblende semiconductors.

  12. Hypervariability generated by natural selection in an extracellular complement-inhibiting protein of serotype M1 strains of group A Streptococcus.

    PubMed

    Stockbauer, K E; Grigsby, D; Pan, X; Fu, Y X; Mejia, L M; Cravioto, A; Musser, J M

    1998-03-17

    In many countries, M1 strains of the human pathogenic bacterium group A Streptococcus are the most common serotype recovered from patients with invasive disease episodes. Strains of this serotype express an extracellular protein that inhibits complement [streptococcal inhibitor of complement (Sic)] and is therefore believed to be a virulence factor. Comparative sequence analysis of the 915-bp sic gene in 165 M1 organisms recovered from diverse localities and infection types identified 62 alleles. Inasmuch as multilocus enzyme electrophoresis and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis previously showed that most M1 organisms represent a distinct streptococcal clone, the extent of sic gene polymorphism was unexpected. The level of polymorphism greatly exceeds that recorded for all other genes examined in serotype M1 strains. All insertions and deletions are in frame, and virtually all nucleotide substitutions alter the amino acid sequence of the Sic protein. These molecular features indicate that structural change in Sic is mediated by natural selection. Study of 70 strains recovered from two temporally distinct epidemics of streptococcal infections in the former East Germany found little sharing of Sic variants among strains recovered in the different time periods. Taken together, the data indicate that sic is a uniquely variable gene and provide insight into a potential molecular mechanism contributing to fluctuations in streptococcal disease frequency and severity.

  13. A study of metal-ceramic wettability in SiC-Al using dynamic melt infiltration of SiC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asthana, R.; Rohatgi, P. K.

    1993-01-01

    Pressure-assisted infiltration with a 2014 Al alloy of plain and Cu-coated single crystal platelets of alpha silicon carbide was used to study particulate wettability under dynamic conditions relevant to pressure casting of metal-matrix composites. The total penetration length of infiltrant metal in porous compacts was measured at the conclusion of solidification as a function of pressure, infiltration time, and SiC size for both plain and Cu-coated SiC. The experimental data were analyzed to obtain a threshold pressure for the effect of melt intrusion through SiC compacts. The threshold pressure was taken either directly as a measure of wettability or converted to an effective wetting angle using the Young-Laplace capillary equation. Cu coating resulted in partial but beneficial improvements in wettability as a result of its dissolution in the melt, compared to uncoated SiC.

  14. Distribution of Pd, Ag & U in the SiC Layer of an Irradiated TRISO Fuel Particle

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas M. Lillo; Isabella J. van Rooyen

    2014-08-01

    The distribution of silver, uranium and palladium in the silicon carbide (SiC) layer of an irradiated TRISO fuel particle was studied using samples extracted from the SiC layer using focused ion beam (FIB) techniques. Transmission electron microscopy in conjunction with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy was used to identify the presence of the specific elements of interest at grain boundaries, triple junctions and precipitates in the interior of SiC grains. Details on sample fabrication, errors associated with measurements of elemental migration distances and the distances migrated by silver, palladium and uranium in the SiC layer of an irradiated TRISO particle frommore » the AGR-1 program are reported.« less

  15. Study on micro-hardness of electroless composite plating of Ni-P with SiC Nano-particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yong; Zhang, Zhaoguo; Li, Jiamin; Xu, Donghui

    2007-07-01

    In this paper, a Ni-P electroless composite coating containing nano SiC particles was produced. The wearability of the composite coating was studied. Temperature, PH of the plating liquid and the concentration of SiC nanoparticles in the plating liquid were taken as parameters and the experiment with three factors and five levels was designed through the method of quadratic orthogonal rotation combination. SiC nanoparticles were dispersed by ultrasonic. The influence of the testing parameters on the hardness of the coating was studied intensively. The optimal parameters were obtained when the temperature is 86+/-1°C, PH is 6+/-0.5 and the concentration of SiC nanoparticles is 6g/L. The maximal hardness of the coating is over 1700HV after heat treatment.

  16. Effects of UV light intensity on electrochemical wet etching of SiC for the fabrication of suspended graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O, Ryong-Sok; Takamura, Makoto; Furukawa, Kazuaki; Nagase, Masao; Hibino, Hiroki

    2015-03-01

    We report on the effects of UV light intensity on the photo assisted electrochemical wet etching of SiC(0001) underneath an epitaxially grown graphene for the fabrication of suspended structures. The maximum etching rate of SiC(0001) was 2.5 µm/h under UV light irradiation in 1 wt % KOH at a constant current of 0.5 mA/cm2. The successful formation of suspended structures depended on the etching rate of SiC. In the Raman spectra of the suspended structures, we did not observe a significant increase in the intensity of the D peak, which originates from defects in graphene sheets. This is most likely explained by the high quality of the single-crystalline graphene epitaxially grown on SiC.

  17. Microstructure, hardness and modulus of carbon-ion-irradiated new SiC fiber (601-4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Qing; Lei, Guanhong; Liu, Renduo; Li, Jianjian; Yan, Long; Li, Cheng; Liu, Weihua; Wang, Mouhua

    2018-05-01

    Two types of SiC fibers, one is low-oxygen and carbon-rich fiber denoted by 601-4 and the other is low-oxygen and near-stoichiometric Tyranno SA, were irradiated with 450 keV C+ ions at room temperature. The Raman spectra indicate that irradiation induced distortion and amorphization of SiC crystallites in fibers. TEM characterization of Tyranno SA suggests that SiC crystallites undergo a continued fragmentation into smaller crystalline islands and a continued increase of surrounding amorphous structure. The SiC nano-crystallites (<15 nm) in 601-4 fiber are more likely to be amorphized than larger crystallites (∼200 nm) in Tyranno SA. The hardness and modulus of 601-4 continuously decreases with increasing fluence, while that of Tyranno SA first increases and then decreases.

  18. Electromagnetic interference shielding performance of nano-layered Ti3SiC2 ceramics at high-temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Sigong; Tan, Yongqiang; Xue, Jiaxiang; Liu, Tong; Zhou, Xiaosong; Zhang, Haibin

    2018-01-01

    The X-band electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding properties of nano-layered Ti3SiC2 ceramics were evaluated from room temperature up to 800°C in order to explore the feasibility of Ti3SiC2 as efficient high temperature EMI shielding material. It was found that Ti3SiC2 exhibits satisfactory EMI shielding effectiveness (SE) close to 30 dB at room temperature and the EMI SE shows good temperature stability. The remarkable EMI shielding properties of Ti3SiC2 can be mainly attributed to high electrical conductivity, high dielectric loss and more importantly the multiple reflections due to the layered structure.

  19. Performance evaluation of a high power DC-DC boost converter for PV applications using SiC power devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almasoudi, Fahad M.; Alatawi, Khaled S.; Matin, Mohammad

    2016-09-01

    The development of Wide band gap (WBG) power devices has been attracted by many commercial companies to be available in the market because of their enormous advantages over the traditional Si power devices. An example of WBG material is SiC, which offers a number of advantages over Si material. For example, SiC has the ability of blocking higher voltages, reducing switching and conduction losses and supports high switching frequency. Consequently, SiC power devices have become the affordable choice for high frequency and power application. The goal of this paper is to study the performance of 4.5 kW, 200 kHz, 600V DC-DC boost converter operating in continuous conduction mode (CCM) for PV applications. The switching behavior and turn on and turn off losses of different switching power devices such as SiC MOSFET, SiC normally ON JFET and Si MOSFET are investigated and analyzed. Moreover, a detailed comparison is provided to show the overall efficiency of the DC-DC boost converter with different switching power devices. It is found that the efficiency of SiC power switching devices are higher than the efficiency of Si-based switching devices due to low switching and conduction losses when operating at high frequencies. According to the result, the performance of SiC switching power devices dominate the conventional Si power devices in terms of low losses, high efficiency and high power density. Accordingly, SiC power switching devices are more appropriate for PV applications where a converter of smaller size with high efficiency, and cost effective is required.

  20. Enhancing Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Epoxy Nanocomposites via Alignment of Magnetized SiC Whiskers.

    PubMed

    Townsend, James; Burtovyy, Ruslan; Aprelev, Pavel; Kornev, Konstantin G; Luzinov, Igor

    2017-07-12

    This research is focused on the fabrication and properties of epoxy nanocomposites containing magnetized SiC whiskers (MSiCWs). To this end, we report an original strategy for fabrication of magnetically active SiCWs by decorating the whiskers with magnetic (iron oxide) nanoparticles via polymer-polymer (poly(acrylic acid)/poly(2-vinyl pyridine)) complexation. The obtained whiskers demonstrated a substantial magnetic response in the polymerizing epoxy resin, with application of only a 20 mT (200 G) magnetic field. We also found that the whiskers chemically reacted with the epoxy resin, causing formation of an extended interphase near the boundary of the whiskers. The SiC whiskers oriented with the magnetic field demonstrated positive effects on the behavior of epoxy-based nanocomposites. Namely, the aligned MSiCWs enhanced the thermomechanical properties of the materials significantly above that of the neat epoxy and epoxy nanocomposite, with randomly oriented whiskers.

  1. Vacuum brazing of high volume fraction SiC particles reinforced aluminum matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Dongfeng; Niu, Jitai; Gao, Zeng; Wang, Peng

    2015-03-01

    This experiment chooses A356 aluminum matrix composites containing 55% SiC particle reinforcing phase as the parent metal and Al-Si-Cu-Zn-Ni alloy metal as the filler metal. The brazing process is carried out in vacuum brazing furnace at the temperature of 550°C and 560°C for 3 min, respectively. The interfacial microstructures and fracture surfaces are investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy spectrum analysis (EDS). The result shows that adequacy of element diffusion are superior when brazing at 560°C, because of higher activity and liquidity. Dislocations and twins are observed at the interface between filler and composite due to the different expansion coefficient of the aluminum alloy matrix and SiC particles. The fracture analysis shows that the brittle fracture mainly located at interface of filler and composites.

  2. In-pile Hydrothermal Corrosion Evaluation of Coated SiC Ceramics and Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, David; Ang, Caen; Katoh, Yutai

    2017-09-01

    Hydrothermal corrosion accelerated by water radiolysis during normal operation is among the most critical technical feasibility issues remaining for silicon carbide (SiC) composite-based cladding that could provide enhanced accident-tolerance fuel technology for light water reactors. An integrated in-pile test was developed and performed to determine the synergistic effects of neutron irradiation, radiolysis, and pressurized water flow, all of which are relevant to a typical pressurized water reactor (PWR). The test specimens were chosen to cover a range of SiC materials and a variety of potential options for environmental barrier coatings. This document provides a summary of the irradiation vehicle design,more » operations of the experiment, and the specimen loading into the irradiation vehicle.« less

  3. Platinum-catalyzed hydrolysis etching of SiC in water: A density functional theory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Bui, Pho; Toh, Daisetsu; Isohashi, Ai; Matsuyama, Satoshi; Inagaki, Kouji; Sano, Yasuhisa; Yamauchi, Kazuto; Morikawa, Yoshitada

    2018-05-01

    A comprehensive study of the physicochemical interactions and the reaction mechanism of SiC etching with water by Pt catalysts can reveal key details about the surface treatment and catalytic phenomena at interfaces. Therefore, density functional theory simulations were performed to study the kinetics of Pt-assisted water dissociation and breaking of a Si–C bond compared to the HF-assisted mechanism. These calculations carefully considered the elastic and chemical interaction energies at the Pt–SiC interface, activation barriers of Si–C bond dissociation, and the catalytic role of Pt. It was found that the Pt-catalyzed etching of SiC in water is initiated via hydrolysis reactions that break the topmost Si–C bonds. The activation barrier strongly depends on the elastic and chemical interactions. However, chemical interactions are a dominant factor and mainly contribute to the lowering of the activation barrier, resulting in an increased rate of reaction.

  4. Precipitation Sequence of a SiC Particle Reinforced Al-Mg-Si Alloy Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Rujuan; Wang, Yihan; Guo, Baisong; Song, Min

    2016-11-01

    In this study, the precipitation sequence of a 5 vol.% SiC particles reinforced Al-1.12 wt.%Mg-0.77 wt.%Si alloy composite fabricated by traditional powder metallurgy method was investigated by transmission electron microscopy and hardness measurements. The results indicated that the addition of SiC reinforcements not only suppresses the initial aging stage but also influences the subsequent precipitates. The precipitation sequence of the composite aged at 175 °C can be described as: Guinier-Preston (G.P.) zone → β″ → β' → B', which was confirmed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. This work might provide the guidance for the design and fabrication of hardenable automobile body sheet by Al-based composites with enhanced mechanical properties.

  5. Controllable growth of vertically aligned graphene on C-face SiC

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yu; Chen, Lianlian; Hilliard, Donovan

    We investigated how to control the growth of vertically aligned graphene on C-face SiC by varying the processing conditions. It is found that, the growth rate scales with the annealing temperature and the graphene height is proportional to the annealing time. Temperature gradient and crystalline quality of the SiC substrates influence their vaporization. The partial vapor pressure is crucial as it can interfere with further vaporization. A growth mechanism is proposed in terms of physical vapor transport. The monolayer character of vertically aligned graphene is verified by Raman and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. With the processed samples, d 0 magnetism ismore » realized and negative magnetoresistance is observed after Cu implantation. We also prove that multiple carriers exist in vertically aligned graphene.« less

  6. Growth and characterization of cubic SiC single-crystal films on Si

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, J. Anthony; Matus, L. G.; Kuczmarski, Maria A.

    1987-01-01

    Morphological and electrical characterization results are presented for cubic SiC films grown by chemical vapor deposition on single-crystal Si substrates. The films, up to 40 microns thick, were characterized by optical microscopy, (SEM), (TEM), electron channeling, surface profilometry, and Hall measurements. A variety of morphological features observed on the SiC films are described. Electrical measurements showed a decrease in the electron mobility with increasing electron carrier concentration, similar to that observed in Si. Room-temperature electron mobilities up to 520 sq cm/V-s (at an electron carrier concentration of 5 x 10 to the 16th/cu cm) were measured. Finally, a number of parameters believed to be important in the growth process were investigated, and some discussion is given of their possible effects on the film characteristics.

  7. Growth and characterization of cubic SiC single-crystal films on Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, J. Anthony; Matus, L. G.; Kuczmarski, Maria A.

    1987-06-01

    Morphological and electrical characterization results are presented for cubic SiC films grown by chemical vapor deposition on single-crystal Si substrates. The films, up to 40 microns thick, were characterized by optical microscopy, (SEM), (TEM), electron channeling, surface profilometry, and Hall measurements. A variety of morphological features observed on the SiC films are described. Electrical measurements showed a decrease in the electron mobility with increasing electron carrier concentration, similar to that observed in Si. Room-temperature electron mobilities up to 520 sq cm/V-s (at an electron carrier concentration of 5 x 10 to the 16th/cu cm) were measured. Finally, a number of parameters believed to be important in the growth process were investigated, and some discussion is given of their possible effects on the film characteristics.

  8. Controllable growth of vertically aligned graphene on C-face SiC

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Yu; Chen, Lianlian; Hilliard, Donovan; ...

    2016-10-06

    We investigated how to control the growth of vertically aligned graphene on C-face SiC by varying the processing conditions. It is found that, the growth rate scales with the annealing temperature and the graphene height is proportional to the annealing time. Temperature gradient and crystalline quality of the SiC substrates influence their vaporization. The partial vapor pressure is crucial as it can interfere with further vaporization. A growth mechanism is proposed in terms of physical vapor transport. The monolayer character of vertically aligned graphene is verified by Raman and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. With the processed samples, d 0 magnetism ismore » realized and negative magnetoresistance is observed after Cu implantation. We also prove that multiple carriers exist in vertically aligned graphene.« less

  9. Experimental processing and the effects of cenosphere on some mechanical properties of Al6061-SiC composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashoka, E.; Sharanaprabhu, C. M.; Krishnaraja, G. Kodancha; Kudari, S. K.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, stir casting technique was utilized to fabricate the hybrid Aluminium alloy (Al 6061) metal matrix reinforced with silicon carbide (SiC) and cenosphere particulates. An Al6061-SiC-Cenosphere hybrid composite is selected with 3wt% of silicon carbide and 3wt%, 6wt% and 9wt% proportions of cenosphere particulates. The uniform distribution of these two reinforcement particulates in Al6061matrix was achieved by stirring and pouring the hybrid composite mixture into the steel mould to accomplish the rectangular shaped casting. These various hybrid composites were studied with respect to its microstructure and some mechanical properties. The rectangular shaped casting of various hybrid composites was machined according to ASTM tensile specimens standards to estimate some mechanical properties. For various cast hybrid composites a comparative study is done with respect to modulus of elasticity, yield stress, percentage elongation and microhardness. Finally, the distribution of particulates and the nature of the tensile specimen fractured surface of various hybrid composites were understood using scanning electron microscope.

  10. In-situ synchrotron x-ray study of MgB2 formation when doped by SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrahamsen, A. B.; Grivel, J.-C.; Andersen, N. H.; Herrmann, M.; Häßler, W.; Birajdar, B.; Eibl, O.; Saksl, K.

    2008-02-01

    We have studied the evolution of the reaction xMg + 2B + ySiC → zMg1-p(B1-qCq)2 + yMg2Si in samples of 1, 2, 5 and 10 wt% SiC doping. We found a coincident formation of MgB2 and Mg2Si, whereas the crystalline part of the SiC nano particles is not reacting at all. Evidence for incorporation of carbon into the MgB2 phase was established from the decrease of the a-axis lattice parameter upon increasing SiC doping. An estimate of the MgB2 lower limit grain size was found to decrease from L100 = 795 Å and L002 = 337 Å at 1 wt% SiC to L100 = 227 Å and L002= 60 Å at 10 wt% SiC. Thus superconductivity might be suppressed at 10 wt% SiC doping due to the grain size approaching the coherence length.

  11. Light and Strong Hierarchical Porous SiC Foam for Efficient Electromagnetic Interference Shielding and Thermal Insulation at Elevated Temperatures.

    PubMed

    Liang, Caiyun; Wang, Zhenfeng; Wu, Lina; Zhang, Xiaochen; Wang, Huan; Wang, Zhijiang

    2017-09-06

    A novel light but strong SiC foam with hierarchical porous architecture was fabricated by using dough as raw material via carbonization followed by carbothermal reduction with silicon source. A significant synergistic effect is achieved by embedding meso- and nanopores in a microsized porous skeleton, which endows the SiC foam with high-performance electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding, thermal insulation, and mechanical properties. The microsized skeleton withstands high stress. The meso- and nanosized pores enhance multiple reflection of the incident electromagnetic waves and elongate the path of heat transfer. For the hierarchical porous SiC foam with 72.8% porosity, EMI shielding can be higher than 20 dB, and specific EMI effectiveness exceeds 24.8 dB·cm 3 ·g -1 at a frequency of 11 GHz at 25-600 °C, which is 3 times higher than that of dense SiC ceramic. The thermal conductivity reaches as low as 0.02 W·m -1 ·K -1 , which is comparable to that of aerogel. The compressive strength is as high as 9.8 MPa. Given the chemical and high-temperature stability of SiC, the fabricated SiC foam is a promising candidate for modern aircraft and automobile applications.

  12. Enhanced thermoelectric properties of nano SiC dispersed Bi2Sr2Co2Oy Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Qiujun; Wang, Kunlun; Zhang, Yingjiu; Li, Xinjian; Song, Hongzhang

    2018-04-01

    The thermoelectric properties of Bi2Sr2Co2Oy + x wt% nano SiC (x = 0.00, 0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3) prepared by the solid-state reaction method were investigated from 300 K to 923 K. The resistivity can be reduced effectively by adding a small amount of SiC nano particles, which is attributed to the increase of the carrier concentration. At the same time, the Seebeck coefficients can be improved effectively due to the energy filtering effect that low energy carriers are strongly dispersed at the interface between the SiC nano particles and the matrix. The decrease of thermal conductivity is due to the increase of the scattering ability of the phonons by the SiC nanoparticles distributed at the boundary of the matrix. As a result, the Bi2Sr2Co2Oy + x wt% SiC composites exhibit better thermoelectric properties. The maximum ZT value 0.24 is obtained when x = 0.05 at 923 K. Compared with the sample without SiC nano particles, the ZT value is increased by about 59.7%.

  13. SiC detectors to monitor ionizing radiations emitted from nuclear events and plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrisi, L.; Cannavò, A.

    2016-09-01

    Silicon Carbide (SiC) semiconductor detectors are increasingly employed in Nuclear Physics for their advantages with respect to traditional silicon (Si). Such detectors show an energy resolution, charge mobility, response velocity and detection efficiency similar to Si detectors. However, the higher band gap (3.26 eV), the lower leakage current (∼10 pA) maintained also at room temperature, the higher radiation hardness and the higher density with respect to Si represent some indisputable advantages characterizing such detectors. The devices can be employed at high temperatures, at high absorbed doses and in the case of high visible light intensities, for example, in plasma, for limited exposition times without damage. Generally SiC Schottky diodes are employed in reverse polarization with an active region depth of the order of 100 µm, purity below 1014 cm-3 and an active area lower than 1 cm2. Measurements in the regime of proportionality with the radiation energy released in the active region and measurements in time-of-flight configuration are employed for nuclear emission events produced at both low and high fluences. Alpha spectra demonstrated an energy resolution of about 1.3% at 5.8 MeV. Radiation emission from laser-generated plasma can be monitored in terms of detected photons, electrons and ions, using the laser pulse as a start signal and the radiation detection as a stop signal, enabling to measure the ion velocity by knowing the target-detector flight distance. SiC spectra acquired in the Messina University laboratories using radioactive ion sources and at the PALS laboratory facility in Prague (Czech Republic) are presented. A preliminary study of the use of SiC detectors, embedded in a water equivalent polymer, as a dosimeter is presented and discussed.

  14. Scanning electron microscopy of the surfaces of ion implanted SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malherbe, Johan B.; van der Berg, N. G.; Kuhudzai, R. J.; Hlatshwayo, T. T.; Thabethe, T. T.; Odutemowo, O. S.; Theron, C. C.; Friedland, E.; Botha, A. J.; Wendler, E.

    2015-07-01

    This paper gives a brief review of radiation damage caused by particle (ions and neutrons) bombardment in SiC at different temperatures, and its annealing, with an expanded discussion on the effects occurring on the surface. The surface effects were observed using SEM (scanning electron microscopy) with an in-lens detector and EBSD (electron backscatter diffraction). Two substrates were used, viz. single crystalline 6H-SiC wafers and polycrystalline SiC, where the majority of the crystallites were 3C-SiC. The surface modification of the SiC samples by 360 keV ion bombardment was studied at temperatures below (i.e. room temperature), just at (i.e. 350 °C), or above (i.e. 600 °C) the critical temperature for amorphization of SiC. For bombardment at a temperature at about the critical temperature an extra step, viz. post-bombardment annealing, was needed to ascertain the microstructure of bombarded layer. Another aspect investigated was the effect of annealing of samples with an ion bombardment-induced amorphous layer on a 6H-SiC substrate. SEM could detect that this layer started to crystalize at 900 °C. The resulting topography exhibited a dependence on the ion species. EBSD showed that the crystallites forming in the amorphized layer were 3C-SiC and not 6H-SiC as the substrate. The investigations also pointed out the behaviour of the epitaxial regrowth of the amorphous layer from the 6H-SiC interface.

  15. Dimensional isotropy of 6H and 3C SiC under neutron irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Snead, Lance L.; Katoh, Yutai; Koyanagi, Takaaki

    2016-01-16

    This investigation experimentally determines the as-irradiated crystal axes dimensional change of the common polytypes of SiC considered for nuclear application. Single crystal α-SiC (6H), β-SiC (3C), CVD β-SiC, and single crystal Si have been neutron irradiated near 60 °C from 2 × 10 23 to 2 × 10 26 n/m 2 (E > 0.1 MeV), or about 0.02–20 dpa, in order to study the effect of irradiation on bulk swelling and strain along independent crystalline axes. Single crystal, powder diffractometry and density measurement have been carried out. For all neutron doses where the samples remained crystalline all SiC materials demonstratedmore » equivalent swelling behavior. Moreover the 6H–SiC expanded isotropically. The magnitude of the swelling followed a ~0.77 power law against dose consistent with a microstructure evolution driven by single interstitial (carbon) mobility. Extraordinarily large ~7.8% volume expansion in SiC was observed prior to amorphization. Above ~0.9 × 10 25 n/m 2 (E > 0.1 MeV) all SiC materials became amorphous with an identical swelling: a 11.7% volume expansion, lowering the density to 2.84 g/cm 3. As a result, the as-amorphized density was the same at the 2 × 10 25 and 2 × 10 26 n/m 2 (E > 0.1 MeV) dose levels.« less

  16. SiC Recession Due to SiO2 Scale Volatility Under Combustor Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Raymond Craig

    1997-01-01

    One of today's most important and challenging technological problems is the development of advanced materials and processes required to design and build a fleet of supersonic High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) airliners, a follow-up to the Concorde SST. The innovative combustor designs required for HSCT engines will need high-temperature materials with long-term environmental stability. Higher combustor liner temperatures than today's engines and the need for lightweight materials will require the use of advanced ceramic-matrix composites (CMC's) in hot-section components. The HSCT is just one example being used to demonstrate the need for such materials. This thesis evaluates silicon carbide (SiC) as a potential base material for HSCT and other similar applications. Key issues are the environmental durability for the materials of interest. One of the leading combustor design schemes leads to an environment which will contain both oxidizing and reducing gas mixtures. The concern is that these environments may affect the stability of the silica (SiO2) scale on which SiC depends for environmental protection. A unique High Pressure Burner Rig (HPBR) was developed to simulate the combustor conditions of future gas turbine engines, and a series of tests were conducted on commercially available SiC material. These tests are intended as a feasibility study for the use of these materials in applications such as the HSCT. Linear weight loss and surface recession of the SiC is observed as a result of SiO2 volatility for both fuel-lean and fuel-rich gas mixtures. These observations are compared and agree well with thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) experiments. A strong Arrhenius-type temperature dependence exists. In addition, the secondary dependencies of pressure and gas velocity are defined. As a result, a model is developed to enable extrapolation to points outside the experimental space of the burner rig, and in particular, to potential gas turbine engine conditions.

  17. Driving force of stacking-fault formation in SiC p-i-n diodes.

    PubMed

    Ha, S; Skowronski, M; Sumakeris, J J; Paisley, M J; Das, M K

    2004-04-30

    The driving force of stacking-fault expansion in SiC p-i-n diodes was investigated using optical emission microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The stacking-fault expansion and properties of the partial dislocations were inconsistent with any stress as the driving force. A thermodynamic free energy difference between the perfect and a faulted structure is suggested as a plausible driving force in the tested diodes, indicating that hexagonal polytypes of silicon carbide are metastable at room temperature.

  18. High Power Silicon Carbide (SiC) Power Processing Unit Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheidegger, Robert J.; Santiago, Walter; Bozak, Karin E.; Pinero, Luis R.; Birchenough, Arthur G.

    2015-01-01

    NASA GRC successfully designed, built and tested a technology-push power processing unit for electric propulsion applications that utilizes high voltage silicon carbide (SiC) technology. The development specifically addresses the need for high power electronics to enable electric propulsion systems in the 100s of kilowatts. This unit demonstrated how high voltage combined with superior semiconductor components resulted in exceptional converter performance.

  19. A Highly intense DC muon source, MuSIC and muon CLFV search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hino, Y.; Kuno, Y.; Sato, A.; Sakamoto, H.; Matsumoto, Y.; Tran, N. H.; Hashim, I. H.; Fukuda, M.; Hayashida, Y.; Ogitsu, T.; Yamamoto, A.; Yoshida, M.

    2014-08-01

    MuSIC is a new muon facility, which provides the world's highest intense muon beam with continuous time structure at Research Center of Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University. It's intensity is designed to be 108 muons per second with only 0.4 kW proton beam. Such a high intense muon beam is very important for searches of rare decay processes, for example search for the muon to electron conversion.

  20. Towards an Optimal Gradient-dependent Energy Functional of the PZ-SIC Form

    DOE PAGES

    Jónsson, Elvar Örn; Lehtola, Susi; Jónsson, Hannes

    2015-06-01

    Results of Perdew–Zunger self-interaction corrected (PZ-SIC) density functional theory calculations of the atomization energy of 35 molecules are compared to those of high-level quantum chemistry calculations. While the PBE functional, which is commonly used in calculations of condensed matter, is known to predict on average too high atomization energy (overbinding of the molecules), the application of PZ-SIC gives a large overcorrection and leads to significant underestimation of the atomization energy. The exchange enhancement factor that is optimal for the generalized gradient approximation within the Kohn-Sham (KS) approach may not be optimal for the self-interaction corrected functional. The PBEsol functional, wheremore » the exchange enhancement factor was optimized for solids, gives poor results for molecules in KS but turns out to work better than PBE in PZ-SIC calculations. The exchange enhancement is weaker in PBEsol and the functional is closer to the local density approximation. Furthermore, the drop in the exchange enhancement factor for increasing reduced gradient in the PW91 functional gives more accurate results than the plateaued enhancement in the PBE functional. A step towards an optimal exchange enhancement factor for a gradient dependent functional of the PZ-SIC form is taken by constructing an exchange enhancement factor that mimics PBEsol for small values of the reduced gradient, and PW91 for large values. The average atomization energy is then in closer agreement with the high-level quantum chemistry calculations, but the variance is still large, the F 2 molecule being a notable outlier.« less

  1. SiC Sensors in Extreme Environments: Real-time Hydrogen Monitoring for Energy Plant Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Ruby

    2008-03-01

    Clean, efficient energy production, such as the gasification of coal (syngas), requires physical and chemical sensors for exhaust gas monitoring as well as real-time control of the combustion process. Wide-bandgap semiconducting materials systems can meet the sensing demands in these extreme environments consisting of chemically corrosive gases at high temperature and pressure. We have developed a SiC based micro-sensor for detection of hydrogen containing species with millisecond response at 600 C. The sensor is a Pt-SiO2-SiC device with a dense Pt catalytic sensing film, capable of withstanding months of continuous high temperature operation. The device was characterized in robust sensing module that is compatible with an industrial reactor. We report on the performance of the SiC sensor in a simulated syngas ambient at 370 C containing the common interferants CO2, CH4 and CO [1]. In addition we demonstrate that hours of exposure to >=1000 ppm H2S and 15% water vapor does not degrade the sensor performance. To elucidate the mechanisms responsible for the hydrogen response of the sensor we have modeled the hydrogen adsorptions kinetics at the internal Pt-SiO2 interface, using both the Tempkin and Langmuir isotherms. Under the conditions appropriate for energy plant applications, the response of our sensor is significantly larger than that obtained from ultra-high vacuum electrochemical sensor measurements at high temperatures. We will discuss the role of morphology, at the nano to micro scale, on the enhanced catalytic activity observed for our Pt sensing films in response to a heated hydrogen gas stream at atmospheric pressure. [1] R. Loloee, B. Chorpening, S. Beers & R. Ghosh, Hydrogen monitoring for power plant applications using SiC sensors, Sens. Actuators B:Chem. (2007), doi:10.1016/j.snb.2007.07.118

  2. Notes on the plasma resonance peak employed to determine doping in SiC

    DOE PAGES

    Engelbrecht, J. A. A.; van Rooyen, I. J.; Henry, A.; ...

    2015-07-23

    In this study, the doping level of a semiconductor material can be determined using the plasma resonance frequency to obtain the carrier concentration associated with doping. This paper provides an overview of the procedure for the three most common polytypes of SiC. Results for 3C-SiC are presented and discussed. In phosphorus doped samples analysed, it is submitted that the 2nd plasma resonance cannot be detected due to high values of the free carrier damping constant γ.

  3. Dispersion of nano-silicon carbide (SiC) powder in aqueous suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Bimal P.; Jena, Jayadev; Besra, Laxmidhar; Bhattacharjee, Sarama

    2007-10-01

    The dispersion characteristics of nanosize silicon carbide (SiC) suspension were investigated in terms of surface charge, particle size, rheological measurement and adsorption study. Ammonium polycarboxylate has been used as dispersant to stabilize the suspension. It was found that the isoelectric point (iep) of SiC powder was pHiep (4.9). The surface charge of powder changed significantly in presence of the ammonium polycarboxylate dispersant and iep shifted significantly towards lower acidic pH (3.6). The shift in iep has been quantified in terms of Δ G 0 SP, the specific free energy of adsorption between the surface sites and the adsorbing polyelectrolyte (APC). The values of Δ G 0 SP (-10.85 RT unit) estimated by the electro kinetic data compare well with those obtained from adsorption isotherms (-9.521 RT unit). The experimentally determined optimum concentration of dispersant required for maximizing the dispersion was found to be 2.4 mg/g of SiC (corresponding to an adsorbed amount of 1.10 mg/g), at pH 7.5. This is much below the full monolayer coverage (corresponding to adsorbed amount of 1.75 mg/g) of the particles surface by the dispersant. The surface charge quantity, rheological, pH, electro kinetic and adsorption isotherm results were used to explain and correlate the stability of the nanosize silicon carbide in aqueous media. At pH 7.5, where both SiC surface and APC are negatively charged, the adsorption of APC was low because of limited availability of favourable adsorption sites. In addition, the brush-like configuration of the adsorbed polymer prevented close approach of any additional dispersant; hence stabilization of the slurry happens at a comparatively lower concentration than the monolayer coverage.

  4. SiC Design Guide: Manufacture of Silicon Carbide Products (Briefing charts)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-08

    DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Presented at Mirror Technology Days, Boulder...coatings. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Mirrors , structures, silicon carbide, design, inserts, coatings, pockets, ribs, bonding, threads 16. SECURITY...Prescribed by ANSI Std. 239.18 purify protect transport SiC Design Guide Manufacture of Silicon Carbide Products Mirror Technology Days June 7 to 9, 2010

  5. Behavior of HfB2-SiC Materials in Simulated Re-Entry Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellerby, Don; Beckman, Sarah; Irby, Edward; Johnson, Sylvia M.; Gunsman, Michael; Gasch, Matthew; Ridge, Jerry; Martinez, Ed; Squire, Tom; Olejniczak, Joe

    2003-01-01

    The objectives of this research are to: 1) Investigate the oxidation/ablation behavior of HfB2/SiC materials in simulated re-entry environments; 2) Use the arc jet test results to define appropriate use environments for these materials for use in vehicle design. The parameters to be investigated include: surface temperature, stagnation pressure, duration, number of cycles, and thermal stresses.

  6. Construction Progress of the S-IC Test Stand-Steel Reinforcements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1961-01-01

    At its founding, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) inherited the Army's Jupiter and Redstone test stands, but much larger facilities were needed for the giant stages of the Saturn V. From 1960 to 1964, the existing stands were remodeled and a sizable new test area was developed. The new comprehensive test complex for propulsion and structural dynamics was unique within the nation and the free world, and they remain so today because they were constructed with foresight to meet the future as well as on going needs. Construction of the S-IC Static test stand complex began in 1961 in the west test area of MSFC, and was completed in 1964. The S-IC static test stand was designed to develop and test the 138-ft long and 33-ft diameter Saturn V S-IC first stage, or booster stage, weighing in at 280,000 pounds. Required to hold down the brute force of a 7,500,000-pound thrust produced by 5 F-1 engines, the S-IC static test stand was designed and constructed with the strength of hundreds of tons of steel and 12,000,000 pounds of cement, planted down to bedrock 40 feet below ground level. The foundation walls, constructed with concrete and steel, are 4 feet thick. The base structure consists of four towers with 40-foot-thick walls extending upward 144 feet above ground level. The structure was topped by a crane with a 135-foot boom. With the boom in the upright position, the stand was given an overall height of 405 feet, placing it among the highest structures in Alabama at the time. This photo, taken September 15, 1961, shows the installation of the reinforcing steel prior to the pouring of the concrete foundation walls.

  7. Intelligent Gate Drive for Fast Switching and Crosstalk Suppression of SiC Devices

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Zheyu; Dix, Jeffery; Wang, Fei Fred; ...

    2017-01-19

    This study presents an intelligent gate drive for silicon carbide (SiC) devices to fully utilize their potential of high switching-speed capability in a phase-leg configuration. Based on the SiC device's intrinsic properties, a gate assist circuit consisting of two auxiliary transistors with two diodes is introduced to actively control gate voltages and gate loop impedances of both devices in a phase-leg configuration during different switching transients. Compared to conventional gate drives, the proposed circuit has the capability of accelerating the switching speed of the phase-leg power devices and suppressing the crosstalk to below device limits. Based on Wolfspeed 1200-V SiCmore » MOSFETs, the test results demonstrate the effectiveness of this intelligent gate drive under varying operating conditions. More importantly, the proposed intelligent gate assist circuitry is embedded into a gate drive integrated circuit, offering a simple, compact, and reliable solution for end-users to maximize benefits of SiC devices in actual power electronics applications.« less

  8. Intelligent Gate Drive for Fast Switching and Crosstalk Suppression of SiC Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Zheyu; Dix, Jeffery; Wang, Fei Fred

    This study presents an intelligent gate drive for silicon carbide (SiC) devices to fully utilize their potential of high switching-speed capability in a phase-leg configuration. Based on the SiC device's intrinsic properties, a gate assist circuit consisting of two auxiliary transistors with two diodes is introduced to actively control gate voltages and gate loop impedances of both devices in a phase-leg configuration during different switching transients. Compared to conventional gate drives, the proposed circuit has the capability of accelerating the switching speed of the phase-leg power devices and suppressing the crosstalk to below device limits. Based on Wolfspeed 1200-V SiCmore » MOSFETs, the test results demonstrate the effectiveness of this intelligent gate drive under varying operating conditions. More importantly, the proposed intelligent gate assist circuitry is embedded into a gate drive integrated circuit, offering a simple, compact, and reliable solution for end-users to maximize benefits of SiC devices in actual power electronics applications.« less

  9. Paralinear Oxidation of CVD SiC in Simulated Fuel-Rich Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Dennis S.; Opila, Elizabeth J.; Hann, Raiford E.

    2000-01-01

    The oxidation kinetics of CVD SiC were measured by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) in a 4H2 (central dot) 12H2O (central dot) 10CO (central dot) 7CO2 (central dot) 67N2 gas mixture flowing at 0.44 cm/s at temperatures between 1300 and 1450 C in fused quartz furnace tubes at I atm total pressure. The SiC was oxidized to form solid SiO2. At less than or = 1350 C, the SiO2 was in turn volatilized. Volatilization kinetics were consistent with the thermodynamic predictions based on SiO formation. These two simultaneous reactions resulted in overall paralinear kinetics. A curve fitting technique was used to determine the linear and parabolic rate constants from the paralinear kinetic data. Volatilization of the protective SiO2 scale resulted in accelerated consumption of SiC. Recession rates under conditions more representative of actual combustors were estimated from the furnace data.

  10. Melting of SiC powders preplaced duplex stainless steel using TIG welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maleque, M. A.; Afiq, M.

    2018-01-01

    TIG torch welding technique is a conventional melting technique for the cladding of metallic materials. Duplex stainless steels (DSS) show decrease in performance under aggressive environment which may lead to unanticipated failure due to poor surface properties. In this research, surface modification is done by using TIG torch method where silicon carbide (SiC) particles are fused into DSS substrate in order to form a new intermetallic compound at the surface. The effect of particle size, feed rate of SiC preplacement, energy input and shielding gas flow rate on surface topography, microstructure, microstructure and hardness are investigated. Deepest melt pool (1.237 mm) is produced via TIG torch with highest energy input of 1080 J/mm. Observations of surface topography shows rippling marks which confirms that re-solidification process has taken place. Melt microstructure consist of dendritic and globular carbides precipitate as well as partially melted silicon carbides (SiC) particles. Micro hardness recorded at value ranging from 316 HV0.5 to 1277 HV0.5 which shows increment from base hardness of 260 HV0.5kgf. The analyzed result showed that incorporation of silicon carbide particles via TIG Torch method increase the hardness of DSS.

  11. Safety and efficacy of fibrin glue versus infinity suture in SICS with extended scleral flap

    PubMed Central

    Ambastha, Anita; Kusumesh, Rakhi; Bhasker, Gyan; Sinha, Bibhuti Prassan

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: To study the safety and efficacy of biologic fibrin glue (FG) in comparison with infinity suture in SICS with compromised scleral flap. Methods: A retrospective comparative study of patients who were treated with FG (Group A) with 10–0 nylon (Group B) as sealing agent for intraoperative compromised tunnels in SICS. Parameters noted were postoperative inflammation, wound integrity, anterior chamber (AC) depth, intraocular pressure (IOP), and surgically induced astigmatism (SIA) at postoperative day 1, 4 weeks, 6 weeks, and 6 months, respectively. Epi Info 7 software and SIA calculator, Version 2.1 were used to analyze the result. Results: We reviewed the two groups of 18 patients each and noted that there was no statistically significant difference in postoperative inflammation (P > 0.05), AC depth (P > 0.05), and IOP (P > 0.05) between both groups at each postoperative visit. One patient in Group A showed postoperative shallow AC and subconjunctival bleb. Exposed sutures causing foreign body sensation had to be removed in five patients in Group B. At the end of 6-month postoperative period, no statistically significant difference was found in SIA (P = 0.92) between the two groups. Conclusion: Biologic FG can be safely used in securing the compromised scleral incisions in SICS. It also avoids suture-related complications. PMID:29676309

  12. Early implementation of SiC cladding fuel performance models in BISON

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, Jeffrey J.

    2015-09-18

    SiC-based ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) [5–8] are being developed and evaluated internationally as potential LWR cladding options. These development activities include interests within both the DOE-NE LWR Sustainability (LWRS) Program and the DOE-NE Advanced Fuels Campaign. The LWRS Program considers SiC ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) as offering potentially revolutionary gains as a cladding material, with possible benefits including more efficient normal operating conditions and higher safety margins under accident conditions [9]. Within the Advanced Fuels Campaign, SiC-based composites are a candidate ATF cladding material that could achieve several goals, such as reducing the rates of heat and hydrogen generation duemore » to lower cladding oxidation rates in HT steam [10]. This work focuses on the application of SiC cladding as an ATF cladding material in PWRs, but these work efforts also support the general development and assessment of SiC as an LWR cladding material in a much broader sense.« less

  13. The synthesis of nanostructured SiC from waste plastics and silicon powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ju, Zhicheng; Xu, Liqiang; Pang, Qiaolian; Xing, Zheng; Ma, Xiaojian; Qian, Yitai

    2009-09-01

    Waste plastics constitute a growing environmental problem. Therefore, the treatment of waste plastics should be considered. Here we synthesize 3C-SiC nanomaterials coexisting with amorphous graphite particles utilizing waste plastics and Si powder at 350-500 °C in a stainless steel autoclave. 3C-SiC could be finally obtained after refluxing with aqueous HClO4 (70 wt%) at 180 °C. X-ray powder diffraction patterns indicate that the product is 3C-SiC with the calculated lattice constant a = 4.36 Å. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images show that the SiC samples presented two morphologies: hexagonal platelets prepared by the waste detergent bottles or beverage bottles and nanowires prepared by waste plastic bags respectively. The corresponding selected area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern indicates that either the entire hexagonal platelet or the nanowire is single crystalline. High-resolution TEM shows the planar surfaces of the SiC platelet correspond to {111} planes; the lateral surfaces are {110} planes and the preferential growth direction of the nanowires is along [111]. The output of SiC was ~39% based on the amount of Si powder.

  14. SiC lightweight telescopes for advanced space applications. I - Mirror technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anapol, Michael I.; Hadfield, Peter

    1992-01-01

    A SiC based telescope is an extremely attractive emerging technology which offers the lightweight and stiffness features of beryllium, the optical performance of glass to diffraction limited visible resolution, superior optical/thermal stability to cryogenic temperatures, and the cost advantages of an aluminum telescope. SSG has developed various SiC mirrors with and without a silicon coating and tested these mirrors over temperature ranges from +50 C to -250 C. Our test results show less than 0.2 waves P-V in visible wavefront change and no hysteresis over this wide temperature range. Several SSG mirrors are representative of very lightweight SiC/Si mirrors including (1) a 9 cm diameter, high aspect ratio mirror weighing less than 30 grams and (2) a 23 cm diameter eggcrated mirror weighing less than 400 grams. SSG has also designed and analyzed a 0.6 meter SiC based, on axis, three mirror reimaging telescope in which the primary mirror weighs less than 6 kg and a 0.5 meter GOES-like scan mirror. SSG has also diamond turned several general aspheric SiC/Si mirrors with excellent cryo optical performance.

  15. Direct growth of freestanding GaN on C-face SiC by HVPE.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yuan; Shao, Yongliang; Wu, Yongzhong; Hao, Xiaopeng; Zhang, Lei; Dai, Yuanbin; Huo, Qin

    2015-06-02

    In this work, high quality GaN crystal was successfully grown on C-face 6H-SiC by HVPE using a two steps growth process. Due to the small interaction stress between the GaN and the SiC substrate, the GaN was self-separated from the SiC substrate even with a small thickness of about 100 μm. Moreover, the SiC substrate was excellent without damage after the whole process so that it can be repeatedly used in the GaN growth. Hot phosphoric acid etching (at 240 °C for 30 min) was employed to identify the polarity of the GaN layer. According to the etching results, the obtained layer was Ga-polar GaN. High-resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) were done to characterize the quality of the freestanding GaN. The Raman measurements showed that the freestanding GaN film grown on the C-face 6H-SiC was stress-free. The optical properties of the freestanding GaN layer were determined by photoluminescence (PL) spectra.

  16. Promising SiC support for Pd catalyst in selective hydrogenation of acetylene to ethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Zhanglong; Liu, Yuefeng; Liu, Yan; Chu, Wei

    2018-06-01

    In this study, SiC supported Pd nanoparticles were found to be an efficient catalyst in acetylene selective hydrogenation reaction. The ethylene selectivity can be about 20% higher than that on Pd/TiO2 catalyst at the same acetylene conversion at 90%. Moreover, Pd/SiC catalyst showed a stable catalytic life at 65 °C with 80% ethylene selectivity. With the detailed characterization using temperature-programmed reduction (H2-TPR), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), N2 adsorption/desorption analysis, CO-chemisorption and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), it was found that SiC owns a lower surface area (22.9 m2/g) and a broad distribution of meso-/macro-porosity (from 5 to 65 nm), which enhanced the mass transfer during the chemical process at high reaction rate and decreased the residence time of ethylene on catalyst surface. Importantly, SiC support has the high thermal conductivity, which favored the rapid temperature homogenization through the catalyst bed and inhabited the over-hydrogenation of acetylene. The surface electronic density of Pd on Pd/SiC catalyst was higher than that on Pd/TiO2, which could promote desorption of ethylene from surface of the catalyst. TGA results confirmed a much less coke deposition on Pd/SiC catalyst.

  17. Characterization of a n+3C/n−4H SiC heterojunction diode

    SciTech Connect

    Minamisawa, R. A.; Mihaila, A.; Farkas, I.

    We report on the fabrication of n + 3C/n-4H SiC heterojunction diodes (HJDs) potentially promising the ultimate thermal stability of the junction. The diodes were systematically analyzed by TEM, X-ray diffraction, AFM, and secondary ion mass spectroscopy, indicating the formation of epitaxial 3C-SiC crystal on top of 4H-SiC substrate with continuous interface, low surface roughness, and up to ∼7 × 10{sup 17 }cm{sup −3} dopant impurity concentration. The conduction band off-set is about 1 V as extracted from CV measurements, while the valence bands of both SiC polytypes are aligned. The HJDs feature opening voltage of 1.65 V, consistent with the barrier height of about 1.5 eV extractedmore » from CV measurement. We finally compare the electrical results of the n + 3C/n-4H SiC heterojunction diodes with those featuring Si and Ge doped anodes in order to evaluate current challenges involved in the fabrication of such devices.« less

  18. Precession electron diffraction for SiC grain boundary characterization in unirradiated TRISO fuel

    DOE PAGES

    Lillo, T. M.; van Rooyen, I. J.; Wu, Y. Q.

    2016-06-16

    Precession electron diffraction (PED), a transmission electron microscopy-based technique, has been evaluated for the suitability for evaluating grain boundary character in the SiC layer of tristructural isotropic (TRISO) fuel. Although the ultimate goal is to determine the grain boundary characteristics of fission product containing grain boundaries of neutron irradiated SiC, our work reports the effect of transmission electron microscope (TEM) lamella thickness on quality of data and establishes a baseline comparison on grain boundary characteristics determined previously using a conventional EBSD scanning electron microscope (SEM) based technique. In general, it was determined that the lamella thickness produced using the standardmore » FIB fabrication process, is sufficient to provide reliable PED measurements with thicker lamellae (~120 nm) produce higher quality orientation data. Analysis of grain boundary character from the TEM-based PED data showed a much lower fraction of low angle grain boundaries compared to SEM-based EBSD data from the SiC layer of the same TRISO-coated particle as well as a SiC layer deposited at a slightly lower temperature. The fractions of high angle and CSL-related grain boundaries determined by PED are similar to those found using SEM-based EBSD. Since the grain size of the SiC layer of TRSIO fuel can be as small as 250 nm [12], depending on the fabrication parameters, and grain boundary fission product precipitates can be nano-sized, the TEM-based PED orientation data collection method is preferred to determine an accurate representation of the relative fractions of low angle, high angle and CSL-related grain boundaries. It was concluded that although the resolution of the PED data is better by more than an order of magnitude, data acquisition times may be significantly longer or the number of areas analyzed significantly larger than the SEM-based method to obtain a statistically relevant distribution. Also, grain size could be

  19. Integrated High Payoff Rocket Propulsion Technology (IHPRPT) SiC Recession Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Opila, E. J.

    2009-01-01

    SiC stability and recession rates were modeled in hydrogen/oxygen combustion environments for the Integrated High Payoff Rocket Propulsion Technology (IHPRPT) program. The IHPRPT program is a government and industry program to improve U.S. rocket propulsion systems. Within this program SiC-based ceramic matrix composites are being considered for transpiration cooled injector faceplates or rocket engine thrust chamber liners. Material testing under conditions representative of these environments was conducted at the NASA Glenn Research Center, Cell 22. For the study described herein, SiC degradation was modeled under these Cell 22 test conditions for comparison to actual test results: molar mixture ratio, MR (O2:H2) = 6, material temperatures to 1700 C, combustion gas pressures between 0.34 and 2.10 atm, and gas velocities between 8,000 and 12,000 fps. Recession was calculated assuming rates were controlled by volatility of thermally grown silica limited by gas boundary layer transport. Assumptions for use of this model were explored, including the presence of silica on the SiC surface, laminar gas boundary layer limited volatility, and accuracy of thermochemical data for volatile Si-O-H species. Recession rates were calculated as a function of temperature. It was found that at 1700 C, the highest temperature considered, the calculated recession rates were negligible, about 200 m/h, relative to the expected lifetime of the material. Results compared favorably to testing observations. Other mechanisms contributing to SiC recession are briefly described including consumption of underlying carbon and pitting. A simple expression for liquid flow on the material surface was developed from a one-dimensional treatment of the Navier-Stokes Equation. This relationship is useful to determine under which conditions glassy coatings or thermally grown silica would flow on the material surface, removing protective layers by shear forces. The velocity of liquid flow was found to

  20. Precession electron diffraction for SiC grain boundary characterization in unirradiated TRISO fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Lillo, T. M.; van Rooyen, I. J.; Wu, Y. Q.

    Precession electron diffraction (PED), a transmission electron microscopy-based technique, has been evaluated for the suitability for evaluating grain boundary character in the SiC layer of tristructural isotropic (TRISO) fuel. Although the ultimate goal is to determine the grain boundary characteristics of fission product containing grain boundaries of neutron irradiated SiC, our work reports the effect of transmission electron microscope (TEM) lamella thickness on quality of data and establishes a baseline comparison on grain boundary characteristics determined previously using a conventional EBSD scanning electron microscope (SEM) based technique. In general, it was determined that the lamella thickness produced using the standardmore » FIB fabrication process, is sufficient to provide reliable PED measurements with thicker lamellae (~120 nm) produce higher quality orientation data. Analysis of grain boundary character from the TEM-based PED data showed a much lower fraction of low angle grain boundaries compared to SEM-based EBSD data from the SiC layer of the same TRISO-coated particle as well as a SiC layer deposited at a slightly lower temperature. The fractions of high angle and CSL-related grain boundaries determined by PED are similar to those found using SEM-based EBSD. Since the grain size of the SiC layer of TRSIO fuel can be as small as 250 nm [12], depending on the fabrication parameters, and grain boundary fission product precipitates can be nano-sized, the TEM-based PED orientation data collection method is preferred to determine an accurate representation of the relative fractions of low angle, high angle and CSL-related grain boundaries. It was concluded that although the resolution of the PED data is better by more than an order of magnitude, data acquisition times may be significantly longer or the number of areas analyzed significantly larger than the SEM-based method to obtain a statistically relevant distribution. Also, grain size could be

  1. Packaging Technology Designed, Fabricated, and Assembled for High-Temperature SiC Microsystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Liang-Yu

    2003-01-01

    A series of ceramic substrates and thick-film metalization-based prototype microsystem packages designed for silicon carbide (SiC) high-temperature microsystems have been developed for operation in 500 C harsh environments. These prototype packages were designed, fabricated, and assembled at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Both the electrical interconnection system and the die-attach scheme for this packaging system have been tested extensively at high temperatures. Printed circuit boards used to interconnect these chip-level packages and passive components also are being fabricated and tested. NASA space and aeronautical missions need harsh-environment, especially high-temperature, operable microsystems for probing the inner solar planets and for in situ monitoring and control of next-generation aeronautical engines. Various SiC high-temperature-operable microelectromechanical system (MEMS) sensors, actuators, and electronics have been demonstrated at temperatures as high as 600 C, but most of these devices were demonstrated only in the laboratory environment partially because systematic packaging technology for supporting these devices at temperatures of 500 C and beyond was not available. Thus, the development of a systematic high-temperature packaging technology is essential for both in situ testing and the commercialization of high-temperature SiC MEMS. Researchers at Glenn developed new prototype packages for high-temperature microsystems using ceramic substrates (aluminum nitride and 96- and 90-wt% aluminum oxides) and gold (Au) thick-film metalization. Packaging components, which include a thick-film metalization-based wirebond interconnection system and a low-electrical-resistance SiC die-attachment scheme, have been tested at temperatures up to 500 C. The interconnection system composed of Au thick-film printed wire and 1-mil Au wire bond was tested in 500 C oxidizing air with and without 50-mA direct current for over 5000 hr. The Au thick

  2. Evolution of Radiation Induced Defects in SiC: A Multiscale Simulation Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Hao

    Because of various excellent properties, SiC has been proposed for many applications in nuclear reactors including cladding layers in fuel rod, fission products container in TRISO fuel, and first wall/blanket in magnetic controlled fusion reactors. Upon exposure to high energy radiation environments, point defects and defect clusters are generated in materials in amounts significantly exceeding their equilibrium concentrations. The accumulation of defects can lead to undesired consequences such as crystalline-to-amorphous transformation1, swelling, and embrittlement, and these phenomena can adversely affect the lifetime of SiC based components in nuclear reactors. It is of great importance to understand the accumulation process of these defects in order to estimate change in properties of this material and to design components with superior ability to withstand radiation damages. Defect clusters are widely in SiC irradiated at the operation temperatures of various reactors. These clusters are believed to cause more than half of the overall swelling of irradiated SiC and can potentially lead to lowered thermal conductivity and mechanical strength. It is critical to understand the formation and growth of these clusters. Diffusion of these clusters is one importance piece to determine the growth rate of clusters; however it is unclear so far due to the challenges in simulating rare events. Using a combination of kinetic Activation Relaxation Technique with empirical potential and ab initio based climbing image nudged elastic band method, I performed an extensive search of the migration paths of the most stable carbon tri-interstitial cluster in SiC. This research reveals paths with the lowest energy barriers to migration, rotation, and dissociation of the most stable cluster. Based on these energy barriers, I concluded defect clusters are thermally immobile at temperatures lower than 1500 K and can dissociate into smaller clusters and single interstitials at

  3. Effect of neutron irradiation on defect evolution in Ti 3SiC 2 and Ti 2AlC

    DOE PAGES

    Tallman, Darin J.; He, Lingfeng; Garcia-Diaz, Brenda L.; ...

    2015-10-23

    Here, we report on the characterization of defects formed in polycrystalline Ti 3SiC 2 and Ti 2AlC samples exposed to neutron irradiation – up to 0.1 displacements per atom (dpa) at 350 ± 40 °C or 695 ± 25 °C, and up to 0.4 dpa at 350 ± 40 °C. Black spots are observed in both Ti 3SiC 2 and Ti 2AlC after irradiation to both 0.1 and 0.4 dpa at 350 °C. After irradiation to 0.1 dpa at 695 °C, small basal dislocation loops, with a Burgers vector of b = 1/2 [0001] are observed in both materials. Atmore » 9 ± 3 and 10 ± 5 nm, the loop diameters in the Ti 3SiC 2 and Ti 2AlC samples, respectively, were comparable. At 1 × 10 23 loops/m 3, the dislocation loop density in Ti 2AlC was ≈1.5 orders of magnitude greater than in Ti 3SiC 2, at 3 x 10 21 loops/m3. After irradiation at 350 °C, extensive microcracking was observed in Ti 2AlC, but not in Ti 3SiC 2. The room temperature electrical resistivities increased as a function of neutron dose for all samples tested, and appear to saturate in the case of Ti 3SiC 2. The MAX phases are unequivocally more neutron radiation tolerant than the impurity phases TiC and Al 2O 3. Based on these results, Ti 3SiC 2 appears to be a more promising MAX phase candidate for high temperature nuclear applications than Ti 2AlC.« less

  4. Effects of in situ synthesized mullite whisker on mechanical properties of Al2O3-SiC composite by microwave sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, Xudan; Wei, Meng; Fan, Bingbing; Guan, Keke; Zhang, Rui; Long, Weimin; Zhang, Hongsong

    2017-06-01

    In situ synthesis of mullite whisker was introduced to Al2O3-SiC composite by microwave sintering. The effects of sintering parameters (sintering temperature, holding time and SiC particle size) on thermal shock resistance of Al2O3-SiC composite were also studied in this paper. Original SiC particles coated with SiO2 by a sol-gel method were reacted with Al2O3 particles, resulting in the in situ growth of mullite. The phase composition was identified by x-ray diffraction (XRD). The bridging of mullite whisker between Al2O3 and SiC particles was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. The thermal shock resistance of samples was investigated through the combination of water quenching and three-point bending methods. The results show that the thermal shock resistance of Al2O3-SiC composite with mullite whisker reinforced remarkably, indicating better mechanical properties than the Al2O3-SiC composite without mullite whisker. Finally, the optimum process parameters (the sintering temperature of 1500 °C, the holding time of 30 min, and the SiC particle size of 5 µm) for toughening Al2O3-SiC composite by in situ synthesized mullite whisker were obtained.

  5. Influence of CO annealing in metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors with SiO2 films thermally grown on Si and on SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitthan, E.; dos Reis, R.; Corrêa, S. A.; Schmeisser, D.; Boudinov, H. I.; Stedile, F. C.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the influence of SiC reaction with CO, a by-product of SiC thermal oxidation, is a key point to elucidate the origin of electrical defects in SiC metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) devices. In this work, the effects on electrical, structural, and chemical properties of SiO2/Si and SiO2/SiC structures submitted to CO annealing were investigated. It was observed that long annealing times resulted in the incorporation of carbon from CO in the Si substrate, followed by deterioration of the SiO2/Si interface, and its crystallization as SiC. Besides, this incorporated carbon remained in the Si surface (previous SiO2/Si region) after removal of the silicon dioxide film by HF etching. In the SiC case, an even more defective surface region was observed due to the CO interaction. All MOS capacitors formed using both semiconductor materials presented higher leakage current and generation of positive effective charge after CO annealings. Such results suggest that the negative fixed charge, typically observed in SiO2/SiC structures, is not originated from the interaction of the CO by-product, formed during SiC oxidation, with the SiO2/SiC interfacial region.

  6. Abundances of presolar graphite and SiC from supernovae and AGB stars in the Murchison meteorite

    SciTech Connect

    Amari, Sachiko; Zinner, Ernst; Gallino, Roberto

    2014-05-02

    Pesolar graphite grains exhibit a range of densities (1.65 – 2.20 g/cm{sup 3}). We investigated abundances of presolar graphite grains formed in supernovae and in asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars in the four density fractions KE3, KFA1, KFB1 and KFC1 extracted from the Murchison meteorite to probe dust productions in these stellar sources. Seventy-six and 50% of the grains in the low-density fractions KE3 and KFA1, respectively, are supernova grains, while only 7.2% and 0.9% of the grains in the high-density fractions KFB1 and KFC1 have a supernova origin. Grains of AGB star origin are concentrated in the high-density fractionsmore » KFB1 and KFC1. From the C isotopic distributions of these fractions and the presence of s-process Kr with {sup 86}Kr/{sup 82}Kr = 4.43±0.46 in KFC1, we estimate that 76% and 80% of the grains in KFB1 and KFC1, respectively, formed in AGB stars. From the abundance of graphite grains in the Murchison meteorite, 0.88 ppm, the abundances of graphite from supernovae and AGB stars are 0.24 ppm and 0.44 ppm, respectively: the abundances of graphite in supernovae and AGB stars are comparable. In contrast, it has been known that 1% of SiC grains formed in supernovae and 95% formed in AGB stars in meteorites. Since the abundance of SiC grains is 5.85 ppm in the Murchison meteorite, the abundances of SiC from supernovae and AGB stars are 0.063 ppm and 5.6 ppm, respectively: the dominant source of SiC grains is AGB stars. Since SiC grains are harder and likely to survive better in space than graphite grains, the abundance of supernova graphite grains, which is higher than that of supernova SiC grains, indicates that supernovae proficiently produce graphite grains. Graphite grains from AGB stars are, in contrast, less abundant that SiC grains from AGB stars (0.44 ppm vs. 5.6 ppm). It is difficult to derive firm conclusions for graphite and SiC formation in AGB stars due to the difference in susceptibility to grain destruction

  7. Slow crack growth in SiC platelet reinforced Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite

    SciTech Connect

    Belmonte, M.; Moya, J.S.; Miranzo, P.

    1996-05-15

    Ceramic matrix composites with enhanced toughness are at present projected for many structural applications such as high temperature components in gas turbine, structures for hypersonic aircraft and bioprosthetic devices. The incorporation of a SiC dispersed second phase in form of whisker or platelets into an alumina matrix has allowed to improve material toughness, thermal shock resistance and R-curve behavior. Recently, considerable interest in the acquisition of slow crack growth (SCG) data for ceramic materials has arisen in order to predict the service lifetime of brittle components. Non-oxide ceramics such as SiC and Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} are extremely resistant to crackmore » growth at low temperatures, whereas oxide ceramics are susceptible to stress corrosion because of the chemical interaction between water and stressed cracks. Up to date, there are not many papers devoted to SCG of SiC whiskers reinforced Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composites and none about SiC platelets used as reinforcement. The objective of the present work has been to evaluate the slow crack growth in a Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/SiC-platelet composite by double torsion testing analysis. The results will be compared with those obtained for SiC whisker reinforced Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite tested using the same conditions.« less

  8. Thermomechanical Performance of Si-Ti-C-O and Sintered SiC Fiber-Bonded Ceramics at High Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Matsunaga, Tadashi; Lin, Hua-Tay; Singh, Mrityunjay

    2011-01-01

    The stress-temperature-lifetime response of Si-Ti-C-O fiber-bonded ceramic (Tyrannohex ) and sintered SiC fiber-bonded ceramic (SA-Tyrannohex ) materials were investigated in air from 500 to 1150 C and 500 to 1400 C, respectively. The apparent threshold stress of Si-Ti-C-O fiber-bonded ceramic was about 175 MPa in the 500-1150 C temperature range. When the applied stress of the sintered SiC fiber-bonded ceramic was below an apparent threshold stress (e.g., ~225MPa) for tests conducted 1150 C, no failures were observed for lifetimes up to 1000h. In the case of sintered SiC fiber-bonded ceramic, at the temperature of 1300 C, the apparent threshold stressmore » decreased to 175 MPa. The decrease in strength seemed to be caused by grain growth which was confirmed from the SEM fractography. Both fiber-bonded ceramics exhibited much higher durability than a commercial SiC/SiC composite at temperatures above 500 C. In addition, results suggested that the sintered SiC fiber-bonded ceramic (SA-Tyrannohex) is more stable than a Hi-Nicalon/MI SiC composite with BN/SiC fiber coating at temperatures above 1300 C.« less

  9. Freestanding ultrathin single-crystalline SiC substrate by MeV H ion-slicing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Qi; Huang, Kai; You, Tiangui; Yi, Ailun; Lin, Jiajie; Zhang, Shibin; Zhou, Min; Zhang, Bin; Zhang, Bo; Yu, Wenjie; Ou, Xin; Wang, Xi

    2018-05-01

    SiC is a widely used wide-bandgap semiconductor, and the freestanding ultrathin single-crystalline SiC substrate provides the material platform for advanced devices. Here, we demonstrate the fabrication of a freestanding ultrathin single-crystalline SiC substrate with a thickness of 22 μm by ion slicing using 1.6 MeV H ion implantation. The ion-slicing process performed in the MeV energy range was compared to the conventional case using low-energy H ion implantation in the keV energy range. The blistering behavior of the implanted SiC surface layer depends on both the implantation temperature and the annealing temperature. Due to the different straggling parameter for two implant energies, the distribution of implantation-induced damage is significantly different. The impact of implantation temperature on the high-energy and low-energy slicing was opposite, and the ion-slicing SiC in the MeV range initiates at a much higher temperature.

  10. Formation of crystalline heteroepitaxial SiC films on Si by carbonization of polyimide Langmuir-Blodgett films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luchinin, Viktor V.; Goloudina, Svetlana I.; Pasyuta, Vyacheslav M.; Panov, Mikhail F.; Smirnov, Alexander N.; Kirilenko, Demid A.; Semenova, Tatyana F.; Sklizkova, Valentina P.; Gofman, Iosif V.; Svetlichnyi, Valentin M.; Kudryavtsev, Vladislav V.

    2017-06-01

    High-quality crystalline nano-thin SiC films on Si substrates were prepared by carbonization of polyimide (PI) Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films. The obtained films were characterized by Fourier transform-infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, Raman spectroscopy, transmission electon microscopy (TEM), transmission electron diffraction (TED), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). We demonstrated that the carbonization of a PI film on a Si substrate at 1000 °C leads to the formation of a carbon film and SiC nanocrystals on the Si substrate. It was found that five planes in the 3C-SiC(111) film are aligned with four Si(111) planes. As a result of repeated annealing of PI films containing 121 layers at 1200 °C crystalline SiC films were formed on the Si substrate. It was shown that the SiC films (35 nm) grown on Si(111) at 1200 °C have a mainly cubic 3C-SiC structure with small amount of hexagonal polytypes. Only 3C-SiC films (30 nm) were formed on the Si(100) substrate at the same temperature. It was shown that the SiC films (30-35 nm) can cover the voids with size up to 10 µm in the Si substrate. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of the n-Si/n-SiC heterostructure were obtained by conductive atomic force microscopy.

  11. Effect of Copper Coated SiC Reinforcements on Microstructure, Mechanical Properties and Wear of Aluminium Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kori, P. S.; Vanarotti, Mohan; Angadi, B. M.; Nagathan, V. V.; Auradi, V.; Sakri, M. I.

    2017-08-01

    Experimental investigations are carried out to study the influence of copper coated Silicon carbide (SiC) reinforcements in Aluminum (Al) based Al-SiC composites. Wear behavior and mechanical Properties like, ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and hardness are studied in the present work. Experimental results clearly revealed that, an addition of SiC particles (5, 10 and 15 Wt %) has lead in the improvement of hardness and ultimate tensile strength. Al-SiC composites containing the Copper coated SiC reinforcements showed better improvement in mechanical properties compared to uncoated ones. Characterization of Al-SiC composites are carried out using optical photomicrography and SEM analysis. Wear tests are carried out to study the effects of composition and normal pressure using Pin-On Disc wear testing machine. Results suggested that, wear rate decreases with increasing SiC composition, further an improvement in wear resistance is observed with copper coated SiC reinforcements in the Al-SiC metal matrix composites (MMC’s).

  12. Long-Term Reliability of a Hard-Switched Boost Power Processing Unit Utilizing SiC Power MOSFETs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ikpe, Stanley A.; Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Carr, Gregory A.; Hunter, Don; Ludwig, Lawrence L.; Wood, William; Iannello, Christopher J.; Del Castillo, Linda Y.; Fitzpatrick, Fred D.; Mojarradi, Mohammad M.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) power devices have demonstrated many performance advantages over their silicon (Si) counterparts. As the inherent material limitations of Si devices are being swiftly realized, wide-band-gap (WBG) materials such as SiC have become increasingly attractive for high power applications. In particular, SiC power metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors' (MOSFETs) high breakdown field tolerance, superior thermal conductivity and low-resistivity drift regions make these devices an excellent candidate for power dense, low loss, high frequency switching applications in extreme environment conditions. In this paper, a novel power processing unit (PPU) architecture is proposed utilizing commercially available 4H-SiC power MOSFETs from CREE Inc. A multiphase straight boost converter topology is implemented to supply up to 10 kilowatts full-scale. High Temperature Gate Bias (HTGB) and High Temperature Reverse Bias (HTRB) characterization is performed to evaluate the long-term reliability of both the gate oxide and the body diode of the SiC components. Finally, susceptibility of the CREE SiC MOSFETs to damaging effects from heavy-ion radiation representative of the on-orbit galactic cosmic ray environment are explored. The results provide the baseline performance metrics of operation as well as demonstrate the feasibility of a hard-switched PPU in harsh environments.

  13. Correlated Si isotope anomalies and large C-13 enrichments in a family of exotic SiC grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, J.; Hutcheon, I. D.; Epstein, S.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1991-01-01

    A hypothesis is presented to the effect that the distinctive morphological characteristics and comparatively simple Si isotope systematics identify the platy SiC crystals as a genetically related family, formed around a single isotopically heterogeneous presolar star on an association of related stars. The enrichments in C-13 and the Si isotope systematics of the platy SiC are broadly consistent with theoretical models of nucleosynthesis in low-mass, carbon stars on the ASG. The Si isotope array most plausibly reflects mixing between (Si-28)-rich material, inherited from a previous generation of stars, and material enriched in Si-29 and Si-30, produced in intershell regions by neutron capture during He-burning. The absence of a correlation between the Si and C isotopic compositions of the SiC suggests either episodic condensation of SiC, extending over several thermal pulses, in the atmosphere of a single star, or the derivation of the SiC from several stars characterized by different rates of C-13 production.

  14. Synthesis, crystal structure, and magnetic properties of novel intermetallic compounds R2Co2SiC (R = Pr, Nd).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Sixuan; Mishra, Trinath; Wang, Man; Shatruk, Michael; Cao, Huibo; Latturner, Susan E

    2014-06-16

    The intermetallic compounds R2Co2SiC (R = Pr, Nd) were prepared from the reaction of silicon and carbon in either Pr/Co or Nd/Co eutectic flux. These phases crystallize with a new stuffed variant of the W2CoB2 structure type in orthorhombic space group Immm with unit cell parameters a = 3.978(4) Å, b = 6.094(5) Å, c = 8.903(8) Å (Z = 2; R1 = 0.0302) for Nd2Co2SiC. Silicon, cobalt, and carbon atoms form two-dimensional flat sheets, which are separated by puckered layers of rare-earth cations. Magnetic susceptibility measurements indicate that the rare earth cations in both analogues order ferromagnetically at low temperature (TC ≈ 12 K for Nd2Co2SiC and TC ≈ 20 K for Pr2Co2SiC). Single-crystal neutron diffraction data for Nd2Co2SiC indicate that Nd moments initially align ferromagnetically along the c axis around ∼12 K, but below 11 K, they tilt slightly away from the c axis, in the ac plane. Electronic structure calculations confirm the lack of spin polarization for Co 3d moments.

  15. Dimensional stability and anisotropy of SiC and SiC-based composites in transition swelling regime

    DOE PAGES

    Katoh, Yutai; Koyanagi, Takaaki; McDuffee, Joel L.; ...

    2017-12-08

    Swelling, or volumetric expansion, is an inevitable consequence of the atomic displacement damage in crystalline silicon carbide (SiC) caused by energetic neutron irradiation. Because of its steep temperature and dose dependence, understanding swelling is essential for designing SiC-based components for nuclear applications. Here in this study, swelling behaviors of monolithic CVD SiC and nuclear grade SiC fiber – SiC matrix (SiC/SiC) composites were accurately determined, supported by the irradiation temperature determination for individual samples, following neutron irradiation within the lower transition swelling temperature regime. Slightly anisotropic swelling behaviors were found for the SiC/SiC samples and attributed primarily to the combinedmore » effects of the pre-existing microcracking, fiber architecture, and specimen dimension. A semi-empirical model of SiC swelling was calibrated and presented. Finally, implications of the refined model to selected swelling-related issues for SiC-based nuclar reactor components are discussed.« less

  16. Dimensional stability and anisotropy of SiC and SiC-based composites in transition swelling regime

    SciTech Connect

    Katoh, Yutai; Koyanagi, Takaaki; McDuffee, Joel L.

    Swelling, or volumetric expansion, is an inevitable consequence of the atomic displacement damage in crystalline silicon carbide (SiC) caused by energetic neutron irradiation. Because of its steep temperature and dose dependence, understanding swelling is essential for designing SiC-based components for nuclear applications. Here in this study, swelling behaviors of monolithic CVD SiC and nuclear grade SiC fiber – SiC matrix (SiC/SiC) composites were accurately determined, supported by the irradiation temperature determination for individual samples, following neutron irradiation within the lower transition swelling temperature regime. Slightly anisotropic swelling behaviors were found for the SiC/SiC samples and attributed primarily to the combinedmore » effects of the pre-existing microcracking, fiber architecture, and specimen dimension. A semi-empirical model of SiC swelling was calibrated and presented. Finally, implications of the refined model to selected swelling-related issues for SiC-based nuclar reactor components are discussed.« less

  17. Modulating the Surface State of SiC to Control Carrier Transport in Graphene/SiC.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yuping; Sun, Xiaojuan; Shi, Zhiming; Jiang, Ke; Liu, Henan; Ben, Jianwei; Li, Dabing

    2018-05-28

    Silicon carbide (SiC) with epitaxial graphene (EG/SiC) shows a great potential in the applications of electronic and photoelectric devices. The performance of devices is primarily dependent on the interfacial heterojunction between graphene and SiC. Here, the band structure of the EG/SiC heterojunction is experimentally investigated by Kelvin probe force microscopy. The dependence of the barrier height at the EG/SiC heterojunction to the initial surface state of SiC is revealed. Both the barrier height and band bending tendency of the heterojunction can be modulated by controlling the surface state of SiC, leading to the tuned carrier transport behavior at the EG/SiC interface. The barrier height at the EG/SiC(000-1) interface is almost ten times that of the EG/SiC(0001) interface. As a result, the amount of carrier transport at the EG/SiC(000-1) interface is about ten times that of the EG/SiC(0001) interface. These results offer insights into the carrier transport behavior at the EG/SiC heterojunction by controlling the initial surface state of SiC, and this strategy can be extended in all devices with graphene as the top layer. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Processing and properties of SiC whisker reinforced Si sub 3 N sub 4 ceramic matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Nunn, S.D.

    1991-01-01

    Silicon carbide whiskers reinforced silicon nitride ceramic matrix composites were pressureless sintered to high density by liquid phase sintering. Important processing parameters included: whisker dispersion by ultrasonic shear homogenization, particle refinement by attrition milling, pressure slip casting to obtain high greed densities, and sintering in a protective powder bed to limit decomposition. Composites with a {beta}20-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} solid solution matrix containing 20 vol.% SiC whiskers were sintered to 98-100% theoretical density; composites having a Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} matrix containing YAG sintering aid were sintered to 98% of the theoretical density with 20 vol.% SiC whiskers, and 94% density withmore » 30 vol.% SiC whiskers. Analysis of the pressureless sintered composites revealed orientation of the SiC whiskers and the Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} matrix grains. The mechanical properties of hot pressed Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} composites reinforced with 20 vol.% SiC whiskers were shown to depend on the characteristics of the intergranular phase. Variations in the properties of the composites were analyzed in terms of the amount and morphology of the secondary phase, and the development of internal residual stresses due to the thermal expansion mismatch between the sintering aid phase at the grain boundaries.« less

  19. A wide bandgap silicon carbide (SiC) gate driver for high-temperature and high-voltage applications

    SciTech Connect

    Lamichhane, Ranjan; Ericson, Milton Nance; Frank, Steven Shane

    2014-01-01

    Limitations of silicon (Si) based power electronic devices can be overcome with Silicon Carbide (SiC) because of its remarkable material properties. SiC is a wide bandgap semiconductor material with larger bandgap, lower leakage currents, higher breakdown electric field, and higher thermal conductivity, which promotes higher switching frequencies for high power applications, higher temperature operation, and results in higher power density devices relative to Si [1]. The proposed work is focused on design of a SiC gate driver to drive a SiC power MOSFET, on a Cree SiC process, with rise/fall times (less than 100 ns) suitable for 500 kHz tomore » 1 MHz switching frequency applications. A process optimized gate driver topology design which is significantly different from generic Si circuit design is proposed. The ultimate goal of the project is to integrate this gate driver into a Toyota Prius plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) charger module. The application of this high frequency charger will result in lighter, smaller, cheaper, and a more efficient power electronics system.« less

  20. New High-Performance SiC Fiber Developed for Ceramic Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiCarlo, James A.; Yun, Hee Mann

    2002-01-01

    Sylramic-iBN fiber is a new type of small-diameter (10-mm) SiC fiber that was developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center and was recently given an R&D 100 Award for 2001. It is produced by subjecting commercially available Sylramic (Dow Corning, Midland, MI) SiC fibers, fabrics, or preforms to a specially designed high-temperature treatment in a controlled nitrogen environment for a specific time. It can be used in a variety of applications, but it currently has the greatest advantage as a reinforcement for SiC/SiC ceramic composites that are targeted for long-term structural applications at temperatures higher than the capability of metallic superalloys. The commercial Sylramic SiC fiber, which is the precursor for the Sylramic-iBN fiber, is produced by Dow Corning, Midland, Michigan. It is derived from polymers at low temperatures and then pyrolyzed and sintered at high temperatures using boron-containing sintering aids (ref. 1). The sintering process results in very strong fibers (>3 GPa) that are dense, oxygen-free, and nearly stoichiometric. They also display an optimum grain size that is beneficial for high tensile strength, good creep resistance, and good thermal conductivity (ref. 2). The NASA-developed treatment allows the excess boron in the bulk to diffuse to the fiber surface where it reacts with nitrogen to form an in situ boron nitride (BN) coating on the fiber surface (thus the product name of Sylramic-iBN fiber). The removal of boron from the fiber bulk allows the retention of high tensile strength while significantly improving creep resistance and electrical conductivity, and probably thermal conductivity since the grains are slightly larger and the grain boundaries cleaner (ref. 2). Also, as shown in the graph, these improvements allow the fiber to display the best rupture strength at high temperatures in air for any available SiC fiber. In addition, for CMC applications under oxidizing conditions, the formation of an in situ BN surface layer

  1. Laminate behavior for SiC fiber-reinforced reaction-bonded silicon nitride matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhatt, R. T.; Phillips, R. E.

    1988-01-01

    The room temperature mechanical properties of SiC fiber reinforced reaction-bonded silicon nitride matrix composite laminates (SiC/RBSN) have been measured. The laminates contained approx 30 volume fraction of aligned 142-micron diameter SiC fiber in a porous RBSN matrix. Three types of laminate studied were unidirectional: (1) (0) sub 8, (2) (10) sub 8, and (3) (45) sub 8, and (90) sub 8; cross plied laminates (0 sub 2/90 sub 2); and angle plied laminates: (+45 sub 2/-45 sub 2). Each laminate contained eight fiber plies. Results of the unidirectionally reinforced composites tested at various angles to the reinforcement direction indicate large anisotropy in in-plane properties. In addition, strength properties of these composites along the fiber direction were independent of specimen gage length and were unaffected by notches normal to the fiber direction. Splitting parallel to the fiber at the notch tip appears to be the dominant crack blunting mechanism responsible for notch insensitive behavior of these composites. In-plane properties of the composites can be improved by 2-D laminate construction. Mechanical property results for (0 sub 2/90 sub 2)sub s and (+45/-45 sub 2) sub s laminates showed that their matrix failure strains were similar to that for (0) sub 8 laminates, but their primary elastic moduli, matrix cracking strengths, and ultimate composite strengths were lower. The elastic properties of unidirectional, cross-ply, and angle-ply composites can be predicted from modified constitutive equations and laminate theory. Further improvements in laminate properties may be achieved by reducing the matrix porosity and by optimizing the bond strength between the SiC fiber and RBSN matrix.

  2. Laminate behavior for SiC fiber-reinforced reaction-bonded silicon nitride matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.; Phillips, Ronald E.

    1990-01-01

    The room temperature mechanical properties of SiC fiber reinforced reaction-bonded silicon nitride matrix composite laminates (SiC/RBSN) have been measured. The laminates contained approx 30 volume fraction of aligned 142-micron diameter SiC fiber in a porous RBSN matrix. Three types of laminate studied were unidirectional: (1) (0) sub 8, (2) (10) sub 8, and (3) (45) sub 8, and (90) sub 8; cross plied laminates (0 sub 2/90 sub 2); and angle plied laminates: (+45 sub 2/-45 sub 2). Each laminate contained eight fiber plies. Results of the unidirectionally reinforced composites tested at various angles to the reinforcement direction indicate large anisotropy in in-plane properties. In addition, strength properties of these composites along the fiber direction were independent of specimen gage length and were unaffected by notches normal to the fiber direction. Splitting parallel to the fiber at the notch tip appears to be the dominant crack blunting mechanism responsible for notch insensitive behavior of these composites. In-plane properties of the composites can be improved by 2-D laminate construction. Mechanical property results for (0 sub 2/90 sub 2) sub s and (+45/-45 sub 2) sub s laminates showed that their matrix failure strains were similar to that for (0) sub 8 laminates, but their primary elastic moduli, matrix cracking strengths, and ultimate composite strengths were lower. The elastic properties of unidirectional, cross-ply, and angle-ply composites can be predicted from modified constitutive equations and laminate theory. Further improvements in laminate properties may be achieved by reducing the matrix porosity and by optimizing the bond strength between the SiC fiber and RBSN matrix.

  3. Surface and subsurface cracks characteristics of single crystal SiC wafer in surface machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiusheng, Y.; Senkai, C.; Jisheng, P.

    2015-03-01

    Different machining processes were used in the single crystal SiC wafer machining. SEM was used to observe the surface morphology and a cross-sectional cleavages microscopy method was used for subsurface cracks detection. Surface and subsurface cracks characteristics of single crystal SiC wafer in abrasive machining were analysed. The results show that the surface and subsurface cracks system of single crystal SiC wafer in abrasive machining including radial crack, lateral crack and the median crack. In lapping process, material removal is dominated by brittle removal. Lots of chipping pits were found on the lapping surface. With the particle size becomes smaller, the surface roughness and subsurface crack depth decreases. When the particle size was changed to 1.5µm, the surface roughness Ra was reduced to 24.0nm and the maximum subsurface crack was 1.2µm. The efficiency of grinding is higher than lapping. Plastic removal can be achieved by changing the process parameters. Material removal was mostly in brittle fracture when grinding with 325# diamond wheel. Plow scratches and chipping pits were found on the ground surface. The surface roughness Ra was 17.7nm and maximum subsurface crack depth was 5.8 µm. When grinding with 8000# diamond wheel, the material removal was in plastic flow. Plastic scratches were found on the surface. A smooth surface of roughness Ra 2.5nm without any subsurface cracks was obtained. Atomic scale removal was possible in cluster magnetorheological finishing with diamond abrasive size of 0.5 µm. A super smooth surface eventually obtained with a roughness of Ra 0.4nm without any subsurface crack.

  4. EBSD characterization of the growth mechanism of SiC synthesized via direct microwave heating

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jigang, E-mail: wangjigang@seu.edu.cn; Xizang Key Laboratory of Optical Information Processing and Visualization Technology, School of Information Engineering, Xizang Minzu University, Xianyang 712082; Huang, Shan

    2016-04-15

    Well-crystallized 3C-silicon carbide (SiC) grains/nanowires have been synthesized rapidly and conveniently via direct microwave heating, simply using silicon dioxide powders and artificial graphite as raw materials. The comprehensive characterizations have been employed to investigate the micro-structure of the obtained 3C-SiC products. Results indicated that, different from the classic screw dislocation growth mechanism, the 3C-SiC grains/nanowires synthesized via high-energy vacuum microwave irradiation were achieved through the two-dimension nucleation and laminar growth mechanism. Especially, the electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) was employed to characterize the crystal planes of the as-grown SiC products. The calculated Euler angles suggested that the fastest-growing crystal planes (211)more » were overlapped gradually. Through the formation of the (421) transformation plane, (211) finally evolved to (220) which existed as the side face of SiC grains. The most stable crystal planes (111) became the regular hexagonal planes in the end, which could be explained by the Bravais rule. The characterization results of EBSD provided important experimental information for the evolution of crystal planes. - Graphical abstract: The formation of 3C-SiC prepared via direct microwave heating follows the mechanism of two-dimension nucleation and laminar growth. - Highlights: • 3C−SiC grains/nanowires were obtained via direct microwave heating. • 3C−SiC followed the mechanism of two-dimension nucleation and laminar growth. • In-situ EBSD analysis provided the experimental evidences of the growth.« less

  5. Thermal stability characterization of SiC ceramic fibers. II. Fractography and structure

    SciTech Connect

    Sawyer, L.C.; Chen, R.T.; Haimbach, F.,IV

    1986-08-01

    SiC ceramic fibers (Nicalon) exhibit tensile strength reduction following thermal treatment in air, argon and nitrogen environments above 1200 C. Grain-size variations have been observed in the treated fibers by X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy. Fractography studies show that strength reduction occurs in all thermal treatments, although the mechanism of fiber failure varies depending upon the specific environment. Structure-property relations will be developed as mechanical testing and fractography of the thermally treated fibers are associated with tensile strength loss mechanisms. 16 references.

  6. Demonstration of a 4H SiC Betavoltaic Nuclear Battery Based on Schottky Barrier Diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Da-Yong; Yuan, Wei-Zheng; Gao, Peng; Yao, Xian-Wang; Zang, Bo; Zhang, Lin; Guo, Hui; Zhang, Hong-Jian

    2008-10-01

    A 4H SiC betavoltaic nuclear battery is demonstrated. A Schottky barrier diode is utilized for carrier separation. Under illumination of Ni-63 source with an apparent activity of 4 mCi/cm2 an open circuit voltage of 0.49 V and a short circuit current density of 29.44 nA/cm2 are measured. A power conversion efficiency of 1.2% is obtained. The performance of the device is limited by low shunt resistance, backscattering and attenuation of electron energy in air and Schottky electrode. It is expected to be significantly improved by optimizing the design and processing technology of the device.

  7. Sequential control of step-bunching during graphene growth on SiC (0001)

    SciTech Connect

    Bao, Jianfeng; Kusunoki, Michiko; Yasui, Osamu

    2016-08-22

    We have investigated the relation between the step-bunching and graphene growth phenomena on an SiC substrate. We found that only a minimum amount of step-bunching occurred during the graphene growth process with a high heating rate. On the other hand, a large amount of step-bunching occurred using a slow heating process. These results indicated that we can control the degree of step-bunching during graphene growth by controlling the heating rate. We also found that graphene coverage suppressed step bunching, which is an effective methodology not only in the graphene technology but also in the SiC-based power electronics.

  8. Application of Oxidation to the Structural Characterization of Sic Epitaxial Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, J. A.; Petit, J. B.; Edgar, J. H.; Jenkins, I. G.; Matus, L. G.

    1991-01-01

    Both 3C-SiC and 6H-SiC single-crystal films can be grown on vicinal (0001) 6H-SiC wafers. It is found that oxidation can be a powerful diagnostic process for (1) 'color mapping' the 3C and 6H regions of these films, (2) decorating stacking faults in the films, (3) enhancing the decoration of double positioning boundaries, and (4) decorating polishing damage. Contrary to previously published oxidation results, proper oxidation conditions can yield interference colors that provide a definitive map of the polytype distribution for both the Si face and C face of SiC films.

  9. Analysis of Heavy Ion Irradiation Induced Thermal Damage in SiC Schottky Diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbate, C.; Busatto, G.; Cova, P.; Delmonte, N.; Giuliani, F.; Iannuzzo, F.; Sanseverino, A.; Velardi, F.

    2015-02-01

    A study is presented aimed at describing phenomena involved in Single Event Burnout induced by heavy ion irradiation in SiC Schottky diodes. On the basis of experimental data obtained for 79Br irradiation at different energies, electro-thermal FEM is used to demonstrate that the failure is caused by a strong local increase of the semiconductor temperature. With respect to previous studies the temperature dependent thermal material properties were added. The critical ion energy calculated by this model is in agreement with literature experimental results. The substrate doping dependence of the SEE robustness was analyzed, proving the effectiveness of the developed model for device technological improvements.

  10. Interfacial Studies of Refractory Glass-Ceramic Matrix/Advanced SiC fiber Reinforced Composites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-30

    Prepared by J. J. Brennan ANNUAL REPORT Contract N0001 4-87-C-0699 for Department of the Navy Office of Naval Research Arlington, VA 22217 April 30, 1991...1 30 April1991 I Annual 1 Feb 1990 -1 Feb 1991 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS INTERFACIAL STUDIES OF REFRACTORY GLASS-CERAMIC MATRIX...composites were very similar for either Lox M Tyranno or NICALON fiber reinforcement. 14. SUBJECT TERMS IS. NUMBER OF PA~t; Crystalline SiC fibers

  11. Tuning carrier density across Dirac point in epitaxial graphene on SiC by corona discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Lartsev, Arseniy; Yager, Tom; Lara-Avila, Samuel, E-mail: samuel.lara@chalmers.se

    We demonstrate reversible carrier density control across the Dirac point (Δn ∼ 10{sup 13 }cm{sup −2}) in epitaxial graphene on SiC (SiC/G) via high electrostatic potential gating with ions produced by corona discharge. The method is attractive for applications where graphene with a fixed carrier density is needed, such as quantum metrology, and more generally as a simple method of gating 2DEGs formed at semiconductor interfaces and in topological insulators.

  12. Evidence for interstellar SiC in the Murray carbonaceous meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernatowicz, Thomas; Wopenka, Brigitte; Fraundorf, Gail; Ming, Tang; Anders, Edward

    1987-01-01

    Silicon carbide has been identified in two separates from the Murray carbonaceous chondrite that are enriched 20,000-fold in isotopically anomalous neon and xenon. The SiC is present in the form of crystalline grains 0.1-1 micron in size. Cubic and 111-plane-twinned cubic are the most common ordered polytypes observed so far. The anomalous isotopic composition of its carbon, nitrogen, and silicon indicates a presolar origin, probably in the atmospheres of red giants. An additional silicon- and oxygen-rich phase shows large isotropic anomalies in nitrogen and silicon, also associated with a presolar origin.

  13. AES and LEED study of the zinc blende SiC(100) surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dayan, M.

    1985-01-01

    Auger and LEED measurements have been carried out on the (100) surface of zinc blende SiC. Two different phases of the clean surface, in addition to two kinds of oxygen-covered surfaces, have been obtained, identified, and discussed. In the oxygen-covered surface, the oxygen is bonded to the Si. The carbon-rich phase is reconstructed (2 x 1), similar to the (100) clean surfaces of Si, Ge, and diamond. The Si-topped surface is reconstructed. A model of alternating Si dimers is suggested for this surface.

  14. Construction and characterization of spherical Si solar cells combined with SiC electric power inverter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oku, Takeo; Matsumoto, Taisuke; Hiramatsu, Kouichi; Yasuda, Masashi; Shimono, Akio; Takeda, Yoshikazu; Murozono, Mikio

    2015-02-01

    Spherical silicon (Si) photovoltaic solar cell systems combined with an electric power inverter using silicon carbide (SiC) field-effect transistor (FET) were constructed and characterized, which were compared with an ordinary Si-based converter. The SiC-FET devices were introduced in the direct current-alternating current (DC-AC) converter, which was connected with the solar panels. The spherical Si solar cells were used as the power sources, and the spherical Si panels are lighter and more flexible compared with the ordinary flat Si solar panels. Conversion efficiencies of the spherical Si solar cells were improved by using the SiC-FET.

  15. Evaluating the irradiation effects on the elastic properties of miniature monolithic SiC tubular specimens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, G.; Koyanagi, T.; Petrie, C.; Terrani, K.; Katoh, Y.

    2018-02-01

    The initial results of a post-irradiation examination study conducted on CVD SiC tubular specimens irradiated under a high radial heat flux are presented herein. The elastic moduli were found to decrease more than that estimated based on previous studies. The significant decreases in modulus are attributed to the cracks present in the specimens. The stresses in the specimens, calculated through finite element analyses, were found to be greater than the expected strength of irradiated specimens, indicating that the irradiation-induced stresses caused these cracks. The optical microscopy images and predicted stress distributions indicate that the cracks initiated at the inner surface and propagated outward.

  16. Microstructural and strength stability of CVD SiC fibers in argon environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.; Hull, David R.

    1991-01-01

    The room temperature tensile strength and microstructure of three types of commercially available chemically vapor deposited silicon carbide fibers were measured after 1, 10, and 100 hour heat treatments under argon pressures of 0.1 to 310 MPa at temperatures to 2100 C. Two types of fiber had carbon-rich surface coatings and the other contained no coating. All three fiber types showed strength degradation beyond 1400 C. Time and temperature of exposure had greater influence on strength degradation than argon pressure. Recrystallization and growth of near stoichiometric SiC grains appears to be the dominant mechanism for the strength degradation.

  17. Microstructural and strength stability of CVD SiC fibers in argon environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.; Hull, David R.

    1991-01-01

    The room temperature tensile strength and microstructure of three types of commercially available chemically vapor deposited silicon carbide fibers were measured after 1, 10, and 100 hour heat treatments under argon pressures of 0.1 to 310 MPa at temperatures to 2100 C. Two types of fiber had carbon-rich surface coatings and the other contained no coating. All three fiber types showed strength degradation beyond 1400 C. Time and temperature of exposure had greater influence on strength degradation than argon pressure. Recrystallization and growth of near stoichiometric SiC grains appears to be the dominant mechanism for the strength degradation.

  18. Research and Development of Silicon Carbide (SiC) Junction Recovery Diodes for Picosecond Range, High Power Opening Switches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grekhov, Igor V.

    2002-07-01

    This report results from a contract tasking Ioffe Institute as follows: The purpose of the proposed project is to develop, fabricate, test, and characterize silicon carbide power semiconductor opening switches operating in the picosecond range of switch time. Special SiC diode structures will be fabricated and investigated, including Junction Recovery Diodes (JRD). The operation of such diodes is founded on the superfast recovery of the junction's blocking ability after switching the device from forward to reverse bias conditions. Our estimations show that the parameters of JRD devices can be substantially improved in case of SiC devices, compared to both Si and GaAs capabilities. We expect i) to increase the speed of switch operation, the specific commutated power, and the operation frequency repetition; ii) to reduce the weight and size of pulse devices; and iii) to achieve better reliability of the devices due to the unique thermal conductivity and radiation hardness of SiC.

  19. Investigation of Embedded Si/C System Exposed to a Hybrid Reaction of Centrifugal-Assisted Thermite Method.

    PubMed

    Mahmoodian, Reza; Yahya, Rosiyah; Dabbagh, Ali; Hamdi, Mohd; Hassan, Mohsen A

    2015-01-01

    A novel method is proposed to study the behavior and phase formation of a Si+C compacted pellet under centrifugal acceleration in a hybrid reaction. Si+C as elemental mixture in the form of a pellet is embedded in a centrifugal tube. The pellet assembly and tube are exposed to the sudden thermal energy of a thermite reaction resulted in a hybrid reaction. The hybrid reaction of thermite and Si+C produced unique phases. X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD) as well as microstructural and elemental analyses are then investigated. XRD pattern showed formation of materials with possible electronic and magnetic properties. The cooling rate and the molten particle viscosity mathematical model of the process are meant to assist in understanding the physical and chemical phenomena took place during and after reaction. The results analysis revealed that up to 85% of materials converted into secondary products as ceramics-matrix composite.

  20. Investigation of Embedded Si/C System Exposed to a Hybrid Reaction of Centrifugal-Assisted Thermite Method

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoodian, Reza; Yahya, Rosiyah; Dabbagh, Ali; Hamdi, Mohd; Hassan, Mohsen A.

    2015-01-01

    A novel method is proposed to study the behavior and phase formation of a Si+C compacted pellet under centrifugal acceleration in a hybrid reaction. Si+C as elemental mixture in the form of a pellet is embedded in a centrifugal tube. The pellet assembly and tube are exposed to the sudden thermal energy of a thermite reaction resulted in a hybrid reaction. The hybrid reaction of thermite and Si+C produced unique phases. X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD) as well as microstructural and elemental analyses are then investigated. XRD pattern showed formation of materials with possible electronic and magnetic properties. The cooling rate and the molten particle viscosity mathematical model of the process are meant to assist in understanding the physical and chemical phenomena took place during and after reaction. The results analysis revealed that up to 85% of materials converted into secondary products as ceramics-matrix composite. PMID:26641651

  1. Investigation of short-circuit failure mechanisms of SiC MOSFETs by varying DC bus voltage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namai, Masaki; An, Junjie; Yano, Hiroshi; Iwamuro, Noriyuki

    2018-07-01

    In this study, the experimental evaluation and numerical analysis of short-circuit mechanisms of 1200 V SiC planar and trench MOSFETs were conducted at various DC bus voltages from 400 to 800 V. Investigation of the impact of DC bus voltage on short-circuit capability yielded results that are extremely useful for many existing power electronics applications. Three failure mechanisms were identified in this study: thermal runaway, MOS channel current following device turn-off, and rupture of the gate oxide layer (gate oxide layer damage). The SiC MOSFETs experienced lattice temperatures exceeding 1000 K during the short-circuit transient; as Si insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) are not typically subject to such temperatures, the MOSFETs experienced distinct failure modes, and the mode experienced was significantly influenced by the DC bus voltage. In conclusion, suggestions regarding the SiC MOSFET design and operation methods that would enhance device robustness are proposed.

  2. Residual stress in thick low-pressure chemical-vapor deposited polycrystalline SiC coatings on Si substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, D.; Shinavski, R. J.; Steffier, W. S.; Spearing, S. M.

    2005-04-01

    Residual stress in thick coatings of polycrystalline chemical-vapor deposited SiC on Si substrates is a key variable that must be controlled if SiC is to be used in microelectromechanical systems. Studies have been conducted to characterize the residual stress level as a function of deposition temperature, Si wafer and SiC coating thickness, and the ratios of methyltrichlorosilane to hydrogen and hydrogen chloride. Wafer curvature was used to monitor residual stress in combination with a laminated plate analysis. Compressive intrinsic (growth) stresses were measured with magnitudes in the range of 200-300MPa; however, these can be balanced with the tensile stress due to the thermal-expansion mismatch to leave near-zero stress at room temperature. The magnitude of the compressive intrinsic stress is consistent with previously reported values of surface stress in combination with the competition between grain-boundary energy and elastic strain energy.

  3. Thermal expansion and elastic anisotropy in single crystal Al2O3 and SiC reinforcements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salem, Jonathan A.; Li, Zhuang; Bradt, Richard C.

    1994-01-01

    In single crystal form, SiC and Al2O3 are attractive reinforcing components for high temperature composites. In this study, the axial coefficients of thermal expansion and single crystal elastic constants of SiC and Al2O3 were used to determine their coefficients of thermal expansion and Young's moduli as a function of crystallographic orientation and temperature. SiC and Al2O3 exhibit a strong variation of Young's modulus with orientation; however, their moduli and anisotropies are weak functions of temperature below 1000 C. The coefficients of thermal expansion exhibit significant temperature dependence, and that of the non-cubic Al2O3 is also a function of crystallographic orientation.

  4. High-volume-fraction Cu/Al2O3-SiC hybrid interpenetrating phase composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saidi, Hesam; Roudini, Ghodratollah; Afarani, Mahdi Shafiee

    2015-10-01

    Metal matrix particulate interpenetrating phase composites are a class of composites materials with three-dimensional internal connections of matrix and reinforcements. This kind of microstructure affects the mechanical and physical properties of the composites. In this study, Al2O3-SiC hybrid preforms were produced by polyurethane foams removal (replica method) within mean pore size of 30 pores per inch (ppi), and sintering at 1200 °C. Subsequently, the molten copper was infiltrated into the preforms by squeeze casting method. The microstructure, density, porosity, bending strength and thermal shock resistance of the preforms were investigated. Then, the composites microstructure and compressive strength were studied. The results showed that with SiC concentration increasing, the density, flexural strength and thermal shock resistance of the preforms were improved. Also the composites compressive strengths were changed with variation of SiC concentration.

  5. Strength improvement and purification of Yb 2Si 2O 7-SiC nanocomposites by surface oxidation treatment

    DOE PAGES

    Nguyen, Son T.; Nakayama, Tadachika; Suematsu, Hisayuki; ...

    2017-04-03

    A two-step processing was developed to prepare Yb 2Si 2O 7-SiC nanocomposites. Yb 2Si 2O 7-Yb 2SiO 5-SiC composites were first fabricated by a solid state reaction/hot-pressing method. The composites were then annealed at 1250°C in air for 2 h to activate the oxidation of SiC, which effectively transformed the Yb 2SiO 5 into Yb 2Si 2O 7. The surface cracks purposely induced can be fully healed during the oxidation treatment. The treated composites have improved flexural strength compared to their pristine composites. As a result, the mechanism for crack-healing and silicate transformation have been proposed and discussed in detail.

  6. Oxidation of TaSi2-Containing ZrB2-SiC Ultra-High Temperature Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Opila, Elizabeth J.; Smith, Jim; Levine, Stanley R.; Lorincz, Jonathan; Reigel, Marissa

    2010-01-01

    Hot pressed coupons of composition ZrB2-20 v% SiC-5 v% TaSi2 and ZrB2-20 v% SiC-20 v% TaSi2 were oxidized in stagnant air at temperatures of 1627 and 1927C for one, five and ten 10-minute cycles. The oxidation reactions were characterized by weight change kinetics, x-ray diffraction, and SEM/EDS. Detailed WDS/microprobe quantitative analyses of the oxidation products were conducted for the ZrB2-20 v% SiC-20 v% TaSi2 sample oxidized for five 10-minute cycles at 1927C. Oxidation kinetics and product formation were compared to ZrB2-20 v% SiC with no TaSi2 additions. It was found that the 20 v% TaSi2 composition exhibited improved oxidation resistance relative to the material with no TaSi2 additions at 1627C. However, for exposures at 1927C less oxidation resistance and extensive liquid phase formation were observed compared to the material with no TaSi2 additions. Attempts to limit the liquid phase formation by reducing the TaSi2 content to 5 v% were unsuccessful. In addition, the enhanced oxidation resistance at 1627C due to 20 v% TaSi2 additions was not achieved at the 5 v% addition level. The observed oxidation product evolution is discussed in terms of thermodynamics and phase equilibria for the TaSi2-containing ZrB2-SiC material system. TaSi2-additions to ZrB2-SiC at any level are not recommended for ultra-high temperature (>1900C) applications due to excessive liquid phase formation.

  7. Effect of SiC Nanowhisker on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of WC-Ni Cemented Carbide Prepared by Spark Plasma Sintering

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Zhiqiang; Wang, Chengbiao

    2014-01-01

    Ultrafine tungsten carbide-nickel (WC-Ni) cemented carbides with varied fractions of silicon carbide (SiC) nanowhisker (0–3.75 wt.%) were fabricated by spark plasma sintering at 1350°C under a uniaxial pressure of 50 MPa with the assistance of vanadium carbide (VC) and tantalum carbide (TaC) as WC grain growth inhibitors. The effects of SiC nanowhisker on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the as-prepared WC-Ni cemented carbides were investigated. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that during spark plasma sintering (SPS) Ni may react with the applied SiC nanowhisker, forming Ni2Si and graphite. Scanning electron microscopy examination indicated that, with the addition of SiC nanowhisker, the average WC grain size decreased from 400 to 350 nm. However, with the additional fractions of SiC nanowhisker, more and more Si-rich aggregates appeared. With the increase in the added fraction of SiC nanowhisker, the Vickers hardness of the samples initially increased and then decreased, reaching its maximum of about 24.9 GPa when 0.75 wt.% SiC nanowhisker was added. However, the flexural strength of the sample gradually decreased with increasing addition fraction of SiC nanowhisker. PMID:25003143

  8. Comparison of dry sliding wear and friction behavior of Al6061/SiC PMMC with Al6061 alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murthy, A. G. Shankara; Mehta, N. K.; Kumar, Pradeep

    2018-04-01

    Dry sliding wear and friction behavior tests were conducted on Al6061 alloy and Al6061/SiC particle reinforced metal matrix composites (PMMCs) reinforced with fine particles of 5, 10 and 15 µm size having 5,7.5 and 10% weight content fabricated by stir-casting route. Cylindrical sample pins produced as per ASTM standard were tested for various parameters like SiC size, weight content, load and sliding distance affecting the wear rate or resistance and friction. Results indicated that Al6061/SiCp composites exhibited good wear resistance compared to Al6061 alloy for the tested parameters.

  9. Irradiation-induced β to α SiC transformation at low temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Parish, Chad M.; Koyanagi, Takaaki; Kondo, Sosuke

    Here, we observed that β-SiC, neutron irradiated to 9 dpa (displacements per atom) at ≈1440 °C, began transforming to α-SiC, with radiation-induced Frank dislocation loops serving as the apparent nucleation sites. 1440 °C is a far lower temperature than usual β → α phase transformations in SiC. SiC is considered for applications in advanced nuclear systems, as well as for electronic or spintronic applications requiring ion irradiation processing. β-SiC, preferred for nuclear applications, is metastable and undergoes a phase transformation at high temperatures (typically 2000 °C and above). Nuclear reactor concepts are not expected to reach the very high temperaturesmore » for thermal transformation. However, our results indicate incipient β → α phase transformation, in the form of small (~5–10 nm) pockets of α-SiC forming in the β matrix. In service transformation could degrade structural stability and fuel integrity for SiC-based materials operated in this regime. However, engineering this transformation deliberately using ion irradiation could enable new electronic applications.« less

  10. Effects induced by high and low intensity laser plasma on SiC Schottky detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sciuto, Antonella; Torrisi, Lorenzo; Cannavò, Antonino; Mazzillo, Massimo; Calcagno, Lucia

    2018-01-01

    Silicon-Carbide detectors are extensively employed as diagnostic devices in laser-generated plasma, allowing the simultaneous detection of photons, electrons and ions, when used in time-of-flight configuration. The plasma generated by high intensity laser (1016 W/cm2) producing high energy ions was characterized by SiC detector with a continuous front-electrode, and a very thick active depth, while SiC detector with an Interdigit front-electrode was used to measure the low energy ions of plasma generated by low intensity laser (1010 W/cm2). Information about ion energy, number of charge states, plasma temperature can be accurately obtained. However, laser exposure induces the formation of surface and bulk defects whose concentration increases with increasing the time to plasma exposure. The surface defects consist of clusters with a main size of the order of some microns and they modify the diode barrier height and the efficiency of the detector as checked by alpha spectrometry. The bulk defects, due to the energy loss of detected ions, strongly affect the electrical properties of the device, inducing a relevant increase of the leakage (reverse) current and decrease the forward current related to a deactivation of the dopant in the active detector region.

  11. Cs diffusion in SiC high-energy grain boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Hyunseok; Szlufarska, Izabela; Morgan, Dane

    2017-09-01

    Cesium (Cs) is a radioactive fission product whose release is of concern for Tristructural-Isotropic fuel particles. In this work, Cs diffusion through high energy grain boundaries (HEGBs) of cubic-SiC is studied using an ab-initio based kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) model. The HEGB environment was modeled as an amorphous SiC, and Cs defect energies were calculated using the density functional theory (DFT). From defect energies, it was suggested that the fastest diffusion mechanism is the diffusion of Cs interstitial in an amorphous SiC. The diffusion of Cs interstitial was simulated using a kMC model, based on the site and transition state energies sampled from the DFT. The Cs HEGB diffusion exhibited an Arrhenius type diffusion in the range of 1200-1600 °C. The comparison between HEGB results and the other studies suggests not only that the GB diffusion dominates the bulk diffusion but also that the HEGB is one of the fastest grain boundary paths for the Cs diffusion. The diffusion coefficients in HEGB are clearly a few orders of magnitude lower than the reported diffusion coefficients from in- and out-of-pile samples, suggesting that other contributions are responsible, such as radiation enhanced diffusion.

  12. Microstructure and fracture in SiC whisker reinforced 2124 aluminum composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nieh, T. G.; Raninen, R. A.; Chellman, D. J.

    1985-01-01

    The microstructures of extruded and hot-rolled 2124 Al-15 percent (by weight) SiC whisker composites have been investigated, experimentally. Among the specific factors studied were: the strength of the whisker-matrix interfaces; (2) the presence of oxides; (3) the presence of defective whiskers; (4) and the presence of distribution of intermetallic compounds, impurities in the SiC(w) powder, and microstructural inhomogeneities. Modifications in the microstructure of the SiC/AL composites due to hot rolling and extrusion are illustrated in a series of microphotographs. It was found that hot rolling along the axis of extrusion was associated with some types of whisker damage, while the whiskers still retain their original orientation. Hot-rolling perpendicular to the axis of extrusion, however, tended to rotate the whiskers and produced a nearly isotropic material. Whisker free zones were virtually eliminated or reduced in size by hot rolling. In situ Auger fractography of the composite showed that the interfacial bonding between the SiC and the Al matrix was good and that Al2O2 had no significant influence on the fracture mechanics of the composite.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of SiC based composite materials for immobilizing radioactive graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qing; Teng, Yuancheng; Wu, Lang; Zhang, Kuibao; Zhao, Xiaofeng; Hu, Zhuang

    2018-06-01

    In order to immobilize high-level radioactive graphite, silicon carbide based composite materials{ (1-x) SiC· x MgAl2O4 (0.1 ≤ x≤0.4) } were fabricated by solid-state reaction at 1370 °C for 2 h in vacuum. Residual graphite and precipitated corundum were observed in the as-synthesized product, which attributed to the interface reaction of element silicon and magnesium compounds. To further understand the reasons for the presence of graphite and corundum, the effects of mole ratio of Si/C, MgAl2O4 content and non-stoichiometry of MgAl2O4 on the synthesis were investigated. To immobilize graphite better, residual graphite should be eliminated. The target product was obtained when the mole ratio of Si/C was 1.3:1, MgAl2O4 content was x = 0.2, and the mole ratio of Al to Mg in non-stoichiometric MgAl2O4 was 1.7:1. In addition, the interface reaction between magnesium compounds and silicon not graphite was displayed by conducting a series of comparative experiments. The key factor for the occurrence of interface reaction is that oxygen atom is transferred from magnesium compound to SiO gas. Infrared and Raman spectrum revealed the increased disorders of graphite after being synthesized.

  14. Normal incidence reflectance of ion beam deposited SiC films in the EUV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keski-Kuha, Ritva A. M.; Osantowski, John F.; Herzig, Howard; Gum, Jeffrey S.; Toft, Albert R.

    1988-01-01

    Results are presented from an experimental investigation of the normal-incidence reflectance at 58.4, 92.0, and 121.6 nm wavelength of 30- and 80-nm-thick SiC films produced by ion-beam deposition on unheated 5 x 5-cm microscope slides. The films were deposited in the 2-m evaporator described by Bradford et al. (1969) with chamber base pressure 1 microtorr, operating pressure 40 microtorr, and a 50-62-mA 750-eV Ar ion beam; the reflectance measurements were obtained in the reflector-monochromator system described by Osantowski (1974). Reflectances of over 30 percent were found at 92 and 121.6 nm, almost equal to those of polished CVD films of SiC and degrading only slightly after aging for 4 months. It is suggested that ion-beam deposition may be the best low-temperature technique for coating EUV optics for space astronomy.

  15. A versatile technique for fabrication of SiC SPM probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Therrien, Joel; Schmidt, Daniel; Barrot, Sheetal; Patel, Bhavin

    2008-03-01

    To date SPM probes have largely been fabricated via methods borrowed from the semiconductor industry for fabricating Micro Electro Mechanical Systems. Although these techniques have enabled SPM to see widespread use, the processes put significant limitations on what structures can be made. We report our progress on fabricating SPM cantilevers composed of Silicon Carbide using polymer molding techniques. A pre-ceramic polymer is molded into the desired probe shape and then converted to SiC via pyrolisys. We will also report on progress in using photo-sterolithography for fabrication of even more complex geometries. In addition to opening up a much larger set of probe structures, the use of SiC leads to improved wear resistance of the resulting probes. Among the potential applications, this method enables the fabrication of low spring constant, high resonant frequency cantilevers via cross sectional geometries not accessible to standard fabrication techniques. Such probes are required for high speed tapping and non-contact imaging.

  16. Influence of SiC grain boundary character on fission product transport in irradiated TRISO fuel

    DOE PAGES

    Lillo, T. M.; Rooyen, I. J.

    2016-02-26

    The relationship between grain boundary character and fission product migration is identified as an important knowledge gap in order to advance the understanding of fission product release from TRISO fuel particles. Precession electron diffraction (PED), a TEM-based technique, was used in this study to quickly and efficiently provide the crystallographic information needed to identify grain boundary misorientation, grain boundary type (low or high angle) and whether the boundary is coincident site lattice (CSL) – related, in irradiated SiC. Analysis of PED data showed the grain structure of the SiC layer in an irradiated TRISO fuel particle from the AGR-1 experimentmore » to be composed mainly of twin boundaries with a small fraction of low angle grain boundaries (<10%). In general, fission products favor precipitation on random, high angle grain boundaries but can precipitate out on low angle and CSL-related grain boundaries to a limited degree. Pd is capable of precipitating out on all types of grain boundaries but most prominently on random, high angle grain boundaries. Pd-U and Pd-Ag precipitates were found on CSL-related as well as random high angle grain boundaries but not on low angle grain boundaries. In contrast, precipitates containing only Ag were found only on random, high angle grain boundaries but not on either low angle or CSL-related grain boundaries.« less

  17. Electrical Impact of SiC Structural Crystal Defects on High Electric Field Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neudeck, Philip G.

    1999-01-01

    Commercial epilayers are known to contain a variety of crystallographic imperfections. including micropipes, closed core screw dislocations. low-angle boundaries, basal plane dislocations, heteropolytypic inclusions, and non-ideal surface features like step bunching and pits. This paper reviews the limited present understanding of the operational impact of various crystal defects on SiC electrical devices. Aside from micropipes and triangular inclusions whose densities have been shrinking towards manageably small values in recent years, many of these defects appear to have little adverse operational and/or yield impact on SiC-based sensors, high-frequency RF, and signal conditioning electronics. However high-power switching devices used in power management and distribution circuits have historically (in silicon experience) demanded the highest material quality for prolonged safe operation, and are thus more susceptible to operational reliability problems that arise from electrical property nonuniformities likely to occur at extended crystal defects. A particular emphasis is placed on the impact of closed-core screw dislocations on high-power switching devices, because these difficult to observe defects are present in densities of thousands per cm,in commercial SiC epilayers. and their reduction to acceptable levels seems the most problematic at the present time.

  18. Electronic Stopping Powers For Heavy Ions In SiC And SiO2

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Ke; Zhang, Y.; Zhu, Zihua

    2014-01-24

    Accurate information on electronic stopping power is fundamental for broad advances in materials science, electronic industry, space exploration, and sustainable energy technologies. In the case of slow heavy ions in light targets, current codes and models provide significantly inconsistent predictions, among which the Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter (SRIM) code is the most commonly used one. Experimental evidence, however, has demonstrated considerable errors in the predicted ion and damage profiles based on SRIM stopping powers. In this work, electronic stopping powers for Cl, Br, I, and Au ions are experimentally determined in two important functional materials, SiC andmore » SiO2, based on a single ion technique, and new electronic stopping power values are derived over the energy regime from 0 to 15 MeV, where large deviations from the SRIM predictions are observed. As an experimental validation, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) are utilized to measure the depth profiles of implanted Au ions in SiC for energies from 700 keV to 15MeV. The measured ion distributions by both RBS and SIMS are considerably deeper than the SRIM predictions, but agree well with predictions based on our derived stopping powers.« less

  19. Irradiation-induced β to α SiC transformation at low temperature

    DOE PAGES

    Parish, Chad M.; Koyanagi, Takaaki; Kondo, Sosuke; ...

    2017-04-26

    Here, we observed that β-SiC, neutron irradiated to 9 dpa (displacements per atom) at ≈1440 °C, began transforming to α-SiC, with radiation-induced Frank dislocation loops serving as the apparent nucleation sites. 1440 °C is a far lower temperature than usual β → α phase transformations in SiC. SiC is considered for applications in advanced nuclear systems, as well as for electronic or spintronic applications requiring ion irradiation processing. β-SiC, preferred for nuclear applications, is metastable and undergoes a phase transformation at high temperatures (typically 2000 °C and above). Nuclear reactor concepts are not expected to reach the very high temperaturesmore » for thermal transformation. However, our results indicate incipient β → α phase transformation, in the form of small (~5–10 nm) pockets of α-SiC forming in the β matrix. In service transformation could degrade structural stability and fuel integrity for SiC-based materials operated in this regime. However, engineering this transformation deliberately using ion irradiation could enable new electronic applications.« less

  20. Structural consequences of hydrogen intercalation of epitaxial graphene on SiC(0001)

    SciTech Connect

    Emery, Jonathan D., E-mail: jdemery@anl.gov, E-mail: bedzyk@northwestern.edu; Johns, James E.; McBriarty, Martin E.

    2014-10-20

    The intercalation of various atomic species, such as hydrogen, to the interface between epitaxial graphene (EG) and its SiC substrate is known to significantly influence the electronic properties of the graphene overlayers. Here, we use high-resolution X-ray reflectivity to investigate the structural consequences of the hydrogen intercalation process used in the formation of quasi-free-standing (QFS) EG/SiC(0001). We confirm that the interfacial layer is converted to a layer structurally indistinguishable from that of the overlying graphene layers. This newly formed graphene layer becomes decoupled from the SiC substrate and, along with the other graphene layers within the film, is vertically displacedmore » by ∼2.1 Å. The number of total carbon layers is conserved during the process, and we observe no other structural changes such as interlayer intercalation or expansion of the graphene d-spacing. These results clarify the under-determined structure of hydrogen intercalated QFS-EG/SiC(0001) and provide a precise model to inform further fundamental and practical understanding of the system.« less

  1. The SiC hardware of the Sentinel-2 multi spectral instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bougoin, Michel; Lavenac, Jérôme

    2017-11-01

    The Sentinel-2 mission is a major part of the GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security) program which has been set up by the European Union, on a joint initiative with the European Space Agency. A pair of identical satellites will observe the earth from a sun-synchronous orbit at 786 km altitude. Astrium is the prime contractor of the satellites and their payload. The MultiSpectral Instrument features a "all-SiC" TMA (Three Mirror Anastygmat) telescope. MSI will provide optical images in 13 spectral bands, in the visible and also the near infra-red range, with a 10 to 60 m resolution and a 290 km wide swath. The Boostec® SiC material is used mainly for its high specific stiffness (Youngs modulus / density) and its high thermal stability (thermal conductivity / coefficient of thermal expansion) which allow to reduce the distortions induced by thermo-elastic stresses. Its high mechanical properties as well as the relevant technology enable to make not only the mirrors but also the structure which holds them and the elements of the focal plane (including some detectors packaging). Due to the required large size, accuracy and shape complexity, developing and manufacturing some of these SiC parts required innovative manufacturing approach. It is reviewed in the present paper.

  2. Thermo-Mechanical Properties of Super Sylramic SiC Fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yun, H. M.; DiCarlo, J. A.; Chen, Y. L.; Wheeler, D. R.

    2004-01-01

    Ceramic matrix composites (CMC) reinforced by Sic fibers, such as SiC/SiC, are targeted for application in hot-section components of advanced engines for aerospace propulsion and for electrical power generation. Two Super Sylramic Sic fiber types recently developed at NASA using the Sylramic fiber from COI Ceramics are candidates fof providing these components with improved thermal capability and improved performance. This paper reports on the state-of-the-art ability of these new fiber types to meet the key fiber requirements of these applications: high strength, high creep-rupture resistance, high environmental resistance, and high thermal conductivity. For example, creep-rupture tests performed at from 1350 to 1500 C under various environments to simulate CMC fabrication and service conditions show creep resistance in air improved -20 and -7 times in comparison to current Sylramic and Sylramic-iBN fiber types, respectively. This in turn resulted in an increase in fiber rupture life by up to two orders of magnitude. TEM and AES microscopic observations are presented to indicate that these improvements can be correlated with the replacement of weak grain boundary phases with stronger phases that hinder grain boundary sliding more effectively. SiC/SiC composite results are also provided to show the advantages of the Super Sylramic fiber types both for CMC fabrication and high temperature application.

  3. AIN-Based Packaging for SiC High-Temperature Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savrun, Ender

    2004-01-01

    Packaging made primarily of aluminum nitride has been developed to enclose silicon carbide-based integrated circuits (ICs), including circuits containing SiC-based power diodes, that are capable of operation under conditions more severe than can be withstood by silicon-based integrated circuits. A major objective of this development was to enable packaged SiC electronic circuits to operate continuously at temperatures up to 500 C. AlN-packaged SiC electronic circuits have commercial potential for incorporation into high-power electronic equipment and into sensors that must withstand high temperatures and/or high pressures in diverse applications that include exploration in outer space, well logging, and monitoring of nuclear power systems. This packaging embodies concepts drawn from flip-chip packaging of silicon-based integrated circuits. One or more SiC-based circuit chips are mounted on an aluminum nitride package substrate or sandwiched between two such substrates. Intimate electrical connections between metal conductors on the chip(s) and the metal conductors on external circuits are made by direct bonding to interconnections on the package substrate(s) and/or by use of holes through the package substrate(s). This approach eliminates the need for wire bonds, which have been the most vulnerable links in conventional electronic circuitry in hostile environments. Moreover, the elimination of wire bonds makes it possible to pack chips more densely than was previously possible.

  4. Electron transport in nanocrystalline SiC films obtained by direct ion deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlovskyi, A.; Semenov, A.; Skorik, S.

    2016-12-01

    Electrical conductivity of nanocrystalline SiC films obtained by direct ion deposition was investigated within the temperature interval from 2 to 770 K. It were investigated the samples of films with 3С-SiC polytype structure and the heteropolytype films formed by layers of different polytypes SiC (3C-SiC/21R-SiC, 21R-SiC/27R-SiC, 3C-SiC/15R-SiC). The films had n-type conductivity that ensured a small excess of silicon ions. The thermally activated character of electron transport in the 3С-SiC polytype films was established. In the heteropolytype films the temperature dependence of the electrical resistance was described by the relation R(T) = R0 × exp[-kT/E0]. It was shown that the charge transport mechanism in the heteropolytype samples is electron tunneling through potential barriers formed by the conduction band offset in the contact region of the heterojunction. Tunnel charge transport occurs due to the presence of discrete energy states in the forbidden band caused the dimensional quantization.

  5. Assessment of intrinsic small signal parameters of submicron SiC MESFETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riaz, Mohammad; Ahmed, Muhammad Mansoor; Rafique, Umair; Ahmed, Umer Farooq

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a technique has been developed to estimate intrinsic small signal parameters of submicron SiC MESFETs, designed for high power microwave applications. In the developed technique, small signal parameters are extracted by involving drain-to-source current, Ids instead of Schottky barrier depletion layer expression. It has been demonstrated that in SiC MESFETs, the depletion layer gets modified due to intense transverse electric field and/or self-heating effects, which are conventionally not taken into account. Thus, assessment of AC small signal parameters by employing depletion layer expression loses its accuracy for devices meant for high power applications. A set of expressions for AC small signal elements has been developed using Ids and its dependence on device biasing has been discussed. The validity of the proposed technique has been demonstrated using experimental data. Dr. Ahmed research interests are in Microelectronics, Microwave and RF Engineering and he has supervised numerous MS and PhD research projects. He authored over 100 research papers in the field of microelectronics. Dr. Ahmed is a fellow of the Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET), UK.; a Chartered Engineer (CEng) from the UK Engineering Council and holds the title of European Engineer (Eur Ing) from the European Federation of National Engineering Association (FEANI), Brussels. He is a life member of PEC (Pak); EDS & MTTS (USA).

  6. Influence of SiC grain boundary character on fission product transport in irradiated TRISO fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Lillo, T. M.; Rooyen, I. J.

    The relationship between grain boundary character and fission product migration is identified as an important knowledge gap in order to advance the understanding of fission product release from TRISO fuel particles. Precession electron diffraction (PED), a TEM-based technique, was used in this study to quickly and efficiently provide the crystallographic information needed to identify grain boundary misorientation, grain boundary type (low or high angle) and whether the boundary is coincident site lattice (CSL) – related, in irradiated SiC. Analysis of PED data showed the grain structure of the SiC layer in an irradiated TRISO fuel particle from the AGR-1 experimentmore » to be composed mainly of twin boundaries with a small fraction of low angle grain boundaries (<10%). In general, fission products favor precipitation on random, high angle grain boundaries but can precipitate out on low angle and CSL-related grain boundaries to a limited degree. Pd is capable of precipitating out on all types of grain boundaries but most prominently on random, high angle grain boundaries. Pd-U and Pd-Ag precipitates were found on CSL-related as well as random high angle grain boundaries but not on low angle grain boundaries. In contrast, precipitates containing only Ag were found only on random, high angle grain boundaries but not on either low angle or CSL-related grain boundaries.« less

  7. Hot isostatic pressing of SiC particulate reinforced metal matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Loh, N.L.; Wei, Z.; Xu, Z.

    1996-12-31

    Two as-cast SiC particulate reinforced A359-based composites were hot isostatically pressed for a fixed length of time but at various pressures (in the range 100--150 MPa) and temperatures (in the range 450--550 C). It was found that HIP treatment generally increased the ductility but reduced the yield stress drastically. The improvement of ductility was attributed to a reduction of the porosity levels. Quantitative image analyses showed that the HIP treatment reduced the porosity levels significantly. It is of interest to observe that increasing HIP temperature is more effective than increasing HIP pressure in terms of improvement in strength and ductility.more » Another interesting observation is that most eutectic Si particles were spheroidized during HIP. The spheroidization of Si was believed to contribute to the improvement of mechanical properties, because fracture initiation of the composites was observed to be related to either the breaking of Si particles or the debonding of Si particles from the nearby SiC particles.« less

  8. Thermal Stability of Hi-Nicalon SiC Fiber in Nitrogen and Silicon Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatt, R. T.; Garg, A.

    1995-01-01

    The room temperature tensile strength of uncoated and two types of pyrolytic boron nitride coated (PBN and Si-rich PBN) Hi-Nicalon SiC fibers was determined after 1 to 400 hr heat treatments to 1800 C under N2 pressures of 0.1, 2, and 4 MPa, and under 0.1 Mpa argon and vacuum environments. In addition, strength stability of both uncoated and coated fibers embedded in silicon powder and exposed to 0.1 MPa N2 for 24 hrs at temperatures to 1400 C was investigated. The uncoated and both types of BN coated fibers exposed to N2 for 1 hr showed noticeable strength degradation above 1400 C and 1600 C, respectively. The strength degradation appeared independent of nitrogen pressure, time of heat treatment, and surface coatings. TEM microstructural analysis suggests that flaws created due to SiC grain growth are responsible for the strength degradation. In contact with silicon powder, the uncoated and both types of PBN coated fibers degrade rapidly above 1350 C.

  9. Selective Epitaxial Graphene Growth on SiC via AlN Capping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaman, Farhana; Rubio-Roy, Miguel; Moseley, Michael; Lowder, Jonathan; Doolittle, William; Berger, Claire; Dong, Rui; Meindl, James; de Heer, Walt; Georgia Institute of Technology Team

    2011-03-01

    Electronic-quality graphene is epitaxially grown by graphitization of carbon-face silicon carbide (SiC) by the sublimation of silicon atoms from selected regions uncapped by aluminum nitride (AlN). AlN (deposited by molecular beam epitaxy) withstands high graphitization temperatures of 1420o C, hence acting as an effective capping layer preventing the growth of graphene under it. The AlN is patterned and etched to open up windows onto the SiC surface for subsequent graphitization. Such selective epitaxial growth leads to the formation of high-quality graphene in desired patterns without the need for etching and lithographic patterning of graphene itself. No detrimental contact of the graphene with external chemicals occurs throughout the fabrication-process. The impact of process-conditions on the mobility of graphene is investigated. Graphene hall-bars were fabricated and characterized by scanning Raman spectroscopy, ellipsometry, and transport measurements. This controlled growth of graphene in selected regions represents a viable approach to fabrication of high-mobility graphene as the channel material for fast-switching field-effect transistors.

  10. Fundamentals of Passive Oxidation In SiC and Si3N4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas-Ogbuji, Linus U.

    1998-01-01

    The very slow oxidation kinetics of silicon carbide and silicon nitride, which derive from their adherent and passivating oxide films, has been explored at length in a broad series of studies utilizing thermogravimetric analysis, electron and optical micrography, energy dispersive spectrometry, x-ray diffractometry, micro-analytical depth profiling, etc. Some interesting microstructural phenomena accompanying the process of oxidation in the two materials will be presented. In Si3N4 the oxide is stratified, with an SiO2 topscale (which is relatively impervious to O2)underlain by a coherent subscale of silicon oxynitride which is even less permeable to O2- Such "defence in depth" endows Si3N4 with what is perhaps the highest oxidation resistance of any material, and results in a unique set of oxidation processes. In SiC the oxidation reactions are much simpler, yet new issues still emerge; for instance, studies involving controlled devitrification of the amorphous silica scale confirmed that the oxidation rate of SiC drops by more than an order of magnitude when the oxide scale fully crystallizes.

  11. Electronic stopping powers for heavy ions in SiC and SiO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, K.; Xue, H.; Zhang, Y., E-mail: Zhangy1@ornl.gov

    2014-01-28

    Accurate information on electronic stopping power is fundamental for broad advances in materials science, electronic industry, space exploration, and sustainable energy technologies. In the case of slow heavy ions in light targets, current codes and models provide significantly inconsistent predictions, among which the Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter (SRIM) code is the most commonly used one. Experimental evidence, however, has demonstrated considerable errors in the predicted ion and damage profiles based on SRIM stopping powers. In this work, electronic stopping powers for Cl, Br, I, and Au ions are experimentally determined in two important functional materials, SiC andmore » SiO{sub 2}, based on a single ion technique, and new electronic stopping power values are derived over the energy regime from 0 to 15 MeV, where large deviations from the SRIM predictions are observed. As an experimental validation, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) are utilized to measure the depth profiles of implanted Au ions in SiC for energies from 700 keV to 15 MeV. The measured ion distributions by both RBS and SIMS are considerably deeper than the SRIM predictions, but agree well with predictions based on our derived stopping powers.« less

  12. Fast Turn-Off Times Observed in Experimental 4H SiC Thyristors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niedra, Janis M.

    2006-01-01

    Room temperature measurements of the turn-off time (t(sub q)) are reported for several packaged, npnp developmental power thyristors based on 4H-type SiC and rated 400 V, 2 A. Turn-off is effected by a 50 V pulse of applied reverse voltage, from a state of a steady 1 A forward current. Plots of t(sub q) against the ramp rate (dV(sub AK)/dt) of reapplied forward voltage are presented for preset values of limiting anode-to-cathode voltage (V(sub AK,max)). The lowest t(sub q) measured was about 180 ns. A rapid rise of these t(sub q) curves was observed for values of V(sub AK,max) that are only about a fifth of the rated voltage, whereas comparative t(sub q) plots for a commercial, fast turn-off, Si-based thyristor at a proportionately reduced V(sub AK,max) showed no such behavior. Hence these SiC thyristors may have problems arising from material defects or surface passivation. The influence the R-C-D gate bypass circuit that was used is briefly discussed.

  13. First-Principles Investigation of Radiation Induced Defects in SiC and Si.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Windl, Wolfgang; Lenosky, Thomas J.; Kress, Joel D.; Voter, Arthur F.

    1997-03-01

    SiC shows promise as a structural material for fusion reactors, partly because of its low activation under neutron irradiation. This radiation, however, can cause damage to its crystal structure, thereby degrading its properties. The focus of this work is the understanding of this neutron-induced radiation damage to SiC. Neutrons interact with matter primarily by scattering off nuclei, an event which suddenly imparts energy and momentum to an atom. If enough energy is transferred, this scattering event creates structural damage, such as displacement of the impacted atom from its original position to an interstitial site. We performed quantum molecular dynamics simulations to determine the displacement energy threshold, i.e., the minimum energy transfer required to create damage. To do this, we used the self-consistent Demkov-Ortega-Grumbach-Sankey (DOGS) extension(A. A. Demkov et al.), Phys. Rev. B 52, 1618 (1995). of the Harris-functional local orbital LDA method of Sankey et al. In order to benchmark the quality of our methodology for studying radiation damage, we compare our results to those of calculations employing classical interatomic potentials; furthermore, we performed similar simulations for Si, where experimental data exist.

  14. SiC Nanofibers as Long-Life Lithium-Ion Battery Anode Materials.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xuejiao; Shao, Changzhen; Zhang, Feng; Li, Yi; Wu, Qi-Hui; Yang, Yonggang

    2018-01-01

    The development of high energy lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) has spurred the designing and production of novel anode materials to substitute currently commercial using graphitic materials. Herein, twisted SiC nanofibers toward LIBs anode materials, containing 92.5 wt% cubic β-SiC and 7.5 wt% amorphous C, were successfully synthesized from resin-silica composites. The electrochemical measurements showed that the SiC-based electrode delivered a stable reversible capacity of 254.5 mAh g -1 after 250 cycles at a current density of 0.1 A g -1 . It is interesting that a high discharge capacity of 540.1 mAh g -1 was achieved after 500 cycles at an even higher current density of 0.3 A g -1 , which is higher than the theoretical capacity of graphite. The results imply that SiC nanomaterials are potential anode candidate for LIBs with high stability due to their high structure stability as supported with the transmission electron microscopy images.

  15. Coaxial metal-silicide Ni2Si/C54-TiSi2 nanowires.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Yen; Lin, Yu-Kai; Hsu, Chia-Wei; Wang, Chiu-Yen; Chueh, Yu-Lun; Chen, Lih-Juann; Lo, Shen-Chuan; Chou, Li-Jen

    2012-05-09

    One-dimensional metal silicide nanowires are excellent candidates for interconnect and contact materials in future integrated circuits devices. Novel core-shell Ni(2)Si/C54-TiSi(2) nanowires, 2 μm in length, were grown controllably via a solid-liquid-solid growth mechanism. Their interesting ferromagnetic behaviors and excellent electrical properties have been studied in detail. The coercivities (Hcs) of the core-shell Ni(2)Si/C54-TiSi(2) nanowires was determined to be 200 and 50 Oe at 4 and 300 K, respectively, and the resistivity was measured to be as low as 31 μΩ-cm. The shift of the hysteresis loop with the temperature in zero field cooled (ZFC) and field cooled (FC) studies was found. ZFC and FC curves converge near room temperature at 314 K. The favorable ferromagnetic and electrical properties indicate that the unique core-shell nanowires can be used in penetrative ferromagnetic devices at room temperature simultaneously as a future interconnection in integrated circuits.

  16. Effect of carbon ion irradiation on Ag diffusion in SiC

    SciTech Connect

    Leng, Bin; Ko, Hyunseok; Gerczak, Tyler J.

    Transport of Ag fission product through the silicon-carbide (SiC) diffusion barrier layer in TRISO fuel particles is of considerable interest given the application of this fuel type in high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) and other future reactor concepts. The reactor experiments indicate that radiation may play an important role in release of Ag; however so far the isolated effect of radiation on Ag diffusion has not been investigated in controlled laboratory experiments. In this study, we investigate the diffusion couples of Ag and polycrystalline 3C–SiC, as well as Ag and single crystalline 4H–SiC samples before and after irradiation with Cmore » 2+ ions. The diffusion couple samples were exposed to temperatures of 1500 °C, 1535 °C, and 1569 °C, and the ensuing diffusion profiles were analyzed by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). We found that diffusion coefficients calculated from these measurements indicate that Ag diffusion was greatly enhanced by carbon irradiation due to a combined effect of radiation damage on diffusion and the presence of grain boundaries in polycrystalline SiC samples.« less

  17. Effect of carbon ion irradiation on Ag diffusion in SiC

    DOE PAGES

    Leng, Bin; Ko, Hyunseok; Gerczak, Tyler J.; ...

    2015-11-14

    Transport of Ag fission product through the silicon-carbide (SiC) diffusion barrier layer in TRISO fuel particles is of considerable interest given the application of this fuel type in high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) and other future reactor concepts. The reactor experiments indicate that radiation may play an important role in release of Ag; however so far the isolated effect of radiation on Ag diffusion has not been investigated in controlled laboratory experiments. In this study, we investigate the diffusion couples of Ag and polycrystalline 3C–SiC, as well as Ag and single crystalline 4H–SiC samples before and after irradiation with Cmore » 2+ ions. The diffusion couple samples were exposed to temperatures of 1500 °C, 1535 °C, and 1569 °C, and the ensuing diffusion profiles were analyzed by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). We found that diffusion coefficients calculated from these measurements indicate that Ag diffusion was greatly enhanced by carbon irradiation due to a combined effect of radiation damage on diffusion and the presence of grain boundaries in polycrystalline SiC samples.« less

  18. Polishing, coating and integration of SiC mirrors for space telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodolfo, Jacques

    2017-11-01

    In the last years, the technology of SiC mirrors took an increasingly significant part in the field of space telescopes. Sagem is involved in the JWST program to manufacture and test the optical components of the NIRSpec instrument. The instrument is made of 3 TMAs and 4 plane mirrors made of SiC. Sagem is in charge of the CVD cladding, the polishing, the coating of the mirrors and the integration and testing of the TMAs. The qualification of the process has been performed through the manufacturing and testing of the qualification model of the FOR TMA. This TMA has shown very good performances both at ambient and during the cryo test. The polishing process has been improved for the manufacturing of the flight model. This improvement has been driven by the BRDF performance of the mirror. This parameter has been deeply analysed and a model has been built to predict the performance of the mirrors. The existing Dittman model have been analysed and found to be optimistic.

  19. SiC: An Agent Based Architecture for Preventing and Detecting Attacks to Ubiquitous Databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinzón, Cristian; de Paz, Yanira; Bajo, Javier; Abraham, Ajith; Corchado, Juan M.

    One of the main attacks to ubiquitous databases is the structure query language (SQL) injection attack, which causes severe damages both in the commercial aspect and in the user’s confidence. This chapter proposes the SiC architecture as a solution to the SQL injection attack problem. This is a hierarchical distributed multiagent architecture, which involves an entirely new approach with respect to existing architectures for the prevention and detection of SQL injections. SiC incorporates a kind of intelligent agent, which integrates a case-based reasoning system. This agent, which is the core of the architecture, allows the application of detection techniques based on anomalies as well as those based on patterns, providing a great degree of autonomy, flexibility, robustness and dynamic scalability. The characteristics of the multiagent system allow an architecture to detect attacks from different types of devices, regardless of the physical location. The architecture has been tested on a medical database, guaranteeing safe access from various devices such as PDAs and notebook computers.

  20. Influence of Ni-P Coated SiC and Laser Scan Speed on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of IN625 Metal Matrix Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sateesh, N. H.; Kumar, G. C. Mohan; Krishna, Prasad

    2015-12-01

    Nickel based Inconel-625 (IN625) metal matrix composites (MMCs) were prepared using pre-heated nickel phosphide (Ni-P) coated silicon carbide (SiC) reinforcement particles by Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) additive manufacturing process under inert nitrogen atmosphere to obtain interface influences on MMCs. The distribution of SiC particles and microstructures were characterized using optical and scanning electron micrographs, and the mechanical behaviours were thoroughly examined. The results clearly reveal that the interface integrity between the SiC particles and the IN625 matrix, the mixed powders flowability, the SiC ceramic particles and laser beam interaction, and the hardness, and tensile characteristics of the DMLS processed MMCs were improved effectively by the use of Ni-P coated SiC particles.

  1. Understanding the Mechanism of SiC Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD) and Developing Routes toward SiC Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) with Density Functional Theory.

    PubMed

    Filatova, Ekaterina A; Hausmann, Dennis; Elliott, Simon D

    2018-05-02

    Understanding the mechanism of SiC chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is an important step in investigating the routes toward future atomic layer deposition (ALD) of SiC. The energetics of various silicon and carbon precursors reacting with bare and H-terminated 3C-SiC (011) are analyzed using ab initio density functional theory (DFT). Bare SiC is found to be reactive to silicon and carbon precursors, while H-terminated SiC is found to be not reactive with these precursors at 0 K. Furthermore, the reaction pathways of silane plasma fragments SiH 3 and SiH 2 are calculated along with the energetics for the methane plasma fragments CH 3 and CH 2 . SiH 3 and SiH 2 fragments follow different mechanisms toward Si growth, of which the SiH 3 mechanism is found to be more thermodynamically favorable. Moreover, both of the fragments were found to show selectivity toward the Si-H bond and not C-H bond of the surface. On the basis of this, a selective Si deposition process is suggested for silicon versus carbon-doped silicon oxide surfaces.

  2. Quantification Of 4H- To 3C-Polymorphism In Silicon Carbide (SiC) Epilayers And An Investigation Of Recombination-Enhanced Dislocation Motion In SiC By Optical Emission Microscopy (Oem) Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Speer, Kevin M.

    2004-01-01

    Environments that impose operational constraints on conventional silicon-(Si) based semiconductor devices frequently appear in military- and space-grade applications. These constraints include high temperature, high power, and high radiation environments. Silicon carbide (SiC), an alternative type of semiconductor material, has received abundant research attention in the past few years, owing to its radiation-hardened properties as well as its capability to withstand high temperatures and power levels. However, the growth and manufacture of SiC devices is still comparatively immature, and there are severe limitations in present crystal growth and device fabrication processes. Among these limitations is a variety of crystal imperfections known as defects. These imperfections can be point defects (e.g., vacancies and interstitials), line defects (e.g., edge and screw dislocations), or planar defects (e.g., stacking faults and double-positioning boundaries). All of these defects have been experimentally shown to be detrimental to the performance of electron devices made from SiC. As such, it is imperative that these defects are significantly reduced in order for SiC devices to become a viable entity in the electronics world. The NASA Glenn High Temperature Integrated Electronics & Sensors Team (HTIES) is working to identify and eliminate these defects in SiC by implementing improved epitaxial crystal growth procedures. HTIES takes two-inch SiC wafers and etches patterns, producing thousands of mesas into each wafer. Crystal growth is then carried out on top of these mesas in an effort to produce films of improved quality-resulting in electron devices that demonstrate superior performance-as well as fabrication processes that are cost-effective, reliable, and reproducible. In this work, further steps are taken to automate HTIES' SiC wafer inspection system. National Instruments LabVIEW image processing and pattern recognition routines are developed that are capable of

  3. Durability and Design Issues of Thermal/environmental Barrier Coatings on Sic/sic Ceramic Matrix Composites Under 1650 C Test Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dong-Ming; Choi, Sung R.; Ghosn, Louis J.; Miller, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    Ceramic thermal/environmental barrier coatings for SiC-based ceramics will play an increasingly important role in future gas turbine engines because of their ability to effectively protect the engine components and further raise engine temperatures. However, the coating durability remains a major concern with the ever-increasing temperature requirements. Currently, advanced T/EBC systems, which typically include a high temperature capable zirconia- (or hahia-) based oxide top coat (thermal barrier) on a less temperature capable mullite/barium-strontium-aluminosilicate (BSAS)/Si inner coat (environmental barrier), are being developed and tested for higher temperature capability Sic combustor applications. In this paper, durability of several thermal/environmental barrier coating systems on SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites was investigated under laser simulated engine thermal gradient cyclic, and 1650 C (3000 F) test conditions. The coating cracking and delamination processes were monitored and evaluated. The effects of temperature gradients and coating configurations on the ceramic coating crack initiation and propagation were analyzed using finite element analysis (FEA) models based on the observed failure mechanisms, in conjunction with mechanical testing results. The environmental effects on the coating durability will be discussed. The coating design approach will also be presented.

  4. Modeling thermal and irradiation-induced swelling effects on the integrity of Ti 3 SiC 2 /SiC joints

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Henager, Charles H.; Kurtz, Richard J.

    Previously, results for CVD-SiC joints created using solid state displacement reactions to form a dual-phase SiC/MAX phase irradiated at 800°C and 5 dpa indicated some extent of cracking in the joint and along the CVD-SiC/joint interface. This paper elucidates the origin of cracking by thermomechanical modeling combined with irradiation-induced swelling effects using a continuum damage approach with support of micromechanical modeling. Three irradiation temperatures (400°C, 500°C and 800°C) are considered assuming experimental irradiation doses in a range leading to saturation swelling in SiC. The analyses indicate that a SiC/MAX joint heated to 400°C fails during irradiation-induced swelling at this temperaturemore » while it experiences some damage after being heated to 500°C and irradiated at the same temperature. However, it fails during cooling from 500°C to room temperature. The joint experiences minor damage when heated to and irradiated at 800°C but does not fail after cooling. The prediction agrees with the experimental findings available for this case.« less

  5. Measurement of Young's modulus and residual stress of thin SiC layers for MEMS high temperature applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pabst, Oliver; Schiffer, Michael; Obermeier, Ernst; Tekin, Tolga; Lang, Klaus Dieter; Ngo, Ha-Duong

    2011-06-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) is a promising material for applications in harsh environments. Standard silicon (Si) microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) are limited in operating temperature to temperatures below 130 °C for electronic devices and below 600 °C for mechanical devices. Due to its large bandgap SiC enables MEMS with significantly higher operating temperatures. Furthermore, SiC exhibits high chemical stability and thermal conductivity. Young's modulus and residual stress are important mechanical properties for the design of sophisticated SiC-based MEMS devices. In particular, residual stresses are strongly dependent on the deposition conditions. Literature values for Young's modulus range from 100 to 400 GPa, and residual stresses range from 98 to 486 MPa. In this paper we present our work on investigating Young's modulus and residual stress of SiC films deposited on single crystal bulk silicon using bulge testing. This method is based on measurement of pressure-dependent membrane deflection. Polycrystalline as well as single crystal cubic silicon carbide samples are studied. For the samples tested, average Young's modulus and residual stress measured are 417 GPa and 89 MPa for polycrystalline samples. For single crystal samples, the according values are 388 GPa and 217 MPa. These results compare well with literature values.

  6. Taking SiC Power Devices to the Final Frontier: Addressing Challenges of the Space Radiation Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Casey, Megan

    2017-01-01

    Silicon carbide power device technology has the potential to enable a new generation of aerospace power systems that demand high efficiency, rapid switching, and reduced mass and volume in order to expand space-based capabilities. For this potential to be realized, SiC devices must be capable of withstanding the harsh space radiation environment. Commercial SiC components exhibit high tolerance to total ionizing dose but to date, have not performed well under exposure to heavy ion radiation representative of the on-orbit galactic cosmic rays. Insertion of SiC power device technology into space applications to achieve breakthrough performance gains will require intentional development of components hardened to the effects of these highly-energetic heavy ions. This work presents heavy-ion test data obtained by the authors over the past several years for discrete SiC power MOSFETs, JFETs, and diodes in order to increase the body of knowledge and understanding that will facilitate hardening of this technology to space radiation effects. Specifically, heavy-ion irradiation data taken under different bias, temperature, and ion beam conditions is presented for devices from different manufacturers, and the emerging patterns discussed.

  7. Alkali (Li, K and Na) and alkali-earth (Be, Ca and Mg) adatoms on SiC single layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baierle, Rogério J.; Rupp, Caroline J.; Anversa, Jonas

    2018-03-01

    First-principles calculations within the density functional theory (DFT) have been addressed to study the energetic stability, and electronic properties of alkali and alkali-earth atoms adsorbed on a silicon carbide (SiC) single layer. We observe that all atoms are most stable (higher binding energy) on the top of a Si atom, which moves out of the plane (in the opposite direction to the adsorbed atom). Alkali atoms adsorbed give raise to two spin unpaired electronic levels inside the band gap leading the SiC single layer to exhibit n-type semiconductor properties. For alkaline atoms adsorbed there is a deep occupied spin paired electronic level inside the band gap. These finding suggest that the adsorption of alkaline and alkali-earth atoms on SiC layer is a powerful feature to functionalize two dimensional SiC structures, which can be used to produce new electronic, magnetic and optical devices as well for hydrogen and oxygen evolution reaction (HER and OER, respectively). Furthermore, we observe that the adsorption of H2 is ruled by dispersive forces (van der Waals interactions) while the O2 molecule is strongly adsorbed on the functionalized system.

  8. Microstructure and Oxidation of (La,Sr)CrO3-Added Ti3SiC2 Composites.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Bok

    2015-11-01

    Composites of Ti3SiC2-(10, 20, 40)wt% La0.8Sr0.2CrO3 were synthesized by hot pressing powders of Ti3SiC2 and La0.8Sr0.2CrO3. These powders reacted to form stable TiC carbides and LaTiO3, Cr2Ti4O11, La2O3, and SrCrO4 oxides during hot pressing. The composites consisted primarily of a fine TiC-rich matrix phase and coarse Ti3SiC2 dispersoids. The addition of oxidation-immune La0.8Sr0.2CrO3 into Ti3SiC2 increased the oxidation rate because TiC formed during hot pressing. During oxidation of the composites at 800-1000 degrees C for 100 h in air, Ti diffused outward to form an outer rutile-TiO2 layer, and oxygen transported inward to form an inner oxide layer.

  9. Phase Analysis of Laser Direct Etching and Water Assisted Laser Combined Etching of SiC Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Genfu; Cong, Qidong; Zhang, Chen; Xie, Bingbing

    2017-12-01

    In this study, to discover the etching mechanism of SiC ceramics under laser direct etching and water-jet assisted laser combined etching, the phenomena of substance change on the etched surface were investigated. Also, the rules of substance transfer in etching are discussed. The elemental content change and the phase change of the etching products on the etched surface were analyzed by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. These studies showed a high amount of carbon black on the etched surface, because of the decomposition of SiC ceramics under the high-power-density laser irradiation. SiC decomposed to Si under the laser irradiation, and the subsequent chemical reaction of Si and O2 easily produced SiO2. The SiO2 on the etched surface melted and vaporized, whereas most of SiO2 was removed through splashing, changing the chemical composition of the etched surface. Following the water jet introduction, an increased amount of O existed on the combined etching surface, because the chemical reaction of SiC and H2O easily produced SiO2 under the high-power-density laser irradiation.

  10. Thermal Simulation of a Silicon Carbide (SiC) Insulated-Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) in Continuous Switching Mode

    DTIC Science & Technology

    operation in a DC-DC power converter switching at a frequency of up to 15 kHz. Calculations also estimated the effect of solder layers on temperature in the device....Thermal simulations were used to calculate temperatures in a silicon carbide (SiC) Insulated -Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT),simulating device

  11. Nanocatalytic growth of Si nanowires from Ni silicate coated SiC nanoparticles on Si solar cell.

    PubMed

    Parida, Bhaskar; Choi, Jaeho; Ji, Hyung Yong; Park, Seungil; Lim, Gyoungho; Kim, Keunjoo

    2013-09-01

    We investigated the nanocatalytic growth of Si nanowires on the microtextured surface of crystalline Si solar cell. 3C-SiC nanoparticles have been used as the base for formation of Ni silicate layer in a catalytic reaction with the Si melt under H2 atmosphere at an annealing temperature of 1100 degrees C. The 10-nm thick Ni film was deposited after the SiC nanoparticles were coated on the microtextured surface of the Si solar cell by electron-beam evaporation. SiC nanoparticles form a eutectic alloy surface of Ni silicate and provide the base for Si supersaturation as well as the Ni-Si alloy layer on Si substrate surface. This bottom reaction mode for the solid-liquid-solid growth mechanism using a SiC nanoparticle base provides more stable growth of nanowires than the top reaction mode growth mechanism in the absence of SiC nanoparticles. Thermally excited Ni nanoparticle forms the eutectic alloy and provides collectively excited electrons at the alloy surface, which reduces the activation energy of the nanocatalytic reaction for formation of nanowires.

  12. Optimization of KOH etching parameters for quantitative defect recognition in n- and p-type doped SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakwe, S. A.; Müller, R.; Wellmann, P. J.

    2006-04-01

    We have developed a KOH-based defect etching procedure for silicon carbide (SiC), which comprises in situ temperature measurement and control of melt composition. As benefit for the first time reproducible etching conditions were established (calibration plot, etching rate versus temperature and time); the etching procedure is time independent, i.e. no altering in KOH melt composition takes place, and absolute melt temperature values can be set. The paper describes this advanced KOH etching furnace, including the development of a new temperature sensor resistant to molten KOH. We present updated, absolute KOH etching parameters of n-type SiC and new absolute KOH etching parameters for low and highly p-type doped SiC, which are used for quantitative defect analysis. As best defect etching recipes we found T=530 °C/5 min (activation energy: 16.4 kcal/mol) and T=500 °C/5 min (activation energy: 13.5 kcal/mol) for n-type and p-type SiC, respectively.

  13. A High Frequency (HF) Inductive Power Transfer Circuit for High Temperature Applications Using SiC Schottky Diodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Jennifer L.; Ponchak, George E.; Spry, David J.; Neudeck, Philip G.

    2018-01-01

    Wireless sensors placed in high temperature environments, such as aircraft engines, are desirable to reduce the mass and complexity of routing wires. While communication with the sensors is straight forward, providing power wirelessly is still a challenge. This paper introduces an inductive wireless power transfer circuit incorporating SiC Schottky diodes and its operation from room temperature (25 C) to 500 C.

  14. Channel Temperature Estimates for Microwave AlGaN/GaN Power HEMTS on SiC and Sapphire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, Jon C.

    2003-01-01

    A simple technique to estimate the channel temperature of a generic AlGaN/GaN HEMTs on SiC or Sapphire, while incorporating temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity is presented. The procedure is validated b y comparing it's predictions with the experimentally measured temperatures in devices presented in three recently published articles.

  15. A Manufacturing Cost and Supply Chain Analysis of SiC Power Electronics Applicable to Medium-Voltage Motor Drives

    SciTech Connect

    Horowitz, Kelsey; Remo, Timothy; Reese, Samantha

    Wide bandgap (WBG) semiconductor devices are increasingly being considered for use in certain power electronics applications, where they can improve efficiency, performance, footprint, and, potentially, total system cost compared to systems using traditional silicon (Si) devices. Silicon carbide (SiC) devices in particular -- which are currently more mature than other WBG devices -- are poised for growth in the coming years. Today, the manufacturing of SiC wafers is concentrated in the United States, and chip production is split roughly equally between the United States, Japan, and Europe. Established contract manufacturers located throughout Asia typically carry out manufacturing of WBG powermore » modules. We seek to understand how global manufacturing of SiC components may evolve over time by illustrating the regional cost drivers along the supply chain and providing an overview of other factors that influence where manufacturing is sited. We conduct this analysis for a particular case study where SiC devices are used in a medium-voltage motor drive.« less

  16. Reaction mechanisms at 4H-SiC/SiO2 interface during wet SiC oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akiyama, Toru; Hori, Shinsuke; Nakamura, Kohji; Ito, Tomonori; Kageshima, Hiroyuki; Uematsu, Masashi; Shiraishi, Kenji

    2018-04-01

    The reaction processes at the interface between SiC with 4H structure (4H-SiC) and SiO2 during wet oxidation are investigated by electronic structure calculations within the density functional theory. Our calculations for 4H-SiC/SiO2 interfaces with various orientations demonstrate characteristic features of the reaction depending on the crystal orientation of SiC: On the Si-face, the H2O molecule is stable in SiO2 and hardly reacts with the SiC substrate, while the O atom of H2O can form Si-O bonds at the C-face interface. Two OH groups are found to be at least necessary for forming new Si-O bonds at the Si-face interface, indicating that the oxidation rate on the Si-face is very low compared with that on the C-face. On the other hand, both the H2O molecule and the OH group are incorporated into the C-face interface, and the energy barrier for OH is similar to that for H2O. By comparing the calculated energy barriers for these reactants with the activation energies of oxide growth rate, we suggest the orientation-dependent rate-limiting processes during wet SiC oxidation.

  17. Fast neutron detection at near-core location of a research reactor with a SiC detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lei; Jarrell, Josh; Xue, Sha; Tan, Chuting; Blue, Thomas; Cao, Lei R.

    2018-04-01

    The measurable charged-particle produced from the fast neutron interactions with the Si and C nucleuses can make a wide bandgap silicon carbide (SiC) sensor intrinsically sensitive to neutrons. The 4H-SiC Schottky detectors have been fabricated and tested at up to 500 °C, presenting only a slightly degraded energy resolution. The response spectrum of the SiC detectors were also obtained by exposing the detectors to external neutron beam irradiation and at a near-core location where gamma-ray field is intense. The fast neutron flux of these two locations are ∼ 4 . 8 × 104cm-2 ṡs-1 and ∼ 2 . 2 × 107cm-2 ṡs-1, respectively. At the external beam location, a Si detector was irradiated side-by-side with SiC detector to disjoin the neutron response from Si atoms. The contribution of gamma ray, neutron scattering, and charged-particles producing reactions in the SiC was discussed. The fast neutron detection efficiencies were determined to be 6 . 43 × 10-4 for the external fast neutron beam irradiation and 6 . 13 × 10-6 for the near-core fast neutron irradiation.

  18. SULFUR ISOTOPIC COMPOSITIONS OF SUBMICROMETER SiC GRAINS FROM THE MURCHISON METEORITE

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Yuchen; Zinner, Ernst; Gallino, Roberto

    2015-02-01

    We report C, Si, N, S, Mg-Al, and Ca-Ti isotopic compositions of presolar silicon carbide (SiC) grains from the SiC-rich KJE size fraction (0.5-0.8 μm) of the Murchison meteorite. One thousand one hundred thirteen SiC grains were identified based on their C and Si isotopic ratios. Mainstream, AB, C, X, Y, and Z subtypes of SiC, and X-type silicon nitride (Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) account for 81.4%, 5.7%, 0.1%, 1.5%, 5.8%, 4.9%, and 0.4%, respectively. Twenty-five grains with unusual Si isotopic ratios, including one C grain, 16 X grains, 1 Y grain, 5 Z grains, and 2 X-type Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} grainsmore » were selected for N, S, Mg-Al, and Ca-Ti isotopic analysis. The C grain is highly enriched in {sup 29}Si and {sup 30}Si (δ{sup 29}Si = 1345‰ ± 19‰, δ{sup 30}Si = 1272‰ ± 19‰). It has a huge {sup 32}S excess, larger than any seen before, and larger than that predicted for the Si/S supernova (SN) zone, providing evidence against the elemental fractionation model by Hoppe et al. Two SN models investigated here present a more satisfying explanation in terms of a radiogenic origin of {sup 32}S from the decay of short-lived {sup 32}Si (τ{sub 1/2} = 153 yr). Silicon-32 as well as {sup 29}Si and {sup 30}Si can be produced in SNe by short neutron bursts; evidence for initial {sup 44}Ti (τ{sub 1/2} = 60 yr) in the C grain is additional evidence for an SN origin. The X grains have marginal {sup 32}S excesses, much smaller than expected from their large {sup 28}Si excesses. Similarly, the Y and Z grains do not show the S-isotopic anomalies expected from their large Si isotopic anomalies. Low intrinsic S contents and contamination with isotopically normal S are the most likely explanations.« less

  19. Associations of Pd, U and Ag in the SiC layer of neutron-irradiated TRISO fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Lillo, Thomas; Rooyen, Isabella Van

    2015-05-01

    Knowledge of the associations and composition of fission products in the neutron irradiated SiC layer of high-temperature gas reactor TRISO fuel is important to the understanding of various aspects of fuel performance that presently are not well understood. Recently, advanced characterization techniques have been used to examine fuel particles from the Idaho National Laboratory’s AGR-1 experiment. Nano-sized Ag and Pd precipitates were previously identified in grain boundaries and triple points in the SiC layer of irradiated TRISO nuclear fuel. Continuation of this initial research is reported in this paper and consists of the characterization of a relatively large number ofmore » nano-sized precipitates in three areas of the SiC layer of a single irradiated TRISO nuclear fuel particle using standardless EDS analysis on focused ion beam-prepared transmission electron microscopy samples. Composition and distribution analyses of these precipitates, which were located on grain boundaries, triple junctions and intragranular precipitates, revealed low levels, generally <10 atomic %, of palladium, silver and/or uranium with palladium being the most common element found. Palladium by itself, or associated with either silver or uranium, was found throughout the SiC layer. A small number of precipitates on grain boundaries and triple junctions were found to contain only silver or silver in association with palladium while uranium was always associated with palladium but never found by itself or in association with silver. Intergranular precipitates containing uranium were found to have migrated ~23 μm along a radial direction through the 35 μm thick SiC coating during the AGR-1 experiment while silver-containing intergranular precipitates were found at depths up to ~24 μm in the SiC layer. Also, Pd-rich, nano-precipitates (~10 nm in diameter), without evidence for the presence of either Ag or U, were revealed in intragranular regions throughout the SiC layer. Because

  20. New criteria for sepsis-induced coagulopathy (SIC) following the revised sepsis definition: a retrospective analysis of a nationwide survey.

    PubMed

    Iba, Toshiaki; Nisio, Marcello Di; Levy, Jerrold H; Kitamura, Naoya; Thachil, Jecko

    2017-09-27

    Recent clinical studies have shown that anticoagulant therapy might be effective only in specific at-risk subgroups of patients with sepsis and coagulation dysfunction. The definition of sepsis was recently modified, and as such, old scoring systems may no longer be appropriate for the diagnosis of sepsis-associated coagulopathy. The aim of this study was to evaluate prognostic factors in patients diagnosed with sepsis and coagulopathy according to the new sepsis definition and assess their accuracy in comparison with existing models. Retrospective analysis of the nationwide survey for recombinant human soluble thrombomodulin. General emergency and critical care centres in secondary and tertiary care hospitals. We evaluated the prognostic value of the newly proposed diagnostic criteria for sepsis-induced coagulopathy (SIC). A total of 1498 Japanese patients with sepsis and coagulopathy complications who were treated with recombinant thrombomodulin were analysed in this study. The platelet count, prothrombin time (PT) ratio, fibrinogen/fibrin degradation products, systemic inflammatory response syndrome score and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score obtained just before the start of treatment were examined in relation to the 28-day mortality rate. The platelet count, PT ratio and total SOFA were independent predictors of a fatal outcome in a logistic regression model. A SIC score was defined using the three above-mentioned variables with a positivity threshold of 4 points or more. The SIC score predicted higher 28-day mortality rate compared with the current Japanese Association for Acute Medicine-disseminated intravascular coagulation score (38.4%vs34.7%). The SIC score is based on readily available parameters, is easy to calculate and has a high predictive value for 28-day mortality. Future studies are warranted to evaluate whether the SIC score may guide the decision to initiate anticoagulant therapy. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless

  1. Streptococcus pyogenes strains containing emm12 and emm55 possess a novel gene coding for distantly related SIC protein.

    PubMed

    Hartas, J; Sriprakash, K S

    1999-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes infection and acute glomerulonephritis (AGN), a non-suppurtave disease, are endemic in the Aboriginal people of the Northern Territory (NT) of Australia. Vir typing, a locus-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based typing method [Gardiner, Hartas, Currie et al PCR Meth Appl 1995 4: 288-93], has revealed high divergence among the NT streptococcal strains. A total of 76 Vir types (VTs) representing about 95% of the NT isolates were screened for sic, a gene for streptococcal inhibitor of complement function, by PCR and hybridization. This revealed that seven VTs are positive for sic, and there are two classes of the gene: those closely related to sic (CRS) originally described by Akesson, Sjoholm & Bjorck [ J. Biol. Chem. 1996 271: 1081-8] and those distantly related to sic (DRS). Among the CRS-positive VTs, VT16, VT78 and VT91 have emm (gene for M protein) encoding type 1 M protein or related specificity, and VT8 and VT101 contain emm57 or related alleles. Chromosomal location of CRS in emm57 is different from that in emm1 or related strains. The DRS-positive VT18 and VT52 contained emm55 and emm12 respectively, which are phylogenetically related. Strains of S. pyogenes types 1, 12, 55 and 57 are known to be associated with AGN. Restricted distribution of CRS and DRS among the M types historically associated with AGN suggests that these sic alleles may have a role in AGN pathogenesis. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  2. Material removal characteristics of orthogonal velocity polishing tool for efficient fabrication of CVD SiC mirror surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Hyunju; Han, Jeong-Yeol; Kim, Sug-Whan; Seong, Sehyun; Yoon, Siyoung; Lee, Kyungmook; Lee, Haengbok

    2015-09-01

    Today, CVD SiC mirrors are readily available in the market. However, it is well known to the community that the key surface fabrication processes and, in particular, the material removal characteristics of the CVD SiC mirror surface varies sensitively depending on the shop floor polishing and figuring variables. We investigated the material removal characteristics of CVD SiC mirror surfaces using a new and patented polishing tool called orthogonal velocity tool (OVT) that employs two orthogonal velocity fields generated simultaneously during polishing and figuring machine runs. We built an in-house OVT machine and its operating principle allows for generation of pseudo Gaussian shapes of material removal from the target surface. The shapes are very similar to the tool influence functions (TIFs) of other polishing machine such as IRP series polishing machines from Zeeko. Using two CVD SiC mirrors of 150 mm in diameter and flat surface, we ran trial material removal experiments over the machine run parameter ranges from 12.901 to 25.867 psi in pressure, 0.086 m/sec to 0.147 m/sec in tool linear velocity, and 5 to 15 sec in dwell time. An in-house developed data analysis program was used to obtain a number of Gaussian shaped TIFs and the resulting material removal coefficient varies from 3.35 to 9.46 um/psi hour m/sec with the mean value to 5.90 ± 1.26(standard deviation). We report the technical details of the new OVT machine, of the data analysis program, of the experiments and the results together with the implications to the future development of the OVT machine and process for large CVD SiC mirror surfaces.

  3. Chemical Corrosion of Liquid-Phase Sintered SiC in Acidic/Alkaline Solutions Part 1. Corrosion in HNO3 Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Ming; He, Xinnong; Tang, Wenming

    2016-03-01

    The corrosion behavior of the liquid-phase sintered SiC (LPS-SiC) was studied by dipping in 3.53 mol/L HNO3 aqueous solution at room temperature and 70 °C, respectively. The weight loss, strength reduction and morphology evolution of the SiC specimens during corroding were revealed and also the chemical corrosion process and mechanism of the SiC specimens in the acidic solution were clarified. The results show that the corrosion of the LPS-SiC specimens in the HNO3 solution is selective. The SiC particles are almost free from corrosion, but the secondary phases of BaAl2Si2O8 (BAS) and Y2Si2O7 are corroded via an acid-alkali neutralization reaction. BAS has a higher corrosion rate than Y2Si2O7, resulting in the formation of the bamboo-leaf-like corrosion pits. As the SiC specimens etched in the HNO3 solution at room temperature for 75 days, about 80 μm thickness corrosion layer forms. The weight loss and bending strength reduction of the etched SiC specimens are 2.6 mg/cm2 and 52%, respectively. The corrosion of the SiC specimens is accelerated in the 70 °C HNO3 solution with a rate about five times bigger than that in the same corrosion medium at room temperature.

  4. Effect of the Different High Volume Fraction of SiC Particles on the Junction of Bismuthate Glass-SiCp/Al Composite.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Qu, Shengguan; Li, Xiaoqiang

    2018-01-01

    The in-house developed bismuthate glass and the SiC p /Al composites with different volume fractions of SiC particles (namely, 60 vol.%, 65 vol.%, 70 vol.%, and 75 vol.%) were jointed by vacuum hot-pressing process. The novel material can be used for the space mirror. The SiCp is an abbreviation for SiC particle. Firstly, the SiC p /Al composites with different vol.% of SiC particle were manufactured by using infiltration process. In order to obtain a stable bonding interface, the preoxide layers were fabricated on the surfaces of these composites for reacting with the bismuthate glass. The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) was carried out for characterizing the difference between the composites and bismuthate glass. The sealing quality of the composites and the bismuthate glass was quantified by using shear strength testing. The optical microstructures showed the particles were uniformly distributed in the Al matrix. The SEM image shows that a smooth oxidation layer was generated on the SiC p /Al composite. The CTE testing result indicated that the higher the vol.% of the particles in the composite, the lower the CTE value. The shear strength testing result disclosed that SiC p /Al composite with relatively low CTE value was favorable to obtain a bonding interface with high strength.

  5. Sintering Behavior of Spark Plasma Sintered SiC with Si-SiC Composite Nanoparticles Prepared by Thermal DC Plasma Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yeon-Tae; Naik, Gautam Kumar; Lim, Young-Bin; Yoon, Jeong-Mo

    2017-11-01

    The Si-coated SiC (Si-SiC) composite nanoparticle was prepared by non-transferred arc thermal plasma processing of solid-state synthesized SiC powder and was used as a sintering additive for SiC ceramic formation. Sintered SiC pellet was prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS) process, and the effect of nano-sized Si-SiC composite particles on the sintering behavior of micron-sized SiC powder was investigated. The mixing ratio of Si-SiC composite nanoparticle to micron-sized SiC was optimized to 10 wt%. Vicker's hardness and relative density was increased with increasing sintering temperature and holding time. The relative density and Vicker's hardness was further increased by reaction bonding using additional activated carbon to the mixture of micron-sized SiC and nano-sized Si-SiC. The maximum relative density (97.1%) and Vicker's hardness (31.4 GPa) were recorded at 1800 °C sintering temperature for 1 min holding time, when 0.2 wt% additional activated carbon was added to the mixture of SiC/Si-SiC.

  6. Sintering Behavior of Spark Plasma Sintered SiC with Si-SiC Composite Nanoparticles Prepared by Thermal DC Plasma Process.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yeon-Tae; Naik, Gautam Kumar; Lim, Young-Bin; Yoon, Jeong-Mo

    2017-11-25

    The Si-coated SiC (Si-SiC) composite nanoparticle was prepared by non-transferred arc thermal plasma processing of solid-state synthesized SiC powder and was used as a sintering additive for SiC ceramic formation. Sintered SiC pellet was prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS) process, and the effect of nano-sized Si-SiC composite particles on the sintering behavior of micron-sized SiC powder was investigated. The mixing ratio of Si-SiC composite nanoparticle to micron-sized SiC was optimized to 10 wt%. Vicker's hardness and relative density was increased with increasing sintering temperature and holding time. The relative density and Vicker's hardness was further increased by reaction bonding using additional activated carbon to the mixture of micron-sized SiC and nano-sized Si-SiC. The maximum relative density (97.1%) and Vicker's hardness (31.4 GPa) were recorded at 1800 °C sintering temperature for 1 min holding time, when 0.2 wt% additional activated carbon was added to the mixture of SiC/Si-SiC.

  7. Investigation of the Surface Stress in SiC and Diamond Nanocrystals by In-situ High Pressure Powder Diffraction Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palosz, B.; Stelmakh, S.; Grzanka, E.; Gierlotka, S.; Zhao, Y.; Palosz, W.

    2003-01-01

    The real atomic structure of nanocrystals determines key properties of the materials. For such materials the serious experimental problem lies in obtaining sufficiently accurate measurements of the structural parameters of the crystals, since very small crystals constitute rather a two-phase than a uniform crystallographic phase system. As a result, elastic properties of nanograins may be expected to reflect a dual nature of their structure, with a corresponding set of different elastic property parameters. We studied those properties by in-situ high-pressure powder diffraction technique. For nanocrystalline, even one-phase materials such measurements are particularly difficult to make since determination of the lattice parameters of very small crystals presents a challenge due to inherent limitations of standard elaboration of powder diffractograms. In this investigation we used our methodology of the structural analysis, the 'apparent lattice parameter' (alp) concept. The methodology allowed us to avoid the traps (if applied to nanocrystals) of standard powder diffraction evaluation techniques. The experiments were performed for nanocrystalline Sic and GaN powders using synchrotron sources. We applied both hydrostatic and isostatic pressures in the range of up to 40 GPa. Elastic properties of the samples were examined based on the measurements of a change of the lattice parameters with pressure. The results show a dual nature of the mechanical properties (compressibilities) of the materials, indicating a complex, core-shell structure of the grains.

  8. Pristine Samples of Silicon Carbide Separated From the Canyon Diablo Meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, I. S.; Winston, R.

    2008-12-01

    The Canyon Diablo is an iron meteorite whose collision with Earth created Meteor Crater in Arizona. In a study of a large block (53 kg) of this meteorite, Henri Moissan reported his findings of green, hexagonal crystals of silicon carbide (SiC) which was given the name moissanite the following year by George Kunz (1905). Moissan did not report finding the cubic form of SiC. Subsequently, many erroneous reports appeared when the polishing compound (synthetic SiC) was mistakenly considered by researchers as a natural mineral associated with, rather than a contaminant of many rock types. Hence, the occurrence of SiC in the Canyon Diablo remains in doubt, and any proposal to investigate this problem was discouraged and regarded as predictably unproductive. This notion hampered further work on abundant materials housed in museums. SiC grains have been found in primitive meteorites and interplanetary dust particles. Some have been identified as presolar grains. The significance of SiC in the Canyon Diablo cannot be revealed unless we have abundant data from pristine samples, enough for us to classify them into presolar or other types. We report here a simple method we used to separate SiC crystals from the meteorite. We chose samples containing a carbon nodule composed of graphite, diamond-lonsdaleite, and SiC grains in the iron matrix. We broke up the carbon nodule with a sharp tungsten carbide chisel and hammer. After removing the large metal fragments, we put a small amount of the fine black grains in a Petri dish with acetone, then swerved the dish to scatter the grains sparingly on the bottom of the dish. Under a binocular microscope, SiC crystals can be spotted easily by their adamantine luster, color (blue, green, beige, etc.), and high birefringence when placed between crossed polarizers of a petrographic microscope. We also X-rayed individual grains, and have identified several hexagonal polytype structures as well as the cubic form (3C polytype).

  9. Immobilization of functional oxide nanoparticles on silicon surfaces via Si-C bonded polymer brushes.

    PubMed

    Xu, F J; Wuang, S C; Zong, B Y; Kang, E T; Neoh, K G

    2006-05-01

    A method for immobilizing and mediating the spatial distribution of functional oxide (such as SiO2 and Fe3O4) nanoparticles (NPs) on (100)-oriented single crystal silicon surface, via Si-C bonded poly(3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate) (P(TMSPM)) brushes from surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of (3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate) (TMSPM), was described. The ATRP initiator was covalently immobilized via UV-induced hydrosilylation of 4-vinylbenzyl chloride (VBC) with the hydrogen-terminated Si(100) surface (Si-H surface). The surface-immobilized Fe3O4 NPs retained their superparamagnetic characteristics and their magnetization intensity could be mediated by adjusting the thickness of the P(TMSPM) brushes.

  10. Atomistic structures of nano-engineered SiC and radiation-induced amorphization resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imada, Kenta; Ishimaru, Manabu; Sato, Kazuhisa; Xue, Haizhou; Zhang, Yanwen; Shannon, Steven; Weber, William J.

    2015-10-01

    Nano-engineered 3C-SiC thin films, which possess columnar structures with high-density stacking faults and twins, were irradiated with 2 MeV Si ions at cryogenic and room temperatures. From cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy observations in combination with Monte Carlo simulations based on the Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter code, it was found that their amorphization resistance is six times greater than bulk crystalline SiC at room temperature. High-angle bright-field images taken by spherical aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy revealed that the distortion of atomic configurations is localized near the stacking faults. The resultant strain field probably contributes to the enhancement of radiation tolerance of this material.

  11. A Prescriptive, Intergenerational-Tension Ageism Scale: Succession, Identity, and Consumption (SIC)

    PubMed Central

    North, Michael S.; Fiske, Susan T.

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a novel ageism scale, focusing on prescriptive beliefs concerning potential intergenerational tensions: active, envied resource Succession, symbolic Identity avoidance, and passive, shared-resource Consumption (SIC). Four studies (2,010 total participants) developed the scale. EFA formed an initial 20-item, three-factor solution (Study 1). The scale converges appropriately with other prejudice measures and diverges from other social control measures (Study 2). It diverges from anti-youth ageism (Study 3). Study 4’s experiment yielded both predictive and divergent validity apropos another ageism measure. Structural equation modeling confirmed model fit across all studies. Per an intergenerational-tension focus, younger people consistently scored the highest. As generational equity issues intensify, the scale provides a contemporary tool for current and future ageism research. PMID:23544391

  12. The single crystal elastic constants of hexagonal SiC to 1000 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Z.; Bradt, R. C.

    1988-01-01

    The relationships between the sound velocities in the cubic and hexagonal crystal structures and the tensor transformations for the two structures are applied to determine the elastic stiffnesses for the hexagonal structures of SiC to 1000 C. These results are then applied to calculate the polycrystalline elastic moduli, E and G, and their temperature variations. The calculated values for E and G at 20 C are 420 and 180 GPa; for (dE/dT) and (dG/dT), the values are -0.020 and -0.007 GPa/C, respectively.These agree well with published experimental values for E and G of dense polycrystalline alpha silicon carbides.

  13. Optimization of Thermal Neutron Converter in SiC Sensors for Spectral Radiation Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Krolikowski, Igor; Cetnar, Jerzy; Issa, Fatima

    2015-07-01

    Optimization of the neutron converter in SiC sensors is presented. The sensors are used for spectral radiation measurements of thermal and fast neutrons and optionally gamma ray at elevated temperature in harsh radiation environment. The neutron converter, which is based on 10B, allows to detect thermal neutrons by means of neutron capture reaction. Two construction of the sensors were used to measure radiation in experiments. Sensor responses collected in experiments have been reproduced by the computer tool created by authors, it allows to validate the tool. The tool creates the response matrix function describing the characteristic of the sensors andmore » it was used for detailed analyses of the sensor responses. Obtained results help to optimize the neutron converter in order to increase thermal neutron detection. Several enhanced construction of the sensors, which includes the neutron converter based on {sup 10}B or {sup 6}Li, were proposed. (authors)« less

  14. Packaging Technology for SiC High Temperature Circuits Operable up to 500 Degrees Centigrade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Lian-Yu

    2002-01-01

    New high temperature low power 8-pin packages have been fabricated using commercial fabrication service. These packages are made of aluminum nitride and 96 percent alumina with Au metallization. The new design of these packages provides the chips inside with EM shielding. Wirebond geometry control has been achieved for precise mechanical tests. Au wirebond samples with 45 degree heel-angle have been tested using wireloop test module. The geometry control improves the consistency of measurement of the wireloop breaking point.Also reported on is a parametric study of the thermomechanical reliability of a Au thick-film based SiC die-attach assembly using nonlinear finite element analysis (FEA) was conducted to optimize the die-attach thermo-mechanical performance for operation at temperatures from room temperature to 500 degrees Centigrade. This parametric study centered on material selection, structure design and process control.

  15. The nanostructure and microstructure of SiC surface layers deposited by MWCVD and ECRCVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dul, K.; Jonas, S.; Handke, B.

    2017-12-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Atomic force microscopy (AFM) have been used to investigate ex-situ the surface topography of SiC layers deposited on Si(100) by Microwave Chemical Vapour Deposition (MWCVD) -S1,S2 layers and Electron Cyclotron Resonance Chemical Vapor Deposition (ECRCVD) - layers S3,S4, using silane, methane, and hydrogen. The effects of sample temperature and gas flow on the nanostructure and microstructure have been investigated. The nanostructure was described by three-dimensional surface roughness analysis based on digital image processing, which gives a tool to quantify different aspects of surface features. A total of 13 different numerical parameters used to describe the surface topography were used. The scanning electron image (SEM) of the microstructure of layers S1, S2, and S4 was similar, however, layer S3 was completely different; appearing like grains. Nonetheless, it can be seen that no grain boundary structure is present in the AFM images.

  16. Atomistic structures of nano-engineered SiC and radiation-induced amorphization resistance

    DOE PAGES

    Imada, Kenta; Ishimaru, Manabu; Sato, Kazuhisa; ...

    2015-06-18

    In this paper, nano-engineered 3C–SiC thin films, which possess columnar structures with high-density stacking faults and twins, were irradiated with 2 MeV Si ions at cryogenic and room temperatures. From cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy observations in combination with Monte Carlo simulations based on the Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter code, it was found that their amorphization resistance is six times greater than bulk crystalline SiC at room temperature. High-angle bright-field images taken by spherical aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy revealed that the distortion of atomic configurations is localized near the stacking faults. Finally, the resultant strain fieldmore » probably contributes to the enhancement of radiation tolerance of this material.« less

  17. Effect of van der Waals interactions on the stability of SiC polytypes

    SciTech Connect

    Kawanishi, Sakiko, E-mail: s-kawa@tagen.tohoku.ac.jp; Mizoguchi, Teruyasu

    2016-05-07

    Density functional theory calculations with a correction of the long-range dispersion force, namely, the van der Waals (vdW) force, are performed for SiC polytypes. The lattice parameters are in good agreement with those obtained from the experiments. Furthermore, the stability of the polytypes in the experiments, which show 3C-SiC as the most stable, is reproduced by the present calculations. The effects of the vdW force on the electronic structure and the stability of polytypes are discussed. We observe that the vdW interaction is more sensitive to the cubic site than the hexagonal site. Thus, the influence of the vdW forcemore » increases with decreasing the hexagonality of the polytype, which results in the confirmation that the most stable polytype is 3C-SiC.« less

  18. Demonstration of a radiation resistant, high efficiency SiC betavoltaic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eiting, C. J.; Krishnamoorthy, V.; Rodgers, S.; George, T.; Robertson, J. David; Brockman, John

    2006-02-01

    A SiC p-i-n junction betavoltaic was fabricated, and electrical power output under irradiation from an 8.5GBq P33 source was monitored over a period of four half-lives of the radioisotope. The open-circuit voltage (VOC) of the device was 2.04±0.02V, and the peak power (Pout) was 0.58±0.02μW (2.1±0.2μW /cm2) at 1.60V. The conversion efficiency (ηconv) was 4.5%±0.3% and the normalized power output indicates no device degradation over more than 3months (four half-lives of the source).

  19. Resonant tunneling structures based on epitaxial graphene on SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, V. Hung; Bournel, A.; Dollfus, P.

    2011-12-01

    Recently some experiments have suggested that graphene epitaxially grown on SiC can exhibit an energy bandgap of 260 meV, which enhances the potential of this material for electronic applications. On this basis, we propose to use spatial doping to generate graphene-on-SiC double-barrier structures. The non-equilibrium Green's function technique for solving the massive Dirac model is applied to highlight typical transport phenomena such as the electron confinement and the resonant tunneling effects. The I-V characteristics of graphene resonant tunneling diodes were then investigated and the effect of different device parameters was discussed. It is finally shown that this kind of double-barrier junction provides an efficient way to confine the charge carriers in graphene and to design graphene resonant tunneling structures.

  20. Gate-independent energy gap in noncovalently intercalated bilayer graphene on SiC(0001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuanchang

    2016-12-01

    Our first-principles calculations show that an energy gap around 0.12-0.25 eV can be engineered in epitaxial graphene on SiC(0001) through the noncovalent intercalation of transition or alkali metals but originated from the distinct mechanisms. The former is attributed to the combined effects of a metal-induced perpendicular electric field and interaction, while the latter is solely attributed to the built-in electric field. A great advantage of this scheme is that the gap size is almost independent of the gate voltage up to 1 V/nm, thus reserving the electric means to tune the Fermi level of graphene when configured as field-effect transistors. Given the recent progress in experimental techniques for intercalated graphene, our findings provide a practical way to incorporate graphene in the current semiconductor industry.

  1. Design of a low parasitic inductance SiC power module with double-sided cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Fei; Liang, Zhenxian; Wang, Fei

    In this paper, a low-parasitic inductance SiC power module with double-sided cooling is designed and compared with a baseline double-sided cooled module. With the unique 3D layout utilizing vertical interconnection, the power loop inductance is effectively reduced without sacrificing the thermal performance. Both simulations and experiments are carried out to validate the design. Q3D simulation results show a power loop inductance of 1.63 nH, verified by the experiment, indicating more than 60% reduction of power loop inductance compared with the baseline module. With 0Ω external gate resistance turn-off at 600V, the voltage overshoot is less than 9% of the busmore » voltage at a load of 44.6A.« less

  2. SiO 2/SiC interface proved by positron annihilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maekawa, M.; Kawasuso, A.; Yoshikawa, M.; Itoh, H.

    2003-06-01

    We have studied positron annihilation in a Silicon carbide (SiC)-metal/oxide/semiconductor (MOS) structure using a monoenergetic positron beam. The Doppler broadening of annihilation quanta were measured as functions of the incident positron energy and the gate bias. Applying negative gate bias, significant increases in S-parameters were observed. This indicates the migration of implanted positrons towards SiO 2/SiC interface and annihilation at open-volume type defects. The behavior of S-parameters depending on the bias voltage was well correlated with the capacitance-voltage ( C- V) characteristics. We observed higher S-parameters and the interfacial trap density in MOS structures fabricated using the dry oxidation method as compared to those by pyrogenic oxidation method.

  3. Comparison of the Tensile, Creep, and Rupture Strength Properties of Stoichiometric SiC Fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yun, H. M.; DiCarlo, J. A.

    1999-01-01

    Tensile strength, creep strength, and rupture strength properties were measured for the following types of polymer-derived stoichiometric SiC fibers: Hi-Nicalon Type S from Nippon Carbon, Tyranno SA from Ube, and Sylramic from Dow Corning. Also included in this study were an earlier version of the SA fiber plus two recent developmental versions of the Sylramic fiber. The tensile strength measurements were made at room temperature on as-received fibers and on fibers after high-temperature inert exposure. The creep-rupture property data were obtained at 1400 deg C in air as well as, argon. Some fiber types showed strong effects of environment on their strength properties. These results are compared and discussed in terms of underlying mechanisms and implications for ceramic composites.

  4. Electron doping through lithium intercalation to interstitial channels in tetrahedrally bonded SiC

    SciTech Connect

    Sakai, Yuki; Center for Computational Materials, Institute for Computational Engineering and Sciences, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712; Oshiyama, Atsushi

    2015-11-07

    We report on first-principles calculations that clarify the effect of lithium atom intercalation into zinc blende 3C-silicon carbide (3C-SiC) on electronic and structural properties. Lithium atoms inside 3C-SiC are found to donate electrons to 3C-SiC that is an indication of a new way of electron doping through the intercalation. The electrons doped into the conduction band interact with lithium cations and reduce the band spacing between the original valence and conduction bands. We have also found that a silicon monovacancy in 3C-SiC promotes the lithium intercalation, showing that the vacancy generation makes SiC as a possible anode material for lithium-ionmore » battery.« less

  5. Interface modification based ultrashort laser microwelding between SiC and fused silica.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guodong; Bai, Jing; Zhao, Wei; Zhou, Kaiming; Cheng, Guanghua

    2017-02-06

    It is a big challenge to weld two materials with large differences in coefficients of thermal expansion and melting points. Here we report that the welding between fused silica (softening point, 1720°C) and SiC wafer (melting point, 3100°C) is achieved with a near infrared femtosecond laser at 800 nm. Elements are observed to have a spatial distribution gradient within the cross section of welding line, revealing that mixing and inter-diffusion of substances have occurred during laser irradiation. This is attributed to the femtosecond laser induced local phase transition and volume expansion. Through optimizing the welding parameters, pulse energy and interval of the welding lines, a shear joining strength as high as 15.1 MPa is achieved. In addition, the influence mechanism of the laser ablation on welding quality of the sample without pre-optical contact is carefully studied by measuring the laser induced interface modification.

  6. Interaction Between Graphene-Coated SiC Single Crystal and Liquid Copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homa, M.; Sobczak, N.; Sobczak, J. J.; Kudyba, A.; Bruzda, G.; Nowak, R.; Pietrzak, K.; Chmielewski, M.; Strupiński, W.

    2018-04-01

    The wettability of graphene-coated SiC single crystal (CGn/SiCsc) by liquid Cu (99.99%) was investigated by a sessile drop method in vacuum conditions at temperature of 1100 °C. The graphene layer was produced via a chemical vapor deposition routine using 4H-SiC single crystal cut out from 6″ wafer. A dispensed drop technique combined with a non-contact heating of a couple of materials was applied. The Cu drop was squeezed from a graphite capillary and deposited on the substrate directly in a vacuum chamber. The first Cu drop did not wet the CGn/SiCsc substrate and showed a lack of adhesion to the substrate: the falling Cu drop only touched the substrate forming a contact angle of θ 0 = 121° and then immediately rolled like a ball along the substrate surface. After settling near the edge of the substrate in about 0.15 s, the Cu drop formed an asymmetric shape with the right and left contact angles of different values (θ R = 86° and θ L = 70°, respectively), while in the next 30 min, θ R and θ L achieved the same final value of 52°. The second Cu drop was put down on the displacement path of the first drop, and immediately after the deposition, it also did not wet the substrate (θ = 123°). This drop kept symmetry and the primary position, but its wetting behavior was unusual: both θ R and θ L decreased in 17 min to the value of 23° and next, they increased to a final value of 65°. Visual observations revealed a presence of 2.5-mm-thick interfacial phase layer reactively formed under the second drop. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) investigations revealed the presence of carbon-enriched precipitates on the top surface of the first Cu drop. These precipitates were identified by the Raman spectroscopy as double-layer graphene. The Raman spectrum taken from the substrate far from the drop revealed the presence of graphene, while that obtained from the first drop displacement path exhibited a decreased intensity of 2D peak. The results of SEM

  7. Ion sensitivity of large-area epitaxial graphene film on SiC substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitsuno, Takanori; Taniguchi, Yoshiaki; Ohno, Yasuhide; Nagase, Masao

    2017-11-01

    We investigated the intrinsic ion sensitivity of graphene field-effect transistors (FETs) fabricated by a resist-free stencil mask lithography process from a large-scale graphene film epitaxially grown on a SiC substrate. A pH-adjusted phosphate-buffered solution was used for the measurement to eliminate the interference of other ions on the graphene FET's ion sensitivity. The charge neutrality point shifted negligibly with changing pH for the pH-adjusted phosphate-buffered solution, whereas for the mixed buffer solution, it shifted toward the negative gate voltage owing to the decrease in the concentration of phthalate ions. This phenomenon is contrary to that observed in previous reports. Overall, our results indicate that the graphene film is intrinsically insensitive to ions except for those with functional groups that interact with the graphene surface.

  8. High Temperature Performance of a SiC MESFET Based Oscillator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, Zachary D.; Ponchak, George E.

    2005-01-01

    A hybrid, UHF-Band differential oscillator based on 10 w SiC RF Power Metal Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MESFET) has been designed, fabricated and characterized through 475 C. Circuit is fabricated on an alumina substrate with thin film spiral inductors, chip capacitors, chip resistors, and wire bonds for all crossovers and interconnectors. The oscillator delivers 15.7 dBm at 515 MHz into a 50 Ohm load at 125 C with a DC to RF conversion efficiency of 2,8%. After tuning the load impedance, the oscillator delivers 18.8 dBm at 610 MHz at 200 C with a DC to RF conversion efficiency of 5.8%. Finally, by tuning the load and bias conditions, the oscillator delivers 4.9 dBm at 453 MHz at 475 C.

  9. Characterization Of Superconducting Samples With SIC System For Thin Film Developments: Status And Recent Results

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, H. Lawrence; Reece, Charles E.; Valente-Feliciano, Anne-Marie

    2014-02-01

    Within any thin film development program directed towards SRF accelerating structures, there is a need for an RF characterization device that can provide information about RF properties of small samples. The current installation of the RF characterization device at Jefferson Lab is Surface Impedance Characterization (SIC) system. The data acquisition environment for the system has recently been improved to allow for automated measurement, and the system has been routinely used for characterization of bulk Nb, films of Nb on Cu, MgB{sub 2}, NbTiN, Nb{sub 3}Sn films, etc. We present some of the recent results that illustrate present capabilities and limitationsmore » of the system.« less

  10. Investigation of the novel attributes in double recessed gate SiC MESFETs at drain side

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orouji, Ali A.; Razavi, S. M.; Ebrahim Hosseini, Seyed; Amini Moghadam, Hamid

    2011-11-01

    In this paper, the potential impact of drain side-double recessed gate (DS-DRG) on silicon carbide (SiC)-based metal semiconductor field effect transistors (MESFETs) is studied. We investigate the device performance focusing on breakdown voltage, threshold voltage, drain current and dc output conductance with two-dimensional and two-carrier device simulation. Our simulation results demonstrate that the channel thickness under the gate in the drain side is an important factor in the breakdown voltage. Also, the positive shift in the threshold voltage for the DS-DRG structure is larger in comparison with that for the source side-double recessed gate (SS-DRG) SiC MESFET. The saturated drain current for the DS-DRG structure is larger compared to that for the SS-DRG structure. The maximum dc output conductance in the DS-DRG structure is smaller than that in the SS-DRG structure.

  11. Fast Risetime Reverse Bias Pulse Failures in SiC PN Junction Diodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neudeck, Philip G.; Fazi, Christian; Parsons, James D.

    1996-01-01

    SiC-based high temperature power devices are being developed for aerospace systems which will require high reliability. One behavior crucial to power device reliability. To date, it has necessarily been assumed to date is that the breakdown behavior of SiC pn junctions will be similar to highly reliable silicon-based pn junctions. Challenging this assumption, we report the observation of anomalous unreliable reverse breakdown behavior in moderately doped (2-3 x 10(exp 17) cm(exp -3)) small-area 4H- and 6H-SiC pn junction diodes at temperatures ranging from 298 K (25 C) to 873 K (600 C). We propose a mechanism in which carrier emission from un-ionized dopants and deep level defects leads to this unstable behavior. The fundamental instability mechanism is applicable to all wide bandgap semiconductors whose dopants are significantly un-ionized at typical device operating temperatures.

  12. Combustion Gas Heating Tests of C/C Composites Coated with SiC Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Masaki; Moriya, Shin-ichi; Sato, Masahiro; Tadano, Makoto; Kusaka, Kazuo; Hasegawa, Keiichi; Kumakawa, Akinaga; Yoshida, Makoto

    2008-02-01

    In order to examine the applicability of carbon fiber/carbon matrix composites coated with a silicon carbide layer (C/C-SiCs) to an advanced nozzle for the future reusable rocket engines, two series of combustion gas heating tests were conducted using a small rocket combustor. In the first series of heating tests, five different kinds of C/C-SiCs were tested with specimens in the shape of a square plate for material screening. In the second series of heating tests, two selected C/C-SiCs were tested with specimens in the shape of a small nozzle. The effectiveness of an interlayer between a C/C composite and a SiC layer, which was introduced to improve the durability based on the concept of functionally graded materials (FGMs), can be observed. The typical damage mode was also pointed out in the results of heating test using the small nozzle specimens.

  13. Oxidation Behavior of HfB2-SiC Materials in Dissociated Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellerby, Don; Irby, Edward; Johnson, Sylvia M.; Beckman, Sarah; Gusman, Michael; Gasch, Matthew

    2002-01-01

    Hafnium diboride based materials have shown promise for use in extremely high temperature applications, such as sharp leading edges on future reentry vehicles. During reentry, the oxygen and nitrogen in the atmosphere are dissociated by the shock layer ahead of the sharp leading edge such that surface reactions are determined by reactions of monatomic oxygen and nitrogen rather than O2, and N2. Simulation of the reentry environment on the ground requires the use of arc jet (plasma jet) facilities that provide monatomic species and are the closest approximation to actual flight conditions. Simple static or flowing oxidation studies under ambient pressures and atmospheres are not adequate to develop an understanding of a materials behavior in flight. Arc jet testing is required to provide the appropriate stagnation pressures, heat fluxes, enthalpies, heat loads and atmospheres encountered during flight. This work looks at the response of HfB2/SiC materials exposed to various simulated reentry environments.

  14. Strain-engineering of Janus SiC monolayer functionalized with H and F atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drissi, L. B.; Sadki, K.; Kourra, M.-H.; Bousmina, M.

    2018-05-01

    Based on ab initio density functional theory calculations, the structural, electronic, mechanical, acoustic, thermodynamic, and piezoelectric properties of (F,H) Janus SiC monolayers are studied. The new set of derivatives shows buckled structures and different band gap values. Under strain, the buckling changes and the structures pass from semiconducting to metallic. The elastic limits and the metastable regions are determined. The Young's modulus and Poisson ratio reveal stronger behavior for the modified conformers with respect to graphene. The values of the Debye temperature make the new materials suitable for thermal application. Moreover, all the conformers show in-plane and out-of-plane piezoelectric responses comparable with known two-dimensional materials. If engineered, such piezoelectric Janus structures may be promising materials for various nanoelectromechanical applications.

  15. Extraction method of interfacial injected charges for SiC power MOSFETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jiaxing; Liu, Siyang; Li, Sheng; Song, Haiyang; Chen, Xin; Li, Ting; Fang, Jiong; Sun, Weifeng

    2018-01-01

    An improved novel extraction method which can characterize the injected charges along the gate oxide interface for silicon carbide (SiC) power metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) is proposed. According to the different interface situations of the channel region and the junction FET (JFET) region, the gate capacitance versus gate voltage (Cg-Vg) curve of the device can be divided into three relatively independent parts, through which the locations and the types of the charges injected in to the oxide above the interface can be distinguished. Moreover, the densities of these charges can also be calculated by the amplitudes of the shifts in the Cg-Vg curve. The correctness of this method is proved by TCAD simulations. Moreover, experiments on devices stressed by unclamped-inductive-switching (UIS) stress and negative bias temperature stress (NBTS) are performed to verify the validity of this method.

  16. Conversion of polymers of methyl- and vinylsilane to Si-C ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurwitz, Frances I.; Kacik, Terrance A.; Bu, Xin-Ya; Masnovi, John; Heimann, Paula J.; Beyene, Kassahun

    1994-01-01

    Poly(methylsilane) and poly(vinylsilane) were synthesized using a titanocene catalyst, and their pyrolytic conversion to ceramics was followed using a combination of thermal analysis and infrared spectroscopy. The two polymers have distinctly different backbone structures, as determined by Si NMR; methylsilane polymerizes to a polysilane, while vinylsilane polymers have predominately polycarbosilane backbone, with some polysilane structure as well. The pyrolysis path and char yield were dependent primarily on backbone structure, with little influence of polymer molecular weight. The majority of the weight loss on conversion occurs below 650 degrees C, although bond rearrangement continues to 1400 degrees C. Poly(vinylsilane) produced a C-rich Si-C ceramic in which the carbon was dispersed on a sufficiently fine level to show resistance to oxidation on heating in air to 1400 degrees C.

  17. Interaction Between Graphene-Coated SiC Single Crystal and Liquid Copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homa, M.; Sobczak, N.; Sobczak, J. J.; Kudyba, A.; Bruzda, G.; Nowak, R.; Pietrzak, K.; Chmielewski, M.; Strupiński, W.

    2018-05-01

    The wettability of graphene-coated SiC single crystal (CGn/SiCsc) by liquid Cu (99.99%) was investigated by a sessile drop method in vacuum conditions at temperature of 1100 °C. The graphene layer was produced via a chemical vapor deposition routine using 4H-SiC single crystal cut out from 6″ wafer. A dispensed drop technique combined with a non-contact heating of a couple of materials was applied. The Cu drop was squeezed from a graphite capillary and deposited on the substrate directly in a vacuum chamber. The first Cu drop did not wet the CGn/SiCsc substrate and showed a lack of adhesion to the substrate: the falling Cu drop only touched the substrate forming a contact angle of θ 0 = 121° and then immediately rolled like a ball along the substrate surface. After settling near the edge of the substrate in about 0.15 s, the Cu drop formed an asymmetric shape with the right and left contact angles of different values ( θ R = 86° and θ L = 70°, respectively), while in the next 30 min, θ R and θ L achieved the same final value of 52°. The second Cu drop was put down on the displacement path of the first drop, and immediately after the deposition, it also did not wet the substrate ( θ = 123°). This drop kept symmetry and the primary position, but its wetting behavior was unusual: both θ R and θ L decreased in 17 min to the value of 23° and next, they increased to a final value of 65°. Visual observations revealed a presence of 2.5-mm-thick interfacial phase layer reactively formed under the second drop. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) investigations revealed the presence of carbon-enriched precipitates on the top surface of the first Cu drop. These precipitates were identified by the Raman spectroscopy as double-layer graphene. The Raman spectrum taken from the substrate far from the drop revealed the presence of graphene, while that obtained from the first drop displacement path exhibited a decreased intensity of 2D peak. The results of SEM

  18. TCAD simulation for alpha-particle spectroscopy using SIC Schottky diode.

    PubMed

    Das, Achintya; Duttagupta, Siddhartha P

    2015-12-01

    There is a growing requirement of alpha spectroscopy in the fields context of environmental radioactive contamination, nuclear waste management, site decommissioning and decontamination. Although silicon-based alpha-particle detection technology is mature, high leakage current, low displacement threshold and radiation hardness limits the operation of the detector in harsh environments. Silicon carbide (SiC) is considered to be excellent material for radiation detection application due to its high band gap, high displacement threshold and high thermal conductivity. In this report, an alpha-particle-induced electron-hole pair generation model for a reverse-biased n-type SiC Schottky diode has been proposed and verified using technology computer aided design (TCAD) simulations. First, the forward-biased I-V characteristics were studied to determine the diode ideality factor and compared with published experimental data. The ideality factor was found to be in the range of 1.4-1.7 for a corresponding temperature range of 300-500 K. Next, the energy-dependent, alpha-particle-induced EHP generation model parameters were optimised using transport of ions in matter (TRIM) simulation. Finally, the transient pulses generated due to alpha-particle bombardment were analysed for (1) different diode temperatures (300-500 K), (2) different incident alpha-particle energies (1-5 MeV), (3) different reverse bias voltages of the 4H-SiC-based Schottky diode (-50 to -250 V) and (4) different angles of incidence of the alpha particle (0°-70°).The above model can be extended to other (wide band-gap semiconductor) device technologies useful for radiation-sensing application. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Preliminary Analysis of SiC BWR Channel Box Performance under Normal Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Wirth, Brian; Singh, Gyanender P.; Gorton, Jacob

    SiC-SiC composites are being considered for applications in the core components, including BWR channel box and fuel rod cladding, of light water reactors to improve accident tolerance. In the extreme nuclear reactor environment, core components like the BWR channel box will be exposed to neutron damage and a corrosive environment. To ensure reliable and safe operation of a SiC channel box, it is important to assess its deformation behavior under in-reactor conditions including the expected neutron flux and temperature distributions. In particular, this work has evaluated the effect of non-uniform dimensional changes caused by spatially varying neutron flux and temperaturesmore » on the deformation behavior of the channel box over the course of one cycle of irradiation. These analyses have been performed using the fuel performance modeling code BISON and the commercial finite element analysis code Abaqus, based on fast flux and temperature boundary conditions have been calculated using the neutronics and thermal-hydraulics codes Serpent2 and COBRA-TF, respectively. The dependence of dimensions and thermophysical properties on fast flux and temperature has been incorporated into the material models. These initial results indicate significant bowing of the channel box with a lateral displacement greater than 6.5mm. The channel box bowing behavior is time dependent, and driven by the temperature dependence of the SiC irradiation-induced swelling and the neutron flux/fluence gradients. The bowing behavior gradually recovers during the course of the operating cycle as the swelling of the SiC-SiC material saturates. However, the bending relaxation due to temperature gradients does not fully recover and residual bending remains after the swelling saturates in the entire channel box.« less

  20. Moissanite anvil cell design for giga-pascal nuclear magnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, Thomas; Herzig, Tobias; Haase, Jürgen

    2014-04-15

    A new design of a non-magnetic high-pressure anvil cell for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments at Giga-Pascal pressures is presented, which uses a micro-coil inside the pressurized region for high-sensitivity NMR. The comparably small cell has a length of 22 mm and a diameter of 18 mm, so it can be used with most NMR magnets. The performance of the cell is demonstrated with external-force vs. internal-pressure experiments, and the cell is shown to perform well at pressures up to 23.5 GPa using 800 μm 6H-SiC large cone Boehler-type anvils. {sup 1}H, {sup 23}Na, {sup 27}Al, {sup 69}Ga, and {supmore » 71}Ga NMR test measurements are presented, which show a resolution of better than 4.5 ppm, and an almost maximum possible signal-to-noise ratio.« less

  1. Moissanite anvil cell design for Giga-Pascal nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Meier, Thomas; Herzig, Tobias; Haase, Jürgen

    2014-04-01

    A new design of a non-magnetic high-pressure anvil cell for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments at Giga-Pascal pressures is presented, which uses a micro-coil inside the pressurized region for high-sensitivity NMR. The comparably small cell has a length of 22 mm and a diameter of 18 mm, so it can be used with most NMR magnets. The performance of the cell is demonstrated with external-force vs. internal-pressure experiments, and the cell is shown to perform well at pressures up to 23.5 GPa using 800 μm 6H-SiC large cone Boehler-type anvils. (1)H, (23)Na, (27)Al, (69)Ga, and (71)Ga NMR test measurements are presented, which show a resolution of better than 4.5 ppm, and an almost maximum possible signal-to-noise ratio.

  2. Effects of SiC nanoparticles orally administered in a rat model: Biodistribution, toxicity and elemental composition changes in feces and organs

    SciTech Connect

    Lozano, Omar, E-mail: omar.lozanogarcia@fundp.ac.be; Research Centre for the Physics of Matter and Radiation; Laloy, Julie

    2012-10-15

    Background: Silicon carbide (SiC) presents noteworthy properties as a material such as high hardness, thermal stability, and photoluminescent properties as a nanocrystal. However, there are very few studies in regard to the toxicological potential of SiC NPs. Objectives: To study the toxicity and biodistribution of silicon carbide (SiC) nanoparticles in an in vivo rat model after acute (24 h) and subacute (28 days) oral administrations. The acute doses were 0.5, 5, 50, 300 and 600 mg·kg{sup −1}, while the subacute doses were 0.5 and 50 mg·kg{sup −1}. Results: SiC biodistribution and elemental composition of feces and organs (liver, kidneys, andmore » spleen) have been studied by Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). SiC and other elements in feces excretion increased by the end of the subacute assessment. SiC did not accumulate in organs but some elemental composition modifications were observed after the acute assessment. Histopathological sections from organs (stomach, intestines, liver, and kidneys) indicate the absence of damage at all applied doses, in both assessments. A decrease in the concentration of urea in blood was found in the 50 mg·kg{sup −1} group from the subacute assessment. No alterations in the urine parameters (sodium, potassium, osmolarity) were found. Conclusion: This is the first study that assesses the toxicity, biodistribution, and composition changes in feces and organs of SiC nanoparticles in an in vivo rat model. SiC was excreted mostly in feces and low traces were retrieved in urine, indicating that SiC can cross the intestinal barrier. No sign of toxicity was however found after oral administration. -- Highlights: ► SiC nanoparticles were orally administered to rats in acute and subacute doses. ► SiC was found in low traces in urine. It is mostly excreted in feces within 5 days. ► SiC excretion rate, feces and organ elemental composition change with time. ► No morphological alteration were found on GI tract, liver

  3. Carbon Displacement-Induced Single Carbon Atomic Chain Formation and its Effects on Sliding of SiC Fibers in SiC/graphene/SiC Composite

    DOE PAGES

    Wallace, Joseph B.; Chen, Di; Shao, Lin

    2015-11-03

    Understanding radiation effects on the mechanical properties of SiC composites is important to their application in advanced reactor designs. By means of molecular dynamics simulations, we found that due to strong interface bonding between the graphene layers and SiC, the sliding friction of SiC fibers is largely determined by the frictional behavior between graphene layers. Upon sliding, carbon displacements between graphene layers can act as seed atoms to induce the formation of single carbon atomic chains (SCACs) by pulling carbon atoms from the neighboring graphene planes. The formation, growth, and breaking of SCACs determine the frictional response to irradiation.

  4. Modeling thermal and irradiation-induced swelling effects on the integrity of Ti3SiC2/SiC joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Henager, Charles H.; Kurtz, Richard J.

    2017-11-01

    Previously, results for CVD-SiC joined by a solid state displacement reaction to form a dual-phase SiC/MAX phase joint subsequently irradiated at 800 °C to 5 dpa indicated some cracking in the joint. This paper elucidates the cracking origin by developing a model that accounts for differential thermal expansion and irradiation-induced swelling between the substrate and joint materials by using a continuum damage mechanics approach with support from micromechanical modeling. Damage accumulation in joined specimens irradiated at four temperatures (300 °C, 400 °C, 500 °C and 800 °C) is analyzed. We assume the experimental irradiation dose is sufficient to cause saturation swelling in SiC. The analyses indicate that the SiC/MAX joint survives irradiation-induced swelling at all the irradiation temperatures considered. The joint experiences only minor damage when heated to and irradiated at 800 °C as well as cooling to room temperature. The prediction agrees with the experimental findings available for this case. However, the joint heated to 300 °C suffers severe damage during irradiation-induced swelling at this temperature, and additional damage after cooling to room temperature. Irradiation at 400 °C and subsequent cooling to room temperature produced similar damage to the irradiation 300 °C case, but to a lesser extent. The joint heated to 500 °C and irradiated at this temperature suffered only very minor damage, but further moderate damage occurred after cooling to room temperature.

  5. Modeling thermal and irradiation-induced swelling effects on the integrity of Ti 3SiC 2/SiC joints

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Henager, Charles H.; Kurtz, Richard J.

    Previously, results for CVD-SiC joined by a solid state displacement reaction to form a dual-phase SiC/MAX phase joint subsequently irradiated at 800 °C to 5 dpa indicated some cracking in the joint. Here, this paper elucidates the cracking origin by developing a model that accounts for differential thermal expansion and irradiation-induced swelling between the substrate and joint materials by using a continuum damage mechanics approach with support from micromechanical modeling. Damage accumulation in joined specimens irradiated at four temperatures (300 °C, 400 °C, 500 °C and 800 °C) is analyzed. We assume the experimental irradiation dose is sufficient to causemore » saturation swelling in SiC. The analyses indicate that the SiC/MAX joint survives irradiation-induced swelling at all the irradiation temperatures considered. The joint experiences only minor damage when heated to and irradiated at 800 °C as well as cooling to room temperature. The prediction agrees with the experimental findings available for this case. However, the joint heated to 300 °C suffers severe damage during irradiation-induced swelling at this temperature, and additional damage after cooling to room temperature. Irradiation at 400 °C and subsequent cooling to room temperature produced similar damage to the irradiation 300 °C case, but to a lesser extent. Finally, the joint heated to 500 °C and irradiated at this temperature suffered only very minor damage, but further moderate damage occurred after cooling to room temperature.« less

  6. Modeling thermal and irradiation-induced swelling effects on the integrity of Ti 3SiC 2/SiC joints

    DOE PAGES

    Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Henager, Charles H.; Kurtz, Richard J.

    2017-09-08

    Previously, results for CVD-SiC joined by a solid state displacement reaction to form a dual-phase SiC/MAX phase joint subsequently irradiated at 800 °C to 5 dpa indicated some cracking in the joint. Here, this paper elucidates the cracking origin by developing a model that accounts for differential thermal expansion and irradiation-induced swelling between the substrate and joint materials by using a continuum damage mechanics approach with support from micromechanical modeling. Damage accumulation in joined specimens irradiated at four temperatures (300 °C, 400 °C, 500 °C and 800 °C) is analyzed. We assume the experimental irradiation dose is sufficient to causemore » saturation swelling in SiC. The analyses indicate that the SiC/MAX joint survives irradiation-induced swelling at all the irradiation temperatures considered. The joint experiences only minor damage when heated to and irradiated at 800 °C as well as cooling to room temperature. The prediction agrees with the experimental findings available for this case. However, the joint heated to 300 °C suffers severe damage during irradiation-induced swelling at this temperature, and additional damage after cooling to room temperature. Irradiation at 400 °C and subsequent cooling to room temperature produced similar damage to the irradiation 300 °C case, but to a lesser extent. Finally, the joint heated to 500 °C and irradiated at this temperature suffered only very minor damage, but further moderate damage occurred after cooling to room temperature.« less

  7. Wear-triggered self-healing behavior on the surface of nanocrystalline nickel aluminum bronze/Ti3SiC2 composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Wenzheng; Lu, Wenlong; Zhang, Po; Wang, Jian; Liu, Xiaojun; Zhou, Liping

    2018-04-01

    Self-healing can protect materials from diverse damages, but is intrinsically difficult in metals. This paper demonstrates a potential method through a simultaneous decomposition and oxidation of Ti3SiC2 to achieve healing of stress cracking on the surface of nickel aluminum bronze (NAB)/Ti3SiC2 nanocrystalline composites during fretting wear. At the finest nanocrystalline materials, a crack recovery would be attained at 76.5%. The repetitive fretting wear leads to a modest amount of 'flowability' of Ti3SiC2 toward the crack, facilitating crack recovery. Along with the wear-triggered self-healing, the NAB/Ti3SiC2 shows an improved tribological performance with the stable decreased friction torque due to the formation of lubrication TiO2 oxide.

  8. Nitriding kinetics of Si-SiC powder mixtures as simulations of reaction bonded Si3N4-SiC composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lightfoot, A.; Sheldon, B. W.; Flint, J. H.; Haggerty, J. S.

    1989-01-01

    The nitriding kinetics of Si and Si plus SiC powder mixtures were studied to simulate the fabrication of RBSN-SiC ceramic matrix composites. Very clean, assynthesized, and solvent-exposed powders were studied; C-rich and Si-rich SiC 0.04-0.05 micron diameter powders were mixed in varying concentrations with SiH4-derived 0.2-0.3 micron diameter Si powder. Complete nitridation is achieved with C-rich SiC powders in 140 min at 1250 C, and in the centers of Si-rich SiC powders in 15 min. The effects on the incubation periods, fast reaction periods, and slow reaction periods that characterize these nitriding processes were studied to explain unusual reverse reaction gradients and other effects of contamination.

  9. Tungsten Isotopic Compositions in Stardust SiC Grains from the Murchison Meteorite: Constraints on the s-process in the Hf-Ta-W-Re-Os Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ávila, Janaína N.; Lugaro, Maria; Ireland, Trevor R.; Gyngard, Frank; Zinner, Ernst; Cristallo, Sergio; Holden, Peter; Buntain, Joelene; Amari, Sachiko; Karakas, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    We report the first tungsten isotopic measurements in stardust silicon carbide (SiC) grains recovered from the Murchison carbonaceous chondrite. The isotopes 182,183,184,186W and 179,180Hf were measured on both an aggregate (KJB fraction) and single stardust SiC grains (LS+LU fraction) believed to have condensed in the outflows of low-mass carbon-rich asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars with close-to-solar metallicity. The SiC aggregate shows small deviations from terrestrial (= solar) composition in the 182W/184W and 183W/184W ratios, with deficits in 182W and 183W with respect to 184W. The 186W/184W ratio, however, shows no apparent deviation from the solar value. Tungsten isotopic measurements in single mainstream stardust SiC grains revealed lower than solar 182W/184W, 183W/184W, and 186W/184W ratios. We have compared the SiC data with theoretical predictions of the evolution of W isotopic ratios in the envelopes of AGB stars. These ratios are affected by the slow neutron-capture process and match the SiC data regarding their 182W/184W, 183W/184W, and 179Hf/180Hf isotopic compositions, although a small adjustment in the s-process production of 183W is needed in order to have a better agreement between the SiC data and model predictions. The models cannot explain the 186W/184W ratios observed in the SiC grains, even when the current 185W neutron-capture cross section is increased by a factor of two. Further study is required to better assess how model uncertainties (e.g., the formation of the 13C neutron source, the mass-loss law, the modeling of the third dredge-up, and the efficiency of the 22Ne neutron source) may affect current s-process predictions.

  10. Silicon Carbide (SiC) Device and Module Reliability, Performance of a Loop Heat Pipe Subjected to a Phase-Coupled Heat Input to an Acceleration Field

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-01

    AFRL-RQ-WP-TR-2016-0108 SILICON CARBIDE (SiC) DEVICE AND MODULE RELIABILITY Performance of a Loop Heat Pipe Subjected to a Phase-Coupled... Heat Input to an Acceleration Field Kirk L. Yerkes (AFRL/RQQI) and James D. Scofield (AFRL/RQQE) Flight Systems Integration Branch (AFRL/RQQI...CARBIDE (SiC) DEVICE AND MODULE RELIABILITY Performance of a Loop Heat Pipe Subjected to a Phase-Coupled Heat Input to an Acceleration Field 5a

  11. Prevalence of Complement-Mediated Cell Lysis-like Gene (sicG) in Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis Isolates From Japan (2014-2016).

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Takashi; Fujita, Tomohiro; Shibayama, Akiyoshi; Tsuyuki, Yuzo; Yoshida, Haruno

    2017-07-01

    Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (SDSE; a β-hemolytic streptococcus of human or animal origin) infections are emerging worldwide. We evaluated the clonal distribution of complement-mediated cell lysis-like gene (sicG) among SDSE isolates from three central prefectures of Japan. Group G/C β-hemolytic streptococci were collected from three institutions from April 2014 to March 2016. Fifty-five strains (52 from humans and three from animals) were identified as SDSE on the basis of 16S rRNA sequencing data.; they were obtained from 25 sterile (blood, joint fluid, and cerebrospinal fluid) and 30 non-sterile (skin-, respiratory tract-, and genitourinary tract-origin) samples. emm genotyping, multilocus sequence typing, sicG amplification/sequencing, and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis of sicG-positive strains were performed. sicG was detected in 30.9% of the isolates (16 human and one canine) and the genes from the 16 human samples (blood, 10; open pus, 3; sputum, 2; throat swab, 1) and one canine sample (open pus) showed the same sequence pattern. All sicG-harboring isolates belonged to clonal complex (CC) 17, and the most prevalent emm type was stG6792 (82.4%). There was a significant association between sicG presence and the development of skin/soft tissue infections. CC17 isolates with sicG could be divided into three subtypes by RAPD analysis. CC17 SDSE harboring sicG might have spread into three closely-related prefectures in central Japan during 2014-2016. Clonal analysis of isolates from other areas might be needed to monitor potentially virulent strains in humans and animals. © The Korean Society for Laboratory Medicine

  12. Comparative analysis of emm type pattern of Group A Streptococcus throat and skin isolates from India and their association with closely related SIC, a streptococcal virulence factor

    PubMed Central

    Sagar, Vivek; Kumar, Rajesh; Ganguly, Nirmal K; Chakraborti, Anuradha

    2008-01-01

    Background Group A streptococcus (GAS) causes a wide variety of life threatening diseases in humans and the incidence of such infections is high in developing countries like India. Although distribution of emm types of GAS in India has been described, there is a lack of data describing either the comparative distribution of emm types in throat versus skin isolates, or the distribution of certain virulence factors amongst these isolates. Therefore in the present study we have monitored the emm type pattern of Group A streptococcus throat and skin isolates from India. Additionally, the association of these isolates with closely related sic (crs), a multifunctional compliment binding virulence factor, was also explored. Results Of the 94 (46 throat and 48 skin) isolates analyzed, 37 emm types were identified. The most frequently observed emm types were emm49 (8.5%) and emm112 (7.5%) followed by 6.5% each of emm1-2, emm75, emm77, and emm81. Out of 37 emm types, 27 have been previously reported and rest were isolated for the first time in the Indian Community. The predominant emm types of throat (emm49 and emm75) samples were different from those of skin (emm44, emm81 and emm112) samples. After screening all the 94 isolates, the crs gene was found in six emm1-2 (crs1-2) isolates, which was confirmed by DNA sequencing and expression analysis. Despite the polymorphic nature of crs, no intravariation was observed within crs1-2. However, insertions and deletions of highly variable sizes were noticed in comparison to CRS isolated from other emm types (emm1.0, emm57). CRS1-2 showed maximum homology with CRS57, but the genomic location of crs1-2 was found to be the same as that of sic1.0. Further, among crs positive isolates, speA was only present in skin samples thus suggesting possible role of speA in tissue tropism. Conclusion Despite the diversity in emm type pattern of throat and skin isolates, no significant association between emm type and source of isolation was

  13. Comparative analysis of emm type pattern of Group A Streptococcus throat and skin isolates from India and their association with closely related SIC, a streptococcal virulence factor.

    PubMed

    Sagar, Vivek; Kumar, Rajesh; Ganguly, Nirmal K; Chakraborti, Anuradha

    2008-09-16

    Group A streptococcus (GAS) causes a wide variety of life threatening diseases in humans and the incidence of such infections is high in developing countries like India. Although distribution of emm types of GAS in India has been described, there is a lack of data describing either the comparative distribution of emm types in throat versus skin isolates, or the distribution of certain virulence factors amongst these isolates. Therefore in the present study we have monitored the emm type pattern of Group A streptococcus throat and skin isolates from India. Additionally, the association of these isolates with closely related sic (crs), a multifunctional compliment binding virulence factor, was also explored. Of the 94 (46 throat and 48 skin) isolates analyzed, 37 emm types were identified. The most frequently observed emm types were emm49 (8.5%) and emm112 (7.5%) followed by 6.5% each of emm1-2, emm75, emm77, and emm81. Out of 37 emm types, 27 have been previously reported and rest were isolated for the first time in the Indian Community. The predominant emm types of throat (emm49 and emm75) samples were different from those of skin (emm44, emm81 and emm112) samples. After screening all the 94 isolates, the crs gene was found in six emm1-2 (crs1-2) isolates, which was confirmed by DNA sequencing and expression analysis. Despite the polymorphic nature of crs, no intravariation was observed within crs1-2. However, insertions and deletions of highly variable sizes were noticed in comparison to CRS isolated from other emm types (emm1.0, emm57). CRS1-2 showed maximum homology with CRS57, but the genomic location of crs1-2 was found to be the same as that of sic1.0. Further, among crs positive isolates, speA was only present in skin samples thus suggesting possible role of speA in tissue tropism. Despite the diversity in emm type pattern of throat and skin isolates, no significant association between emm type and source of isolation was observed. The finding that the crs

  14. Mechanical properties of SiC fiber-reinforced reaction-bonded Si3N4 composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatt, R. T.

    1985-01-01

    The room temperature mechanical and physical properties of silicon carbide fiber reinforced reaction-bonded silicon nitride composites (SiC/RBSN) have been evaluated. The composites contained 23 and 40 volume fraction of aligned 140 micro m diameter chemically vapor deposited SiC fibers. Preliminary results for composite tensile and bend strengths and fracture strain indicate that the composites displayed excellent properties when compared with unreinforced RBSN of comparable porosity. Fiber volume fraction showed little influence on matrix first cracking strain but did influence the stressed required for matrix first cracking and for ultimate composite fracture strength. It is suggested that by reducing matrix porosity and by increasing the volume fraction of the large diameter SiC fiber, it should be possible to further improve the composite stress at which the matrix first cracks.

  15. Mechanical Properties of SiC, Al2O3 Reinforced Aluminium 6061-T6 Hybrid Matrix Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murugan, S. Senthil; Jegan, V.; Velmurugan, M.

    2018-04-01

    This paper contains the investigation of tensile, compression and impact characterization of SiC, Al2O3 reinforced Aluminium 6061-T6 matrix hybrid composite. Hybrid matrix composite fabrication was done by stir casting method. An attempt has been made by keeping Al2O3 percentage (7%) constant and increasing SiC percentage (10, 15, and 20%). After fabricating, the samples were prepared and tested to find out the various mechanical properties like tensile, compressive, and impact strength of the developed composites of different weight % of silicon carbide and Alumina in Aluminium alloy. The main objective of the study is to compare the values obtained and choose the best composition of the hybrid matrix composite from the mechanical properties point of view.

  16. Accurate evaluation of fast threshold voltage shift for SiC MOS devices under various gate bias stress conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sometani, Mitsuru; Okamoto, Mitsuo; Hatakeyama, Tetsuo; Iwahashi, Yohei; Hayashi, Mariko; Okamoto, Dai; Yano, Hiroshi; Harada, Shinsuke; Yonezawa, Yoshiyuki; Okumura, Hajime

    2018-04-01

    We investigated methods of measuring the threshold voltage (V th) shift of 4H-silicon carbide (SiC) metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) under positive DC, negative DC, and AC gate bias stresses. A fast measurement method for V th shift under both positive and negative DC stresses revealed the existence of an extremely large V th shift in the short-stress-time region. We then examined the effect of fast V th shifts on drain current (I d) changes within a pulse under AC operation. The fast V th shifts were suppressed by nitridation. However, the I d change within one pulse occurred even in commercially available SiC MOSFETs. The correlation between I d changes within one pulse and V th shifts measured by a conventional method is weak. Thus, a fast and in situ measurement method is indispensable for the accurate evaluation of I d changes under AC operation.

  17. Mechanical characterization of SiC particulate & E-glass fiber reinforced Al 3003 hybrid metal matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayana, K. S. Lakshmi; Shivanand, H. K.

    2018-04-01

    Metal matrix composites constitute a class of low cost high quality materials which offer high performance for various industrial applications. The orientation of this research is towards the study of mechanical properties of as cast silicon carbide (SiC) particulates and Short E-Glass fibers reinforced Aluminum matrix composites (AMCs). The Hybrid metal matrix composite is developed by reinforcing SiC particulates of 100 microns and short E-Glass fibers of 2-3 mm length with Al 3003 in different compositions. The vortex method of stir casting was employed, in which the reinforcements were introduced into the vortex created by the molten metal by means of mechanical stirrer. The mechanical properties of the prepared metal matrix composites were analyzed. From the studies it was noticed that an improvement in mechanical properties of the reinforced alloys compared to unreinforced alloys.

  18. Dispersed SiC nanoparticles in Ni observed by ultra-small-angle X-ray scattering

    DOE PAGES

    Xie, R.; Ilavsky, J.; Huang, H. F.; ...

    2016-11-24

    In this paper, a metal-ceramic composite, nickel reinforced with SiC nanoparticles, was synthesized and characterized for its potential application in next-generation molten salt nuclear reactors. Synchrotron ultra-small-angle X-ray scattering (USAXS) measurements were conducted on the composite. The size distribution and number density of the SiC nanoparticles in the material were obtained through data modelling. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy characterization were performed to substantiate the results of the USAXS measurements. Tensile tests were performed on the samples to measure the change in their yield strength after doping with the nanoparticles. Finally, the average interparticle distance was calculated from the USAXSmore » results and is related to the increased yield strength of the composite.« less

  19. Experimental and simulation studies of neutron-induced single-event burnout in SiC power diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoji, Tomoyuki; Nishida, Shuichi; Hamada, Kimimori; Tadano, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Neutron-induced single-event burnouts (SEBs) of silicon carbide (SiC) power diodes have been investigated by white neutron irradiation experiments and transient device simulations. It was confirmed that a rapid increase in lattice temperature leads to formation of crown-shaped aluminum and cracks inside the device owing to expansion stress when the maximum lattice temperature reaches the sublimation temperature. SEB device simulation indicated that the peak lattice temperature is located in the vicinity of the n-/n+ interface and anode contact, and that the positions correspond to a hammock-like electric field distribution caused by the space charge effect. Moreover, the locations of the simulated peak lattice temperature agree closely with the positions of the observed destruction traces. Furthermore, it was theoretically demonstrated that the period of temperature increase of a SiC power device is two orders of magnitude less than that of a Si power device, using a thermal diffusion equation.

  20. Room Temperature Tensile Behavior and Damage Accumulation of Hi-Nicalon Reinforced SiC Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morscher, G. N.; Gyekenyesi, J. Z.

    1998-01-01

    Composites consisting of woven Hi-Nicalon fibers, BN interphases, and different SiC matrices were studied in tension at room temperature. Composites with SiC matrices processed by CVI and melt infiltration were compared. Monotonic and load/unload/reload tensile hysteresis experiments were performed. A modal acoustic emission (AE) analyzer was used to monitor damage accumulation during the tensile test. Post test polishing of the tensile gage sections was performed to determine the extent of cracking. The occurrence and location of cracking could easily be determined using modal AE. The loss of modulus could also effectively be determined from the change in the velocity of sound across the sample. Finally, the stresses where cracks appear to intersect the load-bearing fibers correspond with high temperature low cycle fatigue run out stresses for these materials.

  1. Liquid-phase growth of few-layered graphene on sapphire substrates using SiC micropowder source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruyama, Takahiro; Yamashita, Yutaka; Saida, Takahiro; Tanaka, Shin-ichiro; Naritsuka, Shigeya

    2017-06-01

    We demonstrated direct synthesis of graphene films consisting of a few layers (few-layered graphene) on sapphire substrates by liquid-phase growth (LPG), using liquid Ga as the melt and SiC micropowder as the source material. When the dissolution temperature was above 700 °C, almost all Si atoms of SiC diffused into the Ga melt and only carbon atoms remained at the interface beneath the liquid Ga. Above 800 °C, X-ray photoelectron spectra showed that most of the remaining carbon was graphitized. When the dissolution temperature was 1000 °C, Raman spectra showed that few-layered graphene films grew on the sapphire substrates.

  2. Zinc-blende to rocksalt transition in SiC in a laser-heated diamond-anvil cell

    SciTech Connect

    Daviau, Kierstin; Lee, Kanani K. M.

    2017-04-18

    We explore the stability of the ambient pressure zinc-blende polymorph (B3) structure of silicon carbide (SiC) at high pressures and temperatures where it transforms to the rocksalt (B1) structure. We find that the transition occurs ~40 GPa lower than previously measured when heated to moderately high temperatures. A lower transition pressure is consistent with the transition pressures predicted in numerous ab initio computations. We find a large volume decrease across the transition of ~17%, with the volume drop increasing at higher formation pressures, suggesting this transition is volume driven yielding a nearly pressure-independent Clapeyron slope. Such a dramatic density increasemore » occurring at pressure is important to consider in applications where SiC is exposed to extreme conditions, such as in industrial applications or planetary interiors.« less

  3. Dispersion of SiC nanoparticles in cellulose for study of tensile, thermal and oxygen barrier properties.

    PubMed

    Kisku, Sudhir K; Dash, Satyabrata; Swain, Sarat K

    2014-01-01

    Cellulose/silicon carbide (cellulose/SiC) nanobiocomposites were prepared by solution technique. The interaction of SiC nanoparticles with cellulose were confirmed by Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The structure of cellulose/SiC nanobiocomposites was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The tensile properties of the nanobiocomposites were improved as compared with virgin cellulose. Thermal stabilities of cellulose/SiC nanobiocomposites were studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The cellulose/SiC nanobiocomposites were thermally more stable than the raw cellulose. It may be due to the delamination of SiC with cellulose matrix. The oxygen barrier properties of cellulose composites were measured using gas permeameter. A substantial reduction in oxygen permeability was obtained with increase in silicon carbide concentrations. The thermally resistant and oxygen barrier properties of the prepared nanobiocomposites may enable the materials for the packaging applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Processing and properties of SiC whisker- and particulate-reinforced reaction bonded Si3N4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lightfoot, A.; Ewart, L.; Haggerty, J.; Cai, Z. Q.; Ritter, J.; Nair, S.

    1991-01-01

    The microstructure and mechanical properties of reaction bonded Si3N4 (RBSN) reinforced with SiC whiskers of particles were investigated using RBSN composites made from colloidally pressed octanol dispersions of high-purity Si powders mixed with either SiC whiskers or alpha-SiC particles. Results of investigations, revealing high conversions of Si to Si3N4, specific surface areas, and constant relative densities and strengths, showed that the uniform microstructure and small flaw size of the matrix were maintained in the composites and that no degradation of the reinforcements was taking place. Neither the monolithic nor the composite materials exhibited R-curve behavior. A modest increase in fracture toughness was observed only in the RBSN containing 33 vol pct SiC(p).

  5. Natural Childbirth

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Natural Childbirth KidsHealth / For Parents / Natural Childbirth What's in this ... the pain, extremely empowering and rewarding. About Natural Childbirth Natural childbirth is a "low-tech" way of ...

  6. A comparative study of the mechanical and thermal properties of defective ZrC, TiC and SiC.

    PubMed

    Jiang, M; Zheng, J W; Xiao, H Y; Liu, Z J; Zu, X T

    2017-08-24

    ZrC and TiC have been proposed to be alternatives to SiC as fuel-cladding and structural materials in nuclear reactors due to their strong radiation tolerance and high thermal conductivity at high temperatures. To unravel how the presence of defects affects the thermo-physical properties under irradiation, first-principles calculations based on density function theory were carried out to investigate the mechanical and thermal properties of defective ZrC, TiC and SiC. As compared with the defective SiC, the ZrC and TiC always exhibit larger bulk modulus, smaller changes in the Young's and shear moduli, as well as better ductility. The total thermal conductivity of ZrC and TiC are much larger than that of SiC, implying that under radiation environment the ZrC and TiC will exhibit superior heat conduction ability than the SiC. One disadvantage for ZrC and TiC is that their Debye temperatures are generally lower than that of SiC. These results suggest that further improving the Debye temperature of ZrC and TiC will be more beneficial for their applications as fuel-cladding and structural materials in nuclear reactors.

  7. Effects of Interface Coating and Nitride Enhancing Additive on Properties of Hi-Nicalon SiC Fiber Reinforced Reaction-Bonded Silicon Nitride Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatt, Ramakrishana T.; Hull, David R.; Eldridge, Jeffrey I.; Babuder, Raymond

    2000-01-01

    Strong and tough Hi-Nicalon SiC fiber reinforced reaction-bonded silicon nitride matrix composites (SiC/ RBSN) have been fabricated by the fiber lay-up approach. Commercially available uncoated and PBN, PBN/Si-rich PBN, and BN/SiC coated SiC Hi-Nicalon fiber tows were used as reinforcement. The composites contained approximately 24 vol % of aligned 14 micron diameter SiC fibers in a porous RBSN matrix. Both one- and two-dimensional composites were characterized. The effects of interface coating composition, and the nitridation enhancing additive, NiO, on the room temperature physical, tensile, and interfacial shear strength properties of SiC/RBSN matrix composites were evaluated. Results indicate that for all three coated fibers, the thickness of the coatings decreased from the outer periphery to the interior of the tows, and that from 10 to 30 percent of the fibers were not covered with the interface coating. In the uncoated regions, chemical reaction between the NiO additive and the SiC fiber occurs causing degradation of tensile properties of the composites. Among the three interface coating combinations investigated, the BN/SiC coated Hi-Nicalon SiC fiber reinforced RBSN matrix composite showed the least amount of uncoated regions and reasonably uniform interface coating thickness. The matrix cracking stress in SiC/RBSN composites was predicted using a fracture mechanics based crack bridging model.

  8. A Comparative Study of Thermal Conductivity and Tribological Behavior of Squeeze Cast A359/AlN and A359/SiC Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shalaby, Essam. A. M.; Churyumov, Alexander. Yu.; Besisa, Dina. H. A.; Daoud, A.; Abou El-khair, M. T.

    2017-07-01

    A comparative study of thermal and wear behavior of squeeze cast A359 alloy and composites containing 5, 10 and 15 wt.% AlN and SiC particulates was investigated. It was pointed out that A359/AlN composites have a superior thermal conductivity as compared to A359 alloy or even to A359/SiC composites. Composites wear characteristics were achieved by pins-on-disk instrument over a load range of 20-60 N and a sliding speed of 2.75 m/s. Results showed that A359/AlN and A359/SiC composites exhibited higher wear resistance values compared to A359 alloy. Moreover, A359/AlN composites showed superior values of wear resistance than A359/SiC composites at relatively high loads. Friction coefficients and contact surface temperature for A359/AlN specimens decreased as AlN content increased, while they increased for A359/SiC. Investigations of worn surfaces revealed that A359/AlN composites were covered up by aluminum nitrides and iron oxides, which acted as smooth layers. However, A359/SiC composites were mainly covered only by iron oxides. The superior thermal conductivity and the significant wear resistance of the developed A359/AlN composites provided a high durable material suitable for industrial applications.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of LPCVD SiC films using novel precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhaskaran, Mahalingam

    A unique low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) process has been developed to synthesize amorphous and crystalline SiC films using environmentally benign chemicals. The interrelationships governing the process variables, compositions and select properties of the resulting films were established. Such films can be used to produce high quality mask membrane for x-ray lithography. These films can also be used in fabricating high power electrical devices, and hetrojunction devices in conjunction with silicon. Amorphous SiC films were synthesized using a single precursor, ditertiarybutylsilane, at temperatures below 850sp°C. Compositional analysis performed on these deposits revealed that, in the deposition temperature range of 625 to 750sp°C, the composition of the deposits changed progressively from slightly silicon rich (55% Si) to slightly carbon rich (51%C). Above 750sp°C, there was a rapid increase in the carbon content from the near stoichiometric value to about 75%-C at 850sp°C. The stoichiometric films exhibited high stress values of 700 ± 50 MPa. Attempts to reduce the stress values resulted in films with excess carbon content of about 60%-C. From the high frequency C-V characterization, the dielectric constant for these films was estimated to be 10.1 ± 0.5. Temperature bias stressing studies revealed a trapped charge density of 0.869× 10sp7 cIsp{-2} within the bulk. Crystalline silicon carbide films were grown on silicon substrates using dichlorosilane and acetylene as precursors, in the temperature range of 950sp°C to 1050sp°C. The carbon content in the film was found to be increasing with the deposition temperature, when the flow ratio of precursors was one. The carbon composition was also found to be sharply dependent on acetylene flow, for constant deposition temperature and pressure. Stoichiometric films were achieved for dichlorosilane to acetylene flow ratio of 4:1. X-ray diffraction studies confirmed the growth of beta-SiC with

  10. Microstructural evolution of SiC joints soldered using Zn-Al filler metals with the assistance of ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bingzhi; Leng, Xuesong; Xiu, Ziyang; Yan, Jiuchun

    2018-06-01

    SiC ceramics were successfully soldered with the assistance of ultrasound. Two kinds of filler metals, namely non-eutectic Zn-5Al-3Cu and eutectic Zn-5Al alloys, were used. The effects of ultrasonic action on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the soldered joints were investigated. The results showed that ultrasound could promote the wetting and bonding between the SiC ceramic and filler metals within tens of seconds. For the Zn-5Al-3Cu solder, a fully grain-refined structure in the bond layer was obtained as the ultrasonic action time increased. This may lead to a substantial enhancement in the strength of the soldered joints. For the Zn-5Al solder, the shear strength of the soldered joints was only ∼102 MPa when the ultrasonic action time was shorter, and fractures occurred in the brittle lamellar eutectic phases in the center of the bond layer. With increasing ultrasonic action time, the lamellar eutectic phase in the bond layer of SiC joints could be completely transformed to a fine non-lamellar eutectic structure. Meanwhile, the grains in the bond layer were obviously refined. Those results led to the remarkable enhancement of the shear strength of the joints (∼138 MPa) using the Zn-5Al solder, which had approached that enhancement using the Zn-5Al-3Cu solder. The enhanced mechanical properties of the joints were attributed to the significant refinement of the grains and the change in the eutectic structure in the bond layer. Prolonged enhanced heterogeneous nucleation triggered by ultrasonic cavitation is the predominant refinement mechanism of the bond metals of the SiC joints. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. An Extensive X-ray Computed Tomography Evaluation of a Fully Penetrated Encapsulated SiC MMC Ballistic Panel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    An Extensive X-ray Computed Tomography Evaluation of a Fully Penetrated Encapsulated SiC MMC Ballistic Panel by William H. Green and Robert H...Panel William H. Green and Robert H. Carter Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, ARL...PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 2182040 6. AUTHOR(S) William H. Green and Robert H. Carter 5d. PROJECT NUMBER AH80 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT

  12. Packaging Technologies for 500 C SiC Electronics and Sensors: Challenges in Material Science and Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Liang-Yu; Neudeck, Philip G.; Behelm, Glenn M.; Spry, David J.; Meredith, Roger D.; Hunter, Gary W.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents ceramic substrates and thick-film metallization based packaging technologies in development for 500C silicon carbide (SiC) electronics and sensors. Prototype high temperature ceramic chip-level packages and printed circuit boards (PCBs) based on ceramic substrates of aluminum oxide (Al2O3) and aluminum nitride (AlN) have been designed and fabricated. These ceramic substrate-based chip-level packages with gold (Au) thick-film metallization have been electrically characterized at temperatures up to 550C. The 96 alumina packaging system composed of chip-level packages and PCBs has been successfully tested with high temperature SiC discrete transistor devices at 500C for over 10,000 hours. In addition to tests in a laboratory environment, a SiC junction field-effect-transistor (JFET) with a packaging system composed of a 96 alumina chip-level package and an alumina printed circuit board was tested on low earth orbit for eighteen months via a NASA International Space Station experiment. In addition to packaging systems for electronics, a spark-plug type sensor package based on this high temperature interconnection system for high temperature SiC capacitive pressure sensors was also developed and tested. In order to further significantly improve the performance of packaging system for higher packaging density, higher operation frequency, power rating, and even higher temperatures, some fundamental material challenges must be addressed. This presentation will discuss previous development and some of the challenges in material science (technology) to improve high temperature dielectrics for packaging applications.

  13. Construction and evaluation of photovoltaic power generation and power storage system using SiC field-effect transistor inverter

    SciTech Connect

    Oku, Takeo, E-mail: oku@mat.usp.ac.jp; Matsumoto, Taisuke; Ohishi, Yuya

    A power storage system using spherical silicon (Si) solar cells, maximum power point tracking charge controller, lithium-ion battery and a direct current-alternating current (DC-AC) inverter was constructed. Performance evaluation of the DC-AC inverter was carried out, and the DC-AC conversion efficiencies of the SiC field-effect transistor (FET) inverter was improved compared with those of the ordinary Si-FET based inverter.

  14. Mechanical properties of SiC composites neutron irradiated under light water reactor relevant temperature and dose conditions

    DOE PAGES

    Koyanagi, Takaaki; Katoh, Yutai

    2017-07-04

    Silicon carbide (SiC) fiber–reinforced SiC matrix (SiC/SiC) composites are being actively investigated for use in accident-tolerant core structures of light water reactors (LWRs). Owing to the limited number of irradiation studies previously conducted at LWR-coolant temperature, this paper examined SiC/SiC composites following neutron irradiation at 230–340 °C to 2.0 and 11.8 dpa in the High Flux Isotope Reactor. The investigated materials were chemical vapor infiltrated (CVI) SiC/SiC composites with three different reinforcement fibers. The fiber materials were monolayer pyrolytic carbon (PyC) -coated Hi-Nicalon™ Type-S (HNS), Tyranno™ SA3 (SA3), and SCS-Ultra™ (SCS) SiC fibers. The irradiation resistance of these composites wasmore » investigated based on flexural behavior, dynamic Young's modulus, swelling, and microstructures. There was no notable mechanical properties degradation of the irradiated HNS and SA3 SiC/SiC composites except for reduction of the Young's moduli by up to 18%. The microstructural stability of these composites supported the absence of degradation. In addition, no progressive swelling from 2.0 to 11.8 dpa was confirmed for these composites. On the other hand, the SCS composite showed significant mechanical degradation associated with cracking within the fiber. Finally, this study determined that SiC/SiC composites with HNS or SA3 SiC/SiC fibers, a PyC interphase, and a CVI SiC matrix retain their properties beyond the lifetime dose for LWR fuel cladding at the relevant temperature.« less

  15. Mechanical properties of SiC composites neutron irradiated under light water reactor relevant temperature and dose conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Koyanagi, Takaaki; Katoh, Yutai

    Silicon carbide (SiC) fiber–reinforced SiC matrix (SiC/SiC) composites are being actively investigated for use in accident-tolerant core structures of light water reactors (LWRs). Owing to the limited number of irradiation studies previously conducted at LWR-coolant temperature, this paper examined SiC/SiC composites following neutron irradiation at 230–340 °C to 2.0 and 11.8 dpa in the High Flux Isotope Reactor. The investigated materials were chemical vapor infiltrated (CVI) SiC/SiC composites with three different reinforcement fibers. The fiber materials were monolayer pyrolytic carbon (PyC) -coated Hi-Nicalon™ Type-S (HNS), Tyranno™ SA3 (SA3), and SCS-Ultra™ (SCS) SiC fibers. The irradiation resistance of these composites wasmore » investigated based on flexural behavior, dynamic Young's modulus, swelling, and microstructures. There was no notable mechanical properties degradation of the irradiated HNS and SA3 SiC/SiC composites except for reduction of the Young's moduli by up to 18%. The microstructural stability of these composites supported the absence of degradation. In addition, no progressive swelling from 2.0 to 11.8 dpa was confirmed for these composites. On the other hand, the SCS composite showed significant mechanical degradation associated with cracking within the fiber. Finally, this study determined that SiC/SiC composites with HNS or SA3 SiC/SiC fibers, a PyC interphase, and a CVI SiC matrix retain their properties beyond the lifetime dose for LWR fuel cladding at the relevant temperature.« less

  16. Mechanical properties of SiC composites neutron irradiated under light water reactor relevant temperature and dose conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyanagi, Takaaki; Katoh, Yutai

    2017-10-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) fiber-reinforced SiC matrix (SiC/SiC) composites are being actively investigated for use in accident-tolerant core structures of light water reactors (LWRs). Owing to the limited number of irradiation studies previously conducted at LWR-coolant temperature, this study examined SiC/SiC composites following neutron irradiation at 230-340 °C to 2.0 and 11.8 dpa in the High Flux Isotope Reactor. The investigated materials were chemical vapor infiltrated (CVI) SiC/SiC composites with three different reinforcement fibers. The fiber materials were monolayer pyrolytic carbon (PyC) -coated Hi-Nicalon™ Type-S (HNS), Tyranno™ SA3 (SA3), and SCS-Ultra™ (SCS) SiC fibers. The irradiation resistance of these composites was investigated based on flexural behavior, dynamic Young's modulus, swelling, and microstructures. There was no notable mechanical properties degradation of the irradiated HNS and SA3 SiC/SiC composites except for reduction of the Young's moduli by up to 18%. The microstructural stability of these composites supported the absence of degradation. In addition, no progressive swelling from 2.0 to 11.8 dpa was confirmed for these composites. On the other hand, the SCS composite showed significant mechanical degradation associated with cracking within the fiber. This study determined that SiC/SiC composites with HNS or SA3 SiC/SiC fibers, a PyC interphase, and a CVI SiC matrix retain their properties beyond the lifetime dose for LWR fuel cladding at the relevant temperature.

  17. Growth and electrical characterization of two-dimensional layered MoS{sub 2}/SiC heterojunctions

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Edwin W.; Nath, Digbijoy N.; Lee, Choong Hee

    2014-11-17

    The growth and electrical characterization of the heterojunction formed between two-dimensional (2D) layered p-molybdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2}) and nitrogen-doped 4H silicon carbide (SiC) are reported. The integration of 2D semiconductors with the conventional three-dimensional (3D) substrates could enable semiconductor heterostructures with unprecedented properties. In this work, direct growth of p-type MoS{sub 2} films on SiC was demonstrated using chemical vapor deposition, and the MoS{sub 2} films were found to be high quality based on x-ray diffraction and Raman spectra. The resulting heterojunction was found to display rectification and current-voltage characteristics consistent with a diode for which forward conduction in themore » low-bias region is dominated by multi-step recombination tunneling. Capacitance-voltage measurements were used to determine the built-in voltage for the p-MoS{sub 2}/n-SiC heterojunction diode, and we propose an energy band line up for the heterostructure based on these observations. The demonstration of heterogeneous material integration between MoS{sub 2} and SiC enables a promising new class of 2D/3D heterostructures.« less

  18. Dose dependence of helium bubble formation in nano-engineered SiC at 700 °C

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Chien -Hung; Zhang, Yanwen; Wang, Yongqiang; ...

    2016-02-03

    Knowledge of radiation-induced helium bubble nucleation and growth in SiC is essential for applications in fusion and fission environments. Here we report the evolution of microstructure in nano-engineered (NE) 3C SiC, pre-implanted with helium, under heavy ion irradiation at 700 °C up to doses of 30 displacements per atom (dpa). Elastic recoil detection analysis confirms that the as-implanted helium depth profile does not change under irradiation to 30 dpa at 700 °C. While the helium bubble size distribution becomes narrower with increasing dose, the average size of bubbles remains unchanged and the density of bubbles increases somewhat with dose. Thesemore » results are consistent with a long helium bubble incubation process under continued irradiation at 700 °C up to 30 dpa, similar to that reported under dual and triple beam irradiation at much higher temperatures. The formation of bubbles at this low temperature is enhanced by the nano-layered stacking fault structure in the NE SiC, which enhances point defect mobility parallel to the stacking faults. Here, this stacking fault structure is stable at 700 °C up to 30 dpa and suppresses the formation of dislocation loops normally observed under these irradiation conditions.« less

  19. Microstructure and Tensile Properties of BN/SiC Coated Hi-Nicalon, and Sylramic SiC Fiber Preforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.; Chen, Yuan L.; Morscher, Gregory N.

    2001-01-01

    Batch to batch and within batch variations, and the influence of fiber architecture on room temperature physical and tensile properties of BN/SiC coated Hi-Nicalon and Sylramic SiC fiber preform specimens were determined. The three fiber architectures studied were plain weave (PW), 5-harness satin (5HS) and 8-harness satin (8HS) Results indicate that the physical properties vary up to 10 percent within a batch, and up to 20 percent between batches of preforms. Load-reload (Hysteresis) and acoustic emission methods were used to analyze damage accumulation occurring during tensile loading. Early acoustic emission activity, before observable hysteretic behavior, indicates that the damage starts with the formation of nonbridged tunnel cracks. These cracks then propagate and intersect the load bearing "0" fibers giving rise to hysteretic behavior, For the Hi-Nicalon preform specimens, the onset of "0" bundle cracking stress and strain appeared to be independent of the fiber architecture. Also, the "0" fiber bundle cracking strain remained nearly the same for the preform specimens of both fiber types. Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) analysis indicates that the Chemical Vapor Infiltration (CVI) Boron Nitride (BN) interface coating is mostly amorphous and contains carbon and oxygen impurities, and the CVI SiC coating is crystalline. No reaction exists between the CVI BN and SiC coating.

  20. Benzene Adsorption on C24, Si@C24, Si-Doped C24, and C20 Fullerenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baei, Mohammad T.

    2017-12-01

    The absorption feasibility of benzene molecule in the C24, Si@C24, Si-doped C24, and C20 fullerenes has been studied based on calculated electronic properties of these fullerenes using Density functional Theory (DFT). It is found that energy of benzene adsorption on C24, Si@C24, and Si-doped C24 fullerenes were in range of -2.93 and -51.19 kJ/mol with little changes in their electronic structure. The results demonstrated that the C24, Si@C24, and Si-doped C24 fullerenes cannot be employed as a chemical adsorbent or sensor for benzene. Silicon doping cannot significantly modify both the electronic properties and benzene adsorption energy of C24 fullerene. On the other hand, C20 fullerene exhibits a high sensitivity, so that the energy gap of the fullerene is changed almost 89.19% after the adsorption process. We concluded that the C20 fullerene can be employed as a reliable material for benzene detection.

  1. Back to BaySICS: a user-friendly program for Bayesian Statistical Inference from Coalescent Simulations.

    PubMed

    Sandoval-Castellanos, Edson; Palkopoulou, Eleftheria; Dalén, Love

    2014-01-01

    Inference of population demographic history has vastly improved in recent years due to a number of technological and theoretical advances including the use of ancient DNA. Approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) stands among the most promising methods due to its simple theoretical fundament and exceptional flexibility. However, limited availability of user-friendly programs that perform ABC analysis renders it difficult to implement, and hence programming skills are frequently required. In addition, there is limited availability of programs able to deal with heterochronous data. Here we present the software BaySICS: Bayesian Statistical Inference of Coalescent Simulations. BaySICS provides an integrated and user-friendly platform that performs ABC analyses by means of coalescent simulations from DNA sequence data. It estimates historical demographic population parameters and performs hypothesis testing by means of Bayes factors obtained from model comparisons. Although providing specific features that improve inference from datasets with heterochronous data, BaySICS also has several capabilities making it a suitable tool for analysing contemporary genetic datasets. Those capabilities include joint analysis of independent tables, a graphical interface and the implementation of Markov-chain Monte Carlo without likelihoods.

  2. Ag Out-surface Diffusion In Crystalline SiC With An Effective SiO2 Diffusion Barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, H.; Xiao, Haiyan Y.; Zhu, Zihua

    2015-09-01

    For applications of tristructural isotropic (TRISO) fuel particles in high temperature reactors, release of radioactive Ag isotope (110mAg) through the SiC coating layer is a safety concern. To understand the diffusion mechanism, Ag ion implantations near the surface and in the bulk were performed by utilizing different ion energies and energy-degrader foils. High temperature annealing was carried out on the as-irradiated samples to study the possible out-surface diffusion. Before and after annealing, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) measurements were employed to obtain the elemental profiles of the implanted samples. The results suggest little migration ofmore » buried Ag in the bulk, and an out-diffusion of the implanted Ag in the near-surface region of single crystal SiC. It is also found that a SiO2 layer, which was formed during annealing, may serve as an effective barrier to reduce or prevent Ag out diffusion through the SiC coating layer.« less

  3. A TEM quantitative evaluation of strengthening in an Mg-RE alloy reinforced with SiC

    SciTech Connect

    Cabibbo, Marcello, E-mail: m.cabibbo@univpm.it; Spigarelli, Stefano

    2011-10-15

    Magnesium alloys containing rare earth elements are known to have high specific strength, good creep and corrosion resistance up to 523 K. The addition of SiC ceramic particles strengthens the metal matrix composite resulting in better wear and creep resistance while maintaining good machinability. The role of the reinforcement particles in enhancing strength can be quantitatively evaluated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). This paper presents a quantitative evaluation of the different strengthening contributions, determined through TEM inspections, in an SiC Mg-RE composite alloy containing yttrium, neodymium, gadolinium and dysprosium. Compression tests at temperatures ranging between 290 and 573 K weremore » carried out. The microstructure strengthening mechanism was studied for all the compression conditions. Strengthening was compared to the mechanical results and the way the different contributions were combined is also discussed and justified. - Research Highlights: {yields} TEM yield strengthening terms evaluation on a Mg-RE SiC alloy. {yields} The evaluation has been extended to different compression temperature conditions. {yields} Linear and Quadratic sum has been proposed and validated. {yields} Hall-Petch was found to be the most prominent strengthening contributions.« less

  4. Tribological Analysis of Copper-Coated Graphite Particle-Reinforced A359 Al/5 wt.% SiC Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, C. B.; Wang, T. C.; Chang, Z. C.; Chu, H. Y.

    2013-01-01

    Copper-coated graphite particles can be mass-produced by the cementation process using simple equipment. Graphite particulates that were coated with electroless copper and 5 wt.% SiC particulates were introduced into an aluminum alloy by compocasting to make A359 Al/5 wt.% SiC(p) composite that contained 2, 4, 6, and 8 wt.% graphite particulate composite. The effects of SiC particles, quantity of graphite particles, normal loading, sliding speed and wear debris on the coefficient of friction, and the wear rate were investigated. The results thus obtained indicate that the wear properties were improved by adding small amounts of SiC and graphite particles into the A359 Al alloy. The coefficient of friction of the A359 Al/5 wt.% SiC(p) composite that contained 6.0 wt.% graphite particulates was reduced to 0.246 and the amount of graphite film that was released on the worn surface increased with the graphite particulate content. The coefficient of friction and the wear rate were insensitive to the variation in the sliding speed and normal loading.

  5. Ab initio study of friction of graphene flake on graphene/graphite or SiC surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulseren, Oguz; Tayran, Ceren; Sayin, Ceren Sibel

    Recently, the rich dynamics of graphene flake on graphite or SiC surfaces are revealed from atomic force microcopy experiments. The studies toward to the understanding of microscopic origin of friction are getting a lot of attention. Despite the several studies of these systems using molecular dynamics methods, density functional theory based investigations are limited because of the huge system sizes. In this study, we investigated the frictional force on graphene flake on graphite or SiC surfaces from pseudopotential planewave calculations based on density functional theory. In both cases, graphene flake (24 C) on graphite or SiC surface, bilayer flake is introduced by freezing the top layer as well as the bottom layer of the surface slab. After fixing the load with these frozen layers, we checked the relative motion of the flake over the surface. A minimum energy is reached when the flake is moved on graphene to attain AB stacking. We also conclude that edge reconstruction because of the finite size of the flake is very critical for frictional properties of the flake; therefore the saturation of dangling bonds with hydrogen is also addressed. Not only the symmetric configurations remaining parameter space is extensively studied. Supported by TUBITAK Project No: 114F162. This work is supported by TUBITAK Project No: 114F162.

  6. Enhancing the oxidation resistance of graphite by applying an SiC coat with crack healing at an elevated temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jae-Won; Kim, Eung-Seon; Kim, Jae-Un; Kim, Yootaek; Windes, William E.

    2016-08-01

    The potential of reducing the oxidation of the supporting graphite components during normal and/or accident conditions in the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design has been studied. In this work efforts have been made to slow the oxidation process of the graphite with a thin SiC coating (∼ 10 μm). Upon heating at ≥ 1173 K in air, the spallations and cracks were formed in the dense columnar structured SiC coating layer grown on the graphite with a functionally gradient electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD. In accordance with the formations of these defects, the sample was vigorously oxidized, leaving only the SiC coating layer. Then, efforts were made to heal the surface defects using additional EB-PVD with ion beam bombardment and chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The EB-PVD did not effectively heal the cracks. But, the CVD was more appropriate for crack healing, likely due to its excellent crack line filling capability with a high density and high aspect ratio. It took ∼ 34 min for the 20% weight loss of the CVD crack healed sample in the oxidation test with annealing at 1173 K, while it took ∼ 8 min for the EB-PVD coated sample, which means it took ∼4 times longer at 1173 K for the same weight reduction in this experimental set-up.

  7. Ag out-surface diffusion in crystalline SiC with an effective SiO 2 diffusion barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, H.; Xiao, H. Y.; Zhu, Z.

    2015-05-07

    For applications of tristructural isotropic (TRISO) fuel particles in high temperature reactors, release of radioactive Ag isotope ( 110mAg) through the SiC coating layer is a safety concern. In order to understand the diffusion mechanism, Ag ion implantations near the surface and in the bulk were performed by utilizing different ion energies and energy-degrader foils. High temperature annealing was carried out on the as-irradiated samples to study the possible out-surface diffusion. Before and after annealing, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) measurements were employed to obtain the elemental profiles of the implanted samples. Our results suggestmore » little migration of buried Ag in the bulk, and an out-diffusion of the implanted Ag in the near-surface region of single crystal SiC. It is also found that a SiO 2 layer, which was formed during annealing, may serve as an effective barrier to reduce or prevent Ag out diffusion through the SiC coating layer.« less

  8. Chemical compatibility between UO2 fuel and SiC cladding for LWRs. Application to ATF (Accident-Tolerant Fuels)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, James; Guéneau, Christine; Alpettaz, Thierry; Sauder, Cédric; Brackx, Emmanuelle; Domenger, Renaud; Gossé, Stéphane; Balbaud-Célérier, Fanny

    2017-04-01

    Silicon carbide-silicon carbide (SiC/SiC) composites are considered to replace the current zirconium-based cladding materials thanks to their good behavior under irradiation and their resistance under oxidative environments at high temperature. In the present work, a thermodynamic analysis of the UO2±x/SiC system is performed. Moreover, using two different experimental methods, the chemical compatibility of SiC towards uranium dioxide, with various oxygen contents (UO2±x) is investigated in the 1500-1970 K temperature range. The reaction leads to the formation of mainly uranium silicides and carbides phases along with CO and SiO gas release. Knudsen Cell Mass Spectrometry is used to measure the gas release occurring during the reaction between UO2+x and SiC powders as function of time and temperature. These experimental conditions are representative of an open system. Diffusion couple experiments with pellets are also performed to study the reaction kinetics in closed system conditions. In both cases, a limited chemical reaction is observed below 1700 K, whereas the reaction is enhanced at higher temperature due to the decomposition of SiC leading to Si vaporization. The temperature of formation of the liquid phase is found to lie between 1850 < T < 1950 K.

  9. Effect of consolidation techniques on the properties of Al matrix composite reinforced with nano Ni-coated SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abolkassem, Shimaa A.; Elkady, Omayma A.; Elsayed, Ayman H.; Hussein, Walaa A.; Yehya, Hosam M.

    2018-06-01

    Al /Ni-SiC composite was prepared via powder metallurgy technique. SiC particles were coated with 10 wt% nano nickel by electroless deposition, then mixed by three percents (5, 10 and 15 wt%) with Al powder in a ball mill using 10:1 ball to powder ratio for 5 h. Three types of sintering techniques were used to prepare the composite. Uniaxial cold compacted samples were sintered in a vacuum furnace at 600 °C for 1 h. The second group was the vacuum sintered samples which were post-processed by hot isostatic press (HIP) at 600 °C for 1hr under the pressure of 190 MPa. The third group was the hot pressed samples that were consolidated at 550 °C under the uniaxial pressure of 840 MPa. The results showed that the hot pressed samples have the highest densification values (97-100%), followed by the HIP samples (94-98%), then come the vacuum sintered ones (92-96%). X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) indicated the presence of Al and Al3Ni, which means that all SiC particles were encapsulated with nickel as short peaks for SiC were observed. Hardness results revealed that HIP samples have the highest hardness values. The magnetization properties were improved by increasing SiC/Ni percent, and HIP samples showed the highest magnetization parameter values.

  10. High temperature compounds for turbine vanes. [of SiC, Si3N4, and Si composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, W. H.; Cannon, R. M., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Fabrication and microstructure control studies were conducted on SiC, Si3N and composites based on Si3N. Charpy mode impact testing to 2400 F established that Si3N4/Mo composites have excellent potential. Attempts to fabricate composites of Si3N4 with superalloys, both by hot pressing and infiltration were largely unsuccessful in comparison to using Mo, Re, and Ta which are less reactive. Modest improvements in impact strength were realized for monolithic Si3N4; however, SiC strengths increased by a factor of six and now equal values achieved for Si3N4. Correlations of impact strength with material properties are discussed. Reduced MgO densification aid additions to Si3N4 were found to decrease densification kinetics, increase final porosity, decrease room temperature bend strength, increase high temperature bend strength, and decrease bend stress rupture properties. The decrease in bend strength at high temperature for fine grain size SiC suggested that a slightly larger grain size material with a nearly constant strength-temperature relation may prove desirable in the creep and stress rupture mode.

  11. First measurements of muon production rate using a novel pion capture system at MuSIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, S.; D'Arcy, R.; Fukuda, M.; Hatanaka, K.; Hino, Y.; Kuno, Y.; Lancaster, M.; Mori, Y.; Nam, T. H.; Ogitsu, T.; Sakamoto, H.; Sato, A.; Truong, N. M.; Yamamoto, A.; Yoshida, M.; Wing, M.

    2013-02-01

    The MuSIC (Muon Science Innovative Channel) beam line at RCNP (Research Centre for Nuclear Physics), Osaka will be the most intense source of muons in the world. A proton beam is incident on a target and, by using a novel capture solenoid, guides the produced pions into the beam line where they subsequently decay to muons. This increased muon flux will allow more precise measurements of cLFV (charged Lepton Flavour Violation) as well as making muon beams more economically feasible. Currently the first 36° of solenoid beam pipe have been completed and installed for testing with low proton current of 1 nA. Measurements of the total particle flux and the muon life time were made. The measurements were taken using thin plastic scintillators coupled to MPPCs (Multi-Pixel Photon Counter) that surrounded a magnesium or copper stopping target. The scintillators were used to record which particles stopped and their subsequent decay times giving a muon yield of 8.5 × 105 muons W-1proton beam or 3 × 108 muons s-1 when using the RCNP's full power (400 W).

  12. Determination of a Two-Phase Structure of Nanocrystals: GaN and SiC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palosz, W.; Grzanka, E.; Gierlotka, S.; Stelmakh, S.; Pielaszek, R.; Lojkowski, W.; Bismayer, U.; Neuefeind, J.; Weber, H.-P.; Janik, J. F.; hide

    2001-01-01

    The properties of nano-crystalline materials are critically dependent on the structure of the constituent grains. Experimental conditions necessary to perform structural analysis of nanocrystalline materials as a two-phase core-surface shell system are discussed. It is shown, that a standard X-ray diffraction measurements and analysis are insufficient and may lead to incorrect conclusions as to the real structure of the materials. A new method of evaluation of powder diffraction data based on the analysis of the shift of the Bragg reflections from their perfect-lattice positions was developed. "Apparent lattice parameters" quantity, alp, was introduced and calculated from the actual positions of each individual Bragg reflection. The alp values plotted versus diffraction vector (Q) show characteristic features that are used for evaluation of the experimental results. The study was based on modeling of nano-grains and simulations of theoretical intensity profiles using the Debye functions. The method was applied to the analysis of synchrotron X-ray diffraction data of GaN and SiC nanocrystals. A presence of strained surface shell and a considerable internal pressure (GaN) in the nanoparticles was concluded.

  13. Add/drop filters based on SiC technology for optical interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, M.; Vieira, M. A.; Louro, P.; Fantoni, A.; Silva, V.

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we demonstrate an add/drop filter based on SiC technology. Tailoring of the channel bandwidth and wavelength is experimentally demonstrated. The concept is extended to implement a 1 by 4 wavelength division multiplexer with channel separation in the visible range. The device consists of a p-i'(a-SiC:H)-n/p-i(a-Si:H)-n heterostructure. Several monochromatic pulsed lights, separately or in a polychromatic mixture illuminated the device. Independent tuning of each channel is performed by steady state violet bias superimposed either from the front and back sides. Results show that, front background enhances the light-to-dark sensitivity of the long and medium wavelength channels and quench strongly the others. Back violet background has the opposite behaviour. This nonlinearity provides the possibility for selective removal or addition of wavelengths. An optoelectronic model is presented and explains the light filtering properties of the add/drop filter, under different optical bias conditions.

  14. A SiC LDMOS with electric field modulation by a step compound drift region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Meng-tian; Wang, Ying; Yu, Cheng-hao; Cao, Fei

    2018-07-01

    In this paper, we propose a SiC LDMOS structure with a step compound drift region (SC-LDMOS). The proposed device has a compound drift region which consists of an n-type top layer, a step p-type middle layer and an n-type bottom layer. The step p-type middle layer can introduce two new electric field peaks and uniform the distribution of the electric field in the n-type top layer, which can modulate the surface electric field and improve the breakdown voltage of the proposed structure. In addition, the n-type bottom layer is applied under the heavy doping p-type middle layer,which contributes to realize the charge balance. Furthermore, it can also increase the doping concentration of the n-type top layer, which can decrease the on resistance of the proposed device. As a simulated result, the proposed device obtain a high BV of 976 V and a low Rsp,on of 7.74 mΩ·cm2. Compared with the conventional single REUSRF LDMOS and triple RESURF LDMOS, BV of proposed device is enhanced by 42.5% and 14.7%, respectively and Rsp,on is reduced by 37.3% and 30.9%, respectively. Meanwhile, the switching delays of the proposed device are significantly shorter than the conventional triple RESURF LDMOS.

  15. Plasma-laser ion discrimination by TOF technique applied to coupled SiC detectors.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavallaro, Salvatore

    2018-01-01

    The rate estimation of nuclear reactions induced in high intensity laser-target interaction (≥1016 W/cm2), is strongly depending on the neutron detection efficiency and ion charge discrimination, according to particles involved in exit open-channels. Ion discrimination is basically performed by means of analysis of pits observed on track detector, which is critically dependent on calibration and/or fast TOF devices based on SiC and diamond detectors. Last setup is used to determine the ion energy and to obtain a rough estimation of yields. However, for each TOF interval, the dependence of yield from the energy deposited in the detector sensitive region, introduces a distortion in the ion spectra. Moreover, if two ion species are present in the same spectrum, the discrimination of their contribution is not attainable. In this paper a new method is described which allows to discriminate the contribution of two ion species in the wide energy range of nuclear reactions induced in laser-target interactions. The method is based on charge response of two TOF-SiC detectors, of suitable thicknesses, placed in adjacent positions. In presence of two ion species, the response of the detectors, associated with different energy losses, can determine the ion specific contribution to each TOF interval.

  16. Mechanical Characteristics of SiC Coating Layer in TRISO Fuel Particles

    SciTech Connect

    P. Hosemann; J. N. Martos; D. Frazer

    2013-11-01

    Tristructural isotropic (TRISO) particles are considered as advanced fuel forms for a variety of fission platforms. While these fuel structures have been tested and deployed in reactors, the mechanical properties of these structures as a function of production parameters need to be investigated in order to ensure their reliability during service. Nanoindentation techniques, indentation crack testing, and half sphere crush testing were utilized in order to evaluate the integrity of the SiC coating layer that is meant to prevent fission product release in the coated particle fuel form. The results are complimented by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the grainmore » structure that is subject to change as a function of processing parameters and can alter the mechanical properties such as hardness, elastic modulus, fracture toughness and fracture strength. Through utilization of these advanced techniques, subtle differences in mechanical properties that can be important for in-pile fuel performance can be distinguished and optimized in iteration with processing science of coated fuel particle production.« less

  17. Pressure effects on the thermal stability of SiC fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaskowiak, Martha H.; Dicarlo, James A.

    1986-01-01

    Commercially available polymer derived SiC fibers were treated at temperatures from 1000 to 2200 C in vacuum and argon gas pressure of 1 and 1360 atm. Effects of gas pressure on the thermal stability of the fibers were determined through property comparison between the pressure treated fibers and vacuum treated fibers. Investigation of the thermal stability included studies of the fiber microstructure, weight loss, grain growth, and tensile strength. The 1360 atm argon gas treatment was found to shift the onset of fiber weight loss from 1200 to above 1500 C. Grain growth and tensile strength degradation were correlated with weight loss and were thus also inhibited by high pressure treatments. Additional heat treatment in 1 atm argon of the fibers initially treated at 1360 atm argon caused further weight loss and tensile strength degradation, thus indicating that high pressure inert gas conditions would be effective only in delaying fiber strength degradation. However, if the high gas pressure could be maintained throughout composite fabrication, then the composites could be processed at higher temperatures.

  18. Theoretical predictions of a bucky-diamond SiC cluster.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ming; Jayanthi, C S; Wu, S Y

    2012-06-15

    A study of structural relaxations of Si(n)C(m) clusters corresponding to different compositions, different relative arrangements of Si/C atoms, and different types of initial structure, reveals that the Si(n)C(m) bucky-diamond structure can be obtained for an initial network structure constructed from a truncated bulk 3C-SiC for a magic composition corresponding to n = 68 and m = 79. This study was performed using a semi-empirical Hamiltonian (SCED-LCAO) since it allowed an extensive search of different types of initial structures. However, the bucky-diamond structure predicted by this method was also confirmed by a more accurate density functional theory (DFT) based method. The bucky-diamond structure exhibited by a SiC-based system represents an interesting paradigm where a Si atom can form three-coordinated as well as four-coordinated networks with carbon atoms and vice versa and with both types of network co-existing in the same structure. Specifically, the bucky-diamond structure of the Si(68)C(79) cluster consists of a 35-atom diamond-like inner core (four-atom coordinations) suspended inside a 112-atom fullerene-like shell (three-atom coordinations).

  19. Effects of high pressure nitrogen on the thermal stability of SiC fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaskowiak, Martha H.

    1991-01-01

    Polymer-derived SiC fibers were exposed to nitrogen gas pressures of 7 and 50 atm at temperatures up to 1800 C. The fiber weight loss, chemical composition, and tensile strength were then measured at room temperature in order to understand the effects of nitrogen exposure on fiber stability. High pressure nitrogen treatments limited weight loss to 3 percent or less for temperatures up to 1800 C. The bulk Si-C-O chemical composition of the fiber remained relatively constant up to 1800 C with only a slight increase in nitrogen content after treatment at 50 atm; however, fiber strength retention was significantly improved. To further understand the effects of the nitrogen atmosphere on the fiber stability, the results of previous high pressure argon treatments were compared to those of the high pressure nitrogen treatments. High pressure inert gas can temporarily maintain fiber strength by physically inhibiting the evolution of gaseous species which result from internal reactions. In addition to this physical effect, it would appear that high pressure nitrogen further improved fiber temperature capability by chemically reacting with the fiber surface, thereby reducing the rate of gas evolution. Subsequent low pressure argon treatments following the initial nitrogen treatments resulted in stronger fibers than after argon treatment alone, further supporting the chemical reaction mechanism and its beneficial effects on fiber strength.

  20. Planar SiC MEMS flame ionization sensor for in-engine monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolfe, D. A.; Wodin-Schwartz, S.; Alonso, R.; Pisano, A. P.

    2013-12-01

    A novel planar silicon carbide (SiC) MEMS flame ionization sensor was developed, fabricated and tested to measure the presence of a flame from the surface of an engine or other cooled surface while withstanding the high temperature and soot of a combustion environment. Silicon carbide, a ceramic semiconductor, was chosen as the sensor material because it has low surface energy and excellent mechanical and electrical properties at high temperatures. The sensor measures the conductivity of scattered charge carriers in the flame's quenching layer. This allows for flame detection, even when the sensor is situated several millimetres from the flame region. The sensor has been shown to detect the ionization of premixed methane and butane flames in a wide temperature range starting from room temperature. The sensors can measure both the flame chemi-ionization and the deposition of water vapour on the sensor surface. The width and speed of a premixed methane laminar flame front were measured with a series of two sensors fabricated on a single die. This research points to the feasibility of using either single sensors or arrays in internal combustion engine cylinders to optimize engine performance, or for using sensors to monitor flame stability in gas turbine applications.