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Sample records for natural surfactant-rich marine

  1. Marine natural products.

    PubMed

    Blunt, John W; Copp, Brent R; Keyzers, Robert A; Munro, Murray H G; Prinsep, Michèle R

    2015-02-01

    This review covers the literature published in 2013 for marine natural products (MNPs), with 982 citations (644 for the period January to December 2013) referring to compounds isolated from marine microorganisms and phytoplankton, green, brown and red algae, sponges, cnidarians, bryozoans, molluscs, tunicates, echinoderms, mangroves and other intertidal plants and microorganisms. The emphasis is on new compounds (1163 for 2013), together with the relevant biological activities, source organisms and country of origin. Reviews, biosynthetic studies, first syntheses, and syntheses that lead to the revision of structures or stereochemistries, have been included.

  2. Marine natural products.

    PubMed

    Blunt, John W; Copp, Brent R; Keyzers, Robert A; Munro, Murray H G; Prinsep, Michèle R

    2016-03-01

    This review covers the literature published in 2014 for marine natural products (MNPs), with 1116 citations (753 for the period January to December 2014) referring to compounds isolated from marine microorganisms and phytoplankton, green, brown and red algae, sponges, cnidarians, bryozoans, molluscs, tunicates, echinoderms, mangroves and other intertidal plants and microorganisms. The emphasis is on new compounds (1378 in 456 papers for 2014), together with the relevant biological activities, source organisms and country of origin. Reviews, biosynthetic studies, first syntheses, and syntheses that lead to the revision of structures or stereochemistries, have been included.

  3. Marine natural products.

    PubMed

    Blunt, John W; Copp, Brent R; Keyzers, Robert A; Munro, Murray H G; Prinsep, Michèle R

    2014-01-17

    This review covers the literature published in 2012 for marine natural products, with 1035 citations (673 for the period January to December 2012) referring to compounds isolated from marine microorganisms and phytoplankton, green, brown and red algae, sponges, cnidarians, bryozoans, molluscs, tunicates, echinoderms, mangroves and other intertidal plants and microorganisms. The emphasis is on new compounds (1241 for 2012), together with the relevant biological activities, source organisms and country of origin. Biosynthetic studies, first syntheses, and syntheses that lead to the revision of structures or stereochemistries, have been included. PMID:24389707

  4. Marine natural products.

    PubMed

    Blunt, John W; Copp, Brent R; Keyzers, Robert A; Munro, Murray H G; Prinsep, Michèle R

    2015-02-01

    This review covers the literature published in 2013 for marine natural products (MNPs), with 982 citations (644 for the period January to December 2013) referring to compounds isolated from marine microorganisms and phytoplankton, green, brown and red algae, sponges, cnidarians, bryozoans, molluscs, tunicates, echinoderms, mangroves and other intertidal plants and microorganisms. The emphasis is on new compounds (1163 for 2013), together with the relevant biological activities, source organisms and country of origin. Reviews, biosynthetic studies, first syntheses, and syntheses that lead to the revision of structures or stereochemistries, have been included. PMID:25620233

  5. Marine natural products.

    PubMed

    Blunt, John W; Copp, Brent R; Keyzers, Robert A; Munro, Murray H G; Prinsep, Michèle R

    2016-03-01

    This review covers the literature published in 2014 for marine natural products (MNPs), with 1116 citations (753 for the period January to December 2014) referring to compounds isolated from marine microorganisms and phytoplankton, green, brown and red algae, sponges, cnidarians, bryozoans, molluscs, tunicates, echinoderms, mangroves and other intertidal plants and microorganisms. The emphasis is on new compounds (1378 in 456 papers for 2014), together with the relevant biological activities, source organisms and country of origin. Reviews, biosynthetic studies, first syntheses, and syntheses that lead to the revision of structures or stereochemistries, have been included. PMID:26837534

  6. Marine Natural Products Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Clifford W. J.

    1978-01-01

    Reports the chemistry of saxitoxin, a paralytic shellfish poison, and other toxins, including the structure of aplysiatoxins. Discusses the chemical signals and defense agents used in intra- and inter- species communication; anticancer agents; and organometallics in the marine environment. (MA)

  7. Isolation of marine natural products.

    PubMed

    Houssen, Wael E; Jaspars, Marcel

    2012-01-01

    Marine macro- and micro-biota offer a wealth of chemically diverse compounds that have been evolutionary preselected to modulate biochemical pathways. Many industrial and academic groups are accessing this source using advanced technology platforms. The previous edition of this chapter offered some practical guidance in the process of extraction and isolation of marine natural products with more emphasis on the procedures adapted to the physical and chemical characteristics of the isolated compounds. Automation and direct integration of the isolation technology into high-throughput screening (HTS) systems were also reported. In this edition, we refer to some new topics which are heavily represented in the literature. These include methods for sampling the deep ocean and the procedures for culturing high-pressure-adapted (piezophilic) marine microorganisms to be amenable to laboratory investigation. A brief discussion on genomic-guided approaches to detect the presence of biosynthetic loci even those that are silent or cryptic is also included.

  8. Marine natural products sourced from marine-derived Penicillium fungi.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hong-Guang; Liu, Qiang; Zhu, Guo-Liang; Liu, Hai-Shan; Zhu, Wei-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Marine micro-organisms have been proven to be a major source of marine natural products (MNPs) in recent years, in which filamentous fungi are a vital source of bioactive natural products for their large metagenomes and more complex genetic backgrounds. This review highlights the 390 new MNPs from marine-derived Penicillium fungi during 1991 to 2014. These new MNPs are categorized based on the environment sources of the fungal hosts and their bioactivities are summarized.

  9. Marine actinomycete diversity and natural product discovery.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Paul R; Mincer, Tracy J; Williams, Philip G; Fenical, William

    2005-01-01

    Microbial natural products remain an important resource for drug discovery yet the microorganisms inhabiting the world's oceans have largely been overlooked in this regard. The recent discovery of novel secondary metabolites from taxonomically unique populations of marine actinomycetes suggests that these bacteria add an important new dimension to microbial natural product research. Continued efforts to characterize marine actinomycete diversity and how adaptations to the marine environment affect secondary metabolite production will create a better understanding of the potential utility of these bacteria as a source of useful products for biotechnology.

  10. Targeting Nuclear Receptors with Marine Natural Products

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chunyan; Li, Qianrong; Li, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) are important pharmaceutical targets because they are key regulators of many metabolic and inflammatory diseases, including diabetes, dyslipidemia, cirrhosis, and fibrosis. As ligands play a pivotal role in modulating nuclear receptor activity, the discovery of novel ligands for nuclear receptors represents an interesting and promising therapeutic approach. The search for novel NR agonists and antagonists with enhanced selectivities prompted the exploration of the extraordinary chemical diversity associated with natural products. Recent studies involving nuclear receptors have disclosed a number of natural products as nuclear receptor ligands, serving to re-emphasize the translational possibilities of natural products in drug discovery. In this review, the natural ligands of nuclear receptors will be described with an emphasis on their mechanisms of action and their therapeutic potentials, as well as on strategies to determine potential marine natural products as nuclear receptor modulators. PMID:24473166

  11. Targeting nuclear receptors with marine natural products.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chunyan; Li, Qianrong; Li, Yong

    2014-01-27

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) are important pharmaceutical targets because they are key regulators of many metabolic and inflammatory diseases, including diabetes, dyslipidemia, cirrhosis, and fibrosis. As ligands play a pivotal role in modulating nuclear receptor activity, the discovery of novel ligands for nuclear receptors represents an interesting and promising therapeutic approach. The search for novel NR agonists and antagonists with enhanced selectivities prompted the exploration of the extraordinary chemical diversity associated with natural products. Recent studies involving nuclear receptors have disclosed a number of natural products as nuclear receptor ligands, serving to re-emphasize the translational possibilities of natural products in drug discovery. In this review, the natural ligands of nuclear receptors will be described with an emphasis on their mechanisms of action and their therapeutic potentials, as well as on strategies to determine potential marine natural products as nuclear receptor modulators.

  12. An assessment of natural product discovery from marine (sensu strictu) and marine-derived fungi

    PubMed Central

    Overy, David P.; Bayman, Paul; Kerr, Russell G.; Bills, Gerald F.

    2014-01-01

    The natural products community has been investigating secondary metabolites from marine fungi for several decades, but when one attempts to search for validated reports of new natural products from marine fungi, one encounters a literature saturated with reports from ‘marine-derived’ fungi. Of the 1000+ metabolites that have been characterized to date, only approximately 80 of these have been isolated from species from exclusively marine lineages. These metabolites are summarized here along with the lifestyle and habitats of their producing organisms. Furthermore, we address some of the reasons for the apparent disconnect between the stated objectives of discovering new chemistry from marine organisms and the apparent neglect of the truly exceptional obligate marine fungi. We also offer suggestions on how to reinvigorate enthusiasm for marine natural products discovery from fungi from exclusive marine lineages and highlight the need for critically assessing the role of apparently terrestrial fungi in the marine environment. PMID:25379338

  13. Marine Natural Products: A Way to New Drugs

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The investigation of marine natural products (low molecular weight bioregulators) is a rapidly developing scientific field at the intersection of biology and chemistry. Investigations aimed at detecting, identifying, and understanding the structure of marine natural products have led to the discovery of 20,000 new substances, including those characterized by an extremely high physiological activity. Some results and prospects of works aimed at creating new drugs on the basis of marine natural products are discussed herein. PMID:22649599

  14. Chasing the treasures of the sea - bacterial marine natural products.

    PubMed

    Gulder, Tobias A M; Moore, Bradley S

    2009-06-01

    Bacterial marine natural products are an important source of novel lead structures for drug discovery. The cytotoxic properties of many of these secondary metabolites are of particular interest for the development of new anticancer agents. Tremendous advances in marine molecular biology, genome sequencing, and bioinformatics have paved the way to fully exploit the biomedical potential of marine bacterial products. In addition, unique biosynthetic enzymes discovered from bacteria from the sea have begun to emerge as powerful biocatalysts in medicinal chemistry and total synthesis. The increasingly interdisciplinary field of marine natural product chemistry thus strongly impacts future developments in medicine, chemistry, and biology.

  15. The Interdisciplinary Nature of Marine Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Shea, Michael W.

    1978-01-01

    This article is an introduction to "Oceanaids." An Oceanaid is a list of ideas for the teacher on how he or she may incorporate interdisciplinary topics from the marine sciences into everyday classes, regardless of the subject matter or pupil age. A typical Oceanaid, Marine Mammals, is included. (Author/BB)

  16. Marine Natural Meroterpenes: Synthesis and Antiproliferative Activity

    PubMed Central

    Simon-Levert, Annabel; Menniti, Christophe; Soulère, Laurent; Genevière, Anne-Marie; Barthomeuf, Chantal; Banaigs, Bernard; Witczak, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Meroterpenes are compounds of mixed biogenesis, isolated from plants, microorganisms and marine invertebrates. We have previously isolated and determined the structure for a series of meroterpenes extracted from the ascidian Aplidium aff. densum. Here, we demonstrate the chemical synthesis of three of them and their derivatives, and evaluate their biological activity on two bacterial strains, on sea urchin eggs, and on cancerous and healthy human cells. PMID:20390109

  17. Accessing the Hidden Majority of Marine Natural Products Through Metagenomics

    PubMed Central

    Donia, Mohamed S.; Ruffner, Duane E.; Cao, Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Tiny marine animals represent an untapped reservoir for undiscovered, bioactive natural products. However, their small size and extreme chemical variability preclude traditional chemical approaches to discovering new bioactive compounds. Here, we use a metagenomic method to directly discover and rapidly access cyanobactin class natural products from these variable samples, providing proof-of-concept for genome based discovery and supply of marine natural products. We also address practical optimization of complex, multistep ribosomal peptide pathways in heterologous hosts, which is still very challenging. The resulting methods and concepts will be applicable to ribosomal peptide and other biosynthetic pathways. PMID:21542088

  18. Natural Products from Marine Fungi—Still an Underrepresented Resource

    PubMed Central

    Imhoff, Johannes F.

    2016-01-01

    Marine fungi represent a huge potential for new natural products and an increased number of new metabolites have become known over the past years, while much of the hidden potential still needs to be uncovered. Representative examples of biodiversity studies of marine fungi and of natural products from a diverse selection of marine fungi from the author’s lab are highlighting important aspects of this research. If one considers the huge phylogenetic diversity of marine fungi and their almost ubiquitous distribution, and realizes that most of the published work on secondary metabolites of marine fungi has focused on just a few genera, strictly speaking Penicillium, Aspergillus and maybe also Fusarium and Cladosporium, the diversity of marine fungi is not adequately represented in investigations on their secondary metabolites and the less studied species deserve special attention. In addition to results on recently discovered new secondary metabolites of Penicillium species, the diversity of fungi in selected marine habitats is highlighted and examples of groups of secondary metabolites produced by representatives of a variety of different genera and their bioactivities are presented. Special focus is given to the production of groups of derivatives of metabolites by the fungi and to significant differences in biological activities due to small structural changes. PMID:26784209

  19. Natural Products from Marine Fungi--Still an Underrepresented Resource.

    PubMed

    Imhoff, Johannes F

    2016-01-16

    Marine fungi represent a huge potential for new natural products and an increased number of new metabolites have become known over the past years, while much of the hidden potential still needs to be uncovered. Representative examples of biodiversity studies of marine fungi and of natural products from a diverse selection of marine fungi from the author's lab are highlighting important aspects of this research. If one considers the huge phylogenetic diversity of marine fungi and their almost ubiquitous distribution, and realizes that most of the published work on secondary metabolites of marine fungi has focused on just a few genera, strictly speaking Penicillium, Aspergillus and maybe also Fusarium and Cladosporium, the diversity of marine fungi is not adequately represented in investigations on their secondary metabolites and the less studied species deserve special attention. In addition to results on recently discovered new secondary metabolites of Penicillium species, the diversity of fungi in selected marine habitats is highlighted and examples of groups of secondary metabolites produced by representatives of a variety of different genera and their bioactivities are presented. Special focus is given to the production of groups of derivatives of metabolites by the fungi and to significant differences in biological activities due to small structural changes.

  20. In situ natural product discovery via an artificial marine sponge.

    PubMed

    La Clair, James J; Loveridge, Steven T; Tenney, Karen; O'Neil-Johnson, Mark; Chapman, Eli; Crews, Phillip

    2014-01-01

    There is continuing international interest in exploring and developing the therapeutic potential of marine-derived small molecules. Balancing the strategies for ocean based sampling of source organisms versus the potential to endanger fragile ecosystems poses a substantial challenge. In order to mitigate such environmental impacts, we have developed a deployable artificial sponge. This report provides details on its design followed by evidence that it faithfully recapitulates traditional natural product collection protocols. Retrieving this artificial sponge from a tropical ecosystem after deployment for 320 hours afforded three actin-targeting jasplakinolide depsipeptides that had been discovered two decades earlier using traditional sponge specimen collection and isolation procedures. The successful outcome achieved here could reinvigorate marine natural products research, by producing new environmentally innocuous sources of natural products and providing a means to probe the true biosynthetic origins of complex marine-derived scaffolds. PMID:25004127

  1. Marine natural products: a new wave of drugs?

    PubMed Central

    Montaser, Rana; Luesch, Hendrik

    2011-01-01

    The largely unexplored marine world that presumably harbors the most biodiversity may be the vastest resource to discover novel ‘validated’ structures with novel modes of action that cover biologically relevant chemical space. Several challenges, including the supply problem and target identification, need to be met for successful drug development of these often complex molecules; however, approaches are available to overcome the hurdles. Advances in technologies such as sampling strategies, nanoscale NMR for structure determination, total chemical synthesis, fermentation and biotechnology are all crucial to the success of marine natural products as drug leads. We illustrate the high degree of innovation in the field of marine natural products, which in our view will lead to a new wave of drugs that flow into the market and pharmacies in the future. PMID:21882941

  2. Biological Activity of Recently Discovered Halogenated Marine Natural Products

    PubMed Central

    Gribble, Gordon W.

    2015-01-01

    This review presents the biological activity—antibacterial, antifungal, anti-parasitic, antiviral, antitumor, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, and enzymatic activity—of halogenated marine natural products discovered in the past five years. Newly discovered examples that do not report biological activity are not included. PMID:26133553

  3. Natural products with health benefits from marine biological resources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ocean is the cradle of lives, which provides a diverse array of intriguing natural products that has captured scientists’ attention in the past few decades due to their significant and extremely potent biological activities. In addition to being rich sources for pharmaceutical drugs, marine nat...

  4. (+)-discodermolide: a marine natural product against cancer.

    PubMed

    De Souza, Marcus Vinícius Nora

    2004-06-11

    (+)-discodermolide was isolated in 1990 by Gunasekera et al. from the deep-water Caribbean sponge Discodermia dissoluta. It attacks cancer cells in a similar way to the successful cancer drug Taxol that has become the best-selling anticancer drug in history. Taxol is also the first natural product described that stabilizes the microtubules involved in many aspects of cellular biology and that represent an important target of anticancer chemotherapeutics. However, (+)-discodermolide appears to be far more potent than Taxol against tumors that have developed multiple-drug resistance, with an IC50 in the low nanomolar range. Due to these excellent results, this natural product was licensed to Novartis Pharmaceutical Corporation in early 1998. The present review covers the history, biological activity, total synthesis, and synthetic analogs of (+)-discodermolide.

  5. Marine Natural Products from New Caledonia--A Review.

    PubMed

    Motuhi, Sofia-Eléna; Mehiri, Mohamed; Payri, Claude Elisabeth; La Barre, Stéphane; Bach, Stéphane

    2016-03-01

    Marine micro- and macroorganisms are well known to produce metabolites with high biotechnological potential. Nearly 40 years of systematic prospecting all around the New Caledonia archipelago and several successive research programs have uncovered new chemical leads from benthic and planktonic organisms. After species identification, biological and/or pharmaceutical analyses are performed on marine organisms to assess their bioactivities. A total of 3582 genera, 1107 families and 9372 species have been surveyed and more than 350 novel molecular structures have been identified. Along with their bioactivities that hold promise for therapeutic applications, most of these molecules are also potentially useful for cosmetics and food biotechnology. This review highlights the tremendous marine diversity in New Caledonia, and offers an outline of the vast possibilities for natural products, especially in the interest of pursuing collaborative fundamental research programs and developing local biotechnology programs. PMID:26999165

  6. Marine Natural Products from New Caledonia—A Review

    PubMed Central

    Motuhi, Sofia-Eléna; Mehiri, Mohamed; Payri, Claude Elisabeth; La Barre, Stéphane; Bach, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    Marine micro- and macroorganisms are well known to produce metabolites with high biotechnological potential. Nearly 40 years of systematic prospecting all around the New Caledonia archipelago and several successive research programs have uncovered new chemical leads from benthic and planktonic organisms. After species identification, biological and/or pharmaceutical analyses are performed on marine organisms to assess their bioactivities. A total of 3582 genera, 1107 families and 9372 species have been surveyed and more than 350 novel molecular structures have been identified. Along with their bioactivities that hold promise for therapeutic applications, most of these molecules are also potentially useful for cosmetics and food biotechnology. This review highlights the tremendous marine diversity in New Caledonia, and offers an outline of the vast possibilities for natural products, especially in the interest of pursuing collaborative fundamental research programs and developing local biotechnology programs. PMID:26999165

  7. Mechanism Targeted Discovery of Antitumor Marine Natural Products

    PubMed Central

    Nagle, Dale G.; Zhou, Yu-Dong; Mora, Flor D.; Mohammed, Kaleem A.; Kim, Yong-Pil

    2010-01-01

    Antitumor drug discovery programs aim to identify chemical entities for use in the treatment of cancer. Many strategies have been used to achieve this objective. Natural products have always played a major role in anticancer medicine and the unique metabolites produced by marine organisms have increasingly become major players in antitumor drug discovery. Rapid advances have occurred in the understanding of tumor biology and molecular medicine. New insights into mechanisms responsible for neoplastic disease are significantly changing the general philosophical approach towards cancer treatment. Recently identified molecular targets have created exciting new means for disrupting tumor-specific cell signaling, cell division, energy metabolism, gene expression, drug resistance, and blood supply. Such tumor-specific treatments could someday decrease our reliance on traditional cytotoxicity-based chemotherapy and provide new less toxic treatment options with significantly fewer side effects. Novel molecular targets and state-of-the-art molecular mechanism-based screening methods have revitalized antitumor research and these changes are becoming an ever-increasing component of modern antitumor marine natural products research. This review describes marine natural products identified using tumor-specific mechanism-based assays for regulators of angiogenesis, apoptosis, cell cycle, macromolecule synthesis, mitochondrial respiration, mitosis, multidrug efflux, and signal transduction. Special emphasis is placed on natural products directly discovered using molecular mechanism-based screening. PMID:15279579

  8. Marine Natural Product Inhibitors of Neutrophil-Associated Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Yu; Tsai, Yung-Fong; Chang, Wen-Yi; Yang, Shun-Chin; Hwang, Tsong-Long

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophils are widely recognized to play an important role in acute inflammatory responses, and recent evidence has expanded their role to modulating chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and microbicidal compounds released from neutrophils that are recruited to the site of inflammation contribute to the pathogenesis of multiple inflammation-associated diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, atherosclerosis, and hepatitis. Marine organisms are a valuable source of bioactive compounds with potential for industrial and pharmaceutical application. Marine natural products that inhibit neutrophil activation could be used as drugs for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Numerous studies investigating marine natural products have reported novel anti-inflammatory agents. Nevertheless, the detailed mechanisms underlying their actions, which could facilitate our understanding of the molecular events occurring in neutrophils, have not been reported in most of the associated research studies. Therefore, in this review, we will present marine products that inhibit neutrophil-associated inflammation. Furthermore, we will be limiting the detailed discussion to agents with well-investigated molecular targets. PMID:27472345

  9. Marine Natural Product Inhibitors of Neutrophil-Associated Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chun-Yu; Tsai, Yung-Fong; Chang, Wen-Yi; Yang, Shun-Chin; Hwang, Tsong-Long

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophils are widely recognized to play an important role in acute inflammatory responses, and recent evidence has expanded their role to modulating chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and microbicidal compounds released from neutrophils that are recruited to the site of inflammation contribute to the pathogenesis of multiple inflammation-associated diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, atherosclerosis, and hepatitis. Marine organisms are a valuable source of bioactive compounds with potential for industrial and pharmaceutical application. Marine natural products that inhibit neutrophil activation could be used as drugs for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Numerous studies investigating marine natural products have reported novel anti-inflammatory agents. Nevertheless, the detailed mechanisms underlying their actions, which could facilitate our understanding of the molecular events occurring in neutrophils, have not been reported in most of the associated research studies. Therefore, in this review, we will present marine products that inhibit neutrophil-associated inflammation. Furthermore, we will be limiting the detailed discussion to agents with well-investigated molecular targets. PMID:27472345

  10. Marinopyrroles: Unique Drug Discoveries Based on Marine Natural Products.

    PubMed

    Li, Rongshi

    2016-01-01

    Natural products provide a successful supply of new chemical entities (NCEs) for drug discovery to treat human diseases. Approximately half of the NCEs are based on natural products and their derivatives. Notably, marine natural products, a largely untapped resource, have contributed to drug discovery and development with eight drugs or cosmeceuticals approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency, and ten candidates undergoing clinical trials. Collaborative efforts from drug developers, biologists, organic, medicinal, and natural product chemists have elevated drug discoveries to new levels. These efforts are expected to continue to improve the efficiency of natural product-based drugs. Marinopyrroles are examined here as a case study for potential anticancer and antibiotic agents.

  11. Temporal dynamics of natural product biosynthesis in marine cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Esquenazi, Eduardo; Jones, Adam C; Byrum, Tara; Dorrestein, Pieter C; Gerwick, William H

    2011-03-29

    Sessile marine organisms are prolific sources of biologically active natural products. However, these compounds are often found in highly variable amounts, with the abiotic and biotic factors governing their production remaining poorly understood. We present an approach that permits monitoring of in vivo natural product production and turnover using mass spectrometry and stable isotope ((15)N) feeding with small cultures of various marine strains of the natural product-rich cyanobacterial genus Lyngbya. This temporal comparison of the amount of in vivo (15)N labeling of nitrogen-containing metabolites represents a direct way to discover and evaluate factors influencing natural product biosynthesis, as well as the timing of specific steps in metabolite assembly, and is a strong complement to more traditional in vitro studies. Relative quantification of (15)N labeling allowed the concurrent measurement of turnover rates of multiple natural products from small amounts of biomass. This technique also afforded the production of the neurotoxic jamaicamides to be more carefully studied, including an assessment of how jamaicamide turnover compares with filament growth rate and primary metabolism and provided new insights into the biosynthetic timing of jamaicamide A bromination. This approach should be valuable in determining how environmental factors affect secondary metabolite production, ultimately yielding insight into the energetic balance among growth, primary production, and secondary metabolism, and thus aid in the development of methods to improve compound yields for biomedical or biotechnological applications.

  12. Marine Natural Products as Models to Circumvent Multidrug Resistance.

    PubMed

    Long, Solida; Sousa, Emília; Kijjoa, Anake; Pinto, Madalena M M

    2016-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) to anticancer drugs is a serious health problem that in many cases leads to cancer treatment failure. The ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp), which leads to premature efflux of drugs from cancer cells, is often responsible for MDR. On the other hand, a strategy to search for modulators from natural products to overcome MDR had been in place during the last decades. However, Nature limits the amount of some natural products, which has led to the development of synthetic strategies to increase their availability. This review summarizes the research findings on marine natural products and derivatives, mainly alkaloids, polyoxygenated sterols, polyketides, terpenoids, diketopiperazines, and peptides, with P-gp inhibitory activity highlighting the established structure-activity relationships. The synthetic pathways for the total synthesis of the most promising members and analogs are also presented. It is expected that the data gathered during the last decades concerning their synthesis and MDR-inhibiting activities will help medicinal chemists develop potential drug candidates using marine natural products as models which can deliver new ABC transporter inhibitor scaffolds. PMID:27399665

  13. Natural seepage of crude oil into the marine environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kvenvolden, K.A.; Cooper, C.K.

    2003-01-01

    Recent global estimates of crude-oil seepage rates suggest that about 47% of crude oil currently entering the marine environment is from natural seeps, whereas 53% results from leaks and spills during the extraction, transportation, refining, storage, and utilization of petroleum. The amount of natural crude-oil seepage is currently estimated to be 600,000 metric tons per year, with a range of uncertainty of 200,000 to 2,000,000 metric tons per year. Thus, natural oil seeps may be the single most important source of oil that enters the ocean, exceeding each of the various sources of crude oil that enters the ocean through its exploitation by humankind.

  14. In Situ Natural Product Discovery via an Artificial Marine Sponge

    PubMed Central

    La Clair, James J.; Loveridge, Steven T.; Tenney, Karen; O'Neil–Johnson, Mark; Chapman, Eli; Crews, Phillip

    2014-01-01

    There is continuing international interest in exploring and developing the therapeutic potential of marine–derived small molecules. Balancing the strategies for ocean based sampling of source organisms versus the potential to endanger fragile ecosystems poses a substantial challenge. In order to mitigate such environmental impacts, we have developed a deployable artificial sponge. This report provides details on its design followed by evidence that it faithfully recapitulates traditional natural product collection protocols. Retrieving this artificial sponge from a tropical ecosystem after deployment for 320 hours afforded three actin–targeting jasplakinolide depsipeptides that had been discovered two decades earlier using traditional sponge specimen collection and isolation procedures. The successful outcome achieved here could reinvigorate marine natural products research, by producing new environmentally innocuous sources of natural products and providing a means to probe the true biosynthetic origins of complex marine–derived scaffolds. PMID:25004127

  15. A marine sink for chlorine in natural organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leri, Alessandra C.; Mayer, Lawrence M.; Thornton, Kathleen R.; Northrup, Paul A.; Dunigan, Marisa R.; Ness, Katherine J.; Gellis, Austin B.

    2015-08-01

    Chloride--the most abundant ion in sea water--affects ocean salinity, and thereby seawater density and ocean circulation. Its lack of reactivity gives it an extremely long residence time. Other halogens are known to be incorporated into marine organic matter. However, evidence of similar transformations of seawater chloride is lacking, aside from emissions of volatile organochlorine by marine algae. Here we report high organochlorine concentrations from 180 to 700 mg kg-1 in natural particulate organic matter that settled into sediment traps at depths between 800 and 3,200 m in the Arabian Sea, taken between 1994 and 1995. X-ray spectromicroscopic imaging of chlorine bonding reveals that this organochlorine exists primarily in concentrated aliphatic forms consistent with lipid chlorination, along with a more diffuse aromatic fraction. High aliphatic organochlorine in particulate material from cultured phytoplankton suggests that primary production is a source of chlorinated organic matter. We also found that particulate algal detritus can act as an organic substrate for abiotic reactions involving Fe2+, H2O2 or light that incorporate chlorine into organic matter at levels up to several grams per kilogram. We conclude that transformations of marine chloride to non-volatile organochlorine through biological and abiotic pathways represent an oceanic sink for this relatively unreactive element.

  16. Natural Product Research in the Australian Marine Invertebrate Dicathais orbita

    PubMed Central

    Benkendorff, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    The predatory marine gastropod Dicathais orbita has been the subject of a significant amount of biological and chemical research over the past five decades. Natural products research on D. orbita includes the isolation and identification of brominated indoles and choline esters as precursors of Tyrian purple, as well as the synthesis of structural analogues, bioactivity testing, biodistributional and biosynthetic studies. Here I also report on how well these compounds conform to Lipinski’s rule of five for druglikeness and their predicted receptor binding and enzyme inhibitor activity. The composition of mycosporine-like amino acids, fatty acids and sterols has also been described in the egg masses of D. orbita. The combination of bioactive compounds produced by D. orbita is of interest for further studies in chemical ecology, as well as for future nutraceutical development. Biological insights into the life history of this species, as well as ongoing research on the gene expression, microbial symbionts and biosynthetic capabilities, should facilitate sustainable production of the bioactive compounds. Knowledge of the phylogeny of D. orbita provides an excellent platform for novel research into the evolution of brominated secondary metabolites in marine molluscs. The range of polarities in the brominated indoles produced by D. orbita has also provided an effective model system used to develop a new method for biodistributional studies. The well characterized suite of chemical reactions that generate Tyrian purple, coupled with an in depth knowledge of the ecology, anatomy and genetics of D. orbita provide a good foundation for ongoing natural products research. PMID:23612370

  17. Marine Natural Products with P-Glycoprotein Inhibitor Properties

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Dioxelis; Martinez-Luis, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a protein belonging to the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters superfamily that has clinical relevance due to its role in drug metabolism and multi-drug resistance (MDR) in several human pathogens and diseases. P-gp is a major cause of drug resistance in cancer, parasitic diseases, epilepsy and other disorders. This review article aims to summarize the research findings on the marine natural products with P-glycoprotein inhibitor properties. Natural compounds that modulate P-gp offer great possibilities for semi-synthetic modification to create new drugs and are valuable research tools to understand the function of complex ABC transporters. PMID:24451193

  18. Anthropogenic and natural disturbances to marine benthic communities in Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Lenihan, H.; Oliver, J.S.

    1995-05-01

    Sampling and field experiments were conducted from 1975 to 1990 to test how the structure of marine benthic communities around McMurdo Station, Antarctica varied with levels of anthropogenic contaminants in marine sediments. The structure of communities (e.g., infauna density, species composition, and life history characteristics) in contaminated and uncontaminated areas were compared with the structure of communities influenced by two large-scale natural disturbances, anchor ice formation and uplift or iceberg scour. Benthic communities changed radically along a steep spatial gradient of anthropogenic hydrocarbon, metal, and PCB contamination around McMurdo Station. The heavily contaminated end of the gradient, Winter Quarters Bay, was low in infaunal and epifaunal abundance and was dominated by a few opportunistic species of polychaete worms. The edge of the heavily contaminated bay, the transition area, contained several motile polychaete species with less opportunistic life histories. Uncontaminated sedimentary habitats harbored dense tube mats of infaunal animals numerically dominated by populations of polychaete worms, crustaceans, and a large suspension feeding bivalve. These species are generally large and relatively sessile, except for several crustacean species living among the tubes. Although the community patterns around anthropogenic and natural disturbances were similar, particularly motile and opportunistic species at heavily disturbed and marginal areas, the natural disturbances cover much greater areas of the sea floor about the entire Antarctic continent. On the other hand, recovery from chemical contamination is likely to take many more decades than recovery from natural disturbances as contaminant degradation is a slow process. 77 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. Examination of Marine-Based Cultivation of Three Demosponges for Acquiring Bioactive Marine Natural Products

    PubMed Central

    Bergman, Oded; Mayzel, Boaz; Anderson, Matthew A.; Shpigel, Muki; Hill, Russell T.; Ilan, Micha

    2011-01-01

    Marine sponges are an extremely rich and important source of natural products. Mariculture is one solution to the so-called “supply problem” that often hampers further studies and development of novel compounds from sponges. We report the extended culture (767 days) at sea in depths of 10 and 20 m of three sponge species: Negombata magnifica, Amphimedon chloros and Theonella swinhoei that produce latrunculin-B, halitoxin and swinholide-A, respectively. Since sponge-associated microorganisms may be the true producers of many of the natural products found in sponges and also be linked to the health of the sponges, we examined the stability of the bacterial communities in cultured versus wild sponges. Growth rate of the sponges (ranging from 308 to 61 and −19 (%)(year−1) in N. magnifica, A. chloros and T. swinhoei, respectively) differed significantly between species but not between the two depths at which the species were cultivated. Survivorship varied from 96% to 57%. During culture all species maintained the content of the desired natural product. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of the sponge-associated bacterial consortia revealed that differences existed between cultured and wild sponges in T. swinhoei and A. chloros but the communities remained quite stable in N. magnifica. The cultivation technique for production of natural products was found to be most appropriate for N. magnifica, while for T. swinhoei and A. chloros it was less successful, because of poorer growth and survival rates and shifts in their bacterial consortia. PMID:22163182

  20. The Fate of Marine Bacterial Exopolysaccharide in Natural Marine Microbial Communities

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Zilian; Chen, Yi; Wang, Rui; Cai, Ruanhong; Fu, Yingnan; Jiao, Nianzhi; Quigg, Antonietta

    2015-11-16

    Most marine bacteria produce exopolysaccharides (EPS), and bacterial EPS represent an important source of dissolved organic carbon in marine ecosystems. It was proposed that bacterial EPS rich in uronic acid is resistant to mineralization by microbes and thus has a long residence time in global oceans. To confirm this hypothesis, bacterial EPS rich in galacturonic acid was isolated from Alteromonas sp. JL2810. The EPS was used to amend natural seawater to investigate the bioavailability of this EPS by native populations, in the presence and absence of ammonium and phosphate amendment. The data indicated that the bacterial EPS could not be completely consumed during the cultivation period and that the bioavailability of EPS was not only determined by its intrinsic properties, but was also determined by other factors such as the availability of inorganic nutrients. During the experiment, the humic-like component of fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM) was freshly produced. Bacterial community structure analysis indicated that the class Flavobacteria of the phylum Bacteroidetes was the major contributor for the utilization of EPS. This report is the first to indicate that Flavobacteria are a major contributor to bacterial EPS degradation. Finally, the fraction of EPS that could not be completely utilized and the FDOM (e.g., humic acid-like substances) produced de novo may be refractory and may contribute to the carbon storage in the oceans.

  1. The Fate of Marine Bacterial Exopolysaccharide in Natural Marine Microbial Communities

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zhang, Zilian; Chen, Yi; Wang, Rui; Cai, Ruanhong; Fu, Yingnan; Jiao, Nianzhi; Quigg, Antonietta

    2015-11-16

    Most marine bacteria produce exopolysaccharides (EPS), and bacterial EPS represent an important source of dissolved organic carbon in marine ecosystems. It was proposed that bacterial EPS rich in uronic acid is resistant to mineralization by microbes and thus has a long residence time in global oceans. To confirm this hypothesis, bacterial EPS rich in galacturonic acid was isolated from Alteromonas sp. JL2810. The EPS was used to amend natural seawater to investigate the bioavailability of this EPS by native populations, in the presence and absence of ammonium and phosphate amendment. The data indicated that the bacterial EPS could not bemore » completely consumed during the cultivation period and that the bioavailability of EPS was not only determined by its intrinsic properties, but was also determined by other factors such as the availability of inorganic nutrients. During the experiment, the humic-like component of fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM) was freshly produced. Bacterial community structure analysis indicated that the class Flavobacteria of the phylum Bacteroidetes was the major contributor for the utilization of EPS. This report is the first to indicate that Flavobacteria are a major contributor to bacterial EPS degradation. Finally, the fraction of EPS that could not be completely utilized and the FDOM (e.g., humic acid-like substances) produced de novo may be refractory and may contribute to the carbon storage in the oceans.« less

  2. The Fate of Marine Bacterial Exopolysaccharide in Natural Marine Microbial Communities

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zilian; Chen, Yi; Wang, Rui; Cai, Ruanhong; Fu, Yingnan; Jiao, Nianzhi

    2015-01-01

    Most marine bacteria produce exopolysaccharides (EPS), and bacterial EPS represent an important source of dissolved organic carbon in marine ecosystems. It was proposed that bacterial EPS rich in uronic acid is resistant to mineralization by microbes and thus has a long residence time in global oceans. To confirm this hypothesis, bacterial EPS rich in galacturonic acid was isolated from Alteromonas sp. JL2810. The EPS was used to amend natural seawater to investigate the bioavailability of this EPS by native populations, in the presence and absence of ammonium and phosphate amendment. The data indicated that the bacterial EPS could not be completely consumed during the cultivation period and that the bioavailability of EPS was not only determined by its intrinsic properties, but was also determined by other factors such as the availability of inorganic nutrients. During the experiment, the humic-like component of fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM) was freshly produced. Bacterial community structure analysis indicated that the class Flavobacteria of the phylum Bacteroidetes was the major contributor for the utilization of EPS. This report is the first to indicate that Flavobacteria are a major contributor to bacterial EPS degradation. The fraction of EPS that could not be completely utilized and the FDOM (e.g., humic acid-like substances) produced de novo may be refractory and may contribute to the carbon storage in the oceans. PMID:26571122

  3. The Fate of Marine Bacterial Exopolysaccharide in Natural Marine Microbial Communities.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zilian; Chen, Yi; Wang, Rui; Cai, Ruanhong; Fu, Yingnan; Jiao, Nianzhi

    2015-01-01

    Most marine bacteria produce exopolysaccharides (EPS), and bacterial EPS represent an important source of dissolved organic carbon in marine ecosystems. It was proposed that bacterial EPS rich in uronic acid is resistant to mineralization by microbes and thus has a long residence time in global oceans. To confirm this hypothesis, bacterial EPS rich in galacturonic acid was isolated from Alteromonas sp. JL2810. The EPS was used to amend natural seawater to investigate the bioavailability of this EPS by native populations, in the presence and absence of ammonium and phosphate amendment. The data indicated that the bacterial EPS could not be completely consumed during the cultivation period and that the bioavailability of EPS was not only determined by its intrinsic properties, but was also determined by other factors such as the availability of inorganic nutrients. During the experiment, the humic-like component of fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM) was freshly produced. Bacterial community structure analysis indicated that the class Flavobacteria of the phylum Bacteroidetes was the major contributor for the utilization of EPS. This report is the first to indicate that Flavobacteria are a major contributor to bacterial EPS degradation. The fraction of EPS that could not be completely utilized and the FDOM (e.g., humic acid-like substances) produced de novo may be refractory and may contribute to the carbon storage in the oceans. PMID:26571122

  4. Marine Extremes and Natural Hazards: when the key is variability.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marone, Eduardo; Camargo, Ricardo; Salcedo Castro, Julio

    2014-05-01

    At EGU2013 we used the work we are conducting regarding marine extreme events and natural hazards to exploit the distance that separate the scientific community and the non academic society, trying to show where bridges need to be built an how an ethical behavior among the scientists needs to be in place to succeed. We concluded that our actions as scientists have not been the most appropriate in communicating outside the academy our results, particularly when our findings have to do with natural hazards which could contribute to loss of life and the environmental quality that sustains it. Even if one of the barriers that separate the academy from society is the "language", too cryptic even for a well educated (not scientific) citizen in many cases, we scientists complicated even more the problems when we stop worrying about some basic concepts regarding the scientific method once upon a time were teach at basic school levels, particularly concerning differences as accuracy and precision, or the concept of uncertainty and the errors which permeate any observation or scientific "prediction". Science teaching at basic levels was not lost, but changed in the XXth century, concentrating in the so many new advancements and abandoning classical but necessary learning processes just about how sciences is done and why. When studying marine extreme events, we use statistic, stochastic methods, deterministic analysis, logical and numerical modeling, etc. However, our results are still very far away of being accurate, while our precision, however is improving just a little, it is still far away of ideal. That appears to be somehow obvious if we look just the observed vs. the modeled data. Nevertheless, if we look not the absolute values of our results, but the "rhythm" of their variability and compare these cadences with the beats observed in nature, new patterns arose, and clues about how to act regarding natural hazards and extreme events became more clear. We are being

  5. Marine natural products with anti-HIV activities in the last decade.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xuefeng; Liu, Juan; Yang, Bin; Lin, Xiuping; Yang, Xian-Wen; Liu, Yonghong

    2013-01-01

    Marine organisms have been proven to be excellent sources of biologically active compounds against HIV. This review gives an overview of 132 natural products from marine sources obtained during the last decade (2002-2011), which exhibit anti-HIV activity toward different biological targets. Sponges contribute more than half of all anti-HIV natural products from marine organisms, mainly as alkaloids and cyclic depsipeptides. In addition, some macromolecules are considered as potential anti-HIV agents, including lectins from algae and marine invertebrates, as well as sulfated polysaccharides from algae. In the reviewed marine natural products, many active ingredients act as HIV entry inhibitors, one class of new anti-HIV agents, and may be regarded as potential candidates for the development of novel anti-HIV agents. The other features of development in the marine original anti-HIV natural products in this ten years are also discussed.

  6. Chasing the Treasures of the Sea – Bacterial Marine Natural Products

    PubMed Central

    Gulder, Tobias A. M.; Moore, Bradley S.

    2009-01-01

    Summary of recent advances Bacterial marine natural products are an important source of novel lead structures for drug discovery. The cytotoxic properties of many of these secondary metabolites are of particular interest for the development of new anti-cancer agents. Tremendous advances in marine molecular biology, genome sequencing, and bioinformatics have paved the way to fully exploit the biomedical potential of marine bacterial products. In addition, unique biosynthetic enzymes discovered from bacteria from the sea have begun to emerge as powerful biocatalysts in medicinal chemistry and total synthesis. The increasingly interdisciplinary field of marine natural product chemistry thus strongly impacts future developments in medicine, chemistry, and biology. PMID:19481972

  7. Differential responses of marine communities to natural and anthropogenic changes

    PubMed Central

    Kowalewski, Michał; Wittmer, Jacalyn M.; Dexter, Troy A.; Amorosi, Alessandro; Scarponi, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    Responses of ecosystems to environmental changes vary greatly across habitats, organisms and observational scales. The Quaternary fossil record of the Po Basin demonstrates that marine communities of the northern Adriatic re-emerged unchanged following the most recent glaciation, which lasted approximately 100 000 years. The Late Pleistocene and Holocene interglacial ecosystems were both dominated by the same species, species turnover rates approximated predictions of resampling models of a homogeneous system, and comparable bathymetric gradients in species composition, sample-level diversity, dominance and specimen abundance were observed in both time intervals. The interglacial Adriatic ecosystems appear to have been impervious to natural climate change either owing to their persistence during those long-term perturbations or their resilient recovery during interglacial phases of climate oscillations. By contrast, present-day communities of the northern Adriatic differ notably from their Holocene counterparts. The recent ecosystem shift stands in contrast to the long-term endurance of interglacial communities in face of climate-driven environmental changes. PMID:25673689

  8. Differential responses of marine communities to natural and anthropogenic changes.

    PubMed

    Kowalewski, Michał; Wittmer, Jacalyn M; Dexter, Troy A; Amorosi, Alessandro; Scarponi, Daniele

    2015-03-22

    Responses of ecosystems to environmental changes vary greatly across habitats, organisms and observational scales. The Quaternary fossil record of the Po Basin demonstrates that marine communities of the northern Adriatic re-emerged unchanged following the most recent glaciation, which lasted approximately 100,000 years. The Late Pleistocene and Holocene interglacial ecosystems were both dominated by the same species, species turnover rates approximated predictions of resampling models of a homogeneous system, and comparable bathymetric gradients in species composition, sample-level diversity, dominance and specimen abundance were observed in both time intervals. The interglacial Adriatic ecosystems appear to have been impervious to natural climate change either owing to their persistence during those long-term perturbations or their resilient recovery during interglacial phases of climate oscillations. By contrast, present-day communities of the northern Adriatic differ notably from their Holocene counterparts. The recent ecosystem shift stands in contrast to the long-term endurance of interglacial communities in face of climate-driven environmental changes. PMID:25673689

  9. A sea of biosynthesis: marine natural products meet the molecular age†

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Amy L.; Moore, Bradley S.

    2011-01-01

    The years 2000 through mid-2010 marked a transformational period in understanding of the biosynthesis of marine natural products. During this decade the field emerged from one largely dominated by chemical approaches to understanding biosynthetic pathways to one incorporating the full force of modern molecular biology and bioinformatics. Fusion of chemical and biological approaches yielded great advances in understanding the genetic and enzymatic basis for marine natural product biosynthesis. Progress was particularly pronounced for marine microbes, especially actinomycetes and cyanobacteria. During this single decade, both the first complete marine microbial natural product biosynthetic gene cluster sequence was released as well as the first entire genome sequence for a secondary metabolite-rich marine microbe. The decade also saw tremendous progress in recognizing the key role of marine microbial symbionts of invertebrates in natural product biosynthesis. Application of genetic and enzymatic knowledge led to genetic engineering of novel “unnatural” natural products during this time, as well as opportunities for discovery of novel natural products through genome mining. The current review highlights selected seminal studies from 2000 through to June 2010 that illustrate breakthroughs in understanding of marine natural product biosynthesis at the genetic, enzymatic, and small-molecule natural product levels. A total of 154 references are cited. PMID:21170424

  10. Recent Advances and Applications of Experimental Technologies in Marine Natural Product Research

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ke; Chung-Davidson, Yu-Wen; Bussy, Ugo; Li, Weiming

    2015-01-01

    Marine natural products are a rich source of novel and biologically active compounds. The number of identified marine natural compounds has grown 20% over the last five years from 2009 to 2013. Several challenges, including sample collection and structure elucidation, have limited the development of this research field. Nonetheless, new approaches, such as sampling strategies for organisms from extreme ocean environments, nanoscale NMR and computational chemistry for structural determination, are now available to overcome the barriers. In this review, we highlight the experimental technology innovations in the field of marine natural products, which in our view will lead to the development of many new drugs in the future. PMID:25939037

  11. Marine natural products and their potential applications as anti-infective agents.

    PubMed

    Donia, Marwa; Hamann, Mark T

    2003-06-01

    The oceans are a unique resource that provide a diverse array of natural products, primarily from invertebrates such as sponges, tunicates, bryozoans, and molluscs, and from marine bacteria and cyanobacteria. As infectious diseases evolve and develop resistance to existing pharmaceuticals, the marine environment provides novel leads against fungal, parasitic, bacterial, and viral diseases. Many marine natural products have successfully advanced to the late stages of clinical trials, including dolastatin 10, ecteinascidin-743, kahalalide F, and aplidine, and a growing number of candidates have been selected as promising leads for extended preclinical assessment. Although many marine-product clinical trials are for cancer chemotherapy, drug resistance, emerging infectious diseases, and the threat of bioterrorism have all contributed to the interest in assessing natural ocean products in the treatment of infectious organisms. In this review, we focus on the pharmacologically tested marine leads that have shown in-vivo efficacy or potent in-vitro activity against infectious and parasitic diseases. PMID:12781505

  12. Bioprospecting microbial natural product libraries from the marine environment for drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiangyang; Ashforth, Elizabeth; Ren, Biao; Song, Fuhang; Dai, Huanqin; Liu, Mei; Wang, Jian; Xie, Qiong; Zhang, Lixin

    2010-08-01

    Marine microorganisms are fascinating resources due to their production of novel natural products with antimicrobial activities. Increases in both the number of new chemical entities found and the substantiation of indigenous marine actinobacteria present a fundamental difficulty in the future discovery of novel antimicrobials, namely dereplication of those compounds already discovered. This review will share our experience on the taxonomic-based construction of a highly diversified and low redundant marine microbial natural product library for high-throughput antibiotic screening. We anticipate that libraries such as these can drive the drug discovery process now and in the future. PMID:20606699

  13. Marine Sponge Derived Natural Products between 2001 and 2010: Trends and Opportunities for Discovery of Bioactives

    PubMed Central

    Mehbub, Mohammad Ferdous; Lei, Jie; Franco, Christopher; Zhang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Marine sponges belonging to the phylum Porifera (Metazoa), evolutionarily the oldest animals are the single best source of marine natural products. The present review presents a comprehensive overview of the source, taxonomy, country of origin or geographical position, chemical class, and biological activity of sponge-derived new natural products discovered between 2001 and 2010. The data has been analyzed with a view to gaining an outlook on the future trends and opportunities in the search for new compounds and their sources from marine sponges. PMID:25196730

  14. Survey of marine natural product structure revisions: a synergy of spectroscopy and chemical synthesis.

    PubMed

    Suyama, Takashi L; Gerwick, William H; McPhail, Kerry L

    2011-11-15

    The structural assignment of new natural product molecules supports research in a multitude of disciplines that may lead to new therapeutic agents and or new understanding of disease biology. However, reports of numerous structural revisions, even of recently elucidated natural products, inspired the present survey of techniques used in structural misassignments and subsequent revisions in the context of constitutional or configurational errors. Given the comparatively recent development of marine natural products chemistry, coincident with modern spectroscopy, it is of interest to consider the relative roles of spectroscopy and chemical synthesis in the structure elucidation and revision of those marine natural products that were initially misassigned. Thus, a tabulated review of all marine natural product structural revisions from 2005 to 2010 is organized according to structural motif revised. Misassignments of constitution are more frequent than perhaps anticipated by reliance on HMBC and other advanced NMR experiments, especially when considering the full complement of all natural products. However, these techniques also feature prominently in structural revisions, specifically of marine natural products. Nevertheless, as is the case for revision of relative and absolute configuration, total synthesis is a proven partner for marine, as well as terrestrial, natural products structure elucidation. It also becomes apparent that considerable 'detective work' remains in structure elucidation, in spite of the spectacular advances in spectroscopic techniques.

  15. [New natural products from the marine-derived Aspergillus fungi-A review].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chengying; Liu, Haishan; Zhu, Weiming

    2016-03-01

    Marine-derived fungi were the main source of marine microbial natural products (NPs) due to their complex genetic background, chemodiversity and high yield of NPs. According to our previous survey for marine microbial NPs from 2010 to 2013, Aspergillus fungi have received the most of attention among all the marine-derived fungi, which accounted for 31% NPs of the marine fungal origins. This paper reviewed the sources, chemical structures and bioactivites of all the 512 new marine NPs of Aspergillus fungal origins from 1992 to 2014. These marine NPs have diverse chemical structures including polyketides, fatty acids, sterols and terpenoids, alkaloids, peptides, and so on, 36% of which displayed bioactivities such as cytotoxicity, antimicrobial activity, antioxidant and insecticidal activity. Nitrogen compounds are the major secondary metabolites accounting for 52% NPs from the marine-derived Aspergillus fungi. Nitrogen compounds are also the class with the highest ratio of bioactive compounds, 40% of which are bioactive. Plinabulin, a dehydrodiketopiperazine derivative of halimide had been ended its phase II trial and has received its phase III study from the third quarter of 2015 for the treatment of advanced, metastatic non-small cell lung cancer.

  16. [New natural products from the marine-derived Aspergillus fungi-A review].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chengying; Liu, Haishan; Zhu, Weiming

    2016-03-01

    Marine-derived fungi were the main source of marine microbial natural products (NPs) due to their complex genetic background, chemodiversity and high yield of NPs. According to our previous survey for marine microbial NPs from 2010 to 2013, Aspergillus fungi have received the most of attention among all the marine-derived fungi, which accounted for 31% NPs of the marine fungal origins. This paper reviewed the sources, chemical structures and bioactivites of all the 512 new marine NPs of Aspergillus fungal origins from 1992 to 2014. These marine NPs have diverse chemical structures including polyketides, fatty acids, sterols and terpenoids, alkaloids, peptides, and so on, 36% of which displayed bioactivities such as cytotoxicity, antimicrobial activity, antioxidant and insecticidal activity. Nitrogen compounds are the major secondary metabolites accounting for 52% NPs from the marine-derived Aspergillus fungi. Nitrogen compounds are also the class with the highest ratio of bioactive compounds, 40% of which are bioactive. Plinabulin, a dehydrodiketopiperazine derivative of halimide had been ended its phase II trial and has received its phase III study from the third quarter of 2015 for the treatment of advanced, metastatic non-small cell lung cancer. PMID:27382779

  17. Natural Organobromine in Marine Sediments: New Evidence of Biogeochemical Br Cycling

    SciTech Connect

    A Leri; J Hakala; M Marcus; A Lanzirotti; C Reddy; S Myneni

    2011-12-31

    Organobromine (Br{sub org}) compounds, commonly recognized as persistent, toxic anthropogenic pollutants, are also produced naturally in terrestrial and marine systems. Several enzymatic and abiotic bromination mechanisms have been identified, as well as an array of natural Br{sub org} molecules associated with various marine organisms. The fate of the carbon-bromine functionality in the marine environment, however, remains largely unexplored. Oceanographic studies have noted an association between bromine (Br) and organic carbon (C{sub org}) in marine sediments. Even so, there has been no direct chemical evidence that Br in the sediments exists in a stable form apart from inorganic bromide (Br{sub inorg}), which is widely presumed conservative in marine systems. To investigate the scope of natural Br{sub org} production and its fate in the environment, we probed Br distribution and speciation in estuarine and marine sediments using in situ X-ray spectroscopy and spectromicroscopy. We show that Br{sub org} is ubiquitous throughout diverse sedimentary environments, occurring in correlation with C{sub org} and metals such as Fe, Ca, and Zn. Analysis of sinking particulate carbon from the seawater column links the Br{sub org} observed in sediments to biologically produced Br{sub org} compounds that persist through humification of natural organic matter (NOM). Br speciation varies with sediment depth, revealing biogeochemical cycling of Br between organic and inorganic forms as part of the burial and degradation of NOM. These findings illuminate the chemistry behind the association of Br with Corg in marine sediments and cast doubt on the paradigmatic classification of Br as a conservative element in seawater systems.

  18. Bioprospecting of marine invertebrates for new natural products - a chemical and zoogeographical perspective.

    PubMed

    Leal, Miguel Costa; Madeira, Carolina; Brandão, Cláudio Alexandre; Puga, João; Calado, Ricardo

    2012-08-16

    Bioprospecting for new marine natural products (NPs) has increased significantly over the last decades, leading to an unprecedented discovery of new molecules. Marine invertebrates have been the most important source of these NPs, with researchers commonly targeting particular taxonomic groups, marine regions and/or molecules from specific chemical groups. The present review focuses on new NPs identified from marine invertebrates between 2000 and 2009, and performs a detailed analysis on: (1) the chemical groups of these NPs; (2) the association of particular chemical groups to specific marine invertebrate taxa; and (3) the yielding of molecules from the same chemical group from organisms occurring in a particular geographic region. Our survey revealed an increasing number of new terpenoids being discovered between 2000 and 2009, contrasting with the decreasing trend in the discovery of new alkaloids and aliphatic molecules. Overall, no particular association was identified between marine invertebrate taxa and chemical groups of new NPs. Nonetheless, it is worth noting that most NPs recorded from cnidarians and mollusks were terpenoids, while most NPs identified in echinoderms were aliphatic compounds or carbohydrates. The geographical trends observed in our study do not support the idea of particular chemical groups of new NPs being associated with marine invertebrates from any specific geographical region, as NPs from different chemical groups were commonly distributed worldwide.

  19. Marketed Marine Natural Products in the Pharmaceutical and Cosmeceutical Industries: Tips for Success

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Ana; Vieira, Helena; Gaspar, Helena; Santos, Susana

    2014-01-01

    The marine environment harbors a number of macro and micro organisms that have developed unique metabolic abilities to ensure their survival in diverse and hostile habitats, resulting in the biosynthesis of an array of secondary metabolites with specific activities. Several of these metabolites are high-value commercial products for the pharmaceutical and cosmeceutical industries. The aim of this review is to outline the paths of marine natural products discovery and development, with a special focus on the compounds that successfully reached the market and particularly looking at the approaches tackled by the pharmaceutical and cosmetic companies that succeeded in marketing those products. The main challenges faced during marine bioactives discovery and development programs were analyzed and grouped in three categories: biodiversity (accessibility to marine resources and efficient screening), supply and technical (sustainable production of the bioactives and knowledge of the mechanism of action) and market (processes, costs, partnerships and marketing). Tips to surpass these challenges are given in order to improve the market entry success rates of highly promising marine bioactives in the current pipelines, highlighting what can be learned from the successful and unsuccessful stories that can be applied to novel and/or ongoing marine natural products discovery and development programs. PMID:24549205

  20. Marketed marine natural products in the pharmaceutical and cosmeceutical industries: tips for success.

    PubMed

    Martins, Ana; Vieira, Helena; Gaspar, Helena; Santos, Susana

    2014-02-01

    The marine environment harbors a number of macro and micro organisms that have developed unique metabolic abilities to ensure their survival in diverse and hostile habitats, resulting in the biosynthesis of an array of secondary metabolites with specific activities. Several of these metabolites are high-value commercial products for the pharmaceutical and cosmeceutical industries. The aim of this review is to outline the paths of marine natural products discovery and development, with a special focus on the compounds that successfully reached the market and particularly looking at the approaches tackled by the pharmaceutical and cosmetic companies that succeeded in marketing those products. The main challenges faced during marine bioactives discovery and development programs were analyzed and grouped in three categories: biodiversity (accessibility to marine resources and efficient screening), supply and technical (sustainable production of the bioactives and knowledge of the mechanism of action) and market (processes, costs, partnerships and marketing). Tips to surpass these challenges are given in order to improve the market entry success rates of highly promising marine bioactives in the current pipelines, highlighting what can be learned from the successful and unsuccessful stories that can be applied to novel and/or ongoing marine natural products discovery and development programs.

  1. Combined LC/UV/MS and NMR Strategies for the Dereplication of Marine Natural Products.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Victoria, Ignacio; Martín, Jesús; Reyes, Fernando

    2016-06-01

    Drug discovery from marine natural products has experienced a revival since the beginning of this century. To be successful in this field, rapid dereplication (identification of already known bioactive compounds) is essential in order to assess the chemical novelty of crude extracts and their fractions. Access to the appropriate state-of-the-art analytical instrumentation and to suitable databases is a fundamental requirement in such a task. A brief survey of the most robust LC/UV/MS- and NMR-based approaches employed for marine natural product dereplication is presented alongside a description of the procedures followed to achieve this goal in our research group. PMID:27002401

  2. Marine natural product drug discovery: Leads for treatment of inflammation, cancer, infections, and neurological disorders.

    PubMed

    Villa, Francisco A; Gerwick, Lena

    2010-06-01

    Natural products, secondary metabolites, isolated from plants, animals and microbes are important sources for bioactive molecules that in many cases have been developed into treatments for diseases. This review will focus on describing the potential for finding new treatments from marine natural products for inflammation, cancer, infections, and neurological disorders. Historically terrestrial natural products have been studied to a greater extent and such classic drugs as aspirin, vincristine and many of the antibiotics are derived from terrestrial natural products. The need for new therapeutics in the four areas mentioned is dire. Within the last 30 years marine natural products, with their unique structures and high level of halogenation, have shown many promising activities against the inflammatory response, cancer, infections and neurological disorders. The review will outline examples of such compounds and activities.

  3. Marine natural product drug discovery: Leads for treatment of inflammation, cancer, infections, and neurological disorders.

    PubMed

    Villa, Francisco A; Gerwick, Lena

    2010-06-01

    Natural products, secondary metabolites, isolated from plants, animals and microbes are important sources for bioactive molecules that in many cases have been developed into treatments for diseases. This review will focus on describing the potential for finding new treatments from marine natural products for inflammation, cancer, infections, and neurological disorders. Historically terrestrial natural products have been studied to a greater extent and such classic drugs as aspirin, vincristine and many of the antibiotics are derived from terrestrial natural products. The need for new therapeutics in the four areas mentioned is dire. Within the last 30 years marine natural products, with their unique structures and high level of halogenation, have shown many promising activities against the inflammatory response, cancer, infections and neurological disorders. The review will outline examples of such compounds and activities. PMID:20441539

  4. Identification of antidepressant drug leads through the evaluation of marine natural products with neuropsychiatric pharmacophores

    PubMed Central

    Diers, Jeffrey A.; Ivey, Kelly D.; El-Alfy, Abir; Shaikh, Jamaluddin; Wang, Jiajia; Kochanowska, Anna J.; Stoker, John F.; Hamann, Mark T.; Matsumoto, Rae R.

    2015-01-01

    The marine environment is a valuable resource for drug discovery due to its diversity of life and associated secondary metabolites. However, there is very little published data on the potential application of marine natural products to treat neuropsychiatric disorders. Many natural products derived from chemically defended organisms in the marine environment have pharmacophores related to serotonin or clinically utilized antidepressant drugs. Therefore, in the present study, compounds selected for their structural similarity to serotonin or established antidepressants were evaluated for antidepressant-like activity using the forced swim and tail suspension tests in mice. The antidepressant positive controls, citalopram (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor) and despiramine (tricyclic antidepressant) both dose-dependently reduced immobility time in the forced swim and tail suspension tests. Two marine natural product compounds tested, aaptamine and 5,6-dibromo-N,N-dimethyltryptamine, also produced significant antidepressant-like activity in the forced swim test. In the tail suspension test, the antidepressant-like effects of 5,6-dibromo-N,N-dimethyltryptamine were confirmed, whereas aaptamine failed to produce significant results. None of the tested compounds induced hyperlocomotion, indicating that nonspecific stimulant effects could not account for the observed antidepressant-like actions of the compounds. These studies highlight the potential to rationally select marine derived compounds for treating depression and other neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:18037479

  5. Marine algal natural products with anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer properties

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    For their various bioactivities, biomaterials derived from marine algae are important ingredients in many products, such as cosmetics and drugs for treating cancer and other diseases. This mini-review comprehensively compares the bioactivities and biological functions of biomaterials from red, green, brown, and blue-green algae. The anti-oxidative effects and bioactivities of several different crude extracts of algae have been evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. Natural products derived from marine algae protect cells by modulating the effects of oxidative stress. Because oxidative stress plays important roles in inflammatory reactions and in carcinogenesis, marine algal natural products have potential for use in anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory drugs. PMID:23724847

  6. 43 CFR 15.2 - Removal or destruction of natural features and marine life.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.2 Removal or destruction of natural features and marine life. No person... sand, gravel or minerals, corals, sea feathers and fans, shells and shell fish starfishes or other... this Preserve. No rope, wire or other contrivance shall be attached to any coral, rock or...

  7. 43 CFR 15.2 - Removal or destruction of natural features and marine life.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.2 Removal or destruction of natural features and marine life. No person... sand, gravel or minerals, corals, sea feathers and fans, shells and shell fish starfishes or other... this Preserve. No rope, wire or other contrivance shall be attached to any coral, rock or...

  8. 43 CFR 15.2 - Removal or destruction of natural features and marine life.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.2 Removal or destruction of natural features and marine life. No person... sand, gravel or minerals, corals, sea feathers and fans, shells and shell fish starfishes or other... this Preserve. No rope, wire or other contrivance shall be attached to any coral, rock or...

  9. 43 CFR 15.2 - Removal or destruction of natural features and marine life.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.2 Removal or destruction of natural features and marine life. No person... sand, gravel or minerals, corals, sea feathers and fans, shells and shell fish starfishes or other... this Preserve. No rope, wire or other contrivance shall be attached to any coral, rock or...

  10. Medicinal benefits of marine invertebrates: sources for discovering natural drug candidates.

    PubMed

    De Zoysa, Mahanama

    2012-01-01

    Marine invertebrates are one of the major groups of organisms, which could be diversified under the major taxonomic groups of Porifera, Cnidaria, Mollusca, Arthropoda, Echinodermata, and many other minor phyla. To date, range of medicinal benefits and a significant number of marine natural products (MNPs) have been discovered from marine invertebrates. Seafood diet from edible marine invertebrates such as mollusks and crustaceans has been linked with various medicinal benefits to improve human health. Among marine invertebrates, spongers from phylum Porifera is the most dominant group responsible for discovering large number of MNPs, which have been used as template to develop therapeutic drugs. MNPs isolated from invertebrates have shown wide range of therapeutic properties including antimicrobial, antioxidant, antihypertensive, anticoagulant, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, wound healing and immune modulator, and other medicinal effects. Therefore, marine invertebrates are rich sources of chemical diversity and health benefits for developing drug candidates, cosmetics, nutritional supplements, and molecular probes that can be supported to increase the healthy life span of human.

  11. Search for New Bioactive Marine Natural Products and Application to Drug Development.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Jun'ichi

    2016-01-01

    Natural products are well recognized as an important source of lead compounds in drug development. During the past >30 years, we have discovered >1000 novel bioactive natural products from Okinawan marine organisms (sponges, tunicates, cone shells, etc.) and microorganisms (fungi, bacteria, dinoflagellates, etc.). Some of them are used as bioprobes useful for basic studies of life sciences, while others are expected to be candidates of drug leads. PMID:27477644

  12. Ecological and Pharmacological Activities of Antarctic Marine Natural Products.

    PubMed

    Avila, Conxita

    2016-06-01

    Antarctic benthic communities are regulated by abundant interactions of different types among organisms, such as predation, competition, etc. Predators are usually sea stars, with omnivorous habits, as well as other invertebrates. Against this strong predation pressure, many organisms have developed all sorts of defensive strategies, including chemical defenses. Natural products are thus quite common in Antarctic organisms with an important ecological and pharmacological potential. In this paper, the chemical defenses of the Antarctic organisms studied during the ECOQUIM and ACTIQUIM projects, as well as their pharmacological potential, are reviewed. For the ecological defenses, predation against the sea star Odontaster validus is analyzed and evaluated along depth gradients as well as considering the lifestyle of the organisms. For the pharmacological activity, the anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial activities tested are evaluated here. Very often, only crude extracts or fractions have been tested so far, and therefore, the natural products responsible for such activities remain yet to be identified. Even if the sampling efforts are not uniform along depth, most ecologically active organisms are found between 200 and 500 m depth. Also, from the samples studied, about four times more sessile organisms possess chemical defenses against the sea star than the vagile ones; these represent 50 % of sessile organisms and 35 % of the vagile ones, out of the total tested, being active. Pharmacological activity has not been tested uniformly in all groups, but the results show that relevant activity is found in different phyla, especially in Porifera, Cnidaria, Bryozoa, and Tunicata, but also in others. No relationship between depth and pharmacological activity can be established with the samples tested so far. More studies are needed in order to better understand the ecological relationships among Antarctic invertebrates mediated by natural products and

  13. Ecological and Pharmacological Activities of Antarctic Marine Natural Products.

    PubMed

    Avila, Conxita

    2016-06-01

    Antarctic benthic communities are regulated by abundant interactions of different types among organisms, such as predation, competition, etc. Predators are usually sea stars, with omnivorous habits, as well as other invertebrates. Against this strong predation pressure, many organisms have developed all sorts of defensive strategies, including chemical defenses. Natural products are thus quite common in Antarctic organisms with an important ecological and pharmacological potential. In this paper, the chemical defenses of the Antarctic organisms studied during the ECOQUIM and ACTIQUIM projects, as well as their pharmacological potential, are reviewed. For the ecological defenses, predation against the sea star Odontaster validus is analyzed and evaluated along depth gradients as well as considering the lifestyle of the organisms. For the pharmacological activity, the anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial activities tested are evaluated here. Very often, only crude extracts or fractions have been tested so far, and therefore, the natural products responsible for such activities remain yet to be identified. Even if the sampling efforts are not uniform along depth, most ecologically active organisms are found between 200 and 500 m depth. Also, from the samples studied, about four times more sessile organisms possess chemical defenses against the sea star than the vagile ones; these represent 50 % of sessile organisms and 35 % of the vagile ones, out of the total tested, being active. Pharmacological activity has not been tested uniformly in all groups, but the results show that relevant activity is found in different phyla, especially in Porifera, Cnidaria, Bryozoa, and Tunicata, but also in others. No relationship between depth and pharmacological activity can be established with the samples tested so far. More studies are needed in order to better understand the ecological relationships among Antarctic invertebrates mediated by natural products and

  14. Consequences of natural upwelling in oligotrophic marine ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, J J

    1980-03-01

    One of the major environmental consequences of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) plans may be the artificial upwelling of nutrients to the surface waters of oligotrophic ecosystems. Within a 10 km/sup 2/ area, OTEC plants of 1000 MWe total capacity could upwell the same amount of nutrients as occurs naturally off Peru each day. The biological response to possible eutrophication by OTEC plants may not be similar to that within coastal upwelling ecosystems, however. Upwelling in offshore oceanic systems does not lead to increased primary production despite high nutrient content of the euphotic zone. Continuous grazing may not allow phytoplankton blooms to develop in oceanic upwelling systems to the proposed OTEC sites. At present this is a hypothesis to be tested before full evaluation of OTEC induced upwelling can be made.

  15. Recent Advances in the Discovery and Development of Marine Microbial Natural Products

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Zhi-Qiang; Wang, Jian-Feng; Hao, Yu-You; Wang, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Marine microbial natural products (MMNPs) have attracted increasing attention from microbiologists, taxonomists, ecologists, agronomists, chemists and evolutionary biologists during the last few decades. Numerous studies have indicated that diverse marine microbes appear to have the capacity to produce an impressive array of MMNPs exhibiting a wide variety of biological activities such as antimicrobial, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory and anti-cardiovascular agents. Marine microorganisms represent an underexplored reservoir for the discovery of MMNPs with unique scaffolds and for exploitation in the pharmaceutical and agricultural industries. This review focuses on MMNPs discovery and development over the past decades, including innovative isolation and culture methods, strategies for discovering novel MMNPs via routine screenings, metagenomics, genomics, combinatorial biosynthesis, and synthetic biology. The potential problems and future directions for exploring MMNPs are also discussed. PMID:23528949

  16. Osteogenic cell response to 3-D hydroxyapatite scaffolds developed via replication of natural marine sponges.

    PubMed

    Clarke, S A; Choi, S Y; McKechnie, Melanie; Burke, G; Dunne, N; Walker, G; Cunningham, E; Buchanan, F

    2016-02-01

    Bone tissue engineering may provide an alternative to autograft, however scaffold optimisation is required to maximize bone ingrowth. In designing scaffolds, pore architecture is important and there is evidence that cells prefer a degree of non-uniformity. The aim of this study was to compare scaffolds derived from a natural porous marine sponge (Spongia agaricina) with unique architecture to those derived from a synthetic polyurethane foam. Hydroxyapatite scaffolds of 1 cm(3) were prepared via ceramic infiltration of a marine sponge and a polyurethane (PU) foam. Human foetal osteoblasts (hFOB) were seeded at 1 × 10(5) cells/scaffold for up to 14 days. Cytotoxicity, cell number, morphology and differentiation were investigated. PU-derived scaffolds had 84-91% porosity and 99.99% pore interconnectivity. In comparison marine sponge-derived scaffolds had 56-61% porosity and 99.9% pore interconnectivity. hFOB studies showed that a greater number of cells were found on marine sponge-derived scaffolds at than on the PU scaffold but there was no significant difference in cell differentiation. X-ray diffraction and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry showed that Si ions were released from the marine-derived scaffold. In summary, three dimensional porous constructs have been manufactured that support cell attachment, proliferation and differentiation but significantly more cells were seen on marine-derived scaffolds. This could be due both to the chemistry and pore architecture of the scaffolds with an additional biological stimulus from presence of Si ions. Further in vivo tests in orthotopic models are required but this marine-derived scaffold shows promise for applications in bone tissue engineering. PMID:26704539

  17. Epiphytic marine pigmented bacteria: A prospective source of natural antioxidants

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Ravindra; Mohandass, Chellandi; Sivaperumal, Elakkiya; Sabu, Elaine; Rajasabapathy, Raju; Jagtap, Tanaji

    2015-01-01

    Awareness on antioxidants and its significance in human healthcare has increased many folds in recent time. Increased demand requisite on welcoming newer and alternative resources for natural antioxidants. Seaweed associated pigmented bacteria screened for its antioxidant potentials reveals 55.5% of the organisms were able to synthesize antioxidant compounds. DPPH assay showed 20% of the organisms to reach a antioxidant zone of 1 cm and 8.3% of the strains more than 3 cm. Pseudomonas koreensis (JX915782) a Sargassum associated yellowish brown pigmented bacteria have better activity than known commercial antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) against DPPH scavenging. Serratia rubidaea (JX915783), an associate of Ulva sp. and Pseudomonas argentinensis (JX915781) an epiphyte of Chaetomorpha media , were also contributed significantly towards ABTS (7.2% ± 0.03 to 15.2 ± 0.09%; 1.8% ± 0.01 to 15.7 ± 0.22%) and FRAP (1.81 ± 0.01 to 9.35 ± 0.98; 7.97 ± 0.12 to 18.70 ± 1.84 μg/mL of AsA Eq.) respectively. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed bacteria that have higher antioxidant activity belongs to a bacterial class Gammaproteobacteria. Statistical analysis of phenolic contents in relation with other parameters like DPPH, ABTS, reducing power and FRAP are well correlated (p < 0.05). Results obtained from the current study inferred that the seaweed associated pigmented bacteria have enormous potential on antioxidant compounds and need to be extracted in a larger way for clinical applications. PMID:26221086

  18. Epiphytic marine pigmented bacteria: A prospective source of natural antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Ravindra; Mohandass, Chellandi; Sivaperumal, Elakkiya; Sabu, Elaine; Rajasabapathy, Raju; Jagtap, Tanaji

    2015-03-01

    Awareness on antioxidants and its significance in human healthcare has increased many folds in recent time. Increased demand requisite on welcoming newer and alternative resources for natural antioxidants. Seaweed associated pigmented bacteria screened for its antioxidant potentials reveals 55.5% of the organisms were able to synthesize antioxidant compounds. DPPH assay showed 20% of the organisms to reach a antioxidant zone of 1 cm and 8.3% of the strains more than 3 cm. Pseudomonas koreensis (JX915782) a Sargassum associated yellowish brown pigmented bacteria have better activity than known commercial antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) against DPPH scavenging. Serratia rubidaea (JX915783), an associate of Ulva sp. and Pseudomonas argentinensis (JX915781) an epiphyte of Chaetomorpha media , were also contributed significantly towards ABTS (7.2% ± 0.03 to 15.2 ± 0.09%; 1.8% ± 0.01 to 15.7 ± 0.22%) and FRAP (1.81 ± 0.01 to 9.35 ± 0.98; 7.97 ± 0.12 to 18.70 ± 1.84 μg/mL of AsA Eq.) respectively. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed bacteria that have higher antioxidant activity belongs to a bacterial class Gammaproteobacteria. Statistical analysis of phenolic contents in relation with other parameters like DPPH, ABTS, reducing power and FRAP are well correlated (p < 0.05). Results obtained from the current study inferred that the seaweed associated pigmented bacteria have enormous potential on antioxidant compounds and need to be extracted in a larger way for clinical applications. PMID:26221086

  19. Biosynthetic origin of natural products isolated from marine microorganism-invertebrate assemblages.

    PubMed

    Simmons, T Luke; Coates, R Cameron; Clark, Benjamin R; Engene, Niclas; Gonzalez, David; Esquenazi, Eduardo; Dorrestein, Pieter C; Gerwick, William H

    2008-03-25

    In all probability, natural selection began as ancient marine microorganisms were required to compete for limited resources. These pressures resulted in the evolution of diverse genetically encoded small molecules with a variety of ecological and metabolic roles. Remarkably, many of these same biologically active molecules have potential utility in modern medicine and biomedical research. The most promising of these natural products often derive from organisms richly populated by associated microorganisms (e.g., marine sponges and ascidians), and often there is great uncertainty about which organism in these assemblages is making these intriguing metabolites. To use the molecular machinery responsible for the biosynthesis of potential drug-lead natural products, new tools must be applied to delineate their genetic and enzymatic origins. The aim of this perspective is to highlight both traditional and emerging techniques for the localization of metabolic pathways within complex marine environments. Examples are given from the literature as well as recent proof-of-concept experiments from the authors' laboratories.

  20. Contribution of synthetic and naturally occurring organobromine compounds to bromine mass in marine organisms.

    PubMed

    Wan, Yi; Jones, Paul D; Wiseman, Steve; Chang, Hong; Chorney, Dave; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Zhang, Kun; Hu, Jian-Ying; Khim, Jong Seong; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Lam, Michael H W; Giesy, John P

    2010-08-15

    An extraction, separation, and purification method was developed for the identification and quantification of total bromine (TBr), extractable organobromine (EOBr), and five classes of identified EOBrs. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was utilized to quantify EOBr and TBr. The method was then applied to liver samples of tuna, albatross, and polar bear collected from remote marine locations. Polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), bromophenols (BRPs), hydroxylated (OH-) and methoxylated (MeO-) PBDEs were analyzed as identified EOBr. The majority of the bromine in these marine organisms was nonextractable or inorganic, with EOBr accounting for 10-28% of the TBr. Of the identified EOBr, in tuna and albatross, naturally occurring compounds, including MeO-PBDEs, OH-PBDEs, and BPRs, were prevalent. However, the identifiable EOBr in polar bears consisted primarily of synthetic compounds, including PBDEs and PBBs. Overall, 0.08-0.11% and 0.008-0.012% of EOBr and TBr, respectively, were identified. The proportion of EOBr that was identified in marine organisms was relatively small compared to the proportions for organofluorine and organochlorine compounds. This could be related to the great diversity of naturally occurring organobromine compounds in the environment. Naturally occurring brominated fatty acids were estimated to be the predominant compounds in the EOBr fraction. PMID:20704201

  1. Concentrations and concentration factors of several anthropogenic and natural radionuclides in marine vertebrates and invertebrates. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Noshkin, V.E.

    1985-07-17

    Literature is reviewed and summarized with regard to concentrations of several anthropogenic and natural radionuclides in biological organisms from marine environments. Reported concentration factors for these radionuclides in organisms are tabulated for marine fish and invertebrates from water masses affected by different source terms.

  2. Low genetic diversity in a marine nature reserve: re-evaluating diversity criteria in reserve design

    PubMed Central

    Bell, J.J; Okamura, B

    2005-01-01

    Little consideration has been given to the genetic composition of populations associated with marine reserves, as reserve designation is generally to protect specific species, communities or habitats. Nevertheless, it is important to conserve genetic diversity since it provides the raw material for the maintenance of species diversity over longer, evolutionary time-scales and may also confer the basis for adaptation to environmental change. Many current marine reserves are small in size and isolated to some degree (e.g. sea loughs and offshore islands). While such features enable easier management, they may have important implications for the genetic structure of protected populations, the ability of populations to recover from local catastrophes and the potential for marine reserves to act as sources of propagules for surrounding areas. Here, we present a case study demonstrating genetic differentiation, isolation, inbreeding and reduced genetic diversity in populations of the dogwhelk Nucella lapillus in Lough Hyne Marine Nature Reserve (an isolated sea lough in southern Ireland), compared with populations on the local adjacent open coast and populations in England, Wales and France. Our study demonstrates that this sea lough is isolated from open coast populations, and highlights that there may be long-term genetic consequences of selecting reserves on the basis of isolation and ease of protection. PMID:16024366

  3. Evidence of localized resource depletion following a natural colonization event by a large marine predator.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Carey E; Baker, Jason D; Towell, Rodney G; Ream, Rolf R

    2014-09-01

    For central place foragers, forming colonies can lead to extensive competition for prey around breeding areas and a zone of local prey depletion. As populations grow, this area of reduced prey can expand impacting foraging success and forcing animals to alter foraging behaviour. Here, we examine a population of marine predators, the northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus), which colonized a recently formed volcanic island, and assess changes in foraging behaviour associated with increasing population density. Specifically, we measured pup production and adult foraging behaviour over a 15-year period, during which the population increased 4-fold. Using measures of at-sea movements and dive behaviour, we found clear evidence that as the population expanded, animals were required to allot increasing effort to obtain resources. These changes in behaviour included longer duration foraging trips, farther distances travelled, a larger foraging range surrounding the island and deeper maximum dives. Our results suggest that as the northern fur seal population increased, local prey resources were depleted as a result of increased intraspecific competition. In addition, the recent slowing of population growth indicates that this population may be approaching carrying capacity just 31 years after a natural colonization event. Our study offers insight into the dynamics of population growth and impacts of increasing population density on a large marine predator. Such data could be vital for understanding future population fluctuations that occur in response to the dynamic environment, as natural and anthropogenic factors continue to modify marine habitats. PMID:24450364

  4. Exploring anti-TB leads from natural products library originated from marine microbes and medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xueting; Chen, Caixia; He, Wenni; Huang, Pei; Liu, Miaomiao; Wang, Qian; Guo, Hui; Bolla, Krishna; Lu, Yan; Song, Fuhang; Dai, Huanqin; Liu, Mei; Zhang, Lixin

    2012-10-01

    Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and TB-HIV co-infection have become a great threat to global health. However, the last truly novel drug that was approved for the treatment of TB was discovered 40 years ago. The search for new effective drugs against TB has never been more intensive. Natural products derived from microbes and medicinal plants have been an important source of TB therapeutics. Recent advances have been made to accelerate the discovery rate of novel TB drugs including diversifying strategies for environmental strains, high-throughput screening (HTS) assays, and chemical diversity. This review will discuss the challenges of finding novel natural products with anti-TB activity from marine microbes and plant medicines, including biodiversity- and taxonomy-guided microbial natural products library construction, target- and cell-based HTS, and bioassay-directed isolation of anti-TB substances from traditional medicines.

  5. Optimization of a natural medium for cellulase by a marine Aspergillus niger using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Xue, Dong-Sheng; Chen, Hui-Yin; Lin, Dong-Qiang; Guan, Yi-Xin; Yao, Shan-Jing

    2012-08-01

    The components of a natural medium were optimized to produce cellulase from a marine Aspergillus niger under solid state fermentation conditions by response surface methodology. Eichhornia crassipes and natural seawater were used as a major substrate and a source of mineral salts, respectively. Mineral salts of natural seawater could increase cellulase production. Raw corn cob and raw rice straw showed a significant positive effect on cellulase production. The optimum natural medium consisted of 76.9 % E. crassipes (w/w), 8.9 % raw corn cob (w/w), 3.5 % raw rice straw (w/w), 10.7 % raw wheat bran (w/w), and natural seawater (2.33 times the weight of the dry substrates). Incubation for 96 h in the natural medium increased the biomass to the maximum. The cellulase production was 17.80 U/g the dry weight of substrates after incubation for 144 h. The natural medium avoided supplying chemicals and pretreating substrates. It is promising for future practical fermentation of environment-friendly producing cellulase. PMID:22644643

  6. The Research Path to Determining the Natural Gas Supply Potential of Marine Gas Hydrates

    SciTech Connect

    Boswell, R.M.; Rose, K.K.; Baker, R.C.

    2008-06-01

    A primary goal of the U.S. National Interagency Gas Hydrates R&D program is to determine the natural gas production potential of marine gas hydrates. In pursuing this goal, four primary areas of effort are being conducted in parallel. First, are wide-ranging basic scientific investigations in both the laboratory and in the field designed to advance the understanding of the nature and behavior of gas hydrate bearing sediments (GHBS). This multi-disciplinary work has wide-ranging direct applications to resource recovery, including assisting the development of exploration and production technologies through better rock physics models for GHBS and also in providing key data for numerical simulations of productivity, reservoir geomechanical response, and other phenomena. In addition, fundamental science efforts are essential to developing a fuller understanding of the role gas hydrates play in the natural environment and the potential environmental implications of gas hydrate production, a critical precursor to commercial extraction. A second area of effort is the confirmation of resource presence and viability via a series of multi-well marine drilling expeditions. The collection of data in the field is essential to further clarifying what proportion of the likely immense in-place marine gas hydrate resource exists in accumulations of sufficient quality to represent potential commercial production prospects. A third research focus area is the integration of geologic, geophysical, and geochemical field data into an effective suite of exploration tools that can support the delineation and characterization commercial gas hydrate prospects prior to drilling. The fourth primary research focus is the development and testing of well-based extraction technologies (including drilling, completion, stimulation and production) that can safely deliver commercial gas production rates from gas hydrate reservoirs in a variety of settings. Initial efforts will take advantage of the

  7. Bioactivity and Mechanical Stability of 45S5 Bioactive Glass Scaffolds Based on Natural Marine Sponges.

    PubMed

    Boccardi, E; Philippart, A; Melli, V; Altomare, L; De Nardo, L; Novajra, G; Vitale-Brovarone, C; Fey, T; Boccaccini, A R

    2016-06-01

    Bioactive glass (BG) based scaffolds (45S5 BG composition) were developed by the replica technique using natural marine sponges as sacrificial templates. The resulting scaffolds were characterized by superior mechanical properties (compression strength up to 4 MPa) compared to conventional BG scaffolds prepared using polyurethane (PU) packaging foam as a template. This result was ascribed to a reduction of the total scaffold porosity without affecting the pore interconnectivity (>99%). It was demonstrated that the reduction of total porosity did not affect the bioactivity of the BG-based scaffolds, tested by immersion of scaffolds in simulated body fluid (SBF). After 1 day of immersion in SBF, a homogeneous CaP deposit on the surface of the scaffolds was formed, which evolved over time into carbonate hydroxyapatite (HCA). Moreover, the enhanced mechanical properties of these scaffolds were constant over time in SBF; after an initial reduction of the maximum compressive strength upon 7 days of immersion in SBF (to 1.2 ± 0.2 MPa), the strength values remained almost constant and higher than those of BG-based scaffolds prepared using PU foam (<0.05 MPa). Preliminary cell culture tests with Saos-2 osteoblast cell line, namely direct and indirect tests, demonstrated that no toxic residues remained from the natural marine sponge templates and that cells were able to proliferate on the scaffold surfaces. PMID:27034242

  8. Natural variability of marine ecosystems inferred from a coupled climate to ecosystem simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Mézo, Priscilla; Lefort, Stelly; Séférian, Roland; Aumont, Olivier; Maury, Olivier; Murtugudde, Raghu; Bopp, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    This modeling study analyzes the simulated natural variability of pelagic ecosystems in the North Atlantic and North Pacific. Our model system includes a global Earth System Model (IPSL-CM5A-LR), the biogeochemical model PISCES and the ecosystem model APECOSM that simulates upper trophic level organisms using a size-based approach and three interactive pelagic communities (epipelagic, migratory and mesopelagic). Analyzing an idealized (e.g., no anthropogenic forcing) 300-yr long pre-industrial simulation, we find that low and high frequency variability is dominant for the large and small organisms, respectively. Our model shows that the size-range exhibiting the largest variability at a given frequency, defined as the resonant range, also depends on the community. At a given frequency, the resonant range of the epipelagic community includes larger organisms than that of the migratory community and similarly, the latter includes larger organisms than the resonant range of the mesopelagic community. This study shows that the simulated temporal variability of marine pelagic organisms' abundance is not only influenced by natural climate fluctuations but also by the structure of the pelagic community. As a consequence, the size- and community-dependent response of marine ecosystems to climate variability could impact the sustainability of fisheries in a warming world.

  9. Natural abundances of carbon isotopes in acetate from a coastal marine sediment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blair, N. E.; Martens, C. S.; Des Marais, D. J.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements of the natural abundances of carbon isotopes were made in acetate samples isolated from the anoxic marine sediment of Cape Lookout Bight, North Carolina. The typical value of the total acetate carbon isotope ratio (delta 13C) was -16.1 +/- 0.2 per mil. The methyl and carboxyl groups were determined to be -26.4 +/- 0.3 and -6.0 +/- 0.3 per mil, respectively, for one sample. The isotopic composition of the acetate is thought to have resulted from isotopic discriminations that occurred during the cycling of that molecule. Measurements of this type, which have not been made previously in the natural environment, may provide information about the dominant microbial pathways in anoxic sediments as well as the processes that influence the carbon isotopic composition of biogenic methane from many sources.

  10. Contemporary Strategies for the Synthesis of Tetrahydropyran Derivatives: Application to Total Synthesis of Neopeltolide, a Marine Macrolide Natural Product

    PubMed Central

    Fuwa, Haruhiko

    2016-01-01

    Tetrahydropyrans are structural motifs that are abundantly present in a range of biologically important marine natural products. As such, significant efforts have been paid to the development of efficient and versatile methods for the synthesis of tetrahydropyran derivatives. Neopeltolide, a potent antiproliferative marine natural product, has been an attractive target compound for synthetic chemists because of its complex structure comprised of a 14-membered macrolactone embedded with a tetrahydropyran ring, and twenty total and formal syntheses of this natural product have been reported so far. This review summarizes the total and formal syntheses of neopeltolide and its analogues, highlighting the synthetic strategies exploited for constructing the tetrahydropyran ring. PMID:27023567

  11. Statistical Research on the Bioactivity of New Marine Natural Products Discovered during the 28 Years from 1985 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yiwen; Chen, Jiahui; Hu, Guping; Yu, Jianchen; Zhu, Xun; Lin, Yongcheng; Chen, Shengping; Yuan, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Every year, hundreds of new compounds are discovered from the metabolites of marine organisms. Finding new and useful compounds is one of the crucial drivers for this field of research. Here we describe the statistics of bioactive compounds discovered from marine organisms from 1985 to 2012. This work is based on our database, which contains information on more than 15,000 chemical substances including 4196 bioactive marine natural products. We performed a comprehensive statistical analysis to understand the characteristics of the novel bioactive compounds and detail temporal trends, chemical structures, species distribution, and research progress. We hope this meta-analysis will provide useful information for research into the bioactivity of marine natural products and drug development. PMID:25574736

  12. Distribution and Diversity of Natural Product Genes in Marine and Freshwater Cyanobacterial Cultures and Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Ehrenreich, Ian M.; Waterbury, John B.; Webb, Eric A.

    2005-01-01

    Natural products are a functionally diverse class of biochemically synthesized compounds, which include antibiotics, toxins, and siderophores. In this paper, we describe both the detection of natural product activities and the sequence identification of gene fragments from two molecular systems that have previously been implicated in natural product production, i.e., nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) and modular polyketide synthases (PKSs), in diverse marine and freshwater cyanobacterial cultures. Using degenerate PCR and the sequencing of cloned products, we show that NRPSs and PKSs are common among the cyanobacteria tested. Our molecular data, when combined with genomic searches of finished and progressing cyanobacterial genomes, demonstrate that not all cyanobacteria contain NRPS and PKS genes and that the filamentous and heterocystous cyanobacteria are the richest sources of these genes and the most likely sources of novel natural products within the phylum. In addition to validating the use of degenerate primers for the identification of PKS and NRPS genes in cyanobacteria, this study also defines numerous gene fragments that will be useful as probes for future studies of the synthesis of natural products in cyanobacteria. Phylogenetic analyses of the cyanobacterial NRPS and PKS fragments sequenced in this study, as well as those from the cyanobacterial genome projects, demonstrate that there is remarkable diversity and likely novelty of these genes within the cyanobacteria. These results underscore the potential variety of novel products being produced by these ubiquitous organisms. PMID:16269782

  13. Mariculture and natural production of the antitumoural (+)-discodermolide by the Caribbean marine sponge Discodermia dissoluta.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Cesar; Valderrama, Katherine; Zea, Sven; Castellanos, Leonardo

    2013-10-01

    Biotechnological research on marine organisms, such as ex situ or in situ aquaculture and in vitro cell culture, is being conducted to produce bioactive metabolites for biomedical and industrial uses. The Caribbean marine sponge Discodermia dissoluta is the source of (+)-discodermolide, a potent antitumoural polyketide that has reached clinical trials. This sponge usually lives at depths greater than 30 m, but at Santa Marta (Colombia) there is a shallower population, which has made it logistically possible to investigate for the first time, on ways to supply discodermolide. We thus performed in situ, 6-month fragment culture trials to assess the performance of this sponge in terms of growth and additional discodermolide production and studied possible factors that influence the variability of discodermolide concentrations in the wild. Sponge fragments cultured in soft mesh bags suspended from horizontal lines showed high survivorship (93 %), moderate growth (28 % increase in volume) and an overall rise (33 %) in the discodermolide concentration, equivalent to average additional production of 8 μg of compound per millilitre of sponge. The concentration of discodermolide in wild sponges ranged from 8 to 40 μg mL(-1). Locality was the only factor related to discodermolide variation in the wild, and there were greater concentrations in peripheral vs. basal portions of the sponge, and in clean vs. fouled individuals. As natural growth and regeneration rates can be higher than culture growth rates, there is room for improving techniques to sustainably produce discodermolide.

  14. Efficient syntheses of permethylated derivatives of neolamellarin A, a pyrrolic marine natural product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Ruijuan; Jiang, Long; Wan, Shengbiao; Jiang, Tao

    2015-04-01

    The pyrrole-derived alkaloids with marine origin, especially their permethyl derivatives, have unique structures and promising biological activities. Marine natural product neolamellarins are a collection of lamellarin-like phenolic pyrrole compounds, which can inhibit hypoxia-induced HIF-1 activation. Many pyrrole-derived lamellarin-like alkaloids show potent MDR reversing activity. In this study, five permethylated derivatives of neolamellarin A were synthesized with their MDR reversing activity studied in order to identify new MDR reversal agents. A convergent strategy was adopted to synthesize the permethylated derivatives of neolamellarin A. Pyrrole was first converted into a corresponding N-trisisopropylsilyl (TIPS)-substituted derivative, then through iodination afforded 3,4-diiodinated pyrrole compound. The key intermediate, 3,4-disubstituent-1 H-pyrrole, was obtained through desilylation of 3,4-disubstituent-1-TIPS pyrrole, which was prepared from 3,4-diiodinated pyrrole derivative and aryl boronic acid ester through Suzuki cross-coupling reaction between them. Then, the intermediate, 3,4-disubstituent-1 H-pyrrole, reacted with fresh phenylacetyl chloride under n-BuLi/THF condition afforded the target compounds. Finally, we obtained five novel pyrrolic compounds, permethylated derivatives of neolamellarin A 16a-e, in 30%-37% yield through five step reactions. The bioactivity testing of these compounds are in process.

  15. Biological Targets and Mechanisms of Action of Natural Products from Marine Cyanobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Salvador-Reyes, Lilibeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Marine cyanobacteria are an ancient group of organisms and prolific producers of bioactive secondary metabolites. These compounds are presumably optimized by evolution over billions of years to exert high affinity for their intended biological target in the ecologically relevant organism but likely also possess activity in different biological contexts such as human cells. Screening of marine cyanobacterial extracts for bioactive natural products has largely focused on cancer cell viability; however, diversification of the screening platform led to the characterization of many new bioactive compounds. Targets of compounds have oftentimes been elusive if the compounds were discovered through phenotypic assays. Over the past few years, technology has advanced to determine mechanism of action (MOA) and targets through reverse chemical genetic and proteomic approaches, which has been applied to certain cyanobacterial compounds and will be discussed in this review. Some cyanobacterial molecules are the most-potent-in-class inhibitors and therefore may become valuable tools for chemical biology to probe protein function but also be templates for novel drugs, assuming in vitro potency translates into cellular and in vivo activity. Our review will focus on compounds for which the direct targets have been deciphered or which were found to target a novel pathway, and link them to disease states where target modulation may be beneficial. PMID:25571978

  16. Targeted Natural Products Discovery from Marine Cyanobacteria Using Combined Phylogenetic and Mass Spectrometric Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Salvador-Reyes, Lilibeth A.; Engene, Niclas; Paul, Valerie J.; Luesch, Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    Combined phylogenetic and HPLC-MS-based natural products dereplication methods aimed at identifying cyanobacterial collections containing the potent cytotoxins largazole, dolastatin 10 and symplostatin 1 were developed. The profiling of the phylogeny, chemical space, and antiproliferative activity of cyanobacterial collections served to streamline the prioritization of samples for the discovery of new secondary metabolites. The dereplication methods highlighted the biosynthetic potential and combinatorial pharmacology employed by marine cyanobacteria. We found that largazole was always coproduced with dolastatin 10 or with symplostatin 1 and consequently tested combinations of these agents against colon cancer cells. Combinatorial regimens of largazole and dolastatin 10 aimed at curbing the growth of HCT116 cancer cells showed cooperative activity. PMID:25635943

  17. Marine natural hazards in coastal zone: observations, analysis and modelling (Plinius Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didenkulova, Ira

    2010-05-01

    Giant surface waves approaching the coast frequently cause extensive coastal flooding, destruction of coastal constructions and loss of lives. Such waves can be generated by various phenomena: strong storms and cyclones, underwater earthquakes, high-speed ferries, aerial and submarine landslides. The most famous examples of such events are the catastrophic tsunami in the Indian Ocean, which occurred on 26 December 2004 and hurricane Katrina (28 August 2005) in the Atlantic Ocean. The huge storm in the Baltic Sea on 9 January 2005, which produced unexpectedly long waves in many areas of the Baltic Sea and the influence of unusually high surge created by long waves from high-speed ferries, should also be mentioned as examples of regional marine natural hazards connected with extensive runup of certain types of waves. The processes of wave shoaling and runup for all these different marine natural hazards (tsunami, coastal freak waves, ship waves) are studied based on rigorous solutions of nonlinear shallow-water theory. The key and novel results presented here are: i) parameterization of basic formulas for extreme runup characteristics for bell-shape waves, showing that they weakly depend on the initial wave shape, which is usually unknown in real sea conditions; ii) runup analysis of periodic asymmetric waves with a steep front, as such waves are penetrating inland over large distances and with larger velocities than symmetric waves; iii) statistical analysis of irregular wave runup demonstrating that wave nonlinearity nearshore does not influence on the probability distribution of the velocity of the moving shoreline and its moments, and influences on the vertical displacement of the moving shoreline (runup). Wave runup on convex beaches and in narrow bays, which allow abnormal wave amplification is also discussed. Described analytical results are used for explanation of observed extreme runup of tsunami, freak (sneaker) waves and ship waves on different coasts

  18. Naturally-Occurring Marine Brominated Indoles are Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Ligands/Agonists

    PubMed Central

    DeGroot, Danica E.; Franks, Diana G.; Higa, Tatsuo; Tanaka, Junichi; Hahn, Mark E.; Denison, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that mediates the toxic and biological effects of structurally diverse chemicals, including the environmental contaminant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). As part of a larger effort to identify the full spectrum of chemicals that can bind to and activate the AhR, we have examined the ability of several naturally-occurring marine-derived brominated indoles and brominated (methylthio)indoles (collectively referred to as “brominated indoles”) to bind to the AhR and stimulate AhR-dependent gene expression. Incubation of mouse, rat and guinea pig recombinant cell lines containing a stably transfected AhR-responsive luciferase reporter gene with eight brominated indoles revealed that all compounds stimulated luciferase reporter gene activity, although some species-specific differences were observed. All compounds induced significantly more luciferase activity when incubated with cells for 4 h as compared to 24 h, demonstrating that these compounds are transient activators of the AhR signaling pathway. Three of the brominated indoles induced CYP1A1 mRNA in human HepG2 cells in vitro and Cyp1a mRNA in zebrafish embryos in vivo. The identification of the brominated indoles as direct ligands and activators/agonists of the AhR was confirmed by their ability to compete with [3H]TCDD for binding to the AhR and to stimulate AhR transformation and DNA binding in vitro. Taken together, these marine-derived brominated indoles are members of a new class of naturally-occurring AhR agonists. PMID:26001051

  19. Temporal Stability of the Microbial Community in Sewage-Polluted Seawater Exposed to Natural Sunlight Cycles and Marine Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Sassoubre, Lauren M.; Yamahara, Kevan M.

    2015-01-01

    Billions of gallons of untreated wastewater enter the coastal ocean each year. Once sewage microorganisms are in the marine environment, they are exposed to environmental stressors, such as sunlight and predation. Previous research has investigated the fate of individual sewage microorganisms in seawater but not the entire sewage microbial community. The present study used next-generation sequencing (NGS) to examine how the microbial community in sewage-impacted seawater changes over 48 h when exposed to natural sunlight cycles and marine microbiota. We compared the results from microcosms composed of unfiltered seawater (containing naturally occurring marine microbiota) and filtered seawater (containing no marine microbiota) to investigate the effect of marine microbiota. We also compared the results from microcosms that were exposed to natural sunlight cycles with those from microcosms kept in the dark to investigate the effect of sunlight. The microbial community composition and the relative abundance of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) changed over 48 h in all microcosms. Exposure to sunlight had a significant effect on both community composition and OTU abundance. The effect of marine microbiota, however, was minimal. The proportion of sewage-derived microorganisms present in the microcosms decreased rapidly within 48 h, and the decrease was the most pronounced in the presence of both sunlight and marine microbiota, where the proportion decreased from 85% to 3% of the total microbial community. The results from this study demonstrate the strong effect that sunlight has on microbial community composition, as measured by NGS, and the importance of considering temporal effects in future applications of NGS to identify microbial pollution sources. PMID:25576619

  20. Temporal stability of the microbial community in sewage-polluted seawater exposed to natural sunlight cycles and marine microbiota.

    PubMed

    Sassoubre, Lauren M; Yamahara, Kevan M; Boehm, Alexandria B

    2015-03-01

    Billions of gallons of untreated wastewater enter the coastal ocean each year. Once sewage microorganisms are in the marine environment, they are exposed to environmental stressors, such as sunlight and predation. Previous research has investigated the fate of individual sewage microorganisms in seawater but not the entire sewage microbial community. The present study used next-generation sequencing (NGS) to examine how the microbial community in sewage-impacted seawater changes over 48 h when exposed to natural sunlight cycles and marine microbiota. We compared the results from microcosms composed of unfiltered seawater (containing naturally occurring marine microbiota) and filtered seawater (containing no marine microbiota) to investigate the effect of marine microbiota. We also compared the results from microcosms that were exposed to natural sunlight cycles with those from microcosms kept in the dark to investigate the effect of sunlight. The microbial community composition and the relative abundance of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) changed over 48 h in all microcosms. Exposure to sunlight had a significant effect on both community composition and OTU abundance. The effect of marine microbiota, however, was minimal. The proportion of sewage-derived microorganisms present in the microcosms decreased rapidly within 48 h, and the decrease was the most pronounced in the presence of both sunlight and marine microbiota, where the proportion decreased from 85% to 3% of the total microbial community. The results from this study demonstrate the strong effect that sunlight has on microbial community composition, as measured by NGS, and the importance of considering temporal effects in future applications of NGS to identify microbial pollution sources. PMID:25576619

  1. Temporal stability of the microbial community in sewage-polluted seawater exposed to natural sunlight cycles and marine microbiota.

    PubMed

    Sassoubre, Lauren M; Yamahara, Kevan M; Boehm, Alexandria B

    2015-03-01

    Billions of gallons of untreated wastewater enter the coastal ocean each year. Once sewage microorganisms are in the marine environment, they are exposed to environmental stressors, such as sunlight and predation. Previous research has investigated the fate of individual sewage microorganisms in seawater but not the entire sewage microbial community. The present study used next-generation sequencing (NGS) to examine how the microbial community in sewage-impacted seawater changes over 48 h when exposed to natural sunlight cycles and marine microbiota. We compared the results from microcosms composed of unfiltered seawater (containing naturally occurring marine microbiota) and filtered seawater (containing no marine microbiota) to investigate the effect of marine microbiota. We also compared the results from microcosms that were exposed to natural sunlight cycles with those from microcosms kept in the dark to investigate the effect of sunlight. The microbial community composition and the relative abundance of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) changed over 48 h in all microcosms. Exposure to sunlight had a significant effect on both community composition and OTU abundance. The effect of marine microbiota, however, was minimal. The proportion of sewage-derived microorganisms present in the microcosms decreased rapidly within 48 h, and the decrease was the most pronounced in the presence of both sunlight and marine microbiota, where the proportion decreased from 85% to 3% of the total microbial community. The results from this study demonstrate the strong effect that sunlight has on microbial community composition, as measured by NGS, and the importance of considering temporal effects in future applications of NGS to identify microbial pollution sources.

  2. Lessons from the past and charting the future of marine natural products drug discovery and chemical biology

    PubMed Central

    Gerwick, William H.; Moore, Bradley S.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Marine life forms are an important source of structurally-diverse and biologically-active secondary metabolites, several of which have inspired the development of new classes of therapeutic agents. These success stories have had to overcome difficulties inherent to natural products-derived drugs, such as adequate sourcing of the agent and issues related to structural complexity. Nevertheless, several marine-derived agents are now approved, most as `first-in-class' drugs, with 5 of 7 appearing in the past few years. Additionally, there is a rich pipeline of clinical and pre-clinical marine compounds to suggest their continued application in human medicine. Understanding of how these agents are biosynthetically assembled has accelerated in recent years, especially through interdisciplinary approaches, and innovative manipulations and re-engineering of some of these gene clusters are yielding novel agents of enhanced pharmaceutical properties compared with the natural product. PMID:22284357

  3. Natural gas: marine transportation. 1964-October, 1981 (citations from the NTIS Data Base). Report for 1964-Oct 81

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-11-01

    Abstracts are presented of studies on various aspects of marine transportation of liquefied natural gas. This includes reports on forecasts, cargo tank design, terminal facilities, spills, safety aspects, special tanker design, and handling equipment. (This updated bibliography contains 162 citations, 19 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  4. Natural gas: marine transportation. 1964-June, 1980 (citations from the NTIS data base). Report for 1964-June 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Habercom, G.E. Jr

    1980-07-01

    Abstracts are presented of studies on various aspects of marine transportation of liquefied natural gas. This includes reports on forecasts, cargo tank design, terminal facilities, spills, safety aspects, special tanker design, and handling equipment. (This updated bibliography contains 143 citations, 8 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  5. Expanding the Described Metabolome of the Marine Cyanobacterium Moorea producens JHB through Orthogonal Natural Products Workflows.

    PubMed

    Boudreau, Paul D; Monroe, Emily A; Mehrotra, Suneet; Desfor, Shane; Korobeynikov, Anton; Sherman, David H; Murray, Thomas F; Gerwick, Lena; Dorrestein, Pieter C; Gerwick, William H

    2015-01-01

    Moorea producens JHB, a Jamaican strain of tropical filamentous marine cyanobacteria, has been extensively studied by traditional natural products techniques. These previous bioassay and structure guided isolations led to the discovery of two exciting classes of natural products, hectochlorin (1) and jamaicamides A (2) and B (3). In the current study, mass spectrometry-based 'molecular networking' was used to visualize the metabolome of Moorea producens JHB, and both guided and enhanced the isolation workflow, revealing additional metabolites in these compound classes. Further, we developed additional insight into the metabolic capabilities of this strain by genome sequencing analysis, which subsequently led to the isolation of a compound unrelated to the jamaicamide and hectochlorin families. Another approach involved stimulation of the biosynthesis of a minor jamaicamide metabolite by cultivation in modified media, and provided insights about the underlying biosynthetic machinery as well as preliminary structure-activity information within this structure class. This study demonstrated that these orthogonal approaches are complementary and enrich secondary metabolomic coverage even in an extensively studied bacterial strain.

  6. Human excretory products of selenium are natural constituents of marine fish muscle.

    PubMed

    Kroepfl, Nina; Jensen, Kenneth B; Francesconi, Kevin A; Kuehnelt, Doris

    2015-10-01

    A selenosugar (selenosugar 1, methyl-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-1-seleno-β-D-galactopyranoside) was identified in aqueous extracts of muscle tissue of three marine fish species, mackerel (Scomber scombrus), sardine (Sardina pilchardus), and tuna (Thunnus albacares), by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to elemental and high-resolution molecular mass spectrometry. Selenoneine (2-selenyl-Nα, Nα, Nα-trimethyl-L-histidine), a known selenium compound in fish, was the major form of selenium in the aqueous extracts, and the methylated derivative of selenoneine, namely Se-methylselenoneine, was also identified as a minor natural constituent in the fish. Selenosugar 1, a major urinary excretion product of selenium often found in organs and body fluids related to selenium excretion, has so far not been reported in muscle tissue. Se-methylselenoneine has been proposed as the main urinary metabolite from selenoneine. This first report of selenosugar 1 and Se-methylselenoneine as natural constituents of fish muscle tissue opens up a new perspective on the role of these compounds in selenium metabolism and is relevant to selenium supplementation studies. PMID:26253229

  7. Expanding the Described Metabolome of the Marine Cyanobacterium Moorea producens JHB through Orthogonal Natural Products Workflows

    PubMed Central

    Boudreau, Paul D.; Monroe, Emily A.; Mehrotra, Suneet; Desfor, Shane; Korobeynikov, Anton; Sherman, David H.; Murray, Thomas F.; Gerwick, Lena; Dorrestein, Pieter C.; Gerwick, William H.

    2015-01-01

    Moorea producens JHB, a Jamaican strain of tropical filamentous marine cyanobacteria, has been extensively studied by traditional natural products techniques. These previous bioassay and structure guided isolations led to the discovery of two exciting classes of natural products, hectochlorin (1) and jamaicamides A (2) and B (3). In the current study, mass spectrometry-based ‘molecular networking’ was used to visualize the metabolome of Moorea producens JHB, and both guided and enhanced the isolation workflow, revealing additional metabolites in these compound classes. Further, we developed additional insight into the metabolic capabilities of this strain by genome sequencing analysis, which subsequently led to the isolation of a compound unrelated to the jamaicamide and hectochlorin families. Another approach involved stimulation of the biosynthesis of a minor jamaicamide metabolite by cultivation in modified media, and provided insights about the underlying biosynthetic machinery as well as preliminary structure-activity information within this structure class. This study demonstrated that these orthogonal approaches are complementary and enrich secondary metabolomic coverage even in an extensively studied bacterial strain. PMID:26222584

  8. Impact of environmental conditions on the marine natural product bryostatin 1.

    PubMed

    Manning, Thomas J; Rhodes, Emily; Land, Michael; Parkman, Render; Sumner, Brandy; Lam, Tukiet T; Marshall, Alan G; Phillips, Dennis

    2006-05-20

    Marine Natural Products (MNPs), such as bryostatin 1, are exposed to a range of physical and chemical conditions through the life cycle of the host organism. These include exposure to sunlight, oxidizing and reducing agents, cation binding, and adsorption to reactive metal oxide surfaces. Using Fourier Transform-Ion Cyclotron Resonance (FT-ICR), Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-MS), UV/Vis absorbance spectroscopy, and molecular modeling, we studied the impact of UV light, TiO2, I2, and reaction with FeCl3 on the structure of bryostatin 1. Our results demonstrate that natural conditions transform bryostatin to a number of structures, including one with a molar mass of 806 Da, which we have previously identified in the sediment collected from the Gulf of Mexico. To date, at least 20 different structures of bryostatin have been reported in the literature. This work suggests that these variations may be products of the chemical environment in which the bryozoa Bugula neritina resides and are not the result of genetic variations within Bugula.

  9. Marine and soil derived natural products: a new source of novel cardiovascular protective agents targeting the endothelin system.

    PubMed

    Planes, Nadir; Caballero-George, Catherina

    2015-06-01

    Inhibition of the endothelin system is a recognized therapeutic approach for treating complex cardiovascular diseases. The search for natural inhibitors of the endothelin system has focused mainly on land, with recent, emerging data suggesting the underestimated potential of marine microorganisms for producing leads with cardioprotective potential. The present work reviews natural products identified as inhibitors of the endothelin system, their origin, their mechanism of action, and their ecological significance.

  10. Analyses of sublittoral macrobenthic community change in a marine nature reserve using similarity profiles (SIMPROF).

    PubMed

    Somerfield, P J; Burton, M; Sanderson, W G

    2014-12-01

    Sublittoral macrobenthic communities in the Skomer Marine Nature Reserve (SMNR), Pembrokeshire, Wales, were sampled at 10 stations in 1993, 1996, 1998, 2003, 2007 and 2009 using a Day grab and a 0.5 mm mesh. The time series is analysed using Similarities Profiles (SIMPROF) tests and associated methods. Q-mode analysis using clustering with Type 1 SIMPROF addresses multivariate structure among samples, showing that there is clear structure associated with differences among years. Inverse (r-mode) analysis using Type 2 SIMPROF decisively rejects a hypothesis that species are not associated with each other. Clustering of the variables (species) with Type 3 SIMPROF identifies groups of species which covary coherently through the time-series. The time-series is characterised by a dramatic decline in abundances and diversity between the 1993 and 1996 surveys. By 1998 there had been a shift in community composition from the 1993 situation, with different species dominating. Communities had recovered in terms of abundance and species richness, but different species dominated the community. No single factor could be identified which unequivocally explained the dramatic changes observed in the SMNR. Possible causes were the effects of dispersed oil and dispersants from the Sea Empress oil spill in February 1996 and the cessation of dredge-spoil disposal off St Annes Head in 1995, but the most likely cause was severe weather. With many species, and a demonstrable recovery from an impact, communities within the SMNR appear to be diverse and resilient. If attributable to natural storms, the changes observed here indicate that natural variability may be much more important than is generally taken into account in the design of monitoring programmes. PMID:25012227

  11. Marine fungal diversity: a comparison of natural and created salt marshes of the north-central Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Walker, Allison K; Campbell, Jinx

    2010-01-01

    Marine fungal communities of created salt marshes of differing ages were compared with those of two reference natural salt marshes. Marine fungi occurring on the lower 30 cm of salt marsh plants Spartina alterniflora and Juncus roemerianus were inventoried with morphological and molecular methods (ITS T-RFLP analysis) to determine fungal species richness, relative frequency of occurrence and ascomata density. The resulting profiles revealed similar fungal communities in natural salt marshes and created salt marshes 3 y old and older with a 1.5 y old created marsh showing less fungal colonization. A 26 y old created salt marsh consistently exhibited the highest fungal species richness. Ascomata density of the dominant fungal species on each host was significantly higher in natural marshes than in created marshes at all three sampling dates. This study indicates marine fungal saprotroph communities are present in these manmade coastal salt marshes as early as 1 y after marsh creation. The lower regions of both plant hosts were dominated by a small number of marine ascomycete species consistent with those species previously reported from salt marshes of the East Coast of USA. PMID:20524584

  12. Marine fungal diversity: a comparison of natural and created salt marshes of the north-central Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Walker, Allison K; Campbell, Jinx

    2010-01-01

    Marine fungal communities of created salt marshes of differing ages were compared with those of two reference natural salt marshes. Marine fungi occurring on the lower 30 cm of salt marsh plants Spartina alterniflora and Juncus roemerianus were inventoried with morphological and molecular methods (ITS T-RFLP analysis) to determine fungal species richness, relative frequency of occurrence and ascomata density. The resulting profiles revealed similar fungal communities in natural salt marshes and created salt marshes 3 y old and older with a 1.5 y old created marsh showing less fungal colonization. A 26 y old created salt marsh consistently exhibited the highest fungal species richness. Ascomata density of the dominant fungal species on each host was significantly higher in natural marshes than in created marshes at all three sampling dates. This study indicates marine fungal saprotroph communities are present in these manmade coastal salt marshes as early as 1 y after marsh creation. The lower regions of both plant hosts were dominated by a small number of marine ascomycete species consistent with those species previously reported from salt marshes of the East Coast of USA.

  13. A Selective Account of Effective Paradigms and Significant Outcomes in the Discovery of Inspirational Marine Natural Products⊥†

    PubMed Central

    Sashidhara, Koneni V.; White, Kimberly N.; Crews, Phillip

    2009-01-01

    Marine natural products continue to be a source of significant molecular structures that serve as a stimulus to seed further significant research. This account reviews some of the major advances in the study of marine biomolecules made at UC Santa Cruz over more than three decades. The continuing challenge of discovery and characterization of what we term “inspirational molecular structures”, will be presented in a comprehensive fashion. Examples of privileged molecular structures and their impact on biomedicinal research will be an important theme. The three major groups of organisms explored include: seaweeds, sponges, and marine derived fungi, and the study of their active principles has greatly benefited from synergistic collaborations with both academic and biopharmaceutical groups. The concluding sections of this chronicle will touch on prospects for future outcomes involving new sources and strategies. PMID:19209899

  14. Marine Antimicrobial Peptides: Nature Provides Templates for the Design of Novel Compounds against Pathogenic Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Falanga, Annarita; Lombardi, Lucia; Franci, Gianluigi; Vitiello, Mariateresa; Iovene, Maria Rosaria; Morelli, Giancarlo; Galdiero, Massimiliano; Galdiero, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of antibiotics for the treatment of bacterial infections brought the idea that bacteria would no longer endanger human health. However, bacterial diseases still represent a worldwide treat. The ability of microorganisms to develop resistance, together with the indiscriminate use of antibiotics, is mainly responsible for this situation; thus, resistance has compelled the scientific community to search for novel therapeutics. In this scenario, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) provide a promising strategy against a wide array of pathogenic microorganisms, being able to act directly as antimicrobial agents but also being important regulators of the innate immune system. This review is an attempt to explore marine AMPs as a rich source of molecules with antimicrobial activity. In fact, the sea is poorly explored in terms of AMPs, but it represents a resource with plentiful antibacterial agents performing their role in a harsh environment. For the application of AMPs in the medical field limitations correlated to their peptide nature, their inactivation by environmental pH, presence of salts, proteases, or other components have to be solved. Thus, these peptides may act as templates for the design of more potent and less toxic compounds. PMID:27213366

  15. Conversion of natural marine skeletons as scaffolds for bone tissue engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xing; Vecchio, Kenneth S.

    2013-06-01

    Marine CaCO3 skeletons have tailored architectures created by nature, which give them structural support and other functions. For example, seashells have dense lamellar structures, while coral, cuttlebone and sea urchin spines have interconnected porous structures. In our experiments, seashells, coral and cuttlebone were hydrothermally converted to hydroxyapatite (HAP), and sea urchin spines were converted to Mg-substituted tricalcium phosphate, while maintaining their original structures. Partially converted shell samples have mechanical strength, which is close to that of compact human bone. After implantation of converted shell and spine samples in rat femoral defects for 6 weeks, there was newly formed bone growth up to and around the implants. Some new bone was found to migrate through the pores of converted spine samples and grow inward. These results show good bioactivity and osteoconductivity of the implants, indicating the converted shell and spine samples can be used as bone defect fillers. The interconnected porous HAP scaffolds from converted coral or cuttlebone that have pore size larger than 100 ?m likely support infiltration of bone cells and vessels, and finally encourage new bone ingrowth.

  16. Environmental solutions for the sustainable production of bioactive natural products from the marine sponge Crambe crambe.

    PubMed

    Pérez-López, Paula; Ternon, Eva; González-García, Sara; Genta-Jouve, Grégory; Feijoo, Gumersindo; Thomas, Olivier P; Moreira, Ma Teresa

    2014-03-15

    Crambe crambe is a Mediterranean marine sponge known to produce original natural substances belonging to two families of guanidine alkaloids, namely crambescins and crambescidins, which exhibit cytotoxic and antiviral activities. These compounds are therefore considered as potential anticancer drugs. The present study focuses on the environmental assessment of a novel in vivo process for the production of pure crambescin and crambescidin using sponge specimens cultured in aquarium. The assessment was performed following the ISO 14040 standard and extended from the production of the different mass and energy flows to the system to the growth of the sponge in indoor aquarium and further periodic extraction and purification of the bioactive compounds. According to the results, the two stages that have a remarkable contribution to all impact categories are the purification of the bioactive molecules followed by the maintenance of the sponge culture in the aquarium. Among the involved activities, the production of the chemicals (particularly methanol) together with the electricity requirements (especially due to the aquarium lighting) are responsible for up to 90% of the impact in most of the assessed categories. However, the contributions of other stages to the environmental burdens, such as the collection of sponges, considerably depend on the assumptions made during the inventory stage. The simulation of alternative scenarios has led to propose improvement alternatives that may allow significant reductions ranging from 20% to 70%, mainly thanks to the reduction of electricity requirements as well as the partial reuse of methanol.

  17. Screening of Marine Actinomycetes from Segara Anakan for Natural Pigment and Hydrolytic Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asnani, A.; Ryandini, D.; Suwandri

    2016-02-01

    Marine actinomycetes have become sources of great interest to natural product chemistry due to their new chemical entities and bioactive metabolites. Since April 2010, we have screened actinobacteria from five sites that represent different ecosystems of Segara Anakan lagoon. In this present study we focus on specific isolates, K-2C which covers 1) actinomycetes identification based on morphology observation and 16S rRNA gene; 2) fermentation and isolation of pigment; 3) structure determination of pigment; and 4) hydrolytic enzymes characterization; Methodologies relevant to the studies were implemented accordingly. The results indicated that K-2C was likely Streptomyces fradiae strain RSU15, and the best fermentation medium should contain starch and casein with 21 days of incubation. The isolate has extracellular as well as intracellular pigments. Isolated pigments gave purple color with λmax of 529.00 nm. The pigment was structurally characterized. Interestingly, Streptomyces K-2C was able to produce potential hydrolytic enzymes such as amylase, cellulase, protease, lipase, urease, and nitrate reductase.

  18. Marine Antimicrobial Peptides: Nature Provides Templates for the Design of Novel Compounds against Pathogenic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Falanga, Annarita; Lombardi, Lucia; Franci, Gianluigi; Vitiello, Mariateresa; Iovene, Maria Rosaria; Morelli, Giancarlo; Galdiero, Massimiliano; Galdiero, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of antibiotics for the treatment of bacterial infections brought the idea that bacteria would no longer endanger human health. However, bacterial diseases still represent a worldwide treat. The ability of microorganisms to develop resistance, together with the indiscriminate use of antibiotics, is mainly responsible for this situation; thus, resistance has compelled the scientific community to search for novel therapeutics. In this scenario, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) provide a promising strategy against a wide array of pathogenic microorganisms, being able to act directly as antimicrobial agents but also being important regulators of the innate immune system. This review is an attempt to explore marine AMPs as a rich source of molecules with antimicrobial activity. In fact, the sea is poorly explored in terms of AMPs, but it represents a resource with plentiful antibacterial agents performing their role in a harsh environment. For the application of AMPs in the medical field limitations correlated to their peptide nature, their inactivation by environmental pH, presence of salts, proteases, or other components have to be solved. Thus, these peptides may act as templates for the design of more potent and less toxic compounds. PMID:27213366

  19. Targeted metagenomics as a tool to tap into marine natural product diversity for the discovery and production of drug candidates

    PubMed Central

    Trindade, Marla; van Zyl, Leonardo Joaquim; Navarro-Fernández, José; Abd Elrazak, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Microbial natural products exhibit immense structural diversity and complexity and have captured the attention of researchers for several decades. They have been explored for a wide spectrum of applications, most noteworthy being their prominent role in medicine, and their versatility expands to application as drugs for many diseases. Accessing unexplored environments harboring unique microorganisms is expected to yield novel bioactive metabolites with distinguishing functionalities, which can be supplied to the starved pharmaceutical market. For this purpose the oceans have turned out to be an attractive and productive field. Owing to the enormous biodiversity of marine microorganisms, as well as the growing evidence that many metabolites previously isolated from marine invertebrates and algae are actually produced by their associated bacteria, the interest in marine microorganisms has intensified. Since the majority of the microorganisms are uncultured, metagenomic tools are required to exploit the untapped biochemistry. However, after years of employing metagenomics for marine drug discovery, new drugs are vastly under-represented. While a plethora of natural product biosynthetic genes and clusters are reported, only a minor number of potential therapeutic compounds have resulted through functional metagenomic screening. This review explores specific obstacles that have led to the low success rate. In addition to the typical problems encountered with traditional functional metagenomic-based screens for novel biocatalysts, there are enormous limitations which are particular to drug-like metabolites. We also present how targeted and function-guided strategies, employing modern, and multi-disciplinary approaches have yielded some of the most exciting discoveries attributed to uncultured marine bacteria. These discoveries set the stage for progressing the production of drug candidates from uncultured bacteria for pre-clinical and clinical development. PMID:26379658

  20. 43 CFR 15.2 - Removal or destruction of natural features and marine life.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... marine invertebrates, seaweeds, grasses, or any soil, rock, artifacts, stones or other materials. No... this Preserve. No rope, wire or other contrivance shall be attached to any coral, rock or...

  1. Marine Invertebrate Natural Products for Anti-Inflammatory and Chronic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Senthilkumar, Kalimuthu; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2013-01-01

    The marine environment represents a relatively available source of functional ingredients that can be applied to various aspects of food processing, storage, and fortification. Moreover, numerous marine invertebrates based compounds have biological activities and also interfere with the pathogenesis of diseases. Isolated compounds from marine invertebrates have been shown to pharmacological activities and are helpful for the invention and discovery of bioactive compounds, primarily for deadly diseases like cancer, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), osteoporosis, and so forth. Extensive research within the last decade has revealed that most chronic illnesses such as cancer, neurological diseases, diabetes, and autoimmune diseases exhibit dysregulation of multiple cell signaling pathways that have been linked to inflammation. On the basis of their bioactive properties, this review focuses on the potential use of marine invertebrate derived compounds on anti-inflammatory and some chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, diabetes, HIV, and cancer. PMID:24489586

  2. Marine Low Molecular Weight Natural Products as Potential Cancer Preventive Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Stonik, Valentin A.; Fedorov, Sergey N.

    2014-01-01

    Due to taxonomic positions and special living environments, marine organisms produce secondary metabolites that possess unique structures and biological activities. This review is devoted to recently isolated and/or earlier described marine compounds with potential or established cancer preventive activities, their biological sources, molecular mechanisms of their action, and their associations with human health and nutrition. The review covers literature published in 2003–2013 years and focuses on findings of the last 2 years. PMID:24473167

  3. Structures and comparative characterization of biosynthetic gene clusters for cyanosporasides, enediyne-derived natural products from marine actinomycetes.

    PubMed

    Lane, Amy L; Nam, Sang-Jip; Fukuda, Takashi; Yamanaka, Kazuya; Kauffman, Christopher A; Jensen, Paul R; Fenical, William; Moore, Bradley S

    2013-03-20

    Cyanosporasides are marine bacterial natural products containing a chlorinated cyclopenta[a]indene core of suspected enediyne polyketide biosynthetic origin. Herein, we report the isolation and characterization of novel cyanosporasides C-F (3-6) from the marine actinomycetes Salinispora pacifica CNS-143 and Streptomyces sp. CNT-179, highlighted by the unprecedented C-2' N-acetylcysteamine functionalized hexose group of 6. Cloning, sequencing, and mutagenesis of homologous ~50 kb cyanosporaside biosynthetic gene clusters from both bacteria afforded the first genetic evidence supporting cyanosporaside's enediyne, and thereby p-benzyne biradical, biosynthetic origin and revealed the molecular basis for nitrile and glycosyl functionalization. This study provides new opportunities for bioengineering of enediyne derivatives and expands the structural diversity afforded by enediyne gene clusters.

  4. Towards adaptive management of the natural capital: Disentangling trade-offs among marine activities and seagrass meadows.

    PubMed

    Bas Ventín, Leticia; de Souza Troncoso, Jesús; Villasante, Sebastián

    2015-12-15

    This paper investigates the ecological, social and institutional dimensions of the synergies and trade-offs between seagrasses and human activities operating in the Natura 2000 protected site of San Simón Bay (Galicia, NW Spain). By means of a multidisciplinary approach that brings together the development of a biological inventory combined with participatory mapping processes we get key spatial and contextual understanding regarding how, where and why marine users interact with seagrasses and how seagrasses are considered in policy making. The results highlight the fisheries' reliance on seagrass meadows and the controversial links with shellfisheries. The study also reveals unresolved conflicts among those management plans that promote the protection of natural values and those responsible for the exploitation of marine resources. We conclude that the adoption of pre-planning bottom-up participatory processes is crucial for the design of realistic strategies where both seagrasses and human activities were considered as a couple system.

  5. Towards adaptive management of the natural capital: Disentangling trade-offs among marine activities and seagrass meadows.

    PubMed

    Bas Ventín, Leticia; de Souza Troncoso, Jesús; Villasante, Sebastián

    2015-12-15

    This paper investigates the ecological, social and institutional dimensions of the synergies and trade-offs between seagrasses and human activities operating in the Natura 2000 protected site of San Simón Bay (Galicia, NW Spain). By means of a multidisciplinary approach that brings together the development of a biological inventory combined with participatory mapping processes we get key spatial and contextual understanding regarding how, where and why marine users interact with seagrasses and how seagrasses are considered in policy making. The results highlight the fisheries' reliance on seagrass meadows and the controversial links with shellfisheries. The study also reveals unresolved conflicts among those management plans that promote the protection of natural values and those responsible for the exploitation of marine resources. We conclude that the adoption of pre-planning bottom-up participatory processes is crucial for the design of realistic strategies where both seagrasses and human activities were considered as a couple system. PMID:26589639

  6. Structures and comparative characterization of biosynthetic gene clusters for cyanosporasides, enediyne-derived natural products from marine actinomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Amy L.; Nam, Sang Jip; Fukuda, Takashi; Yamanaka, Kazuya; Kauffman, Christopher A.; Jensen, Paul R.; Fenical, William; Moore, Bradley S.

    2013-01-01

    Cyanosporasides are marine bacterial natural products containing a chlorinated cyclopenta[a]indene core of suspected enediyne polyketide biosynthetic origin. Herein, we report the isolation and characterization of novel cyanosporasides C–F (3–6) from the marine actinomycetes “Salinispora pacifica” CNS-143 and Streptomyces sp. CNT-179, highlighted by the unprecedented C-2' N-acetylcysteamine functionalized hexose group of 6. Cloning, sequencing, and mutagenesis of homologous ~50 kb cyanosporaside biosynthetic gene clusters from both bacteria afforded the first genetic evidence supporting cyanosporaside's enediyne, and thereby p-benzyne biradical, biosynthetic origin and revealed the molecular basis for nitrile and glycosyl functionalization. This study provides new opportunities for bioengineering of enediyne derivatives and expands the structural diversity afforded by enediyne gene clusters. PMID:23458364

  7. Targeting apoptosis pathways by natural compounds in cancer: marine compounds as lead structures and chemical tools for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    von Schwarzenberg, Karin; Vollmar, Angelika M

    2013-05-28

    Natural compounds derived from marine organisms have shown a wide variety of anti-tumor effects and a lot of attention has been drawn to further development of the isolated compounds. A vast quantity of individual chemical structures from different organisms has shown a variety of apoptosis inducing mechanisms in a variety of tumor cells. The bis-steroidal cephalostatin 1 for example, induces apoptosis via activation of caspases whereas the polyketide discodermolide inhibits cell growth by binding to and stabilizing microtubule and salisporamide A, the product of an actinobacterial strain, is an inhibitor of the proteasome. This great variety of mechanisms of action can help to overcome the multitude of resistances exhibited by different tumor specimens. Products from marine organisms and their synthetic derivates are therefore an important source for new therapeutics for single agent or combined therapy with other chemotherapeutics to support the struggle against cancer.

  8. Natural Marine and Synthetic Xenobiotics Get on Nematode’s Nerves: Neuro-Stimulating and Neurotoxic Findings in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Lieke, Thora; Steinberg, Christian E. W.; Ju, Jingjuan; Saul, Nadine

    2015-01-01

    Marine algae release a plethora of organic halogenated compounds, many of them with unknown ecological impact if environmentally realistic concentrations are applied. One major compound is dibromoacetic acid (DBAA) which was tested for neurotoxicity in the invertebrate model organism Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). This natural compound was compared with the widespread synthetic xenobiotic tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBP-A) found in marine sediments and mussels. We found a neuro-stimulating effect for DBAA; this is contradictory to existing toxicological reports of mammals that applied comparatively high dosages. For TBBP-A, we found a hormetic concentration-effect relationship. As chemicals rarely occur isolated in the environment, a combination of both organobromines was also examined. Surprisingly, the presence of DBAA increased the toxicity of TBBP-A. Our results demonstrated that organohalogens have the potential to affect single organisms especially by altering the neurological processes, even with promoting effects on exposed organisms. PMID:25955755

  9. Potential Pharmacological Resources: Natural Bioactive Compounds from Marine-Derived Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Liming; Quan, Chunshan; Hou, Xiyan; Fan, Shengdi

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, a considerable number of structurally unique metabolites with biological and pharmacological activities have been isolated from the marine-derived fungi, such as polyketides, alkaloids, peptides, lactones, terpenoids and steroids. Some of these compounds have anticancer, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antibiotic and cytotoxic properties. This review partially summarizes the new bioactive compounds from marine-derived fungi with classification according to the sources of fungi and their biological activities. Those fungi found from 2014 to the present are discussed. PMID:27110799

  10. Potential Pharmacological Resources: Natural Bioactive Compounds from Marine-Derived Fungi.

    PubMed

    Jin, Liming; Quan, Chunshan; Hou, Xiyan; Fan, Shengdi

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, a considerable number of structurally unique metabolites with biological and pharmacological activities have been isolated from the marine-derived fungi, such as polyketides, alkaloids, peptides, lactones, terpenoids and steroids. Some of these compounds have anticancer, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antibiotic and cytotoxic properties. This review partially summarizes the new bioactive compounds from marine-derived fungi with classification according to the sources of fungi and their biological activities. Those fungi found from 2014 to the present are discussed.

  11. Communicating natural hazards. The case of marine extreme events and the importance of the forecast's errors.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marone, Eduardo; Camargo, Ricardo

    2013-04-01

    Scientific knowledge has to fulfill some necessary conditions. Among them, it has to be properly communicated. Usually, scientists (mis)understand that the communication requirement is satisfied by publishing their results on peer reviewed journals. Society claims for information in other formats or languages and other tools and approaches have to be used, otherwise the scientific discoveries will not fulfill its social mean. However, scientists are not so well trained to do so. These facts are particularly relevant when the scientific work has to deal with natural hazards, which do not affect just a lab or a computer experiment, but the life and fate of human beings. We are actually working with marine extreme events related with sea level changes, waves and other coastal hazards. Primary, the work is developed on the classic scientific format, but focusing not only in the stochastic way of predicting such extreme events, but estimating the potential errors the forecasting methodologies intrinsically have. The scientific results are translated to a friendly format required by stakeholders (which are financing part of the work). Finally, we hope to produce a document prepared for the general public. Each of the targets has their own characteristics and we have to use the proper communication tools and languages. Also, when communicating such knowledge, we have to consider that stakeholders and general public have no obligation of understanding the scientific language, but scientists have the responsibility of translating their discoveries and predictions in a proper way. The information on coastal hazards is analyzed in statistical and numerical ways, departing from long term observation of, for instance, sea level. From the analysis it is possible to recognize different natural regimes and to present the return times of extreme events, while from the numerical models, properly tuned to reproduce the same past ocean behavior using hindcast approaches, it is

  12. Examining the fish microbiome: vertebrate-derived bacteria as an environmental niche for the discovery of unique marine natural products.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Laura M; Wong, Weng Ruh; Riener, Romina M; Schulze, Christopher J; Linington, Roger G

    2012-01-01

    Historically, marine invertebrates have been a prolific source of unique natural products, with a diverse array of biological activities. Recent studies of invertebrate-associated microbial communities are revealing microorganisms as the true producers of many of these compounds. Inspired by the human microbiome project, which has highlighted the human intestine as a unique microenvironment in terms of microbial diversity, we elected to examine the bacterial communities of fish intestines (which we have termed the fish microbiome) as a new source of microbial and biosynthetic diversity for natural products discovery. To test the hypothesis that the fish microbiome contains microorganisms with unique capacity for biosynthesizing natural products, we examined six species of fish through a combination of dissection and culture-dependent evaluation of intestinal microbial communities. Using isolation media designed to enrich for marine Actinobacteria, we have found three main clades that show taxonomic divergence from known strains, several of which are previously uncultured. Extracts from these strains exhibit a wide range of activities against both gram-positive and gram-negative human pathogens, as well as several fish pathogens. Exploration of one of these extracts has identified the novel bioactive lipid sebastenoic acid as an anti-microbial agent, with activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecium, and Vibrio mimicus.

  13. Carotenoids from Marine Microalgae: A Valuable Natural Source for the Prevention of Chronic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Raposo, Maria Filomena de Jesus; de Morais, Alcina Maria Miranda Bernardo; de Morais, Rui Manuel Santos Costa

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown a relation between antioxidants and the prevention of several chronic diseases. Microalgae are a potential novel source of bioactive molecules, including a wide range of different carotenoids that can be used as nutraceuticals, food supplements and novel food products. The objective of this review is (i) to update the research that has been carried out on the most known carotenoids produced by marine microalgae, including reporting on their high potentialities to produce other less known important compounds; (ii) to compile the work that has been done in order to establish some relationship between carotenoids and oxidative protection and treatment; (iii) to summarize the association of oxidative stress and the various reactive species including free radicals with several human diseases; and (iv) to provide evidence of the potential of carotenoids from marine microalgae to be used as therapeutics to treat or prevent these oxidative stress-related diseases. PMID:26287216

  14. Marine biology

    SciTech Connect

    Thurman, H.V.; Webber, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses both taxonomic and ecological topics on marine biology. Full coverage of marine organisms of all five kingdoms is provided, along with interesting and thorough discussion of all major marine habitats. Organization into six major parts allows flexibility. It also provides insight into important topics such as disposal of nuclear waste at sea, the idea that life began on the ocean floor, and how whales, krill, and people interact. A full-color photo chapter reviews questions, and exercises. The contents are: an overview marine biology: fundamental concepts/investigating life in the ocean; the physical ocean, the ocean floor, the nature of water, the nature and motion of ocean water; general ecology, conditions for life in the sea, biological productivity and energy transfer; marine organisms; monera, protista, mycota and metaphyta; the smaller marine animals, the large animals marine habitats, the intertidal zone/benthos of the continental shelf, the photic zone, the deep ocean, the ocean under stress, marine pollution, appendix a: the metric system and conversion factors/ appendix b: prefixes and suffixes/ appendix c: taxonomic classification of common marine organisms, and glossary, and index.

  15. On the Nature and Extent of Optically Thin Marine low Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leahy, L. V.; Wood, R.; Charlson, R. J.; Hostetler, C. A.; Rogers, R. R.; Vaughan, M. A.; Winker, D. M.

    2012-01-01

    Macrophysical properties of optically thin marine low clouds over the nonpolar oceans (60 deg S-60 deg N) are measured using 2 years of full-resolution nighttime data from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP). Optically thin clouds, defined as the subset of marine low clouds that do not fully attenuate the lidar signal, comprise almost half of the low clouds over the marine domain. Regionally, the fraction of low clouds that are optically thin (f(sub thin,cld)) exhibits a strong inverse relationship with the low-cloud cover, with maxima in the tropical trades (f(sub thin,cld) greater than 0.8) and minima in regions of persistent marine stratocumulus and in midlatitudes (f(sub thin,cld) less than 0.3). Domain-wide, a power law fit describes the cloud length distribution, with exponent beta = 2.03 +/- 0.06 (+/-95% confidence interval). On average, the fraction of a cloud that is optically thin decreases from approximately 1 for clouds smaller than 2 km to less than 0.3 for clouds larger than 30 km. This relationship is found to be independent of region, so that geographical variations in the cloud length distribution explain three quarters of the variance in f(sub thin,cld). Comparing collocated trade cumulus observations from CALIOP and the airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar reveals that clouds with lengths smaller than are resolvable with CALIOP contribute approximately half of the low clouds in the region sampled. A bounded cascade model is constructed to match the observations from the trades. The model shows that the observed optically thin cloud behavior is consistent with a power law scaling of cloud optical depth and suggests that most optically thin clouds only partially fill the CALIOP footprint.

  16. Combining metagenomics with metaproteomics and stable isotope probing reveals metabolic pathways used by a naturally occurring marine methylotroph.

    PubMed

    Grob, Carolina; Taubert, Martin; Howat, Alexandra M; Burns, Oliver J; Dixon, Joanna L; Richnow, Hans H; Jehmlich, Nico; von Bergen, Martin; Chen, Yin; Murrell, J Colin

    2015-10-01

    A variety of culture-independent techniques have been developed that can be used in conjunction with culture-dependent physiological and metabolic studies of key microbial organisms in order to better understand how the activity of natural populations influences and regulates all major biogeochemical cycles. In this study, we combined deoxyribonucleic acid-stable isotope probing (DNA-SIP) with metagenomics and metaproteomics to characterize an uncultivated marine methylotroph that actively incorporated carbon from (13) C-labeled methanol into biomass. By metagenomic sequencing of the heavy DNA, we retrieved virtually the whole genome of this bacterium and determined its metabolic potential. Through protein-stable isotope probing, the RuMP cycle was established as the main carbon assimilation pathway, and the classical methanol dehydrogenase-encoding gene mxaF, as well as three out of four identified xoxF homologues were found to be expressed. This proof-of-concept study is the first in which the culture-independent techniques of DNA-SIP and protein-SIP have been used to characterize the metabolism of a naturally occurring Methylophaga-like bacterium in the marine environment (i.e. Methylophaga thiooxydans L4) and thus provides a powerful approach to access the genome and proteome of uncultivated microbes involved in key processes in the environment.

  17. Synthesis and Anti-Tuberculosis Activity of the Marine Natural Product Caulerpin and Its Analogues

    PubMed Central

    Canché Chay, Cristina I.; Gómez Cansino, Rocío; Espitia Pinzón, Clara I.; Torres-Ochoa, Rubén O.; Martínez, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Caulerpin (1a), a bis-indole alkaloid from the marine algal Caulerpa sp., was synthesized in three reaction steps with an overall yield of 11%. The caulerpin analogues (1b–1g) were prepared using the same synthetic pathway with overall yields between 3% and 8%. The key reaction involved a radical oxidative aromatic substitution involving xanthate (3) and 3-formylindole compounds (4a–4g). All bis-indole compounds synthesized were evaluated against the Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain H37Rv, and 1a was found to display excellent activity (IC50 0.24 µM). PMID:24681629

  18. Natural Abundance 14C Content of Dibutyl Phthalate (DBP) from Three Marine Algae

    PubMed Central

    Namikoshi, Michio; Fujiwara, Takeshi; Nishikawa, Teruaki; Ukai, Kazuyo

    2006-01-01

    Analysis of the natural abundance 14C content of dibutyl phthalate (DBP) from two edible brown algae, Undaria pinnatifida and Laminaria japonica, and a green alga, Ulva sp., revealed that the DBP was naturally produced. The natural abundance 14C content of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) obtained from the same algae was about 50–80% of the standard sample and the 14C content of the petrochemical (industrial) products of DBP and DEHP were below the detection limit.

  19. An ecological approach supporting the management of sea-uses and natural capital in marine coastal areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcelli, Marco; Carli, Filippo M.; Bonamano, Simone; Frattarelli, Francesco; Mancini, Emanuele; Paladini de Mendoza, Francesco; Peviani, Maximo; Piermattei, Viviana

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of our work is to create a multi-layer map of marine areas and adjacent territories (SeaUseMap), which takes into account both the different sea uses and the value of marine ecosystems, calculated on the basis of services and benefits produced by the different biocenosis. Marine coastal areas are characterized by the simultaneous presence of ecological conditions favorable to life and, at the same time, they are home to many human activities of particular economic relevance. Ecological processes occurring in coastal areas are particularly important and when we consider their contribution to the value of the "natural capital" (Costanza et Al. 1997, 2008, 2014), we can observe that this is often higher than the contribution from terrestrial ecosystems. Our work is done in northern Lazio (Civitavecchia), a highly populated area where many uses of the sea are superimposed: tourism, fisheries, industry, shipping and ports, historical and cultural heritage. Our goal is to create a tool to support decision-making, where ecosystem values and uses of the sea can be simultaneously represented. The ecosystem values are calculated based on an analysis of benthic biocoenoses: the basic ecological units that, in the Mediterranean Sea, have been identified, defined, analyzed and used since the 60s (Perez & Picard 1964) to date as a working tool (Boudouresque & Fresi 1976). Land surface, instead, was analyzed from available maps, produced within the Corine Land Cover project. Some application examples to support the decision-making are shown, with particular reference to the localization of suitable areas for wave energy production and the esteem of ecological damages generated in case of maritime accidents (e.g., Costa Concordia). According to Costanza 2008, we have developed our own operational method, which is suitable for this specific case of benefit assessment from benthic communities. In this framework, we base our strategy on the ability of the benthic

  20. Silent oceans: ocean acidification impoverishes natural soundscapes by altering sound production of the world's noisiest marine invertebrate.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Tullio; Connell, Sean D; Nagelkerken, Ivan

    2016-03-16

    Soundscapes are multidimensional spaces that carry meaningful information for many species about the location and quality of nearby and distant resources. Because soundscapes are the sum of the acoustic signals produced by individual organisms and their interactions, they can be used as a proxy for the condition of whole ecosystems and their occupants. Ocean acidification resulting from anthropogenic CO2 emissions is known to have profound effects on marine life. However, despite the increasingly recognized ecological importance of soundscapes, there is no empirical test of whether ocean acidification can affect biological sound production. Using field recordings obtained from three geographically separated natural CO2 vents, we show that forecasted end-of-century ocean acidification conditions can profoundly reduce the biological sound level and frequency of snapping shrimp snaps. Snapping shrimp were among the noisiest marine organisms and the suppression of their sound production at vents was responsible for the vast majority of the soundscape alteration observed. To assess mechanisms that could account for these observations, we tested whether long-term exposure (two to three months) to elevated CO2 induced a similar reduction in the snapping behaviour (loudness and frequency) of snapping shrimp. The results indicated that the soniferous behaviour of these animals was substantially reduced in both frequency (snaps per minute) and sound level of snaps produced. As coastal marine soundscapes are dominated by biological sounds produced by snapping shrimp, the observed suppression of this component of soundscapes could have important and possibly pervasive ecological consequences for organisms that use soundscapes as a source of information. This trend towards silence could be of particular importance for those species whose larval stages use sound for orientation towards settlement habitats. PMID:26984624

  1. Silent oceans: ocean acidification impoverishes natural soundscapes by altering sound production of the world's noisiest marine invertebrate.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Tullio; Connell, Sean D; Nagelkerken, Ivan

    2016-03-16

    Soundscapes are multidimensional spaces that carry meaningful information for many species about the location and quality of nearby and distant resources. Because soundscapes are the sum of the acoustic signals produced by individual organisms and their interactions, they can be used as a proxy for the condition of whole ecosystems and their occupants. Ocean acidification resulting from anthropogenic CO2 emissions is known to have profound effects on marine life. However, despite the increasingly recognized ecological importance of soundscapes, there is no empirical test of whether ocean acidification can affect biological sound production. Using field recordings obtained from three geographically separated natural CO2 vents, we show that forecasted end-of-century ocean acidification conditions can profoundly reduce the biological sound level and frequency of snapping shrimp snaps. Snapping shrimp were among the noisiest marine organisms and the suppression of their sound production at vents was responsible for the vast majority of the soundscape alteration observed. To assess mechanisms that could account for these observations, we tested whether long-term exposure (two to three months) to elevated CO2 induced a similar reduction in the snapping behaviour (loudness and frequency) of snapping shrimp. The results indicated that the soniferous behaviour of these animals was substantially reduced in both frequency (snaps per minute) and sound level of snaps produced. As coastal marine soundscapes are dominated by biological sounds produced by snapping shrimp, the observed suppression of this component of soundscapes could have important and possibly pervasive ecological consequences for organisms that use soundscapes as a source of information. This trend towards silence could be of particular importance for those species whose larval stages use sound for orientation towards settlement habitats.

  2. Natural gas: Marine transportation. (Latest citations from Oceanic Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, construction, and operation of ships for the transport of liquified natural gas. Topics include safety devices, materials handling equipment for loading and unloading liquified natural gas, new hull and vessel designs, gas turbine propulsion systems, cargo tank designs and requirements, and liguid load dynamics. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  3. Natural gas: Marine transportation. (Latest citations from Oceanic Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, construction, and operation of ships for the transport of liquified natural gas. Topics include safety devices, materials handling equipment for loading and unloading liquified natural gas, new hull and vessel designs, gas turbine propulsion systems, cargo tank designs and requirements, and liguid load dynamics. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  4. Applications of biomarkers for identifying sources of natural and pollutant hydrocarbons in the marine environment

    SciTech Connect

    Volkman, J.K.; Revill, A.T.

    1996-12-31

    Over the past few years, many thousands of compounds have identified in crude oils using techniques such as capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Some of these have quite distinctive chemical structures which are closely related to the organic compounds produced by plants, bacteria and algae. These {open_quote}biomarkers{close_quote} have proven to be very useful in petroleum exploration for identifying the likely source rocks from which the oils were derived. They are also very useful in studies of modern day pollution of the marine environment for identifying contamination by crude oil and petroleum-derived products. Although a wide range of hydrocarbons are available for oil spill fingerprinting, most attention has been given to some of the better-studied biomarkers which are readily analyzed using selected ion monitoring GC-MS techniques.

  5. Safety aspects of liquefied natural gas in the marine environment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    This study evaluates the safety issues associated with the marine transportation, handling, and storage of LNG. The panel concluded that the first concern should be the prevention of an accident that would lead to a large, uncontrolled release of LNG in or near populated areas. This concern was addressed by reviewing the design principles of LNG transportation systems, the operational principles involved in the shipment of LNG, and other factors that might reasonably be expected to improve further the safety of the system. The panel concluded that the second concern was the development of ways to mitigate the consequences of potentially hazardous LNG releases in the event that, contrary to all expectations, measures to maintain tank integrity should fail. Development of these methods requires an understanding of the underlying physical and chemical principles governing large LNG release, including spill dynamics, dispersion on water as well as on land, ignition, and resulting fire and blast effects.

  6. Augmentative Biocontrol in Natural Marine Habitats: Persistence, Spread and Non-Target Effects of the Sea Urchin Evechinus chloroticus

    PubMed Central

    Atalah, Javier; Hopkins, Grant A.; Forrest, Barrie M.

    2013-01-01

    Augmentative biocontrol aims to control established pest populations through enhancement of their indigenous enemies. To our knowledge, this approach has not been applied at an operational scale in natural marine habitats, in part because of the perceived risk of adverse non-target effects on native ecosystems. In this paper, we focus on the persistence, spread and non-target effects of the sea urchin Evechinus chloroticus when used as biocontrol agent to eradicate an invasive kelp from Fiordland, New Zealand. Rocky reef macrobenthic assemblages were monitored over 17 months in areas where the indigenous algal canopy was either removed or left intact prior to the translocation of a large number of urchins (>50 ind.·m−2). Urchin densities in treated areas significantly declined ∼9 months after transplant, and began spreading to adjacent sites. At the end of the 17-month study, densities had declined to ∼5 ind.·m−2. Compared to controls, treatment sites showed persistent shifts from kelp forest to urchin barrens, which were accompanied by significant reductions in taxa richness. Although these non-target effects were pronounced, they were considered to be localised and reversible, and arguably outweigh the irreversible and more profound ecological impacts associated with the establishment of an invasive species in a region of high conservation value. Augmentative biocontrol, used in conjunction with traditional control methods, represents a promising tool for the integrated management of marine pests. PMID:24260376

  7. Augmentative biocontrol in natural marine habitats: persistence, spread and non-target effects of the sea urchin Evechinus chloroticus.

    PubMed

    Atalah, Javier; Hopkins, Grant A; Forrest, Barrie M

    2013-01-01

    Augmentative biocontrol aims to control established pest populations through enhancement of their indigenous enemies. To our knowledge, this approach has not been applied at an operational scale in natural marine habitats, in part because of the perceived risk of adverse non-target effects on native ecosystems. In this paper, we focus on the persistence, spread and non-target effects of the sea urchin Evechinus chloroticus when used as biocontrol agent to eradicate an invasive kelp from Fiordland, New Zealand. Rocky reef macrobenthic assemblages were monitored over 17 months in areas where the indigenous algal canopy was either removed or left intact prior to the translocation of a large number of urchins (>50 ind.·m(-2)). Urchin densities in treated areas significantly declined ∼9 months after transplant, and began spreading to adjacent sites. At the end of the 17-month study, densities had declined to ∼5 ind.·m(-2). Compared to controls, treatment sites showed persistent shifts from kelp forest to urchin barrens, which were accompanied by significant reductions in taxa richness. Although these non-target effects were pronounced, they were considered to be localised and reversible, and arguably outweigh the irreversible and more profound ecological impacts associated with the establishment of an invasive species in a region of high conservation value. Augmentative biocontrol, used in conjunction with traditional control methods, represents a promising tool for the integrated management of marine pests.

  8. Uncovering the volatile nature of tropical coastal marine ecosystems in a changing world.

    PubMed

    Exton, Dan A; McGenity, Terry J; Steinke, Michael; Smith, David J; Suggett, David J

    2015-04-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs), in particular dimethyl sulphide (DMS) and isoprene, have fundamental ecological, physiological and climatic roles. Our current understanding of these roles is almost exclusively established from terrestrial or oceanic environments but signifies a potentially major, but largely unknown, role for BVOCs in tropical coastal marine ecosystems. The tropical coast is a transition zone between the land and ocean, characterized by highly productive and biodiverse coral reefs, seagrass beds and mangroves, which house primary producers that are amongst the greatest emitters of BVOCs on the planet. Here, we synthesize our existing understanding of BVOC emissions to produce a novel conceptual framework of the tropical marine coast as a continuum from DMS-dominated reef producers to isoprene-dominated mangroves. We use existing and previously unpublished data to consider how current environmental conditions shape BVOC production across the tropical coastal continuum, and in turn how BVOCs can regulate environmental stress tolerance or species interactions via infochemical networks. We use this as a framework to discuss how existing predictions of future tropical coastal BVOC emissions, and the roles they play, are effectively restricted to present day 'baseline' trends of BVOC production across species and environmental conditions; as such, there remains a critical need to focus research efforts on BVOC responses to rapidly accelerating anthropogenic impacts at local and regional scales. We highlight the complete lack of current knowledge required to understand the future ecological functioning of these important systems, and to predict whether feedback mechanisms are likely to regulate or exacerbate current climate change scenarios through environmentally and ecologically mediated changes to BVOC budgets at the ecosystem level.

  9. Modern marine sediments as a natural analog to the chemically stressed environment of a landfill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baedecker, M.J.; Back, W.

    1979-01-01

    Chemical reactions that occur in landfills are analogous to those reactions that occur in marine sediments. Lateral zonation of C, N, S, O, H, Fe and Mn species in landfills is similar to the vertical zonation of these species in marine sediments and results from the following reaction sequence: (1) oxidation of C, N and S species in the presence of dissolved free oxygen to HCO3-, NO3- and SO2-4; (2) after consumption of molecular oxygen, then NO3- is reduced, and Fe and Mn are solubilized; (3) SO2-4 is reduced to sulfide; and (4) organic compounds become the source of oxygen, and CH4 and NH4+ are formed as fermentation products. In a landfill in Delaware the oxidation potential increases downgradient and the redox zones in the reducing plume are characterized by: CH4, NH4+, Fe2+. Mn2+, HCO3- and NO3-. Lack of SO2-4 at that landfill eliminates the sulfide zone. Although it has not been observed at landfills, mineral alteration should result in precipitation of pyrite and/or siderite downgradient. Controls on the pH of leachate are the relative rates of production of HCO3-, NH4+ and CH4. Production of methane by fermentation at landfills results in 13C isotope fractionation and the accumulation of isotopically heavy ??CO2 (+10 to +18??? PDB). Isotope measurements may be useful to determine the extent of CO2 reduction in landfills and extent of dilution downgradient. The boundaries of reaction zones in stressed aquifers are determined by head distribution and flow velocity. Thus, if the groundwater flow is rapid relative to reaction rates, redox zones will develop downgradient. Where groundwater flow velocities are low the zones will overlap to the extent that they may be indeterminate. ?? 1979.

  10. Uncovering the volatile nature of tropical coastal marine ecosystems in a changing world.

    PubMed

    Exton, Dan A; McGenity, Terry J; Steinke, Michael; Smith, David J; Suggett, David J

    2015-04-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs), in particular dimethyl sulphide (DMS) and isoprene, have fundamental ecological, physiological and climatic roles. Our current understanding of these roles is almost exclusively established from terrestrial or oceanic environments but signifies a potentially major, but largely unknown, role for BVOCs in tropical coastal marine ecosystems. The tropical coast is a transition zone between the land and ocean, characterized by highly productive and biodiverse coral reefs, seagrass beds and mangroves, which house primary producers that are amongst the greatest emitters of BVOCs on the planet. Here, we synthesize our existing understanding of BVOC emissions to produce a novel conceptual framework of the tropical marine coast as a continuum from DMS-dominated reef producers to isoprene-dominated mangroves. We use existing and previously unpublished data to consider how current environmental conditions shape BVOC production across the tropical coastal continuum, and in turn how BVOCs can regulate environmental stress tolerance or species interactions via infochemical networks. We use this as a framework to discuss how existing predictions of future tropical coastal BVOC emissions, and the roles they play, are effectively restricted to present day 'baseline' trends of BVOC production across species and environmental conditions; as such, there remains a critical need to focus research efforts on BVOC responses to rapidly accelerating anthropogenic impacts at local and regional scales. We highlight the complete lack of current knowledge required to understand the future ecological functioning of these important systems, and to predict whether feedback mechanisms are likely to regulate or exacerbate current climate change scenarios through environmentally and ecologically mediated changes to BVOC budgets at the ecosystem level. PMID:25311223

  11. Inhibitory Activity of Marine Sponge-Derived Natural Products against Parasitic Protozoa

    PubMed Central

    Orhan, Ilkay; Şener, Bilge; Kaiser, Marcel; Brun, Reto; Tasdemir, Deniz

    2010-01-01

    In this study, thirteen sponge-derived terpenoids, including five linear furanoterpenes: furospinulosin-1 (1), furospinulosin-2 (2), furospongin-1 (3), furospongin-4 (4), and demethylfurospongin-4 (5); four linear meroterpenes: 2-(hexaprenylmethyl)-2-methylchromenol (6), 4-hydroxy-3-octaprenylbenzoic acid (7), 4-hydroxy-3-tetraprenyl-phenylacetic acid (8), and heptaprenyl-p-quinol (9); a linear triterpene, squalene (10); two spongian-type diterpenes dorisenone D (11) and 11β-acetoxyspongi-12-en-16-one (12); a scalarane-type sesterterpene; 12-epi-deoxoscalarin (13), as well as an indole alkaloid, tryptophol (14) were screened for their in vitro activity against four parasitic protozoa; Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmania donovani and Plasmodium falciparum. Cytotoxic potential of the compounds on mammalian cells was also assessed. All compounds were active against T. brucei rhodesiense, with compound 8 being the most potent (IC50 0.60 μg/mL), whereas 9 and 12 were the most active compounds against T. cruzi, with IC50 values around 4 μg/mL. Compound 12 showed the strongest leishmanicidal activity (IC50 0.75 μg/mL), which was comparable to that of miltefosine (IC50 0.20 μg/mL). The best antiplasmodial effect was exerted by compound 11 (IC50 0.43 μg/mL), followed by compounds 7, 10, and 12 with IC50 values around 1 μg/mL. Compounds 9, 11 and 12 exhibited, besides their antiprotozoal activity, also some cytotoxicity, whereas all other compounds had low or no cytotoxicity towards the mammalian cell line. This is the first report of antiprotozoal activity of marine metabolites 1–14, and points out the potential of marine sponges in discovery of new antiprotozoal lead compounds. PMID:20161970

  12. Committee on Natural Toxins and Food Allergens. Marine and freshwater toxins.

    PubMed

    Hungerford, James M

    2005-01-01

    There have been major developments this past year in the Marine and Freshwater Toxins topic area (formerly Phycotoxins). These include AOAC approval and inauguration of a new AOAC Presidential Task Force on Marine and Freshwater Toxins to accelerate methods validation, and the appointment of several new Topic Advisors. A joint FAO/IOC/WHO group addressing biotoxins in molluscan bivalves is also relevant to this report and to the new Task Force. The AOAC Presidential Task Force on Marine and Freshwater Toxins is an international group that, in late November 2004, consisted of 90 world experts and stakeholders. Chaired by this General Referee, the group establishes methods priorities based on analytical methods criteria, determines fitness for purpose, identifies and reviews available methodologies, recommends methodologies for validation, and identifies complementary analytical tools. Once appropriate analytical methodology has been identified or developed, the Task Force is able to identify financial and technical resources necessary to validate the methods. The first two formal meetings of the Task Force were held in Bethesda, MD, on May 19, 2004 and in St. Louis, MO, on September 22, 2004. These meetings were held in conjunction with the XI International IUPAC Symposium on Mycotoxins and Phycotoxins and the 118th AOAC INTERNATIONAL Annual Meeting and Exposition, respectively. The Bethesda meeting served to introduce members of the group to the AOAC Community/Task Force model and to discuss objectives, concerns, general workings, and communications. The meeting concluded on an encouraging note, with a commitment from AOAC to help provide financial resources for the review of nonproprietary methods deemed high priority by the Task Force. This development was seen as an important step toward reaching methods validation objectives. The terms of reference for the Task Force were approved by the AOAC Board of Directors in late June, 2004. They described the Task Force

  13. Committee on Natural Toxins and Food Allergens. Marine and freshwater toxins.

    PubMed

    Hungerford, James M

    2005-01-01

    There have been major developments this past year in the Marine and Freshwater Toxins topic area (formerly Phycotoxins). These include AOAC approval and inauguration of a new AOAC Presidential Task Force on Marine and Freshwater Toxins to accelerate methods validation, and the appointment of several new Topic Advisors. A joint FAO/IOC/WHO group addressing biotoxins in molluscan bivalves is also relevant to this report and to the new Task Force. The AOAC Presidential Task Force on Marine and Freshwater Toxins is an international group that, in late November 2004, consisted of 90 world experts and stakeholders. Chaired by this General Referee, the group establishes methods priorities based on analytical methods criteria, determines fitness for purpose, identifies and reviews available methodologies, recommends methodologies for validation, and identifies complementary analytical tools. Once appropriate analytical methodology has been identified or developed, the Task Force is able to identify financial and technical resources necessary to validate the methods. The first two formal meetings of the Task Force were held in Bethesda, MD, on May 19, 2004 and in St. Louis, MO, on September 22, 2004. These meetings were held in conjunction with the XI International IUPAC Symposium on Mycotoxins and Phycotoxins and the 118th AOAC INTERNATIONAL Annual Meeting and Exposition, respectively. The Bethesda meeting served to introduce members of the group to the AOAC Community/Task Force model and to discuss objectives, concerns, general workings, and communications. The meeting concluded on an encouraging note, with a commitment from AOAC to help provide financial resources for the review of nonproprietary methods deemed high priority by the Task Force. This development was seen as an important step toward reaching methods validation objectives. The terms of reference for the Task Force were approved by the AOAC Board of Directors in late June, 2004. They described the Task Force

  14. Natural and Human Impacts on the Coastal Environment of Taiwan Recorded in Marine Sediments During the last century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H.; Chen, Z.; Huh, C.; Chen, K.; Lin, Y.; Hsu, F.

    2012-12-01

    Located at tropical-to-subtropical region on the Pacific rim, Taiwan has very high erosion rate due to steep topography and heavy rainfall especially typhoons. The high sedimentation rates in Taiwan Strait allow us to retrieve high-resolution marine records which reveal natural changes and human impacts on the coastal environment of Taiwan over the past 100 years. Five gravity and box cores well dated by 210Pb and 137Cs methods were analyzed for elemental concentrations in the acid-leachable phase, total organic carbon (TOC), δ13CTOC, δ13C and δ18O of carbonates. The results show that: (1) Positive correlation between TOC and typhoon rainfall since 1940 indicate that decline of vegetation coverage resulted in intensification of soil erosion. The δ13CTOC values illustrate that the organic carbon in the sediments was originated mainly from land input. (2) The δ18O difference between foraminiferal shells and carbonate grains can be used for rainfall reconstruction. (3) The Ca concentrations mainly from carbonates in the sediments were decreased since AD 1940, reflecting changes in sedimentary source and ocean acidfication. As development of the land use, more and more soil erosion caused depletion of authigenic marine sediments in the coast region. Ocean acidification led to less carbonate formation in seawater. (4) Since 1920, Pb concentration rapidly increased and peaked at ~1970 as Pb input from gasoline usage. Pb concentration dropped from 1970 to 1975 perhaps due to unleaded gasoline replacement. (5) In the nearshore environment, heavy metals such as Mn, Cu and Pb in the acid-leachable phase of the sediments strongly increased from 1950 to 1965 then kept relatively high level, reflecting heavy metal contamination from industrial source. The human impact on the coastal region of Taiwan not only caused changes in marine sediments and ocean water, but also disturbed the marine ecosystem. This study has been funded by NSC-100-3113-E-002-009: Study of CO2 capture

  15. Distribution of natural halocarbons in marine boundary air over the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokouchi, Yoko; Inoue, Jun; Toom-Sauntry, Desiree

    2013-08-01

    Ongoing environmental changes in the Arctic will affect the exchange of natural volatile organic compounds between the atmosphere and the Arctic Ocean. Among these compounds, natural halocarbons play an important role in atmospheric ozone chemistry. We measured the distribution of five major natural halocarbons (methyl iodide, bromoform, dibromomethane, methyl chloride, and methyl bromide) together with dimethyl sulfide and tetrachloroethylene in the atmosphere over the Arctic Ocean (from the Bering Strait to 79°N) and along the cruise path to and from Japan. Methyl iodide, bromoform, and dibromomethane were most abundant near perennial sea ice in air masses derived from coastal regions and least abundant in the northernmost Arctic, where the air masses had passed over the ice pack, whereas methyl chloride and methyl bromide showed the opposite distribution pattern. Factors controlling those distributions and future prospects for natural halocarbons in the Arctic are discussed.

  16. Isolation of a New Natural Product and Cytotoxic and Antimicrobial Activities of Extracts from Fungi of Indonesian Marine Habitats

    PubMed Central

    Tarman, Kustiariyah; Lindequist, Ulrike; Wende, Kristian; Porzel, Andrea; Arnold, Norbert; Wessjohann, Ludger A.

    2011-01-01

    In the search for bioactive compounds, 11 fungal strains were isolated from Indonesian marine habitats. Ethyl acetate extracts of their culture broth were tested for cytotoxic activity against a urinary bladder carcinoma cell line and for antifungal and antibacterial activities against fish and human pathogenic bacteria as well as against plant and human pathogenic fungi. The crude extract of a sterile algicolous fungus (KT31), isolated from the red seaweed Kappaphycus alvarezii (Doty) Doty ex P.C. Silva exhibited potent cytotoxic activity with an IC50 value of 1.5 μg/mL. Another fungal strain (KT29) displayed fungicidal properties against the plant pathogenic fungus Cladosporium cucumerinum Ell. et Arth. at 50 μg/spot. 2-Carboxy-8-methoxy-naphthalene-1-ol (1) could be isolated as a new natural product. PMID:21556160

  17. Mode of action of thiocoraline, a natural marine compound with anti-tumour activity

    PubMed Central

    Erba, E; Bergamaschi, D; Ronzoni, S; Faretta, M; Taverna, S; Bonfanti, M; Catapano, C V; Faircloth, G; Jimeno, J; D'Incalci, M

    1999-01-01

    Thiocoraline, a new anticancer agent derived from the marine actinomycete Micromonospora marina, was found to induce profound perturbations of the cell cycle. On both LoVo and SW620 human colon cancer cell lines, thiocoraline caused an arrest in G1 phase of the cell cycle and a decrease in the rate of S phase progression towards G2/M phases, as assessed by using bromodeoxyuridine/DNA biparametric flow cytometric analysis. Thiocoraline does not inhibit DNA-topoisomerase II enzymes in vitro, nor does it induce DNA breakage in cells exposed to effective drug concentrations. The cell cycle effects observed after exposure to thiocoraline appear related to the inhibition of DNA replication. By using a primer extension assay it was found that thiocoraline inhibited DNA elongation by DNA polymerase α at concentrations that inhibited cell cycle progression and clonogenicity. These studies indicate that the new anticancer drug thiocoraline probably acts by inhibiting DNA polymerase α activity. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10362104

  18. Natural antifouling compounds produced by a novel fungus Aureobasidium pullulans HN isolated from marine biofilm.

    PubMed

    Gao, Min; Su, Rongguo; Wang, Ke; Li, Xuzhao; Lu, Wei

    2013-12-15

    A fungus, Aureobasidium pullulans, was isolated from marine biofilm and identified. A bioassay-guided fractionation procedure was developed to isolate and purify antifouling compounds from A. pullulans HN. The procedure was: fermentation broth-aeration and addition of sodium thiosulfate-graduated pH and liquid-liquid extraction-SPE purification-GC-MS analysis. Firstly, the fermentation broth was tested for its toxicity. Then it was treated with aeration and addition of sodium thiosulfate, and its toxicity was almost not changed. Lastly, antifouling compounds were extracted at different pH, the extract had high toxicity at pH 2 but almost no toxicity at pH 10, which suggested the toxicants should be fatty acids. The EC50 of the extract against Skeletonema costatum was 90.9 μg ml(-1), and its LC50 against Balanus amphitrete larvae was 22.2 μg ml(-1). After purified by HLB SPE column, the EC50 of the extract against S. costatum was 49.4 μg ml(-1). The myristic and palmitic acids were found as the main toxicants by GC-MS. PMID:24210009

  19. Mistaken identity? Visual similarities of marine debris to natural prey items of sea turtles

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There are two predominant hypotheses as to why animals ingest plastic: 1) they are opportunistic feeders, eating plastic when they encounter it, and 2) they eat plastic because it resembles prey items. To assess which hypothesis is most likely, we created a model sea turtle visual system and used it to analyse debris samples from beach surveys and from necropsied turtles. We investigated colour, contrast, and luminance of the debris items as they would appear to the turtle. We also incorporated measures of texture and translucency to determine which of the two hypotheses is more plausible as a driver of selectivity in green sea turtles. Results Turtles preferred more flexible and translucent items to what was available in the environment, lending support to the hypothesis that they prefer debris that resembles prey, particularly jellyfish. They also ate fewer blue items, suggesting that such items may be less conspicuous against the background of open water where they forage. Conclusions Using visual modelling we determined the characteristics that drive ingestion of marine debris by sea turtles, from the point of view of the turtles themselves. This technique can be utilized to determine debris preferences of other visual predators, and help to more effectively focus management or remediation actions. PMID:24886170

  20. Persistent natural acidification drives major distribution shifts in marine benthic ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Linares, C.; Vidal, M.; Canals, M.; Kersting, D. K.; Amblas, D.; Aspillaga, E.; Cebrián, E.; Delgado-Huertas, A.; Díaz, D.; Garrabou, J.; Hereu, B.; Navarro, L.; Teixidó, N.; Ballesteros, E.

    2015-01-01

    Ocean acidification is receiving increasing attention because of its potential to affect marine ecosystems. Rare CO2 vents offer a unique opportunity to investigate the response of benthic ecosystems to acidification. However, the benthic habitats investigated so far are mainly found at very shallow water (less than or equal to 5 m depth) and therefore are not representative of the broad range of continental shelf habitats. Here, we show that a decrease from pH 8.1 to 7.9 observed in a CO2 vent system at 40 m depth leads to a dramatic shift in highly diverse and structurally complex habitats. Forests of the kelp Laminaria rodriguezii usually found at larger depths (greater than 65 m) replace the otherwise dominant habitats (i.e. coralligenous outcrops and rhodolith beds), which are mainly characterized by calcifying organisms. Only the aragonite-calcifying algae are able to survive in acidified waters, while high-magnesium-calcite organisms are almost completely absent. Although a long-term survey of the venting area would be necessary to fully understand the effects of the variability of pH and other carbonate parameters over the structure and functioning of the investigated mesophotic habitats, our results suggest that in addition of significant changes at species level, moderate ocean acidification may entail major shifts in the distribution and dominance of key benthic ecosystems at regional scale, which could have broad ecological and socio-economic implications. PMID:26511045

  1. The nature of the CO2 -concentrating mechanisms in a marine diatom, Thalassiosira pseudonana.

    PubMed

    Clement, Romain; Dimnet, Laura; Maberly, Stephen C; Gontero, Brigitte

    2016-03-01

    Diatoms are widespread in aquatic ecosystems where they may be limited by the supply of inorganic carbon. Their carbon dioxide-concentrating mechanisms (CCMs) involving transporters and carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are well known, but the contribution of a biochemical CCM involving C4 metabolism is contentious. The CCM(s) present in the marine-centric diatom, Thalassiosira pseudonana, were studied in cells exposed to high or low concentrations of CO2 , using a range of approaches. At low CO2 , cells possessed a CCM based on active uptake of CO2 (70% contribution) and bicarbonate, while at high CO2 , cells were restricted to CO2 . CA was highly and rapidly activated on transfer to low CO2 and played a key role because inhibition of external CA produced uptake kinetics similar to cells grown at high CO2 . The activities of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxylase (PEPC) and the PEP-regenerating enzyme, pyruvate phosphate dikinase (PPDK), were lower in cells grown at low than at high CO2 . The ratios of PEPC and PPDK to ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase were substantially lower than 1, even at low CO2 . Our data suggest that the kinetic properties of this species results from a biophysical CCM and not from C4 type metabolism. PMID:26529678

  2. Corrosion damage diagnosis of a reinforced concrete beam after 40 years natural exposure in marine environment

    SciTech Connect

    Poupard, O.; Petre-Lazar, I.

    2006-03-15

    A detailed investigation of the chloride induced corrosion damage was performed on a 40 years old reinforced concrete beam exposed in marine environment. Visual observations, electrochemical measurements, carbonation depth, total chloride content were carried out. Half-cell potential measurements were used to locate corrosion areas. It appeared that the interpretation based on gradient of the potential was in good concordance with real state of damage. Complementary destructive methods are applied to observe the real corrosion state of steel rebars and characterize the corrosion products and the steel/concrete interface (optical and electronical microscopy tools (XRD, SEM, EDS and {mu}-Raman). All these data indicate that on the beam, one may distinguish two types of areas: 'high-corrosion zones' and 'low-corrosion zones.' Given the fact that the 'high corrosion zones' were found to be close to corrosion induced cracks and that they have a different morphology, this contribution concludes that the position of these areas did not shift in time.

  3. Natural and anthropogenic dispersal mechanisms in the marine environment: a study using cheilostome Bryozoa

    PubMed Central

    Watts, P. C.

    1998-01-01

    The global geographic ranges occupied by 197 species of cheilostomate Bryozoa found in British waters were obtained by a literature survey. Morphological grade, larval mode, environmental tolerance, species abundance and the ability to raft and to foul shipping were all investigated as traits potentially able to affect the geographic ranges of these bryozoan species. When considered independently all variables except larval mode had a significant correlation with the geographic range occupied by a species. However, when controlling for the potentially confounding effects of the other covariates, only the ability to foul or raft and species abundance had a significant effect on median geographic range and only fouling and abundance had a significant effect over global ranges. The strength of the association between fouling ability and range suggests that transport upon the hulls of ships is a very important dispersal mechanism for bryozoans, as it is thought to be also for various other marine taxa. Potential long-term (evolutionary) consequences of increased ranges brought about by anthropogenic mechanisms are discussed.

  4. Persistent natural acidification drives major distribution shifts in marine benthic ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Linares, C; Vidal, M; Canals, M; Kersting, D K; Amblas, D; Aspillaga, E; Cebrián, E; Delgado-Huertas, A; Díaz, D; Garrabou, J; Hereu, B; Navarro, L; Teixidó, N; Ballesteros, E

    2015-11-01

    Ocean acidification is receiving increasing attention because of its potential to affect marine ecosystems. Rare CO2 vents offer a unique opportunity to investigate the response of benthic ecosystems to acidification. However, the benthic habitats investigated so far are mainly found at very shallow water (less than or equal to 5 m depth) and therefore are not representative of the broad range of continental shelf habitats. Here, we show that a decrease from pH 8.1 to 7.9 observed in a CO2 vent system at 40 m depth leads to a dramatic shift in highly diverse and structurally complex habitats. Forests of the kelp Laminaria rodriguezii usually found at larger depths (greater than 65 m) replace the otherwise dominant habitats (i.e. coralligenous outcrops and rhodolith beds), which are mainly characterized by calcifying organisms. Only the aragonite-calcifying algae are able to survive in acidified waters, while high-magnesium-calcite organisms are almost completely absent. Although a long-term survey of the venting area would be necessary to fully understand the effects of the variability of pH and other carbonate parameters over the structure and functioning of the investigated mesophotic habitats, our results suggest that in addition of significant changes at species level, moderate ocean acidification may entail major shifts in the distribution and dominance of key benthic ecosystems at regional scale, which could have broad ecological and socio-economic implications.

  5. Persistent natural acidification drives major distribution shifts in marine benthic ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Linares, C; Vidal, M; Canals, M; Kersting, D K; Amblas, D; Aspillaga, E; Cebrián, E; Delgado-Huertas, A; Díaz, D; Garrabou, J; Hereu, B; Navarro, L; Teixidó, N; Ballesteros, E

    2015-11-01

    Ocean acidification is receiving increasing attention because of its potential to affect marine ecosystems. Rare CO2 vents offer a unique opportunity to investigate the response of benthic ecosystems to acidification. However, the benthic habitats investigated so far are mainly found at very shallow water (less than or equal to 5 m depth) and therefore are not representative of the broad range of continental shelf habitats. Here, we show that a decrease from pH 8.1 to 7.9 observed in a CO2 vent system at 40 m depth leads to a dramatic shift in highly diverse and structurally complex habitats. Forests of the kelp Laminaria rodriguezii usually found at larger depths (greater than 65 m) replace the otherwise dominant habitats (i.e. coralligenous outcrops and rhodolith beds), which are mainly characterized by calcifying organisms. Only the aragonite-calcifying algae are able to survive in acidified waters, while high-magnesium-calcite organisms are almost completely absent. Although a long-term survey of the venting area would be necessary to fully understand the effects of the variability of pH and other carbonate parameters over the structure and functioning of the investigated mesophotic habitats, our results suggest that in addition of significant changes at species level, moderate ocean acidification may entail major shifts in the distribution and dominance of key benthic ecosystems at regional scale, which could have broad ecological and socio-economic implications. PMID:26511045

  6. Pharmacological Properties of the Marine Natural Product Marinopyrrole A against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus ▿

    PubMed Central

    Haste, Nina M.; Hughes, Chambers C.; Tran, Dan N.; Fenical, William; Jensen, Paul R.; Nizet, Victor; Hensler, Mary E.

    2011-01-01

    The ongoing spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains in hospital and community settings presents a great challenge to public health and illustrates the urgency of discovering new antibiotics. Marinopyrrole A is a member of a structurally novel class of compounds identified from a species of marine-derived streptomycetes with evidence of antistaphylococcal activity. We show that marinopyrrole A has potent concentration-dependent bactericidal activity against clinically relevant hospital- and community-acquired MRSA strains, a prolonged postantibiotic effect superior to that of the current first-line agents vancomycin and linezolid, and a favorable resistance profile. Marinopyrrole A showed limited toxicity to mammalian cell lines (at >20× MIC). However, its antibiotic activity against MRSA was effectively neutralized by 20% human serum. A variety of marinopyrrole analogs were isolated from culture or synthetically produced to try to overcome the inhibitory effect of serum. While many of these compounds retained potent bactericidal effect against MRSA, their activities were also inhibited by serum. Marinopyrrole A has significant affinity for plastic and may therefore have potential as a potent anti-MRSA agent in cutaneous, intracatheter, or antibiotic-lock applications. PMID:21502631

  7. Natural causes of changes in marine environment: Mercury speciation and distribution in anchialine caves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwokal, Željko; Cukrov, Neven; Cuculić, Vlado

    2014-12-01

    Mercury speciation and distribution were assessed, for the first time, from the water, sediment, rock, soil and air of anchialine caves. We evaluated the origin and distribution of four mercury species (total (THg), reactive (RHg), dissolved gaseous mercury (DGM) and monomethylmercury (MeHg)) in water from Bjejajka cave (Bjejajka) and Lenga Pit (Lenga) in the Croatian Adriatic Sea from 2006 to 2011. Concentrations of all mercury species were elevated at both sites compared to adjacent seawater, which had concentration range of 0.5-2.4 ng L-1 for THg, 0.06-0.2 ng L-1 for RHg, 0.02-0.07 ng L-1 for DGM, and 0.01-0.02 ng L-1 for MeHg. In Bjejajka, the maximum THg concentration (350 ng L-1) in the middle layer (3-7 m) of the 12 m deep stratified water column was up to 3 orders of magnitude greater than in adjacent seawater. During and after the rainy sampling periods in January 2009 and 2010, mixing of Bjejajka water column resulted in elevated concentrations, up to 3700 ng L-1 of THg (4 orders of magnitude higher compared to values in nearby seawater) in the bottom water layer. MeHg concentrations in the Bjejajka water column were also considerably elevated (0.7-6.3 ng L-1) compared to the surrounding seawater (0.01-0.02 ng L-1). The vertical distribution of MeHg concentrations followed that of THg, however the ratio of MeHg/THg above the Bjejajka halocline was drastically higher (up to 57%) compared to MeHg proportion (1-2 %) below the halocline, which was similar to that of surface seawater. In sediment of Bjejajka, THg concentrations were up to 3.3 mg kg-1, considerably above concentrations in unpolluted Adriatic marine sediment (0.1-0.3 mg kg-1). The highest THg amounts found in soil and air were inside and in close proximity to Bjejajka, while THg in rock (≤0.01 mg kg-1) were below reported values for unaltered carbonates. Laboratory experiments indicate that bat guano was the major source of elevated mercury concentrations in the water column and sediment of

  8. Effect of a simulated oil spill on natural assemblages of marine phytoplankton enclosed in microcosms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, J.; Figueiras, F. G.; Aranguren-Gassis, M.; Crespo, B. G.; Fernández, E.; Morán, X. A. G.; Nieto-Cid, M.

    2009-07-01

    Two microcosm experiments were carried out to simulate the effect of sporadic oil spills derived from tanker accidents on oceanic and coastal marine phytoplankton assemblages. Treatments were designed to reproduce the spill from the Prestige, which took place in Galician coastal waters (NW Iberia) in November 2002. Two different concentrations of the water soluble fraction of oil were used: low (8.6 ± 0.7 μg l -1 of chrysene equivalents) and high (23 ± 5 μg l -1 of chrysene equivalents l -1). Photosynthetic activity and chlorophyll a concentration decreased in both assemblages after 24-72 h of exposure to the two oil concentrations, even though the effect was more severe on the oceanic assemblage. These variables progressively recovered up to values close or higher than those in the controls, but the short-term negative effect of oil, which was generally stronger at the high concentration, also induced changes in the structure of the plankton community. While the biomass of nanoflagellates increased in both assemblages, oceanic picophytoplankton was drastically reduced by the addition of oil. Effects on diatoms were also observed, particularly in the coastal assemblage. The response of coastal diatoms to oil addition showed a clear dependence on size. Small diatoms (<20 μm) were apparently stimulated by oil, whereas diatoms >20 μm were only negatively affected by the high oil concentration. These differences, which could be partially due to indirect trophic interactions, might also be related to different sensitivity of species to PAHs. These results, in agreement with previous observations, additionally show that the negative effect of the water soluble fraction of oil on oceanic phytoplankton was stronger than on coastal phytoplankton.

  9. Trends in the Discovery of New Marine Natural Products from Invertebrates over the Last Two Decades – Where and What Are We Bioprospecting?

    PubMed Central

    Leal, Miguel Costa; Puga, João; Serôdio, João; Gomes, Newton C. M.; Calado, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    It is acknowledged that marine invertebrates produce bioactive natural products that may be useful for developing new drugs. By exploring untapped geographical sources and/or novel groups of organisms one can maximize the search for new marine drugs to treat human diseases. The goal of this paper is to analyse the trends associated with the discovery of new marine natural products from invertebrates (NMNPI) over the last two decades. The analysis considers different taxonomical levels and geographical approaches of bioprospected species. Additionally, this research is also directed to provide new insights into less bioprospected taxa and world regions. In order to gather the information available on NMNPI, the yearly-published reviews of Marine Natural Products covering 1990–2009 were surveyed. Information on source organisms, specifically taxonomical information and collection sites, was assembled together with additional geographical information collected from the articles originally describing the new natural product. Almost 10000 NMNPI were discovered since 1990, with a pronounced increase between decades. Porifera and Cnidaria were the two dominant sources of NMNPI worldwide. The exception was polar regions where Echinodermata dominated. The majority of species that yielded the new natural products belong to only one class of each Porifera and Cnidaria phyla (Demospongiae and Anthozoa, respectively). Increased bioprospecting efforts were observed in the Pacific Ocean, particularly in Asian countries that are associated with the Japan Biodiversity Hotspot and the Kuroshio Current. Although results show comparably less NMNPI from polar regions, the number of new natural products per species is similar to that recorded for other regions. The present study provides information to future bioprospecting efforts addressing previously unexplored taxonomic groups and/or regions. We also highlight how marine invertebrates, which in some cases have no commercial value

  10. Increased natural mortality at low abundance can generate an Allee effect in a marine fish.

    PubMed

    Kuparinen, Anna; Hutchings, Jeffrey A

    2014-10-01

    Negative density-dependent regulation of population dynamics promotes population growth at low abundance and is therefore vital for recovery following depletion. Inversely, any process that reduces the compensatory density-dependence of population growth can negatively affect recovery. Here, we show that increased adult mortality at low abundance can reverse compensatory population dynamics into its opposite-a demographic Allee effect. Northwest Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) stocks collapsed dramatically in the early 1990s and have since shown little sign of recovery. Many experienced dramatic increases in natural mortality, ostensibly attributable in some populations to increased predation by seals. Our findings show that increased natural mortality of a magnitude observed for overfished cod stocks has been more than sufficient to fundamentally alter the dynamics of density-dependent population regulation. The demographic Allee effect generated by these changes can slow down or even impede the recovery of depleted populations even in the absence of fishing. PMID:26064531

  11. Bioactive rearranged and halogenated semisynthetic derivatives of the marine natural product sarcophine.

    PubMed

    Sawant, Swapnali S; Sylvester, Paul W; Avery, Mitchell A; Desai, Prashant; Youssef, Diaa T A; El Sayed, Khalid A

    2004-12-01

    Cembranoids are natural diterpenes with 14-membered macrocyclic rings. The simplest natural cembranoid, (+)-cembrene, was isolated from pine oleoresin. Sarcophytols A and B are known cembranoids that inhibit tumor promotion. Sarcophine is a related cembranoid isolated from the Red Sea soft coral Sarcophyton glaucum. Sarcophine and its bioconversion products and semisynthetic derivatives are reported to possess cancer chemopreventive activity. Oxymercuration-demercuration of sarcophine using Hg(OAc)2 and NaBH4 afforded four new rearranged and hydroxylated products. Bromination of sarcophine with N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) furnished two new brominated and rearranged products. Reaction with iodine gave the known iso-sarcophinone and (+)-sarcophytoxin B. Structure elucidation was based on a combination of transition state modeling, molecular dynamics, mechanistic considerations, and 2D NMR data. The antiproliferative activity of the new products is also reported.

  12. Increased natural mortality at low abundance can generate an Allee effect in a marine fish.

    PubMed

    Kuparinen, Anna; Hutchings, Jeffrey A

    2014-10-01

    Negative density-dependent regulation of population dynamics promotes population growth at low abundance and is therefore vital for recovery following depletion. Inversely, any process that reduces the compensatory density-dependence of population growth can negatively affect recovery. Here, we show that increased adult mortality at low abundance can reverse compensatory population dynamics into its opposite-a demographic Allee effect. Northwest Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) stocks collapsed dramatically in the early 1990s and have since shown little sign of recovery. Many experienced dramatic increases in natural mortality, ostensibly attributable in some populations to increased predation by seals. Our findings show that increased natural mortality of a magnitude observed for overfished cod stocks has been more than sufficient to fundamentally alter the dynamics of density-dependent population regulation. The demographic Allee effect generated by these changes can slow down or even impede the recovery of depleted populations even in the absence of fishing.

  13. Actinoramide A Identified as a Potent Antimalarial from Titration-Based Screening of Marine Natural Product Extracts.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ken Chih-Chien; Cao, Shugeng; Raveh, Avi; MacArthur, Ryan; Dranchak, Patricia; Chlipala, George; Okoneski, Matthew T; Guha, Rajarshi; Eastman, Richard T; Yuan, Jing; Schultz, Pamela J; Su, Xin-Zhuan; Tamayo-Castillo, Giselle; Matainaho, Teatulohi; Clardy, Jon; Sherman, David H; Inglese, James

    2015-10-23

    Methods to identify the bioactive diversity within natural product extracts (NPEs) continue to evolve. NPEs constitute complex mixtures of chemical substances varying in structure, composition, and abundance. NPEs can therefore be challenging to evaluate efficiently with high-throughput screening approaches designed to test pure substances. Here we facilitate the rapid identification and prioritization of antimalarial NPEs using a pharmacologically driven, quantitative high-throughput-screening (qHTS) paradigm. In qHTS each NPE is tested across a concentration range from which sigmoidal response, efficacy, and apparent EC50s can be used to rank order NPEs for subsequent organism reculture, extraction, and fractionation. Using an NPE library derived from diverse marine microorganisms we observed potent antimalarial activity from two Streptomyces sp. extracts identified from thousands tested using qHTS. Seven compounds were isolated from two phylogenetically related Streptomyces species: Streptomyces ballenaensis collected from Costa Rica and Streptomyces bangulaensis collected from Papua New Guinea. Among them we identified actinoramides A and B, belonging to the unusually elaborated nonproteinogenic amino-acid-containing tetrapeptide series of natural products. In addition, we characterized a series of new compounds, including an artifact, 25-epi-actinoramide A, and actinoramides D, E, and F, which are closely related biosynthetic congeners of the previously reported metabolites. PMID:26465675

  14. A multi-mineral natural product from red marine algae reduces colon polyp formation in C57BL/6 mice

    PubMed Central

    Aslam, Muhammad N.; Bergin, Ingrid; Naik, Madhav; Paruchuri, Tejaswi; Hampton, Anna; Rehman, Muneeb; Dame, Michael K; Rush, Howard; Varani, James

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine if a multi-mineral natural product derived from red marine algae, could reduce colon polyp formation in mice on a high fat diet. C57BL/6 mice were maintained for up to 18 months either on a high-fat “Western-style” diet or on a low-fat diet (AIN 76A), with or without the multi-mineral-supplement. To summarize, colon polyps were detected in 22 of 70 mice (31%) on the high-fat diet, but in only 2 of 70 mice (3%) receiving the mineral-supplemented high-fat diet (p<0.0001). Colon polyps were detected in 16 of 70 mice (23%) in the low-fat group; not significantly different from high-fat group but significantly higher than the high-fat-supplemented group (p=0.0006). This was in spite of the fact that the calcium level in the low-fat diet was comparable to the level of calcium in the high-fat diet containing the multi-mineral-product. Supplementation of the low-fat diet reduced the incidence to 8 of 70 mice (11% incidence). Taken together, these findings demonstrate that a multi-mineral natural product can protect mice on a high-fat diet against adenomatous polyp formation in the colon. These data suggest that increased calcium alone is insufficient to explain the lower incidence of colon polyps. PMID:23035966

  15. Short-Term and Long-Term Biological Effects of Chronic Chemical Contamination on Natural Populations of a Marine Bivalve

    PubMed Central

    Graber, Marianne; Murillo, Laurence; Becquet, Vanessa; Churlaud, Carine; Fruitier-Arnaudin, Ingrid; Huet, Valérie; Lacroix, Camille; Pante, Eric; Le Floch, Stéphane; Thomas-Guyon, Hélène

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the effects of chronic chemical contamination on natural populations of marine organisms is complex due to the combined effects of different types of pollutants and environmental parameters that can modulate the physiological responses to stress. Here, we present the effects of a chronic contamination in a marine bivalve by combining multiple approaches that provide information on individual and population health. We sampled variegated scallops (Mimachlamys varia) at sites characterized by different contaminants and contamination levels to study the short and long-term (intergenerational) responses of this species to physiological stress. We used biomarkers (SOD, MDA, GST, laccase, citrate synthase and phosphatases) as indicators of oxidative stress, immune system alteration, mitochondrial respiration and general metabolism, and measured population genetic diversity at each site. In parallel, concentration of 14 trace metals and 45 organic contaminants (PAHs, PCBs, pesticides) in tissues were measured. Scallops were collected outside and during their reproductive season to investigate temporal variability in contaminant and biomarker levels. Our analyses revealed that the levels of two biomarkers (Laccase-type phenoloxidase and malondialdehyde) were significantly correlated with Cd concentration. Additionally, we observed significant seasonal differences for four of the five biomarkers, which is likely due to the scallop reproductive status at time of sampling. As a source of concern, a location that was identified as a reference site on the basis of inorganic contaminant levels presented the same level of some persistent organic pollutants (DDT and its metabolites) than more impacted sites. Finally, potential long-term effects of heavy metal contamination were observed for variegated scallops as genetic diversity was depressed in the most polluted sites. PMID:26938082

  16. Net production and consumption of fluorescent colored dissolved organic matter by natural bacterial assemblages growing on marine phytoplankton exudates.

    PubMed

    Romera-Castillo, Cristina; Sarmento, Hugo; Alvarez-Salgado, Xosé Antón; Gasol, Josep M; Marrasé, Celia

    2011-11-01

    An understanding of the distribution of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in the oceans and its role in the global carbon cycle requires a better knowledge of the colored materials produced and consumed by marine phytoplankton and bacteria. In this work, we examined the net uptake and release of CDOM by a natural bacterial community growing on DOM derived from four phytoplankton species cultured under axenic conditions. Fluorescent humic-like substances exuded by phytoplankton (excitation/emission [Ex/Em] wavelength, 310 nm/392 nm; Coble's peak M) were utilized by bacteria in different proportions depending on the phytoplankton species of origin. Furthermore, bacteria produced humic-like substances that fluoresce at an Ex/Em wavelength of 340 nm/440 nm (Coble's peak C). Differences were also observed in the Ex/Em wavelengths of the protein-like materials (Coble's peak T) produced by phytoplankton and bacteria. The induced fluorescent emission of CDOM produced by prokaryotes was an order of magnitude higher than that of CDOM produced by eukaryotes. We have also examined the final compositions of the bacterial communities growing on the exudates, which differed markedly depending on the phytoplankton species of origin. Alteromonas and Roseobacter were dominant during all the incubations on Chaetoceros sp. and Prorocentrum minimum exudates, respectively. Alteromonas was the dominant group growing on Skeletonema costatum exudates during the exponential growth phase, but it was replaced by Roseobacter afterwards. On Micromonas pusilla exudates, Roseobacter was replaced by Bacteroidetes after the exponential growth phase. Our work shows that fluorescence excitation-emission matrices of CDOM can be a helpful tool for the identification of microbial sources of DOM in the marine environment, but further studies are necessary to explore the association of particular bacterial groups with specific fluorophores. PMID:21742918

  17. Shallow water marine sediment bacterial community shifts along a natural CO2 gradient in the Mediterranean Sea off Vulcano, Italy.

    PubMed

    Kerfahi, Dorsaf; Hall-Spencer, Jason M; Tripathi, Binu M; Milazzo, Marco; Lee, Junghoon; Adams, Jonathan M

    2014-05-01

    The effects of increasing atmospheric CO(2) on ocean ecosystems are a major environmental concern, as rapid shoaling of the carbonate saturation horizon is exposing vast areas of marine sediments to corrosive waters worldwide. Natural CO(2) gradients off Vulcano, Italy, have revealed profound ecosystem changes along rocky shore habitats as carbonate saturation levels decrease, but no investigations have yet been made of the sedimentary habitat. Here, we sampled the upper 2 cm of volcanic sand in three zones, ambient (median pCO(2) 419 μatm, minimum Ω(arag) 3.77), moderately CO(2)-enriched (median pCO(2) 592 μatm, minimum Ω(arag) 2.96), and highly CO(2)-enriched (median pCO(2) 1611 μatm, minimum Ω(arag) 0.35). We tested the hypothesis that increasing levels of seawater pCO(2) would cause significant shifts in sediment bacterial community composition, as shown recently in epilithic biofilms at the study site. In this study, 454 pyrosequencing of the V1 to V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene revealed a shift in community composition with increasing pCO(2). The relative abundances of most of the dominant genera were unaffected by the pCO(2) gradient, although there were significant differences for some 5 % of the genera present (viz. Georgenia, Lutibacter, Photobacterium, Acinetobacter, and Paenibacillus), and Shannon Diversity was greatest in sediments subject to long-term acidification (>100 years). Overall, this supports the view that globally increased ocean pCO(2) will be associated with changes in sediment bacterial community composition but that most of these organisms are resilient. However, further work is required to assess whether these results apply to other types of coastal sediments and whether the changes in relative abundance of bacterial taxa that we observed can significantly alter the biogeochemical functions of marine sediments. PMID:24493461

  18. Net Production and Consumption of Fluorescent Colored Dissolved Organic Matter by Natural Bacterial Assemblages Growing on Marine Phytoplankton Exudates▿

    PubMed Central

    Romera-Castillo, Cristina; Sarmento, Hugo; Álvarez-Salgado, Xosé Antón; Gasol, Josep M.; Marrasé, Celia

    2011-01-01

    An understanding of the distribution of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in the oceans and its role in the global carbon cycle requires a better knowledge of the colored materials produced and consumed by marine phytoplankton and bacteria. In this work, we examined the net uptake and release of CDOM by a natural bacterial community growing on DOM derived from four phytoplankton species cultured under axenic conditions. Fluorescent humic-like substances exuded by phytoplankton (excitation/emission [Ex/Em] wavelength, 310 nm/392 nm; Coble's peak M) were utilized by bacteria in different proportions depending on the phytoplankton species of origin. Furthermore, bacteria produced humic-like substances that fluoresce at an Ex/Em wavelength of 340 nm/440 nm (Coble's peak C). Differences were also observed in the Ex/Em wavelengths of the protein-like materials (Coble's peak T) produced by phytoplankton and bacteria. The induced fluorescent emission of CDOM produced by prokaryotes was an order of magnitude higher than that of CDOM produced by eukaryotes. We have also examined the final compositions of the bacterial communities growing on the exudates, which differed markedly depending on the phytoplankton species of origin. Alteromonas and Roseobacter were dominant during all the incubations on Chaetoceros sp. and Prorocentrum minimum exudates, respectively. Alteromonas was the dominant group growing on Skeletonema costatum exudates during the exponential growth phase, but it was replaced by Roseobacter afterwards. On Micromonas pusilla exudates, Roseobacter was replaced by Bacteroidetes after the exponential growth phase. Our work shows that fluorescence excitation-emission matrices of CDOM can be a helpful tool for the identification of microbial sources of DOM in the marine environment, but further studies are necessary to explore the association of particular bacterial groups with specific fluorophores. PMID:21742918

  19. Higher diversity of ammonia/ammonium-oxidizing prokaryotes in constructed freshwater wetland than natural coastal marine wetland.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong-Feng; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2013-08-01

    Anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria, aerobic ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA), and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) are three groups of ammonium/ammonia-oxidizing prokaryotes (AOPs) that are involved in the nitrogen cycle. This research compared the AOP communities in a constructed freshwater wetland with a natural coastal marine wetland in the subtropical Hong Kong. Both vegetated/rhizosphere and nonvegetated sediments were investigated to identify the effects of different macrophytes on the AOP communities. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified gene fragments of 16S rRNA and archaeal and bacterial amoA (encoding the ammonia monooxygenase alpha subunit) were applied as molecular biomarkers to analyze the AOPs' phylogeny and diversity. Quantitative PCR was used to determine the abundances of AOPs in the sediments. The results showed that the relatively more heterogeneous freshwater wetland contained a broader range of phylotypes, higher diversity, more complex community structures, and more unevenly distributed abundances of AOPs than the coastal wetland. The effects of vegetation on the community structures of AOPs were plant-specific. The exotic Typha angustifolia affected the community structures of all AOPs and enhanced their abundances in the rhizosphere region. Both Phragmites australis and Cyperus malaccensis showed some effects on the community structures of AOB, but minimal effects on those of anammox bacteria or AOA. Kandelia obovata had almost no detectable effect on all AOPs due to their smaller size. This study suggested that the freshwater and coastal marine wetlands may have different contributions to the inorganic N removal due to the variations in AOP communities and plant types. PMID:23053083

  20. Short-Term and Long-Term Biological Effects of Chronic Chemical Contamination on Natural Populations of a Marine Bivalve.

    PubMed

    Breitwieser, Marine; Viricel, Amélia; Graber, Marianne; Murillo, Laurence; Becquet, Vanessa; Churlaud, Carine; Fruitier-Arnaudin, Ingrid; Huet, Valérie; Lacroix, Camille; Pante, Eric; Le Floch, Stéphane; Thomas-Guyon, Hélène

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the effects of chronic chemical contamination on natural populations of marine organisms is complex due to the combined effects of different types of pollutants and environmental parameters that can modulate the physiological responses to stress. Here, we present the effects of a chronic contamination in a marine bivalve by combining multiple approaches that provide information on individual and population health. We sampled variegated scallops (Mimachlamys varia) at sites characterized by different contaminants and contamination levels to study the short and long-term (intergenerational) responses of this species to physiological stress. We used biomarkers (SOD, MDA, GST, laccase, citrate synthase and phosphatases) as indicators of oxidative stress, immune system alteration, mitochondrial respiration and general metabolism, and measured population genetic diversity at each site. In parallel, concentration of 14 trace metals and 45 organic contaminants (PAHs, PCBs, pesticides) in tissues were measured. Scallops were collected outside and during their reproductive season to investigate temporal variability in contaminant and biomarker levels. Our analyses revealed that the levels of two biomarkers (Laccase-type phenoloxidase and malondialdehyde) were significantly correlated with Cd concentration. Additionally, we observed significant seasonal differences for four of the five biomarkers, which is likely due to the scallop reproductive status at time of sampling. As a source of concern, a location that was identified as a reference site on the basis of inorganic contaminant levels presented the same level of some persistent organic pollutants (DDT and its metabolites) than more impacted sites. Finally, potential long-term effects of heavy metal contamination were observed for variegated scallops as genetic diversity was depressed in the most polluted sites. PMID:26938082

  1. Measurement of carbon and nitrogen biomass, and biovolume from naturally derived marine bacterioplankton

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, SangHoon.

    1992-01-01

    Bacterial production often needs to be presented in carbon or nitrogen biomass. Conversions to such universal units are particularly necessary to interpret the data in terms of energy or material flow in relation to other trophic groups of organisms. For field applications, bacterial biomass is routinely estimated from cell concentrations or cell volumes (biovolume) with appropriate conversion factors. For the direct determination of a conversion factor, in principle, three independent parameters are measured; number of cells, biovolume of the cells, and biomass. Current methods for all of those three are subject to potential errors. Described here is a method that combines the acridine orange (AO) direct count method for cell enumeration, AO epifluorescence photomicrography for the biovolume measurement, and CHN analysis for C and N biomass. This method offers several improvements including bacterial cells are derived from natural seawater and grown in unsupplemented natural seawater; corrections are made for the bacterial cells passing through glass fiber GF/F filters; and biovolume measurement is calibrated with fluorescent microspheres of known diameters.

  2. Measurement of carbon and nitrogen biomass, and biovolume from naturally derived marine bacterioplankton

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, SangHoon

    1992-10-01

    Bacterial production often needs to be presented in carbon or nitrogen biomass. Conversions to such universal units are particularly necessary to interpret the data in terms of energy or material flow in relation to other trophic groups of organisms. For field applications, bacterial biomass is routinely estimated from cell concentrations or cell volumes (biovolume) with appropriate conversion factors. For the direct determination of a conversion factor, in principle, three independent parameters are measured; number of cells, biovolume of the cells, and biomass. Current methods for all of those three are subject to potential errors. Described here is a method that combines the acridine orange (AO) direct count method for cell enumeration, AO epifluorescence photomicrography for the biovolume measurement, and CHN analysis for C and N biomass. This method offers several improvements including bacterial cells are derived from natural seawater and grown in unsupplemented natural seawater; corrections are made for the bacterial cells passing through glass fiber GF/F filters; and biovolume measurement is calibrated with fluorescent microspheres of known diameters.

  3. Sulfate-reducing bacteria inhabiting natural corrosion deposits from marine steel structures.

    PubMed

    Païssé, Sandrine; Ghiglione, Jean-François; Marty, Florence; Abbas, Ben; Gueuné, Hervé; Amaya, José Maria Sanchez; Muyzer, Gerard; Quillet, Laurent

    2013-08-01

    In the present study, investigations were conducted on natural corrosion deposits to better understand the role of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in the accelerated corrosion process of carbon steel sheet piles in port environments. We describe the abundance and diversity of total and metabolically active SRB within five natural corrosion deposits located within tidal or low water zone and showing either normal or accelerated corrosion. By using molecular techniques, such as quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, denaturing gel gradient electrophoresis, and sequence cloning based on 16S rRNA, dsrB genes, and their transcripts, we demonstrated a clear distinction between SRB population structure inhabiting normal or accelerated low-water corrosion deposits. Although SRB were present in both normal and accelerated low-water corrosion deposits, they dominated and were exclusively active in the inner and intermediate layers of accelerated corrosion deposits. We also highlighted that some of these SRB populations are specific to the accelerated low-water corrosion deposit environment in which they probably play a dominant role in the sulfured corrosion product enrichment.

  4. Chronic oiling of marine birds in California by natural petroleum seeps, shipwrecks, and other sources.

    PubMed

    Henkel, Laird A; Nevins, Hannahrose; Martin, Marida; Sugarman, Susan; Harvey, James T; Ziccardi, Michael H

    2014-02-15

    We assessed temporal and spatial patterns of chronic oiling of seabirds in California during 2005-2010, using data on: (1) live oiled birds reported to the Oiled Wildlife Care Network (OWCN) from throughout the state, and (2) dead oiled birds found during systematic monthly beached-bird surveys in central California. A mean of 245 (± 141 SD) live miscellaneous oiled birds (not associated with known oil spills) were reported to the OWCN per year, and 0.1 oiled dead birds km(-1) per month were found on beach surveys in central California. Chemical fingerprinting of oiled feathers from a subset of these birds (n=101) indicated that 89% of samples tested were likely from natural petroleum seeps off southern and central California. There was a pronounced peak during late winter in the number of oiled birds reported in southern California, which we theorize may be related to large storm waves disturbing underwater seeps.

  5. Does enhanced solar UV-B radiation affect marine primary producers in their natural habitats?

    PubMed

    Häder, Donat-P

    2011-01-01

    This article is a highlight of the paper by Li et al. in this issue of Photochemistry and Photobiology as well as a short summary of the research on the effects of solar UV-B radiation on primary production in the oceans. Laboratory experiments under controlled conditions using artificial light sources indicate species-specific damage of many phytoplankton groups. Mesocosm studies in enclosures of limited volume allow analyzing UV effects in multigeneration monitoring of natural assemblages. Field studies to determine the effects of short-wavelength solar radiation require sensitive instrumentation and measurements over extended areas of the open ocean to yield significant results. Results from a cruise described in the paper by Li et al. indicate clear effects of UV-B and UV-A on the photosynthetic carbon fixation of phytoplankton communities with spatial differences between coastal and open-ocean waters. Increasing temperatures and acidification in the ocean due to global climate change may exacerbate the detrimental effects of solar UV-B radiation. PMID:21208211

  6. Toxicity of natural mixtures of organic pollutants in temperate and polar marine phytoplankton.

    PubMed

    Echeveste, Pedro; Galbán-Malagón, Cristóbal; Dachs, Jordi; Berrojalbiz, Naiara; Agustí, Susana

    2016-11-15

    Semivolatile and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) undergo atmospheric transport before being deposited to the oceans, where they partition to phytoplankton organic matter. The goal of this study was to determine the toxicity of naturally occurring complex mixtures of organic pollutants to temperate and polar phytoplankton communities from the Mediterranean Sea, the North East (NE) Atlantic, and Southern Oceans. The cell abundance of the different phytoplankton groups, chlorophyll a concentrations, viability of the cells, and growth and decay constants were monitored in response to addition of a range of concentrations of mixtures of organic pollutants obtained from seawater extracts. Almost all of the phytoplankton groups were significantly affected by the complex mixtures of non-polar and polar organic pollutants, with toxicity being greater for these mixtures than for single POPs or simple POP mixtures. Cocktails' toxicity arose at concentrations as low as tenfold the field oceanic levels, probably due to a higher chemical activity of the mixture than of simple POPs mixtures. Overall, smaller cells were the most affected, although Mediterranean picophytoplankton was significantly more tolerant to non-polar POPs than picophytoplankton from the Atlantic Ocean or the Bellingshausen Sea microphytoplankton. PMID:27470667

  7. Toxicity of natural mixtures of organic pollutants in temperate and polar marine phytoplankton.

    PubMed

    Echeveste, Pedro; Galbán-Malagón, Cristóbal; Dachs, Jordi; Berrojalbiz, Naiara; Agustí, Susana

    2016-11-15

    Semivolatile and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) undergo atmospheric transport before being deposited to the oceans, where they partition to phytoplankton organic matter. The goal of this study was to determine the toxicity of naturally occurring complex mixtures of organic pollutants to temperate and polar phytoplankton communities from the Mediterranean Sea, the North East (NE) Atlantic, and Southern Oceans. The cell abundance of the different phytoplankton groups, chlorophyll a concentrations, viability of the cells, and growth and decay constants were monitored in response to addition of a range of concentrations of mixtures of organic pollutants obtained from seawater extracts. Almost all of the phytoplankton groups were significantly affected by the complex mixtures of non-polar and polar organic pollutants, with toxicity being greater for these mixtures than for single POPs or simple POP mixtures. Cocktails' toxicity arose at concentrations as low as tenfold the field oceanic levels, probably due to a higher chemical activity of the mixture than of simple POPs mixtures. Overall, smaller cells were the most affected, although Mediterranean picophytoplankton was significantly more tolerant to non-polar POPs than picophytoplankton from the Atlantic Ocean or the Bellingshausen Sea microphytoplankton.

  8. Use of natural pH variation to increase the flocculation of the marine microalgae Nannochloropsis oculata.

    PubMed

    Sales, Rafael; Abreu, Paulo Cesar

    2015-02-01

    Microalgae is largely used in aquaculture as feed. More recently, these microorganisms have been considered as an important feedstock for biodiesel production. However, the concentration of produced biomass represents a large parcel of production costs. In this study, we have evaluated the influence of natural pH variation of culture medium, caused by photosynthetic activity, on the flocculation of the marine microalgae Nannochloropsis oculata. Experiments were conducted with the same culture with different pH values (8.5 and 9.6), obtained after exposing the cells to different light conditions. For each pH value, different treatments were composed by adding 0, 5, 10, and 30 mM of NaOH and the flocculant Flopam® (FO4800 SH) at concentrations of 0, 0.5, 1, and 5 ppm. Higher flocculation efficiencies were obtained for the culture with pH 9.6 in comparison to 8.5 for the same NaOH and Flopam concentrations. Lower concentrations of base and flocculant were needed for flocculating the culture in higher pH, representing an economy of 20 % in the costs of crop harvesting.

  9. Antioxidant responses in the polar marine sea-ice amphipod Gammarus wilkitzkii to natural and experimentally increased UV levels.

    PubMed

    Krapp, Rupert H; Baussant, Thierry; Bassinet, Thievery; Berge, Jørgen; Pampanin, Daniela M; Camus, Lionel

    2009-08-13

    Polar marine surface waters are characterized by high levels of dissolved oxygen, seasonally intense UV irradiance and high levels of dissolved organic carbon. Therefore, the Arctic sea-ice habitat is regarded as a strongly pro-oxidant environment, even though its significant ice cover protects the ice-associated (=sympagic) fauna from direct irradiation to a large extent. In order to investigate the level of resistance to oxyradical stress, we sampled the sympagic amphipod species Gammarus wilkitzkii during both winter and summer conditions, as well as exposed specimens to simulated levels of near-natural and elevated levels of UV irradiation. Results showed that this amphipod species possessed a much stronger antioxidant capacity during summer than during winter. Also, the experimental UV exposure showed a depletion in antioxidant defences, indicating a negative effect of UV exposure on the total oxyradical scavenging capacity. Another sympagic organism, Onisimus nanseni, was sampled during summer conditions. When compared to G. wilkitzkii, the species showed even higher antioxidant scavenging capacity. PMID:19524308

  10. Use of natural pH variation to increase the flocculation of the marine microalgae Nannochloropsis oculata.

    PubMed

    Sales, Rafael; Abreu, Paulo Cesar

    2015-02-01

    Microalgae is largely used in aquaculture as feed. More recently, these microorganisms have been considered as an important feedstock for biodiesel production. However, the concentration of produced biomass represents a large parcel of production costs. In this study, we have evaluated the influence of natural pH variation of culture medium, caused by photosynthetic activity, on the flocculation of the marine microalgae Nannochloropsis oculata. Experiments were conducted with the same culture with different pH values (8.5 and 9.6), obtained after exposing the cells to different light conditions. For each pH value, different treatments were composed by adding 0, 5, 10, and 30 mM of NaOH and the flocculant Flopam® (FO4800 SH) at concentrations of 0, 0.5, 1, and 5 ppm. Higher flocculation efficiencies were obtained for the culture with pH 9.6 in comparison to 8.5 for the same NaOH and Flopam concentrations. Lower concentrations of base and flocculant were needed for flocculating the culture in higher pH, representing an economy of 20 % in the costs of crop harvesting. PMID:25432344

  11. Utilization of natural and supplemental biofuels for harvesting energy from marine sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Mark E.

    A benthic microbial fuel cell (BMFC) is an electrochemical device that generates current from the redox gradient at the sediment-water interface. Early prototypes had anodes buried in anoxic sediments and cathodes in overlying water. The BMFCs described in this dissertation are based on a chamber design that enables the use of high surface-area fiber electrodes and facilitates enhanced mass transport to the anode. Results from Yaquina Bay, OR, show that mass transport resistance accounted for at least 93% of the total internal resistance for a particular BMFC configuration. Power output was increased 18-fold by mechanically induced fluid transport through the anode chamber. At a cold seep in Monterey Canyon, CA, naturally driven advection resulted in a five-fold increase in power from a BMFC with low-pressure check valves relative to an identical BMFC with high-pressure check valves. Enhanced transport coincided with a change in the microbial community on the anode from one dominated by epsilonproteobacteria to one with relatively even representation from deltaproteobacteria, epsilonproteobacteria, firmicutes and flavobacterium/cytophaga/bacterioides. Laboratory experiments investigated the effect of adding supplemental carbon sources to anode chambers. Repeated lactate injections appeared to stimulate sulfate reduction resulting in short term power gains but did not apparently shift the process responsible for baseline current. When a specific inhibitor of sulfate reduction was added, lactate-supplemented and unsupplemented BMFCs performed similarly. BMFCs have been proposed as power sources for monitoring systems in remote locations. Practical implementation of this technology is governed by three conditions: (1) low-voltage current must be stepped up to meet the requirements of off-the-shelf electronic devices, (2) modest power production and variable power demands require integrated energy storage, and (3) BMFCs should be operated at the most efficient

  12. Effects of natural and anthropogenic processes in the distribution of marine litter in the deep Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez-Llodra, Eva; De Mol, Ben; Company, Joan B.; Coll, Marta; Sardà, Francesc

    2013-11-01

    The distribution, type and quantity of marine litter accumulated on the bathyal and abyssal Mediterranean seafloor has been studied in the framework of the Spanish national projects PROMETEO and DOS MARES and the ESF-EuroDEEP project BIOFUN. Litter was collected with an otter trawl and Agassiz trawl while sampling for megafauna on the Blanes canyon and adjacent slope (Catalan margin, north-western Mediterranean) between 900 and 2700 m depth, and on the western, central and eastern Mediterranean basins at 1200, 2000 and 3000 m depth. All litter was sorted into 8 categories (hard plastic, soft plastic, glass, metal, clinker, fabric, longlines and fishing nets) and weighed. The distribution of litter was analysed in relation to depth, geographic area and natural (bathymetry, currents and rivers) and anthropogenic (population density and shipping routes) processes. The most abundant litter types were plastic, glass, metal and clinker. Lost or discarded fishing gear was also commonly found. On the Catalan margin, although the data indicated an accumulation of litter with increasing depth, mean weight was not significantly different between depths or between the open slope and the canyon. We propose that litter accumulated in the canyon, with high proportions of plastics, has predominantly a coastal origin, while litter collected on the open slope, dominated by heavy litter, is mostly ship-originated, especially at sites under major shipping routes. Along the trans-Mediterranean transect, although a higher amount of litter seemed to be found on the Western Mediterranean, differences of mean weight were not significant between the 3 geographic areas and the 3 depths. Here, the shallower sites, also closer to the coast, had a higher proportion of plastics than the deeper sites, which had a higher proportion of heavy litter and were often affected by shipping routes. The weight of litter was also compared to biomass of megafauna from the same samples. On the Blanes slope

  13. High incidence of plasmids in marine Vibrio species isolated from Mai Po Nature Reserve of Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruifu; Pan, Li; Zhao, Zhenye; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2012-08-01

    Mai Po Nature Reserve is the largest mangrove ecosystem and the most polluted coastal water body in Hong Kong. Plasmids screening of 100 Vibrio isolates randomly showed 45 % of them contained 1-3 plasmids. These plasmid(s)-bearing isolates could be divided into 12 groups based on their plasmid profiles. Phylogenetic analysis of the partial 16S rRNA gene sequences confirmed that all plasmid(s)-bearing isolates belonged to Vibrio cholerae. Full DNA sequences of the plasmids in Groups I (pVCG1.1 and pVCG1.2), II (pVCG2.1), III (pVCG3.2) and IV (pVCG4.1) have been determined and the results showed that pVCG1.1, pVCG2.1 and pVCG3.2 were almost identical. Plasmids pVCG1.1, pVCG1.2 and pVCG4.1 are comprised of 4,439, 2,357 and 2,163 bp with the overall G+C content of 45.57, 53.54 and 43.09 %, respectively. pVCG1.1 is a novel plasmid, and plasmids pVCG1.2 and pVCG4.1 showed homology of replication initiation proteins to that of the theta type replicons. Attempts to cure the plasmids from their hosts were unsuccessful. These data suggest that plasmids of Vibrio spp. are a significant gene reservoir in the marine ecosystem. PMID:22684730

  14. Method for determining stable isotope ratios of dissolved organic carbon in interstitial and other natural marine waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, J. E.; Haddad, R. I.; Des Marais, D. J.

    1991-01-01

    A procedure is described for the analysis of the stable carbon isotopic composition of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in natural waters from marine and higher-salinity environments. Rapid (less than 5 min) and complete oxidation of DOC is achieved using a modification of previous photochemical oxidation techniques. The CO2 evolved from DOC oxidation can be collected in less than 10 min for isotopic analysis. The procedure is at present suitable for oxidation and collection of 1-5 micromoles of carbon and has an associated blank of 0.1-0.2 micromole of carbon. Complete photochemical oxidation of DOC standards was demonstrated by quantitative recovery of CO2 as measured manometrically. Isotopic analyses of standards by photochemical and high-temperature sealed-tube combustion methods agreed to within 0.3%. Photochemical oxidation of DOC in a representative sediment pore-water sample was also quantitative, as shown by the excellent agreement between the photochemical and sealed-tube methods. The delta 13C values obtained for pore-water DOC using the two methods of oxidation were identical, suggesting that the modified photochemical method is adequate for the isotopically non-fractionated oxidation of pore-water DOC. The procedure was evaluated through an analysis of DOC in pond and pore waters from a hypersaline microbial mat environment. Concentrations of DOC in the water column over the mat displayed a diel pattern, but the isotopic composition of this DOC remained relatively constant (average delta 13C = -12.4%). Pore-water DOC exhibited a distinct concentration maximum in the mat surface layer, and delta 13C of pore-water DOC was nearly 8% lighter at 1.5-2.0-cm depth than in the mat surface layer (0-0.5-cm depth). These results demonstrate the effectiveness of the method in elucidating differences in DOC concentration and delta 13C over biogeochemically relevant spatial and temporal scales. Carbon isotopic analysis of DOC in natural waters, especially pore waters

  15. Natural radionuclides tracing in marine surface waters along the northern coast of Oman Sea by combining the radioactivity analysis, oceanic currents and the SWAN model results.

    PubMed

    Zare, Mohammad Reza; Mostajaboddavati, Mojtaba; Kamali, Mahdi; Tari, Marziyeh; Mosayebi, Sanaz; Mortazavi, Mohammad Seddigh

    2015-03-15

    This study aims to establish a managed sampling plan for rapid estimate of natural radio-nuclides diffusion in the northern coast of the Oman Sea. First, the natural radioactivity analysis in 36 high volume surface water samples was carried out using a portable high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. Second, the oceanic currents in the northern coast were investigated. Then, the third generation spectral SWAN model was utilized to simulate wave parameters. Direction of natural radioactivity propagation was coupled with the preferable wave vectors and oceanic currents direction that face to any marine pollution, these last two factors will contribute to increase or decrease of pollution in each grid. The results were indicated that the natural radioactivity concentration between the grids 8600 and 8604 is gathered in the grid 8600 and between the grids 8605 and 8608 is propagated toward middle part of Oman Sea.

  16. Distribution of naturally occurring radioactivity and ¹³⁷Cs in the marine sediment of Farasan Island, southern Red Sea, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Zahrany, A A; Farouk, M A; Al-Yousef, A A

    2012-11-01

    The present work is a part of a project dedicated to measure the marine radioactivity near the Saudi Arabian coasts of the Red Sea and Arabian Gulf for establishing a marine radioactivity database, which includes necessary information on the background levels of both naturally occurring and man-made radionuclides in the marine environment. Farasan Islands is a group of 84 islands (archipelago), under the administration of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, in the Red Sea with its main island of Farasan, which is 50 km off the coast of Jazan City. The levels of natural radioactivity of (238)U, (235)U, (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K and man-made radionuclides such as (137)Cs in the grab sediment and water samples around Farasan Island have been measured using gamma-ray spectroscopy. The average activity concentrations of (238)U, (235)U, (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K and (137)Cs in the sediment samples were found to be 35.46, 1.75, 3.31, 0.92, 34.34 and 0.14 Bq kg(-1), respectively.

  17. Carotenoids in Marine Animals

    PubMed Central

    Maoka, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of β-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine animal carotenoids from natural product chemistry, metabolism, food chain, and chemosystematic viewpoints, and also describe new structural carotenoids isolated from marine animals over the last decade. PMID:21566799

  18. Variation in the Early Marine Survival and Behavior of Natural and Hatchery-Reared Hood Canal Steelhead

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Megan; Berejikian, Barry A.; Tezak, Eugene P.

    2012-01-01

    Background Hatchery-induced selection and direct effects of the culture environment can both cause captively bred fish populations to survive at low rates and behave unnaturally in the wild. New approaches to fish rearing in conservation hatcheries seek to reduce hatchery-induced selection, maintain genetic resources, and improve the survival of released fish. Methodology/Principal Findings This study used acoustic telemetry to compare three years of early marine survival estimates for two wild steelhead populations to survival of two populations raised at two different conservation hatcheries located within the Hood Canal watershed. Steelhead smolts from one conservation hatchery survived with probabilities similar to the two wild populations (freshwater: 95.8–96.9%, early marine: 10.0–15.9%), while smolts from the other conservation hatchery exhibited reduced freshwater and early marine survival (freshwater: 50.2–58.7%, early marine: 2.6–5.1%). Freshwater and marine travel rates did not differ significantly between wild and hatchery individuals from the same stock, though hatchery smolts did display reduced migration ranges within Hood Canal. Between-hatchery differences in rearing density and vessel geometry likely affected survival and behavior after release and contributed to greater variation between hatcheries than between wild populations. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest that hatchery-reared smolts can achieve early marine survival rates similar to wild smolt survival rates, and that migration performance of hatchery-reared steelhead can vary substantially depending on the environmental conditions and practices employed during captivity. PMID:23185393

  19. In situ γ-ray spectrometry in the marine environment using full spectrum analysis for natural radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Androulakaki, E G; Kokkoris, M; Tsabaris, C; Eleftheriou, G; Patiris, D L; Pappa, F K; Vlastou, R

    2016-08-01

    The Full Spectrum Analysis approach was applied to obtain activity concentration estimations for in situ measurements in the marine environment. The 'standard spectra' were reproduced using the MCNP-CP code. In order to extract the activity concentrations, χ(2) minimization calculations were performed by implementing the MINUIT code. The method was applied to estimate the activity concentrations for measurements in the marine environment in three different test cases. The estimated activity concentrations were in good agreement with the experimentally derived ones within uncertainties.

  20. In situ γ-ray spectrometry in the marine environment using full spectrum analysis for natural radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Androulakaki, E G; Kokkoris, M; Tsabaris, C; Eleftheriou, G; Patiris, D L; Pappa, F K; Vlastou, R

    2016-08-01

    The Full Spectrum Analysis approach was applied to obtain activity concentration estimations for in situ measurements in the marine environment. The 'standard spectra' were reproduced using the MCNP-CP code. In order to extract the activity concentrations, χ(2) minimization calculations were performed by implementing the MINUIT code. The method was applied to estimate the activity concentrations for measurements in the marine environment in three different test cases. The estimated activity concentrations were in good agreement with the experimentally derived ones within uncertainties. PMID:27213807

  1. Using biogeographic distributions and natural history to predict marine/estuarine species at risk to climate change

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effects of climate change on marine and estuarine species will vary with attributes of the species and the spatial patterns of environmental change at the habitat and global scales. To better predict which species are at greatest risk, we are developing a knowledge base of specie...

  2. New marine natural products from sponges (Porifera) of the order Dictyoceratida (2001 to 2012); a promising source for drug discovery, exploration and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Mehbub, Mohammad F; Perkins, Michael V; Zhang, Wei; Franco, Christopher M M

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of new drugs can no longer rely primarily on terrestrial resources, as they have been heavily exploited for over a century. During the last few decades marine sources, particularly sponges, have proven to be a most promising source of new natural products for drug discovery. This review considers the order Dictyoceratida in the Phylum Porifera from which the largest number of new marine natural products have been reported over the period 2001-2012. This paper examines all the sponges from the order Dictyoceratida that were reported as new compounds during the time period in a comprehensive manner. The distinctive physical characteristics and the geographical distribution of the different families are presented. The wide structural diversity of the compounds produced and the variety of biological activities they exhibited is highlighted. As a representative of sponges, insights into this order and avenues for future effective natural product discovery are presented. The research institutions associated with the various studies are also highlighted with the aim of facilitating collaborative relationships, as well as to acknowledge the major international contributors to the discovery of novel sponge metabolites. The order Dictyoceratida is a valuable source of novel chemical structures which will continue to contribute to a new era of drug discovery.

  3. New marine natural products from sponges (Porifera) of the order Dictyoceratida (2001 to 2012); a promising source for drug discovery, exploration and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Mehbub, Mohammad F; Perkins, Michael V; Zhang, Wei; Franco, Christopher M M

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of new drugs can no longer rely primarily on terrestrial resources, as they have been heavily exploited for over a century. During the last few decades marine sources, particularly sponges, have proven to be a most promising source of new natural products for drug discovery. This review considers the order Dictyoceratida in the Phylum Porifera from which the largest number of new marine natural products have been reported over the period 2001-2012. This paper examines all the sponges from the order Dictyoceratida that were reported as new compounds during the time period in a comprehensive manner. The distinctive physical characteristics and the geographical distribution of the different families are presented. The wide structural diversity of the compounds produced and the variety of biological activities they exhibited is highlighted. As a representative of sponges, insights into this order and avenues for future effective natural product discovery are presented. The research institutions associated with the various studies are also highlighted with the aim of facilitating collaborative relationships, as well as to acknowledge the major international contributors to the discovery of novel sponge metabolites. The order Dictyoceratida is a valuable source of novel chemical structures which will continue to contribute to a new era of drug discovery. PMID:26802363

  4. QSAR-assisted virtual screening of lead-like molecules from marine and microbial natural sources for antitumor and antibiotic drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Florbela; Latino, Diogo A R S; Gaudêncio, Susana P

    2015-03-17

    A Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) approach for classification was used for the prediction of compounds as active/inactive relatively to overall biological activity, antitumor and antibiotic activities using a data set of 1746 compounds from PubChem with empirical CDK descriptors and semi-empirical quantum-chemical descriptors. A data set of 183 active pharmaceutical ingredients was additionally used for the external validation of the best models. The best classification models for antibiotic and antitumor activities were used to screen a data set of marine and microbial natural products from the AntiMarin database-25 and four lead compounds for antibiotic and antitumor drug design were proposed, respectively. The present work enables the presentation of a new set of possible lead like bioactive compounds and corroborates the results of our previous investigations. By other side it is shown the usefulness of quantum-chemical descriptors in the discrimination of biologically active and inactive compounds. None of the compounds suggested by our approach have assigned non-antibiotic and non-antitumor activities in the AntiMarin database and almost all were lately reported as being active in the literature.

  5. Comparative Characterization of Two Marine Alginate Lyases from Zobellia galactanivorans Reveals Distinct Modes of Action and Exquisite Adaptation to Their Natural Substrate*

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, François; Lundqvist, Lena C. E.; Jam, Murielle; Jeudy, Alexandra; Barbeyron, Tristan; Sandström, Corine; Michel, Gurvan; Czjzek, Mirjam

    2013-01-01

    Cell walls of brown algae are complex supramolecular assemblies containing various original, sulfated, and carboxylated polysaccharides. Among these, the major marine polysaccharide component, alginate, represents an important biomass that is successfully turned over by the heterotrophic marine bacteria. In the marine flavobacterium Zobellia galactanivorans, the catabolism and uptake of alginate are encoded by operon structures that resemble the typical Bacteroidetes polysaccharide utilization locus. The genome of Z. galactanivorans contains seven putative alginate lyase genes, five of which are localized within two clusters comprising additional carbohydrate-related genes. This study reports on the detailed biochemical and structural characterization of two of these. We demonstrate here that AlyA1PL7 is an endolytic guluronate lyase, and AlyA5 cleaves unsaturated units, α-l-guluronate or β-d-manuronate residues, at the nonreducing end of oligo-alginates in an exolytic fashion. Despite a common jelly roll-fold, these striking differences of the mode of action are explained by a distinct active site topology, an open cleft in AlyA1PL7, whereas AlyA5 displays a pocket topology due to the presence of additional loops partially obstructing the catalytic groove. Finally, in contrast to PL7 alginate lyases from terrestrial bacteria, both enzymes proceed according to a calcium-dependent mechanism suggesting an exquisite adaptation to their natural substrate in the context of brown algal cell walls. PMID:23782694

  6. Synthesis and structure-activity relationships of the halovirs, antiviral natural products from a marine-derived fungus.

    PubMed

    Rowley, David C; Kelly, Sara; Jensen, Paul; Fenical, William

    2004-09-15

    The halovirs are linear, lipophilic peptides produced by a marine-derived fungus of the genus Scytalidium. We recently reported that these molecules possess potent in vitro activity against the herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2. Here we present structure-activity relationships defining key structural elements for optimal viral inhibition. Results demonstrate that an N(alpha)-acyl chain of at least 14 carbons and an Aib-Pro dipeptide are critical for maintaining the antiviral activity.

  7. Isolation of naturally occurring enteroviruses from a variety of shellfish species residing in Long Island and New Jersey marine embayments

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughn, J.M.; Landry, E.F.; Vicale, T.J.; Dahl, M.C.

    1980-02-01

    Shellfish and shellfish-raising waters from a variety of Long Island and New Jersey marine embayments were examined for the presence of human enteroviruses. Little difference in virological quality was noted between areas designated as being open or closed to shellfishing. Viral isolations could not be correlated with coliform counts from identical samples, indicating the need to re-evaluate the use of bacterial standards as indices of the overall sanitary quality of water and shellfish.

  8. Modification of marine natural product ningalin B and SAR study lead to potent P-glycoprotein inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chao; Wong, Iris L K; Jin, Wen Bin; Jiang, Tao; Chow, Larry M C; Wan, Sheng Biao

    2014-10-01

    In this study, new marine ningalin B analogues containing a piperazine or a benzoloxy group at ring C have been synthesized and evaluated on their P-gp modulating activity in human breast cancer and leukemia cell lines. Their structure-activity relationship was preliminarily studied. Compounds 19 and 20 are potent P-gp inhibitors. These two synthetic analogues of permethyl ningalin B may be potentially used as effective modulators of P-gp-mediated drug resistance in cancer cells. PMID:25329704

  9. Molecular techniques revealed highly diverse microbial communities in natural marine biofilms on polystyrene dishes for invertebrate larval settlement.

    PubMed

    Lee, On On; Chung, Hong Chun; Yang, Jiangke; Wang, Yong; Dash, Swagatika; Wang, Hao; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2014-07-01

    Biofilm microbial communities play an important role in the larval settlement response of marine invertebrates. However, the underlying mechanism has yet to be resolved, mainly because of the uncertainties in characterizing members in the communities using traditional 16S rRNA gene-based molecular methods and in identifying the chemical signals involved. In this study, pyrosequencing was used to characterize the bacterial communities in intertidal and subtidal marine biofilms developed during two seasons. We revealed highly diverse biofilm bacterial communities that varied with season and tidal level. Over 3,000 operational taxonomic units with estimates of up to 8,000 species were recovered in a biofilm sample, which is by far the highest number recorded in subtropical marine biofilms. Nineteen phyla were found, of which Cyanobacteria and Proteobacteria were the most dominant one in the intertidal and subtidal biofilms, respectively. Apart from these, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Planctomycetes were the major groups recovered in both intertidal and subtidal biofilms, although their relative abundance varied among samples. Full-length 16S rRNA gene clone libraries were constructed for the four biofilm samples and showed similar bacterial compositions at the phylum level to those revealed by pyrosequencing. Laboratory assays confirmed that cyrids of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite preferred to settle on the intertidal rather than subtidal biofilms. This preference was independent of the biofilm bacterial density or biomass but was probably related to the biofilm community structure, particularly, the Proteobacterial and Cyanobacterial groups. PMID:24402362

  10. Fuscoside: an anti-inflammatory marine natural product which selectively inhibits 5-lipoxygenase. Part I: Physiological and biochemical studies in murine inflammatory models.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, P B; Jacobs, R S

    1992-08-01

    The biological and biochemical pharmacology of fuscoside, a novel anti-inflammatory marine natural product isolated from the Caribbean gorgonian Eunicea fusca, has recently been characterized using murine (part I) and human (part II) models of inflammation. Topically applied fuscoside (FSD) effectively inhibits phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-induced edema in mouse ears at levels comparable with indomethacin over a 3.3-hr exposure period, and is significantly more efficacious than indomethacin over 24 hr in the PMA model. Histological preparations and quantification of the neutrophil-specific marker, myeloperoxidase, demonstrate that FSD inhibits neutrophil infiltration into PMA-induced regions of edema and inflammation. In systemic studies, where FSD is injected i.p. before the topical application of PMA, negligible effects on ear inflammation are observed. FSD does not inhibit bee venom or human synovial fluid phospholipase A2 up to concentrations of 500 microM. In calcium ionophore-activated cultures of mouse peritoneal macrophages, FSD selectively and irreversibly inhibits leukotriene C4 biosynthesis (IC50 = 8 microM), yet has negligible effects on prostaglandin E2 production. FSD is also without effect on the conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandin E2 by ram seminal vesicle cyclooxygenase. Chromatographic and spectroscopic studies suggest that FSD is not metabolized, and that drug uptake/binding by macrophages is time dependent, saturable and independent of active transport mechanisms. These studies represent the first report of an anti-inflammatory marine natural product that selectively inhibits leukotriene biosynthesis.

  11. Natural radioactivity and effective dose due to the bottom sea and estuaries marine animals in the coastal waters around Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Khandaker, M U; Olatunji, M A; Shuib, K S K; Hakimi, N A; Nasir, N L M; Asaduzzaman, Kh; Amin, Y M; Kassim, H A

    2015-11-01

    Malaysia is among the countries with the highest fish consumption in the world and relies on seafood as a main source of animal protein. Thus, the radioactivity in the mostly consumed marine animals such as fishes, crustaceans and molluscs collected from the coastal waters around Peninsular Malaysia has been determined to monitor the level of human exposure by natural radiation via seafood consumption. The mean activity concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides (226)Ra ((238)U), (228)Ra ((232)Th) and (40)K ranged from 0.67 ± 0.19 Bq kg(-1) (Perna viridis) to 1.20 ± 0.70 Bq kg(-1) (Rastrelliger), from 0.19 ± 0.17 Bq kg(-1) (Teuthida) to 0.82 ± 0.67 Bq kg(-1) (Caridea) and from 34 ± 13 Bq kg(-1) (Caridea) to 48 ± 24 Bq kg(-1) (Teuthida), respectively. The mean annual committed effective dose due to the individual radionuclides shows an order of (228)Ra > (226)Ra > (40)K in all marine samples. The obtained doses are less than the global internal dose of 290 µSv y(-1) set by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, discarding any significant radiological risks to the populace of Peninsular Malaysia. PMID:25956784

  12. Natural radioactivity and effective dose due to the bottom sea and estuaries marine animals in the coastal waters around Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Khandaker, M U; Olatunji, M A; Shuib, K S K; Hakimi, N A; Nasir, N L M; Asaduzzaman, Kh; Amin, Y M; Kassim, H A

    2015-11-01

    Malaysia is among the countries with the highest fish consumption in the world and relies on seafood as a main source of animal protein. Thus, the radioactivity in the mostly consumed marine animals such as fishes, crustaceans and molluscs collected from the coastal waters around Peninsular Malaysia has been determined to monitor the level of human exposure by natural radiation via seafood consumption. The mean activity concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides (226)Ra ((238)U), (228)Ra ((232)Th) and (40)K ranged from 0.67 ± 0.19 Bq kg(-1) (Perna viridis) to 1.20 ± 0.70 Bq kg(-1) (Rastrelliger), from 0.19 ± 0.17 Bq kg(-1) (Teuthida) to 0.82 ± 0.67 Bq kg(-1) (Caridea) and from 34 ± 13 Bq kg(-1) (Caridea) to 48 ± 24 Bq kg(-1) (Teuthida), respectively. The mean annual committed effective dose due to the individual radionuclides shows an order of (228)Ra > (226)Ra > (40)K in all marine samples. The obtained doses are less than the global internal dose of 290 µSv y(-1) set by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, discarding any significant radiological risks to the populace of Peninsular Malaysia.

  13. Potential Synergies between Nature-Based Tourism and Sustainable Use of Marine Resources: Insights from Dive Tourism in Territorial User Rights for Fisheries in Chile.

    PubMed

    Biggs, Duan; Amar, Francisca; Valdebenito, Abel; Gelcich, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Novel solutions to conserve biodiversity whilst allowing for resource harvesting are urgently needed. In marine systems, Territorial User Rights for Fisheries (TURFs) are promoted to enable sustainable use of resources. We investigate the potential for synergies between nature-based tourism and TURFs on Chile's central coast. Of 135 recreational divers surveyed, 77% indicated that the fish species they preferred sighting were declining and 80% indicated that they would dive more often in TURFs, which have higher abundance of favoured species. Regression analysis shows that respondents that perceive that TURFs fulfil a conservation function are more willing to pay to dive in a TURF. However, respondents who understand the bureaucratic functioning of a TURF are less willing to pay, and there is diversity in how divers feel payments should be made. A participatory approach is required to navigate these complexities to achieve synergies between nature-based tourism and resource harvesting in TURFs. PMID:27023451

  14. Potential Synergies between Nature-Based Tourism and Sustainable Use of Marine Resources: Insights from Dive Tourism in Territorial User Rights for Fisheries in Chile

    PubMed Central

    Biggs, Duan; Amar, Francisca; Valdebenito, Abel; Gelcich, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Novel solutions to conserve biodiversity whilst allowing for resource harvesting are urgently needed. In marine systems, Territorial User Rights for Fisheries (TURFs) are promoted to enable sustainable use of resources. We investigate the potential for synergies between nature-based tourism and TURFs on Chile’s central coast. Of 135 recreational divers surveyed, 77% indicated that the fish species they preferred sighting were declining and 80% indicated that they would dive more often in TURFs, which have higher abundance of favoured species. Regression analysis shows that respondents that perceive that TURFs fulfil a conservation function are more willing to pay to dive in a TURF. However, respondents who understand the bureaucratic functioning of a TURF are less willing to pay, and there is diversity in how divers feel payments should be made. A participatory approach is required to navigate these complexities to achieve synergies between nature-based tourism and resource harvesting in TURFs. PMID:27023451

  15. Potential Synergies between Nature-Based Tourism and Sustainable Use of Marine Resources: Insights from Dive Tourism in Territorial User Rights for Fisheries in Chile.

    PubMed

    Biggs, Duan; Amar, Francisca; Valdebenito, Abel; Gelcich, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Novel solutions to conserve biodiversity whilst allowing for resource harvesting are urgently needed. In marine systems, Territorial User Rights for Fisheries (TURFs) are promoted to enable sustainable use of resources. We investigate the potential for synergies between nature-based tourism and TURFs on Chile's central coast. Of 135 recreational divers surveyed, 77% indicated that the fish species they preferred sighting were declining and 80% indicated that they would dive more often in TURFs, which have higher abundance of favoured species. Regression analysis shows that respondents that perceive that TURFs fulfil a conservation function are more willing to pay to dive in a TURF. However, respondents who understand the bureaucratic functioning of a TURF are less willing to pay, and there is diversity in how divers feel payments should be made. A participatory approach is required to navigate these complexities to achieve synergies between nature-based tourism and resource harvesting in TURFs.

  16. Fractionation of iron isotopes during leaching of natural particles by acidic and circumneutral leaches and development of an optimal leach for marine particulate iron isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revels, Brandi N.; Zhang, Ruifeng; Adkins, Jess F.; John, Seth G.

    2015-10-01

    Iron (Fe) is an essential nutrient for life on land and in the oceans. Iron stable isotope ratios (δ56Fe) can be used to study the biogeochemical cycling of Fe between particulate and dissolved phases in terrestrial and marine environments. We have investigated the dissolution of Fe from natural particles both to understand the mechanisms of Fe dissolution, and to choose a leach appropriate for extracting labile Fe phases of marine particles. With a goal of finding leaches which would be appropriate for studying dissolved-particle interactions in an oxic water column, three particle types were chosen including oxic seafloor sediments (MESS-3), terrestrial dust (Arizona Test Dust - A2 Fine), and ocean sediment trap material from the Cariaco basin. Four leaches were tested, including three acidic leaches similar to leaches previously applied to marine particles and sediments (25% acetic acid, 0.01 N HCl, and 0.5 N HCl) and a pH 8 oxalate-EDTA leach meant to mimic the dissolution of particles by organic complexation, as occurs in natural seawater. Each leach was applied for three different times (10 min, 2 h, 24 h) at three different temperatures (25 °C, 60 °C, 90 °C). MESS-3 was also leached under various redox conditions (0.02 M hydroxylamine hydrochloride or 0.02 M hydrogen peroxide). For all three sample types tested, we find a consistent relationship between the amount of Fe leached and leachate δ56Fe for all of the acidic leaches, and a different relationship between the amount of Fe leached and leachate δ56Fe for the oxalate-EDTA leach, suggesting that Fe was released through proton-promoted dissolution for all acidic leaches and by ligand-promoted dissolution for the oxalate-EDTA leach. Fe isotope fractionations of up to 2‰ were observed during acidic leaching of MESS-3 and Cariaco sediment trap material, but not for Arizona Test Dust, suggesting that sample composition influences fractionation, perhaps because Fe isotopes are greatly fractionated

  17. Fish Assemblages Associated with Natural and Anthropogenically-Modified Habitats in a Marine Embayment: Comparison of Baited Videos and Opera-House Traps

    PubMed Central

    Wakefield, Corey B.; Lewis, Paul D.; Coutts, Teresa B.; Fairclough, David V.; Langlois, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    Marine embayments and estuaries play an important role in the ecology and life history of many fish species. Cockburn Sound is one of a relative paucity of marine embayments on the west coast of Australia. Its sheltered waters and close proximity to a capital city have resulted in anthropogenic intrusion and extensive seascape modification. This study aimed to compare the sampling efficiencies of baited videos and fish traps in determining the relative abundance and diversity of temperate demersal fish species associated with naturally occurring (seagrass, limestone outcrops and soft sediment) and modified (rockwall and dredge channel) habitats in Cockburn Sound. Baited videos sampled a greater range of species in higher total and mean abundances than fish traps. This larger amount of data collected by baited videos allowed for greater discrimination of fish assemblages between habitats. The markedly higher diversity and abundances of fish associated with seagrass and limestone outcrops, and the fact that these habitats are very limited within Cockburn Sound, suggests they play an important role in the fish ecology of this embayment. Fish assemblages associated with modified habitats comprised a subset of species in lower abundances when compared to natural habitats with similar physical characteristics. This suggests modified habitats may not have provided the necessary resource requirements (e.g. shelter and/or diet) for some species, resulting in alterations to the natural trophic structure and interspecific interactions. Baited videos provided a more efficient and non-extractive method for comparing fish assemblages and habitat associations of smaller bodied species and juveniles in a turbid environment. PMID:23555847

  18. In situ spectrometric and chemical measurements of methane emissions from a natural marine hydrocarbon seep field, Coal Oil Point, California: Validation of methane remote sensing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luyendyk, B. P.; Leifer, I.; Roberts, D.; Margolis, J. S.

    2006-12-01

    Remote sensing techniques can significantly improve our understanding of the sources and sinks of the important greenhouse gas methane. Field and laboratory studies used spectral and in-situ chemical measurements of geologic methane plumes from natural marine seepage and radiative-transfer calculations to test the feasibility of using NASA's Airborne Visual/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) for methane remote sensing of this marine source. Based on numerical MODTRAN simulations, the spectral region between 2200 and 2340 nm was chosen for its sensitivity to CH4 with mild sensitivity to water vapor interference. During one marine field study, an intense seep area was repeatedly transected by boat using flame ion detectors (FID) to characterize the methane plume along with detailed meteorological measurements. Based on a Gaussian plume dispersion model for 3 m/s wind speed, methane column-abundances were calculated and showed a plume with methane concentrations greater than 0.5 g/m2 extending downwind 70 m with a 20 m width, much larger than the 3 to 5 m AVIRIS pixel size. Most of the methane was in the lower 10 m. MODTRAN calculations showed this to be well above the noise equivalent detection level of AVIRIS. During a separate field study, FIDs at three heights above the sea surface (2.2, 3.6, and 5 m) measured methane concentrations as high as 200 ppm while transecting an active seep area. Simultaneous spectra were obtained with a field spectrometer. Several plumes were identified from the FID data and a clear relationship was shown between the presence of methane plumes along the incident path and the presence of methane absorption features in spectra. Methane absorption features above atmospheric background were not observed outside the plumes.

  19. Determination of Natural 14C Abundances in Dissolved Organic Carbon in Organic-Rich Marine Sediment Porewaters by Thermal Sulfate Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, L.; Komada, T.

    2010-12-01

    The abundances of natural 14C in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the marine environment hold clues regarding the processes that influence the biogeochemical cycling of this large carbon reservoir. At present, UV irradiation is the widely accepted method for oxidizing seawater DOC for determination of their 14C abundances. This technique yields precise and accurate values with low blanks, but it requires a dedicated vacuum line, and hence can be difficult to implement. As an alternative technique that can be conducted on a standard preparatory vacuum line, we modified and tested a thermal sulfate reduction method that was previously developed to determine δ13C values of marine DOC (Fry B. et al., 1996. Analysis of marine DOC using a dry combustion method. Mar. Chem., 54: 191-201.) to determine the 14C abundances of DOC in marine sediment porewaters. In this method, the sample is dried in a 100 ml round-bottom Pyrex flask in the presence of excess oxidant (K2SO4) and acid (H3PO4), and combusted at 550 deg.C. The combustion products are cryogenically processed to collect and quantify CO2 using standard procedures. Materials we have oxidized to date range from 6-24 ml in volume, and 95-1500 μgC in size. The oxidation efficiency of this method was tested by processing known amounts of reagent-grade dextrose and sucrose (as examples of labile organic matter), tannic acid and humic acid (as examples of complex natural organic matter), and porewater DOC extracted from organic-rich nearshore sediments. The carbon yields for all of these materials averaged 99±4% (n=18). The 14C abundances of standard materials IAEA C-6 and IAEA C-5 processed by this method using >1mgC aliquots were within error of certified values. The size and the isotopic value of the blank were determined by a standard dilution technique using IAEA C-6 and IAEA C-5 that ranged in size from 150 to 1500 μgC (n=4 and 2, respectively). This yielded a blank size of 6.7±0.7 μgC, and a blank isotopic

  20. IN-SITU SAMPLING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NATURALLY OCCURRING MARINE METHANE HYDRATE USING THE D/V JOIDES RESOLUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Frank R. Rack; Peter Schultheiss; Melanie Holland

    2005-01-01

    The primary accomplishments of the JOI Cooperative Agreement with DOE/NETL in this quarter were that: (1) follow-up logging of pressure cores containing hydrate-bearing sediment; and (2) opening of some of these cores to establish ground-truth understanding. The follow-up measurements made on pressure cores in storage are part of a hydrate geriatric study related to ODP Leg 204. These activities are described in detail in Appendices A and B of this report. Work also continued on developing plans for Phase 2 of this cooperative agreement based on evolving plans to schedule a scientific ocean drilling expedition to study marine methane hydrates along the Cascadia margin, in the NE Pacific as part of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) using the R/V JOIDES Resolution.

  1. Microbe-mediated transformations of marine dissolved organic matter during 2,100 years of natural incubation in the cold, oxic crust of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah Walter, S. R.; Jaekel, U.; Huber, J. A.; Dittmar, T.; Girguis, P. R.

    2015-12-01

    On the western flank of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, oxic seawater from the deep ocean is downwelled into the basaltic crust, supplying the crustal aquifer with an initial inoculum of organic matter and electron acceptors. Studies have shown that fluids circulating within the crust are minimally altered from original seawater, making this subsurface environment a unique natural experiment in which the fate of marine organic matter and the limitations of microbial adaptability in the context of reduced carbon supply can be examined. To make the subsurface crustal aquifer accessible, two CORK (Circulation Obviation Retrofit Kit) observatories have been installed at North Pond, a sediment-filled depression beneath the oligotrophic Sargasso Sea. Radiocarbon analysis of dissolved inorganic (DIC) and organic carbon (DOC) in samples recovered from these observatories show uncoupled aging between DOC and DIC with Δ14C values of DOC as low as -933‰ despite isolation from the open ocean for, at most, 2,100 years. This extreme value is part of a general trend of decreasing DOC δ13C and Δ14C values with increasing incubation time within the aquifer. Combined with reduced concentrations of DOC, our results argue for selective microbial oxidation of the youngest, most 13C-enriched components of downwelled DOC, possibly identifying these as characteristics of the more bioavailable fractions of deep-ocean dissolved organic matter. They also suggest that microbial oxidation during low-temperature hydrothermal circulation could be an important sink for aged marine dissolved organic matter.

  2. Neuroprotective properties of the marine carotenoid astaxanthin and omega-3 fatty acids, and perspectives for the natural combination of both in krill oil.

    PubMed

    Barros, Marcelo P; Poppe, Sandra C; Bondan, Eduardo F

    2014-03-24

    The consumption of marine fishes and general seafood has long been recommended by several medical authorities as a long-term nutritional intervention to preserve mental health, hinder neurodegenerative processes, and sustain cognitive capacities in humans. Most of the neurological benefits provided by frequent seafood consumption comes from adequate uptake of omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, n-3/n-6 PUFAs, and antioxidants. Optimal n-3/n-6 PUFAs ratios allow efficient inflammatory responses that prevent the initiation and progression of many neurological disorders. Moreover, interesting in vivo and clinical studies with the marine antioxidant carotenoid astaxanthin (present in salmon, shrimp, and lobster) have shown promising results against free radical-promoted neurodegenerative processes and cognition loss. This review presents the state-of-the-art applications of n-3/n-6 PUFAs and astaxanthin as nutraceuticals against neurodegenerative diseases associated with exacerbated oxidative stress in CNS. The fundamental "neurohormesis" principle is discussed throughout this paper. Finally, new perspectives for the application of a natural combination of the aforementioned anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agents (found in krill oil) are also presented herewith.

  3. Neuroprotective Properties of the Marine Carotenoid Astaxanthin and Omega-3 Fatty Acids, and Perspectives for the Natural Combination of Both in Krill Oil

    PubMed Central

    Barros, Marcelo P.; Poppe, Sandra C.; Bondan, Eduardo F.

    2014-01-01

    The consumption of marine fishes and general seafood has long been recommended by several medical authorities as a long-term nutritional intervention to preserve mental health, hinder neurodegenerative processes, and sustain cognitive capacities in humans. Most of the neurological benefits provided by frequent seafood consumption comes from adequate uptake of omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, n-3/n-6 PUFAs, and antioxidants. Optimal n-3/n-6 PUFAs ratios allow efficient inflammatory responses that prevent the initiation and progression of many neurological disorders. Moreover, interesting in vivo and clinical studies with the marine antioxidant carotenoid astaxanthin (present in salmon, shrimp, and lobster) have shown promising results against free radical-promoted neurodegenerative processes and cognition loss. This review presents the state-of-the-art applications of n-3/n-6 PUFAs and astaxanthin as nutraceuticals against neurodegenerative diseases associated with exacerbated oxidative stress in CNS. The fundamental “neurohormesis” principle is discussed throughout this paper. Finally, new perspectives for the application of a natural combination of the aforementioned anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agents (found in krill oil) are also presented herewith. PMID:24667135

  4. Metagenomic analysis of microbial consortium from natural crude oil that seeps into the marine ecosystem offshore Southern California

    PubMed Central

    Hawley, Erik R.; Piao, Hailan; Scott, Nicole M.; Malfatti, Stephanie; Pagani, Ioanna; Huntemann, Marcel; Chen, Amy; Glavina del Rio, Tijana; Foster, Brian; Copeland, Alex; Jansson, Janet; Pati, Amrita; Tringe, Susannah; Gilbert, Jack A.; Lorenson, Thomas D.; Hess, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Crude oils can be major contaminants of the marine ecosystem and microorganisms play a significant role in the degradation of its main constituents. To increase our understanding of the microbial hydrocarbon degradation process in the marine ecosystem, we collected crude oil from an active seep area located in the Santa Barbara Channel (SBC) and generated a total of about 52 Gb of raw metagenomic sequence data. The assembled data comprised ~500 Mb, representing ~1.1 million genes derived primarily from chemolithoautotrophic bacteria. Members of Oceanospirillales, a bacterial order belonging to the Deltaproteobacteria, recruited less than 2% of the assembled genes within the SBC metagenome. In contrast, the microbial community associated with the oil plume that developed in the aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) blowout in 2010, was dominated by Oceanospirillales, which comprised more than 60% of the metagenomic data generated from the DWH oil plume. This suggests that Oceanospirillales might play a less significant role in the microbially mediated hydrocarbon conversion within the SBC seep oil compared to the DWH plume oil. We hypothesize that this difference results from the SBC oil seep being mostly anaerobic, while the DWH oil plume is aerobic. Within the Archaea, the phylum Euryarchaeota, recruited more than 95% of the assembled archaeal sequences from the SBC oil seep metagenome, with more than 50% of the sequences assigned to members of the orders Methanomicrobiales and Methanosarcinales. These orders contain organisms capable of anaerobic methanogenesis and methane oxidation (AOM) and we hypothesize that these orders – and their metabolic capabilities – may be fundamental to the ecology of the SBC oil seep. PMID:25197496

  5. Metagenomic analysis of microbial consortium from natural crude oil that seeps into the marine ecosystem offshore Southern California

    SciTech Connect

    Hawley, Erik R.; Piao, Hailan; Scott, Nicole M.; Malfatti, Stephanie; Pagani, Ioanna; Huntemann, Marcel; Chen, Amy; del Rio, Tijana G.; Foster, Brian; Copeland, A.; Jansson, Janet K.; Pati, Amrita; Gilbert, Jack A.; Tringe, Susannah G.; Lorenson, Thomas D.; Hess, Matthias

    2014-01-02

    Crude oils can be major contaminants of the marine ecosystem and microorganisms play a significant role in the degradation of the main constituents of crude oil. To increase our understanding of the microbial hydrocarbon degradation process in the marine ecosystem, we collected crude oil from an active seep area located in the Santa Barbara Channel (SBC) and generated a total of about 52 Gb of raw metagenomic sequence data. The assembled data comprised ~500 Mb, representing ~1.1 million genes derived primarily from chemolithoautotrophic bacteria. Members of Oceanospirillales, a bacterial order belonging to the Deltaproteobacteria, recruited less than 2% of the assembled genes within the SBC metagenome. In contrast, the microbial community associated with the oil plume that developed in the aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) blowout in 2010, was dominated by Oceanospirillales, which comprised more than 60% of the metagenomic data generated from the DWH oil plume. This suggests that Oceanospirillales might play a less significant role in the microbially mediated hydrocarbon conversion within the SBC seep oil compared to the DWH plume oil. We hypothesize that this difference results from the SBC oil seep being mostly anaerobic, while the DWH oil plume is aerobic. Within the Archaea, the phylum Euryarchaeota, recruited more than 95% of the assembled archaeal sequences from the SBC oil seep metagenome, with more than 50% of the sequences assigned to members of the orders Methanomicrobiales and Methanosarcinales. These orders contain organisms capable of anaerobic methanogenesis and methane oxidation (AOM) and we hypothesize that these orders and their metabolic capabilities may be fundamental to the ecology of the SBC oil seep.

  6. Formation of natural gas hydrates in marine sediments 1. Conceptual model of gas hydrate growth conditioned by host sediment properties

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clennell, M.B.; Hovland, M.; Booth, J.S.; Henry, P.; Winters, W.J.

    1999-01-01

    The stability of submarine gas hydrates is largely dictated by pressure and temperature, gas composition, and pore water salinity. However, the physical properties and surface chemistry of deep marine sediments may also affect the thermodynamic state, growth kinetics, spatial distributions, and growth forms of clathrates. Our conceptual model presumes that gas hydrate behaves in a way analogous to ice in a freezing soil. Hydrate growth is inhibited within fine-grained sediments by a combination of reduced pore water activity in the vicinity of hydrophilic mineral surfaces, and the excess internal energy of small crystals confined in pores. The excess energy can be thought of as a "capillary pressure" in the hydrate crystal, related to the pore size distribution and the state of stress in the sediment framework. The base of gas hydrate stability in a sequence of fine sediments is predicted by our model to occur at a lower temperature (nearer to the seabed) than would be calculated from bulk thermodynamic equilibrium. Capillary effects or a build up of salt in the system can expand the phase boundary between hydrate and free gas into a divariant field extending over a finite depth range dictated by total methane content and pore-size distribution. Hysteresis between the temperatures of crystallization and dissociation of the clathrate is also predicted. Growth forms commonly observed in hydrate samples recovered from marine sediments (nodules, and lenses in muds; cements in sands) can largely be explained by capillary effects, but kinetics of nucleation and growth are also important. The formation of concentrated gas hydrates in a partially closed system with respect to material transport, or where gas can flush through the system, may lead to water depletion in the host sediment. This "freeze-drying" may be detectable through physical changes to the sediment (low water content and overconsolidation) and/or chemical anomalies in the pore waters and metastable

  7. Natural gas: marine transportation. January 1974-November 1988 (Citations from Oceanic Abstracts). Report for January 1974-November 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the design, construction, and operation of ships for the transport of liquified natural gas. Topics include safety devices, materials handling equipment for loading and unloading liquified natural gas, new hull and vessel designs, gas-turbine propulsion systems, cargo tank designs and requirements, and liguid load dynamics. (This updated bibliography contains 349 citations, 50 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  8. IN-SITU SAMPLING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NATURALLY OCCURRING MARINE METHANE HYDRATE USING THE D/V JOIDES RESOLUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Frank R. Rack; Tim Francis; Peter Schultheiss; Philip E. Long; Barry M. Freifeld

    2005-04-01

    The primary activities accomplished during this quarter were continued efforts to develop plans for Phase 2 of this cooperative agreement based on the evolving operational planning for IODP Expedition 311, which will use the JOIDES Resolution to study marine methane hydrates along the Cascadia margin, offshore Vancouver Island. IODP Expedition 311 has been designed to further constrain the models for the formation of marine gas hydrate in subduction zone accretionary prisms. The objectives include characterizing the deep origin of the methane, its upward transport, its incorporation in gas hydrate, and its subsequent loss to the seafloor. The main attention of this expedition is on the widespread seafloor-parallel layer of dispersed gas hydrate located just above the base of the predicted stability field. In a gas hydrate formation model, methane is carried upward through regional sediment or small-scale fracture permeability, driven by the tectonic consolidation of the accretionary prism. The upward moving methane is incorporated into the gas hydrate clathrate as it enters the methane hydrate stability zone. Also important is the focusing of a portion of the upward methane flux into localized plumes or channels to form concentrations of near-seafloor gas hydrate. The amount of gas hydrate in local concentrations near the seafloor is especially important for understanding the response of marine gas hydrate to climate change. The expedition includes coring and downhole measurements at five sites across the Northern Cascadia accretionary prism. The sites will track the history of methane in an accretionary prism from (1) its production by mainly microbiological processes over a thick sediment vertical extent, (2) its upward transport through regional or locally focused fluid flow, (3) its incorporation in the regional hydrate layer above the BSR or in local concentrations at or near the seafloor, (4) methane loss from the hydrate by upward diffusion, and (5) methane

  9. Drug discovery from marine microbes.

    PubMed

    Gerwick, William H; Fenner, Amanda M

    2013-05-01

    The marine environment has been a source of more than 20,000 inspirational natural products discovered over the past 50 years. From these efforts, 9 approved drugs and 12 current clinical trial agents have been discovered, either as natural products or as molecules inspired from the natural product structure. To a significant degree, these have come from collections of marine invertebrates largely obtained from shallow-water tropical ecosystems. However, there is a growing recognition that marine invertebrates are oftentimes populated with enormous quantities of "associated" or symbiotic microorganisms and that microorganisms are the true metabolic sources of these most valuable of marine natural products. Also, because of the inherently multidisciplinary nature of this field, a high degree of innovation is characteristic of marine natural product drug discovery efforts.

  10. Drug Discovery from Marine Microbes

    PubMed Central

    Gerwick, William H.; Fenner, Amanda M.

    2013-01-01

    The marine environment has been a source of more than 20,000 inspirational natural products discovered over the past 50 years. From these efforts, 9 approved drugs and 12 current clinical trial agents have been discovered, either as natural products or molecules inspired from the natural product structure. To a significant degree, these have come from collections of marine invertebrates largely obtained from shallow water tropical ecosystems. However, there is a growing recognition that marine invertebrates are oftentimes populated with enormous quantities of ‘associated’ or symbiotic microorganisms, and that microorganisms are the true metabolic sources of these most valuable of marine natural products. Also, because of the inherently multidisciplinary nature of this field, a high degree of innovation is characteristic of marine natural product drug discovery efforts. PMID:23274881

  11. In-Situ Sampling and Characterization of Naturally Occurring Marine Methane Hydrate Using the D/V JOIDES Resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Frank Rack

    2005-06-30

    The primary accomplishments of the JOI Cooperative Agreement with DOE/NETL in this quarter were to refine budgets and operational plans for Phase 2 of this cooperative agreement based on the scheduling of a scientific ocean drilling expedition to study marine methane hydrates along the Cascadia margin, in the NE Pacific as part of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) using the R/V JOIDES Resolution. The proposed statement of work for Phase 2 will include three primary tasks: (1) research management oversight, provided by JOI; (2) mobilization, deployment and demobilization of pressure coring and core logging systems, through a subcontract with Geotek Ltd., who will work with Fugro and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory to accomplish some of the subtasks; and, (3) mobilization, deployment and demobilization of a refrigerated container van that will be used for degassing of the Pressure Core Sampler and density logging of these pressure cores, through a subcontract with the Texas A&M Research Foundation (TAMRF). More details about these tasks are provided in the following sections of this report. The appendices to this report contain a copy of the scientific prospectus for the upcoming IODP Expedition 311 (Cascadia Margin Hydrates), which provides details of operational and scientific planning for this expedition.

  12. Syntheses of a library of molecules on the marine natural product ianthelliformisamines platform and their biological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Khan, Faiz Ahmed; Ahmad, Saeed; Kodipelli, Naveena; Shivange, Gururaj; Anindya, Roy

    2014-06-21

    Ianthelliformisamines A-C are a novel class of bromotyrosine-derived antibacterial agents isolated recently from the marine sponge Suberea ianthelliformis. We have synthesized ianthelliformisamines A-C straightforwardly by the condensation of (E)-3-(3,5-dibromo-4-methoxyphenyl)acrylic acid and the corresponding Boc-protected polyamine followed by Boc-deprotection with TFA. Further, using this reaction protocol, a library of their analogues (39 analogues) has been synthesized by employing 3-phenylacrylic acid derivatives and Boc-protected polyamine chains through various combinations of these two fragments differing in phenyl ring substitution, double bond geometry or chain length of the central spacer of the polyamine chain (shown in red color). All the synthesized compounds (ianthelliformisamines A-C and their analogues) were screened for antibacterial activity against both Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) and Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) strains. All synthetic analogues of ianthelliformisamine A showed bacterial growth inhibition against both strains (Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus), having MIC values in the range of 117.8-0.10 μM, while none of the synthetic analogues of ianthelliformisamine C as well as the parent compound showed any detectable antibacterial activity. Interestingly, some of the synthetic analogues of ianthelliformisamines A and B exerted a bactericidal effect against both E. coli and S. aureus strains, decreasing viable bacterial count by 99% at concentrations as low as 2 × MIC.

  13. Formation of natural gas hydrates in marine sediments. Gas hydrate growth and stability conditioned by host sediment properties

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clennell, M.B.; Henry, P.; Hovland, M.; Booth, J.S.; Winters, W.J.; Thomas, M.

    2000-01-01

    The stability conditions of submarine gas hydrates (methane clathrates) are largely dictated by pressure, temperature, gas composition, and pore water salinity. However, the physical properties and surface chemistry of the host sediments also affect the thermodynamic state, growth kinetics, spatial distributions, and growth forms of clathrates. Our model presumes that gas hydrate behaves in a way analogous to ice in the pores of a freezing soil, where capillary forces influence the energy balance. Hydrate growth is inhibited within fine-grained sediments because of the excess internal phase pressure of small crystals with high surface curvature that coexist with liquid water in small pores. Therefore, the base of gas hydrate stability in a sequence of fine sediments is predicted by our model to occur at a lower temperature, and so nearer to the seabed than would be calculated from bulk thermodynamic equilibrium. The growth forms commonly observed in hydrate samples recovered from marine sediments (nodules, sheets, and lenses in muds; cements in sand and ash layers) can be explained by a requirement to minimize the excess of mechanical and surface energy in the system.

  14. Parasites and marine invasions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torchin, M.E.; Lafferty, K.D.; Kuris, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    Introduced marine species are a major environmental and economic problem. The rate of these biological invasions has substantially increased in recent years due to the globalization of the world's economies. The damage caused by invasive species is often a result of the higher densities and larger sizes they attain compared to where they are native. A prominent hypothesis explaining the success of introduced species is that they are relatively free of the effects of natural enemies. Most notably, they may encounter fewer parasites in their introduced range compared to their native range. Parasites are ubiquitous and pervasive in marine systems, yet their role in marine invasions is relatively unexplored. Although data on parasites of marine organisms exist, the extent to which parasites can mediate marine invasions, or the extent to which invasive parasites and pathogens are responsible for infecting or potentially decimating native marine species have not been examined. In this review, we present a theoretical framework to model invasion success and examine the evidence for a relationship between parasite presence and the success of introduced marine species. For this, we compare the prevalence and species richness of parasites in several introduced populations of marine species with populations where they are native. We also discuss the potential impacts of introduced marine parasites on native ecosystems.

  15. Marine Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Bernard L.

    The five papers in this publication on marine careers were selected so that science teachers, guidance councilors, and students could benefit from the experience and knowledge of individuals active in marine science. The areas considered are indicated by the titles: Professional Careers in Marine Science with the Federal Government, Marine Science…

  16. Size structure of marine soft-bottom macrobenthic communities across natural habitat gradients: implications for productivity and ecosystem function.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, Tara A; Burd, Brenda J; van Roodselaar, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Size distributions of biotic assemblages are important modifiers of productivity and function in marine sediments. We investigated the distribution of proportional organic biomass among logarithmic size classes (2(-6)J to 2(16)J) in the soft-bottom macrofaunal communities of the Strait of Georgia, Salish Sea on the west coast of Canada. The study examines how size structure is influenced by 3 fundamental habitat descriptors: depth, sediment percent fines, and organic flux (modified by quality). These habitat variables are uncorrelated in this hydrographically diverse area, thus we examine their effects in combination and separately. Cluster analyses and cumulative biomass size spectra reveal clear and significant responses to each separate habitat variable. When combined, habitat factors result in three distinct assemblages: (1) communities with a high proportion of biomass in small organisms, typical of shallow areas (<10 m) with coarse sediments (<10% fines) and low accumulation of organic material (<3.0 gC/m(2)/yr/δ(15)N); (2) communities with high proportion of biomass in the largest organisms found in the Strait, typical of deep, fine sediments with high modified organic flux (>3 g C/m(2)/yr/δ(15)N) from the Fraser River; and (3) communities with biomass dominated by moderately large organisms, but lacking the smallest and largest size classes, typical of deep, fine sediments experiencing low modified organic flux (<3.0 gC/m(2)/yr/δ(15)N). The remaining assemblages had intermediate habitat types and size structures. Sediment percent fines and flux appear to elicit threshold responses in size structure, whereas depth has the most linear influence on community size structure. The ecological implications of size structure in the Strait of Georgia relative to environmental conditions, secondary production and sediment bioturbation are discussed. PMID:22911694

  17. Translation Elongation Factor eEF1A2 is a Novel Anticancer Target for the Marine Natural Product Plitidepsin

    PubMed Central

    Losada, Alejandro; Muñoz-Alonso, María José; García, Carolina; Sánchez-Murcia, Pedro A.; Martínez-Leal, Juan Fernando; Domínguez, Juan Manuel; Lillo, M. Pilar; Gago, Federico; Galmarini, Carlos M.

    2016-01-01

    eEF1A2 is one of the isoforms of the alpha subunit of the eukaryotic Elongation Factor 1. It is overexpressed in human tumors and is endowed with oncogenic properties, favoring tumor cell proliferation while inhibiting apoptosis. We demonstrate that plitidepsin, an antitumor agent of marine origin that has successfully completed a phase-III clinical trial for multiple myeloma, exerts its antitumor activity by targeting eEF1A2. The drug interacts with eEF1A2 with a KD of 80 nM and a target residence time of circa 9 min. This protein was also identified as capable of binding [14C]-plitidepsin in a cell lysate from K-562 tumor cells. A molecular modelling approach was used to identify a favorable binding site for plitidepsin at the interface between domains 1 and 2 of eEF1A2 in the GTP conformation. Three tumor cell lines selected for at least 100-fold more resistance to plitidepsin than their respective parental cells showed reduced levels of eEF1A2 protein. Ectopic expression of eEF1A2 in resistant cells restored the sensitivity to plitidepsin. FLIM-phasor FRET experiments demonstrated that plitidepsin localizes in tumor cells sufficiently close to eEF1A2 as to suggest the formation of drug-protein complexes in living cells. Altogether, our results strongly suggest that eEF1A2 is the primary target of plitidepsin. PMID:27713531

  18. Size structure of marine soft-bottom macrobenthic communities across natural habitat gradients: implications for productivity and ecosystem function.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, Tara A; Burd, Brenda J; van Roodselaar, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Size distributions of biotic assemblages are important modifiers of productivity and function in marine sediments. We investigated the distribution of proportional organic biomass among logarithmic size classes (2(-6)J to 2(16)J) in the soft-bottom macrofaunal communities of the Strait of Georgia, Salish Sea on the west coast of Canada. The study examines how size structure is influenced by 3 fundamental habitat descriptors: depth, sediment percent fines, and organic flux (modified by quality). These habitat variables are uncorrelated in this hydrographically diverse area, thus we examine their effects in combination and separately. Cluster analyses and cumulative biomass size spectra reveal clear and significant responses to each separate habitat variable. When combined, habitat factors result in three distinct assemblages: (1) communities with a high proportion of biomass in small organisms, typical of shallow areas (<10 m) with coarse sediments (<10% fines) and low accumulation of organic material (<3.0 gC/m(2)/yr/δ(15)N); (2) communities with high proportion of biomass in the largest organisms found in the Strait, typical of deep, fine sediments with high modified organic flux (>3 g C/m(2)/yr/δ(15)N) from the Fraser River; and (3) communities with biomass dominated by moderately large organisms, but lacking the smallest and largest size classes, typical of deep, fine sediments experiencing low modified organic flux (<3.0 gC/m(2)/yr/δ(15)N). The remaining assemblages had intermediate habitat types and size structures. Sediment percent fines and flux appear to elicit threshold responses in size structure, whereas depth has the most linear influence on community size structure. The ecological implications of size structure in the Strait of Georgia relative to environmental conditions, secondary production and sediment bioturbation are discussed.

  19. Size Structure of Marine Soft-Bottom Macrobenthic Communities across Natural Habitat Gradients: Implications for Productivity and Ecosystem Function

    PubMed Central

    Macdonald, Tara A.; Burd, Brenda J.; van Roodselaar, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Size distributions of biotic assemblages are important modifiers of productivity and function in marine sediments. We investigated the distribution of proportional organic biomass among logarithmic size classes (2−6J to 216J) in the soft-bottom macrofaunal communities of the Strait of Georgia, Salish Sea on the west coast of Canada. The study examines how size structure is influenced by 3 fundamental habitat descriptors: depth, sediment percent fines, and organic flux (modified by quality). These habitat variables are uncorrelated in this hydrographically diverse area, thus we examine their effects in combination and separately. Cluster analyses and cumulative biomass size spectra reveal clear and significant responses to each separate habitat variable. When combined, habitat factors result in three distinct assemblages: (1) communities with a high proportion of biomass in small organisms, typical of shallow areas (<10 m) with coarse sediments (<10% fines) and low accumulation of organic material (<3.0 gC/m2/yr/δ15N); (2) communities with high proportion of biomass in the largest organisms found in the Strait, typical of deep, fine sediments with high modified organic flux (>3 g C/m2/yr/δ15N) from the Fraser River; and (3) communities with biomass dominated by moderately large organisms, but lacking the smallest and largest size classes, typical of deep, fine sediments experiencing low modified organic flux (<3.0 gC/m2/yr/δ15N). The remaining assemblages had intermediate habitat types and size structures. Sediment percent fines and flux appear to elicit threshold responses in size structure, whereas depth has the most linear influence on community size structure. The ecological implications of size structure in the Strait of Georgia relative to environmental conditions, secondary production and sediment bioturbation are discussed. PMID:22911694

  20. Distribution of low-level natural radioactivity in a populated marine region of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Evangeliou, Nikolaos; Florou, Heleny; Kritidis, Panayotis

    2012-12-01

    The levels of natural radioactivity have been evaluated in the water column of an eastern Mediterranean region (Saronikos Gulf), with respect to the relevant environmental parameters. A novel methodology was used for the determination of natural radionuclides, which substitutes the time-consuming radiochemical analysis, based on an in situ sample preconcentration using ion-selective manganese fibres placed on pumping systems. With regard to the results obtained, (238)U-series radionuclides were found at the same level or lower than those observed previously in Mediterranean regions indicating the absence of technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material (TENORM) activities in the area. Similar results were observed for the (232)Th-series radionuclides and (40)K in the water column in comparison with the relevant literature on the Mediterranean Sea. The calculated ratios of (238)U-(232)Th and (40)K-(232)Th verified the lack of TENORM contribution in the Saronikos Gulf. Finally, a rough estimation was attempted concerning the residence times of fresh water inputs from a treatment plant of domestic wastes (Waste Water Treatment Plant of Psitalia) showing that fresh waters need a maximum of 15.7±7.6 d to be mixed with the open sea water.

  1. Barnacle distribution in Lough Hyne Marine Nature Reserve: a new baseline and an account of invasion by the introduced Australasian species Elminius modestus Darwin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Jennifer; Davenport, John; Whitaker, Alan

    2004-08-01

    The distribution and abundances of the following species of barnacles were established in autumn 2001 within the Lough Hyne Marine Nature Reserve: Cthamalus stellatus, Cthamalus montagui, Semibalanus balanoides, Elminius modestus, Balanus crenatus and Verruca stroemia. The results of the survey showed a clear distinction between the vertical distribution and the abundance of barnacle species inside Lough Hyne, and those sites sampled in the Rapids and outside the Lough. The Lough is now dominated by the introduced Australasian species E. modestus. This species was first recorded outside Lough Hyne in 1956. By 1988 it was found occasionally throughout the Lough, and appreciable numbers were recorded in 1990-1991. It has now replaced all other species in some parts of the North Basin. At sites subject to freshwater influence it is totally dominant, including in the highly sheltered Goleen site where intertidal barnacles have not previously been recorded. It is suggested that, once established in the North Basin, the sheltered nature of the Lough, combined with high summer temperatures and limited circulation, fostered retention of larvae and heavy spatfall of E. modestus.

  2. Expression and regulation of carbonic anhydrases in the marine diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana and in natural phytoplankton assemblages from Great Bay, New Jersey.

    PubMed

    McGinn, Patrick J; Morel, François M M

    2008-05-01

    BLAST searches of expressed sequence tag libraries have revealed putative homologs of the archetypal diatom delta-carbonic anhydrase (CA) TWCA1 (for Thalassiosira weissflogii CA) in a broad range of eukaryotic phytoplankton including haptophytes, prasinophytes and dinoflagellates. Four putative homologs of TWCA1 are also reported and described from a search of the genomic sequence of Thalassiosira pseudonana and designated TWCA(Tp1-4). The delta-CA class is therefore more widely distributed in marine phytoplankton than previously thought. In particular, it is not restricted to the diatoms like the cadmium-containing enzyme, CDCA, seems to be (zeta-CA class). Zinc status strongly influences growth rate in marine diatoms. We observed a decrease in the specific growth rate of T. pseudonana from 2.1 to 1.3 day(-1) when the unchelated Zn concentration (Zn') was lowered from 20 to 5 pM. In the same cultures, we detected a drop in whole-cell CA activity of about 50% in the most Zn-limited cells that occurred simultaneously with a large downregulation of TWCA(Tp1), TWCA(Tp2) and CDCA(Tp) gene transcripts and protein. These three genes were also found to be strongly upregulated by low pCO(2) in a manner typical of many algal CA enzymes. We have also conducted field experiments in diatom-dominated natural phytoplankton assemblages sampled from Great Bay of the coast of New Jersey. We observed increased total CA activity in parallel with increased expression of homologous twca and cdca gene transcripts in water incubated at increasingly higher pH values. Immunoblot and transcript expression analyses demonstrated a clear upregulation of CDCA transcript and protein as incubation pH increased both in the lab and in the field indicating that this CA is expressed under a broad range of environmental conditions and not restricted to low pCO(2) and low Zn. PMID:18405334

  3. Context-Dependent Survival Differences among Electrophoretic Genotypes in Natural Populations of the Marine Bivalve Spisula Ovalis

    PubMed Central

    David, P.; Jarne, P.

    1997-01-01

    We investigated the relationships between allozyme genotypes at nine polymorphic loci and survival in a natural population of the bivalve Spisula ovalis sampled on three occasions (1993, 1994, and 1995) in three different sites (2855 individuals analyzed). This species displays annual growth lines allowing identification of annual cohorts. Therefore we could avoid cohort mixing, a frequent bias in such studies, and evaluate the consistency of the observed effects across cohorts and sites. Significant viability differences were observed both among alleles and between heterozygotes and homozygotes at some loci. Multiple-locus heterozygosity was positively correlated with viability in the 1993-1994 period, but not in the 1994-1995 interval. The observed selective effects were significantly dependent on the cohort and the site considered. A bibliographic survey suggests that such variability is a common feature of studies analyzing heterozygosity-survival relationships. Two explanations are consistent with our results. First, allozyme genotypes may have direct effects on viability that interact with subtle environmental variation in a complex and unpredictable way. Second, allozyme genotypes may be transiently associated with other viability genes responsible for heterotic effects. In any case, the results militate against allozyme loci being themselves consistently overdominant for viability in natural populations. PMID:9136022

  4. In-Situ Sampling and Characterization of Naturally Occurring Marine Methane Hydrate Using the D/V JOIDES Resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Rack, Frank; Schultheiss, Peter

    2005-12-31

    The primary accomplishments of the JOI Cooperative Agreement with DOE/NETL in this quarter were the implementation of a scientific ocean drilling expedition to study marine methane hydrates along the Cascadia margin, in the NE Pacific as part of Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 311 using the R/V JOIDES Resolution and the deployment of all required equipment and personnel to provide the required services during this expedition. IODP Expedition 311 shipboard activities on the JOIDES Resolution began on August 28 and were concluded on October 28, 2005. New ODP Pressure Coring System (PCS) aluminum autoclave chambers were fabricated prior to the expedition. During the expedition, 16 PCS autoclaves containing pressure cores were X-rayed before and after depressurization using a modified Geotek MSCL-P (multi-sensor core logger-pressure) system. These PCS cores were density scanned using the MSCL-V (multi-sensor core logger-vertical) during depressurization to monitor gas evolution. The MSCL-V was set up in a 20-foot-long refrigerated container provided by Texas A&M University through the JOI contract with TAMRF. IODP Expedition 311 was the first time that PCS cores were examined before (using X-ray), during (using MSCL-V gamma density) and after (using X-ray) degassing to determine the actual volume and distribution of sediment and gas hydrate in the pressurized core, which will be important for more accurate determination of mass balances between sediment, gas, gas hydrate, and fluids in the samples collected. Geotek, Ltd was awarded a contract by JOI to provide equipment and personnel to perform pressure coring and related work on IODP Expedition 311 (Cascadia Margin Gas Hydrates). Geotek, Ltd. provided an automated track for use with JOI's infrared camera systems. Four auxiliary monitors showed infrared core images in real time to aid hydrate identification and sampling. Images were collected from 185 cores during the expedition and processed to

  5. Photo-reactivity of natural dissolved organic matter from fresh to marine waters in the Florida Everglades, USA.

    PubMed

    Timko, Stephen A; Romera-Castillo, Cristina; Jaffé, Rudolf; Cooper, William J

    2014-04-01

    Natural dissolved organic matter (DOM) is the major absorber of sunlight in most natural waters and a critical component of carbon cycling in aquatic systems. The combined effect of light absorbance properties and related photo-production of reactive species are essential in determining the reactivity of DOM. Optical properties and in particular excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy combined with parallel factor analysis (EEM-PARAFAC) have been used increasingly to track sources and fate of DOM. Here we describe studies conducted in water from two estuarine systems in the Florida Everglades, with a salinity gradient of 2 to 37 and dissolved organic carbon concentrations from 19.3 to 5.74 mg C L(-1), aimed at assessing how the quantity and quality of DOM is coupled to the formation rates and steady-state concentrations of reactive species including singlet oxygen, hydroxyl radical, and the triplet excited state of DOM. These species were related to optical properties and PARAFAC components of the DOM. The formation rate and steady-state concentration of the carbonate radical was calculated in all samples. The data suggests that formation rates, particularly for singlet oxygen and hydroxyl radicals, are strongly coupled to the abundance of terrestrial humic-like substances. A decrease in singlet oxygen, hydroxyl radical, and carbonate radical formation rates and steady-state concentration along the estuarine salinity gradient was observed as the relative concentration of terrestrial humic-like DOM decreased due to mixing with microbial humic-like and protein-like DOM components, while the formation rate of triplet excited-state DOM did not change. Fluorescent DOM was also found to be more tightly coupled to reactive species generation than chromophoric DOM.

  6. Natural products for mitigation of fouling by the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, in marine water intake systems

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, G.T.; Zheng, D.

    1995-06-01

    In search of natural antifouling products, sedentary organisms - free of epibiotic communities - were collected from the inter- and subtidal zones of Long Island Sound. Crude solvent extracts from these specimens were subjected to 2 - 4 bioassays to screen for: (1) microbila sensitivity, (2) response of mussel byssal thread secretion using Mytilus edulis, (3) mussel larval settlement response, and (4) bacterial attachment response. Of the 86 extracts derived from 24 organisms, six very promising extracts have been isolated from local algae and invertebrates that exhibit strong antifouling activity against the blue mussel, the major biofouler in northeastern American coastal utilities. The most promising extracts exhibiting strong inhibition of microbial growth and settlement. The process of identification of the active agent through further purification and subsequent bioassays is ongoing. A model hybrid coating, incorporating an extract from Fucuc filiformis into a silicon polymer-based matrix (EXTRUDE{sup {trademark}}), effectively prevented byssal thread attachment by juvenile blue mussels and killed specimens close to treated areas within 10 days.

  7. Evolution and maintenance of haploid-diploid life cycles in natural populations: The case of the marine brown alga Ectocarpus.

    PubMed

    Couceiro, Lucía; Le Gac, Mickael; Hunsperger, Heather M; Mauger, Stéphane; Destombe, Christophe; Cock, J Mark; Ahmed, Sophia; Coelho, Susana M; Valero, Myriam; Peters, Akira F

    2015-07-01

    The evolutionary stability of haploid-diploid life cycles is still controversial. Mathematical models indicate that niche differences between ploidy phases may be a necessary condition for the evolution and maintenance of these life cycles. Nevertheless, experimental support for this prediction remains elusive. In the present work, we explored this hypothesis in natural populations of the brown alga Ectocarpus. Consistent with the life cycle described in culture, Ectocarpus crouaniorum in NW France and E. siliculosus in SW Italy exhibited an alternation between haploid gametophytes and diploid sporophytes. Our field data invalidated, however, the long-standing view of an isomorphic alternation of generations. Gametophytes and sporophytes displayed marked differences in size and, conforming to theoretical predictions, occupied different spatiotemporal niches. Gametophytes were found almost exclusively on the alga Scytosiphon lomentaria during spring whereas sporophytes were present year-round on abiotic substrata. Paradoxically, E. siliculosus in NW France exhibited similar habitat usage despite the absence of alternation of ploidy phases. Diploid sporophytes grew both epilithically and epiphytically, and this mainly asexual population gained the same ecological advantage postulated for haploid-diploid populations. Consequently, an ecological interpretation of the niche differences between haploid and diploid individuals does not seem to satisfactorily explain the evolution of the Ectocarpus life cycle.

  8. Assessing the trypanocidal potential of natural and semi-synthetic diketopiperazines from two deep water marine-derived fungi

    PubMed Central

    Watts, Katharine R.; Ratnam, Joseline; Ang, Kean-Hooi; Tenney, Karen; Compton, Jennifer E.; McKerrow, James; Crews, Phillip

    2010-01-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT, commonly known as African sleeping sickness) is categorized as a neglected disease, as it afflicts > 50,000 people annually in sub-saharan Africa, and there are few formal programs in the world focused on drug discovery approaches for this disease. In this study, we examined the crude extracts of two fungal strains (Aspergillus fumigatus and Nectria inventa) isolated from deep water sediment which provided >99% growth inhibition at 1 μg/mL of Trypanosoma brucei, the causative parasite of HAT. A collection of fifteen natural products was supplemented with six semi-synthetic derivatives and one commercially available compound. Twelve of the compounds, each containing a diketopiperazine core, showed excellent activity against T. brucei (IC50 = 0.002 - 40 μM), with selectivity over mammalian cells as great as 20-fold. The trypanocidal diketopiperazines were also tested against two cysteine protease targets Rhodesain and TbCatB, where five compounds showed inhibition activity at concentrations less than 20 μM. A preliminary activity pattern is described and analyzed. PMID:20303767

  9. Marine microbes rapidly adapt to consume ethane, propane, and butane within the dissolved hydrocarbon plume of a natural seep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendes, Stephanie D.; Redmond, Molly C.; Voigritter, Karl; Perez, Christian; Scarlett, Rachel; Valentine, David L.

    2015-03-01

    Simple hydrocarbon gases containing two to four carbons (ethane, propane, and butane) are among the most abundant compounds present in petroleum reservoirs, and are introduced into the ocean through natural seepage and industrial discharge. Yet little is known about the bacterial consumption of these compounds in ocean waters. To assess the timing by which microbes metabolize these gases, we conducted a three-phase study that tested and applied a radiotracer-based method to quantify the oxidation rates of ethane, propane, and butane in fresh seawater samples. Phase 1 involved the synthesis of tritiated ethane, propane, and butane using Grignard reagents and tritiated water. Phase 2 was a systematic assessment of experimental conditions, wherein the indigenous microbial community was found to rapidly oxidize ethane, propane, and butane. Phase 3 was the application of this tritium method near the Coal Oil Point seeps, offshore California. Spatial and temporal patterns of ethane, propane, and butane oxidation down current from the hydrocarbon seeps demonstrated that >99% of these gases are metabolized within 1.3 days following initial exposure. The oxidation of ethane outpaced oxidation of propane and butane with patterns indicating the microbial community responded to these gases by rapid adaptation or growth. Methane oxidation responded the slowest in plume waters. Estimates based on the observed metabolic rates and carbon mass balance suggest that ethane, propane, and butane-consuming microorganisms may transiently account for a majority of the total microbial community in these impacted waters.

  10. Homogeneous Nature of Malaysian Marine Fish Epinephelus fuscoguttatus (Perciformes; Serranidae): Evidence Based on Molecular Markers, Morphology and Fourier Transform Infrared Analysis.

    PubMed

    Nurdalila, A'wani Aziz; Bunawan, Hamidun; Kumar, Subbiah Vijay; Rodrigues, Kenneth Francis; Baharum, Syarul Nataqain

    2015-07-02

    Taxonomic confusion exists within the genus Epinephelus due to the lack of morphological specializations and the overwhelming number of species reported in several studies. The homogenous nature of the morphology has created confusion in the Malaysian Marine fish species Epinephelus fuscoguttatus and Epinephelus hexagonatus. In this study, the partial DNA sequence of the 16S gene and mitochondrial nucleotide sequences of two gene regions, Cytochrome Oxidase Subunit I and III were used to investigate the phylogenetic relationship between them. In the phylogenetic trees, E. fuscoguttatus was monophyletic with E. hexagonatus species and morphology examination shows that no significant differences were found in the morphometric features between these two taxa. This suggests that E. fuscoguttatus is not distinguishable from E. hexagonatus species, and that E. fuscoguttatus have been identified to be E. hexagonatus species is likely attributed to differences in environment and ability to camouflage themselves under certain conditions. Interestingly, this finding was also supported by Principal Component Analysis on Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier-transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) data analysis. Molecular, morphological and meristic characteristics were combined with ATR-FTIR analysis used in this study offer new perspectives in fish species identification. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an extensive genetic population study of E. fuscoguttatus in Malaysia and this understanding will play an important role in informing genetic stock-specific strategies for the management and conservation of this highly valued fish.

  11. The N-acyloxyiminium ion aza-Prins route to octahydroindoles: total synthesis and structural confirmation of the antithrombotic marine natural product oscillarin.

    PubMed

    Hanessian, Stephen; Tremblay, Martin; Petersen, Jens F W

    2004-05-19

    The first enantiocontrolled total synthesis of the marine natural product oscillarin is described. The proposed structure and absolute configuration of oscillarin is thus confirmed, and a previously assigned structure of a subunit was shown to be incorrect. The X-ray structure of an oscillarin-thrombin complex was resolved at 2.0 A resolution, which validated its potent inhibitory activity against the enzyme with an IC(50) = 28 nM. Methodology was developed for the synthesis of enantiopure octahydroindole-2-carboxylic acids with usable functionality at C-6. The method consists of the halocarbocyclization of N-acyloxyiminium ions containing an olefinic tether in the presence of tin tetrachloride or tin tetrabromide. This N-acyloxyiminium ion aza-Prins carbocyclization proved to be general for the construction of octahydroindole and perhydroquinoline 2-carboxylic acids. Mechanistic rationales are based on an antiperiplanar attack of the terminal alkene on the iminium ion, leading to an incipient secondary carbocation which is trapped by halide via an equatorial attack. X-ray crystal structures of products corroborate the expected stereochemistry.

  12. Homogeneous Nature of Malaysian Marine Fish Epinephelus fuscoguttatus (Perciformes; Serranidae): Evidence Based on Molecular Markers, Morphology and Fourier Transform Infrared Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nurdalila, A’wani Aziz; Bunawan, Hamidun; Kumar, Subbiah Vijay; Rodrigues, Kenneth Francis; Baharum, Syarul Nataqain

    2015-01-01

    Taxonomic confusion exists within the genus Epinephelus due to the lack of morphological specializations and the overwhelming number of species reported in several studies. The homogenous nature of the morphology has created confusion in the Malaysian Marine fish species Epinephelus fuscoguttatus and Epinephelus hexagonatus. In this study, the partial DNA sequence of the 16S gene and mitochondrial nucleotide sequences of two gene regions, Cytochrome Oxidase Subunit I and III were used to investigate the phylogenetic relationship between them. In the phylogenetic trees, E. fuscoguttatus was monophyletic with E. hexagonatus species and morphology examination shows that no significant differences were found in the morphometric features between these two taxa. This suggests that E. fuscoguttatus is not distinguishable from E. hexagonatus species, and that E. fuscoguttatus have been identified to be E. hexagonatus species is likely attributed to differences in environment and ability to camouflage themselves under certain conditions. Interestingly, this finding was also supported by Principal Component Analysis on Attenuated Total Reflectance–Fourier-transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) data analysis. Molecular, morphological and meristic characteristics were combined with ATR-FTIR analysis used in this study offer new perspectives in fish species identification. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an extensive genetic population study of E. fuscoguttatus in Malaysia and this understanding will play an important role in informing genetic stock-specific strategies for the management and conservation of this highly valued fish. PMID:26147421

  13. Modification at the C9 position of the marine natural product isoaaptamine and the impact on HIV-1, mycobacterial, and tumor cell activity

    PubMed Central

    Gul, Waseem; Hammond, Nicholas L.; Yousaf, Muhammad; Bowling, John J.; Schinazi, Raymond F.; Wirtz, Susan S.; de Castro Andrews, Garcia; Cuevas, Carmen; Hamann, Mark T.

    2016-01-01

    As part of an investigation to generate optimized drug leads from marine natural pharmacophores for the treatment of neoplastic and infectious diseases, a series of novel isoaaptamine analogs were prepared by coupling acyl halides to the C9 position of isoaaptamine (2) isolated from the Aaptos sponge. This library of new semisynthetic products was evaluated for biological activity against HIV-1, Mtb, AIDS-OI, tropical parasitic diseases, and cancer. Compound 4 showed potent activity against HIV-1 (EC50 0.47 μg/mL), compound 19 proved to possess remarkable activity against Mycobacterium intracellulare with an IC50 and MIC value of 0.15 and 0.31 μg/mL, while compounds 4 and 17 possessed anti-leishmanial activity with IC50 values of 0.1 and 0.4 μg/mL, respectively. Compounds 16 and 17 showed antimalarial activity with EC50 values of 230 and 240 ng/mL, respectively, and compound 14 exhibited an EC50 of 0.05 μM against the Leukemia cell line K-562. PMID:17045480

  14. In-Situ Sampling and Characterization of Naturally Occurring Marine Methane Hydrate Using the D/V JOIDES Resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Rack, Frank

    2003-06-30

    The primary accomplishments of the JOI Cooperative Agreement with DOE/NETL in this quarter were that: (1) Frank Rack, Anne Trehu, and Tim Collett presented preliminary results and operational outcomes of ODP Leg 204 at the American Association of Petroleum Geologists annual meeting in Salt Lake City, UT; (2) several Leg 204 scientists participated in special hydrate sessions at the international EGS/AGU/EUG meeting in Nice, France and presented initial science results from the cruise, which included outcomes arising from this cooperative agreement; and, (3) postcruise evaluation of the data, tools and measurement systems that were used during ODP Leg 204 continued in the preparation of deliverables under this agreement. At the EGS/EUG/AGU meeting in Nice, France in April, Leg 204 Co-chiefs Anne Trehu and Gerhard Bohrmann, as well as ODP scientists Charlie Paull, Erwin Suess, and Jim Kennett, participated in a press conference on hydrates. The well-attended press conference entitled ''Gas Hydrates: Free methane found and controversy over the 'hydrate gun''' led to stories in Nature on-line and BBC radio, among others. There were six (6) oral and fifteen (15) poster presentations on ODP Leg 204 hydrate science at the EGS/AGU/EUG Meeting in Nice, France on April 6-11, 2003. This was a very strong showing at a meeting just over six month following the completion of the drilling cruise and highlighted many of the results of the leg, including the results obtained with instruments and equipment funded under this cooperative agreement. At the AAPG annual meeting in Salt Lake City, UT on May 11-14, 2003, Anne Trehu gave an oral presentation about the scientific results of Leg 204, and Frank Rack presented a poster outlining the operational and technical accomplishments. Work continued on analyzing data collected during ODP Leg 204 and preparing reports on the outcomes of Phase 1 projects as well as developing plans for Phase 2.

  15. Survival of Natural Sewage Populations of Enteric Bacteria in Diffusion and Batch Chambers in the Marine Environment

    PubMed Central

    Lessard, Evelyn J.; Sieburth, John McN.

    1983-01-01

    The survival of natural populations of Escherichia coli and enterococci in sewage was measured in large-volume diffusion chambers in an estuary and a salt marsh. The 5-liter chambers, with polycarbonate membrane sidewalls, were found to be suitable for up to week-long experiments. Decay rates, measured monthly from February to August 1978, ranged from 0.042 to 0.088 h−1 (time for 90% of the population to die = 25 to 55 h) for E. coli and 0.019 to 0.083 h−1 (time for 90% of the population to die = 29 to 122 h) for enterococci and were significantly correlated with temperature. In contrast to the diffusion culture experiments, the decay of E. coli in batch culture did not correlate with temperature. Enterococci survived longer than E. coli in the Narragansett Bay (estuary) experiments, but survived less well in the more eutrophic salt marsh. The effect of light on survival was examined with light/dark experiments and sampling at frequent intervals over the diel cycle. Diel changes in survival were not evident in the Narragansett Bay experiments. E. coli, however, exhibited a diel pattern of growth during the day and death at night in the salt marsh. There was no significant difference in decay rates between light and dark diffusion chambers, nor were decay rates correlated with light intensity. In concurrent batch experiments, survival was significantly greater in the dark for both organisms. These results suggest that the effect of light is complex and that conditions in batch culture may modify the survival of enteric bacteria. Observations made in diffusion chambers may more closely follow the in situ survival of enteric microorganisms. Images PMID:6405693

  16. In-Situ Sampling and Characterization of Naturally Occurring Marine Methane Hydrate Using the D/V JOIDES Resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Frank R. Rack

    2006-09-20

    Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41329 between Joint Oceanographic Institutions and DOE-NETL was divided into two phases based on successive proposals and negotiated statements of work pertaining to activities to sample and characterize methane hydrates on ODP Leg 204 (Phase 1) and on IODP Expedition 311 (Phase 2). The Phase 1 Final Report was submitted to DOE-NETL in April 2004. This report is the Phase 2 Final Report to DOE-NETL. The primary objectives of Phase 2 were to sample and characterize methane hydrates using the systems and capabilities of the D/V JOIDES Resolution during IODP Expedition 311, to enable scientists the opportunity to establish the mass and distribution of naturally occurring gas and gas hydrate at all relevant spatial and temporal scales, and to contribute to the DOE methane hydrate research and development effort. The goal of the work was to provide expanded measurement capabilities on the JOIDES Resolution for a dedicated hydrate cruise to the Cascadia continental margin off Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada (IODP Expedition 311) so that hydrate deposits in this region would be well characterized and technology development continued for hydrate research. IODP Expedition 311 shipboard activities on the JOIDES Resolution began on August 28 and were concluded on October 28, 2005. The statement of work for this project included three primary tasks: (1) research management oversight, provided by JOI; (2) mobilization, deployment and demobilization of pressure coring and core logging systems, through a subcontract with Geotek Ltd.; and, (3) mobilization, deployment and demobilization of a refrigerated container van that will be used for degassing of the Pressure Core Sampler and density logging of these pressure cores, through a subcontract with the Texas A&M Research Foundation (TAMRF). Additional small tasks that arose during the course of the research were included under these three primary tasks in consultation with the DOE

  17. IN-SITU SAMPLING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NATURALLY OCCURRING MARINE METHANE HYDRATE USING THE D/V JOIDES RESOLUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Rack, Frank R.; Dickens, Gerald; Ford, Kathryn; Schroeder, Derryl; Storms, Michael

    2002-08-01

    report. An infrared-thermal imaging system (IR-TIS) was deployed for the first time on ODP Leg 201. This system was used to identify methane hydrate intervals in the recovered cores. Initial discussions of these experiments are provided in this report. This report is an overview of the field measurements made on recovered sediment cores and the downhole measurements made during ODP Leg 201. These results are currently being used to incorporate the ''lessons learned'' from these deployments to prepare for a dedicated ODP leg to study the characteristics of naturally-occurring hydrates in the subsurface environment of Hydrate Ridge, offshore Oregon during ODP Leg 204, which will take place from July through September, 2002.

  18. Status of marine biomedical research.

    PubMed Central

    Bessey, O

    1976-01-01

    A meeting on Marine Biomedical Research, sponsored by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), National Institutes of Health and the Smithsonian Institution Museum of Natural History, was attended by approximately 125 scientists, directors and representatives from many of the country's marine biological laboratories, and government agencies whose interests and responsibilites are in the marine biology and health areas. The purpose of the meeting was to explore the undeveloped research opportunities in the area of marine biology for the advancement of our understanding of human health problems and to provide information on the current status of marine biology laboratories. The meeting was devoted to presentations and discussions in four general areas: (1)Marine Species as Models for Human Disease; (2)Environmental Carcinogenesis and Mutagenesis; (3)Human Health and the Marine Environment--infectious agents and naturally occurring and foreign toxins; and (4)Drugs from the seas. Representatives from twelve of the country's approximatley 40 marine laboratories discussed their organization, developmental history, scientific programs, facilities, and present status of their support. The presentations served as a background and stimulated very lively analytical and constructive discussions of the undeveloped research and education potential residing in the marine environment and biological laboratories for a better understanding of many human health problems; some scientific areas that should be developed to realize this potential; and the needs and problems of marine laboratories that require attention and support if they are to survive and realize their possibilities. PMID:944630

  19. Anticancer agents from marine sponges.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jianjun; Zhou, Feng; Al-Kareef, Ammar M Q; Wang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Marine sponges are currently one of the richest sources of anticancer active compounds found in the marine ecosystems. More than 5300 different known metabolites are from sponges and their associated microorganisms. To survive in the complicated marine environment, most of the sponge species have evolved chemical means to defend against predation. Such chemical adaptation produces many biologically active secondary metabolites including anticancer agents. This review highlights novel secondary metabolites in sponges which inhibited diverse cancer species in the recent 5 years. These natural products of marine sponges are categorized based on various chemical characteristics.

  20. Anthropogenic and natural radionuclides in caribou and muskoxen in the western Alaskan Arctic and marine fish in the Aleutian Islands in the first half of 2000s.

    PubMed

    Hong, Gi Hoon; Baskaran, Mark; Molaroni, Shannon Marie; Lee, Hyun-Mi; Burger, Joanna

    2011-09-01

    A number of caribou and muskoxen samples from the western Alaskan Arctic and fish samples from the Aleutian Islands were collected between 1998 and 2006 and analyzed for anthropogenic ((90)Sr and (137)Cs) and natural radionculides ((40)K, (210)Pb and (226)Ra), as part of the radiological assessment for the regional subsistence hunting communities in the first half of 2000s. We examined the relationship between the activities of these nuclides with the size of the fish. In caribou samples, concentration of (90)Sr in muscle was below the detection limit of 0.14 Bq kg(-1) and (137)Cs concentration in bones was below the detection limit of 0.15 Bq kg(-1). (137)Cs activity varied over an order of magnitude in caribou muscle samples with an average value of 2.5 Bq/kg wet wt. Average (137)Cs activity in muskoxen muscle was found to be 9.7 Bq/kg wet wt. However, there were a little variation (less than 60%) in (210)Pb, (40)K, and (226)Ra in both muscle and bone of both caribou and muskoxen. The activities of total (210)Pb in caribou and muskox bones were found to be 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than that of parent-supported (210)Pb indicating the potential for dating of bones of terrestrial mammals (time elapsed since the death of the animal) based on the excess (210)Pb method exists. In fish muscle samples, (137)Cs activity varied from below detection limit to 154 mBq/kg wet wt. and its content increased with the size of the fish due to its transfer through the food chain. Among the seven fish species investigated, (210)Pb activities varied almost an order of magnitude; however, (40)K and (226)Ra activities varied less than a factor of two. Total annual effective dose due to (90)Sr and (137)Cs from the ingestion of those terrestrial and marine meats was estimated to be negligible (ca. 9 μSV/a) compared to the natural radionuclides present thus posing negligible radiological threat to humans.

  1. Anthropogenic and natural radionuclides in caribou and muskoxen in the western Alaskan Arctic and marine fish in the Aleutian Islands in the first half of 2000s.

    PubMed

    Hong, Gi Hoon; Baskaran, Mark; Molaroni, Shannon Marie; Lee, Hyun-Mi; Burger, Joanna

    2011-09-01

    A number of caribou and muskoxen samples from the western Alaskan Arctic and fish samples from the Aleutian Islands were collected between 1998 and 2006 and analyzed for anthropogenic ((90)Sr and (137)Cs) and natural radionculides ((40)K, (210)Pb and (226)Ra), as part of the radiological assessment for the regional subsistence hunting communities in the first half of 2000s. We examined the relationship between the activities of these nuclides with the size of the fish. In caribou samples, concentration of (90)Sr in muscle was below the detection limit of 0.14 Bq kg(-1) and (137)Cs concentration in bones was below the detection limit of 0.15 Bq kg(-1). (137)Cs activity varied over an order of magnitude in caribou muscle samples with an average value of 2.5 Bq/kg wet wt. Average (137)Cs activity in muskoxen muscle was found to be 9.7 Bq/kg wet wt. However, there were a little variation (less than 60%) in (210)Pb, (40)K, and (226)Ra in both muscle and bone of both caribou and muskoxen. The activities of total (210)Pb in caribou and muskox bones were found to be 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than that of parent-supported (210)Pb indicating the potential for dating of bones of terrestrial mammals (time elapsed since the death of the animal) based on the excess (210)Pb method exists. In fish muscle samples, (137)Cs activity varied from below detection limit to 154 mBq/kg wet wt. and its content increased with the size of the fish due to its transfer through the food chain. Among the seven fish species investigated, (210)Pb activities varied almost an order of magnitude; however, (40)K and (226)Ra activities varied less than a factor of two. Total annual effective dose due to (90)Sr and (137)Cs from the ingestion of those terrestrial and marine meats was estimated to be negligible (ca. 9 μSV/a) compared to the natural radionuclides present thus posing negligible radiological threat to humans. PMID:21774963

  2. Dissolved Organic In Natural and Polluted Waters: Methodology and Results of Running Control of Chemical Oxygen Demand (cod) For The Inland and Marine Aquatic System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melentyev, K. V.; Worontsov, A. M.

    . Comprehensive study of the natural waters (including biohydro-chemical parameters control) for large part of the inland waterway St. Petersburg ­ White Sea (river Neva - Ladoga Lake ­ river Svir - Onega Lake ­ Petrozavodsk) was provided in frame the experimental voyage onboard the m/v «St. Peterburg» (J uly 1998 and June 1999). The results of organic matter charting for the different water masses for vast water basin in the northwestern of Russia were analyzed and classified. The arrangement of dissolved organic for the largest in Europe lakes Ladoga and Onega is analyzed in comparison with hydrological and meteorological processes and phenomena, including thermal regime modification. Spatial and temporal (seasonal and annual) transformation of organic matter for these water basins are studied. Aquatic environment conditions of the coastal zones, different bays and gulfs more pressed by livestock and agricultural farms, and industry are assessed also. According to the shipborne data more polluted water areas are the Svir Bay (Ladoga Lake) and Petrozavodskaya Guba (Onega Lake). These results are well correlated with in situ data and literature data. Thus, first time in practice is carried out the running control of a COD and spatial profile of the organic matter for different natural waters. Accuracy of measurements in comparison with traditional approaches and new technologies (including ideas and results practical application of sonoluminiscence of dissolved organic) are discussed also. The modification of CS COD was used for the cont rol of dissolved organic in different marine aquatic system. Sea water samples and preserved ice cores, gathered in the Barents, White and Kara Seas, were investigated. Probes of saltish and brackish-water (as ice cores) from the estuary of great Siberian rivers (Ob Bay and Yenisey Gulf) were analyzed in laboratory (biochemical analysis of these probes was fulfilled also). It was demonstrat ed that CS COD system can be used till range a

  3. Marine Isonitriles and Their Related Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Emsermann, Jens; Kauhl, Ulrich; Opatz, Till

    2016-01-01

    Marine isonitriles represent the largest group of natural products carrying the remarkable isocyanide moiety. Together with marine isothiocyanates and formamides, which originate from the same biosynthetic pathways, they offer diverse biological activities and in spite of their exotic nature they may constitute potential lead structures for pharmaceutical development. Among other biological activities, several marine isonitriles show antimalarial, antitubercular, antifouling and antiplasmodial effects. In contrast to terrestrial isonitriles, which are mostly derived from α-amino acids, the vast majority of marine representatives are of terpenoid origin. An overview of all known marine isonitriles and their congeners will be given and their biological and chemical aspects will be discussed. PMID:26784208

  4. Marine Biomedicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bang, Frederik B.

    1977-01-01

    Describes early scientific research involving marine invertebrate pathologic processes that may have led to new insights into human disease. Discussed are inquiries of Metchnikoff, Loeb, and Cantacuzene (immunolgic responses in sea stars, horseshoe crabs, and marine worms, respectively). Describes current research stemming from these early…

  5. Marine Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewees, Christopher M.; Hooper, Jon K.

    1976-01-01

    A variety of informational material for a course in marine biology or oceanology at the secondary level is presented. Among the topics discussed are: food webs and pyramids, planktonic blooms, marine life, plankton nets, food chains, phytoplankton, zooplankton, larval plankton and filter feeders. (BT)

  6. New pharmaceuticals from marine organisms.

    PubMed

    Fenical, W

    1997-09-01

    Definitions of 'marine biotechnology' often refer to the vast potential of the oceans to lead to new cures for human and animal disease; the exploitation of natural drugs has always been the most basic form of biotechnology. Although only initiated in the late 1970s, natural drug discovery from the world's oceans has been accelerated by the chemical uniqueness of marine organisms and by the need to develop drugs for contemporary, difficult to cure, diseases. Current research activities, while primarily within the academic laboratories, have generated convincing evidence that marine drug discovery has an exceedingly bright future.

  7. Marine & hydrokinetic technology development.

    SciTech Connect

    LiVecchi, Al; Jepsen, Richard Alan

    2010-06-01

    The Wind and Water Power Program supports the development of marine and hydrokinetic devices, which capture energy from waves, tides, ocean currents, the natural flow of water in rivers, and marine thermal gradients, without building new dams or diversions. The program works closely with industry and the Department of Energy's national laboratories to advance the development and testing of marine and hydrokinetic devices. In 2008, the program funded projects to develop and test point absorber, oscillating wave column, and tidal turbine technologies. The program also funds component design, such as techniques for manufacturing and installing coldwater pipes critical for ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) systems. Rigorous device testing is necessary to validate and optimize prototypes before beginning full-scale demonstration and deployment. The program supports device testing by providing technology developers with information on testing facilities. Technology developers require access to facilities capable of simulating open-water conditions in order to refine and validate device operability. The program has identified more than 20 tank testing operators in the United States with capabilities suited to the marine and hydrokinetic technology industry. This information is available to the public in the program's Hydrodynamic Testing Facilities Database. The program also supports the development of open-water, grid-connected testing facilities, as well as resource assessments that will improve simulations done in dry-dock and closed-water testing facilities. The program has established two university-led National Marine Renewable Energy Centers to be used for device testing. These centers are located on coasts and will have open-water testing berths, allowing researchers to investigate marine and estuary conditions. Optimal array design, development, modeling and testing are needed to maximize efficiency and electricity generation at marine and hydrokinetic power

  8. A simultaneous estimation of the mass of Mars and its natural satellites, Phobos and Deimos, from the orbital perturbations on the Mariner 9, Viking 1, and Viking 2 orbiters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemoine, F. G.; Smith, D. E.; Fricke, S. K.; Mccarthy, J. J.

    1993-01-01

    The natural satellites of Mars, Phobos and Deimos, caused perturbations on the orbits of the Mariner 9, and the Viking spacecraft that were used to estimate the satellite masses. The Viking spacecraft were specifically targeted to make close flybys (within a few hundred kilometers) of Phobos in February 1977 and of Deimos in October 1977. These close encounters were used to estimate the moon's gravitational constant, GM (the universal constant of gravitation multiplied by the satellite mass). However, the Viking and Mariner 9 spacecraft made numerous flybys of Phobos and Deimos at distances of a few thousand kilometers. The tracking data from these more 'distant' encounters were processed to estimate the masses of Mars, Phobos, and Deimos.

  9. Marine oil seeps

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, R.F. )

    1991-03-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbons of both biogenic and thermogenic origin are common constituents of the marine water column and sediment of the continental shelves. Approximately 0.25 million metric tons of oil per year, constituting about 8% of the oil input into the sea, is derived from natural seeps, the rest being anthropogenic. Seepage has occurred world-wide for millions of years and must have been many times greater in the past, when enormous oil deposits, such as the Orinoco Oil Belt, were first exposed to erosion. Although the amount varies from site to site with time, seepage is pervasive in polar and temperate seas. Marine-seep oil is intensely weathered and thus can be distinguished chemically from recent biogenic or undegraded crude oil. The degraded oil from seeps appears to have little deleterious effect on many marine organisms, which ingest and discharge the oil mostly unmetabolized. Chemical analyses suggest that a very large oil-rich layer in the Sargasso Sea originated from a large and as yet undetected seep. Oil seeps have long been used as guides for oil exploration onshore but have been underutilized for this purpose offshore because of oil-plume drift from the site of the seep and because natural oil slicks may be masked by spilled oil. At least one marine seep, in the Santa Barbara Channel, California, is producing oil and natural gas into two hollow steel pyramids from which the oil is collected by work boats and the natural gas is transported to shore by pipeline. This facility effectively reduces atmospheric pollution, controls marine oil pollution from the largest seep in the area, provides emission credits, and yields a modest economic benefit, but the seep is not known to have been used directly in oil exploration.

  10. Marine energy.

    PubMed

    Kerr, David

    2007-04-15

    Marine energy is renewable and carbon free and has the potential to make a significant contribution to energy supplies in the future. In the UK, tidal power barrages and wave energy could make the largest contribution, and tidal stream energy could make a smaller but still a useful contribution. This paper provides an overview of the current status and prospects for electrical generation from marine energy. It concludes that a realistic potential contribution to UK electricity supplies is approximately 80 TWh per year but that many years of development and investment will be required if this potential is to be realized. PMID:17272244

  11. Global patterns of extinction risk in marine and non-marine systems.

    PubMed

    Webb, Thomas J; Mindel, Beth L

    2015-02-16

    Despite increasing concern over the effects of human activities on marine ecosystems, extinction in the sea remains scarce: 19-24 out of a total of >850 recorded extinctions implies a 9-fold lower marine extinction rate compared to non-marine systems. The extent of threats faced by marine systems, and their resilience to them, receive considerable attention, but the detectability of marine extinctions is less well understood. Before its extinction or threat status is recorded, a species must be both taxonomically described and then formally assessed; lower rates of either process for marine species could thus impact patterns of extinction risk, especially as species missing from taxonomic inventories may often be more vulnerable than described species. We combine data on taxonomic description with conservation assessments from the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) to test these possibilities across almost all marine and non-marine eukaryotes. We find that the 9-fold lower rate of recorded extinctions and 4-fold lower rate of ongoing extinction risk across marine species can be explained in part by differences in the proportion of species assessed by the IUCN (3% cf. 4% of non-marine species). Furthermore, once taxonomic knowledge and conservation assessments pass a threshold level, differences in extinction risk between marine and non-marine groups largely disappear. Indeed, across the best-studied taxonomic groups, there is no difference between marine and non-marine systems, with on average between 20% and 25% of species being threatened with extinction, regardless of realm.

  12. Marine Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherman, J. W., III

    1975-01-01

    The papers presented in the marine session may be broadly grouped into several classes: microwave region instruments compared to infrared and visible region sensors, satellite techniques compared to aircraft techniques, open ocean applications compared to coastal region applications, and basic research and understanding of ocean phenomena compared to research techniques that offer immediate applications.

  13. Marine Mammals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meith, Nikki

    Marine mammals have not only fascinated and inspired human beings for thousands of years, but they also support a big business by providing flesh for sea-borne factories, sustaining Arctic lifestyles and traditions, and attracting tourists to ocean aquaria. While they are being harpooned, bludgeoned, shot, netted, and trained to jump through…

  14. Marine envenomations.

    PubMed

    Balhara, Kamna S; Stolbach, Andrew

    2014-02-01

    This article describes the epidemiology and presentation of human envenomation from marine organisms. Venom pathophysiology, envenomation presentation, and treatment options are discussed for sea snake, stingray, spiny fish, jellyfish, octopus, cone snail, sea urchin, and sponge envenomation. The authors describe the management of common exposures that cause morbidity as well as the keys to recognition and treatment of life-threatening exposures. PMID:24275176

  15. Marine Trades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Alan

    This curriculum guide provides materials for a competency-based course in marine trades at the secondary level. The curriculum design uses the curriculum infused model for the teaching of basic skills as part of vocational education and demonstrates the relationship of vocationally related skills to communication, mathematics, and science…

  16. Nutraceutical and pharmacological implications of marine carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Pallela, Ramjee

    2014-01-01

    Current day's research has been focusing much on the potential pharmacological or nutraceutical agents of selective health benefits with less toxicity. As a consequence of increased demand of nutritional supplements of great medicinal values, development of therapeutic agents from natural sources, in particular, marine environment are being considered much important. A diverse array of marine natural products containing medicinally useful nutritional substances, i.e., marine nutraceuticals have been focused to the benefit of mankind. Carbohydrates, by being constituted in considerable amount of many marine organisms display several nutraceutical and pharmaceutical behavior to defend from various diseases. Moreover, the carbohydrates from algae as well as from shellfish wastes, like chitosan and its derivatives, showed tremendous applications in biology and biomedicine. In the current chapter, several of marine carbohydrates from various marine flora and fauna have been covered with their applications and prospects in the development of nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. PMID:25300547

  17. Nutraceutical and pharmacological implications of marine carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Pallela, Ramjee

    2014-01-01

    Current day's research has been focusing much on the potential pharmacological or nutraceutical agents of selective health benefits with less toxicity. As a consequence of increased demand of nutritional supplements of great medicinal values, development of therapeutic agents from natural sources, in particular, marine environment are being considered much important. A diverse array of marine natural products containing medicinally useful nutritional substances, i.e., marine nutraceuticals have been focused to the benefit of mankind. Carbohydrates, by being constituted in considerable amount of many marine organisms display several nutraceutical and pharmaceutical behavior to defend from various diseases. Moreover, the carbohydrates from algae as well as from shellfish wastes, like chitosan and its derivatives, showed tremendous applications in biology and biomedicine. In the current chapter, several of marine carbohydrates from various marine flora and fauna have been covered with their applications and prospects in the development of nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals.

  18. Marine Peptides: Bioactivities and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Randy Chi Fai; Ng, Tzi Bun; Wong, Jack Ho

    2015-01-01

    Peptides are important bioactive natural products which are present in many marine species. These marine peptides have high potential nutraceutical and medicinal values because of their broad spectra of bioactivities. Their antimicrobial, antiviral, antitumor, antioxidative, cardioprotective (antihypertensive, antiatherosclerotic and anticoagulant), immunomodulatory, analgesic, anxiolytic anti-diabetic, appetite suppressing and neuroprotective activities have attracted the attention of the pharmaceutical industry, which attempts to design them for use in the treatment or prevention of various diseases. Some marine peptides or their derivatives have high commercial values and had reached the pharmaceutical and nutraceutical markets. A large number of them are already in different phases of the clinical and preclinical pipeline. This review highlights the recent research in marine peptides and the trends and prospects for the future, with special emphasis on nutraceutical and pharmaceutical development into marketed products. PMID:26132844

  19. Understanding Marine Mussel Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Roberto, Francisco F.

    2007-01-01

    In addition to identifying the proteins that have a role in underwater adhesion by marine mussels, research efforts have focused on identifying the genes responsible for the adhesive proteins, environmental factors that may influence protein production, and strategies for producing natural adhesives similar to the native mussel adhesive proteins. The production-scale availability of recombinant mussel adhesive proteins will enable researchers to formulate adhesives that are water-impervious and ecologically safe and can bind materials ranging from glass, plastics, metals, and wood to materials, such as bone or teeth, biological organisms, and other chemicals or molecules. Unfortunately, as of yet scientists have been unable to duplicate the processes that marine mussels use to create adhesive structures. This study provides a background on adhesive proteins identified in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, and introduces our research interests and discusses the future for continued research related to mussel adhesion. PMID:17990038

  20. Understanding Marine Mussel Adhesion

    SciTech Connect

    H. G. Silverman; F. F. Roberto

    2007-12-01

    In addition to identifying the proteins that have a role in underwater adhesion by marine mussels, research efforts have focused on identifying the genes responsible for the adhesive proteins, environmental factors that may influence protein production, and strategies for producing natural adhesives similar to the native mussel adhesive proteins. The production-scale availability of recombinant mussel adhesive proteins will enable researchers to formulate adhesives that are waterimpervious and ecologically safe and can bind materials ranging from glass, plastics, metals, and wood to materials, such as bone or teeth, biological organisms, and other chemicals or molecules. Unfortunately, as of yet scientists have been unable to duplicate the processes that marine mussels use to create adhesive structures. This study provides a background on adhesive proteins identified in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, and introduces our research interests and discusses the future for continued research related to mussel adhesion.

  1. Marination with natural curing ingredients, storage time, and serving temperature effects on the sensory characteristics of forage-finished or commercially-sourced beef roasts.

    PubMed

    McMurtrie, K E; Kerth, C R; Bratcher, C L; Curtis, P A; Smith, B

    2012-03-01

    Beef inside round roasts (n=144) were cut from rounds obtained from both forage-finished cattle (n=72) and commercially-sourced beef (n=72). Roasts were portioned to weigh 0.45-0.68kg each. Each roast was then randomly assigned one of the following treatments: control, injected-no cure, or injected-cured. Additionally, roasts were assigned a serving temperature (hot or cold) and storage treatments (0d or 28d post cooking). Roasts from forage-fed beef had a more red interior color and higher shear values, and also retained more brine than commercially-sourced beef (P<0.05). Curing roasts improved TBARS values in roasts served hot and significantly reduced sensory warmed-over and grassy flavors (P<0.05). Marinating forage-finished beef roasts significantly improves tenderness and flavor characteristics.

  2. Marine Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Andel, Tjeerd H.

    Marine geology was blessed early, about 30 years ago, with two great textbooks, one by P.H. Kuenen, the other by Francis P. Shepard, but in more recent years, no one has dared synthesize a field that has become so diverse and is growing so rapidly. There are many texts written for the beginning undergraduate student, mostly by marine geologists, but none can be handed conveniently to a serious advanced student or given to a colleague interested in what the field has wrought. The reason for this regrettable state is obvious; only an active, major scholar could hope to write such a book well, but the years would pass, his students dwindle, his grants vanish. He himself might be out of date before his book was. Kennett has earned a large measure of gratitude for his attempt to undertake this task. His personal price must have been high but so are our rewards.

  3. Natural selection on marine carnivores elaborated a diverse family of classical MHC class I genes exhibiting haplotypic gene content variation and allelic polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Hammond, John A; Guethlein, Lisbeth A; Norman, Paul J; Parham, Peter

    2012-12-01

    Pinnipeds, marine carnivores, diverged from terrestrial carnivores ~45 million years ago, before their adaptation to marine environments. This lifestyle change exposed pinnipeds to different microbiota and pathogens, with probable impact on their MHC class I genes. Investigating this question, genomic sequences were determined for 71 MHC class I variants: 27 from harbor seal and 44 from gray seal. These variants form three MHC class I gene lineages, one comprising a pseudogene. The second, a candidate nonclassical MHC class I gene, comprises a nonpolymorphic transcribed gene related to dog DLA-79 and giant panda Aime-1906. The third is the diversity lineage, which includes 62 of the 71 seal MHC class I variants. All are transcribed, and they minimally represent six harbor and 12 gray seal MHC class I genes. Besides species-specific differences in gene number, seal MHC class I haplotypes exhibit gene content variation and allelic polymorphism. Patterns of sequence variation, and of positions for positively selected sites, indicate the diversity lineage genes are the seals' classical MHC class I genes. Evidence that expansion of diversity lineage genes began before gray and harbor seals diverged is the presence in both species of two distinctive sublineages of diversity lineage genes. Pointing to further expansion following the divergence are the presence of species-specific genes and greater MHC class I diversity in gray seals than harbor seals. The elaboration of a complex variable family of classical MHC class I genes in pinnipeds contrasts with the single, highly polymorphic classical MHC class I gene of dog and giant panda, terrestrial carnivores. PMID:23001684

  4. Natural selection on marine carnivores elaborated a diverse family of classical MHC class I genes exhibiting haplotypic gene content variation and allelic polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    Norman, Paul J.; Parham, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Pinnipeds, marine carnivores, diverged from terrestrial carnivores ~45 million years ago, before their adaptation to marine environments. This lifestyle change exposed pinnipeds to different microbiota and pathogens, with probable impact on their MHC class I genes. Investigating this question, genomic sequences were determined for 71 MHC class I variants: 27 from harbor seal and 44 from gray seal. These variants form three MHC class I gene lineages, one comprising a pseudogene. The second, a candidate nonclassical MHC class I gene, comprises a nonpolymorphic transcribed gene related to dog DLA-79 and giant panda Aime-1906. The third is the diversity lineage, which includes 62 of the 71 seal MHC class I variants. All are transcribed, and they minimally represent six harbor and 12 gray seal MHC class I genes. Besides species-specific differences in gene number, seal MHC class I haplotypes exhibit gene content variation and allelic polymorphism. Patterns of sequence variation, and of positions for positively selected sites, indicate the diversity lineage genes are the seals’ classical MHC class I genes. Evidence that expansion of diversity lineage genes began before gray and harbor seals diverged is the presence in both species of two distinctive sublineages of diversity lineage genes. Pointing to further expansion following the divergence are the presence of species-specific genes and greater MHC class I diversity in gray seals than harbor seals. The elaboration of a complex variable family of classical MHC class I genes in pinnipeds contrasts with the single, highly polymorphic classical MHC class I gene of dog and giant panda, terrestrial carnivores. PMID:23001684

  5. Marine Education: Progress and Promise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortner, Rosanne; Wildman, Terry M.

    1980-01-01

    Examined are the scope and status of precollege marine education, including history of marine education, present interdisciplinary marine education, informal approaches to marine education, marine awareness studies, and some implications of marine education. (Author/DS)

  6. Exploring marine resources for bioactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Kiuru, Paula; DʼAuria, M Valeria; Muller, Christian D; Tammela, Päivi; Vuorela, Heikki; Yli-Kauhaluoma, Jari

    2014-09-01

    Biodiversity in the seas is only partly explored, although marine organisms are excellent sources for many industrial products. Through close co-operation between industrial and academic partners, it is possible to successfully collect, isolate and classify marine organisms, such as bacteria, fungi, micro- and macroalgae, cyanobacteria, and marine invertebrates from the oceans and seas globally. Extracts and purified compounds of these organisms can be studied for several therapeutically and industrially significant biological activities, including anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antibacterial, and anticoagulant activities by applying a wide variety of screening tools, as well as for ion channel/receptor modulation and plant growth regulation. Chromatographic isolation of bioactive compounds will be followed by structural determination. Sustainable cultivation methods for promising organisms and biotechnological processes for selected compounds can be developed, as well as biosensors for monitoring the target compounds. The (semi)synthetic modification of marine-based bioactive compounds produces their new derivatives, structural analogs and mimetics that could serve as hit or lead compounds and be used to expand compound libraries based on marine natural products. The research innovations can be targeted for industrial product development in order to improve the growth and productivity of marine biotechnology. Marine research aims at a better understanding of environmentally conscious sourcing of marine biotechnology products and increased public awareness of marine biodiversity. Marine research is expected to offer novel marine-based lead compounds for industries and strengthen their product portfolios related to pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, cosmetic, agrochemical, food processing, material and biosensor applications. PMID:25203732

  7. Career Education: The Marine Science Occupations Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farning, Maxwell

    This paper discusses career opportunities in eight broad groups of marine science occupations: (1) harbor construction and maintenance, (2) ship construction, (3) merchant marine activities, (4) towboating, (5) longshoring, (6) fishing and fish farming, (7) petroleum and natural gas exploration and extraction, and (8) research activities. The…

  8. Early marine salmon injury assessment in Prince William sound. Fish/shellfish study number 4a. Exxon Valdez oil spill, state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Willette, T.M.; Carpenter, G.; Shields, P.; Carlson, S.R.

    1994-11-01

    The authors investigated the effects of the Exxon Valdez oil spill and evaluated natural environmental effects on the migration, growth, and survival of juvenile pink salmon during the first two months of marine residence in Prince William Sound using coded-wire tagged juveniles released from hatcheries in 1989-1991. Juveniles from Koernig Hatchery migrated from the nearby moderately-oiled area to the lightly-oiled southern coast of Knight Island in 1989; similar migration was not observed in 1990 and 1991. Exposure to hydrocarbons appeared to reduce the juvenile growth rate by 0.76 to 0.94% body weight per day in 1989, and was associated with a significantly greater (P<.05) frequency of cytochrome P4501A enzyme induction in moderately-oiled areas. Growth rate reduction likely caused a 1.7 to 2.2% reduction in survival to the adult stage among fish reared in oiled areas.

  9. Natal Homing in a Marine Fish Metapopulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorrold, Simon R.; Latkoczy, Christopher; Swart, Peter K.; Jones, Cynthia M.

    2001-01-01

    Identifying natal origins of marine fishes is challenging because of difficulties in conducting mark-recapture studies in marine systems. We used natural geochemical signatures in otoliths (ear bones) to determine natal sources in weakfish (Cynoscion regalis), an estuarine-spawning marine fish, in eastern North America. Spawning site fidelity ranged from 60 to 81%, comparable to estimates of natal homing in birds and anadromous fishes. These data were in contrast to genetic analyses of population structure in weakfish. Our findings highlight the need for consideration of spatial processes in fisheries models and have implications for the design of marine reserves in coastal regions.

  10. Assessing the In Situ Fertilization Status of Two Marine Copepod Species, Temora longicornis and Eurytemora herdmani; How Common Are Unfertilized Eggs in Nature?

    PubMed Central

    Lasley-Rasher, Rachel S.; Kramer, Andrew M.; Burdett-Coutts, Victoria; Yen, Jeannette

    2014-01-01

    We utilized an egg staining technique to measure the in situ fertilization success of two marine copepod species, Temora longicornis and Eurytemora herdmani from May to October 2008 in coastal Maine and correlated fertilization success with environmental conditions in their habitat. T. longicornis is a free spawning species that releases eggs into the ambient seawater after mating. In contrast, E. herdmani carries eggs in an egg sac until they hatch. The proportion of fertilized eggs within E. herdmani egg sacs was significantly higher than the freely spawned clutches of T. longicornis. This may be a result of the asymmetrical costs associated with carrying vs. spawning unfertilized eggs. T. longicornis frequently laid both fertilized and unfertilized eggs within their clutch. T. longicornis fertilization was negatively associated with chlorophyll concentration and positively associated with population density in their local habitat. The fertilization status of E. herdmani egg sacs was high throughout the season, but the proportion of ovigerous females was negatively associated with an interaction between predators and the proportion of females in the population. This study emphasizes that, in addition to population level processes, community and ecosystem level processes strongly influence the fertilization success and subsequent productivity of copepods. PMID:25397669

  11. Assessing the in situ fertilization status of two marine copepod species, Temora longicornis and Eurytemora herdmani; how common are unfertilized eggs in nature?

    PubMed

    Lasley-Rasher, Rachel S; Kramer, Andrew M; Burdett-Coutts, Victoria; Yen, Jeannette

    2014-01-01

    We utilized an egg staining technique to measure the in situ fertilization success of two marine copepod species, Temora longicornis and Eurytemora herdmani from May to October 2008 in coastal Maine and correlated fertilization success with environmental conditions in their habitat. T. longicornis is a free spawning species that releases eggs into the ambient seawater after mating. In contrast, E. herdmani carries eggs in an egg sac until they hatch. The proportion of fertilized eggs within E. herdmani egg sacs was significantly higher than the freely spawned clutches of T. longicornis. This may be a result of the asymmetrical costs associated with carrying vs. spawning unfertilized eggs. T. longicornis frequently laid both fertilized and unfertilized eggs within their clutch. T. longicornis fertilization was negatively associated with chlorophyll concentration and positively associated with population density in their local habitat. The fertilization status of E. herdmani egg sacs was high throughout the season, but the proportion of ovigerous females was negatively associated with an interaction between predators and the proportion of females in the population. This study emphasizes that, in addition to population level processes, community and ecosystem level processes strongly influence the fertilization success and subsequent productivity of copepods.

  12. Diketopiperazines from marine organisms.

    PubMed

    Huang, Riming; Zhou, Xuefeng; Xu, Tunhai; Yang, Xianwen; Liu, Yonghong

    2010-12-01

    Diketopiperazines (DKPs), which are cyclic dipeptides, have been detected in a variety of natural resources. Recently, the interest in these compounds increased significantly because of their remarkable bioactivity. This review deals with the chemical structures, biosynthetic pathways, and biological activities of DKPs from marine microorganisms, sponges, sea stars, tunicates (ascidians), and red algae. The literature has been covered up to December 2008, and a total 124 DKPs from 104 publications have been discussed and reviewed. Some of these compounds have been found to possess various bioactivities including cytotoxicity, and antibacterial, antifungal, antifouling, plant-growth regulatory, and other activities.

  13. SAFRR tsunami scenario: impacts on California ecosystems, species, marine natural resources, and fisheries: Chapter G in The SAFRR (Science Application for Risk Reduction) Tsunami Scenario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brosnan, Deborah; Wein, Anne; Wilson, Rick; Ross, Stephanie; Jones, Lucile

    2014-01-01

    We evaluate the effects of the SAFRR Tsunami Scenario on California’s ecosystems, species, natural resources, and fisheries. We discuss mitigation and preparedness approaches that can be useful in Tsunami planning. The chapter provides an introduction to the role of ecosystems and natural resources in tsunami events (Section 1). A separate section focuses on specific impacts of the SAFRR Tsunami Scenario on California’s ecosystems and endangered species (Section 2). A section on commercial fisheries and the fishing fleet (Section 3) documents the plausible effects on California’s commercial fishery resources, fishing fleets, and communities. Sections 2 and 3 each include practical preparedness options for communities and suggestions on information needs or research. Our evaluation indicates that many low-lying coastal habitats, including beaches, marshes and sloughs, rivers and waterways connected to the sea, as well as nearshore submarine habitats will be damaged by the SAFRR Tsunami Scenario. Beach erosion and complex or high volumes of tsunami-generated debris would pose major challenges for ecological communities. Several endangered species and protected areas are at risk. Commercial fisheries and fishing fleets will be affected directly by the tsunami and indirectly by dependencies on infrastructure that is damaged. There is evidence that in some areas intact ecosystems, notably sand dunes, will act as natural defenses against the tsunami waves. However, ecosystems do not provide blanket protection against tsunami surge. The consequences of ecological and natural resource damage are estimated in the millions of dollars. These costs are driven partly by the loss of ecosystem services, as well as cumulative and follow-on impacts where, for example, increased erosion during the tsunami can in turn lead to subsequent damage and loss to coastal properties. Recovery of ecosystems, natural resources and fisheries is likely to be lengthy and expensive

  14. Marine Lubricants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, B. H.; Green, D.

    Marine diesel engines are classified by speed, either large (medium speed) or very large (slow speed) with high efficiencies and burning low-quality fuel. Slow-speed engines, up to 200 rpm, are two-stroke with separate combustion chamber and sump connected by a crosshead, with trunk and system oil lubricants for each. Medium-speed diesels, 300-1500 rpm, are of conventional automotive design with one lubricant. Slow-speed engines use heavy fuel oil of much lower quality than conventional diesel with problems of deposit cleanliness, acidity production and oxidation. Lubricants are mainly SAE 30/40/50 monogrades using paraffinic basestocks. The main types of additives are detergents/dispersants, antioxidants, corrosion inhibitors, anti-wear/load-carrying/ep, pour-point depressants and anti-foam compounds. There are no simple systems for classifying marine lubricants, as for automotive, because of the wide range of engine design, ratings and service applications they serve. There are no standard tests; lubricant suppliers use their own tests or the Bolnes 3DNL, with final proof from field tests. Frequent lubricant analyses safeguard engines and require standard sampling procedures before determination of density, viscosity, flash point, insolubles, base number, water and wear metal content.

  15. Production of Enzymes from Marine Actinobacteria.

    PubMed

    Zhao, X Q; Xu, X N; Chen, L Y

    2016-01-01

    Marine actinobacteria are well recognized for their capabilities to produce valuable natural products, which have great potential for applications in medical, agricultural, and fine chemical industries. In addition to producing unique enzymes responsible for biosynthesis of natural products, many marine actinobacteria also produce hydrolytic enzymes which are able to degrade various biopolymers, such as cellulose, xylan, and chitin. These enzymes are important to produce biofuels and biochemicals of interest from renewable biomass. In this chapter, the recent reports of novel enzymes produced by marine actinobacteria are reviewed, and advanced technologies that can be applied to search for novel marine enzymes as well as for improved enzyme production by marine actinobacteria are summarized, which include ribosome engineering, genome mining, as well as synthetic biology studies. PMID:27452169

  16. Production of Enzymes from Marine Actinobacteria.

    PubMed

    Zhao, X Q; Xu, X N; Chen, L Y

    2016-01-01

    Marine actinobacteria are well recognized for their capabilities to produce valuable natural products, which have great potential for applications in medical, agricultural, and fine chemical industries. In addition to producing unique enzymes responsible for biosynthesis of natural products, many marine actinobacteria also produce hydrolytic enzymes which are able to degrade various biopolymers, such as cellulose, xylan, and chitin. These enzymes are important to produce biofuels and biochemicals of interest from renewable biomass. In this chapter, the recent reports of novel enzymes produced by marine actinobacteria are reviewed, and advanced technologies that can be applied to search for novel marine enzymes as well as for improved enzyme production by marine actinobacteria are summarized, which include ribosome engineering, genome mining, as well as synthetic biology studies.

  17. Synthesis and preliminary biological evaluation of a small library of hybrid compounds based on Ugi isocyanide multicomponent reactions with a marine natural product scaffold.

    PubMed

    Avilés, Edward; Prudhomme, Jacques; Le Roch, Karine G; Franzblau, Scott G; Chandrasena, Kevin; Mayer, Alejandro M S; Rodríguez, Abimael D

    2015-11-15

    A mixture-based combinatorial library of five Ugi adducts (4-8) incorporating known antitubercular and antimalarial pharmacophores was successfully synthesized, starting from the naturally occurring diisocyanide 3, via parallel Ugi four-center three-component reactions (U-4C-3CR). The novel α-acylamino amides obtained were evaluated for their antiinfective potential against laboratory strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv and chloroquine-susceptible 3D7 Plasmodium falciparum. Interestingly, compounds 4-8 displayed potent in vitro antiparasitic activity with higher cytotoxicity in comparison to their diisocyanide precursor 3, with the best compound exhibiting an IC50 value of 3.6 nM. Additionally, these natural product inspired hybrids potently inhibited in vitro thromboxane B2 (TXB2) and superoxide anion (O2(-)) generation from Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated rat neonatal microglia, with concomitant low short-term toxicity. PMID:26421992

  18. Assessment of injuries to killer whales in Prince William Sound. Marine mammal study number 2. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlheim, M.E.; Matkin, C.O.

    1993-12-01

    Photo-identification studies of individual killer whales inhabiting Prince William Sound were collected from 1989-91 to determine the impact of the spill on whale abundance and distribution. Concurrent photo-identification studies were also conducted in Southeast Alaska to determine if PWS killer whales were displaced to other areas. Despite increased effort, the number of encounters with PWS killer whales appears to be decreasing. The authors assume, that the whales are dead from natural causes, a result of interactions with fisheries, from the spill, or a combination of these causes.

  19. Under-water superoleophobic glass: unexplored role of the surfactant-rich solvent.

    PubMed

    Waghmare, Prashant R; Das, Siddhartha; Mitra, Sushanta K

    2013-01-01

    Preparing low energy liquid-repellant surfaces (superhydrophobic or superoleophobic) have attracted tremendous attention of late. In all these studies, the necessary liquid repellency is achieved by irreversible micro-nano texturing of the surfaces. Here we show for the first time that a glass surface, placed under water, can be made superoleophobic (with unprecedented contact angles close to 180 degrees and roll off angles only a few fractions of 1 degree) by merely changing the surfactant content of the water medium in which the oil (immiscible in water) has been dispersed. Therefore, we propose a paradigm shift in efforts to achieve liquid-repellant systems, namely, altering the solvent characteristics instead of engineering the surfaces. The effect occurs for a surfactant concentration much larger than the critical micelle concentration, and is associated to strong adsorption of surfactant molecules at the solid surface, triggering an extremely stable Cassie-Baxter like conformation of the oil droplets. PMID:23689477

  20. Under-water superoleophobic glass: unexplored role of the surfactant-rich solvent.

    PubMed

    Waghmare, Prashant R; Das, Siddhartha; Mitra, Sushanta K

    2013-01-01

    Preparing low energy liquid-repellant surfaces (superhydrophobic or superoleophobic) have attracted tremendous attention of late. In all these studies, the necessary liquid repellency is achieved by irreversible micro-nano texturing of the surfaces. Here we show for the first time that a glass surface, placed under water, can be made superoleophobic (with unprecedented contact angles close to 180 degrees and roll off angles only a few fractions of 1 degree) by merely changing the surfactant content of the water medium in which the oil (immiscible in water) has been dispersed. Therefore, we propose a paradigm shift in efforts to achieve liquid-repellant systems, namely, altering the solvent characteristics instead of engineering the surfaces. The effect occurs for a surfactant concentration much larger than the critical micelle concentration, and is associated to strong adsorption of surfactant molecules at the solid surface, triggering an extremely stable Cassie-Baxter like conformation of the oil droplets.

  1. Under-water superoleophobic Glass: Unexplored role of the surfactant-rich solvent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waghmare, Prashant R.; Das, Siddhartha; Mitra, Sushanta K.

    2013-05-01

    Preparing low energy liquid-repellant surfaces (superhydrophobic or superoleophobic) have attracted tremendous attention of late. In all these studies, the necessary liquid repellency is achieved by irreversible micro-nano texturing of the surfaces. Here we show for the first time that a glass surface, placed under water, can be made superoleophobic (with unprecedented contact angles close to 180 degrees and roll off angles only a few fractions of 1 degree) by merely changing the surfactant content of the water medium in which the oil (immiscible in water) has been dispersed. Therefore, we propose a paradigm shift in efforts to achieve liquid-repellant systems, namely, altering the solvent characteristics instead of engineering the surfaces. The effect occurs for a surfactant concentration much larger than the critical micelle concentration, and is associated to strong adsorption of surfactant molecules at the solid surface, triggering an extremely stable Cassie-Baxter like conformation of the oil droplets.

  2. Under-water superoleophobic Glass: Unexplored role of the surfactant-rich solvent

    PubMed Central

    Waghmare, Prashant R.; Das, Siddhartha; Mitra, Sushanta K.

    2013-01-01

    Preparing low energy liquid-repellant surfaces (superhydrophobic or superoleophobic) have attracted tremendous attention of late. In all these studies, the necessary liquid repellency is achieved by irreversible micro-nano texturing of the surfaces. Here we show for the first time that a glass surface, placed under water, can be made superoleophobic (with unprecedented contact angles close to 180 degrees and roll off angles only a few fractions of 1 degree) by merely changing the surfactant content of the water medium in which the oil (immiscible in water) has been dispersed. Therefore, we propose a paradigm shift in efforts to achieve liquid-repellant systems, namely, altering the solvent characteristics instead of engineering the surfaces. The effect occurs for a surfactant concentration much larger than the critical micelle concentration, and is associated to strong adsorption of surfactant molecules at the solid surface, triggering an extremely stable Cassie-Baxter like conformation of the oil droplets. PMID:23689477

  3. Bacterial vesicles in marine ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Biller, Steven J; Schubotz, Florence; Roggensack, Sara E; Thompson, Anne W; Summons, Roger E; Chisholm, Sallie W

    2014-01-10

    Many heterotrophic bacteria are known to release extracellular vesicles, facilitating interactions between cells and their environment from a distance. Vesicle production has not been described in photoautotrophs, however, and the prevalence and characteristics of vesicles in natural ecosystems is unknown. Here, we report that cultures of Prochlorococcus, a numerically dominant marine cyanobacterium, continuously release lipid vesicles containing proteins, DNA, and RNA. We also show that vesicles carrying DNA from diverse bacteria are abundant in coastal and open-ocean seawater samples. Prochlorococcus vesicles can support the growth of heterotrophic bacterial cultures, which implicates these structures in marine carbon flux. The ability of vesicles to deliver diverse compounds in discrete packages adds another layer of complexity to the flow of information, energy, and biomolecules in marine microbial communities.

  4. Antimicrobial Peptides from Marine Proteobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Desriac, Florie; Jégou, Camille; Balnois, Eric; Brillet, Benjamin; Le Chevalier, Patrick; Fleury, Yannick

    2013-01-01

    After years of inadequate use and the emergence of multidrug resistant (MDR) strains, the efficiency of “classical” antibiotics has decreased significantly. New drugs to fight MDR strains are urgently needed. Bacteria hold much promise as a source of unusual bioactive metabolites. However, the potential of marine bacteria, except for Actinomycetes and Cyanobacteria, has been largely underexplored. In the past two decades, the structures of several antimicrobial compounds have been elucidated in marine Proteobacteria. Of these compounds, polyketides (PKs), synthesised by condensation of malonyl-coenzyme A and/or acetyl-coenzyme A, and non-ribosomal peptides (NRPs), obtained through the linkage of (unusual) amino acids, have recently generated particular interest. NRPs are good examples of naturally modified peptides. Here, we review and compile the data on the antimicrobial peptides isolated from marine Proteobacteria, especially NRPs. PMID:24084784

  5. Monte Carlo simulation of gamma-ray spectra from natural radionuclides recorded by a NaI detector in the marine environment.

    PubMed

    Vlastou, R; Ntziou, I Th; Kokkoris, M; Papadopoulos, C T; Tsabaris, C

    2006-01-01

    The GEANT4 Monte Carlo code has been used to simulate gamma-ray spectra of natural radionuclides collected by a NaI scintillation detector immersed in seawater. The gamma-rays emitted from the decay of (40)K, and the series of (232)Th and (238)U, were used to describe the radioactive water source around the NaI crystal. The simulated gamma-ray spectra were compared with real data recorded in situ by a newly constructed NaI spectrometer and were found to be in good agreement. The NaI spectrometer was calibrated in the laboratory in a water tank, before its deployment in seawater. Activity concentrations were deduced from the gamma-ray spectra and discussed in comparison with results from the literature. PMID:16150599

  6. Marine antivenoms.

    PubMed

    Currie, Bart J

    2003-01-01

    There is an enormous diversity and complexity of venoms and poisons in marine animals. Fatalities have occurred from envenoming by sea snakes, jellyfish, venomous fish such as stonefish, cone snails, and blue-ringed octopus. Deaths have also followed ingestion of toxins in shellfish, puffer fish (Fugu), and ciguatoxin-containing fish. However antivenoms are generally only available for envenoming by certain sea snakes, the major Australian box jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri) and stonefish. There have been difficulties in characterizing the toxins of C. fleckeri venom, and there are conflicting animals studies on the efficacy of C. fleckeri antivenom. The vast majority of C. fleckeri stings are not life-threatening, with painful skin welts the major finding. However fatalities that do occur usually do so within 5 to 20 minutes of the sting. This unprecedented rapid onset of cardiotoxicity in clinical envenoming suggests that antivenom may need to be given very early (within minutes) and possibly in large doses if a life is to be saved. Forty years of anecdotal experience supports the beneficial effect of stonefish antivenom in relieving the excruciating pain after stonefish spine penetration. It remains uncertain whether stonefish antivenom is efficacious in stings from spines of other venomous fish, and the recommendation of giving the antivenom intramuscularly needs reassessment. PMID:12807313

  7. Assessment of marine-derived nutrients in the Copper River Delta, Alaska, using natural abundance of the stable isotopes of nitrogen, sulfur, and carbon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kline, Thomas C.; Woody, Carol Ann; Bishop, Mary Anne; Powers, Sean P.; Knudsen, E. Eric

    2007-01-01

    We performed nitrogen, sulfur, and carbon stable isotope analysis (SIA) on maturing and juvenile anadromous sockeye and coho salmon, and periphyton in two Copper River delta watersheds of Alaska to trace salmonderived nutrients during 2003–2004. Maturing salmon were isotopically enriched relative to alternate freshwater N, S, and C sources as expected, with differences consistent with species trophic level differences, and minor system, sex, and year-to-year differences, enabling use of SIA to trace these salmon-derived nutrients. Periphyton naturally colonized, incubated, and collected using Wildco Periphtyon Samplers in and near spawning sites was 34S- and 15N-enriched, as expected, and at all freshwater sites was 13C-depleted. At nonspawning and coho-only sites, periphyton 34S and 15N was generally low. However, 34S was low enough at some sites to be suggestive of sulfate reduction, complicating the use of S isotopes. Juvenile salmon SIA ranged in values consistent with using production derived from re-mineralization as well as direct utilization, but only by a minority fraction of coho salmon. Dependency on salmon-derived nutrients ranged from relatively high to relatively low, suggesting a space-limited system. No one particular isotope was found to be superior for determining the relative importance of salmon-derived nutrients.

  8. Photoprotective compounds from marine organisms.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Rajesh P; Richa; Sinha, Rajeshwar P; Singh, Shailendra P; Häder, Donat-P

    2010-06-01

    The substantial loss in the stratospheric ozone layer and consequent increase in solar ultraviolet radiation on the earth's surface have augmented the interest in searching for natural photoprotective compounds in organisms of marine as well as freshwater ecosystems. A number of photoprotective compounds such as mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs), scytonemin, carotenoids and several other UV-absorbing substances of unknown chemical structure have been identified from different organisms. MAAs form the most common class of UV-absorbing compounds known to occur widely in various marine organisms; however, several compounds having UV-screening properties still need to be identified. The synthesis of scytonemin, a predominant UV-A-photoprotective pigment, is exclusively reported in cyanobacteria. Carotenoids are important components of the photosynthetic apparatus that serve both light-harvesting and photoprotective functions, either by direct quenching of the singlet oxygen or other toxic reactive oxygen species or by dissipating the excess energy in the photosynthetic apparatus. The production of photoprotective compounds is affected by several environmental factors such as different wavelengths of UVR, desiccation, nutrients, salt concentration, light as well as dark period, and still there is controversy about the biosynthesis of various photoprotective compounds. Recent studies have focused on marine organisms as a source of natural bioactive molecules having a photoprotective role, their biosynthesis and commercial application. However, there is a need for extensive work to explore the photoprotective role of various UV-absorbing compounds from marine habitats so that a range of biotechnological and pharmaceutical applications can be found.

  9. Effects of enhanced UV-B on pigment-based phytoplankton biomass and composition of mesocosm-enclosed natural marine communities from three latitudes.

    PubMed

    Roy, Suzanne; Mohovic, Bruna; Gianesella, Sônia M F; Schloss, Irene; Ferrario, Martha; Demers, Serge

    2006-01-01

    A series of three outdoor mesocosm experiments was undertaken in Rimouski (Canada), Ubatuba (Brazil) and Ushuaia (southern Argentina) to examine the effects of lamp-enhanced UV-B (280-320 nm) on phytoplankton communities isolated from seawater at each site. Detailed pigment composition was used to identify these communities. Each experiment compared three replicated UV-B treatments, consisting of natural sunlight conditions (NUVB), low-level UV-B enhancement corresponding to local 30% ozone depletion (LUVB) and high-level enhancement corresponding to 60% ozone depletion (HUVB). Each mesocosm (ca 2 m deep) was mixed continuously (turnover time, ca 1.3 h) and samples were obtained daily over 7-10 days. In Rimouski a large diatom bloom occurred during the first week. Repeated-measures analysis of variance (RM-ANOVA), with time as the repeated factor, showed slight but statistically significant increases in the chlorophyll (Chl) a level with the HUVB treatment, which were especially obvious over the last 3 days of the experiment. A large decrease in grazers (ciliates) that was observed concurrently with this treatment is the most likely explanation for the increase in Chl a level. The lack of negative effect on algal biomass by enhanced UV-B is attributed to the mixing inside the mesocosms and to the relatively low UV-B penetration. In Ubatuba levels of most pigments decreased over time, particularly fucoxanthin, Chl c3 and alloxanthin. The RM-ANOVA showed no effect of the UV-B treatments, except for Chl c3, which had significantly lower concentrations under natural UVB conditions, indicating that enhanced UV-B directly or indirectly favored Chl c3 algae (likely prymnesiophytes). Although particulate organic carbon concentration was significantly larger during HUVB treatment than during the other treatments, Chl a was unaffected, suggesting that enhanced UV-B favored heterotrophs. Lack of algal growth during this experiment was attributed to low nutrient concentrations

  10. Isotopic identification of natural vs. anthropogenic lead sources in marine sediments from the inner Ría de Vigo (NW Spain).

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Iglesias, P; Rubio, B; Millos, J

    2012-10-15

    San Simón Bay, the inner part of the Ría de Vigo (NW Spain), an area previously identified as highly polluted by Pb, was selected for the application of Pb stable isotope ratios as a fingerprinting tool in subtidal and intertidal sediment cores. Lead isotopic ratios were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry on extracts from bulk samples after total acid digestion. Depth-wise profiles of (206)Pb/(207)Pb, (206)Pb/(204)Pb, (207)Pb/(204)Pb, (208)Pb/(204)Pb and (208)Pb/(207)Pb ratios showed, in general, an upward decrease for both intertidal and subtidal sediments as a consequence of the anthropogenic activities over the last century, or centuries. Waste channel samples from a nearby ceramic factory showed characteristic Pb stable isotope ratios different from those typical of coal and petrol. Natural isotope ratios from non-polluted samples were established for the study area, differentiating sediments from granitic or schist-gneiss sources. A binary mixing model employed on the polluted samples allowed estimating the anthropogenic inputs to the bay. These inputs represented between 25 and 98% of Pb inputs in intertidal samples, and 9-84% in subtidal samples, their contributions varying with time. Anthropogenic sources were apportioned according to a three-source model. Coal combustion-related emissions were the main anthropogenic source Pb to the bay (60-70%) before the establishment of the ceramic factory in the area (in the 1970s) which has since constituted the main source (95-100%), followed by petrol-related emissions. The Pb inputs history for the intertidal area was determined for the 20th century, and, for the subtidal area, the 19th and 20th centuries.

  11. Incorporation of the natural marine multi-mineral dietary supplement Aquamin enhances osteogenesis and improves the mechanical properties of a collagen-based bone graft substitute.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Orlaith; Stenson, Barry; Widaa, Amro; O'Gorman, Denise M; O'Brien, Fergal J

    2015-07-01

    Aquamin is a commercially-available supplement derived from the algae species Lithothamnion, which has proven osteogenic potential. By harnessing this potential and combining Aquamin with a collagen scaffold, with architecture and composition optimised for bone repair, the aim of this study was to develop a natural osteo-stimulative bone graft substitute. A fabrication process was developed to incorporate Aquamin into scaffolds to produce collagen-Aquamin (CollAqua) scaffolds at two different Aquamin concentrations, 100F or 500F (equivalent weight% of collagen or five times the weight of collagen respectively). CollAqua constructs had improved mechanical properties which were achieved without reducing the scaffold׳s permeability or porosity below the minimum level required for successful bone tissue engineering. The fabrication process produced a homogenous Aquamin distribution throughout the scaffold. Release kinetics revealed that in the first 12h, the entire Aquamin content was released from the 100F however, less than half of Aquamin in the 500F was released with the remainder released approximately 21 days later giving an initial burst release followed by a delayed release. Osteoblasts cultured on the CollAqua scaffolds showed improved osteogenesis as measured by alkaline phosphatase, osteopontin and osteocalcin expression. This was confirmed by increased mineralisation as determined by von Kossa and Alizarin red staining. In conclusion, a cell and growth factor free collagen-based bone graft substitute with enhanced mechanical properties has been developed. The addition of Aquamin to the collagen biomaterial significantly improved mineralisation by osteoblasts and results in a new product which may be capable of enhancing osteogenesis to facilitate bone repair in vivo.

  12. Marine molecular biology: an emerging field of biological sciences.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Narsinh L; Jain, Roopesh; Natalio, Filipe; Hamer, Bojan; Thakur, Archana N; Müller, Werner E G

    2008-01-01

    An appreciation of the potential applications of molecular biology is of growing importance in many areas of life sciences, including marine biology. During the past two decades, the development of sophisticated molecular technologies and instruments for biomedical research has resulted in significant advances in the biological sciences. However, the value of molecular techniques for addressing problems in marine biology has only recently begun to be cherished. It has been proven that the exploitation of molecular biological techniques will allow difficult research questions about marine organisms and ocean processes to be addressed. Marine molecular biology is a discipline, which strives to define and solve the problems regarding the sustainable exploration of marine life for human health and welfare, through the cooperation between scientists working in marine biology, molecular biology, microbiology and chemistry disciplines. Several success stories of the applications of molecular techniques in the field of marine biology are guiding further research in this area. In this review different molecular techniques are discussed, which have application in marine microbiology, marine invertebrate biology, marine ecology, marine natural products, material sciences, fisheries, conservation and bio-invasion etc. In summary, if marine biologists and molecular biologists continue to work towards strong partnership during the next decade and recognize intellectual and technological advantages and benefits of such partnership, an exciting new frontier of marine molecular biology will emerge in the future.

  13. A novel marine silk.

    PubMed

    Kronenberger, Katrin; Dicko, Cedric; Vollrath, Fritz

    2012-01-01

    The discovery of a novel silk production system in a marine amphipod provides insights into the wider potential of natural silks. The tube-building corophioid amphipod Crassicorophium bonellii produces from its legs fibrous, adhesive underwater threads that combine barnacle cement biology with aspects of spider silk thread extrusion spinning. We characterised the filamentous silk as a mixture of mucopolysaccharides and protein deriving from glands representing two distinct types. The carbohydrate and protein silk secretion is dominated by complex β-sheet structures and a high content of charged amino acid residues. The filamentous secretion product exits the gland through a pore near the tip of the secretory leg after having moved through a duct, which subdivides into several small ductules all terminating in a spindle-shaped chamber. This chamber communicates with the exterior and may be considered the silk reservoir and processing/mixing space, in which the silk is mechanically and potentially chemically altered and becomes fibrous. We assert that further study of this probably independently evolved, marine arthropod silk processing and secretion system can provide not only important insights into the more complex arachnid and insect silks but also into crustacean adhesion cements.

  14. Marine Pyridoacridine Alkaloids: Biosynthesis and Biological Activities.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Sabrin R M; Mohamed, Gamal A

    2016-01-01

    Pyridoacridines are a class of strictly marine-derived alkaloids that constitute one of the largest chemical families of marine alkaloids. During the last few years, both natural pyridoacridines and their analogues have constituted excellent targets for synthetic works. They have been the subject of intense study due to their significant biological activities; cytotoxic, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, insecticidal, anti-HIV, and anti-parasitic activities. In the present review, 95 pyridoacridine alkaloids isolated from marine organisms are discussed in term of their occurrence, biosynthesis, biological activities, and structural assignment.

  15. Biological activity and physicochemical parameters of marine halogenated natural products 2,3,3',4,4',5,5'-heptachloro-1'-methyl-1,2'-bipyrrole and 2,4,6-tribromoanisole.

    PubMed

    Vetter, W; Hahn, M E; Tomy, G; Ruppe, S; Vatter, S; Chahbane, N; Lenoir, D; Schramm, K-W; Scherer, G

    2005-01-01

    Physicochemical parameters (vapor pressure, water solubility, Henry's law constant) and biological activities of two halogenated natural products frequently detected in marine samples and food were determined. Synthetic 2,3,3',4,4',5,5'-heptachloro-1'-methyl-1,2'-bipyrrole (Q1) and 2,4,6-tribromoanisole (TBA) were available in pure form. The physicochemical parameters were in the range of anthropogenic chlorinated compounds of concern. The aqueous solubilities at 25 degrees C (S(w,25)) of Q1 and TBA were 4.6 microg/L and 12,200 microg/L, respectively, whereas subcooled liquid vapor pressures were 0.00168 Pa (Q1) and 0.06562 Pa (TBA) as measured by the gas chromatographic-retention time technique. Q1 was negative by established test systems for the determination of ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) induction and by sulforhodamine B assay. EROD induction potency was at least 10(-7) times lower than that of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). At a relatively high concentration (20 microM), Q1 inhibited specific binding of 2 nM [(3)H]TCDD to the in vitro-expressed human aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) by 18%; lower concentrations showed no effect. Molecular modeling showed that Q1 is nonplanar, consistent with its relatively modest affinity as an AHR ligand. When tested for cell-growth inhibitory/cytocidal activity in human tumor cells, Q1 was only marginally, if at all, active with an IC(50) value >50 microM compared with five to ten times lower IC(50) values for potent cytotoxins tested in the test system used. Furthermore, standard pesticide tests on insecticidal, herbicidal, and fungicidal activity did not provide any significant activity at highest concentrations. For TBA, the results in all tests were comparable with Q1. The SRB assay was also applied to the halogenated natural product 4,6-dibromo-2-(2',4'-dibromo)phenoxyanisole, but no toxic response was found. Although it was apparent that Q1 and TBA had been proven to have relatively low biological

  16. INTERACTION OF METALS AND ORGAINIC CARBON COLLOIDS IN ANOXIC INTERSTITIAL WATERS OF MARINE SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Marine colloids are an important component of natural water geochemistry critical to the cycling, speciation and bioavailability of metals in marine sediments. In sediment, metals exist in three phases: particulate, colloidal and dissolved. Dissolved metal concentrations have bee...

  17. Supermarket Marine Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colby, Jennifer A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes a survey used to determine the availability of intact marine vertebrates and live invertebrates in supermarkets. Results shows that local supermarkets frequently provide a variety of intact marine organisms suitable for demonstrations, experiments, or dissections. (ZWH)

  18. Blood Rheology in Marine Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Castellini, Michael A.; Baskurt, Oguz; Castellini, Judith M.; Meiselman, Herbert J.

    2010-01-01

    The field of blood oxygen transport and delivery to tissues has been studied by comparative physiologists for many decades. Within this general area, the particular differences in oxygen delivery between marine and terrestrial mammals has focused mainly on oxygen supply differences and delivery to the tissues under low blood flow diving conditions. Yet, the study of the inherent flow properties of the blood itself (hemorheology) is rarely discussed when addressing diving. However, hemorheology is important to the study of marine mammals because of the critical nature of the oxygen stores that are carried in the blood during diving periods. This review focuses on the essential elements of hemorheology, how they are defined and on fundamental rheological applications to marine mammals. While the comparative rationale used throughout the review is much broader than the particular problems associated with diving, the basic concepts focus on how changes in the flow properties of whole blood would be critical to oxygen delivery during diving. This review introduces the reader to most of the major rheological concepts that are relevant to the unique and unusual aspects of the diving physiology of marine mammals. PMID:21423386

  19. Marine Education Knowledge Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hounshell, Paul B.; Hampton, Carolyn

    This 35-item, multiple-choice Marine Education Knowledge Inventory was developed for use in upper elementary/middle schools to measure a student's knowledge of marine science. Content of test items is drawn from oceanography, ecology, earth science, navigation, and the biological sciences (focusing on marine animals). Steps in the construction of…

  20. Marine Education Materials System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gammisch, Sue; Gray, Kevin

    1980-01-01

    Described is a marine education materials clearinghouse, the Marine Education Materials System (MEMS). MEMS classifies marine education documents and reproduces them on microfiche for distribution. There are 25 distribution centers, each of which has a collection of documents and provides assistance on a request basis to teachers. (Author/DS)

  1. Marine Education for Inlanders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broussard, Amy

    1981-01-01

    Under a U.S. Department of Commerce Sea Grant, Texas teachers have developed a three-book series designed to expose elementary and secondary students to the marine world. Book titles include "Marine Organisms in Science Teaching,""Children's Literature--Passage to the Sea," and "Investigating the Marine Environment and Its Resources." (LRA)

  2. Marine vehicle ride quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gornstein, R. J.; Shultz, W. M.; Stair, L. D.

    1972-01-01

    The effects of marine vehicle design on passenger exposure to vibration and discomfort are discussed. The ride quality of advanced marine vehicles is examined. as a basis for marine vehicle selection in modern water transport systems. The physiological effects of rough water on passengers are identified as requiring investigation in order to determine the acceptable limits.

  3. Marine and freshwater toxins.

    PubMed

    Hungerford, James M

    2006-01-01

    In a very busy and exciting year, 2005 included First Action approval of a much needed official method for paralytic shellfish toxins and multiple international toxin symposia highlighted by groundbreaking research. These are the first-year milestones and activities of the Marine and Freshwater Toxins Task Force and Analytical Community. Inaugurated in 2004 and described in detail in last year's General Referee Report (1) this international toxins group has grown to 150 members from many regions and countries. Perhaps most important they are now making important and global contributions to food safety and to providing alternatives to animal-based assays. Official Method 2005.06 was first approved in late 2004 by the Task Force and subsequently Official First Action in 2005 (2) by the Methods Committee on Natural Toxins and Food Allergens and the Official Methods Board. This nonproprietary method (3) is a precolumn oxidation, liquid chromatographic method that makes good use of fluorescence detection to provide high sensitivity detection of the saxitoxins. It has also proven to be rugged enough for regulatory use and the highest level of validation. As pointed out in the report of method principle investigator and Study Director James Lawrence, approval of 2005.06 now provides the first official alternative to the mouse bioassay after many decades of shellfish monitoring. This past year in April 2005 the group also held their first international conference, "Marine and Freshwater Toxins Analysis: Ist Joint Symposium and AOAC Task Force Meeting," in Baiona, Spain. The 4-day conference consisted of research and stakeholder presentations and symposium-integrated subgroup sessions on ciguatoxins, saxitoxin assays and liquid chromatography (LC) methods for saxitoxins and domoic acids, okadaiates and azaspiracids, and yessotoxins. Many of these subgroups were recently formed in 2005 and are working towards their goals of producing officially validated analytical methods

  4. Protection of Marine Mammals.

    PubMed

    Knoll, Michaela; Ciaccia, Ettore; Dekeling, René; Kvadsheim, Petter; Liddell, Kate; Gunnarsson, Stig-Lennart; Ludwig, Stefan; Nissen, Ivor; Lorenzen, Dirk; Kreimeyer, Roman; Pavan, Gianni; Meneghetti, Nello; Nordlund, Nina; Benders, Frank; van der Zwan, Timo; van Zon, Tim; Fraser, Leanne; Johansson, Torbjörn; Garmelius, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Within the European Defense Agency (EDA), the Protection of Marine Mammals (PoMM) project, a comprehensive common marine mammal database essential for risk mitigation tools, was established. The database, built on an extensive dataset collection with the focus on areas of operational interest for European navies, consists of annual and seasonal distribution and density maps, random and systematic sightings, an encyclopedia providing knowledge on the characteristics of 126 marine mammal species, data on marine mammal protection areas, and audio information including numerous examples of various vocalizations. Special investigations on marine mammal acoustics were carried out to improve the detection and classification capabilities.

  5. Protection of Marine Mammals.

    PubMed

    Knoll, Michaela; Ciaccia, Ettore; Dekeling, René; Kvadsheim, Petter; Liddell, Kate; Gunnarsson, Stig-Lennart; Ludwig, Stefan; Nissen, Ivor; Lorenzen, Dirk; Kreimeyer, Roman; Pavan, Gianni; Meneghetti, Nello; Nordlund, Nina; Benders, Frank; van der Zwan, Timo; van Zon, Tim; Fraser, Leanne; Johansson, Torbjörn; Garmelius, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Within the European Defense Agency (EDA), the Protection of Marine Mammals (PoMM) project, a comprehensive common marine mammal database essential for risk mitigation tools, was established. The database, built on an extensive dataset collection with the focus on areas of operational interest for European navies, consists of annual and seasonal distribution and density maps, random and systematic sightings, an encyclopedia providing knowledge on the characteristics of 126 marine mammal species, data on marine mammal protection areas, and audio information including numerous examples of various vocalizations. Special investigations on marine mammal acoustics were carried out to improve the detection and classification capabilities. PMID:26611003

  6. 78 FR 23574 - Public Workshop on Marine Technology and Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-19

    ... natural gas as a marine fuel provided valuable insight for the development of CG-521 Policy Letter No. 01... Natural Gas Fuel Systems,'' is available for viewing at http://www.uscg.mil/hq/cg5/cg521/docs/CG-521... Applications Compressed Natural Gas (CNG)/Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Technology ASME Codes/Standards...

  7. Marine Biocatalysts: Enzymatic Features and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Trincone, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    In several recent reports related to biocatalysis the enormous pool of biodiversity found in marine ecosystems is considered a profitable natural reservoir for acquiring an inventory of useful biocatalysts. These enzymes are characterized by well-known habitat-related features such as salt tolerance, hyperthermostability, barophilicity and cold adaptivity. In addition, their novel chemical and stereochemical characteristics increase the interest of biocatalysis practitioners both in academia and research industry. In this review, starting from the analysis of these featuring habitat-related properties, important examples of marine enzymes in biocatalysis will be reported. Completion of this report is devoted to the analysis of novel chemical and stereochemical biodiversity offered by marine biocatalysts with particular emphasis on current or potential applications of these enzymes in chemical and pharmaceutical fields. The analysis of literature cited here and the many published patent applications concerning the use of marine enzymes supports the view that these biocatalysts are just waiting to be discovered, reflecting the importance of the marine environment. The potential of this habitat should be thoroughly explored and possibly the way to access useful biocatalysts should avoid destructive large-scale collections of marine biomass for enzyme production. These two aspects are day by day increasing in interest and a future increase in the use of marine enzymes in biocatalysis should be expected. PMID:21731544

  8. Petroleum biodegradation in marine environments.

    PubMed

    Harayama, S; Kishira, H; Kasai, Y; Shutsubo, K

    1999-08-01

    Petroleum-based products are the major source of energy for industry and daily life. Petroleum is also the raw material for many chemical products such as plastics, paints, and cosmetics. The transport of petroleum across the world is frequent, and the amounts of petroleum stocks in developed countries are enormous. Consequently, the potential for oil spills is significant, and research on the fate of petroleum in a marine environment is important to evaluate the environmental threat of oil spills, and to develop biotechnology to cope with them. Crude oil is constituted from thousands of components which are separated into saturates, aromatics, resins and asphaltenes. Upon discharge into the sea, crude oil is subjected to weathering, the process caused by the combined effects of physical, chemical and biological modification. Saturates, especially those of smaller molecular weight, are readily biodegraded in marine environments. Aromatics with one, two or three aromatic rings are also efficiently biodegraded; however, those with four or more aromatic ring are quite resistant to biodegradation. The asphaltene and resin fractions contain higher molecular weight compounds whose chemical structures have not yet been resolved. The biodegradability of these compounds is not yet known. It is known that the concentrations of available nitrogen and phosphorus in seawater limit the growth and activities of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms in a marine environment. In other words, the addition of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers to an oil-contaminated marine environment can stimulate the biodegradation of spilled oil. This notion was confirmed in the large-scale operation for bioremediation after the oil spill from the Exxon Valdez in Alaska. Many microorganisms capable of degrading petroleum components have been isolated. However, few of them seem to be important for petroleum biodegradation in natural environments. One group of bacteria belonging to the genus

  9. Petroleum biodegradation in marine environments.

    PubMed

    Harayama, S; Kishira, H; Kasai, Y; Shutsubo, K

    1999-08-01

    Petroleum-based products are the major source of energy for industry and daily life. Petroleum is also the raw material for many chemical products such as plastics, paints, and cosmetics. The transport of petroleum across the world is frequent, and the amounts of petroleum stocks in developed countries are enormous. Consequently, the potential for oil spills is significant, and research on the fate of petroleum in a marine environment is important to evaluate the environmental threat of oil spills, and to develop biotechnology to cope with them. Crude oil is constituted from thousands of components which are separated into saturates, aromatics, resins and asphaltenes. Upon discharge into the sea, crude oil is subjected to weathering, the process caused by the combined effects of physical, chemical and biological modification. Saturates, especially those of smaller molecular weight, are readily biodegraded in marine environments. Aromatics with one, two or three aromatic rings are also efficiently biodegraded; however, those with four or more aromatic ring are quite resistant to biodegradation. The asphaltene and resin fractions contain higher molecular weight compounds whose chemical structures have not yet been resolved. The biodegradability of these compounds is not yet known. It is known that the concentrations of available nitrogen and phosphorus in seawater limit the growth and activities of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms in a marine environment. In other words, the addition of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers to an oil-contaminated marine environment can stimulate the biodegradation of spilled oil. This notion was confirmed in the large-scale operation for bioremediation after the oil spill from the Exxon Valdez in Alaska. Many microorganisms capable of degrading petroleum components have been isolated. However, few of them seem to be important for petroleum biodegradation in natural environments. One group of bacteria belonging to the genus

  10. Thermodynamic analysis of alternative marine fuels for marine gas turbine power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Gohary, Mohamed M.; Ammar, Nader R.

    2016-03-01

    The marine shipping industry faces challenges to reduce engine exhaust emissions and greenhouse gases (GHGs) from ships, and in particular, carbon dioxide. International regulatory bodies such as the International Maritime Organization and National Environmental Agencies of many countries have issued rules and regulations to drastically reduce GHG and emissions emanating from marine sources. This study investigates the possibility of using natural gas and hydrogen as alternative fuels to diesel oil for marine gas turbines and uses a mathematical model to assess the effect of these alternative fuels on gas turbine thermodynamic performance. Results show that since natural gas is categorized as a hydrocarbon fuel, the thermodynamic performance of the gas turbine cycle using natural gas was close to that of the diesel case. However, the gas turbine thermal efficiency was found to be slightly lower for natural gas and hydrogen fuels compared to diesel fuel.

  11. PH DEPENDENT TOXICITY OF FIVE METALS TO THREE MARINE ORGANISMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The pH of natural marine systems is relatively stable; this may explain why metal toxicity changes with pH have not been well documented. However, changes in metal toxicity with pH in marine waters are of concern in toxicity testing. During porewater toxicity testing pH can chang...

  12. Biotechnology of marine fungi.

    PubMed

    Damare, Samir; Singh, Purnima; Raghukumar, Seshagiri

    2012-01-01

    Filamentous fungi are the most widely used eukaryotes in industrial and pharmaceutical applications. Their biotechnological uses include the production of enzymes, vitamins, polysaccharides, pigments, lipids and others. Marine fungi are a still relatively unexplored group in biotechnology. Taxonomic and habitat diversity form the basis for exploration of marine fungal biotechnology. This review covers what is known of the potential applications of obligate and marine-derived fungi obtained from coastal to the oceanic and shallow water to the deep-sea habitats. Recent studies indicate that marine fungi are potential candidates for novel enzymes, bioremediation, biosurfactants, polysaccharides, polyunsaturated fatty acids and secondary metabolites. Future studies that focus on culturing rare and novel marine fungi, combined with knowledge of their physiology and biochemistry will provide a firm basis for marine mycotechnology. PMID:22222837

  13. Marine Indole Alkaloids

    PubMed Central

    Netz, Natalie; Opatz, Till

    2015-01-01

    Marine indole alkaloids comprise a large and steadily growing group of secondary metabolites. Their diverse biological activities make many compounds of this class attractive starting points for pharmaceutical development. Several marine-derived indoles were found to possess cytotoxic, antineoplastic, antibacterial and antimicrobial activities, in addition to the action on human enzymes and receptors. The newly isolated indole alkaloids of marine origin since the last comprehensive review in 2003 are reported, and biological aspects will be discussed. PMID:26287214

  14. USGS St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2011-01-01

    Extreme storms, sea-level rise, and the health of marine communities are some of the major societal and environmental issues impacting our Nation's marine and coastal realm. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in St. Petersburg, Fla., investigates processes related to these ecosystems and the societal implications of natural hazards and resource sustainability. As one of three centers nationwide conducting research within the USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Program, the center is integral towards developing an understanding of physical processes that will contribute to rational decisions regarding the use and stewardship of national coastal and marine environments.

  15. Characterizing Marine Soundscapes.

    PubMed

    Erbe, Christine; McCauley, Robert; Gavrilov, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The study of marine soundscapes is becoming widespread and the amount of data collected is increasing rapidly. Data owners (typically academia, industry, government, and defense) are negotiating data sharing and generating potential for data syntheses, comparative studies, analyses of trends, and large-scale and long-term acoustic ecology research. A problem is the lack of standards and commonly agreed protocols for the recording of marine soundscapes, data analysis, and reporting that make a synthesis and comparison of results difficult. We provide a brief overview of the components in a marine soundscape, the hard- and software tools for recording and analyzing marine soundscapes, and common reporting formats. PMID:26610968

  16. 77 FR 66073 - Availability of Seats for the Monitor National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-01

    ... management of marine resources; and possibly the length of residence in the area affected by the sanctuary... with advice on: (1) Protecting natural and cultural resources and identifying and evaluating emergent... in 1975 as the Nation's first marine sanctuary, the Monitor National Marine Sanctuary is managed...

  17. Major bioactive metabolites from marine fungi: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Saba; Ansari, Mohammad Israil; Ahmad, Anis; Mishra, Maitreyi

    2015-01-01

    Biologists and chemists of the world have been attracted towards marine natural products for the last five decades. Approximately 16,000 marine natural products have been isolated from marine organisms which have been reported in approximately 6,800 publications, proving marine microorganisms to be a invaluable source for the production of novel antibiotic, anti tumor, and anti inflammatory agents. The marine fungi particularly those associated with marine alga, sponge, invertebrates, and sediments appear to be a rich source for secondary metabolites, possessing Antibiotic, antiviral, antifungal and antiyeast activities. Besides, a few growth stimulant properties which may be useful in studies on wound healing, carcinogenic properties, and in the study of cancers are reported. Recent investigations on marine filamentous fungi looking for biologically active secondary metabolites indicate the tremendous potential of them as a source of new medicines. The present study reviews about some important bioactive metabolites reported from marine fungal strains which are anti bacterial, anti tumour and anti inflammatory in action. It highlights the chemistry and biological activity of the major bioactive alkaloids, polyketides, terpenoids, isoprenoid and non-isoprenoid compounds, quinones, isolated from marine fungi. PMID:26124556

  18. Halogenated Indole Alkaloids from Marine Invertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Pauletti, Patrícia Mendonça; Cintra, Lucas Silva; Braguine, Caio Guedes; da Silva Filho, Ademar Alves; Silva, Márcio Luís Andrade e; Cunha, Wilson Roberto; Januário, Ana Helena

    2010-01-01

    This review discusses the isolation, structural elucidation, and biological activities of halogenated indole alkaloids obtained from marine invertebrates. Meridianins and related compounds (variolins, psammopemmins, and aplicyanins), as well as aplysinopsins and leptoclinidamines, are focused on. A compilation of the 13C-NMR spectral data of these selected natural indole alkaloids is also provided. PMID:20559487

  19. Effects of Pollutants on Marine Life Probed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Discusses research activities conducted by scientists from the United State of America, Canada, and the United Kingdom to determine the long-term effects on natural marine ecosystems, especially plankton communities, of such pollutants as heavy metals, synthetic hydrocarbons, and petroleum hydrocarbons. (CC)

  20. Glacial-marine and glacial-lacustrine sedimentation in Sebago Lake, Maine: Locating the marine limit

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, R.A.; Kelley, J.T. ); Belknap, D. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-03-01

    The marine limit in Maine marks a sea-level highstand at approximately 13 ka. It was inferred to cross Sebago Lake near Frye Island by Thompson and Borns (1985) on the Surficial Geological Map of Maine, dividing the lake into a northern glacial-lacustrine basin and a southern glacial-marine basin. This study examined the accuracy of the mapped marine limit in the lake and the nature of glacial-lacustrine and glacial-marine facies in Maine. Recognition of the marine limit is usually based on mapped shorelines, glacial-marine deltas, and contacts with glacial-marine sediments. This study, in Maine's second largest lake, collected 100 kilometers of side-scan sonar images, 100 kilometers of seismic reflection profiles, and one core. Side-scan sonar records show coarse sand and gravel and extensive boulder fields at an inferred grounding-line position near Frye Island, where the marine limit was drawn. ORE Geopulse seismic reflection profiles reveal a basal draping unit similar to glacial-marine units identified offshore. Later channels cut more than 30 m into the basal stratified unit. In addition, till and a possible glacial-tectonic grounding-line feature were identified. Slumps and possible spring disruptions are found in several locations. The top unit is an onlapping ponded Holocene lacustrine unit. Total sediment is much thicker in the southern basin; the northern basin, >97 m deep, north of the marine limit appears to have been occupied by an ice block. Retrieved sediments include 12 meters of rhythmites. Microfossil identifications and dating will resolve the environments and time of deposition in this core.

  1. Marine protistan diversity.

    PubMed

    Caron, David A; Countway, Peter D; Jones, Adriane C; Kim, Diane Y; Schnetzer, Astrid

    2012-01-01

    Protists have fascinated microbiologists since their discovery nearly 350 years ago. These single-celled, eukaryotic species span an incredible range of sizes, forms, and functions and, despite their generally diminutive size, constitute much of the genetic diversity within the domain Eukarya. Protists in marine ecosystems play fundamental ecological roles as primary producers, consumers, decomposers, and trophic links in aquatic food webs. Much of our knowledge regarding the diversity and ecological activities of these species has been obtained during the past half century, and only within the past few decades have hypotheses depicting the evolutionary relationships among the major clades of protists attained some degree of consensus. This recent progress is attributable to the development of genetic approaches, which have revealed an unexpectedly large diversity of protists, including cryptic species and previously undescribed clades of protists. New genetic tools now exist for identifying protistan species of interest and for reexamining long-standing debates regarding the biogeography of protists. Studies of protistan diversity provide insight regarding how species richness and community composition contribute to ecosystem function. These activities support the development of predictive models that describe how microbial communities will respond to natural or anthropogenically mediated changes in environmental conditions.

  2. Marine Protistan Diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caron, David A.; Countway, Peter D.; Jones, Adriane C.; Kim, Diane Y.; Schnetzer, Astrid

    2012-01-01

    Protists have fascinated microbiologists since their discovery nearly 350 years ago. These single-celled, eukaryotic species span an incredible range of sizes, forms, and functions and, despite their generally diminutive size, constitute much of the genetic diversity within the domain Eukarya. Protists in marine ecosystems play fundamental ecological roles as primary producers, consumers, decomposers, and trophic links in aquatic food webs. Much of our knowledge regarding the diversity and ecological activities of these species has been obtained during the past half century, and only within the past few decades have hypotheses depicting the evolutionary relationships among the major clades of protists attained some degree of consensus. This recent progress is attributable to the development of genetic approaches, which have revealed an unexpectedly large diversity of protists, including cryptic species and previously undescribed clades of protists. New genetic tools now exist for identifying protistan species of interest and for reexamining long-standing debates regarding the biogeography of protists. Studies of protistan diversity provide insight regarding how species richness and community composition contribute to ecosystem function. These activities support the development of predictive models that describe how microbial communities will respond to natural or anthropogenically mediated changes in environmental conditions.

  3. Antifungal and antibacterial activity of marine microorganisms.

    PubMed

    El Amraoui, B; El Amraoui, M; Cohen, N; Fassouane, A

    2014-03-01

    In order to explore marine microorganisms with pharmaceutical potential, marine bacteria, collected from different coastal areas of the Moroccan Atlantic Ocean, were previously isolated from seawater, sediment, marine invertebrates and seaweeds. The antimicrobial activities of these microorganisms were investigated against the pathogens involved in human pathologies. Whole cultures of 34 marine microorganisms were screened for antimicrobial activities using the method of agar diffusion against three Gram-positive bacteria, two Gram-negative bacteria, and against yeast. The results showed that among the 34 isolates studied, 28 (82%) strains have antimicrobial activity against at least one pathogen studied, 11 (32%) strains have antifungal activity and 24 (76%) strains are active against Gram-positive bacteria, while 21 (62%) strains are active against Gram-negative bacteria. Among isolates having antimicrobial activity, 14 were identified and were assigned to the genera Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, Alcaligenes, Bacillus, Chromobacterium, Enterococcus, Pantoea and Pseudomonas. Due to a competitive role for space and nutrient, the marine microorganisms can produce antibiotic substance; therefore, these marine microorganisms were expected to be potential resources of natural antibiotic products.

  4. Anomalous 13C enrichment in modern marine organic carbon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arthur, M.A.; Dean, W.E.; Claypool, G.E.

    1985-01-01

    Marine organic carbon is heavier isotopically (13C enriched) than most land-plant or terrestrial organic C1. Accordingly, ??13C values of organic C in modern marine sediments are routinely interpreted in terms of the relative proportions of marine and terrestrial sources of the preserved organic matter2,3. When independent geochemical techniques are used to evaluate the source of organic matter in Cretaceous or older rocks, those rocks containing mostly marine organic C are found typically to have lighter (more-negative) ??13C values than rocks containing mostly terrestrial organic C. Here we conclude that marine photosynthesis in mid-Cretaceous and earlier oceans generally resulted in a greater fractionation of C isotopes and produced organic C having lighter ??13C values. Modern marine photosynthesis may be occurring under unusual geological conditions (higher oceanic primary production rates, lower PCO2) that limit dissolved CO2 availability and minimize carbon isotope fractionation4. ?? 1985 Nature Publishing Group.

  5. The Antiviral Activities and Mechanisms of Marine Polysaccharides: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Shi-Xin; Guan, Hua-Shi

    2012-01-01

    Recently, the studies on the antiviral activities of marine natural products, especially marine polysaccharides, are attracting more and more attention all over the world. Marine-derived polysaccharides and their lower molecular weight oligosaccharide derivatives have been shown to possess a variety of antiviral activities. This paper will review the recent progress in research on the antiviral activities and the mechanisms of these polysaccharides obtained from marine organisms. In particular, it will provide an update on the antiviral actions of the sulfated polysaccharides derived from marine algae including carrageenans, alginates, and fucans, relating to their structure features and the structure–activity relationships. In addition, the recent findings on the different mechanisms of antiviral actions of marine polysaccharides and their potential for therapeutic application will also be summarized in detail. PMID:23235364

  6. Marine Antitumor Drugs: Status, Shortfalls and Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Bhatnagar, Ira; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2010-01-01

    Cancer is considered as one of the deadliest diseases in the medical field. Apart from the preventive therapies, it is important to find a curative measure which holds no loopholes and acts accurately and precisely to curb cancer. Over the past few decades, there have been advances in this field and there are many antitumor compounds available on the market, which are of natural as well as synthetic origin. Marine chemotherapy is well recognized nowadays and profound development has been achieved by researchers to deal with different molecular pathways of tumors. However, the marine environment has been less explored for the production of safe and novel antitumor compounds. The reason is a number of shortfalls in this field. Though ample reviews cover the importance and applications of various anticancerous compounds from marine natural products, in the present review, we have tried to bring the current status of antitumor research based on marine inhibitors of cancer signaling pathways. In addition, focus has been placed on the shortfalls and probable strategies in the arena of marine antitumor drug discovery. PMID:21116415

  7. Biosynthesis of polybrominated aromatic organic compounds by marine bacteria.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Vinayak; El Gamal, Abrahim A; Yamanaka, Kazuya; Poth, Dennis; Kersten, Roland D; Schorn, Michelle; Allen, Eric E; Moore, Bradley S

    2014-08-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polybrominated bipyrroles are natural products that bioaccumulate in the marine food chain. PBDEs have attracted widespread attention because of their persistence in the environment and potential toxicity to humans. However, the natural origins of PBDE biosynthesis are not known. Here we report marine bacteria as producers of PBDEs and establish a genetic and molecular foundation for their production that unifies paradigms for the elaboration of bromophenols and bromopyrroles abundant in marine biota. We provide biochemical evidence of marine brominases revealing decarboxylative-halogenation enzymology previously unknown among halogenating enzymes. Biosynthetic motifs discovered in our study were used to mine sequence databases to discover unrealized marine bacterial producers of organobromine compounds.

  8. Biosynthesis of polybrominated aromatic organic compounds by marine bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Vinayak; El Gamal, Abrahim A.; Yamanaka, Kazuya; Poth, Dennis; Kersten, Roland D.; Schorn, Michelle; Allen, Eric E.; Moore, Bradley S.

    2014-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polybrominated bipyrroles are natural products that bioaccumulate in the marine food chain. PBDEs have attracted widespread attention due to their persistence in the environment and potential toxicity to humans. However, the natural origins of PBDE biosynthesis are not known. Here we report marine bacteria as producers of PBDEs and establish a genetic and molecular foundation for their production that unifies paradigms for the elaboration of bromophenols and bromopyrroles abundant in marine biota. We provide biochemical evidence of marine brominase enzymes revealing decarboxylative-halogenation enzymology previously unknown among halogenating enzymes. Biosynthetic motifs discovered in our study were used to mine sequence databases to discover unrealized marine bacterial producers of organobromine compounds. PMID:24974229

  9. Eutrophication, marine biotoxins, human health.

    PubMed

    Viviani, R

    1992-01-01

    Eutrophication phenomena in marine coastal waters can today be explained on the basis of natural or anthropogenic causes. Undesirable effects and also sanitary problems in both types of eutrophication are often produced, but they may differ greatly in frequency and significance. Some algal biotoxins can affect both marine animals and man, whilst others affect man alone. From data currently available it appears that the sanitary state of man can be affected through the digestive, respiratory and cutaneous apparatus. Four main dinoflagellate biointoxications are now recognized: paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP), diarrhoetic shellfish poisoning (DSP), and venerupin poisoning. Other biointoxications are due to a diatom bloom responsible for amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) and to blue algae blooms which have effects on the skin and the respiratory tract. All these marine toxins are considered and particular attention is paid to: producing organisms, chemistry of the components, compromised sea foods, methods of analysis, occurrence worldwide, human intoxications, toxicology and mechanism of action on a molecular level, therapeutical notes, tolerance levels and remarks on safety. Attention is also paid to the relationship between the anthropogenic eutrophication and PSP and DSP since these are the most widespread biointoxications from toxic marine dinoflagellates in the world today and for which the European Economic Community (EEC) is proposing health legislation such as tolerance limits and methods for official analysis. In view of the harmful potential of coastal anthropogenic eutrophication, the main current committment of various countries concerns control. Finally, it is important to develop a suitable monitor research system using all the specific standards of allowed toxic substances, and also research on effective antiodotes against all biotoxins. PMID:1475681

  10. Effects of nanomaterials on marine invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Canesi, Laura; Corsi, Ilaria

    2016-09-15

    The development of nanotechnology will inevitably lead to the release of consistent amounts of nanomaterials (NMs) and nanoparticles (NPs) into marine ecosystems. Ecotoxicological studies have been carried out to identify potential biological targets of NPs, and suitable models for predicting their impact on the health of the marine environment. Recent studies in invertebrates mainly focused on NP accumulation and sub-lethal effects, rather than acute toxicity. Among marine invertebrates, bivalves represent by large the most studied group, with polychaetes and echinoderms also emerging as significant targets of NPs. However, major scientific gaps still need to be filled. In this work, factors affecting the fate of NPs in the marine environment, and their consequent uptake/accumulation/toxicity in marine invertebrates will be summarized. The results show that in different model species, NP accumulation mainly occurs in digestive tract and gills. Data on sub-lethal effects and modes of action of different types of NPs (mainly metal oxides and metal based NPs) in marine invertebrates will be reviewed, in particular on immune function, oxidative stress and embryo development. Moreover, the possibility that such effects may be influenced by NP interactions with biomolecules in both external and internal environment will be introduced. In natural environmental media, NP interactions with polysaccharides, proteins and colloids may affect their agglomeration/aggregation and consequent bioavailability. Moreover, once within the organism, NPs are known to interact with plasma proteins, forming a protein corona that can affect particle uptake and toxicity in target cells in a physiological environment. These interactions, leading to the formation of eco-bio-coronas, may be crucial in determining particle behavior and effects also in marine biota. In order to classify NPs into groups and predict the implications of their release into the marine environment, information on

  11. Effects of nanomaterials on marine invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Canesi, Laura; Corsi, Ilaria

    2016-09-15

    The development of nanotechnology will inevitably lead to the release of consistent amounts of nanomaterials (NMs) and nanoparticles (NPs) into marine ecosystems. Ecotoxicological studies have been carried out to identify potential biological targets of NPs, and suitable models for predicting their impact on the health of the marine environment. Recent studies in invertebrates mainly focused on NP accumulation and sub-lethal effects, rather than acute toxicity. Among marine invertebrates, bivalves represent by large the most studied group, with polychaetes and echinoderms also emerging as significant targets of NPs. However, major scientific gaps still need to be filled. In this work, factors affecting the fate of NPs in the marine environment, and their consequent uptake/accumulation/toxicity in marine invertebrates will be summarized. The results show that in different model species, NP accumulation mainly occurs in digestive tract and gills. Data on sub-lethal effects and modes of action of different types of NPs (mainly metal oxides and metal based NPs) in marine invertebrates will be reviewed, in particular on immune function, oxidative stress and embryo development. Moreover, the possibility that such effects may be influenced by NP interactions with biomolecules in both external and internal environment will be introduced. In natural environmental media, NP interactions with polysaccharides, proteins and colloids may affect their agglomeration/aggregation and consequent bioavailability. Moreover, once within the organism, NPs are known to interact with plasma proteins, forming a protein corona that can affect particle uptake and toxicity in target cells in a physiological environment. These interactions, leading to the formation of eco-bio-coronas, may be crucial in determining particle behavior and effects also in marine biota. In order to classify NPs into groups and predict the implications of their release into the marine environment, information on

  12. "Marinating" Our Urban Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ascher, Alan

    1981-01-01

    Describes marine education programs at the elementary and secondary levels in the New York City area. The city's extensive coastline and numerous learning centers comprise one of the richest educational resources in the country for studying the marine environment. (Author/WB)

  13. Marine Attitude Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hounshell, Paul B.; Hampton, Carolyn

    This 22-item Marine Attitude Survey was developed for use in elementary/middle schools to measure students' attitudes about various aspects of marine science. Students are asked if they agree, are not sure, or disagree with such items as: (1) the seashore is a fun place to visit; (2) if all sharks were killed, the world would be a better place;…

  14. Monitoring Marine Microbial Fouling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colwell, R.

    1985-01-01

    Two techniques developed for studying marine fouling. Methods originally developed to study fouling of materials used in Space Shuttle solid fuel booster rockets. Methods used to determine both relative fouling rates and efficacy of cleaning methods to remove fouling on various surfaces including paints, metals, and sealants intended for marine use.

  15. Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription (STAT) Regulatory Networks in Marine Organisms: From Physiological Observations towards Marine Drug Discovery.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin-Young; Orlikova, Barbora; Diederich, Marc

    2015-08-07

    Part of our ocean's richness comes from its extensive history of supporting life, resulting in a highly diverse ecological system. To date, over 250,000 species of marine organisms have been identified, but it is speculated that the actual number of marine species exceeds one million, including several hundreds of millions of species of marine microorganisms. Past studies suggest that approximately 70% of all deep-sea microorganisms, gorgonians, and sea sponges produce secondary metabolites with anti-cancer activities. Recently, novel FDA-approved drugs derived from marine sponges have been shown to reduce metastatic breast cancer, malignant lymphoma, and Hodgkin's disease. Despite the fact that many marine natural products have been shown to possess a good inhibition potential against most of the cancer-related cell signaling pathways, only a few marine natural products have been shown to target JAK/STAT signaling. In the present paper, we describe the JAK/STAT signaling pathways found in marine organisms, before elaborating on the recent advances in the field of STAT inhibition by marine natural products and the potential application in anti-cancer drug discovery.

  16. Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription (STAT) Regulatory Networks in Marine Organisms: From Physiological Observations towards Marine Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jin-Young; Orlikova, Barbora; Diederich, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Part of our ocean’s richness comes from its extensive history of supporting life, resulting in a highly diverse ecological system. To date, over 250,000 species of marine organisms have been identified, but it is speculated that the actual number of marine species exceeds one million, including several hundreds of millions of species of marine microorganisms. Past studies suggest that approximately 70% of all deep-sea microorganisms, gorgonians, and sea sponges produce secondary metabolites with anti-cancer activities. Recently, novel FDA-approved drugs derived from marine sponges have been shown to reduce metastatic breast cancer, malignant lymphoma, and Hodgkin’s disease. Despite the fact that many marine natural products have been shown to possess a good inhibition potential against most of the cancer-related cell signaling pathways, only a few marine natural products have been shown to target JAK/STAT signaling. In the present paper, we describe the JAK/STAT signaling pathways found in marine organisms, before elaborating on the recent advances in the field of STAT inhibition by marine natural products and the potential application in anti-cancer drug discovery. PMID:26262624

  17. Marin Tsunami (video)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Filmed and edited by: Loeffler, Kurt; Gesell, Justine

    2010-01-01

    Tsunamis are a constant threat to the coasts of our world. Although tsunamis are infrequent along the West coast of the United States, it is possible and necessary to prepare for potential tsunami hazards to minimize loss of life and property. Community awareness programs are important, as they strive to create an informed society by providing education and training. The Marin coast could be struck by a tsunami. Whether you live in Marin County, visit the beaches, or rent or own a home near the coast, it is vital to understand the tsunami threat and take preparation seriously. Marin Tsunami tells the story of what several West Marin communities are doing to be prepared. This video was produced by the US Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Marin Office of Emergency Services.

  18. Neurotoxic marine poisoning.

    PubMed

    Isbister, Geoffrey K; Kiernan, Matthew C

    2005-04-01

    Marine poisoning results from the ingestion of marine animals that contain toxic substances and causes substantial illness in coastal regions. Three main clinical syndromes of marine poisoning have important neurological symptoms-ciguatera, tetrodotoxin poisoning, and paralytic shellfish poisoning. Ciguatera is the commonest syndrome of marine poisoning and is characterised by moderate to severe gastrointestinal effects (vomiting, diarrhoea, and abdominal cramps) and neurological effects (myalgia, paraesthesia, cold allodynia, and ataxia), but is rarely lethal. Tetrodotoxin poisoning and paralytic shellfish poisoning are less common but have a higher fatality rate than ciguatera. Mild gastrointestinal effects and a descending paralysis are characteristic of these types of poisoning. In severe poisoning, paralysis rapidly progresses to respiratory failure. Diagnosis of all types of marine poisoning is made from the circumstances of ingestion (type of fish and location) and the clinical effects. Because there are no antidotes, supportive care, including mechanical ventilation in patients with severe paralysis, is the mainstay of treatment.

  19. Bioactive sterols from marine resources and their potential benefits for human health.

    PubMed

    Kim, Se-Kwon; Van Ta, Quang

    2012-01-01

    Bioactive agents from marine resources have shown their valuable health beneficial effects. Therefore, increase knowledge on novel functional ingredients with biological activities from marine animal and microbe has gained much attention. Sterols are recognized as potential in development functional food ingredients and pharmaceutical agents. Marine resources, with a great diversity, can be a very interesting natural resource of sterols. This chapter focuses on biological activities of marine animal and microbe sterols with potential health beneficial applications in functional foods and pharmaceuticals.

  20. Ecological speciation in marine v. freshwater fishes.

    PubMed

    Puebla, O

    2009-10-01

    Absolute barriers to dispersal are not common in marine systems, and the prevalence of planktonic larvae in marine taxa provides potential for gene flow across large geographic distances. These observations raise the fundamental question in marine evolutionary biology as to whether geographic and oceanographic barriers alone can account for the high levels of species diversity observed in marine environments such as coral reefs, or whether marine speciation also operates in the presence of gene flow between diverging populations. In this respect, the ecological hypothesis of speciation, in which reproductive isolation results from divergent or disruptive natural selection, is of particular interest because it may operate in the presence of gene flow. Although important insights into the process of ecological speciation in aquatic environments have been provided by the study of freshwater fishes, comparatively little is known about the possibility of ecological speciation in marine teleosts. In this study, the evidence consistent with different aspects of the ecological hypothesis of speciation is evaluated in marine fishes. Molecular approaches have played a critical role in the development of speciation hypotheses in marine fishes, with a role of ecology suggested by the occurrence of sister clades separated by ecological factors, rapid cladogenesis or the persistence of genetically and ecologically differentiated species in the presence of gene flow. Yet, ecological speciation research in marine fishes is still largely at an exploratory stage. Cases where the major ingredients of ecological speciation, namely a source of natural divergent or disruptive selection, a mechanism of reproductive isolation and a link between the two have been explicitly documented are few. Even in these cases, specific predictions of the ecological hypothesis of speciation remain largely untested. Recent developments in the study of freshwater fishes illustrate the potential for

  1. Disease in marine aquaculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sindermann, C. J.

    1984-03-01

    It has become almost a truism that success in intensive production of animals must be based in part on development of methods for disease diagnosis and control. Excellent progress has been made in methods of diagnosis for major pathogens of cultivated fish, crustacean and molluscan species. In many instances these have proved to be facultative pathogens, able to exert severe effects in populations of animals under other stresses (marginal physical or chemical conditions; overcrowding). The concept of stress management as a critical prophylactic measure is not new, but its significance is being demonstrated repeatedly. The particular relationship of water quality and facultative pathogens such as Vibrio, Pseudomonas and Aeromonas species has been especially apparent. Virus diseases of marine vertebrates and invertebrates — little known two decades ago — are now recognized to be of significance to aquaculture. Virus infections of oysters, clams, shrimps and crabs have been described, and mortalities have been attributed to them. Several virus diseases of fish have also been recognized as potential or actual problems in culture. In some instances, the pathogens seem to be latent in natural populations, and may be provoked into patency by stresses of artificial environments. One of the most promising approaches to disease prophylaxis is through immunization. Fish respond well to various vaccination procedures, and new non-stressing methods have been developed. Vibriosis — probably the most severe disease of ocean-reared salmon — has been controlled to a great extent through use of a polyvalent bacterin, which can be modified as new pathogenic strains are isolated. Prophylactic immunization for other bacterial diseases of cultivated fish has been attempted, especially in Japan, with some success. There is also some evidence that the larger crustaceans may be immunologically responsive, and that at least short-term protection may be afforded to cultured

  2. Light scattering by marine heterotrophic bacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulloa, Osvaldo; Sathyendranath, Shubha; Platt, Trevor; Quinones, Renato A.

    1992-01-01

    Mie theory is applied to estimate scattering by polydispersions of marine heterotrophic bacteria, and a simple expression is derived for the bacterial scattering coefficient. The error incurred in deriving bacterial optical properties by use of the van de Hulst approximations is computed. The scattering properties of natural bacterial assemblages in three marine environments, Georges Bank, Northeast Channel, and Sargasso Sea, are assessed by applying Mie theory to field data on bacterial size and abundance. Results are used to examine the potential contribution of bacteria to the scattering properties of seawater. The utility of using pigment data to predict the magnitude of scattering by bacteria is discussed.

  3. Cannabinomimetic lipid from a marine cyanobacterium.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Marcelino; Pereira, Alban R; Debonsi, Hosana M; Ligresti, Alessia; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Gerwick, William H

    2011-10-28

    NMR-guided fractionation of two independent collections of the marine cyanobacteria Lyngbya majuscula obtained from Papua New Guinea and Oscillatoria sp. collected in Panama led to the isolation of the new lipids serinolamide A (3) and propenediester (4). Their structures were determined by NMR and MS data analysis. Serinolamide A (3) exhibited a moderate agonist effect and selectivity for the CB1 cannabinoid receptor (Ki=1.3 μM, >5-fold) and represents the newest addition to the known cannabinomimetic natural products of marine origin.

  4. Marine fragrance chemistry.

    PubMed

    Hügel, Helmut M; Drevermann, Britta; Lingham, Anthony R; Marriott, Philip J

    2008-06-01

    The main marine message in perfumery is projected by Calone 1951 (7-methyl-2H-1,5-benzodioxepin-3(4H)-one). Kraft (Givaudan) and Gaudin (Firmenich) further maximized the marine fragrance molecular membership by extending the carbon chain of the 7-Me group. Our research targeted the polar group of the benzodioxepinone parent compound to investigate how this region of molecular makeup resonates with the dominant marine fragrance of the Calone 1951 structure. The olfactory evaluation of analogues prepared by chemical modification or removal of the CO group resulted in the introduction of aldehydic, sweet and floral-fruity notes with a diluted/diminished potency of the marine odor. To further analyze the olfactory properties of benzodioxepinones containing a diverse range of aromatic ring substituents, a novel synthesis route was developed. We found that a 7-alkyl group in Calone 1951 was essential for the maintenance of the significant marine odor characteristic, and our studies support the concept that the odorant structure occupying the hydrophobic binding pocket adjacent to the aromatic ring-binding site of the olfactory receptor is pivotal in the design and discovery of more potent and characteristic marine fragrances. How the structure of benzodioxepinones connects to marine sea-breeze fragrances is our continuing challenging research focus at the chemistry-biology interface.

  5. Influenza Virus Infection of Marine Mammals.

    PubMed

    Fereidouni, Sasan; Munoz, Olga; Von Dobschuetz, Sophie; De Nardi, Marco

    2016-03-01

    Interspecies transmission may play a key role in the evolution and ecology of influenza A viruses. The importance of marine mammals as hosts or carriers of potential zoonotic pathogens such as highly pathogenic H5 and H7 influenza viruses is not well understood. The fact that influenza viruses are some of the few zoonotic pathogens known to have caused infection in marine mammals, evidence for direct transmission of influenza A virus H7N7 subtype from seals to man, transmission of pandemic H1N1 influenza viruses to seals and also limited evidence for long-term persistence of influenza B viruses in seal populations without significant genetic change, makes monitoring of influenza viruses in marine mammal populations worth being performed. In addition, such monitoring studies could be a great tool to better understand the ecology of influenza viruses in nature. PMID:25231137

  6. Superluminescent variants of marine luciferases for bioassays.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Bae; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Sato, Moritoshi; Tao, Hiroaki

    2011-11-15

    In this study, a rational synthesis of superluminescent variants from marine luciferases with prolonged bioluminescence has been demonstrated. A putative active site of a model marine luciferase, Gaussia princeps Luciferase (GLuc), was assigned and modified by a site-directed mutagenesis. The potent variants were found to generate up to 10 times stronger bioluminescence, emitting red shifts of up to 33 nm with natural coelenterazine than native GLuc, rendering an efficient optical signature in bioassays. The advantageous properties were demonstrated with mammalian two-hybrid assays, single-chain probes, and metastases of murine B16 melanoma in BALB/c nude mice. The unique ideas for engineering GLuc are proved to be valid even for other marine luciferases. PMID:21951281

  7. Neanderthal exploitation of marine mammals in Gibraltar

    PubMed Central

    Stringer, C. B.; Finlayson, J. C.; Barton, R. N. E.; Fernández-Jalvo, Y.; Cáceres, I.; Sabin, R. C.; Rhodes, E. J.; Currant, A. P.; Rodríguez-Vidal, J.; Giles-Pacheco, F.; Riquelme-Cantal, J. A.

    2008-01-01

    Two coastal sites in Gibraltar, Vanguard and Gorham's Caves, located at Governor's Beach on the eastern side of the Rock, are especially relevant to the study of Neanderthals. Vanguard Cave provides evidence of marine food supply (mollusks, seal, dolphin, and fish). Further evidence of marine mammal remains was also found in the occupation levels at Gorham's Cave associated with Upper Paleolithic and Mousterian technologies [Finlayson C, et al. (2006) Nature 443:850–853]. The stratigraphic sequence of Gibraltar sites allows us to compare behaviors and subsistence strategies of Neanderthals during the Middle Paleolithic observed at Vanguard and Gorham's Cave sites. This evidence suggests that such use of marine resources was not a rare behavior and represents focused visits to the coast and estuaries. PMID:18809913

  8. Marine biogeochemistry of mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Gill, G.A.

    1986-01-01

    Noncontaminating sample collection and handling procedures and accurate and sensitive analysis methods were developed to measure sub-picomolar Hg concentrations in seawater. Reliable and diagnostic oceanographic Hg distributions were obtained, permitting major processes governing the marine biogeochemistry of Hg to be identified. Mercury concentrations in the northwest Atlantic, central Pacific, southeast Pacific, and Tasman Sea ranged from 0.5 to 12 pM. Vertical Hg distributions often exhibited a maximum within or near the main thermocline. At similar depths, Hg concentrations in the northwest Atlantic Ocean were elevated compared to the N. Pacific Ocean. This pattern appears to result from a combination of enhanced supply of Hg to the northwest Atlantic by rainfall and scavenging removal along deep water circulation pathways. These observations are supported by geochemical steady-state box modelling which predicts a relatively short mean residence time for Hg in the oceans; demonstrating the reactive nature of Hg in seawater and precluding significant involvement in nutrient-type recyclic. Evidence for the rapid removal of Hg from seawater was obtained at two locations. Surface seawater Hg measurements along 160/sup 0/ W (20/sup 0/N to 20/sup 0/S) showed a depression in the equatorial upwelling area which correlated well with the transect region exhibiting low /sup 234/Th//sup 238/U activity ratios. This relationship implies that Hg will be scavenged and removed from surface seawater in biologically productive oceanic zones. Further, a broad minimum in the vertical distribution of Hg was observed to coincide with the intense oxygen minimum zone in the water column in coastal waters off Peru.

  9. Integrating parasitology and marine ecology: Seven challenges towards greater synergy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulin, Robert; Blasco-Costa, Isabel; Randhawa, Haseeb S.

    2016-07-01

    Despite their very different historical origins as scientific disciplines, parasitology and marine ecology have already combined successfully to make important contributions to our understanding of the functioning of natural ecosystems. For example, robust assessments of the contribution of parasites to ecosystem biomass and energetics, and of their impact on community-wide biodiversity and food web structure, have all been made for the first time in marine systems. Nevertheless, for the marriage between parasitology and marine ecology to remain fruitful, several challenges must first be overcome. We discuss seven such challenges on the road to a greater synergy between these disciplines: (1) Raising awareness of parasitism as an ecological force by increasing the proportion of articles about parasites and diseases in marine ecology journals; (2) Making greater use of theory and conceptual frameworks from marine ecology to guide parasitological research; (3) Speeding up or at least maintaining the current rate at which marine parasites are found and described; (4) Elucidating a greater proportion of life cycles in all major groups of marine parasites; (5) Increasing the number of host-parasite model systems on which our knowledge is based; (6) Extending parasitological research offshore and into ocean depths; and (7) Developing, as needed, new epidemiological theory and transmission models for the marine environment. None of these challenges is insurmountable, and addressing just a few of them should guarantee that parasitology and marine ecology will continue to join forces and make further substantial contributions.

  10. 75 FR 68605 - Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ... Register (75 FR 39915) that a request for a permit to conduct research on gray whales (Eschrictius robustus... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XX23 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine... Marine Science Center, Newport, OR has been issued a permit to conduct research on marine...

  11. Marine biodiversity of Aotearoa New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Dennis P; Beaumont, Jennifer; MacDiarmid, Alison; Robertson, Donald A; Ahyong, Shane T

    2010-01-01

    diversity in the EEZ may be expected to equal that in the ERMS region. This equivalence invites testable hypotheses to explain it. There are 177 naturalized alien species in New Zealand coastal waters, mostly in ports and harbours. Marine-taxonomic expertise in New Zealand covers a broad number of taxa but is, proportionately, at or near its lowest level since the Second World War. Nevertheless, collections are well supported by funding and are continually added to. Threats and protection measures concerning New Zealand's marine biodiversity are commented on, along with potential and priorities for future research. PMID:20689846

  12. Marine Biodiversity of Aotearoa New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Dennis P.; Beaumont, Jennifer; MacDiarmid, Alison; Robertson, Donald A.; Ahyong, Shane T.

    2010-01-01

    in the EEZ may be expected to equal that in the ERMS region. This equivalence invites testable hypotheses to explain it. There are 177 naturalized alien species in New Zealand coastal waters, mostly in ports and harbours. Marine-taxonomic expertise in New Zealand covers a broad number of taxa but is, proportionately, at or near its lowest level since the Second World War. Nevertheless, collections are well supported by funding and are continually added to. Threats and protection measures concerning New Zealand's marine biodiversity are commented on, along with potential and priorities for future research. PMID:20689846

  13. Mariner-Venus 1967

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Detailed information on the spacecraft performance, mission operations, and tracking and data acquisition is presented for the Mariner Venus 1967 and Mariner Venus 1967 extension projects. Scientific and engineering results and conclusions are discussed, and include the scientific mission, encounter with Venus, observations near Earth, and cruise phase of the mission. Flight path analysis, spacecraft subsystems, and mission-related hardware and computer program development are covered. The scientific experiments carried by Mariner 5 were ultraviolet photometer, solar plasma probe, helium magnetometer, trapped radiation detector, S-band radio occultation, dual-frequency radio propagation, and celestial mechanics. The engineering experience gained by converting a space Mariner Mars 1964 spacecraft into one flown to Venus is also described.

  14. Marine Life Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    As a result of widespread ocean dumping and other pollution problems, marine scientists at Morgan State University are studying the populations of various marine organisms to determine the effects of pollution. They are also compiling data on the aging of marine organisms. There now exists a new method of determining the age of the surf clam. They are applying digital image processing to clam aging investigations. Computer creates digitized images of clam sections with annual rings. The image is enhanced -- manipulated to emphasize certain features in order to improve and amplify the information that can be extracted from the image. Also useful in other marine organisms that have growth bands making it easier to get an accurate count.

  15. Marine medicinal glycomics

    PubMed Central

    Pomin, Vitor H.

    2014-01-01

    Glycomics is an international initiative aimed to understand the structure and function of the glycans from a given type of cell, tissue, organism, kingdom or even environment, as found under certain conditions. Glycomics is one of the latest areas of intense biological research. Glycans of marine sources are unique in terms of structure and function. They differ considerably from those of terrestrial origin. This review discusses the most known marine glycans of potential therapeutic properties. They are chitin, chitosan, and sulfated polysaccharides named glycosaminoglycans, sulfated fucans, and sulfated galactans. Their medical actions are very broad. When certain structural requirements are found, these glycans can exhibit beneficial effects in inflammation, coagulation, thrombosis, cancer growth/metastasis, and vascular biology. Both structure and therapeutic mechanisms of action of these marine glycans are discussed here in straight context with the current glycomic age through a project suggestively named marine medicinal glycomics. PMID:24524028

  16. Marine bioactives and potential application in sports.

    PubMed

    Gammone, Maria Alessandra; Gemello, Eugenio; Riccioni, Graziano; D'Orazio, Nicolantonio

    2014-04-30

    An enriched diet with antioxidants, such as vitamin E, vitamin C, β-carotene and phenolic compounds, has always been suggested to improve oxidative stress, preventing related diseases. In this respect, marine natural product (MNP), such as COX inhibitors, marine steroids, molecules interfering with factors involved in the modulation of gene expression (such as NF-κB), macrolides, many antioxidant agents, thermogenic substances and even substances that could help the immune system and that result in the protection of cartilage, have been recently gaining attention. The marine world represents a reserve of bioactive ingredients, with considerable potential as functional food. Substances, such as chitin, chitosan, n-3 oils, carotenoids, vitamins, minerals and bioactive peptides, can provide several health benefits, such as the reduction of cardiovascular diseases, anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic activities. In addition, new marine bioactive substances with potential anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and thermogenic capacity may provide health benefits and performance improvement, especially in those who practice physical activity, because of their increased free radical and Reacting Oxygen Species (ROS) production during exercise, and, particularly, in athletes. The aim of this review is to examine the potential pharmacological properties and application of many marine bioactive substances in sports.

  17. Marine Bioactives and Potential Application in Sports

    PubMed Central

    Gammone, Maria Alessandra; Gemello, Eugenio; Riccioni, Graziano; D’Orazio, Nicolantonio

    2014-01-01

    An enriched diet with antioxidants, such as vitamin E, vitamin C, β-carotene and phenolic compounds, has always been suggested to improve oxidative stress, preventing related diseases. In this respect, marine natural product (MNP), such as COX inhibitors, marine steroids, molecules interfering with factors involved in the modulation of gene expression (such as NF-κB), macrolides, many antioxidant agents, thermogenic substances and even substances that could help the immune system and that result in the protection of cartilage, have been recently gaining attention. The marine world represents a reserve of bioactive ingredients, with considerable potential as functional food. Substances, such as chitin, chitosan, n-3 oils, carotenoids, vitamins, minerals and bioactive peptides, can provide several health benefits, such as the reduction of cardiovascular diseases, anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic activities. In addition, new marine bioactive substances with potential anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and thermogenic capacity may provide health benefits and performance improvement, especially in those who practice physical activity, because of their increased free radical and Reacting Oxygen Species (ROS) production during exercise, and, particularly, in athletes. The aim of this review is to examine the potential pharmacological properties and application of many marine bioactive substances in sports. PMID:24796298

  18. Genomic approaches in marine biodiversity and aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Huete-Pérez, Jorge A; Quezada, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in genomic and post-genomic technologies have now established the new standard in medical and biotechnological research. The introduction of next-generation sequencing, NGS,has resulted in the generation of thousands of genomes from all domains of life, including the genomes of complex uncultured microbial communities revealed through metagenomics. Although the application of genomics to marine biodiversity remains poorly developed overall, some noteworthy progress has been made in recent years. The genomes of various model marine organisms have been published and a few more are underway. In addition, the recent large-scale analysis of marine microbes, along with transcriptomic and proteomic approaches to the study of teleost fishes, mollusks and crustaceans, to mention a few, has provided a better understanding of phenotypic variability and functional genomics. The past few years have also seen advances in applications relevant to marine aquaculture and fisheries. In this review we introduce several examples of recent discoveries and progress made towards engendering genomic resources aimed at enhancing our understanding of marine biodiversity and promoting the development of aquaculture. Finally, we discuss the need for auspicious science policies to address challenges confronting smaller nations in the appropriate oversight of this growing domain as they strive to guarantee food security and conservation of their natural resources.

  19. Marine biodiversity characteristics.

    PubMed

    Boeuf, Gilles

    2011-05-01

    Oceans contain the largest living volume of the "blue" planet, inhabited by approximately 235-250,000 described species, all groups included. They only represent some 13% of the known species on the Earth, but the marine biomasses are really huge. Marine phytoplankton alone represents half the production of organic matter on Earth while marine bacteria represent more than 10%. Life first appeared in the oceans more than 3.8 billion years ago and several determining events took place that changed the course of life, ranging from the development of the cell nucleus to sexual reproduction going through multi-cellular organisms and the capture of organelles. Of the 31 animal phyla currently listed, 12 are exclusively marine phyla and have never left the ocean. An interesting question is to try to understand why there are so few marine species versus land species? This pattern of distribution seems pretty recent in the course of Evolution. From an exclusively marine world, since the beginning until 440 million years ago, land number of species much increased 110 million years ago. Specific diversity and ancestral roles, in addition to organizational models and original behaviors, have made marine organisms excellent reservoirs for identifying and extracting molecules (>15,000 today) with pharmacological potential. They also make particularly relevant models for both fundamental and applied research. Some marine models have been the source of essential discoveries in life sciences. From this diversity, the ocean provides humankind with renewable resources, which are highly threatened today and need more adequate management to preserve ocean habitats, stocks and biodiversity. PMID:21640952

  20. Cold adaptation in marine organisms.

    PubMed

    Johnston, I A

    1990-01-30

    Animals from polar seas exhibit numerous so called resistance adaptations that serve to maintain homeostasis at low temperature and prevent lethal freezing injury. Specialization to temperatures at or below 0 degrees C is associated with an inability to survive at temperatures above 3-8 degrees C. Polar fish synthesize various types of glycoproteins or peptides to lower the freezing point of most extracellular fluid compartments in a non-colligative manner. Antifreeze production is seasonal in boreal species and is often initiated by environmental cues other than low temperature, particularly short day lengths. Most of the adaptations that enable intertidal invertebrates to survive freezing are associated with their ability to withstand ariel exposure. Unique adaptations for freezing avoidance include the synthesis of low molecular mass ice-nucleating proteins that control and induce extracellular ice-formation. Marine poikilotherms also exhibit a range of capacity adaptations that increase the rate of some physiological processes so as to partially compensate for the effects of low temperature. However, the rate of embryonic development in a diverse range of marine organisms shows no evidence of temperature compensation. This results in a significant lengthening of the time from fertilization to hatching in polar, relative to temperate, species. Some aspects of the physiology of polar marine species, such as low metabolic and slow growth rates, probably result from a combination of low temperature and other factors such as the highly seasonal nature of food supplies. Although neuromuscular function shows a partial capacity adaptation in Antarctic fish, maximum swimming speeds are lower than for temperate and tropical species, particularly for early stages in the life history. PMID:1969650

  1. Communication masking in marine mammals: A review and research strategy.

    PubMed

    Erbe, Christine; Reichmuth, Colleen; Cunningham, Kane; Lucke, Klaus; Dooling, Robert

    2016-02-15

    Underwater noise, whether of natural or anthropogenic origin, has the ability to interfere with the way in which marine mammals receive acoustic signals (i.e., for communication, social interaction, foraging, navigation, etc.). This phenomenon, termed auditory masking, has been well studied in humans and terrestrial vertebrates (in particular birds), but less so in marine mammals. Anthropogenic underwater noise seems to be increasing in parts of the world's oceans and concerns about associated bioacoustic effects, including masking, are growing. In this article, we review our understanding of masking in marine mammals, summarise data on marine mammal hearing as they relate to masking (including audiograms, critical ratios, critical bandwidths, and auditory integration times), discuss masking release processes of receivers (including comodulation masking release and spatial release from masking) and anti-masking strategies of signalers (e.g. Lombard effect), and set a research framework for improved assessment of potential masking in marine mammals.

  2. From Darwin to the Census of Marine Life: Marine Biology as Big Science

    PubMed Central

    Vermeulen, Niki

    2013-01-01

    With the development of the Human Genome Project, a heated debate emerged on biology becoming ‘big science’. However, biology already has a long tradition of collaboration, as natural historians were part of the first collective scientific efforts: exploring the variety of life on earth. Such mappings of life still continue today, and if field biology is gradually becoming an important subject of studies into big science, research into life in the world's oceans is not taken into account yet. This paper therefore explores marine biology as big science, presenting the historical development of marine research towards the international ‘Census of Marine Life’ (CoML) making an inventory of life in the world's oceans. Discussing various aspects of collaboration – including size, internationalisation, research practice, technological developments, application, and public communication – I will ask if CoML still resembles traditional collaborations to collect life. While showing both continuity and change, I will argue that marine biology is a form of natural history: a specific way of working together in biology that has transformed substantially in interaction with recent developments in the life sciences and society. As a result, the paper does not only give an overview of transformations towards large scale research in marine biology, but also shines a new light on big biology, suggesting new ways to deepen the understanding of collaboration in the life sciences by distinguishing between different ‘collective ways of knowing’. PMID:23342119

  3. From darwin to the census of marine life: marine biology as big science.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, Niki

    2013-01-01

    With the development of the Human Genome Project, a heated debate emerged on biology becoming 'big science'. However, biology already has a long tradition of collaboration, as natural historians were part of the first collective scientific efforts: exploring the variety of life on earth. Such mappings of life still continue today, and if field biology is gradually becoming an important subject of studies into big science, research into life in the world's oceans is not taken into account yet. This paper therefore explores marine biology as big science, presenting the historical development of marine research towards the international 'Census of Marine Life' (CoML) making an inventory of life in the world's oceans. Discussing various aspects of collaboration--including size, internationalisation, research practice, technological developments, application, and public communication--I will ask if CoML still resembles traditional collaborations to collect life. While showing both continuity and change, I will argue that marine biology is a form of natural history: a specific way of working together in biology that has transformed substantially in interaction with recent developments in the life sciences and society. As a result, the paper does not only give an overview of transformations towards large scale research in marine biology, but also shines a new light on big biology, suggesting new ways to deepen the understanding of collaboration in the life sciences by distinguishing between different 'collective ways of knowing'.

  4. Marine bioacoustics and technology: The new world of marine acoustic ecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hastings, Mardi C.; Au, Whitlow W. L.

    2012-11-01

    Marine animals use sound for communication, navigation, predator avoidance, and prey detection. Thus the rise in acoustic energy associated with increasing human activity in the ocean has potential to impact the lives of marine animals. Thirty years ago marine bioacoustics primarily focused on evaluating effects of human-generated sound on hearing and behavior by testing captive animals and visually observing wild animals. Since that time rapidly changing electronic and computing technologies have yielded three tools that revolutionized how bioacousticians study marine animals. These tools are (1) portable systems for measuring electrophysiological auditory evoked potentials, (2) miniaturized tags equipped with positioning sensors and acoustic recording devices for continuous short-term acoustical observation rather than intermittent visual observation, and (3) passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) systems for remote long-term acoustic observations at specific locations. The beauty of these breakthroughs is their direct applicability to wild animals in natural habitats rather than only to animals held in captivity. Hearing capabilities of many wild species including polar bears, beaked whales, and reef fishes have now been assessed by measuring their auditory evoked potentials. Miniaturized acoustic tags temporarily attached to an animal to record its movements and acoustic environment have revealed the acoustic foraging behavior of sperm and beaked whales. Now tags are being adapted to fishes in effort to understand their behavior in the presence of noise. Moving and static PAM systems automatically detect and characterize biological and physical features of an ocean area without adding any acoustic energy to the environment. PAM is becoming a powerful technique for understanding and managing marine habitats. This paper will review the influence of these transformative tools on the knowledge base of marine bioacoustics and elucidation of relationships between marine

  5. Praziquantel degradation in marine aquarium water.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Amber; Dawson, Matthew R; Ellis, Helen; Stamper, M Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Praziquantel (PZQ) is a drug commonly utilized to treat both human schistosomiasis and some parasitic infections and infestations in animals. In the aquarium industry, PZQ can be administered in a "bath" to treat the presence of ectoparasites on both the gills and skin of fish and elasmobranchs. In order to fully treat an infestation, the bath treatment has to maintain therapeutic levels of PZQ over a period of days or weeks. It has long been assumed that, once administered, PZQ is stable in a marine environment throughout the treatment interval and must be mechanically removed, but no controlled experiments have been conducted to validate that claim. This study aimed to determine if PZQ would break down naturally within a marine aquarium below its 2 ppm therapeutic level during a typical 30-day treatment: and if so, does the presence of fish or the elimination of all living biological material impact the degradation of PZQ? Three 650 L marine aquarium systems, each containing 12 fish (French grunts: Haemulon flavolineatum), and three 650 L marine aquariums each containing no fish were treated with PZQ (2 ppm) and concentrations were measured daily for 30 days. After one round of treatment, the PZQ was no longer detectable in any system after 8 (±1) days. The subsequent two PZQ treatments yielded even faster PZQ breakdown (non-detectable after 2 days and 2 ± 1 day, respectively) with slight variations between systems. Linear mixed effects models of the data indicate that day and trial most impact PZQ degradation, while the presence of fish was not a factor in the best-fit models. In a completely sterilized marine system (0.5 L) PZQ concentration remained unchanged over 15 days, suggesting that PZQ may be stable in a marine system during this time period. The degradation observed in non-sterile marine systems in this study may be microbial in nature. This work should be taken into consideration when providing PZQ bath treatments to marine animals to ensure maximum

  6. Praziquantel degradation in marine aquarium water.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Amber; Dawson, Matthew R; Ellis, Helen; Stamper, M Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Praziquantel (PZQ) is a drug commonly utilized to treat both human schistosomiasis and some parasitic infections and infestations in animals. In the aquarium industry, PZQ can be administered in a "bath" to treat the presence of ectoparasites on both the gills and skin of fish and elasmobranchs. In order to fully treat an infestation, the bath treatment has to maintain therapeutic levels of PZQ over a period of days or weeks. It has long been assumed that, once administered, PZQ is stable in a marine environment throughout the treatment interval and must be mechanically removed, but no controlled experiments have been conducted to validate that claim. This study aimed to determine if PZQ would break down naturally within a marine aquarium below its 2 ppm therapeutic level during a typical 30-day treatment: and if so, does the presence of fish or the elimination of all living biological material impact the degradation of PZQ? Three 650 L marine aquarium systems, each containing 12 fish (French grunts: Haemulon flavolineatum), and three 650 L marine aquariums each containing no fish were treated with PZQ (2 ppm) and concentrations were measured daily for 30 days. After one round of treatment, the PZQ was no longer detectable in any system after 8 (±1) days. The subsequent two PZQ treatments yielded even faster PZQ breakdown (non-detectable after 2 days and 2 ± 1 day, respectively) with slight variations between systems. Linear mixed effects models of the data indicate that day and trial most impact PZQ degradation, while the presence of fish was not a factor in the best-fit models. In a completely sterilized marine system (0.5 L) PZQ concentration remained unchanged over 15 days, suggesting that PZQ may be stable in a marine system during this time period. The degradation observed in non-sterile marine systems in this study may be microbial in nature. This work should be taken into consideration when providing PZQ bath treatments to marine animals to ensure maximum

  7. Praziquantel degradation in marine aquarium water

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Matthew R.; Ellis, Helen; Stamper, M. Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Praziquantel (PZQ) is a drug commonly utilized to treat both human schistosomiasis and some parasitic infections and infestations in animals. In the aquarium industry, PZQ can be administered in a “bath” to treat the presence of ectoparasites on both the gills and skin of fish and elasmobranchs. In order to fully treat an infestation, the bath treatment has to maintain therapeutic levels of PZQ over a period of days or weeks. It has long been assumed that, once administered, PZQ is stable in a marine environment throughout the treatment interval and must be mechanically removed, but no controlled experiments have been conducted to validate that claim. This study aimed to determine if PZQ would break down naturally within a marine aquarium below its 2 ppm therapeutic level during a typical 30-day treatment: and if so, does the presence of fish or the elimination of all living biological material impact the degradation of PZQ? Three 650 L marine aquarium systems, each containing 12 fish (French grunts: Haemulon flavolineatum), and three 650 L marine aquariums each containing no fish were treated with PZQ (2 ppm) and concentrations were measured daily for 30 days. After one round of treatment, the PZQ was no longer detectable in any system after 8 (±1) days. The subsequent two PZQ treatments yielded even faster PZQ breakdown (non-detectable after 2 days and 2 ± 1 day, respectively) with slight variations between systems. Linear mixed effects models of the data indicate that day and trial most impact PZQ degradation, while the presence of fish was not a factor in the best-fit models. In a completely sterilized marine system (0.5 L) PZQ concentration remained unchanged over 15 days, suggesting that PZQ may be stable in a marine system during this time period. The degradation observed in non-sterile marine systems in this study may be microbial in nature. This work should be taken into consideration when providing PZQ bath treatments to marine animals to ensure

  8. Marine Polysaccharides: A Source of Bioactive Molecules for Cell Therapy and Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Senni, Karim; Pereira, Jessica; Gueniche, Farida; Delbarre-Ladrat, Christine; Sinquin, Corinne; Ratiskol, Jacqueline; Godeau, Gaston; Fischer, Anne-Marie; Helley, Dominique; Colliec-Jouault, Sylvia

    2011-01-01

    The therapeutic potential of natural bioactive compounds such as polysaccharides, especially glycosaminoglycans, is now well documented, and this activity combined with natural biodiversity will allow the development of a new generation of therapeutics. Advances in our understanding of the biosynthesis, structure and function of complex glycans from mammalian origin have shown the crucial role of this class of molecules to modulate disease processes and the importance of a deeper knowledge of structure-activity relationships. Marine environment offers a tremendous biodiversity and original polysaccharides have been discovered presenting a great chemical diversity that is largely species specific. The study of the biological properties of the polysaccharides from marine eukaryotes and marine prokaryotes revealed that the polysaccharides from the marine environment could provide a valid alternative to traditional polysaccharides such as glycosaminoglycans. Marine polysaccharides present a real potential for natural product drug discovery and for the delivery of new marine derived products for therapeutic applications. PMID:22131964

  9. Marine protected areas increase resilience among coral reef communities.

    PubMed

    Mellin, Camille; Aaron MacNeil, M; Cheal, Alistair J; Emslie, Michael J; Julian Caley, M

    2016-06-01

    With marine biodiversity declining globally at accelerating rates, maximising the effectiveness of conservation has become a key goal for local, national and international regulators. Marine protected areas (MPAs) have been widely advocated for conserving and managing marine biodiversity yet, despite extensive research, their benefits for conserving non-target species and wider ecosystem functions remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that MPAs can increase the resilience of coral reef communities to natural disturbances, including coral bleaching, coral diseases, Acanthaster planci outbreaks and storms. Using a 20-year time series from Australia's Great Barrier Reef, we show that within MPAs, (1) reef community composition was 21-38% more stable; (2) the magnitude of disturbance impacts was 30% lower and (3) subsequent recovery was 20% faster that in adjacent unprotected habitats. Our results demonstrate that MPAs can increase the resilience of marine communities to natural disturbance possibly through herbivory, trophic cascades and portfolio effects.

  10. Marine protected areas increase resilience among coral reef communities.

    PubMed

    Mellin, Camille; Aaron MacNeil, M; Cheal, Alistair J; Emslie, Michael J; Julian Caley, M

    2016-06-01

    With marine biodiversity declining globally at accelerating rates, maximising the effectiveness of conservation has become a key goal for local, national and international regulators. Marine protected areas (MPAs) have been widely advocated for conserving and managing marine biodiversity yet, despite extensive research, their benefits for conserving non-target species and wider ecosystem functions remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that MPAs can increase the resilience of coral reef communities to natural disturbances, including coral bleaching, coral diseases, Acanthaster planci outbreaks and storms. Using a 20-year time series from Australia's Great Barrier Reef, we show that within MPAs, (1) reef community composition was 21-38% more stable; (2) the magnitude of disturbance impacts was 30% lower and (3) subsequent recovery was 20% faster that in adjacent unprotected habitats. Our results demonstrate that MPAs can increase the resilience of marine communities to natural disturbance possibly through herbivory, trophic cascades and portfolio effects. PMID:27038889

  11. Bioactive Pigments from Marine Bacteria: Applications and Physiological Roles

    PubMed Central

    Soliev, Azamjon B.; Hosokawa, Kakushi; Enomoto, Keiichi

    2011-01-01

    Research into natural products from the marine environment, including microorganisms, has rapidly increased over the past two decades. Despite the enormous difficulty in isolating and harvesting marine bacteria, microbial metabolites are increasingly attractive to science because of their broad-ranging pharmacological activities, especially those with unique color pigments. This current review paper gives an overview of the pigmented natural compounds isolated from bacteria of marine origin, based on accumulated data in the literature. We review the biological activities of marine compounds, including recent advances in the study of pharmacological effects and other commercial applications, in addition to the biosynthesis and physiological roles of associated pigments. Chemical structures of the bioactive compounds discussed are also presented. PMID:21961023

  12. Marine sequestration of carbon in bacterial metabolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lechtenfeld, Oliver J.; Hertkorn, Norbert; Shen, Yuan; Witt, Matthias; Benner, Ronald

    2015-03-01

    Linking microbial metabolomics and carbon sequestration in the ocean via refractory organic molecules has been hampered by the chemical complexity of dissolved organic matter (DOM). Here, using bioassay experiments and ultra-high resolution metabolic profiling, we demonstrate that marine bacteria rapidly utilize simple organic molecules and produce exometabolites of remarkable molecular and structural diversity. Bacterial DOM is similar in chemical composition and structural complexity to naturally occurring DOM in sea water. An appreciable fraction of bacterial DOM has molecular and structural properties that are consistent with those of refractory molecules in the ocean, indicating a dominant role for bacteria in shaping the refractory nature of marine DOM. The rapid production of chemically complex and persistent molecules from simple biochemicals demonstrates a positive feedback between primary production and refractory DOM formation. It appears that carbon sequestration in diverse and structurally complex dissolved molecules that persist in the environment is largely driven by bacteria.

  13. Exploitation of marine bacteria for production of gold nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have found wide range of applications in electronics, biomedical engineering, and chemistry owing to their exceptional opto-electrical properties. Biological synthesis of gold nanoparticles by using plant extracts and microbes have received profound interest in recent times owing to their potential to produce nanoparticles with varied shape, size and morphology. Marine microorganisms are unique to tolerate high salt concentration and can evade toxicity of different metal ions. However, these marine microbes are not sufficiently explored for their capability of metal nanoparticle synthesis. Although, marine water is one of the richest sources of gold in the nature, however, there is no significant publication regarding utilization of marine micro-organisms to produce gold nanoparticles. Therefore, there might be a possibility of exploring marine bacteria as nanofactories for AuNP biosynthesis. Results In the present study, marine bacteria are exploited towards their capability of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) production. Stable, monodisperse AuNP formation with around 10 nm dimension occur upon exposure of HAuCl4 solution to whole cells of a novel strain of Marinobacter pelagius, as characterized by polyphasic taxonomy. Nanoparticles synthesized are characterized by Transmission electron microscopy, Dynamic light scattering and UV-visible spectroscopy. Conclusion The potential of marine organisms in biosynthesis of AuNPs are still relatively unexplored. Although, there are few reports of gold nanoparticles production using marine sponges and sea weeds however, there is no report on the production of gold nanoparticles using marine bacteria. The present work highlighted the possibility of using the marine bacterial strain of Marinobacter pelagius to achieve a fast rate of nanoparticles synthesis which may be of high interest for future process development of AuNPs. This is the first report of AuNP synthesis by marine bacteria

  14. Dangerous marine animals.

    PubMed

    Edmonds, C

    1976-04-01

    Tales of dangerous marine animals have flourished, entwining history, legend and imagination. Man is now demonstrating his remarkable adaptability in returning to the aquatic environment, from which he had his origins, and factual knowledge of marine creatures is surplanting mystery, folklore and fear. There is still cause to fear certain aspects of the underwater world, and the one aspect that still holds sway over public interest is that of dangerous marine animals. There is little justification for this top priority. The kelp beds of San Diego will claim more diving victims than all the marine animals around the United States of America. The cold seas off the English coastline, the tidal currents of Hawaii and the multitude of drowning accidents in water caves of Florida and Australia belittle the relatively few fatalities caused by marine animals. Nevertheless, the latter do cause injury and death, especially in the tropical, subtropical and temperate regions. The Indo-Pacific area seems particularly well endowed with a variety of potentially lethal species, and some of these will be dealt with in this paper.

  15. Bioprospecting marine plankton.

    PubMed

    Abida, Heni; Ruchaud, Sandrine; Rios, Laurent; Humeau, Anne; Probert, Ian; De Vargas, Colomban; Bach, Stéphane; Bowler, Chris

    2013-11-01

    The ocean dominates the surface of our planet and plays a major role in regulating the biosphere. For example, the microscopic photosynthetic organisms living within provide 50% of the oxygen we breathe, and much of our food and mineral resources are extracted from the ocean. In a time of ecological crisis and major changes in our society, it is essential to turn our attention towards the sea to find additional solutions for a sustainable future. Remarkably, while we are overexploiting many marine resources, particularly the fisheries, the planktonic compartment composed of zooplankton, phytoplankton, bacteria and viruses, represents 95% of marine biomass and yet the extent of its diversity remains largely unknown and underexploited. Consequently, the potential of plankton as a bioresource for humanity is largely untapped. Due to their diverse evolutionary backgrounds, planktonic organisms offer immense opportunities: new resources for medicine, cosmetics and food, renewable energy, and long-term solutions to mitigate climate change. Research programs aiming to exploit culture collections of marine micro-organisms as well as to prospect the huge resources of marine planktonic biodiversity in the oceans are now underway, and several bioactive extracts and purified compounds have already been identified. This review will survey and assess the current state-of-the-art and will propose methodologies to better exploit the potential of marine plankton for drug discovery and for dermocosmetics. PMID:24240981

  16. Bioprospecting Marine Plankton

    PubMed Central

    Abida, Heni; Ruchaud, Sandrine; Rios, Laurent; Humeau, Anne; Probert, Ian; De Vargas, Colomban; Bach, Stéphane; Bowler, Chris

    2013-01-01

    The ocean dominates the surface of our planet and plays a major role in regulating the biosphere. For example, the microscopic photosynthetic organisms living within provide 50% of the oxygen we breathe, and much of our food and mineral resources are extracted from the ocean. In a time of ecological crisis and major changes in our society, it is essential to turn our attention towards the sea to find additional solutions for a sustainable future. Remarkably, while we are overexploiting many marine resources, particularly the fisheries, the planktonic compartment composed of zooplankton, phytoplankton, bacteria and viruses, represents 95% of marine biomass and yet the extent of its diversity remains largely unknown and underexploited. Consequently, the potential of plankton as a bioresource for humanity is largely untapped. Due to their diverse evolutionary backgrounds, planktonic organisms offer immense opportunities: new resources for medicine, cosmetics and food, renewable energy, and long-term solutions to mitigate climate change. Research programs aiming to exploit culture collections of marine micro-organisms as well as to prospect the huge resources of marine planktonic biodiversity in the oceans are now underway, and several bioactive extracts and purified compounds have already been identified. This review will survey and assess the current state-of-the-art and will propose methodologies to better exploit the potential of marine plankton for drug discovery and for dermocosmetics. PMID:24240981

  17. Marine Multichannel Seismology Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detrick, Bob

    1984-04-01

    The multichannel seismic (MCS) reflection technique, developed by the oil industry for petroleum exploration in sedimentary basins, has proven to be a powerful tool for imaging subsurface geology in a wide variety of tectonic settings at a scale suitable for detailed investigations of geological structures and processes. In the ocean basins, MCS studies have provided new insight into the tectonic history of rifted and convergent continental margins, the structure of the oceanic crust and midocean ridges, and the sedimentation history and paleoceanography of deep ocean basins. MCS techniques have thus developed into an important tool for marine geological and geophysical research.The National Science Foundation recently sponsored a Workshop on the Future of Academic Marine Multichannel Seismology in the United States, held in Boulder, Colo., on March 19-20, 1984, to review the current state of marine academic MCS in the United States and to make recommendations on the facilities and funding required to meet future scientific needs. The workshop, which was convened by Brian T.R. Lewis of the University of Washington, included 19 scientists representing the major U.S. oceanographic institutions with interests in marine seismic work. This article summarizes the major recommendations developed at this workshop, which have been included in a more comprehensive report entitled ‘A National Plan for Marine Multichannel Seismology,’ which has been submitted to the National Science Foundation for future publication.

  18. Interrelationship between marine biofouling and cathodic protection

    SciTech Connect

    Little, B.J.; Wagner, P.A. )

    1993-09-01

    Microorganisms colonize and form a gelatinous biofilm on all engineering materials exposed in natural marine environments, including cathodically protected surfaces. The impact of cathodic protection (CP) potentials on the chemical/biological composition of the biofilm and the impact of the biofilms on potentials required for CP have been the subject of many recent investigations. Literature on these subjects will be reviewed with emphasis on clarifying interactions between living and nonliving deposits on cathodically protected metal surfaces.

  19. Report on marine mammal stranding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Mohi

    2006-06-01

    The U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) released a report on 27 April indicating that U.S. Navy sonar transmissions may have played a role in the stranding of more than 150 melon-headed whales on 3 July 2004 off the coast of Kauai, Hawaii. At the time of the stranding, which resulted in one whale death, the Navy was preparing to conduct sonar activities as part of a military exercise. The report notes that six naval surface vessels transiting to the area on the previous night intermittenly transmitted mid-frequency active sonar. That activity is ``a plausible, if not likely, contributing factor'' to the stranding event. There was no significant weather, natural oceanographic event, or known biological factors that would explain the animals' movement into the bay nor the group's continued presence in the bay, according to report lead author Teri Rowles, NOAA marine mammal veterinarian.

  20. Salimabromide: unexpected chemistry from the obligate marine myxobacterium Enhygromxya salina.

    PubMed

    Felder, Stephan; Dreisigacker, Sandra; Kehraus, Stefan; Neu, Edith; Bierbaum, Gabriele; Wright, Patrick R; Menche, Dirk; Schäberle, Till F; König, Gabriele M

    2013-07-01

    Marine myxobacteria (Enhygromyxa, Plesiocystis, Pseudoenhygromyxa, Haliangium) are phylogenetically distant from their terrestrial counterparts. Salimabromide is the first natural product from the Plesiocystis/Enhygromyxa clade of obligatory marine myxobacteria. Salimabromide has a new tetracyclic carbon skeleton, comprising a brominated benzene ring, a furano lactone residue, and a cyclohexane ring, bridged by a seven-membered cyclic moiety. The absolute configuration was deduced from experimental and calculated CD data. Salimabromide revealed antibiotic activity towards Arthrobacter cristallopoietes. PMID:23703738

  1. Detection of sea otters in boat-based surveys of Prince William Sound, Alaska. Marine mammal study 6-19. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Udevitz, M.S.; Bodkin, J.L.; Costa, D.P.

    1995-05-01

    Boat-based surveys were used to monitor the Prince William Sound sea otter population before and after the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Population and loss estimates could be obtained from these surveys by direct expansion from the counts in the surveyed transects under the assumption that all otters in those transects were observed. The authors conducted a pilot study using ground-based observers in conjunction with the August 1990 survey of marine mammals and birds to investigate the validity of this assumption. The proportion of otters detected by boat crews was estimated by comparing boat and ground-based observations on 22 segments of shoreline transects. Overall, the authors estimated that only 70% of the otters in surveyed shoreline transects were detected by the boat crews. These results suggest that unadjusted expansions of boat survey transect counts will underestimate sea otter population size and that loss estimates based on comparisons of unadjusted population estimates will be biased.

  2. Marine bird populations of Prince William Sound, Alaska, before and after the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Bird study number 2. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Klosiewski, S.P.; Laing, K.K.

    1994-06-01

    We estimated the summer and winter abundance of marine birds in Prince William Sound, Alaska, following the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill, examined changes in population size between pre-spill and post-spill surveys, and compared pre- to post-oil spill population trends in the oiled zone of the Sound relative to trends in the unoiled zone. Ninety-nine species of birds were observed on surveys. Estimated populations of 15 to 32 species/species groups demonstrated declines over the 17-19 year period between pre- and post-spill surveys. However, because of the long time period between surveys, we could not directly associate overall population declines with the oil spill.

  3. Marine biosurfaces research program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Office of Naval Research (ONR) of the U.S. Navy is starting a basic research program to address the initial events that control colonization of surfaces by organisms in marine environments. The program “arises from the Navy's need to understand and ultimately control biofouling and biocorrosion in marine environments,” according to a Navy announcement.The program, “Biological Processes Controlling Surface Modification in the Marine Environment,” will emphasize the application of in situ techniques and modern molecular biological, biochemical, and biophysical approaches; it will also encourage the development of interdisciplinary projects. Specific areas of interest include sensing and response to environmental surface (physiology/physical chemistry), factors controlling movement to and retention at surfaces (behavior/hydrodynamics), genetic regulation of attachment (molecular genetics), and mechanisms of attachment (biochemistry/surface chemistry).

  4. Identifying Marine Phytoplankton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargraves, Paul E.

    Until recently, anyone who needed to accurately identify marine phytoplankton had one of four choices: use the outdated Englishlanguage volumes by E. E. Cupp and N. I. Hendey plus the more recent book by J. Dodge, acquire a working knowledge of German and use the old volumes by Schiller and Hustedt, spend huge amounts of time in an exceedingly well-equipped marine science library trying in vain to keep up with the rapidly evolving field of phytoplankton systematics and taxonomy, or track down one of the rarest of endangered species—a phytoplankton taxonomist—and beg for help.To these unfortunate choices is added one considerably more hopeful: Identifying Marine Phytoplankton. This volume, which has seven contributing authors, contains most of the taxonomic groups that make up the planktonic autotrophs and some heterotrophs of the seas, coasts, and estuaries of the world (missing are cyanobacteria and some of the picoplankton groups).

  5. Climate of the Arctic marine environment.

    PubMed

    Walsh, John E

    2008-03-01

    The climate of the Arctic marine environment is characterized by strong seasonality in the incoming solar radiation and by tremendous spatial variations arising from a variety of surface types, including open ocean, sea ice, large islands, and proximity to major landmasses. Interannual and decadal-scale variations are prominent features of Arctic climate, complicating the distinction between natural and anthropogenically driven variations. Nevertheless, climate models consistently indicate that the Arctic is the most climatically sensitive region of the Northern Hemisphere, especially near the sea ice margins. The Arctic marine environment has shown changes over the past several decades, and these changes are part of a broader global warming that exceeds the range of natural variability over the past 1000 years. Record minima of sea ice coverage during the past few summers and increased melt from Greenland have important implications for the hydrographic regime of the Arctic marine environment. The recent changes in the atmosphere (temperature, precipitation, pressure), sea ice, and ocean appear to be a coordinated response to systematic variations of the large-scale atmospheric circulation, superimposed on a general warming that is likely associated with increasing greenhouse gases. The changes have been sufficiently large in some sectors (e.g., the Bering/Chukchi Seas) that consequences for marine ecosystems appear to be underway. Global climate models indicate an additional warming of several degrees Celsius in much of the Arctic marine environment by 2050. However, the warming is seasonal (largest in autumn and winter), spatially variable, and closely associated with further retreat of sea ice. Additional changes predicted for 2050 are a general decrease of sea level pressure (largest in the Bering sector) and an increase of precipitation. While predictions of changes in storminess cannot be made with confidence, the predicted reduction of sea ice cover will

  6. Marine Structural Biomaterials in Medical Biomimicry.

    PubMed

    Green, David W; Lee, Jong-Min; Jung, Han-Sung

    2015-10-01

    Marine biomaterials display properties, behaviors, and functions that have not been artificially matched in relation to their hierarchical construction, crack-stopping properties, growth adaptation, and energy efficiency. The discovery and understanding of such features that are characteristic of natural biomaterials can be used to manufacture more energy-efficient and lightweight materials. However, a more detailed understanding of the design of natural biomaterials with good performance and the mechanism of their design is required. Far-reaching biomolecular characterization of biomaterials and biostructures from the ocean world is possible with sophisticated analytical methods, such as whole-genome RNA-seq, and de novo transcriptome sequencing and mass spectrophotometry-based sequencing. In combination with detailed material characterization, the elements in newly discovered biomaterials and their properties can be reconstituted into biomimetic or bio-inspired materials. A major aim of harnessing marine biomaterials is their translation into biomimetic counterparts. To achieve full translation, the genome, proteome, and hierarchical material characteristics, and their profiles in space and time, have to be associated to allow for smooth biomimetic translation. In this article, we highlight the novel science of marine biomimicry from a materials perspective. We focus on areas of material design and fabrication that have excelled in marine biological models, such as embedded interfaces, chiral organization, and the use of specialized composite material-on-material designs. Our emphasis is primarily on key materials with high value in healthcare in which we evaluate their future prospects. Marine biomaterials are among the most exquisite and powerful aspects in materials science today.

  7. Marine Structural Biomaterials in Medical Biomimicry.

    PubMed

    Green, David W; Lee, Jong-Min; Jung, Han-Sung

    2015-10-01

    Marine biomaterials display properties, behaviors, and functions that have not been artificially matched in relation to their hierarchical construction, crack-stopping properties, growth adaptation, and energy efficiency. The discovery and understanding of such features that are characteristic of natural biomaterials can be used to manufacture more energy-efficient and lightweight materials. However, a more detailed understanding of the design of natural biomaterials with good performance and the mechanism of their design is required. Far-reaching biomolecular characterization of biomaterials and biostructures from the ocean world is possible with sophisticated analytical methods, such as whole-genome RNA-seq, and de novo transcriptome sequencing and mass spectrophotometry-based sequencing. In combination with detailed material characterization, the elements in newly discovered biomaterials and their properties can be reconstituted into biomimetic or bio-inspired materials. A major aim of harnessing marine biomaterials is their translation into biomimetic counterparts. To achieve full translation, the genome, proteome, and hierarchical material characteristics, and their profiles in space and time, have to be associated to allow for smooth biomimetic translation. In this article, we highlight the novel science of marine biomimicry from a materials perspective. We focus on areas of material design and fabrication that have excelled in marine biological models, such as embedded interfaces, chiral organization, and the use of specialized composite material-on-material designs. Our emphasis is primarily on key materials with high value in healthcare in which we evaluate their future prospects. Marine biomaterials are among the most exquisite and powerful aspects in materials science today. PMID:25905922

  8. Secondary metabolites from the marine gastropod molluscs of Antarctica, southern Africa and South America.

    PubMed

    Davies-Coleman, M T

    2006-01-01

    Despite their perceived inaccessibility, the marine intertidal and benthic environments of Antarctica, southern Africa and South America have continued to provide marine natural products for chemists with unique opportunities to study the secondary metabolite constituents and chemical ecology of a diverse array of marine gastropod molluscs. This review covers the literature up to 31 January 2005 and describes the structures and, where applicable, biological activities of 100 secondary metabolites isolated from 21 species of marine gastropod molluscs. Not unexpectedly, the chemistry of chemically defended shell-less opisthobranchs dominates the natural product studies of molluscs collected from these regions of the southern hemisphere.

  9. Marine Science Building Dedicated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Officials cut the ribbon during dedication ceremonies of the George A. Knauer Marine Science Building on Oct. 17 at NASA Stennis Space Center (SSC). The $2.75 million facility, the first building at the test site funded by the state of Mississippi, houses six science labs, classrooms and office space for 40 faculty and staff. Pictured are, from left, Rear Adm. Thomas Donaldson, commander of the Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command; SSC Assistant Director David Throckmorton; Dr. George A. Knauer, founder of the Center of Marine Science at the University of Southern Mississippi (USM); Lt. Gov. Amy Tuck; and USM President Dr. Shelby Thames.

  10. Marine cable location system

    SciTech Connect

    Zachariadis, R.G.

    1984-05-01

    An acoustic positioning system locates a marine cable at an exploration site, such cable employing a plurality of hydrophones at spaced-apart positions along the cable. A marine vessel measures water depth to the cable as the vessel passes over the cable and interrogates the hydrophones with sonar pulses along a slant range as the vessel travels in a parallel and horizontally offset path to the cable. The location of the hydrophones is determined from the recordings of water depth and slant range.

  11. Mariner 9 navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neil, W. J.; Jordan, J. F.; Zielenbach, J. W.; Wong, S. K.; Mitchell, R. T.; Webb, W. A.; Koskela, P. E.

    1973-01-01

    A final, comprehensive description of the navigation of Mariner 9-the first U.S. spacecraft to orbit another planet is provided. The Mariner 9 navigation function included not only precision flight path control but also pointing of the spacecraft's scientific instruments mounted on a two degree of freedom scan platform. To the extent appropriate, each section describes the perflight analyses on which the operational strategies and performance predictions were based. Inflight results are then discussed and compared with the preflight predictions. Postflight analyses, which were primarily concerned with developing a thorough understanding of unexpected in-flight results, are also presented.

  12. Mariner 9 star photography.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorpe, T. E.

    1973-01-01

    Mariner 9 achieved successful photography of the stars, the purpose of the experiment being to measure camera parameters associated with point source photometry, and to examine the feasibility of using stars as invariant calibration sources and a reference for optical navigation. The Mariner 9 camera-B photography demonstrated photometric response consistency over a limited sample of data to better than 15%. Camera performance verified the ability to model vidicon response characteristics as well as demonstrated an imaging capability sufficient to permit the use of stars for photometric calibration.

  13. New Waves in Marine Science Symposium: Marine Animal Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Betty, Comp.

    1989-01-01

    Presented are the abstracts from three research projects on marine social systems which were a part of a marine science symposium. Five sets of activities on marine animal communication are included, one each for grades K-2, 3-5, 6-8 and 9-12, and informal education. (CW)

  14. [Elementary exploration of the origin and development of marine Chinese materia medica].

    PubMed

    Guan, Hua-Shi; Fu, Xian-Jun; Wu, Qiang-Ming; Wang, Chang-Yun; Wang, Yu; Jiang, Deng-Zhao

    2009-05-01

    According to archaeological discoveries, humans began to make use of marine natural resources early in the Palaeolithic era. In the Spring and Autumn period and Warring States period, they began to use marine life as medicines and also had simple cognitions on their efficacy and processing. In the Qin and Han dynasties, people further deepened the understanding of the marine Chinese materia medica and created prescriptions making use of marine drugs. In the Tang and Song period, the number of marine Chinese materia medica species and corresponding prescriptions apparently increased. The cognitions of the property, flavor, efficacy as well as the compatible principle of marine Chinese materia medica was further deepened and the scope of their treatment also significantly expanded. In the Ming and Qing dynasties, the cognition of the marine Chinese materia medica was mainly the conclusions of the previous experience. After the founding of the People's Republic of China (PRC), with the development of science and technologies, the ability of exploiting and utilizing the marine Chinese materia medica by people dramatically increased, and the species of marine Chinese materia medica reached more than one thousand. However, the development of marine Chinese materia medica is confronted with new problems; although the number of species of marine Chinese materia medica increased, the understanding of their property and flavor is obviously lagging behind, which seriously affects the clinical application of marine Chinese materia medica.

  15. Marine pharmacology in 2007-8: Marine compounds with antibacterial, anticoagulant, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antimalarial, antiprotozoal, antituberculosis, and antiviral activities; affecting the immune and nervous system, and other miscellaneous mechanisms of action.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Alejandro M S; Rodríguez, Abimael D; Berlinck, Roberto G S; Fusetani, Nobuhiro

    2011-03-01

    The peer-reviewed marine pharmacology literature in 2007-8 is covered in this review, which follows a similar format to the previous 1998-2006 reviews of this series. The preclinical pharmacology of structurally characterized marine compounds isolated from marine animals, algae, fungi and bacteria is discussed in a comprehensive manner. Antibacterial, anticoagulant, antifungal, antimalarial, antiprotozoal, antituberculosis and antiviral activities were reported for 74 marine natural products. Additionally, 59 marine compounds were reported to affect the cardiovascular, immune and nervous systems as well as to possess anti-inflammatory effects. Finally, 65 marine metabolites were shown to bind to a variety of receptors and miscellaneous molecular targets, and thus upon further completion of mechanism of action studies, will contribute to several pharmacological classes. Marine pharmacology research during 2007-8 remained a global enterprise, with researchers from 26 countries, and the United States, contributing to the preclinical pharmacology of 197 marine compounds which are part of the preclinical marine pharmaceuticals pipeline. Sustained preclinical research with marine natural products demonstrating novel pharmacological activities, will probably result in the expansion of the current marine pharmaceutical clinical pipeline, which currently consists of 13 marine natural products, analogs or derivatives targeting a limited number of disease categories.

  16. A marine sponge associated strain of Bacillus subtilis and other marine bacteria can produce anticholinesterase compounds

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors or anticholinesterases reduce the activity of enzyme acetylcholinesterase that degrades the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the brain. The inhibitors have a significant pharmacological role in neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s etc. Although plants have been a significant source of these compounds, there are very few sporadic reports of microorganisms producing such inhibitors. Anticholinesterase activity in bacterial associates of marine soft corals and sponges were not previously reported. Results We screened 887 marine bacteria for the presence of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, in a microplate based assay, and found that 140 (15.8%) of them inhibit the electric eel enzyme, acetylcholinesterase. Majority of the active isolates were bacterial associates of soft corals followed by sediment isolates while most of the potent inhibitors belonged to the bacterial associates of marine sponges. Maximum inhibition (54%) was exhibited by a bacterial strain M18SP4P (ii), isolated from the marine sponge Fasciospongia cavernosa. Based on phenotypic characterization and 16S rDNA sequencing, the strain was identified as Bacillus subtilis - revealing yet another activity in a strain of the model organism that is considered to be a cell factory. TLC bioautography of the methanol extract of this culture, showed the presence of two major components having this activity, when compared to Galanthamine, the positive control. Conclusion From the results of our study, we conclude that acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are quite prevalent in marine bacteria, particularly the bacterial associates of marine invertebrates. Several potential AChE inhibitors in marine bacteria are waiting to be discovered to provide easily manipulable natural sources for the mass production of these therapeutic compounds. PMID:24528673

  17. 75 FR 77616 - Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ... endangered and threatened species (50 CFR parts 222-226). Permit No. 14334, issued on August 17, 2009 (74 FR... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XP18 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine... Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing...

  18. Marine Science Activities, Grade Six.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, James A.

    This unit, one of a series designed to develop and foster an understanding of the marine environment, presents marine science activities for grade 6 students. The unit is divided into the following sections: (1) Pagoo (story of a hermit crab); (2) introduction to marine environments; (3) salt water environment; (4) sea water investigations; (5)…

  19. Marine Fisheries: A Biological Insight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haefner, Paul A., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Described is a marine science course offered to high school biology teachers. The course objectives were designed to introduce teachers to a marine science subject that could be used in the secondary science classroom and laboratory and to create an awareness of the issues surrounding the marine sciences. (DS)

  20. Marine Science Sourcebook, First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raimist, Roger J.

    This manual was prepared for a teacher workshop in marine science. It includes information on when, where, and how to collect marine mollusks, and how to prepare a shell collection; a partial key to the classes, subclasses, and orders of the mollusca; notes on the ecology and physiology of marine bivalves and snails, and recipes for solutions…

  1. Worldwide Marine Weather Broadcasts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of the Navy, Washington, DC.

    This publication is a source of marine weather broadcast information in all areas of the world where such service is provided. This publication was designed for the use of U.S. naval and merchant ships. Sections 1 through 4 contain details of radio telegraph, radio telephone, radio facsimile, and radio teleprinter transmissions, respectively. The…

  2. Marine and Estuarine Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reish, Donald J.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the effects of various pollutants on marine and estuarine organisms, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes: (1) effects of pesticides, dredging, dumping, sludge, and petroleum hydrocarbons; and (2) diseases and tissue abnormalities. A list of 441 references is also presented. (HM)

  3. Marine Optical Characterizations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Dennis K.

    1996-01-01

    The team's major emphasis during this reporting period has been focused on the completion of the operational versions of the Marine Optical Buoys (MOBY's). Other work areas consisted of designing and testing bio-optical instrumentation, evaluating several of the SeaWiFS bio-optical protocols, processing data collected during field experiments, and reprocessing several of the Marine Optical Characteristics Experiment (MOCE) 2 and 3 bio-optical data sets. The team conducted one trip to the operations site in Honolulu, Hawaii, making necessary preparations for future field experiments. Part of the team also traveled to Moss Landing Marine Laboratories, Salinas, CA, and to American Holographic Co. Fitchburg MA, to assist with the fabrication of the next generation Marine Optical Buoys. Technical memoranda are being written to address the remote sensing reflectance, and instrument self-shading protocols. During the Ocean Color 96 meeting discussions with the Spanish on acquiring research vessel support during the MODIS validation period were conducted. A proposal will be generated towards this purpose for an experiment to be conducted off the North African coast during the summer of 1999.

  4. Marine Science Film Catalogue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Frank L.

    Forty-eight motion picture films and filmstrips in the field of marine science are catalogued in this booklet. Following the alphabetical index, one page is devoted to each film indicating its type, producer, recommended grade level, running time, and presence of color and/or sound. A summary of film content, possible uses, and outstanding…

  5. Aspects of Marine Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awkerman, Gary L.

    This publication is designed for use in standard science curricula to develop oceanologic manifestations of certain science topics. Included are teacher guides, student activities, and demonstrations to impart ocean science understanding, specifically, aspects of marine ecology, to high school students. The course objectives include the ability of…

  6. Marine fog: a review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koračin, Darko; Dorman, Clive E.; Lewis, John M.; Hudson, James G.; Wilcox, Eric M.; Torregrosa, Alicia

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this review is to discuss physical processes over a wide range of spatial scales that govern the formation, evolution, and dissipation of marine fog. We consider marine fog as the collective combination of fog over the open sea along with coastal sea fog and coastal land fog. The review includes a history of sea fog research, field programs, forecasting methods, and detection of sea fog via satellite observations where similarity in radiative properties of fog top and the underlying sea induce further complexity. The main thrust of the study is to provide insight into causality of fog including its initiation, maintenance, and destruction. The interplay between the various physical processes behind the several stages of marine fog is among the most challenging aspects of the problem. An effort is made to identify this interplay between processes that include the microphysics of fog formation and maintenance, the influence of large-scale circulation and precipitation/clouds, radiation, turbulence (air-sea interaction), and advection. The environmental impact of marine fog is also addressed. The study concludes with an assessment of our current knowledge of the phenomenon, our principal areas of ignorance, and future lines of research that hold promise for advances in our understanding.

  7. Marine Science Comes Alive.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Dorothy

    1996-01-01

    A new state-of-the-art marine science laboratory at Eckerd College (Florida) is a study in the power of research, teamwork, attention to detail, and cost control. A redundant piping system brings sea water directly to the students. Once a week the pipes that previously held sea water are flushed and refilled with fresh water. (MLF)

  8. Law and Marine Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bockrath, Joseph

    1976-01-01

    The University of Delaware Marine Studies has implemented courses in coastal zone law and policy and maritime law. The courses attempt to integrate the scientist's or engineer's work with public policy formation. The program emphasizes historical and current issues and the economic, cultural, and political forces operating in decision-making…

  9. Marine intervals in Neogene fluvial deposits of western Amazonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boonstra, Melanie; Troelstra, Simon; Lammertsma, Emmy; Hoorn, Carina

    2014-05-01

    Amazonia is one of the most species rich areas on Earth, but this high diversity is not homogeneous over the entire region. Highest mammal and tree-alpha diversity is found in the fluvio-lacustrine Pebas system, a Neogene wetland associated with rapid radiation of species. The estuarine to marine origin of various modern Amazonian fish, plants, and invertebrates has been associated with past marine ingressions into this freshwater Pebas system. The exact nature and age of these invasions is, however, debated. Here we present new evidence from fluvial and fluvio-lacustrine deposits of Neogene age in southeast Colombia, that point to periods of widespread marine conditions in western Amazonia. Our evidence is based on an analysis of marine palynomorphs, such as organic linings of foraminifera and dinoflagellate cysts, present in dark sandy clay sediments that outcrop along the Caqueta and Amazon rivers. Characteristically, the foraminiferal linings can be assigned to three benthic morphotypes only, e.g. Ammonia, Elphidium and Trochammina. This low diversity assemblage is associated with estuarine/marginal marine conditions. No distinct marine elements such as shelf or planktonic species were encountered. The observed foraminiferal linings and dinocyst assemblages are typical for a (eutrophic) shallow marine environment, suggesting that the Pebas freshwater wetland system occasionally changed to (marginal) marine. Although some reworked elements are found, a typical Neogene dinocyst taxon is commonly found supporting in situ deposition. Sedimentological features typical for tidal conditions that are reported for sites in Peru and northeastern Brazil likely relate to these marine ingressions. Sea level changes as well as foreland basin development related to Andes formation may have facilitated the entry of marine water during the Neogene.

  10. Alpha-emitting nuclides in the marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pentreath, R. J.

    1984-06-01

    The occurrence of alpha-emitting nuclides and their daughter products in the marine environment continues to be a subject of study for many reasons. Those nuclides which occur naturally, in the uranium, thorium and actinium series, are of interest because of their value in determining the rates of geological and geochemical processes in the oceans. Studies of them address such problems as the determination of rates of transfer of particulate matter, deposition rates, bioturbation rates, and so on. Two of the natural alpha-series nuclides in which a different interest has been expressed are 210Po and 226Ra, because their concentrations in marine organisms are such that they contribute to a significant fraction of the background dose rates sustained both by the organisms themselves and by consumers of marine fish and shellfish. To this pool of naturally-occurring nuclides, human activities have added the transuranium nuclides, both from the atmospheric testing of nuclear devices and from the authorized discharges of radioactive wastes into coastal waters and the deep sea. Studies have therefore been made to understand the chemistry of these radionuclides in sea water, their association with sedimentary materials, and their accumulation by marine organisms, the last of these being of particular interest because the transuranics are essentially "novel" elements to the marine fauna and flora. The need to predict the long-term behaviour of these nuclides has, in turn, stimulated research on those naturally-occurring nuclides which may behave in a similar manner.

  11. Artificial reefs and marine protected areas: a study in willingness to pay to access Folkestone Marine Reserve, Barbados, West Indies.

    PubMed

    Kirkbride-Smith, Anne E; Wheeler, Philip M; Johnson, Magnus L

    2016-01-01

    Artificial reefs in marine protected areas provide additional habitat for biodiversity viewing, and therefore may offer an innovative management solution for managing for coral reef recovery and resilience. Marine park user fees can generate revenue to help manage and maintain natural and artificial reefs. Using a stated preference survey, this study investigates the present consumer surplus associated with visitor use of a marine protected area in Barbados. Two hypothetical markets were presented to differentiate between respondents use values of either: (a) natural reefs within the marine reserve or (b) artificial reef habitat for recreational enhancement. Information was also collected on visitors' perceptions of artificial reefs, reef material preferences and reef conservation awareness. From a sample of 250 visitors on snorkel trips, we estimate a mean willingness to pay of US$18.33 (median-US$15) for natural reef use and a mean value of US$17.58 (median-US$12.50) for artificial reef use. The number of marine species viewed, age of respondent, familiarity with the Folkestone Marine Reserve and level of environmental concern were statistically significant in influencing willingness to pay. Regression analyses indicate visitors are willing to pay a significant amount to view marine life, especially turtles. Our results suggest that user fees could provide a considerable source of income to aid reef conservation in Barbados. In addition, the substantial use value reported for artificial reefs indicates a reef substitution policy may be supported by visitors to the Folkestone Marine Reserve. We discuss our findings and highlight directions for future research that include the need to collect data to establish visitors' non-use values to fund reef management. PMID:27547521

  12. Artificial reefs and marine protected areas: a study in willingness to pay to access Folkestone Marine Reserve, Barbados, West Indies

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Philip M.; Johnson, Magnus L.

    2016-01-01

    Artificial reefs in marine protected areas provide additional habitat for biodiversity viewing, and therefore may offer an innovative management solution for managing for coral reef recovery and resilience. Marine park user fees can generate revenue to help manage and maintain natural and artificial reefs. Using a stated preference survey, this study investigates the present consumer surplus associated with visitor use of a marine protected area in Barbados. Two hypothetical markets were presented to differentiate between respondents use values of either: (a) natural reefs within the marine reserve or (b) artificial reef habitat for recreational enhancement. Information was also collected on visitors’ perceptions of artificial reefs, reef material preferences and reef conservation awareness. From a sample of 250 visitors on snorkel trips, we estimate a mean willingness to pay of US$18.33 (median—US$15) for natural reef use and a mean value of US$17.58 (median—US$12.50) for artificial reef use. The number of marine species viewed, age of respondent, familiarity with the Folkestone Marine Reserve and level of environmental concern were statistically significant in influencing willingness to pay. Regression analyses indicate visitors are willing to pay a significant amount to view marine life, especially turtles. Our results suggest that user fees could provide a considerable source of income to aid reef conservation in Barbados. In addition, the substantial use value reported for artificial reefs indicates a reef substitution policy may be supported by visitors to the Folkestone Marine Reserve. We discuss our findings and highlight directions for future research that include the need to collect data to establish visitors’ non-use values to fund reef management. PMID:27547521

  13. Artificial reefs and marine protected areas: a study in willingness to pay to access Folkestone Marine Reserve, Barbados, West Indies.

    PubMed

    Kirkbride-Smith, Anne E; Wheeler, Philip M; Johnson, Magnus L

    2016-01-01

    Artificial reefs in marine protected areas provide additional habitat for biodiversity viewing, and therefore may offer an innovative management solution for managing for coral reef recovery and resilience. Marine park user fees can generate revenue to help manage and maintain natural and artificial reefs. Using a stated preference survey, this study investigates the present consumer surplus associated with visitor use of a marine protected area in Barbados. Two hypothetical markets were presented to differentiate between respondents use values of either: (a) natural reefs within the marine reserve or (b) artificial reef habitat for recreational enhancement. Information was also collected on visitors' perceptions of artificial reefs, reef material preferences and reef conservation awareness. From a sample of 250 visitors on snorkel trips, we estimate a mean willingness to pay of US$18.33 (median-US$15) for natural reef use and a mean value of US$17.58 (median-US$12.50) for artificial reef use. The number of marine species viewed, age of respondent, familiarity with the Folkestone Marine Reserve and level of environmental concern were statistically significant in influencing willingness to pay. Regression analyses indicate visitors are willing to pay a significant amount to view marine life, especially turtles. Our results suggest that user fees could provide a considerable source of income to aid reef conservation in Barbados. In addition, the substantial use value reported for artificial reefs indicates a reef substitution policy may be supported by visitors to the Folkestone Marine Reserve. We discuss our findings and highlight directions for future research that include the need to collect data to establish visitors' non-use values to fund reef management.

  14. Coacervative extraction of trace lead from natural waters prior to its determination by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagarová, Ingrid; Bujdoš, Marek; Matúš, Peter; Kubová, Jana

    2013-10-01

    In this work, a relatively simple and sensitive method for separation/preconcentration of trace lead from natural waters prior to its determination by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry has been proposed. The method is based on the extraction of Pb-dithizone chelate with coacervates made up of lauric acid in the presence of potassium ions and methanol. Several important factors affecting extraction efficiency such as pH, concentration of lauric acid and dithizone, ionic strength, incubation and centrifugation time were investigated and optimized. After separation of aqueous bulk solution from surfactant-rich phase, the final extract was redissolved by using 500 μl of methanol acidified with 0.2 mol l- 1 HNO3. Under the optimized conditions (using initial sample volume of 10 ml), enrichment factor of 17.0, detection limit of 0.12 μg l- 1, quantification limit of 0.38 μg l- 1, relative standard deviation of 4.2% (for 2 μg l- 1 of Pb; n = 26), linearity of the calibration graph in the range of 0.5-4.0 μg l- 1 (with correlation coefficient better than 0.995) were achieved. The method was validated by the analysis of certified reference material (TMDA-61). Extraction recoveries for the CRM, spiked model solutions and spiked natural water samples were in the range of 91-96%. Finally, the method was applied to the separation/preconcentration and determination of trace lead in natural waters.

  15. Multiyear predictability of tropical marine productivity

    PubMed Central

    Séférian, Roland; Bopp, Laurent; Gehlen, Marion; Swingedouw, Didier; Mignot, Juliette; Guilyardi, Eric; Servonnat, Jérôme

    2014-01-01

    With the emergence of decadal predictability simulations, research toward forecasting variations of the climate system now covers a large range of timescales. However, assessment of the capacity to predict natural variations of relevant biogeochemical variables like carbon fluxes, pH, or marine primary productivity remains unexplored. Among these, the net primary productivity (NPP) is of particular relevance in a forecasting perspective. Indeed, in regions like the tropical Pacific (30°N–30°S), NPP exhibits natural fluctuations at interannual to decadal timescales that have large impacts on marine ecosystems and fisheries. Here, we investigate predictions of NPP variations over the last decades (i.e., from 1997 to 2011) with an Earth system model within the tropical Pacific. Results suggest a predictive skill for NPP of 3 y, which is higher than that of sea surface temperature (1 y). We attribute the higher predictability of NPP to the poleward advection of nutrient anomalies (nitrate and iron), which sustain fluctuations in phytoplankton productivity over several years. These results open previously unidentified perspectives to the development of science-based management approaches to marine resources relying on integrated physical-biogeochemical forecasting systems. PMID:25071174

  16. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) Bulletin, New Series Vol. 7, No. 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Morges, (Switzerland).

    Described is the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) marine program which centers around the world wildlife fund marine program. The program has been divided into three phases - launch, main, and follow-up; the launch phase is described. Action plans are described for each sub-program. Each action plan…

  17. The odyssey of marine pharmaceuticals: a current pipeline perspective.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Alejandro M S; Glaser, Keith B; Cuevas, Carmen; Jacobs, Robert S; Kem, William; Little, R Daniel; McIntosh, J Michael; Newman, David J; Potts, Barbara C; Shuster, Dale E

    2010-06-01

    The global marine pharmaceutical pipeline consists of three Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved drugs, one EU registered drug, 13 natural products (or derivatives thereof) in different phases of the clinical pipeline and a large number of marine chemicals in the preclinical pipeline. In the United States there are three FDA approved marine-derived drugs, namely cytarabine (Cytosar-U((R)), Depocyt((R))), vidarabine (Vira-A((R))) and ziconotide (Prialt((R))). The current clinical pipeline includes 13 marine-derived compounds that are either in Phase I, Phase II or Phase III clinical trials. Several key Phase III studies are ongoing and there are seven marine-derived compounds now in Phase II trials. The preclinical pipeline continues to supply several hundred novel marine compounds every year and those continue to feed the clinical pipeline with potentially valuable compounds. From a global perspective the marine pharmaceutical pipeline remains very active, and now has sufficient momentum to deliver several additional compounds to the marketplace in the near future; this review provides a current view of the pipeline.

  18. Medicinal foods from marine animals: current status and prospects.

    PubMed

    Kim, Se-Kwon; Pallela, Ramjee

    2012-01-01

    The lifestyle of human being is changing day by day toward the simplified and more convenient way of living. Human wellbeing is majorly dependent on the daily food habits that are in accordance with the habits of individual community and the surrounding environments. Although the food habits are simplified and fashioned according to the current lifestyle, many of the Asians are still showing much importance to the naturally derived and traditional foods. One such medicinally important natural source is the foods from marine organisms, which are an important growing notion for the development of marine nutraceuticals and functional foods. In this context, we have already brought the recent trends and applications of marine algal (macro and micro) foods in my previous volume. The current preliminary chapter of this book volume on marine animals and microbes describes about the prospects of various marine animals and their derived substances/materials as medicinal foods. In addition, this chapter encourages the new researchers as well as various health communities to implement the marine animal-based medicinal foods and their applications.

  19. Recent Advances in Marine Enzymes for Biotechnological Processes.

    PubMed

    Lima, R N; Porto, A L M

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade, new trends in the food and pharmaceutical industries have increased concern for the quality and safety of products. The use of biocatalytic processes using marine enzymes has become an important and useful natural product for biotechnological applications. Bioprocesses using biocatalysts like marine enzymes (fungi, bacteria, plants, animals, algae, etc.) offer hyperthermostability, salt tolerance, barophilicity, cold adaptability, chemoselectivity, regioselectivity, and stereoselectivity. Currently, enzymatic methods are used to produce a large variety of products that humans consume, and the specific nature of the enzymes including processing under mild pH and temperature conditions result in fewer unwanted side-effects and by-products. This offers high selectivity in industrial processes. The marine habitat has been become increasingly studied because it represents a huge source potential biocatalysts. Enzymes include oxidoreductases, hydrolases, transferases, isomerases, ligases, and lyases that can be used in food and pharmaceutical applications. Finally, recent advances in biotechnological processes using enzymes of marine organisms (bacterial, fungi, algal, and sponges) are described and also our work on marine organisms from South America, especially marine-derived fungi and bacteria involved in biotransformations and biodegradation of organic compounds. PMID:27452170

  20. Marine04 Marine radiocarbon age calibration, 26 ? 0 ka BP

    SciTech Connect

    Hughen, K; Baille, M; Bard, E; Beck, J; Bertrand, C; Blackwell, P; Buck, C; Burr, G; Cutler, K; Damon, P; Edwards, R; Fairbanks, R; Friedrich, M; Guilderson, T; Kromer, B; McCormac, F; Manning, S; Bronk-Ramsey, C; Reimer, P; Reimer, R; Remmele, S; Southon, J; Stuiver, M; Talamo, S; Taylor, F; der Plicht, J v; Weyhenmeyer, C

    2004-11-01

    New radiocarbon calibration curves, IntCal04 and Marine04, have been constructed and internationally ratified to replace the terrestrial and marine components of IntCal98. The new calibration datasets extend an additional 2000 years, from 0-26 ka cal BP (Before Present, 0 cal BP = AD 1950), and provide much higher resolution, greater precision and more detailed structure than IntCal98. For the Marine04 curve, dendrochronologically dated tree-ring samples, converted with a box-diffusion model to marine mixed-layer ages, cover the period from 0-10.5 ka cal BP. Beyond 10.5 ka cal BP, high-resolution marine data become available from foraminifera in varved sediments and U/Th-dated corals. The marine records are corrected with site-specific {sup 14}C reservoir age information to provide a single global marine mixed-layer calibration from 10.5-26.0 ka cal BP. A substantial enhancement relative to IntCal98 is the introduction of a random walk model, which takes into account the uncertainty in both the calendar age and the radiocarbon age to calculate the underlying calibration curve. The marine datasets and calibration curve for marine samples from the surface mixed layer (Marine04) are discussed here. The tree-ring datasets, sources of uncertainty, and regional offsets are presented in detail in a companion paper by Reimer et al.

  1. The roles of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids in the process of aggregation of natural marine organic matter investigated by means of 2D correlation spectroscopy applied to infrared spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mecozzi, Mauro; Pietrantonio, Eva; Pietroletti, Marco

    2009-01-01

    In this paper the marine organic matter soluble in an alkaline medium called extractable humic substance (EHS), was extracted from three sediment samples of Tyrrhenian Sea and separated by precipitation at pH 2 in the two fractions of fulvic acids (FAs) and humic acids (HAs). FAs were further fractionated in seven sub-samples of different molecular weight (mw) by means of seven different ultrafiltration membranes operating in the range between mw < 1 kDa and mw > 100 kDa. Then the qualitative composition of each sample of fractionated FAs and HAs was studied by means of one-dimensional Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in reflectance mode (FTIR-DRIFT) and by two-dimensional (2D) correlation spectroscopy both in wavelength-wavelength (WW) and in sample-sample (SS) mode. The application of 2D correlation WW spectroscopy allows to elucidate the different roles played by carbohydrates and proteins with respect to some lipid compounds such as fatty acids and ester fatty acids during the process of aggregate formations from mw ˜1 kDa to higher size aggregates. In addition, 2D correlation WW spectroscopy allows to observe some peculiar interactions between carbohydrates and proteins in the formation of EHS aggregates, interactions which vary from a sample to another sample. The results of 2D correlation SS spectroscopy confirm the general evidences obtained by 2D WW spectroscopy and moreover, they also describe the formation of EHS aggregates as a complex process where evolutionary links and connectivity between aggregates of neighbour molecular size ranges are not evident. Two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy applied to FTIR spectroscopy shows to be a powerful tool for the investigation of the mechanisms involved in EHS aggregation because it supports the acquisition of structural information which sometimes can be hardly obtained by one-dimensional FTIR spectroscopy.

  2. Enzymatic Synthesis of Polybrominated Dioxins from the Marine Environment

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Polyhalogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins are arguably among the most toxic molecules known to man. In addition to anthropogenic sources, marine invertebrates also harbor polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins of as yet unknown biogenic origin. Here, we report that the bmp gene locus in marine bacteria, a recently characterized source of polybrominated diphenyl ethers, can also synthesize dibenzo-p-dioxins by employing different phenolic initiator molecules. Our findings also diversify the structural classes of diphenyl ethers accessed by the bmp biosynthetic pathway. This report lays the biochemical foundation of a likely biogenetic origin of dibenzo-p-dioxins present in the marine metabolome and greatly expands the toxicity potential of marine derived polyhaloganated natural products. PMID:25061970

  3. Marine-Derived Angiogenesis Inhibitors for Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying-Qing; Miao, Ze-Hong

    2013-01-01

    Angiogenesis inhibitors have been successfully used for cancer therapy in the clinic. Many marine-derived natural products and their analogues have been reported to show antiangiogenic activities. Compared with the drugs in the clinic, these agents display interesting characteristics, including diverse sources, unique chemical structures, special modes of action, and distinct activity and toxicity profiles. This review will first provide an overview of the current marine-derived angiogenesis inhibitors based on their primary targets and/or mechanisms of action. Then, the marine-derived antiangiogenic protein kinase inhibitors will be focused on. And finally, the clinical trials of the marine-derived antiangiogenic agents will be discussed, with special emphasis on their application potentials, problems and possible coping strategies in their future development as anticancer drugs. PMID:23502698

  4. Sulfated polysaccharides as bioactive agents from marine algae.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Dai-Hung; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2013-11-01

    Recently, much attention has been paid by consumers toward natural bioactive compounds as functional ingredients in nutraceuticals. Marine algae are considered as valuable sources of structurally diverse bioactive compounds. Marine algae are rich in sulfated polysaccharides (SPs) such as carrageenans in red algae, fucoidans in brown algae and ulvans in green algae. These SPs exhibit many health beneficial nutraceutical effects such as antioxidant, anti-allergic, anti-human immunodeficiency virus, anticancer and anticoagulant activities. Therefore, marine algae derived SPs have great potential to be further developed as medicinal food products or nutraceuticals in the food industry. This contribution presents an overview of nutraceutical effects and potential health benefits of SPs derived from marine algae.

  5. Methylmercury production in the marine water column

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topping, G.; Davies, I. M.

    1981-03-01

    Although the biosynthesis of methylmercury in sediments is well established1, this is not necessarily the exclusive natural source of methylmercury entering the marine food chain, particularly commercial fish and shellfish species for human consumption. An examination of mercury levels in freshwater fish2, collected from a lake with a history of industrial mercury contamination, suggested that levels in fish are controlled in part by mercury in suspension and it followed that methylation should occur in the water column. Although methylmercury is present in seawater in coastal areas receiving discharges of waste containing either inorganic mercury3 or methylmercury4 there is no evidence that methylmercury is actually formed in the water column. We now present data which demonstrate that inorganic mercury can be methylated in the water column and we compare this production with that known to occur in marine sediments.

  6. Genomic insights into the marine sponge microbiome.

    PubMed

    Hentschel, Ute; Piel, Jörn; Degnan, Sandie M; Taylor, Michael W

    2012-09-01

    Marine sponges (phylum Porifera) often contain dense and diverse microbial communities, which can constitute up to 35% of the sponge biomass. The genome of one sponge, Amphimedon queenslandica, was recently sequenced, and this has provided new insights into the origins of animal evolution. Complementary efforts to sequence the genomes of uncultivated sponge symbionts have yielded the first glimpse of how these intimate partnerships are formed. The remarkable microbial and chemical diversity of the sponge-microorganism association, coupled with its postulated antiquity, makes sponges important model systems for the study of metazoan host-microorganism interactions, and their evolution, as well as for enabling access to biotechnologically important symbiont-derived natural products. In this Review, we discuss our current understanding of the interactions between marine sponges and their microbial symbiotic consortia, and highlight recent insights into these relationships from genomic studies.

  7. Marine pollution: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentukevičienė, Marina; Brannvall, Evelina

    2008-01-01

    This overview of marine pollution follows the methodology as proposed below. Firstly, well-known databases (Science Direct, GeoRef, SpringerLINK, etc.) on technological research were studied. All collected references were divided into 27 sections following the key words associated with marine pollution, oil spills, alien species migration, etc. The most commercially promising research and development (R & D) activities seem to be market-oriented sections: detection of oil spills at sea, containment and recovery of floating oil at sea, detection of oil spills on land, disposal of oil and debris on land, alien species migration prevention from ballast water and underwater hull cleaning in water, NOx and SOx emissions, pollutions from ship-building and repair, and biogeochemical modelling. Great market demands for commercially patented innovations are very attractive for initiating new R & D projects.

  8. New marine community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    While exploring the West Florida Escarpment, a steep slope in the Gulf of Mexico several hundred kilometers off the Florida coast, the deep submergence research vessel Alvin chanced upon a well-developed community of marine life akin to that found 7 years ago in the eastern Pacific Ocean.According to the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, which operates the submersible and its new tender, the Atlantis II (Eos, November 1, 1983, p. 619), the marine community contains large clams, mussels, crabs, fish, and tube worms like those found at hydrothermal vents in the eastern Pacific. While the east Pacific communities exist at spreading centers, the newly discovered group, which may stretch for almost 2 km at a depth of roughly 3200 km, lies in a passive continental margin. Also, whereas the water around the Pacific hydrothermal vents is much warmer than the surrounding seawater, the water around the new found community is apparently the same temperature as the ambient waters.

  9. Marine cloud brightening.

    PubMed

    Latham, John; Bower, Keith; Choularton, Tom; Coe, Hugh; Connolly, Paul; Cooper, Gary; Craft, Tim; Foster, Jack; Gadian, Alan; Galbraith, Lee; Iacovides, Hector; Johnston, David; Launder, Brian; Leslie, Brian; Meyer, John; Neukermans, Armand; Ormond, Bob; Parkes, Ben; Rasch, Phillip; Rush, John; Salter, Stephen; Stevenson, Tom; Wang, Hailong; Wang, Qin; Wood, Rob

    2012-09-13

    The idea behind the marine cloud-brightening (MCB) geoengineering technique is that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with copious quantities of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre sea water particles might significantly enhance the cloud droplet number concentration, and thereby the cloud albedo and possibly longevity. This would produce a cooling, which general circulation model (GCM) computations suggest could-subject to satisfactory resolution of technical and scientific problems identified herein-have the capacity to balance global warming up to the carbon dioxide-doubling point. We describe herein an account of our recent research on a number of critical issues associated with MCB. This involves (i) GCM studies, which are our primary tools for evaluating globally the effectiveness of MCB, and assessing its climate impacts on rainfall amounts and distribution, and also polar sea-ice cover and thickness; (ii) high-resolution modelling of the effects of seeding on marine stratocumulus, which are required to understand the complex array of interacting processes involved in cloud brightening; (iii) microphysical modelling sensitivity studies, examining the influence of seeding amount, seed-particle salt-mass, air-mass characteristics, updraught speed and other parameters on cloud-albedo change; (iv) sea water spray-production techniques; (v) computational fluid dynamics studies of possible large-scale periodicities in Flettner rotors; and (vi) the planning of a three-stage limited-area field research experiment, with the primary objectives of technology testing and determining to what extent, if any, cloud albedo might be enhanced by seeding marine stratocumulus clouds on a spatial scale of around 100×100 km. We stress that there would be no justification for deployment of MCB unless it was clearly established that no significant adverse consequences would result. There would also need to be an international agreement firmly in favour of such action.

  10. Osmoregulation in marine mammals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortiz, R. M.

    2001-01-01

    Osmoregulation in marine mammals has been investigated for over a century; however, a review of recent advances in our understanding of water and electrolyte balance and of renal function in marine mammals is warranted. The following topics are discussed: (i) kidney structure and urine concentrating ability, (ii) sources of water, (iii) the effects of feeding, fasting and diving, (iv) the renal responses to infusions of varying salinity and (v) hormonal regulation. The kidneys of pinnipeds and cetaceans are reniculate in structure, unlike those of terrestrial mammals (except bears), but this difference does not confer any greater concentrating ability. Pinnipeds, cetaceans, manatees and sea otters can concentrate their urine above the concentration of sea water, but only pinnipeds and otters have been shown to produce urine concentrations of Na+ and Cl- that are similar to those in sea water. This could afford them the capacity to drink sea water and not lose fresh water. However, with few exceptions, drinking is not a common behavior in pinnipeds and cetaceans. Water balance is maintained in these animals via metabolic and dietary water, while incidental ingestion and dietary salt may help maintain electrolyte homeostasis. Unlike most other aquatic mammals, sea otters commonly drink sea water and manatees frequently drink fresh water. Among the various taxonomic groups of marine mammals, the sensitivity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system appears to be influenced by the availability of Na+. The antidiuretic role of vasopressin remains inconclusive in marine mammals, while the natriuretic function of atrial natriuretic peptide has yet to be examined. Ideas on the direction of future studies are presented.

  11. Marine cloud brightening

    PubMed Central

    Latham, John; Bower, Keith; Choularton, Tom; Coe, Hugh; Connolly, Paul; Cooper, Gary; Craft, Tim; Foster, Jack; Gadian, Alan; Galbraith, Lee; Iacovides, Hector; Johnston, David; Launder, Brian; Leslie, Brian; Meyer, John; Neukermans, Armand; Ormond, Bob; Parkes, Ben; Rasch, Phillip; Rush, John; Salter, Stephen; Stevenson, Tom; Wang, Hailong; Wang, Qin; Wood, Rob

    2012-01-01

    The idea behind the marine cloud-brightening (MCB) geoengineering technique is that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with copious quantities of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre sea water particles might significantly enhance the cloud droplet number concentration, and thereby the cloud albedo and possibly longevity. This would produce a cooling, which general circulation model (GCM) computations suggest could—subject to satisfactory resolution of technical and scientific problems identified herein—have the capacity to balance global warming up to the carbon dioxide-doubling point. We describe herein an account of our recent research on a number of critical issues associated with MCB. This involves (i) GCM studies, which are our primary tools for evaluating globally the effectiveness of MCB, and assessing its climate impacts on rainfall amounts and distribution, and also polar sea-ice cover and thickness; (ii) high-resolution modelling of the effects of seeding on marine stratocumulus, which are required to understand the complex array of interacting processes involved in cloud brightening; (iii) microphysical modelling sensitivity studies, examining the influence of seeding amount, seed-particle salt-mass, air-mass characteristics, updraught speed and other parameters on cloud–albedo change; (iv) sea water spray-production techniques; (v) computational fluid dynamics studies of possible large-scale periodicities in Flettner rotors; and (vi) the planning of a three-stage limited-area field research experiment, with the primary objectives of technology testing and determining to what extent, if any, cloud albedo might be enhanced by seeding marine stratocumulus clouds on a spatial scale of around 100×100 km. We stress that there would be no justification for deployment of MCB unless it was clearly established that no significant adverse consequences would result. There would also need to be an international agreement firmly in favour of such action

  12. Marine Cloud Brightening

    SciTech Connect

    Latham, John; Bower, Keith; Choularton, Tom; Coe, H.; Connolly, P.; Cooper, Gary; Craft, Tim; Foster, Jack; Gadian, Alan; Galbraith, Lee; Iacovides, Hector; Johnston, David; Launder, Brian; Leslie, Brian; Meyer, John; Neukermans, Armand; Ormond, Bob; Parkes, Ben; Rasch, Philip J.; Rush, John; Salter, Stephen; Stevenson, Tom; Wang, Hailong; Wang, Qin; Wood, Robert

    2012-09-07

    The idea behind the marine cloud-brightening (MCB) geoengineering technique is that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with copious quantities of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre sea water particles might significantly enhance the cloud droplet number concentration, and thereby the cloud albedo and possibly longevity. This would produce a cooling, which general circulation model (GCM) computations suggest could - subject to satisfactory resolution of technical and scientific problems identified herein - have the capacity to balance global warming up to the carbon dioxide-doubling point. We describe herein an account of our recent research on a number of critical issues associated with MCB. This involves (i) GCM studies, which are our primary tools for evaluating globally the effectiveness of MCB, and assessing its climate impacts on rainfall amounts and distribution, and also polar sea-ice cover and thickness; (ii) high-resolution modelling of the effects of seeding on marine stratocumulus, which are required to understand the complex array of interacting processes involved in cloud brightening; (iii) microphysical modelling sensitivity studies, examining the influence of seeding amount, seedparticle salt-mass, air-mass characteristics, updraught speed and other parameters on cloud-albedo change; (iv) sea water spray-production techniques; (v) computational fluid dynamics studies of possible large-scale periodicities in Flettner rotors; and (vi) the planning of a three-stage limited-area field research experiment, with the primary objectives of technology testing and determining to what extent, if any, cloud albedo might be enhanced by seeding marine stratocumulus clouds on a spatial scale of around 100 km. We stress that there would be no justification for deployment of MCB unless it was clearly established that no significant adverse consequences would result. There would also need to be an international agreement firmly in favour of such action.

  13. Marine Oil Biodegradation.

    PubMed

    Hazen, Terry C; Prince, Roger C; Mahmoudi, Nagissa

    2016-03-01

    Crude oil has been part of the marine environment for millions of years, and microbes that use its rich source of energy and carbon are found in seawater, sediments, and shorelines from the tropics to the polar regions. Catastrophic oil spills stimulate these organisms to "bloom" in a reproducible fashion, and although oil does not provide bioavailable nitrogen, phosphorus or iron, there are enough of these nutrients in the sea that when dispersed oil droplets dilute to low concentrations these low levels are adequate for microbial growth. Most of the hydrocarbons in dispersed oil are degraded in aerobic marine waters with a half-life of days to months. In contrast, oil that reaches shorelines is likely to be too concentrated, have lower levels of nutrients, and have a far longer residence time in the environment. Oil that becomes entrained in anaerobic sediments is also likely to have a long residence time, although it too will eventually be biodegraded. Thus, data that encompass everything from the ecosystem to the molecular level are needed for understanding the complicated process of petroleum biodegradation in marine environments. PMID:26698270

  14. Marine botany. Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    Dawes, C.J.

    1998-12-01

    Marine plants are a diverse group that include unicellular algae, seaweeds, seagrasses, salt marshes, and mangrove forests. They carry out a variety of ecological functions and serve as the primary producers in coastal wetlands and oceanic waters. The theme that connects such a wide variety of plants is their ecology, which was also emphasized in the 1981 edition. The goal of this revision is to present taxonomic, physiological, chemical, and ecological aspects of marine plants, their adaptations, and how abiotic and biotic factors interact in their communities. The data are presented in a concise, comparative manner in order to identify similarities and differences between communities such as salt marsh and mangroves or subtidal seaweeds and seagrasses. To accomplish this, the text is organized into five chapters that introduce the marine habitats, consider abiotic and biotic factors, and anthropogenic influences on the communities followed by seven chapters that deal with microalgae, seaweeds, salt marshes, mangroves, seagrasses, and coral reefs. Two appendixes are included; one presents simple field techniques and the other is a summary of seaweed uses.

  15. The phylogenetic significance of colour patterns in marine teleost larvae

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, Carole C

    2013-01-01

    Ichthyologists, natural-history artists, and tropical-fish aquarists have described, illustrated, or photographed colour patterns in adult marine fishes for centuries, but colour patterns in marine fish larvae have largely been neglected. Yet the pelagic larval stages of many marine fishes exhibit subtle to striking, ephemeral patterns of chromatophores that warrant investigation into their potential taxonomic and phylogenetic significance. Colour patterns in larvae of over 200 species of marine teleosts, primarily from the western Caribbean, were examined from digital colour photographs, and their potential utility in elucidating evolutionary relationships at various taxonomic levels was assessed. Larvae of relatively few basal marine teleosts exhibit erythrophores, xanthophores, or iridophores (i.e. nonmelanistic chromatophores), but one or more of those types of chromatophores are visible in larvae of many basal marine neoteleosts and nearly all marine percomorphs. Whether or not the presence of nonmelanistic chromatophores in pelagic marine larvae diagnoses any major teleost taxonomic group cannot be determined based on the preliminary survey conducted, but there is a trend toward increased colour from elopomorphs to percomorphs. Within percomorphs, patterns of nonmelanistic chromatophores may help resolve or contribute evidence to existing hypotheses of relationships at multiple levels of classification. Mugilid and some beloniform larvae share a unique ontogenetic transformation of colour pattern that lends support to the hypothesis of a close relationship between them. Larvae of some tetraodontiforms and lophiiforms are strikingly similar in having the trunk enclosed in an inflated sac covered with xanthophores, a character that may help resolve the relationships of these enigmatic taxa. Colour patterns in percomorph larvae also appear to diagnose certain groups at the interfamilial, familial, intergeneric, and generic levels. Slight differences in generic

  16. The phylogenetic significance of colour patterns in marine teleost larvae.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Carole C

    2013-07-01

    Ichthyologists, natural-history artists, and tropical-fish aquarists have described, illustrated, or photographed colour patterns in adult marine fishes for centuries, but colour patterns in marine fish larvae have largely been neglected. Yet the pelagic larval stages of many marine fishes exhibit subtle to striking, ephemeral patterns of chromatophores that warrant investigation into their potential taxonomic and phylogenetic significance. Colour patterns in larvae of over 200 species of marine teleosts, primarily from the western Caribbean, were examined from digital colour photographs, and their potential utility in elucidating evolutionary relationships at various taxonomic levels was assessed. Larvae of relatively few basal marine teleosts exhibit erythrophores, xanthophores, or iridophores (i.e. nonmelanistic chromatophores), but one or more of those types of chromatophores are visible in larvae of many basal marine neoteleosts and nearly all marine percomorphs. Whether or not the presence of nonmelanistic chromatophores in pelagic marine larvae diagnoses any major teleost taxonomic group cannot be determined based on the preliminary survey conducted, but there is a trend toward increased colour from elopomorphs to percomorphs. Within percomorphs, patterns of nonmelanistic chromatophores may help resolve or contribute evidence to existing hypotheses of relationships at multiple levels of classification. Mugilid and some beloniform larvae share a unique ontogenetic transformation of colour pattern that lends support to the hypothesis of a close relationship between them. Larvae of some tetraodontiforms and lophiiforms are strikingly similar in having the trunk enclosed in an inflated sac covered with xanthophores, a character that may help resolve the relationships of these enigmatic taxa. Colour patterns in percomorph larvae also appear to diagnose certain groups at the interfamilial, familial, intergeneric, and generic levels. Slight differences in generic

  17. 75 FR 60093 - Record of Decision for the United States Marine Corps Basewide Utilities Infrastructure Project...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-29

    ... Infrastructure Project at Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton, CA AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DoD. ACTION..., electrical, communication, and natural gas systems at Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton (MCBCP), California as... number of impacts to the environment of the action alternatives and the least impacts to base...

  18. 77 FR 23464 - Updates to List of National System of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-19

    ... Department of Marine and Wildlife Resources, 40 from the Massachusetts Board of Underwater Archaeological... Archaeology and Anthropology, one from the Virgin Islands Department Of Planning and Natural Resources and... ] Department of Marine and Wildlife Resources, the Massachusetts Board of Underwater Archaeological...

  19. Tides. Marine Science Curriculum Aid No. 5. Sea Grant Report 80-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Judy

    This manual, developed for use in Alaskan secondary schools, is one of a continuing series designed to provide basic information about the marine environment and Alaskan marine resources. The first part of the manual presents information about tides, focusing on: the nature of tides; cause of tides; factors related to tidal movement; types of…

  20. Bioactive Marine Drugs and Marine Biomaterials for Brain Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Grosso, Clara; Valentão, Patrícia; Ferreres, Federico; Andrade, Paula B.

    2014-01-01

    Marine invertebrates produce a plethora of bioactive compounds, which serve as inspiration for marine biotechnology, particularly in drug discovery programs and biomaterials development. This review aims to summarize the potential of drugs derived from marine invertebrates in the field of neuroscience. Therefore, some examples of neuroprotective drugs and neurotoxins will be discussed. Their role in neuroscience research and development of new therapies targeting the central nervous system will be addressed, with particular focus on neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. In addition, the neuronal growth promoted by marine drugs, as well as the recent advances in neural tissue engineering, will be highlighted. PMID:24798925

  1. Neuroprotective Effects of Marine Algae

    PubMed Central

    Pangestuti, Ratih; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2011-01-01

    The marine environment is known as a rich source of chemical structures with numerous beneficial health effects. Among marine organisms, marine algae have been identified as an under-exploited plant resource, although they have long been recognized as valuable sources of structurally diverse bioactive compounds. Presently, several lines of studies have provided insight into biological activities and neuroprotective effects of marine algae including antioxidant, anti-neuroinflammatory, cholinesterase inhibitory activity and the inhibition of neuronal death. Hence, marine algae have great potential to be used for neuroprotection as part of pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals and functional foods. This contribution presents an overview of marine algal neuroprotective effects and their potential application in neuroprotection. PMID:21673890

  2. Natural Products as Aromatase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Balunas, Marcy J.; Su, Bin; Brueggemeier, Robert W.; Kinghorn, A. Douglas

    2010-01-01

    With the clinical success of several synthetic aromatase inhibitors (AIs) in the treatment of postmenopausal estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer, researchers have also been investigating also the potential of natural products as AIs. Natural products from terrestrial and marine organisms provide a chemically diverse array of compounds not always available through current synthetic chemistry techniques. Natural products that have been used traditionally for nutritional or medicinal purposes (e.g., botanical dietary supplements) may also afford AIs with reduced side effects. A thorough review of the literature regarding natural product extracts and secondary metabolites of plant, microbial, and marine origin that have been shown to exhibit aromatase inhibitory activity is presented herein. PMID:18690828

  3. Marine Biota and Psychological Well-Being

    PubMed Central

    Cracknell, Deborah; White, Mathew P.; Pahl, Sabine; Nichols, Wallace J.; Depledge, Michael H.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to natural environments can have calming and stress-reducing effects on humans. Moreover, previous studies suggest that these benefits may be greater in areas with higher species richness. Our study took advantage of a “natural experiment” to examine people’s behavioral, physiological, and psychological reactions to increases in levels of marine biota in a large aquarium exhibit during three stages of restocking: Unstocked, Partially stocked, and Fully stocked. We found that increased biota levels were associated with longer spontaneous viewing of the exhibit, greater reductions in heart rate, greater increases in self-reported mood, and higher interest. We suggest that higher biota levels, even in managed settings, may be associated with important well-being and health benefits, particularly for individuals not able to access the natural analogues of managed environments.

  4. Sulfur diagenesis in marine sediments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldhaber, M.

    1985-01-01

    Bacterial sulfate reduction occurs in all marine sediments that contain organic matter. Aqueous sulfide (HS-, H2S), one of the initial products of bacterial sulfide reduction, is extremely reactive with iron bearing minerals: sulfur is fixed into sediments as iron sulfide (first FeS and then Fe2S2). A working definition is given of sulfur diagenesis in marine sediments. Controls and consequences of sulfate reduction rates in marine sediments are examined.

  5. Viruses manipulate the marine environment.

    PubMed

    Rohwer, Forest; Thurber, Rebecca Vega

    2009-05-14

    Marine viruses affect Bacteria, Archaea and eukaryotic organisms and are major components of the marine food web. Most studies have focused on their role as predators and parasites, but many of the interactions between marine viruses and their hosts are much more complicated. A series of recent studies has shown that viruses have the ability to manipulate the life histories and evolution of their hosts in remarkable ways, challenging our understanding of this almost invisible world.

  6. Marine resources. [coastal processes, ice, oceanography, and living marine resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, E. L., III

    1974-01-01

    Techniques have been developed for defining coastal circulation patterns using sediment as a natural tracer, allowing the formulation of new circulation concepts in some geographical areas and, in general, a better capability for defining the seasonal characteristics of coastal circulation. An analytical technique for measurement of absolute water depth based upon the ratios of two MSS channels has been developed. Suspended sediment has found wide use as a tracer, but a few investigators have reported limited success in measuring the type and amount of sediment quantitatively from ERTS-1 digital data. Significant progress has been made in developing techniques for using ERTS-1 data to locate, identify, and monitor sea and lake ice. Ice features greater than 70 meters in width can be detected, and both arctic and antarctic icebergs have been identified. In the application area of living marine resources, the use of ERTS-1 image-density patterns as a potential indicator of fish school location has been demonstrated for one coastal commercial resource, menhaden. ERTS-1 data have been used to locate ocean current boundaries using ERTS-1 image-density enhancement, and some techniques are under development for measurement of suspended particle concentration and chlorophyll concentration. The interrelationship of water color and surface characteristics (sea state) are also being studied to improve spectral and spatial interpretive techniques.

  7. The use of marine-derived bioactive compounds as potential hepatoprotective agents

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Dileep G; Weiskirchen, Ralf; Al-Musharafi, Salma K

    2015-01-01

    The marine environment may be explored as a rich source for novel drugs. A number of marine-derived compounds have been isolated and identified, and their therapeutic effects and pharmacological profiles are characterized. In the present review, we highlight the recent studies using marine compounds as potential hepatoprotective agents for the treatment of liver fibrotic diseases and discuss the proposed mechanisms of their activities. In addition, we discuss the significance of similar studies in Oman, where the rich marine life provides a potential for the isolation of novel natural, bioactive products that display therapeutic effects on liver diseases. PMID:25500871

  8. Diversity of Secondary Metabolites from Marine Bacillus Species: Chemistry and Biological Activity

    PubMed Central

    Mondol, Muhammad Abdul Mojid; Shin, Hee Jae; Islam, Mohammad Tofazzal

    2013-01-01

    Marine Bacillus species produce versatile secondary metabolites including lipopeptides, polypeptides, macrolactones, fatty acids, polyketides, and isocoumarins. These structurally diverse compounds exhibit a wide range of biological activities, such as antimicrobial, anticancer, and antialgal activities. Some marine Bacillus strains can detoxify heavy metals through reduction processes and have the ability to produce carotenoids. The present article reviews the chemistry and biological activities of secondary metabolites from marine isolates. Side by side, the potential for application of these novel natural products from marine Bacillus strains as drugs, pesticides, carotenoids, and tools for the bioremediation of heavy metal toxicity are also discussed. PMID:23941823

  9. Marine biodiversity and fishery sustainability.

    PubMed

    Shao, Kwang-Tsao

    2009-01-01

    Marine fish is one of the most important sources of animal protein for human use, especially in developing countries with coastlines. Marine fishery is also an important industry in many countries. Fifty years ago, many people believed that the ocean was so vast and so resilient that there was no way the marine environment could be changed, nor could marine fishery resources be depleted. Half a century later, we all agree that the depletion of fishery resources is happening mainly due to anthropogenic factors such as overfishing, habitat destruction, pollution, invasive species introduction, and climate change. Since overfishing can cause chain reactions that decrease marine biodiversity drastically, there will be no seafood left after 40 years if we take no action. The most effective ways to reverse this downward trend and restore fishery resources are to promote fishery conservation, establish marine-protected areas, adopt ecosystem-based management, and implement a "precautionary principle." Additionally, enhancing public awareness of marine conservation, which includes eco-labeling, fishery ban or enclosure, slow fishing, and MPA (marine protected areas) enforcement is important and effective. In this paper, we use Taiwan as an example to discuss the problems facing marine biodiversity and sustainable fisheries. PMID:19965343

  10. Marine biodiversity and fishery sustainability.

    PubMed

    Shao, Kwang-Tsao

    2009-01-01

    Marine fish is one of the most important sources of animal protein for human use, especially in developing countries with coastlines. Marine fishery is also an important industry in many countries. Fifty years ago, many people believed that the ocean was so vast and so resilient that there was no way the marine environment could be changed, nor could marine fishery resources be depleted. Half a century later, we all agree that the depletion of fishery resources is happening mainly due to anthropogenic factors such as overfishing, habitat destruction, pollution, invasive species introduction, and climate change. Since overfishing can cause chain reactions that decrease marine biodiversity drastically, there will be no seafood left after 40 years if we take no action. The most effective ways to reverse this downward trend and restore fishery resources are to promote fishery conservation, establish marine-protected areas, adopt ecosystem-based management, and implement a "precautionary principle." Additionally, enhancing public awareness of marine conservation, which includes eco-labeling, fishery ban or enclosure, slow fishing, and MPA (marine protected areas) enforcement is important and effective. In this paper, we use Taiwan as an example to discuss the problems facing marine biodiversity and sustainable fisheries.

  11. Pollution of the marine environment

    SciTech Connect

    Malins, D.C.

    1980-01-01

    With 63,000 chemicals in common use, the task of identifying specific pollutants and their effects in relation to marine life is immense. The interdisciplinary approach to this complex issue includes studies in analytical chemistry, biochemistry, vertebrate and invertebrate pathology, electron microscopy, immunology, and behavioral biology. Primary concerns are whether pollutants are available to organisms and whether they are transferred through marine food webs. Studies on marine and estuarine pollution in the New York Bight and Puget Sound, Washington, are summarized. Among other results it is interactive effects between two pollutants in marine organism that account for substantial alterations in certain biochemical systems and in cellular morphology. (JGB)

  12. Diagenesis and catagenesis of marine kerogen precursors

    SciTech Connect

    Rafalska-Bloch, J.

    1987-01-01

    The approaches used were (1) investigations of marine kerogen precursors in a natural environment, e.g., in reefal carbonate sediments (in Puerto Rico and Belize) and (2) laboratory modeling of the condensation of marine kerogen precursors, i.e., amino acids and sugars and subsequent formation and reactions of melanoidin polymers. The organic facies model of a reef environment was developed from the analysis of (1) total organic carbon, (2) visual protokerogen types, (3) Rock-Eval indices and (4) sedimentological considerations. Rates of melanoidin formation, incorporation of amino acid and glucose into the melanoidin polymers and their attendant decrease in the melanoidin solutions were evaluated. The observed pattern was that of initially rapid loss of biomonomers from the melanoidin solutions and concomitant formation of melanoidin polymers. The rate of incorporation of amino acids into the polymers is related partly to glucose concentration and partly to the type of amino acid. The racemization rates of amino acids were also investigated. During the course of melanoidin formation the original amino acid abundances and stereochemistry are redistributed during simulated diagenesis. This may have implications for natural environments where diagenesis may obscure the original depositional signal and complicate geochronological studies. Catagenetic evolution of both synthetic geopolymer (lysine, histidine, arginine, glucose - melanoidin) and natural geopolymers (Belizian organic matter) was simulated using hydrous pyrolysis.

  13. The marine diversity spectrum.

    PubMed

    Reuman, Daniel C; Gislason, Henrik; Barnes, Carolyn; Mélin, Frédéric; Jennings, Simon

    2014-07-01

    Distributions of species body sizes within a taxonomic group, for example, mammals, are widely studied and important because they help illuminate the evolutionary processes that produced these distributions. Distributions of the sizes of species within an assemblage delineated by geography instead of taxonomy (all the species in a region regardless of clade) are much less studied but are equally important and will illuminate a different set of ecological and evolutionary processes. We develop and test a mechanistic model of how diversity varies with body mass in marine ecosystems. The model predicts the form of the 'diversity spectrum', which quantifies the distribution of species' asymptotic body masses, is a species analogue of the classic size spectrum of individuals, and which we have found to be a new and widely applicable description of diversity patterns. The marine diversity spectrum is predicted to be approximately linear across an asymptotic mass range spanning seven orders of magnitude. Slope -0.5 is predicted for the global marine diversity spectrum for all combined pelagic zones of continental shelf seas, and slopes for large regions are predicted to lie between -0.5 and -0.1. Slopes of -0.5 and -0.1 represent markedly different communities: a slope of -0.5 depicts a 10-fold reduction in diversity for every 100-fold increase in asymptotic mass; a slope of -0.1 depicts a 1.6-fold reduction. Steeper slopes are predicted for larger or colder regions, meaning fewer large species per small species for such regions. Predictions were largely validated by a global empirical analysis. Results explain for the first time a new and widespread phenomenon of biodiversity. Results have implications for estimating numbers of species of small asymptotic mass, where taxonomic inventories are far from complete. Results show that the relationship between diversity and body mass can be explained from the dependence of predation behaviour, dispersal, and life history on

  14. The marine diversity spectrum.

    PubMed

    Reuman, Daniel C; Gislason, Henrik; Barnes, Carolyn; Mélin, Frédéric; Jennings, Simon

    2014-07-01

    Distributions of species body sizes within a taxonomic group, for example, mammals, are widely studied and important because they help illuminate the evolutionary processes that produced these distributions. Distributions of the sizes of species within an assemblage delineated by geography instead of taxonomy (all the species in a region regardless of clade) are much less studied but are equally important and will illuminate a different set of ecological and evolutionary processes. We develop and test a mechanistic model of how diversity varies with body mass in marine ecosystems. The model predicts the form of the 'diversity spectrum', which quantifies the distribution of species' asymptotic body masses, is a species analogue of the classic size spectrum of individuals, and which we have found to be a new and widely applicable description of diversity patterns. The marine diversity spectrum is predicted to be approximately linear across an asymptotic mass range spanning seven orders of magnitude. Slope -0.5 is predicted for the global marine diversity spectrum for all combined pelagic zones of continental shelf seas, and slopes for large regions are predicted to lie between -0.5 and -0.1. Slopes of -0.5 and -0.1 represent markedly different communities: a slope of -0.5 depicts a 10-fold reduction in diversity for every 100-fold increase in asymptotic mass; a slope of -0.1 depicts a 1.6-fold reduction. Steeper slopes are predicted for larger or colder regions, meaning fewer large species per small species for such regions. Predictions were largely validated by a global empirical analysis. Results explain for the first time a new and widespread phenomenon of biodiversity. Results have implications for estimating numbers of species of small asymptotic mass, where taxonomic inventories are far from complete. Results show that the relationship between diversity and body mass can be explained from the dependence of predation behaviour, dispersal, and life history on

  15. Design and implementation of a marine animal alert system to support Marine Renewable Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Fu, Tao; Ren, Huiying; Martinez, Jayson J.; Myers, Joshua R.; Matzner, Shari; Choi, Eric Y.; Copping, Andrea E.

    2013-08-08

    Power extracted from fast moving tidal currents has been identified as a potential commercial-scale source of renewable energy. Device developers and utilities are pursuing deployment of prototype tidal turbines to assess technology viability, site feasibility, and environmental interactions. Deployment of prototype turbines requires permits from a range of regulatory authorities. Ensuring the safety of marine animals, particularly those under protection of the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA) and the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972 has emerged as a key regulatory challenge for initial MHK deployments. The greatest perceived risk to marine animals is from strike by the rotating blades of tidal turbines. Development of the marine mammal alert system (MAAS) was undertaken to support monitoring and mitigation requirements for tidal turbine deployments. The prototype system development focused on Southern Resident killer whales (SRKW), an endangered population of killer whales that frequents Puget Sound and is intermittently present in the part of the sound where deployment of prototype tidal turbines is being considered. Passive acoustics were selected as the primary means because of the vocal nature of these animals. The MAAS passive acoustic system consists of two-stage process involving the use of an energy detector and a spectrogram-based classifier to distinguish between SKRW’s calls and noise. A prototype consisting of two 2D symmetrical star arrays separated by 20 m center to center was built and evaluated in the waters of Sequim Bay using whale call playback.

  16. Alaska marine ice atlas

    SciTech Connect

    LaBelle, J.C.; Wise, J.L.; Voelker, R.P.; Schulze, R.H.; Wohl, G.M.

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive Atlas of Alaska marine ice is presented. It includes information on pack and landfast sea ice and calving tidewater glacier ice. It also gives information on ice and related environmental conditions collected over several years time and indicates the normal and extreme conditions that might be expected in Alaska coastal waters. Much of the information on ice conditions in Alaska coastal waters has emanated from research activities in outer continental shelf regions under assessment for oil and gas exploration and development potential. (DMC)

  17. Mariner 10 mercury encounter.

    PubMed

    Dunne, J A

    1974-07-12

    Mariner 10's closet approach to Mercury on 29 March 1974 occurred on the dark side of the planet at a range of approximately 700 kilometers. The spacecraft trajectory passed through the shadows of both the sun and Earth. Experiments conducted included magnetic fields, plasma and charged particle studies of the solar wind interaction region, television photography, extreme ultraviolet spectroscopy of the atmosphere, the detection of infrared thermal radiation from the surface, and a dual-frequency radio occultation in search of an ionosphere. PMID:17810505

  18. 50 CFR 216.25 - Exempted marine mammals and marine mammal products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exempted marine mammals and marine mammal... AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 216.25 Exempted marine mammals and marine...

  19. 50 CFR 216.25 - Exempted marine mammals and marine mammal products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exempted marine mammals and marine mammal... AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 216.25 Exempted marine mammals and marine...

  20. 50 CFR 216.25 - Exempted marine mammals and marine mammal products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Exempted marine mammals and marine mammal... AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 216.25 Exempted marine mammals and marine...

  1. 50 CFR 216.25 - Exempted marine mammals and marine mammal products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exempted marine mammals and marine mammal... AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 216.25 Exempted marine mammals and marine...

  2. 50 CFR 216.25 - Exempted marine mammals and marine mammal products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exempted marine mammals and marine mammal... AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 216.25 Exempted marine mammals and marine...

  3. Factors Influencing Expanded Use of Urban Marine Habitats by Foraging Wading Birds

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urban marine habitats are often utilized by wildlife for foraging and other activities despite surrounding anthropogenic impact or disturbance. However little is known of the ecological factors that determine habitat value of these and other remnant natural habitats. We examine...

  4. International Marine Biotechnology Culture Collection (IMBCC)

    SciTech Connect

    Zaborsky, O.R.; Baker, K.

    1996-10-01

    The objective of this project is to establish a premier culture collection of tropical marine microorganisms able to generate hydrogen from water or organic substances. Both eukaryotic and prokaryotic microorganisms will serve as the biological reservoir or {open_quotes}library{close_quotes} for other DOE Hydrogen Program contractors, the biohydrogen research community and industry. This project consists of several tasks: (a) transfer of the Mitsui-Miami strains to Hawaii`s International Marine Biotechnology Culture Collection (IMBCC) housed at the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute (HNEI); (b) maintain and distribute Mitsui-Miami strains; (c) characterize key strains by traditional and advanced biotechnological techniques; (d) expand Hawaii`s IMBCC; and (e) establish and operate an information resource (database). The project was initiated only late in the summer of 1995 but progress has been made on all tasks. Of the 161 cyanobacterial strains imported, 147 survived storage and importation and 145 are viable. with most exhibiting growth. Of the 406 strains of other photosynthetic bacteria imported, 392 survived storage and importation and 353 are viable, with many exhibiting growth. This project is linked to cooperative efforts being supported by the Japanese Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) through its Marine Biotechnology Institute (MBI) and Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth (RITE).

  5. Unusual flavoenzyme catalysis in marine bacteria.

    PubMed

    Teufel, Robin; Agarwal, Vinayak; Moore, Bradley S

    2016-04-01

    Ever since the discovery of the flavin cofactor more than 80 years ago, flavin-dependent enzymes have emerged as ubiquitous and versatile redox catalysts in primary metabolism. Yet, the recent advances in the discovery and characterization of secondary metabolic pathways exposed new roles for flavin-mediated catalysis in the generation of structurally complex natural products. Here, we review a selection of key biosynthetic flavoenzymes from marine bacterial secondary metabolism and illustrate how their functional and mechanistic investigation expanded our view of the cofactor's chemical repertoire and led to the discovery of a previously unknown flavin redox state.

  6. Marine metagenomics as a source for bioprospecting.

    PubMed

    Kodzius, Rimantas; Gojobori, Takashi

    2015-12-01

    This review summarizes usage of genome-editing technologies for metagenomic studies; these studies are used to retrieve and modify valuable microorganisms for production, particularly in marine metagenomics. Organisms may be cultivable or uncultivable. Metagenomics is providing especially valuable information for uncultivable samples. The novel genes, pathways and genomes can be deducted. Therefore, metagenomics, particularly genome engineering and system biology, allows for the enhancement of biological and chemical producers and the creation of novel bioresources. With natural resources rapidly depleting, genomics may be an effective way to efficiently produce quantities of known and novel foods, livestock feed, fuels, pharmaceuticals and fine or bulk chemicals. PMID:26204808

  7. Marine metagenomics as a source for bioprospecting.

    PubMed

    Kodzius, Rimantas; Gojobori, Takashi

    2015-12-01

    This review summarizes usage of genome-editing technologies for metagenomic studies; these studies are used to retrieve and modify valuable microorganisms for production, particularly in marine metagenomics. Organisms may be cultivable or uncultivable. Metagenomics is providing especially valuable information for uncultivable samples. The novel genes, pathways and genomes can be deducted. Therefore, metagenomics, particularly genome engineering and system biology, allows for the enhancement of biological and chemical producers and the creation of novel bioresources. With natural resources rapidly depleting, genomics may be an effective way to efficiently produce quantities of known and novel foods, livestock feed, fuels, pharmaceuticals and fine or bulk chemicals.

  8. Applying "-omics" Data in Marine Microbial Oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuhrman, Jed; Follows, Mick; Forde, Samantha

    2013-07-01

    Due to biotechnological advances and the ever-decreasing cost of sequencing in recent years, there has been a major shift in microbial oceanography to include data on the sequences of genes, gene transcripts, and proteins from environmentally relevant organisms and naturally occurring mixed communities in studies of marine ecosystems. This research area is collectively called "-omics," referring to genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics of individual organisms and metagenomics, metatranscriptomics, and metaproteomics of mixed communities. These data provide information about how organisms interact with their environment.

  9. Culturing larvae of marine invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Strathmann, Richard R

    2014-01-01

    Larvae of marine invertebrates cultured in the laboratory experience conditions that they do not encounter in nature, but development and survival to metamorphic competence can be obtained in such cultures. This protocol emphasizes simple methods suitable for a wide variety of larvae. Culturing larvae requires seawater of adequate quality and temperature within the tolerated range. Beyond that, feeding larvae require appropriate food, but a few kinds of algae and animals are sufficient as food for diverse larvae. Nontoxic materials include glass, many plastics, hot-melt glue, and some solvents, once evaporated. Cleaners that do not leave toxic residues after rinsing include dilute hydrochloric or acetic acid, sodium hypochlorite (commercial bleach), and ethanol. Materials that can leave toxic residues, such as formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, detergents, and hand lotions, should be avoided, especially with batch cultures that lack continuously renewed water. Reverse filtration can be used to change water gently at varying frequencies, depending on temperature and the kinds of food that are provided. Bacterial growth can be limited by antibiotics, but antibiotics are often unnecessary. Survival and growth are increased by low concentrations of larvae and stirring of large or dense cultures. One method of stirring large numbers of containers is a rack of motor-driven paddles. Most of the methods and materials are inexpensive and portable. If necessary, a room within a few hours of the sea could be temporarily equipped for larval culture. PMID:24567204

  10. Development of Novel Drugs from Marine Surface Associated Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Penesyan, Anahit; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Egan, Suhelen

    2010-01-01

    While the oceans cover more than 70% of the Earth’s surface, marine derived microbial natural products have been largely unexplored. The marine environment is a habitat for many unique microorganisms, which produce biologically active compounds (“bioactives”) to adapt to particular environmental conditions. For example, marine surface associated microorganisms have proven to be a rich source for novel bioactives because of the necessity to evolve allelochemicals capable of protecting the producer from the fierce competition that exists between microorganisms on the surfaces of marine eukaryotes. Chemically driven interactions are also important for the establishment of cross-relationships between microbes and their eukaryotic hosts, in which organisms producing antimicrobial compounds (“antimicrobials”), may protect the host surface against over colonisation in return for a nutrient rich environment. As is the case for bioactive discovery in general, progress in the detection and characterization of marine microbial bioactives has been limited by a number of obstacles, such as unsuitable culture conditions, laborious purification processes, and a lack of de-replication. However many of these limitations are now being overcome due to improved microbial cultivation techniques, microbial (meta-) genomic analysis and novel sensitive analytical tools for structural elucidation. Here we discuss how these technical advances, together with a better understanding of microbial and chemical ecology, will inevitably translate into an increase in the discovery and development of novel drugs from marine microbial sources in the future. PMID:20411108

  11. Impact of marine drugs on animal reproductive processes.

    PubMed

    Silvestre, Francesco; Tosti, Elisabetta

    2009-11-06

    The discovery and description of bioactive substances from natural sources has been a research topic for the last 50 years. In this respect, marine animals have been used to extract many new compounds exerting different actions. Reproduction is a complex process whose main steps are the production and maturation of gametes, their activation, the fertilisation and the beginning of development. In the literature it has been shown that many substances extracted from marine organisms may have profound influence on the reproductive behaviour, function and reproductive strategies and survival of species. However, despite the central importance of reproduction and thus the maintenance of species, there are still few studies on how reproductive mechanisms are impacted by marine bioactive drugs. At present, studies in either marine and terrestrial animals have been particularly important in identifying what specific fine reproductive mechanisms are affected by marine-derived substances. In this review we describe the main steps of the biology of reproduction and the impact of substances from marine environment and organisms on the reproductive processes.

  12. Mini-review: Inhibition of biofouling by marine microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Dobretsov, Sergey; Abed, Raeid M M; Teplitski, Max

    2013-01-01

    Any natural or artificial substratum exposed to seawater is quickly fouled by marine microorganisms and later by macrofouling species. Microfouling organisms on the surface of a substratum form heterogenic biofilms, which are composed of multiple species of heterotrophic bacteria, cyanobacteria, diatoms, protozoa and fungi. Biofilms on artificial structures create serious problems for industries worldwide, with effects including an increase in drag force and metal corrosion as well as a reduction in heat transfer efficiency. Additionally, microorganisms produce chemical compounds that may induce or inhibit settlement and growth of other fouling organisms. Since the last review by the first author on inhibition of biofouling by marine microbes in 2006, significant progress has been made in the field. Several antimicrobial, antialgal and antilarval compounds have been isolated from heterotrophic marine bacteria, cyanobacteria and fungi. Some of these compounds have multiple bioactivities. Microorganisms are able to disrupt biofilms by inhibition of bacterial signalling and production of enzymes that degrade bacterial signals and polymers. Epibiotic microorganisms associated with marine algae and invertebrates have a high antifouling (AF) potential, which can be used to solve biofouling problems in industry. However, more information about the production of AF compounds by marine microorganisms in situ and their mechanisms of action needs to be obtained. This review focuses on the AF activity of marine heterotrophic bacteria, cyanobacteria and fungi and covers publications from 2006 up to the end of 2012.

  13. Metalloproteinase Inhibitors: Status and Scope from Marine Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Noel Vinay; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2010-01-01

    Marine environment has been the source of diverse life forms that produce different biologically active compounds. Marine organisms are consistently contributing with unparalleled bioactive compounds that have profound applications in nutraceuticals, cosmeceuticals, and pharmaceuticals. In this process, screening of natural products from marine organisms that could potentially inhibit the expression of metalloproteinases has gained a huge popularity, which became a hot field of research in life sciences. Metalloproteinases, especially, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a class of structurally similar enzymes that contribute to the extracellular matrix degradation and play major role in normal and pathological tissue remodeling. Imbalance in the expression of MMPs leads to severe pathological condition that could initiate cardiac, cartilage, and cancer-related diseases. Three decades of endeavor for designing potent matrix metalloproteinase inhibitory substances (MMPIs) with many not making upto final clinical trials seek new resources for devising MMPIs. Umpteen number of medicinally valuable compounds being reported from marine organisms, which encourage current researchers to screen potent MMPIs from marine organisms. In this paper, we have made an attempt to report the metalloproteinase inhibiting substances from various marine organisms. PMID:21197102

  14. Impact of Marine Drugs on Animal Reproductive Processes

    PubMed Central

    Silvestre, Francesco; Tosti, Elisabetta

    2009-01-01

    The discovery and description of bioactive substances from natural sources has been a research topic for the last 50 years. In this respect, marine animals have been used to extract many new compounds exerting different actions. Reproduction is a complex process whose main steps are the production and maturation of gametes, their activation, the fertilisation and the beginning of development. In the literature it has been shown that many substances extracted from marine organisms may have profound influence on the reproductive behaviour, function and reproductive strategies and survival of species. However, despite the central importance of reproduction and thus the maintenance of species, there are still few studies on how reproductive mechanisms are impacted by marine bioactive drugs. At present, studies in either marine and terrestrial animals have been particularly important in identifying what specific fine reproductive mechanisms are affected by marine-derived substances. In this review we describe the main steps of the biology of reproduction and the impact of substances from marine environment and organisms on the reproductive processes. PMID:20098597

  15. The role of sustained observations in tracking impacts of environmental change on marine biodiversity and ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Mieszkowska, N; Sugden, H; Firth, L B; Hawkins, S J

    2014-09-28

    Marine biodiversity currently faces unprecedented threats from multiple pressures arising from human activities. Global drivers such as climate change and ocean acidification interact with regional eutrophication, exploitation of commercial fish stocks and localized pressures including pollution, coastal development and the extraction of aggregates and fuel, causing alteration and degradation of habitats and communities. Segregating natural from anthropogenically induced change in marine ecosystems requires long-term, sustained observations of marine biota. In this review, we outline the history of biological recording in the coastal and shelf seas of the UK and Ireland and highlight where sustained observations have contributed new understanding of how anthropogenic activities have impacted on marine biodiversity. The contributions of sustained observations, from those collected at observatories, single station platforms and multiple-site programmes to the emergent field of multiple stressor impacts research, are discussed, along with implications for management and sustainable governance of marine resources in an era of unprecedented use of the marine environment.

  16. The role of environmental biotechnology in exploring, exploiting, monitoring, preserving, protecting and decontaminating the marine environment.

    PubMed

    Kalogerakis, Nicolas; Arff, Johanne; Banat, Ibrahim M; Broch, Ole Jacob; Daffonchio, Daniele; Edvardsen, Torgeir; Eguiraun, Harkaitz; Giuliano, Laura; Handå, Aleksander; López-de-Ipiña, Karmele; Marigomez, Ionan; Martinez, Iciar; Øie, Gunvor; Rojo, Fernando; Skjermo, Jorunn; Zanaroli, Giulio; Fava, Fabio

    2015-01-25

    In light of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) and the EU Thematic Strategy on the Sustainable Use of Natural Resources, environmental biotechnology could make significant contributions in the exploitation of marine resources and addressing key marine environmental problems. In this paper 14 propositions are presented focusing on (i) the contamination of the marine environment, and more particularly how to optimize the use of biotechnology-related tools and strategies for predicting and monitoring contamination and developing mitigation measures; (ii) the exploitation of the marine biological and genetic resources to progress with the sustainable, eco-compatible use of the maritime space (issues are very diversified and include, for example, waste treatment and recycling, anti-biofouling agents; bio-plastics); (iii) environmental/marine biotechnology as a driver for a sustainable economic growth.

  17. The role of sustained observations in tracking impacts of environmental change on marine biodiversity and ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Mieszkowska, N.; Sugden, H.; Firth, L. B.; Hawkins, S. J.

    2014-01-01

    Marine biodiversity currently faces unprecedented threats from multiple pressures arising from human activities. Global drivers such as climate change and ocean acidification interact with regional eutrophication, exploitation of commercial fish stocks and localized pressures including pollution, coastal development and the extraction of aggregates and fuel, causing alteration and degradation of habitats and communities. Segregating natural from anthropogenically induced change in marine ecosystems requires long-term, sustained observations of marine biota. In this review, we outline the history of biological recording in the coastal and shelf seas of the UK and Ireland and highlight where sustained observations have contributed new understanding of how anthropogenic activities have impacted on marine biodiversity. The contributions of sustained observations, from those collected at observatories, single station platforms and multiple-site programmes to the emergent field of multiple stressor impacts research, are discussed, along with implications for management and sustainable governance of marine resources in an era of unprecedented use of the marine environment. PMID:25157190

  18. From Discovery to Production: Biotechnology of Marine Fungi for the Production of New Antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Silber, Johanna; Kramer, Annemarie; Labes, Antje; Tasdemir, Deniz

    2016-01-01

    Filamentous fungi are well known for their capability of producing antibiotic natural products. Recent studies have demonstrated the potential of antimicrobials with vast chemodiversity from marine fungi. Development of such natural products into lead compounds requires sustainable supply. Marine biotechnology can significantly contribute to the production of new antibiotics at various levels of the process chain including discovery, production, downstream processing, and lead development. However, the number of biotechnological processes described for large-scale production from marine fungi is far from the sum of the newly-discovered natural antibiotics. Methods and technologies applied in marine fungal biotechnology largely derive from analogous terrestrial processes and rarely reflect the specific demands of the marine fungi. The current developments in metabolic engineering and marine microbiology are not yet transferred into processes, but offer numerous options for improvement of production processes and establishment of new process chains. This review summarises the current state in biotechnological production of marine fungal antibiotics and points out the enormous potential of biotechnology in all stages of the discovery-to-development pipeline. At the same time, the literature survey reveals that more biotechnology transfer and method developments are needed for a sustainable and innovative production of marine fungal antibiotics. PMID:27455283

  19. From Discovery to Production: Biotechnology of Marine Fungi for the Production of New Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Silber, Johanna; Kramer, Annemarie; Labes, Antje; Tasdemir, Deniz

    2016-01-01

    Filamentous fungi are well known for their capability of producing antibiotic natural products. Recent studies have demonstrated the potential of antimicrobials with vast chemodiversity from marine fungi. Development of such natural products into lead compounds requires sustainable supply. Marine biotechnology can significantly contribute to the production of new antibiotics at various levels of the process chain including discovery, production, downstream processing, and lead development. However, the number of biotechnological processes described for large-scale production from marine fungi is far from the sum of the newly-discovered natural antibiotics. Methods and technologies applied in marine fungal biotechnology largely derive from analogous terrestrial processes and rarely reflect the specific demands of the marine fungi. The current developments in metabolic engineering and marine microbiology are not yet transferred into processes, but offer numerous options for improvement of production processes and establishment of new process chains. This review summarises the current state in biotechnological production of marine fungal antibiotics and points out the enormous potential of biotechnology in all stages of the discovery-to-development pipeline. At the same time, the literature survey reveals that more biotechnology transfer and method developments are needed for a sustainable and innovative production of marine fungal antibiotics. PMID:27455283

  20. From Discovery to Production: Biotechnology of Marine Fungi for the Production of New Antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Silber, Johanna; Kramer, Annemarie; Labes, Antje; Tasdemir, Deniz

    2016-07-21

    Filamentous fungi are well known for their capability of producing antibiotic natural products. Recent studies have demonstrated the potential of antimicrobials with vast chemodiversity from marine fungi. Development of such natural products into lead compounds requires sustainable supply. Marine biotechnology can significantly contribute to the production of new antibiotics at various levels of the process chain including discovery, production, downstream processing, and lead development. However, the number of biotechnological processes described for large-scale production from marine fungi is far from the sum of the newly-discovered natural antibiotics. Methods and technologies applied in marine fungal biotechnology largely derive from analogous terrestrial processes and rarely reflect the specific demands of the marine fungi. The current developments in metabolic engineering and marine microbiology are not yet transferred into processes, but offer numerous options for improvement of production processes and establishment of new process chains. This review summarises the current state in biotechnological production of marine fungal antibiotics and points out the enormous potential of biotechnology in all stages of the discovery-to-development pipeline. At the same time, the literature survey reveals that more biotechnology transfer and method developments are needed for a sustainable and innovative production of marine fungal antibiotics.