Science.gov

Sample records for natural surfactant-rich marine

  1. Marine natural products.

    PubMed

    Blunt, John W; Copp, Brent R; Keyzers, Robert A; Munro, Murray H G; Prinsep, Michèle R

    2015-02-01

    This review covers the literature published in 2013 for marine natural products (MNPs), with 982 citations (644 for the period January to December 2013) referring to compounds isolated from marine microorganisms and phytoplankton, green, brown and red algae, sponges, cnidarians, bryozoans, molluscs, tunicates, echinoderms, mangroves and other intertidal plants and microorganisms. The emphasis is on new compounds (1163 for 2013), together with the relevant biological activities, source organisms and country of origin. Reviews, biosynthetic studies, first syntheses, and syntheses that lead to the revision of structures or stereochemistries, have been included.

  2. Marine natural products.

    PubMed

    Blunt, John W; Copp, Brent R; Keyzers, Robert A; Munro, Murray H G; Prinsep, Michèle R

    2014-01-17

    This review covers the literature published in 2012 for marine natural products, with 1035 citations (673 for the period January to December 2012) referring to compounds isolated from marine microorganisms and phytoplankton, green, brown and red algae, sponges, cnidarians, bryozoans, molluscs, tunicates, echinoderms, mangroves and other intertidal plants and microorganisms. The emphasis is on new compounds (1241 for 2012), together with the relevant biological activities, source organisms and country of origin. Biosynthetic studies, first syntheses, and syntheses that lead to the revision of structures or stereochemistries, have been included.

  3. Marine Natural Products Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Clifford W. J.

    1978-01-01

    Reports the chemistry of saxitoxin, a paralytic shellfish poison, and other toxins, including the structure of aplysiatoxins. Discusses the chemical signals and defense agents used in intra- and inter- species communication; anticancer agents; and organometallics in the marine environment. (MA)

  4. Marine natural products sourced from marine-derived Penicillium fungi.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hong-Guang; Liu, Qiang; Zhu, Guo-Liang; Liu, Hai-Shan; Zhu, Wei-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Marine micro-organisms have been proven to be a major source of marine natural products (MNPs) in recent years, in which filamentous fungi are a vital source of bioactive natural products for their large metagenomes and more complex genetic backgrounds. This review highlights the 390 new MNPs from marine-derived Penicillium fungi during 1991 to 2014. These new MNPs are categorized based on the environment sources of the fungal hosts and their bioactivities are summarized.

  5. Marine Natural Products as Prototype Agrochemical Agents

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Jiangnan; Shen, Xiaoyu; El Sayed, Khalid A.; Dunbar, D. C Harles; Perry, Tony L.; Wilkins, Scott P.; Hamann, Mark T.; Bobzin, Steve; Huesing, Joseph; Camp, Robin; Prinsen, Mike; Krupa, Dan; Wideman, Margaret A.

    2016-01-01

    In the interest of identifying new leads that could serve as prototype agrochemical agents, 18 structurally diverse marine-derived compounds were examined for insecticidal, herbicidal, and fungicidal activities. Several new classes of compounds have been shown to be insecticidal, herbicidal, and fungicidal, which suggests that marine natural products represent an intriguing source for the discovery of new agrochemical agents. PMID:12670165

  6. Marine actinomycete diversity and natural product discovery.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Paul R; Mincer, Tracy J; Williams, Philip G; Fenical, William

    2005-01-01

    Microbial natural products remain an important resource for drug discovery yet the microorganisms inhabiting the world's oceans have largely been overlooked in this regard. The recent discovery of novel secondary metabolites from taxonomically unique populations of marine actinomycetes suggests that these bacteria add an important new dimension to microbial natural product research. Continued efforts to characterize marine actinomycete diversity and how adaptations to the marine environment affect secondary metabolite production will create a better understanding of the potential utility of these bacteria as a source of useful products for biotechnology.

  7. A marine sink for chlorine in natural organic matter [Natural chlorination of marine organic matter

    DOE PAGES

    Leri, Alessandra C.; Northrup, Paul A.; Mayer, Lawrence M.; ...

    2015-07-06

    Chloride, Cl–, is the most abundant solute in seawater, amounting to 55% of ions by weight. Cl– is more difficult to oxidize than bromide, and marine halogenating enzymes tend to be bromoperoxidases that are incapable of forming organochlorines. Consequently, most halogenated natural products identified in the marine environment are organobromines. Known exceptions include small quantities of volatile chlorocarbons emitted by marine algae and dissolved chlorinated benzoic acids.

  8. A marine sink for chlorine in natural organic matter [Natural chlorination of marine organic matter

    SciTech Connect

    Leri, Alessandra C.; Northrup, Paul A.; Mayer, Lawrence M.; Thornton, Kathleen R.; Dunigan, Marisa R.; Ness, Katherine J.; Gellis, Austin B.

    2015-07-06

    Chloride, Cl, is the most abundant solute in seawater, amounting to 55% of ions by weight. Cl is more difficult to oxidize than bromide, and marine halogenating enzymes tend to be bromoperoxidases that are incapable of forming organochlorines. Consequently, most halogenated natural products identified in the marine environment are organobromines. Known exceptions include small quantities of volatile chlorocarbons emitted by marine algae and dissolved chlorinated benzoic acids.

  9. Trypanocidal Activity of Marine Natural Products

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Amy J.; Grkovic, Tanja; Sykes, Melissa L.; Avery, Vicky M.

    2013-01-01

    Marine natural products are a diverse, unique collection of compounds with immense therapeutic potential. This has resulted in these molecules being evaluated for a number of different disease indications including the neglected protozoan diseases, human African trypanosomiasis and Chagas disease, for which very few drugs are currently available. This article will review the marine natural products for which activity against the kinetoplastid parasites; Trypanosoma brucei brucei, T.b. rhodesiense and T. cruzi has been reported. As it is important to know the selectivity of a compound when evaluating its trypanocidal activity, this article will only cover molecules which have simultaneously been tested for cytotoxicity against a mammalian cell line. Compounds have been grouped according to their chemical structure and representative examples from each class were selected for detailed discussion. PMID:24152565

  10. Targeting nuclear receptors with marine natural products.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chunyan; Li, Qianrong; Li, Yong

    2014-01-27

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) are important pharmaceutical targets because they are key regulators of many metabolic and inflammatory diseases, including diabetes, dyslipidemia, cirrhosis, and fibrosis. As ligands play a pivotal role in modulating nuclear receptor activity, the discovery of novel ligands for nuclear receptors represents an interesting and promising therapeutic approach. The search for novel NR agonists and antagonists with enhanced selectivities prompted the exploration of the extraordinary chemical diversity associated with natural products. Recent studies involving nuclear receptors have disclosed a number of natural products as nuclear receptor ligands, serving to re-emphasize the translational possibilities of natural products in drug discovery. In this review, the natural ligands of nuclear receptors will be described with an emphasis on their mechanisms of action and their therapeutic potentials, as well as on strategies to determine potential marine natural products as nuclear receptor modulators.

  11. An assessment of natural product discovery from marine (sensu strictu) and marine-derived fungi

    PubMed Central

    Overy, David P.; Bayman, Paul; Kerr, Russell G.; Bills, Gerald F.

    2014-01-01

    The natural products community has been investigating secondary metabolites from marine fungi for several decades, but when one attempts to search for validated reports of new natural products from marine fungi, one encounters a literature saturated with reports from ‘marine-derived’ fungi. Of the 1000+ metabolites that have been characterized to date, only approximately 80 of these have been isolated from species from exclusively marine lineages. These metabolites are summarized here along with the lifestyle and habitats of their producing organisms. Furthermore, we address some of the reasons for the apparent disconnect between the stated objectives of discovering new chemistry from marine organisms and the apparent neglect of the truly exceptional obligate marine fungi. We also offer suggestions on how to reinvigorate enthusiasm for marine natural products discovery from fungi from exclusive marine lineages and highlight the need for critically assessing the role of apparently terrestrial fungi in the marine environment. PMID:25379338

  12. Marine natural products: a way to new drugs.

    PubMed

    Stonik, V A

    2009-07-01

    The investigation of marine natural products (low molecular weight bioregulators) is a rapidly developing scientific field at the intersection of biology and chemistry. Investigations aimed at detecting, identifying, and understanding the structure of marine natural products have led to the discovery of 20,000 new substances, including those characterized by an extremely high physiological activity. Some results and prospects of works aimed at creating new drugs on the basis of marine natural products are discussed herein.

  13. Marine Natural Products: A Way to New Drugs

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The investigation of marine natural products (low molecular weight bioregulators) is a rapidly developing scientific field at the intersection of biology and chemistry. Investigations aimed at detecting, identifying, and understanding the structure of marine natural products have led to the discovery of 20,000 new substances, including those characterized by an extremely high physiological activity. Some results and prospects of works aimed at creating new drugs on the basis of marine natural products are discussed herein. PMID:22649599

  14. Marine actinobacteria associated with marine organisms and their potentials in producing pharmaceutical natural products.

    PubMed

    Valliappan, Karuppiah; Sun, Wei; Li, Zhiyong

    2014-09-01

    Actinobacteria are ubiquitous in the marine environment, playing an important ecological role in the recycling of refractory biomaterials and producing novel natural products with pharmic applications. Actinobacteria have been detected or isolated from the marine creatures such as sponges, corals, mollusks, ascidians, seaweeds, and seagrass. Marine organism-associated actinobacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences, i.e., 3,003 sequences, deposited in the NCBI database clearly revealed enormous numbers of actinobacteria associated with marine organisms. For example, RDP classification of these sequences showed that 112 and 62 actinobacterial genera were associated with the sponges and corals, respectively. In most cases, it is expected that these actinobacteria protect the host against pathogens by producing bioactive compounds. Natural products investigation and functional gene screening of the actinobacteria associated with the marine organisms revealed that they can synthesize numerous natural products including polyketides, isoprenoids, phenazines, peptides, indolocarbazoles, sterols, and others. These compounds showed anticancer, antimicrobial, antiparasitic, neurological, antioxidant, and anti-HIV activities. Therefore, marine organism-associated actinobacteria represent an important resource for marine drugs. It is an upcoming field of research to search for novel actinobacteria and pharmaceutical natural products from actinobacteria associated with the marine organisms. In this review, we attempt to summarize the present knowledge on the diversity and natural products production of actinobacteria associated with the marine organisms, based on the publications from 1991 to 2013.

  15. Marine actinobacteria: an important source of bioactive natural products.

    PubMed

    Manivasagan, Panchanathan; Kang, Kyong-Hwa; Sivakumar, Kannan; Li-Chan, Eunice C Y; Oh, Hyun-Myung; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2014-07-01

    Marine environment is largely an untapped source for deriving actinobacteria, having potential to produce novel, bioactive natural products. Actinobacteria are the prolific producers of pharmaceutically active secondary metabolites, accounting for about 70% of the naturally derived compounds that are currently in clinical use. Among the various actinobacterial genera, Actinomadura, Actinoplanes, Amycolatopsis, Marinispora, Micromonospora, Nocardiopsis, Saccharopolyspora, Salinispora, Streptomyces and Verrucosispora are the major potential producers of commercially important bioactive natural products. In this respect, Streptomyces ranks first with a large number of bioactive natural products. Marine actinobacteria are unique enhancing quite different biological properties including antimicrobial, anticancer, antiviral, insecticidal and enzyme inhibitory activities. They have attracted global in the last ten years for their ability to produce pharmaceutically active compounds. In this review, we have focused attention on the bioactive natural products isolated from marine actinobacteria, possessing unique chemical structures that may form the basis for synthesis of novel drugs that could be used to combat resistant pathogenic microorganisms.

  16. Accessing the Hidden Majority of Marine Natural Products Through Metagenomics

    PubMed Central

    Donia, Mohamed S.; Ruffner, Duane E.; Cao, Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Tiny marine animals represent an untapped reservoir for undiscovered, bioactive natural products. However, their small size and extreme chemical variability preclude traditional chemical approaches to discovering new bioactive compounds. Here, we use a metagenomic method to directly discover and rapidly access cyanobactin class natural products from these variable samples, providing proof-of-concept for genome based discovery and supply of marine natural products. We also address practical optimization of complex, multistep ribosomal peptide pathways in heterologous hosts, which is still very challenging. The resulting methods and concepts will be applicable to ribosomal peptide and other biosynthetic pathways. PMID:21542088

  17. Natural Products from Marine Fungi—Still an Underrepresented Resource

    PubMed Central

    Imhoff, Johannes F.

    2016-01-01

    Marine fungi represent a huge potential for new natural products and an increased number of new metabolites have become known over the past years, while much of the hidden potential still needs to be uncovered. Representative examples of biodiversity studies of marine fungi and of natural products from a diverse selection of marine fungi from the author’s lab are highlighting important aspects of this research. If one considers the huge phylogenetic diversity of marine fungi and their almost ubiquitous distribution, and realizes that most of the published work on secondary metabolites of marine fungi has focused on just a few genera, strictly speaking Penicillium, Aspergillus and maybe also Fusarium and Cladosporium, the diversity of marine fungi is not adequately represented in investigations on their secondary metabolites and the less studied species deserve special attention. In addition to results on recently discovered new secondary metabolites of Penicillium species, the diversity of fungi in selected marine habitats is highlighted and examples of groups of secondary metabolites produced by representatives of a variety of different genera and their bioactivities are presented. Special focus is given to the production of groups of derivatives of metabolites by the fungi and to significant differences in biological activities due to small structural changes. PMID:26784209

  18. Cytotoxic Natural Products from Marine Sponge-Derived Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huawei; Zhao, Ziping; Wang, Hong

    2017-01-01

    A growing body of evidence indicates that marine sponge-derived microbes possess the potential ability to make prolific natural products with therapeutic effects. This review for the first time provides a comprehensive overview of new cytotoxic agents from these marine microbes over the last 62 years from 1955 to 2016, which are assorted into seven types: terpenes, alkaloids, peptides, aromatics, lactones, steroids, and miscellaneous compounds. PMID:28287431

  19. In situ natural product discovery via an artificial marine sponge.

    PubMed

    La Clair, James J; Loveridge, Steven T; Tenney, Karen; O'Neil-Johnson, Mark; Chapman, Eli; Crews, Phillip

    2014-01-01

    There is continuing international interest in exploring and developing the therapeutic potential of marine-derived small molecules. Balancing the strategies for ocean based sampling of source organisms versus the potential to endanger fragile ecosystems poses a substantial challenge. In order to mitigate such environmental impacts, we have developed a deployable artificial sponge. This report provides details on its design followed by evidence that it faithfully recapitulates traditional natural product collection protocols. Retrieving this artificial sponge from a tropical ecosystem after deployment for 320 hours afforded three actin-targeting jasplakinolide depsipeptides that had been discovered two decades earlier using traditional sponge specimen collection and isolation procedures. The successful outcome achieved here could reinvigorate marine natural products research, by producing new environmentally innocuous sources of natural products and providing a means to probe the true biosynthetic origins of complex marine-derived scaffolds.

  20. Marine Natural Products as Inhibitors of Hypoxic Signaling in Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Nagle, Dale G.; Zhou, Yu-Dong

    2010-01-01

    Marine natural products have become a major source of new chemical entities in the discovery of potential anticancer agents that potently suppress various antitumor molecular targets. As a consequence of insufficient vascularization, hypoxic regions form within rapidly growing solid tumor masses. Specific alterations of gene expression in these hypoxic tumor cells help facilitate the survival and metastatic spread of solid tumors. The transcriptional response to cellular hypoxia is primarily mediated by the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) that regulates the expression of more than 100 genes involved in cellular adaptation and survival under hypoxic stress. Clinical studies in cancer patients indicate that HIF-1 activation is directly correlated with advanced disease stages and treatment resistance. HIF-1 has emerged as an important tumor-selective molecular target for anticancer drug discovery. As a result, natural product-based inhibitors of HIF-1 activation have been identified from plants and microorganisms. Recently, structurally unique natural products from marine sponges, crinoids, and algae have been identified as HIF-1 activation inhibitors. The US National Cancer Institute’s Open Repository of marine invertebrate and algae extracts has proven to be a valuable source of natural product HIF-1 inhibitors. Among the active compounds identified, certain marine natural products have also been shown to suppress the hypoxic induction of HIF-1 target genes such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Some of these marine HIF-1 inhibitors act by interfering with the generation of mitochondrial signaling molecules in hypoxic cells. However, the precise mechanisms of action for many newly identified marine natural product HIF-1 inhibitors remain unresolved. PMID:20622986

  1. Bioactive natural products from Papua New Guinea marine sponges.

    PubMed

    Noro, Jeffery C; Kalaitzis, John A; Neilan, Brett A

    2012-10-01

    The discovery of novel natural products for drug development relies heavily upon a rich biodiversity, of which the marine environment is an obvious example. Marine natural product research has spawned several drugs and many other candidates, some of which are the focus of current clinical trials. The sponge megadiversity of Papua New Guinea is a rich but underexplored source of bioactive natural products. Here, we review some of the many natural products derived from PNG sponges with an emphasis on those with interesting biological activity and, therefore, drug potential. Many bioactive natural products discussed here appear to be derived from non-ribosomal peptide and polyketide biosynthesis pathways, strongly suggesting a microbial origin of these compounds. With this in mind, we also explore the notion of sponge-symbiont biosynthesis of these bioactive compounds and present examples to support the working hypothesis.

  2. Marine natural products: a new wave of drugs?

    PubMed Central

    Montaser, Rana; Luesch, Hendrik

    2011-01-01

    The largely unexplored marine world that presumably harbors the most biodiversity may be the vastest resource to discover novel ‘validated’ structures with novel modes of action that cover biologically relevant chemical space. Several challenges, including the supply problem and target identification, need to be met for successful drug development of these often complex molecules; however, approaches are available to overcome the hurdles. Advances in technologies such as sampling strategies, nanoscale NMR for structure determination, total chemical synthesis, fermentation and biotechnology are all crucial to the success of marine natural products as drug leads. We illustrate the high degree of innovation in the field of marine natural products, which in our view will lead to a new wave of drugs that flow into the market and pharmacies in the future. PMID:21882941

  3. Potential anti-inflammatory natural products from marine algae.

    PubMed

    Fernando, I P Shanura; Nah, Jae-Woon; Jeon, You-Jin

    2016-12-01

    Inflammatory diseases have become one of the leading causes of health issue throughout the world, having a considerable influence on healthcare costs. With the emerging developments in natural product, synthetic and combinatorial chemistry, a notable success has been achieved in discovering natural products and their synthetic structural analogs with anti-inflammatory activity. However, many of these therapeutics have indicated detrimental side effects upon prolonged usage. Marine algae have been identified as an underexplored reservoir of unique anti-inflammatory compounds. These include polyphenols, sulfated polysaccharides, terpenes, fatty acids, proteins and several other bioactives. Consumption of these marine algae could provide defense against the pathophysiology of many chronic inflammatory diseases. With further investigation, algal anti-inflammatory phytochemicals have the potential to be used as therapeutics or in the synthesis of structural analogs with profound anti-inflammatory activity with reduced side effects. The current review summarizes the latest knowledge about the potential anti-inflammatory compounds discovered from marine algae.

  4. Biological Activity of Recently Discovered Halogenated Marine Natural Products

    PubMed Central

    Gribble, Gordon W.

    2015-01-01

    This review presents the biological activity—antibacterial, antifungal, anti-parasitic, antiviral, antitumor, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, and enzymatic activity—of halogenated marine natural products discovered in the past five years. Newly discovered examples that do not report biological activity are not included. PMID:26133553

  5. Natural products with health benefits from marine biological resources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ocean is the cradle of lives, which provides a diverse array of intriguing natural products that has captured scientists’ attention in the past few decades due to their significant and extremely potent biological activities. In addition to being rich sources for pharmaceutical drugs, marine nat...

  6. Culturable rare Actinomycetes: diversity, isolation and marine natural product discovery.

    PubMed

    Subramani, Ramesh; Aalbersberg, William

    2013-11-01

    Rare Actinomycetes from underexplored marine environments are targeted in drug discovery studies due to the Actinomycetes' potentially huge resource of structurally diverse natural products with unusual biological activity. Of all marine bacteria, 10 % are Actinomycetes, which have proven an outstanding and fascinating resource for new and potent bioactive molecules. Past and present efforts in the isolation of rare Actinomycetes from underexplored diverse natural habitats have resulted in the isolation of about 220 rare Actinomycete genera of which more than 50 taxa have been reported to be the producers of 2,500 bioactive compounds. That amount represents greater than 25 % of the total Actinomycetes metabolites, demonstrating that selective isolation methods are being developed and extensively applied. Due to the high rediscovery rate of known compounds from Actinomycetes, a renewed interest in the development of new antimicrobial agents from rare and novel Actinomycetes is urgently required to combat the increasing number of multidrug-resistant human pathogens. To facilitate that discovery, this review updates all selective isolation media including pretreatment and enrichment methods for the isolation of marine rare Actinomycetes. In addition, this review demonstrates that discovering new compounds with novel scaffolds can be increased by intensive efforts in isolating and screening rare marine genera of Actinomycetes. Between 2007 and mid-2013, 80 new rare Actinomycete species were reported from marine habitats. They belong to 23 rare families, of which three are novel, and 20 novel genera. Of them, the family Micromonosporaceae is dominant as a producer of promising chemical diversity.

  7. Bioactive natural products from Chinese marine flora and fauna.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhen-Fang; Guo, Yue-Wei

    2012-09-01

    In recent decades, the pharmaceutical application potential of marine natural products has attracted much interest from both natural product chemists and pharmacologists. Our group has long been engaged in the search for bioactive natural products from Chinese marine flora (such as mangroves and algae) and fauna (including sponges, soft corals, and mollusks), resulting in the isolation and characterization of numerous novel secondary metabolites spanning a wide range of structural classes and various biosynthetic origins. Of particular interest is the fact that many of these compounds show promising biological activities, including cytotoxic, antibacterial, and enzyme inhibitory effects. By describing representative studies, this review presents a comprehensive summary regarding the achievements and progress made by our group in the past decade. Several interesting examples are discussed in detail.

  8. Marine Natural Products from New Caledonia--A Review.

    PubMed

    Motuhi, Sofia-Eléna; Mehiri, Mohamed; Payri, Claude Elisabeth; La Barre, Stéphane; Bach, Stéphane

    2016-03-16

    Marine micro- and macroorganisms are well known to produce metabolites with high biotechnological potential. Nearly 40 years of systematic prospecting all around the New Caledonia archipelago and several successive research programs have uncovered new chemical leads from benthic and planktonic organisms. After species identification, biological and/or pharmaceutical analyses are performed on marine organisms to assess their bioactivities. A total of 3582 genera, 1107 families and 9372 species have been surveyed and more than 350 novel molecular structures have been identified. Along with their bioactivities that hold promise for therapeutic applications, most of these molecules are also potentially useful for cosmetics and food biotechnology. This review highlights the tremendous marine diversity in New Caledonia, and offers an outline of the vast possibilities for natural products, especially in the interest of pursuing collaborative fundamental research programs and developing local biotechnology programs.

  9. Cyclodepsipeptides from Marine Sponges: Natural Agents for Drug Research

    PubMed Central

    Andavan, Gowri Shankar Bagavananthem; Lemmens-Gruber, Rosa

    2010-01-01

    A number of natural products from marine sponges, such as cyclodepsipeptides, have been identified. The structural characteristics of this family of cyclic peptides include various unusual amino acid residues and unique N-terminal polyketide-derived moieties. Papuamides are representatives of a class of marine sponge derived cyclic depsipeptides, including callipeltin A, celebesides A and B, homophymine A, mirabamides, microspinosamide, neamphamide A and theopapuamides. They are thought to have cytoprotective activity against HIV-1 in vitro by inhibiting viral entry. Jasplakinolide, a representative member of marine sponge-derived cyclodepsipeptides that include arenastatin A, geodiamolides, homophymines, spongidepsin and theopapuamides, is a potent inducer of actin polymerization in vitro. Although actin dynamics is essential for tumor metasasis, no actin targeting drugs have been used in clinical trials due to their severe cytotoxicity. Nonetheless, the actin cytoskeleton remains a potential target for anti-cancer drug development. These features imply the use of cyclodepsipeptides as molecular models in drug research. PMID:20411126

  10. Marine Natural Products from New Caledonia—A Review

    PubMed Central

    Motuhi, Sofia-Eléna; Mehiri, Mohamed; Payri, Claude Elisabeth; La Barre, Stéphane; Bach, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    Marine micro- and macroorganisms are well known to produce metabolites with high biotechnological potential. Nearly 40 years of systematic prospecting all around the New Caledonia archipelago and several successive research programs have uncovered new chemical leads from benthic and planktonic organisms. After species identification, biological and/or pharmaceutical analyses are performed on marine organisms to assess their bioactivities. A total of 3582 genera, 1107 families and 9372 species have been surveyed and more than 350 novel molecular structures have been identified. Along with their bioactivities that hold promise for therapeutic applications, most of these molecules are also potentially useful for cosmetics and food biotechnology. This review highlights the tremendous marine diversity in New Caledonia, and offers an outline of the vast possibilities for natural products, especially in the interest of pursuing collaborative fundamental research programs and developing local biotechnology programs. PMID:26999165

  11. Mechanism Targeted Discovery of Antitumor Marine Natural Products

    PubMed Central

    Nagle, Dale G.; Zhou, Yu-Dong; Mora, Flor D.; Mohammed, Kaleem A.; Kim, Yong-Pil

    2010-01-01

    Antitumor drug discovery programs aim to identify chemical entities for use in the treatment of cancer. Many strategies have been used to achieve this objective. Natural products have always played a major role in anticancer medicine and the unique metabolites produced by marine organisms have increasingly become major players in antitumor drug discovery. Rapid advances have occurred in the understanding of tumor biology and molecular medicine. New insights into mechanisms responsible for neoplastic disease are significantly changing the general philosophical approach towards cancer treatment. Recently identified molecular targets have created exciting new means for disrupting tumor-specific cell signaling, cell division, energy metabolism, gene expression, drug resistance, and blood supply. Such tumor-specific treatments could someday decrease our reliance on traditional cytotoxicity-based chemotherapy and provide new less toxic treatment options with significantly fewer side effects. Novel molecular targets and state-of-the-art molecular mechanism-based screening methods have revitalized antitumor research and these changes are becoming an ever-increasing component of modern antitumor marine natural products research. This review describes marine natural products identified using tumor-specific mechanism-based assays for regulators of angiogenesis, apoptosis, cell cycle, macromolecule synthesis, mitochondrial respiration, mitosis, multidrug efflux, and signal transduction. Special emphasis is placed on natural products directly discovered using molecular mechanism-based screening. PMID:15279579

  12. Discovery of Novel Antiangiogenic Marine Natural Product Scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahim, Hassan Y.; El Sayed, Khalid A.

    2016-01-01

    Marine natural products (MNPs) are recognized for their structural complexity, diversity, and novelty. The vast majority of MNPs are pharmacologically relevant through their ability to modulate macromolecular targets underlying human diseases. Angiogenesis is a fundamental process in cancer progression and metastasis. Targeting angiogenesis through selective modulation of linked protein kinases is a valid strategy to discover novel effective tumor growth and metastasis inhibitors. An in-house marine natural products mini-library, which comprises diverse MNP entities, was submitted to the Lilly’s Open Innovation Drug Discovery platform. Accepted structures were subjected to in vitro screening to discover mechanistically novel angiogenesis inhibitors. Active hits were subjected to additional angiogenesis-targeted kinase profiling. Some natural and semisynthetic MNPs, including multiple members of the macrolide latrunculins, the macrocyclic oxaquinolizidine alkaloid araguspongine C, and the sesquiterpene quinone puupehenone, showed promising results in primary and secondary angiogenesis screening modules. These hits inhibited vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-mediated endothelial tube-like formation, with minimal cytotoxicity at relevant doses. Secondary kinase profiling identified six target protein kinases, all involved in angiogenesis signaling pathways. Molecular modeling and docking experiments aided the understanding of molecular binding interactions, identification of pharmacophoric epitopes, and deriving structure-activity relationships of active hits. Marine natural products are prolific resources for the discovery of chemically and mechanistically unique selective antiangiogenic scaffolds. PMID:26978377

  13. Discovery of Novel Antiangiogenic Marine Natural Product Scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Ebrahim, Hassan Y; El Sayed, Khalid A

    2016-03-11

    Marine natural products (MNPs) are recognized for their structural complexity, diversity, and novelty. The vast majority of MNPs are pharmacologically relevant through their ability to modulate macromolecular targets underlying human diseases. Angiogenesis is a fundamental process in cancer progression and metastasis. Targeting angiogenesis through selective modulation of linked protein kinases is a valid strategy to discover novel effective tumor growth and metastasis inhibitors. An in-house marine natural products mini-library, which comprises diverse MNP entities, was submitted to the Lilly's Open Innovation Drug Discovery platform. Accepted structures were subjected to in vitro screening to discover mechanistically novel angiogenesis inhibitors. Active hits were subjected to additional angiogenesis-targeted kinase profiling. Some natural and semisynthetic MNPs, including multiple members of the macrolide latrunculins, the macrocyclic oxaquinolizidine alkaloid araguspongine C, and the sesquiterpene quinone puupehenone, showed promising results in primary and secondary angiogenesis screening modules. These hits inhibited vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-mediated endothelial tube-like formation, with minimal cytotoxicity at relevant doses. Secondary kinase profiling identified six target protein kinases, all involved in angiogenesis signaling pathways. Molecular modeling and docking experiments aided the understanding of molecular binding interactions, identification of pharmacophoric epitopes, and deriving structure-activity relationships of active hits. Marine natural products are prolific resources for the discovery of chemically and mechanistically unique selective antiangiogenic scaffolds.

  14. Marine Natural Product Inhibitors of Neutrophil-Associated Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chun-Yu; Tsai, Yung-Fong; Chang, Wen-Yi; Yang, Shun-Chin; Hwang, Tsong-Long

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophils are widely recognized to play an important role in acute inflammatory responses, and recent evidence has expanded their role to modulating chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and microbicidal compounds released from neutrophils that are recruited to the site of inflammation contribute to the pathogenesis of multiple inflammation-associated diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, atherosclerosis, and hepatitis. Marine organisms are a valuable source of bioactive compounds with potential for industrial and pharmaceutical application. Marine natural products that inhibit neutrophil activation could be used as drugs for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Numerous studies investigating marine natural products have reported novel anti-inflammatory agents. Nevertheless, the detailed mechanisms underlying their actions, which could facilitate our understanding of the molecular events occurring in neutrophils, have not been reported in most of the associated research studies. Therefore, in this review, we will present marine products that inhibit neutrophil-associated inflammation. Furthermore, we will be limiting the detailed discussion to agents with well-investigated molecular targets. PMID:27472345

  15. Marinopyrroles: Unique Drug Discoveries Based on Marine Natural Products.

    PubMed

    Li, Rongshi

    2016-01-01

    Natural products provide a successful supply of new chemical entities (NCEs) for drug discovery to treat human diseases. Approximately half of the NCEs are based on natural products and their derivatives. Notably, marine natural products, a largely untapped resource, have contributed to drug discovery and development with eight drugs or cosmeceuticals approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency, and ten candidates undergoing clinical trials. Collaborative efforts from drug developers, biologists, organic, medicinal, and natural product chemists have elevated drug discoveries to new levels. These efforts are expected to continue to improve the efficiency of natural product-based drugs. Marinopyrroles are examined here as a case study for potential anticancer and antibiotic agents.

  16. Marine Natural Products as Models to Circumvent Multidrug Resistance.

    PubMed

    Long, Solida; Sousa, Emília; Kijjoa, Anake; Pinto, Madalena M M

    2016-07-08

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) to anticancer drugs is a serious health problem that in many cases leads to cancer treatment failure. The ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp), which leads to premature efflux of drugs from cancer cells, is often responsible for MDR. On the other hand, a strategy to search for modulators from natural products to overcome MDR had been in place during the last decades. However, Nature limits the amount of some natural products, which has led to the development of synthetic strategies to increase their availability. This review summarizes the research findings on marine natural products and derivatives, mainly alkaloids, polyoxygenated sterols, polyketides, terpenoids, diketopiperazines, and peptides, with P-gp inhibitory activity highlighting the established structure-activity relationships. The synthetic pathways for the total synthesis of the most promising members and analogs are also presented. It is expected that the data gathered during the last decades concerning their synthesis and MDR-inhibiting activities will help medicinal chemists develop potential drug candidates using marine natural products as models which can deliver new ABC transporter inhibitor scaffolds.

  17. Natural seepage of crude oil into the marine environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kvenvolden, K.A.; Cooper, C.K.

    2003-01-01

    Recent global estimates of crude-oil seepage rates suggest that about 47% of crude oil currently entering the marine environment is from natural seeps, whereas 53% results from leaks and spills during the extraction, transportation, refining, storage, and utilization of petroleum. The amount of natural crude-oil seepage is currently estimated to be 600,000 metric tons per year, with a range of uncertainty of 200,000 to 2,000,000 metric tons per year. Thus, natural oil seeps may be the single most important source of oil that enters the ocean, exceeding each of the various sources of crude oil that enters the ocean through its exploitation by humankind.

  18. A marine sink for chlorine in natural organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leri, Alessandra C.; Mayer, Lawrence M.; Thornton, Kathleen R.; Northrup, Paul A.; Dunigan, Marisa R.; Ness, Katherine J.; Gellis, Austin B.

    2015-08-01

    Chloride--the most abundant ion in sea water--affects ocean salinity, and thereby seawater density and ocean circulation. Its lack of reactivity gives it an extremely long residence time. Other halogens are known to be incorporated into marine organic matter. However, evidence of similar transformations of seawater chloride is lacking, aside from emissions of volatile organochlorine by marine algae. Here we report high organochlorine concentrations from 180 to 700 mg kg-1 in natural particulate organic matter that settled into sediment traps at depths between 800 and 3,200 m in the Arabian Sea, taken between 1994 and 1995. X-ray spectromicroscopic imaging of chlorine bonding reveals that this organochlorine exists primarily in concentrated aliphatic forms consistent with lipid chlorination, along with a more diffuse aromatic fraction. High aliphatic organochlorine in particulate material from cultured phytoplankton suggests that primary production is a source of chlorinated organic matter. We also found that particulate algal detritus can act as an organic substrate for abiotic reactions involving Fe2+, H2O2 or light that incorporate chlorine into organic matter at levels up to several grams per kilogram. We conclude that transformations of marine chloride to non-volatile organochlorine through biological and abiotic pathways represent an oceanic sink for this relatively unreactive element.

  19. Antiviral activity of natural products extracted from marine organisms.

    PubMed

    Uzair, Bushra; Mahmood, Zahra; Tabassum, Sobia

    2011-01-01

    Many epidemics have broken out over the centuries. Hundreds and thousands of humans have died over a disease. Available treatments for infectious diseases have always been limited. Some infections are more deadly than the others, especially viral pathogens. These pathogens have continuously resisted all kinds of medical treatment, due to a need for new treatments to be developed. Drugs are present in nature and are also synthesized in vitro and they help in combating diseases and restoring health. Synthesizing drugs is a hard and time consuming task, which requires a lot of man power and financial aid. However, the natural compounds are just lying around on the earth, may it be land or water. Over a thousand novel compounds isolated from marine organisms are used as antiviral agents. Others are being pharmacologically tested. Today, over forty antiviral compounds are present in the pharmacological market. Some of these compounds are undergoing clinical and preclinical stages. Marine compounds are paving the way for a new trend in modern medicine.

  20. Anthropogenic and natural disturbances to marine benthic communities in Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Lenihan, H.; Oliver, J.S.

    1995-05-01

    Sampling and field experiments were conducted from 1975 to 1990 to test how the structure of marine benthic communities around McMurdo Station, Antarctica varied with levels of anthropogenic contaminants in marine sediments. The structure of communities (e.g., infauna density, species composition, and life history characteristics) in contaminated and uncontaminated areas were compared with the structure of communities influenced by two large-scale natural disturbances, anchor ice formation and uplift or iceberg scour. Benthic communities changed radically along a steep spatial gradient of anthropogenic hydrocarbon, metal, and PCB contamination around McMurdo Station. The heavily contaminated end of the gradient, Winter Quarters Bay, was low in infaunal and epifaunal abundance and was dominated by a few opportunistic species of polychaete worms. The edge of the heavily contaminated bay, the transition area, contained several motile polychaete species with less opportunistic life histories. Uncontaminated sedimentary habitats harbored dense tube mats of infaunal animals numerically dominated by populations of polychaete worms, crustaceans, and a large suspension feeding bivalve. These species are generally large and relatively sessile, except for several crustacean species living among the tubes. Although the community patterns around anthropogenic and natural disturbances were similar, particularly motile and opportunistic species at heavily disturbed and marginal areas, the natural disturbances cover much greater areas of the sea floor about the entire Antarctic continent. On the other hand, recovery from chemical contamination is likely to take many more decades than recovery from natural disturbances as contaminant degradation is a slow process. 77 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Marine Extremes and Natural Hazards: when the key is variability.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marone, Eduardo; Camargo, Ricardo; Salcedo Castro, Julio

    2014-05-01

    At EGU2013 we used the work we are conducting regarding marine extreme events and natural hazards to exploit the distance that separate the scientific community and the non academic society, trying to show where bridges need to be built an how an ethical behavior among the scientists needs to be in place to succeed. We concluded that our actions as scientists have not been the most appropriate in communicating outside the academy our results, particularly when our findings have to do with natural hazards which could contribute to loss of life and the environmental quality that sustains it. Even if one of the barriers that separate the academy from society is the "language", too cryptic even for a well educated (not scientific) citizen in many cases, we scientists complicated even more the problems when we stop worrying about some basic concepts regarding the scientific method once upon a time were teach at basic school levels, particularly concerning differences as accuracy and precision, or the concept of uncertainty and the errors which permeate any observation or scientific "prediction". Science teaching at basic levels was not lost, but changed in the XXth century, concentrating in the so many new advancements and abandoning classical but necessary learning processes just about how sciences is done and why. When studying marine extreme events, we use statistic, stochastic methods, deterministic analysis, logical and numerical modeling, etc. However, our results are still very far away of being accurate, while our precision, however is improving just a little, it is still far away of ideal. That appears to be somehow obvious if we look just the observed vs. the modeled data. Nevertheless, if we look not the absolute values of our results, but the "rhythm" of their variability and compare these cadences with the beats observed in nature, new patterns arose, and clues about how to act regarding natural hazards and extreme events became more clear. We are being

  2. The Fate of Marine Bacterial Exopolysaccharide in Natural Marine Microbial Communities

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zilian; Chen, Yi; Wang, Rui; Cai, Ruanhong; Fu, Yingnan; Jiao, Nianzhi

    2015-01-01

    Most marine bacteria produce exopolysaccharides (EPS), and bacterial EPS represent an important source of dissolved organic carbon in marine ecosystems. It was proposed that bacterial EPS rich in uronic acid is resistant to mineralization by microbes and thus has a long residence time in global oceans. To confirm this hypothesis, bacterial EPS rich in galacturonic acid was isolated from Alteromonas sp. JL2810. The EPS was used to amend natural seawater to investigate the bioavailability of this EPS by native populations, in the presence and absence of ammonium and phosphate amendment. The data indicated that the bacterial EPS could not be completely consumed during the cultivation period and that the bioavailability of EPS was not only determined by its intrinsic properties, but was also determined by other factors such as the availability of inorganic nutrients. During the experiment, the humic-like component of fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM) was freshly produced. Bacterial community structure analysis indicated that the class Flavobacteria of the phylum Bacteroidetes was the major contributor for the utilization of EPS. This report is the first to indicate that Flavobacteria are a major contributor to bacterial EPS degradation. The fraction of EPS that could not be completely utilized and the FDOM (e.g., humic acid-like substances) produced de novo may be refractory and may contribute to the carbon storage in the oceans. PMID:26571122

  3. The Fate of Marine Bacterial Exopolysaccharide in Natural Marine Microbial Communities

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Zilian; Chen, Yi; Wang, Rui; ...

    2015-11-16

    Most marine bacteria produce exopolysaccharides (EPS), and bacterial EPS represent an important source of dissolved organic carbon in marine ecosystems. It was proposed that bacterial EPS rich in uronic acid is resistant to mineralization by microbes and thus has a long residence time in global oceans. To confirm this hypothesis, bacterial EPS rich in galacturonic acid was isolated from Alteromonas sp. JL2810. The EPS was used to amend natural seawater to investigate the bioavailability of this EPS by native populations, in the presence and absence of ammonium and phosphate amendment. The data indicated that the bacterial EPS could not bemore » completely consumed during the cultivation period and that the bioavailability of EPS was not only determined by its intrinsic properties, but was also determined by other factors such as the availability of inorganic nutrients. During the experiment, the humic-like component of fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM) was freshly produced. Bacterial community structure analysis indicated that the class Flavobacteria of the phylum Bacteroidetes was the major contributor for the utilization of EPS. This report is the first to indicate that Flavobacteria are a major contributor to bacterial EPS degradation. Finally, the fraction of EPS that could not be completely utilized and the FDOM (e.g., humic acid-like substances) produced de novo may be refractory and may contribute to the carbon storage in the oceans.« less

  4. The Fate of Marine Bacterial Exopolysaccharide in Natural Marine Microbial Communities

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Zilian; Chen, Yi; Wang, Rui; Cai, Ruanhong; Fu, Yingnan; Jiao, Nianzhi; Quigg, Antonietta

    2015-11-16

    Most marine bacteria produce exopolysaccharides (EPS), and bacterial EPS represent an important source of dissolved organic carbon in marine ecosystems. It was proposed that bacterial EPS rich in uronic acid is resistant to mineralization by microbes and thus has a long residence time in global oceans. To confirm this hypothesis, bacterial EPS rich in galacturonic acid was isolated from Alteromonas sp. JL2810. The EPS was used to amend natural seawater to investigate the bioavailability of this EPS by native populations, in the presence and absence of ammonium and phosphate amendment. The data indicated that the bacterial EPS could not be completely consumed during the cultivation period and that the bioavailability of EPS was not only determined by its intrinsic properties, but was also determined by other factors such as the availability of inorganic nutrients. During the experiment, the humic-like component of fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM) was freshly produced. Bacterial community structure analysis indicated that the class Flavobacteria of the phylum Bacteroidetes was the major contributor for the utilization of EPS. This report is the first to indicate that Flavobacteria are a major contributor to bacterial EPS degradation. Finally, the fraction of EPS that could not be completely utilized and the FDOM (e.g., humic acid-like substances) produced de novo may be refractory and may contribute to the carbon storage in the oceans.

  5. Modeling of Marine Natural Hazards in the Lesser Antilles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahibo, Narcisse; Nikolkina, Irina; Pelinovsky, Efim

    2010-05-01

    The Caribbean Sea countries are often affected by various marine natural hazards: hurricanes and cyclones, tsunamis and flooding. The historical data of marine natural hazards for the Lesser Antilles and specially, for Guadeloupe are presented briefly. Numerical simulation of several historical tsunamis in the Caribbean Sea (1755 Lisbon trans-Atlantic tsunami, 1867 Virgin Island earthquake tsunami, 2003 Montserrat volcano tsunami) are performed within the framework of the nonlinear-shallow theory. Numerical results demonstrate the importance of the real bathymetry variability with respect to the direction of propagation of tsunami wave and its characteristics. The prognostic tsunami wave height distribution along the Caribbean Coast is computed using various forms of seismic and hydrodynamics sources. These results are used to estimate the far-field potential for tsunami hazards at coastal locations in the Caribbean Sea. The nonlinear shallow-water theory is also applied to model storm surges induced by tropical cyclones, in particular, cyclones "Lilli" in 2002 and "Dean" in 2007. Obtained results are compared with observed data. The numerical models have been tested against known analytical solutions of the nonlinear shallow-water wave equations. Obtained results are described in details in [1-7]. References [1] N. Zahibo and E. Pelinovsky, Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 1, 221 (2001). [2] N. Zahibo, E. Pelinovsky, A. Yalciner, A. Kurkin, A. Koselkov and A. Zaitsev, Oceanologica Acta, 26, 609 (2003). [3] N. Zahibo, E. Pelinovsky, A. Kurkin and A. Kozelkov, Science Tsunami Hazards. 21, 202 (2003). [4] E. Pelinovsky, N. Zahibo, P. Dunkley, M. Edmonds, R. Herd, T. Talipova, A. Kozelkov and I. Nikolkina, Science of Tsunami Hazards, 22, 44 (2004). [5] N. Zahibo, E. Pelinovsky, E. Okal, A. Yalciner, C. Kharif, T. Talipova and A. Kozelkov, Science of Tsunami Hazards, 23, 25 (2005). [6] N. Zahibo, E. Pelinovsky, T. Talipova, A. Rabinovich, A. Kurkin and I

  6. Marine Natural Products as Breast Cancer Resistance Protein Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Cherigo, Lilia; Lopez, Dioxelis; Martinez-Luis, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) is a protein belonging to the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily that has clinical relevance due to its multi-drug resistance properties in cancer. BCRP can be associated with clinical cancer drug resistance, in particular acute myelogenous or acute lymphocytic leukemias. The overexpression of BCRP contributes to the resistance of several chemotherapeutic drugs, such as topotecan, methotrexate, mitoxantrone, doxorubicin and daunorubicin. The Food and Drugs Administration has already recognized that BCRP is clinically one of the most important drug transporters, mainly because it leads to a reduction of clinical efficacy of various anticancer drugs through its ATP-dependent drug efflux pump function as well as its apparent participation in drug resistance. This review article aims to summarize the different research findings on marine natural products with BCRP inhibiting activity. In this sense, the potential modulation of physiological targets of BCRP by natural or synthetic compounds offers a great possibility for the discovery of new drugs and valuable research tools to recognize the function of the complex ABC-transporters. PMID:25854646

  7. Photolytic dehalogenation of the marine halogenated natural product Q1.

    PubMed

    Gaul, Simon; Vetter, Walter

    2008-02-01

    The marine halogenated natural product 2,3,3',4,4',5,5'-heptachloro-1'-methyl-1,2'-bipyrrole (Q1) has been detected in high-trophic level biota throughout the world. In this study we UV-irradiated Q1 in order to produce hexahalogenated 1'-methylbipyrroles (Cl(6)-MBPs). Q1 was transformed with half-lives of <5 min. Already after 5 min, all of the five existing Cl(6)-MBPs (H1-H5) were detected in the irradiated sample. Only one Cl(6)-MBP (2,3,3',4',5,5'-hexachloro-1'-methyl-1,2'-bipyrrole (MBP-77, H2) has been previously described in the literature. H5 was identified as 2,3,3',4,4',5'-hexachloro-1'-methyl-1,2'-bipyrrole (MBP-75) by a specific fragment ion detected by GC/ECNI-MS. Fractionations of the irradiation mixture by reversed-phase HPLC followed by (1)H NMR analysis led to the structure of H4, i.e. 2,3,3',4,4',5-hexachloro-1'-methyl-1,2'-bipyrrole (MBP-74). H1 and H3 showed virtually identical (1)H NMR data. Therefore, it could not determined which of either isomers is 2,3,3',4,5,5'-hexachloro-1'-methyl-1,2'-bipyrrole (MBP-76) and which is 2,3,4,4',5,5'-hexachloro-1'-methyl-1,2'-bipyrrole (MBP-78). In addition, two pentachloro-MBPs (P1 and P3) could be traced back to MBP-62 and MBP-69. Cl(6)-MBPs were analyzed in whale blubber from Australia and skua adipose tissue from Antarctica. The marine mammals contained all Cl(6)-MBPs except for the most abundant in the irradiation experiment. The concentrations of the Cl(6)-MBPs amounted to 0.04-1.76% of the concentration of Q1. The highest concentrations of Cl(6)-MBP isomers in the biota samples were found for MBP-76, MBP-77, and MBP-78. These congeners appeared to be the most lipophilic ones owing to the highest retention time in RP-HPLC. Nevertheless, it remained unclear whether the Cl(6)-MBPs were actual halogenated natural products or environmental metabolites of Q1.

  8. Differential responses of marine communities to natural and anthropogenic changes

    PubMed Central

    Kowalewski, Michał; Wittmer, Jacalyn M.; Dexter, Troy A.; Amorosi, Alessandro; Scarponi, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    Responses of ecosystems to environmental changes vary greatly across habitats, organisms and observational scales. The Quaternary fossil record of the Po Basin demonstrates that marine communities of the northern Adriatic re-emerged unchanged following the most recent glaciation, which lasted approximately 100 000 years. The Late Pleistocene and Holocene interglacial ecosystems were both dominated by the same species, species turnover rates approximated predictions of resampling models of a homogeneous system, and comparable bathymetric gradients in species composition, sample-level diversity, dominance and specimen abundance were observed in both time intervals. The interglacial Adriatic ecosystems appear to have been impervious to natural climate change either owing to their persistence during those long-term perturbations or their resilient recovery during interglacial phases of climate oscillations. By contrast, present-day communities of the northern Adriatic differ notably from their Holocene counterparts. The recent ecosystem shift stands in contrast to the long-term endurance of interglacial communities in face of climate-driven environmental changes. PMID:25673689

  9. Dehalogenation in marine sediments containing natural sources of halophenols.

    PubMed Central

    King, G M

    1988-01-01

    Halophenols such as 2,4-dibromophenol (DBP) occur naturally in some marine sediments, as a consequence of various animal and algal activities. In an earlier study, DBP was observed in the burrow microenvironment of the hemichordate Saccoglossus kowalewskii. At the concentrations found in the burrow lining, aerobic respiration appeared to be inhibited significantly relative to anaerobic catabolism. This effect, as well as factors contributing to the degradation of DBP, has been documented further here. Results from the addition of radiolabeled DBP to oxic and anoxic sediment slurries and growth experiments with aerobic and anaerobic enrichments suggested that aerobes did not significantly metabolize DBP and that concentrations likely to be encountered on the inner surfaces of the burrow wall were inhibitory. In contrast, only minimal inhibition of growth occurred for anaerobes exposed to 1 mM DBP; in addition, DBP was substantially degraded in both enrichments and sediments under anaerobic conditions. Dehalogenation with the consequent production of phenol appeared to initiate anaerobic degradation. Sulfate-reducing bacteria did not dehalogenate DBP but appeared to degrade phenol. Decreased bacterial numbers and marked differences in the concentration and chemical speciation of iron in sediments from S. kowalewskii burrows may be attributed to toxic effects of DBP on aerobic bacteria. PMID:3223770

  10. Differential responses of marine communities to natural and anthropogenic changes.

    PubMed

    Kowalewski, Michał; Wittmer, Jacalyn M; Dexter, Troy A; Amorosi, Alessandro; Scarponi, Daniele

    2015-03-22

    Responses of ecosystems to environmental changes vary greatly across habitats, organisms and observational scales. The Quaternary fossil record of the Po Basin demonstrates that marine communities of the northern Adriatic re-emerged unchanged following the most recent glaciation, which lasted approximately 100,000 years. The Late Pleistocene and Holocene interglacial ecosystems were both dominated by the same species, species turnover rates approximated predictions of resampling models of a homogeneous system, and comparable bathymetric gradients in species composition, sample-level diversity, dominance and specimen abundance were observed in both time intervals. The interglacial Adriatic ecosystems appear to have been impervious to natural climate change either owing to their persistence during those long-term perturbations or their resilient recovery during interglacial phases of climate oscillations. By contrast, present-day communities of the northern Adriatic differ notably from their Holocene counterparts. The recent ecosystem shift stands in contrast to the long-term endurance of interglacial communities in face of climate-driven environmental changes.

  11. Chasing the Treasures of the Sea – Bacterial Marine Natural Products

    PubMed Central

    Gulder, Tobias A. M.; Moore, Bradley S.

    2009-01-01

    Summary of recent advances Bacterial marine natural products are an important source of novel lead structures for drug discovery. The cytotoxic properties of many of these secondary metabolites are of particular interest for the development of new anti-cancer agents. Tremendous advances in marine molecular biology, genome sequencing, and bioinformatics have paved the way to fully exploit the biomedical potential of marine bacterial products. In addition, unique biosynthetic enzymes discovered from bacteria from the sea have begun to emerge as powerful biocatalysts in medicinal chemistry and total synthesis. The increasingly interdisciplinary field of marine natural product chemistry thus strongly impacts future developments in medicine, chemistry, and biology. PMID:19481972

  12. A sea of biosynthesis: marine natural products meet the molecular age†

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Amy L.; Moore, Bradley S.

    2011-01-01

    The years 2000 through mid-2010 marked a transformational period in understanding of the biosynthesis of marine natural products. During this decade the field emerged from one largely dominated by chemical approaches to understanding biosynthetic pathways to one incorporating the full force of modern molecular biology and bioinformatics. Fusion of chemical and biological approaches yielded great advances in understanding the genetic and enzymatic basis for marine natural product biosynthesis. Progress was particularly pronounced for marine microbes, especially actinomycetes and cyanobacteria. During this single decade, both the first complete marine microbial natural product biosynthetic gene cluster sequence was released as well as the first entire genome sequence for a secondary metabolite-rich marine microbe. The decade also saw tremendous progress in recognizing the key role of marine microbial symbionts of invertebrates in natural product biosynthesis. Application of genetic and enzymatic knowledge led to genetic engineering of novel “unnatural” natural products during this time, as well as opportunities for discovery of novel natural products through genome mining. The current review highlights selected seminal studies from 2000 through to June 2010 that illustrate breakthroughs in understanding of marine natural product biosynthesis at the genetic, enzymatic, and small-molecule natural product levels. A total of 154 references are cited. PMID:21170424

  13. New and bioactive natural products isolated from madagascar plants and marine organisms.

    PubMed

    Hou, Y; Harinantenaina, L

    2010-01-01

    Madagascar, the world's fourth biggest island has an unique biodiversity. The interest on the phytochemical investigation of Malagasy plants and marine natural products started from the isolation of the potent anti-cancerous bisindole alkaloids: vinblastine and vincristine. In this paper, works published in the last two decades (1991-2009) on 270 new natural products isolated from Madagascar higher plants, liverworts and marine organisms are reviewed. Several results on the bioassays of the isolated new natural products have been reported.

  14. Recent Advances and Applications of Experimental Technologies in Marine Natural Product Research

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ke; Chung-Davidson, Yu-Wen; Bussy, Ugo; Li, Weiming

    2015-01-01

    Marine natural products are a rich source of novel and biologically active compounds. The number of identified marine natural compounds has grown 20% over the last five years from 2009 to 2013. Several challenges, including sample collection and structure elucidation, have limited the development of this research field. Nonetheless, new approaches, such as sampling strategies for organisms from extreme ocean environments, nanoscale NMR and computational chemistry for structural determination, are now available to overcome the barriers. In this review, we highlight the experimental technology innovations in the field of marine natural products, which in our view will lead to the development of many new drugs in the future. PMID:25939037

  15. Zebrafish Embryo Toxicity Microscale Model for Ichthyotoxicity Evaluation of Marine Natural Products.

    PubMed

    Bai, Hong; Kong, Wen-Wen; Shao, Chang-Lun; Li, Yun; Liu, Yun-Zhang; Liu, Min; Guan, Fei-Fei; Wang, Chang-Yun

    2016-04-01

    Marine organisms often protect themselves against their predators by chemical defensive strategy. The second metabolites isolated from marine organisms and their symbiotic microbes have been proven to play a vital role in marine chemical ecology, such as ichthyotoxicity, allelopathy, and antifouling. It is well known that the microscale models for marine chemoecology assessment are urgently needed for trace quantity of marine natural products. Zebrafish model has been widely used as a microscale model in the fields of environment ecological evaluation and drug safety evaluation, but seldom reported for marine chemoecology assessment. In this work, zebrafish embryo toxicity microscale model was established for ichthyotoxicity evaluation of marine natural products by using 24-well microplate based on zebrafish embryo. Ichthyotoxicity was evaluated by observation of multiple toxicological endpoints, including coagulation egg, death, abnormal heartbeat, no spontaneous movement, delayed hatch, and malformation of the different organs during zebrafish embryogenesis periods at 24, 48, and 72 h post-fertilization (hpf). 3,4-Dichloroaniline was used as the positive control for method validation. Subsequently, the established model was applied to test the ichthyotoxic activity of the compounds isolated from corals and their symbiotic microbes and to isolate the bioactive secondary metabolites from the gorgonian Subergorgia mollis under bioassay guidance. It was suggested that zebrafish embryo toxicity microscale model is suitable for bioassay-guided isolation and preliminary bioactivity screening of marine natural products.

  16. Bioprospecting microbial natural product libraries from the marine environment for drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiangyang; Ashforth, Elizabeth; Ren, Biao; Song, Fuhang; Dai, Huanqin; Liu, Mei; Wang, Jian; Xie, Qiong; Zhang, Lixin

    2010-08-01

    Marine microorganisms are fascinating resources due to their production of novel natural products with antimicrobial activities. Increases in both the number of new chemical entities found and the substantiation of indigenous marine actinobacteria present a fundamental difficulty in the future discovery of novel antimicrobials, namely dereplication of those compounds already discovered. This review will share our experience on the taxonomic-based construction of a highly diversified and low redundant marine microbial natural product library for high-throughput antibiotic screening. We anticipate that libraries such as these can drive the drug discovery process now and in the future.

  17. Marine Sponge Derived Natural Products between 2001 and 2010: Trends and Opportunities for Discovery of Bioactives

    PubMed Central

    Mehbub, Mohammad Ferdous; Lei, Jie; Franco, Christopher; Zhang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Marine sponges belonging to the phylum Porifera (Metazoa), evolutionarily the oldest animals are the single best source of marine natural products. The present review presents a comprehensive overview of the source, taxonomy, country of origin or geographical position, chemical class, and biological activity of sponge-derived new natural products discovered between 2001 and 2010. The data has been analyzed with a view to gaining an outlook on the future trends and opportunities in the search for new compounds and their sources from marine sponges. PMID:25196730

  18. Agri-Business, Natural Resources, Marine Science; Grade 7. Cluster V.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoun, Olivia H.

    A curriculum guide for grade 7, the document is devoted to the occupational clusters "Agri-business, Natural Resources, and Marine Science." It is divided into five units: natural resources, ecology, landscaping, conservation, oceanography. Each unit is introduced by a statement of the topic, the unit's purpose, main ideas, quests, and a…

  19. [New natural products from the marine-derived Aspergillus fungi-A review].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chengying; Liu, Haishan; Zhu, Weiming

    2016-03-04

    Marine-derived fungi were the main source of marine microbial natural products (NPs) due to their complex genetic background, chemodiversity and high yield of NPs. According to our previous survey for marine microbial NPs from 2010 to 2013, Aspergillus fungi have received the most of attention among all the marine-derived fungi, which accounted for 31% NPs of the marine fungal origins. This paper reviewed the sources, chemical structures and bioactivites of all the 512 new marine NPs of Aspergillus fungal origins from 1992 to 2014. These marine NPs have diverse chemical structures including polyketides, fatty acids, sterols and terpenoids, alkaloids, peptides, and so on, 36% of which displayed bioactivities such as cytotoxicity, antimicrobial activity, antioxidant and insecticidal activity. Nitrogen compounds are the major secondary metabolites accounting for 52% NPs from the marine-derived Aspergillus fungi. Nitrogen compounds are also the class with the highest ratio of bioactive compounds, 40% of which are bioactive. Plinabulin, a dehydrodiketopiperazine derivative of halimide had been ended its phase II trial and has received its phase III study from the third quarter of 2015 for the treatment of advanced, metastatic non-small cell lung cancer.

  20. Complex marine natural products as potential epigenetic and production regulators of antibiotics from a marine Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Waters, Amanda L; Sims, James W; Fullmer, Alexis; Ellison, Serena; Hamann, Mark T

    2013-05-01

    Marine microbes are capable of producing secondary metabolites for defense and competition. Factors exerting an impact on secondary metabolite production of microbial communities included bioactive natural products and co-culturing. These external influences may have practical applications such as increased yields or the generation of new metabolites from otherwise silent genes in addition to reducing or limiting the production of undesirable metabolites. In this paper, we discuss the metabolic profiles of a marine Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the presence of a number of potential chemical epigenetic regulators, adjusting carbon sources and co-culturing with other microbes to induce a competitive response. As a result of these stressors certain groups of antibiotics or antimalarial agents were increased most notably when treating P. aeruginosa with sceptrin and co-culturing with another Pseudomonas sp. An interesting cross-talking event between these two Pseudomonas species when cultured together and exposed to sceptrin was observed.

  1. Complex marine natural products as potential epigenetic and production regulators of antibiotics from a marine Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bin; Waters, Amanda L.; Sims, James W.; Fullmer, Alexis; Ellison, Serena; Hamann, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    Marine microbes are capable of producing secondary metabolites for defense and competition. Factors exerting an impact on secondary metabolite production of microbial communities included bioactive natural products and co-culturing. These external influences may have practical applications such as increased yields or the generation of new metabolites from otherwise silent genes in addition to reducing or limiting the production of undesirable metabolites. In this paper, we discuss the metabolic profiles of a marine Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the presence of a number of potential chemical epigenetic regulators, adjusting carbon sources and co-culturing with other microbes to induce a competitive response. As a result of these stressors certain groups of antibiotics or antimalarial agents were increased most notably when treating P. aeruginosa with sceptrin and co-culturing with another Pseudomonas sp. An interesting cross-talking event between these two Pseudomonas species when cultured together and exposed to sceptrin was observed. PMID:23563743

  2. Natural Organobromine in Marine Sediments: New Evidence of Biogeochemical Br Cycling

    SciTech Connect

    A Leri; J Hakala; M Marcus; A Lanzirotti; C Reddy; S Myneni

    2011-12-31

    Organobromine (Br{sub org}) compounds, commonly recognized as persistent, toxic anthropogenic pollutants, are also produced naturally in terrestrial and marine systems. Several enzymatic and abiotic bromination mechanisms have been identified, as well as an array of natural Br{sub org} molecules associated with various marine organisms. The fate of the carbon-bromine functionality in the marine environment, however, remains largely unexplored. Oceanographic studies have noted an association between bromine (Br) and organic carbon (C{sub org}) in marine sediments. Even so, there has been no direct chemical evidence that Br in the sediments exists in a stable form apart from inorganic bromide (Br{sub inorg}), which is widely presumed conservative in marine systems. To investigate the scope of natural Br{sub org} production and its fate in the environment, we probed Br distribution and speciation in estuarine and marine sediments using in situ X-ray spectroscopy and spectromicroscopy. We show that Br{sub org} is ubiquitous throughout diverse sedimentary environments, occurring in correlation with C{sub org} and metals such as Fe, Ca, and Zn. Analysis of sinking particulate carbon from the seawater column links the Br{sub org} observed in sediments to biologically produced Br{sub org} compounds that persist through humification of natural organic matter (NOM). Br speciation varies with sediment depth, revealing biogeochemical cycling of Br between organic and inorganic forms as part of the burial and degradation of NOM. These findings illuminate the chemistry behind the association of Br with Corg in marine sediments and cast doubt on the paradigmatic classification of Br as a conservative element in seawater systems.

  3. Marketed Marine Natural Products in the Pharmaceutical and Cosmeceutical Industries: Tips for Success

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Ana; Vieira, Helena; Gaspar, Helena; Santos, Susana

    2014-01-01

    The marine environment harbors a number of macro and micro organisms that have developed unique metabolic abilities to ensure their survival in diverse and hostile habitats, resulting in the biosynthesis of an array of secondary metabolites with specific activities. Several of these metabolites are high-value commercial products for the pharmaceutical and cosmeceutical industries. The aim of this review is to outline the paths of marine natural products discovery and development, with a special focus on the compounds that successfully reached the market and particularly looking at the approaches tackled by the pharmaceutical and cosmetic companies that succeeded in marketing those products. The main challenges faced during marine bioactives discovery and development programs were analyzed and grouped in three categories: biodiversity (accessibility to marine resources and efficient screening), supply and technical (sustainable production of the bioactives and knowledge of the mechanism of action) and market (processes, costs, partnerships and marketing). Tips to surpass these challenges are given in order to improve the market entry success rates of highly promising marine bioactives in the current pipelines, highlighting what can be learned from the successful and unsuccessful stories that can be applied to novel and/or ongoing marine natural products discovery and development programs. PMID:24549205

  4. Marketed marine natural products in the pharmaceutical and cosmeceutical industries: tips for success.

    PubMed

    Martins, Ana; Vieira, Helena; Gaspar, Helena; Santos, Susana

    2014-02-17

    The marine environment harbors a number of macro and micro organisms that have developed unique metabolic abilities to ensure their survival in diverse and hostile habitats, resulting in the biosynthesis of an array of secondary metabolites with specific activities. Several of these metabolites are high-value commercial products for the pharmaceutical and cosmeceutical industries. The aim of this review is to outline the paths of marine natural products discovery and development, with a special focus on the compounds that successfully reached the market and particularly looking at the approaches tackled by the pharmaceutical and cosmetic companies that succeeded in marketing those products. The main challenges faced during marine bioactives discovery and development programs were analyzed and grouped in three categories: biodiversity (accessibility to marine resources and efficient screening), supply and technical (sustainable production of the bioactives and knowledge of the mechanism of action) and market (processes, costs, partnerships and marketing). Tips to surpass these challenges are given in order to improve the market entry success rates of highly promising marine bioactives in the current pipelines, highlighting what can be learned from the successful and unsuccessful stories that can be applied to novel and/or ongoing marine natural products discovery and development programs.

  5. Bioprospecting of marine invertebrates for new natural products - a chemical and zoogeographical perspective.

    PubMed

    Leal, Miguel Costa; Madeira, Carolina; Brandão, Cláudio Alexandre; Puga, João; Calado, Ricardo

    2012-08-16

    Bioprospecting for new marine natural products (NPs) has increased significantly over the last decades, leading to an unprecedented discovery of new molecules. Marine invertebrates have been the most important source of these NPs, with researchers commonly targeting particular taxonomic groups, marine regions and/or molecules from specific chemical groups. The present review focuses on new NPs identified from marine invertebrates between 2000 and 2009, and performs a detailed analysis on: (1) the chemical groups of these NPs; (2) the association of particular chemical groups to specific marine invertebrate taxa; and (3) the yielding of molecules from the same chemical group from organisms occurring in a particular geographic region. Our survey revealed an increasing number of new terpenoids being discovered between 2000 and 2009, contrasting with the decreasing trend in the discovery of new alkaloids and aliphatic molecules. Overall, no particular association was identified between marine invertebrate taxa and chemical groups of new NPs. Nonetheless, it is worth noting that most NPs recorded from cnidarians and mollusks were terpenoids, while most NPs identified in echinoderms were aliphatic compounds or carbohydrates. The geographical trends observed in our study do not support the idea of particular chemical groups of new NPs being associated with marine invertebrates from any specific geographical region, as NPs from different chemical groups were commonly distributed worldwide.

  6. Marine algal natural products with anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer properties

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    For their various bioactivities, biomaterials derived from marine algae are important ingredients in many products, such as cosmetics and drugs for treating cancer and other diseases. This mini-review comprehensively compares the bioactivities and biological functions of biomaterials from red, green, brown, and blue-green algae. The anti-oxidative effects and bioactivities of several different crude extracts of algae have been evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. Natural products derived from marine algae protect cells by modulating the effects of oxidative stress. Because oxidative stress plays important roles in inflammatory reactions and in carcinogenesis, marine algal natural products have potential for use in anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory drugs. PMID:23724847

  7. Understanding Marine Biocorrosion: Experiments with Artificial and Natural Seawater

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-04

    e.g., 0.6 M NaCl (Vargas-Avila et al ., 2009 ). However, in many cases the term synthetic seawater refers to commercially available carbonate ...and corrosion of vulnerable metals and alloys, including carbon steel and copper. 13.2 Effect of nutrients and oxygen removal on biocorrosion...an anaerobic environment in the laboratory solution of choice, which is often natural and/or artifi cial seawater. The pH of synthetic carbonate

  8. New antitumour natural products from marine red algae: covering the period from 2003 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Pejin, Boris; Jovanovic, Katarina K; Savic, Aleksandar G

    2015-01-01

    This review covers the 2003-2012 literature data published for natural products originating from marine red algae. The focus is on new antitumour substances, together with details related to the organism sourced. It emphasises 14 promising compounds (isolated from 13 species) whose chemical structures are briefly discussed.

  9. 43 CFR 15.2 - Removal or destruction of natural features and marine life.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.2 Removal or destruction of natural features and marine life. No person... sand, gravel or minerals, corals, sea feathers and fans, shells and shell fish starfishes or other... this Preserve. No rope, wire or other contrivance shall be attached to any coral, rock or...

  10. 43 CFR 15.2 - Removal or destruction of natural features and marine life.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.2 Removal or destruction of natural features and marine life. No person... sand, gravel or minerals, corals, sea feathers and fans, shells and shell fish starfishes or other... this Preserve. No rope, wire or other contrivance shall be attached to any coral, rock or...

  11. 43 CFR 15.2 - Removal or destruction of natural features and marine life.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.2 Removal or destruction of natural features and marine life. No person... sand, gravel or minerals, corals, sea feathers and fans, shells and shell fish starfishes or other... this Preserve. No rope, wire or other contrivance shall be attached to any coral, rock or...

  12. 43 CFR 15.2 - Removal or destruction of natural features and marine life.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.2 Removal or destruction of natural features and marine life. No person... sand, gravel or minerals, corals, sea feathers and fans, shells and shell fish starfishes or other... this Preserve. No rope, wire or other contrivance shall be attached to any coral, rock or...

  13. 43 CFR 15.2 - Removal or destruction of natural features and marine life.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.2 Removal or destruction of natural features and marine life. No person... sand, gravel or minerals, corals, sea feathers and fans, shells and shell fish starfishes or other... this Preserve. No rope, wire or other contrivance shall be attached to any coral, rock or...

  14. Search for New Bioactive Marine Natural Products and Application to Drug Development.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Jun'ichi

    2016-01-01

    Natural products are well recognized as an important source of lead compounds in drug development. During the past >30 years, we have discovered >1000 novel bioactive natural products from Okinawan marine organisms (sponges, tunicates, cone shells, etc.) and microorganisms (fungi, bacteria, dinoflagellates, etc.). Some of them are used as bioprobes useful for basic studies of life sciences, while others are expected to be candidates of drug leads.

  15. Medicinal benefits of marine invertebrates: sources for discovering natural drug candidates.

    PubMed

    De Zoysa, Mahanama

    2012-01-01

    Marine invertebrates are one of the major groups of organisms, which could be diversified under the major taxonomic groups of Porifera, Cnidaria, Mollusca, Arthropoda, Echinodermata, and many other minor phyla. To date, range of medicinal benefits and a significant number of marine natural products (MNPs) have been discovered from marine invertebrates. Seafood diet from edible marine invertebrates such as mollusks and crustaceans has been linked with various medicinal benefits to improve human health. Among marine invertebrates, spongers from phylum Porifera is the most dominant group responsible for discovering large number of MNPs, which have been used as template to develop therapeutic drugs. MNPs isolated from invertebrates have shown wide range of therapeutic properties including antimicrobial, antioxidant, antihypertensive, anticoagulant, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, wound healing and immune modulator, and other medicinal effects. Therefore, marine invertebrates are rich sources of chemical diversity and health benefits for developing drug candidates, cosmetics, nutritional supplements, and molecular probes that can be supported to increase the healthy life span of human.

  16. Natural marine sponges for bone tissue engineering: The state of art and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Granito, Renata Neves; Custódio, Márcio Reis; Rennó, Ana Claudia Muniz

    2016-05-10

    Marine life and its rich biodiversity provide a plentiful resource of potential new products for the society. Remarkably, marine organisms still remain a largely unexploited resource for biotechnology applications. Among them, marine sponges are sessile animals from the phylum Porifera dated at least from 580 million years ago. It is known that molecules from marine sponges present a huge therapeutic potential in a wide range of applications mainly due to its antitumor, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and antibiotic effects. In this context, this article reviews all the information available in the literature about the potential of the use of marine sponges for bone tissue engineering applications. First, one of the properties that make sponges interesting as bone substitutes is their structural characteristics. Most species have an efficient interconnected porous architecture, which allows them to process a significant amount of water and facilitates the flow of fluids, mimicking an ideal bone scaffold. Second, sponges have an organic component, the spongin, which is analogous to vertebral collagen, the most widely used natural polymer for tissue regeneration. Last, osteogenic properties of marine sponges is also highlighted by their mineral content, such as biosilica and other compounds, that are able to support cell growth and to stimulate bone formation and mineralization. This review focuses on recent studies concerning these interesting properties, as well as on some challenges to be overcome in the bone tissue engineering field. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2016.

  17. Consequences of natural upwelling in oligotrophic marine ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, J J

    1980-03-01

    One of the major environmental consequences of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) plans may be the artificial upwelling of nutrients to the surface waters of oligotrophic ecosystems. Within a 10 km/sup 2/ area, OTEC plants of 1000 MWe total capacity could upwell the same amount of nutrients as occurs naturally off Peru each day. The biological response to possible eutrophication by OTEC plants may not be similar to that within coastal upwelling ecosystems, however. Upwelling in offshore oceanic systems does not lead to increased primary production despite high nutrient content of the euphotic zone. Continuous grazing may not allow phytoplankton blooms to develop in oceanic upwelling systems to the proposed OTEC sites. At present this is a hypothesis to be tested before full evaluation of OTEC induced upwelling can be made.

  18. Potential of marine natural products against drug-resistant fungal, viral, and parasitic infections.

    PubMed

    Abdelmohsen, Usama Ramadan; Balasubramanian, Srikkanth; Oelschlaeger, Tobias A; Grkovic, Tanja; Pham, Ngoc B; Quinn, Ronald J; Hentschel, Ute

    2017-02-01

    Antibiotics have revolutionised medicine in many aspects, and their discovery is considered a turning point in human history. However, the most serious consequence of the use of antibiotics is the concomitant development of resistance against them. The marine environment has proven to be a very rich source of diverse natural products with significant antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antiparasitic, antitumour, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory activities. Many marine natural products (MNPs)-for example, neoechinulin B-have been found to be promising drug candidates to alleviate the mortality and morbidity rates caused by drug-resistant infections, and several MNP-based anti-infectives have already entered phase 1, 2, and 3 clinical trials, with six approved for usage by the US Food and Drug Administration and one by the EU. In this Review, we discuss the diversity of marine natural products that have shown in-vivo efficacy or in-vitro potential against drug-resistant infections of fungal, viral, and parasitic origin, and describe their mechanism of action. We highlight the drug-like physicochemical properties of the reported natural products that have bioactivity against drug-resistant pathogens in order to assess their drug potential. Difficulty in isolation and purification procedures, toxicity associated with the active compound, ecological impacts on natural environment, and insufficient investments by pharmaceutical companies are some of the clear reasons behind market failures and a poor pipeline of MNPs available to date. However, the diverse abundance of natural products in the marine environment could serve as a ray of light for the therapy of drug-resistant infections. Development of resistance-resistant antibiotics could be achieved via the coordinated networking of clinicians, microbiologists, natural product chemists, and pharmacologists together with pharmaceutical venture capitalist companies.

  19. Heat shock proteins as key biological targets of the marine natural cyclopeptide perthamide C.

    PubMed

    Margarucci, Luigi; Monti, Maria Chiara; Mencarelli, Andrea; Cassiano, Chiara; Fiorucci, Stefano; Riccio, Raffaele; Zampella, Angela; Casapullo, Agostino

    2012-04-01

    Linking bioactive compounds to their cellular targets is a central challenge in chemical biology. Herein we report the mode of action of perthamide C, a natural cyclopeptide isolated from the marine sponge Theonella swinhoei. Through an emerging mass spectrometry-based chemical proteomics approach, Heat Shock Protein 90 and Glucose Regulated Protein 94 were identified as key targets of perthamide C and this evidence has been validated using surface plasmon resonance. The ability of perthamide C to influence heat shock protein-mediated cell apoptosis revealed that this marine metabolite could be a good candidate for the development of a lead compound with therapeutic applications based on apoptosis modulation.

  20. Genome-Based Studies of Marine Microorganisms to Maximize the Diversity of Natural Products Discovery for Medical Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xin-Qing

    2011-01-01

    Marine microorganisms are rich source for natural products which play important roles in pharmaceutical industry. Over the past decade, genome-based studies of marine microorganisms have unveiled the tremendous diversity of the producers of natural products and also contributed to the efficiency of harness the strain diversity and chemical diversity, as well as the genetic diversity of marine microorganisms for the rapid discovery and generation of new natural products. In the meantime, genomic information retrieved from marine symbiotic microorganisms can also be employed for the discovery of new medical molecules from yet-unculturable microorganisms. In this paper, the recent progress in the genomic research of marine microorganisms is reviewed; new tools of genome mining as well as the advance in the activation of orphan pathways and metagenomic studies are summarized. Genome-based research of marine microorganisms will maximize the biodiscovery process and solve the problems of supply and sustainability of drug molecules for medical treatments. PMID:21826184

  1. Epiphytic marine pigmented bacteria: A prospective source of natural antioxidants

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Ravindra; Mohandass, Chellandi; Sivaperumal, Elakkiya; Sabu, Elaine; Rajasabapathy, Raju; Jagtap, Tanaji

    2015-01-01

    Awareness on antioxidants and its significance in human healthcare has increased many folds in recent time. Increased demand requisite on welcoming newer and alternative resources for natural antioxidants. Seaweed associated pigmented bacteria screened for its antioxidant potentials reveals 55.5% of the organisms were able to synthesize antioxidant compounds. DPPH assay showed 20% of the organisms to reach a antioxidant zone of 1 cm and 8.3% of the strains more than 3 cm. Pseudomonas koreensis (JX915782) a Sargassum associated yellowish brown pigmented bacteria have better activity than known commercial antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) against DPPH scavenging. Serratia rubidaea (JX915783), an associate of Ulva sp. and Pseudomonas argentinensis (JX915781) an epiphyte of Chaetomorpha media , were also contributed significantly towards ABTS (7.2% ± 0.03 to 15.2 ± 0.09%; 1.8% ± 0.01 to 15.7 ± 0.22%) and FRAP (1.81 ± 0.01 to 9.35 ± 0.98; 7.97 ± 0.12 to 18.70 ± 1.84 μg/mL of AsA Eq.) respectively. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed bacteria that have higher antioxidant activity belongs to a bacterial class Gammaproteobacteria. Statistical analysis of phenolic contents in relation with other parameters like DPPH, ABTS, reducing power and FRAP are well correlated (p < 0.05). Results obtained from the current study inferred that the seaweed associated pigmented bacteria have enormous potential on antioxidant compounds and need to be extracted in a larger way for clinical applications. PMID:26221086

  2. Mercury selection of allozymes in marine organisms: prediction and verification in nature. [Palaemon elegans; Monodonte turnbinata

    SciTech Connect

    Nevo, E.; Ben-Shlomo, R.; Lavie, B.

    1984-02-01

    The geographic distributions of mercury-tolerant allozyme genotypes of the enzyme phosphoglucomutase in the shrimp Palaemon elegans and the enzyme phosphoglucose isomerase in the marine gastropod Monodonta turbinata were compared in a mercury-polluted site versus several unpolluted sites on the Israeli coast of the Mediterranean sea. It was concluded that in both phosphoglucomutase and phosphoglucose isomerase, the level of the mercury-tolerant allozyme genotypes was higher in the polluted as compared with the unpolluted sites. These results suggest that mercury selection is operating in nature on allozyme genotypes of these marine organisms along patterns comparable with those found previously in laboratory experiments. The authors suggest that the enzymes studied here display an adaptive pattern in polluted environments. Therefore, they may be used as potential indicators and monitors of marine pollution. 13 references, 2 tables.

  3. Recent Advances in the Discovery and Development of Marine Microbial Natural Products

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Zhi-Qiang; Wang, Jian-Feng; Hao, Yu-You; Wang, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Marine microbial natural products (MMNPs) have attracted increasing attention from microbiologists, taxonomists, ecologists, agronomists, chemists and evolutionary biologists during the last few decades. Numerous studies have indicated that diverse marine microbes appear to have the capacity to produce an impressive array of MMNPs exhibiting a wide variety of biological activities such as antimicrobial, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory and anti-cardiovascular agents. Marine microorganisms represent an underexplored reservoir for the discovery of MMNPs with unique scaffolds and for exploitation in the pharmaceutical and agricultural industries. This review focuses on MMNPs discovery and development over the past decades, including innovative isolation and culture methods, strategies for discovering novel MMNPs via routine screenings, metagenomics, genomics, combinatorial biosynthesis, and synthetic biology. The potential problems and future directions for exploring MMNPs are also discussed. PMID:23528949

  4. Sponge halogenated natural products found at parts-per-million levels in marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Vetter, Walter; Stoll, Elke; Garson, Mary J; Fahey, Shireen J; Gaus, Caroline; Müller, Jochen F

    2002-10-01

    Several unknown, abundant brominated compounds (BCs) were recently detected in the blubber of dolphins and other marine mammals from Queensland (northeast Australia). The BCs were interpreted as potential natural products due to the lack of anthropogenic sources for these compounds. This study investigated whether some of the BCs accumulated by diverse marine mammal species are identical with natural BCs previously isolated from sponges (Dysidea sp.) living in the same habitat. Isolates from sponges and mollusks (Asteronotus cespitosus) were compared with the signals detected in the mammals' tissue. Mass spectra and gas chromatography retention times on four different capillary columns of the isolates from sponges and mammals were identical in all respects. This proves that the chemical name of the compound previously labeled BC-2 is 4,6-dibromo-2-(2',4'-dibromo)phenoxyanisole and that the chemical name of BC-11 is 3,5-dibromo-2-(3',5'-dibromo,2'-methoxy)phenoxyanisole. Using a quantitative reference solution of BC-2, we established that the concentrations of the brominated metabolites found in the marine mammals are frequently >1 mg/kg. The highest concentration (3.8 mg/kg), found in a sample of pygmy sperm whale (Kogia breviceps), indicates that BC-2 is a bioaccumulative, natural organohalogen compound. This is supported by the concentrations of the BCs in our samples being equal to the highest concentrations of anthropogenic BCs in any environmental sample. The quantitative determination of BC-2 in blubber of marine mammals from Africa and the Antarctic suggests that BC-2 is widespread. These results are direct proof that marine biota can produce persistent organic chemicals that accumulate to substantial concentrations in higher trophic organisms.

  5. Natural Proline-Rich Cyclopolypeptides from Marine Organisms: Chemistry, Synthetic Methodologies and Biological Status

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Wan-Yin; Dahiya, Rajiv; Qin, Hua-Li; Mourya, Rita; Maharaj, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    Peptides have gained increased interest as therapeutics during recent years. More than 60 peptide drugs have reached the market for the benefit of patients and several hundreds of novel therapeutic peptides are in preclinical and clinical development. The key contributor to this success is the potent and specific, yet safe, mode of action of peptides. Among the wide range of biologically-active peptides, naturally-occurring marine-derived cyclopolypeptides exhibit a broad range of unusual and potent pharmacological activities. Because of their size and complexity, proline-rich cyclic peptides (PRCPs) occupy a crucial chemical space in drug discovery that may provide useful scaffolds for modulating more challenging biological targets, such as protein-protein interactions and allosteric binding sites. Diverse pharmacological activities of natural cyclic peptides from marine sponges, tunicates and cyanobacteria have encouraged efforts to develop cyclic peptides with well-known synthetic methods, including solid-phase and solution-phase techniques of peptide synthesis. The present review highlights the natural resources, unique structural features and the most relevant biological properties of proline-rich peptides of marine-origin, focusing on the potential therapeutic role that the PRCPs may play as a promising source of new peptide-based novel drugs. PMID:27792168

  6. Biosynthetic origin of natural products isolated from marine microorganism-invertebrate assemblages.

    PubMed

    Simmons, T Luke; Coates, R Cameron; Clark, Benjamin R; Engene, Niclas; Gonzalez, David; Esquenazi, Eduardo; Dorrestein, Pieter C; Gerwick, William H

    2008-03-25

    In all probability, natural selection began as ancient marine microorganisms were required to compete for limited resources. These pressures resulted in the evolution of diverse genetically encoded small molecules with a variety of ecological and metabolic roles. Remarkably, many of these same biologically active molecules have potential utility in modern medicine and biomedical research. The most promising of these natural products often derive from organisms richly populated by associated microorganisms (e.g., marine sponges and ascidians), and often there is great uncertainty about which organism in these assemblages is making these intriguing metabolites. To use the molecular machinery responsible for the biosynthesis of potential drug-lead natural products, new tools must be applied to delineate their genetic and enzymatic origins. The aim of this perspective is to highlight both traditional and emerging techniques for the localization of metabolic pathways within complex marine environments. Examples are given from the literature as well as recent proof-of-concept experiments from the authors' laboratories.

  7. Contribution of synthetic and naturally occurring organobromine compounds to bromine mass in marine organisms.

    PubMed

    Wan, Yi; Jones, Paul D; Wiseman, Steve; Chang, Hong; Chorney, Dave; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Zhang, Kun; Hu, Jian-Ying; Khim, Jong Seong; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Lam, Michael H W; Giesy, John P

    2010-08-15

    An extraction, separation, and purification method was developed for the identification and quantification of total bromine (TBr), extractable organobromine (EOBr), and five classes of identified EOBrs. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was utilized to quantify EOBr and TBr. The method was then applied to liver samples of tuna, albatross, and polar bear collected from remote marine locations. Polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), bromophenols (BRPs), hydroxylated (OH-) and methoxylated (MeO-) PBDEs were analyzed as identified EOBr. The majority of the bromine in these marine organisms was nonextractable or inorganic, with EOBr accounting for 10-28% of the TBr. Of the identified EOBr, in tuna and albatross, naturally occurring compounds, including MeO-PBDEs, OH-PBDEs, and BPRs, were prevalent. However, the identifiable EOBr in polar bears consisted primarily of synthetic compounds, including PBDEs and PBBs. Overall, 0.08-0.11% and 0.008-0.012% of EOBr and TBr, respectively, were identified. The proportion of EOBr that was identified in marine organisms was relatively small compared to the proportions for organofluorine and organochlorine compounds. This could be related to the great diversity of naturally occurring organobromine compounds in the environment. Naturally occurring brominated fatty acids were estimated to be the predominant compounds in the EOBr fraction.

  8. 35 Years of Marine Natural Product Research in Sweden: Cool Molecules and Models from Cold Waters.

    PubMed

    Bohlin, Lars; Cárdenas, Paco; Backlund, Anders; Göransson, Ulf

    2017-01-01

    Currents efforts in marine biodiscovery have essentially focused on temperate to tropical shallow water organisms. With more than 6000 species of marine plants and animals, the Kosterfjord area has the richest marine biodiversity in Swedish waters, but it remains understudied. The overall objective of our marine pharmacognosy research is to explore and reveal the pharmacological potential of organisms from this poorly explored region. More generally, we wish to understand aspects of structure-activity relationships of chemical interactions in cold-water marine environment (shallow and deep). Our strategy is based on ecologically guided search for compounds through studies of physiology and organism interactions coupled to identification of bioactive molecules guided by especially in vivo assays. The research programme originated in the beginning of the 1980s with a broad screening of Swedish marine organisms using both in vitro and in vivo assays, resulting in isolation and identification of several different bioactive molecules. Two congenerous cyclopeptides, i.e. barettin and 8,9-dihydrobarettin, were isolated from the deep-sea sponge Geodia barretti, and structurally elucidated, guided by their antifouling activity and their affinity to a selection of human serotonin receptors. To optimize the activity a number of analogues of barettin were synthezised and tested for antifouling activity. Within the EU project BlueGenics, two larger homologous peptides, barrettides A and B, were isolated from G. baretti. Also, metabolic fingerprinting combined with sponge systematics was used to further study deep-sea natural product diversity in the genus Geodia. Finally, the chemical property space model 'ChemGPS-NP' has been developed and used in our research group, enabling a more efficient use of obtained compounds and exploration of possible biological activities and targets. Another approach is the broad application of phylogenetic frameworks, which can be used in

  9. Transposition of Mboumar-9: identification of a new naturally active mariner-family transposon.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-López, Martín; Siddique, Azeem; Bischerour, Julien; Lorite, Pedro; Chalmers, Ronald; Palomeque, Teresa

    2008-10-10

    Although mariner transposons are widespread in animal genomes, the vast majority harbor multiple inactivating mutations and only two naturally occurring elements are known to be active. Previously, we discovered a mariner-family transposon, Mboumar, in the satellite DNA of the ant Messor bouvieri. Several copies of the transposon contain a full-length open reading frame, including Mboumar-9, which has 64% nucleotide identity to Mos1 of Drosophila mauritiana. To determine whether Mboumar is currently active, we expressed and purified the Mboumar-9 transposase and demonstrate that it is able to catalyze the movement of a transposon from one plasmid to another in a genetic in vitro hop assay. The efficiency is comparable to that of the well-characterized mariner transposon Mos1. Transposon insertions were precise and were flanked by TA duplications, a hallmark of mariner transposition. Mboumar has been proposed to have a role in the evolution and maintenance of satellite DNA in M. bouvieri and its activity provides a means to examine the involvement of the transposon in the genome dynamics of this organism.

  10. The effects of oil spills on marine fish: Implications of spatial variation in natural mortality.

    PubMed

    Langangen, Ø; Olsen, E; Stige, L C; Ohlberger, J; Yaragina, N A; Vikebø, F B; Bogstad, B; Stenseth, N C; Hjermann, D Ø

    2017-04-04

    The effects of oil spills on marine biological systems are of great concern, especially in regions with high biological production of harvested resources such as in the Northeastern Atlantic. The scientific studies of the impact of oil spills on fish stocks tend to ignore that spatial patterns of natural mortality may influence the magnitude of the impact over time. Here, we first illustrate how spatial variation in natural mortality may affect the population impact by considering a thought experiment. Second, we consider an empirically based example of Northeast Arctic cod to extend the concept to a realistic setting. Finally, we present a scenario-based investigation of how the degree of spatial variation in natural mortality affects the impact over a gradient of oil spill sizes. Including the effects of spatial variations in natural mortality tends to widen the impact distribution, hence increasing the probability of both high and low impact events.

  11. Evidence of localized resource depletion following a natural colonization event by a large marine predator.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Carey E; Baker, Jason D; Towell, Rodney G; Ream, Rolf R

    2014-09-01

    For central place foragers, forming colonies can lead to extensive competition for prey around breeding areas and a zone of local prey depletion. As populations grow, this area of reduced prey can expand impacting foraging success and forcing animals to alter foraging behaviour. Here, we examine a population of marine predators, the northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus), which colonized a recently formed volcanic island, and assess changes in foraging behaviour associated with increasing population density. Specifically, we measured pup production and adult foraging behaviour over a 15-year period, during which the population increased 4-fold. Using measures of at-sea movements and dive behaviour, we found clear evidence that as the population expanded, animals were required to allot increasing effort to obtain resources. These changes in behaviour included longer duration foraging trips, farther distances travelled, a larger foraging range surrounding the island and deeper maximum dives. Our results suggest that as the northern fur seal population increased, local prey resources were depleted as a result of increased intraspecific competition. In addition, the recent slowing of population growth indicates that this population may be approaching carrying capacity just 31 years after a natural colonization event. Our study offers insight into the dynamics of population growth and impacts of increasing population density on a large marine predator. Such data could be vital for understanding future population fluctuations that occur in response to the dynamic environment, as natural and anthropogenic factors continue to modify marine habitats.

  12. Natural trace metal concentrations in estuarine and coastal marine sediments of the southeastern United States

    SciTech Connect

    Windom, H.L.; Schropp, S.J.; Calder, F.D.; Ryan, J.D.; Smith, R.G. Jr.; Burney, L.C.; Lewis, F.G.; Rawlinson, C.H.

    1989-03-01

    Over 450 sediment samples from estuarine and coastal marine areas of the southeastern US remote from contaminant sources were analyzed for trace metals. Although these sediments are compositionally diverse, As, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, Ni, and Zn concentrations covary significantly with aluminum, suggesting that natural aluminosilicate minerals are the dominant natural metal bearing phases. Cd and Hg do not covary with aluminum apparently due to the importance of the contribution of natural organic phases to their concentration in sediments. It is suggested that the covariance of metals with aluminum provides a useful basis for identification and comparison of anthropogenic inputs to southeastern US coastal/estuarine sediments. By use of this approach sediments from the Savannah River, Biscayne Bay, and Pensacola Bay are compared.

  13. Exploring anti-TB leads from natural products library originated from marine microbes and medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xueting; Chen, Caixia; He, Wenni; Huang, Pei; Liu, Miaomiao; Wang, Qian; Guo, Hui; Bolla, Krishna; Lu, Yan; Song, Fuhang; Dai, Huanqin; Liu, Mei; Zhang, Lixin

    2012-10-01

    Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and TB-HIV co-infection have become a great threat to global health. However, the last truly novel drug that was approved for the treatment of TB was discovered 40 years ago. The search for new effective drugs against TB has never been more intensive. Natural products derived from microbes and medicinal plants have been an important source of TB therapeutics. Recent advances have been made to accelerate the discovery rate of novel TB drugs including diversifying strategies for environmental strains, high-throughput screening (HTS) assays, and chemical diversity. This review will discuss the challenges of finding novel natural products with anti-TB activity from marine microbes and plant medicines, including biodiversity- and taxonomy-guided microbial natural products library construction, target- and cell-based HTS, and bioassay-directed isolation of anti-TB substances from traditional medicines.

  14. The Research Path to Determining the Natural Gas Supply Potential of Marine Gas Hydrates

    SciTech Connect

    Boswell, R.M.; Rose, K.K.; Baker, R.C.

    2008-06-01

    A primary goal of the U.S. National Interagency Gas Hydrates R&D program is to determine the natural gas production potential of marine gas hydrates. In pursuing this goal, four primary areas of effort are being conducted in parallel. First, are wide-ranging basic scientific investigations in both the laboratory and in the field designed to advance the understanding of the nature and behavior of gas hydrate bearing sediments (GHBS). This multi-disciplinary work has wide-ranging direct applications to resource recovery, including assisting the development of exploration and production technologies through better rock physics models for GHBS and also in providing key data for numerical simulations of productivity, reservoir geomechanical response, and other phenomena. In addition, fundamental science efforts are essential to developing a fuller understanding of the role gas hydrates play in the natural environment and the potential environmental implications of gas hydrate production, a critical precursor to commercial extraction. A second area of effort is the confirmation of resource presence and viability via a series of multi-well marine drilling expeditions. The collection of data in the field is essential to further clarifying what proportion of the likely immense in-place marine gas hydrate resource exists in accumulations of sufficient quality to represent potential commercial production prospects. A third research focus area is the integration of geologic, geophysical, and geochemical field data into an effective suite of exploration tools that can support the delineation and characterization commercial gas hydrate prospects prior to drilling. The fourth primary research focus is the development and testing of well-based extraction technologies (including drilling, completion, stimulation and production) that can safely deliver commercial gas production rates from gas hydrate reservoirs in a variety of settings. Initial efforts will take advantage of the

  15. First Total Synthesis of a Naturally Occurring Iodinated 5′-Deoxyxylofuranosyl Marine Nucleoside

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jianyun; Dou, Yanhui; Ding, Haixin; Yang, Ruchun; Sun, Qi; Xiao, Qiang

    2012-01-01

    4-Amino-7-(5′-deoxy-β-D-xylofuranosyl)-5-iodo-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine 1, an unusual naturally occurring marine nucleoside isolated from an ascidan, Diplosoma sp., was synthesized from D-xylose in seven steps with 28% overall yield on 10 g scale. The key step was Vorbrüggen glycosylation of 5-iodo-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine with 5-deoxy-1,2-O-diacetyl-3-O-benzoyl-D-xylofuranose. Its absolute configuration was confirmed. PMID:22690148

  16. Mars physical parameters as determined from Mariner 9 observations of the natural satellites and Doppler tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Born, G. H.

    1974-01-01

    Mariner 9 Doppler tracking data and television photographs of Deimos and Phobos were analyzed to determine the gravity field, mass, and spin-axis direction of Mars and the natural satellite orbits. The solutions agree with previously published results. Radio data consisted of an apoapsis state vector for each of revolutions 5-195 obtained from one-revolution fits of Doppler data. Optical data consisted of TV photographs of Phobos and Deimos taken between revolutions 25 and 221. A first-order analytical theory, extended to include dominant second-order resonance effects on the Mariner 9 orbit, was used to calculate the motion of the spacecraft, Deimos, and Phobos. The feasibility of combining radio and optical data in long-arc solutions for accurate determination of orbits and physical parameters is demonstrated. The analytical theory developed for the evolution of a highly eccentric orbit in shallow resonance is accurate to plus or minus 1 km in the apoapsis state vector of Mariner 9 over a period of 200 revolutions.

  17. Structure-Activity Relationships of the Bioactive Thiazinoquinone Marine Natural Products Thiaplidiaquinones A and B.

    PubMed

    Harper, Jacquie L; Khalil, Iman M; Shaw, Lisa; Bourguet-Kondracki, Marie-Lise; Dubois, Joëlle; Valentin, Alexis; Barker, David; Copp, Brent R

    2015-08-10

    In an effort to more accurately define the mechanism of cell death and to establish structure-activity relationship requirements for the marine meroterpenoid alkaloids thiaplidiaquinones A and B, we have evaluated not only the natural products but also dioxothiazine regioisomers and two precursor quinones in a range of bioassays. While the natural products were found to be weak inducers of ROS in Jurkat cells, the dioxothiazine regioisomer of thiaplidiaquinone A and a synthetic precursor to thiaplidiaquinone B were found to be moderately potent inducers. Intriguingly, and in contrast to previous reports, the mechanism of Jurkat cell death (necrosis vs. apoptosis) was found to be dependent upon the positioning of one of the geranyl sidechains in the compounds with thiaplidiaquinone A and its dioxothiazine regioisomer causing death dominantly by necrosis, while thiaplidiaquinone B and its dioxothiazine isomer caused cell death via apoptosis. The dioxothiazine regioisomer of thiaplidiaquinone A exhibited more potent in vitro antiproliferative activity against human tumor cells, with NCI sub-panel selectivity towards melanoma cell lines. The non-natural dioxothiazine regioisomers were also more active in antiplasmodial and anti-farnesyltransferase assays than their natural product counterparts. The results highlight the important role that natural product total synthesis can play in not only helping understand the structural basis of biological activity of natural products, but also the discovery of new bioactive scaffolds.

  18. A comparison between two brine shrimp assays to detect in vitro cytotoxicity in marine natural products

    PubMed Central

    Carballo, José Luis; Hernández-Inda, Zaira L; Pérez, Pilar; García-Grávalos, María D

    2002-01-01

    Background The brine shrimp lethality assay is considered a useful tool for preliminary assessment of toxicity. It has also been suggested for screening pharmacological activities in plant extracts. However, we think that it is necessary to evaluate the suitability of the brine shrimp methods before they are used as a general bio-assay to test natural marine products for pharmacological activity. Material and Methods The bioactivity of the isopropanolic (2-PrOH) extracts of 14 species of marine invertebrates and 6 species of macroalgae was evaluated with the shrimp lethality assay (lethality assay), as well as with another assay based on the inhibition of hatching of the cyst (hatchability assay). The extracts were also assayed for cytotoxicity against two human cell lines, lung carcinoma A-549 and colon carcinoma HT-29, in order to assess the sensitivity of the shrimp assays to detect cytotoxic activity. Results Two sponges (Hyatella sp, Dysidea sp.), two gorgonians (Pacifigorgia adamsii, Muricea sp.), one tunicate (Polyclinum laxum), and three echinoderms (Holothuria impatiens, Pseudoconus californica and Pharia pyramidata) showed a strong cytostatic (growth inhibition) and cytotoxic effect. The hatchability assay showed a strong activity in 4 of the species active against the two human cell lines tested (Hyatella sp, Dysidea sp., Pacifigorgia adamsii and Muricea sp.), and the lethality assay also showed a high lethality in 4 of them (Pacifigorgia adamsii, Muricea sp., Polyclinum laxum, and Pharia pyramidata). Each bioassay detected activity in 50% of the species that were considered active against the two human cell lines tested. However, the simultaneous use of both bioassays increased the percentage to 75%. Conclusions Our results seem consistent with the correlation previously established between cytotoxicity and brine shrimp lethality in plant extracts. We suggest using both bioassays simultaneously to test natural marine products for pharmacological

  19. Petroleum biodegradation studied in sediment-flow-through systems simulating natural oil seepage in marine sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Sonakshi; Wefers, Peggy; Steeb, Philip; Schmidt, Mark; Treude, Tina

    2014-05-01

    The natural biodegradation of hydrocarbons depends on several environmental factors like nutrients, salinity, temperature, pressure, redox-conditions and composition of crude oil. Petroleum migrating from depth into marine surface sediments at natural seep sites could be subjected to a sequence of different kind of microbial processes which is controlled by a strong redox gradient within a thin sediment segment. Most studies on microbial degradation of petroleum have focused either only on selected hydrocarbon fractions or on cultured microbes. This study, however, attempts to investigate the natural microbial response of marine sediments to crude oil seepage with detailed analysis of sediment and porewater geochemistry, hydrocarbon degradation products, microbial activity, and microbial genetics. A sediment-oil-flow-through-system was established where crude oil migrated through the bottom of (approximately 30 cm long) intact marine sediment cores simulating a natural seepage scenario. Electron acceptor-rich oxic seawater was provided at the top of the core and anoxic conditions were established at the bottom of the cores. The intact sediment cores had been sampled from the Caspian Sea (near Baku) and the North Alex Mud Volcano in the Mediterranean Sea. The Caspian Sea and the North Alex Mud Volcano are both sites with active transport of hydrocarbons from depth by mud volcano activity. The geochemical changes in the sediment cores during oil seepage were monitored by using microelectrodes and porewater analyses. The geochemical analysis was later followed by hydrocarbon and molecular analyses at the end of the experiment by slicing the cores. First results based on the biogeochemistry of the sediment cores and hydrocarbon analyses are presented here. Porewater profiles of hydrogen sulfide and sulfate during the experimental runs gave first indications of microbial response and sulfate reduction due to the addition of crude oil. The core from North Alex Mud

  20. Natural abundances of carbon isotopes in acetate from a coastal marine sediment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blair, N. E.; Martens, C. S.; Des Marais, D. J.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements of the natural abundances of carbon isotopes were made in acetate samples isolated from the anoxic marine sediment of Cape Lookout Bight, North Carolina. The typical value of the total acetate carbon isotope ratio (delta 13C) was -16.1 +/- 0.2 per mil. The methyl and carboxyl groups were determined to be -26.4 +/- 0.3 and -6.0 +/- 0.3 per mil, respectively, for one sample. The isotopic composition of the acetate is thought to have resulted from isotopic discriminations that occurred during the cycling of that molecule. Measurements of this type, which have not been made previously in the natural environment, may provide information about the dominant microbial pathways in anoxic sediments as well as the processes that influence the carbon isotopic composition of biogenic methane from many sources.

  1. A new natural gamma radiation measurement system for marine sediment and rock analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasiliev, M. A.; Blum, P.; Chubarian, G.; Olsen, R.; Bennight, C.; Cobine, T.; Fackler, D.; Hastedt, M.; Houpt, D.; Mateo, Z.; Vasilieva, Y. B.

    2011-11-01

    A new high-efficiency and low-background system for the measurement of natural gamma radioactivity in marine sediment and rock cores retrieved from beneath the seabed was designed, built, and installed on the JOIDES Resolution research vessel. The system includes eight large NaI(Tl) detectors that measure adjacent intervals of the core simultaneously, maximizing counting times and minimizing statistical error for the limited measurement times available during drilling expeditions. Effect to background ratio is maximized with passive lead shielding, including both ordinary and low-activity lead. Large-area plastic scintillator active shielding filters background associated with the high-energy part of cosmic radiation. The new system has at least an order of magnitude higher statistical reliability and significantly enhances data quality compared to other offshore natural gamma radiation (NGR) systems designed to measure geological core samples. Reliable correlations and interpretations of cored intervals are possible at rates of a few counts per second.

  2. Natural variability of marine ecosystems inferred from a coupled climate to ecosystem simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Mézo, Priscilla; Lefort, Stelly; Séférian, Roland; Aumont, Olivier; Maury, Olivier; Murtugudde, Raghu; Bopp, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    This modeling study analyzes the simulated natural variability of pelagic ecosystems in the North Atlantic and North Pacific. Our model system includes a global Earth System Model (IPSL-CM5A-LR), the biogeochemical model PISCES and the ecosystem model APECOSM that simulates upper trophic level organisms using a size-based approach and three interactive pelagic communities (epipelagic, migratory and mesopelagic). Analyzing an idealized (e.g., no anthropogenic forcing) 300-yr long pre-industrial simulation, we find that low and high frequency variability is dominant for the large and small organisms, respectively. Our model shows that the size-range exhibiting the largest variability at a given frequency, defined as the resonant range, also depends on the community. At a given frequency, the resonant range of the epipelagic community includes larger organisms than that of the migratory community and similarly, the latter includes larger organisms than the resonant range of the mesopelagic community. This study shows that the simulated temporal variability of marine pelagic organisms' abundance is not only influenced by natural climate fluctuations but also by the structure of the pelagic community. As a consequence, the size- and community-dependent response of marine ecosystems to climate variability could impact the sustainability of fisheries in a warming world.

  3. Contemporary Strategies for the Synthesis of Tetrahydropyran Derivatives: Application to Total Synthesis of Neopeltolide, a Marine Macrolide Natural Product.

    PubMed

    Fuwa, Haruhiko

    2016-03-25

    Tetrahydropyrans are structural motifs that are abundantly present in a range of biologically important marine natural products. As such, significant efforts have been paid to the development of efficient and versatile methods for the synthesis of tetrahydropyran derivatives. Neopeltolide, a potent antiproliferative marine natural product, has been an attractive target compound for synthetic chemists because of its complex structure comprised of a 14-membered macrolactone embedded with a tetrahydropyran ring, and twenty total and formal syntheses of this natural product have been reported so far. This review summarizes the total and formal syntheses of neopeltolide and its analogues, highlighting the synthetic strategies exploited for constructing the tetrahydropyran ring.

  4. Contemporary Strategies for the Synthesis of Tetrahydropyran Derivatives: Application to Total Synthesis of Neopeltolide, a Marine Macrolide Natural Product

    PubMed Central

    Fuwa, Haruhiko

    2016-01-01

    Tetrahydropyrans are structural motifs that are abundantly present in a range of biologically important marine natural products. As such, significant efforts have been paid to the development of efficient and versatile methods for the synthesis of tetrahydropyran derivatives. Neopeltolide, a potent antiproliferative marine natural product, has been an attractive target compound for synthetic chemists because of its complex structure comprised of a 14-membered macrolactone embedded with a tetrahydropyran ring, and twenty total and formal syntheses of this natural product have been reported so far. This review summarizes the total and formal syntheses of neopeltolide and its analogues, highlighting the synthetic strategies exploited for constructing the tetrahydropyran ring. PMID:27023567

  5. Statistical research on the bioactivity of new marine natural products discovered during the 28 years from 1985 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yiwen; Chen, Jiahui; Hu, Guping; Yu, Jianchen; Zhu, Xun; Lin, Yongcheng; Chen, Shengping; Yuan, Jie

    2015-01-07

    Every year, hundreds of new compounds are discovered from the metabolites of marine organisms. Finding new and useful compounds is one of the crucial drivers for this field of research. Here we describe the statistics of bioactive compounds discovered from marine organisms from 1985 to 2012. This work is based on our database, which contains information on more than 15,000 chemical substances including 4196 bioactive marine natural products. We performed a comprehensive statistical analysis to understand the characteristics of the novel bioactive compounds and detail temporal trends, chemical structures, species distribution, and research progress. We hope this meta-analysis will provide useful information for research into the bioactivity of marine natural products and drug development.

  6. Statistical Research on the Bioactivity of New Marine Natural Products Discovered during the 28 Years from 1985 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yiwen; Chen, Jiahui; Hu, Guping; Yu, Jianchen; Zhu, Xun; Lin, Yongcheng; Chen, Shengping; Yuan, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Every year, hundreds of new compounds are discovered from the metabolites of marine organisms. Finding new and useful compounds is one of the crucial drivers for this field of research. Here we describe the statistics of bioactive compounds discovered from marine organisms from 1985 to 2012. This work is based on our database, which contains information on more than 15,000 chemical substances including 4196 bioactive marine natural products. We performed a comprehensive statistical analysis to understand the characteristics of the novel bioactive compounds and detail temporal trends, chemical structures, species distribution, and research progress. We hope this meta-analysis will provide useful information for research into the bioactivity of marine natural products and drug development. PMID:25574736

  7. Phylogenetic Tree Analysis of the Cold-Hot Nature of Traditional Chinese Marine Medicine for Possible Anticancer Activity

    PubMed Central

    Song, Xuxia; Li, Xuebo; Zhang, Fengcong; Wang, Changyun

    2017-01-01

    Traditional Chinese Marine Medicine (TCMM) represents one of the medicinal resources for research and development of novel anticancer drugs. In this study, to investigate the presence of anticancer activity (AA) displayed by cold or hot nature of TCMM, we analyzed the association relationship and the distribution regularity of TCMMs with different nature (613 TCMMs originated from 1,091 species of marine organisms) via association rules mining and phylogenetic tree analysis. The screened association rules were collected from three taxonomy groups: (1) Bacteria superkingdom, Phaeophyceae class, Fucales order, Sargassaceae family, and Sargassum genus; (2) Viridiplantae kingdom, Streptophyta phylum, Malpighiales class, and Rhizophoraceae family; (3) Holothuroidea class, Aspidochirotida order, and Holothuria genus. Our analyses showed that TCMMs with closer taxonomic relationship were more likely to possess anticancer bioactivity. We found that the cluster pattern of marine organisms with reported AA tended to cluster with cold nature TCMMs. Moreover, TCMMs with salty-cold nature demonstrated properties for softening hard mass and removing stasis to treat cancers, and species within Metazoa or Viridiplantae kingdom of cold nature were more likely to contain AA properties. We propose that TCMMs from these marine groups may enable focused bioprospecting for discovery of novel anticancer drugs derived from marine bioresources. PMID:28191021

  8. Ammonia oxidation kinetics and temperature sensitivity of a natural marine community dominated by Archaea

    PubMed Central

    Horak, Rachel E A; Qin, Wei; Schauer, Andy J; Armbrust, E Virginia; Ingalls, Anitra E; Moffett, James W; Stahl, David A; Devol, Allan H

    2013-01-01

    Archaeal ammonia oxidizers (AOAs) are increasingly recognized as prominent members of natural microbial assemblages. Evidence that links the presence of AOA with in situ ammonia oxidation activity is limited, and the abiotic factors that regulate the distribution of AOA natural assemblages are not well defined. We used quantitative PCR to enumerate amoA (encodes α-subunit of ammonia monooxygenase) abundances; AOA amoA gene copies greatly outnumbered ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and amoA transcripts were derived primarily from AOA throughout the water column of Hood Canal, Puget Sound, WA, USA. We generated a Michaelis–Menten kinetics curve for ammonia oxidation by the natural community and found that the measured Km of 98±14 nmol l−1 was close to that for cultivated AOA representative Nitrosopumilus maritimus SCM1. Temperature did not have a significant effect on ammonia oxidation rates for incubation temperatures ranging from 8 to 20 °C, which is within the temperature range for depths of measurable ammonia oxidation at the site. This study provides substantial evidence, through both amoA gene copies and transcript abundances and the kinetics response, that AOA are the dominant active ammonia oxidizers in this marine environment. We propose that future ammonia oxidation experiments use a Km for the natural community to better constrain ammonia oxidation rates determined with the commonly used 15NH4+ dilution technique. PMID:23657360

  9. Mariculture and natural production of the antitumoural (+)-discodermolide by the Caribbean marine sponge Discodermia dissoluta.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Cesar; Valderrama, Katherine; Zea, Sven; Castellanos, Leonardo

    2013-10-01

    Biotechnological research on marine organisms, such as ex situ or in situ aquaculture and in vitro cell culture, is being conducted to produce bioactive metabolites for biomedical and industrial uses. The Caribbean marine sponge Discodermia dissoluta is the source of (+)-discodermolide, a potent antitumoural polyketide that has reached clinical trials. This sponge usually lives at depths greater than 30 m, but at Santa Marta (Colombia) there is a shallower population, which has made it logistically possible to investigate for the first time, on ways to supply discodermolide. We thus performed in situ, 6-month fragment culture trials to assess the performance of this sponge in terms of growth and additional discodermolide production and studied possible factors that influence the variability of discodermolide concentrations in the wild. Sponge fragments cultured in soft mesh bags suspended from horizontal lines showed high survivorship (93 %), moderate growth (28 % increase in volume) and an overall rise (33 %) in the discodermolide concentration, equivalent to average additional production of 8 μg of compound per millilitre of sponge. The concentration of discodermolide in wild sponges ranged from 8 to 40 μg mL(-1). Locality was the only factor related to discodermolide variation in the wild, and there were greater concentrations in peripheral vs. basal portions of the sponge, and in clean vs. fouled individuals. As natural growth and regeneration rates can be higher than culture growth rates, there is room for improving techniques to sustainably produce discodermolide.

  10. Efficient syntheses of permethylated derivatives of neolamellarin A, a pyrrolic marine natural product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Ruijuan; Jiang, Long; Wan, Shengbiao; Jiang, Tao

    2015-04-01

    The pyrrole-derived alkaloids with marine origin, especially their permethyl derivatives, have unique structures and promising biological activities. Marine natural product neolamellarins are a collection of lamellarin-like phenolic pyrrole compounds, which can inhibit hypoxia-induced HIF-1 activation. Many pyrrole-derived lamellarin-like alkaloids show potent MDR reversing activity. In this study, five permethylated derivatives of neolamellarin A were synthesized with their MDR reversing activity studied in order to identify new MDR reversal agents. A convergent strategy was adopted to synthesize the permethylated derivatives of neolamellarin A. Pyrrole was first converted into a corresponding N-trisisopropylsilyl (TIPS)-substituted derivative, then through iodination afforded 3,4-diiodinated pyrrole compound. The key intermediate, 3,4-disubstituent-1 H-pyrrole, was obtained through desilylation of 3,4-disubstituent-1-TIPS pyrrole, which was prepared from 3,4-diiodinated pyrrole derivative and aryl boronic acid ester through Suzuki cross-coupling reaction between them. Then, the intermediate, 3,4-disubstituent-1 H-pyrrole, reacted with fresh phenylacetyl chloride under n-BuLi/THF condition afforded the target compounds. Finally, we obtained five novel pyrrolic compounds, permethylated derivatives of neolamellarin A 16a-e, in 30%-37% yield through five step reactions. The bioactivity testing of these compounds are in process.

  11. Biological Targets and Mechanisms of Action of Natural Products from Marine Cyanobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Salvador-Reyes, Lilibeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Marine cyanobacteria are an ancient group of organisms and prolific producers of bioactive secondary metabolites. These compounds are presumably optimized by evolution over billions of years to exert high affinity for their intended biological target in the ecologically relevant organism but likely also possess activity in different biological contexts such as human cells. Screening of marine cyanobacterial extracts for bioactive natural products has largely focused on cancer cell viability; however, diversification of the screening platform led to the characterization of many new bioactive compounds. Targets of compounds have oftentimes been elusive if the compounds were discovered through phenotypic assays. Over the past few years, technology has advanced to determine mechanism of action (MOA) and targets through reverse chemical genetic and proteomic approaches, which has been applied to certain cyanobacterial compounds and will be discussed in this review. Some cyanobacterial molecules are the most-potent-in-class inhibitors and therefore may become valuable tools for chemical biology to probe protein function but also be templates for novel drugs, assuming in vitro potency translates into cellular and in vivo activity. Our review will focus on compounds for which the direct targets have been deciphered or which were found to target a novel pathway, and link them to disease states where target modulation may be beneficial. PMID:25571978

  12. Increased carbon uptake in marine sediment enabled by naturally occurring electrical conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, M. E.; Cahoon, D. P.; Girguis, P. R.

    2011-12-01

    Reduction-oxidation (redox) gradients are common across marine sediment-water interfaces and result from microbially-mediated reactions such as the oxidation of organic matter coupled to reduction of electron acceptors. Most microbes living in sediments do not have direct access to oxygen in their immediate environment, however it has recently been shown that sulfide-oxidizing microbes may employ extracellular electron transfer (EET) to couple the oxidation of sulfide in the anoxic zone to reduction of oxygen at the sediment-water interface located several centimeters away. However, no mechanisms for this observed phenomenon have been validated. Accordingly, we tested the hypothesis that conductive minerals in marine sediment (specifically pyrite) can couple spatially separated redox reactions such as anaerobic respiration and oxygen reduction. Marine sediment was amended with naturally occurring pyrite in varying concentrations (0, 2, 10 and 50 weight-percent) and then incubated with 10 μM 13C-labeled acetate. After six hours, the treatments with the greatest amount of added pyrite showed the greatest incorporation of acetate from the labeled pool. The fraction of labeled acetate incorporation more than doubled in the 10 and 50 weight-percent treatments compared to the control sediment. We also designed a circuit to investigate the electrical conductivity of the sediment treatments as a function of added pyrite. A potentiostat was used to establish a known voltage across a sediment column and current was measured. Resistance (the inverse of conductance) was calculated from a linear fit of current data over a range of voltages ranging from 0.5 to 1.0 V. The treatments with added pyrite had lower resistance than background sediment, with the lowest resistance corresponding to the 50% pyrite treatment. We also examined the effect of varying pyrite content on microbial community composition using massively parallel 16S rRNA sequencing. Microbial community analyses

  13. High content live cell imaging for the discovery of new antimalarial marine natural products

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The human malaria parasite remains a burden in developing nations. It is responsible for up to one million deaths a year, a number that could rise due to increasing multi-drug resistance to all antimalarial drugs currently available. Therefore, there is an urgent need for the discovery of new drug therapies. Recently, our laboratory developed a simple one-step fluorescence-based live cell-imaging assay to integrate the complex biology of the human malaria parasite into drug discovery. Here we used our newly developed live cell-imaging platform to discover novel marine natural products and their cellular phenotypic effects against the most lethal malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. Methods A high content live cell imaging platform was used to screen marine extracts effects on malaria. Parasites were grown in vitro in the presence of extracts, stained with RNA sensitive dye, and imaged at timed intervals with the BD Pathway HT automated confocal microscope. Results Image analysis validated our new methodology at a larger scale level and revealed potential antimalarial activity of selected extracts with a minimal cytotoxic effect on host red blood cells. To further validate our assay, we investigated parasite's phenotypes when incubated with the purified bioactive natural product bromophycolide A. We show that bromophycolide A has a strong and specific morphological effect on parasites, similar to the ones observed from the initial extracts. Conclusion Collectively, our results show that high-content live cell-imaging (HCLCI) can be used to screen chemical libraries and identify parasite specific inhibitors with limited host cytotoxic effects. All together we provide new leads for the discovery of novel antimalarials. PMID:22214291

  14. Naturally-Occurring Marine Brominated Indoles are Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Ligands/Agonists

    PubMed Central

    DeGroot, Danica E.; Franks, Diana G.; Higa, Tatsuo; Tanaka, Junichi; Hahn, Mark E.; Denison, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that mediates the toxic and biological effects of structurally diverse chemicals, including the environmental contaminant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). As part of a larger effort to identify the full spectrum of chemicals that can bind to and activate the AhR, we have examined the ability of several naturally-occurring marine-derived brominated indoles and brominated (methylthio)indoles (collectively referred to as “brominated indoles”) to bind to the AhR and stimulate AhR-dependent gene expression. Incubation of mouse, rat and guinea pig recombinant cell lines containing a stably transfected AhR-responsive luciferase reporter gene with eight brominated indoles revealed that all compounds stimulated luciferase reporter gene activity, although some species-specific differences were observed. All compounds induced significantly more luciferase activity when incubated with cells for 4 h as compared to 24 h, demonstrating that these compounds are transient activators of the AhR signaling pathway. Three of the brominated indoles induced CYP1A1 mRNA in human HepG2 cells in vitro and Cyp1a mRNA in zebrafish embryos in vivo. The identification of the brominated indoles as direct ligands and activators/agonists of the AhR was confirmed by their ability to compete with [3H]TCDD for binding to the AhR and to stimulate AhR transformation and DNA binding in vitro. Taken together, these marine-derived brominated indoles are members of a new class of naturally-occurring AhR agonists. PMID:26001051

  15. Natural collagenic skeleton of marine sponges in pharmaceutics: Innovative biomaterial for topical drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Langasco, Rita; Cadeddu, Barbara; Formato, Marilena; Lepedda, Antonio Junior; Cossu, Massimo; Giunchedi, Paolo; Pronzato, Roberto; Rassu, Giovanna; Manconi, Renata; Gavini, Elisabetta

    2017-01-01

    The growing interest in the use of recyclable and biodegradable natural materials has become a relevant topic in pharmaceutics. In this work, we suggest the use and valorization of natural horny skeleton of marine sponges (Porifera, Dictyoceratida) as bio-based dressing for topical drug delivery. Biomaterial characterization focusing on morpho-functional traits, swelling behavior, fluid uptake performances, glycosaminoglycans content and composition and microbiological quality assessment was carried out to investigate the collagenic skeleton properties. After grinding and sieving processes, l-cysteine hydrochloride-loaded formulations were designed in form of powder or polymeric film by testing various drug concentrations and different drying parameters. Drug content, SEM analyses and in vitro permeation studies were performed to test the suitability of skeleton-based formulations. To this respect, drying time and temperature are key parameters for skeleton-mediated drug crystallization. Consequently, this behavior seems to influence drug loading and permeation profiles of formulations. The high percentages of drug are found after absorption into sponge powder and in vitro permeation studies demonstrate that cysteine is released more slowly than the pure drug within 1h. Such a system is attractive because it combines the known healing properties of cysteine with the advantageous potentials of the collagen/proteoglycan network, which can act as biocompatible carrier able to absorb the excess of the wound exudate while releasing the drug. Furthermore, due to its glycosaminoglycans content, natural sponge skeletal scaffold might act as bioactive-biomimetic carrier regulating the wound healing processes.

  16. Temporal stability of the microbial community in sewage-polluted seawater exposed to natural sunlight cycles and marine microbiota.

    PubMed

    Sassoubre, Lauren M; Yamahara, Kevan M; Boehm, Alexandria B

    2015-03-01

    Billions of gallons of untreated wastewater enter the coastal ocean each year. Once sewage microorganisms are in the marine environment, they are exposed to environmental stressors, such as sunlight and predation. Previous research has investigated the fate of individual sewage microorganisms in seawater but not the entire sewage microbial community. The present study used next-generation sequencing (NGS) to examine how the microbial community in sewage-impacted seawater changes over 48 h when exposed to natural sunlight cycles and marine microbiota. We compared the results from microcosms composed of unfiltered seawater (containing naturally occurring marine microbiota) and filtered seawater (containing no marine microbiota) to investigate the effect of marine microbiota. We also compared the results from microcosms that were exposed to natural sunlight cycles with those from microcosms kept in the dark to investigate the effect of sunlight. The microbial community composition and the relative abundance of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) changed over 48 h in all microcosms. Exposure to sunlight had a significant effect on both community composition and OTU abundance. The effect of marine microbiota, however, was minimal. The proportion of sewage-derived microorganisms present in the microcosms decreased rapidly within 48 h, and the decrease was the most pronounced in the presence of both sunlight and marine microbiota, where the proportion decreased from 85% to 3% of the total microbial community. The results from this study demonstrate the strong effect that sunlight has on microbial community composition, as measured by NGS, and the importance of considering temporal effects in future applications of NGS to identify microbial pollution sources.

  17. Temporal Stability of the Microbial Community in Sewage-Polluted Seawater Exposed to Natural Sunlight Cycles and Marine Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Sassoubre, Lauren M.; Yamahara, Kevan M.

    2015-01-01

    Billions of gallons of untreated wastewater enter the coastal ocean each year. Once sewage microorganisms are in the marine environment, they are exposed to environmental stressors, such as sunlight and predation. Previous research has investigated the fate of individual sewage microorganisms in seawater but not the entire sewage microbial community. The present study used next-generation sequencing (NGS) to examine how the microbial community in sewage-impacted seawater changes over 48 h when exposed to natural sunlight cycles and marine microbiota. We compared the results from microcosms composed of unfiltered seawater (containing naturally occurring marine microbiota) and filtered seawater (containing no marine microbiota) to investigate the effect of marine microbiota. We also compared the results from microcosms that were exposed to natural sunlight cycles with those from microcosms kept in the dark to investigate the effect of sunlight. The microbial community composition and the relative abundance of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) changed over 48 h in all microcosms. Exposure to sunlight had a significant effect on both community composition and OTU abundance. The effect of marine microbiota, however, was minimal. The proportion of sewage-derived microorganisms present in the microcosms decreased rapidly within 48 h, and the decrease was the most pronounced in the presence of both sunlight and marine microbiota, where the proportion decreased from 85% to 3% of the total microbial community. The results from this study demonstrate the strong effect that sunlight has on microbial community composition, as measured by NGS, and the importance of considering temporal effects in future applications of NGS to identify microbial pollution sources. PMID:25576619

  18. Lessons from the past and charting the future of marine natural products drug discovery and chemical biology

    PubMed Central

    Gerwick, William H.; Moore, Bradley S.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Marine life forms are an important source of structurally-diverse and biologically-active secondary metabolites, several of which have inspired the development of new classes of therapeutic agents. These success stories have had to overcome difficulties inherent to natural products-derived drugs, such as adequate sourcing of the agent and issues related to structural complexity. Nevertheless, several marine-derived agents are now approved, most as `first-in-class' drugs, with 5 of 7 appearing in the past few years. Additionally, there is a rich pipeline of clinical and pre-clinical marine compounds to suggest their continued application in human medicine. Understanding of how these agents are biosynthetically assembled has accelerated in recent years, especially through interdisciplinary approaches, and innovative manipulations and re-engineering of some of these gene clusters are yielding novel agents of enhanced pharmaceutical properties compared with the natural product. PMID:22284357

  19. Expanding the Described Metabolome of the Marine Cyanobacterium Moorea producens JHB through Orthogonal Natural Products Workflows

    PubMed Central

    Boudreau, Paul D.; Monroe, Emily A.; Mehrotra, Suneet; Desfor, Shane; Korobeynikov, Anton; Sherman, David H.; Murray, Thomas F.; Gerwick, Lena; Dorrestein, Pieter C.; Gerwick, William H.

    2015-01-01

    Moorea producens JHB, a Jamaican strain of tropical filamentous marine cyanobacteria, has been extensively studied by traditional natural products techniques. These previous bioassay and structure guided isolations led to the discovery of two exciting classes of natural products, hectochlorin (1) and jamaicamides A (2) and B (3). In the current study, mass spectrometry-based ‘molecular networking’ was used to visualize the metabolome of Moorea producens JHB, and both guided and enhanced the isolation workflow, revealing additional metabolites in these compound classes. Further, we developed additional insight into the metabolic capabilities of this strain by genome sequencing analysis, which subsequently led to the isolation of a compound unrelated to the jamaicamide and hectochlorin families. Another approach involved stimulation of the biosynthesis of a minor jamaicamide metabolite by cultivation in modified media, and provided insights about the underlying biosynthetic machinery as well as preliminary structure-activity information within this structure class. This study demonstrated that these orthogonal approaches are complementary and enrich secondary metabolomic coverage even in an extensively studied bacterial strain. PMID:26222584

  20. Random mutagenesis of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus using in vitro mariner transposition and natural transformation

    PubMed Central

    Guschinskaya, Natalia; Brunel, Romain; Tourte, Maxime; Lipscomb, Gina L.; Adams, Michael W. W.; Oger, Philippe; Charpentier, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Transposition mutagenesis is a powerful tool to identify the function of genes, reveal essential genes and generally to unravel the genetic basis of living organisms. However, transposon-mediated mutagenesis has only been successfully applied to a limited number of archaeal species and has never been reported in Thermococcales. Here, we report random insertion mutagenesis in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus. The strategy takes advantage of the natural transformability of derivatives of the P. furiosus COM1 strain and of in vitro Mariner-based transposition. A transposon bearing a genetic marker is randomly transposed in vitro in genomic DNA that is then used for natural transformation of P. furiosus. A small-scale transposition reaction routinely generates several hundred and up to two thousands transformants. Southern analysis and sequencing showed that the obtained mutants contain a single and random genomic insertion. Polyploidy has been reported in Thermococcales and P. furiosus is suspected of being polyploid. Yet, about half of the mutants obtained on the first selection are homozygous for the transposon insertion. Two rounds of isolation on selective medium were sufficient to obtain gene conversion in initially heterozygous mutants. This transposition mutagenesis strategy will greatly facilitate functional exploration of the Thermococcales genomes. PMID:27824140

  1. Marine fungal diversity: a comparison of natural and created salt marshes of the north-central Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Walker, Allison K; Campbell, Jinx

    2010-01-01

    Marine fungal communities of created salt marshes of differing ages were compared with those of two reference natural salt marshes. Marine fungi occurring on the lower 30 cm of salt marsh plants Spartina alterniflora and Juncus roemerianus were inventoried with morphological and molecular methods (ITS T-RFLP analysis) to determine fungal species richness, relative frequency of occurrence and ascomata density. The resulting profiles revealed similar fungal communities in natural salt marshes and created salt marshes 3 y old and older with a 1.5 y old created marsh showing less fungal colonization. A 26 y old created salt marsh consistently exhibited the highest fungal species richness. Ascomata density of the dominant fungal species on each host was significantly higher in natural marshes than in created marshes at all three sampling dates. This study indicates marine fungal saprotroph communities are present in these manmade coastal salt marshes as early as 1 y after marsh creation. The lower regions of both plant hosts were dominated by a small number of marine ascomycete species consistent with those species previously reported from salt marshes of the East Coast of USA.

  2. Marine Antimicrobial Peptides: Nature Provides Templates for the Design of Novel Compounds against Pathogenic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Falanga, Annarita; Lombardi, Lucia; Franci, Gianluigi; Vitiello, Mariateresa; Iovene, Maria Rosaria; Morelli, Giancarlo; Galdiero, Massimiliano; Galdiero, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of antibiotics for the treatment of bacterial infections brought the idea that bacteria would no longer endanger human health. However, bacterial diseases still represent a worldwide treat. The ability of microorganisms to develop resistance, together with the indiscriminate use of antibiotics, is mainly responsible for this situation; thus, resistance has compelled the scientific community to search for novel therapeutics. In this scenario, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) provide a promising strategy against a wide array of pathogenic microorganisms, being able to act directly as antimicrobial agents but also being important regulators of the innate immune system. This review is an attempt to explore marine AMPs as a rich source of molecules with antimicrobial activity. In fact, the sea is poorly explored in terms of AMPs, but it represents a resource with plentiful antibacterial agents performing their role in a harsh environment. For the application of AMPs in the medical field limitations correlated to their peptide nature, their inactivation by environmental pH, presence of salts, proteases, or other components have to be solved. Thus, these peptides may act as templates for the design of more potent and less toxic compounds. PMID:27213366

  3. Conversion of natural marine skeletons as scaffolds for bone tissue engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xing; Vecchio, Kenneth S.

    2013-06-01

    Marine CaCO3 skeletons have tailored architectures created by nature, which give them structural support and other functions. For example, seashells have dense lamellar structures, while coral, cuttlebone and sea urchin spines have interconnected porous structures. In our experiments, seashells, coral and cuttlebone were hydrothermally converted to hydroxyapatite (HAP), and sea urchin spines were converted to Mg-substituted tricalcium phosphate, while maintaining their original structures. Partially converted shell samples have mechanical strength, which is close to that of compact human bone. After implantation of converted shell and spine samples in rat femoral defects for 6 weeks, there was newly formed bone growth up to and around the implants. Some new bone was found to migrate through the pores of converted spine samples and grow inward. These results show good bioactivity and osteoconductivity of the implants, indicating the converted shell and spine samples can be used as bone defect fillers. The interconnected porous HAP scaffolds from converted coral or cuttlebone that have pore size larger than 100 ?m likely support infiltration of bone cells and vessels, and finally encourage new bone ingrowth.

  4. Screening of Marine Actinomycetes from Segara Anakan for Natural Pigment and Hydrolytic Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asnani, A.; Ryandini, D.; Suwandri

    2016-02-01

    Marine actinomycetes have become sources of great interest to natural product chemistry due to their new chemical entities and bioactive metabolites. Since April 2010, we have screened actinobacteria from five sites that represent different ecosystems of Segara Anakan lagoon. In this present study we focus on specific isolates, K-2C which covers 1) actinomycetes identification based on morphology observation and 16S rRNA gene; 2) fermentation and isolation of pigment; 3) structure determination of pigment; and 4) hydrolytic enzymes characterization; Methodologies relevant to the studies were implemented accordingly. The results indicated that K-2C was likely Streptomyces fradiae strain RSU15, and the best fermentation medium should contain starch and casein with 21 days of incubation. The isolate has extracellular as well as intracellular pigments. Isolated pigments gave purple color with λmax of 529.00 nm. The pigment was structurally characterized. Interestingly, Streptomyces K-2C was able to produce potential hydrolytic enzymes such as amylase, cellulase, protease, lipase, urease, and nitrate reductase.

  5. Environmental solutions for the sustainable production of bioactive natural products from the marine sponge Crambe crambe.

    PubMed

    Pérez-López, Paula; Ternon, Eva; González-García, Sara; Genta-Jouve, Grégory; Feijoo, Gumersindo; Thomas, Olivier P; Moreira, Ma Teresa

    2014-03-15

    Crambe crambe is a Mediterranean marine sponge known to produce original natural substances belonging to two families of guanidine alkaloids, namely crambescins and crambescidins, which exhibit cytotoxic and antiviral activities. These compounds are therefore considered as potential anticancer drugs. The present study focuses on the environmental assessment of a novel in vivo process for the production of pure crambescin and crambescidin using sponge specimens cultured in aquarium. The assessment was performed following the ISO 14040 standard and extended from the production of the different mass and energy flows to the system to the growth of the sponge in indoor aquarium and further periodic extraction and purification of the bioactive compounds. According to the results, the two stages that have a remarkable contribution to all impact categories are the purification of the bioactive molecules followed by the maintenance of the sponge culture in the aquarium. Among the involved activities, the production of the chemicals (particularly methanol) together with the electricity requirements (especially due to the aquarium lighting) are responsible for up to 90% of the impact in most of the assessed categories. However, the contributions of other stages to the environmental burdens, such as the collection of sponges, considerably depend on the assumptions made during the inventory stage. The simulation of alternative scenarios has led to propose improvement alternatives that may allow significant reductions ranging from 20% to 70%, mainly thanks to the reduction of electricity requirements as well as the partial reuse of methanol.

  6. A Tropical Marine Microbial Natural Products Geobibliography as an Example of Desktop Exploration of Current Research Using Web Visualisation Tools

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Joydeep; Llewellyn, Lyndon E; Evans-Illidge, Elizabeth A

    2008-01-01

    Microbial marine biodiscovery is a recent scientific endeavour developing at a time when information and other technologies are also undergoing great technical strides. Global visualisation of datasets is now becoming available to the world through powerful and readily available software such as Worldwind™, ArcGIS Explorer™ and Google Earth™. Overlaying custom information upon these tools is within the hands of every scientist and more and more scientific organisations are making data available that can also be integrated into these global visualisation tools. The integrated global view that these tools enable provides a powerful desktop exploration tool. Here we demonstrate the value of this approach to marine microbial biodiscovery by developing a geobibliography that incorporates citations on tropical and near-tropical marine microbial natural products research with Google Earth™ and additional ancillary global data sets. The tools and software used are all readily available and the reader is able to use and install the material described in this article. PMID:19172194

  7. A Selective Account of Effective Paradigms and Significant Outcomes in the Discovery of Inspirational Marine Natural Products⊥†

    PubMed Central

    Sashidhara, Koneni V.; White, Kimberly N.; Crews, Phillip

    2009-01-01

    Marine natural products continue to be a source of significant molecular structures that serve as a stimulus to seed further significant research. This account reviews some of the major advances in the study of marine biomolecules made at UC Santa Cruz over more than three decades. The continuing challenge of discovery and characterization of what we term “inspirational molecular structures”, will be presented in a comprehensive fashion. Examples of privileged molecular structures and their impact on biomedicinal research will be an important theme. The three major groups of organisms explored include: seaweeds, sponges, and marine derived fungi, and the study of their active principles has greatly benefited from synergistic collaborations with both academic and biopharmaceutical groups. The concluding sections of this chronicle will touch on prospects for future outcomes involving new sources and strategies. PMID:19209899

  8. Insights into the lifestyle of uncultured bacterial natural product factories associated with marine sponges.

    PubMed

    Lackner, Gerald; Peters, Eike Edzard; Helfrich, Eric J N; Piel, Jörn

    2017-01-17

    The as-yet uncultured filamentous bacteria "Candidatus Entotheonella factor" and "Candidatus Entotheonella gemina" live associated with the marine sponge Theonella swinhoei Y, the source of numerous unusual bioactive natural products. Belonging to the proposed candidate phylum "Tectomicrobia," Candidatus Entotheonella members are only distantly related to any cultivated organism. The Ca E. factor has been identified as the source of almost all polyketide and modified peptides families reported from the sponge host, and both Ca Entotheonella phylotypes contain numerous additional genes for as-yet unknown metabolites. Here, we provide insights into the biology of these remarkable bacteria using genomic, (meta)proteomic, and chemical methods. The data suggest a metabolic model of Ca Entotheonella as facultative anaerobic, organotrophic organisms with the ability to use methanol as an energy source. The symbionts appear to be auxotrophic for some vitamins, but have the potential to produce most amino acids as well as rare cofactors like coenzyme F420 The latter likely accounts for the strong autofluorescence of Ca Entotheonella filaments. A large expansion of protein families involved in regulation and conversion of organic molecules indicates roles in host-bacterial interaction. In addition, a massive overrepresentation of members of the luciferase-like monooxygenase superfamily points toward an important role of these proteins in Ca Entotheonella. Furthermore, we performed mass spectrometric imaging combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization to localize Ca Entotheonella and some of the bioactive natural products in the sponge tissue. These metabolic insights into a new candidate phylum offer hints on the targeted cultivation of the chemically most prolific microorganisms known from microbial dark matter.

  9. Antimicrobial, antioxidant, and antimutagenic activities of selected marine natural products and tobacco cembranoids.

    PubMed

    Aqil, Farrukh; Zahin, Maryam; El Sayed, Khalid A; Ahmad, Iqbal; Orabi, Khaled Y; Arif, Jamal M

    2011-04-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) in microorganisms is a cause of major concern for clinicians and pharmaceutical industries. Continuous development of new antimicrobial drugs with multiple targets and potentials is expected to efficiently combat MDR in these microorganisms. In a continued exploration of new antimicrobial drug leads, 11 marine natural products, semisynthetic, or related synthetic analogs (1-11) and two tobacco cembranoids (12 and 13) were screened for their antimicrobial, antioxidant, and antimutagenic activities. Eight compounds showed varying levels of both antibacterial and antifungal activities. Compounds such as 17-O-methyllatrunculin-A, verongiaquinol, (1S,2E,4R,6R,7E,11E)-2,7,11-cembratriene-4,6-diol), and manzamine-A showed a broad spectrum of activity, inhibiting six of seven tested bacteria with zone of inhibition diameter from 9 to 30 mm. Four of these active compounds also showed antifungal activity. The findings of the in vitro time-kill assay of the most active compound, verongiaquinol, against Staphylococcus aureus indicated its subinhibitory effect at the level lower than the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values (i.e., 2 and 4 µg/mL). At the MIC (8 µg/mL), bacterial cells were completely killed within 18 hours of incubation. DPPH free radical scavenging activity was demonstrated by five compounds in the range of 89.65-36.19% decolorization. Further, four compounds evaluated for their antimutagenic activity against the directly acting mutagens, methyl methanesulfonate and sodium azide, in Salmonella typhimurium strains, interestingly, showed no sign of mutagenicity. Verongiaquinol and manzamine A, in fact, reduced the mutagenicity by 50-75% at a dose of 5 µg/plate in different test strains. Our study seems to provide some novel antimicrobial leads with strong antioxidant potential and the associated ability of antimutagenicity.

  10. Targeted metagenomics as a tool to tap into marine natural product diversity for the discovery and production of drug candidates

    PubMed Central

    Trindade, Marla; van Zyl, Leonardo Joaquim; Navarro-Fernández, José; Abd Elrazak, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Microbial natural products exhibit immense structural diversity and complexity and have captured the attention of researchers for several decades. They have been explored for a wide spectrum of applications, most noteworthy being their prominent role in medicine, and their versatility expands to application as drugs for many diseases. Accessing unexplored environments harboring unique microorganisms is expected to yield novel bioactive metabolites with distinguishing functionalities, which can be supplied to the starved pharmaceutical market. For this purpose the oceans have turned out to be an attractive and productive field. Owing to the enormous biodiversity of marine microorganisms, as well as the growing evidence that many metabolites previously isolated from marine invertebrates and algae are actually produced by their associated bacteria, the interest in marine microorganisms has intensified. Since the majority of the microorganisms are uncultured, metagenomic tools are required to exploit the untapped biochemistry. However, after years of employing metagenomics for marine drug discovery, new drugs are vastly under-represented. While a plethora of natural product biosynthetic genes and clusters are reported, only a minor number of potential therapeutic compounds have resulted through functional metagenomic screening. This review explores specific obstacles that have led to the low success rate. In addition to the typical problems encountered with traditional functional metagenomic-based screens for novel biocatalysts, there are enormous limitations which are particular to drug-like metabolites. We also present how targeted and function-guided strategies, employing modern, and multi-disciplinary approaches have yielded some of the most exciting discoveries attributed to uncultured marine bacteria. These discoveries set the stage for progressing the production of drug candidates from uncultured bacteria for pre-clinical and clinical development. PMID:26379658

  11. Origins of natural gases from marine strata in Northeastern Sichuan Basin (China) from carbon molecular moieties and isotopic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yunpeng; Zhao, Changyi; Wang, Hongjun; Wang, Zhaoyun; Wang, Zecheng

    2013-03-01

    To determine the origin, maturity, formation mechanism and secondary process of marine natural gases in Northeastern Sichuan area, molecular moieties and carbon isotopic data of the Carboniferous and Triassic gases have been analyzed. Typical samples of marine gas precursors including low-maturity kerogen, dispersed liquid hydrocarbons (DLHs) in source rocks, residual kerogen and oil have been examined in a closed system, and several published geochemical diagrams of gas origins have been calibrated by using laboratory data. Results show that both Carboniferous and Triassic gases in the study area have a thermogenic origin. Migration leads to stronger compositional and weak isotopic fractionation, and is path dependent. Carboniferous gases and low-H2S gases are mainly formed by secondary cracking of oil, whereas high-H2S gases are clearly related to the TSR (Thermal Sulfate Reduction) process. Gases in NE Sichuan show a mixture of heavy (13C-enriched) methane in comparison to the lower maturated ethane of Triassic gas samples, suggesting a similar source and maturity for ethane and propane of Carboniferous gases, and a mixture of heavy ethane to the propane for Triassic gases. Based on the data plotted in the diagram of Chung et al. (1988), the residual kerogen from Silurian marine shale and palaeo oil reservoirs are the main source for Carboniferous gases, and that the residual kerogen from Silurian and Permian marine rocks and Permian paleao oil reservoirs constitute the principal source of Triassic gases.

  12. New natural products identified by combined genomics-metabolomics profiling of marine Streptomyces sp. MP131-18

    PubMed Central

    Paulus, Constanze; Rebets, Yuriy; Tokovenko, Bogdan; Nadmid, Suvd; Terekhova, Larisa P.; Myronovskyi, Maksym; Zotchev, Sergey B.; Rückert, Christian; Braig, Simone; Zahler, Stefan; Kalinowski, Jörn; Luzhetskyy, Andriy

    2017-01-01

    Marine actinobacteria are drawing more and more attention as a promising source of new natural products. Here we report isolation, genome sequencing and metabolic profiling of new strain Streptomyces sp. MP131-18 isolated from marine sediment sample collected in the Trondheim Fjord, Norway. The 16S rRNA and multilocus phylogenetic analysis showed that MP131-18 belongs to the genus Streptomyces. The genome of MP131-18 isolate was sequenced, and 36 gene clusters involved in the biosynthesis of 18 different types of secondary metabolites were predicted using antiSMASH analysis. The combined genomics-metabolics profiling of the strain led to the identification of several new biologically active compounds. As a result, the family of bisindole pyrroles spiroindimicins was extended with two new members, spiroindimicins E and F. Furthermore, prediction of the biosynthetic pathway for unusual α-pyrone lagunapyrone isolated from MP131-18 resulted in foresight and identification of two new compounds of this family – lagunapyrones D and E. The diversity of identified and predicted compounds from Streptomyces sp. MP131-18 demonstrates that marine-derived actinomycetes are not only a promising source of new natural products, but also represent a valuable pool of genes for combinatorial biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. PMID:28186197

  13. New natural products identified by combined genomics-metabolomics profiling of marine Streptomyces sp. MP131-18.

    PubMed

    Paulus, Constanze; Rebets, Yuriy; Tokovenko, Bogdan; Nadmid, Suvd; Terekhova, Larisa P; Myronovskyi, Maksym; Zotchev, Sergey B; Rückert, Christian; Braig, Simone; Zahler, Stefan; Kalinowski, Jörn; Luzhetskyy, Andriy

    2017-02-10

    Marine actinobacteria are drawing more and more attention as a promising source of new natural products. Here we report isolation, genome sequencing and metabolic profiling of new strain Streptomyces sp. MP131-18 isolated from marine sediment sample collected in the Trondheim Fjord, Norway. The 16S rRNA and multilocus phylogenetic analysis showed that MP131-18 belongs to the genus Streptomyces. The genome of MP131-18 isolate was sequenced, and 36 gene clusters involved in the biosynthesis of 18 different types of secondary metabolites were predicted using antiSMASH analysis. The combined genomics-metabolics profiling of the strain led to the identification of several new biologically active compounds. As a result, the family of bisindole pyrroles spiroindimicins was extended with two new members, spiroindimicins E and F. Furthermore, prediction of the biosynthetic pathway for unusual α-pyrone lagunapyrone isolated from MP131-18 resulted in foresight and identification of two new compounds of this family - lagunapyrones D and E. The diversity of identified and predicted compounds from Streptomyces sp. MP131-18 demonstrates that marine-derived actinomycetes are not only a promising source of new natural products, but also represent a valuable pool of genes for combinatorial biosynthesis of secondary metabolites.

  14. Application of Satellite SAR for Discovery and Quantification of Natural Marine Oil Seeps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amos, J.; Lai, R.; Zimmer, B.; Leiva, A.; MacDonald, I.

    2006-12-01

    Natural marine oil seeps discharge gassy drops from the seafloor. Oil drops and gas bubbles reach the surface from water depths as great as 3000m. The oil spreads rapidly, forming an invisible layer that drifts down-wind and down-current in long, linear streaks called slicks. Oil slicks are visible in SAR data because the surfactant dampens capillary waves and reduces backscatter. Application of SAR as an exploration tool in energy prospecting is well-established. We have applied this technique for discovering the chemosynthetic communities that colonize the seafloor in the vicinity of deep-water seeps on the continental margin of the Gulf of Mexico. The management goal for this effort is to prevent harmful impact to these communities resulting from exploration or production activities. The scientific goals are to delineate the zoogeography of the chemosynthetic fauna, which is widespread on continental margins, and to establish study sites where their life history can be investigated. In the course of an ongoing, multidisciplinary study in the spring and summer of 2006, we explored 20 possible sites where SAR and geophysical data indicated seeps might occur. SAR was only partly diagnostic: all sites with SAR-detected slicks were found to have biologic communities, but communities were also found at geophysical anomalies that did not produce slicks. We acquired over 60 RADARSAT SAR images from the northern Gulf of Mexico in cooperation with the Alaska Satellite Facility. The ship RV ATLANTIS was at sea during the acquisition and collected synoptic weather and oceanographic data. To automate interpretation of large image dataset we have employed texture recognition with use of a library of textons applied iteratively to the images. This treatment shows promise in distinguishing floating oil from false targets generated by rain fronts and other phenomena. One goal of the analysis is to delineate bounding boxes to quantify the ocean area covered by the thin oil layer

  15. Natural Marine and Synthetic Xenobiotics Get on Nematode’s Nerves: Neuro-Stimulating and Neurotoxic Findings in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Lieke, Thora; Steinberg, Christian E. W.; Ju, Jingjuan; Saul, Nadine

    2015-01-01

    Marine algae release a plethora of organic halogenated compounds, many of them with unknown ecological impact if environmentally realistic concentrations are applied. One major compound is dibromoacetic acid (DBAA) which was tested for neurotoxicity in the invertebrate model organism Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). This natural compound was compared with the widespread synthetic xenobiotic tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBP-A) found in marine sediments and mussels. We found a neuro-stimulating effect for DBAA; this is contradictory to existing toxicological reports of mammals that applied comparatively high dosages. For TBBP-A, we found a hormetic concentration-effect relationship. As chemicals rarely occur isolated in the environment, a combination of both organobromines was also examined. Surprisingly, the presence of DBAA increased the toxicity of TBBP-A. Our results demonstrated that organohalogens have the potential to affect single organisms especially by altering the neurological processes, even with promoting effects on exposed organisms. PMID:25955755

  16. Towards adaptive management of the natural capital: Disentangling trade-offs among marine activities and seagrass meadows.

    PubMed

    Bas Ventín, Leticia; de Souza Troncoso, Jesús; Villasante, Sebastián

    2015-12-15

    This paper investigates the ecological, social and institutional dimensions of the synergies and trade-offs between seagrasses and human activities operating in the Natura 2000 protected site of San Simón Bay (Galicia, NW Spain). By means of a multidisciplinary approach that brings together the development of a biological inventory combined with participatory mapping processes we get key spatial and contextual understanding regarding how, where and why marine users interact with seagrasses and how seagrasses are considered in policy making. The results highlight the fisheries' reliance on seagrass meadows and the controversial links with shellfisheries. The study also reveals unresolved conflicts among those management plans that promote the protection of natural values and those responsible for the exploitation of marine resources. We conclude that the adoption of pre-planning bottom-up participatory processes is crucial for the design of realistic strategies where both seagrasses and human activities were considered as a couple system.

  17. Potential Pharmacological Resources: Natural Bioactive Compounds from Marine-Derived Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Liming; Quan, Chunshan; Hou, Xiyan; Fan, Shengdi

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, a considerable number of structurally unique metabolites with biological and pharmacological activities have been isolated from the marine-derived fungi, such as polyketides, alkaloids, peptides, lactones, terpenoids and steroids. Some of these compounds have anticancer, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antibiotic and cytotoxic properties. This review partially summarizes the new bioactive compounds from marine-derived fungi with classification according to the sources of fungi and their biological activities. Those fungi found from 2014 to the present are discussed. PMID:27110799

  18. Communicating natural hazards. The case of marine extreme events and the importance of the forecast's errors.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marone, Eduardo; Camargo, Ricardo

    2013-04-01

    Scientific knowledge has to fulfill some necessary conditions. Among them, it has to be properly communicated. Usually, scientists (mis)understand that the communication requirement is satisfied by publishing their results on peer reviewed journals. Society claims for information in other formats or languages and other tools and approaches have to be used, otherwise the scientific discoveries will not fulfill its social mean. However, scientists are not so well trained to do so. These facts are particularly relevant when the scientific work has to deal with natural hazards, which do not affect just a lab or a computer experiment, but the life and fate of human beings. We are actually working with marine extreme events related with sea level changes, waves and other coastal hazards. Primary, the work is developed on the classic scientific format, but focusing not only in the stochastic way of predicting such extreme events, but estimating the potential errors the forecasting methodologies intrinsically have. The scientific results are translated to a friendly format required by stakeholders (which are financing part of the work). Finally, we hope to produce a document prepared for the general public. Each of the targets has their own characteristics and we have to use the proper communication tools and languages. Also, when communicating such knowledge, we have to consider that stakeholders and general public have no obligation of understanding the scientific language, but scientists have the responsibility of translating their discoveries and predictions in a proper way. The information on coastal hazards is analyzed in statistical and numerical ways, departing from long term observation of, for instance, sea level. From the analysis it is possible to recognize different natural regimes and to present the return times of extreme events, while from the numerical models, properly tuned to reproduce the same past ocean behavior using hindcast approaches, it is

  19. Effect of Broadband Nature of Marine Mammal Echolocation Clicks on Click-Based Population Density Estimates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    Blainville’s beaked whales (Mesoplodon densirostris), known to be sensitive to sonar sound and therefore of high relevance to the US Navy, and sperm whale...contribution of research to assessing impact of underwater sound on marine mammals and the development of real-time passive and active sonar for detecting objects in water.”

  20. Examining the Fish Microbiome: Vertebrate-Derived Bacteria as an Environmental Niche for the Discovery of Unique Marine Natural Products

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Laura M.; Wong, Weng Ruh; Riener, Romina M.; Schulze, Christopher J.; Linington, Roger G.

    2012-01-01

    Historically, marine invertebrates have been a prolific source of unique natural products, with a diverse array of biological activities. Recent studies of invertebrate-associated microbial communities are revealing microorganisms as the true producers of many of these compounds. Inspired by the human microbiome project, which has highlighted the human intestine as a unique microenvironment in terms of microbial diversity, we elected to examine the bacterial communities of fish intestines (which we have termed the fish microbiome) as a new source of microbial and biosynthetic diversity for natural products discovery. To test the hypothesis that the fish microbiome contains microorganisms with unique capacity for biosynthesizing natural products, we examined six species of fish through a combination of dissection and culture-dependent evaluation of intestinal microbial communities. Using isolation media designed to enrich for marine Actinobacteria, we have found three main clades that show taxonomic divergence from known strains, several of which are previously uncultured. Extracts from these strains exhibit a wide range of activities against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative human pathogens, as well as several fish pathogens. Exploration of one of these extracts has identified the novel bioactive lipid sebastenoic acid as an anti-microbial agent, with activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecium, and Vibrio mimicus. PMID:22574119

  1. Carotenoids from Marine Microalgae: A Valuable Natural Source for the Prevention of Chronic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Raposo, Maria Filomena de Jesus; de Morais, Alcina Maria Miranda Bernardo; de Morais, Rui Manuel Santos Costa

    2015-08-14

    Epidemiological studies have shown a relation between antioxidants and the prevention of several chronic diseases. Microalgae are a potential novel source of bioactive molecules, including a wide range of different carotenoids that can be used as nutraceuticals, food supplements and novel food products. The objective of this review is (i) to update the research that has been carried out on the most known carotenoids produced by marine microalgae, including reporting on their high potentialities to produce other less known important compounds; (ii) to compile the work that has been done in order to establish some relationship between carotenoids and oxidative protection and treatment; (iii) to summarize the association of oxidative stress and the various reactive species including free radicals with several human diseases; and (iv) to provide evidence of the potential of carotenoids from marine microalgae to be used as therapeutics to treat or prevent these oxidative stress-related diseases.

  2. Carotenoids from Marine Microalgae: A Valuable Natural Source for the Prevention of Chronic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Raposo, Maria Filomena de Jesus; de Morais, Alcina Maria Miranda Bernardo; de Morais, Rui Manuel Santos Costa

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown a relation between antioxidants and the prevention of several chronic diseases. Microalgae are a potential novel source of bioactive molecules, including a wide range of different carotenoids that can be used as nutraceuticals, food supplements and novel food products. The objective of this review is (i) to update the research that has been carried out on the most known carotenoids produced by marine microalgae, including reporting on their high potentialities to produce other less known important compounds; (ii) to compile the work that has been done in order to establish some relationship between carotenoids and oxidative protection and treatment; (iii) to summarize the association of oxidative stress and the various reactive species including free radicals with several human diseases; and (iv) to provide evidence of the potential of carotenoids from marine microalgae to be used as therapeutics to treat or prevent these oxidative stress-related diseases. PMID:26287216

  3. Fluorescently Labeled Virus Probes Show that Natural Virus Populations Can Control the Structure of Marine Microbial Communities.

    PubMed

    Hennes, K P; Suttle, C A; Chan, A M

    1995-10-01

    Fluorescently stained viruses were used as probes to label, identify, and enumerate specific strains of bacteria and cyanobacteria in mixed microbial assemblages. Several marine virus isolates were fluorescently stained with YOYO-1 or POPO-1 (Molecular Probes, Inc.) and added to seawater samples that contained natural microbial communities. Cells to which the stained viruses adsorbed were easily distinguished from nonhost cells; typically, there was undetectable binding of stained viruses to natural microbial assemblages containing >10(sup6) bacteria ml(sup-1) but to which host cells were not added. Host cells that were added to natural seawater were quantified with 99% (plusmn) 2% (mean (plusmn) range) efficiency with fluorescently labeled virus probes (FLVPs). A marine bacterial isolate (strain PWH3a), tentatively identified as Vibrio natriegens, was introduced into natural microbial communities that were either supplemented with nutrients or untreated, and changes in the abundance of the isolate were monitored with FLVPs. Simultaneously, the concentrations of viruses that infected strain PWH3a were monitored by plaque assay. Following the addition of PWH3a, the concentration of viruses infecting this strain increased from undetectable levels (<1 ml(sup-1)) to 2.9 x 10(sup7) and 8.3 x 10(sup8) ml(sup-1) for the untreated and nutrient-enriched samples, respectively. The increase in viruses was associated with a collapse in populations of strain PWH3a from ca. 30 to 2% and 43 to 0.01% of the microbial communities in untreated and nutrient-enriched samples, respectively. These results clearly demonstrate that FLVPs can be used to identify and quantify specific groups of bacteria in mixed microbial communities. The data show as well that viruses which are present at low abundances in natural aquatic viral communities can control microbial community structure.

  4. Fluorescently Labeled Virus Probes Show that Natural Virus Populations Can Control the Structure of Marine Microbial Communities

    PubMed Central

    Hennes, K. P.; Suttle, C. A.; Chan, A. M.

    1995-01-01

    Fluorescently stained viruses were used as probes to label, identify, and enumerate specific strains of bacteria and cyanobacteria in mixed microbial assemblages. Several marine virus isolates were fluorescently stained with YOYO-1 or POPO-1 (Molecular Probes, Inc.) and added to seawater samples that contained natural microbial communities. Cells to which the stained viruses adsorbed were easily distinguished from nonhost cells; typically, there was undetectable binding of stained viruses to natural microbial assemblages containing >10(sup6) bacteria ml(sup-1) but to which host cells were not added. Host cells that were added to natural seawater were quantified with 99% (plusmn) 2% (mean (plusmn) range) efficiency with fluorescently labeled virus probes (FLVPs). A marine bacterial isolate (strain PWH3a), tentatively identified as Vibrio natriegens, was introduced into natural microbial communities that were either supplemented with nutrients or untreated, and changes in the abundance of the isolate were monitored with FLVPs. Simultaneously, the concentrations of viruses that infected strain PWH3a were monitored by plaque assay. Following the addition of PWH3a, the concentration of viruses infecting this strain increased from undetectable levels (<1 ml(sup-1)) to 2.9 x 10(sup7) and 8.3 x 10(sup8) ml(sup-1) for the untreated and nutrient-enriched samples, respectively. The increase in viruses was associated with a collapse in populations of strain PWH3a from ca. 30 to 2% and 43 to 0.01% of the microbial communities in untreated and nutrient-enriched samples, respectively. These results clearly demonstrate that FLVPs can be used to identify and quantify specific groups of bacteria in mixed microbial communities. The data show as well that viruses which are present at low abundances in natural aquatic viral communities can control microbial community structure. PMID:16535146

  5. On the Nature and Extent of Optically Thin Marine low Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leahy, L. V.; Wood, R.; Charlson, R. J.; Hostetler, C. A.; Rogers, R. R.; Vaughan, M. A.; Winker, D. M.

    2012-01-01

    Macrophysical properties of optically thin marine low clouds over the nonpolar oceans (60 deg S-60 deg N) are measured using 2 years of full-resolution nighttime data from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP). Optically thin clouds, defined as the subset of marine low clouds that do not fully attenuate the lidar signal, comprise almost half of the low clouds over the marine domain. Regionally, the fraction of low clouds that are optically thin (f(sub thin,cld)) exhibits a strong inverse relationship with the low-cloud cover, with maxima in the tropical trades (f(sub thin,cld) greater than 0.8) and minima in regions of persistent marine stratocumulus and in midlatitudes (f(sub thin,cld) less than 0.3). Domain-wide, a power law fit describes the cloud length distribution, with exponent beta = 2.03 +/- 0.06 (+/-95% confidence interval). On average, the fraction of a cloud that is optically thin decreases from approximately 1 for clouds smaller than 2 km to less than 0.3 for clouds larger than 30 km. This relationship is found to be independent of region, so that geographical variations in the cloud length distribution explain three quarters of the variance in f(sub thin,cld). Comparing collocated trade cumulus observations from CALIOP and the airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar reveals that clouds with lengths smaller than are resolvable with CALIOP contribute approximately half of the low clouds in the region sampled. A bounded cascade model is constructed to match the observations from the trades. The model shows that the observed optically thin cloud behavior is consistent with a power law scaling of cloud optical depth and suggests that most optically thin clouds only partially fill the CALIOP footprint.

  6. Combining metagenomics with metaproteomics and stable isotope probing reveals metabolic pathways used by a naturally occurring marine methylotroph.

    PubMed

    Grob, Carolina; Taubert, Martin; Howat, Alexandra M; Burns, Oliver J; Dixon, Joanna L; Richnow, Hans H; Jehmlich, Nico; von Bergen, Martin; Chen, Yin; Murrell, J Colin

    2015-10-01

    A variety of culture-independent techniques have been developed that can be used in conjunction with culture-dependent physiological and metabolic studies of key microbial organisms in order to better understand how the activity of natural populations influences and regulates all major biogeochemical cycles. In this study, we combined deoxyribonucleic acid-stable isotope probing (DNA-SIP) with metagenomics and metaproteomics to characterize an uncultivated marine methylotroph that actively incorporated carbon from (13) C-labeled methanol into biomass. By metagenomic sequencing of the heavy DNA, we retrieved virtually the whole genome of this bacterium and determined its metabolic potential. Through protein-stable isotope probing, the RuMP cycle was established as the main carbon assimilation pathway, and the classical methanol dehydrogenase-encoding gene mxaF, as well as three out of four identified xoxF homologues were found to be expressed. This proof-of-concept study is the first in which the culture-independent techniques of DNA-SIP and protein-SIP have been used to characterize the metabolism of a naturally occurring Methylophaga-like bacterium in the marine environment (i.e. Methylophaga thiooxydans L4) and thus provides a powerful approach to access the genome and proteome of uncultivated microbes involved in key processes in the environment.

  7. Untangling Natural Seascape Variation from Marine Reserve Effects Using a Landscape Approach

    PubMed Central

    Huntington, Brittany E.; Karnauskas, Mandy; Babcock, Elizabeth A.; Lirman, Diego

    2010-01-01

    Distinguishing management effects from the inherent variability in a system is a key consideration in assessing reserve efficacy. Here, we demonstrate how seascape heterogeneity, defined as the spatial configuration and composition of coral reef habitats, can mask our ability to discern reserve effects. We then test the application of a landscape approach, utilizing advances in benthic habitat mapping and GIS techniques, to quantify this heterogeneity and alleviate the confounding influence during reserve assessment. Seascape metrics were quantified at multiple spatial scales using a combination of spatial image analysis and in situ surveys at 87 patch reef sites in Glover's Reef Lagoon, Belize, within and outside a marine reserve enforced since 1998. Patch reef sites were then clustered into classes sharing similar seascape attributes using metrics that correlated significantly to observed variations in both fish and coral communities. When the efficacy of the marine reserve was assessed without including landscape attributes, no reserve effects were detected in the diversity and abundance of fish and coral communities, despite 10 years of management protection. However, grouping sites based on landscape attributes revealed significant reserve effects between site classes. Fish had higher total biomass (1.5×) and commercially important biomass (1.75×) inside the reserve and coral cover was 1.8 times greater inside the reserve, though direction and degree of response varied by seascape class. Our findings show that the application of a landscape classification approach vastly improves our ability to evaluate the efficacy of marine reserves by controlling for confounding effects of seascape heterogeneity and suggests that landscape heterogeneity should be considered in future reserve design. PMID:20808833

  8. Synthesis and Anti-Tuberculosis Activity of the Marine Natural Product Caulerpin and Its Analogues

    PubMed Central

    Canché Chay, Cristina I.; Gómez Cansino, Rocío; Espitia Pinzón, Clara I.; Torres-Ochoa, Rubén O.; Martínez, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Caulerpin (1a), a bis-indole alkaloid from the marine algal Caulerpa sp., was synthesized in three reaction steps with an overall yield of 11%. The caulerpin analogues (1b–1g) were prepared using the same synthetic pathway with overall yields between 3% and 8%. The key reaction involved a radical oxidative aromatic substitution involving xanthate (3) and 3-formylindole compounds (4a–4g). All bis-indole compounds synthesized were evaluated against the Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain H37Rv, and 1a was found to display excellent activity (IC50 0.24 µM). PMID:24681629

  9. Field scale simulation of axial hydrokinetic turbines in a natural marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chawdhary, Saurabh; Angelidis, Dionysios; Shen, Lian; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2016-11-01

    Commercialization of marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) energy technologies is still in the development stage. Existing technologies need fundamental research to enable efficient energy extraction from identified MHK sites. We propose a large eddy simulation (LES)-based framework to investigate the site-specific flow dynamics past MHK arrays in a real-life marine environment. To this end, we use advanced computational tools developed at the Saint Anthony Falls Laboratory (SAFL) to resolve the vast range of scales present in the flow. The new generation unstructured Cartesian flow solver, coupled with a sharp interface immersed boundary method for 3D incompressible flows, is used to numerically investigate New York City's East River, where an array of MHK turbines is to be deployed as part of the Roosevelt Island Tidal Energy (RITE) Project. Multi-resolution simulations on locally refined grids are used to simulate the flow in a section of the East River with detailed river bathymetry and inset turbines at field scale. The results are analyzed in terms of the wake recovery, overall wake dynamics, and the power produced by the turbines. These results will help develop design guidelines for the site-specific turbine array configuration. This work was supported by NSF Grant IIP-1318201.

  10. Natural gas: Marine transportation. (Latest citations from Oceanic Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, construction, and operation of ships for the transport of liquified natural gas. Topics include safety devices, materials handling equipment for loading and unloading liquified natural gas, new hull and vessel designs, gas turbine propulsion systems, cargo tank designs and requirements, and liguid load dynamics. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  11. Natural gas: Marine transportation. (Latest citations from Oceanic Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, construction, and operation of ships for the transport of liquified natural gas. Topics include safety devices, materials handling equipment for loading and unloading liquified natural gas, new hull and vessel designs, gas turbine propulsion systems, cargo tank designs and requirements, and liguid load dynamics. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  12. A GC/ECNI-MS method for the identification of lipophilic anthropogenic and natural brominated compounds in marine samples.

    PubMed

    Vetter, W

    2001-10-15

    GC/ECNI-MS in both the full scan and selected ion monitoring modes was applied to study the patterns of brominated compounds in the blubber of marine mammals from a variety of locations. The adipose tissue of one polar bear was also studied. Occurrence of three major residues originating from the use of brominated flame-retardants (PBDE 47, 99, and 100) and several potential naturally occurring brominated compounds was studied in the samples. A series of three major natural brominated compounds (BC-1, BC-2, BC-3) recently identified in dolphins from Australia was included in this study. Two further brominated compounds, BC-10 and BC-11, were studied for the first time. ECNI-MS full scan spectra were obtained for BC-3 and BC-10. A natural mixed halogenated compound (MHC-1) and an unknown brominated compound (UBC-1) were investigated as well. Evidence for the natural production of these secondary metabolites and their bioaccumulation in higher organisms as well as analytical protocols for their detection in the environment are presented. Some of these naturally occurring compounds may be misinterpreted as anthropogenic brominated compounds. In ECNI-MS, brominated compounds are usually identified by the detection of the fragment ions m/z 79 ([79Br]-) and m/z 81 ([81Br]-). In this work, it is shown that monitoring of additional ion traces corresponding to [Br2]- (160 type), [HBr2]- (161 type), [BrCl]- (116 type), and [HBrCl]- (117 type) fragment ions allows distinguishing between different classes of brominated compounds. This technique was used to demonstrate that UBC-1 is neither a PBDE nor a PBB congener, whereas a second mixed halogenated compound (MHC-2) was identified as a result of the ECNI-MS response at m/z 114/116. Studies on blubber extracts of marine mammals from four continents resulted in the detection of significant differences in the global distribution of brominated compounds. Our results suggest that naturally occurring organobromines are more

  13. Silent oceans: ocean acidification impoverishes natural soundscapes by altering sound production of the world's noisiest marine invertebrate.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Tullio; Connell, Sean D; Nagelkerken, Ivan

    2016-03-16

    Soundscapes are multidimensional spaces that carry meaningful information for many species about the location and quality of nearby and distant resources. Because soundscapes are the sum of the acoustic signals produced by individual organisms and their interactions, they can be used as a proxy for the condition of whole ecosystems and their occupants. Ocean acidification resulting from anthropogenic CO2 emissions is known to have profound effects on marine life. However, despite the increasingly recognized ecological importance of soundscapes, there is no empirical test of whether ocean acidification can affect biological sound production. Using field recordings obtained from three geographically separated natural CO2 vents, we show that forecasted end-of-century ocean acidification conditions can profoundly reduce the biological sound level and frequency of snapping shrimp snaps. Snapping shrimp were among the noisiest marine organisms and the suppression of their sound production at vents was responsible for the vast majority of the soundscape alteration observed. To assess mechanisms that could account for these observations, we tested whether long-term exposure (two to three months) to elevated CO2 induced a similar reduction in the snapping behaviour (loudness and frequency) of snapping shrimp. The results indicated that the soniferous behaviour of these animals was substantially reduced in both frequency (snaps per minute) and sound level of snaps produced. As coastal marine soundscapes are dominated by biological sounds produced by snapping shrimp, the observed suppression of this component of soundscapes could have important and possibly pervasive ecological consequences for organisms that use soundscapes as a source of information. This trend towards silence could be of particular importance for those species whose larval stages use sound for orientation towards settlement habitats.

  14. An ecological approach supporting the management of sea-uses and natural capital in marine coastal areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcelli, Marco; Carli, Filippo M.; Bonamano, Simone; Frattarelli, Francesco; Mancini, Emanuele; Paladini de Mendoza, Francesco; Peviani, Maximo; Piermattei, Viviana

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of our work is to create a multi-layer map of marine areas and adjacent territories (SeaUseMap), which takes into account both the different sea uses and the value of marine ecosystems, calculated on the basis of services and benefits produced by the different biocenosis. Marine coastal areas are characterized by the simultaneous presence of ecological conditions favorable to life and, at the same time, they are home to many human activities of particular economic relevance. Ecological processes occurring in coastal areas are particularly important and when we consider their contribution to the value of the "natural capital" (Costanza et Al. 1997, 2008, 2014), we can observe that this is often higher than the contribution from terrestrial ecosystems. Our work is done in northern Lazio (Civitavecchia), a highly populated area where many uses of the sea are superimposed: tourism, fisheries, industry, shipping and ports, historical and cultural heritage. Our goal is to create a tool to support decision-making, where ecosystem values and uses of the sea can be simultaneously represented. The ecosystem values are calculated based on an analysis of benthic biocoenoses: the basic ecological units that, in the Mediterranean Sea, have been identified, defined, analyzed and used since the 60s (Perez & Picard 1964) to date as a working tool (Boudouresque & Fresi 1976). Land surface, instead, was analyzed from available maps, produced within the Corine Land Cover project. Some application examples to support the decision-making are shown, with particular reference to the localization of suitable areas for wave energy production and the esteem of ecological damages generated in case of maritime accidents (e.g., Costa Concordia). According to Costanza 2008, we have developed our own operational method, which is suitable for this specific case of benefit assessment from benthic communities. In this framework, we base our strategy on the ability of the benthic

  15. Silent oceans: ocean acidification impoverishes natural soundscapes by altering sound production of the world's noisiest marine invertebrate

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Tullio; Connell, Sean D.; Nagelkerken, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Soundscapes are multidimensional spaces that carry meaningful information for many species about the location and quality of nearby and distant resources. Because soundscapes are the sum of the acoustic signals produced by individual organisms and their interactions, they can be used as a proxy for the condition of whole ecosystems and their occupants. Ocean acidification resulting from anthropogenic CO2 emissions is known to have profound effects on marine life. However, despite the increasingly recognized ecological importance of soundscapes, there is no empirical test of whether ocean acidification can affect biological sound production. Using field recordings obtained from three geographically separated natural CO2 vents, we show that forecasted end-of-century ocean acidification conditions can profoundly reduce the biological sound level and frequency of snapping shrimp snaps. Snapping shrimp were among the noisiest marine organisms and the suppression of their sound production at vents was responsible for the vast majority of the soundscape alteration observed. To assess mechanisms that could account for these observations, we tested whether long-term exposure (two to three months) to elevated CO2 induced a similar reduction in the snapping behaviour (loudness and frequency) of snapping shrimp. The results indicated that the soniferous behaviour of these animals was substantially reduced in both frequency (snaps per minute) and sound level of snaps produced. As coastal marine soundscapes are dominated by biological sounds produced by snapping shrimp, the observed suppression of this component of soundscapes could have important and possibly pervasive ecological consequences for organisms that use soundscapes as a source of information. This trend towards silence could be of particular importance for those species whose larval stages use sound for orientation towards settlement habitats. PMID:26984624

  16. Safety aspects of liquefied natural gas in the marine environment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    This study evaluates the safety issues associated with the marine transportation, handling, and storage of LNG. The panel concluded that the first concern should be the prevention of an accident that would lead to a large, uncontrolled release of LNG in or near populated areas. This concern was addressed by reviewing the design principles of LNG transportation systems, the operational principles involved in the shipment of LNG, and other factors that might reasonably be expected to improve further the safety of the system. The panel concluded that the second concern was the development of ways to mitigate the consequences of potentially hazardous LNG releases in the event that, contrary to all expectations, measures to maintain tank integrity should fail. Development of these methods requires an understanding of the underlying physical and chemical principles governing large LNG release, including spill dynamics, dispersion on water as well as on land, ignition, and resulting fire and blast effects.

  17. Modern marine sediments as a natural analog to the chemically stressed environment of a landfill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baedecker, M.J.; Back, W.

    1979-01-01

    Chemical reactions that occur in landfills are analogous to those reactions that occur in marine sediments. Lateral zonation of C, N, S, O, H, Fe and Mn species in landfills is similar to the vertical zonation of these species in marine sediments and results from the following reaction sequence: (1) oxidation of C, N and S species in the presence of dissolved free oxygen to HCO3-, NO3- and SO2-4; (2) after consumption of molecular oxygen, then NO3- is reduced, and Fe and Mn are solubilized; (3) SO2-4 is reduced to sulfide; and (4) organic compounds become the source of oxygen, and CH4 and NH4+ are formed as fermentation products. In a landfill in Delaware the oxidation potential increases downgradient and the redox zones in the reducing plume are characterized by: CH4, NH4+, Fe2+. Mn2+, HCO3- and NO3-. Lack of SO2-4 at that landfill eliminates the sulfide zone. Although it has not been observed at landfills, mineral alteration should result in precipitation of pyrite and/or siderite downgradient. Controls on the pH of leachate are the relative rates of production of HCO3-, NH4+ and CH4. Production of methane by fermentation at landfills results in 13C isotope fractionation and the accumulation of isotopically heavy ??CO2 (+10 to +18??? PDB). Isotope measurements may be useful to determine the extent of CO2 reduction in landfills and extent of dilution downgradient. The boundaries of reaction zones in stressed aquifers are determined by head distribution and flow velocity. Thus, if the groundwater flow is rapid relative to reaction rates, redox zones will develop downgradient. Where groundwater flow velocities are low the zones will overlap to the extent that they may be indeterminate. ?? 1979.

  18. Natural gas: Marine transportation. (Latest citations from Oceanic Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, construction, and operation of ships for the transport of liquified natural gas. Topics include safety devices, materials handling equipment for loading and unloading liquified natural gas, new hull and vessel designs, gas turbine propulsion systems, cargo tank designs and requirements, and liguid load dynamics. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  19. Natural gas: Marine transportation. (Latest citations from Oceanic abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, construction, and operation of ships for the transport of liquified natural gas. Topics include safety devices, materials handling equipment for loading and unloading liquified natural gas, new hull and vessel designs, gas turbine propulsion systems, cargo tank designs and requirements, and liguid load dynamics. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  20. Marine biology

    SciTech Connect

    Thurman, H.V.; Webber, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses both taxonomic and ecological topics on marine biology. Full coverage of marine organisms of all five kingdoms is provided, along with interesting and thorough discussion of all major marine habitats. Organization into six major parts allows flexibility. It also provides insight into important topics such as disposal of nuclear waste at sea, the idea that life began on the ocean floor, and how whales, krill, and people interact. A full-color photo chapter reviews questions, and exercises. The contents are: an overview marine biology: fundamental concepts/investigating life in the ocean; the physical ocean, the ocean floor, the nature of water, the nature and motion of ocean water; general ecology, conditions for life in the sea, biological productivity and energy transfer; marine organisms; monera, protista, mycota and metaphyta; the smaller marine animals, the large animals marine habitats, the intertidal zone/benthos of the continental shelf, the photic zone, the deep ocean, the ocean under stress, marine pollution, appendix a: the metric system and conversion factors/ appendix b: prefixes and suffixes/ appendix c: taxonomic classification of common marine organisms, and glossary, and index.

  1. Meta-omic characterization of the marine invertebrate microbial consortium that produces the chemotherapeutic natural product ET-743.

    PubMed

    Rath, Christopher M; Janto, Benjamin; Earl, Josh; Ahmed, Azad; Hu, Fen Z; Hiller, Luisa; Dahlgren, Meg; Kreft, Rachael; Yu, Fengan; Wolff, Jeremy J; Kweon, Hye Kyong; Christiansen, Michael A; Håkansson, Kristina; Williams, Robert M; Ehrlich, Garth D; Sherman, David H

    2011-11-18

    In many macroorganisms, the ultimate source of potent biologically active natural products has remained elusive due to an inability to identify and culture the producing symbiotic microorganisms. As a model system for developing a meta-omic approach to identify and characterize natural product pathways from invertebrate-derived microbial consortia, we chose to investigate the ET-743 (Yondelis) biosynthetic pathway. This molecule is an approved anticancer agent obtained in low abundance (10(-4)-10(-5) % w/w) from the tunicate Ecteinascidia turbinata and is generated in suitable quantities for clinical use by a lengthy semisynthetic process. On the basis of structural similarities to three bacterial secondary metabolites, we hypothesized that ET-743 is the product of a marine bacterial symbiont. Using metagenomic sequencing of total DNA from the tunicate/microbial consortium, we targeted and assembled a 35 kb contig containing 25 genes that comprise the core of the NRPS biosynthetic pathway for this valuable anticancer agent. Rigorous sequence analysis based on codon usage of two large unlinked contigs suggests that Candidatus Endoecteinascidia frumentensis produces the ET-743 metabolite. Subsequent metaproteomic analysis confirmed expression of three key biosynthetic proteins. Moreover, the predicted activity of an enzyme for assembly of the tetrahydroisoquinoline core of ET-743 was verified in vitro. This work provides a foundation for direct production of the drug and new analogues through metabolic engineering. We expect that the interdisciplinary approach described is applicable to diverse host-symbiont systems that generate valuable natural products for drug discovery and development.

  2. Photoreactivation compensates for UV damage and restores infectivity to natural marine virus communities.

    PubMed

    Weinbauer, M G; Wilhelm, S W; Suttle, C A; Garza, D R

    1997-06-01

    We investigated the potential for photoreactivation to restore infectivity to sunlight-damaged natural viral communities in offshore (chlorophyll a, < 0.1 microgram liter-1), coastal (chlorophyll a, ca. 0.2 microgram liter-1), and estuarine (chlorophyll a, ca. 1 to 5 micrograms liter-1) waters of the Gulf of Mexico. In 67% of samples, the light-dependent repair mechanisms of the bacterium Vibrio natriegens restored infectivity to natural viral communities which could not be repaired by light-independent mechanisms. Similarly, exposure of sunlight-damaged natural viral communities to > 312-nm-wavelength sunlight in the presence of the natural bacterial communities restored infectivity to 21 to 26% of sunlight-damaged viruses in oceanic waters and 41 to 52% of the damaged viruses in coastal and estuarine waters. Wavelengths between 370 and 550 nm were responsible for restoring infectivity to the damaged viruses. These results indicate that light-dependent repair, probably photoreactivation, compensated for a large fraction of sunlight-induced DNA damage in natural viral communities and is potentially essential for the maintenance of high concentrations of viruses in surface waters.

  3. Persistent natural acidification drives major distribution shifts in marine benthic ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Linares, C; Vidal, M; Canals, M; Kersting, D K; Amblas, D; Aspillaga, E; Cebrián, E; Delgado-Huertas, A; Díaz, D; Garrabou, J; Hereu, B; Navarro, L; Teixidó, N; Ballesteros, E

    2015-11-07

    Ocean acidification is receiving increasing attention because of its potential to affect marine ecosystems. Rare CO2 vents offer a unique opportunity to investigate the response of benthic ecosystems to acidification. However, the benthic habitats investigated so far are mainly found at very shallow water (less than or equal to 5 m depth) and therefore are not representative of the broad range of continental shelf habitats. Here, we show that a decrease from pH 8.1 to 7.9 observed in a CO2 vent system at 40 m depth leads to a dramatic shift in highly diverse and structurally complex habitats. Forests of the kelp Laminaria rodriguezii usually found at larger depths (greater than 65 m) replace the otherwise dominant habitats (i.e. coralligenous outcrops and rhodolith beds), which are mainly characterized by calcifying organisms. Only the aragonite-calcifying algae are able to survive in acidified waters, while high-magnesium-calcite organisms are almost completely absent. Although a long-term survey of the venting area would be necessary to fully understand the effects of the variability of pH and other carbonate parameters over the structure and functioning of the investigated mesophotic habitats, our results suggest that in addition of significant changes at species level, moderate ocean acidification may entail major shifts in the distribution and dominance of key benthic ecosystems at regional scale, which could have broad ecological and socio-economic implications.

  4. Mistaken identity? Visual similarities of marine debris to natural prey items of sea turtles

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There are two predominant hypotheses as to why animals ingest plastic: 1) they are opportunistic feeders, eating plastic when they encounter it, and 2) they eat plastic because it resembles prey items. To assess which hypothesis is most likely, we created a model sea turtle visual system and used it to analyse debris samples from beach surveys and from necropsied turtles. We investigated colour, contrast, and luminance of the debris items as they would appear to the turtle. We also incorporated measures of texture and translucency to determine which of the two hypotheses is more plausible as a driver of selectivity in green sea turtles. Results Turtles preferred more flexible and translucent items to what was available in the environment, lending support to the hypothesis that they prefer debris that resembles prey, particularly jellyfish. They also ate fewer blue items, suggesting that such items may be less conspicuous against the background of open water where they forage. Conclusions Using visual modelling we determined the characteristics that drive ingestion of marine debris by sea turtles, from the point of view of the turtles themselves. This technique can be utilized to determine debris preferences of other visual predators, and help to more effectively focus management or remediation actions. PMID:24886170

  5. Persistent natural acidification drives major distribution shifts in marine benthic ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Linares, C.; Vidal, M.; Canals, M.; Kersting, D. K.; Amblas, D.; Aspillaga, E.; Cebrián, E.; Delgado-Huertas, A.; Díaz, D.; Garrabou, J.; Hereu, B.; Navarro, L.; Teixidó, N.; Ballesteros, E.

    2015-01-01

    Ocean acidification is receiving increasing attention because of its potential to affect marine ecosystems. Rare CO2 vents offer a unique opportunity to investigate the response of benthic ecosystems to acidification. However, the benthic habitats investigated so far are mainly found at very shallow water (less than or equal to 5 m depth) and therefore are not representative of the broad range of continental shelf habitats. Here, we show that a decrease from pH 8.1 to 7.9 observed in a CO2 vent system at 40 m depth leads to a dramatic shift in highly diverse and structurally complex habitats. Forests of the kelp Laminaria rodriguezii usually found at larger depths (greater than 65 m) replace the otherwise dominant habitats (i.e. coralligenous outcrops and rhodolith beds), which are mainly characterized by calcifying organisms. Only the aragonite-calcifying algae are able to survive in acidified waters, while high-magnesium-calcite organisms are almost completely absent. Although a long-term survey of the venting area would be necessary to fully understand the effects of the variability of pH and other carbonate parameters over the structure and functioning of the investigated mesophotic habitats, our results suggest that in addition of significant changes at species level, moderate ocean acidification may entail major shifts in the distribution and dominance of key benthic ecosystems at regional scale, which could have broad ecological and socio-economic implications. PMID:26511045

  6. Mode of action of thiocoraline, a natural marine compound with anti-tumour activity

    PubMed Central

    Erba, E; Bergamaschi, D; Ronzoni, S; Faretta, M; Taverna, S; Bonfanti, M; Catapano, C V; Faircloth, G; Jimeno, J; D'Incalci, M

    1999-01-01

    Thiocoraline, a new anticancer agent derived from the marine actinomycete Micromonospora marina, was found to induce profound perturbations of the cell cycle. On both LoVo and SW620 human colon cancer cell lines, thiocoraline caused an arrest in G1 phase of the cell cycle and a decrease in the rate of S phase progression towards G2/M phases, as assessed by using bromodeoxyuridine/DNA biparametric flow cytometric analysis. Thiocoraline does not inhibit DNA-topoisomerase II enzymes in vitro, nor does it induce DNA breakage in cells exposed to effective drug concentrations. The cell cycle effects observed after exposure to thiocoraline appear related to the inhibition of DNA replication. By using a primer extension assay it was found that thiocoraline inhibited DNA elongation by DNA polymerase α at concentrations that inhibited cell cycle progression and clonogenicity. These studies indicate that the new anticancer drug thiocoraline probably acts by inhibiting DNA polymerase α activity. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10362104

  7. Corrosion damage diagnosis of a reinforced concrete beam after 40 years natural exposure in marine environment

    SciTech Connect

    Poupard, O.; Petre-Lazar, I.

    2006-03-15

    A detailed investigation of the chloride induced corrosion damage was performed on a 40 years old reinforced concrete beam exposed in marine environment. Visual observations, electrochemical measurements, carbonation depth, total chloride content were carried out. Half-cell potential measurements were used to locate corrosion areas. It appeared that the interpretation based on gradient of the potential was in good concordance with real state of damage. Complementary destructive methods are applied to observe the real corrosion state of steel rebars and characterize the corrosion products and the steel/concrete interface (optical and electronical microscopy tools (XRD, SEM, EDS and {mu}-Raman). All these data indicate that on the beam, one may distinguish two types of areas: 'high-corrosion zones' and 'low-corrosion zones.' Given the fact that the 'high corrosion zones' were found to be close to corrosion induced cracks and that they have a different morphology, this contribution concludes that the position of these areas did not shift in time.

  8. The nature of the CO2 -concentrating mechanisms in a marine diatom, Thalassiosira pseudonana.

    PubMed

    Clement, Romain; Dimnet, Laura; Maberly, Stephen C; Gontero, Brigitte

    2016-03-01

    Diatoms are widespread in aquatic ecosystems where they may be limited by the supply of inorganic carbon. Their carbon dioxide-concentrating mechanisms (CCMs) involving transporters and carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are well known, but the contribution of a biochemical CCM involving C4 metabolism is contentious. The CCM(s) present in the marine-centric diatom, Thalassiosira pseudonana, were studied in cells exposed to high or low concentrations of CO2 , using a range of approaches. At low CO2 , cells possessed a CCM based on active uptake of CO2 (70% contribution) and bicarbonate, while at high CO2 , cells were restricted to CO2 . CA was highly and rapidly activated on transfer to low CO2 and played a key role because inhibition of external CA produced uptake kinetics similar to cells grown at high CO2 . The activities of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxylase (PEPC) and the PEP-regenerating enzyme, pyruvate phosphate dikinase (PPDK), were lower in cells grown at low than at high CO2 . The ratios of PEPC and PPDK to ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase were substantially lower than 1, even at low CO2 . Our data suggest that the kinetic properties of this species results from a biophysical CCM and not from C4 type metabolism.

  9. Phylogenetic Diversity of Marine Cyanophage Isolates and Natural Virus Communities as Revealed by Sequences of Viral Capsid Assembly Protein Gene g20†

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Yan; Chen, Feng; Wilhelm, Steven W.; Poorvin, Leo; Hodson, Robert E.

    2002-01-01

    In order to characterize the genetic diversity and phylogenetic affiliations of marine cyanophage isolates and natural cyanophage assemblages, oligonucleotide primers CPS1 and CPS8 were designed to specifically amplify ca. 592-bp fragments of the gene for viral capsid assembly protein g20. Phylogenetic analysis of isolated cyanophages revealed that the marine cyanophages were highly diverse yet more closely related to each other than to enteric coliphage T4. Genetically related marine cyanophage isolates were widely distributed without significant geographic segregation (i.e., no correlation between genetic variation and geographic distance). Cloning and sequencing analysis of six natural virus concentrates from estuarine and oligotrophic offshore environments revealed nine phylogenetic groups in a total of 114 different g20 homologs, with up to six clusters and 29 genotypes encountered in a single sample. The composition and structure of natural cyanophage communities in the estuary and open-ocean samples were different from each other, with unique phylogenetic clusters found for each environment. Changes in clonal diversity were also observed from the surface waters to the deep chlorophyll maximum layer in the open ocean. Only three clusters contained known cyanophage isolates, while the identities of the other six clusters remain unknown. Whether or not these unidentified groups are composed of bacteriophages that infect different Synechococcus groups or other closely related cyanobacteria remains to be determined. The high genetic diversity of marine cyanophage assemblages revealed by the g20 sequences suggests that marine viruses can potentially play important roles in regulating microbial genetic diversity. PMID:11916671

  10. Effect of a simulated oil spill on natural assemblages of marine phytoplankton enclosed in microcosms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, J.; Figueiras, F. G.; Aranguren-Gassis, M.; Crespo, B. G.; Fernández, E.; Morán, X. A. G.; Nieto-Cid, M.

    2009-07-01

    Two microcosm experiments were carried out to simulate the effect of sporadic oil spills derived from tanker accidents on oceanic and coastal marine phytoplankton assemblages. Treatments were designed to reproduce the spill from the Prestige, which took place in Galician coastal waters (NW Iberia) in November 2002. Two different concentrations of the water soluble fraction of oil were used: low (8.6 ± 0.7 μg l -1 of chrysene equivalents) and high (23 ± 5 μg l -1 of chrysene equivalents l -1). Photosynthetic activity and chlorophyll a concentration decreased in both assemblages after 24-72 h of exposure to the two oil concentrations, even though the effect was more severe on the oceanic assemblage. These variables progressively recovered up to values close or higher than those in the controls, but the short-term negative effect of oil, which was generally stronger at the high concentration, also induced changes in the structure of the plankton community. While the biomass of nanoflagellates increased in both assemblages, oceanic picophytoplankton was drastically reduced by the addition of oil. Effects on diatoms were also observed, particularly in the coastal assemblage. The response of coastal diatoms to oil addition showed a clear dependence on size. Small diatoms (<20 μm) were apparently stimulated by oil, whereas diatoms >20 μm were only negatively affected by the high oil concentration. These differences, which could be partially due to indirect trophic interactions, might also be related to different sensitivity of species to PAHs. These results, in agreement with previous observations, additionally show that the negative effect of the water soluble fraction of oil on oceanic phytoplankton was stronger than on coastal phytoplankton.

  11. Increased natural mortality at low abundance can generate an Allee effect in a marine fish.

    PubMed

    Kuparinen, Anna; Hutchings, Jeffrey A

    2014-10-01

    Negative density-dependent regulation of population dynamics promotes population growth at low abundance and is therefore vital for recovery following depletion. Inversely, any process that reduces the compensatory density-dependence of population growth can negatively affect recovery. Here, we show that increased adult mortality at low abundance can reverse compensatory population dynamics into its opposite-a demographic Allee effect. Northwest Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) stocks collapsed dramatically in the early 1990s and have since shown little sign of recovery. Many experienced dramatic increases in natural mortality, ostensibly attributable in some populations to increased predation by seals. Our findings show that increased natural mortality of a magnitude observed for overfished cod stocks has been more than sufficient to fundamentally alter the dynamics of density-dependent population regulation. The demographic Allee effect generated by these changes can slow down or even impede the recovery of depleted populations even in the absence of fishing.

  12. Trends in the discovery of new marine natural products from invertebrates over the last two decades--where and what are we bioprospecting?

    PubMed

    Leal, Miguel Costa; Puga, João; Serôdio, João; Gomes, Newton C M; Calado, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    It is acknowledged that marine invertebrates produce bioactive natural products that may be useful for developing new drugs. By exploring untapped geographical sources and/or novel groups of organisms one can maximize the search for new marine drugs to treat human diseases. The goal of this paper is to analyse the trends associated with the discovery of new marine natural products from invertebrates (NMNPI) over the last two decades. The analysis considers different taxonomical levels and geographical approaches of bioprospected species. Additionally, this research is also directed to provide new insights into less bioprospected taxa and world regions. In order to gather the information available on NMNPI, the yearly-published reviews of Marine Natural Products covering 1990-2009 were surveyed. Information on source organisms, specifically taxonomical information and collection sites, was assembled together with additional geographical information collected from the articles originally describing the new natural product. Almost 10000 NMNPI were discovered since 1990, with a pronounced increase between decades. Porifera and Cnidaria were the two dominant sources of NMNPI worldwide. The exception was polar regions where Echinodermata dominated. The majority of species that yielded the new natural products belong to only one class of each Porifera and Cnidaria phyla (Demospongiae and Anthozoa, respectively). Increased bioprospecting efforts were observed in the Pacific Ocean, particularly in Asian countries that are associated with the Japan Biodiversity Hotspot and the Kuroshio Current. Although results show comparably less NMNPI from polar regions, the number of new natural products per species is similar to that recorded for other regions. The present study provides information to future bioprospecting efforts addressing previously unexplored taxonomic groups and/or regions. We also highlight how marine invertebrates, which in some cases have no commercial value

  13. A multi-mineral natural product from red marine algae reduces colon polyp formation in C57BL/6 mice

    PubMed Central

    Aslam, Muhammad N.; Bergin, Ingrid; Naik, Madhav; Paruchuri, Tejaswi; Hampton, Anna; Rehman, Muneeb; Dame, Michael K; Rush, Howard; Varani, James

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine if a multi-mineral natural product derived from red marine algae, could reduce colon polyp formation in mice on a high fat diet. C57BL/6 mice were maintained for up to 18 months either on a high-fat “Western-style” diet or on a low-fat diet (AIN 76A), with or without the multi-mineral-supplement. To summarize, colon polyps were detected in 22 of 70 mice (31%) on the high-fat diet, but in only 2 of 70 mice (3%) receiving the mineral-supplemented high-fat diet (p<0.0001). Colon polyps were detected in 16 of 70 mice (23%) in the low-fat group; not significantly different from high-fat group but significantly higher than the high-fat-supplemented group (p=0.0006). This was in spite of the fact that the calcium level in the low-fat diet was comparable to the level of calcium in the high-fat diet containing the multi-mineral-product. Supplementation of the low-fat diet reduced the incidence to 8 of 70 mice (11% incidence). Taken together, these findings demonstrate that a multi-mineral natural product can protect mice on a high-fat diet against adenomatous polyp formation in the colon. These data suggest that increased calcium alone is insufficient to explain the lower incidence of colon polyps. PMID:23035966

  14. Actinoramide A Identified as a Potent Antimalarial from Titration-Based Screening of Marine Natural Product Extracts.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ken Chih-Chien; Cao, Shugeng; Raveh, Avi; MacArthur, Ryan; Dranchak, Patricia; Chlipala, George; Okoneski, Matthew T; Guha, Rajarshi; Eastman, Richard T; Yuan, Jing; Schultz, Pamela J; Su, Xin-Zhuan; Tamayo-Castillo, Giselle; Matainaho, Teatulohi; Clardy, Jon; Sherman, David H; Inglese, James

    2015-10-23

    Methods to identify the bioactive diversity within natural product extracts (NPEs) continue to evolve. NPEs constitute complex mixtures of chemical substances varying in structure, composition, and abundance. NPEs can therefore be challenging to evaluate efficiently with high-throughput screening approaches designed to test pure substances. Here we facilitate the rapid identification and prioritization of antimalarial NPEs using a pharmacologically driven, quantitative high-throughput-screening (qHTS) paradigm. In qHTS each NPE is tested across a concentration range from which sigmoidal response, efficacy, and apparent EC50s can be used to rank order NPEs for subsequent organism reculture, extraction, and fractionation. Using an NPE library derived from diverse marine microorganisms we observed potent antimalarial activity from two Streptomyces sp. extracts identified from thousands tested using qHTS. Seven compounds were isolated from two phylogenetically related Streptomyces species: Streptomyces ballenaensis collected from Costa Rica and Streptomyces bangulaensis collected from Papua New Guinea. Among them we identified actinoramides A and B, belonging to the unusually elaborated nonproteinogenic amino-acid-containing tetrapeptide series of natural products. In addition, we characterized a series of new compounds, including an artifact, 25-epi-actinoramide A, and actinoramides D, E, and F, which are closely related biosynthetic congeners of the previously reported metabolites.

  15. Integrated discovery of FOXO1-DNA stabilizers from marine natural products to restore chemosensitivity to anti-EGFR-based therapy for metastatic lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yingjia; Ai, Xinghao; Hou, Jingwen; Ye, Xiangyun; Liu, Ruijun; Shen, Shengping; Li, Ziming; Lu, Shun

    2017-01-31

    The transcription factor forkhead box O1 (FOXO1) negatively regulates activated EGFR signaling by turning on the gene expression of tumor suppressor Kruppel-like factor 6. Here, we propose that the chemosensitivity to anti-EGFR-based lung cancer therapy can be restored by stabilization of the FOXO1-DNA complex architecture using small-molecule marine natural medicines. A synthetic protocol that integrates computational ligand-protein-DNA binding analysis and an experimental fluorescence binding assay was applied against a large library of structurally diverse, drug-like marine natural products to discover novel stabilizers of DNA-bound FOXO1 conformation. The screening utilized chemical similarity analysis to exclude structurally redundant compounds, and then carried out high-throughput molecular docking and computational binding analysis to identify potential marine natural product candidates. Consequently, eight commercially available hits were selected and tested in vitro, from which four marine natural product compounds (tanzawaic acid D, hymenidin, cribrostatin 6 and barbamide) were found to have high or moderate potency to selectively bind to the FOXO1 DNA-binding domain (DBD) in the presence of its cognate DNA partner. Atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations revealed that the identified stabilizers do not directly interact with DNA; instead, they can effectively stabilize the free FOXO1 DBD domain in the DNA-bound conformation and thus promote the binding of FOXO1 to DNA.

  16. Net production and consumption of fluorescent colored dissolved organic matter by natural bacterial assemblages growing on marine phytoplankton exudates.

    PubMed

    Romera-Castillo, Cristina; Sarmento, Hugo; Alvarez-Salgado, Xosé Antón; Gasol, Josep M; Marrasé, Celia

    2011-11-01

    An understanding of the distribution of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in the oceans and its role in the global carbon cycle requires a better knowledge of the colored materials produced and consumed by marine phytoplankton and bacteria. In this work, we examined the net uptake and release of CDOM by a natural bacterial community growing on DOM derived from four phytoplankton species cultured under axenic conditions. Fluorescent humic-like substances exuded by phytoplankton (excitation/emission [Ex/Em] wavelength, 310 nm/392 nm; Coble's peak M) were utilized by bacteria in different proportions depending on the phytoplankton species of origin. Furthermore, bacteria produced humic-like substances that fluoresce at an Ex/Em wavelength of 340 nm/440 nm (Coble's peak C). Differences were also observed in the Ex/Em wavelengths of the protein-like materials (Coble's peak T) produced by phytoplankton and bacteria. The induced fluorescent emission of CDOM produced by prokaryotes was an order of magnitude higher than that of CDOM produced by eukaryotes. We have also examined the final compositions of the bacterial communities growing on the exudates, which differed markedly depending on the phytoplankton species of origin. Alteromonas and Roseobacter were dominant during all the incubations on Chaetoceros sp. and Prorocentrum minimum exudates, respectively. Alteromonas was the dominant group growing on Skeletonema costatum exudates during the exponential growth phase, but it was replaced by Roseobacter afterwards. On Micromonas pusilla exudates, Roseobacter was replaced by Bacteroidetes after the exponential growth phase. Our work shows that fluorescence excitation-emission matrices of CDOM can be a helpful tool for the identification of microbial sources of DOM in the marine environment, but further studies are necessary to explore the association of particular bacterial groups with specific fluorophores.

  17. Short-Term and Long-Term Biological Effects of Chronic Chemical Contamination on Natural Populations of a Marine Bivalve

    PubMed Central

    Graber, Marianne; Murillo, Laurence; Becquet, Vanessa; Churlaud, Carine; Fruitier-Arnaudin, Ingrid; Huet, Valérie; Lacroix, Camille; Pante, Eric; Le Floch, Stéphane; Thomas-Guyon, Hélène

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the effects of chronic chemical contamination on natural populations of marine organisms is complex due to the combined effects of different types of pollutants and environmental parameters that can modulate the physiological responses to stress. Here, we present the effects of a chronic contamination in a marine bivalve by combining multiple approaches that provide information on individual and population health. We sampled variegated scallops (Mimachlamys varia) at sites characterized by different contaminants and contamination levels to study the short and long-term (intergenerational) responses of this species to physiological stress. We used biomarkers (SOD, MDA, GST, laccase, citrate synthase and phosphatases) as indicators of oxidative stress, immune system alteration, mitochondrial respiration and general metabolism, and measured population genetic diversity at each site. In parallel, concentration of 14 trace metals and 45 organic contaminants (PAHs, PCBs, pesticides) in tissues were measured. Scallops were collected outside and during their reproductive season to investigate temporal variability in contaminant and biomarker levels. Our analyses revealed that the levels of two biomarkers (Laccase-type phenoloxidase and malondialdehyde) were significantly correlated with Cd concentration. Additionally, we observed significant seasonal differences for four of the five biomarkers, which is likely due to the scallop reproductive status at time of sampling. As a source of concern, a location that was identified as a reference site on the basis of inorganic contaminant levels presented the same level of some persistent organic pollutants (DDT and its metabolites) than more impacted sites. Finally, potential long-term effects of heavy metal contamination were observed for variegated scallops as genetic diversity was depressed in the most polluted sites. PMID:26938082

  18. Sulfate-reducing bacteria inhabiting natural corrosion deposits from marine steel structures.

    PubMed

    Païssé, Sandrine; Ghiglione, Jean-François; Marty, Florence; Abbas, Ben; Gueuné, Hervé; Amaya, José Maria Sanchez; Muyzer, Gerard; Quillet, Laurent

    2013-08-01

    In the present study, investigations were conducted on natural corrosion deposits to better understand the role of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in the accelerated corrosion process of carbon steel sheet piles in port environments. We describe the abundance and diversity of total and metabolically active SRB within five natural corrosion deposits located within tidal or low water zone and showing either normal or accelerated corrosion. By using molecular techniques, such as quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, denaturing gel gradient electrophoresis, and sequence cloning based on 16S rRNA, dsrB genes, and their transcripts, we demonstrated a clear distinction between SRB population structure inhabiting normal or accelerated low-water corrosion deposits. Although SRB were present in both normal and accelerated low-water corrosion deposits, they dominated and were exclusively active in the inner and intermediate layers of accelerated corrosion deposits. We also highlighted that some of these SRB populations are specific to the accelerated low-water corrosion deposit environment in which they probably play a dominant role in the sulfured corrosion product enrichment.

  19. Meta-omic characterization of the marine invertebrate microbial consortium that produces the chemotherapeutic natural product ET-743

    PubMed Central

    Rath, Christopher M.; Janto, Benjamin; Earl, Josh; Ahmed, Azad; Hu, Fen Z.; Hiller, Luisa; Dahlgren, Meg; Kreft, Rachael; Yu, Fengan; Wolff, Jeremy J.; Kweon, Hye Kyong; Christiansen, Michael A.; Håkansson, Kristina; Williams, Robert M.; Ehrlich, Garth D.; Sherman, David H.

    2011-01-01

    In many macroorganisms, the ultimate source of potent biologically active natural products has remained elusive due to an inability to identify and culture the producing symbiotic microorganisms. As a model system for developing a meta-omic approach to identify and characterize natural product pathways from invertebrate-derived microbial consortia we chose to investigate the ET-743 (Yondelis®) biosynthetic pathway. This molecule is an approved anti-cancer agent obtained in low abundance (10−4–10−5% w/w) from the tunicate Ecteinascidia turbinata, and is generated in suitable quantities for clinical use by a lengthy semi-synthetic process. Based on structural similarities to three bacterial secondary metabolites, we hypothesized that ET-743 is the product of a marine bacterial symbiont. Using metagenomic sequencing of total DNA from the tunicate/microbial consortium we targeted and assembled a 35 kb contig containing 25 genes that comprise the core of the NRPS biosynthetic pathway for this valuable anti-cancer agent. Rigorous sequence analysis based on codon usage of two large unlinked contigs suggests that Candidatus Endoecteinascidia frumentensis produces the ET-743 metabolite. Subsequent metaproteomic analysis confirmed expression of three key biosynthetic proteins. Moreover, the predicted activity of an enzyme for assembly of the tetrahydroisoquinoline core of ET-743 was verified in vitro. This work provides a foundation for direct production of the drug and new analogs through metabolic engineering. We expect that the interdisciplinary approach described is applicable to diverse host-symbiont systems that generate valuable natural products for drug discovery and development. PMID:21875091

  20. Synthesis of PPAR-γ Activators Inspired by the Marine Natural Product, Paecilocin A

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Bin; Su, Mingzhi; Kim, Eun La; Hong, Jongki; Chung, Hae Young; Kim, Hyung Sik; Yin, Jun; Jung, Jee H.

    2014-01-01

    A series of N-substituted phthalimide derivatives were synthesized based on a pharmacophore study of paecilocin A (a natural PPAR-γ agonist) and synthetic leads. The introduction of hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups to the phthalimide skeleton yielded compounds 3–14. Compound 7 showed significant PPAR-γ activation in a luciferase assay using rat liver Ac2F cells. Docking simulations showed that a free hydroxyl group on the phthalimide head and a suitable hydrophilic tail, including a phenyl linker, were beneficial for PPAR-γ activation. Compound 7 and rosiglitazone concentration-dependently activated PPAR-γ with EC50 values of 0.67 μM and 0.028 μM, respectively. These phthalimide derivatives could be further investigated as a new class of PPAR-γ ligands. PMID:24531188

  1. Chronic oiling of marine birds in California by natural petroleum seeps, shipwrecks, and other sources.

    PubMed

    Henkel, Laird A; Nevins, Hannahrose; Martin, Marida; Sugarman, Susan; Harvey, James T; Ziccardi, Michael H

    2014-02-15

    We assessed temporal and spatial patterns of chronic oiling of seabirds in California during 2005-2010, using data on: (1) live oiled birds reported to the Oiled Wildlife Care Network (OWCN) from throughout the state, and (2) dead oiled birds found during systematic monthly beached-bird surveys in central California. A mean of 245 (± 141 SD) live miscellaneous oiled birds (not associated with known oil spills) were reported to the OWCN per year, and 0.1 oiled dead birds km(-1) per month were found on beach surveys in central California. Chemical fingerprinting of oiled feathers from a subset of these birds (n=101) indicated that 89% of samples tested were likely from natural petroleum seeps off southern and central California. There was a pronounced peak during late winter in the number of oiled birds reported in southern California, which we theorize may be related to large storm waves disturbing underwater seeps.

  2. Toxicity of natural mixtures of organic pollutants in temperate and polar marine phytoplankton.

    PubMed

    Echeveste, Pedro; Galbán-Malagón, Cristóbal; Dachs, Jordi; Berrojalbiz, Naiara; Agustí, Susana

    2016-11-15

    Semivolatile and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) undergo atmospheric transport before being deposited to the oceans, where they partition to phytoplankton organic matter. The goal of this study was to determine the toxicity of naturally occurring complex mixtures of organic pollutants to temperate and polar phytoplankton communities from the Mediterranean Sea, the North East (NE) Atlantic, and Southern Oceans. The cell abundance of the different phytoplankton groups, chlorophyll a concentrations, viability of the cells, and growth and decay constants were monitored in response to addition of a range of concentrations of mixtures of organic pollutants obtained from seawater extracts. Almost all of the phytoplankton groups were significantly affected by the complex mixtures of non-polar and polar organic pollutants, with toxicity being greater for these mixtures than for single POPs or simple POP mixtures. Cocktails' toxicity arose at concentrations as low as tenfold the field oceanic levels, probably due to a higher chemical activity of the mixture than of simple POPs mixtures. Overall, smaller cells were the most affected, although Mediterranean picophytoplankton was significantly more tolerant to non-polar POPs than picophytoplankton from the Atlantic Ocean or the Bellingshausen Sea microphytoplankton.

  3. Utilization of natural and supplemental biofuels for harvesting energy from marine sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Mark E.

    A benthic microbial fuel cell (BMFC) is an electrochemical device that generates current from the redox gradient at the sediment-water interface. Early prototypes had anodes buried in anoxic sediments and cathodes in overlying water. The BMFCs described in this dissertation are based on a chamber design that enables the use of high surface-area fiber electrodes and facilitates enhanced mass transport to the anode. Results from Yaquina Bay, OR, show that mass transport resistance accounted for at least 93% of the total internal resistance for a particular BMFC configuration. Power output was increased 18-fold by mechanically induced fluid transport through the anode chamber. At a cold seep in Monterey Canyon, CA, naturally driven advection resulted in a five-fold increase in power from a BMFC with low-pressure check valves relative to an identical BMFC with high-pressure check valves. Enhanced transport coincided with a change in the microbial community on the anode from one dominated by epsilonproteobacteria to one with relatively even representation from deltaproteobacteria, epsilonproteobacteria, firmicutes and flavobacterium/cytophaga/bacterioides. Laboratory experiments investigated the effect of adding supplemental carbon sources to anode chambers. Repeated lactate injections appeared to stimulate sulfate reduction resulting in short term power gains but did not apparently shift the process responsible for baseline current. When a specific inhibitor of sulfate reduction was added, lactate-supplemented and unsupplemented BMFCs performed similarly. BMFCs have been proposed as power sources for monitoring systems in remote locations. Practical implementation of this technology is governed by three conditions: (1) low-voltage current must be stepped up to meet the requirements of off-the-shelf electronic devices, (2) modest power production and variable power demands require integrated energy storage, and (3) BMFCs should be operated at the most efficient

  4. Effects of natural and anthropogenic processes in the distribution of marine litter in the deep Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez-Llodra, Eva; De Mol, Ben; Company, Joan B.; Coll, Marta; Sardà, Francesc

    2013-11-01

    The distribution, type and quantity of marine litter accumulated on the bathyal and abyssal Mediterranean seafloor has been studied in the framework of the Spanish national projects PROMETEO and DOS MARES and the ESF-EuroDEEP project BIOFUN. Litter was collected with an otter trawl and Agassiz trawl while sampling for megafauna on the Blanes canyon and adjacent slope (Catalan margin, north-western Mediterranean) between 900 and 2700 m depth, and on the western, central and eastern Mediterranean basins at 1200, 2000 and 3000 m depth. All litter was sorted into 8 categories (hard plastic, soft plastic, glass, metal, clinker, fabric, longlines and fishing nets) and weighed. The distribution of litter was analysed in relation to depth, geographic area and natural (bathymetry, currents and rivers) and anthropogenic (population density and shipping routes) processes. The most abundant litter types were plastic, glass, metal and clinker. Lost or discarded fishing gear was also commonly found. On the Catalan margin, although the data indicated an accumulation of litter with increasing depth, mean weight was not significantly different between depths or between the open slope and the canyon. We propose that litter accumulated in the canyon, with high proportions of plastics, has predominantly a coastal origin, while litter collected on the open slope, dominated by heavy litter, is mostly ship-originated, especially at sites under major shipping routes. Along the trans-Mediterranean transect, although a higher amount of litter seemed to be found on the Western Mediterranean, differences of mean weight were not significant between the 3 geographic areas and the 3 depths. Here, the shallower sites, also closer to the coast, had a higher proportion of plastics than the deeper sites, which had a higher proportion of heavy litter and were often affected by shipping routes. The weight of litter was also compared to biomass of megafauna from the same samples. On the Blanes slope

  5. Predicting Natural Neuroprotection in Marine Mammals: Environmental and Biological Factors Affecting the Vulnerability to Acoustically Mediated Tissue Trauma in Marine Species

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    response and the incidence of cardiac arrhythmias to the level of exercise performance and dive depth. This is being used to formulate new hypotheses...which mediate suppression of heart rate in diving marine mammals. We attribute cardiac arrhythmias (ectopic beats, inter-beat interval variability...observed during stroke gait transitions to this proposed autonomic neural conflict. Furthermore, the incidence of these cardiac arrhythmias appears

  6. Origin of marine sour natural gas and gas-filling model for the Wolonghe Gas Field, Sichuan Basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Quanyou; Jin, Zhijun; Li, Jian; Hu, Anping; Bi, Changchun

    2012-09-01

    The chemical and isotopic composition of natural gases from the Wolonghe Gas Field, Sichuan Basin, Southwest China, was investigated to assess the potential gas sources and reconstruct the gas-filling history of the reservoirs. All natural gases in this field are dominated by gaseous hydrocarbons (C1-C3) with varied amounts of non-hydrocarbon components (CO2, H2S and N2). The H2S content varies with reservoir intervals. It ranges from zero to 1.84% with an average of 0.37% in the Carboniferous reservoir, from 0.05% to 0.76% with an average of 0.30% in the Permian reservoir, and from 1.09% to 18.83% with an average of 5.39% in the Lower Triassic reservoir. The gas dryness coefficient (C1/C1-3) ranges from 0.97 to 1.0 with an average of 0.99. The carbon isotopic compositions of methane and its homologues in the Wolonghe Gas Field vary widely, with δ13C1 ⩾ δ13C2 < δ13C3 in the Carboniferous and Permian gas reservoirs, and δ13C1 < δ13C2 < δ13C3 in the Lower Triassic Jialingjiang Formation gas reservoirs. The δD1 values range from -140‰ to -100‰, with an average of -124.5‰. The δ34SH2S values in the field extend from 5.7‰ to 31.0‰, with δ34SH2S values in the Lower Triassic Jialingjiang Formation reservoirs being much higher than those in the Carboniferous and Permian reservoirs. The sour natural gases in the field originated from cracking of oil and were sourced from the marine sapropelic organic matter at high maturity levels. The natural gases underwent alteration by thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR). Although the limited extent TSR occurred in the Carboniferous and Permian gas reservoirs, the TSR alteration is likely to have caused the high gas dryness and the 13C enrichment of CH4. The present low content of H2S in the Carboniferous and Permian gases would be related to the loss of H2S dissolved in water under the reconstruction of these gas reservoirs. In contrast, the high H2S in the Jialingjiang Formation gases is determined by both the

  7. Design and synthesis of marine natural product-based 1H-indole-2,3-dione scaffold as a new antifouling/antibacterial agent against fouling bacteria.

    PubMed

    Majik, Mahesh S; Rodrigues, Cheryl; Mascarenhas, Stacey; D'Souza, Lisette

    2014-06-01

    Marine organisms such as seaweeds, sponges and corals protect their own surfaces from fouling by their high anesthetic, repellant, and settlement inhibition properties. Within the marine ecosystem, evolution has allowed for the development of certain antifouling properties. Isatin is a biologically active chemical produced by an Alteromonas sp. strain inhibiting the surface of embryos of the cardiean shrimp Palaemon macrodectylus, which protect them from the pathogenic fungus Lagenidium callinectes. In present study, an antibacterial activity of isatin and its synthetic analogues were evaluated against different fouling bacteria in order to explore the structure activity relationships for the first time. The synthesized compounds along with parent isatin were tested against different ecologically relevant marine microorganisms by using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Few synthetically modified isatin exhibited potent inhibitory activity at concentration of 2 μg/disc against Planococcus donghaensis, Erythrobacter litoralis, Alivibrio salmonicida, Vibrio furnisii. Overall, the modified analogues showed stronger activity than the parent marine natural product (isatin) and hence 1H-indole-2,3-dione scaffold has immense potential as future antibacterial/antifouling candidate.

  8. Natural radionuclides tracing in marine surface waters along the northern coast of Oman Sea by combining the radioactivity analysis, oceanic currents and the SWAN model results.

    PubMed

    Zare, Mohammad Reza; Mostajaboddavati, Mojtaba; Kamali, Mahdi; Tari, Marziyeh; Mosayebi, Sanaz; Mortazavi, Mohammad Seddigh

    2015-03-15

    This study aims to establish a managed sampling plan for rapid estimate of natural radio-nuclides diffusion in the northern coast of the Oman Sea. First, the natural radioactivity analysis in 36 high volume surface water samples was carried out using a portable high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. Second, the oceanic currents in the northern coast were investigated. Then, the third generation spectral SWAN model was utilized to simulate wave parameters. Direction of natural radioactivity propagation was coupled with the preferable wave vectors and oceanic currents direction that face to any marine pollution, these last two factors will contribute to increase or decrease of pollution in each grid. The results were indicated that the natural radioactivity concentration between the grids 8600 and 8604 is gathered in the grid 8600 and between the grids 8605 and 8608 is propagated toward middle part of Oman Sea.

  9. Distribution of naturally occurring radioactivity and ¹³⁷Cs in the marine sediment of Farasan Island, southern Red Sea, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Zahrany, A A; Farouk, M A; Al-Yousef, A A

    2012-11-01

    The present work is a part of a project dedicated to measure the marine radioactivity near the Saudi Arabian coasts of the Red Sea and Arabian Gulf for establishing a marine radioactivity database, which includes necessary information on the background levels of both naturally occurring and man-made radionuclides in the marine environment. Farasan Islands is a group of 84 islands (archipelago), under the administration of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, in the Red Sea with its main island of Farasan, which is 50 km off the coast of Jazan City. The levels of natural radioactivity of (238)U, (235)U, (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K and man-made radionuclides such as (137)Cs in the grab sediment and water samples around Farasan Island have been measured using gamma-ray spectroscopy. The average activity concentrations of (238)U, (235)U, (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K and (137)Cs in the sediment samples were found to be 35.46, 1.75, 3.31, 0.92, 34.34 and 0.14 Bq kg(-1), respectively.

  10. In situ γ-ray spectrometry in the marine environment using full spectrum analysis for natural radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Androulakaki, E G; Kokkoris, M; Tsabaris, C; Eleftheriou, G; Patiris, D L; Pappa, F K; Vlastou, R

    2016-08-01

    The Full Spectrum Analysis approach was applied to obtain activity concentration estimations for in situ measurements in the marine environment. The 'standard spectra' were reproduced using the MCNP-CP code. In order to extract the activity concentrations, χ(2) minimization calculations were performed by implementing the MINUIT code. The method was applied to estimate the activity concentrations for measurements in the marine environment in three different test cases. The estimated activity concentrations were in good agreement with the experimentally derived ones within uncertainties.

  11. Quantitative Transcriptomics Reveals the Growth- and Nutrient-Dependent Response of a Streamlined Marine Methylotroph to Methanol and Naturally Occurring Dissolved Organic Matter.

    PubMed

    Gifford, Scott M; Becker, Jamie W; Sosa, Oscar A; Repeta, Daniel J; DeLong, Edward F

    2016-11-22

    The members of the OM43 clade of Betaproteobacteria are abundant coastal methylotrophs with a range of carbon-utilizing capabilities. However, their underlying transcriptional and metabolic responses to shifting conditions or different carbon substrates remain poorly understood. We examined the transcriptional dynamics of OM43 isolate NB0046 subjected to various inorganic nutrient, vitamin, and carbon substrate regimes over different growth phases to (i) develop a quantitative model of its mRNA content; (ii) identify transcriptional markers of physiological activity, nutritional state, and carbon and energy utilization; and (iii) identify pathways involved in methanol or naturally occurring dissolved organic matter (DOM) metabolism. Quantitative transcriptomics, achieved through addition of internal RNA standards, allowed for analyses on a transcripts-per-cell scale. This streamlined bacterium exhibited substantial shifts in total mRNA content (ranging from 1,800 to 17 transcripts cell(-1) in the exponential and deep stationary phases, respectively) and gene-specific transcript abundances (>1,000-fold increases in some cases), depending on the growth phase and nutrient conditions. Carbon metabolism genes exhibited substantial dynamics, including those for ribulose monophosphate, tricarboxylic acid (TCA), and proteorhodopsin, as well as methanol dehydrogenase (xoxF), which, while always the most abundant transcript, increased from 5 to 120 transcripts cell(-1) when cultures were nutrient and vitamin amended. In the DOM treatment, upregulation of TCA cycle, methylcitrate cycle, vitamin, and organic phosphorus genes suggested a metabolic route for this complex mixture of carbon substrates. The genome-wide inventory of transcript abundances produced here provides insight into a streamlined marine bacterium's regulation of carbon metabolism and energy flow, providing benchmarks for evaluating the activity of OM43 populations in situ IMPORTANCE: Bacteria exert a

  12. Using biogeographic distributions and natural history to predict marine/estuarine species at risk to climate change

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effects of climate change on marine and estuarine species will vary with attributes of the species and the spatial patterns of environmental change at the habitat and global scales. To better predict which species are at greatest risk, we are developing a knowledge base of specie...

  13. New marine natural products from sponges (Porifera) of the order Dictyoceratida (2001 to 2012); a promising source for drug discovery, exploration and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Mehbub, Mohammad F; Perkins, Michael V; Zhang, Wei; Franco, Christopher M M

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of new drugs can no longer rely primarily on terrestrial resources, as they have been heavily exploited for over a century. During the last few decades marine sources, particularly sponges, have proven to be a most promising source of new natural products for drug discovery. This review considers the order Dictyoceratida in the Phylum Porifera from which the largest number of new marine natural products have been reported over the period 2001-2012. This paper examines all the sponges from the order Dictyoceratida that were reported as new compounds during the time period in a comprehensive manner. The distinctive physical characteristics and the geographical distribution of the different families are presented. The wide structural diversity of the compounds produced and the variety of biological activities they exhibited is highlighted. As a representative of sponges, insights into this order and avenues for future effective natural product discovery are presented. The research institutions associated with the various studies are also highlighted with the aim of facilitating collaborative relationships, as well as to acknowledge the major international contributors to the discovery of novel sponge metabolites. The order Dictyoceratida is a valuable source of novel chemical structures which will continue to contribute to a new era of drug discovery.

  14. Diel Rhythms in Ribulose-1,5-Bisphosphate Carboxylase/Oxygenase and Glutamine Synthetase Gene Expression in a Natural Population of Marine Picoplanktonic Cyanobacteria (Synechococcus spp.)

    PubMed Central

    Wyman, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Diel periodicity in the expression of key genes involved in carbon and nitrogen assimilation in marine Synechococcus spp. was investigated in a natural population growing in the surface waters of a cyclonic eddy in the northeast Atlantic Ocean. Synechococcus sp. cell concentrations within the upper mixed layer showed a net increase of three- to fourfold during the course of the experiment (13 to 22 July 1991), the population undergoing approximately one synchronous division per day. Consistent with the observed temporal pattern of phycoerythrin (CpeBA) biosynthesis, comparatively little variation was found in cpeBA mRNA abundance during either of the diel cycles investigated. In marked contrast, the relative abundance of transcripts originating from the genes encoding the large subunit of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (rbcL) and glutamine synthetase (glnA) showed considerable systematic temporal variation and oscillated during the course of each diel cycle in a reciprocal rhythm. Whereas activation of rbcL transcription was clearly not light dependent, expression of glnA appeared sensitive to endogenous changes in the physiological demands for nitrogen that arise as a natural consequence of temporal periodicity in photosynthetic carbon assimilation. The data presented support the hypothesis that a degree of temporal separation may exist between the most active periods of carbon and nitrogen assimilation in natural populations of marine Synecoccoccus spp. PMID:10427062

  15. Distribution and environmental impacts of metals and natural radionuclides in marine sediments in-front of different wadies mouth along the Egyptian Red Sea Coast.

    PubMed

    el-Taher, A; Madkour, H A

    2011-02-01

    Forty-four marine sediment samples were collected in-front of wadis mouth along the Egyptian Red Sea coast: Wadi El-Hamra, Wadi El-Esh, Wadi Abu-Shaar, Wadi El-Gemal and Wadi Khashir (Hamata). Several investigations of natural activity and trace metals of surface sediments were carried out. Distributions of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in the marine sediments were determined using NaI (Tl) γ-ray spectrometry. The average activities (range) of natural radionuclides in all wadis in the studied areas are 27.38 (18-48) Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, 38.45 (34-110) Bq kg(-1) for (232)Th and 419.4 (214-641) Bq kg(-1) for (40)K. These results are in agreement with earlier reported data. A comparison of radionuclide activities in the sediment of the studied areas and in other coastal and aquatic environments is given. The radiation hazard parameters (absorbed dose rate, radium equivalent activity and external hazard index) are calculated and compared with the reported data. The results of measurements will serve as base line data and background reference level for Egyptian coastlines.

  16. QSAR-assisted virtual screening of lead-like molecules from marine and microbial natural sources for antitumor and antibiotic drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Florbela; Latino, Diogo A R S; Gaudêncio, Susana P

    2015-03-17

    A Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) approach for classification was used for the prediction of compounds as active/inactive relatively to overall biological activity, antitumor and antibiotic activities using a data set of 1746 compounds from PubChem with empirical CDK descriptors and semi-empirical quantum-chemical descriptors. A data set of 183 active pharmaceutical ingredients was additionally used for the external validation of the best models. The best classification models for antibiotic and antitumor activities were used to screen a data set of marine and microbial natural products from the AntiMarin database-25 and four lead compounds for antibiotic and antitumor drug design were proposed, respectively. The present work enables the presentation of a new set of possible lead like bioactive compounds and corroborates the results of our previous investigations. By other side it is shown the usefulness of quantum-chemical descriptors in the discrimination of biologically active and inactive compounds. None of the compounds suggested by our approach have assigned non-antibiotic and non-antitumor activities in the AntiMarin database and almost all were lately reported as being active in the literature.

  17. Effects of metal burden and food avoidance on the transfer of metals from naturally contaminated prey to a marine predator Nassarius siquijorensis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Feng; Yang, Lulu; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2013-05-15

    Nassarid snails are important opportunistic scavengers widely found in marine intertidal shores and trophic transfer is a predominant source of metal accumulation in these species, thus there is a significant need to understand the controls of metal trophic transfer. In the present study, we took advantage of a severely contaminated estuary and collected two prey organisms (oysters Crassostrea angulata and barnacles Fistulobalanus albicostatus) with different contamination histories. These naturally contaminated prey were fed to a marine neogastropod Nassarius siquijorensis for a period of up to 7 weeks. We then investigated the influences of prey type, metal burden, and subcellular distribution in the prey on the metal accumulation, trophic transfer, and potential toxicity on N. siquijorensis. We demonstrated an obvious negative relationship between the trophic transfer and the metal concentration in prey or the metal dosage. N. siquijorensis exhibited food avoidance behavior to the Cu contaminated food, which effectively reduced the metal ingestion and resulted in a decrease of trophic transfer, as well as a potential toxic effect from dietary exposure. On the other hand, our results also implied the metal-specific impact of subcellular metal distribution in prey on the trophic transfer to N. siquijorensis. Our study suggested that metal burden and feeding avoidance should be considered in studying the trophic transfer of metals in marine benthic food chain.

  18. Isolation of naturally occurring enteroviruses from a variety of shellfish species residing in Long Island and New Jersey marine embayments

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughn, J.M.; Landry, E.F.; Vicale, T.J.; Dahl, M.C.

    1980-02-01

    Shellfish and shellfish-raising waters from a variety of Long Island and New Jersey marine embayments were examined for the presence of human enteroviruses. Little difference in virological quality was noted between areas designated as being open or closed to shellfishing. Viral isolations could not be correlated with coliform counts from identical samples, indicating the need to re-evaluate the use of bacterial standards as indices of the overall sanitary quality of water and shellfish.

  19. Potential Synergies between Nature-Based Tourism and Sustainable Use of Marine Resources: Insights from Dive Tourism in Territorial User Rights for Fisheries in Chile

    PubMed Central

    Biggs, Duan; Amar, Francisca; Valdebenito, Abel; Gelcich, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Novel solutions to conserve biodiversity whilst allowing for resource harvesting are urgently needed. In marine systems, Territorial User Rights for Fisheries (TURFs) are promoted to enable sustainable use of resources. We investigate the potential for synergies between nature-based tourism and TURFs on Chile’s central coast. Of 135 recreational divers surveyed, 77% indicated that the fish species they preferred sighting were declining and 80% indicated that they would dive more often in TURFs, which have higher abundance of favoured species. Regression analysis shows that respondents that perceive that TURFs fulfil a conservation function are more willing to pay to dive in a TURF. However, respondents who understand the bureaucratic functioning of a TURF are less willing to pay, and there is diversity in how divers feel payments should be made. A participatory approach is required to navigate these complexities to achieve synergies between nature-based tourism and resource harvesting in TURFs. PMID:27023451

  20. Potential Synergies between Nature-Based Tourism and Sustainable Use of Marine Resources: Insights from Dive Tourism in Territorial User Rights for Fisheries in Chile.

    PubMed

    Biggs, Duan; Amar, Francisca; Valdebenito, Abel; Gelcich, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Novel solutions to conserve biodiversity whilst allowing for resource harvesting are urgently needed. In marine systems, Territorial User Rights for Fisheries (TURFs) are promoted to enable sustainable use of resources. We investigate the potential for synergies between nature-based tourism and TURFs on Chile's central coast. Of 135 recreational divers surveyed, 77% indicated that the fish species they preferred sighting were declining and 80% indicated that they would dive more often in TURFs, which have higher abundance of favoured species. Regression analysis shows that respondents that perceive that TURFs fulfil a conservation function are more willing to pay to dive in a TURF. However, respondents who understand the bureaucratic functioning of a TURF are less willing to pay, and there is diversity in how divers feel payments should be made. A participatory approach is required to navigate these complexities to achieve synergies between nature-based tourism and resource harvesting in TURFs.

  1. Carotenoids in Marine Animals

    PubMed Central

    Maoka, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of β-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine animal carotenoids from natural product chemistry, metabolism, food chain, and chemosystematic viewpoints, and also describe new structural carotenoids isolated from marine animals over the last decade. PMID:21566799

  2. Marine pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Faulkner, D J

    2000-02-01

    Marine organisms have provided a large proportion of the bioactive natural products reported over the last 20 years, but none of these compounds have reached the pharmaceutical marketplace. This review describes current progress in the development of a selection of new antiinflammatory and anticancer agents, discusses some difficulties encountered during the development process and suggests how these difficulties may be overcome in the near future through applications of recent advances in biotechnology.

  3. 76 FR 35995 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Operation and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ... Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Operation and Maintenance of the Neptune Liquefied Natural Gas Facility of Massachusetts; Correction AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS),...

  4. Fractionation of iron isotopes during leaching of natural particles by acidic and circumneutral leaches and development of an optimal leach for marine particulate iron isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revels, Brandi N.; Zhang, Ruifeng; Adkins, Jess F.; John, Seth G.

    2015-10-01

    Iron (Fe) is an essential nutrient for life on land and in the oceans. Iron stable isotope ratios (δ56Fe) can be used to study the biogeochemical cycling of Fe between particulate and dissolved phases in terrestrial and marine environments. We have investigated the dissolution of Fe from natural particles both to understand the mechanisms of Fe dissolution, and to choose a leach appropriate for extracting labile Fe phases of marine particles. With a goal of finding leaches which would be appropriate for studying dissolved-particle interactions in an oxic water column, three particle types were chosen including oxic seafloor sediments (MESS-3), terrestrial dust (Arizona Test Dust - A2 Fine), and ocean sediment trap material from the Cariaco basin. Four leaches were tested, including three acidic leaches similar to leaches previously applied to marine particles and sediments (25% acetic acid, 0.01 N HCl, and 0.5 N HCl) and a pH 8 oxalate-EDTA leach meant to mimic the dissolution of particles by organic complexation, as occurs in natural seawater. Each leach was applied for three different times (10 min, 2 h, 24 h) at three different temperatures (25 °C, 60 °C, 90 °C). MESS-3 was also leached under various redox conditions (0.02 M hydroxylamine hydrochloride or 0.02 M hydrogen peroxide). For all three sample types tested, we find a consistent relationship between the amount of Fe leached and leachate δ56Fe for all of the acidic leaches, and a different relationship between the amount of Fe leached and leachate δ56Fe for the oxalate-EDTA leach, suggesting that Fe was released through proton-promoted dissolution for all acidic leaches and by ligand-promoted dissolution for the oxalate-EDTA leach. Fe isotope fractionations of up to 2‰ were observed during acidic leaching of MESS-3 and Cariaco sediment trap material, but not for Arizona Test Dust, suggesting that sample composition influences fractionation, perhaps because Fe isotopes are greatly fractionated

  5. Phylogeny of Cyclic Nitramine-Degrading Psychrophilic Bacteria in Marine Sediment and Their Potential Role in the Natural Attenuation of Explosives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    Al- drich, Canada. All other chemicals were reagent grade. The marine salts medium was prepared as described previously [22]. Solid marine medium was...prepared by dissolving Brewer Anaerobic Agar (Becton Dickson,Sparks, MD, USA) in marine salts medium. Liquid marine media used in the present study...marine salts medium supplemented with or without 2 g (dry weight) auto- claved sediment.2.2. General conditions for biodegradation and biotrans

  6. IN-SITU SAMPLING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NATURALLY OCCURRING MARINE METHANE HYDRATE USING THE D/V JOIDES RESOLUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Frank R. Rack; Peter Schultheiss; Melanie Holland

    2005-01-01

    The primary accomplishments of the JOI Cooperative Agreement with DOE/NETL in this quarter were that: (1) follow-up logging of pressure cores containing hydrate-bearing sediment; and (2) opening of some of these cores to establish ground-truth understanding. The follow-up measurements made on pressure cores in storage are part of a hydrate geriatric study related to ODP Leg 204. These activities are described in detail in Appendices A and B of this report. Work also continued on developing plans for Phase 2 of this cooperative agreement based on evolving plans to schedule a scientific ocean drilling expedition to study marine methane hydrates along the Cascadia margin, in the NE Pacific as part of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) using the R/V JOIDES Resolution.

  7. Determination of Natural 14C Abundances in Dissolved Organic Carbon in Organic-Rich Marine Sediment Porewaters by Thermal Sulfate Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, L.; Komada, T.

    2010-12-01

    The abundances of natural 14C in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the marine environment hold clues regarding the processes that influence the biogeochemical cycling of this large carbon reservoir. At present, UV irradiation is the widely accepted method for oxidizing seawater DOC for determination of their 14C abundances. This technique yields precise and accurate values with low blanks, but it requires a dedicated vacuum line, and hence can be difficult to implement. As an alternative technique that can be conducted on a standard preparatory vacuum line, we modified and tested a thermal sulfate reduction method that was previously developed to determine δ13C values of marine DOC (Fry B. et al., 1996. Analysis of marine DOC using a dry combustion method. Mar. Chem., 54: 191-201.) to determine the 14C abundances of DOC in marine sediment porewaters. In this method, the sample is dried in a 100 ml round-bottom Pyrex flask in the presence of excess oxidant (K2SO4) and acid (H3PO4), and combusted at 550 deg.C. The combustion products are cryogenically processed to collect and quantify CO2 using standard procedures. Materials we have oxidized to date range from 6-24 ml in volume, and 95-1500 μgC in size. The oxidation efficiency of this method was tested by processing known amounts of reagent-grade dextrose and sucrose (as examples of labile organic matter), tannic acid and humic acid (as examples of complex natural organic matter), and porewater DOC extracted from organic-rich nearshore sediments. The carbon yields for all of these materials averaged 99±4% (n=18). The 14C abundances of standard materials IAEA C-6 and IAEA C-5 processed by this method using >1mgC aliquots were within error of certified values. The size and the isotopic value of the blank were determined by a standard dilution technique using IAEA C-6 and IAEA C-5 that ranged in size from 150 to 1500 μgC (n=4 and 2, respectively). This yielded a blank size of 6.7±0.7 μgC, and a blank isotopic

  8. Metagenomic analysis of microbial consortium from natural crude oil that seeps into the marine ecosystem offshore Southern California

    PubMed Central

    Hawley, Erik R.; Piao, Hailan; Scott, Nicole M.; Malfatti, Stephanie; Pagani, Ioanna; Huntemann, Marcel; Chen, Amy; Glavina del Rio, Tijana; Foster, Brian; Copeland, Alex; Jansson, Janet; Pati, Amrita; Tringe, Susannah; Gilbert, Jack A.; Lorenson, Thomas D.; Hess, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Crude oils can be major contaminants of the marine ecosystem and microorganisms play a significant role in the degradation of its main constituents. To increase our understanding of the microbial hydrocarbon degradation process in the marine ecosystem, we collected crude oil from an active seep area located in the Santa Barbara Channel (SBC) and generated a total of about 52 Gb of raw metagenomic sequence data. The assembled data comprised ~500 Mb, representing ~1.1 million genes derived primarily from chemolithoautotrophic bacteria. Members of Oceanospirillales, a bacterial order belonging to the Deltaproteobacteria, recruited less than 2% of the assembled genes within the SBC metagenome. In contrast, the microbial community associated with the oil plume that developed in the aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) blowout in 2010, was dominated by Oceanospirillales, which comprised more than 60% of the metagenomic data generated from the DWH oil plume. This suggests that Oceanospirillales might play a less significant role in the microbially mediated hydrocarbon conversion within the SBC seep oil compared to the DWH plume oil. We hypothesize that this difference results from the SBC oil seep being mostly anaerobic, while the DWH oil plume is aerobic. Within the Archaea, the phylum Euryarchaeota, recruited more than 95% of the assembled archaeal sequences from the SBC oil seep metagenome, with more than 50% of the sequences assigned to members of the orders Methanomicrobiales and Methanosarcinales. These orders contain organisms capable of anaerobic methanogenesis and methane oxidation (AOM) and we hypothesize that these orders – and their metabolic capabilities – may be fundamental to the ecology of the SBC oil seep. PMID:25197496

  9. Formation of natural gas hydrates in marine sediments 1. Conceptual model of gas hydrate growth conditioned by host sediment properties

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clennell, M.B.; Hovland, M.; Booth, J.S.; Henry, P.; Winters, W.J.

    1999-01-01

    The stability of submarine gas hydrates is largely dictated by pressure and temperature, gas composition, and pore water salinity. However, the physical properties and surface chemistry of deep marine sediments may also affect the thermodynamic state, growth kinetics, spatial distributions, and growth forms of clathrates. Our conceptual model presumes that gas hydrate behaves in a way analogous to ice in a freezing soil. Hydrate growth is inhibited within fine-grained sediments by a combination of reduced pore water activity in the vicinity of hydrophilic mineral surfaces, and the excess internal energy of small crystals confined in pores. The excess energy can be thought of as a "capillary pressure" in the hydrate crystal, related to the pore size distribution and the state of stress in the sediment framework. The base of gas hydrate stability in a sequence of fine sediments is predicted by our model to occur at a lower temperature (nearer to the seabed) than would be calculated from bulk thermodynamic equilibrium. Capillary effects or a build up of salt in the system can expand the phase boundary between hydrate and free gas into a divariant field extending over a finite depth range dictated by total methane content and pore-size distribution. Hysteresis between the temperatures of crystallization and dissociation of the clathrate is also predicted. Growth forms commonly observed in hydrate samples recovered from marine sediments (nodules, and lenses in muds; cements in sands) can largely be explained by capillary effects, but kinetics of nucleation and growth are also important. The formation of concentrated gas hydrates in a partially closed system with respect to material transport, or where gas can flush through the system, may lead to water depletion in the host sediment. This "freeze-drying" may be detectable through physical changes to the sediment (low water content and overconsolidation) and/or chemical anomalies in the pore waters and metastable

  10. Metagenomic analysis of microbial consortium from natural crude oil that seeps into the marine ecosystem offshore Southern California.

    PubMed

    Hawley, Erik R; Piao, Hailan; Scott, Nicole M; Malfatti, Stephanie; Pagani, Ioanna; Huntemann, Marcel; Chen, Amy; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana; Foster, Brian; Copeland, Alex; Jansson, Janet; Pati, Amrita; Tringe, Susannah; Gilbert, Jack A; Lorenson, Thomas D; Hess, Matthias

    2014-06-15

    Crude oils can be major contaminants of the marine ecosystem and microorganisms play a significant role in the degradation of its main constituents. To increase our understanding of the microbial hydrocarbon degradation process in the marine ecosystem, we collected crude oil from an active seep area located in the Santa Barbara Channel (SBC) and generated a total of about 52 Gb of raw metagenomic sequence data. The assembled data comprised ~500 Mb, representing ~1.1 million genes derived primarily from chemolithoautotrophic bacteria. Members of Oceanospirillales, a bacterial order belonging to the Deltaproteobacteria, recruited less than 2% of the assembled genes within the SBC metagenome. In contrast, the microbial community associated with the oil plume that developed in the aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) blowout in 2010, was dominated by Oceanospirillales, which comprised more than 60% of the metagenomic data generated from the DWH oil plume. This suggests that Oceanospirillales might play a less significant role in the microbially mediated hydrocarbon conversion within the SBC seep oil compared to the DWH plume oil. We hypothesize that this difference results from the SBC oil seep being mostly anaerobic, while the DWH oil plume is aerobic. Within the Archaea, the phylum Euryarchaeota, recruited more than 95% of the assembled archaeal sequences from the SBC oil seep metagenome, with more than 50% of the sequences assigned to members of the orders Methanomicrobiales and Methanosarcinales. These orders contain organisms capable of anaerobic methanogenesis and methane oxidation (AOM) and we hypothesize that these orders - and their metabolic capabilities - may be fundamental to the ecology of the SBC oil seep.

  11. Metagenomic analysis of microbial consortium from natural crude oil that seeps into the marine ecosystem offshore Southern California

    SciTech Connect

    Hawley, Erik R.; Piao, Hailan; Scott, Nicole M.; Malfatti, Stephanie; Pagani, Ioanna; Huntemann, Marcel; Chen, Amy; del Rio, Tijana G.; Foster, Brian; Copeland, A.; Jansson, Janet K.; Pati, Amrita; Gilbert, Jack A.; Tringe, Susannah G.; Lorenson, Thomas D.; Hess, Matthias

    2014-01-02

    Crude oils can be major contaminants of the marine ecosystem and microorganisms play a significant role in the degradation of the main constituents of crude oil. To increase our understanding of the microbial hydrocarbon degradation process in the marine ecosystem, we collected crude oil from an active seep area located in the Santa Barbara Channel (SBC) and generated a total of about 52 Gb of raw metagenomic sequence data. The assembled data comprised ~500 Mb, representing ~1.1 million genes derived primarily from chemolithoautotrophic bacteria. Members of Oceanospirillales, a bacterial order belonging to the Deltaproteobacteria, recruited less than 2% of the assembled genes within the SBC metagenome. In contrast, the microbial community associated with the oil plume that developed in the aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) blowout in 2010, was dominated by Oceanospirillales, which comprised more than 60% of the metagenomic data generated from the DWH oil plume. This suggests that Oceanospirillales might play a less significant role in the microbially mediated hydrocarbon conversion within the SBC seep oil compared to the DWH plume oil. We hypothesize that this difference results from the SBC oil seep being mostly anaerobic, while the DWH oil plume is aerobic. Within the Archaea, the phylum Euryarchaeota, recruited more than 95% of the assembled archaeal sequences from the SBC oil seep metagenome, with more than 50% of the sequences assigned to members of the orders Methanomicrobiales and Methanosarcinales. These orders contain organisms capable of anaerobic methanogenesis and methane oxidation (AOM) and we hypothesize that these orders and their metabolic capabilities may be fundamental to the ecology of the SBC oil seep.

  12. Neuroprotective Properties of the Marine Carotenoid Astaxanthin and Omega-3 Fatty Acids, and Perspectives for the Natural Combination of Both in Krill Oil

    PubMed Central

    Barros, Marcelo P.; Poppe, Sandra C.; Bondan, Eduardo F.

    2014-01-01

    The consumption of marine fishes and general seafood has long been recommended by several medical authorities as a long-term nutritional intervention to preserve mental health, hinder neurodegenerative processes, and sustain cognitive capacities in humans. Most of the neurological benefits provided by frequent seafood consumption comes from adequate uptake of omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, n-3/n-6 PUFAs, and antioxidants. Optimal n-3/n-6 PUFAs ratios allow efficient inflammatory responses that prevent the initiation and progression of many neurological disorders. Moreover, interesting in vivo and clinical studies with the marine antioxidant carotenoid astaxanthin (present in salmon, shrimp, and lobster) have shown promising results against free radical-promoted neurodegenerative processes and cognition loss. This review presents the state-of-the-art applications of n-3/n-6 PUFAs and astaxanthin as nutraceuticals against neurodegenerative diseases associated with exacerbated oxidative stress in CNS. The fundamental “neurohormesis” principle is discussed throughout this paper. Finally, new perspectives for the application of a natural combination of the aforementioned anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agents (found in krill oil) are also presented herewith. PMID:24667135

  13. Microbe-mediated transformations of marine dissolved organic matter during 2,100 years of natural incubation in the cold, oxic crust of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah Walter, S. R.; Jaekel, U.; Huber, J. A.; Dittmar, T.; Girguis, P. R.

    2015-12-01

    On the western flank of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, oxic seawater from the deep ocean is downwelled into the basaltic crust, supplying the crustal aquifer with an initial inoculum of organic matter and electron acceptors. Studies have shown that fluids circulating within the crust are minimally altered from original seawater, making this subsurface environment a unique natural experiment in which the fate of marine organic matter and the limitations of microbial adaptability in the context of reduced carbon supply can be examined. To make the subsurface crustal aquifer accessible, two CORK (Circulation Obviation Retrofit Kit) observatories have been installed at North Pond, a sediment-filled depression beneath the oligotrophic Sargasso Sea. Radiocarbon analysis of dissolved inorganic (DIC) and organic carbon (DOC) in samples recovered from these observatories show uncoupled aging between DOC and DIC with Δ14C values of DOC as low as -933‰ despite isolation from the open ocean for, at most, 2,100 years. This extreme value is part of a general trend of decreasing DOC δ13C and Δ14C values with increasing incubation time within the aquifer. Combined with reduced concentrations of DOC, our results argue for selective microbial oxidation of the youngest, most 13C-enriched components of downwelled DOC, possibly identifying these as characteristics of the more bioavailable fractions of deep-ocean dissolved organic matter. They also suggest that microbial oxidation during low-temperature hydrothermal circulation could be an important sink for aged marine dissolved organic matter.

  14. Tracing sewage and natural freshwater input in a northwest Mediterranean Bay: evidence obtained from isotopic ratios in marine organisms.

    PubMed

    Lassauque, J; Lepoint, G; Thibaut, T; Francour, P; Meinesz, A

    2010-06-01

    Elemental carbon and nitrogen levels and isotope ratios were assessed in different biological compartments of a Northwest (NW) Mediterranean bay to trace the various sources of nutrient input from natural (river runoffs) and anthropogenic (harbor outflows, fish farms and urban sewage outfall) sources. Samples from transplanted mussels and natural sea grass communities (Posidonia oceanica leaves and epiphytes) were harvested from different locations throughout the bay during the touristic summer and rainy seasons. The results from the nitrogen analysis revealed that sewage and harbor outflow promote higher nitrogen levels, enrichment of (15)N in the tissues, and a higher seasonal variability in sea grass and epiphytes. In mussel tissues, the delta(15)N was also influenced by sewage and harbor outflow, whereas delta(13)C was influenced by terrestrial inputs. These results suggest that natural and anthropogenic nutrient inputs have a temporary and localized influence and affect the sensitivity of natural isotopic ratios to changes in hydrologic conditions, especially to rain and tourism.

  15. IN-SITU SAMPLING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NATURALLY OCCURRING MARINE METHANE HYDRATE USING THE D/V JOIDES RESOLUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Frank R. Rack; Tim Francis; Peter Schultheiss; Philip E. Long; Barry M. Freifeld

    2005-04-01

    The primary activities accomplished during this quarter were continued efforts to develop plans for Phase 2 of this cooperative agreement based on the evolving operational planning for IODP Expedition 311, which will use the JOIDES Resolution to study marine methane hydrates along the Cascadia margin, offshore Vancouver Island. IODP Expedition 311 has been designed to further constrain the models for the formation of marine gas hydrate in subduction zone accretionary prisms. The objectives include characterizing the deep origin of the methane, its upward transport, its incorporation in gas hydrate, and its subsequent loss to the seafloor. The main attention of this expedition is on the widespread seafloor-parallel layer of dispersed gas hydrate located just above the base of the predicted stability field. In a gas hydrate formation model, methane is carried upward through regional sediment or small-scale fracture permeability, driven by the tectonic consolidation of the accretionary prism. The upward moving methane is incorporated into the gas hydrate clathrate as it enters the methane hydrate stability zone. Also important is the focusing of a portion of the upward methane flux into localized plumes or channels to form concentrations of near-seafloor gas hydrate. The amount of gas hydrate in local concentrations near the seafloor is especially important for understanding the response of marine gas hydrate to climate change. The expedition includes coring and downhole measurements at five sites across the Northern Cascadia accretionary prism. The sites will track the history of methane in an accretionary prism from (1) its production by mainly microbiological processes over a thick sediment vertical extent, (2) its upward transport through regional or locally focused fluid flow, (3) its incorporation in the regional hydrate layer above the BSR or in local concentrations at or near the seafloor, (4) methane loss from the hydrate by upward diffusion, and (5) methane

  16. Marine Natural Products Acting on the Acetylcholine-Binding Protein and Nicotinic Receptors: From Computer Modeling to Binding Studies and Electrophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Kudryavtsev, Denis; Makarieva, Tatyana; Utkina, Natalia; Santalova, Elena; Kryukova, Elena; Methfessel, Christoph; Tsetlin, Victor; Stonik, Valentin; Kasheverov, Igor

    2014-01-01

    For a small library of natural products from marine sponges and ascidians, in silico docking to the Lymnaea stagnalis acetylcholine-binding protein (AChBP), a model for the ligand-binding domains of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), was carried out and the possibility of complex formation was revealed. It was further experimentally confirmed via competition with radioiodinated α-bungarotoxin ([125I]-αBgt) for binding to AChBP of the majority of analyzed compounds. Alkaloids pibocin, varacin and makaluvamines С and G had relatively high affinities (Ki 0.5–1.3 μM). With the muscle-type nAChR from Torpedo californica ray and human neuronal α7 nAChR, heterologously expressed in the GH4C1 cell line, no competition with [125I]-αBgt was detected in four compounds, while the rest showed an inhibition. Makaluvamines (Ki ~ 1.5 μM) were the most active compounds, but only makaluvamine G and crambescidine 359 revealed a weak selectivity towards muscle-type nAChR. Rhizochalin, aglycone of rhizochalin, pibocin, makaluvamine G, monanchocidin, crambescidine 359 and aaptamine showed inhibitory activities in electrophysiology experiments on the mouse muscle and human α7 nAChRs, expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Thus, our results confirm the utility of the modeling studies on AChBPs in a search for natural compounds with cholinergic activity and demonstrate the presence of the latter in the analyzed marine biological sources. PMID:24686559

  17. Effect of bacterial biofilms formed on fouling-release coatings from natural seawater and Cobetia marina, on the adhesion of two marine algae.

    PubMed

    Mieszkin, Sophie; Martin-Tanchereau, Pierre; Callow, Maureen E; Callow, James A

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that bacterial biofilms formed from natural seawater (NSW) enhance the settlement of spores of the green alga Ulva linza, while single-species biofilms may enhance or reduce settlement, or have no effect at all. However, the effect of biofilms on the adhesion strength of algae, and how that may be influenced by coating/surface properties, is not known. In this study, the effect of biofilms formed from natural seawater and the marine bacterium Cobetia marina, on the settlement and the adhesion strength of spores and sporelings of the macroalga U. linza and the diatom Navicula incerta, was evaluated on Intersleek(®) 700, Intersleek(®) 900, poly(dimethylsiloxane) and glass. The settlement and adhesion strength of these algae were strongly influenced by biofilms and their nature. Biofilms formed from NSW enhanced the settlement (attachment) of both algae on all the surfaces while the effect of biofilms formed from C. marina varied with the coating type. The adhesion strength of spores and sporelings of U. linza and diatoms was reduced on all the surfaces biofilmed with C. marina, while adhesion strength on biofilms formed from NSW was dependent on the alga (and on its stage of development in the case of U. linza), and coating type. The results illustrate the complexity of the relationships between fouling algae and bacterial biofilms and suggest the need for caution to avoid over-generalisation.

  18. Inhibitory effects against pasture weeds in Brazilian Amazonia of natural products from the marine brown alga Dictyota menstrualis.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Rainiomar Raimundo; Filho, Antonio Pedro Silva Souza; Villaça, Roberto Campos; Teixeira, Valéria Laneuville

    2013-12-01

    Fractions of the acetone extract and a mixture of two diterpenes from the marine brown alga Dictyota menstrualis were prepared with the aim of identifying potential effects on the germination of seeds and on elongation of the radicle and hypocotyl of the weeds Mimosa pudica and Senna obtusifolia. The bioassay on seed germination was performed in controlled conditions of 25 degreeC temperature and a 12 hour photoperiod, while the one concerning radicle and hypocotyl elongation was performed at the same temperature, though adopting a photoperiod of 24 hours. The results varied according to the receptor species, the fraction utilized, and its concentration. TLC analysis of the fractions and comparison with isolated products indicated that the diterpenes pachydictyol A and isopachydictyol A were the most abundant compounds in fraction HE, whereas the diterpene 6-hydroxy-dichotomano-2, 13-diene-16, 17-dial (3) was the most abundant compound in fractions DC and EA. Analysis of less polar fractions (in n-hexane, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate) revealed values of less than 30% inhibition. On the other hand, the ethanol/water fraction was the most active in all instances. The biological activity of these fractions must be due to the presence of known diterpenes and/or sulfated polysaccharides isolated in earlier studies.

  19. Formation of natural gas hydrates in marine sediments. Gas hydrate growth and stability conditioned by host sediment properties

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clennell, M.B.; Henry, P.; Hovland, M.; Booth, J.S.; Winters, W.J.; Thomas, M.

    2000-01-01

    The stability conditions of submarine gas hydrates (methane clathrates) are largely dictated by pressure, temperature, gas composition, and pore water salinity. However, the physical properties and surface chemistry of the host sediments also affect the thermodynamic state, growth kinetics, spatial distributions, and growth forms of clathrates. Our model presumes that gas hydrate behaves in a way analogous to ice in the pores of a freezing soil, where capillary forces influence the energy balance. Hydrate growth is inhibited within fine-grained sediments because of the excess internal phase pressure of small crystals with high surface curvature that coexist with liquid water in small pores. Therefore, the base of gas hydrate stability in a sequence of fine sediments is predicted by our model to occur at a lower temperature, and so nearer to the seabed than would be calculated from bulk thermodynamic equilibrium. The growth forms commonly observed in hydrate samples recovered from marine sediments (nodules, sheets, and lenses in muds; cements in sand and ash layers) can be explained by a requirement to minimize the excess of mechanical and surface energy in the system.

  20. Investigation on natural diets of larval marine animals using peptide nucleic acid-directed polymerase chain reaction clamping.

    PubMed

    Chow, Seinen; Suzuki, Sayaka; Matsunaga, Tadashi; Lavery, Shane; Jeffs, Andrew; Takeyama, Haruko

    2011-04-01

    The stomach contents of the larvae of marine animals are usually very small in quantity and amorphous, especially in invertebrates, making morphological methods of identification very difficult. Nucleotide sequence analysis using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a likely approach, but the large quantity of larval (host) DNA present may mask subtle signals from the prey genome. We have adopted peptide nucleic acid (PNA)-directed PCR clamping to selectively inhibit amplification of host DNA for this purpose. The Japanese spiny lobster (Panulirus japonicus) and eel (Anguilla japonica) were used as model host and prey organisms, respectively. A lobster-specific PNA oligomer (20 bases) was designed to anneal to the sequence at the junction of the 18 S rDNA gene and the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) of the lobster. PCR using eukaryote universal primers for amplifying the ITS1 region used in conjunction with the lobster-specific PNA on a mixed DNA template of lobster and eel demonstrated successful inhibition of lobster ITS1 amplification while allowing efficient amplification of eel ITS1. This method was then applied to wild-caught lobster larvae of P. japonicus and P. longipes bispinosus collected around Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. ITS1 sequences of a wide variety of animals (Ctenophora, Cnidaria, Crustacea, Teleostei, Mollusca, and Chaetognatha) were detected.

  1. Characterization and robust nature of newly isolated oleaginous marine yeast Rhodosporidium spp. from coastal water of Northern China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiuzhen; Cui, Yan; Sen, Biswarup; Ma, Wenmeng; Zheng, Rose Lynn; Liu, Xianhua; Wang, Guangyi

    2017-12-01

    A total of ten marine yeast strains isolated from Bohai Sea, Northern China were identified to be members of three genera Rhodosporidium, Rhodotorula, and Cryptococcus. Two representative strains Rhodosporidium TJUWZ4 and Cryptococcus TJUWZA11 with high lipid content based on Nile red staining method were further characterized. A wide range of culture conditions (C and N sources, pH, temperature, salinity and C/N ratio) were tested to characterize the biomass and lipid production (yield and productivity) of these strains. Results indicated that Rhodosporidium TJUWZ4 was capable of achieving lipid yield up to 44% and 0.09 g/l-h productivity on glucose and peptone medium at pH 4, 20 °C, 30% salinity, and C/N 80. Three fatty acids, namely oleic acid (18:1), palmitic acid (C16:0) and linoleic acid (18:2) were the major intracellular fatty acids, which accounted for 90% of total lipids. With promising features for intracellular lipid accumulation, Rhodosporidium TJUWZ4 is a robust strain with great potentials for application in biodiesel production from renewable feedstocks.

  2. Syntheses of a library of molecules on the marine natural product ianthelliformisamines platform and their biological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Khan, Faiz Ahmed; Ahmad, Saeed; Kodipelli, Naveena; Shivange, Gururaj; Anindya, Roy

    2014-06-21

    Ianthelliformisamines A-C are a novel class of bromotyrosine-derived antibacterial agents isolated recently from the marine sponge Suberea ianthelliformis. We have synthesized ianthelliformisamines A-C straightforwardly by the condensation of (E)-3-(3,5-dibromo-4-methoxyphenyl)acrylic acid and the corresponding Boc-protected polyamine followed by Boc-deprotection with TFA. Further, using this reaction protocol, a library of their analogues (39 analogues) has been synthesized by employing 3-phenylacrylic acid derivatives and Boc-protected polyamine chains through various combinations of these two fragments differing in phenyl ring substitution, double bond geometry or chain length of the central spacer of the polyamine chain (shown in red color). All the synthesized compounds (ianthelliformisamines A-C and their analogues) were screened for antibacterial activity against both Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) and Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) strains. All synthetic analogues of ianthelliformisamine A showed bacterial growth inhibition against both strains (Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus), having MIC values in the range of 117.8-0.10 μM, while none of the synthetic analogues of ianthelliformisamine C as well as the parent compound showed any detectable antibacterial activity. Interestingly, some of the synthetic analogues of ianthelliformisamines A and B exerted a bactericidal effect against both E. coli and S. aureus strains, decreasing viable bacterial count by 99% at concentrations as low as 2 × MIC.

  3. The nature and extent of organisms in vessel sea-chests: A protected mechanism for marine bioinvasions.

    PubMed

    Coutts, Ashley D M; Dodgshun, Tim J

    2007-07-01

    A total of 150 different organisms, including one plant species and 12 animal phyla were identified from sea-chests of 42 vessels visiting or operating in New Zealand between May 2000 and November 2004. Forty-nine percent of organisms were sessile, 42% mobile adults and the remaining 9% sedentary. Decapods were the most represented group with 19 species present among 79% of vessels. Forty percent of organisms were indigenous to New Zealand, 15% introduced, 10% non-indigenous, and 35% of unknown origin. Sea-chests have the potential to (1) transfer non-indigenous organisms between countries across oceanic boundaries; and (2) disperse both indigenous and introduced organisms domestically. The occurrence of adult mobile organisms is particularly significant and indicates that sea-chests may be of greater importance than ballast water or hull fouling for dispersing certain marine species. These findings emphasise the need to assess and manage biosecurity risks for entire vessels rather than different mechanisms (i.e., ballast water, hull fouling, sea-chests, etc.) in isolation.

  4. In-Situ Sampling and Characterization of Naturally Occurring Marine Methane Hydrate Using the D/V JOIDES Resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Frank Rack

    2005-06-30

    The primary accomplishments of the JOI Cooperative Agreement with DOE/NETL in this quarter were to refine budgets and operational plans for Phase 2 of this cooperative agreement based on the scheduling of a scientific ocean drilling expedition to study marine methane hydrates along the Cascadia margin, in the NE Pacific as part of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) using the R/V JOIDES Resolution. The proposed statement of work for Phase 2 will include three primary tasks: (1) research management oversight, provided by JOI; (2) mobilization, deployment and demobilization of pressure coring and core logging systems, through a subcontract with Geotek Ltd., who will work with Fugro and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory to accomplish some of the subtasks; and, (3) mobilization, deployment and demobilization of a refrigerated container van that will be used for degassing of the Pressure Core Sampler and density logging of these pressure cores, through a subcontract with the Texas A&M Research Foundation (TAMRF). More details about these tasks are provided in the following sections of this report. The appendices to this report contain a copy of the scientific prospectus for the upcoming IODP Expedition 311 (Cascadia Margin Hydrates), which provides details of operational and scientific planning for this expedition.

  5. Translation Elongation Factor eEF1A2 is a Novel Anticancer Target for the Marine Natural Product Plitidepsin

    PubMed Central

    Losada, Alejandro; Muñoz-Alonso, María José; García, Carolina; Sánchez-Murcia, Pedro A.; Martínez-Leal, Juan Fernando; Domínguez, Juan Manuel; Lillo, M. Pilar; Gago, Federico; Galmarini, Carlos M.

    2016-01-01

    eEF1A2 is one of the isoforms of the alpha subunit of the eukaryotic Elongation Factor 1. It is overexpressed in human tumors and is endowed with oncogenic properties, favoring tumor cell proliferation while inhibiting apoptosis. We demonstrate that plitidepsin, an antitumor agent of marine origin that has successfully completed a phase-III clinical trial for multiple myeloma, exerts its antitumor activity by targeting eEF1A2. The drug interacts with eEF1A2 with a KD of 80 nM and a target residence time of circa 9 min. This protein was also identified as capable of binding [14C]-plitidepsin in a cell lysate from K-562 tumor cells. A molecular modelling approach was used to identify a favorable binding site for plitidepsin at the interface between domains 1 and 2 of eEF1A2 in the GTP conformation. Three tumor cell lines selected for at least 100-fold more resistance to plitidepsin than their respective parental cells showed reduced levels of eEF1A2 protein. Ectopic expression of eEF1A2 in resistant cells restored the sensitivity to plitidepsin. FLIM-phasor FRET experiments demonstrated that plitidepsin localizes in tumor cells sufficiently close to eEF1A2 as to suggest the formation of drug-protein complexes in living cells. Altogether, our results strongly suggest that eEF1A2 is the primary target of plitidepsin. PMID:27713531

  6. Size Structure of Marine Soft-Bottom Macrobenthic Communities across Natural Habitat Gradients: Implications for Productivity and Ecosystem Function

    PubMed Central

    Macdonald, Tara A.; Burd, Brenda J.; van Roodselaar, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Size distributions of biotic assemblages are important modifiers of productivity and function in marine sediments. We investigated the distribution of proportional organic biomass among logarithmic size classes (2−6J to 216J) in the soft-bottom macrofaunal communities of the Strait of Georgia, Salish Sea on the west coast of Canada. The study examines how size structure is influenced by 3 fundamental habitat descriptors: depth, sediment percent fines, and organic flux (modified by quality). These habitat variables are uncorrelated in this hydrographically diverse area, thus we examine their effects in combination and separately. Cluster analyses and cumulative biomass size spectra reveal clear and significant responses to each separate habitat variable. When combined, habitat factors result in three distinct assemblages: (1) communities with a high proportion of biomass in small organisms, typical of shallow areas (<10 m) with coarse sediments (<10% fines) and low accumulation of organic material (<3.0 gC/m2/yr/δ15N); (2) communities with high proportion of biomass in the largest organisms found in the Strait, typical of deep, fine sediments with high modified organic flux (>3 g C/m2/yr/δ15N) from the Fraser River; and (3) communities with biomass dominated by moderately large organisms, but lacking the smallest and largest size classes, typical of deep, fine sediments experiencing low modified organic flux (<3.0 gC/m2/yr/δ15N). The remaining assemblages had intermediate habitat types and size structures. Sediment percent fines and flux appear to elicit threshold responses in size structure, whereas depth has the most linear influence on community size structure. The ecological implications of size structure in the Strait of Georgia relative to environmental conditions, secondary production and sediment bioturbation are discussed. PMID:22911694

  7. Size structure of marine soft-bottom macrobenthic communities across natural habitat gradients: implications for productivity and ecosystem function.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, Tara A; Burd, Brenda J; van Roodselaar, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Size distributions of biotic assemblages are important modifiers of productivity and function in marine sediments. We investigated the distribution of proportional organic biomass among logarithmic size classes (2(-6)J to 2(16)J) in the soft-bottom macrofaunal communities of the Strait of Georgia, Salish Sea on the west coast of Canada. The study examines how size structure is influenced by 3 fundamental habitat descriptors: depth, sediment percent fines, and organic flux (modified by quality). These habitat variables are uncorrelated in this hydrographically diverse area, thus we examine their effects in combination and separately. Cluster analyses and cumulative biomass size spectra reveal clear and significant responses to each separate habitat variable. When combined, habitat factors result in three distinct assemblages: (1) communities with a high proportion of biomass in small organisms, typical of shallow areas (<10 m) with coarse sediments (<10% fines) and low accumulation of organic material (<3.0 gC/m(2)/yr/δ(15)N); (2) communities with high proportion of biomass in the largest organisms found in the Strait, typical of deep, fine sediments with high modified organic flux (>3 g C/m(2)/yr/δ(15)N) from the Fraser River; and (3) communities with biomass dominated by moderately large organisms, but lacking the smallest and largest size classes, typical of deep, fine sediments experiencing low modified organic flux (<3.0 gC/m(2)/yr/δ(15)N). The remaining assemblages had intermediate habitat types and size structures. Sediment percent fines and flux appear to elicit threshold responses in size structure, whereas depth has the most linear influence on community size structure. The ecological implications of size structure in the Strait of Georgia relative to environmental conditions, secondary production and sediment bioturbation are discussed.

  8. The Mixed Lineage Nature of Nitrogen Transport and Assimilation in Marine Eukaryotic Phytoplankton: A Case Study of Micromonas

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Sarah M.; Plant, Joshua N.; Worden, Alexandra Z.

    2010-01-01

    The prasinophyte order Mamiellales contains several widespread marine picophytoplankton (≤2 μm diameter) taxa, including Micromonas and Ostreococcus. Complete genome sequences are available for two Micromonas isolates, CCMP1545 and RCC299. We performed in silico analyses of nitrogen transporters and related assimilation genes in CCMP1545 and RCC299 and compared these with other green lineage organisms as well as Chromalveolata, fungi, bacteria, and archaea. Phylogenetic reconstructions of ammonium transporter (AMT) genes revealed divergent types contained within each Mamiellales genome. Some were affiliated with plant and green algal AMT1 genes and others with bacterial AMT2 genes. Land plant AMT2 genes were phylogenetically closer to archaeal transporters than to Mamiellales AMT2 genes. The Mamiellales represent the first green algal genomes to harbor AMT2 genes, which are not found in Chlorella and Chlamydomonas or the chromalveolate algae analyzed but are present in oomycetes. Fewer nitrate transporter (NRT) than AMT genes were identified in the Mamiellales. NRT1 was found in all but CCMP1545 and showed highest similarity to Mamiellales and proteobacterial NRTs. NRT2 genes formed a bootstrap-supported clade basal to other green lineage organisms. Several nitrogen-related genes were colocated, forming a nitrogen gene cluster. Overall, RCC299 showed the most divergent suite of nitrogen transporters within the various Mamiellales genomes, and we developed TaqMan quantitative polymerase chain reaction primer–probes targeting a subset of these, as well as housekeeping genes, in RCC299. All those investigated showed expression either under standard growth conditions or under nitrogen depletion. Like other recent publications, our findings show a higher degree of “mixed lineage gene affiliations” among eukaryotes than anticipated, and even the most phylogenetically anomalous versions appear to be functional. Nitrogen is often considered a regulating factor for

  9. Distribution of low-level natural radioactivity in a populated marine region of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Evangeliou, Nikolaos; Florou, Heleny; Kritidis, Panayotis

    2012-12-01

    The levels of natural radioactivity have been evaluated in the water column of an eastern Mediterranean region (Saronikos Gulf), with respect to the relevant environmental parameters. A novel methodology was used for the determination of natural radionuclides, which substitutes the time-consuming radiochemical analysis, based on an in situ sample preconcentration using ion-selective manganese fibres placed on pumping systems. With regard to the results obtained, (238)U-series radionuclides were found at the same level or lower than those observed previously in Mediterranean regions indicating the absence of technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material (TENORM) activities in the area. Similar results were observed for the (232)Th-series radionuclides and (40)K in the water column in comparison with the relevant literature on the Mediterranean Sea. The calculated ratios of (238)U-(232)Th and (40)K-(232)Th verified the lack of TENORM contribution in the Saronikos Gulf. Finally, a rough estimation was attempted concerning the residence times of fresh water inputs from a treatment plant of domestic wastes (Waste Water Treatment Plant of Psitalia) showing that fresh waters need a maximum of 15.7±7.6 d to be mixed with the open sea water.

  10. Barnacle distribution in Lough Hyne Marine Nature Reserve: a new baseline and an account of invasion by the introduced Australasian species Elminius modestus Darwin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Jennifer; Davenport, John; Whitaker, Alan

    2004-08-01

    The distribution and abundances of the following species of barnacles were established in autumn 2001 within the Lough Hyne Marine Nature Reserve: Cthamalus stellatus, Cthamalus montagui, Semibalanus balanoides, Elminius modestus, Balanus crenatus and Verruca stroemia. The results of the survey showed a clear distinction between the vertical distribution and the abundance of barnacle species inside Lough Hyne, and those sites sampled in the Rapids and outside the Lough. The Lough is now dominated by the introduced Australasian species E. modestus. This species was first recorded outside Lough Hyne in 1956. By 1988 it was found occasionally throughout the Lough, and appreciable numbers were recorded in 1990-1991. It has now replaced all other species in some parts of the North Basin. At sites subject to freshwater influence it is totally dominant, including in the highly sheltered Goleen site where intertidal barnacles have not previously been recorded. It is suggested that, once established in the North Basin, the sheltered nature of the Lough, combined with high summer temperatures and limited circulation, fostered retention of larvae and heavy spatfall of E. modestus.

  11. Assimilatory Sulfur Metabolism in Marine Microorganisms: Considerations for the Application of Sulfate Incorporation into Protein as a Measurement of Natural Population Protein Synthesis †

    PubMed Central

    Cuhel, Russell L.; Taylor, Craig D.; Jannasch, Holger W.

    1982-01-01

    The sulfur content of residue protein was determined for pure cultures of Nitrosococcus oceanus, Desulfovibrio salexigens, 4 mixed populations of fermentative bacteria, 22 samples from mixed natural population enrichments, and 11 nutritionally and morphologically distinct isolates from enrichments of Sargasso Sea water. The average 1.09 ± 0.14% (by weight) S in protein for 13 pure cultures agrees with the 1.1% calculated from average protein composition. An operational value encompassing all mixed population and pure culture measurements has a coefficient of variation of only 15.1% (n = 41). Short-term [35S]sulfate incorporation kinetics by Pseudomonas halodurans and Alteromonas luteoviolaceus demonstrated a rapid appearance of 35S in the residue protein fraction which was well modelled by a simple exponential uptake equation. This indicates that little error in protein synthesis determination results from isotope dilution by endogenous pools of sulfur-containing compounds. Methionine effectively competed with sulfate for protein synthesis in P. halodurans at high concentrations (10 μM), but had much less influence at 1 μM. Cystine competed less effectively with sulfate, and glutathione did not detectably reduce sulfate-S incorporation into protein. [35S]sulfate incorporation was compared with [14C]glucose assimilation in a eutrophic brackish-water environment. Both tracers yielded similar results for the first 8 h of incubation, but a secondary growth phase was observed only with 35S. Redistribution of 14C from low-molecular-weight materials into residue protein indicated additional protein synthesis. [35S]sulfate incorporation into residue protein by marine bacteria can be used to quantitatively measure bacterial protein synthesis in unenriched mixed populations of marine bacteria. PMID:16345919

  12. Emerging biopharmaceuticals from marine actinobacteria.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Syed Shams Ul; Anjum, Komal; Abbas, Syed Qamar; Akhter, Najeeb; Shagufta, Bibi Ibtesam; Shah, Sayed Asmat Ali; Tasneem, Umber

    2017-01-01

    Actinobacteria are quotidian microorganisms in the marine world, playing a crucial ecological role in the recycling of refractory biomaterials and producing novel secondary metabolites with pharmaceutical applications. Actinobacteria have been isolated from the huge area of marine organisms including sponges, tunicates, corals, mollusks, crabs, mangroves and seaweeds. Natural products investigation of the marine actinobacteria revealed that they can synthesize numerous natural products including alkaloids, polyketides, peptides, isoprenoids, phenazines, sterols, and others. These natural products have a potential to provide future drugs against crucial diseases like cancer, HIV, microbial and protozoal infections and severe inflammations. Therefore, marine actinobacteria portray as a pivotal resource for marine drugs. It is an upcoming field of research to probe a novel and pharmaceutically important secondary metabolites from marine actinobacteria. In this review, we attempt to summarize the present knowledge on the diversity, chemistry and mechanism of action of marine actinobacteria-derived secondary metabolites from 2007 to 2016.

  13. In-Situ Sampling and Characterization of Naturally Occurring Marine Methane Hydrate Using the D/V JOIDES Resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Rack, Frank; Schultheiss, Peter

    2005-12-31

    The primary accomplishments of the JOI Cooperative Agreement with DOE/NETL in this quarter were the implementation of a scientific ocean drilling expedition to study marine methane hydrates along the Cascadia margin, in the NE Pacific as part of Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 311 using the R/V JOIDES Resolution and the deployment of all required equipment and personnel to provide the required services during this expedition. IODP Expedition 311 shipboard activities on the JOIDES Resolution began on August 28 and were concluded on October 28, 2005. New ODP Pressure Coring System (PCS) aluminum autoclave chambers were fabricated prior to the expedition. During the expedition, 16 PCS autoclaves containing pressure cores were X-rayed before and after depressurization using a modified Geotek MSCL-P (multi-sensor core logger-pressure) system. These PCS cores were density scanned using the MSCL-V (multi-sensor core logger-vertical) during depressurization to monitor gas evolution. The MSCL-V was set up in a 20-foot-long refrigerated container provided by Texas A&M University through the JOI contract with TAMRF. IODP Expedition 311 was the first time that PCS cores were examined before (using X-ray), during (using MSCL-V gamma density) and after (using X-ray) degassing to determine the actual volume and distribution of sediment and gas hydrate in the pressurized core, which will be important for more accurate determination of mass balances between sediment, gas, gas hydrate, and fluids in the samples collected. Geotek, Ltd was awarded a contract by JOI to provide equipment and personnel to perform pressure coring and related work on IODP Expedition 311 (Cascadia Margin Gas Hydrates). Geotek, Ltd. provided an automated track for use with JOI's infrared camera systems. Four auxiliary monitors showed infrared core images in real time to aid hydrate identification and sampling. Images were collected from 185 cores during the expedition and processed to

  14. Drug Discovery from Marine Microbes

    PubMed Central

    Gerwick, William H.; Fenner, Amanda M.

    2013-01-01

    The marine environment has been a source of more than 20,000 inspirational natural products discovered over the past 50 years. From these efforts, 9 approved drugs and 12 current clinical trial agents have been discovered, either as natural products or molecules inspired from the natural product structure. To a significant degree, these have come from collections of marine invertebrates largely obtained from shallow water tropical ecosystems. However, there is a growing recognition that marine invertebrates are oftentimes populated with enormous quantities of ‘associated’ or symbiotic microorganisms, and that microorganisms are the true metabolic sources of these most valuable of marine natural products. Also, because of the inherently multidisciplinary nature of this field, a high degree of innovation is characteristic of marine natural product drug discovery efforts. PMID:23274881

  15. 76 FR 11205 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Construction and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-01

    ... Marine Mammals Incidental to Construction and Operation of a Liquefied Natural Gas Deepwater Port in the... marine mammal species incidental to construction and operation of a liquefied natural gas (LNG)...

  16. Natural products for mitigation of fouling by the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, in marine water intake systems

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, G.T.; Zheng, D.

    1995-06-01

    In search of natural antifouling products, sedentary organisms - free of epibiotic communities - were collected from the inter- and subtidal zones of Long Island Sound. Crude solvent extracts from these specimens were subjected to 2 - 4 bioassays to screen for: (1) microbila sensitivity, (2) response of mussel byssal thread secretion using Mytilus edulis, (3) mussel larval settlement response, and (4) bacterial attachment response. Of the 86 extracts derived from 24 organisms, six very promising extracts have been isolated from local algae and invertebrates that exhibit strong antifouling activity against the blue mussel, the major biofouler in northeastern American coastal utilities. The most promising extracts exhibiting strong inhibition of microbial growth and settlement. The process of identification of the active agent through further purification and subsequent bioassays is ongoing. A model hybrid coating, incorporating an extract from Fucuc filiformis into a silicon polymer-based matrix (EXTRUDE{sup {trademark}}), effectively prevented byssal thread attachment by juvenile blue mussels and killed specimens close to treated areas within 10 days.

  17. Evolution and maintenance of haploid-diploid life cycles in natural populations: The case of the marine brown alga Ectocarpus.

    PubMed

    Couceiro, Lucía; Le Gac, Mickael; Hunsperger, Heather M; Mauger, Stéphane; Destombe, Christophe; Cock, J Mark; Ahmed, Sophia; Coelho, Susana M; Valero, Myriam; Peters, Akira F

    2015-07-01

    The evolutionary stability of haploid-diploid life cycles is still controversial. Mathematical models indicate that niche differences between ploidy phases may be a necessary condition for the evolution and maintenance of these life cycles. Nevertheless, experimental support for this prediction remains elusive. In the present work, we explored this hypothesis in natural populations of the brown alga Ectocarpus. Consistent with the life cycle described in culture, Ectocarpus crouaniorum in NW France and E. siliculosus in SW Italy exhibited an alternation between haploid gametophytes and diploid sporophytes. Our field data invalidated, however, the long-standing view of an isomorphic alternation of generations. Gametophytes and sporophytes displayed marked differences in size and, conforming to theoretical predictions, occupied different spatiotemporal niches. Gametophytes were found almost exclusively on the alga Scytosiphon lomentaria during spring whereas sporophytes were present year-round on abiotic substrata. Paradoxically, E. siliculosus in NW France exhibited similar habitat usage despite the absence of alternation of ploidy phases. Diploid sporophytes grew both epilithically and epiphytically, and this mainly asexual population gained the same ecological advantage postulated for haploid-diploid populations. Consequently, an ecological interpretation of the niche differences between haploid and diploid individuals does not seem to satisfactorily explain the evolution of the Ectocarpus life cycle.

  18. In-Situ Sampling and Characterization of Naturally Occurring Marine Methane Hydrate Using the D/V JOIDES Resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Rack, Frank

    2003-06-30

    The primary accomplishments of the JOI Cooperative Agreement with DOE/NETL in this quarter were that: (1) Frank Rack, Anne Trehu, and Tim Collett presented preliminary results and operational outcomes of ODP Leg 204 at the American Association of Petroleum Geologists annual meeting in Salt Lake City, UT; (2) several Leg 204 scientists participated in special hydrate sessions at the international EGS/AGU/EUG meeting in Nice, France and presented initial science results from the cruise, which included outcomes arising from this cooperative agreement; and, (3) postcruise evaluation of the data, tools and measurement systems that were used during ODP Leg 204 continued in the preparation of deliverables under this agreement. At the EGS/EUG/AGU meeting in Nice, France in April, Leg 204 Co-chiefs Anne Trehu and Gerhard Bohrmann, as well as ODP scientists Charlie Paull, Erwin Suess, and Jim Kennett, participated in a press conference on hydrates. The well-attended press conference entitled ''Gas Hydrates: Free methane found and controversy over the 'hydrate gun''' led to stories in Nature on-line and BBC radio, among others. There were six (6) oral and fifteen (15) poster presentations on ODP Leg 204 hydrate science at the EGS/AGU/EUG Meeting in Nice, France on April 6-11, 2003. This was a very strong showing at a meeting just over six month following the completion of the drilling cruise and highlighted many of the results of the leg, including the results obtained with instruments and equipment funded under this cooperative agreement. At the AAPG annual meeting in Salt Lake City, UT on May 11-14, 2003, Anne Trehu gave an oral presentation about the scientific results of Leg 204, and Frank Rack presented a poster outlining the operational and technical accomplishments. Work continued on analyzing data collected during ODP Leg 204 and preparing reports on the outcomes of Phase 1 projects as well as developing plans for Phase 2.

  19. Parasites and marine invasions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torchin, M.E.; Lafferty, K.D.; Kuris, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    Introduced marine species are a major environmental and economic problem. The rate of these biological invasions has substantially increased in recent years due to the globalization of the world's economies. The damage caused by invasive species is often a result of the higher densities and larger sizes they attain compared to where they are native. A prominent hypothesis explaining the success of introduced species is that they are relatively free of the effects of natural enemies. Most notably, they may encounter fewer parasites in their introduced range compared to their native range. Parasites are ubiquitous and pervasive in marine systems, yet their role in marine invasions is relatively unexplored. Although data on parasites of marine organisms exist, the extent to which parasites can mediate marine invasions, or the extent to which invasive parasites and pathogens are responsible for infecting or potentially decimating native marine species have not been examined. In this review, we present a theoretical framework to model invasion success and examine the evidence for a relationship between parasite presence and the success of introduced marine species. For this, we compare the prevalence and species richness of parasites in several introduced populations of marine species with populations where they are native. We also discuss the potential impacts of introduced marine parasites on native ecosystems.

  20. Calyculins and Related Marine Natural Products as Serine-Threonine Protein Phosphatase PP1 and PP2A Inhibitors and Total Syntheses of Calyculin A, B, and C

    PubMed Central

    Fagerholm, Annika E.; Habrant, Damien; Koskinen, Ari M. P.

    2010-01-01

    Calyculins, highly cytotoxic polyketides, originally isolated from the marine sponge Discodermia calyx by Fusetani and co-workers, belong to the lithistid sponges group. These molecules have become interesting targets for cell biologists and synthetic organic chemists. The serine/threonine protein phosphatases play an essential role in the cellular signalling, metabolism, and cell cycle control. Calyculins express potent protein phosphatase 1 and 2A inhibitory activity, and have therefore become valuable tools for cellular biologists studying intracellular processes and their control by reversible phosphorylation. Calyculins might also play an important role in the development of several diseases such as cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and type 2-diabetes mellitus. The fascinating structures of calyculins have inspired various groups of synthetic organic chemists to develop total syntheses of the most abundant calyculins A and C. However, with fifteen chiral centres, a cyano-capped tetraene unit, a phosphate-bearing spiroketal, an anti, anti, anti dipropionate segment, an α-chiral oxazole, and a trihydroxylated γ-amino acid, calyculins reach versatility that only few natural products can surpass, and truly challenge modern chemists’ asymmetric synthesis skills. PMID:20161975

  1. Homogeneous Nature of Malaysian Marine Fish Epinephelus fuscoguttatus (Perciformes; Serranidae): Evidence Based on Molecular Markers, Morphology and Fourier Transform Infrared Analysis.

    PubMed

    Nurdalila, A'wani Aziz; Bunawan, Hamidun; Kumar, Subbiah Vijay; Rodrigues, Kenneth Francis; Baharum, Syarul Nataqain

    2015-07-02

    Taxonomic confusion exists within the genus Epinephelus due to the lack of morphological specializations and the overwhelming number of species reported in several studies. The homogenous nature of the morphology has created confusion in the Malaysian Marine fish species Epinephelus fuscoguttatus and Epinephelus hexagonatus. In this study, the partial DNA sequence of the 16S gene and mitochondrial nucleotide sequences of two gene regions, Cytochrome Oxidase Subunit I and III were used to investigate the phylogenetic relationship between them. In the phylogenetic trees, E. fuscoguttatus was monophyletic with E. hexagonatus species and morphology examination shows that no significant differences were found in the morphometric features between these two taxa. This suggests that E. fuscoguttatus is not distinguishable from E. hexagonatus species, and that E. fuscoguttatus have been identified to be E. hexagonatus species is likely attributed to differences in environment and ability to camouflage themselves under certain conditions. Interestingly, this finding was also supported by Principal Component Analysis on Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier-transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) data analysis. Molecular, morphological and meristic characteristics were combined with ATR-FTIR analysis used in this study offer new perspectives in fish species identification. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an extensive genetic population study of E. fuscoguttatus in Malaysia and this understanding will play an important role in informing genetic stock-specific strategies for the management and conservation of this highly valued fish.

  2. In-Situ Sampling and Characterization of Naturally Occurring Marine Methane Hydrate Using the D/V JOIDES Resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Frank R. Rack

    2006-09-20

    Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41329 between Joint Oceanographic Institutions and DOE-NETL was divided into two phases based on successive proposals and negotiated statements of work pertaining to activities to sample and characterize methane hydrates on ODP Leg 204 (Phase 1) and on IODP Expedition 311 (Phase 2). The Phase 1 Final Report was submitted to DOE-NETL in April 2004. This report is the Phase 2 Final Report to DOE-NETL. The primary objectives of Phase 2 were to sample and characterize methane hydrates using the systems and capabilities of the D/V JOIDES Resolution during IODP Expedition 311, to enable scientists the opportunity to establish the mass and distribution of naturally occurring gas and gas hydrate at all relevant spatial and temporal scales, and to contribute to the DOE methane hydrate research and development effort. The goal of the work was to provide expanded measurement capabilities on the JOIDES Resolution for a dedicated hydrate cruise to the Cascadia continental margin off Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada (IODP Expedition 311) so that hydrate deposits in this region would be well characterized and technology development continued for hydrate research. IODP Expedition 311 shipboard activities on the JOIDES Resolution began on August 28 and were concluded on October 28, 2005. The statement of work for this project included three primary tasks: (1) research management oversight, provided by JOI; (2) mobilization, deployment and demobilization of pressure coring and core logging systems, through a subcontract with Geotek Ltd.; and, (3) mobilization, deployment and demobilization of a refrigerated container van that will be used for degassing of the Pressure Core Sampler and density logging of these pressure cores, through a subcontract with the Texas A&M Research Foundation (TAMRF). Additional small tasks that arose during the course of the research were included under these three primary tasks in consultation with the DOE

  3. Marine Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Bernard L.

    The five papers in this publication on marine careers were selected so that science teachers, guidance councilors, and students could benefit from the experience and knowledge of individuals active in marine science. The areas considered are indicated by the titles: Professional Careers in Marine Science with the Federal Government, Marine Science…

  4. IN-SITU SAMPLING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NATURALLY OCCURRING MARINE METHANE HYDRATE USING THE D/V JOIDES RESOLUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Rack, Frank R.; Dickens, Gerald; Ford, Kathryn; Schroeder, Derryl; Storms, Michael

    2002-08-01

    report. An infrared-thermal imaging system (IR-TIS) was deployed for the first time on ODP Leg 201. This system was used to identify methane hydrate intervals in the recovered cores. Initial discussions of these experiments are provided in this report. This report is an overview of the field measurements made on recovered sediment cores and the downhole measurements made during ODP Leg 201. These results are currently being used to incorporate the ''lessons learned'' from these deployments to prepare for a dedicated ODP leg to study the characteristics of naturally-occurring hydrates in the subsurface environment of Hydrate Ridge, offshore Oregon during ODP Leg 204, which will take place from July through September, 2002.

  5. Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of small cationic amphipathic aminobenzamide marine natural product mimics and evaluation of relevance against clinical isolates including ESBL-CARBA producing multi-resistant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Igumnova, Elizaveta M; Mishchenko, Ekaterina; Haug, Tor; Blencke, Hans-Matti; Sollid, Johanna U Ericson; Fredheim, Elizabeth G Aarag; Lauksund, Silje; Stensvåg, Klara; Strøm, Morten B

    2016-11-15

    A library of small aminobenzamide derivatives was synthesised to explore a cationic amphipathic motif found in marine natural antimicrobials. The most potent compound E23 displayed minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 0.5-2μg/ml against several Gram-positive bacterial strains, including methicillin resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE).E23 was also potent against 275 clinical isolates including Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae, as well as methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), and ESBL-CARBA producing multi-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. The study demonstrates how structural motifs found in marine natural antimicrobials can be a valuable source for making novel antimicrobial lead-compounds.

  6. Quantitative Transcriptomics Reveals the Growth- and Nutrient-Dependent Response of a Streamlined Marine Methylotroph to Methanol and Naturally Occurring Dissolved Organic Matter

    PubMed Central

    Sosa, Oscar A.; Repeta, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The members of the OM43 clade of Betaproteobacteria are abundant coastal methylotrophs with a range of carbon-utilizing capabilities. However, their underlying transcriptional and metabolic responses to shifting conditions or different carbon substrates remain poorly understood. We examined the transcriptional dynamics of OM43 isolate NB0046 subjected to various inorganic nutrient, vitamin, and carbon substrate regimes over different growth phases to (i) develop a quantitative model of its mRNA content; (ii) identify transcriptional markers of physiological activity, nutritional state, and carbon and energy utilization; and (iii) identify pathways involved in methanol or naturally occurring dissolved organic matter (DOM) metabolism. Quantitative transcriptomics, achieved through addition of internal RNA standards, allowed for analyses on a transcripts-per-cell scale. This streamlined bacterium exhibited substantial shifts in total mRNA content (ranging from 1,800 to 17 transcripts cell−1 in the exponential and deep stationary phases, respectively) and gene-specific transcript abundances (>1,000-fold increases in some cases), depending on the growth phase and nutrient conditions. Carbon metabolism genes exhibited substantial dynamics, including those for ribulose monophosphate, tricarboxylic acid (TCA), and proteorhodopsin, as well as methanol dehydrogenase (xoxF), which, while always the most abundant transcript, increased from 5 to 120 transcripts cell−1 when cultures were nutrient and vitamin amended. In the DOM treatment, upregulation of TCA cycle, methylcitrate cycle, vitamin, and organic phosphorus genes suggested a metabolic route for this complex mixture of carbon substrates. The genome-wide inventory of transcript abundances produced here provides insight into a streamlined marine bacterium’s regulation of carbon metabolism and energy flow, providing benchmarks for evaluating the activity of OM43 populations in situ. PMID:27879330

  7. Marine pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Albaiges, J. )

    1989-01-01

    This book covers the following topics: Transport of marine pollutants; Transformation of pollutants in the marine environment; Biological effects of marine pollutants; Sources and transport of oil pollutants in the Persian Gulf; Trace metals and hydrocarbons in Syrian coastal waters; and Techniques for analysis of trace pollutants.

  8. Status of marine biomedical research.

    PubMed Central

    Bessey, O

    1976-01-01

    A meeting on Marine Biomedical Research, sponsored by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), National Institutes of Health and the Smithsonian Institution Museum of Natural History, was attended by approximately 125 scientists, directors and representatives from many of the country's marine biological laboratories, and government agencies whose interests and responsibilites are in the marine biology and health areas. The purpose of the meeting was to explore the undeveloped research opportunities in the area of marine biology for the advancement of our understanding of human health problems and to provide information on the current status of marine biology laboratories. The meeting was devoted to presentations and discussions in four general areas: (1)Marine Species as Models for Human Disease; (2)Environmental Carcinogenesis and Mutagenesis; (3)Human Health and the Marine Environment--infectious agents and naturally occurring and foreign toxins; and (4)Drugs from the seas. Representatives from twelve of the country's approximatley 40 marine laboratories discussed their organization, developmental history, scientific programs, facilities, and present status of their support. The presentations served as a background and stimulated very lively analytical and constructive discussions of the undeveloped research and education potential residing in the marine environment and biological laboratories for a better understanding of many human health problems; some scientific areas that should be developed to realize this potential; and the needs and problems of marine laboratories that require attention and support if they are to survive and realize their possibilities. PMID:944630

  9. Seismarmara 2001: A Marine Seismic Survey and Offshore-onshore Artificial Source and Natural Earthquakes In The Seismogenic Region of The Sea of Marmara

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirn, A.; Singh, S.; Charvis, P.; Géli, L.; Laigle, M.; Lépine, J.-C.; de Voogd, B.; Saatcilar, R.; Taymaz, T.; Ozalaybey, S.; Shimamura, H.; Selvi, O.; Karabulut, H.; Murai, Y.; Nishimura, Y.; Yamada, A.; Vigner, A.; Bazin, S.; Tan, O.; Yolsal, S.; Aktar, M.; Galvé, A.; Sapin, M.; Marthelot, J.-M.; Imren, C.; Ergin, M.; Tapirdamaz, C.; Koçaoglu, A.; Tarancioglu, A.; Diaz, J.; Verhille, J.; Auffret, Y.; Cetin, S.; Oçakoglu, N.; Karakoç, F.; Klien, E.; Ricolleau, A.; Selvigen, V.; Demirbag, E.; Hakyemez, Y.; Sarikawak, K.

    SEISMARMARA is a Turkish-French survey carried out in July-October 2001 as a multi-method approach of seismic structure and activity of the Sea of Marmara. This is the segment of the North Anatolian Fault system that continues the one that produced the two destructive earthquakes in 1999 to the East, and is prone to future major earth- quakes as it has experienced in the past. Aims of the programme are to shed light on the regional tectonics and recent evolution at crustal scale, image faults by their structure and seismic activity, and provide a model and reference to improve loca- tion of earthquakes and focal mechanism studies. The programme bases on marine multichannel reflection seismics (MCS), ocean bottom seismometers (OBS) and land stations recording of wide-angle reflection-refraction from the same source, as well as recording of local earthquakes for tomography and stress/strain distribution. The French N/O Le Nadir acquired 4000 km of MCS profiles in the northern Sea of Mar- mara, using a 4.5 km long digital streamer with 360-channels and sources of 8100 cu. in., or 2900 cu. in., provided by a 12-airgun array in single-bubble mode. Navigation safety was provided by a vessel of the Turkish Coast Guards (Sahil Güvenlik), Leg 1 comprises 4 E-W lines and 30 cross-lines in the whole Marmara Trough, leg 2 has 1 been devoted to a very dense grid of lines in the Cinarcik basin and its margins, record- ing over 80 dip-lines at 0.6-0.9 km spacing At sea-bottom 38 OBS, with 3-component sensors and continuous recording over 1 to 2-month in order to also record natural earthquakes were deployed and collected by the Turkish ship MTA Sismik-1. On land the permanent array has been complemented by as many temporary stations, in par- ticular over 30 continuous recording 3-component 2 Hz stations. Refraction seismics from offshore to onshore was further implemented by short-duration deployments of vertical component lightweight instruments with short recording capacity. A

  10. Coupling a high-temperature catalytic oxidation total organic carbon analyzer to an isotope ratio mass spectrometer to measure natural-abundance delta13C-dissolved organic carbon in marine and freshwater samples.

    PubMed

    Panetta, Robert J; Ibrahim, Mina; Gélinas, Yves

    2008-07-01

    The stable isotope composition of dissolved organic carbon (delta(13)C-DOC) provides powerful information toward understanding carbon sources and cycling, but analytical limitations have precluded its routine measurement in natural samples. Recent interfacing of wet oxidation-based dissolved organic carbon analyzers and isotope ratio mass spectrometers has simplified the measurement of delta(13)C-DOC in freshwaters, but the analysis of salty estuarine/marine samples still proves difficult. Here we describe the coupling of the more widespread high-temperature catalytic oxidation-based total organic carbon analyzer to an isotope ratio mass spectrometer (HTC-IRMS) through cryogenic trapping of analyte gases exiting the HTC analyzer for routine analysis of delta(13)C-DOC in aquatic and marine samples. Targeted elimination of major sources of background CO2 originating from the HTC analyzer allows for the routine measurement of samples over the natural range of DOC concentrations (from 40 microM to over 2000 microM), and salinities (<0.1-36 g/kg). Because consensus reference natural samples for delta(13)C-DOC do not exist, method validation was carried out with water-soluble stable isotope standards as well as previously measured natural samples (IAEA sucrose, Suwannee River Fulvic Acids, Deep Sargasso Sea consensus reference material, and St. Lawrence River water) and result in excellent delta(13)C-DOC accuracy (+/-0.2 per thousand) and precision (+/-0.3 per thousand).

  11. Linking marine biology and biotechnology.

    PubMed

    de Nys, Rocky; Steinberg, Peter D

    2002-06-01

    Studies of biological systems in which there is a direct link between the challenges faced by marine organisms and biotechnologies enable us to rationally search for active natural compounds and other novel biotechnologies. This approach is proving successful in developing new methods for the prevention of marine biofouling and for the identification of new lead compounds for the development of ultraviolet sunscreens.

  12. A simultaneous estimation of the mass of Mars and its natural satellites, Phobos and Deimos, from the orbital perturbations on the Mariner 9, Viking 1, and Viking 2 orbiters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemoine, F. G.; Smith, D. E.; Fricke, S. K.; Mccarthy, J. J.

    1993-01-01

    The natural satellites of Mars, Phobos and Deimos, caused perturbations on the orbits of the Mariner 9, and the Viking spacecraft that were used to estimate the satellite masses. The Viking spacecraft were specifically targeted to make close flybys (within a few hundred kilometers) of Phobos in February 1977 and of Deimos in October 1977. These close encounters were used to estimate the moon's gravitational constant, GM (the universal constant of gravitation multiplied by the satellite mass). However, the Viking and Mariner 9 spacecraft made numerous flybys of Phobos and Deimos at distances of a few thousand kilometers. The tracking data from these more 'distant' encounters were processed to estimate the masses of Mars, Phobos, and Deimos.

  13. 76 FR 43639 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ... Liquefied Natural Gas Port Facility in Massachusetts Bay AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... take marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to operating a liquefied natural gas (LNG) port facility... diameter natural gas pipeline which interconnects the Port to an offshore natural gas pipeline known as...

  14. 76 FR 41486 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Operation and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Operation and Maintenance of the Neptune Liquefied Natural Gas Facility off...

  15. Marine Sediment-Derived Streptomyces Bacteria from British Columbia, Canada Are a Promising Microbiota Resource for the Discovery of Antimicrobial Natural Products

    PubMed Central

    Dalisay, Doralyn S.; Williams, David E.; Wang, Xiao Ling; Centko, Ryan; Chen, Jessie; Andersen, Raymond J.

    2013-01-01

    Representatives of the genus Streptomyces from terrestrial sources have been the focus of intensive research for the last four decades because of their prolific production of chemically diverse and biologically important compounds. However, metabolite research from this ecological niche had declined significantly in the past years because of the rediscovery of the same bioactive compounds and redundancy of the sample strains. More recently, a new picture has begun to emerge in which marine-derived Streptomyces bacteria have become the latest hot spot as new source for unique and biologically active compounds. Here, we investigated the marine sediments collected in the temperate cold waters from British Columbia, Canada as a valuable source for new groups of marine-derived Streptomyces with antimicrobial activities. We performed culture dependent isolation from 49 marine sediments samples and obtained 186 Streptomyces isolates, 47 of which exhibited antimicrobial activities. Phylogenetic analyses of the active isolates resulted in the identification of four different clusters of bioactive Streptomyces including a cluster with isolates that appear to represent novel species. Moreover, we explored whether these marine-derived Streptomyces produce new secondary metabolites with antimicrobial properties. Chemical analyses revealed structurally diverse secondary metabolites, including four new antibacterial novobiocin analogues. We conducted structure-activity relationships (SAR) studies of these novobiocin analogues against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). In this study, we revealed the importance of carbamoyl and OMe moieties at positions 3” and 4” of novobiose as well as the hydrogen substituent at position 5 of hydroxybenzoate ring for the anti-MRSA activity. Changes in the substituents at these positions dramatically impede or completely eliminate the inhibitory activity of novobiocins against MRSA. PMID:24130838

  16. Dissolved Organic In Natural and Polluted Waters: Methodology and Results of Running Control of Chemical Oxygen Demand (cod) For The Inland and Marine Aquatic System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melentyev, K. V.; Worontsov, A. M.

    . Comprehensive study of the natural waters (including biohydro-chemical parameters control) for large part of the inland waterway St. Petersburg ­ White Sea (river Neva - Ladoga Lake ­ river Svir - Onega Lake ­ Petrozavodsk) was provided in frame the experimental voyage onboard the m/v «St. Peterburg» (J uly 1998 and June 1999). The results of organic matter charting for the different water masses for vast water basin in the northwestern of Russia were analyzed and classified. The arrangement of dissolved organic for the largest in Europe lakes Ladoga and Onega is analyzed in comparison with hydrological and meteorological processes and phenomena, including thermal regime modification. Spatial and temporal (seasonal and annual) transformation of organic matter for these water basins are studied. Aquatic environment conditions of the coastal zones, different bays and gulfs more pressed by livestock and agricultural farms, and industry are assessed also. According to the shipborne data more polluted water areas are the Svir Bay (Ladoga Lake) and Petrozavodskaya Guba (Onega Lake). These results are well correlated with in situ data and literature data. Thus, first time in practice is carried out the running control of a COD and spatial profile of the organic matter for different natural waters. Accuracy of measurements in comparison with traditional approaches and new technologies (including ideas and results practical application of sonoluminiscence of dissolved organic) are discussed also. The modification of CS COD was used for the cont rol of dissolved organic in different marine aquatic system. Sea water samples and preserved ice cores, gathered in the Barents, White and Kara Seas, were investigated. Probes of saltish and brackish-water (as ice cores) from the estuary of great Siberian rivers (Ob Bay and Yenisey Gulf) were analyzed in laboratory (biochemical analysis of these probes was fulfilled also). It was demonstrat ed that CS COD system can be used till range a

  17. Marine Isonitriles and Their Related Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Emsermann, Jens; Kauhl, Ulrich; Opatz, Till

    2016-01-01

    Marine isonitriles represent the largest group of natural products carrying the remarkable isocyanide moiety. Together with marine isothiocyanates and formamides, which originate from the same biosynthetic pathways, they offer diverse biological activities and in spite of their exotic nature they may constitute potential lead structures for pharmaceutical development. Among other biological activities, several marine isonitriles show antimalarial, antitubercular, antifouling and antiplasmodial effects. In contrast to terrestrial isonitriles, which are mostly derived from α-amino acids, the vast majority of marine representatives are of terpenoid origin. An overview of all known marine isonitriles and their congeners will be given and their biological and chemical aspects will be discussed. PMID:26784208

  18. New pharmaceuticals from marine organisms.

    PubMed

    Fenical, W

    1997-09-01

    Definitions of 'marine biotechnology' often refer to the vast potential of the oceans to lead to new cures for human and animal disease; the exploitation of natural drugs has always been the most basic form of biotechnology. Although only initiated in the late 1970s, natural drug discovery from the world's oceans has been accelerated by the chemical uniqueness of marine organisms and by the need to develop drugs for contemporary, difficult to cure, diseases. Current research activities, while primarily within the academic laboratories, have generated convincing evidence that marine drug discovery has an exceedingly bright future.

  19. A survey of culturable aerobic and anaerobic marine bacteria in de novo biofilm formation on natural substrates in St. Andrews Bay, Scotland.

    PubMed

    Finnegan, Lucy; Garcia-Melgares, Manuel; Gmerek, Tomasz; Huddleston, W Ryan; Palmer, Alexander; Robertson, Andrew; Shapiro, Sarah; Unkles, Shiela E

    2011-10-01

    This study reports a novel study of marine biofilm formation comprising aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Samples of quartz and feldspar, minerals commonly found on the earth, were suspended 5 m deep in the North Sea off the east coast of St. Andrews, Scotland for 5 weeks. The assemblage of organisms attached to these stones was cultivated under aerobic and anaerobic conditions in the laboratory. Bacteria isolated on Marine Agar 2216 were all Gram-negative and identified to genus level by sequencing the gene encoding 16S rRNA. Colwellia, Maribacter, Pseudoaltermonas and Shewanella were observed in aerobically-grown cultures while Vibrio was found to be present in both aerobic and anaerobic cultures. The obligate anaerobic bacterium Psychrilyobacter atlanticus, a recently defined genus, was identified as a close relative of isolates grown anaerobically. The results provide valuable information as to the main players that attach and form de novo biofilms on common minerals in sea water.

  20. Marine Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewees, Christopher M.; Hooper, Jon K.

    1976-01-01

    A variety of informational material for a course in marine biology or oceanology at the secondary level is presented. Among the topics discussed are: food webs and pyramids, planktonic blooms, marine life, plankton nets, food chains, phytoplankton, zooplankton, larval plankton and filter feeders. (BT)

  1. Marine Biomedicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bang, Frederik B.

    1977-01-01

    Describes early scientific research involving marine invertebrate pathologic processes that may have led to new insights into human disease. Discussed are inquiries of Metchnikoff, Loeb, and Cantacuzene (immunolgic responses in sea stars, horseshoe crabs, and marine worms, respectively). Describes current research stemming from these early…

  2. Marine & hydrokinetic technology development.

    SciTech Connect

    LiVecchi, Al; Jepsen, Richard Alan

    2010-06-01

    The Wind and Water Power Program supports the development of marine and hydrokinetic devices, which capture energy from waves, tides, ocean currents, the natural flow of water in rivers, and marine thermal gradients, without building new dams or diversions. The program works closely with industry and the Department of Energy's national laboratories to advance the development and testing of marine and hydrokinetic devices. In 2008, the program funded projects to develop and test point absorber, oscillating wave column, and tidal turbine technologies. The program also funds component design, such as techniques for manufacturing and installing coldwater pipes critical for ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) systems. Rigorous device testing is necessary to validate and optimize prototypes before beginning full-scale demonstration and deployment. The program supports device testing by providing technology developers with information on testing facilities. Technology developers require access to facilities capable of simulating open-water conditions in order to refine and validate device operability. The program has identified more than 20 tank testing operators in the United States with capabilities suited to the marine and hydrokinetic technology industry. This information is available to the public in the program's Hydrodynamic Testing Facilities Database. The program also supports the development of open-water, grid-connected testing facilities, as well as resource assessments that will improve simulations done in dry-dock and closed-water testing facilities. The program has established two university-led National Marine Renewable Energy Centers to be used for device testing. These centers are located on coasts and will have open-water testing berths, allowing researchers to investigate marine and estuary conditions. Optimal array design, development, modeling and testing are needed to maximize efficiency and electricity generation at marine and hydrokinetic power

  3. Marine oil seeps

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, R.F. )

    1991-03-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbons of both biogenic and thermogenic origin are common constituents of the marine water column and sediment of the continental shelves. Approximately 0.25 million metric tons of oil per year, constituting about 8% of the oil input into the sea, is derived from natural seeps, the rest being anthropogenic. Seepage has occurred world-wide for millions of years and must have been many times greater in the past, when enormous oil deposits, such as the Orinoco Oil Belt, were first exposed to erosion. Although the amount varies from site to site with time, seepage is pervasive in polar and temperate seas. Marine-seep oil is intensely weathered and thus can be distinguished chemically from recent biogenic or undegraded crude oil. The degraded oil from seeps appears to have little deleterious effect on many marine organisms, which ingest and discharge the oil mostly unmetabolized. Chemical analyses suggest that a very large oil-rich layer in the Sargasso Sea originated from a large and as yet undetected seep. Oil seeps have long been used as guides for oil exploration onshore but have been underutilized for this purpose offshore because of oil-plume drift from the site of the seep and because natural oil slicks may be masked by spilled oil. At least one marine seep, in the Santa Barbara Channel, California, is producing oil and natural gas into two hollow steel pyramids from which the oil is collected by work boats and the natural gas is transported to shore by pipeline. This facility effectively reduces atmospheric pollution, controls marine oil pollution from the largest seep in the area, provides emission credits, and yields a modest economic benefit, but the seep is not known to have been used directly in oil exploration.

  4. Mariner 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Mariner 2 was the world's first successful interplanetary spacecraft. Launched August 27, 1962, on an Atlas-Agena rocket, Mariner 2 passed within about 34,000 kilometers (21,000 miles) of Venus, sending back valuable new information about interplanetary space and the Venusian atmosphere. Mariner 2 recorded the temperature at Venus for the first time, revealing the planet's very hot atmosphere of about 500 degrees Celsius (900 degrees Fahrenheit). The spacecraft's solar wind experiment measured for the first time the density, velocity, composition and variation over time of the solar wind.

  5. Marine stings.

    PubMed

    Gurry, D

    1992-01-01

    Our superb coastline attracts local tourists and overseas visitors seeking recreation. There is increasing contact with marine life. The unwary and unprepared holiday-maker can be at risk of serious injury from a number of common sea creatures.

  6. Marine enzymes.

    PubMed

    Debashish, Ghosh; Malay, Saha; Barindra, Sana; Joydeep, Mukherjee

    2005-01-01

    Marine enzyme biotechnology can offer novel biocatalysts with properties like high salt tolerance, hyperthermostability, barophilicity, cold adaptivity, and ease in large-scale cultivation. This review deals with the research and development work done on the occurrence, molecular biology, and bioprocessing of marine enzymes during the last decade. Exotic locations have been accessed for the search of novel enzymes. Scientists have isolated proteases and carbohydrases from deep sea hydrothermal vents. Cold active metabolic enzymes from psychrophilic marine microorganisms have received considerable research attention. Marine symbiont microorganisms growing in association with animals and plants were shown to produce enzymes of commercial interest. Microorganisms isolated from sediment and seawater have been the most widely studied, proteases, carbohydrases, and peroxidases being noteworthy. Enzymes from marine animals and plants were primarily studied for their metabolic roles, though proteases and peroxidases have found industrial applications. Novel techniques in molecular biology applied to assess the diversity of chitinases, nitrate, nitrite, ammonia-metabolizing, and pollutant-degrading enzymes are discussed. Genes encoding chitinases, proteases, and carbohydrases from microbial and animal sources have been cloned and characterized. Research on the bioprocessing of marine-derived enzymes, however, has been scanty, focusing mainly on the application of solid-state fermentation to the production of enzymes from microbial sources.

  7. Enumeration and Cell Cycle Analysis of Natural Populations of Marine Picoplankton by Flow Cytometry Using the Nucleic Acid Stain SYBR Green I

    PubMed Central

    Marie, D.; Partensky, F.; Jacquet, S.; Vaulot, D.

    1997-01-01

    The novel dye SYBR Green I binds specifically to nucleic acids and can be excited by blue light (488-nm wavelength). Cell concentrations of prokaryotes measured in marine samples with this dye on a low-cost compact flow cytometer are comparable to those obtained with the UV-excited stain Hoechst 33342 (bis-benzimide) on an expensive flow cytometer with a water-cooled laser. In contrast to TOTO-1 and TO-PRO-1, SYBR Green I has the advantage of clearly discriminating both heterotrophic bacteria and autotrophic Prochlorococcus cells, even in oligotrophic waters. As with TOTO-1 and TO-PRO-1, two groups of heterotrophic bacteria (B-I and B-II-like types) can be distinguished. Moreover, the resolution of DNA distribution obtained with SYBR Green I is similar to that obtained with Hoechst 33342 and permits the analysis of the cell cycle of photosynthetic prokaryotes over the whole water column. PMID:16535483

  8. Exploring natural product chemistry and biology with multicomponent reactions. 5. Discovery of a novel tubulin-targeting scaffold derived from the rigidin family of marine alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Frolova, Liliya V; Magedov, Igor V; Romero, Anntherese E; Karki, Menuka; Otero, Isaiah; Hayden, Kathryn; Evdokimov, Nikolai M; Banuls, Laetitia Moreno Y; Rastogi, Shiva K; Smith, W Ross; Lu, Shi-Long; Kiss, Robert; Shuster, Charles B; Hamel, Ernest; Betancourt, Tania; Rogelj, Snezna; Kornienko, Alexander

    2013-09-12

    We developed synthetic chemistry to access the marine alkaloid rigidins and over 40 synthetic analogues based on the 7-deazaxanthine, 7-deazaadenine, 7-deazapurine, and 7-deazahypoxanthine skeletons. Analogues based on the 7-deazahypoxanthine skeleton exhibited nanomolar potencies against cell lines representing cancers with dismal prognoses, tumor metastases, and multidrug resistant cells. Studies aimed at elucidating the mode(s) of action of the 7-deazahypoxanthines in cancer cells revealed that they inhibited in vitro tubulin polymerization and disorganized microtubules in live HeLa cells. Experiments evaluating the effects of the 7-deazahypoxanthines on the binding of [(3)H]colchicine to tubulin identified the colchicine site on tubulin as the most likely target for these compounds in cancer cells. Because many microtubule-targeting compounds are successfully used to fight cancer in the clinic, we believe the new chemical class of antitubulin agents represented by the 7-deazahypoxanthine rigidin analogues have significant potential as new anticancer agents.

  9. Kinase Inhibitors from Marine Sponges

    PubMed Central

    Skropeta, Danielle; Pastro, Natalie; Zivanovic, Ana

    2011-01-01

    Protein kinases play a critical role in cell regulation and their deregulation is a contributing factor in an increasing list of diseases including cancer. Marine sponges have yielded over 70 novel compounds to date that exhibit significant inhibitory activity towards a range of protein kinases. These compounds, which belong to diverse structural classes, are reviewed herein, and ordered based upon the kinase that they inhibit. Relevant synthetic studies on the marine natural product kinase inhibitors have also been included. PMID:22073013

  10. Early marine salmon injury assessment in Prince William sound. Fish/shellfish study number 4a. Exxon Valdez oil spill, state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Willette, T.M.; Carpenter, G.; Shields, P.; Carlson, S.R.

    1994-11-01

    The authors investigated the effects of the Exxon Valdez oil spill and evaluated natural environmental effects on the migration, growth, and survival of juvenile pink salmon during the first two months of marine residence in Prince William Sound using coded-wire tagged juveniles released from hatcheries in 1989-1991. Juveniles from Koernig Hatchery migrated from the nearby moderately-oiled area to the lightly-oiled southern coast of Knight Island in 1989; similar migration was not observed in 1990 and 1991. Exposure to hydrocarbons appeared to reduce the juvenile growth rate by 0.76 to 0.94% body weight per day in 1989, and was associated with a significantly greater (P<.05) frequency of cytochrome P4501A enzyme induction in moderately-oiled areas. Growth rate reduction likely caused a 1.7 to 2.2% reduction in survival to the adult stage among fish reared in oiled areas.

  11. Global patterns of extinction risk in marine and non-marine systems.

    PubMed

    Webb, Thomas J; Mindel, Beth L

    2015-02-16

    Despite increasing concern over the effects of human activities on marine ecosystems, extinction in the sea remains scarce: 19-24 out of a total of >850 recorded extinctions implies a 9-fold lower marine extinction rate compared to non-marine systems. The extent of threats faced by marine systems, and their resilience to them, receive considerable attention, but the detectability of marine extinctions is less well understood. Before its extinction or threat status is recorded, a species must be both taxonomically described and then formally assessed; lower rates of either process for marine species could thus impact patterns of extinction risk, especially as species missing from taxonomic inventories may often be more vulnerable than described species. We combine data on taxonomic description with conservation assessments from the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) to test these possibilities across almost all marine and non-marine eukaryotes. We find that the 9-fold lower rate of recorded extinctions and 4-fold lower rate of ongoing extinction risk across marine species can be explained in part by differences in the proportion of species assessed by the IUCN (3% cf. 4% of non-marine species). Furthermore, once taxonomic knowledge and conservation assessments pass a threshold level, differences in extinction risk between marine and non-marine groups largely disappear. Indeed, across the best-studied taxonomic groups, there is no difference between marine and non-marine systems, with on average between 20% and 25% of species being threatened with extinction, regardless of realm.

  12. Marine energy.

    PubMed

    Kerr, David

    2007-04-15

    Marine energy is renewable and carbon free and has the potential to make a significant contribution to energy supplies in the future. In the UK, tidal power barrages and wave energy could make the largest contribution, and tidal stream energy could make a smaller but still a useful contribution. This paper provides an overview of the current status and prospects for electrical generation from marine energy. It concludes that a realistic potential contribution to UK electricity supplies is approximately 80 TWh per year but that many years of development and investment will be required if this potential is to be realized.

  13. Natural osmolytes are much less effective substrates than glycogen for catabolic energy production in the marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7002.

    PubMed

    Guerra, L Tiago; Xu, Yu; Bennette, Nicholas; McNeely, Kelsey; Bryant, Donald A; Dismukes, G Charles

    2013-07-10

    ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, encoded by glgC, catalyzes the first step of glycogen and glucosylglycer(ol/ate) biosynthesis. Here we report the construction of the first glgC null mutant of a marine cyanobacterium (Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002) and investigate its impact on dark anoxic metabolism (autofermentation). The glgC mutant had 98% lower ADP-glucose, synthesized no glycogen and produced appreciably more soluble sugars (mainly sucrose) than wild type (WT). Some glucosylglycerol was still observed, which suggests that the mutant has another, inefficient ADP-glucose synthesis pathway. In contrast, hypersaline conditions (1M NaCl) were lethal to the mutant strain, indicating that, unlike other strains, the elevated sucrose does not compensate for the reduced GG as osmolyte. In contrast to WT, nitrate limitation did not cause bleaching of N-containing pigments or carbohydrate accumulation in the glgC mutant, indicating impaired recycling of nitrogen stores. Despite the 2-fold increase in osmolytes, both the respiration and autofermentation rates of the glgC mutant were appreciably slower (2-4-fold) and correlated quantitatively with the lower fraction of insoluble carbohydrates relative to WT (85% vs. 12%). However, the remaining insoluble carbohydrates still accounted for a high fraction of the carbohydrate catabolized (38%), indicating that insoluble carbohydrates rather than osmolytes were the preferred substrate for autofermentation.

  14. Assessing the In Situ Fertilization Status of Two Marine Copepod Species, Temora longicornis and Eurytemora herdmani; How Common Are Unfertilized Eggs in Nature?

    PubMed Central

    Lasley-Rasher, Rachel S.; Kramer, Andrew M.; Burdett-Coutts, Victoria; Yen, Jeannette

    2014-01-01

    We utilized an egg staining technique to measure the in situ fertilization success of two marine copepod species, Temora longicornis and Eurytemora herdmani from May to October 2008 in coastal Maine and correlated fertilization success with environmental conditions in their habitat. T. longicornis is a free spawning species that releases eggs into the ambient seawater after mating. In contrast, E. herdmani carries eggs in an egg sac until they hatch. The proportion of fertilized eggs within E. herdmani egg sacs was significantly higher than the freely spawned clutches of T. longicornis. This may be a result of the asymmetrical costs associated with carrying vs. spawning unfertilized eggs. T. longicornis frequently laid both fertilized and unfertilized eggs within their clutch. T. longicornis fertilization was negatively associated with chlorophyll concentration and positively associated with population density in their local habitat. The fertilization status of E. herdmani egg sacs was high throughout the season, but the proportion of ovigerous females was negatively associated with an interaction between predators and the proportion of females in the population. This study emphasizes that, in addition to population level processes, community and ecosystem level processes strongly influence the fertilization success and subsequent productivity of copepods. PMID:25397669

  15. The Nature of Primary Organic Films in the Marine Environment and Their Significance for Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Heat Exchange Surfaces.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-02-01

    The development of bacterial slime films on the heat exchanger surfaces of OTEC power plants is likely to be of critical importance in determining if... OTEC closed cycle systems are technically and economically viable. This report surveys our present state of knowledge as to the nature and behavior

  16. Nutraceutical and pharmacological implications of marine carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Pallela, Ramjee

    2014-01-01

    Current day's research has been focusing much on the potential pharmacological or nutraceutical agents of selective health benefits with less toxicity. As a consequence of increased demand of nutritional supplements of great medicinal values, development of therapeutic agents from natural sources, in particular, marine environment are being considered much important. A diverse array of marine natural products containing medicinally useful nutritional substances, i.e., marine nutraceuticals have been focused to the benefit of mankind. Carbohydrates, by being constituted in considerable amount of many marine organisms display several nutraceutical and pharmaceutical behavior to defend from various diseases. Moreover, the carbohydrates from algae as well as from shellfish wastes, like chitosan and its derivatives, showed tremendous applications in biology and biomedicine. In the current chapter, several of marine carbohydrates from various marine flora and fauna have been covered with their applications and prospects in the development of nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals.

  17. [Biologically active metabolites of the marine actinobacteria].

    PubMed

    Sobolevskaia, M P; Kuznetsova, T A

    2010-01-01

    This review systematically data on the chemical structure and biological activity of metabolites of obligate and facultative marine actinobacteria, published from 2000 to 2007. We discuss some structural features of the five groups of metabolites related to macrolides and compounds containing lactone, quinone and diketopiperazine residues, cyclic peptides, alkaloids, and compounds of mixed biosynthesis. Survey shows a large chemical diversity of metabolites actinobacteria isolated from marine environment. It is shown that, along with metabolites, identical to previously isolated from terrestrial actinobacteria, marine actinobacteria synthesize unknown compounds not found in other natural sources, including micro organisms. Perhaps the biosynthesis of new chemotypes bioactive compounds in marine actinobacteria is one manifestation of chemical adaptation of microorganisms to environmental conditions at sea. Review stresses the importance of the chemical study of metabolites of marine actinobacteria. These studies are aimed at obtaining new data on marine microorganisms producers of biologically active compounds and chemical structure and biological activity of new low-molecular bioregulators of natural origin.

  18. SAFRR tsunami scenario: impacts on California ecosystems, species, marine natural resources, and fisheries: Chapter G in The SAFRR (Science Application for Risk Reduction) Tsunami Scenario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brosnan, Deborah; Wein, Anne; Wilson, Rick; Ross, Stephanie; Jones, Lucile

    2014-01-01

    We evaluate the effects of the SAFRR Tsunami Scenario on California’s ecosystems, species, natural resources, and fisheries. We discuss mitigation and preparedness approaches that can be useful in Tsunami planning. The chapter provides an introduction to the role of ecosystems and natural resources in tsunami events (Section 1). A separate section focuses on specific impacts of the SAFRR Tsunami Scenario on California’s ecosystems and endangered species (Section 2). A section on commercial fisheries and the fishing fleet (Section 3) documents the plausible effects on California’s commercial fishery resources, fishing fleets, and communities. Sections 2 and 3 each include practical preparedness options for communities and suggestions on information needs or research. Our evaluation indicates that many low-lying coastal habitats, including beaches, marshes and sloughs, rivers and waterways connected to the sea, as well as nearshore submarine habitats will be damaged by the SAFRR Tsunami Scenario. Beach erosion and complex or high volumes of tsunami-generated debris would pose major challenges for ecological communities. Several endangered species and protected areas are at risk. Commercial fisheries and fishing fleets will be affected directly by the tsunami and indirectly by dependencies on infrastructure that is damaged. There is evidence that in some areas intact ecosystems, notably sand dunes, will act as natural defenses against the tsunami waves. However, ecosystems do not provide blanket protection against tsunami surge. The consequences of ecological and natural resource damage are estimated in the millions of dollars. These costs are driven partly by the loss of ecosystem services, as well as cumulative and follow-on impacts where, for example, increased erosion during the tsunami can in turn lead to subsequent damage and loss to coastal properties. Recovery of ecosystems, natural resources and fisheries is likely to be lengthy and expensive

  19. Marine envenomations.

    PubMed

    Balhara, Kamna S; Stolbach, Andrew

    2014-02-01

    This article describes the epidemiology and presentation of human envenomation from marine organisms. Venom pathophysiology, envenomation presentation, and treatment options are discussed for sea snake, stingray, spiny fish, jellyfish, octopus, cone snail, sea urchin, and sponge envenomation. The authors describe the management of common exposures that cause morbidity as well as the keys to recognition and treatment of life-threatening exposures.

  20. Marine Mammals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meith, Nikki

    Marine mammals have not only fascinated and inspired human beings for thousands of years, but they also support a big business by providing flesh for sea-borne factories, sustaining Arctic lifestyles and traditions, and attracting tourists to ocean aquaria. While they are being harpooned, bludgeoned, shot, netted, and trained to jump through…

  1. Marine Trades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Alan

    This curriculum guide provides materials for a competency-based course in marine trades at the secondary level. The curriculum design uses the curriculum infused model for the teaching of basic skills as part of vocational education and demonstrates the relationship of vocationally related skills to communication, mathematics, and science…

  2. Mariner Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, C.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Mariner was the name given to the earliest set of American space missions to explore the planets and to the spacecraft developed to carry them out. The missions were planned and executed by the JET PROPULSION LABORATORY (JPL) of the California Institute of Technology, which had been designated by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) as its lead center for planetary missions....

  3. Marine Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherman, J. W., III

    1975-01-01

    The papers presented in the marine session may be broadly grouped into several classes: microwave region instruments compared to infrared and visible region sensors, satellite techniques compared to aircraft techniques, open ocean applications compared to coastal region applications, and basic research and understanding of ocean phenomena compared to research techniques that offer immediate applications.

  4. Metabolic engineering for the microbial production of marine bioactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Mao, Xiangzhao; Liu, Zhen; Sun, Jianan; Lee, Sang Yup

    2017-03-06

    Many marine bioactive compounds have medicinal and nutritional values. These bioactive compounds have been prepared using solvent-based extraction from marine bio-resources or chemical synthesis, which are costly, inefficient with low yields, and environmentally unfriendly. Recent advances in metabolic engineering allowed to some extent more efficient production of these compounds, showing promises to meet the increasing demand of marine natural bioactive compounds. In this paper, we review the strategies and statuses of metabolic engineering applied to microbial production of marine natural bioactive compounds including terpenoids and their derivatives, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and marine natural drugs, and provide perspectives.

  5. Synthesis and preliminary biological evaluation of a small library of hybrid compounds based on Ugi isocyanide multicomponent reactions with a marine natural product scaffold.

    PubMed

    Avilés, Edward; Prudhomme, Jacques; Le Roch, Karine G; Franzblau, Scott G; Chandrasena, Kevin; Mayer, Alejandro M S; Rodríguez, Abimael D

    2015-11-15

    A mixture-based combinatorial library of five Ugi adducts (4-8) incorporating known antitubercular and antimalarial pharmacophores was successfully synthesized, starting from the naturally occurring diisocyanide 3, via parallel Ugi four-center three-component reactions (U-4C-3CR). The novel α-acylamino amides obtained were evaluated for their antiinfective potential against laboratory strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv and chloroquine-susceptible 3D7 Plasmodium falciparum. Interestingly, compounds 4-8 displayed potent in vitro antiparasitic activity with higher cytotoxicity in comparison to their diisocyanide precursor 3, with the best compound exhibiting an IC50 value of 3.6 nM. Additionally, these natural product inspired hybrids potently inhibited in vitro thromboxane B2 (TXB2) and superoxide anion (O2(-)) generation from Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated rat neonatal microglia, with concomitant low short-term toxicity.

  6. Plastic litter in sediments from the Croatian marine protected area of the natural park of Telaščica bay (Adriatic Sea).

    PubMed

    Blašković, Andrea; Fastelli, Paolo; Čižmek, Hrvoje; Guerranti, Cristiana; Renzi, Monia

    2017-01-15

    This paper reports baseline levels of litter (macro, meso and microplastics) in sediments collected from different areas of the Croatian MPA of the Natural Park of Telaščica bay (Adriatic Sea, GSA n. 17). The distribution of total abundance according to size, for all analysed locations evidences that microplastics are the dominant fraction concerning item's numbers. In all analysed samples no macroplastics were found, while microplastics are 88.71% and mesoplastics are 11.29% of the total.

  7. On the Identification of Rayon/Viscose as a Major Fraction of Microplastics in the Marine Environment: Discrimination between Natural and Man-made Cellulosic Fibers by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Comnea-Stancu, Ionela Raluca; Wieland, Karin; Ramer, Georg; Schwaighofer, Andreas; Lendl, Bernhard

    2016-09-20

    This work was sparked by the reported identification of man-made cellulosic fibers (rayon/viscose) in the marine environment as a major fraction of plastic litter by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) transmission spectroscopy and library search. To assess the plausibility of such findings, both natural and man-made fibers were examined using FT-IR spectroscopy. Spectra acquired by transmission microscopy, attenuated total reflection (ATR) microscopy, and ATR spectroscopy were compared. Library search was employed and results show significant differences in the identification rate depending on the acquisition method of the spectra. Careful selection of search parameters and the choice of spectra acquisition method were found to be essential for optimization of the library search results. When using transmission spectra of fibers and ATR libraries it was not possible to differentiate between man-made and natural fibers. Successful differentiation of natural and man-made cellulosic fibers has been achieved for FT-IR spectra acquired by ATR microscopy and ATR spectroscopy, and application of ATR libraries. As an alternative, chemometric methods such as unsupervised hierarchical cluster analysis, principal component analysis, and partial least squares-discriminant analysis were employed to facilitate identification based on intrinsic relationships of sample spectra and successful discrimination of the fiber type could be achieved. Differences in the ATR spectra depending on the internal reflection element (Ge versus diamond) were observed as expected; however, these did not impair correct classification by chemometric analysis. Moreover, the effects of different levels of humidity on the IR spectra of natural and man-made fibers were investigated, too. It has been found that drying and re-humidification leads to intensity changes of absorption bands of the carbohydrate backbone, but does not impair the identification of the fiber type by library search or cluster

  8. Marine Peptides: Bioactivities and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Randy Chi Fai; Ng, Tzi Bun; Wong, Jack Ho

    2015-01-01

    Peptides are important bioactive natural products which are present in many marine species. These marine peptides have high potential nutraceutical and medicinal values because of their broad spectra of bioactivities. Their antimicrobial, antiviral, antitumor, antioxidative, cardioprotective (antihypertensive, antiatherosclerotic and anticoagulant), immunomodulatory, analgesic, anxiolytic anti-diabetic, appetite suppressing and neuroprotective activities have attracted the attention of the pharmaceutical industry, which attempts to design them for use in the treatment or prevention of various diseases. Some marine peptides or their derivatives have high commercial values and had reached the pharmaceutical and nutraceutical markets. A large number of them are already in different phases of the clinical and preclinical pipeline. This review highlights the recent research in marine peptides and the trends and prospects for the future, with special emphasis on nutraceutical and pharmaceutical development into marketed products. PMID:26132844

  9. Understanding Marine Mussel Adhesion

    SciTech Connect

    H. G. Silverman; F. F. Roberto

    2007-12-01

    In addition to identifying the proteins that have a role in underwater adhesion by marine mussels, research efforts have focused on identifying the genes responsible for the adhesive proteins, environmental factors that may influence protein production, and strategies for producing natural adhesives similar to the native mussel adhesive proteins. The production-scale availability of recombinant mussel adhesive proteins will enable researchers to formulate adhesives that are waterimpervious and ecologically safe and can bind materials ranging from glass, plastics, metals, and wood to materials, such as bone or teeth, biological organisms, and other chemicals or molecules. Unfortunately, as of yet scientists have been unable to duplicate the processes that marine mussels use to create adhesive structures. This study provides a background on adhesive proteins identified in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, and introduces our research interests and discusses the future for continued research related to mussel adhesion.

  10. Understanding Marine Mussel Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Roberto, Francisco F.

    2007-01-01

    In addition to identifying the proteins that have a role in underwater adhesion by marine mussels, research efforts have focused on identifying the genes responsible for the adhesive proteins, environmental factors that may influence protein production, and strategies for producing natural adhesives similar to the native mussel adhesive proteins. The production-scale availability of recombinant mussel adhesive proteins will enable researchers to formulate adhesives that are water-impervious and ecologically safe and can bind materials ranging from glass, plastics, metals, and wood to materials, such as bone or teeth, biological organisms, and other chemicals or molecules. Unfortunately, as of yet scientists have been unable to duplicate the processes that marine mussels use to create adhesive structures. This study provides a background on adhesive proteins identified in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, and introduces our research interests and discusses the future for continued research related to mussel adhesion. PMID:17990038

  11. Exploring marine resources for bioactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Kiuru, Paula; DʼAuria, M Valeria; Muller, Christian D; Tammela, Päivi; Vuorela, Heikki; Yli-Kauhaluoma, Jari

    2014-09-01

    Biodiversity in the seas is only partly explored, although marine organisms are excellent sources for many industrial products. Through close co-operation between industrial and academic partners, it is possible to successfully collect, isolate and classify marine organisms, such as bacteria, fungi, micro- and macroalgae, cyanobacteria, and marine invertebrates from the oceans and seas globally. Extracts and purified compounds of these organisms can be studied for several therapeutically and industrially significant biological activities, including anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antibacterial, and anticoagulant activities by applying a wide variety of screening tools, as well as for ion channel/receptor modulation and plant growth regulation. Chromatographic isolation of bioactive compounds will be followed by structural determination. Sustainable cultivation methods for promising organisms and biotechnological processes for selected compounds can be developed, as well as biosensors for monitoring the target compounds. The (semi)synthetic modification of marine-based bioactive compounds produces their new derivatives, structural analogs and mimetics that could serve as hit or lead compounds and be used to expand compound libraries based on marine natural products. The research innovations can be targeted for industrial product development in order to improve the growth and productivity of marine biotechnology. Marine research aims at a better understanding of environmentally conscious sourcing of marine biotechnology products and increased public awareness of marine biodiversity. Marine research is expected to offer novel marine-based lead compounds for industries and strengthen their product portfolios related to pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, cosmetic, agrochemical, food processing, material and biosensor applications.

  12. Assessment of injuries to killer whales in Prince William Sound. Marine mammal study number 2. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlheim, M.E.; Matkin, C.O.

    1993-12-01

    Photo-identification studies of individual killer whales inhabiting Prince William Sound were collected from 1989-91 to determine the impact of the spill on whale abundance and distribution. Concurrent photo-identification studies were also conducted in Southeast Alaska to determine if PWS killer whales were displaced to other areas. Despite increased effort, the number of encounters with PWS killer whales appears to be decreasing. The authors assume, that the whales are dead from natural causes, a result of interactions with fisheries, from the spill, or a combination of these causes.

  13. Career Education: The Marine Science Occupations Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farning, Maxwell

    This paper discusses career opportunities in eight broad groups of marine science occupations: (1) harbor construction and maintenance, (2) ship construction, (3) merchant marine activities, (4) towboating, (5) longshoring, (6) fishing and fish farming, (7) petroleum and natural gas exploration and extraction, and (8) research activities. The…

  14. Marine Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Andel, Tjeerd H.

    Marine geology was blessed early, about 30 years ago, with two great textbooks, one by P.H. Kuenen, the other by Francis P. Shepard, but in more recent years, no one has dared synthesize a field that has become so diverse and is growing so rapidly. There are many texts written for the beginning undergraduate student, mostly by marine geologists, but none can be handed conveniently to a serious advanced student or given to a colleague interested in what the field has wrought. The reason for this regrettable state is obvious; only an active, major scholar could hope to write such a book well, but the years would pass, his students dwindle, his grants vanish. He himself might be out of date before his book was. Kennett has earned a large measure of gratitude for his attempt to undertake this task. His personal price must have been high but so are our rewards.

  15. Assessment of marine-derived nutrients in the Copper River Delta, Alaska, using natural abundance of the stable isotopes of nitrogen, sulfur, and carbon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kline, Thomas C.; Woody, Carol Ann; Bishop, Mary Anne; Powers, Sean P.; Knudsen, E. Eric

    2007-01-01

    We performed nitrogen, sulfur, and carbon stable isotope analysis (SIA) on maturing and juvenile anadromous sockeye and coho salmon, and periphyton in two Copper River delta watersheds of Alaska to trace salmonderived nutrients during 2003–2004. Maturing salmon were isotopically enriched relative to alternate freshwater N, S, and C sources as expected, with differences consistent with species trophic level differences, and minor system, sex, and year-to-year differences, enabling use of SIA to trace these salmon-derived nutrients. Periphyton naturally colonized, incubated, and collected using Wildco Periphtyon Samplers in and near spawning sites was 34S- and 15N-enriched, as expected, and at all freshwater sites was 13C-depleted. At nonspawning and coho-only sites, periphyton 34S and 15N was generally low. However, 34S was low enough at some sites to be suggestive of sulfate reduction, complicating the use of S isotopes. Juvenile salmon SIA ranged in values consistent with using production derived from re-mineralization as well as direct utilization, but only by a minority fraction of coho salmon. Dependency on salmon-derived nutrients ranged from relatively high to relatively low, suggesting a space-limited system. No one particular isotope was found to be superior for determining the relative importance of salmon-derived nutrients.

  16. The marine natural-derived inhibitors of glycogen synthase kinase-3β phenylmethylene hydantoins: In vitro and in vivo activities and pharmacophore modeling

    PubMed Central

    Khanfar, Mohammad A.; Asal, Bilal Abu; Mudit, Mudit; Kaddoumi, Amal; El Sayed, Khalid A.

    2009-01-01

    The Red Sea sponge Hemimycale arabica afforded the known (Z)-5-(4-hydroxybenzylidene)-hydantoin (1). This natural phenylmethylene hydantoin (PMH) 1 and the synthetic (Z)-5-(4-(ethylthio)benzylidene)-hydantoin (2) showed potent in vitro and in vivo anti-growth and anti-invasive properties against PC-3M prostate cancer cells in MTT, spheroid disaggregation, and in mice models. To explore a possible molecular target of PMHs, the most potent synthetic analogue 2 has been virtually screened against various protein kinases. Molecular modeling study has shown that 2 can be successfully docked within the binding pocket of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3β) similar to the well-known GSK-3β inhibitor I-5. Several PMHs showed potent in vitro GSK-3β inhibitory activity with an IC50 range of 4–20 µM. The most potent analogue 3 showed a significant increase in liver glycogen level at the 5, 15, and 25 mg/kg dose levels, in vivo. Pharmacophore model was built and validated using in-house database of active and inactive GSK-3β inhibitors. The GSK-3β inhibitory activity of PMHs entitles them to be potential leads for the treatment of cancer, Alzheimer’s disease, bipolar disorders, stroke, different tau pathologies, and type-2 diabetes. PMID:19616957

  17. Biodiversity conservation should focus on no-take Marine Reserves: 94% of Marine Protected Areas allow fishing.

    PubMed

    Costello, Mark J; Ballantine, Bill

    2015-09-01

    Conservation needs places where nature is left wild; but only a quarter of coastal countries have no-take Marine Reserves. 'Marine Protected Areas' (MPAs) have been used to indicate conservation progress but we found that 94% allow fishing and thus cannot protect all aspects of biodiversity. Biodiversity conservation should focus on Marine Reserves, not MPAs.

  18. Biosurfactants, bioemulsifiers and exopolysaccharides from marine microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Satpute, Surekha K; Banat, Ibrahim M; Dhakephalkar, Prashant K; Banpurkar, Arun G; Chopade, Balu A

    2010-01-01

    Marine biosphere offers wealthy flora and fauna, which represents a vast natural resource of imperative functional commercial grade products. Among the various bioactive compounds, biosurfactant (BS)/bioemulsifiers (BE) are attracting major interest and attention due to their structural and functional diversity. The versatile properties of surface active molecules find numerous applications in various industries. Marine microorganisms such as Acinetobacter, Arthrobacter, Pseudomonas, Halomonas, Myroides, Corynebacteria, Bacillus, Alteromonas sp. have been studied for production of BS/BE and exopolysaccharides (EPS). Due to the enormity of marine biosphere, most of the marine microbial world remains unexplored. The discovery of potent BS/BE producing marine microorganism would enhance the use of environmental biodegradable surface active molecule and hopefully reduce total dependence or number of new application oriented towards the chemical synthetic surfactant industry. Our present review gives comprehensive information on BS/BE which has been reported to be produced by marine microorganisms and their possible potential future applications.

  19. Isotopic identification of natural vs. anthropogenic lead sources in marine sediments from the inner Ría de Vigo (NW Spain).

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Iglesias, P; Rubio, B; Millos, J

    2012-10-15

    San Simón Bay, the inner part of the Ría de Vigo (NW Spain), an area previously identified as highly polluted by Pb, was selected for the application of Pb stable isotope ratios as a fingerprinting tool in subtidal and intertidal sediment cores. Lead isotopic ratios were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry on extracts from bulk samples after total acid digestion. Depth-wise profiles of (206)Pb/(207)Pb, (206)Pb/(204)Pb, (207)Pb/(204)Pb, (208)Pb/(204)Pb and (208)Pb/(207)Pb ratios showed, in general, an upward decrease for both intertidal and subtidal sediments as a consequence of the anthropogenic activities over the last century, or centuries. Waste channel samples from a nearby ceramic factory showed characteristic Pb stable isotope ratios different from those typical of coal and petrol. Natural isotope ratios from non-polluted samples were established for the study area, differentiating sediments from granitic or schist-gneiss sources. A binary mixing model employed on the polluted samples allowed estimating the anthropogenic inputs to the bay. These inputs represented between 25 and 98% of Pb inputs in intertidal samples, and 9-84% in subtidal samples, their contributions varying with time. Anthropogenic sources were apportioned according to a three-source model. Coal combustion-related emissions were the main anthropogenic source Pb to the bay (60-70%) before the establishment of the ceramic factory in the area (in the 1970s) which has since constituted the main source (95-100%), followed by petrol-related emissions. The Pb inputs history for the intertidal area was determined for the 20th century, and, for the subtidal area, the 19th and 20th centuries.

  20. Production of Enzymes from Marine Actinobacteria.

    PubMed

    Zhao, X Q; Xu, X N; Chen, L Y

    Marine actinobacteria are well recognized for their capabilities to produce valuable natural products, which have great potential for applications in medical, agricultural, and fine chemical industries. In addition to producing unique enzymes responsible for biosynthesis of natural products, many marine actinobacteria also produce hydrolytic enzymes which are able to degrade various biopolymers, such as cellulose, xylan, and chitin. These enzymes are important to produce biofuels and biochemicals of interest from renewable biomass. In this chapter, the recent reports of novel enzymes produced by marine actinobacteria are reviewed, and advanced technologies that can be applied to search for novel marine enzymes as well as for improved enzyme production by marine actinobacteria are summarized, which include ribosome engineering, genome mining, as well as synthetic biology studies.

  1. Marine Lubricants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, B. H.; Green, D.

    Marine diesel engines are classified by speed, either large (medium speed) or very large (slow speed) with high efficiencies and burning low-quality fuel. Slow-speed engines, up to 200 rpm, are two-stroke with separate combustion chamber and sump connected by a crosshead, with trunk and system oil lubricants for each. Medium-speed diesels, 300-1500 rpm, are of conventional automotive design with one lubricant. Slow-speed engines use heavy fuel oil of much lower quality than conventional diesel with problems of deposit cleanliness, acidity production and oxidation. Lubricants are mainly SAE 30/40/50 monogrades using paraffinic basestocks. The main types of additives are detergents/dispersants, antioxidants, corrosion inhibitors, anti-wear/load-carrying/ep, pour-point depressants and anti-foam compounds. There are no simple systems for classifying marine lubricants, as for automotive, because of the wide range of engine design, ratings and service applications they serve. There are no standard tests; lubricant suppliers use their own tests or the Bolnes 3DNL, with final proof from field tests. Frequent lubricant analyses safeguard engines and require standard sampling procedures before determination of density, viscosity, flash point, insolubles, base number, water and wear metal content.

  2. Under-water superoleophobic Glass: Unexplored role of the surfactant-rich solvent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waghmare, Prashant R.; Das, Siddhartha; Mitra, Sushanta K.

    2013-05-01

    Preparing low energy liquid-repellant surfaces (superhydrophobic or superoleophobic) have attracted tremendous attention of late. In all these studies, the necessary liquid repellency is achieved by irreversible micro-nano texturing of the surfaces. Here we show for the first time that a glass surface, placed under water, can be made superoleophobic (with unprecedented contact angles close to 180 degrees and roll off angles only a few fractions of 1 degree) by merely changing the surfactant content of the water medium in which the oil (immiscible in water) has been dispersed. Therefore, we propose a paradigm shift in efforts to achieve liquid-repellant systems, namely, altering the solvent characteristics instead of engineering the surfaces. The effect occurs for a surfactant concentration much larger than the critical micelle concentration, and is associated to strong adsorption of surfactant molecules at the solid surface, triggering an extremely stable Cassie-Baxter like conformation of the oil droplets.

  3. Under-water superoleophobic glass: unexplored role of the surfactant-rich solvent.

    PubMed

    Waghmare, Prashant R; Das, Siddhartha; Mitra, Sushanta K

    2013-01-01

    Preparing low energy liquid-repellant surfaces (superhydrophobic or superoleophobic) have attracted tremendous attention of late. In all these studies, the necessary liquid repellency is achieved by irreversible micro-nano texturing of the surfaces. Here we show for the first time that a glass surface, placed under water, can be made superoleophobic (with unprecedented contact angles close to 180 degrees and roll off angles only a few fractions of 1 degree) by merely changing the surfactant content of the water medium in which the oil (immiscible in water) has been dispersed. Therefore, we propose a paradigm shift in efforts to achieve liquid-repellant systems, namely, altering the solvent characteristics instead of engineering the surfaces. The effect occurs for a surfactant concentration much larger than the critical micelle concentration, and is associated to strong adsorption of surfactant molecules at the solid surface, triggering an extremely stable Cassie-Baxter like conformation of the oil droplets.

  4. Under-water superoleophobic Glass: Unexplored role of the surfactant-rich solvent

    PubMed Central

    Waghmare, Prashant R.; Das, Siddhartha; Mitra, Sushanta K.

    2013-01-01

    Preparing low energy liquid-repellant surfaces (superhydrophobic or superoleophobic) have attracted tremendous attention of late. In all these studies, the necessary liquid repellency is achieved by irreversible micro-nano texturing of the surfaces. Here we show for the first time that a glass surface, placed under water, can be made superoleophobic (with unprecedented contact angles close to 180 degrees and roll off angles only a few fractions of 1 degree) by merely changing the surfactant content of the water medium in which the oil (immiscible in water) has been dispersed. Therefore, we propose a paradigm shift in efforts to achieve liquid-repellant systems, namely, altering the solvent characteristics instead of engineering the surfaces. The effect occurs for a surfactant concentration much larger than the critical micelle concentration, and is associated to strong adsorption of surfactant molecules at the solid surface, triggering an extremely stable Cassie-Baxter like conformation of the oil droplets. PMID:23689477

  5. 76 FR 18773 - Marianas Trench Marine National Monument, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, et al...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-05

    ... programs and public outreach regarding the Monument's coral reef ecosystem, related marine resources and... coral reef ecosystem or related marine resources or species, or diminish the Monument's natural... and their habitats, including coral reefs, marine clams, apex predators, marine mammals, sea...

  6. Marine Transportation Implications of the Last Arctic Sea Ice Refuge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brigham, L. W.

    2010-12-01

    Marine access is increasing throughout the Arctic Ocean and the 'Last Arctic Sea Ice Refuge' may have implications for governance and marine use in the region. Arctic marine transportation is increasing due to natural resource developemnt, increasing Arctic marine tourism, expanded Arctic marine research, and a general linkage of the Arctic to the gloabl economy. The Arctic Council recognized these changes with the release of the Arctic Marine Shipping Assessment of 2009. This key study (AMSA)can be viewed as a baseline assessment (using the 2004 AMSA database), a strategic guide for a host of stakeholders and actors, and as a policy document of the Arctic Council. The outcomes of AMSA of direct relevance to the Ice Refuge are within AMSA's 17 recommendations provided under three themes: Enhancing Arctic Marine Safety, Protecting Arctic People and the Environment, and Building the Arctic Marine Infrastructure. Selected recommendations of importance to the Ice Refuge include: a mandatory polar navigation code; identifying areas of heightened ecological and cultural significance; potential designation of special Arctic marine areas; enhancing the tracking and monitoring of Arctic marine traffic; improving circumpolar environmental response capacity; developing an Arctic search and rescue agreement; and, assessing the effects of marine transportation on marine mammals. A review will be made of the AMSA outcomes and how they can influence the governance, marine use, and future protection of this unique Arctic marine environment.

  7. Natural resource response guide: Mrine shellfish. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-02-01

    The Natural Resource Response Guides were developed for use by responders to oil and hazardous materials spills to determine the seasonal presence and activities of potential resources at risk and then to evaluate the probability and types of expected impacts to these resources. The set includes guides for Marine Fish, Marine Birds, Marine Mammals, and Marine Shellfish.

  8. Antimicrobial Peptides from Marine Proteobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Desriac, Florie; Jégou, Camille; Balnois, Eric; Brillet, Benjamin; Le Chevalier, Patrick; Fleury, Yannick

    2013-01-01

    After years of inadequate use and the emergence of multidrug resistant (MDR) strains, the efficiency of “classical” antibiotics has decreased significantly. New drugs to fight MDR strains are urgently needed. Bacteria hold much promise as a source of unusual bioactive metabolites. However, the potential of marine bacteria, except for Actinomycetes and Cyanobacteria, has been largely underexplored. In the past two decades, the structures of several antimicrobial compounds have been elucidated in marine Proteobacteria. Of these compounds, polyketides (PKs), synthesised by condensation of malonyl-coenzyme A and/or acetyl-coenzyme A, and non-ribosomal peptides (NRPs), obtained through the linkage of (unusual) amino acids, have recently generated particular interest. NRPs are good examples of naturally modified peptides. Here, we review and compile the data on the antimicrobial peptides isolated from marine Proteobacteria, especially NRPs. PMID:24084784

  9. 76 FR 62778 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ... liquefied natural gas (LNG) facility in the Massachusetts Bay for a period of 1 year. DATES: This... Natural Gas Port Facility in Massachusetts Bay AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National...) long, 24-inch (61-centimeter) outside diameter natural gas pipeline which interconnects the Port to...

  10. Photoprotective compounds from marine organisms.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Rajesh P; Richa; Sinha, Rajeshwar P; Singh, Shailendra P; Häder, Donat-P

    2010-06-01

    The substantial loss in the stratospheric ozone layer and consequent increase in solar ultraviolet radiation on the earth's surface have augmented the interest in searching for natural photoprotective compounds in organisms of marine as well as freshwater ecosystems. A number of photoprotective compounds such as mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs), scytonemin, carotenoids and several other UV-absorbing substances of unknown chemical structure have been identified from different organisms. MAAs form the most common class of UV-absorbing compounds known to occur widely in various marine organisms; however, several compounds having UV-screening properties still need to be identified. The synthesis of scytonemin, a predominant UV-A-photoprotective pigment, is exclusively reported in cyanobacteria. Carotenoids are important components of the photosynthetic apparatus that serve both light-harvesting and photoprotective functions, either by direct quenching of the singlet oxygen or other toxic reactive oxygen species or by dissipating the excess energy in the photosynthetic apparatus. The production of photoprotective compounds is affected by several environmental factors such as different wavelengths of UVR, desiccation, nutrients, salt concentration, light as well as dark period, and still there is controversy about the biosynthesis of various photoprotective compounds. Recent studies have focused on marine organisms as a source of natural bioactive molecules having a photoprotective role, their biosynthesis and commercial application. However, there is a need for extensive work to explore the photoprotective role of various UV-absorbing compounds from marine habitats so that a range of biotechnological and pharmaceutical applications can be found.

  11. Marine antivenoms.

    PubMed

    Currie, Bart J

    2003-01-01

    There is an enormous diversity and complexity of venoms and poisons in marine animals. Fatalities have occurred from envenoming by sea snakes, jellyfish, venomous fish such as stonefish, cone snails, and blue-ringed octopus. Deaths have also followed ingestion of toxins in shellfish, puffer fish (Fugu), and ciguatoxin-containing fish. However antivenoms are generally only available for envenoming by certain sea snakes, the major Australian box jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri) and stonefish. There have been difficulties in characterizing the toxins of C. fleckeri venom, and there are conflicting animals studies on the efficacy of C. fleckeri antivenom. The vast majority of C. fleckeri stings are not life-threatening, with painful skin welts the major finding. However fatalities that do occur usually do so within 5 to 20 minutes of the sting. This unprecedented rapid onset of cardiotoxicity in clinical envenoming suggests that antivenom may need to be given very early (within minutes) and possibly in large doses if a life is to be saved. Forty years of anecdotal experience supports the beneficial effect of stonefish antivenom in relieving the excruciating pain after stonefish spine penetration. It remains uncertain whether stonefish antivenom is efficacious in stings from spines of other venomous fish, and the recommendation of giving the antivenom intramuscularly needs reassessment.

  12. Marine molecular biology: an emerging field of biological sciences.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Narsinh L; Jain, Roopesh; Natalio, Filipe; Hamer, Bojan; Thakur, Archana N; Müller, Werner E G

    2008-01-01

    An appreciation of the potential applications of molecular biology is of growing importance in many areas of life sciences, including marine biology. During the past two decades, the development of sophisticated molecular technologies and instruments for biomedical research has resulted in significant advances in the biological sciences. However, the value of molecular techniques for addressing problems in marine biology has only recently begun to be cherished. It has been proven that the exploitation of molecular biological techniques will allow difficult research questions about marine organisms and ocean processes to be addressed. Marine molecular biology is a discipline, which strives to define and solve the problems regarding the sustainable exploration of marine life for human health and welfare, through the cooperation between scientists working in marine biology, molecular biology, microbiology and chemistry disciplines. Several success stories of the applications of molecular techniques in the field of marine biology are guiding further research in this area. In this review different molecular techniques are discussed, which have application in marine microbiology, marine invertebrate biology, marine ecology, marine natural products, material sciences, fisheries, conservation and bio-invasion etc. In summary, if marine biologists and molecular biologists continue to work towards strong partnership during the next decade and recognize intellectual and technological advantages and benefits of such partnership, an exciting new frontier of marine molecular biology will emerge in the future.

  13. A novel marine silk.

    PubMed

    Kronenberger, Katrin; Dicko, Cedric; Vollrath, Fritz

    2012-01-01

    The discovery of a novel silk production system in a marine amphipod provides insights into the wider potential of natural silks. The tube-building corophioid amphipod Crassicorophium bonellii produces from its legs fibrous, adhesive underwater threads that combine barnacle cement biology with aspects of spider silk thread extrusion spinning. We characterised the filamentous silk as a mixture of mucopolysaccharides and protein deriving from glands representing two distinct types. The carbohydrate and protein silk secretion is dominated by complex β-sheet structures and a high content of charged amino acid residues. The filamentous secretion product exits the gland through a pore near the tip of the secretory leg after having moved through a duct, which subdivides into several small ductules all terminating in a spindle-shaped chamber. This chamber communicates with the exterior and may be considered the silk reservoir and processing/mixing space, in which the silk is mechanically and potentially chemically altered and becomes fibrous. We assert that further study of this probably independently evolved, marine arthropod silk processing and secretion system can provide not only important insights into the more complex arachnid and insect silks but also into crustacean adhesion cements.

  14. Marine Pyridoacridine Alkaloids: Biosynthesis and Biological Activities.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Sabrin R M; Mohamed, Gamal A

    2016-01-01

    Pyridoacridines are a class of strictly marine-derived alkaloids that constitute one of the largest chemical families of marine alkaloids. During the last few years, both natural pyridoacridines and their analogues have constituted excellent targets for synthetic works. They have been the subject of intense study due to their significant biological activities; cytotoxic, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, insecticidal, anti-HIV, and anti-parasitic activities. In the present review, 95 pyridoacridine alkaloids isolated from marine organisms are discussed in term of their occurrence, biosynthesis, biological activities, and structural assignment.

  15. Advances in Marine Microbial Symbionts in the China Sea and Related Pharmaceutical Metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhiyong

    2009-01-01

    Marine animals and plants such as sponges, sea squirts, corals, worms and algae host diverse and abundant symbiotic microorganisms. Marine microbial symbionts are possible the true producers or take part in the biosynthesis of some bioactive marine natural products isolated from the marine organism hosts. Investigation of the pharmaceutical metabolites may reveal the biosynthesis mechanisms of related natural products and solve the current problem of supply limitation in marine drug development. This paper reviews the advances in diversity revelation, biological activity and related pharmaceutical metabolites, and functional genes of marine microbial symbionts from the China Sea. PMID:19597576

  16. Natural products as aromatase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Balunas, Marcy J; Su, Bin; Brueggemeier, Robert W; Kinghorn, A Douglas

    2008-08-01

    With the clinical success of several synthetic aromatase inhibitors (AIs) in the treatment of postmenopausal estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer, researchers have also been investigating the potential of natural products as AIs. Natural products from terrestrial and marine organisms provide a chemically diverse array of compounds not always available through current synthetic chemistry techniques. Natural products that have been used traditionally for nutritional or medicinal purposes (e.g., botanical dietary supplements) may also afford AIs with reduced side effects. A thorough review of the literature regarding natural product extracts and secondary metabolites of plant, microbial, and marine origin that have been shown to exhibit aromatase inhibitory activity is presented herein.

  17. Frontiers of marine science.

    PubMed

    Webb, Thomas J; Poloczanska, Elvira S

    2011-06-23

    On 9-13 October 2010 early career scientists from the UK and Australia across marine research fields were given the opportunity to come together in Perth, Australia to discuss the frontiers of marine research and exchange ideas.

  18. Supermarket Marine Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colby, Jennifer A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes a survey used to determine the availability of intact marine vertebrates and live invertebrates in supermarkets. Results shows that local supermarkets frequently provide a variety of intact marine organisms suitable for demonstrations, experiments, or dissections. (ZWH)

  19. From marine ecology to biological oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Eric L.

    1995-03-01

    Looking back from the 1990s it seems natural to view the work done in the Biologische Anstalt Helgoland by Friedrich Heincke and his colleagues, beginning in 1892, as marine ecology or marine biology, and that done in Kiel, under Victor Hensen and Karl Brandt, as biological oceanography. But historical analysis shows this view to be untenable. Biological oceanography, as a research category and a profession, does not appear until at least the 1950's. In the German tradition of marine research, “Ozeanographie”, originating in 19th century physical geography, did not include the biological sciences. The categories “Meereskunde” and “Meeresforschung” covered all aspects of marine research in Germany from the 1890's to the present day. “Meeresbiologie” like that of Brandt, Heincke, and other German marine scientists, fitted comfortably into these. But in North America no such satisfactory professional or definitional structure existed before the late 1950's. G. A. Riley, one of the first biological oceanographers, fought against descriptive, nonquantitative American ecology. In 1951 he described biological oceanography as the “ecology of marine populations”, linking it with quantitative population ecology in the U.S.A. By the end of the 1960's the U.S. National Science Foundation had recognized biological oceanography as a research area supported separately from marine biology. There was no need for the category “biological oceanography” in German marine science because its subject matter lay under the umbrella of “Meereskunde” or “Meeresforschung”. But in North America, biological oceanography — a fundamental fusion of physics and chemistry with marine biology — was created to give this marine science a status higher than that of the conceptually overloaded ecological sciences. The sociologists Durkheim and Mauss claimed in 1903 that, “the classification of things reproduces the classification of men”; similarly, in science, the

  20. 78 FR 23574 - Public Workshop on Marine Technology and Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-19

    ... Applications Compressed Natural Gas (CNG)/Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Technology ASME Codes/Standards Applied... natural gas as a marine fuel provided valuable insight for the development of CG-521 Policy Letter No. 01... Natural Gas Fuel Systems,'' is available for viewing at...

  1. 77 FR 55482 - Public Workshop on Marine Technology and Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-10

    ... Natural Gas (CNG) and Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)) Retrofit of legacy engines Wastewater treatment system... natural gas as a marine fuel provided valuable insight for the development of CG-521 Policy Letter No. 01... Natural Gas Fuel Systems,'' is available for viewing at...

  2. Marine Education Materials System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gammisch, Sue; Gray, Kevin

    1980-01-01

    Described is a marine education materials clearinghouse, the Marine Education Materials System (MEMS). MEMS classifies marine education documents and reproduces them on microfiche for distribution. There are 25 distribution centers, each of which has a collection of documents and provides assistance on a request basis to teachers. (Author/DS)

  3. Marine Education Knowledge Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hounshell, Paul B.; Hampton, Carolyn

    This 35-item, multiple-choice Marine Education Knowledge Inventory was developed for use in upper elementary/middle schools to measure a student's knowledge of marine science. Content of test items is drawn from oceanography, ecology, earth science, navigation, and the biological sciences (focusing on marine animals). Steps in the construction of…

  4. Marine Biocatalysts: Enzymatic Features and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Trincone, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    In several recent reports related to biocatalysis the enormous pool of biodiversity found in marine ecosystems is considered a profitable natural reservoir for acquiring an inventory of useful biocatalysts. These enzymes are characterized by well-known habitat-related features such as salt tolerance, hyperthermostability, barophilicity and cold adaptivity. In addition, their novel chemical and stereochemical characteristics increase the interest of biocatalysis practitioners both in academia and research industry. In this review, starting from the analysis of these featuring habitat-related properties, important examples of marine enzymes in biocatalysis will be reported. Completion of this report is devoted to the analysis of novel chemical and stereochemical biodiversity offered by marine biocatalysts with particular emphasis on current or potential applications of these enzymes in chemical and pharmaceutical fields. The analysis of literature cited here and the many published patent applications concerning the use of marine enzymes supports the view that these biocatalysts are just waiting to be discovered, reflecting the importance of the marine environment. The potential of this habitat should be thoroughly explored and possibly the way to access useful biocatalysts should avoid destructive large-scale collections of marine biomass for enzyme production. These two aspects are day by day increasing in interest and a future increase in the use of marine enzymes in biocatalysis should be expected. PMID:21731544

  5. Protection of Marine Mammals.

    PubMed

    Knoll, Michaela; Ciaccia, Ettore; Dekeling, René; Kvadsheim, Petter; Liddell, Kate; Gunnarsson, Stig-Lennart; Ludwig, Stefan; Nissen, Ivor; Lorenzen, Dirk; Kreimeyer, Roman; Pavan, Gianni; Meneghetti, Nello; Nordlund, Nina; Benders, Frank; van der Zwan, Timo; van Zon, Tim; Fraser, Leanne; Johansson, Torbjörn; Garmelius, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Within the European Defense Agency (EDA), the Protection of Marine Mammals (PoMM) project, a comprehensive common marine mammal database essential for risk mitigation tools, was established. The database, built on an extensive dataset collection with the focus on areas of operational interest for European navies, consists of annual and seasonal distribution and density maps, random and systematic sightings, an encyclopedia providing knowledge on the characteristics of 126 marine mammal species, data on marine mammal protection areas, and audio information including numerous examples of various vocalizations. Special investigations on marine mammal acoustics were carried out to improve the detection and classification capabilities.

  6. Thermodynamic analysis of alternative marine fuels for marine gas turbine power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Gohary, Mohamed M.; Ammar, Nader R.

    2016-03-01

    The marine shipping industry faces challenges to reduce engine exhaust emissions and greenhouse gases (GHGs) from ships, and in particular, carbon dioxide. International regulatory bodies such as the International Maritime Organization and National Environmental Agencies of many countries have issued rules and regulations to drastically reduce GHG and emissions emanating from marine sources. This study investigates the possibility of using natural gas and hydrogen as alternative fuels to diesel oil for marine gas turbines and uses a mathematical model to assess the effect of these alternative fuels on gas turbine thermodynamic performance. Results show that since natural gas is categorized as a hydrocarbon fuel, the thermodynamic performance of the gas turbine cycle using natural gas was close to that of the diesel case. However, the gas turbine thermal efficiency was found to be slightly lower for natural gas and hydrogen fuels compared to diesel fuel.

  7. Advances in genetic engineering of marine algae.

    PubMed

    Qin, Song; Lin, Hanzhi; Jiang, Peng

    2012-01-01

    Algae are a component of bait sources for animal aquaculture, and they produce abundant valuable compounds for the chemical industry and human health. With today's fast growing demand for algae biofuels and the profitable market for cosmetics and pharmaceuticals made from algal natural products, the genetic engineering of marine algae has been attracting increasing attention as a crucial systemic technology to address the challenge of the biomass feedstock supply for sustainable industrial applications and to modify the metabolic pathway for the more efficient production of high-value products. Nevertheless, to date, only a few marine algae species can be genetically manipulated. In this article, an updated account of the research progress in marine algal genomics is presented along with methods for transformation. In addition, vector construction and gene selection strategies are reviewed. Meanwhile, a review on the progress of bioreactor technologies for marine algae culture is also revisited.

  8. Petroleum biodegradation in marine environments.

    PubMed

    Harayama, S; Kishira, H; Kasai, Y; Shutsubo, K

    1999-08-01

    Petroleum-based products are the major source of energy for industry and daily life. Petroleum is also the raw material for many chemical products such as plastics, paints, and cosmetics. The transport of petroleum across the world is frequent, and the amounts of petroleum stocks in developed countries are enormous. Consequently, the potential for oil spills is significant, and research on the fate of petroleum in a marine environment is important to evaluate the environmental threat of oil spills, and to develop biotechnology to cope with them. Crude oil is constituted from thousands of components which are separated into saturates, aromatics, resins and asphaltenes. Upon discharge into the sea, crude oil is subjected to weathering, the process caused by the combined effects of physical, chemical and biological modification. Saturates, especially those of smaller molecular weight, are readily biodegraded in marine environments. Aromatics with one, two or three aromatic rings are also efficiently biodegraded; however, those with four or more aromatic ring are quite resistant to biodegradation. The asphaltene and resin fractions contain higher molecular weight compounds whose chemical structures have not yet been resolved. The biodegradability of these compounds is not yet known. It is known that the concentrations of available nitrogen and phosphorus in seawater limit the growth and activities of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms in a marine environment. In other words, the addition of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers to an oil-contaminated marine environment can stimulate the biodegradation of spilled oil. This notion was confirmed in the large-scale operation for bioremediation after the oil spill from the Exxon Valdez in Alaska. Many microorganisms capable of degrading petroleum components have been isolated. However, few of them seem to be important for petroleum biodegradation in natural environments. One group of bacteria belonging to the genus

  9. Marine carbohydrates of wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Sudha, Prasad N; Gomathi, Thandapani; Vinodhini, P Angelin; Nasreen, K

    2014-01-01

    Our natural heritage (rivers, seas, and oceans) has been exploited, mistreated, and contaminated because of industrialization, globalization, population growth, urbanization with increased wealth, and more extravagant lifestyles. The scenario gets worse when the effluents or contaminants are discharged directly. So wastewater treatment is a very important and necessary in nowadays to purify wastewater before it enters a body of natural water, or it is applied to the land, or it is reused. Various methods are available for treating wastewater but with many disadvantages. Recently, numerous approaches have been studied for the development of cheaper and more effective technologies, both to decrease the amount of wastewater produced and to improve the quality of the treated effluent. Biosorption is an emerging technology, which uses natural materials as adsorbents for wastewater treatment. Low-cost adsorbents of polysaccharide-based materials obtained from marine, such as chitin, chitosan, alginate, agar, and carrageenan, are acting as rescue for wastewater treatment. This chapter reviews the treatment of wastewater up to the present time using marine polysaccharides and its derivatives. Special attention is paid to the advantages of the natural adsorbents, which are a wonderful gift for human survival.

  10. Marine propellers: the latest topics.

    PubMed

    Kubo, H

    1996-02-01

    The impeller of the axial flow blood pump in an artificial heart is essentially based on the same principle as a marine propeller. Impellers designed for artificial hearts and marine propellers have a number of points in common. Decreased cavitation and relieved fluctuation load are only representative of them. As for a distinct concept of pressure distribution, the inverse method could be very useful. Skew may led to a more mild and natural character in the blood. Highly skewed blades and super elastic blades have the potential to decrease the burden on the entire circulatory system. This paper will address the main points and latest issues in propeller design concluding with a discussion of the implications of these issues for blood pump impellers.

  11. PH DEPENDENT TOXICITY OF FIVE METALS TO THREE MARINE ORGANISMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The pH of natural marine systems is relatively stable; this may explain why metal toxicity changes with pH have not been well documented. However, changes in metal toxicity with pH in marine waters are of concern in toxicity testing. During porewater toxicity testing pH can chang...

  12. Versatile routes to marine sponge metabolites through benzylidene rhodanines.

    PubMed

    Kottakota, Suresh K; Benton, Mathew; Evangelopoulos, Dimitrios; Guzman, Juan D; Bhakta, Sanjib; McHugh, Timothy D; Gray, Mark; Groundwater, Paul W; Marrs, Emma C L; Perry, John D; Harburn, J Jonathan

    2012-12-21

    The first total synthesis of the marine natural products Psammaplin C and Tokaradine A is described. Benzylidene rhodanines were utilized as versatile intermediates toward the synthesis of seven brominated marine sponge metabolites through the optimization of protection group strategies. Spermatinamine demonstrated good inhibition of all cancer cell lines tested, in particular the leukemia K562 and colon cancer HT29 cell lines.

  13. Cultivation of Marine Sponges.

    PubMed

    Osinga; Tramper; Wijffels

    1999-11-01

    There is increasing interest in biotechnological production of marine sponge biomass owing to the discovery of many commercially important secondary metabolites in this group of animals. In this article, different approaches to producing sponge biomass are reviewed, and several factors that possibly influence culture success are evaluated. In situ sponge aquacultures, based on old methods for producing commercial bath sponges, are still the easiest and least expensive way to obtain sponge biomass in bulk. However, success of cultivation with this method strongly depends on the unpredictable and often suboptimal natural environment. Hence, a better-defined production system would be desirable. Some progress has been made with culturing sponges in semicontrolled systems, but these still use unfiltered natural seawater. Cultivation of sponges under completely controlled conditions has remained a problem. When designing an in vitro cultivation method, it is important to determine both qualitatively and quantitatively the nutritional demands of the species that is to be cultured. An adequate supply of food seems to be the key to successful sponge culture. Recently, some progress has been made with sponge cell cultures. The advantage of cell cultures is that they are completely controlled and can easily be manipulated for optimal production of the target metabolites. However, this technique is still in its infancy: a continuous cell line has yet to be established. Axenic cultures of sponge aggregates (primmorphs) may provide an alternative to cell culture. Some sponge metabolites are, in fact, produced by endosymbiotic bacteria or algae that live in the sponge tissue. Only a few of these endosymbionts have been cultivated so far. The biotechnology for the production of sponge metabolites needs further development. Research efforts should be continued to enable commercial exploitation of this valuable natural resource in the near future.

  14. Management of marine species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korringa, P.

    1980-03-01

    Marine fish and shellfish constitute important natural resources. Provided they are wisely exploited, they are not liable to exhaustion but continue to renew themselves. Wise exploitation requires sound management, and for such management one should be well informed about the factors governing the fluctuations in the stocks and about the costs of exploitation. A century of scientific fisheries research provided a wealth of information on reproduction, migration and growth of commercially important species of fish and shellfish and about the losses the stocks suffer through natural causes such as predation, diseases and parasites, and through the fishery itself. Such information is available for areas which are intensively fished. In fertile waters, the approximate growth increase of fish stocks is some 15 % by weight year-1. If one were to harvest this 15 % only, to be considered as interest on this natural capital, and to leave the capital itself untouched, one could go on fishing for ever. There would be no overfishing or stock depletion. For sound management we need not only ecological data but also information on economic fishery aspects, e. g. on size and power of the fleet, type of fish-finding apparatus installed, costs of netting and wages, fuel required per fishing trip, and on the capital invested. Further we need statistical information on the landings and on the proceeds. Such information is available in countries which participate intensively in fishing. Therefore, one would assume that governments which are well informed by their fishery biologists about fluctuations in stocks of fish and shellfish and by their economists on various aspects of the exploitation would apply sound management to ensure that fishing may continue for many years to come without depletion. A number of examples related to the North East Atlantic area, where intensive fishing is carried out and from where a wealth of scientific information is available, makes clear that cases

  15. The occurrence and ecological risks of endocrine disrupting chemicals in sewage effluents from three different sewage treatment plants, and in natural seawater from a marine reserve of Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Xu, Elvis G B; Liu, Shan; Ying, Guang-Guo; Zheng, Gene J S; Lee, Joseph H W; Leung, Kenneth M Y

    2014-08-30

    We determined the concentrations of 12 endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in sewage effluents collected from three different sewage treatment plants (STPs) in Hong Kong, and found 4-nonylphenol (NP) and bisphenol A (BPA) were the most abundant EDCs. Effluent concentrations of NP and BPA were higher in dry season than in wet season, but opposite seasonal changes of NP were observed in receiving waters, probably due to the surface runoff. The two secondary STPs showed higher removal efficiency for these compounds than the preliminary STP, while having higher removal efficiency in wet season. Therefore, it is necessary to upgrade the preliminary STP and improve the EDC removal efficiency in dry season. Seawaters from the Cape D' Aguilar Marine Reserve adjacent to these STPs also exhibited elevated NP levels with a hazard quotient >1. Furthermore, diluted effluents from the STPs elicited significant transcriptional responses of EDC-related genes in the marine medaka fish.

  16. [Modulating marine ecosystem by marine viruses--a review].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Bai, Shijie; Cai, Wenwei; Zheng, Tianling

    2009-05-01

    Marine viruses play great roles in the marine ecological system such as modulating the biodiversity and species population, regulating the nutrient cycling, intervening gene transfer and influencing climate changes. Recent research achievements on marine viruses were reviewed in this paper. We focused on the modulating role of marine viruses in marine ecosystem and discussed future research perspectives.

  17. Bioactive Compounds from Marine Bacteria and Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Debbab, Abdessamad; Aly, Amal H.; Lin, Wen H.; Proksch, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Summary Marine bacteria and fungi are of considerable importance as new promising sources of a huge number of biologically active products. Some of these marine species live in a stressful habitat, under cold, lightless and high pressure conditions. Surprisingly, a large number of species with high diversity survive under such conditions and produce fascinating and structurally complex natural products. Up till now, only a small number of microorganisms have been investigated for bioactive metabolites, yet a huge number of active substances with some of them featuring unique structural skeletons have been isolated. This review covers new biologically active natural products published recently (2007–09) and highlights the chemical potential of marine microorganisms, with focus on bioactive products as well as on their mechanisms of action. PMID:21255352

  18. USGS St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2011-01-01

    Extreme storms, sea-level rise, and the health of marine communities are some of the major societal and environmental issues impacting our Nation's marine and coastal realm. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in St. Petersburg, Fla., investigates processes related to these ecosystems and the societal implications of natural hazards and resource sustainability. As one of three centers nationwide conducting research within the USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Program, the center is integral towards developing an understanding of physical processes that will contribute to rational decisions regarding the use and stewardship of national coastal and marine environments.

  19. Bioremediation of Industrial Waste Through Enzyme Producing Marine Microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Sivaperumal, P; Kamala, K; Rajaram, R

    2017-01-01

    Bioremediation process using microorganisms is a kind of nature-friendly and cost-effective clean green technology. Recently, biodegradation of industrial wastes using enzymes from marine microorganisms has been reported worldwide. The prospectus research activity in remediation area would contribute toward the development of advanced bioprocess technology. To minimize industrial wastes, marine enzymes could constitute a novel alternative in terms of waste treatment. Nowadays, the evidence on the mechanisms of bioremediation-related enzymes from marine microorganisms has been extensively studied. This review also will provide information about enzymes from various marine microorganisms and their complexity in the biodegradation of comprehensive range of industrial wastes.

  20. 75 FR 76399 - Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XK54 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine... Williams, Long Marine Lab, Institute of Marine Sciences, University of California at Santa Cruz, 100...: The subject amendment to Permit No. 13602 was requested under the authority of the Marine...

  1. 75 FR 68605 - Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XX23 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine... Marine Science Center, Newport, OR has been issued a permit to conduct research on marine mammals... authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the...

  2. Marine Indole Alkaloids

    PubMed Central

    Netz, Natalie; Opatz, Till

    2015-01-01

    Marine indole alkaloids comprise a large and steadily growing group of secondary metabolites. Their diverse biological activities make many compounds of this class attractive starting points for pharmaceutical development. Several marine-derived indoles were found to possess cytotoxic, antineoplastic, antibacterial and antimicrobial activities, in addition to the action on human enzymes and receptors. The newly isolated indole alkaloids of marine origin since the last comprehensive review in 2003 are reported, and biological aspects will be discussed. PMID:26287214

  3. Marine proteomics: a critical assessment of an emerging technology.

    PubMed

    Slattery, Marc; Ankisetty, Sridevi; Corrales, Jone; Marsh-Hunkin, K Erica; Gochfeld, Deborah J; Willett, Kristine L; Rimoldi, John M

    2012-10-26

    The application of proteomics to marine sciences has increased in recent years because the proteome represents the interface between genotypic and phenotypic variability and, thus, corresponds to the broadest possible biomarker for eco-physiological responses and adaptations. Likewise, proteomics can provide important functional information regarding biosynthetic pathways, as well as insights into mechanism of action, of novel marine natural products. The goal of this review is to (1) explore the application of proteomics methodologies to marine systems, (2) assess the technical approaches that have been used, and (3) evaluate the pros and cons of this proteomic research, with the intent of providing a critical analysis of its future roles in marine sciences. To date, proteomics techniques have been utilized to investigate marine microbe, plant, invertebrate, and vertebrate physiology, developmental biology, seafood safety, susceptibility to disease, and responses to environmental change. However, marine proteomics studies often suffer from poor experimental design, sample processing/optimization difficulties, and data analysis/interpretation issues. Moreover, a major limitation is the lack of available annotated genomes and proteomes for most marine organisms, including several "model species". Even with these challenges in mind, there is no doubt that marine proteomics is a rapidly expanding and powerful integrative molecular research tool from which our knowledge of the marine environment, and the natural products from this resource, will be significantly expanded.

  4. Major bioactive metabolites from marine fungi: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Saba; Ansari, Mohammad Israil; Ahmad, Anis; Mishra, Maitreyi

    2015-01-01

    Biologists and chemists of the world have been attracted towards marine natural products for the last five decades. Approximately 16,000 marine natural products have been isolated from marine organisms which have been reported in approximately 6,800 publications, proving marine microorganisms to be a invaluable source for the production of novel antibiotic, anti tumor, and anti inflammatory agents. The marine fungi particularly those associated with marine alga, sponge, invertebrates, and sediments appear to be a rich source for secondary metabolites, possessing Antibiotic, antiviral, antifungal and antiyeast activities. Besides, a few growth stimulant properties which may be useful in studies on wound healing, carcinogenic properties, and in the study of cancers are reported. Recent investigations on marine filamentous fungi looking for biologically active secondary metabolites indicate the tremendous potential of them as a source of new medicines. The present study reviews about some important bioactive metabolites reported from marine fungal strains which are anti bacterial, anti tumour and anti inflammatory in action. It highlights the chemistry and biological activity of the major bioactive alkaloids, polyketides, terpenoids, isoprenoid and non-isoprenoid compounds, quinones, isolated from marine fungi. PMID:26124556

  5. Effects of Pollutants on Marine Life Probed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Discusses research activities conducted by scientists from the United State of America, Canada, and the United Kingdom to determine the long-term effects on natural marine ecosystems, especially plankton communities, of such pollutants as heavy metals, synthetic hydrocarbons, and petroleum hydrocarbons. (CC)

  6. Production of isoprene by marine phytoplankton cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, R.M.; Oram, D.E.; Penkett, S.A.

    1994-11-15

    The authors report experiments which demonstrate the production of light volatile hydrocarbons, including isoprene, by different marine phytoplankton cultures. This indicates that the ocean is a potential source of natural releases of isoprene to the atmosphere. Laboratory results do not allow extrapolation to atmospheric release rates.

  7. 18. Marine Railway #1, location in foreground; Marine Railway #2 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Marine Railway #1, location in foreground; Marine Railway #2 (broken cradle) center; cradle for Marine Railway #3 on right. - Thames Tow Boat Company, Foot of Farnsworth Street, New London, New London County, CT

  8. Bioreactor technology in marine microbiology: from design to future application.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Arends, Jan B A; Van de Wiele, Tom; Boon, Nico

    2011-01-01

    Marine micro-organisms have been playing highly diverse roles over evolutionary time: they have defined the chemistry of the oceans and atmosphere. During the last decades, the bioreactors with novel designs have become an important tool to study marine microbiology and ecology in terms of: marine microorganism cultivation and deep-sea bioprocess characterization; unique bio-chemical product formation and intensification; marine waste treatment and clean energy generation. In this review we briefly summarize the current status of the bioreactor technology applied in marine microbiology and the critical parameters to take into account during the reactor design. Furthermore, when we look at the growing population, as well as, the pollution in the coastal areas of the world, it is urgent to find sustainable practices that beneficially stimulate both the economy and the natural environment. Here we outlook a few possibilities where innovative bioreactor technology can be applied to enhance energy generation and food production without harming the local marine ecosystem.

  9. Anomalous 13C enrichment in modern marine organic carbon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arthur, M.A.; Dean, W.E.; Claypool, G.E.

    1985-01-01

    Marine organic carbon is heavier isotopically (13C enriched) than most land-plant or terrestrial organic C1. Accordingly, ??13C values of organic C in modern marine sediments are routinely interpreted in terms of the relative proportions of marine and terrestrial sources of the preserved organic matter2,3. When independent geochemical techniques are used to evaluate the source of organic matter in Cretaceous or older rocks, those rocks containing mostly marine organic C are found typically to have lighter (more-negative) ??13C values than rocks containing mostly terrestrial organic C. Here we conclude that marine photosynthesis in mid-Cretaceous and earlier oceans generally resulted in a greater fractionation of C isotopes and produced organic C having lighter ??13C values. Modern marine photosynthesis may be occurring under unusual geological conditions (higher oceanic primary production rates, lower PCO2) that limit dissolved CO2 availability and minimize carbon isotope fractionation4. ?? 1985 Nature Publishing Group.

  10. Glacial-marine and glacial-lacustrine sedimentation in Sebago Lake, Maine: Locating the marine limit

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, R.A.; Kelley, J.T. ); Belknap, D. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-03-01

    The marine limit in Maine marks a sea-level highstand at approximately 13 ka. It was inferred to cross Sebago Lake near Frye Island by Thompson and Borns (1985) on the Surficial Geological Map of Maine, dividing the lake into a northern glacial-lacustrine basin and a southern glacial-marine basin. This study examined the accuracy of the mapped marine limit in the lake and the nature of glacial-lacustrine and glacial-marine facies in Maine. Recognition of the marine limit is usually based on mapped shorelines, glacial-marine deltas, and contacts with glacial-marine sediments. This study, in Maine's second largest lake, collected 100 kilometers of side-scan sonar images, 100 kilometers of seismic reflection profiles, and one core. Side-scan sonar records show coarse sand and gravel and extensive boulder fields at an inferred grounding-line position near Frye Island, where the marine limit was drawn. ORE Geopulse seismic reflection profiles reveal a basal draping unit similar to glacial-marine units identified offshore. Later channels cut more than 30 m into the basal stratified unit. In addition, till and a possible glacial-tectonic grounding-line feature were identified. Slumps and possible spring disruptions are found in several locations. The top unit is an onlapping ponded Holocene lacustrine unit. Total sediment is much thicker in the southern basin; the northern basin, >97 m deep, north of the marine limit appears to have been occupied by an ice block. Retrieved sediments include 12 meters of rhythmites. Microfossil identifications and dating will resolve the environments and time of deposition in this core.

  11. Priming effects in marine sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gontikaki, Evina; Thornton, Barry; Witte, Ursula

    2013-04-01

    Continental margin sediments (<2000 m) cover merely 15 % of the ocean's seafloor but are responsible for more than 70 % of the global benthic mineralization. Understanding when these systems act as a source or sink of carbon (C) is thus of primary importance if we are to produce reliable global C budgets and predict the effects of future perturbations on the global C cycle. The chemical nature of organic matter (OM) is thought to be one of the major controls on the degradation/preservation balance in sediments; labile and refractory OM pools degrade at different rates but not independently. Priming effects (PE), i.e. changes in the decomposition of refractory organic matter following inputs of labile OM, have the potential to alter the C budget in sediments but have been largely ignored by marine scientists. Climate-driven changes in primary production, and land erosion and run-off are likely to change the quantity and composition of organic matter inputs in marine ecosystems and influence the magnitude and direction of PEs in seawater and sediments. Here, we attempt to evaluate the importance of priming effects on C cycling in marine sediments by use of labelled substrates of different quantity and quality in stable isotope tracer experiments and argue that PEs need to be incorporated in global change models.

  12. Antifungal and antibacterial activity of marine microorganisms.

    PubMed

    El Amraoui, B; El Amraoui, M; Cohen, N; Fassouane, A

    2014-03-01

    In order to explore marine microorganisms with pharmaceutical potential, marine bacteria, collected from different coastal areas of the Moroccan Atlantic Ocean, were previously isolated from seawater, sediment, marine invertebrates and seaweeds. The antimicrobial activities of these microorganisms were investigated against the pathogens involved in human pathologies. Whole cultures of 34 marine microorganisms were screened for antimicrobial activities using the method of agar diffusion against three Gram-positive bacteria, two Gram-negative bacteria, and against yeast. The results showed that among the 34 isolates studied, 28 (82%) strains have antimicrobial activity against at least one pathogen studied, 11 (32%) strains have antifungal activity and 24 (76%) strains are active against Gram-positive bacteria, while 21 (62%) strains are active against Gram-negative bacteria. Among isolates having antimicrobial activity, 14 were identified and were assigned to the genera Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, Alcaligenes, Bacillus, Chromobacterium, Enterococcus, Pantoea and Pseudomonas. Due to a competitive role for space and nutrient, the marine microorganisms can produce antibiotic substance; therefore, these marine microorganisms were expected to be potential resources of natural antibiotic products.

  13. Biosynthesis of polybrominated aromatic organic compounds by marine bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Vinayak; El Gamal, Abrahim A.; Yamanaka, Kazuya; Poth, Dennis; Kersten, Roland D.; Schorn, Michelle; Allen, Eric E.; Moore, Bradley S.

    2014-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polybrominated bipyrroles are natural products that bioaccumulate in the marine food chain. PBDEs have attracted widespread attention due to their persistence in the environment and potential toxicity to humans. However, the natural origins of PBDE biosynthesis are not known. Here we report marine bacteria as producers of PBDEs and establish a genetic and molecular foundation for their production that unifies paradigms for the elaboration of bromophenols and bromopyrroles abundant in marine biota. We provide biochemical evidence of marine brominase enzymes revealing decarboxylative-halogenation enzymology previously unknown among halogenating enzymes. Biosynthetic motifs discovered in our study were used to mine sequence databases to discover unrealized marine bacterial producers of organobromine compounds. PMID:24974229

  14. Marine Antitumor Drugs: Status, Shortfalls and Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Bhatnagar, Ira; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2010-01-01

    Cancer is considered as one of the deadliest diseases in the medical field. Apart from the preventive therapies, it is important to find a curative measure which holds no loopholes and acts accurately and precisely to curb cancer. Over the past few decades, there have been advances in this field and there are many antitumor compounds available on the market, which are of natural as well as synthetic origin. Marine chemotherapy is well recognized nowadays and profound development has been achieved by researchers to deal with different molecular pathways of tumors. However, the marine environment has been less explored for the production of safe and novel antitumor compounds. The reason is a number of shortfalls in this field. Though ample reviews cover the importance and applications of various anticancerous compounds from marine natural products, in the present review, we have tried to bring the current status of antitumor research based on marine inhibitors of cancer signaling pathways. In addition, focus has been placed on the shortfalls and probable strategies in the arena of marine antitumor drug discovery. PMID:21116415

  15. Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription (STAT) Regulatory Networks in Marine Organisms: From Physiological Observations towards Marine Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jin-Young; Orlikova, Barbora; Diederich, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Part of our ocean’s richness comes from its extensive history of supporting life, resulting in a highly diverse ecological system. To date, over 250,000 species of marine organisms have been identified, but it is speculated that the actual number of marine species exceeds one million, including several hundreds of millions of species of marine microorganisms. Past studies suggest that approximately 70% of all deep-sea microorganisms, gorgonians, and sea sponges produce secondary metabolites with anti-cancer activities. Recently, novel FDA-approved drugs derived from marine sponges have been shown to reduce metastatic breast cancer, malignant lymphoma, and Hodgkin’s disease. Despite the fact that many marine natural products have been shown to possess a good inhibition potential against most of the cancer-related cell signaling pathways, only a few marine natural products have been shown to target JAK/STAT signaling. In the present paper, we describe the JAK/STAT signaling pathways found in marine organisms, before elaborating on the recent advances in the field of STAT inhibition by marine natural products and the potential application in anti-cancer drug discovery. PMID:26262624

  16. Bioactive sterols from marine resources and their potential benefits for human health.

    PubMed

    Kim, Se-Kwon; Van Ta, Quang

    2012-01-01

    Bioactive agents from marine resources have shown their valuable health beneficial effects. Therefore, increase knowledge on novel functional ingredients with biological activities from marine animal and microbe has gained much attention. Sterols are recognized as potential in development functional food ingredients and pharmaceutical agents. Marine resources, with a great diversity, can be a very interesting natural resource of sterols. This chapter focuses on biological activities of marine animal and microbe sterols with potential health beneficial applications in functional foods and pharmaceuticals.

  17. Effects of nanomaterials on marine invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Canesi, Laura; Corsi, Ilaria

    2016-09-15

    The development of nanotechnology will inevitably lead to the release of consistent amounts of nanomaterials (NMs) and nanoparticles (NPs) into marine ecosystems. Ecotoxicological studies have been carried out to identify potential biological targets of NPs, and suitable models for predicting their impact on the health of the marine environment. Recent studies in invertebrates mainly focused on NP accumulation and sub-lethal effects, rather than acute toxicity. Among marine invertebrates, bivalves represent by large the most studied group, with polychaetes and echinoderms also emerging as significant targets of NPs. However, major scientific gaps still need to be filled. In this work, factors affecting the fate of NPs in the marine environment, and their consequent uptake/accumulation/toxicity in marine invertebrates will be summarized. The results show that in different model species, NP accumulation mainly occurs in digestive tract and gills. Data on sub-lethal effects and modes of action of different types of NPs (mainly metal oxides and metal based NPs) in marine invertebrates will be reviewed, in particular on immune function, oxidative stress and embryo development. Moreover, the possibility that such effects may be influenced by NP interactions with biomolecules in both external and internal environment will be introduced. In natural environmental media, NP interactions with polysaccharides, proteins and colloids may affect their agglomeration/aggregation and consequent bioavailability. Moreover, once within the organism, NPs are known to interact with plasma proteins, forming a protein corona that can affect particle uptake and toxicity in target cells in a physiological environment. These interactions, leading to the formation of eco-bio-coronas, may be crucial in determining particle behavior and effects also in marine biota. In order to classify NPs into groups and predict the implications of their release into the marine environment, information on

  18. Trace elements in marine ostracodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwyer, Gary S.; Cronin, Thomas M.; Baker, Paul A.

    Extending the work of Cadot, Kaesler, De Deckker, Chivas, and Corrège, we have measured the elemental chemistry of shells of marine ostracodes to evaluate the usefulness of ostracode shell chemistry as a paleoenvironmental proxy. Our work has focused primarily on Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca, and Na/Ca ratios of two common genera: deep-sea genus Krithe and shallow marine/estuarine genus Loxoconcha. We evaluated in vivo effects including genus, species, gender, ontogeny, shell size, intra-shell heterogeneity (Mg), water temperature, and salinity, and postmortem diagenetic effects including partial dissolution, recrystallization, and shell surface contamination. Analysis of modern (core-top), fossil, and laboratory-raised specimens across a wide range of temperature and salinity conditions confirms earlier work indicating that Krithe and Loxoconcha Mg/Ca ratios are dominantly controlled by water temperature. Sr/Ca and Na/Ca ratios co-vary with temperature in core-top Krithe, but not in cultured Loxoconcha suggesting that the Krithe Sr/Ca and Na/Ca correlation with temperature may be related to another variable that broadly co-varies with temperature. Phylogenetic and ontogenetic effects are also indicated, including different Mg-thermodependence and intra-shell Mg distribution between Krithe and Loxoconcha. Inter-specific effects are suggested for two species of Krithe. Magnesium uptake in eldest juvenile shells seems to be identical to that of adult shells, thus greatly increasing the amount of shell material available for paleoenvironmental studies. No salinity effects were observed. Shell Na/Ca ratios showed a dramatic decrease with increasing dissolution (natural and artificial) in waters that are undersaturated with respect to calcite, whereas Mg/Ca ratios displayed a minor decrease and Sr/Ca ratios showed no change. Of the ratios studied, Mg/Ca offers the most promise for Quaternary marine studies as a paleothermometer. Further calibration studies are needed to better

  19. 75 FR 76399 - Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XZ66 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine... Marine Fisheries Service. BILLING CODE 3510-22-P...

  20. Ecological speciation in marine v. freshwater fishes.

    PubMed

    Puebla, O

    2009-10-01

    Absolute barriers to dispersal are not common in marine systems, and the prevalence of planktonic larvae in marine taxa provides potential for gene flow across large geographic distances. These observations raise the fundamental question in marine evolutionary biology as to whether geographic and oceanographic barriers alone can account for the high levels of species diversity observed in marine environments such as coral reefs, or whether marine speciation also operates in the presence of gene flow between diverging populations. In this respect, the ecological hypothesis of speciation, in which reproductive isolation results from divergent or disruptive natural selection, is of particular interest because it may operate in the presence of gene flow. Although important insights into the process of ecological speciation in aquatic environments have been provided by the study of freshwater fishes, comparatively little is known about the possibility of ecological speciation in marine teleosts. In this study, the evidence consistent with different aspects of the ecological hypothesis of speciation is evaluated in marine fishes. Molecular approaches have played a critical role in the development of speciation hypotheses in marine fishes, with a role of ecology suggested by the occurrence of sister clades separated by ecological factors, rapid cladogenesis or the persistence of genetically and ecologically differentiated species in the presence of gene flow. Yet, ecological speciation research in marine fishes is still largely at an exploratory stage. Cases where the major ingredients of ecological speciation, namely a source of natural divergent or disruptive selection, a mechanism of reproductive isolation and a link between the two have been explicitly documented are few. Even in these cases, specific predictions of the ecological hypothesis of speciation remain largely untested. Recent developments in the study of freshwater fishes illustrate the potential for

  1. Marine biogeochemistry: Methylmercury manufacture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cossa, Daniel

    2013-10-01

    The neurotoxin methylmercury can accumulate in marine food webs, contaminating seafood. An analysis of the isotopic composition of fish in the North Pacific suggests that much of the mercury that enters the marine food web originates from low-oxygen subsurface waters.

  2. Monitoring Marine Microbial Fouling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colwell, R.

    1985-01-01

    Two techniques developed for studying marine fouling. Methods originally developed to study fouling of materials used in Space Shuttle solid fuel booster rockets. Methods used to determine both relative fouling rates and efficacy of cleaning methods to remove fouling on various surfaces including paints, metals, and sealants intended for marine use.

  3. Marine Attitude Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hounshell, Paul B.; Hampton, Carolyn

    This 22-item Marine Attitude Survey was developed for use in elementary/middle schools to measure students' attitudes about various aspects of marine science. Students are asked if they agree, are not sure, or disagree with such items as: (1) the seashore is a fun place to visit; (2) if all sharks were killed, the world would be a better place;…

  4. Marine Curators Gather

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, Floyd W.

    1977-01-01

    Reports on a recent meeting of marine curators in which data dissemination, standardization of marine curating techniques and methods, responsibilities of curators, funding problems, and sampling equipment were the main areas of discussion. A listing of the major deep sea sample collections in the United States is also provided. (CP)

  5. "Marinating" Our Urban Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ascher, Alan

    1981-01-01

    Describes marine education programs at the elementary and secondary levels in the New York City area. The city's extensive coastline and numerous learning centers comprise one of the richest educational resources in the country for studying the marine environment. (Author/WB)

  6. Marin Tsunami (video)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Filmed and edited by: Loeffler, Kurt; Gesell, Justine

    2010-01-01

    Tsunamis are a constant threat to the coasts of our world. Although tsunamis are infrequent along the West coast of the United States, it is possible and necessary to prepare for potential tsunami hazards to minimize loss of life and property. Community awareness programs are important, as they strive to create an informed society by providing education and training. The Marin coast could be struck by a tsunami. Whether you live in Marin County, visit the beaches, or rent or own a home near the coast, it is vital to understand the tsunami threat and take preparation seriously. Marin Tsunami tells the story of what several West Marin communities are doing to be prepared. This video was produced by the US Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Marin Office of Emergency Services.

  7. Light scattering by marine heterotrophic bacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulloa, Osvaldo; Sathyendranath, Shubha; Platt, Trevor; Quinones, Renato A.

    1992-01-01

    Mie theory is applied to estimate scattering by polydispersions of marine heterotrophic bacteria, and a simple expression is derived for the bacterial scattering coefficient. The error incurred in deriving bacterial optical properties by use of the van de Hulst approximations is computed. The scattering properties of natural bacterial assemblages in three marine environments, Georges Bank, Northeast Channel, and Sargasso Sea, are assessed by applying Mie theory to field data on bacterial size and abundance. Results are used to examine the potential contribution of bacteria to the scattering properties of seawater. The utility of using pigment data to predict the magnitude of scattering by bacteria is discussed.

  8. Disease in marine aquaculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sindermann, C. J.

    1984-03-01

    It has become almost a truism that success in intensive production of animals must be based in part on development of methods for disease diagnosis and control. Excellent progress has been made in methods of diagnosis for major pathogens of cultivated fish, crustacean and molluscan species. In many instances these have proved to be facultative pathogens, able to exert severe effects in populations of animals under other stresses (marginal physical or chemical conditions; overcrowding). The concept of stress management as a critical prophylactic measure is not new, but its significance is being demonstrated repeatedly. The particular relationship of water quality and facultative pathogens such as Vibrio, Pseudomonas and Aeromonas species has been especially apparent. Virus diseases of marine vertebrates and invertebrates — little known two decades ago — are now recognized to be of significance to aquaculture. Virus infections of oysters, clams, shrimps and crabs have been described, and mortalities have been attributed to them. Several virus diseases of fish have also been recognized as potential or actual problems in culture. In some instances, the pathogens seem to be latent in natural populations, and may be provoked into patency by stresses of artificial environments. One of the most promising approaches to disease prophylaxis is through immunization. Fish respond well to various vaccination procedures, and new non-stressing methods have been developed. Vibriosis — probably the most severe disease of ocean-reared salmon — has been controlled to a great extent through use of a polyvalent bacterin, which can be modified as new pathogenic strains are isolated. Prophylactic immunization for other bacterial diseases of cultivated fish has been attempted, especially in Japan, with some success. There is also some evidence that the larger crustaceans may be immunologically responsive, and that at least short-term protection may be afforded to cultured

  9. Antitumor Compounds from Marine Actinomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Olano, Carlos; Méndez, Carmen; Salas, José A.

    2009-01-01

    Chemotherapy is one of the main treatments used to combat cancer. A great number of antitumor compounds are natural products or their derivatives, mainly produced by microorganisms. In particular, actinomycetes are the producers of a large number of natural products with different biological activities, including antitumor properties. These antitumor compounds belong to several structural classes such as anthracyclines, enediynes, indolocarbazoles, isoprenoides, macrolides, non-ribosomal peptides and others, and they exert antitumor activity by inducing apoptosis through DNA cleavage mediated by topoisomerase I or II inhibition, mitochondria permeabilization, inhibition of key enzymes involved in signal transduction like proteases, or cellular metabolism and in some cases by inhibiting tumor-induced angiogenesis. Marine organisms have attracted special attention in the last years for their ability to produce interesting pharmacological lead compounds. PMID:19597582

  10. Marine pharmacology in 2005-2006: antitumour and cytotoxic compounds.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Alejandro M S; Gustafson, Kirk R

    2008-11-01

    During 2005 and 2006, marine pharmacology research directed towards the discovery and development of novel antitumour agents was reported in 171 peer-reviewed articles. The purpose of this article is to present a structured review of the antitumour and cytotoxic properties of 136 marine natural products, many of which are novel compounds that belong to diverse structural classes, including polyketides, terpenes, steroids and peptides. The organisms yielding these bioactive marine compounds included invertebrate animals, algae, fungi and bacteria. Antitumour pharmacological studies were conducted with 42 structurally defined marine natural products in a number of experimental and clinical models which further defined their mechanisms of action. Particularly potent in vitro cytotoxicity data generated with murine and human tumour cell lines were reported for 94 novel marine chemicals with as yet undetermined mechanisms of action. Noteworthy is the fact that marine anticancer research was sustained by a global collaborative effort, involving researchers from Australia, Belgium, Benin, Brazil, Canada, China, Egypt, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Panama, the Philippines, Slovenia, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Taiwan, Thailand, United Kingdom (UK) and the United States of America (USA). Finally, this 2005-2006 overview of the marine pharmacology literature highlights the fact that the discovery of novel marine antitumour agents continued at the same active pace as during 1998-2004.

  11. Marine Pharmacology in 2005-6: Antitumour and Cytotoxic Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Alejandro M.S.; Gustafson, Kirk R.

    2009-01-01

    During 2005 and 2006, marine pharmacology research directed towards the discovery and development of novel antitumour agents was reported in 171 peer-reviewed articles. The purpose of this article is to present a structured review of the antitumour and cytotoxic properties of 136 marine natural products, many of which are novel compounds that belong to diverse structural classes, including polyketides, terpenes, steroids, and peptides. The organisms yielding these bioactive marine compounds included invertebrate animals, algae, fungi and bacteria. Antitumour pharmacological studies were conducted with 42 structurally defined marine natural products in a number of experimental and clinical models which further defined their mechanisms of action. Particularly potent in vitro cytotoxicity data generated with murine and human tumour cell lines was reported for 94 novel marine chemicals with as yet undetermined mechanisms of action. Noteworthy is the fact that marine anticancer research was sustained by a global collaborative effort, involving researchers from Australia, Belgium, Benin, Brazil, Canada, China, Egypt, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Panama, the Philippines, Slovenia, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Taiwan, Thailand, United Kingdom, and the United States. Finally, this 2005-6 overview of the marine pharmacology literature highlights the fact that the discovery of novel marine antitumour agents continued at the same active pace as during 1998-2004. PMID:18701274

  12. Marine bird populations of Prince William Sound, Alaska, before and after the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Bird study number 2. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Klosiewski, S.P.; Laing, K.K.

    1994-06-01

    We estimated the summer and winter abundance of marine birds in Prince William Sound, Alaska, following the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill, examined changes in population size between pre-spill and post-spill surveys, and compared pre- to post-oil spill population trends in the oiled zone of the Sound relative to trends in the unoiled zone. Ninety-nine species of birds were observed on surveys. Estimated populations of 15 to 32 species/species groups demonstrated declines over the 17-19 year period between pre- and post-spill surveys. However, because of the long time period between surveys, we could not directly associate overall population declines with the oil spill.

  13. Detection of sea otters in boat-based surveys of Prince William Sound, Alaska. Marine mammal study 6-19. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Udevitz, M.S.; Bodkin, J.L.; Costa, D.P.

    1995-05-01

    Boat-based surveys were used to monitor the Prince William Sound sea otter population before and after the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Population and loss estimates could be obtained from these surveys by direct expansion from the counts in the surveyed transects under the assumption that all otters in those transects were observed. The authors conducted a pilot study using ground-based observers in conjunction with the August 1990 survey of marine mammals and birds to investigate the validity of this assumption. The proportion of otters detected by boat crews was estimated by comparing boat and ground-based observations on 22 segments of shoreline transects. Overall, the authors estimated that only 70% of the otters in surveyed shoreline transects were detected by the boat crews. These results suggest that unadjusted expansions of boat survey transect counts will underestimate sea otter population size and that loss estimates based on comparisons of unadjusted population estimates will be biased.

  14. Influenza Virus Infection of Marine Mammals.

    PubMed

    Fereidouni, Sasan; Munoz, Olga; Von Dobschuetz, Sophie; De Nardi, Marco

    2016-03-01

    Interspecies transmission may play a key role in the evolution and ecology of influenza A viruses. The importance of marine mammals as hosts or carriers of potential zoonotic pathogens such as highly pathogenic H5 and H7 influenza viruses is not well understood. The fact that influenza viruses are some of the few zoonotic pathogens known to have caused infection in marine mammals, evidence for direct transmission of influenza A virus H7N7 subtype from seals to man, transmission of pandemic H1N1 influenza viruses to seals and also limited evidence for long-term persistence of influenza B viruses in seal populations without significant genetic change, makes monitoring of influenza viruses in marine mammal populations worth being performed. In addition, such monitoring studies could be a great tool to better understand the ecology of influenza viruses in nature.

  15. Neanderthal exploitation of marine mammals in Gibraltar

    PubMed Central

    Stringer, C. B.; Finlayson, J. C.; Barton, R. N. E.; Fernández-Jalvo, Y.; Cáceres, I.; Sabin, R. C.; Rhodes, E. J.; Currant, A. P.; Rodríguez-Vidal, J.; Giles-Pacheco, F.; Riquelme-Cantal, J. A.

    2008-01-01

    Two coastal sites in Gibraltar, Vanguard and Gorham's Caves, located at Governor's Beach on the eastern side of the Rock, are especially relevant to the study of Neanderthals. Vanguard Cave provides evidence of marine food supply (mollusks, seal, dolphin, and fish). Further evidence of marine mammal remains was also found in the occupation levels at Gorham's Cave associated with Upper Paleolithic and Mousterian technologies [Finlayson C, et al. (2006) Nature 443:850–853]. The stratigraphic sequence of Gibraltar sites allows us to compare behaviors and subsistence strategies of Neanderthals during the Middle Paleolithic observed at Vanguard and Gorham's Cave sites. This evidence suggests that such use of marine resources was not a rare behavior and represents focused visits to the coast and estuaries. PMID:18809913

  16. Integrating parasitology and marine ecology: Seven challenges towards greater synergy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulin, Robert; Blasco-Costa, Isabel; Randhawa, Haseeb S.

    2016-07-01

    Despite their very different historical origins as scientific disciplines, parasitology and marine ecology have already combined successfully to make important contributions to our understanding of the functioning of natural ecosystems. For example, robust assessments of the contribution of parasites to ecosystem biomass and energetics, and of their impact on community-wide biodiversity and food web structure, have all been made for the first time in marine systems. Nevertheless, for the marriage between parasitology and marine ecology to remain fruitful, several challenges must first be overcome. We discuss seven such challenges on the road to a greater synergy between these disciplines: (1) Raising awareness of parasitism as an ecological force by increasing the proportion of articles about parasites and diseases in marine ecology journals; (2) Making greater use of theory and conceptual frameworks from marine ecology to guide parasitological research; (3) Speeding up or at least maintaining the current rate at which marine parasites are found and described; (4) Elucidating a greater proportion of life cycles in all major groups of marine parasites; (5) Increasing the number of host-parasite model systems on which our knowledge is based; (6) Extending parasitological research offshore and into ocean depths; and (7) Developing, as needed, new epidemiological theory and transmission models for the marine environment. None of these challenges is insurmountable, and addressing just a few of them should guarantee that parasitology and marine ecology will continue to join forces and make further substantial contributions.

  17. Natural Gas Propulsion Options for Short Sea Shipping Routes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-01

    International Maritime Organization LCG Longitudinal Center of Gravity LNG Liquefied Natural Gas MDF Marine Diesel Fuel NDF Natural Defense Funds NECA...marine diesel fuel ( MDF ) or heavy fuel oil (HFO) provided that the fuel system and engine are properly preheated. The Wärtsilä 34DF Project Guide...systems perform such jobs as handling the LNG, supplying the marine diesel fuel ( MDF ), distributing the lube oil, and utilizing the compressed air for

  18. Viruses and marine pollution.

    PubMed

    Danovaro, R; Armeni, M; Corinaldesi, C; Mei, M L

    2003-03-01

    This short review summarises the present knowledge on pollutant impacts on marine viruses, virus-host systems and their potential ecological implications. Excess nutrients from sewage and river effluents are a primary cause of marine eutrophication and mucilage formation, often related to the development of large viral assemblages. At the same time, hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyl and pesticides alter ecosystem functioning and can determinate changes in the virus-host interactions, thus increasing the potential of viral infection. All these pollutants might have synergistic effects on the virus-host system and are able to induce prophage, thus increasing the impact of viruses on marine ecosystems.

  19. Marine biogeochemistry of mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Gill, G.A.

    1986-01-01

    Noncontaminating sample collection and handling procedures and accurate and sensitive analysis methods were developed to measure sub-picomolar Hg concentrations in seawater. Reliable and diagnostic oceanographic Hg distributions were obtained, permitting major processes governing the marine biogeochemistry of Hg to be identified. Mercury concentrations in the northwest Atlantic, central Pacific, southeast Pacific, and Tasman Sea ranged from 0.5 to 12 pM. Vertical Hg distributions often exhibited a maximum within or near the main thermocline. At similar depths, Hg concentrations in the northwest Atlantic Ocean were elevated compared to the N. Pacific Ocean. This pattern appears to result from a combination of enhanced supply of Hg to the northwest Atlantic by rainfall and scavenging removal along deep water circulation pathways. These observations are supported by geochemical steady-state box modelling which predicts a relatively short mean residence time for Hg in the oceans; demonstrating the reactive nature of Hg in seawater and precluding significant involvement in nutrient-type recyclic. Evidence for the rapid removal of Hg from seawater was obtained at two locations. Surface seawater Hg measurements along 160/sup 0/ W (20/sup 0/N to 20/sup 0/S) showed a depression in the equatorial upwelling area which correlated well with the transect region exhibiting low /sup 234/Th//sup 238/U activity ratios. This relationship implies that Hg will be scavenged and removed from surface seawater in biologically productive oceanic zones. Further, a broad minimum in the vertical distribution of Hg was observed to coincide with the intense oxygen minimum zone in the water column in coastal waters off Peru.

  20. Marine Biodiversity of Aotearoa New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Dennis P.; Beaumont, Jennifer; MacDiarmid, Alison; Robertson, Donald A.; Ahyong, Shane T.

    2010-01-01

    in the EEZ may be expected to equal that in the ERMS region. This equivalence invites testable hypotheses to explain it. There are 177 naturalized alien species in New Zealand coastal waters, mostly in ports and harbours. Marine-taxonomic expertise in New Zealand covers a broad number of taxa but is, proportionately, at or near its lowest level since the Second World War. Nevertheless, collections are well supported by funding and are continually added to. Threats and protection measures concerning New Zealand's marine biodiversity are commented on, along with potential and priorities for future research. PMID:20689846

  1. Marine biodiversity of Aotearoa New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Dennis P; Beaumont, Jennifer; MacDiarmid, Alison; Robertson, Donald A; Ahyong, Shane T

    2010-08-02

    diversity in the EEZ may be expected to equal that in the ERMS region. This equivalence invites testable hypotheses to explain it. There are 177 naturalized alien species in New Zealand coastal waters, mostly in ports and harbours. Marine-taxonomic expertise in New Zealand covers a broad number of taxa but is, proportionately, at or near its lowest level since the Second World War. Nevertheless, collections are well supported by funding and are continually added to. Threats and protection measures concerning New Zealand's marine biodiversity are commented on, along with potential and priorities for future research.

  2. 76 FR 72680 - Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-25

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA078 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine.... Environmental Research and Services, Fairbanks, AK, to conduct research on marine mammals in Alaska. ADDRESSES... authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the...

  3. 77 FR 2512 - Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-18

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA905 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine...; receipt of application. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that Dorian Houser, Ph.D., National Marine Mammal... under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA; 16 U.S.C. 1361 et...

  4. 75 FR 77616 - Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XP18 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine... Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216), the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as...

  5. 76 FR 76949 - Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-09

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XR52 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine... Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216), the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as...

  6. 77 FR 9627 - Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-17

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB005 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine.../2\\ W. 4th Avenue, Olympia, WA 98501, has applied in due form for a permit to take marine mammals in... subject permit is requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as...

  7. Marine bioactives and potential application in sports.

    PubMed

    Gammone, Maria Alessandra; Gemello, Eugenio; Riccioni, Graziano; D'Orazio, Nicolantonio

    2014-04-30

    An enriched diet with antioxidants, such as vitamin E, vitamin C, β-carotene and phenolic compounds, has always been suggested to improve oxidative stress, preventing related diseases. In this respect, marine natural product (MNP), such as COX inhibitors, marine steroids, molecules interfering with factors involved in the modulation of gene expression (such as NF-κB), macrolides, many antioxidant agents, thermogenic substances and even substances that could help the immune system and that result in the protection of cartilage, have been recently gaining attention. The marine world represents a reserve of bioactive ingredients, with considerable potential as functional food. Substances, such as chitin, chitosan, n-3 oils, carotenoids, vitamins, minerals and bioactive peptides, can provide several health benefits, such as the reduction of cardiovascular diseases, anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic activities. In addition, new marine bioactive substances with potential anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and thermogenic capacity may provide health benefits and performance improvement, especially in those who practice physical activity, because of their increased free radical and Reacting Oxygen Species (ROS) production during exercise, and, particularly, in athletes. The aim of this review is to examine the potential pharmacological properties and application of many marine bioactive substances in sports.

  8. Contact angle hysteresis, adhesion, and marine biofouling.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Donald L; Brady, Robert F; Lam, Karen; Schmidt, Dale C; Chaudhury, Manoj K

    2004-03-30

    Adhesive and marine biofouling release properties of coatings containing surface-oriented perfluoroalkyl groups were investigated. These coatings were prepared by cross-linking a copolymer of 1H,1H,2H,2H-heptadecafluorodecyl acrylate and acrylic acid with a copolymer of poly(2-isopropenyl-2-oxazoline) and methyl methacrylate at different molar ratios. The relationships between contact angle, contact angle hysteresis, adhesion, and marine biofouling were studied. Adhesion was determined by peel tests using pressure-sensitive adhesives. The chemical nature of the surfaces was studied by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Resistance to marine biofouling of an optimized coating was studied by immersion in seawater and compared to previous, less optimized coatings. The adhesive release properties of the coatings did not correlate well with the surface energies of the coatings estimated from the static and advancing contact angles nor with the amount of fluorine present on the surface. The adhesive properties of the surfaces, however, show a correlation with water receding contact angles and contact angle hysteresis (or wetting hysteresis) resulting from surface penetration and surface reconstruction. Coatings having the best release properties had both the highest cross-link density and the lowest contact angle hysteresis. An optimized coating exhibited unprecedented resistance to marine biofouling. Water contact angle hysteresis appears to correlate with marine biofouling resistance.

  9. Genomic approaches in marine biodiversity and aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Huete-Pérez, Jorge A; Quezada, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in genomic and post-genomic technologies have now established the new standard in medical and biotechnological research. The introduction of next-generation sequencing, NGS,has resulted in the generation of thousands of genomes from all domains of life, including the genomes of complex uncultured microbial communities revealed through metagenomics. Although the application of genomics to marine biodiversity remains poorly developed overall, some noteworthy progress has been made in recent years. The genomes of various model marine organisms have been published and a few more are underway. In addition, the recent large-scale analysis of marine microbes, along with transcriptomic and proteomic approaches to the study of teleost fishes, mollusks and crustaceans, to mention a few, has provided a better understanding of phenotypic variability and functional genomics. The past few years have also seen advances in applications relevant to marine aquaculture and fisheries. In this review we introduce several examples of recent discoveries and progress made towards engendering genomic resources aimed at enhancing our understanding of marine biodiversity and promoting the development of aquaculture. Finally, we discuss the need for auspicious science policies to address challenges confronting smaller nations in the appropriate oversight of this growing domain as they strive to guarantee food security and conservation of their natural resources.

  10. Marine Bioactives and Potential Application in Sports

    PubMed Central

    Gammone, Maria Alessandra; Gemello, Eugenio; Riccioni, Graziano; D’Orazio, Nicolantonio

    2014-01-01

    An enriched diet with antioxidants, such as vitamin E, vitamin C, β-carotene and phenolic compounds, has always been suggested to improve oxidative stress, preventing related diseases. In this respect, marine natural product (MNP), such as COX inhibitors, marine steroids, molecules interfering with factors involved in the modulation of gene expression (such as NF-κB), macrolides, many antioxidant agents, thermogenic substances and even substances that could help the immune system and that result in the protection of cartilage, have been recently gaining attention. The marine world represents a reserve of bioactive ingredients, with considerable potential as functional food. Substances, such as chitin, chitosan, n-3 oils, carotenoids, vitamins, minerals and bioactive peptides, can provide several health benefits, such as the reduction of cardiovascular diseases, anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic activities. In addition, new marine bioactive substances with potential anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and thermogenic capacity may provide health benefits and performance improvement, especially in those who practice physical activity, because of their increased free radical and Reacting Oxygen Species (ROS) production during exercise, and, particularly, in athletes. The aim of this review is to examine the potential pharmacological properties and application of many marine bioactive substances in sports. PMID:24796298

  11. 76 FR 43267 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-20

    ... by causing disruption of natural behavioral patterns, including, but not limited to, migration... optical and electronic sensors are also employed for target clearance. If any marine mammals are detected... sensors (IR), and visual means. An alternative area would be selected if any cetaceans or vessels...

  12. 77 FR 51773 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ... retinal injury. Biosonics Up to three Bird-Guard broadcasting units (bird distress calls) could be used to... distress and predator calls could be used. The bird calls are naturally occurring sounds and are not... Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Bird Mitigation Research in the Farallon...

  13. Marine Life Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    As a result of widespread ocean dumping and other pollution problems, marine scientists at Morgan State University are studying the populations of various marine organisms to determine the effects of pollution. They are also compiling data on the aging of marine organisms. There now exists a new method of determining the age of the surf clam. They are applying digital image processing to clam aging investigations. Computer creates digitized images of clam sections with annual rings. The image is enhanced -- manipulated to emphasize certain features in order to improve and amplify the information that can be extracted from the image. Also useful in other marine organisms that have growth bands making it easier to get an accurate count.

  14. Marine medicinal glycomics

    PubMed Central

    Pomin, Vitor H.

    2014-01-01

    Glycomics is an international initiative aimed to understand the structure and function of the glycans from a given type of cell, tissue, organism, kingdom or even environment, as found under certain conditions. Glycomics is one of the latest areas of intense biological research. Glycans of marine sources are unique in terms of structure and function. They differ considerably from those of terrestrial origin. This review discusses the most known marine glycans of potential therapeutic properties. They are chitin, chitosan, and sulfated polysaccharides named glycosaminoglycans, sulfated fucans, and sulfated galactans. Their medical actions are very broad. When certain structural requirements are found, these glycans can exhibit beneficial effects in inflammation, coagulation, thrombosis, cancer growth/metastasis, and vascular biology. Both structure and therapeutic mechanisms of action of these marine glycans are discussed here in straight context with the current glycomic age through a project suggestively named marine medicinal glycomics. PMID:24524028

  15. JEP-MARINE CLEAN

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Technical product bulletin: aka ECOVOOM-MARINE, this surface washing agent is used in oil spill cleanups. Manual pump sprayers should be used to presoak contaminated areas, then pressure washers used to agitate after presoak has been applied.

  16. Mariner-Venus 1967

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Detailed information on the spacecraft performance, mission operations, and tracking and data acquisition is presented for the Mariner Venus 1967 and Mariner Venus 1967 extension projects. Scientific and engineering results and conclusions are discussed, and include the scientific mission, encounter with Venus, observations near Earth, and cruise phase of the mission. Flight path analysis, spacecraft subsystems, and mission-related hardware and computer program development are covered. The scientific experiments carried by Mariner 5 were ultraviolet photometer, solar plasma probe, helium magnetometer, trapped radiation detector, S-band radio occultation, dual-frequency radio propagation, and celestial mechanics. The engineering experience gained by converting a space Mariner Mars 1964 spacecraft into one flown to Venus is also described.

  17. Marine Sanitation Devices (MSDs)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Marine sanitation devices treat or retain sewage from vessels, and have performance standards set by the EPA. This page provides information on MSDs, including who must use an MSD, states' roles, types of MSDs and standards.

  18. Protecting the Marine Environment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA works with U.S. government agency partners, foreign nations, industry and nongovernmental organizations to ensure that international decisions and management of marine pollution issues support EPA's mission

  19. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) Bulletin, New Series Vol. 7, No. 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Morges, (Switzerland).

    Described is the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) marine program which centers around the world wildlife fund marine program. The program has been divided into three phases - launch, main, and follow-up; the launch phase is described. Action plans are described for each sub-program. Each action plan…

  20. Marine biodiversity characteristics.

    PubMed

    Boeuf, Gilles

    2011-05-01

    Oceans contain the largest living volume of the "blue" planet, inhabited by approximately 235-250,000 described species, all groups included. They only represent some 13% of the known species on the Earth, but the marine biomasses are really huge. Marine phytoplankton alone represents half the production of organic matter on Earth while marine bacteria represent more than 10%. Life first appeared in the oceans more than 3.8 billion years ago and several determining events took place that changed the course of life, ranging from the development of the cell nucleus to sexual reproduction going through multi-cellular organisms and the capture of organelles. Of the 31 animal phyla currently listed, 12 are exclusively marine phyla and have never left the ocean. An interesting question is to try to understand why there are so few marine species versus land species? This pattern of distribution seems pretty recent in the course of Evolution. From an exclusively marine world, since the beginning until 440 million years ago, land number of species much increased 110 million years ago. Specific diversity and ancestral roles, in addition to organizational models and original behaviors, have made marine organisms excellent reservoirs for identifying and extracting molecules (>15,000 today) with pharmacological potential. They also make particularly relevant models for both fundamental and applied research. Some marine models have been the source of essential discoveries in life sciences. From this diversity, the ocean provides humankind with renewable resources, which are highly threatened today and need more adequate management to preserve ocean habitats, stocks and biodiversity.

  1. Communication masking in marine mammals: A review and research strategy.

    PubMed

    Erbe, Christine; Reichmuth, Colleen; Cunningham, Kane; Lucke, Klaus; Dooling, Robert

    2016-02-15

    Underwater noise, whether of natural or anthropogenic origin, has the ability to interfere with the way in which marine mammals receive acoustic signals (i.e., for communication, social interaction, foraging, navigation, etc.). This phenomenon, termed auditory masking, has been well studied in humans and terrestrial vertebrates (in particular birds), but less so in marine mammals. Anthropogenic underwater noise seems to be increasing in parts of the world's oceans and concerns about associated bioacoustic effects, including masking, are growing. In this article, we review our understanding of masking in marine mammals, summarise data on marine mammal hearing as they relate to masking (including audiograms, critical ratios, critical bandwidths, and auditory integration times), discuss masking release processes of receivers (including comodulation masking release and spatial release from masking) and anti-masking strategies of signalers (e.g. Lombard effect), and set a research framework for improved assessment of potential masking in marine mammals.

  2. Bioactive secondary metabolites from marine microbes for drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Nikapitiya, Chamilani

    2012-01-01

    The isolation and extraction of novel bioactive secondary metabolites from marine microorganisms have a biomedical potential for future drug discovery as the oceans cover 70% of the planet's surface and life on earth originates from sea. Wide range of novel bioactive secondary metabolites exhibiting pharmacodynamic properties has been isolated from marine microorganisms and many to be discovered. The compounds isolated from marine organisms (macro and micro) are important in their natural form and also as templates for synthetic modifications for the treatments for variety of deadly to minor diseases. Many technical issues are yet to overcome before wide-scale bioprospecting of marine microorganisms becomes a reality. This chapter focuses on some novel secondary metabolites having antitumor, antivirus, enzyme inhibitor, and other bioactive properties identified and isolated from marine microorganisms including bacteria, actinomycetes, fungi, and cyanobacteria, which could serve as potentials for drug discovery after their clinical trials.

  3. From darwin to the census of marine life: marine biology as big science.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, Niki

    2013-01-01

    With the development of the Human Genome Project, a heated debate emerged on biology becoming 'big science'. However, biology already has a long tradition of collaboration, as natural historians were part of the first collective scientific efforts: exploring the variety of life on earth. Such mappings of life still continue today, and if field biology is gradually becoming an important subject of studies into big science, research into life in the world's oceans is not taken into account yet. This paper therefore explores marine biology as big science, presenting the historical development of marine research towards the international 'Census of Marine Life' (CoML) making an inventory of life in the world's oceans. Discussing various aspects of collaboration--including size, internationalisation, research practice, technological developments, application, and public communication--I will ask if CoML still resembles traditional collaborations to collect life. While showing both continuity and change, I will argue that marine biology is a form of natural history: a specific way of working together in biology that has transformed substantially in interaction with recent developments in the life sciences and society. As a result, the paper does not only give an overview of transformations towards large scale research in marine biology, but also shines a new light on big biology, suggesting new ways to deepen the understanding of collaboration in the life sciences by distinguishing between different 'collective ways of knowing'.

  4. From Darwin to the Census of Marine Life: Marine Biology as Big Science

    PubMed Central

    Vermeulen, Niki

    2013-01-01

    With the development of the Human Genome Project, a heated debate emerged on biology becoming ‘big science’. However, biology already has a long tradition of collaboration, as natural historians were part of the first collective scientific efforts: exploring the variety of life on earth. Such mappings of life still continue today, and if field biology is gradually becoming an important subject of studies into big science, research into life in the world's oceans is not taken into account yet. This paper therefore explores marine biology as big science, presenting the historical development of marine research towards the international ‘Census of Marine Life’ (CoML) making an inventory of life in the world's oceans. Discussing various aspects of collaboration – including size, internationalisation, research practice, technological developments, application, and public communication – I will ask if CoML still resembles traditional collaborations to collect life. While showing both continuity and change, I will argue that marine biology is a form of natural history: a specific way of working together in biology that has transformed substantially in interaction with recent developments in the life sciences and society. As a result, the paper does not only give an overview of transformations towards large scale research in marine biology, but also shines a new light on big biology, suggesting new ways to deepen the understanding of collaboration in the life sciences by distinguishing between different ‘collective ways of knowing’. PMID:23342119

  5. Marine bioacoustics and technology: The new world of marine acoustic ecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hastings, Mardi C.; Au, Whitlow W. L.

    2012-11-01

    Marine animals use sound for communication, navigation, predator avoidance, and prey detection. Thus the rise in acoustic energy associated with increasing human activity in the ocean has potential to impact the lives of marine animals. Thirty years ago marine bioacoustics primarily focused on evaluating effects of human-generated sound on hearing and behavior by testing captive animals and visually observing wild animals. Since that time rapidly changing electronic and computing technologies have yielded three tools that revolutionized how bioacousticians study marine animals. These tools are (1) portable systems for measuring electrophysiological auditory evoked potentials, (2) miniaturized tags equipped with positioning sensors and acoustic recording devices for continuous short-term acoustical observation rather than intermittent visual observation, and (3) passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) systems for remote long-term acoustic observations at specific locations. The beauty of these breakthroughs is their direct applicability to wild animals in natural habitats rather than only to animals held in captivity. Hearing capabilities of many wild species including polar bears, beaked whales, and reef fishes have now been assessed by measuring their auditory evoked potentials. Miniaturized acoustic tags temporarily attached to an animal to record its movements and acoustic environment have revealed the acoustic foraging behavior of sperm and beaked whales. Now tags are being adapted to fishes in effort to understand their behavior in the presence of noise. Moving and static PAM systems automatically detect and characterize biological and physical features of an ocean area without adding any acoustic energy to the environment. PAM is becoming a powerful technique for understanding and managing marine habitats. This paper will review the influence of these transformative tools on the knowledge base of marine bioacoustics and elucidation of relationships between marine

  6. Natural Products as Aromatase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Balunas, Marcy J.; Su, Bin; Brueggemeier, Robert W.; Kinghorn, A. Douglas

    2010-01-01

    With the clinical success of several synthetic aromatase inhibitors (AIs) in the treatment of postmenopausal estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer, researchers have also been investigating also the potential of natural products as AIs. Natural products from terrestrial and marine organisms provide a chemically diverse array of compounds not always available through current synthetic chemistry techniques. Natural products that have been used traditionally for nutritional or medicinal purposes (e.g., botanical dietary supplements) may also afford AIs with reduced side effects. A thorough review of the literature regarding natural product extracts and secondary metabolites of plant, microbial, and marine origin that have been shown to exhibit aromatase inhibitory activity is presented herein. PMID:18690828

  7. Hull fouling of maritime vessels as a pathway for marine species invasions to the Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Godwin, L Scott

    2003-04-01

    The natural barriers to species invasions that exist in isolated marine environments such as Hawaii are overcome by anthropogenic influences on the dispersal patterns of marine organisms. This creates a situation where the marine habitats of the Hawaiian Archipelago are more readily exposed to marine non-indigenous species. A case study of a particular anthropogenic dispersal mode, maritime vessel hull fouling, is reviewed. This mode has effects on altered environments, such as harbors, as well as unaltered coastal habitats. Hull fouling of commercial maritime vessels is documented as a transport vector, and an inter-island dispersal mechanism for marine non-indigenous species to the main Hawaiian Islands.

  8. Praziquantel degradation in marine aquarium water

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Matthew R.; Ellis, Helen; Stamper, M. Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Praziquantel (PZQ) is a drug commonly utilized to treat both human schistosomiasis and some parasitic infections and infestations in animals. In the aquarium industry, PZQ can be administered in a “bath” to treat the presence of ectoparasites on both the gills and skin of fish and elasmobranchs. In order to fully treat an infestation, the bath treatment has to maintain therapeutic levels of PZQ over a period of days or weeks. It has long been assumed that, once administered, PZQ is stable in a marine environment throughout the treatment interval and must be mechanically removed, but no controlled experiments have been conducted to validate that claim. This study aimed to determine if PZQ would break down naturally within a marine aquarium below its 2 ppm therapeutic level during a typical 30-day treatment: and if so, does the presence of fish or the elimination of all living biological material impact the degradation of PZQ? Three 650 L marine aquarium systems, each containing 12 fish (French grunts: Haemulon flavolineatum), and three 650 L marine aquariums each containing no fish were treated with PZQ (2 ppm) and concentrations were measured daily for 30 days. After one round of treatment, the PZQ was no longer detectable in any system after 8 (±1) days. The subsequent two PZQ treatments yielded even faster PZQ breakdown (non-detectable after 2 days and 2 ± 1 day, respectively) with slight variations between systems. Linear mixed effects models of the data indicate that day and trial most impact PZQ degradation, while the presence of fish was not a factor in the best-fit models. In a completely sterilized marine system (0.5 L) PZQ concentration remained unchanged over 15 days, suggesting that PZQ may be stable in a marine system during this time period. The degradation observed in non-sterile marine systems in this study may be microbial in nature. This work should be taken into consideration when providing PZQ bath treatments to marine animals to ensure

  9. Praziquantel degradation in marine aquarium water.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Amber; Dawson, Matthew R; Ellis, Helen; Stamper, M Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Praziquantel (PZQ) is a drug commonly utilized to treat both human schistosomiasis and some parasitic infections and infestations in animals. In the aquarium industry, PZQ can be administered in a "bath" to treat the presence of ectoparasites on both the gills and skin of fish and elasmobranchs. In order to fully treat an infestation, the bath treatment has to maintain therapeutic levels of PZQ over a period of days or weeks. It has long been assumed that, once administered, PZQ is stable in a marine environment throughout the treatment interval and must be mechanically removed, but no controlled experiments have been conducted to validate that claim. This study aimed to determine if PZQ would break down naturally within a marine aquarium below its 2 ppm therapeutic level during a typical 30-day treatment: and if so, does the presence of fish or the elimination of all living biological material impact the degradation of PZQ? Three 650 L marine aquarium systems, each containing 12 fish (French grunts: Haemulon flavolineatum), and three 650 L marine aquariums each containing no fish were treated with PZQ (2 ppm) and concentrations were measured daily for 30 days. After one round of treatment, the PZQ was no longer detectable in any system after 8 (±1) days. The subsequent two PZQ treatments yielded even faster PZQ breakdown (non-detectable after 2 days and 2 ± 1 day, respectively) with slight variations between systems. Linear mixed effects models of the data indicate that day and trial most impact PZQ degradation, while the presence of fish was not a factor in the best-fit models. In a completely sterilized marine system (0.5 L) PZQ concentration remained unchanged over 15 days, suggesting that PZQ may be stable in a marine system during this time period. The degradation observed in non-sterile marine systems in this study may be microbial in nature. This work should be taken into consideration when providing PZQ bath treatments to marine animals to ensure maximum

  10. Bioactive Pigments from Marine Bacteria: Applications and Physiological Roles

    PubMed Central

    Soliev, Azamjon B.; Hosokawa, Kakushi; Enomoto, Keiichi

    2011-01-01

    Research into natural products from the marine environment, including microorganisms, has rapidly increased over the past two decades. Despite the enormous difficulty in isolating and harvesting marine bacteria, microbial metabolites are increasingly attractive to science because of their broad-ranging pharmacological activities, especially those with unique color pigments. This current review paper gives an overview of the pigmented natural compounds isolated from bacteria of marine origin, based on accumulated data in the literature. We review the biological activities of marine compounds, including recent advances in the study of pharmacological effects and other commercial applications, in addition to the biosynthesis and physiological roles of associated pigments. Chemical structures of the bioactive compounds discussed are also presented. PMID:21961023

  11. Marine protected areas increase resilience among coral reef communities.

    PubMed

    Mellin, Camille; Aaron MacNeil, M; Cheal, Alistair J; Emslie, Michael J; Julian Caley, M

    2016-06-01

    With marine biodiversity declining globally at accelerating rates, maximising the effectiveness of conservation has become a key goal for local, national and international regulators. Marine protected areas (MPAs) have been widely advocated for conserving and managing marine biodiversity yet, despite extensive research, their benefits for conserving non-target species and wider ecosystem functions remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that MPAs can increase the resilience of coral reef communities to natural disturbances, including coral bleaching, coral diseases, Acanthaster planci outbreaks and storms. Using a 20-year time series from Australia's Great Barrier Reef, we show that within MPAs, (1) reef community composition was 21-38% more stable; (2) the magnitude of disturbance impacts was 30% lower and (3) subsequent recovery was 20% faster that in adjacent unprotected habitats. Our results demonstrate that MPAs can increase the resilience of marine communities to natural disturbance possibly through herbivory, trophic cascades and portfolio effects.

  12. Minerals From the Marine Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruickshank, Michael J.

    The current interest in minerals centering on, among other things, potential shortages, long-term needs, and deep seabed nodules, accentuates the usefulness and timeliness of this little book authored by a former chairman of the British National Environmental Research Council.In less than 100 pages, the author puts into perspective the potential for producing minerals from offshore areas of the world. After introducing the reader to the ocean environment and the extraordinary variety of the nature of the seabed, the author describes in some detail the variety of minerals found there. This is done in seven separate chapters entitled ‘Bulk and Non-Metallic Minerals From the Seas’ ‘Metals From the Shallow Seas’ ‘Metals From the Deep Oceans’ ‘Minerals From Solution’ ‘Oil and Gas from the Shallow Seas’ ‘Oil and Gas From Deep Waters’ and ‘Coal Beneath the Sea.’ The remaining chapters give a brief regional review of marine minerals distribution for eight areas of significant socioeconomic structure, and a short recapitulation of special problems of mineral recovery in the marine environment including such matters as the effect of water motion on mineral processing and of international law on investments. Glossaries of geological periods and technical terms, a short list of references, and an index complete the work.

  13. Marine sequestration of carbon in bacterial metabolites.

    PubMed

    Lechtenfeld, Oliver J; Hertkorn, Norbert; Shen, Yuan; Witt, Matthias; Benner, Ronald

    2015-03-31

    Linking microbial metabolomics and carbon sequestration in the ocean via refractory organic molecules has been hampered by the chemical complexity of dissolved organic matter (DOM). Here, using bioassay experiments and ultra-high resolution metabolic profiling, we demonstrate that marine bacteria rapidly utilize simple organic molecules and produce exometabolites of remarkable molecular and structural diversity. Bacterial DOM is similar in chemical composition and structural complexity to naturally occurring DOM in sea water. An appreciable fraction of bacterial DOM has molecular and structural properties that are consistent with those of refractory molecules in the ocean, indicating a dominant role for bacteria in shaping the refractory nature of marine DOM. The rapid production of chemically complex and persistent molecules from simple biochemicals demonstrates a positive feedback between primary production and refractory DOM formation. It appears that carbon sequestration in diverse and structurally complex dissolved molecules that persist in the environment is largely driven by bacteria.

  14. Lightening the Load: Toning the Marine Corps’ Information Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-18

    other services Marine Corps information technology was, and the first time I was ever embarrassed by that knowledge. Today the Marine Corps is just...its efforts and develop lighter, smaller, simpler, scalable, autonomous, and common information technology for all echelons of Command throughout the...MAGTF to maintain its expeditionary nature. To maintain its edge as the nation’s force-in-readiness, the Corps needs its information technology equipment

  15. Salimabromide: unexpected chemistry from the obligate marine myxobacterium Enhygromxya salina.

    PubMed

    Felder, Stephan; Dreisigacker, Sandra; Kehraus, Stefan; Neu, Edith; Bierbaum, Gabriele; Wright, Patrick R; Menche, Dirk; Schäberle, Till F; König, Gabriele M

    2013-07-08

    Marine myxobacteria (Enhygromyxa, Plesiocystis, Pseudoenhygromyxa, Haliangium) are phylogenetically distant from their terrestrial counterparts. Salimabromide is the first natural product from the Plesiocystis/Enhygromyxa clade of obligatory marine myxobacteria. Salimabromide has a new tetracyclic carbon skeleton, comprising a brominated benzene ring, a furano lactone residue, and a cyclohexane ring, bridged by a seven-membered cyclic moiety. The absolute configuration was deduced from experimental and calculated CD data. Salimabromide revealed antibiotic activity towards Arthrobacter cristallopoietes.

  16. Bromopyrrole Alkaloids from Okinawan Marine Sponges Agelas spp.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Naonobu; Kusama, Taishi; Kashiwada, Yoshiki; Kobayashi, Jun'ichi

    2016-01-01

    In our continuing study for structurally and biogenetically interesting natural products from marine organisms, Okinawan marine sponges Agelas spp. were investigated, resulting in the isolation of 18 unique alkaloids including five dimeric bromopyrrole alkaloids (1-5), ten monomeric bromopyrrole alkaloids (6-15), and three conjugates of monomeric bromopyrrole alkaloid and hydroxykynurenine (16-18). In this mini-review, the isolation, structure elucidation, and antimicrobial activities of these alkaloids are summarized.

  17. The Marine Biogeochemistry of Zinc Isotopes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    hydrothermal fluids and minerals, cultured marine phytoplankton , natural plankton, and seawater. By measuring Zn isotopes in a diverse array of...chemical processes that have acted upon Zn atoms. The growth of phytoplankton in the oceans, chemical adsorption to sinking particles, the circulation of...Dolgopolova et al., 2006), cultured phytoplankton (G6labert et al., 2006), and seawater (Bermin et al., 2006). 1.2 Zinc stable isotope analysis Zinc has

  18. The roles of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids in the process of aggregation of natural marine organic matter investigated by means of 2D correlation spectroscopy applied to infrared spectra.

    PubMed

    Mecozzi, Mauro; Pietrantonio, Eva; Pietroletti, Marco

    2009-01-01

    In this paper the marine organic matter soluble in an alkaline medium called extractable humic substance (EHS), was extracted from three sediment samples of Tyrrhenian Sea and separated by precipitation at pH 2 in the two fractions of fulvic acids (FAs) and humic acids (HAs). FAs were further fractionated in seven sub-samples of different molecular weight (mw) by means of seven different ultrafiltration membranes operating in the range between mw<1 kDa and mw>100 kDa. Then the qualitative composition of each sample of fractionated FAs and HAs was studied by means of one-dimensional Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in reflectance mode (FTIR-DRIFT) and by two-dimensional (2D) correlation spectroscopy both in wavelength-wavelength (WW) and in sample-sample (SS) mode. The application of 2D correlation WW spectroscopy allows to elucidate the different roles played by carbohydrates and proteins with respect to some lipid compounds such as fatty acids and ester fatty acids during the process of aggregate formations from mw approximately 1 kDa to higher size aggregates. In addition, 2D correlation WW spectroscopy allows to observe some peculiar interactions between carbohydrates and proteins in the formation of EHS aggregates, interactions which vary from a sample to another sample. The results of 2D correlation SS spectroscopy confirm the general evidences obtained by 2D WW spectroscopy and moreover, they also describe the formation of EHS aggregates as a complex process where evolutionary links and connectivity between aggregates of neighbour molecular size ranges are not evident. Two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy applied to FTIR spectroscopy shows to be a powerful tool for the investigation of the mechanisms involved in EHS aggregation because it supports the acquisition of structural information which sometimes can be hardly obtained by one-dimensional FTIR spectroscopy.

  19. The roles of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids in the process of aggregation of natural marine organic matter investigated by means of 2D correlation spectroscopy applied to infrared spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mecozzi, Mauro; Pietrantonio, Eva; Pietroletti, Marco

    2009-01-01

    In this paper the marine organic matter soluble in an alkaline medium called extractable humic substance (EHS), was extracted from three sediment samples of Tyrrhenian Sea and separated by precipitation at pH 2 in the two fractions of fulvic acids (FAs) and humic acids (HAs). FAs were further fractionated in seven sub-samples of different molecular weight (mw) by means of seven different ultrafiltration membranes operating in the range between mw < 1 kDa and mw > 100 kDa. Then the qualitative composition of each sample of fractionated FAs and HAs was studied by means of one-dimensional Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in reflectance mode (FTIR-DRIFT) and by two-dimensional (2D) correlation spectroscopy both in wavelength-wavelength (WW) and in sample-sample (SS) mode. The application of 2D correlation WW spectroscopy allows to elucidate the different roles played by carbohydrates and proteins with respect to some lipid compounds such as fatty acids and ester fatty acids during the process of aggregate formations from mw ˜1 kDa to higher size aggregates. In addition, 2D correlation WW spectroscopy allows to observe some peculiar interactions between carbohydrates and proteins in the formation of EHS aggregates, interactions which vary from a sample to another sample. The results of 2D correlation SS spectroscopy confirm the general evidences obtained by 2D WW spectroscopy and moreover, they also describe the formation of EHS aggregates as a complex process where evolutionary links and connectivity between aggregates of neighbour molecular size ranges are not evident. Two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy applied to FTIR spectroscopy shows to be a powerful tool for the investigation of the mechanisms involved in EHS aggregation because it supports the acquisition of structural information which sometimes can be hardly obtained by one-dimensional FTIR spectroscopy.

  20. Epigenomics in marine fishes.

    PubMed

    Metzger, David C H; Schulte, Patricia M

    2016-12-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms are an underappreciated and often ignored component of an organism's response to environmental change and may underlie many types of phenotypic plasticity. Recent technological advances in methods for detecting epigenetic marks at a whole-genome scale have launched new opportunities for studying epigenomics in ecologically relevant non-model systems. The study of ecological epigenomics holds great promise to better understand the linkages between genotype, phenotype, and the environment and to explore mechanisms of phenotypic plasticity. The many attributes of marine fish species, including their high diversity, variable life histories, high fecundity, impressive plasticity, and economic value provide unique opportunities for studying epigenetic mechanisms in an environmental context. To provide a primer on epigenomic research for fish biologists, we start by describing fundamental aspects of epigenetics, focusing on the most widely studied and most well understood of the epigenetic marks: DNA methylation. We then describe the techniques that have been used to investigate DNA methylation in marine fishes to date and highlight some new techniques that hold great promise for future studies. Epigenomic research in marine fishes is in its early stages, so we first briefly discuss what has been learned about the establishment, maintenance, and function of DNA methylation in fishes from studies in zebrafish and then summarize the studies demonstrating the pervasive effects of the environment on the epigenomes of marine fishes. We conclude by highlighting the potential for ongoing research on the epigenomics of marine fishes to reveal critical aspects of the interaction between organisms and their environments.

  1. Bioprospecting Marine Plankton

    PubMed Central

    Abida, Heni; Ruchaud, Sandrine; Rios, Laurent; Humeau, Anne; Probert, Ian; De Vargas, Colomban; Bach, Stéphane; Bowler, Chris

    2013-01-01

    The ocean dominates the surface of our planet and plays a major role in regulating the biosphere. For example, the microscopic photosynthetic organisms living within provide 50% of the oxygen we breathe, and much of our food and mineral resources are extracted from the ocean. In a time of ecological crisis and major changes in our society, it is essential to turn our attention towards the sea to find additional solutions for a sustainable future. Remarkably, while we are overexploiting many marine resources, particularly the fisheries, the planktonic compartment composed of zooplankton, phytoplankton, bacteria and viruses, represents 95% of marine biomass and yet the extent of its diversity remains largely unknown and underexploited. Consequently, the potential of plankton as a bioresource for humanity is largely untapped. Due to their diverse evolutionary backgrounds, planktonic organisms offer immense opportunities: new resources for medicine, cosmetics and food, renewable energy, and long-term solutions to mitigate climate change. Research programs aiming to exploit culture collections of marine micro-organisms as well as to prospect the huge resources of marine planktonic biodiversity in the oceans are now underway, and several bioactive extracts and purified compounds have already been identified. This review will survey and assess the current state-of-the-art and will propose methodologies to better exploit the potential of marine plankton for drug discovery and for dermocosmetics. PMID:24240981

  2. Bioprospecting marine plankton.

    PubMed

    Abida, Heni; Ruchaud, Sandrine; Rios, Laurent; Humeau, Anne; Probert, Ian; De Vargas, Colomban; Bach, Stéphane; Bowler, Chris

    2013-11-14

    The ocean dominates the surface of our planet and plays a major role in regulating the biosphere. For example, the microscopic photosynthetic organisms living within provide 50% of the oxygen we breathe, and much of our food and mineral resources are extracted from the ocean. In a time of ecological crisis and major changes in our society, it is essential to turn our attention towards the sea to find additional solutions for a sustainable future. Remarkably, while we are overexploiting many marine resources, particularly the fisheries, the planktonic compartment composed of zooplankton, phytoplankton, bacteria and viruses, represents 95% of marine biomass and yet the extent of its diversity remains largely unknown and underexploited. Consequently, the potential of plankton as a bioresource for humanity is largely untapped. Due to their diverse evolutionary backgrounds, planktonic organisms offer immense opportunities: new resources for medicine, cosmetics and food, renewable energy, and long-term solutions to mitigate climate change. Research programs aiming to exploit culture collections of marine micro-organisms as well as to prospect the huge resources of marine planktonic biodiversity in the oceans are now underway, and several bioactive extracts and purified compounds have already been identified. This review will survey and assess the current state-of-the-art and will propose methodologies to better exploit the potential of marine plankton for drug discovery and for dermocosmetics.

  3. Dangerous marine animals.

    PubMed

    Edmonds, C

    1976-04-01

    Tales of dangerous marine animals have flourished, entwining history, legend and imagination. Man is now demonstrating his remarkable adaptability in returning to the aquatic environment, from which he had his origins, and factual knowledge of marine creatures is surplanting mystery, folklore and fear. There is still cause to fear certain aspects of the underwater world, and the one aspect that still holds sway over public interest is that of dangerous marine animals. There is little justification for this top priority. The kelp beds of San Diego will claim more diving victims than all the marine animals around the United States of America. The cold seas off the English coastline, the tidal currents of Hawaii and the multitude of drowning accidents in water caves of Florida and Australia belittle the relatively few fatalities caused by marine animals. Nevertheless, the latter do cause injury and death, especially in the tropical, subtropical and temperate regions. The Indo-Pacific area seems particularly well endowed with a variety of potentially lethal species, and some of these will be dealt with in this paper.

  4. Marine Structural Biomaterials in Medical Biomimicry.

    PubMed

    Green, David W; Lee, Jong-Min; Jung, Han-Sung

    2015-10-01

    Marine biomaterials display properties, behaviors, and functions that have not been artificially matched in relation to their hierarchical construction, crack-stopping properties, growth adaptation, and energy efficiency. The discovery and understanding of such features that are characteristic of natural biomaterials can be used to manufacture more energy-efficient and lightweight materials. However, a more detailed understanding of the design of natural biomaterials with good performance and the mechanism of their design is required. Far-reaching biomolecular characterization of biomaterials and biostructures from the ocean world is possible with sophisticated analytical methods, such as whole-genome RNA-seq, and de novo transcriptome sequencing and mass spectrophotometry-based sequencing. In combination with detailed material characterization, the elements in newly discovered biomaterials and their properties can be reconstituted into biomimetic or bio-inspired materials. A major aim of harnessing marine biomaterials is their translation into biomimetic counterparts. To achieve full translation, the genome, proteome, and hierarchical material characteristics, and their profiles in space and time, have to be associated to allow for smooth biomimetic translation. In this article, we highlight the novel science of marine biomimicry from a materials perspective. We focus on areas of material design and fabrication that have excelled in marine biological models, such as embedded interfaces, chiral organization, and the use of specialized composite material-on-material designs. Our emphasis is primarily on key materials with high value in healthcare in which we evaluate their future prospects. Marine biomaterials are among the most exquisite and powerful aspects in materials science today.

  5. Climate of the Arctic marine environment.

    PubMed

    Walsh, John E

    2008-03-01

    The climate of the Arctic marine environment is characterized by strong seasonality in the incoming solar radiation and by tremendous spatial variations arising from a variety of surface types, including open ocean, sea ice, large islands, and proximity to major landmasses. Interannual and decadal-scale variations are prominent features of Arctic climate, complicating the distinction between natural and anthropogenically driven variations. Nevertheless, climate models consistently indicate that the Arctic is the most climatically sensitive region of the Northern Hemisphere, especially near the sea ice margins. The Arctic marine environment has shown changes over the past several decades, and these changes are part of a broader global warming that exceeds the range of natural variability over the past 1000 years. Record minima of sea ice coverage during the past few summers and increased melt from Greenland have important implications for the hydrographic regime of the Arctic marine environment. The recent changes in the atmosphere (temperature, precipitation, pressure), sea ice, and ocean appear to be a coordinated response to systematic variations of the large-scale atmospheric circulation, superimposed on a general warming that is likely associated with increasing greenhouse gases. The changes have been sufficiently large in some sectors (e.g., the Bering/Chukchi Seas) that consequences for marine ecosystems appear to be underway. Global climate models indicate an additional warming of several degrees Celsius in much of the Arctic marine environment by 2050. However, the warming is seasonal (largest in autumn and winter), spatially variable, and closely associated with further retreat of sea ice. Additional changes predicted for 2050 are a general decrease of sea level pressure (largest in the Bering sector) and an increase of precipitation. While predictions of changes in storminess cannot be made with confidence, the predicted reduction of sea ice cover will

  6. Natural photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigneron, Jean Pol; Simonis, Priscilla

    2012-10-01

    Photonic structures appeared in nature several hundred millions years ago. In the living world, color is used for communication and this important function strongly impacts the individual chances of survival as well as the chances to reproduce. This has a statistical influence on species populations. Therefore, because they are involved in evolution, natural color-generating structures are - from some point of view - highly optimized. In this short review, a survey is presented of the development of natural photonic crystal-type structures occurring in insects, spiders, birds, fishes and other marine animals, in plants and more, from the standpoint of light-waves propagation. One-, two-, and three-dimensional structures will be reviewed with selected examples.

  7. Identifying Marine Phytoplankton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargraves, Paul E.

    Until recently, anyone who needed to accurately identify marine phytoplankton had one of four choices: use the outdated Englishlanguage volumes by E. E. Cupp and N. I. Hendey plus the more recent book by J. Dodge, acquire a working knowledge of German and use the old volumes by Schiller and Hustedt, spend huge amounts of time in an exceedingly well-equipped marine science library trying in vain to keep up with the rapidly evolving field of phytoplankton systematics and taxonomy, or track down one of the rarest of endangered species—a phytoplankton taxonomist—and beg for help.To these unfortunate choices is added one considerably more hopeful: Identifying Marine Phytoplankton. This volume, which has seven contributing authors, contains most of the taxonomic groups that make up the planktonic autotrophs and some heterotrophs of the seas, coasts, and estuaries of the world (missing are cyanobacteria and some of the picoplankton groups).

  8. Marine pharmacology in 2007-8: Marine compounds with antibacterial, anticoagulant, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antimalarial, antiprotozoal, antituberculosis, and antiviral activities; affecting the immune and nervous system, and other miscellaneous mechanisms of action.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Alejandro M S; Rodríguez, Abimael D; Berlinck, Roberto G S; Fusetani, Nobuhiro

    2011-03-01

    The peer-reviewed marine pharmacology literature in 2007-8 is covered in this review, which follows a similar format to the previous 1998-2006 reviews of this series. The preclinical pharmacology of structurally characterized marine compounds isolated from marine animals, algae, fungi and bacteria is discussed in a comprehensive manner. Antibacterial, anticoagulant, antifungal, antimalarial, antiprotozoal, antituberculosis and antiviral activities were reported for 74 marine natural products. Additionally, 59 marine compounds were reported to affect the cardiovascular, immune and nervous systems as well as to possess anti-inflammatory effects. Finally, 65 marine metabolites were shown to bind to a variety of receptors and miscellaneous molecular targets, and thus upon further completion of mechanism of action studies, will contribute to several pharmacological classes. Marine pharmacology research during 2007-8 remained a global enterprise, with researchers from 26 countries, and the United States, contributing to the preclinical pharmacology of 197 marine compounds which are part of the preclinical marine pharmaceuticals pipeline. Sustained preclinical research with marine natural products demonstrating novel pharmacological activities, will probably result in the expansion of the current marine pharmaceutical clinical pipeline, which currently consists of 13 marine natural products, analogs or derivatives targeting a limited number of disease categories.

  9. New Waves in Marine Science Symposium: Marine Animal Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Betty, Comp.

    1989-01-01

    Presented are the abstracts from three research projects on marine social systems which were a part of a marine science symposium. Five sets of activities on marine animal communication are included, one each for grades K-2, 3-5, 6-8 and 9-12, and informal education. (CW)

  10. View west along Marine Barracks Way at rear of Marine ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View west along Marine Barracks Way at rear of Marine Corps Officers' Housing, with carports on left and duplex on right - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Marine Corps Officers' Duplex Quarters, Salvor Street & Russell Avenue, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  11. 75 FR 19670 - Marine Highway Projects

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-15

    ... No: 2010-8619] DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Marine Highway Projects ACTION: Solicitation of applications for Marine highway projects. SUMMARY: The Department of Transportation is soliciting applications for Marine Highway Projects as specified in the America's Marine Highway...

  12. Alkaloids in Marine Algae

    PubMed Central

    Güven, Kasım Cemal; Percot, Aline; Sezik, Ekrem

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the alkaloids found in green, brown and red marine algae. Algal chemistry has interested many researchers in order to develop new drugs, as algae include compounds with functional groups which are characteristic from this particular source. Among these compounds, alkaloids present special interest because of their pharmacological activities. Alkaloid chemistry has been widely studied in terrestrial plants, but the number of studies in algae is insignificant. In this review, a detailed account of macro algae alkaloids with their structure and pharmacological activities is presented. The alkaloids found in marine algae may be divided into three groups: 1. Phenylethylamine alkaloids, 2. Indole and halogenated indole alkaloids, 3. Other alkaloids. PMID:20390105

  13. Marine cable location system

    SciTech Connect

    Zachariadis, R.G.

    1984-05-01

    An acoustic positioning system locates a marine cable at an exploration site, such cable employing a plurality of hydrophones at spaced-apart positions along the cable. A marine vessel measures water depth to the cable as the vessel passes over the cable and interrogates the hydrophones with sonar pulses along a slant range as the vessel travels in a parallel and horizontally offset path to the cable. The location of the hydrophones is determined from the recordings of water depth and slant range.

  14. Mariner 9 navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neil, W. J.; Jordan, J. F.; Zielenbach, J. W.; Wong, S. K.; Mitchell, R. T.; Webb, W. A.; Koskela, P. E.

    1973-01-01

    A final, comprehensive description of the navigation of Mariner 9-the first U.S. spacecraft to orbit another planet is provided. The Mariner 9 navigation function included not only precision flight path control but also pointing of the spacecraft's scientific instruments mounted on a two degree of freedom scan platform. To the extent appropriate, each section describes the perflight analyses on which the operational strategies and performance predictions were based. Inflight results are then discussed and compared with the preflight predictions. Postflight analyses, which were primarily concerned with developing a thorough understanding of unexpected in-flight results, are also presented.

  15. Marine Science Building Dedicated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Officials cut the ribbon during dedication ceremonies of the George A. Knauer Marine Science Building on Oct. 17 at NASA Stennis Space Center (SSC). The $2.75 million facility, the first building at the test site funded by the state of Mississippi, houses six science labs, classrooms and office space for 40 faculty and staff. Pictured are, from left, Rear Adm. Thomas Donaldson, commander of the Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command; SSC Assistant Director David Throckmorton; Dr. George A. Knauer, founder of the Center of Marine Science at the University of Southern Mississippi (USM); Lt. Gov. Amy Tuck; and USM President Dr. Shelby Thames.

  16. [Elementary exploration of the origin and development of marine Chinese materia medica].

    PubMed

    Guan, Hua-Shi; Fu, Xian-Jun; Wu, Qiang-Ming; Wang, Chang-Yun; Wang, Yu; Jiang, Deng-Zhao

    2009-05-01

    According to archaeological discoveries, humans began to make use of marine natural resources early in the Palaeolithic era. In the Spring and Autumn period and Warring States period, they began to use marine life as medicines and also had simple cognitions on their efficacy and processing. In the Qin and Han dynasties, people further deepened the understanding of the marine Chinese materia medica and created prescriptions making use of marine drugs. In the Tang and Song period, the number of marine Chinese materia medica species and corresponding prescriptions apparently increased. The cognitions of the property, flavor, efficacy as well as the compatible principle of marine Chinese materia medica was further deepened and the scope of their treatment also significantly expanded. In the Ming and Qing dynasties, the cognition of the marine Chinese materia medica was mainly the conclusions of the previous experience. After the founding of the People's Republic of China (PRC), with the development of science and technologies, the ability of exploiting and utilizing the marine Chinese materia medica by people dramatically increased, and the species of marine Chinese materia medica reached more than one thousand. However, the development of marine Chinese materia medica is confronted with new problems; although the number of species of marine Chinese materia medica increased, the understanding of their property and flavor is obviously lagging behind, which seriously affects the clinical application of marine Chinese materia medica.

  17. Marine Thermoelectric Devices and Installations,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    thermoelectric devices and units as marine sources of electric power, Prospects for the use of thermoelectric generators in main ship propulsion plants, Electric propulsion complexes for marine thermoelectric plants).

  18. Infection of phytoplankton by aerosolized marine viruses

    PubMed Central

    Sharoni, Shlomit; Trainic, Miri; Schatz, Daniella; Lehahn, Yoav; Flores, Michel J.; Bidle, Kay D.; Ben-Dor, Shifra; Rudich, Yinon; Vardi, Assaf

    2015-01-01

    Marine viruses constitute a major ecological and evolutionary driving force in the marine ecosystems. However, their dispersal mechanisms remain underexplored. Here we follow the dynamics of Emiliania huxleyi viruses (EhV) that infect the ubiquitous, bloom-forming phytoplankton E. huxleyi and show that EhV are emitted to the atmosphere as primary marine aerosols. Using a laboratory-based setup, we showed that the dynamic of EhV aerial emission is strongly coupled to the host–virus dynamic in the culture media. In addition, we recovered EhV DNA from atmospheric samples collected over an E. huxleyi bloom in the North Atlantic, providing evidence for aerosolization of marine viruses in their natural environment. Decay rate analysis in the laboratory revealed that aerosolized viruses can remain infective under meteorological conditions prevailing during E. huxleyi blooms in the ocean, allowing potential dispersal and infectivity over hundreds of kilometers. Based on the combined laboratory and in situ findings, we propose that atmospheric transport of EhV is an effective transmission mechanism for spreading viral infection over large areas in the ocean. This transmission mechanism may also have an important ecological impact on the large-scale host–virus “arms race” during bloom succession and consequently the turnover of carbon in the ocean. PMID:25964340

  19. Infection of phytoplankton by aerosolized marine viruses.

    PubMed

    Sharoni, Shlomit; Trainic, Miri; Schatz, Daniella; Lehahn, Yoav; Flores, Michel J; Bidle, Kay D; Ben-Dor, Shifra; Rudich, Yinon; Koren, Ilan; Vardi, Assaf

    2015-05-26

    Marine viruses constitute a major ecological and evolutionary driving force in the marine ecosystems. However, their dispersal mechanisms remain underexplored. Here we follow the dynamics of Emiliania huxleyi viruses (EhV) that infect the ubiquitous, bloom-forming phytoplankton E. huxleyi and show that EhV are emitted to the atmosphere as primary marine aerosols. Using a laboratory-based setup, we showed that the dynamic of EhV aerial emission is strongly coupled to the host-virus dynamic in the culture media. In addition, we recovered EhV DNA from atmospheric samples collected over an E. huxleyi bloom in the North Atlantic, providing evidence for aerosolization of marine viruses in their natural environment. Decay rate analysis in the laboratory revealed that aerosolized viruses can remain infective under meteorological conditions prevailing during E. huxleyi blooms in the ocean, allowing potential dispersal and infectivity over hundreds of kilometers. Based on the combined laboratory and in situ findings, we propose that atmospheric transport of EhV is an effective transmission mechanism for spreading viral infection over large areas in the ocean. This transmission mechanism may also have an important ecological impact on the large-scale host-virus "arms race" during bloom succession and consequently the turnover of carbon in the ocean.

  20. Marine intervals in Neogene fluvial deposits of western Amazonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boonstra, Melanie; Troelstra, Simon; Lammertsma, Emmy; Hoorn, Carina

    2014-05-01

    Amazonia is one of the most species rich areas on Earth, but this high diversity is not homogeneous over the entire region. Highest mammal and tree-alpha diversity is found in the fluvio-lacustrine Pebas system, a Neogene wetland associated with rapid radiation of species. The estuarine to marine origin of various modern Amazonian fish, plants, and invertebrates has been associated with past marine ingressions into this freshwater Pebas system. The exact nature and age of these invasions is, however, debated. Here we present new evidence from fluvial and fluvio-lacustrine deposits of Neogene age in southeast Colombia, that point to periods of widespread marine conditions in western Amazonia. Our evidence is based on an analysis of marine palynomorphs, such as organic linings of foraminifera and dinoflagellate cysts, present in dark sandy clay sediments that outcrop along the Caqueta and Amazon rivers. Characteristically, the foraminiferal linings can be assigned to three benthic morphotypes only, e.g. Ammonia, Elphidium and Trochammina. This low diversity assemblage is associated with estuarine/marginal marine conditions. No distinct marine elements such as shelf or planktonic species were encountered. The observed foraminiferal linings and dinocyst assemblages are typical for a (eutrophic) shallow marine environment, suggesting that the Pebas freshwater wetland system occasionally changed to (marginal) marine. Although some reworked elements are found, a typical Neogene dinocyst taxon is commonly found supporting in situ deposition. Sedimentological features typical for tidal conditions that are reported for sites in Peru and northeastern Brazil likely relate to these marine ingressions. Sea level changes as well as foreland basin development related to Andes formation may have facilitated the entry of marine water during the Neogene.

  1. Marine Science Activities, Grade Six.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, James A.

    This unit, one of a series designed to develop and foster an understanding of the marine environment, presents marine science activities for grade 6 students. The unit is divided into the following sections: (1) Pagoo (story of a hermit crab); (2) introduction to marine environments; (3) salt water environment; (4) sea water investigations; (5)…

  2. Oceanic processes in marine pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Baumgartner, D.J. ); Duedall, I.W. )

    1990-01-01

    This book covers the following areas: bioaccumulation of Polycyclic Aromatic hydrocarbons in marine environments; behavior of drilling fluid discharges off the coast of California; effects of drilling fluids on marine organisms; and the effects of radioactive waste disposal on marine amphipods.

  3. Marine Science Sourcebook, First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raimist, Roger J.

    This manual was prepared for a teacher workshop in marine science. It includes information on when, where, and how to collect marine mollusks, and how to prepare a shell collection; a partial key to the classes, subclasses, and orders of the mollusca; notes on the ecology and physiology of marine bivalves and snails, and recipes for solutions…

  4. Morbilliviruses in marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Hall, A J

    1995-01-01

    Two of the three recently discovered aquatic morbilliviruses have been responsible for mass mortalities among marine mammals; both affect more than one host species, but susceptibility to infection varies considerably between species. Apparent differences between the dynamics of aquatic morbilliviruses and their terrestrial counterparts may be a consequence of high levels of interspecific transmission.

  5. Hazardous marine animals.

    PubMed

    Auerbach, P S

    1984-08-01

    Both traumatic injury and the damage inflicted by envenomating marine animals are considered in this article. Among the creatures causing traumatic injury are sharks, barracudas, moray eels, and needlefish. Envenomating animals include sponges, coelenterates, coral, various mollusks, sea urchins, sea cucumbers, stingrays, sea snakes, and others.

  6. Aspects of Marine Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awkerman, Gary L.

    This publication is designed for use in standard science curricula to develop oceanologic manifestations of certain science topics. Included are teacher guides, student activities, and demonstrations to impart ocean science understanding, specifically, aspects of marine ecology, to high school students. The course objectives include the ability of…

  7. Worldwide Marine Weather Broadcasts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of the Navy, Washington, DC.

    This publication is a source of marine weather broadcast information in all areas of the world where such service is provided. This publication was designed for the use of U.S. naval and merchant ships. Sections 1 through 4 contain details of radio telegraph, radio telephone, radio facsimile, and radio teleprinter transmissions, respectively. The…

  8. Marine Science Comes Alive.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Dorothy

    1996-01-01

    A new state-of-the-art marine science laboratory at Eckerd College (Florida) is a study in the power of research, teamwork, attention to detail, and cost control. A redundant piping system brings sea water directly to the students. Once a week the pipes that previously held sea water are flushed and refilled with fresh water. (MLF)

  9. Marine Optical Characterizations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Dennis K.

    1996-01-01

    The team's major emphasis during this reporting period has been focused on the completion of the operational versions of the Marine Optical Buoys (MOBY's). Other work areas consisted of designing and testing bio-optical instrumentation, evaluating several of the SeaWiFS bio-optical protocols, processing data collected during field experiments, and reprocessing several of the Marine Optical Characteristics Experiment (MOCE) 2 and 3 bio-optical data sets. The team conducted one trip to the operations site in Honolulu, Hawaii, making necessary preparations for future field experiments. Part of the team also traveled to Moss Landing Marine Laboratories, Salinas, CA, and to American Holographic Co. Fitchburg MA, to assist with the fabrication of the next generation Marine Optical Buoys. Technical memoranda are being written to address the remote sensing reflectance, and instrument self-shading protocols. During the Ocean Color 96 meeting discussions with the Spanish on acquiring research vessel support during the MODIS validation period were conducted. A proposal will be generated towards this purpose for an experiment to be conducted off the North African coast during the summer of 1999.

  10. Marine fog: a review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koračin, Darko; Dorman, Clive E.; Lewis, John M.; Hudson, James G.; Wilcox, Eric M.; Torregrosa, Alicia

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this review is to discuss physical processes over a wide range of spatial scales that govern the formation, evolution, and dissipation of marine fog. We consider marine fog as the collective combination of fog over the open sea along with coastal sea fog and coastal land fog. The review includes a history of sea fog research, field programs, forecasting methods, and detection of sea fog via satellite observations where similarity in radiative properties of fog top and the underlying sea induce further complexity. The main thrust of the study is to provide insight into causality of fog including its initiation, maintenance, and destruction. The interplay between the various physical processes behind the several stages of marine fog is among the most challenging aspects of the problem. An effort is made to identify this interplay between processes that include the microphysics of fog formation and maintenance, the influence of large-scale circulation and precipitation/clouds, radiation, turbulence (air-sea interaction), and advection. The environmental impact of marine fog is also addressed. The study concludes with an assessment of our current knowledge of the phenomenon, our principal areas of ignorance, and future lines of research that hold promise for advances in our understanding.

  11. Marine and Estuarine Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reish, Donald J.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the effects of various pollutants on marine and estuarine organisms, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes: (1) effects of pesticides, dredging, dumping, sludge, and petroleum hydrocarbons; and (2) diseases and tissue abnormalities. A list of 441 references is also presented. (HM)

  12. Marine Science Film Catalogue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Frank L.

    Forty-eight motion picture films and filmstrips in the field of marine science are catalogued in this booklet. Following the alphabetical index, one page is devoted to each film indicating its type, producer, recommended grade level, running time, and presence of color and/or sound. A summary of film content, possible uses, and outstanding…

  13. Artificial reefs and marine protected areas: a study in willingness to pay to access Folkestone Marine Reserve, Barbados, West Indies

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Philip M.; Johnson, Magnus L.

    2016-01-01

    Artificial reefs in marine protected areas provide additional habitat for biodiversity viewing, and therefore may offer an innovative management solution for managing for coral reef recovery and resilience. Marine park user fees can generate revenue to help manage and maintain natural and artificial reefs. Using a stated preference survey, this study investigates the present consumer surplus associated with visitor use of a marine protected area in Barbados. Two hypothetical markets were presented to differentiate between respondents use values of either: (a) natural reefs within the marine reserve or (b) artificial reef habitat for recreational enhancement. Information was also collected on visitors’ perceptions of artificial reefs, reef material preferences and reef conservation awareness. From a sample of 250 visitors on snorkel trips, we estimate a mean willingness to pay of US$18.33 (median—US$15) for natural reef use and a mean value of US$17.58 (median—US$12.50) for artificial reef use. The number of marine species viewed, age of respondent, familiarity with the Folkestone Marine Reserve and level of environmental concern were statistically significant in influencing willingness to pay. Regression analyses indicate visitors are willing to pay a significant amount to view marine life, especially turtles. Our results suggest that user fees could provide a considerable source of income to aid reef conservation in Barbados. In addition, the substantial use value reported for artificial reefs indicates a reef substitution policy may be supported by visitors to the Folkestone Marine Reserve. We discuss our findings and highlight directions for future research that include the need to collect data to establish visitors’ non-use values to fund reef management. PMID:27547521

  14. Artificial reefs and marine protected areas: a study in willingness to pay to access Folkestone Marine Reserve, Barbados, West Indies.

    PubMed

    Kirkbride-Smith, Anne E; Wheeler, Philip M; Johnson, Magnus L

    2016-01-01

    Artificial reefs in marine protected areas provide additional habitat for biodiversity viewing, and therefore may offer an innovative management solution for managing for coral reef recovery and resilience. Marine park user fees can generate revenue to help manage and maintain natural and artificial reefs. Using a stated preference survey, this study investigates the present consumer surplus associated with visitor use of a marine protected area in Barbados. Two hypothetical markets were presented to differentiate between respondents use values of either: (a) natural reefs within the marine reserve or (b) artificial reef habitat for recreational enhancement. Information was also collected on visitors' perceptions of artificial reefs, reef material preferences and reef conservation awareness. From a sample of 250 visitors on snorkel trips, we estimate a mean willingness to pay of US$18.33 (median-US$15) for natural reef use and a mean value of US$17.58 (median-US$12.50) for artificial reef use. The number of marine species viewed, age of respondent, familiarity with the Folkestone Marine Reserve and level of environmental concern were statistically significant in influencing willingness to pay. Regression analyses indicate visitors are willing to pay a significant amount to view marine life, especially turtles. Our results suggest that user fees could provide a considerable source of income to aid reef conservation in Barbados. In addition, the substantial use value reported for artificial reefs indicates a reef substitution policy may be supported by visitors to the Folkestone Marine Reserve. We discuss our findings and highlight directions for future research that include the need to collect data to establish visitors' non-use values to fund reef management.

  15. Influence of marine engine simulator training to marine engineer's competence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Peng; Cheng, Xiangxin; Ma, Qiang; Song, Xiufu; Liu, Xinjian; Wang, Lianhai

    2012-01-01

    Marine engine simulator is broadly used in maritime education and training. Maritime education and training institutions usually use this facility to cultivate the hands-on ability and fault-treat ability of marine engineers and students. In this study, the structure and main function of DMS-2005 marine engine simulator is briefly introduced, several teaching methods are discussed. By using Delphi method and AHP method, a comprehensive evaluation system is built and the competence of marine engineers is assessed. After analyzing the calculating data, some conclusions can be drawn: comprehensive evaluation system could be used to assess marine engineer's competence; the training of marine engine simulator is propitious to enhance marine engineers' integrated ability, especially on the aspect of judgment of abnormal situation capacity, emergency treatment ability and safe operation ability.

  16. Influence of marine engine simulator training to marine engineer's competence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Peng; Cheng, Xiangxin; Ma, Qiang; Song, Xiufu; Liu, Xinjian; Wang, Lianhai

    2011-12-01

    Marine engine simulator is broadly used in maritime education and training. Maritime education and training institutions usually use this facility to cultivate the hands-on ability and fault-treat ability of marine engineers and students. In this study, the structure and main function of DMS-2005 marine engine simulator is briefly introduced, several teaching methods are discussed. By using Delphi method and AHP method, a comprehensive evaluation system is built and the competence of marine engineers is assessed. After analyzing the calculating data, some conclusions can be drawn: comprehensive evaluation system could be used to assess marine engineer's competence; the training of marine engine simulator is propitious to enhance marine engineers' integrated ability, especially on the aspect of judgment of abnormal situation capacity, emergency treatment ability and safe operation ability.

  17. Multiyear predictability of tropical marine productivity

    PubMed Central

    Séférian, Roland; Bopp, Laurent; Gehlen, Marion; Swingedouw, Didier; Mignot, Juliette; Guilyardi, Eric; Servonnat, Jérôme

    2014-01-01

    With the emergence of decadal predictability simulations, research toward forecasting variations of the climate system now covers a large range of timescales. However, assessment of the capacity to predict natural variations of relevant biogeochemical variables like carbon fluxes, pH, or marine primary productivity remains unexplored. Among these, the net primary productivity (NPP) is of particular relevance in a forecasting perspective. Indeed, in regions like the tropical Pacific (30°N–30°S), NPP exhibits natural fluctuations at interannual to decadal timescales that have large impacts on marine ecosystems and fisheries. Here, we investigate predictions of NPP variations over the last decades (i.e., from 1997 to 2011) with an Earth system model within the tropical Pacific. Results suggest a predictive skill for NPP of 3 y, which is higher than that of sea surface temperature (1 y). We attribute the higher predictability of NPP to the poleward advection of nutrient anomalies (nitrate and iron), which sustain fluctuations in phytoplankton productivity over several years. These results open previously unidentified perspectives to the development of science-based management approaches to marine resources relying on integrated physical-biogeochemical forecasting systems. PMID:25071174

  18. Recent Advances in Marine Enzymes for Biotechnological Processes.

    PubMed

    Lima, R N; Porto, A L M

    In the last decade, new trends in the food and pharmaceutical industries have increased concern for the quality and safety of products. The use of biocatalytic processes using marine enzymes has become an important and useful natural product for biotechnological applications. Bioprocesses using biocatalysts like marine enzymes (fungi, bacteria, plants, animals, algae, etc.) offer hyperthermostability, salt tolerance, barophilicity, cold adaptability, chemoselectivity, regioselectivity, and stereoselectivity. Currently, enzymatic methods are used to produce a large variety of products that humans consume, and the specific nature of the enzymes including processing under mild pH and temperature conditions result in fewer unwanted side-effects and by-products. This offers high selectivity in industrial processes. The marine habitat has been become increasingly studied because it represents a huge source potential biocatalysts. Enzymes include oxidoreductases, hydrolases, transferases, isomerases, ligases, and lyases that can be used in food and pharmaceutical applications. Finally, recent advances in biotechnological processes using enzymes of marine organisms (bacterial, fungi, algal, and sponges) are described and also our work on marine organisms from South America, especially marine-derived fungi and bacteria involved in biotransformations and biodegradation of organic compounds.

  19. Antitumor Peptides from Marine Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Lan-Hong; Wang, Yue-Jun; Sheng, Jun; Wang, Fang; Zheng, Yuan; Lin, Xiu-Kun; Sun, Mi

    2011-01-01

    The biodiversity of the marine environment and the associated chemical diversity constitute a practically unlimited resource of new antitumor agents in the field of the development of marine bioactive substances. In this review, the progress on studies of antitumor peptides from marine sources is provided. The biological properties and mechanisms of action of different marine peptides are described; information about their molecular diversity is also presented. Novel peptides that induce apoptosis signal pathway, affect the tubulin-microtubule equilibrium and inhibit angiogenesis are presented in association with their pharmacological properties. It is intended to provide useful information for further research in the fields of marine antitumor peptides. PMID:22072999

  20. Antitumor peptides from marine organisms.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lan-Hong; Wang, Yue-Jun; Sheng, Jun; Wang, Fang; Zheng, Yuan; Lin, Xiu-Kun; Sun, Mi

    2011-01-01

    The biodiversity of the marine environment and the associated chemical diversity constitute a practically unlimited resource of new antitumor agents in the field of the development of marine bioactive substances. In this review, the progress on studies of antitumor peptides from marine sources is provided. The biological properties and mechanisms of action of different marine peptides are described; information about their molecular diversity is also presented. Novel peptides that induce apoptosis signal pathway, affect the tubulin-microtubule equilibrium and inhibit angiogenesis are presented in association with their pharmacological properties. It is intended to provide useful information for further research in the fields of marine antitumor peptides.

  1. Marine polysaccharide-based nanomaterials as a novel source of nanobiotechnological applications.

    PubMed

    Manivasagan, Panchanathan; Oh, Junghwan

    2016-01-01

    Research on marine polysaccharide-based nanomaterials is emerging in nanobiotechnological fields such as drug delivery, gene delivery, tissue engineering, cancer therapy, wound dressing, biosensors, and water treatment. Important properties of the marine polysaccharides include biocompatibility, biodegradability, nontoxicity, low cost, and abundance. Most of the marine polysaccharides are derived from natural sources such as fucoidan, alginates, carrageenan, agarose, porphyran, ulvan, mauran, chitin, chitosan, and chitooligosaccharide. Marine polysaccharides are very important biological macromolecules that widely exist in marine organisms. Marine polysaccharides exhibit a vast variety of structures and are still under-exploited and thus should be considered as a novel source of natural products for drug discovery. An enormous variety of polysaccharides can be extracted from marine organisms such as algae, crustaceans, and microorganisms. Marine polysaccharides have been shown to have a variety of biological and biomedical properties. Recently, research and development of marine polysaccharide-based nanomaterials have received considerable attention as one of the major resources for nanotechnological applications. This review highlights the recent research on marine polysaccharide-based nanomaterials for biotechnological and biomedical applications.

  2. Viral diseases of marine invertebrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, P. T.

    1984-03-01

    Approximately 40 viruses are known from marine sponges; turbellarian and monogenetic flatworms; cephalopod, bivalve, and gastropod mollusks; nereid polychaetes; and isopod and decapod crustaceans. Most of the viruses can be tentatively assigned to the Herpesviridae, Baculoviridae, Iridoviridae, Adenoviridae, Papovaviridae, Reoviridae, “Birnaviridae”, Bunyaviridae, Rhabdoviridae, and Picornaviridae. Viruslike particles found in oysters might be representatives of the Togaviridae and Retroviridae. Enveloped single-stranded RNA viruses from crustaceans have developmental and morphological characteristics intermediate between families, and some show evidence of relationships to the Paramyxoviridae as well as the Bunyaviridae or Rhabdoviridae. Certain small viruses of shrimp cannot be assigned, even tentatively, to a particular family. Some viruses cause disease in wild and captive hosts, others are associated with disease states but may not be primary instigators, and many occur in apparently normal animals. The frequency of viral disease in natural populations of marine invertebrates is unknown. Several viruses that cause disease in captive animals, with or without experimental intervention, have also been found in diseased wild hosts, including herpeslike viruses of crabs and oysters, iridovirus of octopus, and reolike and bunyalike viruses of crabs. Iridolike viruses have been implicated in massive mortalities of cultured oysters. Baculoviruses, and IHHN virus, which is of uncertain affinities, cause economically damaging diseases in cultured penaeid shrimp. Double or multiple viral infection is common in crabs. For example, a reolike virus and associated rhabdolike virus act synergistically to cause paralytic and fatal disease in Callinectes sapidus. Information on host range, most susceptible stage, and viral latency is available only for viruses of shrimp. One baculovirus attacks five species of New World penaeid shrimp. IHHN virus infects three species of

  3. Alkynyl-Containing Peptides of Marine Origin: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Qiu-Ye; Yang, Zhen; Lin, Hou-Wen; Han, Bing-Nan

    2016-01-01

    Since the 1990s, a number of terminal alkynyl residue-containing cyclic/acyclic peptides have been identified from marine organisms, especially cyanobacteria and marine mollusks. This review has presented 66 peptides, which covers over 90% marine peptides with terminal alkynyl fatty acyl units. In fact, more than 90% of these peptides described in the literature are of cyanobacterial origin. Interestingly, all the linear peptides featured with terminal alkyne were solely discovered from marine cyanobacteria. The objective of this article is to provide an overview on the types, structural characterization of these unusual terminal alkynyl fatty acyl units, as well as the sources and biological functions of their composed peptides. Many of these peptides have a variety of biological activities, including antitumor, antibacterial, antimalarial, etc. Further, we have also discussed the evident biosynthetic origin responsible for formation of terminal alkynes of natural PKS (polyketide synthase)/NRPS (nonribosome peptide synthetase) hybrids. PMID:27886049

  4. Enzymatic synthesis of polybrominated dioxins from the marine environment.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Vinayak; Moore, Bradley S

    2014-09-19

    Polyhalogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins are arguably among the most toxic molecules known to man. In addition to anthropogenic sources, marine invertebrates also harbor polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins of as yet unknown biogenic origin. Here, we report that the bmp gene locus in marine bacteria, a recently characterized source of polybrominated diphenyl ethers, can also synthesize dibenzo-p-dioxins by employing different phenolic initiator molecules. Our findings also diversify the structural classes of diphenyl ethers accessed by the bmp biosynthetic pathway. This report lays the biochemical foundation of a likely biogenetic origin of dibenzo-p-dioxins present in the marine metabolome and greatly expands the toxicity potential of marine derived polyhaloganated natural products.

  5. Sulfated polysaccharides as bioactive agents from marine algae.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Dai-Hung; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2013-11-01

    Recently, much attention has been paid by consumers toward natural bioactive compounds as functional ingredients in nutraceuticals. Marine algae are considered as valuable sources of structurally diverse bioactive compounds. Marine algae are rich in sulfated polysaccharides (SPs) such as carrageenans in red algae, fucoidans in brown algae and ulvans in green algae. These SPs exhibit many health beneficial nutraceutical effects such as antioxidant, anti-allergic, anti-human immunodeficiency virus, anticancer and anticoagulant activities. Therefore, marine algae derived SPs have great potential to be further developed as medicinal food products or nutraceuticals in the food industry. This contribution presents an overview of nutraceutical effects and potential health benefits of SPs derived from marine algae.

  6. Status of marine pollution research in South Africa (1960-present).

    PubMed

    Wepener, V; Degger, N

    2012-07-01

    The published literature on marine pollution monitoring research in South Africa from 1960 to present was evaluated. There has been a general decline in the number of papers from the 1980s and this can be linked to the absence of a marine pollution monitoring programme in South Africa. General trends observed were that contaminant exposure monitoring of metals predominates the research conducted to date. Monitoring results indicate that there has been a general decrease in metal concentrations in South African coastal waters and concentrations of metals and most organics in mussels are lower than in other industrialised nations. This is reflected in the general pristine nature and high biodiversity of the South African coastline. The establishment of a national marine pollution monitoring framework would stimulate marine pollution research.

  7. Methylmercury production in the marine water column

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topping, G.; Davies, I. M.

    1981-03-01

    Although the biosynthesis of methylmercury in sediments is well established1, this is not necessarily the exclusive natural source of methylmercury entering the marine food chain, particularly commercial fish and shellfish species for human consumption. An examination of mercury levels in freshwater fish2, collected from a lake with a history of industrial mercury contamination, suggested that levels in fish are controlled in part by mercury in suspension and it followed that methylation should occur in the water column. Although methylmercury is present in seawater in coastal areas receiving discharges of waste containing either inorganic mercury3 or methylmercury4 there is no evidence that methylmercury is actually formed in the water column. We now present data which demonstrate that inorganic mercury can be methylated in the water column and we compare this production with that known to occur in marine sediments.

  8. Genomic insights into the marine sponge microbiome.

    PubMed

    Hentschel, Ute; Piel, Jörn; Degnan, Sandie M; Taylor, Michael W

    2012-09-01

    Marine sponges (phylum Porifera) often contain dense and diverse microbial communities, which can constitute up to 35% of the sponge biomass. The genome of one sponge, Amphimedon queenslandica, was recently sequenced, and this has provided new insights into the origins of animal evolution. Complementary efforts to sequence the genomes of uncultivated sponge symbionts have yielded the first glimpse of how these intimate partnerships are formed. The remarkable microbial and chemical diversity of the sponge-microorganism association, coupled with its postulated antiquity, makes sponges important model systems for the study of metazoan host-microorganism interactions, and their evolution, as well as for enabling access to biotechnologically important symbiont-derived natural products. In this Review, we discuss our current understanding of the interactions between marine sponges and their microbial symbiotic consortia, and highlight recent insights into these relationships from genomic studies.

  9. Marine04 Marine radiocarbon age calibration, 26 ? 0 ka BP

    SciTech Connect

    Hughen, K; Baille, M; Bard, E; Beck, J; Bertrand, C; Blackwell, P; Buck, C; Burr, G; Cutler, K; Damon, P; Edwards, R; Fairbanks, R; Friedrich, M; Guilderson, T; Kromer, B; McCormac, F; Manning, S; Bronk-Ramsey, C; Reimer, P; Reimer, R; Remmele, S; Southon, J; Stuiver, M; Talamo, S; Taylor, F; der Plicht, J v; Weyhenmeyer, C

    2004-11-01

    New radiocarbon calibration curves, IntCal04 and Marine04, have been constructed and internationally ratified to replace the terrestrial and marine components of IntCal98. The new calibration datasets extend an additional 2000 years, from 0-26 ka cal BP (Before Present, 0 cal BP = AD 1950), and provide much higher resolution, greater precision and more detailed structure than IntCal98. For the Marine04 curve, dendrochronologically dated tree-ring samples, converted with a box-diffusion model to marine mixed-layer ages, cover the period from 0-10.5 ka cal BP. Beyond 10.5 ka cal BP, high-resolution marine data become available from foraminifera in varved sediments and U/Th-dated corals. The marine records are corrected with site-specific {sup 14}C reservoir age information to provide a single global marine mixed-layer calibration from 10.5-26.0 ka cal BP. A substantial enhancement relative to IntCal98 is the introduction of a random walk model, which takes into account the uncertainty in both the calendar age and the radiocarbon age to calculate the underlying calibration curve. The marine datasets and calibration curve for marine samples from the surface mixed layer (Marine04) are discussed here. The tree-ring datasets, sources of uncertainty, and regional offsets are presented in detail in a companion paper by Reimer et al.

  10. Clathrate hydrates in nature.

    PubMed

    Hester, Keith C; Brewer, Peter G

    2009-01-01

    Scientific knowledge of natural clathrate hydrates has grown enormously over the past decade, with spectacular new findings of large exposures of complex hydrates on the sea floor, the development of new tools for examining the solid phase in situ, significant progress in modeling natural hydrate systems, and the discovery of exotic hydrates associated with sea floor venting of liquid CO2. Major unresolved questions remain about the role of hydrates in response to climate change today, and correlations between the hydrate reservoir of Earth and the stable isotopic evidence of massive hydrate dissociation in the geologic past. The examination of hydrates as a possible energy resource is proceeding apace for the subpermafrost accumulations in the Arctic, but serious questions remain about the viability of marine hydrates as an economic resource. New and energetic explorations by nations such as India and China are quickly uncovering large hydrate findings on their continental shelves.

  11. Tides. Marine Science Curriculum Aid No. 5. Sea Grant Report 80-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Judy

    This manual, developed for use in Alaskan secondary schools, is one of a continuing series designed to provide basic information about the marine environment and Alaskan marine resources. The first part of the manual presents information about tides, focusing on: the nature of tides; cause of tides; factors related to tidal movement; types of…

  12. Marine Toxins: An Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fusetani, Nobuhiro

    Oceans provide enormous and diverse space for marine life. Invertebrates are conspicuous inhabitants in certain zones such as the intertidal; many are soft-bodied, relatively immobile and lack obvious physical defenses. These animals frequently have evolved chemical defenses against predators and overgrowth by fouling organisms. Marine animals may accumulate and use a variety of toxins from prey organisms and from symbiotic microorganisms for their own purposes. Thus, toxic animals are particularly abundant in the oceans. The toxins vary from small molecules to high molecular weight proteins and display unique chemical and biological features of scientific interest. Many of these substances can serve as useful research tools or molecular models for the design of new drugs and pesticides. This chapter provides an initial survey of these toxins and their salient properties.

  13. Marine pollution: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentukevičienė, Marina; Brannvall, Evelina

    2008-01-01

    This overview of marine pollution follows the methodology as proposed below. Firstly, well-known databases (Science Direct, GeoRef, SpringerLINK, etc.) on technological research were studied. All collected references were divided into 27 sections following the key words associated with marine pollution, oil spills, alien species migration, etc. The most commercially promising research and development (R & D) activities seem to be market-oriented sections: detection of oil spills at sea, containment and recovery of floating oil at sea, detection of oil spills on land, disposal of oil and debris on land, alien species migration prevention from ballast water and underwater hull cleaning in water, NOx and SOx emissions, pollutions from ship-building and repair, and biogeochemical modelling. Great market demands for commercially patented innovations are very attractive for initiating new R & D projects.

  14. Mariner 9 Michelson interferometer.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanel, R.; Schlachman, B.; Rodgers, D.; Breihan, E.; Bywaters, R.; Chapman, F.; Rhodes, M.; Vanous, D.

    1972-01-01

    The Michelson interferometer on Mariner 9 measures the thermal emission spectrum of Mars between 200 and 2000 per cm (between 5 and 50 microns) with a spectral resolution of 2.4 per cm in the apodized mode. A noise equivalent radiance of 0.5 x 10 to the minus 7th W/sq cm/ster/cm is deduced from data recorded in orbit around Mars. The Mariner interferometer deviates in design from the Nimbus 3 and 4 interferometers in several areas, notably, by a cesium iodide beam splitter and certain aspects of the digital information processing. Special attention has been given to the problem of external vibration. The instrument performance is demonstrated by calibration data and samples of Mars spectra.

  15. Drugs from marine organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Berlepsch, Klaus

    1980-07-01

    A modern approach to the search for biologically active substances of potential therapeutic use isolated from marine organisms is illustrated by a presentation of the multidisciplinary project pursued by the Roche Research Institute of Marine Pharmacology near Sydney, Australia. This specialized insitute is part of the world-wide research endeavour of our company and has now been in operation for five years. Following a brief outline of the technical functions the main scientific achievements published by the scientists of the institute are reviewed. This institute is, to our knowledge, the only one of its kind in private industry and we have attempted to demonstrate how its activities should be viewed in the overall context of today's drug or product development.

  16. Marine Bacterial Sialyltransferases

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Takeshi

    2010-01-01

    Sialyltransferases transfer N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) from the common donor substrate of these enzymes, cytidine 5′-monophospho-N-acetylneuraminic acid (CMP-Neu5Ac), to acceptor substrates. The enzymatic reaction products including sialyl-glycoproteins, sialyl-glycolipids and sialyl-oligosaccharides are important molecules in various biological and physiological processes, such as cell-cell recognition, cancer metastasis, and virus infection. Thus, sialyltransferases are thought to be important enzymes in the field of glycobiology. To date, many sialyltransferases and the genes encoding them have been obtained from various sources including mammalian, bacterial and viral sources. During the course of our research, we have detected over 20 bacteria that produce sialyltransferases. Many of the bacteria we isolated from marine environments are classified in the genus Photobacterium or the closely related genus Vibrio. The paper reviews the sialyltransferases obtained mainly from marine bacteria. PMID:21139844

  17. The phylogenetic significance of colour patterns in marine teleost larvae

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, Carole C

    2013-01-01

    Ichthyologists, natural-history artists, and tropical-fish aquarists have described, illustrated, or photographed colour patterns in adult marine fishes for centuries, but colour patterns in marine fish larvae have largely been neglected. Yet the pelagic larval stages of many marine fishes exhibit subtle to striking, ephemeral patterns of chromatophores that warrant investigation into their potential taxonomic and phylogenetic significance. Colour patterns in larvae of over 200 species of marine teleosts, primarily from the western Caribbean, were examined from digital colour photographs, and their potential utility in elucidating evolutionary relationships at various taxonomic levels was assessed. Larvae of relatively few basal marine teleosts exhibit erythrophores, xanthophores, or iridophores (i.e. nonmelanistic chromatophores), but one or more of those types of chromatophores are visible in larvae of many basal marine neoteleosts and nearly all marine percomorphs. Whether or not the presence of nonmelanistic chromatophores in pelagic marine larvae diagnoses any major teleost taxonomic group cannot be determined based on the preliminary survey conducted, but there is a trend toward increased colour from elopomorphs to percomorphs. Within percomorphs, patterns of nonmelanistic chromatophores may help resolve or contribute evidence to existing hypotheses of relationships at multiple levels of classification. Mugilid and some beloniform larvae share a unique ontogenetic transformation of colour pattern that lends support to the hypothesis of a close relationship between them. Larvae of some tetraodontiforms and lophiiforms are strikingly similar in having the trunk enclosed in an inflated sac covered with xanthophores, a character that may help resolve the relationships of these enigmatic taxa. Colour patterns in percomorph larvae also appear to diagnose certain groups at the interfamilial, familial, intergeneric, and generic levels. Slight differences in generic

  18. Marine cloud brightening

    PubMed Central

    Latham, John; Bower, Keith; Choularton, Tom; Coe, Hugh; Connolly, Paul; Cooper, Gary; Craft, Tim; Foster, Jack; Gadian, Alan; Galbraith, Lee; Iacovides, Hector; Johnston, David; Launder, Brian; Leslie, Brian; Meyer, John; Neukermans, Armand; Ormond, Bob; Parkes, Ben; Rasch, Phillip; Rush, John; Salter, Stephen; Stevenson, Tom; Wang, Hailong; Wang, Qin; Wood, Rob

    2012-01-01

    The idea behind the marine cloud-brightening (MCB) geoengineering technique is that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with copious quantities of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre sea water particles might significantly enhance the cloud droplet number concentration, and thereby the cloud albedo and possibly longevity. This would produce a cooling, which general circulation model (GCM) computations suggest could—subject to satisfactory resolution of technical and scientific problems identified herein—have the capacity to balance global warming up to the carbon dioxide-doubling point. We describe herein an account of our recent research on a number of critical issues associated with MCB. This involves (i) GCM studies, which are our primary tools for evaluating globally the effectiveness of MCB, and assessing its climate impacts on rainfall amounts and distribution, and also polar sea-ice cover and thickness; (ii) high-resolution modelling of the effects of seeding on marine stratocumulus, which are required to understand the complex array of interacting processes involved in cloud brightening; (iii) microphysical modelling sensitivity studies, examining the influence of seeding amount, seed-particle salt-mass, air-mass characteristics, updraught speed and other parameters on cloud–albedo change; (iv) sea water spray-production techniques; (v) computational fluid dynamics studies of possible large-scale periodicities in Flettner rotors; and (vi) the planning of a three-stage limited-area field research experiment, with the primary objectives of technology testing and determining to what extent, if any, cloud albedo might be enhanced by seeding marine stratocumulus clouds on a spatial scale of around 100×100 km. We stress that there would be no justification for deployment of MCB unless it was clearly established that no significant adverse consequences would result. There would also need to be an international agreement firmly in favour of such action

  19. Marine Cloud Brightening

    SciTech Connect

    Latham, John; Bower, Keith; Choularton, Tom; Coe, H.; Connolly, P.; Cooper, Gary; Craft, Tim; Foster, Jack; Gadian, Alan; Galbraith, Lee; Iacovides, Hector; Johnston, David; Launder, Brian; Leslie, Brian; Meyer, John; Neukermans, Armand; Ormond, Bob; Parkes, Ben; Rasch, Philip J.; Rush, John; Salter, Stephen; Stevenson, Tom; Wang, Hailong; Wang, Qin; Wood, Robert

    2012-09-07

    The idea behind the marine cloud-brightening (MCB) geoengineering technique is that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with copious quantities of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre sea water particles might significantly enhance the cloud droplet number concentration, and thereby the cloud albedo and possibly longevity. This would produce a cooling, which general circulation model (GCM) computations suggest could - subject to satisfactory resolution of technical and scientific problems identified herein - have the capacity to balance global warming up to the carbon dioxide-doubling point. We describe herein an account of our recent research on a number of critical issues associated with MCB. This involves (i) GCM studies, which are our primary tools for evaluating globally the effectiveness of MCB, and assessing its climate impacts on rainfall amounts and distribution, and also polar sea-ice cover and thickness; (ii) high-resolution modelling of the effects of seeding on marine stratocumulus, which are required to understand the complex array of interacting processes involved in cloud brightening; (iii) microphysical modelling sensitivity studies, examining the influence of seeding amount, seedparticle salt-mass, air-mass characteristics, updraught speed and other parameters on cloud-albedo change; (iv) sea water spray-production techniques; (v) computational fluid dynamics studies of possible large-scale periodicities in Flettner rotors; and (vi) the planning of a three-stage limited-area field research experiment, with the primary objectives of technology testing and determining to what extent, if any, cloud albedo might be enhanced by seeding marine stratocumulus clouds on a spatial scale of around 100 km. We stress that there would be no justification for deployment of MCB unless it was clearly established that no significant adverse consequences would result. There would also need to be an international agreement firmly in favour of such action.

  20. Marine cloud brightening.

    PubMed

    Latham, John; Bower, Keith; Choularton, Tom; Coe, Hugh; Connolly, Paul; Cooper, Gary; Craft, Tim; Foster, Jack; Gadian, Alan; Galbraith, Lee; Iacovides, Hector; Johnston, David; Launder, Brian; Leslie, Brian; Meyer, John; Neukermans, Armand; Ormond, Bob; Parkes, Ben; Rasch, Phillip; Rush, John; Salter, Stephen; Stevenson, Tom; Wang, Hailong; Wang, Qin; Wood, Rob

    2012-09-13

    The idea behind the marine cloud-brightening (MCB) geoengineering technique is that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with copious quantities of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre sea water particles might significantly enhance the cloud droplet number concentration, and thereby the cloud albedo and possibly longevity. This would produce a cooling, which general circulation model (GCM) computations suggest could-subject to satisfactory resolution of technical and scientific problems identified herein-have the capacity to balance global warming up to the carbon dioxide-doubling point. We describe herein an account of our recent research on a number of critical issues associated with MCB. This involves (i) GCM studies, which are our primary tools for evaluating globally the effectiveness of MCB, and assessing its climate impacts on rainfall amounts and distribution, and also polar sea-ice cover and thickness; (ii) high-resolution modelling of the effects of seeding on marine stratocumulus, which are required to understand the complex array of interacting processes involved in cloud brightening; (iii) microphysical modelling sensitivity studies, examining the influence of seeding amount, seed-particle salt-mass, air-mass characteristics, updraught speed and other parameters on cloud-albedo change; (iv) sea water spray-production techniques; (v) computational fluid dynamics studies of possible large-scale periodicities in Flettner rotors; and (vi) the planning of a three-stage limited-area field research experiment, with the primary objectives of technology testing and determining to what extent, if any, cloud albedo might be enhanced by seeding marine stratocumulus clouds on a spatial scale of around 100×100 km. We stress that there would be no justification for deployment of MCB unless it was clearly established that no significant adverse consequences would result. There would also need to be an international agreement firmly in favour of such action.

  1. Marine pollution data services

    SciTech Connect

    Abram, R.J.

    1980-09-01

    The Nat'l Oceanographic Data Center of NOAA is responsible for building and maintaining a global data base on the physical, chemical, and biological properties of world oceans. Data relevant to pollution studies, primarily those associated with oil spills, are included. Inventory and retrieval systems utilized are described. International programs provide extensive data for this marine pollution information service. (1 diagram, 1 map, 2 photos)

  2. Osmoregulation in marine mammals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortiz, R. M.

    2001-01-01

    Osmoregulation in marine mammals has been investigated for over a century; however, a review of recent advances in our understanding of water and electrolyte balance and of renal function in marine mammals is warranted. The following topics are discussed: (i) kidney structure and urine concentrating ability, (ii) sources of water, (iii) the effects of feeding, fasting and diving, (iv) the renal responses to infusions of varying salinity and (v) hormonal regulation. The kidneys of pinnipeds and cetaceans are reniculate in structure, unlike those of terrestrial mammals (except bears), but this difference does not confer any greater concentrating ability. Pinnipeds, cetaceans, manatees and sea otters can concentrate their urine above the concentration of sea water, but only pinnipeds and otters have been shown to produce urine concentrations of Na+ and Cl- that are similar to those in sea water. This could afford them the capacity to drink sea water and not lose fresh water. However, with few exceptions, drinking is not a common behavior in pinnipeds and cetaceans. Water balance is maintained in these animals via metabolic and dietary water, while incidental ingestion and dietary salt may help maintain electrolyte homeostasis. Unlike most other aquatic mammals, sea otters commonly drink sea water and manatees frequently drink fresh water. Among the various taxonomic groups of marine mammals, the sensitivity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system appears to be influenced by the availability of Na+. The antidiuretic role of vasopressin remains inconclusive in marine mammals, while the natriuretic function of atrial natriuretic peptide has yet to be examined. Ideas on the direction of future studies are presented.

  3. Marine Officer Attrition Model.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-01

    DISTRISUTION STATEMEANT (.1 lAg.Rpo) * Approved for public release; Distribution unlimited * I7. DISTRIGUTION STATEMENT (of the abstract @new A 01.0 2 ...Informat y Scitnces 2 ’I.I AISISACT Fredicting officer attrition is a major difficulty in the Elamaing, Programming, and Budgeting Process. The marine...For °. **** A vjl lbiitv Cod*S i S z,.npl/r. .** ~. .~d .’. **~ * * % >.,. >~. . * * ~****** * *** *- **.*%** 21JBLE CP CGITZITS 2 |2157CDOCTIONl

  4. Viruses infecting marine molluscs.

    PubMed

    Arzul, Isabelle; Corbeil, Serge; Morga, Benjamin; Renault, Tristan

    2017-02-09

    Although a wide range of viruses have been reported in marine molluscs, most of these reports rely on ultrastructural examination and few of these viruses have been fully characterized. The lack of marine mollusc cell lines restricts virus isolation capacities and subsequent characterization works. Our current knowledge is mostly restricted to viruses affecting farmed species such as oysters Crassostrea gigas, abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta or the scallop Chlamys farreri. Molecular approaches which are needed to identify virus affiliation have been carried out for a small number of viruses, most of them belonging to the Herpesviridae and birnaviridae families. These last years, the use of New Generation Sequencing approach has allowed increasing the number of sequenced viral genomes and has improved our capacity to investigate the diversity of viruses infecting marine molluscs. This new information has in turn allowed designing more efficient diagnostic tools. Moreover, the development of experimental infection protocols has answered some questions regarding the pathogenesis of these viruses and their interactions with their hosts. Control and management of viral diseases in molluscs mostly involve active surveillance, implementation of effective bio security measures and development of breeding programs. However factors triggering pathogen development and the life cycle and status of the viruses outside their mollusc hosts still need further investigations.

  5. Marine Oil Biodegradation

    SciTech Connect

    Hazen, Terry C.; Prince, Roger; Mahmoudi, Nagissa

    2015-12-23

    Crude oil has been part of the marine environment for millions of years, and microbes that use its rich source of energy and carbon are found in seawater, sediments and shorelines from the tropics to the polar regions. Catastrophic oil spills stimulate these organisms to ‘bloom’ in a reproducible fashion, and although oil does not provide bioavailable nitrogen, phosphorus or iron, there are enough of these nutrients in the sea that when dispersed oil droplets dilute to low concentrations these low levels are adequate for microbial growth. Most of the hydrocarbons in dispersed oil are degraded in aerobic marine waters with a half-life of days to months. In contrast, oil that reaches shorelines is likely to be too concentrated, have lower levels of nutrients, and have a far longer residence time in the environment. Oil that becomes entrained in anaerobic sediments is also likely to have a long residence time, although it too will eventually be biodegraded. Thus, data that encompass everything from the ecosystem to the molecular level are needed for understanding the complicated process of petroleum biodegradation in marine environments.

  6. Marine Oil Biodegradation

    DOE PAGES

    Hazen, Terry C.; Prince, Roger; Mahmoudi, Nagissa

    2015-12-23

    Crude oil has been part of the marine environment for millions of years, and microbes that use its rich source of energy and carbon are found in seawater, sediments and shorelines from the tropics to the polar regions. Catastrophic oil spills stimulate these organisms to ‘bloom’ in a reproducible fashion, and although oil does not provide bioavailable nitrogen, phosphorus or iron, there are enough of these nutrients in the sea that when dispersed oil droplets dilute to low concentrations these low levels are adequate for microbial growth. Most of the hydrocarbons in dispersed oil are degraded in aerobic marine watersmore » with a half-life of days to months. In contrast, oil that reaches shorelines is likely to be too concentrated, have lower levels of nutrients, and have a far longer residence time in the environment. Oil that becomes entrained in anaerobic sediments is also likely to have a long residence time, although it too will eventually be biodegraded. Thus, data that encompass everything from the ecosystem to the molecular level are needed for understanding the complicated process of petroleum biodegradation in marine environments.« less

  7. Marine Oil Biodegradation.

    PubMed

    Hazen, Terry C; Prince, Roger C; Mahmoudi, Nagissa

    2016-03-01

    Crude oil has been part of the marine environment for millions of years, and microbes that use its rich source of energy and carbon are found in seawater, sediments, and shorelines from the tropics to the polar regions. Catastrophic oil spills stimulate these organisms to "bloom" in a reproducible fashion, and although oil does not provide bioavailable nitrogen, phosphorus or iron, there are enough of these nutrients in the sea that when dispersed oil droplets dilute to low concentrations these low levels are adequate for microbial growth. Most of the hydrocarbons in dispersed oil are degraded in aerobic marine waters with a half-life of days to months. In contrast, oil that reaches shorelines is likely to be too concentrated, have lower levels of nutrients, and have a far longer residence time in the environment. Oil that becomes entrained in anaerobic sediments is also likely to have a long residence time, although it too will eventually be biodegraded. Thus, data that encompass everything from the ecosystem to the molecular level are needed for understanding the complicated process of petroleum biodegradation in marine environments.

  8. Marine botany. Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    Dawes, C.J.

    1998-12-01

    Marine plants are a diverse group that include unicellular algae, seaweeds, seagrasses, salt marshes, and mangrove forests. They carry out a variety of ecological functions and serve as the primary producers in coastal wetlands and oceanic waters. The theme that connects such a wide variety of plants is their ecology, which was also emphasized in the 1981 edition. The goal of this revision is to present taxonomic, physiological, chemical, and ecological aspects of marine plants, their adaptations, and how abiotic and biotic factors interact in their communities. The data are presented in a concise, comparative manner in order to identify similarities and differences between communities such as salt marsh and mangroves or subtidal seaweeds and seagrasses. To accomplish this, the text is organized into five chapters that introduce the marine habitats, consider abiotic and biotic factors, and anthropogenic influences on the communities followed by seven chapters that deal with microalgae, seaweeds, salt marshes, mangroves, seagrasses, and coral reefs. Two appendixes are included; one presents simple field techniques and the other is a summary of seaweed uses.

  9. Marine Antibody–Drug Conjugates: Design Strategies and Research Progress

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu-Jie; Li, Yu-Yan; Liu, Xiao-Yu; Lu, Xiao-Ling; Cao, Xin; Jiao, Bing-Hua

    2017-01-01

    Antibody–drug conjugates (ADCs), constructed with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), linkers, and natural cytotoxins, are innovative drugs developed for oncotherapy. Owing to the distinctive advantages of both chemotherapy drugs and antibody drugs, ADCs have obtained enormous success during the past several years. The development of highly specific antibodies, novel marine toxins’ applications, and innovative linker technologies all accelerate the rapid R&D of ADCs. Meanwhile, some challenges remain to be solved for future ADCs. For instance, varieties of site-specific conjugation have been proposed for solving the inhomogeneity of DARs (Drug Antibody Ratios). In this review, the usages of various natural toxins, especially marine cytotoxins, and the development strategies for ADCs in the past decade are summarized. Representative ADCs with marine cytotoxins in the pipeline are introduced and characterized with their new features, while perspective comments for future ADCs are proposed. PMID:28098746

  10. Marine Biota and Psychological Well-Being

    PubMed Central

    Cracknell, Deborah; White, Mathew P.; Pahl, Sabine; Nichols, Wallace J.; Depledge, Michael H.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to natural environments can have calming and stress-reducing effects on humans. Moreover, previous studies suggest that these benefits may be greater in areas with higher species richness. Our study took advantage of a “natural experiment” to examine people’s behavioral, physiological, and psychological reactions to increases in levels of marine biota in a large aquarium exhibit during three stages of restocking: Unstocked, Partially stocked, and Fully stocked. We found that increased biota levels were associated with longer spontaneous viewing of the exhibit, greater reductions in heart rate, greater increases in self-reported mood, and higher interest. We suggest that higher biota levels, even in managed settings, may be associated with important well-being and health benefits, particularly for individuals not able to access the natural analogues of managed environments. PMID:27818525

  11. The use of marine-derived bioactive compounds as potential hepatoprotective agents

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Dileep G; Weiskirchen, Ralf; Al-Musharafi, Salma K

    2015-01-01

    The marine environment may be explored as a rich source for novel drugs. A number of marine-derived compounds have been isolated and identified, and their therapeutic effects and pharmacological profiles are characterized. In the present review, we highlight the recent studies using marine compounds as potential hepatoprotective agents for the treatment of liver fibrotic diseases and discuss the proposed mechanisms of their activities. In addition, we discuss the significance of similar studies in Oman, where the rich marine life provides a potential for the isolation of novel natural, bioactive products that display therapeutic effects on liver diseases. PMID:25500871

  12. Diversity of Secondary Metabolites from Marine Bacillus Species: Chemistry and Biological Activity

    PubMed Central

    Mondol, Muhammad Abdul Mojid; Shin, Hee Jae; Islam, Mohammad Tofazzal

    2013-01-01

    Marine Bacillus species produce versatile secondary metabolites including lipopeptides, polypeptides, macrolactones, fatty acids, polyketides, and isocoumarins. These structurally diverse compounds exhibit a wide range of biological activities, such as antimicrobial, anticancer, and antialgal activities. Some marine Bacillus strains can detoxify heavy metals through reduction processes and have the ability to produce carotenoids. The present article reviews the chemistry and biological activities of secondary metabolites from marine isolates. Side by side, the potential for application of these novel natural products from marine Bacillus strains as drugs, pesticides, carotenoids, and tools for the bioremediation of heavy metal toxicity are also discussed. PMID:23941823

  13. Bioactive Marine Drugs and Marine Biomaterials for Brain Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Grosso, Clara; Valentão, Patrícia; Ferreres, Federico; Andrade, Paula B.

    2014-01-01

    Marine invertebrates produce a plethora of bioactive compounds, which serve as inspiration for marine biotechnology, particularly in drug discovery programs and biomaterials development. This review aims to summarize the potential of drugs derived from marine invertebrates in the field of neuroscience. Therefore, some examples of neuroprotective drugs and neurotoxins will be discussed. Their role in neuroscience research and development of new therapies targeting the central nervous system will be addressed, with particular focus on neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. In addition, the neuronal growth promoted by marine drugs, as well as the recent advances in neural tissue engineering, will be highlighted. PMID:24798925

  14. Neuroprotective Effects of Marine Algae

    PubMed Central

    Pangestuti, Ratih; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2011-01-01

    The marine environment is known as a rich source of chemical structures with numerous beneficial health effects. Among marine organisms, marine algae have been identified as an under-exploited plant resource, although they have long been recognized as valuable sources of structurally diverse bioactive compounds. Presently, several lines of studies have provided insight into biological activities and neuroprotective effects of marine algae including antioxidant, anti-neuroinflammatory, cholinesterase inhibitory activity and the inhibition of neuronal death. Hence, marine algae have great potential to be used for neuroprotection as part of pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals and functional foods. This contribution presents an overview of marine algal neuroprotective effects and their potential application in neuroprotection. PMID:21673890

  15. Factors Influencing Expanded Use of Urban Marine Habitats by Foraging Wading Birds

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urban marine habitats are often utilized by wildlife for foraging and other activities despite surrounding anthropogenic impact or disturbance. However little is known of the ecological factors that determine habitat value of these and other remnant natural habitats. We examine...

  16. Diagenesis and catagenesis of marine kerogen precursors

    SciTech Connect

    Rafalska-Bloch, J.

    1987-01-01

    The approaches used were (1) investigations of marine kerogen precursors in a natural environment, e.g., in reefal carbonate sediments (in Puerto Rico and Belize) and (2) laboratory modeling of the condensation of marine kerogen precursors, i.e., amino acids and sugars and subsequent formation and reactions of melanoidin polymers. The organic facies model of a reef environment was developed from the analysis of (1) total organic carbon, (2) visual protokerogen types, (3) Rock-Eval indices and (4) sedimentological considerations. Rates of melanoidin formation, incorporation of amino acid and glucose into the melanoidin polymers and their attendant decrease in the melanoidin solutions were evaluated. The observed pattern was that of initially rapid loss of biomonomers from the melanoidin solutions and concomitant formation of melanoidin polymers. The rate of incorporation of amino acids into the polymers is related partly to glucose concentration and partly to the type of amino acid. The racemization rates of amino acids were also investigated. During the course of melanoidin formation the original amino acid abundances and stereochemistry are redistributed during simulated diagenesis. This may have implications for natural environments where diagenesis may obscure the original depositional signal and complicate geochronological studies. Catagenetic evolution of both synthetic geopolymer (lysine, histidine, arginine, glucose - melanoidin) and natural geopolymers (Belizian organic matter) was simulated using hydrous pyrolysis.

  17. Sulfur diagenesis in marine sediments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldhaber, M.

    1985-01-01

    Bacterial sulfate reduction occurs in all marine sediments that contain organic matter. Aqueous sulfide (HS-, H2S), one of the initial products of bacterial sulfide reduction, is extremely reactive with iron bearing minerals: sulfur is fixed into sediments as iron sulfide (first FeS and then Fe2S2). A working definition is given of sulfur diagenesis in marine sediments. Controls and consequences of sulfate reduction rates in marine sediments are examined.

  18. Enzymatic Reductive Dehalogenation Controls the Biosynthesis of Marine Bacterial Pyrroles.

    PubMed

    El Gamal, Abrahim; Agarwal, Vinayak; Rahman, Imran; Moore, Bradley S

    2016-10-12

    Enzymes capable of performing dehalogenating reactions have attracted tremendous contemporary attention due to their potential application in the bioremediation of anthropogenic polyhalogenated persistent organic pollutants. Nature, in particular the marine environment, is also a prolific source of polyhalogenated organic natural products. The study of the biosynthesis of these natural products has furnished a diverse array of halogenation biocatalysts, but thus far no examples of dehalogenating enzymes have been reported from a secondary metabolic pathway. Here we show that the penultimate step in the biosynthesis of the highly brominated marine bacterial product pentabromopseudilin is catalyzed by an unusual debrominase Bmp8 that utilizes a redox thiol mechanism to remove the C-2 bromine atom of 2,3,4,5-tetrabromopyrrole to facilitate oxidative coupling to 2,4-dibromophenol. To the best of our knowledge, Bmp8 is first example of a dehalogenating enzyme from the established genetic and biochemical context of a natural product biosynthetic pathway.

  19. Natural Xanthones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denisova-Dyatlova, O. A.; Glyzin, V. I.

    1982-10-01

    The available information on the abundance of natural xanthones in nature and the methods for the determination of their structure, biogenesis, and pharmacological properties is surveyed and described systematically. The bibliography includes 151 references.

  20. Marine microbes-derived anti-bacterial agents.

    PubMed

    Lu, X; Cao, X; Liu, X; Jiao, B

    2010-10-01

    This review covers natural products isolated from marine microorganisms including bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes published in the recent years. The emphasis is mainly about new compounds, together with their anti-bacterial activities, source organisms and country of origin, biosynthetic studies as well as the mechanisms involved in their anti-bacterial activities.