Science.gov

Sample records for natural units

  1. Natural aggregates of the conterminous United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langer, William H.

    1988-01-01

    Crushed stone and sand and gravel are the two main sources of natural aggregates. These materials are commonly used construction materials and frequently can be interchanged with one another. They are widely used throughout the United States, with every State except two producing crushed stone. Together they amount to about half the mining volume in the United States. Approximately 96 percent of sand and gravel and 77 percent of the crushed stone produced in the United States are used in the construction industry. Natural aggregates are widely distributed throughout the United States in a variety of geologic environments. Sand and gravel deposits commonly are the results of the weathering of bedrock and subsequent transportation and deposition of the material by water or ice (glaciers). As such, they commonly occur as river or stream deposits or in glaciated areas as glaciofluvial and other deposits. Crushed stone aggregates are derived from a wide variety of parent bedrock materials. Limestone and other carbonates account for approximately three quarters of the rocks used for crushed stone, with granite and other igneous rocks making up the bulk of the remainder. Limestone deposits are widespread throughout the Central and Eastern United States and are scattered in the West. Granites are widely distributed in the Eastern and Western United States, with few exposures in the Midwest. Igneous rocks (excluding granites) are largely concentrated in the Western United States and in a few isolated localities in the East. Even though natural aggregates are widely distributed throughout the United States, they are not universally available for consumptive use. Some areas are devoid of sand and gravel, and potential sources of crushed stone may be covered with sufficient unconsolidated material to make surface mining impractical. In some areas many aggregates do not meet the physical property requirements for certain uses, or they may contain mineral constituents that react

  2. Natural Resources. Environmental Education Instructional Unit. Final Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Science Education.

    This unit on natural resources is one in a series of three prepared for use in the classroom. An interdisciplinary approach encompassing mathematics, science, and social studies is utilized in these environmental units. This material is designed for middle grades and above. Many of the activities are open-ended with each activity in this unit…

  3. Planck’s constant as a natural unit of measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quincey, Paul

    2013-09-01

    The proposed revision of SI units would embed Planck’s constant into the definition of the kilogram, as a fixed constant of nature. Traditionally, Planck’s constant is not readily interpreted as the size of something physical, and it is generally only encountered by students in the mathematics of quantum physics. Richard Feynman’s path integral formulation of quantum mechanics allows a neat visualization of the constant as the circumference of a surveyor’s wheel for measuring action along each path, making Planck’s constant a natural yardstick, almost literally. This approach is shown to have other benefits in the presentation of other basic quantum phenomena.

  4. Phenology research for natural resource management in the United States.

    PubMed

    Enquist, Carolyn A F; Kellermann, Jherime L; Gerst, Katharine L; Miller-Rushing, Abraham J

    2014-05-01

    Natural resource professionals in the United States recognize that climate-induced changes in phenology can substantially affect resource management. This is reflected in national climate change response plans recently released by major resource agencies. However, managers on-the-ground are often unclear about how to use phenological information to inform their management practices. Until recently, this was at least partially due to the lack of broad-based, standardized phenology data collection across taxa and geographic regions. Such efforts are now underway, albeit in very early stages. Nonetheless, a major hurdle still exists: phenology-linked climate change research has focused more on describing broad ecological changes rather than making direct connections to local to regional management concerns. To help researchers better design relevant research for use in conservation and management decision-making processes, we describe phenology-related research topics that facilitate "actionable" science. Examples include research on evolution and phenotypic plasticity related to vulnerability, the demographic consequences of trophic mismatch, the role of invasive species, and building robust ecological forecast models. Such efforts will increase phenology literacy among on-the-ground resource managers and provide information relevant for short- and long-term decision-making, particularly as related to climate response planning and implementing climate-informed monitoring in the context of adaptive management. In sum, we argue that phenological information is a crucial component of the resource management toolbox that facilitates identification and evaluation of strategies that will reduce the vulnerability of natural systems to climate change. Management-savvy researchers can play an important role in reaching this goal.

  5. Phenology research for natural resource management in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enquist, Carolyn A. F.; Kellermann, Jherime L.; Gerst, Katharine L.; Miller-Rushing, Abraham J.

    2014-05-01

    Natural resource professionals in the United States recognize that climate-induced changes in phenology can substantially affect resource management. This is reflected in national climate change response plans recently released by major resource agencies. However, managers on-the-ground are often unclear about how to use phenological information to inform their management practices. Until recently, this was at least partially due to the lack of broad-based, standardized phenology data collection across taxa and geographic regions. Such efforts are now underway, albeit in very early stages. Nonetheless, a major hurdle still exists: phenology-linked climate change research has focused more on describing broad ecological changes rather than making direct connections to local to regional management concerns. To help researchers better design relevant research for use in conservation and management decision-making processes, we describe phenology-related research topics that facilitate "actionable" science. Examples include research on evolution and phenotypic plasticity related to vulnerability, the demographic consequences of trophic mismatch, the role of invasive species, and building robust ecological forecast models. Such efforts will increase phenology literacy among on-the-ground resource managers and provide information relevant for short- and long-term decision-making, particularly as related to climate response planning and implementing climate-informed monitoring in the context of adaptive management. In sum, we argue that phenological information is a crucial component of the resource management toolbox that facilitates identification and evaluation of strategies that will reduce the vulnerability of natural systems to climate change. Management-savvy researchers can play an important role in reaching this goal.

  6. Natural Systems: MINNEMAST Coordinated Mathematics - Science Series, Unit 29.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakke, Jeannette; And Others

    This volume is the last in a series of 29 coordinated MINNEMAST units in mathematics and science for kindergarten and the primary grades. Intended for use by third-grade teachers, this unit guide provides a summary and overview of the unit, a list of materials needed, and descriptions of three groups of lessons. The purposes and procedures for…

  7. Unit 1001: The Nature of Meaning in Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Center for Curriculum Development in English.

    This 10th-grade unit in Minnesota's "language-centered" curriculum introduces the complexity of linguistic meaning by demonstrating the relationships among linguistic symbols, their referents, their interpreters, and the social milieu. The unit begins with a discussion of Ray Bradbury's "The Kilimanjaro Machine," which…

  8. Unit-cell dimensions of natural and synthetic scapolites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eugster, H.P.; Prostka, H.J.; Appleman, D.E.

    1962-01-01

    In natural scapolites the cell dimension a shows a regular increase from marialite to meionite composition, while c remains constant. Both a and c of synthetic meionite are larger than the corresponding dimensions of synthetic marialite. The cell volume of both natural and synthetic scapolites is a nearly linear function of composition. Variations in cell dimensions of scapolites may be caused by differences in structural state similar to those in plagioclase feldspars.

  9. Unit 1103: The Nature and Evaluation of Argument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Center for Curriculum Development in English.

    This 11th-grade unit on language of discourse is designed to help students gain the ability to evaluate argument, to construct logical and reasonable discourse, and to recognize ethical standards of free speech and inquiry. Stephen Toulmin's model of "evidence-warrant-claim" is used as a basic pattern for both the evaluation and…

  10. Spatial patterns of natural hazards mortality in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Borden, Kevin A; Cutter, Susan L

    2008-01-01

    Background Studies on natural hazard mortality are most often hazard-specific (e.g. floods, earthquakes, heat), event specific (e.g. Hurricane Katrina), or lack adequate temporal or geographic coverage. This makes it difficult to assess mortality from natural hazards in any systematic way. This paper examines the spatial patterns of natural hazard mortality at the county-level for the U.S. from 1970–2004 using a combination of geographical and epidemiological methods. Results Chronic everyday hazards such as severe weather (summer and winter) and heat account for the majority of natural hazard fatalities. The regions most prone to deaths from natural hazards are the South and intermountain west, but sub-regional county-level mortality patterns show more variability. There is a distinct urban/rural component to the county patterns as well as a coastal trend. Significant clusters of high mortality are in the lower Mississippi Valley, upper Great Plains, and Mountain West, with additional areas in west Texas, and the panhandle of Florida, Significant clusters of low mortality are in the Midwest and urbanized Northeast. Conclusion There is no consistent source of hazard mortality data, yet improvements in existing databases can produce quality data that can be incorporated into spatial epidemiological studies as demonstrated in this paper. It is important to view natural hazard mortality through a geographic lens so as to better inform the public living in such hazard prone areas, but more importantly to inform local emergency practitioners who must plan for and respond to disasters in their community. PMID:19091058

  11. Spatial patterns of natural hazards mortality in the United States.

    PubMed

    Borden, Kevin A; Cutter, Susan L

    2008-12-17

    Studies on natural hazard mortality are most often hazard-specific (e.g. floods, earthquakes, heat), event specific (e.g. Hurricane Katrina), or lack adequate temporal or geographic coverage. This makes it difficult to assess mortality from natural hazards in any systematic way. This paper examines the spatial patterns of natural hazard mortality at the county-level for the U.S. from 1970-2004 using a combination of geographical and epidemiological methods. Chronic everyday hazards such as severe weather (summer and winter) and heat account for the majority of natural hazard fatalities. The regions most prone to deaths from natural hazards are the South and intermountain west, but sub-regional county-level mortality patterns show more variability. There is a distinct urban/rural component to the county patterns as well as a coastal trend. Significant clusters of high mortality are in the lower Mississippi Valley, upper Great Plains, and Mountain West, with additional areas in west Texas, and the panhandle of Florida, Significant clusters of low mortality are in the Midwest and urbanized Northeast. There is no consistent source of hazard mortality data, yet improvements in existing databases can produce quality data that can be incorporated into spatial epidemiological studies as demonstrated in this paper. It is important to view natural hazard mortality through a geographic lens so as to better inform the public living in such hazard prone areas, but more importantly to inform local emergency practitioners who must plan for and respond to disasters in their community.

  12. The changing nature of flooding across the central United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallakpour, Iman; Villarini, Gabriele

    2015-03-01

    In the twentieth and twenty-first centuries, flooding has taken a devastating societal and economic toll on the central United States, contributing to dozens of fatalities and causing billions of dollars in damage. As a warmer atmosphere can hold more moisture (the Clausius-Clapeyron relation), a pronounced increase in intense rainfall events is included in models of future climate. Therefore, it is crucial to examine whether the magnitude and/or frequency of flood events is remaining constant or has been changing over recent decades. If either or both of these attributes have changed over time, it is imperative that we understand the underlying mechanisms that are responsible. Here, we show that while observational records (774 stream gauge stations) from the central United States present limited evidence of significant changes in the magnitude of floodpeaks, strong evidence points to an increasing frequency of flooding. These changes in flood hydrology result from changes in both seasonal rainfall and temperature across this region.

  13. Nature of the Indonesia-United States Education Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Anita

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses the nature of the education relationship between Indonesia and the US. The article examines two hypotheses. The first hypothesis is that transnational education constitutes a new type of imperialism by perpetuating knowledge dependency and financial dependency through the transfer of knowledge and foreign aid in education.…

  14. Hallucinogens and dissociative agents naturally growing in the United States.

    PubMed

    Halpern, John H

    2004-05-01

    It is usually believed that drugs of abuse are smuggled into the United States or are clandestinely produced for illicit distribution. Less well known is that many hallucinogens and dissociative agents can be obtained from plants and fungi growing wild or in gardens. Some of these botanical sources can be located throughout the United States; others have a more narrow distribution. This article reviews plants containing N,N-dimethyltryptamine, reversible type A monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOI), lysergic acid amide, the anticholinergic drugs atropine and scopolamine, or the diterpene salvinorin-A (Salvia divinorum). Also reviewed are mescaline-containing cacti, psilocybin/psilocin-containing mushrooms, and the Amanita muscaria and Amanita pantherina mushrooms that contain muscimol and ibotenic acid. Dangerous misidentification is most common with the mushrooms, but even a novice forager can quickly learn how to properly identify and prepare for ingestion many of these plants. Moreover, through the ever-expanding dissemination of information via the Internet, this knowledge is being obtained and acted upon by more and more individuals. This general overview includes information on the geographical range, drug content, preparation, intoxication, and the special health risks associated with some of these plants. Information is also offered on the unique issue of when bona fide religions use such plants as sacraments in the United States. In addition to the Native American Church's (NAC) longstanding right to peyote, two religions of Brazilian origin, the Santo Daime and the Uniao do Vegetal (UDV), are seeking legal protection in the United States for their use of sacramental dimethyltryptamine-containing "ayahuasca."

  15. United States Geological Survey (USGS) Natural Hazards Response

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lamb, Rynn M.; Jones, Brenda K.

    2012-01-01

    The primary goal of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Natural Hazards Response is to ensure that the disaster response community has access to timely, accurate, and relevant geospatial products, imagery, and services during and after an emergency event. To accomplish this goal, products and services provided by the National Geospatial Program (NGP) and Land Remote Sensing (LRS) Program serve as a geospatial framework for mapping activities of the emergency response community. Post-event imagery and analysis can provide important and timely information about the extent and severity of an event. USGS Natural Hazards Response will also support the coordination of remotely sensed data acquisitions, image distribution, and authoritative geospatial information production as required for use in disaster preparedness, response, and recovery operations.

  16. Methane Emissions from United States Natural Gas Gathering and Processing.

    PubMed

    Marchese, Anthony J; Vaughn, Timothy L; Zimmerle, Daniel J; Martinez, David M; Williams, Laurie L; Robinson, Allen L; Mitchell, Austin L; Subramanian, R; Tkacik, Daniel S; Roscioli, Joseph R; Herndon, Scott C

    2015-09-01

    New facility-level methane (CH4) emissions measurements obtained from 114 natural gas gathering facilities and 16 processing plants in 13 U.S. states were combined with facility counts obtained from state and national databases in a Monte Carlo simulation to estimate CH4 emissions from U.S. natural gas gathering and processing operations. Total annual CH4 emissions of 2421 (+245/-237) Gg were estimated for all U.S. gathering and processing operations, which represents a CH4 loss rate of 0.47% (±0.05%) when normalized by 2012 CH4 production. Over 90% of those emissions were attributed to normal operation of gathering facilities (1697 +189/-185 Gg) and processing plants (506 +55/-52 Gg), with the balance attributed to gathering pipelines and processing plant routine maintenance and upsets. The median CH4 emissions estimate for processing plants is a factor of 1.7 lower than the 2012 EPA Greenhouse Gas Inventory (GHGI) estimate, with the difference due largely to fewer reciprocating compressors, and a factor of 3.0 higher than that reported under the EPA Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program. Since gathering operations are currently embedded within the production segment of the EPA GHGI, direct comparison to our results is complicated. However, the study results suggest that CH4 emissions from gathering are substantially higher than the current EPA GHGI estimate and are equivalent to 30% of the total net CH4 emissions in the natural gas systems GHGI. Because CH4 emissions from most gathering facilities are not reported under the current rule and not all source categories are reported for processing plants, the total CH4 emissions from gathering and processing reported under the EPA GHGRP (180 Gg) represents only 14% of that tabulated in the EPA GHGI and 7% of that predicted from this study.

  17. Industrial Research of Condensing Unit for Natural Gas Boiler House

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziemele, Jelena; Blumberga, Dagnija; Talcis, Normunds; Laicane, Ilze

    2012-12-01

    In the course of work industrial research was carried out at the boiler plant A/S "Imanta" where a 10MW passive condensing economizer working on natural gas was installed after the 116MW water boiler. The work describes the design of the condensing economizer and wiring diagram. During the industrial experiment, the following measurements were made: the temperature of water before and after the economizer; the ambient temperature; the quantity of water passing through the economizer; heat, produced by the economizer and water boilers. The work summarizes the data from 2010-2011.

  18. Natural gas: Hearing before the committee on energy and natural resources, United States Senate

    SciTech Connect

    1999-07-01

    This hearing will be on whether the US has the natural gas supply and the infrastructure necessary to meet the projected demand. Energy information says that there will be a need for 30 trillion cubic feet per year of natural gas by the year 2010 if the US is able to meet the proposed Clinton-Gore global warming targets. The question for today's hearing is can this level of gas demand be met. That is about a 50% increase. Will the gas be there both on-shore and off-shore? Will producers be given access to Federal lands? Those of us out West have had a little experience in that regard, and the Secretary of the Interior has not exactly opened up the wide-open spaces. Will there be interstate pipeline which is needed to move the gas from the producing fields to the cities? According to industry, why the FERC has not been particularly interested in allowing new gas lines to be built. Will there be local distribution facilities which will be necessary to get the gas from the pipeline to the consumers? The Committee heard from the following: representatives from the Interstate Natural Gas Association of America, Energy Information Agency, Independent Petroleum Association of America, Latin American Petroleum Intelligence Service, Natural Gas Supply Association, and Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers, and senators from the states of New Mexico, Montana, and Alaska.

  19. Natural units in physics, and the curious case of the radian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quincey, Paul

    2016-11-01

    Sets of natural units, like ‘atomic units’, are sometimes used to simplify the equations of physics. This choice of units can be seen as a way of showing the relationships between quantities in their simplest form, in specialised situations, while still being correct. The unit system used for teaching, the SI, is instead designed primarily to be a set of units that can be applied consistently across all areas of science, commerce and industry. The SI also gives priority to emphasising the distinction between different quantities, by (most of the time) giving different units to different quantities, rather than producing the simplest possible equations. It is not widely appreciated that the SI treats the radian as the natural unit for angle, the only unit to be treated this way, with consequent issues for clear distinctions between quantities involving angles. The system that the SI would become if this anomaly were removed is presented. Rather than advocating this major change to the SI itself, it is proposed to highlight the existence of the underlying system to clarify how angles are handled physics, to make it easier to include angles in software calculations, and as an example of how the choice of unit system affects the equations we use.

  20. 40 CFR 60.5405 - What standards apply to sweetening units at onshore natural gas processing plants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... units at onshore natural gas processing plants? 60.5405 Section 60.5405 Protection of Environment... SOURCES Standards of Performance for Crude Oil and Natural Gas Production, Transmission and Distribution § 60.5405 What standards apply to sweetening units at onshore natural gas processing plants? (a) During...

  1. 40 CFR 60.5405 - What standards apply to sweetening units at onshore natural gas processing plants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... units at onshore natural gas processing plants? 60.5405 Section 60.5405 Protection of Environment... SOURCES Standards of Performance for Crude Oil and Natural Gas Production, Transmission and Distribution § 60.5405 What standards apply to sweetening units at onshore natural gas processing plants? (a) During...

  2. Planck's Constant as a Natural Unit of Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quincey, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The proposed revision of SI units would embed Planck's constant into the definition of the kilogram, as a fixed constant of nature. Traditionally, Planck's constant is not readily interpreted as the size of something physical, and it is generally only encountered by students in the mathematics of quantum physics. Richard Feynman's…

  3. Planck's Constant as a Natural Unit of Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quincey, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The proposed revision of SI units would embed Planck's constant into the definition of the kilogram, as a fixed constant of nature. Traditionally, Planck's constant is not readily interpreted as the size of something physical, and it is generally only encountered by students in the mathematics of quantum physics. Richard Feynman's…

  4. Natural Environments, Obesity, and Physical Activity in Nonmetropolitan Areas of the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michimi, Akihiko; Wimberly, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the associations of the natural environment with obesity and physical activity in nonmetropolitan areas of the United States among representative samples by using 2 indices of outdoor activity potential (OAP) at the county level. Methods: We used the data from 457,820 and 473,296 noninstitutionalized adults aged over 18 years…

  5. Natural Environments, Obesity, and Physical Activity in Nonmetropolitan Areas of the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michimi, Akihiko; Wimberly, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the associations of the natural environment with obesity and physical activity in nonmetropolitan areas of the United States among representative samples by using 2 indices of outdoor activity potential (OAP) at the county level. Methods: We used the data from 457,820 and 473,296 noninstitutionalized adults aged over 18 years…

  6. EnviroAtlas - Natural Hazard Mitigation Metrics for Conterminous United States

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This EnviroAtlas web service supports research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas). The Natural Hazard Mitigation category in this web service includes layers illustrating the ecosystems and natural resources that mitigate or minimize the affects of natural hazards, the need or demand for mitigation, the impacts associated with natural hazards, and factors that place stress on the natural environment's capability to cope with hazards. EnviroAtlas allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the conterminous United States. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this web service is located within each web service layer (see Full Metadata hyperlink) or can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  7. Reported historic asbestos prospects and natural asbestos occurrences in the central United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Gosen, Bradley S.

    2006-01-01

    This map and its accompanying dataset provide information for 26 natural asbestos occurrences in the Central United States (U.S.), using descriptions found in the geologic literature. Data on location, mineralogy, geology, and relevant literature for each asbestos site are provided. Using the map and digital data in this report, the user can examine the distribution of previously reported asbestos occurrences and their geological characteristics in the Central U.S. This report is part of an ongoing study by the U.S. Geological Survey to identify and map reported natural asbestos occurrences in the U.S., which began with U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2005-1189 (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1189/). These reports are intended to provide State and local government agencies and other stakeholders with geologic information on natural occurrences of asbestos in the U.S.

  8. Nature and Utilization of Civil Commitment for Substance Abuse in the United States.

    PubMed

    Christopher, Paul P; Pinals, Debra A; Stayton, Taylor; Sanders, Kellie; Blumberg, Lester

    2015-09-01

    Substance abuse is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Although civil commitment has been used to address substance abuse for more than a century, little is known today about the nature and use of substance-related commitment laws in the United States. We examined statutes between July 2010 and October 2012 from all 50 states and the District of Columbia for provisions authorizing civil commitment of adults for substance abuse and recorded the criteria and evidentiary standard for commitment and the location and the maximum duration of commitment orders. High-level state representatives evaluated these data and provided information on the use of commitment. Thirty-three states have statutory provisions for the civil commitment of persons because of substance abuse. The application of these statutes ranged from a few commitment cases to thousands annually. Although dangerousness was the most common basis for commitment, many states permitted it in other contexts. The maximum duration of treatment ranged from less than 1 month to more than 1 year for both initial and subsequent civil commitment orders. These findings show wide variability in the nature and application of civil commitment statutes for substance abuse in the United States. Such diversity reflects a lack of consensus on the role that civil commitment should play in managing substance abuse and the problems associated with it.

  9. WILLIAM MCDOUGALL, AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST: A RECONSIDERATION OF NATURE-NURTURE DEBATES IN THE INTERWAR UNITED STATES.

    PubMed

    Rose, Anne C

    2016-09-01

    The British-born psychologist William McDougall (1871-1938) spent more than half of his academic career in the United States, holding successive positions after 1920 at Harvard and Duke universities. Scholarly studies uniformly characterize McDougall's relationship with his New World colleagues as contentious: in the standard view, McDougall's theory of innate drives clashed with the Americans' experimentation into learned habits. This essay argues instead that rising American curiosity about inborn appetites-an interest rooted in earlier pragmatic philosophy and empirically investigated by interwar scientists-explains McDougall's migration to the United States and his growing success there. A review of McDougall's intellectual and professional ties, evolving outside public controversy, highlights persistent American attention to natural agency and complicates arguments voiced by contemporaries in favor of nurture.

  10. Research on Geographical Environment Unit Division Based on the Method of Natural Breaks (Jenks)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J.; Yang, S. T.; Li, H. W.; Zhang, B.; Lv, J. R.

    2013-11-01

    Zoning which is to divide the study area into different zones according to their geographical differences at the global, national or regional level, includes natural division, economic division, geographical zoning of departments, comprehensive zoning and so on. Zoning is of important practical significance, for example, knowing regional differences and characteristics, regional research and regional development planning, understanding the favorable and unfavorable conditions of the regional development etc. Geographical environment is arising from the geographical position linkages. Geographical environment unit division is also a type of zoning. The geographical environment indicators are deeply studied and summed up in the article, including the background, the associated and the potential. The background indicators are divided into four categories, such as the socio-economic, the political and military, the strategic resources and the ecological environment, which can be divided into more sub-indexes. While the sub-indexes can be integrated to comprehensive index system by weighted stacking method. The Jenks natural breaks classification method, also called the Jenks optimization method, is a data classification method designed to determine the best arrangement of values into different classes. This is done by seeking to minimize each class's average deviation from the class mean, while maximizing each class's deviation from the means of the other groups. In this paper, the experiment of Chinese surrounding geographical environment unit division has been done based on the natural breaks (jenks) method, the geographical environment index system and the weighted stacking method, taking South Asia as an example. The result indicates that natural breaks (jenks) method is of good adaptability and high accuracy on the geographical environment unit division. The geographical environment research was originated in the geopolitics and flourished in the geo

  11. Tuning in caudal fastigial nucleus units during natural and galvanic labyrinth stimulation.

    PubMed

    Schlosser, H G; Guldin, W O; Grüsser, O J

    2001-05-25

    Neurons of the caudal fastigial nucleus were investigated by means of single unit recordings. Natural vestibular stimuli were applied as well as galvanic labyrinth polarization. One-third of the neurons showed a convergence of vertical and horizontal canals. More than 80% of the neurons responded to polarization of both the ipsilateral and contralateral canals (binaural responders). Most neurons had a limited response range. Two classes of neurons could be distinguished: up to 1 Hz responders and up to 10 Hz responders. In addition a group of fastigial cells showed a tuning within a small range of frequencies (sharp-tuning responders).

  12. Widespread natural perchlorate in unsaturated zones of the southwest United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rao, B.; Anderson, T.A.; Orris, G.J.; Rainwater, K.A.; Rajagopalan, S.; Sandvig, R.M.; Scanlon, B.R.; Stonestrom, D.A.; Walvoord, M.A.; Jackson, W.A.

    2007-01-01

    A substantial reservoir (up to 1 kg ha-1) of natural perchlorate is present in diverse unsaturated zones of the arid and semi-arid southwestern United States. The perchlorate co-occurs with meteoric chloride that has accumulated in these soils throughout the Holocene [0 to 10-15 ka (thousand years ago)] and possibly longer periods. Previously, natural perchlorate widely believed to be limited to the Atacama Desert, now appears widespread in steppe-to-desert ecoregions. The perchlorate reservoir becomes sufficiently large to affect groundwater when recharge from irrigation or climate change flushes accumulated salts from the unsaturated zone. This new source may help explain increasing reports of perchlorate in dry region agricultural products and should be considered when evaluating overall source contributions. ?? 2007 American Chemical Society.

  13. Natural environments, obesity, and physical activity in nonmetropolitan areas of the United States.

    PubMed

    Michimi, Akihiko; Wimberly, Michael C

    2012-01-01

    To assess the associations of the natural environment with obesity and physical activity in nonmetropolitan areas of the United States among representative samples by using 2 indices of outdoor activity potential (OAP) at the county level. We used the data from 457,820 and 473,296 noninstitutionalized adults aged over 18 years for obesity and physical activity, respectively, from the 2000-2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. The OAP indices were (1) a recreational opportunity index based on 24 variables related to outdoor physical activity, such as the number of facilities available for walking, biking, hiking, and swimming derived from the 1997 National Outdoor Recreation Supply Information System; and (2) a natural amenities index which was based on physical and social environmental characteristics, such as climate, topographic relief, land cover, and tourism. We fitted logistic regression models using generalized estimating equations to control for county level intracorrelation and tested each index separately to assess its relationship with obesity and physical activity. Recreational opportunities were higher in areas with greater natural amenities. After controlling for individual-level socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, the prevalence of obesity decreased and propensity for physical activity increased with increasing levels of both recreational opportunities and natural amenities. Multiple indices of OAP based on characteristics of the built, natural and social environments were associated with decreased obesity and increased physical activity in nonmetropolitan areas. Public health interventions should consider the opportunities and limitations offered by the natural environment for promoting physical activity and reducing obesity in rural areas. © 2012 National Rural Health Association.

  14. Can we manage for resilience? The integration of resilience thinking into natural resource management in the united states

    EPA Science Inventory

    The concept of resilience is now frequently invoked by natural resource agencies in the United States. This reflects growing trends within ecology, conservation biology, and other disciplines acknowledging that social-ecological systems require management approaches recognizing ...

  15. Can we manage for resilience? The integration of resilience thinking into natural resource management in the united states

    EPA Science Inventory

    The concept of resilience is now frequently invoked by natural resource agencies in the United States. This reflects growing trends within ecology, conservation biology, and other disciplines acknowledging that social-ecological systems require management approaches recognizing ...

  16. Automated extraction of natural drainage density patterns for the conterminous United States through high performance computing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanislawski, Larry V.; Falgout, Jeff T.; Buttenfield, Barbara P.

    2015-01-01

    Hydrographic networks form an important data foundation for cartographic base mapping and for hydrologic analysis. Drainage density patterns for these networks can be derived to characterize local landscape, bedrock and climate conditions, and further inform hydrologic and geomorphological analysis by indicating areas where too few headwater channels have been extracted. But natural drainage density patterns are not consistently available in existing hydrographic data for the United States because compilation and capture criteria historically varied, along with climate, during the period of data collection over the various terrain types throughout the country. This paper demonstrates an automated workflow that is being tested in a high-performance computing environment by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to map natural drainage density patterns at the 1:24,000-scale (24K) for the conterminous United States. Hydrographic network drainage patterns may be extracted from elevation data to guide corrections for existing hydrographic network data. The paper describes three stages in this workflow including data pre-processing, natural channel extraction, and generation of drainage density patterns from extracted channels. The workflow is concurrently implemented by executing procedures on multiple subbasin watersheds within the U.S. National Hydrography Dataset (NHD). Pre-processing defines parameters that are needed for the extraction process. Extraction proceeds in standard fashion: filling sinks, developing flow direction and weighted flow accumulation rasters. Drainage channels with assigned Strahler stream order are extracted within a subbasin and simplified. Drainage density patterns are then estimated with 100-meter resolution and subsequently smoothed with a low-pass filter. The extraction process is found to be of better quality in higher slope terrains. Concurrent processing through the high performance computing environment is shown to facilitate and refine

  17. Evolvability Is an Evolved Ability: The Coding Concept as the Arch-Unit of Natural Selection.

    PubMed

    Janković, Srdja; Ćirković, Milan M

    2016-03-01

    Physical processes that characterize living matter are qualitatively distinct in that they involve encoding and transfer of specific types of information. Such information plays an active part in the control of events that are ultimately linked to the capacity of the system to persist and multiply. This algorithmicity of life is a key prerequisite for its Darwinian evolution, driven by natural selection acting upon stochastically arising variations of the encoded information. The concept of evolvability attempts to define the total capacity of a system to evolve new encoded traits under appropriate conditions, i.e., the accessible section of total morphological space. Since this is dependent on previously evolved regulatory networks that govern information flow in the system, evolvability itself may be regarded as an evolved ability. The way information is physically written, read and modified in living cells (the "coding concept") has not changed substantially during the whole history of the Earth's biosphere. This biosphere, be it alone or one of many, is, accordingly, itself a product of natural selection, since the overall evolvability conferred by its coding concept (nucleic acids as information carriers with the "rulebook of meanings" provided by codons, as well as all the subsystems that regulate various conditional information-reading modes) certainly played a key role in enabling this biosphere to survive up to the present, through alterations of planetary conditions, including at least five catastrophic events linked to major mass extinctions. We submit that, whatever the actual prebiotic physical and chemical processes may have been on our home planet, or may, in principle, occur at some time and place in the Universe, a particular coding concept, with its respective potential to give rise to a biosphere, or class of biospheres, of a certain evolvability, may itself be regarded as a unit (indeed the arch-unit) of natural selection.

  18. Evolvability Is an Evolved Ability: The Coding Concept as the Arch-Unit of Natural Selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janković, Srdja; Ćirković, Milan M.

    2016-03-01

    Physical processes that characterize living matter are qualitatively distinct in that they involve encoding and transfer of specific types of information. Such information plays an active part in the control of events that are ultimately linked to the capacity of the system to persist and multiply. This algorithmicity of life is a key prerequisite for its Darwinian evolution, driven by natural selection acting upon stochastically arising variations of the encoded information. The concept of evolvability attempts to define the total capacity of a system to evolve new encoded traits under appropriate conditions, i.e., the accessible section of total morphological space. Since this is dependent on previously evolved regulatory networks that govern information flow in the system, evolvability itself may be regarded as an evolved ability. The way information is physically written, read and modified in living cells (the "coding concept") has not changed substantially during the whole history of the Earth's biosphere. This biosphere, be it alone or one of many, is, accordingly, itself a product of natural selection, since the overall evolvability conferred by its coding concept (nucleic acids as information carriers with the "rulebook of meanings" provided by codons, as well as all the subsystems that regulate various conditional information-reading modes) certainly played a key role in enabling this biosphere to survive up to the present, through alterations of planetary conditions, including at least five catastrophic events linked to major mass extinctions. We submit that, whatever the actual prebiotic physical and chemical processes may have been on our home planet, or may, in principle, occur at some time and place in the Universe, a particular coding concept, with its respective potential to give rise to a biosphere, or class of biospheres, of a certain evolvability, may itself be regarded as a unit (indeed the arch-unit) of natural selection.

  19. Overview of deaths associated with natural events, United States, 1979-2004.

    PubMed

    Thacker, Maria T F; Lee, Robin; Sabogal, Raquel I; Henderson, Alden

    2008-06-01

    Analysis of the National Center for Health Statistics' Compressed Mortality File showed that between 1979 and 2004, natural events caused 21,491 deaths in the United States. During this 26-year period, there were 10,827 cold-related deaths and 5,279 heat-related deaths. Extreme cold or heat accounted for 75 per cent of the total number of deaths attributed to natural events--more than all of deaths resulting from lightning, storms and foods, and earth movements, such as earthquakes and landslides. Cold-related death rates were highest in the states of Alaska, Montana, New Mexico, and South Dakota, while heat-related deaths were highest in the states of Arizona, Missouri, and Arkansas. These deaths occurred more often among the elderly and black men. Other deaths were attributed to lightning (1,906), storms and foods (2,741), and earth movements (738). Most deaths associated with natural events are preventable and society can take action to decrease the morbidity and mortality connected with them.

  20. Natural Convection Cooling of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Engineering Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Edward J.; Hill, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    After fueling and prior to launch, the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) will be stored for a period of time then moved to the launch pad for integration with the space probe and mounting on the launch vehicle. During this time, which could be as long as 3 years, the ASRG will operate continuously with heat rejected from the housing and fins. Typically, the generator will be cooled by forced convection using fans. During some of the ground operations, maintaining forced convection may add significant complexity, so allowing natural convection may simplify operations. A test was conducted on the ASRG Engineering Unit (EU) to quantify temperatures and operating parameters with natural convection only and determine if the EU could be safely operated in such an environment. The results show that with natural convection cooling the ASRG EU Stirling convertor pressure vessel temperatures and other parameters had significant margins while the EU was operated for several days in this configuration. Additionally, an update is provided on ASRG EU testing at NASA Glenn Research Center, where the ASRG EU has operated for over 16,000 hr and underwent extensive testing.

  1. Nature as capital: Advancing and incorporating ecosystem services in United States federal policies and programs

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Mark; Goldman, Erica; Bartuska, Ann M.; Sutton-Grier, Ariana; Lubchenco, Jane

    2015-01-01

    The concept of nature as capital is gaining visibility in policies and practices in both the public and private sectors. This change is due to an improved ability to assess and value ecosystem services, as well as to a growing recognition of the potential of an ecosystem services approach to make tradeoffs in decision making more transparent, inform efficient use of resources, enhance resilience and sustainability, and avoid unintended negative consequences of policy actions. Globally, governments, financial institutions, and corporations have begun to incorporate natural capital accounting in their policies and practices. In the United States, universities, nongovernmental organizations, and federal agencies are actively collaborating to develop and apply ecosystem services concepts to further national environmental and economic objectives. Numerous federal agencies have begun incorporating these concepts into land use planning, water resources management, and preparations for, and responses to, climate change. Going forward, well-defined policy direction will be necessary to institutionalize ecosystem services approaches in federal agencies, as well as to guide intersector and interdisciplinary collaborative research and development efforts. In addition, a new generation of decision support tools are needed to further the practical application of ecosystem services principles in policymaking and commercial activities. Improved performance metrics are needed, as are mechanisms to monitor the status of ecosystem services and assess the environmental and economic impacts of policies and programs. A greater national and international financial commitment to advancing ecosystem services and natural capital accounting would likely have broad, long-term economic and environmental benefits. PMID:26082544

  2. Nature as capital: Advancing and incorporating ecosystem services in United States federal policies and programs.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Mark; Goldman, Erica; Bartuska, Ann M; Sutton-Grier, Ariana; Lubchenco, Jane

    2015-06-16

    The concept of nature as capital is gaining visibility in policies and practices in both the public and private sectors. This change is due to an improved ability to assess and value ecosystem services, as well as to a growing recognition of the potential of an ecosystem services approach to make tradeoffs in decision making more transparent, inform efficient use of resources, enhance resilience and sustainability, and avoid unintended negative consequences of policy actions. Globally, governments, financial institutions, and corporations have begun to incorporate natural capital accounting in their policies and practices. In the United States, universities, nongovernmental organizations, and federal agencies are actively collaborating to develop and apply ecosystem services concepts to further national environmental and economic objectives. Numerous federal agencies have begun incorporating these concepts into land use planning, water resources management, and preparations for, and responses to, climate change. Going forward, well-defined policy direction will be necessary to institutionalize ecosystem services approaches in federal agencies, as well as to guide intersector and interdisciplinary collaborative research and development efforts. In addition, a new generation of decision support tools are needed to further the practical application of ecosystem services principles in policymaking and commercial activities. Improved performance metrics are needed, as are mechanisms to monitor the status of ecosystem services and assess the environmental and economic impacts of policies and programs. A greater national and international financial commitment to advancing ecosystem services and natural capital accounting would likely have broad, long-term economic and environmental benefits.

  3. Changes Observed in Views of Nature of Science During a Historically Based Unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudge, David Wÿss; Cassidy, David Paul; Fulford, Janice Marie; Howe, Eric Michael

    2014-09-01

    Numerous empirical studies have provided evidence of the effectiveness of an explicit and reflective approach to the learning of issues associated with the nature of science (NOS) (c.f. Abd-El-Khalick and Lederman in J Res Sci Teach 37(10):1057-1095, 2000). This essay reports the results of a mixed-methods association study involving 130 preservice teachers during the course of a three class unit based upon the history of science using such an approach. Within the unit the phenomenon of industrial melanism was presented as a puzzle for students to solve. Students were explicitly asked to reflect upon several NOS issues as they developed and tested their own explanations for the "mystery phenomenon". NOS views of all participants were characterized by means of surveys and follow-up interviews with a subsample of 17 participants, using a modified version of the VNOS protocol (c.f. Lederman et al. in J Res Sci Teach 39(6):497-521, 2002). An analysis of the survey results informed by the interview data suggests NOS views became more sophisticated for some issues, e.g., whether scientific knowledge requires experimentation; but not others, e.g., why scientists experiment. An examination of the interview data informed by our experiences with the unit provides insight into why the unit may have been more effective with regard to some issues than others. This includes evidence that greater sophistication of some NOS issues was fostered by the use of multiple, contextualized examples. The essay concludes with a discussion of limitations, pedagogical implications, and avenues for further research.

  4. A Research-Informed Instructional Unit to Teach the Nature of Science to Pre-Service Science Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aduriz-Bravo, Agustin; Izquierdo-Aymerich, Merce

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the foundations and process of design of a research-informed instructional unit aimed for pre-service science teacher education. The unit covers some key ideas on the nature of science (around methodology, theory change, scientific inference and explanation, values, gender issues) anchoring them in a well-known episode…

  5. A Research-Informed Instructional Unit to Teach the Nature of Science to Pre-Service Science Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aduriz-Bravo, Agustin; Izquierdo-Aymerich, Merce

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the foundations and process of design of a research-informed instructional unit aimed for pre-service science teacher education. The unit covers some key ideas on the nature of science (around methodology, theory change, scientific inference and explanation, values, gender issues) anchoring them in a well-known episode…

  6. Wildland fire use: the dilemma of managing and restoring natural fire and fuels in United States wilderness

    Treesearch

    David J. Parsons; Peter B. Landres; Carol Miller

    2003-01-01

    The management of natural fire and fuels in wilderness areas of the United States presents a significant dilemma to federal land managers.Wilderness fire management requires balancing mandates to both preserve natural conditions and minimize the impacts of human activities.It also requires consideration of ecological and social values both within and outside of...

  7. Evaluation of concrete masonry unit walls for lateral natural phenomena hazards loads

    SciTech Connect

    Faires, W.E. Jr.

    1996-03-08

    Older single-story facilities (Pre-1985 vintage) are commonly constructed of structural steel framing with concrete masonry unit (CMU) walls connected to columns and roof girders of the steel framing system. The CMU walls are designed for lateral wind and seismic loads (perpendicular to the wall) and transmit shear loads from the roof diaphragm to the foundation footings. The lateral loads normally govern their design. The structural framing system and the roof diaphragm system are straight forward when analyzing or upgrading the structure for NPH loads. Because of a buildings design vintage, probable use of empirical methodology, and poor design basis documentation (and record retention); it is difficult to qualify or upgrade CMU walls for lateral Natural Phenomena Hazards (NPH) loads in accordance with References 1, 2 and 3. This paper discusses three analytical approaches and/or techniques (empirical, working stress and yield line) to determine the collapse capacity of a laterally loaded CMU wall, and compares their results

  8. Plague metapopulation dynamics in a natural reservoir: the burrow system as the unit of study.

    PubMed

    Davis, S; Klassovskiy, N; Ageyev, V; Suleimenov, B; Atshabar, B; Klassovskaya, A; Bennett, M; Leirs, H; Begon, M

    2007-07-01

    The ecology of plague (Yersinia pestis infection) in its ancient foci in Central Asia remains poorly understood. We present field data from two sites in Kazakhstan where the great gerbil (Rhombomys opimus) is the major natural host. Family groups inhabit and defend burrow systems spaced throughout the landscape, such that the host population may be considered a metapopulation, with each occupied burrow system a subpopulation. We examine plague transmission within and between family groups and its effect on survival. Transmission of plague occurred disproportionately within family groups although not all gerbils became infected once plague entered a burrow system. There were no spatial patterns to suggest that family groups in close proximity to infected burrow systems were more at risk of infection than those far away. At one site, infection increased the chances of burrow-system extinction. Overall, it is useful to consider the burrow system as the unit of study within a much larger metapopulation.

  9. A comparison of hydrocarbon gases from natural sources in the northwestern United States

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenson, T.D.; Kvenvolden, K.A. )

    1993-01-01

    The northwestern United States hosts a remarkable quantity and variety of thermal springs, seeps, and other natural-gas sources. Although many studies have dealt with the liquids and nonhydrocarbon gases emanating from these sources, few have focused on hydrocarbon gases. Of these gases, methane in particular is now recognized as an important reactive trace gas in the Earth's atmosphere that plays a significant role in global warming because of its greenhouse properties. To understand better the magnitude and occurrence of emissions of hydrocarbons from natural sources to the atmosphere, we have begun a survey of these gases throughout the northwestern United States. This area encompasses a number of different tectonic provinces: The Yellowstone hot spot, the northern Basin and Range Province, the Cascade volcanic arc, and the Cascadia subduction complex. Each province hosts springs and seeps with some unique compositions owing to the geological processes operating there. Methane is present in each area at concentration levels ranging from about 2 parts per million by volume (ppm-v) to 95.6 percent (by volume). Hydrothermal activity in the Yellowstone area produces spring gases containing less than 4 percent methane, with carbon dioxide as the balance gas. The Grand Teton National Park area, immediately to the south, has a wide variety of gas compositions with either methane, carbon dioxide, or nitrogen as the primary gas component. Where methane is abundant, higher molecular weight hydrocarbon gases (ethane, ethene, propane, propene, isobutane, and n-butane) are also found in ppm-v concentrations. In the northern Great Basin, thermal springs and seeps typically occur along fault zones at the base of mountain ranges. Methane concentrations range from 0.2 to 47 percent, with higher molecular weight hydrocarbon concentrations from 0 to 3,100 ppm-v. 47 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. EnviroAtlas - Biological nitrogen fixation in natural/semi-natural ecosystems by 12-digit HUC for the Conterminous United States, 2006

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This EnviroAtlas dataset contains data on the mean biological nitrogen fixation in natural/semi-natural ecosystems per 12-digit Hydrologic Unit (HUC) in 2006. Biological N fixation (BNF) in natural/semi-natural ecosystems was estimated using a correlation with actual evapotranspiration (AET). This correlation is based on a global meta-analysis of BNF in natural/semi-natural ecosystems (Cleveland et al. 1999). AET estimates for 2006 were calculated using a regression equation describing the correlation of AET with climate (average annual daily temperature, average annual minimum daily temperature, average annual maximum daily temperature, and annual precipitation) and land use/land cover variables in the conterminous US (Sanford and Selnick 2013). Data describing annual average minimum and maximum daily temperatures and total precipitation for 2006 were acquired from the PRISM climate dataset (http://prism.oregonstate.edu). Average annual climate data were then calculated for individual 12-digit USGS Hydrologic Unit Codes (HUC12s; http://water.usgs.gov/GIS/huc.html; 22 March 2011 release) using the Zonal Statistics tool in ArcMap 10.0. AET for individual HUC12s was estimated using equations described in Sanford and Selnick (2013). BNF in natural/semi-natural ecosystems within individual HUC12s was modeled with an equation describing the statistical relationship between BNF (kg N ha-1 yr-1) and actual evapotranspiration (AET; cm yr-1) and scaled to the proportion

  11. Analyzing the Natural Spatial Organization of Morphological Unit Landforms in the Lower Yuba River, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyrick, J. R.; Pasternack, G. B.; Bratovich, P.; Johnson, T.; Massa, D.

    2011-12-01

    A common practice in geomorphology involves delineating channel features at a specific scale and then characterizing their attributes, including hydraulics. Morphological units (MU) represent distinct local form-process associations at ~1-10 W scale that, once identified, are independent of the flow regime and can be used as the basic unit for stratifying other hydrodynamic and ecohydraulic characteristics of the river. However, most definitions of riverine landform patterns at the MU scale are subjective by nature, because no framework for objective delineation of landforms based purely on topography exists yet. They also do not account for lateral variability in MUs across the channel. This research addressed two questions: (1) can 2D (depth-averaged) hydrodynamic model results be used for identifying and classifying spatially distributed MUs at the sub-width spatial scale and (2) can such identified MUs have statistically significant spatial associations amongst themselves at the river and reach scales. A high-resolution digital elevation model of the ~25-mi Lower Yuba River, CA (LYR) was used along with hydrological observations to perform 3-ft resolution 2D modeling using SRH-2D. Depth and velocity outputs for different flows were then converted to rasters and used to characterize and classify MUs below the perennial minimum flow stage, between that and the bankfull stage, and above bankfull. At this scale of MU mapping, the in-channel units (riffle, glide, pool, run, chute, riffle transition, slackwater), bankfull bar units (lateral bar, medial bar, point bar, swale, hillside/bedrock), and off-channel units (floodplain, terrace, pond, tributary, cutbank) were identified across seven distinct reaches of the river segment. Statistical testing confirmed that the delineated MUs are spatially organized in a coherent, non-random pattern. Pools dominate in the confined reaches, while glides and riffles dominate in the wider, meandering reaches. Longitudinally, pools

  12. Natural background concentrations of nutrients in streams and rivers of the conterminous United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, R.A.; Alexander, R.B.; Schwarz, G.E.

    2003-01-01

    Determining natural background concentrations of nutrients in watersheds in the developed world has been hampered by a lack of pristine sampling sites covering a range of climatic conditions and basin sizes. Using data from 63 minimally impacted U.S. Geological Survey reference basins, we developed empirical models of the background yield of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) from small watersheds as functions of annual runoff, basin size, atmospheric nitrogen deposition rate, and region-specific factors. We applied previously estimated in-stream loss rates to yields from the small watershed models to obtain estimates of background TN and TP yield and concentration throughout the stream/river network in 14 ecoregions of the conterminous United States. Background TN concentration varies from less than 0.02 mg L-1 in the xeric west to more than 0.5 mg L-1 along the southeastern coastal plain. Background TP concentration varies from less than 0.006 mg L-1 in the xeric west to more than 0.08 mg L-1 in the great plains. TN concentrations in U.S. streams and rivers currently exceed natural background levels by a much larger factor (6.4) than do TP concentrations (2.0). Because of local variation in runoff and other factors, the range of background nutrient concentrations is very large within some nutrient ecoregions. It is likely that background concentrations in some streams in these regions exceed proposed nutrient criteria.

  13. Measurements of methane emissions at natural gas production sites in the United States.

    PubMed

    Allen, David T; Torres, Vincent M; Thomas, James; Sullivan, David W; Harrison, Matthew; Hendler, Al; Herndon, Scott C; Kolb, Charles E; Fraser, Matthew P; Hill, A Daniel; Lamb, Brian K; Miskimins, Jennifer; Sawyer, Robert F; Seinfeld, John H

    2013-10-29

    Engineering estimates of methane emissions from natural gas production have led to varied projections of national emissions. This work reports direct measurements of methane emissions at 190 onshore natural gas sites in the United States (150 production sites, 27 well completion flowbacks, 9 well unloadings, and 4 workovers). For well completion flowbacks, which clear fractured wells of liquid to allow gas production, methane emissions ranged from 0.01 Mg to 17 Mg (mean = 1.7 Mg; 95% confidence bounds of 0.67-3.3 Mg), compared with an average of 81 Mg per event in the 2011 EPA national emission inventory from April 2013. Emission factors for pneumatic pumps and controllers as well as equipment leaks were both comparable to and higher than estimates in the national inventory. Overall, if emission factors from this work for completion flowbacks, equipment leaks, and pneumatic pumps and controllers are assumed to be representative of national populations and are used to estimate national emissions, total annual emissions from these source categories are calculated to be 957 Gg of methane (with sampling and measurement uncertainties estimated at ± 200 Gg). The estimate for comparable source categories in the EPA national inventory is ~1,200 Gg. Additional measurements of unloadings and workovers are needed to produce national emission estimates for these source categories. The 957 Gg in emissions for completion flowbacks, pneumatics, and equipment leaks, coupled with EPA national inventory estimates for other categories, leads to an estimated 2,300 Gg of methane emissions from natural gas production (0.42% of gross gas production).

  14. Methane Emissions from the Natural Gas Transmission and Storage System in the United States.

    PubMed

    Zimmerle, Daniel J; Williams, Laurie L; Vaughn, Timothy L; Quinn, Casey; Subramanian, R; Duggan, Gerald P; Willson, Bryan; Opsomer, Jean D; Marchese, Anthony J; Martinez, David M; Robinson, Allen L

    2015-08-04

    The recent growth in production and utilization of natural gas offers potential climate benefits, but those benefits depend on lifecycle emissions of methane, the primary component of natural gas and a potent greenhouse gas. This study estimates methane emissions from the transmission and storage (T&S) sector of the United States natural gas industry using new data collected during 2012, including 2,292 onsite measurements, additional emissions data from 677 facilities and activity data from 922 facilities. The largest emission sources were fugitive emissions from certain compressor-related equipment and "super-emitter" facilities. We estimate total methane emissions from the T&S sector at 1,503 [1,220 to 1,950] Gg/yr (95% confidence interval) compared to the 2012 Environmental Protection Agency's Greenhouse Gas Inventory (GHGI) estimate of 2,071 [1,680 to 2,690] Gg/yr. While the overlap in confidence intervals indicates that the difference is not statistically significant, this is the result of several significant, but offsetting, factors. Factors which reduce the study estimate include a lower estimated facility count, a shift away from engines toward lower-emitting turbine and electric compressor drivers, and reductions in the usage of gas-driven pneumatic devices. Factors that increase the study estimate relative to the GHGI include updated emission rates in certain emission categories and explicit treatment of skewed emissions at both component and facility levels. For T&S stations that are required to report to the EPA's Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program (GHGRP), this study estimates total emissions to be 260% [215% to 330%] of the reportable emissions for these stations, primarily due to the inclusion of emission sources that are not reported under the GHGRP rules, updated emission factors, and super-emitter emissions.

  15. Measurements of methane emissions at natural gas production sites in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Allen, David T.; Torres, Vincent M.; Thomas, James; Sullivan, David W.; Harrison, Matthew; Hendler, Al; Herndon, Scott C.; Kolb, Charles E.; Fraser, Matthew P.; Hill, A. Daniel; Lamb, Brian K.; Miskimins, Jennifer; Sawyer, Robert F.; Seinfeld, John H.

    2013-01-01

    Engineering estimates of methane emissions from natural gas production have led to varied projections of national emissions. This work reports direct measurements of methane emissions at 190 onshore natural gas sites in the United States (150 production sites, 27 well completion flowbacks, 9 well unloadings, and 4 workovers). For well completion flowbacks, which clear fractured wells of liquid to allow gas production, methane emissions ranged from 0.01 Mg to 17 Mg (mean = 1.7 Mg; 95% confidence bounds of 0.67–3.3 Mg), compared with an average of 81 Mg per event in the 2011 EPA national emission inventory from April 2013. Emission factors for pneumatic pumps and controllers as well as equipment leaks were both comparable to and higher than estimates in the national inventory. Overall, if emission factors from this work for completion flowbacks, equipment leaks, and pneumatic pumps and controllers are assumed to be representative of national populations and are used to estimate national emissions, total annual emissions from these source categories are calculated to be 957 Gg of methane (with sampling and measurement uncertainties estimated at ±200 Gg). The estimate for comparable source categories in the EPA national inventory is ∼1,200 Gg. Additional measurements of unloadings and workovers are needed to produce national emission estimates for these source categories. The 957 Gg in emissions for completion flowbacks, pneumatics, and equipment leaks, coupled with EPA national inventory estimates for other categories, leads to an estimated 2,300 Gg of methane emissions from natural gas production (0.42% of gross gas production). PMID:24043804

  16. Feasibility and Costs of Natural Gas as a Bridge to Deep Decarbonization in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A. D.; McJeon, H. C.; Muratori, M.; Shi, W.

    2015-12-01

    Achieving emissions reductions consistent with a 2 degree Celsius global warming target requires nearly complete replacement of traditional fossil fuel combustion with near-zero carbon energy technologies in the United States by 2050. There are multiple technological change pathways consistent with this deep decarbonization, including strategies that rely on renewable energy, nuclear, and carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies. The replacement of coal-fired power plants with natural gas-fired power plants has also been suggested as a bridge strategy to achieve near-term emissions reduction targets. These gas plants, however, would need to be replaced by near-zero energy technologies or retrofitted with CCS by 2050 in order to achieve longer-term targets. Here we examine the costs and feasibility of a natural gas bridge strategy. Using the Global Change Assessment (GCAM) model, we develop multiple scenarios that each meet the recent US Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) to reduce GHG emissions by 26%-28% below its 2005 levels in 2025, as well as a deep decarbonization target of 80% emissions reductions below 1990 levels by 2050. We find that the gas bridge strategy requires that gas plants be retired on average 20 years earlier than their designed lifetime of 45 years, a potentially challenging outcome to achieve from a policy perspective. Using a more idealized model, we examine the net energy system costs of this gas bridge strategy compared to one in which near-zero energy technologies are deployed in the near tem. We explore the sensitivity of these cost results to four factors: the discount rate applied to future costs, the length (or start year) of the gas bridge, the relative capital cost of natural gas vs. near-zero energy technology, and the fuel price of natural gas. The discount rate and cost factors are found to be more important than the length of the bridge. However, we find an important interaction as well. At low discount rates

  17. The Nature and Requirements of Work in University-Based Telehealth Units: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seale, Deborah E.

    2013-01-01

    Telehealth units are one of many university administrative units created to foster innovation in universities over the last 40 years. Despite the proliferation of such units, few organizational studies have examined the work undertaken inside of these units. This qualitative study used a sequential two-part research design to understand the…

  18. The Nature and Requirements of Work in University-Based Telehealth Units: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seale, Deborah E.

    2013-01-01

    Telehealth units are one of many university administrative units created to foster innovation in universities over the last 40 years. Despite the proliferation of such units, few organizational studies have examined the work undertaken inside of these units. This qualitative study used a sequential two-part research design to understand the…

  19. Mapping Natural Terroir Units using a multivariate approach and legacy data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priori, Simone; Barbetti, Roberto; L'Abate, Giovanni; Bucelli, Piero; Storchi, Paolo; Costantini, Edoardo A. C.

    2014-05-01

    Natural Terroir Unit (NTU) is a volume of earth's biosphere that is characterized by a stable set of variables related to the topography, climate, geology and soil. Methods to study the association soil-climate-vines are numerous, but the main question is always: which variables are actually important for the quality and the typicality of grapevines, and then wine, for a particular scale? This work aimed to setting up a multivariate methodology to define viticultural terroirs at the province scale (1:125,000), using viticultural and oenological legacy data. The study area was the Siena province in the Tuscany region (Central Italy). The reference grapevine cultivar was "Sangiovese", which is the most important cultivar of the region. The methodology was based upon the creation of a GIS storing several viticultural and oenological legacy data of 55 experimental vineyards (vintages between 1989-2009), the long term climate data, the digital elevation model, the soil-landscapes (land systems) and the soil profiles with the soil analysis. The selected viticultural and oenological parameters were: must sugar content, sugar accumulation rate from veraison to harvest, must titratable acidity, grape yield per vine, number of bunches for vine, mean bunch weight, and mean weight of berries. The environmental parameters related to viticulture, selected by an explorative PCA, were: elevation, mean annual temperature, mean soil temperature, annual precipitation, clay, sand and gravel content of soils, soil water availability, redoximorphic features and rooting depth. The geostatistical models of the variables interpolation were chosen on the best of mean standardize error, obtained by the cross-validation, between "Simple cokriging with varying local mean", "Multicollocated simple cokriging with varying local mean" and "Regression kriging". These variables were used for a k-means clustering aimed to map the Natural Terroirs Units (NTUs). The viticultural areas of Siena province

  20. Neuron unit arrays and Nature/Nurture adaptation for photonic multichip modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lue, Jaw-Chyng Lormen

    To implement a previously proposed 3-D hybrid electronic/photonic multichip module (PMCM) (mimicking a primate retina structure) capable of low-latency, high-throughput, parallel-processing computations, several critical hardware components are designed, fabricated, and tested. All components are made of MOSIS 1.5 mum n-well BiCMOS (bipolar complimentary metal oxide silicon) fabrication process. A 12-by-12 dual-input, dual-output silicon neuron unit array chip has been fabricated, and characterized. A desired sigmoid-shape optical output from a vertical surface emitting laser (VCSEL) driven by this chip (with a linear-optical-input) was obtained. A logarithmic amplifier circuitry has been fabricated, and characterized. The dynamic range of its sensed brightness is multiple decades wide. This bipolar-based circuit's high sensitivity at low input signal range can improve the overall optical responsivity of the PMCM if it is integrated. A floating gate design is verified to be a good candidate for the long-term analog weight storage. The floating gate controlled channel resistance can represent the lateral weighted interconnection in the PMCM. A preliminary active pixel sensor design is also characterized, and evaluated for weight storage. Physical constraints, trade-offs, and relationships among the components for optimizing the performance of the PMCM are discussed. Software-wise, an artificial neural learning algorithm (Nature/Nurture algorithm) is developed for modeling the PMCM. This algorithm describes the weight updating rules for both the vertical fixed (nature-like) and the lateral adaptive (nurture-like) weighted interconnections in the PMCM. The learning algorithm for the lateral weight adaptations is new, and derived based on the multi-layer error back-propagation (BP) supervised learning algorithm using gradient descent method. Results from a simple optical character recognition (OCR) simulation show: (1) A PMCM with only one hidden neuron layer is

  1. Age, growth and natural mortality of coney (Cephalopholis fulva) from the southeastern United States

    PubMed Central

    Potts, Jennifer C.; Carr, Daniel R.

    2015-01-01

    Coney (Cephalopholis fulva) sampled from recreational and commercial vessels along the southeastern coast of the United States in 1998–2013 (n = 353) were aged by counting opaque bands on sectioned sagittal otoliths. Analysis of otolith edge type (opaque or translucent) revealed that annuli formed in January–June with a peak in April. Coney were aged up to 19 years, and the largest fish measured 430 mm in total length (TL). The weight-length relationship was ln(W) = 3.03 × ln(TL) − 18.05 (n = 487; coefficient of determination [r2] = 0.91), where W = whole weight in kilograms and and TL = total length in millimeters. Mean observed sizes at ages 1, 3, 5, 10, and 19 years were 225, 273, 307, 338, and 400 mm TL, respectively. The von Bertalanffy growth equation for coney was Lt = 377 (1 − e(−0.20(t+3.53))). Natural mortality (M) estimated by Hewitt and Hoenig’s longevity-based method which integrates all ages was 0.22. Age-specific M values, estimated with the method of Charnov and others, were 0.40, 0.30, 0.26, 0.22, and 0.20 for ages 1, 3, 5, 10, and 19, respectively. PMID:25802801

  2. Unconventional natural gas development and human health: thoughts from the United States.

    PubMed

    Finkel, Madelon L; Hays, Jake; Law, Adam

    2015-10-05

    If unconventional gas development (UGD) continues to expand in Australia, the potential health and environmental impacts should be adequately addressed and preventive public health measures should be implemented. The United States has embraced UGD and has decades of experience that could be beneficial to Australia as stakeholders debate the potential benefits and harms of the technique. Additional research on the health impacts of UGD is necessary. Baseline and trend morbidity and mortality data need to be collected to assess changes in population health over time. To date, few health or epidemiological studies have been conducted, so it remains difficult to assess actual health outcomes. In the absence of scientific consensus, there are two possible risks: failing to develop unconventional natural gas when the harms are manageable; or developing it when the harms are substantial. Many government bodies around the world have chosen to minimise the risk of the latter until the impacts of UGD are better understood. Policies should be informed by empirical evidence based on actual experience rather than assurance of best practices. There is a strong rationale for precautionary measures based on the health and environmental risks identified in the scientific literature.

  3. Age, growth, and natural mortality of yellowfin grouper (Mycteroperca venenosa) from the southeastern United States

    PubMed Central

    Potts, Jennifer C.; Carr, Daniel R.

    2015-01-01

    Ages of yellowfin grouper (n = 306) from the southeastern United States coast from 1979–2014 were determined using sectioned sagittal otoliths. Opaque zones were annular, forming January–June (peaking in February–March). Yellowfin grouper ranged in age from 3 to 31 years; the largest fish measured 1,000 mm fork length (FL). Body size relationships for yellowfin grouper were: W = 1.22 × 10−5 FL3.03 (n = 229, r2 = 0.92); TL = 1.06 FL − 14.53 (n = 60, r2 = 0.99); and FL = 0.93 TL + 18.63 (n = 60, r2 = 0.99), where W = whole weight in grams, FL in mm, and TL = total length in mm. The von Bertalanffy growth equation was: Lt = 958 (1 − e−0.11(t+2.94)) (n = 306). The point estimate of natural mortality for yellowfin grouper was M = 0.14, while age-specific estimates of M ranged from 1.59 to 0.17 for ages 1–31. PMID:26244111

  4. Electrochemical treatment of skim serum effluent from natural rubber latex centrifuging units.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Vimalamma T; Radhakrishnan Nair, N; Madhu, G

    2009-08-15

    Electrochemical treatment of raw and anaerobically treated skim serum effluent from natural rubber latex centrifuging units was investigated using different electrodes like aluminium, stainless steel, mild steel, and cast iron in the presence of chloride ions. Experimental results were assessed in terms of the removal of COD, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), TKN, ammoniacal nitrogen, turbidity, sulphides and phosphates. The effect of operating factors such as supporting electrolyte, duration of electrolysis, pH, concentration of effluent and the presence of Fenton's reagent as chemical oxidant were studied. The influence of these factors on the biochemical constituents and population of total bacteria were also investigated. Aluminium anode was found to be more effective to remove pollutants and maximum removal of BOD took place within 30 min of electrolysis. After electrochemical treatment phosphate removal efficiency was 99.5% and complete removal of sulphide was observed from the anaerobically treated effluent. Electrochemical treatment is effective in removing biochemical constituents and total bacteria in the presence of Fenton's reagent.

  5. Methane emissions from process equipment at natural gas production sites in the United States: liquid unloadings.

    PubMed

    Allen, David T; Sullivan, David W; Zavala-Araiza, Daniel; Pacsi, Adam P; Harrison, Matthew; Keen, Kindal; Fraser, Matthew P; Daniel Hill, A; Lamb, Brian K; Sawyer, Robert F; Seinfeld, John H

    2015-01-06

    Methane emissions from liquid unloadings were measured at 107 wells in natural gas production regions throughout the United States. Liquid unloadings clear wells of accumulated liquids to increase production, employing a variety of liquid lifting mechanisms. In this work, wells with and without plunger lifts were sampled. Most wells without plunger lifts unload less than 10 times per year with emissions averaging 21,000-35,000 scf methane (0.4-0.7 Mg) per event (95% confidence limits of 10,000-50,000 scf/event). For wells with plunger lifts, emissions averaged 1000-10,000 scf methane (0.02-0.2 Mg) per event (95% confidence limits of 500-12,000 scf/event). Some wells with plunger lifts are automatically triggered and unload thousands of times per year and these wells account for the majority of the emissions from all wells with liquid unloadings. If the data collected in this work are assumed to be representative of national populations, the data suggest that the central estimate of emissions from unloadings (270 Gg/yr, 95% confidence range of 190-400 Gg) are within a few percent of the emissions estimated in the EPA 2012 Greenhouse Gas National Emission Inventory (released in 2014), with emissions dominated by wells with high frequencies of unloadings.

  6. The age and symptomatology of natural menopause among United Arab Emirates women.

    PubMed

    Rizk, D E; Bener, A; Ezimokhai, M; Hassan, M Y; Micallef, R

    1998-06-17

    A population-based survey of 742 United Arab Emirates women aged 40 years and over who had attained natural menopause (amenorrhea of at least 6 months' duration) investigated age at onset and the prevalence of climacteric symptoms. Women from both urban and rural areas of Al-Ain City and Abu Dhabi, Dubai, and Sharjah Emirates were recruited through use of the multi-stage stratified cluster sampling technique. The median age at menopause in this sample was 48 years (mean, 47.3 +or- 3.29 years; range, 40-59 years)--significantly lower than the 50.3 year mean recorded among Western women. Median age at menopause was significantly associated with that of the mother (p 0.001) and older sister (p 0.001), parity (p 0.0001), and a history of use of oral contraceptives for more than 1 year (p 0.001). 394 women (53%) reported at least one climacteric symptom. Most common were hot flushes, reported by 47% of women. 145 women (19.5%) were currently taking hormone replacement therapy. The relatively low age at menopause in this population could reflect additional social, economic, environmental, or genetic factors that were not explored in this study.

  7. Methane emissions from process equipment at natural gas production sites in the United States: pneumatic controllers.

    PubMed

    Allen, David T; Pacsi, Adam P; Sullivan, David W; Zavala-Araiza, Daniel; Harrison, Matthew; Keen, Kindal; Fraser, Matthew P; Daniel Hill, A; Sawyer, Robert F; Seinfeld, John H

    2015-01-06

    Emissions from 377 gas actuated (pneumatic) controllers were measured at natural gas production sites and a small number of oil production sites, throughout the United States. A small subset of the devices (19%), with whole gas emission rates in excess of 6 standard cubic feet per hour (scf/h), accounted for 95% of emissions. More than half of the controllers recorded emissions of 0.001 scf/h or less during 15 min of measurement. Pneumatic controllers in level control applications on separators and in compressor applications had higher emission rates than controllers in other types of applications. Regional differences in emissions were observed, with the lowest emissions measured in the Rocky Mountains and the highest emissions in the Gulf Coast. Average methane emissions per controller reported in this work are 17% higher than the average emissions per controller in the 2012 EPA greenhouse gas national emission inventory (2012 GHG NEI, released in 2014); the average of 2.7 controllers per well observed in this work is higher than the 1.0 controllers per well reported in the 2012 GHG NEI.

  8. Variability of natural gas composition in select major metropolitan areas of the United States. Final report, August 1990-February 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Liss, W.E.; Thrasher, W.H.; Steinmetz, G.F.; Chowdiah, P.; Attari, A.

    1992-03-01

    The objectives of the report are to: quantify potential regional and seasonal variations in the composition and physical properties of natural gas in selected major urban areas of the United States over a one-year time period; document propane-air and liquefied natural gas peakshaving practices in the U.S.; and assess the extent to which variations in gas composition can contribute to the formation of condensates as a function of temperature and pressure.

  9. Sociocultural dimensions of supply and demand for natural aggregate; examples from the Mid-Atlantic region, United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson,, Gilpin R.; Brown, William M.

    2002-01-01

    The United States uses large quantities of natural aggregate to build and maintain a continuously expanding infrastructure. In recent years, per capita demand for aggregate in the United States has grown to about 9.7 metric tons (10.7 tons) per person per year. Over the next 25 years, the aggregate industry expects to mine quantities equivalent to all aggregate mined in the United States over the past 100 years. The issues surrounding supply and demand for aggregate in the mid-Atlantic states of Maryland, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and West Virginia illustrate competing requirements for industrial minerals and many simultaneous social and environmental objectives.

  10. Natural Vocalizations in the Mammalian Inferior Colliculus are Broadly Encoded by a Small Number of Independent Multi-Units.

    PubMed

    Lyzwa, Dominika; Herrmann, J Michael; Wörgötter, Florentin

    2015-01-01

    How complex natural sounds are represented by the main converging center of the auditory midbrain, the central inferior colliculus, is an open question. We applied neural discrimination to determine the variation of detailed encoding of individual vocalizations across the best frequency gradient of the central inferior colliculus. The analysis was based on collective responses from several neurons. These multi-unit spike trains were recorded from guinea pigs exposed to a spectrotemporally rich set of eleven species-specific vocalizations. Spike trains of disparate units from the same recording were combined in order to investigate whether groups of multi-unit clusters represent the whole set of vocalizations more reliably than only one unit, and whether temporal response correlations between them facilitate an unambiguous neural representation of the vocalizations. We found a spatial distribution of the capability to accurately encode groups of vocalizations across the best frequency gradient. Different vocalizations are optimally discriminated at different locations of the best frequency gradient. Furthermore, groups of a few multi-unit clusters yield improved discrimination over only one multi-unit cluster between all tested vocalizations. However, temporal response correlations between units do not yield better discrimination. Our study is based on a large set of units of simultaneously recorded responses from several guinea pigs and electrode insertion positions. Our findings suggest a broadly distributed code for behaviorally relevant vocalizations in the mammalian inferior colliculus. Responses from a few non-interacting units are sufficient to faithfully represent the whole set of studied vocalizations with diverse spectrotemporal properties.

  11. 8 CFR 324.5 - Former citizen of the United States whose naturalization by taking the oath is authorized by a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...: WOMEN WHO HAVE LOST UNITED STATES CITIZENSHIP BY MARRIAGE AND FORMER CITIZENS WHOSE NATURALIZATION IS AUTHORIZED BY PRIVATE LAW § 324.5 Former citizen of the United States whose naturalization by taking the oath... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Former citizen of the United States...

  12. 8 CFR 324.5 - Former citizen of the United States whose naturalization by taking the oath is authorized by a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...: WOMEN WHO HAVE LOST UNITED STATES CITIZENSHIP BY MARRIAGE AND FORMER CITIZENS WHOSE NATURALIZATION IS AUTHORIZED BY PRIVATE LAW § 324.5 Former citizen of the United States whose naturalization by taking the oath... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Former citizen of the United States...

  13. 8 CFR 324.5 - Former citizen of the United States whose naturalization by taking the oath is authorized by a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...: WOMEN WHO HAVE LOST UNITED STATES CITIZENSHIP BY MARRIAGE AND FORMER CITIZENS WHOSE NATURALIZATION IS AUTHORIZED BY PRIVATE LAW § 324.5 Former citizen of the United States whose naturalization by taking the oath... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Former citizen of the United States...

  14. 8 CFR 324.5 - Former citizen of the United States whose naturalization by taking the oath is authorized by a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...: WOMEN WHO HAVE LOST UNITED STATES CITIZENSHIP BY MARRIAGE AND FORMER CITIZENS WHOSE NATURALIZATION IS AUTHORIZED BY PRlVATE LAW § 324.5 Former citizen of the United States whose naturalization by taking the oath... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Former citizen of the United States...

  15. 8 CFR 324.5 - Former citizen of the United States whose naturalization by taking the oath is authorized by a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...: WOMEN WHO HAVE LOST UNITED STATES CITIZENSHIP BY MARRIAGE AND FORMER CITIZENS WHOSE NATURALIZATION IS AUTHORIZED BY PRIVATE LAW § 324.5 Former citizen of the United States whose naturalization by taking the oath... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Former citizen of the United States...

  16. The Changing Nature of Teaching and Unit Evaluations in Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Mahsood; Nair, Chenicheri Sid

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Teaching and unit evaluations surveys are used to assess the quality of teaching and the quality of the unit of study. An analysis of teaching and unit evaluation survey practices in Australian universities suggests significant changes. One key change discussed in the paper is the shift from voluntary to mandatory use of surveys with the…

  17. The Changing Nature of Teaching and Unit Evaluations in Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Mahsood; Nair, Chenicheri Sid

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Teaching and unit evaluations surveys are used to assess the quality of teaching and the quality of the unit of study. An analysis of teaching and unit evaluation survey practices in Australian universities suggests significant changes. One key change discussed in the paper is the shift from voluntary to mandatory use of surveys with the…

  18. A review of water and greenhouse gas impacts of unconventional natural gas development in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Arent, Doug; Logan, Jeff; Macknick, Jordan; Boyd, William; Medlock , Kenneth; O'Sullivan, Francis; Edmonds, James A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Huntington, Hill; Heath, Garvin; Statwick, Patricia M.; Bazilian, Morgan

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews recent developments in the production and use of unconventional natural gas in the United States with a focus on water and greenhouse gas emission implications. If unconventional natural gas in the U.S. is produced responsibly, transported and distributed with little leakage, and incorporated into integrated energy systems that are designed for future resiliency, it could play a significant role in realizing a more sustainable energy future; however, the increased use of natural gas as a substitute for more carbon intensive fuels will alone not substantially alter world carbon dioxide concentration projections.

  19. Understanding the Nature of Small Business. PACE Revised. Level 2. Unit 1. Research & Development Series No. 240BB1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashmore, M. Catherine; Pritz, Sandra G.

    This unit on understanding the nature of small business, the first in a series of 18 modules, is on the second level of the revised PACE (Program for Acquiring Competence in Entrepreneurship) comprehensive curriculum. Geared to advanced secondary and beginning postsecondary or adult students, the modules provide an opportunity to learn about and…

  20. Understanding the Nature of Small Business. PACE Revised. Level 1. Unit 1. Research & Development Series No. 240AB1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashmore, M. Catherine; Pritz, Sandra G.

    This lesson on the nature of small business, the first in a series of 18 units, is part of the first level of a comprehensive entrepreneurship curriculum entitled: A Program for Acquiring Competence in Entrepreneurship (PACE). (Designed for use with secondary students, the first level of PACE introduces students to the concepts involved in…

  1. Geographical, socioeconomic, and ecological determinants of exotic plant naturalization in the United States: insights and updates from improved data

    Treesearch

    Qinfeng Guo; Marcel Rejmanek; Jun Wen

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies on alien species establishment in the United States and around the world have drastically improved our understanding of the patterns of species naturalization, biological invasions, and underlying mechanisms. Meanwhile, relevant new data have been added and the data quality has significantly increased along with the consistency of related concepts and...

  2. Stereo photo series for quantifying natural fuels. Volume XII: Post-hurricane fuels in forests of the Southeast United States.

    Treesearch

    Robert E. Vihnanek; Cameron S. Balog; Clinton S. Wright; Roger D. Ottmar; Jeffrey W. Kelly

    2009-01-01

    Two series of single and stereo photographs display a range of natural conditions and fuel loadings in post-hurricane forests in the southeastern United States. Each group of photos includes inventory information summarizing vegetation composition, structure and loading, woody material loading and density by size class, forest floor loading, and various site...

  3. Acculturation via nature-based outdoor recreation: a comparison of Mexican and Chinese ethnic groups in the United States

    Treesearch

    Cassandra Y. Johnson; J. Michael Bowker; H. Ken Cordell

    2005-01-01

    This research considers acculturation by Mexican and Chinese groups in the United States and how participation in five nature-based outdoor recreation activities may be an indicator of acculturation to American society. We argue that the greater incidence of professional human capital among Chinese immigrants helps this group acculturate more quickly than Mexicans,...

  4. A look into the nature and causes of human errors in the intensive care unit*

    PubMed Central

    Donchin, Y; Gopher, D; Olin, M; Badihi, Y; Biesky, M; Sprung, C; Pizov, R; Cotev, S

    2003-01-01

    

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the nature and causes of human errors in the intensive care unit (ICU), adopting approaches proposed by human factors engineering. The basic assumption was that errors occur and follow a pattern that can be uncovered. Design: Concurrent incident study. Setting: Medical-surgical ICU of a university hospital. Measurements and main results: Two types of data were collected: errors reported by physicians and nurses immediately after an error discovery; and activity profiles based on 24-h records taken by observers with human engineering experience on a sample of patients. During the 4 months of data collection, a total of 554 human errors were reported by the medical staff. Errors were rated for severity and classified according to the body system and type of medical activity involved. There was an average of 178 activities per patient per day and an estimated number of 1.7 errors per patient per day. For the ICU as a whole, a severe or potentially detrimental error occurred on average twice a day. Physicians and nurses were about equal contributors to the number of errors, although nurses had many more activities per day. Conclusions: A significant number of dangerous human errors occur in the ICU. Many of these errors could be attributed to problems of communication between the physicians and nurses. Applying human factor engineering concepts to the study of the weak points of a specific ICU may help to reduce the number of errors. Errors should not be considered as an incurable disease, but rather as preventable phenomena. PMID:12679512

  5. Fields of dreams: Agriculture, economy and nature in Midwest United States biofuel production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillon, Sean Thomas

    This work explores the social and ecological dimensions of recent biofuel production increases in the United States (US), focusing on the case of Iowa. Biofuels are proposed to mitigate the greenhouse gas emissions that cause climate change, improve US energy security, and support rural economies. Little research has examined how increased US Midwestern biofuels production will change social and ecological outcomes at farm and regional levels or interact with broader governance processes at the nexus of agriculture, energy and environment. These broad questions guide my research: (1) How does biofuel production reconfigure agricultural practice and landscapes in Iowa? (2) What are the costs, benefits and risks of increased biofuels production as seen by farmers and rural residents, and how do these factors influence farmer decisions about agriculture and conservation practice? (3) How and with what effects are biofuels initiatives constituted as a form of environmental governance through scientific knowledge and practice and political economic dynamics? To address these questions, this research integrates both qualitative and quantitative methods, drawing on a political ecological approach complemented by agroecological analysis and theoretical insights from geographical analyses of nature-society relations. Quantitative analysis focuses on changing land use patterns in agriculture and conservation practice in Iowa. Qualitative methods include extensive interviews, participant observation, and policy and document analyses. Fieldwork focused on Northeastern Iowa to understand regional changes in agricultural and conservation practice, the renegotiated position of farmers in agriculture and biofuel production, and biofuel industry development. I find that biofuel production presents significant social and ecological challenges for rural places of production. Longstanding, unequal political economic relations in industrialized agriculture limit rural economic benefits

  6. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials in Coals and Coal Combustion Residuals in the United States.

    PubMed

    Lauer, Nancy E; Hower, James C; Hsu-Kim, Heileen; Taggart, Ross K; Vengosh, Avner

    2015-09-15

    The distribution and enrichment of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in coal combustion residuals (CCRs) from different coal source basins have not been fully characterized in the United States. Here we provide a systematic analysis of the occurrence of NORM ((232)Th, (228)Ra, (238)U, (226)Ra, and (210)Pb) in coals and associated CCRs from the Illinois, Appalachian, and Powder River Basins. Illinois CCRs had the highest total Ra ((228)Ra + (226)Ra = 297 ± 46 Bq/kg) and the lowest (228)Ra/(226)Ra activity ratio (0.31 ± 0.09), followed by Appalachian CCRs (283 ± 34 Bq/kg; 0.67 ± 0.09), and Powder River CCRs (213 ± 21 Bq/kg; 0.79 ± 0.10). Total Ra and (228)Ra/(226)Ra variations in CCRs correspond to the U and Th concentrations and ash contents of their feed coals, and we show that these relationships can be used to predict total NORM concentrations in CCRs. We observed differential NORM volatility during combustion that results in (210)Pb enrichment and (210)Pb/(226)Ra ratios greater than 1 in most fly-ash samples. Overall, total NORM activities in CCRs are 7-10- and 3-5-fold higher than NORM activities in parent coals and average U.S. soil, respectively. This study lays the groundwork for future research related to the environmental and human health implications of CCR disposal and accidental release to the environment in the context of this elevated radioactivity.

  7. United States Producing and Nonproducing Crude Oil and Natural Gas Reserves From 1985 Through 2004

    EIA Publications

    2006-01-01

    This report discusses the regional and temporal trends in producing and nonproducing crude oil and natural gas reserves using the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) categorization of reserves. The report first focuses on EIA's collection and reporting of crude oil and natural gas reserves data, followed by a discussion of the natural gas reserve trends, and then the crude oil reserve trends.

  8. Civil Defense, U. S. A.: A Programmed Orientation to Civil Defense. Unit 3. Natural Disasters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (DOD), Battle Creek, MI.

    The effects of natural disasters and the implications which those effects have for community emergency preparedness are discussed. Major topics include: (1) Similarities and differences in types of responses required by a nuclear and natural disasters, (2) The civil defense function in natural disasters, (3) Vulnerability analysis, (4) Warning…

  9. Attributes for NHDPlus Catchments (Version 1.1) for the Conterminous United States: Estimated Mean Annual Natural Groundwater Recharge, 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wieczorek, Michael; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This data set represents the mean annual natural groundwater recharge, in millimeters, compiled for every catchment of NHDPlus for the conterminous United States. The source data set is Estimated Mean Annual Natural Ground-Water Recharge in the Conterminous United States (Wolock, 2003). The NHDPlus Version 1.1 is an integrated suite of application-ready geospatial datasets that incorporates many of the best features of the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) and the National Elevation Dataset (NED). The NHDPlus includes a stream network (based on the 1:100,00-scale NHD), improved networking, naming, and value-added attributes (VAAs). NHDPlus also includes elevation-derived catchments (drainage areas) produced using a drainage enforcement technique first widely used in New England, and thus referred to as "the New England Method." This technique involves "burning in" the 1:100,000-scale NHD and when available building "walls" using the National Watershed Boundary Dataset (WBD). The resulting modified digital elevation model (HydroDEM) is used to produce hydrologic derivatives that agree with the NHD and WBD. Over the past two years, an interdisciplinary team from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and contractors, found that this method produces the best quality NHD catchments using an automated process (USEPA, 2007). The NHDPlus dataset is organized by 18 Production Units that cover the conterminous United States. The NHDPlus version 1.1 data are grouped by the U.S. Geologic Survey's Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). MRB1, covering the New England and Mid-Atlantic River basins, containing NHDPlus Production Units 1 and 2. MRB2, covering the South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 3 and 6. MRB3, covering the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 4, 5, 7 and 9. MRB4, covering the

  10. Africa: Into Reality. An Integrated Unit Plan in Social and Natural Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedley, Charlee

    This unit is intended to dispel misconceptions students may have about Africa and its people, and to help students to develop a greater appreciation of that land and its people. The unit focuses upon the physical aspects of Africa and the customs, religion, and attitudes of its people. Ten lessons are included: (1) The continent of Africa; (2) The…

  11. Nature of Matter, Chemistry K-6, Elementary Science Unit No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bethlehem Area Schools, PA.

    This unit emphasizes concept-learning through the discovery approach and child-centered activities. "Discovering Matter" is treated in the kindergarten, "Matter Around Us" in grade 1, "Changes in Matter" in grade 4 and "Atoms and Molecules" in grade 6. The unit for each grade contains (1) understandings to be discovered, (2) activities and (3)…

  12. Imperial China. A Discovery Unit from Field Museum of Natural History. Department of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaiber, Maxine

    This unit deals with life in Imperial China before 1912. The unit contrasts the lifestyles of the wealthy and the peasants and describes the important role of the family and the secondary place of women. The booklet also provides information about the development of written language in China and about Chinese religious philosophies and burial…

  13. Natural Vocalizations in the Mammalian Inferior Colliculus are Broadly Encoded by a Small Number of Independent Multi-Units

    PubMed Central

    Lyzwa, Dominika; Herrmann, J. Michael; Wörgötter, Florentin

    2016-01-01

    How complex natural sounds are represented by the main converging center of the auditory midbrain, the central inferior colliculus, is an open question. We applied neural discrimination to determine the variation of detailed encoding of individual vocalizations across the best frequency gradient of the central inferior colliculus. The analysis was based on collective responses from several neurons. These multi-unit spike trains were recorded from guinea pigs exposed to a spectrotemporally rich set of eleven species-specific vocalizations. Spike trains of disparate units from the same recording were combined in order to investigate whether groups of multi-unit clusters represent the whole set of vocalizations more reliably than only one unit, and whether temporal response correlations between them facilitate an unambiguous neural representation of the vocalizations. We found a spatial distribution of the capability to accurately encode groups of vocalizations across the best frequency gradient. Different vocalizations are optimally discriminated at different locations of the best frequency gradient. Furthermore, groups of a few multi-unit clusters yield improved discrimination over only one multi-unit cluster between all tested vocalizations. However, temporal response correlations between units do not yield better discrimination. Our study is based on a large set of units of simultaneously recorded responses from several guinea pigs and electrode insertion positions. Our findings suggest a broadly distributed code for behaviorally relevant vocalizations in the mammalian inferior colliculus. Responses from a few non-interacting units are sufficient to faithfully represent the whole set of studied vocalizations with diverse spectrotemporal properties. PMID:26869890

  14. Race, ethnicity, and natural resources in the United States: a review

    Treesearch

    J. Schelhas

    2002-01-01

    Ethnic and racial communities have often been found to hold distinct views about the environment and natural resource management (Schelhas 2002, Jostad et al. 1996). But these perspectives are often unheard or underrepresented in mainstream environmental discourses (Lynch 1993, Bengston 2004). As society becomes more diverse, natural resource planners, managers and...

  15. Are artificial reefs surrogates of natural habitats for corals and fish in Dubai, United Arab Emirates?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burt, J.; Bartholomew, A.; Usseglio, P.; Bauman, A.; Sale, P. F.

    2009-09-01

    Artificial reefs are often promoted as mitigating human impacts in coastal ecosystems and enhancing fisheries; however, evidence supporting their benefits is equivocal. Such structures must be compared with natural reefs in order to assess their performance, but past comparisons typically examined artificial structures that were too small, or were immature, relative to the natural reefs. We compared coral and fish communities on two large (>400,000 m3) and mature (>25 year) artificial reefs with six natural coral patches. Coral cover was higher on artificial reefs (50%) than in natural habitats (31%), but natural coral patches contained higher species richness (29 vs. 20) and coral diversity ( H' = 2.3 vs. 1.8). Multivariate analyses indicated strong differences between coral communities in natural and artificial habitats. Fish communities were sampled seasonally for 1 year. Multivariate fish communities differed significantly among habitat types in the summer and fall, but converged in the winter and spring. Univariate analysis indicated that species richness and abundance were stable throughout the year on natural coral patches but increased significantly in the summer on artificial reefs compared with the winter and spring, explaining the multivariate changes in community structure. The increased summer abundance on artificial reefs was mainly due to adult immigration. Piscivores were much more abundant in the fall than in the winter or spring on artificial reefs, but had low and stable abundance throughout the year in natural habitats. It is likely that the decreased winter and spring abundance of fish on the artificial reefs resulted from both predation and emigration. These results indicate that large artificial reefs can support diverse and abundant coral and fish communities. However, these communities differ structurally and functionally from those in natural habitats, and they should not be considered as replacements for natural coral and fish communities.

  16. Uncertainty in life cycle greenhouse gas emissions from United States natural gas end-uses and its effects on policy.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, Aranya; Jaramillo, Paulina; Griffin, W Michael; Matthews, H Scott

    2011-10-01

    Increasing concerns about greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the United States have spurred interest in alternate low carbon fuel sources, such as natural gas. Life cycle assessment (LCA) methods can be used to estimate potential emissions reductions through the use of such fuels. Some recent policies have used the results of LCAs to encourage the use of low carbon fuels to meet future energy demands in the U.S., without, however, acknowledging and addressing the uncertainty and variability prevalent in LCA. Natural gas is a particularly interesting fuel since it can be used to meet various energy demands, for example, as a transportation fuel or in power generation. Estimating the magnitudes and likelihoods of achieving emissions reductions from competing end-uses of natural gas using LCA offers one way to examine optimal strategies of natural gas resource allocation, given that its availability is likely to be limited in the future. In this study, the uncertainty in life cycle GHG emissions of natural gas (domestic and imported) consumed in the U.S. was estimated using probabilistic modeling methods. Monte Carlo simulations are performed to obtain sample distributions representing life cycle GHG emissions from the use of 1 MJ of domestic natural gas and imported LNG. Life cycle GHG emissions per energy unit of average natural gas consumed in the U.S were found to range between -8 and 9% of the mean value of 66 g CO(2)e/MJ. The probabilities of achieving emissions reductions by using natural gas for transportation and power generation, as a substitute for incumbent fuels such as gasoline, diesel, and coal were estimated. The use of natural gas for power generation instead of coal was found to have the highest and most likely emissions reductions (almost a 100% probability of achieving reductions of 60 g CO(2)e/MJ of natural gas used), while there is a 10-35% probability of the emissions from natural gas being higher than the incumbent if it were used as a

  17. Northeast United States and Southeast Canada natural mercury emissions estimated with a surface emission model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bash, Jesse O.; Miller, David R.; Meyer, Thomas H.; Bresnahan, Patricia A.

    2004-10-01

    Most mercury emission inventories only include anthropogenic emissions and neglect the large contribution of the natural mercury cycle due to difficulty in spatially estimating natural emissions and uncertainties in the natural emissions process. The Mercury (Hg) Surface Interface Model (HgSIM) has been developed to estimate the natural emissions of mercury, for inclusion in a more complete mercury emissions inventory. The model used a 3422 cell, 36 km on each side, gridded domain and 1 h time steps. The emissions over land are modeled as a function of the land cover, evapotranspiration, and temperature. The emissions over water are modeled as a function of the concentration gradient, the mixing of the air and water, and the temperature. The spatially distributed model is shown to account for the extreme spatial variability across the Northeast (NE) US and Southeast (SE) Canada. Estimates of natural mercury flux from uncontaminated surfaces are presented for a 2 week period in July. The total natural emissions for the domain, 4,434,912 km2, was 2101.5 kg over the 2 week simulation. The highest total natural emissions were 820 ng m-2 from the Atlantic Ocean in the SE part of the domain and the lowest total natural emissions were 74 ng m-2 in the urban areas with little vegetation. The flux estimates from vegetation canopies, averaged over the 14 days, ranged from 0.0 ng m-2 h-1 during the night time hours when transpiration ceased to 4.46 ng m-2 h-1 during the afternoon in a mixed deciduous-coniferous forest. The range of the air-water flux was between 0.5 and 2.73 ng m-2 h-1 over the model domain with the higher emission rates corresponding to windier and warmer areas. The soil emissions ranged from near 0 to 2.3 ng m-2 h-1 with the higher rates corresponding to warmer agricultural regions.

  18. Probability of detecting perchlorate under natural conditions in deep groundwater in California and the southwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Fram, Miranda S; Belitz, Kenneth

    2011-02-15

    We use data from 1626 groundwater samples collected in California, primarily from public drinking water supply wells, to investigate the distribution of perchlorate in deep groundwater under natural conditions. The wells were sampled for the California Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment Priority Basin Project. We develop a logistic regression model for predicting probabilities of detecting perchlorate at concentrations greater than multiple threshold concentrations as a function of climate (represented by an aridity index) and potential anthropogenic contributions of perchlorate (quantified as an anthropogenic score, AS). AS is a composite categorical variable including terms for nitrate, pesticides, and volatile organic compounds. Incorporating water-quality parameters in AS permits identification of perturbation of natural occurrence patterns by flushing of natural perchlorate salts from unsaturated zones by irrigation recharge as well as addition of perchlorate from industrial and agricultural sources. The data and model results indicate low concentrations (0.1-0.5 μg/L) of perchlorate occur under natural conditions in groundwater across a wide range of climates, beyond the arid to semiarid climates in which they mostly have been previously reported. The probability of detecting perchlorate at concentrations greater than 0.1 μg/L under natural conditions ranges from 50-70% in semiarid to arid regions of California and the Southwestern United States to 5-15% in the wettest regions sampled (the Northern California coast). The probability of concentrations above 1 μg/L under natural conditions is low (generally <3%).

  19. Probability of detecting perchlorate under natural conditions in deep groundwater in California and the Southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    We use data from 1626 groundwater samples collected in California, primarily from public drinking water supply wells, to investigate the distribution of perchlorate in deep groundwater under natural conditions. The wells were sampled for the California Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment Priority Basin Project. We develop a logistic regression model for predicting probabilities of detecting perchlorate at concentrations greater than multiple threshold concentrations as a function of climate (represented by an aridity index) and potential anthropogenic contributions of perchlorate (quantified as an anthropogenic score, AS). AS is a composite categorical variable including terms for nitrate, pesticides, and volatile organic compounds. Incorporating water-quality parameters in AS permits identification of perturbation of natural occurrence patterns by flushing of natural perchlorate salts from unsaturated zones by irrigation recharge as well as addition of perchlorate from industrial and agricultural sources. The data and model results indicate low concentrations (0.1-0.5 μg/L) of perchlorate occur under natural conditions in groundwater across a wide range of climates, beyond the arid to semiarid climates in which they mostly have been previously reported. The probability of detecting perchlorate at concentrations greater than 0.1 μg/L under natural conditions ranges from 50-70% in semiarid to arid regions of California and the Southwestern United States to 5-15% in the wettest regions sampled (the Northern California coast). The probability of concentrations above 1 μg/L under natural conditions is low (generally <3%).

  20. Emissions of CH4 from natural gas production in the United States using aircraft-based observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney, Colm; Karion, Anna; Petron, Gabrielle; Ryerson, Thomas; Peischl, Jeff; Trainer, Michael; Rella, Chris; Hardesty, Michael; Crosson, Eric; Montzka, Stephen; Tans, Pieter; Shepson, Paul; Kort, Eric

    2014-05-01

    New extraction technologies are making natural gas from shale and tight sand gas reservoirs in the United States (US) more accessible. As a result, the US has become the largest producer of natural gas in the world. This growth in natural gas production may result in increased leakage of methane, a potent greenhouse gas, offsetting the climate benefits of natural gas relative to other fossil fuels. Methane emissions from natural gas production are not well quantified because of the large variety of potential sources, the variability in production and operating practices, the uneven distribution of emitters, and a lack of verification of emission inventories with direct atmospheric measurements. Researchers at the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) have used simple mass balance approaches in combination with isotopes and light alkanes to estimate emissions of CH4 from several natural gas and oil plays across the US. We will summarize the results of the available aircraft and ground-based atmospheric emissions estimates to better understand the spatial and temporal distribution of these emissions in the US.

  1. Evaluation of the D-Area Expanded Operable Unit for Monitored Natural Attenuation of Inorganic Constituents of Concern: Interim Report

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, K.R.

    2003-01-08

    A comprehensive approach is being developed to evaluate SRS sites with inorganic constituents of concern (COCs) for potential implementation of monitored natural attenuation (MNA) as a remediation strategy. In order to invoke MNA, the operative, or controlling, attenuation mechanisms at a given site must be identified and demonstrated using a technically defensible approach and site-specific data. This report details ongoing research in the application of this approach at the D-Area expanded operable unit (DEXOU). Initial screening of the DEXOU described in this interim report indicates that natural attenuation of inorganic COCs (low pH, Cr, Ni, Se, and As) is occurring to a significant degree. This work is part of continuing efforts to characterize the natural attenuation processes, both abiotic and biotic, occurring at this location and likely occurring at other SRS sites with inorganic COCs.

  2. Variability of natural gas composition in select major metropolitan areas of the United States. Interim report, August 1990-March 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Liss, W.E.; Thrasher, W.H.

    1991-03-01

    The interim report quantifies potential regional and seasonal variations in the composition and physical properties of natural gas in selected major urban areas of the United States over a one-year time period. Major urban areas were chosen because they represent a large segment of existing gas consumers and are envisioned to be a key market area for natural gas vehicles. The report lists the results of statistical analyses of gas composition in ten U.S. nonattainment cities for either ozone or carbon monoxide levels. The data are intended to provide a strong statistical basis for understanding the chemical and physical properties of natural gas in support of engine and vehicle manufacturers making equipment design and development decisions as well as related R D initiatives on gas-fired reciprocating engine technology and vehicle refueling and storage. Additional program work is underway to expand the data base to represent a total of 25 major urban areas.

  3. Monitoring of natural outbreaks of Phytophthora ramorum in the United Kingdom.

    Treesearch

    Judith Turner; Alex Appiah; Philip Jennings; Gilli Humphries; Debbie Liddell; Sam McDonough; Jackie Stonehouse; David Lockley; Stephen. Eales

    2006-01-01

    Over 40 outbreaks of Phytophthora ramorum have occurred in managed gardens in the United Kingdom. Three of these sites, one in the southeast of England and two in the southwest, have been closely monitored since October 2003. These sites represented differing disease scenarios at the start of monitoring, as eradication action had already taken...

  4. Early Legal Education in the United States: Natural Law Theory and Law as a Moral Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Mark Warren

    1998-01-01

    An examination of the history of legal education covers the long period of law-office apprenticeship as the principal method of legal education in the United States and reviews trends in the period of formal education, the relationship between formal education and professional practice, the philosophical context for legal education, instruction in…

  5. Natural trace metal concentrations in estuarine and coastal marine sediments of the southeastern United States

    SciTech Connect

    Windom, H.L.; Schropp, S.J.; Calder, F.D.; Ryan, J.D.; Smith, R.G. Jr.; Burney, L.C.; Lewis, F.G.; Rawlinson, C.H.

    1989-03-01

    Over 450 sediment samples from estuarine and coastal marine areas of the southeastern US remote from contaminant sources were analyzed for trace metals. Although these sediments are compositionally diverse, As, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, Ni, and Zn concentrations covary significantly with aluminum, suggesting that natural aluminosilicate minerals are the dominant natural metal bearing phases. Cd and Hg do not covary with aluminum apparently due to the importance of the contribution of natural organic phases to their concentration in sediments. It is suggested that the covariance of metals with aluminum provides a useful basis for identification and comparison of anthropogenic inputs to southeastern US coastal/estuarine sediments. By use of this approach sediments from the Savannah River, Biscayne Bay, and Pensacola Bay are compared.

  6. Comparison of the Natural History of Genital HPV Infection among Men by Country: Brazil, Mexico, and the United States.

    PubMed

    Sudenga, Staci L; Torres, B Nelson; Silva, Roberto; Villa, Luisa L; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Abrahamsen, Martha; Baggio, Maria Luiza; Salmeron, Jorge; Quiterio, Manuel; Giuliano, Anna R

    2017-07-01

    Background: Male genital human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence and incidence has been reported to vary by geographical location. Our objective was to assess the natural history of genital HPV by country among men with a median of 48 months of follow-up.Methods: Men ages 18-70 years were recruited from United States (n = 1,326), Mexico (n = 1,349), and Brazil (n = 1,410). Genital specimens were collected every 6 months and HPV genotyping identified 37 HPV genotypes. Prevalence of HPV was compared between the three countries using the Fisher exact test. Incidence rates and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. The median time to HPV clearance among men with an incident infection was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method.Results: The prevalence and incidence of the genital HPV types known to cause disease in males (HPV 16 and 6) was significantly higher among men from Brazil than men from Mexico. Prevalence and incidence of those genital HPV types in the United States varied between being comparable with those of Mexico or Brazil. Although genital HPV16 duration was significantly longer in Brazil (P = 0.04) compared with Mexico and the United States, HPV6 duration was shortest in Brazil (P = 0.03) compared with Mexico and the United States.Conclusions: Men in Brazil and Mexico often have similar, if not higher prevalence of HPV compared with men from the United States.Impact: Currently, there is no routine screening for genital HPV among males and while HPV is common in men, and most naturally clear the infection, a proportion of men do develop HPV-related diseases. Men may benefit from gender-neutral vaccine policies. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(7); 1043-52. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  7. Constraints on the nature of various Titan Geomorphological Units with Cassini/VIMS and SAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomonidou, Anezina; Coustenis, Athena; Lopes, Rosaly M. C.; Rodriguez, Sébastien; Schmitt, Bernard; Philippe, Sylvain; Malaska, Michael; Lawrence, Kenneth J.; Janssen, Michael A.; Le Gall, Alice; Jaumann, Ralf; Sohl, Frank; Stephan, Katrin; Drossart, Pierre; Brown, Robert H.; Maltagliati, Luca; Bratsolis, Emmanuel; Matsoukas, Christos

    2016-10-01

    We investigate the lower atmosphere of Titan from Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) spectro-imaging data by use of a recently updated radiative transfer code in the near-IR range and RADAR/SAR data for the distinction of geomorphological units. We focus here on the geological major units identified in [1;2] and [3]: mountains, plains, labyrinths, dune fields, and possible cryovolcanic and/or evaporitic features (the latter two are albedo features, [4;5;6]). We infer surface properties (like absolute surface albedo and morphology) and atmospheric contributions, in particular the haze content. We find that the Huygens landing site and the candidate evaporitic regions pair compositionally with the variable plains, thus indicating that units of significant geomorphological differences seem to consist of very similar materials. Similarly for the labyrinth terrains and the undifferentiated plains. On the contrary, many regions from the same geomorphological unit show compositional variations depending on location (i.e. undifferentiated plains). These differences provide implications on the endogenic or exogenic origin of the various units. In previous studies we showed that the processes most likely linked to the formation of the various geomorphological units are aeolian, fluvial, sedimentary, and lacustrine, in addition to the deposition of organics through the atmosphere. Currently, we are working on deriving information on the chemical composition of the aforementioned regions from the extracted surface albedos using an extensive library of ices and tholins [e.g. 7]. This will shed light on the potential formation processes (Solomonidou et al. in prep.). Preliminary results on the chemical composition of the regions that have shown temporal changes (i.e. Tui Regio and Sotra Patera; [6]) are also presented.References: [1] Lopes, R.M.C., et al.: Icarus, 205, 540-558, 2010; [2] Lopes, R.M.C., et al.: Icarus, 270, 162-182, 2016; [3] Malaska, M., et al

  8. Genetic evidence for natural selection in humans in the contemporary United States.

    PubMed

    Beauchamp, Jonathan P

    2016-07-12

    Recent findings from molecular genetics now make it possible to test directly for natural selection by analyzing whether genetic variants associated with various phenotypes have been under selection. I leverage these findings to construct polygenic scores that use individuals' genotypes to predict their body mass index, educational attainment (EA), glucose concentration, height, schizophrenia, total cholesterol, and (in females) age at menarche. I then examine associations between these scores and fitness to test whether natural selection has been occurring. My study sample includes individuals of European ancestry born between 1931 and 1953 who participated in the Health and Retirement Study, a representative study of the US population. My results imply that natural selection has been slowly favoring lower EA in both females and males, and are suggestive that natural selection may have favored a higher age at menarche in females. For EA, my estimates imply a rate of selection of about -1.5 mo of education per generation (which pales in comparison with the increases in EA observed in contemporary times). Although they cannot be projected over more than one generation, my results provide additional evidence that humans are still evolving-albeit slowly, especially compared with the rapid changes that have occurred over the past few generations due to cultural and environmental factors.

  9. Genetic evidence for natural selection in humans in the contemporary United States

    PubMed Central

    Beauchamp, Jonathan P.

    2016-01-01

    Recent findings from molecular genetics now make it possible to test directly for natural selection by analyzing whether genetic variants associated with various phenotypes have been under selection. I leverage these findings to construct polygenic scores that use individuals’ genotypes to predict their body mass index, educational attainment (EA), glucose concentration, height, schizophrenia, total cholesterol, and (in females) age at menarche. I then examine associations between these scores and fitness to test whether natural selection has been occurring. My study sample includes individuals of European ancestry born between 1931 and 1953 who participated in the Health and Retirement Study, a representative study of the US population. My results imply that natural selection has been slowly favoring lower EA in both females and males, and are suggestive that natural selection may have favored a higher age at menarche in females. For EA, my estimates imply a rate of selection of about −1.5 mo of education per generation (which pales in comparison with the increases in EA observed in contemporary times). Although they cannot be projected over more than one generation, my results provide additional evidence that humans are still evolving—albeit slowly, especially compared with the rapid changes that have occurred over the past few generations due to cultural and environmental factors. PMID:27402742

  10. Changes Observed in Views of Nature of Science during a Historically Based Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudge, David Wÿss; Cassidy, David Paul; Fulford, Janice Marie; Howe, Eric Michael

    2014-01-01

    Numerous empirical studies have provided evidence of the effectiveness of an explicit and reflective approach to the learning of issues associated with the nature of science (NOS) (c.f. Abd-El-Khalick and Lederman in "J Res Sci Teach" 37(10):1057-1095, 2000). This essay reports the results of a mixed-methods association study involving…

  11. Deployment of United Nations Peace Keeping Forces: The Nature of Transportation and Review of Current Methodologies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-06

    the support by the western countries. For example, the Suez Canal is a vital sea lane for trade between the industrialized developed nations of the west...lines Authority: Security Council Size: Maximum 89 Contributing Countries: Australia, Belgium, Canada, Chile, Denmark, Finland, Italy, Mexico , New...other specific public tasks. 3. Royal Netherlands Air Force (a) Organizacion For peace-keeping operations of the United Nations are earmarked: (1

  12. Numerical Simulation on Flow and Heat Transfer Performance of Air-cooler for a Natural Gas Storage Compressor Unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Biyuan; Zhang, Feng; Ma, Zenghui; Zheng, Zilong; Feng, Jianmei

    2017-08-01

    Heat transfer efficiency has been a key issue for large size air coolers with the noise reducers used in natural gas storage compressor unit, especially operated in summer with cooling air at a high temperature. The 3-D numerical simulation model of the whole air cooler was established to study the flow field characteristic with different inlet and outlet structures by CFD software. The system pressure loss distributions were calculated. The relationship was obtained among heat exchange efficiency, resistance loss, and the structure of air cooler, the results presented some methods to improve cooling air flow rate and heat exchange efficiency. Based on the results, some effective measures were proposed to improve heat exchanger efficiency and were implemented in the actual operation unit.

  13. Analysis of hazardous material releases due to natural hazards in the United States.

    PubMed

    Sengul, Hatice; Santella, Nicholas; Steinberg, Laura J; Cruz, Ana Maria

    2012-10-01

    Natural hazards were the cause of approximately 16,600 hazardous material (hazmat) releases reported to the National Response Center (NRC) between 1990 and 2008-three per cent of all reported hazmat releases. Rain-induced releases were most numerous (26 per cent of the total), followed by those associated with hurricanes (20 per cent), many of which resulted from major episodes in 2005 and 2008. Winds, storms or other weather-related phenomena were responsible for another 25 per cent of hazmat releases. Large releases were most frequently due to major natural disasters. For instance, hurricane-induced releases of petroleum from storage tanks account for a large fraction of the total volume of petroleum released during 'natechs' (understood here as a natural hazard and the hazardous materials release that results). Among the most commonly released chemicals were nitrogen oxides, benzene, and polychlorinated biphenyls. Three deaths, 52 injuries, and the evacuation of at least 5,000 persons were recorded as a consequence of natech events. Overall, results suggest that the number of natechs increased over the study period (1990-2008) with potential for serious human and environmental impacts.

  14. Association between Natural Resources for Outdoor Activities and Physical Inactivity: Results from the Contiguous United States

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yan; Yuan, Yongping; Neale, Anne; Jackson, Laura; Mehaffey, Megan

    2016-01-01

    Protected areas including national/state parks and recreational waters are excellent natural resources that promote physical activity and interaction with Nature, which can relieve stress and reduce disease risk. Despite their importance, however, their contribution to human health has not been properly quantified. This paper seeks to evaluate quantitatively how national/state parks and recreational waters are associated with human health and well-being, taking into account of the spatial dependence of environmental variables for the contiguous U.S., at the county level. First, we describe available natural resources for outdoor activities (ANROA), using national databases that include features from the Protected Areas Database, NAVSTREETS, and ATTAINSGEO 305(b) Waters. We then use spatial regression techniques to explore the association of ANROA and socioeconomic status factors on physical inactivity rates. Finally, we use variance analysis to analyze ANROA’s influence on income-related health inequality. We found a significantly negative association between ANROA and the rate of physical inactivity: ANROA and the spatial effect explained 69%, nationwide, of the variation in physical inactivity. Physical inactivity rate showed a strong spatial dependence—influenced not only by its own in-county ANROA, but also by that of its neighbors ANROA. Furthermore, community groups at the same income level and with the highest ANROA, always had the lowest physical inactivity rate. This finding may help to guide future land use planning and community development that will benefit human health and well-being. PMID:27548195

  15. Association between Natural Resources for Outdoor Activities and Physical Inactivity: Results from the Contiguous United States.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yan; Yuan, Yongping; Neale, Anne; Jackson, Laura; Mehaffey, Megan

    2016-08-17

    Protected areas including national/state parks and recreational waters are excellent natural resources that promote physical activity and interaction with Nature, which can relieve stress and reduce disease risk. Despite their importance, however, their contribution to human health has not been properly quantified. This paper seeks to evaluate quantitatively how national/state parks and recreational waters are associated with human health and well-being, taking into account of the spatial dependence of environmental variables for the contiguous U.S., at the county level. First, we describe available natural resources for outdoor activities (ANROA), using national databases that include features from the Protected Areas Database, NAVSTREETS, and ATTAINSGEO 305(b) Waters. We then use spatial regression techniques to explore the association of ANROA and socioeconomic status factors on physical inactivity rates. Finally, we use variance analysis to analyze ANROA's influence on income-related health inequality. We found a significantly negative association between ANROA and the rate of physical inactivity: ANROA and the spatial effect explained 69%, nationwide, of the variation in physical inactivity. Physical inactivity rate showed a strong spatial dependence-influenced not only by its own in-county ANROA, but also by that of its neighbors ANROA. Furthermore, community groups at the same income level and with the highest ANROA, always had the lowest physical inactivity rate. This finding may help to guide future land use planning and community development that will benefit human health and well-being.

  16. USGS world petroleum assessment 2000; new estimates of undiscovered oil and natural gas, including reserve growth, outside the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2000-01-01

    Oil and natural gas account for approximately 63 percent of the world’s total energy consumption. The U.S. Geological Survey periodically estimates the amount of oil and gas remaining to be found in the world. Since 1981, each of the last four of these assessments has shown a slight increase in the combined volume of identified reserves and undiscovered resources. The latest assessment estimates the volume of technically recoverable conventional oil and gas that may be added to the world's reserves, exclusive of the United States, in the next 30 years. The USGS World Petroleum Assessment 2000 reports an increase in global petroleum resources, including a 20-percent increase in undiscovered oil and a 14-percent decrease in undiscovered natural gas compared to the previous assessment (table 1). These results have important implications for energy prices, policy, security, and the global resource balance.

  17. Fingerprinting sedimentary and soil units by their natural metal contents: a new approach to assess metal contamination.

    PubMed

    Amorosi, Alessandro; Guermandi, Marina; Marchi, Nazaria; Sammartino, Irene

    2014-12-01

    One of the major issues when assessing soil contamination by inorganic substances is reliable determination of natural metal concentrations. Through integrated sedimentological, pedological and geochemical analyses of 1414 (topsoil/subsoil) samples from 707 sampling stations in the southern Po Plain (Italy), we document that the natural distribution of five potentially toxic metals (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb) can be spatially predicted as a function of three major factors: source-rock composition, grain size variability and degree of soil weathering. Thirteen genetic and functional soil units (GFUs), each reflecting a unique combination of these three variables, are fingerprinted by distinctive geochemical signatures. Where sediment is supplied by ultramafic (ophiolite-rich) sources, the natural contents of Cr and Ni in soils almost invariably exceed the Italian threshold limits designated for contaminated lands (150 mg/kg and 120 mg/kg, respectively), with median values around twice the maximum permissible levels (345 mg/kg for Cr and 207 mg/kg for Ni in GFU B5). The original provenance signal is commonly confounded by soil texture, with general tendency toward higher metal concentrations in the finest-grained fractions. Once reliable natural metal concentrations in soils are established, the anthropogenic contribution can be promptly assessed by calculating metal enrichments in topsoil samples. The use of combined sedimentological and pedological criteria to fingerprint GFU geochemical composition is presented here as a new approach to enhance predictability of natural metal contents, with obvious positive feedbacks for legislative purposes and environmental protection. Particularly, natural metal concentrations inferred directly from a new type of pedogeochemical map, built according to the international guideline ISO 19258, are proposed as an efficient alternative to the pre-determined threshold values for soil contamination commonly established by the national

  18. Reported Historic Asbestos Mines, Historic Asbestos Prospects, and Natural Asbestos Occurrences in the Southwestern United States (Arizona, Nevada, and Utah)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Gosen, Bradley S.

    2008-01-01

    This map and its accompanying dataset provide information for 113 natural asbestos occurrences in the Southwestern United States (U.S.), using descriptions found in the geologic literature. Data on location, mineralogy, geology, and relevant literature for each asbestos site are provided. Using the map and digital data in this report, the user can examine the distribution of previously reported asbestos occurrences and their geological characteristics in the Southwestern U.S., which includes sites in Arizona, Nevada, and Utah. This report is part of an ongoing study by the U.S. Geological Survey to identify and map reported natural asbestos occurrences in the U.S., which thus far includes similar maps and datasets of natural asbestos occurrences within the Eastern U.S. (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1189/), the Central U.S. (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2006/1211/), and the Rocky Mountain States (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1182/. These reports are intended to provide State and local government agencies and other stakeholders with geologic information on natural occurrences of asbestos in the U.S.

  19. Exfoliation of natural van der Waals heterostructures to a single unit cell thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velický, Matěj; Toth, Peter S.; Rakowski, Alexander M.; Rooney, Aidan P.; Kozikov, Aleksey; Woods, Colin R.; Mishchenko, Artem; Fumagalli, Laura; Yin, Jun; Zólyomi, Viktor; Georgiou, Thanasis; Haigh, Sarah J.; Novoselov, Kostya S.; Dryfe, Robert A. W.

    2017-02-01

    Weak interlayer interactions in van der Waals crystals facilitate their mechanical exfoliation to monolayer and few-layer two-dimensional materials, which often exhibit striking physical phenomena absent in their bulk form. Here we utilize mechanical exfoliation to produce a two-dimensional form of a mineral franckeite and show that the phase segregation of chemical species into discrete layers at the sub-nanometre scale facilitates franckeite's layered structure and basal cleavage down to a single unit cell thickness. This behaviour is likely to be common in a wider family of complex minerals and could be exploited for a single-step synthesis of van der Waals heterostructures, as an alternative to artificial stacking of individual two-dimensional crystals. We demonstrate p-type electrical conductivity and remarkable electrochemical properties of the exfoliated crystals, showing promise for a range of applications, and use the density functional theory calculations of franckeite's electronic band structure to rationalize the experimental results.

  20. Exfoliation of natural van der Waals heterostructures to a single unit cell thickness

    PubMed Central

    Velický, Matěj; Toth, Peter S.; Rakowski, Alexander M.; Rooney, Aidan P.; Kozikov, Aleksey; Woods, Colin R.; Mishchenko, Artem; Fumagalli, Laura; Yin, Jun; Zólyomi, Viktor; Georgiou, Thanasis; Haigh, Sarah J.; Novoselov, Kostya S.; Dryfe, Robert A. W.

    2017-01-01

    Weak interlayer interactions in van der Waals crystals facilitate their mechanical exfoliation to monolayer and few-layer two-dimensional materials, which often exhibit striking physical phenomena absent in their bulk form. Here we utilize mechanical exfoliation to produce a two-dimensional form of a mineral franckeite and show that the phase segregation of chemical species into discrete layers at the sub-nanometre scale facilitates franckeite's layered structure and basal cleavage down to a single unit cell thickness. This behaviour is likely to be common in a wider family of complex minerals and could be exploited for a single-step synthesis of van der Waals heterostructures, as an alternative to artificial stacking of individual two-dimensional crystals. We demonstrate p-type electrical conductivity and remarkable electrochemical properties of the exfoliated crystals, showing promise for a range of applications, and use the density functional theory calculations of franckeite's electronic band structure to rationalize the experimental results. PMID:28194026

  1. Exfoliation of natural van der Waals heterostructures to a single unit cell thickness.

    PubMed

    Velický, Matěj; Toth, Peter S; Rakowski, Alexander M; Rooney, Aidan P; Kozikov, Aleksey; Woods, Colin R; Mishchenko, Artem; Fumagalli, Laura; Yin, Jun; Zólyomi, Viktor; Georgiou, Thanasis; Haigh, Sarah J; Novoselov, Kostya S; Dryfe, Robert A W

    2017-02-13

    Weak interlayer interactions in van der Waals crystals facilitate their mechanical exfoliation to monolayer and few-layer two-dimensional materials, which often exhibit striking physical phenomena absent in their bulk form. Here we utilize mechanical exfoliation to produce a two-dimensional form of a mineral franckeite and show that the phase segregation of chemical species into discrete layers at the sub-nanometre scale facilitates franckeite's layered structure and basal cleavage down to a single unit cell thickness. This behaviour is likely to be common in a wider family of complex minerals and could be exploited for a single-step synthesis of van der Waals heterostructures, as an alternative to artificial stacking of individual two-dimensional crystals. We demonstrate p-type electrical conductivity and remarkable electrochemical properties of the exfoliated crystals, showing promise for a range of applications, and use the density functional theory calculations of franckeite's electronic band structure to rationalize the experimental results.

  2. Relating United States crop land use to natural resources and climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Flores-Mendoza, F.J.; Hubbard, K.G.

    1995-02-01

    Crop production depends not only on the yield but also on the area harvested. The yield response to climate change has been widely examined, but the sensitivity of crop land use to hypothetical climate change has not been examined directly. Crop land-use regression models for estimating crop area indices (CAIs)-the percent of land used for corn, soybean, wheat, and sorghum production-are presented. Inputs to the models include available water-holding capacity of the soil, percent of land available for rain-fed agricultural production, annual precipitation, and annual temperature. The total variance of CAI explained by the models ranged from 78% from wheat to 87% for sorghum, and the root-mean-square errors ranged from 1.74% for sorghum to 4.24% for corn. The introduction of additional climatic variables to the models did not significantly improve their performance. The crop land-use models were used to predict the CAI for every crop reporting district in the United States for the current climatic condition and for possible future climate change scenarios (various combinations of temperature and precipitation changes over a range of -3{degrees} to +6{degrees}C and -20% to +20% respectively). The magnitude of climatic warming suggested by GCMs (GISS and GFDL) is from 3.5{degrees} to 5.9{degrees}C for regions of the United States. For this magnitude of warming, the model suggests corn and soybean production areas may decline while wheat and sorghum production areas may expand. If the warming is accompanied by a decrease in annual precipitation from 1% to 10%, then the areas used for corn and soybean production could decrease by as much as 20% and 40%, respectively. The area for sorghum and wheat under these conditions would increase by as much as 80% and 70%, respectively; the exact amount depending strongly on the change in precipitation. 15 refs., 6 figs.

  3. On the episodic nature of derecho-producing convective systems in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashley, Walker S.; Mote, Thomas L.; Bentley, Mace L.

    2005-11-01

    Convectively generated windstorms occur over broad temporal and spatial scales; however, one of the larger-scale and most intense of these windstorms has been given the name derecho. This study illustrates the tendency for derecho-producing mesoscale convective systems to group together across the United States - forming a derecho series. The derecho series is recognized as any succession of derechos that develop within a similar synoptic environment with no more than 72 h separating individual events. A derecho dataset for the period 1994-2003 was assembled to investigate the groupings of these extremely damaging convective wind events. Results indicate that over 62% of the derechos in the dataset were members of a derecho series. On average, nearly six series affected the United States annually. Most derecho series consisted of two or three events; though, 14 series during the period of record contained four or more events. Two separate series involved nine derechos within a period of nine days. Analyses reveal that derecho series largely frequent regions of the Midwest, Ohio Valley, and the south-central Great Plains during May, June, and July. Results suggest that once a derecho occurred during May, June, or July, there was a 58% chance that this event was the first of a series of two or more, and about a 46% chance that this was the first of a derecho series consisting of three or more events. The derecho series climatology reveals that forecasters in regions frequented by derechos should be prepared for the probable regeneration of a derecho-producing convective system after an initial event occurs. Copyright

  4. Incidence, prevalence, and natural history of primary sclerosing cholangitis in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Liang, Huifang; Manne, Sudhakar; Shick, Jesse; Lissoos, Trevor; Dolin, Paul

    2017-06-01

    Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a rare obliterative fibrotic condition of the bile ducts. We assessed PSC epidemiology and natural history within the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD).Incidence and natural history of PSC were evaluated in a retrospective cohort study using linkage of CPRD, Hospital Episode Statistics, and Office for National Statistics data. Data from age, sex, and general practice-matched population controls provided a context for the incident PSC patients. Liver disease other than PSC was defined as autoimmune hepatitis, hepatitis, hepatomegaly, liver failure, cirrhosis, portal hypertension, cholangiocarcinoma, or hepatobiliary cancer.The age-standardized incidence of PSC was 0.68 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.45-0.99) per 100,000 person-years and the age-standardized prevalence was 5.58 (95% CI 4.82-7.35) per 100,000 during 1998 to 2014. In all, 250 incident PSC patients met the inclusion criteria and each was matched with 5 controls (mean age 54 ± 18 years, men 63.2%). A higher percentage of PSC patients had a history of inflammatory bowel disease (54% vs 2%) and liver disease other than PSC (22% vs 1%) than controls (standardized differenceweighted >0.1). During a median follow-up of 5 years, PSC patients were more likely to develop adverse health outcomes. The mortality rate per 1000 person-years was 3-fold higher in PSC than population controls (49.5 vs 16.1; incidence rate ratio 3.1, 95% CI 2.2-4.2).The incidence and prevalence of PSC observed in the UK CPRD were either comparable with or higher than previous studies. Compared with the general population, PSC patients had worse health outcomes including PSC disease progression, complications, and higher mortality.

  5. Cultural factors of visitors' understanding of United States National Park Service natural resource messages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilton, Sunita Claire

    Current trends in the demographic structure of the US population indicate increasing cultural diversity. Culturally-diverse populations have varying beliefs, views and understandings of natural resource use and management. This study concentrates on understanding how messages pertaining to natural resources concepts and associated management decisions are communicated to and received by culturally-diverse audiences. This is particularly relevant to land managing agencies, such as the US National Park Service (NPS), that rely on a high degree of public contact and support. Failure to consider cultural-diversity has the potential to interfere with this agency's success at communicating its mission and management decisions. The study took place in three US National Parks; Grand Canyon National Park (North Rim), Guadalupe Mountains National Park, and Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park. Visitors were asked to complete an on-site anonymous questionnaire. Data were collected at various locations including trailheads, scenic overlooks, at visitor centers, and after interpretive programs. Total number of participants was 549, Grand Canyon National Park n = 156, Guadalupe Mountains National Park n = 153, and Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park n = 240. Results indicate that visitors were knowledgeable about the resources they were visiting. Visitors to NPS sites have achieved a high level of formal education. Certain aspects of culture, religion/spirituality seem to have a greater role in how visitors identify themselves, as opposed to ethnicity/cultural heritage. However when visitors are in a park they seem display similar cultural characteristics, which may come to the forefront while in the park setting as opposed to home setting. Methodological challenges of studying culture in a national park setting are also discussed.

  6. Nature of the Surviving Plaque-Forming Unit of Reovirus in Water Containing Bromine1

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, D. G.; Floyd, R.; Johnson, J. D.

    1975-01-01

    The initial inactivation of reovirus in water containing 3 to 7 μM bromine as HOBr was very rapid. Electron microscopy revealed extensive physical damage to the virions in as little as 1 min, but none were degraded beyond recognition. As treatment time continued, the reaction rate decreased toward a plateau of resistance, usually at about the 10-4 survival level; still no particles were lost. Progeny grown from these resistant plaque-forming units (PFU) were no more resistant to HOBr than the parent cultures. Small-number aggregation (adhering groups of two to ten virions counted by electron microscopy) had no detectable effect on the level of persistant PFU. Large aggregates seemed to be involved. Sonic treatment at 20 kHz after bromine exposure increased survival PFU titer 10- to 43-fold. Virus exposed to light centrifugation prior to bromine treatment did not show the plateau of resistance. Surviving PFU sedimented faster in a shallow sucrose gradient than single virions. Large aggregates were apparently too few to be counted by electron microscopy, but their penetration and inactivation must be achieved by any disinfectant chosen to rid water of reovirus. Images PMID:1167388

  7. Congressional Testimony: Testimony of Nikki Tinsley Before the Subcommittee on Energy Policy, Natural Resources and Regulatory Affairs Committee on Government Reform United States House

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Testimony of the Honorable Nikki Tinsley Inspector General U.S. EPA Before the Subcommittee on Energy Policy, Natural Resources and Regulatory Affairs Committee on Government Reform United States House of Representatives

  8. Nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinhorst, Sabine; Cannon, Gordon

    1997-01-01

    The fact that two of the original articles by this year's Nobel laureates were published in Nature bears witness to the pivotal role of this journal in documenting pioneering discoveries in all areas of science. The prize for Physiology or Medicine was awarded to immunologists Peter C. Doherty (University of Tennessee) and Rolf M. Zinkernagel (University of Zurich, Switzerland), honoring work that, in the 1970s, laid the foundation for our current understanding of the way in which our immune system differentiates between healthy cells and virus-infected ones that are targeted for destruction (p 465 in the October 10 issue of vol. 383). Three researchers share the Chemistry award for their discovery of C60 buckminsterfullerenes. The work by Robert Curl, Richard Smalley (both at Rice University), and Harry Kroto (University of Sussex, UK) has led to a burst of new approaches to materials development and in carbon chemistry (p 561 of the October 17 issue of vol. 383). This year's Nobel prize in physics went to three U.S. researchers, Douglas Osheroff (Stanford University) and David M. Lee and Robert C. Richardson (Cornell University), who were honored for their work on superfluidity, a frictionless liquid state, of supercooled 3He (p 562 of the October 17 issue of vol. 383).

  9. The nature, scope and impact of genomic prediction in beef cattle in the United States

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Artificial selection has proven to be effective at altering the performance of animal production systems. Nevertheless, selection based on assessment of the genetic superiority of candidates is suboptimal as a result of errors in the prediction of genetic merit. Conventional breeding programs may extend phenotypic measurements on selection candidates to include correlated indicator traits, or delay selection decisions well beyond puberty so that phenotypic performance can be observed on progeny or other relatives. Extending the generation interval to increase the accuracy of selection reduces annual rates of gain compared to accurate selection and use of parents of the next generation at the immediate time they reach breeding age. Genomic prediction aims at reducing prediction errors at breeding age by exploiting information on the transmission of chromosome fragments from parents to selection candidates, in conjunction with knowledge on the value of every chromosome fragment. For genomic prediction to influence beef cattle breeding programs and the rate or cost of genetic gains, training analyses must be undertaken, and genomic prediction tools made available for breeders and other industry stakeholders. This paper reviews the nature or kind of studies currently underway, the scope or extent of some of those studies, and comments on the likely predictive value of genomic information for beef cattle improvement. PMID:21569623

  10. Underground natural gas storage in the United States 1979 - 1980 heating year

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-09-01

    Total gas in storage in the nation's active underground natural gas storage reservoirs as of March 31, 1980, the end of the 1979-1980 heating year, was reported at 5,129 billion cubic feet. Of this total, approximately 69.1 percent was base, or cushion, gas and 30.9 percent was working gas. Working gas totaled 1,586 billion cubic feet, approximately 28.2 percent above that available at the beginning of the heating year. The nation's 383 active storage reservoirs were operated by 77 companies. Total reservoir capacity was reported at 7,287 billion cubic feet, approximately 51.4 percent, or 3,744 billion cubic feet of which was working gas capacity. Approximately 67.9 percent of this working gas capacity was in 228 reservoirs operated by 30 interstate pipeline companies, 29.1 percent was in 142 reservoirs operated by 42 intrastate companies, and 3.1 percent was in 13 reservoirs operated by 5 independent producers.

  11. Minimized Database of Unit Selection in Visual Speech Synthesis without Loss of Naturalness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Kang; Ostermann, Joern

    Image-based modeling is very successful in the creation of realistic facial animations. Applications with dialog systems, such as e-Learning and customer information service, can integrate facial animations with synthesized speech in websites to improve human-machine communication. However, downloading a database with 11,594 mouth images (about 120MB in JPEG format) used by talking head needs about 15 minutes at 150 kBps. This paper presents a prototype framework of two-step database minimization. First, the key mouth images are identified by clustering algorithms and similar mouth images are discarded. Second, the clustered key mouth images are further compressed by JPEG. MST (Minimum Spanning Tree), RSST (Recursive Shortest Spanning Tree) and LBG-based clustering algorithms are developed and evaluated. Our experiments demonstrate that the number of mouth images is lowered by the LBG-based clustering algorithm and further compressed to 8MB by JPEG, which generates facial animations in CIF format without loss of naturalness and fulfill the need of talking head for Internet applications.

  12. Age, growth, and natural mortality of schoolmaster (Lutjanus apodus) from the southeastern United States

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Michael L.; Myers, Amanda R.

    2016-01-01

    Ages of schoolmaster (n = 136) from the southeastern Florida coast from 1981–2015 were determined using sectioned sagittal otoliths. Opaque zones were annular, forming March–July (peaking in May–June). Schoolmaster ranged in age from 1–42 years; the largest fish measured 505 mm total length (TL) and was 19 years old. The oldest fish measured 440 mm TL. Estimated body size relationships for schoolmaster were: W = 9.26 × 10−6 TL3.11 (n = 256, r2 = 0.95); W = 2.13 × 10−5 FL2.99 (n = 161, r2 = 0.95); TL = 1.03 FL + 10.36 (n = 143, r2 = 0.99); and FL = 0.96 TL − 8.41 (n = 143, r2 = 0.99), where W = whole weight in g, FL = fork length in mm, and TL in mm. The fitted von Bertalanffy growth equation was: Lt = 482 (1 − e−0.12(t+2.79)) (n = 136). Based on published life history relationships, a point estimate of natural mortality for schoolmaster was M = 0.10, while age-specific estimates of M ranged from 1.57–0.18 for ages 1–42. PMID:27761332

  13. Populations, not clones, are the unit of vibrio pathogenesis in naturally infected oysters

    PubMed Central

    Lemire, Astrid; Goudenège, David; Versigny, Typhaine; Petton, Bruno; Calteau, Alexandra; Labreuche, Yannick; Le Roux, Frédérique

    2015-01-01

    Disease in oysters has been steadily rising over the past decade, threatening the long-term survival of commercial and natural stocks. Our understanding and management of such diseases are of critical importance as aquaculture is an important aspect of dealing with the approaching worldwide food shortage. Although some bacteria of the Vibrio genus isolated from diseased oysters have been demonstrated to be pathogenic by experimental infection, direct causality has not been established. Little is known about the dynamics of how the bacterial population hosted by oysters changes during disease progression. Combining experimental ecology, a high-throughput infection assay and genome sequencing, we show that the onset of disease in oysters is associated with progressive replacement of diverse benign colonizers by members of a phylogenetically coherent virulent population. Although the virulent population is genetically diverse, all members of that population can cause disease. Comparative genomics across virulent and nonvirulent populations identified candidate virulence factors that were clustered in population-specific genomic regions. Genetic analyses revealed that one gene for a candidate virulent factor, a putative outer membrane protein, is necessary for infection of oysters. Finally, analyses of oyster mortality following experimental infection suggest that disease onset can be facilitated by the presence of nonvirulent strains. This is a new form of polymicrobial disease, in which nonpathogenic strains contribute to increase mortality. PMID:25489729

  14. Populations, not clones, are the unit of vibrio pathogenesis in naturally infected oysters.

    PubMed

    Lemire, Astrid; Goudenège, David; Versigny, Typhaine; Petton, Bruno; Calteau, Alexandra; Labreuche, Yannick; Le Roux, Frédérique

    2015-07-01

    Disease in oysters has been steadily rising over the past decade, threatening the long-term survival of commercial and natural stocks. Our understanding and management of such diseases are of critical importance as aquaculture is an important aspect of dealing with the approaching worldwide food shortage. Although some bacteria of the Vibrio genus isolated from diseased oysters have been demonstrated to be pathogenic by experimental infection, direct causality has not been established. Little is known about the dynamics of how the bacterial population hosted by oysters changes during disease progression. Combining experimental ecology, a high-throughput infection assay and genome sequencing, we show that the onset of disease in oysters is associated with progressive replacement of diverse benign colonizers by members of a phylogenetically coherent virulent population. Although the virulent population is genetically diverse, all members of that population can cause disease. Comparative genomics across virulent and nonvirulent populations identified candidate virulence factors that were clustered in population-specific genomic regions. Genetic analyses revealed that one gene for a candidate virulent factor, a putative outer membrane protein, is necessary for infection of oysters. Finally, analyses of oyster mortality following experimental infection suggest that disease onset can be facilitated by the presence of nonvirulent strains. This is a new form of polymicrobial disease, in which nonpathogenic strains contribute to increase mortality.

  15. The nature, scope and impact of genomic prediction in beef cattle in the United States.

    PubMed

    Garrick, Dorian J

    2011-05-15

    Artificial selection has proven to be effective at altering the performance of animal production systems. Nevertheless, selection based on assessment of the genetic superiority of candidates is suboptimal as a result of errors in the prediction of genetic merit. Conventional breeding programs may extend phenotypic measurements on selection candidates to include correlated indicator traits, or delay selection decisions well beyond puberty so that phenotypic performance can be observed on progeny or other relatives. Extending the generation interval to increase the accuracy of selection reduces annual rates of gain compared to accurate selection and use of parents of the next generation at the immediate time they reach breeding age. Genomic prediction aims at reducing prediction errors at breeding age by exploiting information on the transmission of chromosome fragments from parents to selection candidates, in conjunction with knowledge on the value of every chromosome fragment. For genomic prediction to influence beef cattle breeding programs and the rate or cost of genetic gains, training analyses must be undertaken, and genomic prediction tools made available for breeders and other industry stakeholders. This paper reviews the nature or kind of studies currently underway, the scope or extent of some of those studies, and comments on the likely predictive value of genomic information for beef cattle improvement. © 2011 Garrick; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  16. Natural-gas-fired CC unit holds NO[sub x] emissions below 9. 0 ppm

    SciTech Connect

    Grunbeck, G.

    1994-09-01

    This article describes the East Syracuse generating plant, one of first commercial stations to include LM6000 gas turbines, designed to solve noise and emissions problems. This natural-gas-fired, combined-cycle cogeneration facility provides 97 MW of power to Niagara Mohawk Power Corp and up to 80,000 lb/hr of process steam to a nearby Bristol-Myers Squibb Co plant. The plant's original design had contemplated a base-loaded facility. This stemmed from the original power sales agreement with Niagara Mohawk Power Corp. Flexibility of original design proved advantageous to the East Syracuse (NY) plant when, during the latter stages of construction, the original agreement was renegotiated into a schedulable'' contract. The new agreement now in force, providing for limited dispatch of one of the two gas turbines, is designed around other pre-existing project agreements. Design flexibility and the choice of two gas turbines made the plant capable of meeting dispatch requirements with only minor modifications of plant design and staffing.

  17. Direct measurements show decreasing methane emissions from natural gas local distribution systems in the United States.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Brian K; Edburg, Steven L; Ferrara, Thomas W; Howard, Touché; Harrison, Matthew R; Kolb, Charles E; Townsend-Small, Amy; Dyck, Wesley; Possolo, Antonio; Whetstone, James R

    2015-04-21

    Fugitive losses from natural gas distribution systems are a significant source of anthropogenic methane. Here, we report on a national sampling program to measure methane emissions from 13 urban distribution systems across the U.S. Emission factors were derived from direct measurements at 230 underground pipeline leaks and 229 metering and regulating facilities using stratified random sampling. When these new emission factors are combined with estimates for customer meters, maintenance, and upsets, and current pipeline miles and numbers of facilities, the total estimate is 393 Gg/yr with a 95% upper confidence limit of 854 Gg/yr (0.10% to 0.22% of the methane delivered nationwide). This fraction includes emissions from city gates to the customer meter, but does not include other urban sources or those downstream of customer meters. The upper confidence limit accounts for the skewed distribution of measurements, where a few large emitters accounted for most of the emissions. This emission estimate is 36% to 70% less than the 2011 EPA inventory, (based largely on 1990s emission data), and reflects significant upgrades at metering and regulating stations, improvements in leak detection and maintenance activities, as well as potential effects from differences in methodologies between the two studies.

  18. The impact of the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity on natural products research.

    PubMed

    Cragg, Gordon M; Katz, Flora; Newman, David J; Rosenthal, Joshua

    2012-12-01

    The discovery and development of novel, biologically active agents from natural sources, whether they be drugs, agrochemicals or other bioactive entities, involve a high level of interdisciplinary as well as international collaboration. Such collaboration, particularly at the international level, requires the careful negotiation of collaborative agreements protecting the rights of all parties, with special attention being paid to the rights of host (source) country governments, communities and scientific organizations. While many biodiversity-rich source countries currently might not have the necessary resources for in-country drug discovery and advanced development, they provide valuable opportunities for collaboration in this endeavor with research organizations from more high-income nations. This chapter discusses the experiences of the US National Cancer Institute and the US government-sponsored International Cooperative Biodiversity Groups program in the establishment of international agreements in the context of the Convention of Biological Diversity's objectives of promoting fair and equitable collaboration with multiple parties in many countries, and includes some specific lessons of value in developing such collaborations.

  19. Phylogenetic characterisation of naturally occurring feline immunodeficiency virus in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Samman, A; McMonagle, E L; Logan, N; Willett, B J; Biek, R; Hosie, M J

    2011-06-02

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a significant pathogen of domestic and non-domestic felids worldwide. In domestic cats, FIV is classified into five distinct subtypes (A-E) with subtypes A and B distributed most widely. However, little is known about the degree of intrasubtype viral diversity and this may prove critical in determining whether monovalent vaccines are likely to protect against FIV strains within a single subtype. Here, we characterise novel env sequences from 47 FIV strains recovered from infected cats in the United Kingdom and its environs. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that all bar one sequence belonged to subtype A, the predominant subtype in Western Europe. A single sequence was identified as a likely subtype A/C recombinant, intriguing given that subtype C does not appear to exist in either the UK or North Western Europe and suggestive of a recombination event predating its introduction into the UK. Subtype A strains from the UK were not significantly differentiated from representative subtype A isolates found elsewhere suggesting multiple introductions of FIV into the country. Divergence among isolates was comparable to that observed for subtype A isolates worldwide, indicating that FIV in the UK covers the full spectrum of subtype A diversity seen globally. This study demonstrates that while subtype A is predominant in the UK, novel introductions may result in the emergence of novel subtypes or intersubtype recombinants, potentially circumventing vaccine strategies. However, the dominance of subtype A suggests that the development of a regional or subtype-specific protective vaccine for the UK could be achievable.

  20. The cost of karst subsidence and sinkhole collapse in the United States compared with other natural hazards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weary, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Rocks with potential for karst formation are found in all 50 states. Damage due to karst subsidence and sinkhole collapse is a natural hazard of national scope. Repair of damage to buildings, highways, and other infrastructure represents a significant national cost. Sparse and incomplete data show that the average cost of karst-related damages in the United States over the last 15 years is estimated to be at least $300,000,000 per year and the actual total is probably much higher. This estimate is lower than the estimated annual costs for other natural hazards; flooding, hurricanes and cyclonic storms, tornadoes, landslides, earthquakes, or wildfires, all of which average over $1 billion per year. Very few state organizations track karst subsidence and sinkhole damage mitigation costs; none occurs at the Federal level. Many states discuss the karst hazard in their State hazard mitigation plans, but seldom include detailed reports of subsidence incidents or their mitigation costs. Most State highway departments do not differentiate karst subsidence or sinkhole collapse from other road repair costs. Amassing of these data would raise the estimated annual cost considerably. Information from insurance organizations about sinkhole damage claims and payouts is also not readily available. Currently there is no agency with a mandate for developing such data. If a more realistic estimate could be made, it would illuminate the national scope of this hazard and make comparison with costs of other natural hazards more realistic.

  1. Factors affecting the United Nations' response to natural disasters: what determines the allocation of the Central Emergency Response Fund?

    PubMed

    Robinson, Tyler D; Oliveira, Thiago M; Kayden, Stephanie

    2017-01-30

    Natural disasters can overwhelm the domestic response of a country, leaving it dependent on external humanitarian relief. The Central Emergency Response Fund (CERF) of the United Nations centralises humanitarian funding and thus allows for a rapid response. This study combined data to analyse the factors that affected the allocation of CERF funding to countries that suffered a natural disaster between 2007 and 2013. It generated descriptive statistics and information on relative risks, and performed regressions of CERF funding across countries. There were 4,346 disasters in total in 188 countries between 2007 and 2013. CERF provided USD 2.98 billion to 87 countries, comprising 3.3 per cent of their total humanitarian funding. CERF more frequently supplied aid to countries in North Africa and the Middle East, and to those that had suffered geophysical disasters. Appropriately, it funds vulnerable countries experiencing severe natural disasters, yet its funding may be affected by variables beyond severity and vulnerability. Further investigation is warranted, therefore.

  2. Isotopic Composition and Origin of Indigenous Natural Perchlorate and Co-Occurring Nitrate in the Southwestern United States

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Andrew; Bohlke, J. K.; Gu, Baohua; Hatzinger, Paul B.; Sturchio, N. C.

    2010-01-01

    Perchlorate (ClO4-) has been detected over an expansive area in groundwater and soils in the southwestern United States. Because of its wide distribution, much of the ClO4- is presumed to be from natural sources, primarily atmospheric deposition and accumulation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the range of the isotopic composition of natural ClO4- indigenous to the southwestern U.S. Stable isotope ratios of Cl and O were determined for ClO4- collected from numerous sources, including: groundwater from several locations in the southern high plains (SHP) of Texas and New Mexico and the middle Rio Grande Basin in New Mexico, vadose zone soil from the SHP, and surface NO3--rich caliches from four locations in Death Valley, CA. The data suggest that natural ClO4- in the southwestern U.S. has at least two distinctive isotope signatures that differ both from each other and from those previously reported for natural ClO4- from the Atacama Desert of Chile and all anthropogenic ClO4- sources tested to date. The ClO4- in four caliche samples collected in Death Valley has high 17O values (8.6 to 18.4 ), similar to those described for ClO4- from the Atacama, and suggesting atmospheric formation via reaction with ozone (O3). However, the Death Valley samples have 37Cl values (-3.1 to -0.8 ) and 18O values (+2.9 to +26.1 ), that are appreciably higher than Atacama perchlorate ( 37Cl; -14.3 to -10.2 and 18O; (-10.5 to -2.2 , respectively). In contrast, samples from 8 locations in West Texas and New Mexico were characterized by only a slight elevation in 17O (0.3 to 1.3 ), suggesting either that this material is not primarily generated with O3 as a reactant or that the ClO4- has been consistently altered post-deposition by one or more processes that caused isotopic exchange of O. The 37Cl values in the SHP perchlorate (+ 3.4 to + 5.1 ) were consistently higher than for the Atacama or Death Valley salts, while the 18O values (+ 0.5 to + 4.8 ) overlapped significantly

  3. Isolation and screening of microalgae from natural habitats in the midwestern United States of America for biomass and biodiesel sources

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Keesoo; Eisterhold, Megan L.; Rindi, Fabio; Palanisami, Swaminathan; Nam, Paul K.

    2014-01-01

    Native species of microalgae were isolated from natural water bodies in the Midwestern United States of America and were screened for the ultimate goal of mass cultivation in Missouri and the surrounding states, and for their potential as biomass and biodiesel sources. A number of different nutrient media recipes were utilized to isolate the maximum number of colonies from each field samples. These nutrient recipes were modified in order to optimize the isolation and growth dynamics of specific colonies. All of the isolates were categorized based on the morphological appearance of the culture and the microscopic cellular appearance of the isolated colonies. Isolates included many common green microalgae and cyanobacteria. Lipid content was determined for selected strains that demonstrated relatively quick growth. Scenedesmus sp. that demonstrated the high growth rate, resistance to invasion, and contained sufficient amounts of lipid was investigated for its potential as a sustainable biomass and biodiesel feedstocks. PMID:25097410

  4. Characterizing the natural radiation levels throughout the main geological units of Sabkhat al Jabboul area, northern Syria.

    PubMed

    Al-Hilal, Mohamed; Aissa, Mosa

    2015-02-01

    The concentrations of equivalent eU, eTh, and K% were determined together with soil gas radon values and carborne gamma-ray survey in order to define the natural radioactivity levels throughout main geological units of Sabkhat al Jabboul region. Forty five soil and rock samples were collected from various lithofacies in each geological unit, and analyzed by γ-ray spectrometric technique for determining the concentration values of major radioelements. Such radiometric data could be used to differentiate between various lithologies of the investigated rocks. Although no distinct radioactive anomalies were found in the area, the radiometric profiles showed some minor variations with slightly higher values than the normal level. Despite the low radioactivity and the lack of rocks diversity in the surveyed area, it was possible to classify some certain rock types based on their radiometric response. The relationships between eU, eTh and their ratios were discussed for the Quaternary, Neogene and Paleogene formations, in order to evaluate the degree of uranium distribution and remobilization. The overall results of this radiometric survey were generally low, and lying within the range of the normal background levels in Syrian.

  5. A Research-Informed Instructional Unit to Teach the Nature of Science to Pre-Service Science Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adúriz-Bravo, Agustín; Izquierdo-Aymerich, Mercè

    2009-09-01

    In this paper we discuss the foundations and process of design of a research-informed instructional unit aimed for pre-service science teacher education. The unit covers some key ideas on the nature of science (around methodology, theory change, scientific inference and explanation, values, gender issues) anchoring them in a well-known episode from the history of science—the ‘discovery’ of radium by the Curies. Such episode is mainly examined as reconstructed in the 1997 French commercial film ‘Les Palmes de Monsieur Schutz’. Pre-service science teachers are required to solve three tasks, individually and in small groups; those tasks are respectively centred around: (1) the distinction between ‘discovering’ and ‘inventing’; (2) scientific modelling via abduction; and (3) the extended hagiographic treatment of the figure of Madame Curie. Plenary debates around the tasks aim at acquainting pre-service science teachers with some powerful concepts of twentieth century philosophy of science.

  6. 2016 one-year seismic hazard forecast for the Central and Eastern United States from induced and natural earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, Mark D.; Mueller, Charles S.; Moschetti, Morgan P.; Hoover, Susan M.; Llenos, Andrea L.; Ellsworth, William L.; Michael, Andrew J.; Rubinstein, Justin L.; McGarr, Arthur F.; Rukstales, Kenneth S.

    2016-03-28

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has produced a 1-year seismic hazard forecast for 2016 for the Central and Eastern United States (CEUS) that includes contributions from both induced and natural earthquakes. The model assumes that earthquake rates calculated from several different time windows will remain relatively stationary and can be used to forecast earthquake hazard and damage intensity for the year 2016. This assessment is the first step in developing an operational earthquake forecast for the CEUS, and the analysis could be revised with updated seismicity and model parameters. Consensus input models consider alternative earthquake catalog durations, smoothing parameters, maximum magnitudes, and ground motion estimates, and represent uncertainties in earthquake occurrence and diversity of opinion in the science community. Ground shaking seismic hazard for 1-percent probability of exceedance in 1 year reaches 0.6 g (as a fraction of standard gravity [g]) in northern Oklahoma and southern Kansas, and about 0.2 g in the Raton Basin of Colorado and New Mexico, in central Arkansas, and in north-central Texas near Dallas. Near some areas of active induced earthquakes, hazard is higher than in the 2014 USGS National Seismic Hazard Model (NHSM) by more than a factor of 3; the 2014 NHSM did not consider induced earthquakes. In some areas, previously observed induced earthquakes have stopped, so the seismic hazard reverts back to the 2014 NSHM. Increased seismic activity, whether defined as induced or natural, produces high hazard. Conversion of ground shaking to seismic intensity indicates that some places in Oklahoma, Kansas, Colorado, New Mexico, Texas, and Arkansas may experience damage if the induced seismicity continues unabated. The chance of having Modified Mercalli Intensity (MMI) VI or greater (damaging earthquake shaking) is 5–12 percent per year in north-central Oklahoma and southern Kansas, similar to the chance of damage caused by natural earthquakes

  7. Comparison of resource assessment methods and geologic controls--deep natural gas plays and zones, United States and Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Dyman, T.S. ); Belonin, M.D. )

    1996-01-01

    Deep (greater than 4.5 km--15,000 ft) conventional natural gas resources will play an important role in the future energy needs of the United States and Russia. Deep sedimentary basins are widespread in these countries and have formed in a variety of depositional and tectonic settings. Significant volumes of undiscovered deep natural gas are in the Gulf Coast, Anadarko, Permian, and Rocky Mountain basins of the U.S., and in the Timan-Pechora, West Siberia, East Siberia, and North and South Caspian basins of the former Soviet Union. Deep natural gas resources are regularly assessed by the All-Russia Petroleum Research Exploration Institute (VNIGRI) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as part of their normal research activities. Both VNIGRI and the USGS employ similar assessment methods involving play (or zone) analysis using geological data and based on an analysis of confirmed and hypothetical plays using field-size distributions, discovery-process models, and statistical estimation procedures that yield probabilistic estimates of undiscovered accumulations. Resource estimates for the deep structural and statigraphic plays of the Anadarko basin and deep Paleozoic zones in the Timan-Pechora basin are compared and contrasted using both methods. Differences in results of assessments between VNIGRI and USGS arise due to (1) the way in which plays/zones are defined, (2) different geochemical models for hydrocarbon generation as applied to hypothetical plays, (3) variations in the ways in which statistical estimation procedures are applied to plays and regions, and (4) differences in economic and technologic assumptions, reserve growth calculations, and accumulation size limits and ranges.

  8. Comparison of resource assessment methods and geologic controls--deep natural gas plays and zones, United States and Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Dyman, T.S.; Belonin, M.D.

    1996-12-31

    Deep (greater than 4.5 km--15,000 ft) conventional natural gas resources will play an important role in the future energy needs of the United States and Russia. Deep sedimentary basins are widespread in these countries and have formed in a variety of depositional and tectonic settings. Significant volumes of undiscovered deep natural gas are in the Gulf Coast, Anadarko, Permian, and Rocky Mountain basins of the U.S., and in the Timan-Pechora, West Siberia, East Siberia, and North and South Caspian basins of the former Soviet Union. Deep natural gas resources are regularly assessed by the All-Russia Petroleum Research Exploration Institute (VNIGRI) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as part of their normal research activities. Both VNIGRI and the USGS employ similar assessment methods involving play (or zone) analysis using geological data and based on an analysis of confirmed and hypothetical plays using field-size distributions, discovery-process models, and statistical estimation procedures that yield probabilistic estimates of undiscovered accumulations. Resource estimates for the deep structural and statigraphic plays of the Anadarko basin and deep Paleozoic zones in the Timan-Pechora basin are compared and contrasted using both methods. Differences in results of assessments between VNIGRI and USGS arise due to (1) the way in which plays/zones are defined, (2) different geochemical models for hydrocarbon generation as applied to hypothetical plays, (3) variations in the ways in which statistical estimation procedures are applied to plays and regions, and (4) differences in economic and technologic assumptions, reserve growth calculations, and accumulation size limits and ranges.

  9. Global Change: How Humans and Nature Impact Our Planet. Self-Directed Study Units for Grades K-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Mary

    This book consists of two complete units on global change. The first unit is created for lower elementary students and the second one is for upper elementary grade levels. The units are designed for gifted students and encourage students to be responsible for their own education. Each unit is based on an interdisciplinary approach. Suggestions for…

  10. Selected natural attenuation monitoring data, Operable Unit 1, Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Keyport, Washington, June 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dinico, Richard Steven

    2003-01-01

    Previous investigations have shown that natural attenuation and biodegradation of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs) are substantial in shallow ground water beneath the 9-acre former landfill at Operable Unit 1 (OU 1), Naval Undersea Warfare Center (NUWC), Division Keyport, Washington. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has continued to monitor ground-water geochemistry to assure that conditions remain favorable for contaminant biodegradation. This report presents the ground-water geochemical and selected CVOC data collected at OU 1 by the USGS during June 11-14, 2001 in support of the long-term monitoring for natural attenuation. Overall, the June 2001 data indicate that redox conditions in the upper aquifer remain favorable for reductive dechlorination of CVOCs because strongly reducing conditions persisted beneath much of the former landfill. Redox conditions in the intermediate aquifer down gradient of the landfill appear to have become more favorable for reductive dechlorination because June 2001 dissolved hydrogen concentrations indicated strongly reducing conditions there for the first time. Although changes in redox conditions were observed at certain wells during 2001, a longer monitoring period is needed to ascertain if phytoremediation activities are affecting the ground-water chemistry. A minor change to future monitoring is proposed. Filtered organic carbon (previously referred to as dissolved, and defined as that which passes through a 0.45-micrometer membrane filter) should be analyzed in the future rather than unfiltered (previously referred to as total) organic carbon because the filtered analysis may be a better measure of bioavailable organic carbon. Unfiltered and filtered organic carbon data were collected during June 2001 for comparison. Filtered organic carbon data collected in the future could be reasonably compared with historical unfiltered organic carbon data by multiplying the historical data by a factor of about 0.9.

  11. Water usage for natural gas production through hydraulic fracturing in the United States from 2008 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huan; Carter, Kimberly E

    2016-04-01

    Hydraulic fracturing has promoted the exploitation of shale oil and natural gas in the United States (U.S.). However, the large amounts of water used in hydraulic fracturing may constrain oil and natural gas production in the shale plays. This study surveyed the amounts of freshwater and recycled produced water used to fracture wells from 2008 to 2014 in Arkansas, California, Colorado, Kansas, Louisiana, Montana, North Dakota, New Mexico, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Texas, West Virginia, and Wyoming. Results showed that the annual average water volumes used per well in most of these states ranged between 1000 m(3) and 30,000 m(3). The highest total amount of water was consumed in Texas with 457.42 Mm(3) of water used to fracture 40,521 wells, followed by Pennsylvania with 108.67 Mm(3) of water used to treat 5127 wells. Water usages ranged from 96.85 Mm(3) to 166.10 Mm(3) annually in Texas from 2012 to 2014 with more than 10,000 wells fractured during that time. The percentage of water used for hydraulic fracturing in each state was relatively low compared to water usages for other industries. From 2009 to 2014, 6.55% (median) of the water volume used in hydraulic fracturing contained recycled produced water or recycled hydraulic fracturing wastewater. 10.84% (median) of wells produced by hydraulic fracturing were treated with recycled produced water. The percentage of wells where recycled wastewater was used was lower, except in Ohio and Arkansas, where more than half of the wells were fractured using recycled produced water. The median recycled wastewater volume in produced wells was 7127 m(3) per well, more than half the median value in annual water used per well 11,259 m(3). This indicates that, for wells recycling wastewater, more than half of their water use consisted of recycled wastewater.

  12. Selected natural attenuation monitoring data, Operable Unit 1, Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Keyport, Washington, June 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dinicola, Richard S.; Huffman, R.L.

    2004-01-01

    Previous investigations have shown that natural attenuation and biodegradation of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs) are substantial in shallow ground water beneath the 9-acre former landfill at Operable Unit 1 (OU 1), Naval Undersea Warfare Center (NUWC), Division Keyport, Washington. This report presents the ground-water geochemical and selected CVOC data collected at OU 1 by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) during June 17-20, 2003 in support of long-term monitoring for natural attenuation. Strongly reducing conditions favorable for reductive dechlorination of CVOCs were found in fewer upper-aquifer wells during June 2003 than were found during sampling periods in 2001 and 2002. Redox conditions in water from the intermediate aquifer just downgradient from the landfill remained somewhat favorable for reductive dechlorination. As was noted in previous monitoring reports, the changes in redox conditions observed at individual wells have not been consistent or substantial throughout either the upper or the intermediate aquifers. Compared to 2002 data, total CVOC concentrations in June 2003 were nearly unchanged in all northern plantation piezometers sampled, although the concentrations were historically low at two of those sites. Total CVOC concentrations decreased consistently in the southern plantation samples. Historically low total CVOC concentrations were observed in three of the piezometers sampled, and a two order-of-magnitude decrease in total CVOCs was observed at one of those sites. The observed decreases in CVOC concentrations appear to be in contrast with the 2003 redox data that suggested less favorable conditions for reductive dechlorination. The Navy and USGS plan to do more extensive data-collection and interpretation during 2004 to better understand and document possible changes in redox conditions and contaminant biodegradation.

  13. Analysis of Natural and Anthropogenic Radionuclide Content in Palm Date Fruit of the United Arab Emirates: A Baseline Study.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Rubina; Solodov, Alexander

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to contribute to a wider effort of establishing an environmental radiation baseline for the United Arab Emirates (UAE) before the startup of the country's first nuclear reactor in 2017. An investigation of gamma-emitting radionuclide concentrations in palm dates grown in the UAE was performed. Palm date samples of 10 varieties originating from several local commercial date palm farms of the UAE were collected and analyzed. The study targeted the naturally occurring radionuclides, such as U, Th, and K, in addition to any potential anthropogenic radionuclides, such as Cs and others. Gamma spectrometry revealed measured activity concentrations for U (Ra), Th (Ra), and K that ranged from 0.61 to 0.80 Bq kg, 0.10 to 0.23 Bq kg, and 191 to 362 Bq kg, respectively, on a dry-weight basis, and calculated activity concentrations on a wet basis ranged from 0.52 to 0.69 Bq kg, 0.09 to 0.22 Bq kg, and 168 to 297 Bq kg, respectively. No Cs or other anthropogenic radionuclides could be detected in this study. All measurements were performed using a coaxial HPGe detector with 40% relative efficiency quoted by the manufacturer. Efficiency calibration correction factors were calculated using Angle software.

  14. Conflicts and natural disaster management: a comparative study of flood control in the Republic of Korea and the United States.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jibum

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this research is to analyse the conflicts that arise among major stakeholders during the process of disaster management and to suggest policy recommendations for improving disaster management systems. It describes several important conflict cases that have occurred among major stakeholders, such as governments, private-sector entities, and non-governmental organisations, during natural disaster management. In addition, it probes the similarities and the differences between such conflicts in the Republic of Korea and the United States. The differences between them may originate from a range of factors, such as the disaster itself, cultural features, management practices, and government organisation. However, the conflicts also are very similar in some ways, as the motivations and the behaviour of stakeholders during a disaster are alike in both countries. Based on this comparison, the study presents some common and important implications for successful disaster management practices in Korea and the US, as well as in many other nations around the world. © 2016 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2016.

  15. Changing perceptions of United States natural-gas resources as shown by successive U. S. Department of the Interior assessments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmoker, James W.; Dyman, Thaddeus S.

    2001-01-01

    Trends in four successive estimates of United States technically recoverable natural gas resources are examined in this report. The effective dates of these assessments were January 1 of 1975, 1980, 1987, and 1994. The 1994 estimate of the U.S. total gas endowment increased significantly over the previous three estimates, indicating that the technically recoverable endowment of gas is not an absolute volume, but rather is a quantity that can increase through time in response to advances in technology and in geologic understanding. Much of this increase was in the category of reserve growth. Reserve growth refers to additions to the estimated ultimate recovery of fields that typically occur as discovered fields are developed and produced. The potential for U.S. reserve growth, rather than being rapidly used up, appears to be sustainable for many years by intensive engineering efforts coupled with improving technology. Potential additions to reserves in continuous (unconventional) accumulations also represent a type of reserve growth, and were estimated (for the first time) in the 1994 assessment at 358 trillion cubic feet of gas. This resource category provides a significant new contribution to the estimated U.S. total gas endowment.

  16. Challenge theme 6: Natural hazard risks in the Borderlands: Chapter 8 in United States-Mexican Borderlands: Facing tomorrow's challenges through USGS science

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Page, William R.; Parcher, Jean W.; Stefanov, Jim

    2013-01-01

    Natural hazards such as earthquakes, landslides and debris flows, wildfires, hurricanes, and intense storm-induced flash floods threaten communities to varying degrees all along the United States–Mexican border. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collaborates with Federal, State, and local agencies to minimize the effects of natural hazards by providing timely, unbiased science information to emergency response officials, resource managers, and the public to help reduce property damage, injury, and loss of life. The USGS often mobilizes response efforts during and after a natural hazard event to provide technical and scientific counsel on recovery and response, and it has a long history of deploying emergency response teams to major disasters in both domestic and international locations. This chapter describes the challenges of natural hazards in the United States–Mexican border region and the capabilities of the USGS in the fields of hazard research, monitoring, and assessment, as well as preventative mitigation and post-disaster response.

  17. Seismic‐hazard forecast for 2016 including induced and natural earthquakes in the central and eastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, Mark D.; Mueller, Charles; Moschetti, Morgan P.; Hoover, Susan M.; Llenos, Andrea L.; Ellsworth, William L.; Michael, Andrew J.; Rubinstein, Justin L.; McGarr, Arthur F.; Rukstales, Kenneth S.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has produced a one‐year (2016) probabilistic seismic‐hazard assessment for the central and eastern United States (CEUS) that includes contributions from both induced and natural earthquakes that are constructed with probabilistic methods using alternative data and inputs. This hazard assessment builds on our 2016 final model (Petersen et al., 2016) by adding sensitivity studies, illustrating hazard in new ways, incorporating new population data, and discussing potential improvements. The model considers short‐term seismic activity rates (primarily 2014–2015) and assumes that the activity rates will remain stationary over short time intervals. The final model considers different ways of categorizing induced and natural earthquakes by incorporating two equally weighted earthquake rate submodels that are composed of alternative earthquake inputs for catalog duration, smoothing parameters, maximum magnitudes, and ground‐motion models. These alternatives represent uncertainties on how we calculate earthquake occurrence and the diversity of opinion within the science community. In this article, we also test sensitivity to the minimum moment magnitude between M 4 and M 4.7 and the choice of applying a declustered catalog with b=1.0 rather than the full catalog with b=1.3. We incorporate two earthquake rate submodels: in the informed submodel we classify earthquakes as induced or natural, and in the adaptive submodel we do not differentiate. The alternative submodel hazard maps both depict high hazard and these are combined in the final model. Results depict several ground‐shaking measures as well as intensity and include maps showing a high‐hazard level (1% probability of exceedance in 1 year or greater). Ground motions reach 0.6g horizontal peak ground acceleration (PGA) in north‐central Oklahoma and southern Kansas, and about 0.2g PGA in the Raton basin of Colorado and New Mexico, in central Arkansas, and in

  18. Isotopic composition and origin of indigenous natural perchlorate and co-occurring nitrate in the southwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Jackson, W Andrew; Böhlke, John Karl; Gu, Baohua; Hatzinger, Paul B; Sturchio, Neil C

    2010-07-01

    Perchlorate (ClO(4)(-)) has been detected widely in groundwater and soils of the southwestern United States. Much of this ClO(4)(-) appears to be natural, and it may have accumulated largely through wet and dry atmospheric deposition. This study evaluates the isotopic composition of natural ClO(4)(-) indigenous to the southwestern U.S. Stable isotope ratios were measured in ClO(4)(-) (delta(18)O, Delta(17)O, delta(37)Cl) and associated NO(3)(-) (delta(18)O, Delta(17)O, delta(15)N) in groundwater from the southern High Plains (SHP) of Texas and New Mexico and the Middle Rio Grande Basin (MRGB) in New Mexico, from unsaturated subsoil in the SHP, and from NO(3)(-)-rich surface caliche deposits near Death Valley, California. The data indicate natural ClO(4)(-) in the southwestern U.S. has a wide range of isotopic compositions that are distinct from those reported previously for natural ClO(4)(-) from the Atacama Desert of Chile as well as all known synthetic ClO(4)(-). ClO(4)(-) in Death Valley caliche has a range of high Delta(17)O values (+8.6 to +18.4 per thousand), overlapping and extending the Atacama range, indicating at least partial atmospheric formation via reaction with ozone (O(3)). However, the Death Valley delta(37)Cl values (-3.1 to -0.8 per thousand) and delta(18)O values (+2.9 to +26.1 per thousand) are higher than those of Atacama ClO(4)(-). In contrast, ClO(4)(-) from western Texas and New Mexico has much lower Delta(17)O (+0.3 to +1.3 per thousand), with relatively high delta(37)Cl (+3.4 to +5.1 per thousand) and delta(18)O (+0.5 to +4.8 per thousand), indicating either that this material was not primarily generated with O(3) as a reactant or that the ClO(4)(-) was affected by postdepositional O isotope exchange. High Delta(17)O values in ClO(4)(-) (Atacama and Death Valley) are associated with high Delta(17)O values in NO(3)(-), indicating that both compounds preserve characteristics of O(3)-related atmospheric production in hyper-arid settings

  19. Isotopic composition and origin of indigenous natural perchlorate and co-occurring nitrate in the southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jackson, W. Andrew; Böhlke, John Karl; Gu, Baohua; Hatzinger, Paul B.; Sturchio, Neil C.

    2010-01-01

    Perchlorate (ClO4−) has been detected widely in groundwater and soils of the southwestern United States. Much of this ClO4− appears to be natural, and it may have accumulated largely through wet and dry atmospheric deposition. This study evaluates the isotopic composition of natural ClO4− indigenous to the southwestern U.S. Stable isotope ratios were measured in ClO4− (δ18O, Δ17O, δ37Cl) and associated NO3− (δ18O, Δ17O, δ15N) in groundwater from the southern High Plains (SHP) of Texas and New Mexico and the Middle Rio Grande Basin (MRGB) in New Mexico, from unsaturated subsoil in the SHP, and from NO3−-rich surface caliche deposits near Death Valley, California. The data indicate natural ClO4− in the southwestern U.S. has a wide range of isotopic compositions that are distinct from those reported previously for natural ClO4− from the Atacama Desert of Chile as well as all known synthetic ClO4−. ClO4− in Death Valley caliche has a range of high Δ17O values (+8.6 to +18.4 ‰), overlapping and extending the Atacama range, indicating at least partial atmospheric formation via reaction with ozone (O3). However, the Death Valley δ37Cl values (−3.1 to −0.8 ‰) and δ18O values (+2.9 to +26.1‰) are higher than those of Atacama ClO4−. In contrast, ClO4− from western Texas and New Mexico has much lower Δ17O (+0.3 to +1.3‰), with relatively high δ37Cl (+3.4 to +5.1 ‰) and δ18O (+0.5 to +4.8 ‰), indicating either that this material was not primarily generated with O3 as a reactant or that the ClO4− was affected by postdepositional O isotope exchange. High Δ17O values in ClO4− (Atacama and Death Valley) are associated with high Δ17O values in NO3−, indicating that both compounds preserve characteristics of O3-related atmospheric production in hyper-arid settings, whereas both compounds have low Δ17O values in less arid settings. Although Δ17O variations in terrestrial NO3− can be attributed to mixing of atmospheric

  20. Nature, origin, and production characteristics of the Lower Silurian regional oil and gas accumulation, central Appalachian basin, United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryder, R.; Zagorski, W.A.

    2003-01-01

    uplift and erosion, causing gas leakage and a marked reduction in fluid pressure. Most future natural-gas production in the Clinton/Medina sandstones is anticipated to come from the basin-center accumulation. The Tuscarora Sandstone has additional gas resources but typically low reservoir porosity and permeability, and the likelihood of low-energy (in British thermal units) gas reduce the incentive to explore for it.

  1. Selected natural attenuation monitoring data, Operable Unit 1, Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Keyport, Washington, June 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dinicola, Richard S.

    2004-01-01

    Previous investigations indicated that natural attenuation and biodegradation of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs) are substantial in shallow ground water beneath the 9-acre former landfill at Operable Unit 1 (OU 1), Naval Undersea Warfare Center (NUWC), Division Keyport, Washington. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has continued to monitor ground-water geochemistry to assure that conditions remain favorable for contaminant biodegradation. This report presents the geochemical and selected CVOC data for ground water at OU 1, collected by the USGS during June 10-14, 2002, in support of long-term monitoring for natural attenuation. Overall, the geochemical data for June 2002 indicate that redox conditions in the upper-aquifer water remain favorable for reductive dechlorination of chlorinated VOCs because strongly reducing conditions persisted beneath much of the former landfill. Redox conditions in the intermediate aquifer downgradient of the landfill also remained favorable for reductive dechlorination, although the 2002 dissolved hydrogen (H2) concentration from well MW1-28 is questionable. Changes in redox conditions were observed at certain wells during 2002, but a longer monitoring period and more thorough interpretation are needed to ascertain if phytoremediation activities are affecting redox conditions and if biodegradation processes are changing over time. The Navy intends to complete a more thorough interpretation in preparation for the 5-year review of OU 1 scheduled for 2004. There were a few substantial differences between the 2002 concentrations and previously observed concentrations of volatile organic compounds. Total CVOC concentrations in 2002 samples decreased substantially in all piezometers sampled in the northern plantation, and the largest percentages of decrease were for the compounds trichloroethene (TCE) and cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cis-DCE). Changes in total CVOC concentrations in the southern plantation were less consistent

  2. The Nature of Small Business. Unit 2. Level 3. Instructor Guide. PACE: Program for Acquiring Competence in Entrepreneurship. Third Edition. Research & Development Series No. 303-02.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This instructor guide for a unit on the nature of small business in the PACE (Program for Acquiring Competence in Entrepreneurship) curriculum includes the full text of the student module and lesson plans, instructional suggestions, and other teacher resources. The competencies that are incorporated into this module are at Level 3 of…

  3. Why Is There Hunger in Africa? Nature Pleads "Not Guilty." A Curriculum Unit for Science and Social Studies Grades 7-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boston, Jane; Commins, Stephen

    This unit uses six activities to examine questions of world hunger as seen in an African context and the related policy issues. Each activity allows students to explore a case study demonstrating a factor that affects hunger and grapple with some of the challenges facing policymakers today. Students should come to understand the nature of hunger,…

  4. Why Is There Hunger in Africa? Nature Pleads "Not Guilty." A Curriculum Unit for Science and Social Studies Grades 7-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boston, Jane; Commins, Stephen

    This unit uses six activities to examine questions of world hunger as seen in an African context and the related policy issues. Each activity allows students to explore a case study demonstrating a factor that affects hunger and grapple with some of the challenges facing policymakers today. Students should come to understand the nature of hunger,…

  5. 2017 one-year seismic hazard forecast for the central and eastern United States from induced and natural earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, Mark D.; Mueller, Charles; Moschetti, Morgan P.; Hoover, Susan M.; Shumway, Allison; McNamara, Daniel E.; Williams, Robert A.; Llenos, Andrea L.; Ellsworth, William L.; Michael, Andrew J.; Rubinstein, Justin L.; McGarr, Arthur F.; Rukstales, Kenneth S.

    2017-01-01

    We produce the 2017 one-year seismic hazard forecast for the central and eastern United States from induced and natural earthquakes that updates the 2016 one-year forecast; this map is intended to provide information to the public and to facilitate the development of induced seismicity forecasting models, methods, and data. The 2017 hazard model applies the same methodology and input logic tree as the 2016 forecast, but with an updated earthquake catalog. We also evaluate the 2016 seismic hazard forecast to improve future assessments. The 2016 forecast indicated high seismic hazard (greater than 1% probability of potentially damaging ground shaking in one-year) in five focus areas: Oklahoma-Kansas, the Raton Basin (Colorado/New Mexico border), north Texas, north Arkansas, and the New Madrid Seismic Zone. During 2016, several damaging induced earthquakes occurred in Oklahoma within the highest hazard region of the 2016 forecast; all of the 21 magnitude (M) ≥ 4 and three M ≥ 5 earthquakes occurred within the highest hazard area in the 2016 forecast. Outside the Oklahoma-Kansas focus area two earthquakes with M ≥ 4 occurred near Trinidad, Colorado (in the Raton Basin focus area), but no earthquakes with M ≥ 2.7 were observed in the north Texas or north Arkansas focus areas. Several observations of damaging ground shaking levels were also recorded in the highest hazard region of Oklahoma. The 2017 forecasted seismic rates are lower in regions of induced activity due to lower rates of earthquakes in 2016 compared to 2015, which may be related to decreased wastewater injection, caused by regulatory actions or by a decrease in unconventional oil and gas production. Nevertheless, the 2017 forecasted hazard is still significantly elevated in Oklahoma compared to the hazard calculated from seismicity before 2009.

  6. 2017 One‐year seismic‐hazard forecast for the central and eastern United States from induced and natural earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, Mark D.; Mueller, Charles; Moschetti, Morgan P.; Hoover, Susan M.; Shumway, Allison; McNamara, Daniel E.; Williams, Robert; Llenos, Andrea L.; Ellsworth, William L; Rubinstein, Justin L.; McGarr, Arthur F.; Rukstales, Kenneth S.

    2017-01-01

    We produce a one‐year 2017 seismic‐hazard forecast for the central and eastern United States from induced and natural earthquakes that updates the 2016 one‐year forecast; this map is intended to provide information to the public and to facilitate the development of induced seismicity forecasting models, methods, and data. The 2017 hazard model applies the same methodology and input logic tree as the 2016 forecast, but with an updated earthquake catalog. We also evaluate the 2016 seismic‐hazard forecast to improve future assessments. The 2016 forecast indicated high seismic hazard (greater than 1% probability of potentially damaging ground shaking in one year) in five focus areas: Oklahoma–Kansas, the Raton basin (Colorado/New Mexico border), north Texas, north Arkansas, and the New Madrid Seismic Zone. During 2016, several damaging induced earthquakes occurred in Oklahoma within the highest hazard region of the 2016 forecast; all of the 21 moment magnitude (M) ≥4 and 3 M≥5 earthquakes occurred within the highest hazard area in the 2016 forecast. Outside the Oklahoma–Kansas focus area, two earthquakes with M≥4 occurred near Trinidad, Colorado (in the Raton basin focus area), but no earthquakes with M≥2.7 were observed in the north Texas or north Arkansas focus areas. Several observations of damaging ground‐shaking levels were also recorded in the highest hazard region of Oklahoma. The 2017 forecasted seismic rates are lower in regions of induced activity due to lower rates of earthquakes in 2016 compared with 2015, which may be related to decreased wastewater injection caused by regulatory actions or by a decrease in unconventional oil and gas production. Nevertheless, the 2017 forecasted hazard is still significantly elevated in Oklahoma compared to the hazard calculated from seismicity before 2009.

  7. Single-unit activity during natural vision: diversity, consistency, and spatial sensitivity among AF face patch neurons.

    PubMed

    McMahon, David B T; Russ, Brian E; Elnaiem, Heba D; Kurnikova, Anastasia I; Leopold, David A

    2015-04-08

    Several visual areas within the STS of the macaque brain respond strongly to faces and other biological stimuli. Determining the principles that govern neural responses in this region has proven challenging, due in part to the inherently complex stimulus domain of dynamic biological stimuli that are not captured by an easily parameterized stimulus set. Here we investigated neural responses in one fMRI-defined face patch in the anterior fundus (AF) of the STS while macaques freely view complex videos rich with natural social content. Longitudinal single-unit recordings allowed for the accumulation of each neuron's responses to repeated video presentations across sessions. We found that individual neurons, while diverse in their response patterns, were consistently and deterministically driven by the video content. We used principal component analysis to compute a family of eigenneurons, which summarized 24% of the shared population activity in the first two components. We found that the most prominent component of AF activity reflected an interaction between visible body region and scene layout. Close-up shots of faces elicited the strongest neural responses, whereas far away shots of faces or close-up shots of hindquarters elicited weak or inhibitory responses. Sensitivity to the apparent proximity of faces was also observed in gamma band local field potential. This category-selective sensitivity to spatial scale, together with the known exchange of anatomical projections of this area with regions involved in visuospatial analysis, suggests that the AF face patch may be specialized in aspects of face perception that pertain to the layout of a social scene.

  8. Selected Natural Attenuation Monitoring Data, Operable Unit 1, Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Keyport, Washington, 2007 and 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dinicola, R.S.; Huffman, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    Previous investigations indicate that natural attenuation and biodegradation of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are substantial in groundwater beneath the 9-acre former landfill at Operable Unit 1 (OU 1), Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Keyport, Washington. Phytoremediation combined with on-going natural attenuation processes was the preferred remedy selected by the Navy, as specified in the Record of Decision for the site. The Navy planted two hybrid poplar plantations on the landfill in spring 1999 to remove and to control the migration of chlorinated VOCs in shallow groundwater. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has continued to monitor groundwater geochemistry to ensure that conditions remain favorable for contaminant biodegradation as specified in the Record of Decision. In this report are groundwater geochemical and selected VOC data collected at OU 1 by the USGS during June 18-21, 2007, and June 16-18, 2008, in support of long-term monitoring for natural attenuation. For 2007 and 2008, strongly reducing conditions (sulfate reduction and methanogenesis) most favorable for reductive dechlorination of VOCs were inferred for 9 of 16 upper-aquifer wells and piezometers in the northern and southern phytoremediation plantations. Predominant redox conditions in groundwater from the intermediate aquifer just downgradient from the landfill remained mildly reducing and somewhat favorable for reductive dechlorination of VOCs. Dissolved hydrogen (H2) concentrations measured in the upper aquifer during 2007 and 2008 generally have been lower than H2 concentrations measured before 2002. However, widespread and relatively high methane and sulfide concentrations indicate that the lower H2 concentrations measured do not support a trend from strongly to mildly reducing redox conditions because no widespread changes in groundwater redox conditions were identified that should result in less favorable conditions for the reductive dechlorination of the

  9. Studies of Phase Change Materials and a Latent Heat Storage Unit Used for a Natural Circulation Cooling/Latent Heat Storage System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakitani, Katsumi; Honda, Hiroshi

    Experiments were performed to investigate feasibility of using organic materials as a PCM for a latent heat storage unit of a natural circulation cooling/latent heat storage system. This system was designed to cool a shelter accommodating telecommunication equipment located in subtropical deserts or similar regions without using a power source. Taking into account practical considerations and the results of various experiments regarding the thermodynamic properties, thermal degradation, and corrosiveness to metals, lauric acid and iron was selected for the PCM and the latent heat storage unit material, respectively. Cyclic heating and cooling of the latent heat storage unit undergoing solid-liquid phase change was repeated for more than 430 days. The results showed that the heating-cooling curve was almost unchanged between the early stage and the 1,870th cycle. It was concluded that the latent heat storage unit could be used safely for more than ten years as a component of the cooling system.

  10. EnviroAtlas - NatureServe Analysis of Imperiled or Federally Listed Species by HUC-12 for the Conterminous United States

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This EnviroAtlas dataset includes analysis by NatureServe of species that are Imperiled (G1/G2) or Listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA) by 12-digit Hydrologic Units (HUCs). The analysis results are for use and publication by both the LandScope America website and by the EnviroAtlas. Results are provided for the total number of Aquatic Associated G1-G2/ESA species, the total number of Wetland Associated G1-G2/ESA species, the total number of Terrestrial Associated G1-G2/ESA species, and the total number of Unknown Habitat Association G1-G2/ESA species in each HUC12. NatureServe is a non-profit organization dedicated to developing and providing information about the world's plants, animals, and ecological communities. NatureServe works in partnership with 82 independent Natural Heritage programs and Conservation Data Centers that gather scientific information on rare species and ecosystems in the United States, Latin America, and Canada (the Natural Heritage Network). NatureServe is a leading source for biodiversity information that is essential for effective conservation action. This dataset was produced by NatureServe to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data

  11. Selected Natural Attenuation Monitoring Data, Operable Unit 1, Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Keyport, Washington, June 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dinicola, Richard S.; Huffman, R.L.

    2006-01-01

    Previous investigations have shown that natural attenuation and biodegradation of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are substantial in shallow ground water beneath the 9-acre former landfill at Operable Unit 1 (OU-1), Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Keyport, Washington. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has continued to monitor ground-water geochemistry to assure that conditions remain favorable for contaminant biodegradation. This report presents the ground-water geochemical and selected VOC data collected at OU-1 by the USGS during June 21-24, 2005, in support of long-term monitoring for natural attenuation. For June 2005, the strongly reducing conditions (sulfate reduction and methanogenesis) most favorable for reductive dechlorination of chlorinated VOCs were detected in fewer upper-aquifer wells than were detected during 2004. Redox conditions in ground water from the intermediate aquifer just downgradient of the landfill remained somewhat favorable for reductive dechlorination. Overall, the changes in redox conditions observed at individual wells have not been consistent or substantial throughout either the upper or the intermediate aquifers. In apparent contrast to changes in redox conditions, the chlorinated VOC concentrations were lower than previously measured in many of the piezometers in the northern phytoremediation plantation. The decrease in contaminant concentrations beneath the northern plantation and the end-product (ethane and ethene) evidence for reductive dechlorination are consistent with 2000-04 results. In the southern phytoremediation plantation, changes in chlorinated VOC concentrations were variable. Most notable was a substantial decrease in the sum of trichloroethene, cis-1,2-dichloroethene, and vinyl chloride concentrations at piezometer P1-9 from 75,000 to 1,000 micrograms per liter between 2004 and 2005. The high concentrations of the reductive dechlorination end-products ethane and ethene measured at the most

  12. Selected Natural Attenuation Monitoring Data, Operable Unit 1, Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Keyport, Washington, June 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dinicola, R.S.; Huffman, R.L.

    2007-01-01

    Previous investigations have shown that natural attenuation and biodegradation of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are substantial in shallow ground water beneath the 9-acre former landfill at Operable Unit 1 (OU 1), Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Keyport, Washington. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has continued to monitor ground-water geochemistry to assure that conditions remain favorable for contaminant biodegradation. This report presents ground-water geochemical and selected VOC data collected at OU 1 by the USGS during June 12-14, 2006, in support of long-term monitoring for natural attenuation. For June 2006, the strongly reducing conditions (sulfate reduction and methanogenesis) most favorable for reductive dechlorination of VOCs were inferred for 5 of 15 upper-aquifer sites in the northern and southern phytoremediation plantations. Predominant redox conditions in ground water from the intermediate aquifer just downgradient from the landfill remained mildly reducing and somewhat favorable for reductive dechlorination. Since about 2003, measured dissolved hydrogen concentrations in the upper aquifer generally have been lower than those previously measured, although methane and sulfide have continued to be detected throughout the upper aquifer beneath the landfill. Overall, no widespread changes in ground-water redox conditions were measured that should result in either more or less efficient biodegradation of chlorinated VOCs. For the northern plantation in 2006, chlorinated VOC concentrations at piezometers P1-3 and P1-4 were lower than previously measured, and trichloroethene (TCE), cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cis-DCE), or vinyl chloride (VC) were not detected at piezometers P1-1 and P1-5. The steady decrease in contaminant concentrations and the continued detection of the reductive dechlorination end-products ethene and ethane have been consistent throughout the upper aquifer beneath the northern plantation. For the southern

  13. Financial Performance of Mixed-Age Naturally Regenerated Loblolly-Hardwood Stands in the South Central United States

    Treesearch

    Ronald Raunikar; Joseph Buongiorno; Jeffrey P. Prestemon; Karen Lee Abt

    2000-01-01

    To estimate the financial performance of a natural mixed species and mixed-age management in the loblolly-pine forest type, we examined 991 FIA plots in the south central states. The plots were of the loblolly pine forest type, mixed-age, and had been regenerated naturally. We gauged the financial performance of each plot from the equivalent annual income (EAI)...

  14. AcuteToxicological Responses of Fischer Rats to Naturally Occurring Asbestos Samples from the United States and Canada

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential public health issues related to exposure to natural asbestos deposits (commonly termed naturally occurring asbestos, NO A) has gained the regulatory and media spotlight in recent years. Arguably the most well known example is Libby, Montana, the site of the largest ...

  15. AcuteToxicological Responses of Fischer Rats to Naturally Occurring Asbestos Samples from the United States and Canada

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential public health issues related to exposure to natural asbestos deposits (commonly termed naturally occurring asbestos, NO A) has gained the regulatory and media spotlight in recent years. Arguably the most well known example is Libby, Montana, the site of the largest ...

  16. Acute Toxicological Responses of Fischer Rats to Naturally Occurring Asbestos from theUnited States and Canada

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was designed to provide understanding of the toxicity of naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) including Libby amphibole (LA), Sumas Mountain chrysotile (SM), EI Dorado Hills tremolite (ED) and Ontario actinolite/ferroactinolite cleavage fragments (ON). Ratrespirable fra...

  17. Acute Toxicological Responses of Fischer Rats to Naturally Occurring Asbestos from theUnited States and Canada

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was designed to provide understanding of the toxicity of naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) including Libby amphibole (LA), Sumas Mountain chrysotile (SM), EI Dorado Hills tremolite (ED) and Ontario actinolite/ferroactinolite cleavage fragments (ON). Ratrespirable fra...

  18. Natural Gas Methane Emissions in the United States Greenhouse Gas Inventory: Sources, Uncertainties and Opportunities for Improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Heath, Garvin; Warner, Ethan; Steinberg, Daniel; Brandt, Adam

    2015-11-19

    Presentation summarizing key findings of a Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis Report at an Environmental Protection Agency workshop: 'Stakeholder Workshop on EPA GHG Data on Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems' on November 19, 2015. For additional information see the JISEA report, 'Estimating U.S. Methane Emissions from the Natural Gas Supply Chain: Approaches, Uncertainties, Current Estimates, and Future Studies' NREL/TP-6A50-62820.

  19. Natural Gas Storage in the United States in 2001: A Current Assessment and Near-Term Outlook

    EIA Publications

    2001-01-01

    This report examines the large decline of underground natural gas storage inventories during the 2000-2001 heating season and the concern that the nation might run out of working gas in storage prior to the close of the heating season on March 31, 2001. This analysis also looks at the current profile and capabilities of the U.S. natural gas underground storage sector.

  20. Expatriate Academic Staff in the United Arab Emirates: The Nature of Their Work Experiences in Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Ann E.; Chapman, David W.; Farah, Samar; Wilson, Elisabeth; Ridge, Natasha

    2014-01-01

    As many countries expand their higher education systems, they must attract, support, and retain qualified academic staff. This paper focuses on the United Arab Emirates (UAE) as a case study of a nation drawing on large numbers of mostly expatriate faculty working in short-term academic appointments. The paper begins by considering the national…

  1. Enhancing Interpretation of Natural Phenomena through a Mathematical Apparatus: A Proposal of an Interactive Unit in Optics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sokolowski, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    This paper integrates technology, in the form of a physics simulation; science concepts, via image formation by lenses; and a mathematics apparatus, in the form of rational functions. All constituents merge into an instructional unit that can be embedded into a high school or undergraduate mathematics or physics course. The cognitive purpose of…

  2. Expatriate Academic Staff in the United Arab Emirates: The Nature of Their Work Experiences in Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Ann E.; Chapman, David W.; Farah, Samar; Wilson, Elisabeth; Ridge, Natasha

    2014-01-01

    As many countries expand their higher education systems, they must attract, support, and retain qualified academic staff. This paper focuses on the United Arab Emirates (UAE) as a case study of a nation drawing on large numbers of mostly expatriate faculty working in short-term academic appointments. The paper begins by considering the national…

  3. Initial efforts to develop a national strategy to protect crop wild relatives native or naturalized in the United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Historically, the call to conserve crop wild relatives has been driven by habitat degradation fueled by exponential population growth. Today, we have a clarion call for action, as historic impetuses are compounded by the forecast of global climate change. In the United States efforts have been movin...

  4. Enhancing Interpretation of Natural Phenomena through a Mathematical Apparatus: A Proposal of an Interactive Unit in Optics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sokolowski, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    This paper integrates technology, in the form of a physics simulation; science concepts, via image formation by lenses; and a mathematics apparatus, in the form of rational functions. All constituents merge into an instructional unit that can be embedded into a high school or undergraduate mathematics or physics course. The cognitive purpose of…

  5. The origin of recently established red fox populations in the United States: translocations or natural range expansions?

    Treesearch

    Mark J. Statham; Benjamin N. Sacks; Keith B. Aubry; John D. Perrine; Samantha M. Wisely

    2012-01-01

    Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) are native to boreal and western montane portions of North America but their origins are unknown in many lowland areas of the United States. Red foxes were historically absent from much of the East Coast at the time of European settlement and did not become common until the mid-1800s. Some early naturalists described an...

  6. Can we manage for resilience? The integration of resilience thinking into natural resource management in the United States.

    PubMed

    Benson, Melinda Harm; Garmestani, Ahjond S

    2011-09-01

    The concept of resilience is now frequently invoked by natural resource agencies in the US. This reflects growing trends within ecology, conservation biology, and other disciplines acknowledging that social-ecological systems require management approaches recognizing their complexity. In this paper, we examine the concept of resilience and the manner in which some legal and regulatory frameworks governing federal natural resource agencies have difficulty accommodating it. We then use the U.S. Forest Service's employment of resilience as an illustration of the challenges ahead.

  7. Evaluating differences in forest fragmentation and restoration between western natural forests and southeastern plantation forests in the United States.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xinyu; Lv, Yingying; Li, Mingshi

    2017-03-01

    Changes in forest ecosystem structure and functions are considered some of the research issues in landscape ecology. In this study, advancing Forman's theory, we considered five spatially explicit processes associated with fragmentation, including perforation, dissection, subdivision, shrinkage, and attrition, and two processes associated with restoration, i.e., increment and expansion processes. Following this theory, a forest fragmentation and restoration process model that can detect the spatially explicit processes and ecological consequences of forest landscape change was developed and tested in the current analysis. Using the National Land Cover Databases (2001, 2006 and 2011), the forest fragmentation and restoration process model was applied to US western natural forests and southeastern plantation forests to quantify and classify forest patch losses into one of the four fragmentation processes (the dissection process was merged into the subdivision process) and to classify the newly gained forest patches based on the two restoration processes. At the same time, the spatio-temporal differences in fragmentation and restoration patterns and trends between natural forests and plantations were further compared. Then, through overlaying the forest fragmentation/restoration processes maps with targeting year land cover data and land ownership vectors, the results from forest fragmentation and the contributors to forest restoration in federal and nonfederal lands were identified. Results showed that, in natural forests, the forest change patches concentrated around the urban/forest, cultivated/forest, and shrubland/forest interfaces, while the patterns of plantation change patches were scattered sparsely and irregularly. The shrinkage process was the most common type in forest fragmentation, and the average size was the smallest. Expansion, the most common restoration process, was observed in both natural forests and plantations and often occurred around the

  8. Monitoring the natural attenuation of petroleum in ground water at the former naval complex, Operable Unit A, Adak Island, Alaska, May and June 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dinicola, R.S.; Simonds, F.W.; Defawe, Rose

    2005-01-01

    During May and June 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey installed monitoring wells and collected data to characterize the effectiveness of natural attenuation processes for remediating petroleum-contaminated ground water at Operable Unit A of the former Naval complex on Adak Island, Alaska. In addition, the evidence for petroleum biodegradation in ground water was evaluated at selected petroleum sites, plans for future natural attenuation monitoring were suggested for the selected petroleum sites, and the natural attenuation monitoring strategy for the Downtown area of Adak Island was reviewed and refinements were suggested. U.S. Geological Survey personnel measured water levels and collected ground-water samples from about 100 temporary boreholes and 50 monitoring wells. Most samples were analyzed on-site for concentrations of selected petroleum compounds and natural attenuation parameters such as dissolved oxygen, ferrous iron, and carbon dioxide. The U.S. Geological Survey evaluated the data on-site, selected new monitoring well locations, and installed, developed, and sampled 10 monitoring wells. The review and suggestions for the natural attenuation monitoring strategy focused on how to better achieve monitoring objectives specified in the Record of Decision for Adak Island petroleum sites. To achieve the monitoring objective of verifying that natural attenuation is occurring, the monitoring plans for each monitored natural attenuation site need to include sampling of at least one strategically placed well at the downgradient margin of the contaminant plume margin, preferably where contaminant concentrations are detectable but less than the cleanup level. Collection of natural attenuation parameter data and sampling background wells is no longer needed to achieve the monitoring objective of demonstrating the occurrence of natural attenuation. To achieve the objective of monitoring locations where chemical concentrations exceed specified cleanup levels, at least

  9. Analysis of Five High School Biology Textbooks Used in the United States for Inclusion of the Nature of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiappetta, Eugene L.; Fillman, David A.

    2007-01-01

    Five high school biology textbooks were examined to determine the inclusion of four aspects of the nature of science: (a) science as a body of knowledge, (b) science as a way of investigating, (c) science as a way of thinking, and (d) science and its interactions with technology and society. The textbooks analyzed were "BSCS Biology--A Human…

  10. Tree-ring model interprets growth decline in natural stands of loblolly pine in the southeastern United States

    Treesearch

    Robert Zahner; Joseph R. Saucier; Richard K. Myers

    1989-01-01

    Annual ring widths and ring areas from 131 even-aged, natural, well-stocked stands of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) in the Piedmont region were analyzed to reveal possible causes of a previously reported decline in radial growth. A linear aggregate model was used to separate independent factors that are known to contribute to radial growth variation...

  11. Tree-ring model interprets growth decline in natural stands of loblolly pine in the southeastern United States

    Treesearch

    Robert Zahner; Joseph R. Saucier; Richard K. Myers

    1988-01-01

    Annual ring widths and ring areas from 131 even-aged, natural, well-stocked stands of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) in the Piedmont region were analyzed to reveal possible causes of a previously reported decline in radial growth. A linear aggregate model was used to separate independent factors that are known to contribute to radial growth variation in this species....

  12. SUSTAINABILITY OF NATURAL RUBBER-PRODUCING CROPS IN THE UNITED STATES: APPLIED BIOTECHNOLOGY LESSONS 2000-2010

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Natural rubber (NR) is a critical and strategic raw material for industrial manufacturing and national defense. Development of a US-based supply of NR is recognized in the Critical Agricultural Materials Act, Public Law 95–592. Domestic rubber-producing crops have been introduced in the US during ti...

  13. Analysis of Five High School Biology Textbooks Used in the United States for Inclusion of the Nature of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiappetta, Eugene L.; Fillman, David A.

    2007-01-01

    Five high school biology textbooks were examined to determine the inclusion of four aspects of the nature of science: (a) science as a body of knowledge, (b) science as a way of investigating, (c) science as a way of thinking, and (d) science and its interactions with technology and society. The textbooks analyzed were "BSCS Biology--A Human…

  14. Genome Mining of Amino Group Carrier Protein-Mediated Machinery: Discovery and Biosynthetic Characterization of a Natural Product with Unique Hydrazone Unit.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Kenichi; Hasebe, Fumihito; Shiwa, Yuh; Kanesaki, Yu; Tomita, Takeo; Yoshikawa, Hirofumi; Shin-Ya, Kazuo; Kuzuyama, Tomohisa; Nishiyama, Makoto

    2017-01-20

    We recently revealed that a Streptomyces strain possesses the gene encoding amino group carrier protein (AmCP). AmCP is involved in the biosynthesis of a previously unidentified nonproteinogenic amino acid, (2S,6R)-diamino-(5R,7)-dihydroxy-heptanoic acid (DADH), which is a core compound for the synthesis of the dipeptide-containing novel natural product vazabitide A. We used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) screening to investigate the diversity of the biosynthetic machinery that uses AmCP; the results revealed that genes encoding AmCP are widely distributed among actinomycetes. The heterologous expression of the AmCP-containing gene cluster from Streptomyces sp. SoC090715LN-17 led to the discovery of s56-p1, a novel natural product. The structure of s56-p1 was determined by spectroscopic analysis; the results revealed that s56-p1 has a putative DADH-derived molecule as the core and also possesses a unique hydrazone unit that is rarely observed in natural products. Our results pave the way for investigations of unexploited AmCP-mediated biosynthesis routes among actinomycetes and of the biosynthetic mechanism of the unique hydrazone unit.

  15. Report to the Chairman, Subcommittee on Public Lands and Reserved Water Committee on Energy and Natural Resources United States Senate.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-25

    D-Ai37 480 REPORT TO THE CHAIRMAN SUBCOMMITTEE ON PUBLIC LANDS AND i/i RESERVED WATER CO..(U) GENERAL ACCOUNTING OFFICE WASHINGTON DC RESOURCES...A II-. BY THE U.S. GENERAL ACCOUNTING OFFICE Report To The Chairman, Subcommittee On Public Lands And Reserved Water • Committee On Energy And Natural...Honorable Malcolm Wallop Availability Codes Chairman, Subcommittee on Public Lands Avail and/or and Reserved Water Dist Special Committee on Energy and

  16. Stem cells are units of natural selection for tissue formation, for germline development, and in cancer development.

    PubMed

    Weissman, Irving L

    2015-07-21

    It is obvious that natural selection operates at the level of individuals and collections of individuals. Nearly two decades ago we showed that in multi-individual colonies of protochordate colonial tunicates sharing a blood circulation, there exists an exchange of somatic stem cells and germline stem cells, resulting in somatic chimeras and stem cell competitions for gonadal niches. Stem cells are unlike other cells in the body in that they alone self-renew, so that they form clones that are perpetuated for the life of the organism. Stem cell competitions have allowed the emergence of competitive somatic and germline stem cell clones. Highly successful germline stem cells usually outcompete less successful competitors both in the gonads of the genotype partner from which they arise and in the gonads of the natural parabiotic partners. Therefore, natural selection also operates at the level of germline stem cell clones. In the colonial tunicate Botryllus schlosseri the formation of natural parabionts is prevented by a single-locus highly polymorphic histocompatibility gene called Botryllus histocompatibility factor. This limits germline stem cell predation to kin, as the locus has hundreds of alleles. We show that in mice germline stem cells compete for gonad niches, and in mice and humans, blood-forming stem cells also compete for bone marrow niches. We show that the clonal progression from blood-forming stem cells to acute leukemias by successive genetic and epigenetic events in blood stem cells also involves competition and selection between clones and propose that this is a general theme in cancer.

  17. Stem cells are units of natural selection for tissue formation, for germline development, and in cancer development

    PubMed Central

    Weissman, Irving L.

    2015-01-01

    It is obvious that natural selection operates at the level of individuals and collections of individuals. Nearly two decades ago we showed that in multi-individual colonies of protochordate colonial tunicates sharing a blood circulation, there exists an exchange of somatic stem cells and germline stem cells, resulting in somatic chimeras and stem cell competitions for gonadal niches. Stem cells are unlike other cells in the body in that they alone self-renew, so that they form clones that are perpetuated for the life of the organism. Stem cell competitions have allowed the emergence of competitive somatic and germline stem cell clones. Highly successful germline stem cells usually outcompete less successful competitors both in the gonads of the genotype partner from which they arise and in the gonads of the natural parabiotic partners. Therefore, natural selection also operates at the level of germline stem cell clones. In the colonial tunicate Botryllus schlosseri the formation of natural parabionts is prevented by a single-locus highly polymorphic histocompatibility gene called Botryllus histocompatibility factor. This limits germline stem cell predation to kin, as the locus has hundreds of alleles. We show that in mice germline stem cells compete for gonad niches, and in mice and humans, blood-forming stem cells also compete for bone marrow niches. We show that the clonal progression from blood-forming stem cells to acute leukemias by successive genetic and epigenetic events in blood stem cells also involves competition and selection between clones and propose that this is a general theme in cancer. PMID:26195745

  18. Relationships between PrPSc Stability and Incubation Time for United States Scrapie Isolates in a Natural Host System

    PubMed Central

    Vrentas, Catherine E.; Greenlee, Justin J.; Tatum, Trudy L.; Nicholson, Eric M.

    2012-01-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), including scrapie in sheep (Ovis aries), are fatal neurodegenerative diseases caused by the misfolding of the cellular prion protein (PrPC) into a â-rich conformer (PrPSc) that accumulates into higher-order structures in the brain and other tissues. Distinct strains of TSEs exist, characterized by different pathologic profiles upon passage into rodents and representing distinct conformations of PrPSc. One biochemical method of distinguishing strains is the stability of PrPSc as determined by unfolding in guanidine hydrochloride (GdnHCl), which is tightly and positively correlated with the incubation time of disease upon passage into mice. Here, we utilize a rapid, protease-free version of the stability assay to characterize naturally occurring scrapie samples, including a fast-acting scrapie inoculum for which incubation time is highly dependent on the amino acid at codon 136 of the prion protein. We utilize the stability methodology to identify the presence of two distinct isolates in the inoculum, and compare isolate properties to those of a host-stabilized reference scrapie isolate (NADC 13-7) in order to assess the stability/incubation time correlation in a natural host system. We demonstrate the utility of the stability methodology in characterizing TSE isolates throughout serial passage in livestock, which is applicable to a range of natural host systems, including strains of bovine spongiform encephalopathy and chronic wasting disease. PMID:22916207

  19. Annual effective dose of ionizing radiation from natural sources received by airline aircrew members compared with that received by non-flying residents of the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedberg, W.; Copeland, K.; O'Brien, K., III

    In evaluating health aspects of the ionizing radiation exposure of aircrews, risk estimates are normally based on the amount of cosmic radiation received in flight. Not considered is that aircrews spend most of their time on the ground. In this report, annual total effective doses of ionizing radiation from natural sources received by aircrews on and off the job, flying between Los Angeles and Tokyo or Chicago and London, are compared with doses to non-flying residents of the United States and non-flying residents of Environmental Protection Agency Region 8 (Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Wyoming, Utah, Colorado --- the region in the United States with the highest dose rates of natural ionizing radiation at ground level). Occupational exposure of aircrews to ionizing radiation is thought to increase their risk of fatal cancer. It may not be a significant concern if one considers: (a) the annual dose of ionizing radiation to the crewmembers in our study is only 7-41% higher than that received by non-flying residents of Region 8 (terrestrial gamma and cosmic radiation in the Denver, Colorado, area of Region 8); (b) the dose to non-flying residents of Region 8 is 87% higher than the average dose to non-flying residents of the United States; and (c) the estimated death rate from cancer in the six states in Region 8 is 3-26% lower than the average for the United States. When considering health concerns of aircrew members, one should recognize that the standard risk coefficient for radiation-induced fatal cancer is derived primarily from studies on individuals exposed to radiation at higher doses and dose rates and of generally lower energy, than the galactic cosmic radiation to which aircrews are exposed. These differences are a major reason that epidemiology studies are important in evaluating health aspects of the occupational radiation exposure of aircrews.

  20. Delineation of biogeomorphic land units across a tropical natural and humanized terrain in Los Tuxtlas, Veracruz, México

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Aguirre, María Concepción; Álvarez, Román; Dirzo, Rodolfo; Ortiz, Mario A.; Eng, Manuel Mah

    2010-09-01

    This paper analyzes landscape in a rainforest region integrating geomorphologic and ecosystem analysis methods. Major landscape elements (geology, geomorphology, soils, vegetation and land use) were mapped as biogeomorphic land units using remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS). Associations between these variables were analyzed by map fusion and the results were expressed on a land unit map (scale ca. 1:100,000). Volcanic structures are dominant in the study area. Lava flows cover most of the region, mainly as basalt; several pyroclastic cones are widely distributed over the area but are dominant in the southeast region. A hypsometric map derived from a digital elevation model (DEM), and intersected with a land cover/use map showed an altitudinal gradient of vegetation. Rainforest grows at lower altitudes (0 to 700 m) and Virola, Juglans and Chionantus are distributed from 700 to 900 m. These species are located on slopes of basalt and andesites intercalated with tephra, recent isolated stratovolcano structures and an erosive flood plain. At higher altitudes (900 to 1100 m) the forest identified as Chionantus‒ Ulmus‒ Randia is associated with cinder cones. A Quercus‒ Ulmus forest (900 to 1400 m) covers the slopes of the highest volcano (San Martin) and surrounding areas, while evergreen (elfin) forest is at the top of this mountain (1660 m).

  1. Reported Historic Asbestos Mines, Historic Asbestos Prospects, and Natural Asbestos Occurrences in the Rocky Mountain States of the United States (Colorado, Idaho, Montana, New Mexico, and Wyoming)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Gosen, Bradley S.

    2007-01-01

    This map and its accompanying dataset provide information for 48 natural asbestos occurrences in the Rocky Mountain States of the United States (U.S.), using descriptions found in the geologic literature. Data on location, mineralogy, geology, and relevant literature for each asbestos site are provided. Using the map and digital data in this report, the user can examine the distribution of previously reported asbestos occurrences and their geological characteristics in the Rocky Mountain States. This report is part of an ongoing study by the U.S. Geological Survey to identify and map reported natural asbestos occurrences in the U.S., which thus far includes similar maps and datasets of natural asbestos occurrences within the Eastern U.S. (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1189/) and the Central U.S. (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2006/1211/). These reports are intended to provide State and local government agencies and other stakeholders with geologic information on natural occurrences of asbestos in the U.S.

  2. NASA Ames DEVELOP Interns: Helping the Western United States Manage Natural Resources One Project at a Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justice, Erin; Newcomer, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    The western half of the United States is made up of a number of diverse ecosystems ranging from arid desert to coastal wetlands and rugged forests. Every summer for the past 7 years students ranging from high school to graduate level gather at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) as part of the DEVELOP Internship Program. Under the guidance of Jay Skiles [Ames Research Center (ARC) - Ames DEVELOP Manager] and Cindy Schmidt [ARC/San Jose State University Ames DEVELOP Coordinator] they work as a team on projects exploring topics including: invasive species, carbon flux, wetland restoration, air quality monitoring, storm visualizations, and forest fires. The study areas for these projects have been in Washington, Utah, Oregon, Nevada, Hawaii, Alaska and California. Interns combine data from NASA and partner satellites with models and in situ measurements to complete prototype projects demonstrating how NASA data and resources can help communities tackle their Earth Science related problems.

  3. The natural history of neural tube defects in the setting of an Irish tertiary referral foetal medicine unit.

    PubMed

    Anglim, B; Mandiwanza, T; Miletin, J; Turner, M; Kennelly, M M

    2016-01-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) carry a heavy burden for affected individuals and their family. Physical and neurological outcome measures may help in counselling couples. The aim of this audit was to review all cases of NTDs seen at a tertiary referral foetal medicine unit. Cases were identified from obstetric, neonatal and neurosurgical records. Thirty-six cases of NTDs were identified. Of the 36, 25% (n = 9, one trisomy 18) opted for termination of pregnancy abroad. Of the remaining 27, 19% (n = 5) died in the antepartum period. 81% (n = 22) were liveborn with four neonatal deaths (one trisomy 18). Of 15 cases, 14 had neurosurgical repair within a median time of 3 days and 9 of these also had a ventriculoperitoneal shunt inserted. Antenatal ultrasound accurately diagnosed lesion level in the majority of cases. The survival rate for babies diagnosed with non-lethal neural tubes defects is high when multidisciplinary care is initiated early.

  4. Neonatal and obstetric outcomes of in vitro fertilization (IVF) and natural conception at a Chinese reproductive unit.

    PubMed

    Liu, J; Linara, E; Zhao, W; Ma, H; Ahuja, K; Wang, J

    2015-01-01

    In vitro fertilization (lVF) has been associated with an increased risk of preterm delivery, caesarean delivery, low and very low birth-weight infants. The authors investigated the possible high risks of adverse health outcomes in infants conceived using IVF and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). The present study includes 443 infants born to 424 women who conceived naturally and 694 infants born to 536 women that had IVF or ICSI. The study was conducted in the Department of Obstetrics at the Yu Huang Ding Hospital from 2008 to 2009. The main outcome measures were:gestational age, birth weight, mode of delivery, multiple pregnancy rates, and baby gender. The results showed significant differences between the neonatal and obstetric outcomes of IVF/ICSI and natural conception pregnancies. When referred to singletons only, there were no major differences seen in the neonatal and obstetric outcomes between the IVF and the control group.When the IVF group was divided into two sub-groups according to the patient's age (< 35 and > or = 35 years), there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in the observed outcomes.

  5. The changing nature of ICU charge nurses' decision making: from supervision of care delivery to unit resource management.

    PubMed

    Miller, Anne; Buerhaus, Peter I

    2013-01-01

    Recent findings that variations in nursing workload may affect inpatient outcomes now highlight nurse workload management and the need for an updated analysis of the role of the charge nurse (CN). Observational data for eight CNs, each at one of eight ICUs in a not-for-profit Level 1 Trauma Center, coded to capture interprofessional interactions, decision making, team coordination phases, and support tools. A researcher shadowed each participant for 12 hours. Each shift began and ended with a face-to-face handoff that included summaries of each patient's condition; the current bed census; anticipated admissions, discharges, and transfers; and the number of nurses available to work the current and coming two shifts. The researcher, using a notebook, recorded the substantive content of all work conversations initiated by or directed to the CN from physicians, staff nurses, allied health workers, other employees, and patients/families. The tools used to support conversations were collected as blank forms or computer screen prints and annotated to describe how they were used, when, and for what purpose. Statistically significant three-way interactions suggest that CNs' conversations with colleagues depend on the team coordination phase and the decision-making level, and that the support tools that CNs use when talking to colleagues depend on the decision-making level and the team coordination phase. The role of ICU CNs appears to be continuing to evolve, now encompassing unit resource management in addition to supervising care delivery. Effective support tools, together with education that would enhance communication and resource management skills, will be essential to CNs' ability to support unit resilience and adaptability in an increasingly complex environment.

  6. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: Estimated Mean Annual Natural Groundwater Recharge, 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wieczorek, Michael; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This tabular data set represents the mean annual natural groundwater recharge, in millimeters, compiled for every MRB_E2RF1catchment of selected Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). The source data set is Estimated Mean Annual Natural Ground-Water Recharge in the Conterminous United States (Wolock, 2003). The MRB_E2RF1 catchments are based on a modified version of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) ERF1_2 and include enhancements to support national and regional-scale surface-water quality modeling (Nolan and others, 2002; Brakebill and others, 2011). Data were compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment for the conterminous United States covering New England and Mid-Atlantic (MRB1), South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee (MRB2), the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy (MRB3), the Missouri (MRB4), the Lower Mississippi, Arkansas-White-Red, and Texas-Gulf (MRB5), the Rio Grande, Colorado, and the Great basin (MRB6), the Pacific Northwest (MRB7) river basins, and California (MRB8).

  7. Chemistry and mineralogy of natural bitumens and heavy oils and their reservoir rocks from the United States, Canada, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hosterman, John W.; Meyer, R.F.; Palmer, C.A.; Doughten, M.W.; Anders, D.E.

    1990-01-01

    Twenty-one samples from natural bitumen and heavy oil deposits in seven States of the United States and six samples from outside the United States form the basis of this initial study. This Circular gives the mineral content of the reservoir rock, the trace-element distribution in the reservoir rock and hydrocarbons, and the composition of the heavy oil and natural bitumen. The reservoir rock and sediment residues from California contain more trace-element maximum amounts than any of the other rock samples. These relatively high concentrations of trace elements may be due, in part, to the low quartz content of the rock and to the presence of heulandite, cristobalite, siderite, and pyrite. The reservoir rock and sediment residues from Oklahoma contain more minimum amounts of trace elements than any of the other rock samples. This pattern probably results from the large amount of quartz in four of the samples and a large amount of calcite in the other sample. The maximum and minimum amounts of trace elements in the bitumen and heavy oil do not correlate with those in the reservoir rocks. The bitumen from Utah contains the greatest number of trace-element maxima, whereas there is no trend in the trace-element minima in the bitumen and heavy oil.

  8. Use of naturalized coagulants in removing laundry waste surfactant using various unit processes in lab-scale.

    PubMed

    Mohan, S Mariraj

    2014-04-01

    This lab-scale experiment is aimed at demonstrating a treatment system for purification and reuse of laundry rinsing water generated from households. The main objective of the study is to compare the efficiencies of various natural coagulants in removing laundry waste surfactants and other major pollutants from the laundry rinsing water. The treatment system consists of Coagulation-Flocculation, Sand filtration and Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) adsorption. Four experiments were conducted in batch process by varying the coagulants (Nirmali seed and Pectin extracted from pith of Orange peel). Coagulants have been selected due to their local availability at affordable cost and technical feasibility. From the study it is concluded that laundry rinsing water polluted with high turbidity and anionic surfactant treated with Nirmali seeds as coagulant at a retention time of 24 h gives the best results. The treatment system where Orange peel pectin is used as coagulant at a retention time of 24 h is found to be the most efficient one based on the weighted factor. Hence the treatment of laundry rinsing water by aforesaid combination results in better water quality.

  9. Comparison of anal HPV natural history among men by country of residence: Brazil, Mexico, and the United States.

    PubMed

    Sudenga, Staci L; Nyitray, Alan G; Torres, B Nelson; Silva, Roberto; Villa, Luisa; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Abrahamsen, Martha; Baggio, Maria Luiza; Salmeron, Jorge; Quiterio, Manuel; Giuliano, Anna R

    2017-07-01

    Globally, anal cancer incidence is rare, but is increasing in some world regions. Our objective was to assess differences in anal HPV natural history in three countries. Men aged 18-70 years were recruited from the US (n = 634), Mexico (n = 665), and Brazil (n = 731). Anal specimens were collected every six-months. HPV genotyping was assessed by Linear Array. Anal HPV prevalence was compared using the Fisher's exact test. HPV infection incidence rates (IR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Any anal HPV prevalence was highest among men from Brazil (24%) compared to Mexico (15%) and the US (15%). When stratified by sexual history, the prevalence of any HPV among MSM/MSMW was 43%, 37%, and 45% and 9%, 12%, and 10% for MSW from Brazil, Mexico, and US, respectively. Any HPV incidence was significantly higher among men from Brazil compared to US men (IRR = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.7-3.4) and comparable between men from Mexico and the US (IRR = 1.2, 95% CI = 0.8-1.8). Men in Brazil and Mexico often have similar, if not higher incidence of anal HPV compared to men from the U.S., and may benefit from gender neutral HPV vaccine policies. Copyright © 2017 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Socioeconomic impacts of natural gas curtailments: a study of the textile industry in the southeastern United States. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, D.M.

    1980-01-01

    A study was undertaken to identify the effects of fuel curtailments in the textile industry in North and South Carolina. Regional economic and social structures were affected with natural gas curtailments in 1976 and 1977. This document presents results of the effects of production shutdown resulting from the curtailments. Chapter II presents background information on the pipelines that service the region. Chapters III and IV describe the affected communities and the observed increase in government expenditures to counteract the impacts. Chapter V contains a complete list of textile plants in the study area that had to either work under abbreviated schedules or close entirely during the winter of 1976-1977. Attention was given to economic impacts at the industrial level that may have been attributable to the curtailment. Chapter VI covers these topics. In some instances, textile mills have relocated their plant facilities because they could not be guaranteed continuous fuel service at their original site. These data are the main concern of Chapter VII. Chapter VIII concentrates on social impacts; many facilities which provide services essential to human needs were subjected to gas curtailments so that the critical energy supplies could be diverted to industry. Chapter VIII also discusses an interesting geographic separation between social and economic impacts.

  11. Probing the nature of the pre-merging system Hickson Compact Group 31 through integral field unit data★

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfaro-Cuello, M.; Torres-Flores, S.; Carrasco, E. R.; Mendes de Oliveira, C.; de Mello, D. F.; Amram, P.

    2015-10-01

    We present a study of the kinematics and the physical properties of the central region of the Hickson Compact Group 31 (HCG 31), focusing on the HCG 31A+C system, using integral field spectroscopy data taken with the Gemini South Telescope. The main players in the merging event (galaxies A and C) are two dwarf galaxies, which have had one close encounter, given the observed tidal tails, and may now be in their second approach, and are possibly about to merge. We present new velocity fields and Hα emission, stellar continuum, velocity dispersion, electron density, Hα equivalent-width and age maps. Considering the high spatial resolution of the integral field unit data, we were able to measure various components and estimate their physical parameters, spatially resolving the different structures in this region. Our main findings are the following: (1) We report for the first time the presence of a super stellar cluster next to the burst associated with the HCG 31C central blob, related to the high values of velocity dispersion observed in this region as well as to the highest value of stellar continuum emission. This may suggest that this system is cleaning its environment through strong stellar winds that may then trigger a strong star formation event in its neighbourhood. (2) Among other physical parameters, we estimate L(Hα) ˜ 14 × 1041 erg s-1 and the star formation rate, SFR ˜11 M⊙ yr-1 for the central merging region of HCG 31A+C. These values indicate a high star formation density, suggesting that the system is part of a merging object, supporting previous scenarios proposed for this system.

  12. Fluctuations in Trypanosoma cruzi discrete typing unit composition in two naturally infected triatomines: Mepraia gajardoi and M. spinolai after laboratory feeding.

    PubMed

    Egaña, Camila; Pinto, Raquel; Vergara, Fernanda; Ortiz, Sylvia; Campos, Ricardo; Solari, Aldo

    2016-08-01

    Mepraia species are hematophagous insects and the most important wild vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease in southeastern South America. Because the domestic Triatoma infestans is already controlled, the transmission of different T. cruzi discrete typing units (DTUs) by Mepraia species deserves attention. Our aim is to gather information on the diversity of T. cruzi DTUs circulating in natural insect populations. Two groups of naturally infected bugs 21 Mepraia gajardoi and 26 Mepraia spinolai were followed-up after two or more laboratory feedings by means of minicircle-PCR assays to evaluate the composition of four T. cruzi DTUs by hybridization tests. Fluctuations from positive T. cruzi detection to negative and the converse, as well as single to mixed infections with different T. cruzi DTUs and the opposite were frequent observations after laboratory feeding in both Mepraia species. Single and mixed infections with more than two T. cruzi DTUs were detected after the first feeding; however mainly mixed infections prevailed after the second feeding. Laboratory feeding on three or more occasions resulted in a decreasing trend of the parasite burden. In a comparison with 28 infected and fed M. gajardoi collected one year before from the same vector colony T. cruzi DTUs composition changed, indicating that temporal variations occur in T. cruzi. Natural populations of Mepraia species can transmit complex mixtures T. cruzi DTUs which fluctuate over time after feeding, with a tendency to eliminate the parasitism after prolonged feeding. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Incidence and natural history of mucopolysaccharidosis type III in France and comparison with United Kingdom and Greece.

    PubMed

    Héron, Bénédicte; Mikaeloff, Yann; Froissart, Roseline; Caridade, Guillaume; Maire, Irène; Caillaud, Catherine; Levade, Thierry; Chabrol, Brigitte; Feillet, François; Ogier, Hélène; Valayannopoulos, Vassili; Michelakakis, Helen; Zafeiriou, Dimitrios; Lavery, Lucy; Wraith, Ed; Danos, Olivier; Heard, Jean-Michel; Tardieu, Marc

    2011-01-01

    Sanfilippo syndrome, or mucopolysaccharidosis type III (MPSIII) is a lysosomal storage disease with predominant neurological manifestations in affected children. It is considered heterogeneous with respect to prevalence, clinical presentation, biochemistry (four biochemical forms of the disease referred to as MPSIIIA, B, C, and D are known), and causative mutations. The perspective of therapeutic options emphasizes the need for better knowledge of MPSIII incidence and natural history. We performed parallel retrospective epidemiological studies of patients diagnosed with MSPIII in France (n = 128), UK (n = 126), and Greece (n = 20) from 1990 to 2006. Incidences ranged from 0.68 per 100,000 live-births in France to 1.21 per 100,000 live-births in UK. MPSIIIA, which predominates in France and UK, was absent in Greece, where most patients have MPSIIIB. The study confirmed the large allelic heterogeneity of MPSIIIA and MPSIIIB and detected several yet undescribed mutations. Analysis of clinical manifestations at diagnosis and over a 6-7 years follow-up indicated that almost all patients, whatever the disease subtype, expressed neurological manifestations before the age of 5 years, including language acquisition delay, cognitive delay, and/or abnormal behavior. In contrast to relatively homogeneous early onset manifestations, disease progression showed significant variation depending on subtype and age at diagnosis. Different severities of disease progressions and different allele distribution between France and UK suggested that mutations are not equally deleterious, although genotype-phenotype correlation could not be established. Notwithstanding the rapidity of further clinical deterioration, all MPSIII patients suffer early onset devastating neurological manifestations that deserve early treatment when available. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. UNIT, ALASKA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana Arts and Science Center, Baton Rouge.

    THE UNIT DESCRIBED IN THIS BOOKLET DEALS WITH THE GEOGRAPHY OF ALASKA. THE UNIT IS PRESENTED IN OUTLINE FORM. THE FIRST SECTION DEALS PRINCIPALLY WITH THE PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY OF ALASKA. DISCUSSED ARE (1) THE SIZE, (2) THE MAJOR LAND REGIONS, (3) THE MOUNTAINS, VOLCANOES, GLACIERS, AND RIVERS, (4) THE NATURAL RESOURCES, AND (5) THE CLIMATE. THE…

  15. Nature and origin of Proterozoic A-type granitic magmatism in the southwestern United States of America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, J. Lawford; Bender, E. Erik

    1989-06-01

    .75. Such extreme variations in primary levels of oxygen fugacity must be an indirect imprint of regional changes of the level of oxidation of the lower crust. The high-f O 2 Holy Moses and Hualapai plutons have intruded near the regional boundary between the metaluminous and peraluminous granites and appear to be imaging a major change in the level of oxidation of the lower crust. This boundary is also approximately equivalent to significant changes in the Nd and Pb isotopic compositions of these granites and the metamorphic and magmatic character of the older orogenic terrane. On a global scale, the crust-forming orogenies ended by 1.6 Ga ago and the continents entered a long-lived era dominated by localized extension and transcontinental intrusion of anorogenic potassic rapakivi granite, mafic dike swarms, charnockite and anorthosite. The absence of orogenic deformation implies that plate consumption became intraoceanic during this time. The profuse and widespread nature of the igneous activity has no Phanerozoic analogue and is considered to be unique to the Proterozoic. A crustal overturn model ties the magmatism to heating within a largely undepleted subcontinental mantle, the eventual rise of mantle plumes, and the transfer of heat into the youthful, undifferentiated Proterozoic crust. Subsequent melting and rise of potassic granitic magmas from the lower crust leads to considerable crustal reorganization, a process that would continue until both the mantle and crust reached a stable configuration.

  16. Effects of natural and human factors on groundwater quality of basin-fill aquifers in the southwestern United States-conceptual models for selected contaminants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bexfield, Laura M.; Thiros, Susan A.; Anning, David W.; Huntington, Jena M.; McKinney, Tim S.

    2011-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program, the Southwest Principal Aquifers (SWPA) study is building a better understanding of the factors that affect water quality in basin-fill aquifers in the Southwestern United States. The SWPA study area includes four principal aquifers of the United States: the Basin and Range basin-fill aquifers in California, Nevada, Utah, and Arizona; the Rio Grande aquifer system in New Mexico and Colorado; and the California Coastal Basin and Central Valley aquifer systems in California. Similarities in the hydrogeology, land- and water-use practices, and water-quality issues for alluvial basins within the study area allow for regional analysis through synthesis of the baseline knowledge of groundwater-quality conditions in basins previously studied by the NAWQA Program. Resulting improvements in the understanding of the sources, movement, and fate of contaminants are assisting in the development of tools used to assess aquifer susceptibility and vulnerability.This report synthesizes previously published information about the groundwater systems and water quality of 15 information-rich basin-fill aquifers (SWPA case-study basins) into conceptual models of the primary natural and human factors commonly affecting groundwater quality with respect to selected contaminants, thereby helping to build a regional understanding of the susceptibility and vulnerability of basin-fill aquifers to those contaminants. Four relatively common contaminants (dissolved solids, nitrate, arsenic, and uranium) and two contaminant classes (volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and pesticide compounds) were investigated for sources and controls affecting their occurrence and distribution above specified levels of concern in groundwater of the case-study basins. Conceptual models of factors that are important to aquifer vulnerability with respect to those contaminants and contaminant classes were subsequently formed. The

  17. Natural infections with pigeon paramyxovirus serotype 1: Pathologic changes in Eurasian collared-doves (Streptopelia decaocto) and rock pigeons (Columba livia) in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Isidoro Ayza, Marcos; Afonso, C.L.; Stanton, J.B.; Knowles, Susan N.; Ip, Hon S.; White, C. LeAnn; Fenton, Heather; Ruder, M.G.; Dolinski, A. C.; Lankton, Julia S.

    2017-01-01

    Pigeon paramyxovirus serotype 1 (PPMV-1) is a globally distributed, virulent member of the avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 serogroup that causes mortality in columbiformes and poultry. Following introduction into the United States in the mid-1980s, PPMV-1 rapidly spread causing numerous mortality events in Eurasian collared-doves (Streptopelia decaocto) (ECDOs) and rock pigeons (Columba livia) (ROPIs). The investigators reviewed pathological findings of 70 naturally infected, free-ranging columbiforms from 25 different mortality events in the United States. Immunohistochemistry targeting PPMV-1 nucleoprotein was used to determine the tissue distribution of the virus in a subset of 17 birds from 10 of the studied outbreaks. ECDOs (61 birds) and ROPIs (9 birds) were the only species in which PPMV-1-associated disease was confirmed by viral isolation and presence of histologic lesions. Acute to subacute tubulointerstitial nephritis and necrotizing pancreatitis were the most frequent histologic lesions, with immunolabeling of viral antigen in renal tubular epithelial cells and pancreatic acinar epithelium. Lymphoid depletion of bursa of Fabricius and spleen was common, but the presence of viral antigen in these organs was inconsistent among infected birds. Hepatocellular necrosis was occasionally present with immunolabeling of hypertrophic Kupffer cells, and immunopositive eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were present in hepatocytes of 1 ECDO. Immunopositive lymphocytic choroiditis was present in 1 ECDO, while lymphocytic meningoencephalitis was frequent in ROPIs in absence of immunolabeling. This study demonstrates widespread presence of PPMV-1 antigen in association with histologic lesions, confirming the lethal potential of this virus in these particular bird species.

  18. A methodology for risk analysis based on hybrid Bayesian networks: application to the regasification system of liquefied natural gas onboard a floating storage and regasification unit.

    PubMed

    Martins, Marcelo Ramos; Schleder, Adriana Miralles; Droguett, Enrique López

    2014-12-01

    This article presents an iterative six-step risk analysis methodology based on hybrid Bayesian networks (BNs). In typical risk analysis, systems are usually modeled as discrete and Boolean variables with constant failure rates via fault trees. Nevertheless, in many cases, it is not possible to perform an efficient analysis using only discrete and Boolean variables. The approach put forward by the proposed methodology makes use of BNs and incorporates recent developments that facilitate the use of continuous variables whose values may have any probability distributions. Thus, this approach makes the methodology particularly useful in cases where the available data for quantification of hazardous events probabilities are scarce or nonexistent, there is dependence among events, or when nonbinary events are involved. The methodology is applied to the risk analysis of a regasification system of liquefied natural gas (LNG) on board an FSRU (floating, storage, and regasification unit). LNG is becoming an important energy source option and the world's capacity to produce LNG is surging. Large reserves of natural gas exist worldwide, particularly in areas where the resources exceed the demand. Thus, this natural gas is liquefied for shipping and the storage and regasification process usually occurs at onshore plants. However, a new option for LNG storage and regasification has been proposed: the FSRU. As very few FSRUs have been put into operation, relevant failure data on FSRU systems are scarce. The results show the usefulness of the proposed methodology for cases where the risk analysis must be performed under considerable uncertainty. © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis.

  19. Natural attenuation of chlorinated volatile organic compounds in ground water at Operable Unit 1, Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Keyport, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dinicola, Richard S.; Cox, S.E.; Landmeyer, J.E.; Bradley, P.M.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) evaluated the natural attenuation of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs) in ground water beneath the former landfill at Operable Unit 1 (OU 1), Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Keyport, Washington. The predominant contaminants in ground water are trichloroethene (TCE) and its degradation byproducts cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cisDCE) and vinyl chloride (VC). The Navy planted two hybrid poplar plantations on the landfill in spring of 1999 to remove and control the migration of CVOCs in shallow ground water. Previous studies provided evidence that microbial degradation processes also reduce CVOC concentrations in ground water at OU 1, so monitored natural attenuation is a potential alternative remedy if phytoremediation is ineffective. This report describes the current (2000) understanding of natural attenuation of CVOCs in ground water at OU 1 and the impacts that phytoremediation activities to date have had on attenuation processes. The evaluation is based on ground-water and surface-water chemistry data and hydrogeologic data collected at the site by the USGS and Navy contractors between 1991 and 2000. Previously unpublished data collected by the USGS during 1996-2000 are presented. Natural attenuation of CVOCs in shallow ground water at OU 1 is substantial. For 1999-2000 conditions, approximately 70 percent of the mass of dissolved chlorinated ethenes that was available to migrate from the landfill was completely degraded in shallow ground water before it could migrate to the intermediate aquifer or discharge to surface water. Attenuation of CVOC concentrations appears also to be substantial in the intermediate aquifer, but biodegradation appears to be less significant; those conclusions are less certain because of the paucity of data downgradient of the landfill beneath the tide flats. Attenuation of CVOC concentrations is also substantial in surface water as it flows through the adjacent marsh and out to the tide

  20. H.R. 432: A Bill to amend chapter 601 of title 49, United States Code, to improve natural gas and hazardous liquid pipeline safety, in response to the natural gas pipeline accident in Edison, New Jersey, and for other purposes. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundred Fourth Congress, First session

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    This document contains H.R. 432, A Bill to amend chapter 601 of title 49, United States Code, to improve natural gas and hazardous liquid pipeline safety, in response to the natural gas pipeline accident in Edison, New Jersey, and for other purposes. This Bill was introduced in the House of Representatives, 104th Congress, First Session, January 5, 1995.

  1. S. 625: Natural Gas Regulatory Reform Act of 1989. Introduced in the Senate of the United States, One Hundredth First Congress, First Session, March 16, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    S. 625 would eliminate artificial distortions in the natural gas marketplace to promote competition in the natural gas industry. It would do this by amending certain sections of the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978. Title I: Decontrol of Natural Gas describes provisions for elimination of wellhead price controls; coordination with the Natural Gas Act; application to first sales; technical and conforming amendments; effective date (January 1, 1993). Title II: Transitional Provisions describes the decontrol of natural gas subject to a newly executed contract, a renegotiated contract, a terminated contract, or to a contract which expires; coordination with the Natural Gas Act; and effective date (enactment of this bill).

  2. The nature of porosity in organic-rich mudstones of the Upper Jurassic Kimmeridge Clay Formation, North Sea, offshore United Kingdom

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fishman, Neil S.; Hackley, Paul C.; Lowers, Heather; Hill, Ronald J.; Egenhoff, Sven O.; Eberl, Dennis D.; Blum, Alex E.

    2012-01-01

    Analyses of organic-rich mudstones from wells that penetrated the Upper Jurassic Kimmeridge Clay Formation, offshore United Kingdom, were performed to evaluate the nature of both organic and inorganic rock constituents and their relation to porosity in this world-class source rock. The formation is at varying levels of thermal maturity, ranging from immature in the shallowest core samples to mature in the deepest core samples. The intent of this study was to evaluate porosity as a function of both organic macerals and thermal maturity. At least four distinct types of organic macerals were observed in petrographic and SEM analyses and they all were present across the study area. The macerals include, in decreasing abundance: 1) bituminite admixed with clays; 2) elongate lamellar masses (alginite or bituminite) with small quartz, feldspar, and clay entrained within it; 3) terrestrial (vitrinite, fusinite, semifusinite) grains; and 4) Tasmanites microfossils. Although pores in all maceral types were observed on ion-milled surfaces of all samples, the pores (largely nanopores with some micropores) vary as a function of maceral type. Importantly, pores in the macerals do not vary systematically as a function of thermal maturity, insofar as organic pores are of similar size and shape in both the immature and mature Kimmeridge rocks. If any organic pores developed during the generation of hydrocarbons, they were apparently not preserved, possibly because of the highly ductile nature of much of the rock constituents of Kimmeridge mudstones (clays and organic material). Inorganic pores (largely micropores with some nanopores) have been observed in all Kimmeridge mudstones. These pores, particularly interparticle (i.e., between clay platelets), and intraparticle (i.e., in framboidal pyrite, in partially dissolved detrital K-feldspar, and in both detrital and authigenic dolomite) are noteworthy because they compose much of the observable porosity in the shales in both

  3. The Effectiveness of the Conceptual Change Approach, Explicit Reflective Approach, and Course Book by the Ministry of Education on the Views of the Nature of Science and Conceptual Change in Light Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cil, Emine; Cepni, Salih

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effectiveness of the conceptual change approach, explicit reflective approach, and the course book by the Ministry of Education on the views toward the nature of science and conceptual change in the Light unit. Three study groups were selected from several seventh grade classes. Two of the three classes,…

  4. Project CHOICE: #26. A Career Education Unit for Junior High School. Careers in Conservation of the Environment and Natural Resources. (Agriculture and Ecological Studies Cluster; Science and Engineering Occupations Cluster).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern County Superintendent of Schools, Bakersfield, CA.

    This junior high teaching unit on careers in conservation of the environment and natural resources is one in a series of career guidebooks developed by Project CHOICE (Children Have Options in Career Education) to provide the classroom teacher with a source of career-related activities linking classroom experiences with the world of work. The unit…

  5. Survey of residual nitrite and nitrate in conventional and organic/natural/uncured/indirectly cured meats available at retail in the United States.

    PubMed

    Nuñez De González, Maryuri T; Osburn, Wesley N; Hardin, Margaret D; Longnecker, Michael; Garg, Harsha K; Bryan, Nathan S; Keeton, Jimmy T

    2012-04-18

    A survey of residual nitrite (NO(2)(-)) and nitrate (NO(3)(-)) in cured meats available at retail was conducted to verify concentrations in conventional (C) products and establish a baseline for organic/natural/uncured/indirectly cured (ONC) products. In this study, 470 cured meat products representing six major categories were taken from retail outlets in five major metropolitan cities across the United States. Random samples representing both C and ONC type products were analyzed for NO(2)(-) and NO(3)(-) content (ppm) using an ENO-20 high-performance liquid chromatography system equipped with a reverse phase column. Generally, there were no differences in NO(2)(-) concentrations between C and ONC meat categories, but a few ONC products surveyed in certain cities were lower in NO(3)(-) content. Pairwise comparisons between cities indicated that NO(2)(-) and NO(3)(-) contents of all C type products were not appreciably different, and the same was true for most ONC products. Numerical NO(2)(-) values were less variable than NO(3)(-) concentrations within each meat product category. NO(2)(-) concentrations were similar to those previously reported by Cassens ( Cassens , R. G. Residual nitrite in cured meat . Food Technol. 1997a , 51 , 53 - 55 ) in 1997. Residual NO(2)(-) and NO(3)(-) values in this study were numerically lower than those reported by NAS ( National Academy of Sciences . The Health Effects of Nitrate, Nitrite, and N-Nitroso Compounds ; National Academy Press : Washington, DC , 1981 ) in 1981. Data from this survey provide a benchmark of NO(2)(-) and NO(3)(-) concentrations for ONC products available at retail.

  6. On the nature of the transition between the mantle and crustal units in the Finero Complex (Ivrea-Verbano Zone, Southern Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanetti, Alberto; Langone, Antonio; Tommasi, Andréa; Vauchez, Alain; Padrón-Navarta, Josè Alberto; Giovanardi, Tommaso; Mazzucchelli, Maurizio

    2017-04-01

    A well-exposed contact between mantle and crustal rocks is present in the Finero Complex (northern Ivrea-Verbano Zone; Southern Alps). The core of the Complex is composed by the Finero Phlogopite Peridotite mantle unit (FPP), which is wrapped out by an intercalation of mafic-ultramafic rocks interpreted as intrusive crustal bodies. The first crustal unit, placed in contact with the FPP, is the Layered Internal Zone (LIZ), which is overlaid by the Amphibole Peridotite and the External Gabbro units. With the aim of characterising the nature of such transition, a detailed investigation has been done on the outcrop at the confluence between Rio Cannobino and Rio Creves. In the transition area, no apparent melt injection (i.e. veins or dykes) from the LIZ is observed into the FPP. A few meters far from the contact, the mantle rocks are similar to those forming the typical FPP sequence. They are coarse-granular phlogopite-amphibole-bearing harzburgite showing a foliation parallel to the contact. The amphibole chemistry is characterised by large Mg# and Cr, Th and U contents, large and linearly-fractionated LREE/PM values, and low Nb, Ta and HREE. Towards the LIZ, the olivine grain-size decreases and the peridotite becomes richer in orthopyroxene, phlogopite and amphibole. At the contact with the LIZ, the harzburgite is replaced by a layer, up to 1-m-thick, of weakly-deformed coarse-granular amphibole-biotite-bearing orthopyroxenite. Besides, approaching the contact, the minerals have larger Fe and Al, and lower Cr. Amphiboles are still enriched in Th, U, and LREE, and depleted in HREE, but with greater absolute values than in the harzburgite farther from the contact. The LIZ starts with dm-thick hornblendites, followed by amphibole gabbro layers containing garnet and clinopyroxene. Both hornblendites and gabbros preserve magmatic textures, with modest deformation and subsolidus recrystallisation. Hornblendites are made by titanian pargasites, definitely richer in Fe, Al

  7. Nature's Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Vanessa J.; Rowlands, Peter

    2008-10-01

    We propose that the mathematical structures related to the `universal rewrite system' define a universal process applicable to Nature, which we may describe as `Nature's code'. We draw attention here to such concepts as 4 basic units, 64- and 20-unit structures, symmetry-breaking and 5-fold symmetry, chirality, double 3-dimensionality, the double helix, the Van der Waals force and the harmonic oscillator mechanism, and our explanation of how they necessarily lead to self-aggregation, complexity and emergence in higher-order systems. Biological concepts, such as translation, transcription, replication, the genetic code and the grouping of amino acids appear to be driven by fundamental processes of this kind, and it would seem that the Platonic solids, pentagonal symmetry and Fibonacci numbers have significant roles in organizing `Nature's code'.

  8. A Multiple Case Study of Challenges and Successes Experienced by Founders and Directors of Nature-Based Preschools in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Alexandra Michaela

    2016-01-01

    Nature-based preschools are defined as educational settings in which children spend three or more hours per school day in natural environments such as woods, meadows, and beaches (Knight, 2013). The purpose of this qualitative, multiple case study was to obtain a deep understanding of the challenges and successes of nature-based preschool (NBP)…

  9. A Multiple Case Study of Challenges and Successes Experienced by Founders and Directors of Nature-Based Preschools in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Alexandra Michaela

    2016-01-01

    Nature-based preschools are defined as educational settings in which children spend three or more hours per school day in natural environments such as woods, meadows, and beaches (Knight, 2013). The purpose of this qualitative, multiple case study was to obtain a deep understanding of the challenges and successes of nature-based preschool (NBP)…

  10. A multi-level simulation platform of natural gas internal reforming solid oxide fuel cell-gas turbine hybrid generation system - Part II. Balancing units model library and system simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Cheng; Cai, Ningsheng; Croiset, Eric

    2011-10-01

    Following our integrated hierarchical modeling framework of natural gas internal reforming solid oxide fuel cell (IRSOFC), this paper firstly introduces the model libraries of main balancing units, including some state-of-the-art achievements and our specific work. Based on gPROMS programming code, flexible configuration and modular design are fully realized by specifying graphically all unit models in each level. Via comparison with the steady-state experimental data of Siemens-Westinghouse demonstration system, the in-house multi-level SOFC-gas turbine (GT) simulation platform is validated to be more accurate than the advanced power system analysis tool (APSAT). Moreover, some units of the demonstration system are designed reversely for analysis of a typically part-load transient process. The framework of distributed and dynamic modeling in most of units is significant for the development of control strategies in the future.

  11. Naturally occurring contaminants in the Piedmont and Blue Ridge crystalline-rock aquifers and Piedmont Early Mesozoic basin siliciclastic-rock aquifers, eastern United States, 1994–2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapman, Melinda J.; Cravotta, Charles A.; Szabo, Zoltan; Lindsay, Bruce D.

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater quality and aquifer lithologies in the Piedmont and Blue Ridge Physiographic Provinces in the eastern United States vary widely as a result of complex geologic history. Bedrock composition (mineralogy) and geochemical conditions in the aquifer directly affect the occurrence (presence in rock and groundwater) and distribution (concentration and mobility) of potential naturally occurring contaminants, such as arsenic and radionuclides, in drinking water. To evaluate potential relations between aquifer lithology and the spatial distribution of naturally occurring contaminants, the crystalline-rock aquifers of the Piedmont and Blue Ridge Physiographic Provinces and the siliciclastic-rock aquifers of the Early Mesozoic basin of the Piedmont Physiographic Province were divided into 14 lithologic groups, each having from 1 to 16 lithochemical subgroups, based on primary rock type, mineralogy, and weathering potential. Groundwater-quality data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program from 1994 through 2008 from 346 wells and springs in various hydrogeologic and land-use settings from Georgia through New Jersey were compiled and analyzed for this study. Analyses for most constituents were for filtered samples, and, thus, the compiled data consist largely of dissolved concentrations. Concentrations were compared to criteria for protection of human health, such as U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) drinking water maximum contaminant levels and secondary maximum contaminant levels or health-based screening levels developed by the USGS NAWQA Program in cooperation with the USEPA, the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, and Oregon Health & Science University. Correlations among constituent concentrations, pH, and oxidation-reduction (redox) conditions were used to infer geochemical controls on constituent mobility within the aquifers. Of the 23 trace-element constituents evaluated

  12. Natural Resource Damages: Trustees

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    CERCLA and OPA authorize the United States, States, and Indian Tribes to act on behalf of the public as Natural Resource Trustees for natural resources under their respective trusteeship. OPA also authorizes foreign governments to act as Trustees.

  13. Simulations and projections of major air pollutants over the United States and uncertainty analyses, effects of natural change and human activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Hang

    Changes in global climate and pollutant emissions are very likely to continue in the coming decades driven by the human-related activities and natural fluctuations in the Earth climate system. These potential changes would have very important consequences on regional air quality over the contiguous United States due to their effects on atmospheric chemical and physical processes. To understand these effects, the present studies use the global climate chemistry model, CAM-Chem version 3, to systematically assess potential changes in major air pollutants including surface ozone, particulate matter and mercury from the present (1998--2002) to the 2050 (2048--2052). The projections of future air quality consider changes in global climate, precursor emissions from anthropogenic and biogenic sources, and pollutant transport. Moreover, to evaluate the projection uncertainties resulting from different plausible trends of climate and emissions as a result of unknown human-related activities and climate variations, three IPCC SRES scenarios, A1FI, A1B and B1, are considered and compared to evaluate the resulting uncertainty in projecting future pollutant concentrations. To achieve a better understanding on the effect of mineral dust emissions on changes in future air quality especially the PM concentrations, a physical dust aerosol module is developed and incorporated into the CAM-Chem model. A mercury module is developed for the CAM-Chem model to simulate the atmospheric cycle of mercury and its consequences on the toxicity of U.S. air quality. For the study of ozone air quality, we focus on the risk of high ozone episodes and the relative contributions from changes in local anthropogenic emissions (LE) versus changes in intercontinental transport (ICT) on 2050 U.S. surface ozone air quality. It is found that the projected changes in air temperature, precipitation, lighting, planetary boundary layer height and cyclone activities tend to intensify the associated extreme

  14. Case Comment: Harvard Law School Forum v. Schultz: When Exclusion of Aliens Under the Immigration and Naturalization Act Conflicts with First Amendment Rights of United States Citizens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antonini, Thomas J.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Court litigation and decisions concerning the conflict between first amendment rights of free speech for United States citizens and the rights of controversial international figures, invited by college faculty to speak on campus, are discussed and compared. (MSE)

  15. Case Comment: Harvard Law School Forum v. Schultz: When Exclusion of Aliens Under the Immigration and Naturalization Act Conflicts with First Amendment Rights of United States Citizens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antonini, Thomas J.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Court litigation and decisions concerning the conflict between first amendment rights of free speech for United States citizens and the rights of controversial international figures, invited by college faculty to speak on campus, are discussed and compared. (MSE)

  16. The importance of natural habitats to Brazilian free-tailed bats in intensive agricultural landscapes in the Winter Garden Region of Texas, United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The conversion of natural lands to agriculture affects the distribution of biological diversity across the landscape. In particular, cropland monocultures alter insect abundance and diversity compared to adjacent natural habitats, but nevertheless can provide large numbers of insect pests as prey i...

  17. Natural infections with pigeon paramyxovirus serotype 1: Pathologic changes in Eurasian collared-doves (Streptopelia decaocto) and rock pigeons (Columba livia) in the United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pigeon paramyxovirus serotype 1 (PPMV-1) is a globally distributed, virulent member of the avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 serogroup that causes mortality in columbiformes and poultry. Following introduction into the United States in the mid-1980s, PPMV-1 rapidly spread causing numerous mortality eve...

  18. The Nature of Small Business. Unit 2. Level 2. Instructor Guide. PACE: Program for Acquiring Competence in Entrepreneurship. Third Edition. Research & Development Series No. 302-02.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This instructor guide for a unit on small business in the PACE (Program for Acquiring Competence in Entrepreneurship) curriculum includes the full text of the student module and lesson plans, instructional suggestions, and other teacher resources. The competencies that are incorporated into this module are at Level 2 of learning--planning for a…

  19. U.S.-North Korea nuclear issues. Hearing before the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, United States Senate, One Hundred Fourth Congress, First Session, January 19, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The hearing addresses United States - North Korea issues and the agreements on nuclear materials control. In exchange for North Korea`s agreement to manage nuclear materials in accordance with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) standards is in exchange for two light water reactors, estimated at $4 billion plus, $500 million in free oil and exemptions from some of the IAEA requirements.

  20. Scientific Assessment of the Effects of Global Change on the United States: A Report of the Committee on Environment and Natural Resources, National Science and Technology Council

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    United States. These water quality changes could impose enormous costs on water treatment infrastructure. [V.4.c] • Stream temperatures are likely to...depend on them. The costs of adaptation for vulnerable coasts are generally much less than the costs of not acting. [V.5.c] • For small islands...require the building of additional electricity production facilities (and probably transmission facilities) at an estimated cost of many billions of

  1. The pre-history of health psychology in the United Kingdom: From natural science and psychoanalysis to social science, social cognition and beyond.

    PubMed

    Murray, Michael

    2017-05-01

    Health psychology formally came of age in the United Kingdom in the 1980s, but it was prefigured by much discussion about challenges to the dominance of biomedicine in healthcare and debates about the role of individual behaviour change in promoting population health. Despite current progress and accomplishments, it is important to reflect upon earlier attempts to explore the psychological dimensions of health and illness. It is through such exploration that we can begin to reveal the connection between ideas and the social context. This article focuses on what could be termed the pre-history of health psychology in the United Kingdom. This was the period in the earlier 20th century when psychological approaches were dominated by psychoanalysis which was in tension with more positivist approaches. In the post-World War II period, the classical form of psychoanalysis turned to a concern with relationships. This was the period which also saw the rise of behaviourism and then cognitivism each of which had a strong influence on the new profession of clinical psychology and then health psychology. Review of this pre-history provides the backdrop for the rise of health psychology in the United Kingdom and also reveals the tensions between the different theoretical perspectives.

  2. Demonstration of natural gas reburn for NO{sub x} emissions reduction at Ohio Edison Company`s cyclone-fired Niles Plant Unit Number 1

    SciTech Connect

    Borio, R.W.; Lewis, R.D.; Koucky, R.W.; Lookman, A.A.; Manos, M.G.; Corfman, D.W.; Waddingham, A.L.; Johnson, S.A.

    1996-04-01

    Electric utility power plants account for about one-third of the NO{sub x} and two-thirds of the SO{sub 2} emissions in the US cyclone-fired boilers, while representing about 9% of the US coal-fired generating capacity, emit about 14% of the NO{sub x} produced by coal-fired utility boilers. Given this background, the Environmental Protection Agency, the Gas Research Institute, the Electric Power Research Institute, the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, and the Ohio Coal Development Office sponsored a program led by ABB Combustion Engineering, Inc. (ABB-CE) to demonstrate reburning on a cyclone-fired boiler. Ohio Edison provided Unit No. 1 at their Niles Station for the reburn demonstration along with financial assistance. The Niles Unit No. 1 reburn system was started up in September 1990. This reburn program was the first full-scale reburn system demonstration in the US. This report describes work performed during the program. The work included a review of reburn technology, aerodynamic flow model testing of reburn system design concepts, design and construction of the reburn system, parametric performance testing, long-term load dispatch testing, and boiler tube wall thickness monitoring. The report also contains a description of the Niles No. 1 host unit, a discussion of conclusions and recommendations derived from the program, tabulation of data from parametric and long-term tests, and appendices which contain additional tabulated test results.

  3. History, jurisdiction, and a summary of activities of the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources during the 102D Congress. Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, United States Senate, One Hundred Third Congress, First Session

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    Report 103-8 includes a memorandum of the Chairman, a review of the history and jurisdiction of the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, and a summary of the 102nd Congress legislative and oversight activities. The summary covers activities of the full Committee, Subcommittee on Energy Regulation and Conservation, Subcommittee on Energy Research and Development, Subcommittee on Mineral Resources Development and Production, Subcommittee on Public Lands, National Parks, and Forests, and Subcommittee on Water and Power.

  4. The macrocycle of leinamycin imparts hydrolytic stability to the thiol-sensing 1,2-dithiolan-3-one 1-oxide unit of the natural product.

    PubMed

    Sivaramakrishnan, Santhosh; Breydo, Leonid; Sun, Daekyu; Gates, Kent S

    2012-06-01

    Reaction of cellular thiols with the 1,2-dithiolan-3-one 1-oxide moiety of leinamycin triggers the generation of DNA-damaging reactive intermediates. Studies with small, synthetic analogues of leinamycin reveal that the macrocyclic portion of the natural product imparts remarkable hydrolytic stability to the 1,2-dithiolan-3-one 1-oxide heterocycle without substantially compromising its thiol-sensing property. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Corcoran, Reichl, and MacAvoy nominations. Hearing before the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, United States Senate, Ninety-Ninth Congress, First Session, May 3, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    A hearing to consider the nominations of Thomas Corcoran, Dr. Paul Webster MacAvoy, and Eric Reichl to the Synthetic Fuels Corporation (SFC) board of directors brought testimony from the United Mine Workers, the National Council on Synthetic Fuels Production, the Environmental Policy Institute, the Illinois Power Co. and senators from several states. Dissatisfaction with the performance to date of the SFC promoted the committee to ask each nominee about his availability to respond to congressional committees, willingness to publish an informational statement, and absence of conflicts of interest. Two appendices with Corcoran's informational statement and responses to additional committee questions follow the testimony of eight witnesses and the three nominees.

  6. Legislating gender inequalities: the nature and patterns of domestic violence experienced by South Asian women with insecure immigration status in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Anitha, Sundari

    2011-10-01

    Research on domestic violence documents the particular vulnerability of immigrant women due to reasons including social isolation, language barriers, lack of awareness about services, and racism on the part of services. Based on qualitative interviews with 30 South Asian women with insecure immigration status residing in Yorkshire and Northwest England, this article explores how inequalities created by culture, gender, class, and race intersect with state immigration and welfare policies in the United Kingdom, thereby exacerbating structures of patriarchy within minority communities. It is within these contexts that South Asian women with insecure immigration status experience intensified forms and specific patterns of abuse.

  7. Natural mineral water of the United States: Section in Fourteenth Annual Report of the United States Geological Survey to the Secretary of the Interior, 1892-1893: Part 2 - Accompanying papers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peale, A.C.

    1894-01-01

    Aside from the geological interest attached to the subject of mineral waters the facts that within the limits of the United States there are between 8,000 and 10,000 mineral springs, and that the waters from nearly 300 are annually placed upon the market to the extent of over 21,000,000 gallons, at a valuation of nearly \\$5,000,000, show plainly that the subject is also one of considerable economic importance. That this importance is an increasing one is evident when a comparison of these figures is made with the figures for 1883, the first year they were compiled. The production then was 7,529,423 gallons, with a valuation of \\$1,119,603, and the total number of springs known to be utilized for commercial purposes was only 189.

  8. Natural Gas Basics

    SciTech Connect

    2016-06-01

    Natural gas powers about 150,000 vehicles in the United States and roughly 22 million vehicles worldwide. Natural gas vehicles (NGVs) are a good choice for high-mileage fleets -- such as buses, taxis, and refuse vehicles -- that are centrally fueled or operate within a limited area or along a route with natural gas fueling stations. This brochure highlights the advantages of natural gas as an alternative fuel, including its domestic availability, established distribution network, relatively low cost, and emissions benefits.

  9. Natural Gas Basics

    SciTech Connect

    2016-06-08

    Natural gas powers about 150,000 vehicles in the United States and roughly 22 million vehicles worldwide. Natural gas vehicles (NGVs) are a good choice for high-mileage fleets -- such as buses, taxis, and refuse vehicles -- that are centrally fueled or operate within a limited area or along a route with natural gas fueling stations. This brochure highlights the advantages of natural gas as an alternative fuel, including its domestic availability, established distribution network, relatively low cost, and emissions benefits.

  10. Diversity Among Tacaribe Serocomplex Viruses (Family Arenaviridae) Naturally Associated with the White-Throated Woodrat (Neotoma albigula) in the Southwestern United States

    PubMed Central

    Milazzo, Mary Louise; Cajimat, Maria N.B.; Haynie, Michelle L.; Abbott, Ken D.; Bradley, Robert D.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Bayesian analyses of glycoprotein precursor and nucleocapsid protein gene sequences indicated that arenaviruses naturally associated with white-throated woodrats in central Arizona are phylogenetically closely related to the Whitewater Arroyo virus prototype strain AV 9310135, which originally was isolated from a white-throated woodrat captured in northwestern New Mexico. Pairwise comparisons of glycoprotein precursor and nucleocapsid protein amino acid sequences revealed extensive diversity among arenaviruses isolated from white-throated woodrats captured in different counties in central Arizona and extensive diversity between these viruses and Whitewater Arroyo virus strain AV 9310135. It was concluded that the viruses isolated from the white-throated woodrats captured in Arizona represent 2 novel species (Big Brushy Tank virus and Tonto Creek virus) and that these species should be included with Whitewater Arroyo virus in a species complex within the Tacaribe serocomplex (family Arenaviridae, genus Arenavirus). PMID:18454597

  11. Investigations into the vertical distribution of PCDDs and mineralogy in three ball clay cores from the United States exhibiting the natural formation pattern.

    PubMed

    Gadomski, Damien; Tysklind, Mats; Irvine, Robert L; Burns, Peter C; Andersson, Rolf

    2004-10-01

    In this study, we report the PCDD and mineralogical results from the analyses of 27 different samples from three ball clay cores from different locations in Kentucky and Tennessee. One goal of this study was to determine if there is a correlation between the mineralogy of the ball clay samples and the PCDD concentrations and/or homologue profiles in each sample. Samples from each of the three cores exhibited the natural formation profile with extremely high PCDD concentrations with low and mostly undetectable levels of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). The maximum toxic equivalents (TEQs) for Cores C-E were 2500, 440, and 15,000 pg WHO-TEQ/g, respectively. Although there does not seem to be a direct correlation between mineralogy and PCDD concentrations or homologue profiles, the mineralogy of Core C is substantially different than that of Cores D and E, which may in part explain the differences in congener patterns we observed among the three cores.

  12. Design and evaluation of a low nitrogen oxides natural gas-fired conical wire-mesh duct burner for a micro-cogeneration unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramadan, Omar Barka Ab

    A novel low NOx conical wire-mesh duct burner was designed, built and tested in the present research. This thesis documents the design process and the in-depth evaluation of this novel duct burner for the development of a more efficient micro-cogeneration unit. This duct burner provides the thermal energy necessary to raise the microturbine exhaust gases temperature to increase the heat recovery capability. The duct burner implements both lean-premixed and surface combustion techniques to achieve low NOx and CO emissions. The design of the duct burner was supported by a qualitative flow visualization study for the duct burner premixer to provide insight into the premixer flow field (mixing process). Different premixer geometries were used to control the homogeneity of the fuel-oxidant mixture at the exit of the duct burner premixer. Laser sheet illumination (LSI) technique was used to capture images of the mixing process, for each configuration studied. A quasi-quantitative analysis technique was developed to rank the different premixer geometries in terms of mixing effectiveness. The premixer geometries that provided better mixing were selected and used for the combustion tests. The full-scale gas-fired duct burner was installed in the exhaust duct of a micro-cogeneration unit for the evaluation. Three wire-mesh burners with different pressure drops were used. Each burner has a conical shape made from FeCrAL alloy mat and was designed based on a heat release per unit area of 2500 kW/m2 and a total heat release of 240kW at 100 percent excess air. The local momentum of the gaseous mixture introduced through the wire-mesh was adjusted so that the flame stabilized outside the burner mesh (surface combustion). Cold flow tests (i.e., the duct burner was off, but the microturbine was running) were conducted to measure the effect of different duct burner geometrical parameters on flow split between the combustion zone and the bypass channel, and on pressure drop across

  13. Identification of Cryptosporidium spp. Oocysts in United Kingdom Noncarbonated Natural Mineral Waters and Drinking Waters by Using a Modified Nested PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Assay

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, R. A. B.; Campbell, B. M.; Smith, H. V.

    2003-01-01

    We describe a nested PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method for detecting low densities of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in natural mineral waters and drinking waters. Oocysts were recovered from seeded 1-liter volumes of mineral water by filtration through polycarbonate membranes and from drinking waters by filtration, immunomagnetizable separation, and filter entrapment, followed by direct extraction of DNA. The DNA was released from polycarbonate filter-entrapped oocysts by disruption in lysis buffer by using 15 cycles of freeze-thawing (1 min in liquid nitrogen and 1 min at 65°C), followed by proteinase K digestion. Amplicons were readily detected from two to five intact oocysts on ethidium bromide-stained gels. DNA extracted from Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts, C. muris (RN 66), C. baileyi (Belgium strain, LB 19), human-derived C. meleagridis, C. felis (DNA from oocysts isolated from a cat), and C. andersoni was used to demonstrate species identity by PCR-RFLP after simultaneous digestion with the restriction enzymes DraI and VspI. Discrimination between C. andersoni and C. muris isolates was confirmed by a separate, subsequent digestion with DdeI. Of 14 drinking water samples tested, 12 were found to be positive by microscopy, 8 were found to be positive by direct PCR, and 14 were found to be positive by using a nested PCR. The Cryptosporidium species detected in these finished water samples was C. parvum genotype 1. This method consistently and routinely detected >5 oocysts per sample. PMID:12839797

  14. The natural history of acute Ebola Virus Disease among patients managed in five Ebola treatment units in West Africa: A retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Skrable, Kelly; Roshania, Reshma; Mallow, Michaela; Wolfman, Vanessa; Siakor, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Previous studies of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) have focused on clinical symptoms and Ebola virus (EBOV) cycle threshold (CT) values recorded at patient triage. Our study explores EVD symptoms and EBOV CT values from onset of illness to recovery or death in a diverse population of patients. Methodology/Principal findings We analyzed clinical care data from EBOV positive patients admitted to five Ebola treatment units in West Africa from 2014–2015. Prevalence of clinical signs/symptoms and CT values were explored using descriptive statistics. Logistic regression was used to examine their association with mortality. Survival was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier estimators from symptom onset date to death. During the first week of illness, dyspnea (OR = 2.44, 95% CI: 1.07–5.85) and tachycardia (OR = 10.22, 95% CI: 2.20–56.71) were associated with higher odds of mortality. Dyspnea (OR = 2.33, 95% CI: 1.210–4.581), bleeding (OR = 2.51, 95% CI: 1.219–5.337), and diarrhoea (OR = 2.79, 95% CI: 1.171–6.970) at any point during the illness course were associated with higher odds of mortality. Higher initial (OR = 0.85, 95% CI: 0.81–0.89) and mean (OR = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.53–0.66) CT values were associated with lower odds of mortality. CT values reached their nadir after 3–5 days of illness and then rose in both survivors and non-survivors until recovery or death. Conclusions/Significance Our study demonstrates the population prevalence of clinical signs/symptoms and EBOV CT values over time in a large, diverse cohort of patients with EVD, as well as associations between symptoms/EBOV CT values and mortality. These findings have implications on surveillance, operational planning, and clinical care for future EVD outbreaks. PMID:28723900

  15. The natural history of acute Ebola Virus Disease among patients managed in five Ebola treatment units in West Africa: A retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Skrable, Kelly; Roshania, Reshma; Mallow, Michaela; Wolfman, Vanessa; Siakor, Matthew; Levine, Adam C

    2017-07-01

    Previous studies of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) have focused on clinical symptoms and Ebola virus (EBOV) cycle threshold (CT) values recorded at patient triage. Our study explores EVD symptoms and EBOV CT values from onset of illness to recovery or death in a diverse population of patients. We analyzed clinical care data from EBOV positive patients admitted to five Ebola treatment units in West Africa from 2014-2015. Prevalence of clinical signs/symptoms and CT values were explored using descriptive statistics. Logistic regression was used to examine their association with mortality. Survival was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier estimators from symptom onset date to death. During the first week of illness, dyspnea (OR = 2.44, 95% CI: 1.07-5.85) and tachycardia (OR = 10.22, 95% CI: 2.20-56.71) were associated with higher odds of mortality. Dyspnea (OR = 2.33, 95% CI: 1.210-4.581), bleeding (OR = 2.51, 95% CI: 1.219-5.337), and diarrhoea (OR = 2.79, 95% CI: 1.171-6.970) at any point during the illness course were associated with higher odds of mortality. Higher initial (OR = 0.85, 95% CI: 0.81-0.89) and mean (OR = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.53-0.66) CT values were associated with lower odds of mortality. CT values reached their nadir after 3-5 days of illness and then rose in both survivors and non-survivors until recovery or death. Our study demonstrates the population prevalence of clinical signs/symptoms and EBOV CT values over time in a large, diverse cohort of patients with EVD, as well as associations between symptoms/EBOV CT values and mortality. These findings have implications on surveillance, operational planning, and clinical care for future EVD outbreaks.

  16. The Nature and Impacts of the July 1999 Heat Wave in the Midwestern United States: Learning from the Lessons of 1995.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palecki, Michael A.; Changnon, Stanley A.; Kunkel, Kenneth E.

    2001-07-01

    The July 1999 heat wave in the Midwest was an event of relatively long duration punctuated by extreme conditions during its last 2 days. The intensity of the heat wave on 29 and 30 July rivaled that of the 1995 heat wave that killed more than 1000 people in the central United States. In 1999, however, the death toll was about one-fourth of this amount in the same region. The 1999 heat wave 2-day maximum apparent temperature was slightly less than during the 1995 heat wave at most Midwestern first-order stations. In addition, the 2-day peak was preceded by several hot days that allowed some short-term acclimatization to occur prior to the intense final days. In Chicago, conditions during the peak of the 1999 heat wave were very similar to those during the 1995 heat wave peak, especially the extreme nocturnal conditions of temperatures and humidity. Therefore, it seems unlikely that the reduction in the heat wave death toll in Chicago from about 700 in 1995 to 114 in 1999 is due solely to meteorological differences between the two heat waves. In St. Louis, the 1999 heat wave was intense for a much longer duration than the 1995 heat wave, thus partially explaining the increase in heat-related deaths there from the 1995 event to the 1999 event. An examination of heat wave response efforts in both Chicago and St. Louis leads to the conclusion that both cities were quite effective at mitigating their respective heat wave mortality rates, which in the 1999 event were almost exactly the same in both metropolitan areas. This represents a great improvement for the city of Chicago compared to the 1995 heat wave. Suggestions are made for further improving municipal heat wave response efforts based on the 1999 experience.

  17. Optimal Siting and Sizing of Multiple DG Units for the Enhancement of Voltage Profile and Loss Minimization in Transmission Systems Using Nature Inspired Algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Ramamoorthy, Ambika; Ramachandran, Rajeswari

    2016-01-01

    Power grid becomes smarter nowadays along with technological development. The benefits of smart grid can be enhanced through the integration of renewable energy sources. In this paper, several studies have been made to reconfigure a conventional network into a smart grid. Amongst all the renewable sources, solar power takes the prominent position due to its availability in abundance. Proposed methodology presented in this paper is aimed at minimizing network power losses and at improving the voltage stability within the frame work of system operation and security constraints in a transmission system. Locations and capacities of DGs have a significant impact on the system losses in a transmission system. In this paper, combined nature inspired algorithms are presented for optimal location and sizing of DGs. This paper proposes a two-step optimization technique in order to integrate DG. In a first step, the best size of DG is determined through PSO metaheuristics and the results obtained through PSO is tested for reverse power flow by negative load approach to find possible bus locations. Then, optimal location is found by Loss Sensitivity Factor (LSF) and weak (WK) bus methods and the results are compared. In a second step, optimal sizing of DGs is determined by PSO, GSA, and hybrid PSOGSA algorithms. Apart from optimal sizing and siting of DGs, different scenarios with number of DGs (3, 4, and 5) and PQ capacities of DGs (P alone, Q alone, and  P and Q both) are also analyzed and the results are analyzed in this paper. A detailed performance analysis is carried out on IEEE 30-bus system to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology. PMID:27057557

  18. Optimal Siting and Sizing of Multiple DG Units for the Enhancement of Voltage Profile and Loss Minimization in Transmission Systems Using Nature Inspired Algorithms.

    PubMed

    Ramamoorthy, Ambika; Ramachandran, Rajeswari

    2016-01-01

    Power grid becomes smarter nowadays along with technological development. The benefits of smart grid can be enhanced through the integration of renewable energy sources. In this paper, several studies have been made to reconfigure a conventional network into a smart grid. Amongst all the renewable sources, solar power takes the prominent position due to its availability in abundance. Proposed methodology presented in this paper is aimed at minimizing network power losses and at improving the voltage stability within the frame work of system operation and security constraints in a transmission system. Locations and capacities of DGs have a significant impact on the system losses in a transmission system. In this paper, combined nature inspired algorithms are presented for optimal location and sizing of DGs. This paper proposes a two-step optimization technique in order to integrate DG. In a first step, the best size of DG is determined through PSO metaheuristics and the results obtained through PSO is tested for reverse power flow by negative load approach to find possible bus locations. Then, optimal location is found by Loss Sensitivity Factor (LSF) and weak (WK) bus methods and the results are compared. In a second step, optimal sizing of DGs is determined by PSO, GSA, and hybrid PSOGSA algorithms. Apart from optimal sizing and siting of DGs, different scenarios with number of DGs (3, 4, and 5) and PQ capacities of DGs (P alone, Q alone, and P and Q both) are also analyzed and the results are analyzed in this paper. A detailed performance analysis is carried out on IEEE 30-bus system to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.

  19. A detailed taxonomy of Upper Cretaceous and lower Tertiary Crassatellidae in the Eastern United States; an example of the nature of extinction at the boundary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wingard, G. Lynn

    1993-01-01

    Current theories on the causes of extinction at the CretaceousTertiary boundary have been based on previously published data; however, few workers have stopped to ask the question, 'How good is the basic data set?' To test the accuracy of the published record, a quantitative and qualitative analysis of the Crassatellidae (Mollusca, Bivalvia) of the Gulf and Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plains of the United States for the Upper Cretaceous and lower Tertiary was conducted. Thirty-eight species names and four generic names are used in publications for the Crassatellidae within the geographic and stratigraphic constraints of this analysis. Fourteen of the 38 species names are represented by statistically valid numbers of specimens and were tested by using canonical discriminant analysis. All 38 names, with the exception of 1 invalid name and 4 names for which no representative specimen could be located, were evaluated qualitatively. The results show that the published fossil record is highly inaccurate. Only 8 valid, recognizable species exist in the Crassatellidae within the limits of this study, 14 names are synonymized, and 11 names are represented by indeterminate molds or poorly preserved specimens. Three of the four genera are well founded; the fourth is based on the juvenile of another genus and therefore synonymized. This detailed taxonomic analysis of the Crassatellidae illustrates that the published fossil record is not reliable. Calculations of evolutionary and paleobiologic significance based on poorly defined, overly split fossil groups, such as the Crassatellidae, are biased in the following ways: Rates of evolution and extinction are higher, Faunal turnover at mass extinctions appears more catastrophic, Species diversity is high, Average species durations are shortened, and Geographic ranges are restricted. The data on the taxonomically standardized Crassatellidae show evolutionary rates one-quarter to one-half that of the published fossil record; faunal change

  20. Contaminants from Cretaceous Black Shale Part 1: Natural weathering processes controlling contaminant cycling in Mancos Shale, southwestern United States, with emphasis on salinity and selenium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tuttle, Michele L.W.; Fahy, Juli W.; Elliott, John G.; Grauch, Richard I.; Stillings, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    Soils derived from black shale can accumulate high concentrations of elements of environmental concern, especially in regions with semiarid to arid climates. One such region is the Colorado River basin in the southwestern United States where contaminants pose a threat to agriculture, municipal water supplies, endangered aquatic species, and water-quality commitments to Mexico. Exposures of Cretaceous Mancos Shale (MS) in the upper basin are a major contributor of salinity and selenium in the Colorado River. Here, we examine the roles of geology, climate, and alluviation on contaminant cycling (emphasis on salinity and Se) during weathering of MS in a Colorado River tributary watershed. Stage I (incipient weathering) began perhaps as long ago as 20 ka when lowering of groundwater resulted in oxidation of pyrite and organic matter. This process formed gypsum and soluble organic matter that persist in the unsaturated, weathered shale today. Enrichment of Se observed in laterally persistent ferric oxide layers likely is due to selenite adsorption onto the oxides that formed during fluctuating redox conditions at the water table. Stage II weathering (pedogenesis) is marked by a significant decrease in bulk density and increase in porosity as shale disaggregates to soil. Rainfall dissolves calcite and thenardite (Na2SO4) at the surface, infiltrates to about 1 m, and precipitates gypsum during evaporation. Gypsum formation (estimated 390 kg m−2) enriches soil moisture in Na and residual SO4. Transpiration of this moisture to the surface or exposure of subsurface soil (slumping) produces more thenardite. Most Se remains in the soil as selenite adsorbed to ferric oxides, however, some oxidizes to selenate and, during wetter conditions is transported with soil moisture to depths below 3 m. Coupled with little rainfall, relatively insoluble gypsum, and the translocation of soluble Se downward, MS landscapes will be a significant nonpoint source of salinity and Se to the

  1. Camp Unit Design Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hultsman, John T.; Cottrell, Richard L.

    This document provides a set of generalized guidelines for the design of units in large family campgrounds. Managers of recreational lands have two responsibilities and goals: to protect the natural resources, and to provide an enjoyable experience for users. With these goals in mind, unique variables to each unit such as shade, site aesthetics,…

  2. Camp Unit Design Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hultsman, John T.; Cottrell, Richard L.

    This document provides a set of generalized guidelines for the design of units in large family campgrounds. Managers of recreational lands have two responsibilities and goals: to protect the natural resources, and to provide an enjoyable experience for users. With these goals in mind, unique variables to each unit such as shade, site aesthetics,…

  3. The United Nations University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salam, Abdus

    1973-01-01

    Reports the progress already made toward the establishment of a postgraduate international university under United Nations auspices. The resolution adopted by the U.N. General Assembly provides a concise statement of the nature and aims of the United Nations University, which is likely to start operating in 1974. (JR)

  4. Update of the USGS 2016 One-year Seismic Hazard Forecast for the Central and Eastern United States From Induced and Natural Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, M. D.; Mueller, C. S.; Moschetti, M. P.; Hoover, S. M.; Llenos, A. L.; Ellsworth, W. L.; Michael, A. J.; Rubinstein, J. L.; McGarr, A.; Rukstales, K. S.

    2016-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey released a 2016 one-year forecast for seismic hazard in the central and eastern U.S., which included the influence from both induced and natural earthquakes. This forecast was primarily based on 2015 declustered seismicity rates but also included longer-term rates, 10- and 20- km smoothing distances, earthquakes between Mw 4.7 and maximum magnitudes of 6.0 or 7.1, and 9 alternative ground motion models. Results indicate that areas in Oklahoma, Kansas, Colorado, New Mexico, Arkansas, Texas, and the New Madrid Seismic Zone have a significant chance for damaging ground shaking levels in 2016 (greater than 1% chance of exceeding 0.12 PGA and MMI VI). We evaluate this one-year forecast by considering the earthquakes and ground shaking levels that occurred during the first half of 2016 (earthquakes not included in the forecast). During this period the full catalog records hundreds of events with M ≥ 3.0, but the declustered catalog eliminates most of these dependent earthquakes and results in much lower numbers of earthquakes. The declustered catalog based on USGS COMCAT indicates a M 5.1 earthquake occurred in the zone of highest hazard on the map. Two additional earthquakes of M ≥ 4.0 occurred in Oklahoma, and about 82 earthquakes of M ≥ 3.0 occurred with 77 in Oklahoma and Kansas, 4 in Raton Basin Colorado/New Mexico, and 1 near Cogdell Texas. In addition, 72 earthquakes occurred outside the zones of induced seismicity with more than half in New Madrid and eastern Tennessee. The catalog rates in the first half of 2016 and the corresponding seismic hazard were generally lower than in 2015. For example, the zones for Irving, Venus, and Fashing, Texas; Sun City, Kansas; and north-central Arkansas did not experience any earthquakes with M≥ 2.7 during this period. The full catalog rates were lower by about 30% in Raton Basin and the Oklahoma-Kansas zones but the declustered catalog rates did not drop as much. This decrease in earthquake

  5. Island Natural Science School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toronto Board of Education (Ontario).

    Prepared for students in grade six attending the Island Natural Science School, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, this booklet offers information and suggests activities in the areas of ecology, conservation, natural resources, and outdoor recreation. Introductory material describes island lore, its formation and significant features, followed by units of…

  6. Fluorite-related one-dimensional units in natural bismuth oxysulfates: the crystal structures of Bi14O16(SO4)5 and Bi30O33(SO4)9(AsO4)2.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Daniela; Garavelli, Anna; Bindi, Luca

    2015-10-01

    The crystal structures of two new natural Bi oxysulfates with the formula Bi14O16(SO4)5 [labelled new phase I; monoclinic, space group C2, a = 21.658 (4), b = 5.6648 (9), c = 15.092 (3) Å, β = 119.433 (11)° and Z = 2] and Bi30O33(SO4)9(AsO4)2 [labelled new phase II; triclinic, space group P1, a = 5.670 (3), b = 13.9408 (9), c = 22.7908 (18) Å, α = 80.903 (5), β = 82.854 (14), γ = 78.27 (2)° and Z = 1] from the high-temperature fumarole deposit of the La Fossa crater at Vulcano (Aeolian Islands, Italy) are reported. The structures are built up by a combination of fluorite-related Bi-O units and isolated (SO4)(2-) tetrahedra (new phase I) or both (SO4)(2-) and (AsO4)(3-) tetrahedra (new phase II). Owing to the effect of stereoactive lone pairs of Bi(3+), Bi-O units in both the structures can be suitably described in terms of oxo-centered OBi4 tetrahedra. The structure of Bi14O16(SO4)5 is based upon one-dimensional [O16Bi14](10+) ribbons formed by six chains of edge-sharing OBi4 tetrahedra extending along [010]. In the structure of Bi30O33(SO4)9(AsO4)2 the same ribbon type coexists with another one-dimensional ribbon formed by seven chains of edge-sharing OBi4 tetrahedra and with the composition [O17Bi16](14+). Ribbons of the same type are joined by (SO4)(2-) and (AsO4)(3-) tetrahedra along [010] – if a reduced triclinic unit-cell setting is considered – so forming two different (001) slabs which alternate to each other along [001] and are joined by additional (SO4)(2-) tetrahedra. New phase I represents the natural analogues of synthetic Bi14O16(SO4)5, but with an ordered structure model.

  7. Green Belt Europe - borders separate, nature unites

    Treesearch

    Uwe Friedel

    2015-01-01

    During the period of the Cold War between 1945 and 1989, a "Green Belt" of valuable pristine landscapes developed along the border line between Eastern and Western Europe, the intensively fortified and guarded so called Iron Curtain. Due to the remoteness of the border areas, a high number of national parks and other large conservation areas can be found...

  8. Concerning Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadlinger, Robert L.

    1983-01-01

    SI units come in two distinct types: fundamental (kilogram, meter) and descriptive (atom, molecule). Proper/improper uses of atom/molecule from historical cases are presented followed by a re-introduction of a light "wave (cycle)" unit and the clearly defined photon model which is deduced. Also examines omission of the fundamental unit "radon."…

  9. Concerning Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadlinger, Robert L.

    1983-01-01

    SI units come in two distinct types: fundamental (kilogram, meter) and descriptive (atom, molecule). Proper/improper uses of atom/molecule from historical cases are presented followed by a re-introduction of a light "wave (cycle)" unit and the clearly defined photon model which is deduced. Also examines omission of the fundamental unit "radon."…

  10. Nature as Inspiration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tank, Kristina; Moore, Tamara; Strnat, Meg

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the final lesson within a seven-day STEM and literacy unit that is part of the Picture STEM curriculum (pictureSTEM. org) and uses engineering to integrate science and mathematics learning in a meaningful way (Tank and Moore 2013). For this engineering challenge, students used nature as a source of inspiration for designs to…

  11. Natural Resources Education Notebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Eldon C.

    This notebook was developed cooperatively by the United States Soil Conservation Service and Iowa State University to be used by teachers in providing instruction regarding certain aspects of natural resources. It includes four sections which provide: (1) an instructional plan about the conservation provisions of the 1985 Food Security Act; (2) an…

  12. Nature as Inspiration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tank, Kristina; Moore, Tamara; Strnat, Meg

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the final lesson within a seven-day STEM and literacy unit that is part of the Picture STEM curriculum (pictureSTEM. org) and uses engineering to integrate science and mathematics learning in a meaningful way (Tank and Moore 2013). For this engineering challenge, students used nature as a source of inspiration for designs to…

  13. Natural Gas Annual

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    Provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas in the United States. Production, transmission, storage, deliveries, and price data are published by state for the current year. Summary data are presented for each state for the previous 5 years.

  14. Naturally occurring insecticides.

    PubMed Central

    Soloway, S B

    1976-01-01

    Naturally occurring insecticides are abundant and varied in their effects, though but a few are articles of commerce. Even for these, pyrethrum, nicotine, rotenone, hellebore, ryania, and sabadilla, there is a paucity of information on mammalian toxicology and environmental effects. In general, these materials are characterized favorably by low acute toxicity and ready dissipation in nature. Unfavorable aspects of natural insecticides are the contained mixture of active and inactive components and the low active ingredient content on a crop yield basis pointing to a high unit cost. Natural insecticides can serve additionally as leads to unnatural mimics, of which the commercially successful synthetic pyrethroids are prime examples. The chemical nature, relationship of insecticidal activity to chemical structure, occurrence, production, and utilization, registered uses, metabolism, and insect and mammalian toxicity are reviewed. PMID:789058

  15. CEU [Continuing Education Unit].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adult Basic Education Region V Staff Development Bulletin, 1974

    1974-01-01

    The Continuing Education Unit (CEU) is a means of recording and accounting non-credit programs and activities which are professional in nature. Seven criteria have been established to assure the professionalism and quality of instruction. The criteria concern the need, objectives, and rationale of the activity; the course planning and…

  16. Economic Geography Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockledge, Ann

    Initially designed for social studies students in grades 4-6 in the Black Hills area of South Dakota, the purpose of the unit is to help students see the relationships among all the workers and natural resources within the state. It is also intended to help students realize the ways the area in which they live is affected by the climate,…

  17. Natural Xanthones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denisova-Dyatlova, O. A.; Glyzin, V. I.

    1982-10-01

    The available information on the abundance of natural xanthones in nature and the methods for the determination of their structure, biogenesis, and pharmacological properties is surveyed and described systematically. The bibliography includes 151 references.

  18. Natural Dyes. Third World Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Natalie; Hughes, Wyn

    This unit, developed by the Third World Science Project, is designed to add a multicultural element to existing science syllabi (for students aged 11-16) in the United Kingdom. The project seeks to develop an appreciation of the: boundless fascination of the natural world; knowledge, skills, and expertise possessed by men/women everywhere;…

  19. Natural Dyes. Third World Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Natalie; Hughes, Wyn

    This unit, developed by the Third World Science Project, is designed to add a multicultural element to existing science syllabi (for students aged 11-16) in the United Kingdom. The project seeks to develop an appreciation of the: boundless fascination of the natural world; knowledge, skills, and expertise possessed by men/women everywhere;…

  20. Nature's Alphabet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyland, Barb

    The purpose of this collection of environmental education units, written by teachers and environmental educators, is to develop in students a sense of wonder, curiosity, and interest about the environment. The 26 interdisciplinary activity units are designed to be used as pre-activities or follow-up activities to other outdoor studies in the…

  1. Supplementation of organic and inorganic selenium to diets using grains grown in various regions of the United States with differing natural Se concentrations and fed to grower-finisher swine.

    PubMed

    Mahan, D C; Azain, M; Crenshaw, T D; Cromwell, G L; Dove, C R; Kim, S W; Lindemann, M D; Miller, P S; Pettigrew, J E; Stein, H H; van Heugten, E

    2014-11-01

    Grains grown in various regions of the United States vary in their innate or natural Se contents. A regional study evaluated the effects of adding inorganic Se (sodium selenite) or organic Se (Se yeast) to diets with differing innate Se contents. A 2 × 2 + 1 factorial experiment evaluating 2 Se sources (organic or inorganic) at 2 Se levels (0.15 or 0.30 mg/kg) in 18 total replicates (n = 360 total pigs). A basal diet was fed without supplemental Se and served as the negative (basal) control. The study was conducted as a randomized complete block design in 9 states (Georgia, Illinois, Kentucky, Nebraska, North Carolina, Ohio, South Dakota, Texas, and Wisconsin) with each station conducting 2 replicates. Pigs were fed from 25 to approximately 115 kg BW. Similar dietary formulations were used at each station, incorporating a common source of trace mineral and Se premixes. Three pigs per treatment in 16 replicates (n = 240) were bled at 55, 85, and 115 kg BW and serum Se and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities were determined. Three pigs (n = 260) from each treatment pen were killed at 115 kg BW and issues (liver, loin, and hair) were analyzed for Se. The corn Se content from the various states ranged from 0.026 to 0.283 mg Se/kg while the soybean meal Se content ranged from 0.086 to 0.798 mg Se/kg. Tissue and serum Se concentrations were greater (P < 0.01) when supplemental organic Se was fed, whereas serum GSH-Px was greater (P < 0.01) as Se level increased. There were linear increases (P < 0.01) in loin and quadratic increases (P < 0.01) in liver and hair Se concentrations as dietary Se level increased within each state. There was a source × level interaction (P < 0.01) for each tissue resulting in a greater increase when organic Se was fed. Serum Se and GSH-Px activity increased (P < 0.01) when both Se sources were fed and plateaued at each state at 0.15 mg Se/kg. There was a high and significant correlation between each tissue Se, serum Se, and GSH

  2. Unit Cells

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Robert C.; Tobiason, Fred L.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the construction of unit cells using clear plastic cubes which can be disassembled, and one inch cork balls of various colors, which can be cut in halves, quarters, or eighths, and glued on the inside face of the cube, thus simulating a unit cell. (MLH)

  3. Unit Cells

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Robert C.; Tobiason, Fred L.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the construction of unit cells using clear plastic cubes which can be disassembled, and one inch cork balls of various colors, which can be cut in halves, quarters, or eighths, and glued on the inside face of the cube, thus simulating a unit cell. (MLH)

  4. UNIT, PETROLOGY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana Arts and Science Center, Baton Rouge.

    THIS TEACHER'S GUIDE FOR A UNIT ON PETROLOGY IS SUITABLE FOR ADAPTATION AT EITHER THE UPPER ELEMENTARY OR THE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL LEVELS. THE UNIT BEGINS WITH A STORY THAT INTRODUCES VOLCANIC ACTION AND IGNEOUS ROCK FORMATION. SELECTED CONCEPTS ARE LISTED FOLLOWED BY SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES. A BIBLIOGRAPHY, FILM LIST, VOCABULARY LIST, AND QUESTION AND…

  5. Natural gas monthly

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-08-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. The NGM replaces three EIA reports previously published annually: Underground Natural Gas Storage in the United States; US Imports and Exports of Natural Gas; Main Line Sales of Natural Gas to Industrial Users. Some of the highlights are: marketed production of natural gas during June 1983 was estimated at 1307 billion cubic feet (Bcf), 178 Bcf (12.0 percent) below the June 1982 level; consumption of natural gas during June 1983 was an estimated 1060 Bcf, a decrease of 55 Bcf (4.9 percent) compared to June 1982 consumption; natural gas consumption in May 1983, compared to the previous May, was up 14.0 percent in the residential sector, up 7.9 percent in the commercial sector, and up 14.2 percent in the industrial sector; the volume of working gas in underground storage reservoirs at the end of June 1983 was 3.1 percent above the June 30, 1982 level; the average wellhead price of natural gas in April 1983 was $2.63 per thousand cubic feet (Mcf) compared to $2.35 per Mcf for April 1982; in June 1983, the US city average residential price for 100 therms of natural gas was $64.70 ($6.63 per Mcf), the comparable price in June 1982 was $54.80 ($5.62 per Mcf); the average wellhead (first sale) price for natural gas purchases projected for July 1983 by selected interstate pipeline companies was $2.72 per Mcf, in July 1982 the average price was $2.45 per Mcf.

  6. Firsthand Nature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gostev, Moses; Weiss, Francesca Michaelides

    2007-01-01

    It's no secret that many school programs don't give children enough opportunity to explore the natural world--i.e., to "mess about" and to have firsthand experience with nature and animals. Not so at the Muscota New School in New York City! This innovative public elementary school actively promotes inquiry-based learning and encourages…

  7. Nature plants.

    PubMed

    2014-06-01

    We welcome our new sister journal Nature Plants and the increased commitment to the plant science community that it represents. This is an opportunity for Nature Genetics to emphasize the use of genetic and genomic tools and resources in discovering new plant biology and solving major agricultural challenges.

  8. Natural death.

    PubMed

    Oehmichen, M; Meissner, C

    2000-01-01

    The increasing age of every human being is the beginning of the end of life, an obviously natural process, but any attempt to define the term 'natural death' soon encounters difficulties in defining what is meant by 'natural'. In the industrialized countries of the West, for example 'natural death' is thought of as the opposite of non-natural types of death such as accidental death, suicide, and homicide. The aim of our present survey is to discuss the meaning of the term 'natural death' under a clinical, a forensic and a scientific point of view with regard to recent developments especially in molecular biology. If there are 'external' physical influences, a medical-technical manipulation, a therapeutic or molecular biological intervention cannot be definitely ruled out as the cause of death, then use of the term 'natural death' in general is open to question. It will only remain meaningful if it can be applied with a specific meaning in definite practical situations. Current research and medical technology, however, do not allow use of the term 'natural death' in its conventional sense: it can thus be stricken from the medical vocabulary. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

  9. Firsthand Nature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gostev, Moses; Weiss, Francesca Michaelides

    2007-01-01

    It's no secret that many school programs don't give children enough opportunity to explore the natural world--i.e., to "mess about" and to have firsthand experience with nature and animals. Not so at the Muscota New School in New York City! This innovative public elementary school actively promotes inquiry-based learning and encourages…

  10. Nature Detectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harr, Natalie; Lee, Richard E.; Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Richard Louv's "Last Child in the Woods" (2008) added to a growing consensus to get children outside and experiencing nature. Using ideas from place-based education, the authors present a simple year-long project that brings science, nature, and other curriculum standards to life right in your school yard. With a focus on journaling, this project…

  11. Matematica Natural.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lozano, Patricia; Medearis, Linda

    Matematica Natural (Natural Mathematics) is a mathematics curriculum for young children based on the assumption that they learn mathematics through concrete, real life, relevant experiences and that educational differences rather than cultural differences influence math achievement. The curriculum uses hands-on materials and activities to teach…

  12. Natural Beauty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coy, Mary

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how her art class students were able to create, in just four class periods, clay relief plaques depicting nature. A lesson on texture speeds up the completion of such a project. Seeing that clay is a natural material with its own unique texture, it seemed fitting that the final product should depict a variety…

  13. Natural Beauty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coy, Mary

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how her art class students were able to create, in just four class periods, clay relief plaques depicting nature. A lesson on texture speeds up the completion of such a project. Seeing that clay is a natural material with its own unique texture, it seemed fitting that the final product should depict a variety…

  14. Matematica Natural.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lozano, Patricia; Medearis, Linda

    Matematica Natural (Natural Mathematics) is a mathematics curriculum for young children based on the assumption that they learn mathematics through concrete, real life, relevant experiences and that educational differences rather than cultural differences influence math achievement. The curriculum uses hands-on materials and activities to teach…

  15. Nature Detectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harr, Natalie; Lee, Richard E.; Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Richard Louv's "Last Child in the Woods" (2008) added to a growing consensus to get children outside and experiencing nature. Using ideas from place-based education, the authors present a simple year-long project that brings science, nature, and other curriculum standards to life right in your school yard. With a focus on journaling, this project…

  16. Natural gas pipeline technology overview.

    SciTech Connect

    Folga, S. M.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2007-11-01

    The United States relies on natural gas for one-quarter of its energy needs. In 2001 alone, the nation consumed 21.5 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. A large portion of natural gas pipeline capacity within the United States is directed from major production areas in Texas and Louisiana, Wyoming, and other states to markets in the western, eastern, and midwestern regions of the country. In the past 10 years, increasing levels of gas from Canada have also been brought into these markets (EIA 2007). The United States has several major natural gas production basins and an extensive natural gas pipeline network, with almost 95% of U.S. natural gas imports coming from Canada. At present, the gas pipeline infrastructure is more developed between Canada and the United States than between Mexico and the United States. Gas flows from Canada to the United States through several major pipelines feeding U.S. markets in the Midwest, Northeast, Pacific Northwest, and California. Some key examples are the Alliance Pipeline, the Northern Border Pipeline, the Maritimes & Northeast Pipeline, the TransCanada Pipeline System, and Westcoast Energy pipelines. Major connections join Texas and northeastern Mexico, with additional connections to Arizona and between California and Baja California, Mexico (INGAA 2007). Of the natural gas consumed in the United States, 85% is produced domestically. Figure 1.1-1 shows the complex North American natural gas network. The pipeline transmission system--the 'interstate highway' for natural gas--consists of 180,000 miles of high-strength steel pipe varying in diameter, normally between 30 and 36 inches in diameter. The primary function of the transmission pipeline company is to move huge amounts of natural gas thousands of miles from producing regions to local natural gas utility delivery points. These delivery points, called 'city gate stations', are usually owned by distribution companies, although some are owned by transmission companies

  17. The Nature of Natural Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Joe E.

    A variety of types of evidence are examined to help determine the true nature of "deep structure" and what, if any, implications this has for linguistic theory as well as culture theory generally. The evidence accumulated over the past century on the nature of phonetic and phonemic systems is briefly discussed, and the following areas of…

  18. Natural disasters.

    PubMed

    Cullen, J M

    1980-09-01

    This presentation covers the various types of natural disasters which are faced by investigators throughout the world. Each geophysical substance is discussed, including earth, air and water, and secondary effects including fire. Additionally, four myths associated with disasters are reviewed.

  19. Natural aphrodisiacs.

    PubMed

    Shamloul, Rany

    2010-01-01

    The search for a remedy or a prescription that can enhance sexual function and/or treat male erectile dysfunction has been an obsession throughout known history. Whether it was an Eastern civilization or a Western one, religious or atheist, man's aspiration for a better or best "manhood" has been a history-time goal. This review will discuss the current research done on the most popular natural aphrodisiacs and examine the weight of evidence to support or discourage the use of any of these substances to enhance sexual desire and/or function. Review of the current evidence on the use of natural substances as aphrodisiacs. Efficacy of natural aphrodisiacs in enhancing sexual function in men and women. There is little evidence from literature to recommend the usage of natural aphrodisiacs for the enhancement of sexual desire and/or performance. Data on yohimbine's efficacy does not support the wide use of the drug, which has only mild effects in the treatment of psychogenic ED. Although there's a positive trend towards recommending ginseng as an effective aphrodisiac, however, more in depth studies involving large number of subjects and its mechanism of action are needed before definite conclusions could be reached. Data on the use of natural aphrodisiacs in women is limited. The current body of objective evidence does not support the use of any natural aphrodisiac as an effective treatment for male or female sexual dysfunctions. Potent men and men with ED will continue the search for natural aphrodisiacs despite the current disappointing data on their effectiveness. Care should be taken regarding the fraud addition of sildenafil analogues to natural aphrodisiacs.

  20. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-05

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1989, and production volumes for the year 1989 for the total United States and for selected states and state sub-divisions. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), its two major components (nonassociated and associated-dissolved gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, two components of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, have their reserves and production reported separately. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. 28 refs., 9 figs., 15 tabs.

  1. Natural Hazards - A National Threat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geological Survey, U.S.

    2007-01-01

    The USGS Role in Reducing Disaster Losses -- In the United States each year, natural hazards cause hundreds of deaths and cost billions of dollars in disaster aid, disruption of commerce, and destruction of homes and critical infrastructure. Although the number of lives lost to natural hazards each year generally has declined, the economic cost of major disaster response and recovery continues to rise. Each decade, property damage from natural hazards events doubles or triples. The United States is second only to Japan in economic damages resulting from natural disasters. A major goal of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is to reduce the vulnerability of the people and areas most at risk from natural hazards. Working with partners throughout all sectors of society, the USGS provides information, products, and knowledge to help build more resilient communities.

  2. Proposed fiscal year 1996 budget request for the Forest Service. Hearing before the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, United States Senate, One Hundred Fourth Congress, First Session, February 15, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The hearing addresses the proposed fiscal year 1996 budget request for the United States Forest Service for the Department of Agriculture. Applications and plans for resources by the Department are examined. The status of forestry and public lands is discussed. Statements of government are included along with documents submitted for the record.

  3. Mangroves and Seawalls. "Increased Pressure for Land Fill Will Cause More and More Stress to Natural Areas." Grades 7 and 8. A Three Lesson Unit. Student Learning Activity Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, James

    This module is an activity/discussion-centered unit focusing on the importance of shoreline surface area. The module is part of a series designed to be used by teachers, students, and community members to help them utilize community resources in developing and teaching environmental concepts and responsibility, and in seeking ways to solve…

  4. Oil and gas development on the outer continental shelf. Hearing before the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, United States Senate, One Hundred Third Congress, First Session, September 14, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The hearing addressed oil and gas development on the outer continental shelf. Testimony is given by Department of Energy officials on the United States oil and gas leasing program. Congressional questions and agency responses are provided. Statements and documents prepared for the record are included.

  5. Mangroves and Seawalls. "Increased Pressure for Land Fill Will Cause More and More Stress to Natural Areas." Grades 7 and 8. A Three Lesson Unit. Student Learning Activity Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, James

    This module is an activity/discussion-centered unit focusing on the importance of shoreline surface area. The module is part of a series designed to be used by teachers, students, and community members to help them utilize community resources in developing and teaching environmental concepts and responsibility, and in seeking ways to solve…

  6. [Conservation Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    Each of the six instructional units deals with one aspect of conservation: forests, water, rangeland, minerals (petroleum), and soil. The area of the elementary school curriculum with which each correlates is indicated. Lists of general and specific objectives are followed by suggested teaching procedures, including ideas for introducing the…

  7. [Conservation Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    Instructional units deal with each aspect of conservation: forests, wildlife, rangelands, water, minerals, and soil. The area of the secondary school curriculum with which each is correlated is indicated. Lists of general and specific objectives are followed by suggested teaching procedures, including ideas for introducing the topic, questions to…

  8. Nature's Palette

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Brooke B.; Brewer, Carol A.

    2010-01-01

    Flower petals, acorn hats, exoskeletons of beetles, and lichens are just a few of the objects students may find in a surprising array of vivid colors. These tiny examples from nature's palette can be discovered in a school yard, a park, or even along the edges of a paved sidewalk...it simply takes careful observation! This article describes a…

  9. Natural fibers

    Treesearch

    Craig M. Clemons; Daniel F. Caulfield

    2005-01-01

    The term “natural fibers” covers a broad range of vegetable, animal, and mineral fibers. However, in the composites industry, it usually refers to wood fiber and agrobased bast, leaf, seed, and stem fibers. These fibers often contribute greatly to the structural performance of the plant and, when used in plastic composites, can provide significant reinforcement. Below...

  10. Natural restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Kamlet, K.S.

    1993-02-01

    After a company pays millions of dollars to clean up contaminated site, its liability may not be over. It may have to spend tens of millions more to restore damaged natural resources under an oft-overlooked Superfund program. Examples of liability are cited in this report from the Exxon Valdez oil spill and a pcb leak which contaminated a harbor.

  11. Natural ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleishman, Erica; Belnap, Jayne; Cobb, Neil; Enquist, Carolyn A.F.; Ford, Karl; MacDonald, Glen; Pellant, Mike; Schoennagel, Tania; Schmit, Lara M.; Schwartz, Mark; van Drunick, Suzanne; Westerling, Anthony LeRoy; Keyser, Alisa; Lucas, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Natural Ecosystems analyzes the association of observed changes in climate with changes in the geographic distributions and phenology (the timing of blossoms or migrations of birds) for Southwestern ecosystems and their species, portraying ecosystem disturbances—such as wildfires and outbreaks of forest pathogens—and carbon storage and release, in relation to climate change.

  12. Nature Watch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Donna R.

    2010-01-01

    Children are naturally curious about the world in which they live. To focus this sense of wonder, have your students investigate their local habitat as it changes over the year. This multiseason study will build connections and add relevance to the habitats that children learn about. This series of activities for grades 4-6 explores the changing…

  13. Uranium, natural

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Uranium , natural ; CASRN 7440 - 61 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogeni

  14. Nature Watch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Donna R.

    2010-01-01

    Children are naturally curious about the world in which they live. To focus this sense of wonder, have your students investigate their local habitat as it changes over the year. This multiseason study will build connections and add relevance to the habitats that children learn about. This series of activities for grades 4-6 explores the changing…

  15. Nature's Palette

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Brooke B.; Brewer, Carol A.

    2010-01-01

    Flower petals, acorn hats, exoskeletons of beetles, and lichens are just a few of the objects students may find in a surprising array of vivid colors. These tiny examples from nature's palette can be discovered in a school yard, a park, or even along the edges of a paved sidewalk...it simply takes careful observation! This article describes a…

  16. Secure Rural Schools and Community Self-Determination Act. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Forests and Public Land Management of the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, United States Senate, One Hundred Sixth Congress, First Session, on S. 1608.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources.

    When the national forests were withdrawn from the public domain a century ago, they were established with the assurances that proceeds from the sustainable management of their natural resources would be shared with local governments. These proceeds partially refund the tax revenues lost by local governments and go toward funding rural schools,…

  17. Natural thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annila, Arto

    2016-02-01

    The principle of increasing entropy is derived from statistical physics of open systems assuming that quanta of actions, as undividable basic build blocks, embody everything. According to this tenet, all systems evolve from one state to another either by acquiring quanta from their surroundings or by discarding quanta to the surroundings in order to attain energetic balance in least time. These natural processes result in ubiquitous scale-free patterns: skewed distributions that accumulate in a sigmoid manner and hence span log-log scales mostly as straight lines. Moreover, the equation for least-time motions reveals that evolution is by nature a non-deterministic process. Although the obtained insight in thermodynamics from the notion of quanta in motion yields nothing new, it accentuates that contemporary comprehension is impaired when modeling evolution as a computable process by imposing conservation of energy and thereby ignoring that quantum of actions are the carriers of energy from the system to its surroundings.

  18. Natural fibers

    Treesearch

    Craig M. Clemons

    2010-01-01

    The term “natural fibers” covers a broad range of vegetable, animal, and mineral fibers. However, in the composites industry, it usually refers to wood fiber and plant-based bast, leaf, seed, and stem fibers. These fibers often contribute greatly to the structural performance of the plant and, when used in plastic composites, can provide significant reinforcement....

  19. Nature's pumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Steven

    1994-10-01

    Although diverse in both form and function, the fluid-forcing devices in organisms have many of the capabilities and limitations of pumps of human design. Nature's pumps certainly look quite different from those of our technology, but all of them perform the same task. The author examines a few of these with an eye toward technological parallels and the two functional classes -- positive-displacement pumps and fluid-dynamic pumps.

  20. Satellite (Natural)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    In its most general sense, any celestial object in orbit around a similar larger object. Thus, for example, the Magellanic Clouds are satellite galaxies of our own Milky Way galaxy. Without qualification, the term is used to mean a body in orbit around a planet; an alternative term is moon. The term natural satellite distinguishes these bodies from artificial satellites—spacecraft placed in orbi...

  1. Responses to natural disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggs, William Ward

    Since 1964, natural disasters caused by earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, or extreme weather in the form of floods, droughts, or hurricanes, have been responsible for more than 2,756,000 deaths worldwide in nations other than the United States, the Soviet Union, and the Eastern European Bloc, according to figures tabulated by the Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance (OFDA) of the Agency for International Development (AID). Over 95% of these fatalities occurred in developing or third world countries. Damage resulting from these calamities has been severe but extremely difficult to estimate in monetary terms. In 1986, U.S. government and voluntary agencies spent $303 million on natural disaster assistance around the world, 79% of total world assistance. In 1985 the U.S. total was nearly $900 million, 48% of the $1.84 billion world total.

  2. Bureau of Land Management Wilderness Review and Rangeland Management Programs. Hearings before the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, United States Senate, Ninety-Sixth Congress, Second Session, February 22 and March 11, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Eight witnesses testified on February 22 and March 11, 1980 at oversight hearings on the rangeland management program and the wilderness program to make an inventory of public lands. Speaking for the states of Montana, Idaho, New Mexico, and Alaska in particular, witnesses referred to public frustrations leading to the Sagebrush Rebellion and reviewed the specific policy aspects of the Bureau of Land Management's objectives. Increasing urbanization, the value of untapped natural resources, and the competition for public lands have made public lands a subject of increasing controversy. (DCK)

  3. A united physicochemical description of the protonation and metal ion complexation equilibria of natural organic acids (humic and fulvic acids). 2. Influence of polyelectrolyte properties and functional group heterogeneity on the protonation equilibria of fulvic acid

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ephraim, J.; Alegret, S.; Mathuthu, A.; Bicking, M.; Malcolm, R.L.; Marinsky, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    Potentiometric studies of the neutralization of several fulvic acid sources with standard base in aqueous and nonaqueous media have been conducted. Analysis of the results with a recently developed unified physicochemical model has shown that the protonation behavior of these fulvic acid sources is a reflection of (1) their polyelectrolyte nature and (2) their heterogeneity. It has been possible to ascribe the polyelectrolyte properties observed to a rather inflexible fulvic acid molecule whose variably charged surface is impermeable to simple electrolyte. ?? 1986 American Chemical Society.

  4. Integrating the Nature of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiland, Ingrid; Blieden, Katherine; Akerson, Valarie

    2014-01-01

    The nature of science (NOS) describes what science is and how knowledge in science is developed (NSTA 2013). To develop elementary students' understandings of how scientists explore the world, the authors--an education professor and a third-grade teacher--endeavored to integrate NOS into a third-grade life science unit. Throughout the lesson,…

  5. Integrating the Nature of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiland, Ingrid; Blieden, Katherine; Akerson, Valarie

    2014-01-01

    The nature of science (NOS) describes what science is and how knowledge in science is developed (NSTA 2013). To develop elementary students' understandings of how scientists explore the world, the authors--an education professor and a third-grade teacher--endeavored to integrate NOS into a third-grade life science unit. Throughout the lesson,…

  6. The Changing United States Diet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Louise; Friend, Berta

    1978-01-01

    The nature of the United States diet has changed markedly in this century. We are using more meat, poultry, fish, and dairy products; sugars and other sweeteners; fats and oils; and processed fruits and vegetables. We are using fewer grain products, potatoes, fresh fruits and vegetables, and eggs. (BB)

  7. The Changing United States Diet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Louise; Friend, Berta

    1978-01-01

    The nature of the United States diet has changed markedly in this century. We are using more meat, poultry, fish, and dairy products; sugars and other sweeteners; fats and oils; and processed fruits and vegetables. We are using fewer grain products, potatoes, fresh fruits and vegetables, and eggs. (BB)

  8. Natural inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Frieman, J.A.

    1991-02-01

    A pseduo-Nambu-Goldstone boson, with a potential of the form V({phi}) = {Lambda}{sup 4}(1 {plus minus} cos({phi}/f)), can naturally give rise to an epoch of inflation in the early universe. Successful inflation can be achieved if f {approximately} m{sub pl} and {Lambda} {approximately} m{sub GUT}. Such mass scales arise in particle physics models with a gauge group that becomes strongly interacting a the GUT scale, e.g., as is expected to happen in the hidden sector of superstring theories. The density fluctuation spectrum is a non-scale-invariant power law, with extra power on large scales. 12 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Natural Strain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, Alan D.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a consistent and thorough development of the strain and strain-rate measures affiliated with Hencky. Natural measures for strain and strain-rate, as I refer to them, are first expressed in terms of of the fundamental body-metric tensors of Lodge. These strain and strain-rate measures are mixed tensor fields. They are mapped from the body to space in both the Eulerian and Lagrangian configurations, and then transformed from general to Cartesian fields. There they are compared with the various strain and strain-rate measures found in the literature. A simple Cartesian description for Hencky strain-rate in the Lagrangian state is obtained.

  10. Natural relaxation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzola, Luca; Raidal, Martti

    2016-11-01

    Motivated by natural inflation, we propose a relaxation mechanism consistent with inflationary cosmology that explains the hierarchy between the electroweak scale and Planck scale. This scenario is based on a selection mechanism that identifies the low-scale dynamics as the one that is screened from UV physics. The scenario also predicts the near-criticality and metastability of the Standard Model (SM) vacuum state, explaining the Higgs boson mass observed at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Once Majorana right-handed neutrinos are introduced to provide a viable reheating channel, our framework yields a corresponding mass scale that allows for the seesaw mechanism as well as for standard thermal leptogenesis. We argue that considering singlet scalar dark matter extensions of the proposed scenario could solve the vacuum stability problem and discuss how the cosmological constant problem is possibly addressed.

  11. Natural Disasters and Nontuberculous Mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Bernhard, Jon N.; Chan, Edward D.

    2015-01-01

    Infectious diseases acquired by survivors of large-scale natural disasters complicate the recovery process. During events such as tsunamis, hurricanes, earthquakes, and tornados and well into the recovery period, victims often are exposed to water-soil mixtures that have relocated with indigenous microbes. Because nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are ubiquitous in water and soil, there is potential for increased exposure to these organisms during natural disasters. In this hypothesis-driven commentary, we discuss the rise in NTM lung disease and natural disasters and examine the geographic overlap of NTM infections and disaster frequencies in the United States. Moreover, we show an increased number of positive NTM cultures from Louisiana residents in the years following three of the relatively recent epic hurricanes and posit that such natural disasters may help to drive the increased number of NTM infections. Finally, we advocate for increased environmental studies and surveillance of NTM infections before and after natural disasters. PMID:25644904

  12. [Naturalizing empathy].

    PubMed

    Decety, J

    2002-01-01

    Empathy is the ability to share emotions with others. It is acknowledged to be a powerful means of tacit communication, a key ingredient in any therapeutic relationship as well as in psychotherapy. Empathy is the cornerstone in the humanist perspective (Ego-psychology) in clinical psychology. This approach is often considered as poorly grounded on scientific and objective evidence. It is however acknowledged that empathetic therapists are more effective than less empathetic therapists. I shall argue that this paradox, i.e. it is the least scientific and the less validated psychotherapeutic approach that is the most efficient, can be eliminated if one considers the nature of empathy, its biological foundation, its evolutionary origin and its cognitive architecture. In this paper I will suggest that empathy is based on specific information processing modules which have been designed by natural selection to cope with social regularities in expressing and reading emotional states. This has provided adaptive benefits to individuals living in large groups bestowing them with mechanisms for cooperativity, altruism and more generally various aspects of prosocial behaviour. The capacity to express emotions, and to read and understand emotions of others also ensures implicit communication with others and may be at the root of intersubjectivity. This perspective on empathy is then articulated with two concurrent hypotheses regarding theory of mind (the simulation and the theory-theory) which aim to explain the human capacity to understand that the behaviors of other intelligent agents are caused by intentions, desires and beliefs. In this context, empathy can be considered as a simulation (or analogical) process that is necessary to understand but not sufficient to interpret other people. This last issue is relevant to clinical practice.

  13. Proposed fiscal year 1986 budget request. Hearings before the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, United States Senate, Ninety-Ninth Congress, First Session, February 27, March 1 and 4, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    The Secretaries of Interior, Energy, and Agriculture, and representatives of the Synthetic Fuels Corporation, and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission were the principal witnesses at a three-day hearing on the 1986 budget proposal. Of concern to the committee were the policy implications of budget reductions of recent years and the government's role as steward of natural resources. At issue was how to reconcile deficit reduction with other public goals and develop a national consensus on the proper role of the federal government. Among the topics under discussion were the leasing of land for energy development and timber harvesting, the strategic petroleum reserve, conservation and weatherization programs, and the management of minerals, water, and other resources. There are six appendices with responses submitted for the record as well as the testimony of the witnesses.

  14. Oil shale mining claims. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Mineral Resources Development and Production of the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, United States Senate, One Hundredth Congress, First Session, October 16, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    The hearing was called to consider the reprocessing of oil shale mining claims and patents by the Department of the Interior under the Mining Law of 1872. After 50 years of litigation, a ruling was made last year. In the settlement the US agreed to issue patents to people who had claims for 2.5 dollars per acre. In total 82,000 acres of public lands were given away. Congress put a moratorium on further issuing of patents, but the moratorium ends March 31, 1988. Testimony was heard from 11 witnesses, representing the DOI Land and Minerals Management, Colorado Department of Natural Resources, Public Lands and Energy Division of the National Wildlife Federation, and the states of Colorado, Utah, Montana, and Wyoming. Additional material was submitted by the DOI Office of the Solicitor and the Sierra Club.

  15. Masticatory ability and functional tooth units in Japanese adults.

    PubMed

    Ueno, M; Yanagisawa, T; Shinada, K; Ohara, S; Kawaguchi, Y

    2008-05-01

    The purposes of this study were (i) to examine the relationship between the number of natural teeth and the number of functional tooth units in Japanese adults, (ii) to evaluate how functional tooth units relate to subjective masticatory ability and (iii) to determine the minimum number of natural teeth and functional tooth units needed to maintain adequate self-assessed chewing function. A self-administered questionnaire was given and dental examination was conducted for 2164 residents aged 40 to 75 years. Counts were made on the number of functional tooth units of natural teeth (n-functional tooth units), the sum of natural teeth and artificial teeth on implant-supported and fixed prostheses (nif-functional tooth units) and the sum of natural teeth and artificial teeth on implant-supported, fixed and removable prostheses (total-functional tooth units). The average number of natural teeth, n-functional tooth units and nif-functional tooth units decreased with age, but these were often replaced by functional tooth units from artificial teeth on removable prostheses. Total-functional tooth units in 50-59 year old people were slightly lower compared with those in other age groups. Subjects who reported that they could chew every food item on an average had 23.4 total natural teeth, 12.6 posterior natural teeth, 7.6 n-functional tooth units, 8.6 nif-functional tooth units and 10.4 total-functional tooth units, and subjects without chewing difficulties had fewer functional tooth units from removable prostheses. Maintaining 20 and more natural teeth and at least eight nif-functional tooth units is important in reducing the likelihood of self-assessed chewing difficulties.

  16. The Changing Nature of Youth Violence. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Youth Violence of the Committee on the Judiciary. United States Senate, One Hundred Fourth Congress, Second Session on Examining the Current State of Youth Violence, Focusing on Its Changing Nature and Juvenile Intervention Programs Designed To Prevent Increased Violence (February 28, 1996).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on the Judiciary.

    This hearing examined the current state of youth violence, focusing on its changing nature and juvenile intervention programs designed to prevent increased violence. Opening statements by Senators Fred Thompson, Herbert Kohl, and Joseph R. Biden addressed the seriousness of the problem. Two panels contributed prepared statements. The first panel…

  17. Natural or Organic Foods? [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Schmidt Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Linda

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. The unit is designed for secondary students in home economics classes. The content of the units focuses on natural and organic foods, characteristics of the foods, and uses of the foods. The seven lessons in this unit are designed to last over a…

  18. Naturally Occurring Radon and 120(h) transfers

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page contains a discussion regarding how the presence of naturally occurring radon on closing military bases affects the United States' ability to transfer parcels under §120(h) (3) and §120(h) (4).

  19. Consumerism in Business Law--A Natural

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clow, John E.; Furjanic, Sheila

    1974-01-01

    Consumer protection should be a major objective in high school business law classes. Suggested units are the nature of law, sources of legal assistance, sales contracts, use of commercial paper, and rental or ownership of real property. (MS)

  20. Challenges in Renewable Natural Resources: A Guide to Alternative Futures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theobald, Robert

    First presented at a United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) conference on renewable resources, this material includes information and discussion on critical issues, policies, and future alternatives for natural resources in the United States. (CO)

  1. Trends in U.S. Residential Natural Gas Consumption

    EIA Publications

    2010-01-01

    This report presents an analysis of residential natural gas consumption trends in the United States through 2009 and analyzes consumption trends for the United States as a whole (1990 through 2009) and for each Census division (1998 through 2009).

  2. Perspectives of the Continuing Education Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Huey B.

    1974-01-01

    The article discusses the Continuing Education Unit's chameleon-like nature by focusing on its definition and background and possible perceptions from the academic perspective, the user group perspective and the individual learner's perspective. (AG)

  3. Termination unit

    DOEpatents

    Traeholt, Chresten [Frederiksberg, DK; Willen, Dag [Klagshamn, SE; Roden, Mark [Newnan, GA; Tolbert, Jerry C [Carrollton, GA; Lindsay, David [Carrollton, GA; Fisher, Paul W [Heiskell, TN; Nielsen, Carsten Thidemann [Jaegerspris, DK

    2014-01-07

    This invention relates to a termination unit comprising an end-section of a cable. The end section of the cable defines a central longitudinal axis and comprising end-parts of N electrical phases, an end-part of a neutral conductor and a surrounding thermally insulation envelope adapted to comprising a cooling fluid. The end-parts of the N electrical phases and the end-part of the neutral conductor each comprising at least one electrical conductor and being arranged in the cable concentrically around a core former with a phase 1 located relatively innermost, and phase N relatively outermost in the cable, phase N being surrounded by the neutral conductor, electrical insulation being arrange between neighboring electrical phases and between phase N and the neutral conductor, and wherein the end-parts of the neutral conductor and the electrical phases each comprise a contacting surface electrically connected to at least one branch current lead to provide an electrical connection: The contacting surfaces each having a longitudinal extension, and being located sequentially along the longitudinal extension of the end-section of the cable. The branch current leads being individually insulated from said thermally insulation envelope by individual electrical insulators.

  4. Termination unit

    DOEpatents

    Traeholt, Chresten; Willen, Dag; Roden, Mark; Tolbert, Jerry C.; Lindsay, David; Fisher, Paul W.; Nielsen, Carsten Thidemann

    2016-05-03

    Cable end section comprises end-parts of N electrical phases/neutral, and a thermally-insulation envelope comprising cooling fluid. The end-parts each comprises a conductor and are arranged with phase 1 innermost, N outermost surrounded by the neutral, electrical insulation being between phases and N and neutral. The end-parts comprise contacting surfaces located sequentially along the longitudinal extension of the end-section. A termination unit has an insulating envelope connected to a cryostat, special parts at both ends comprising an adapter piece at the cable interface and a closing end-piece terminating the envelope in the end-section. The special parts houses an inlet and/or outlet for cooling fluid. The space between an inner wall of the envelope and a central opening of the cable is filled with cooling fluid. The special part at the end connecting to the cryostat houses an inlet or outlet, splitting cooling flow into cable annular flow and termination annular flow.

  5. 75 FR 48726 - Natural Bristle Paintbrushes From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Natural Bristle Paintbrushes From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission... natural bristle paintbrushes from China (75 FR 44939). Commerce announced that it was revoking the subject...

  6. Social Studies: United States. Grade 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellogg, E. G.

    This teachers guide attempts to facilitate the study of the United States through a conceptual approach and multimedia instruction in a spiral curriculum. There are five units: 1) Natural Setting --location, climate, terrain, water, soil, and economic and esthetic value, and conservation; 2) Historial Development --North American Indian cultures,…

  7. Plotting landscape perspectives of clearcut units.

    Treesearch

    Roger H. Twito

    1978-01-01

    The aesthetics of clearcut units potentially visible from a distance can be improved by judicious design. Screening clearcuts from view or shaping them to characterize natural openings are current methods used for this purpose. Perspective plots illustrating how proposed clearcut units will look from specific off-site viewing points provide an...

  8. Thematic Science Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Jean M.; Cliatt, Mary Jo Puckett

    1990-01-01

    Described are four interdisciplinary units entitled "A Very Fishy Unit,""Building Healthy Bodies Unit,""Hands-On Plants Units," and "Butterflies Spell Beauty Unit." Each unit contains science activities, skills and concepts covered, and activities that cover other disciplines. (KR)

  9. Introduction to Natural Resources: Advanced Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crummett, Dan

    This guide, which is designed for use with student and teacher guides to a 10-unit secondary-level course in natural resources, contains a series of student supplements and advanced assignment and job sheets that provide students with additional opportunities to explore the following areas of natural resources and conservation education: outdoor…

  10. Natural Gas Pipeline and System Expansions

    EIA Publications

    1997-01-01

    This special report examines recent expansions to the North American natural gas pipeline network and the nature and type of proposed pipeline projects announced or approved for construction during the next several years in the United States. It includes those projects in Canada and Mexico that tie in with U.S. markets or projects.

  11. Introduction to Natural Resources. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hehn, Darold; Newport, Bob

    This color-coded teacher's guide contains curriculum materials designed to help students develop an awareness of renewable and nonrenewable natural resources and to identify occupations in the area of natural resources. The guide contains nine units, each of which includes some or all of the following basic components: objective sheet, suggested…

  12. Introduction to Natural Resources: Advanced Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crummett, Dan

    This guide, which is designed for use with student and teacher guides to a 10-unit secondary-level course in natural resources, contains a series of student supplements and advanced assignment and job sheets that provide students with additional opportunities to explore the following areas of natural resources and conservation education: outdoor…

  13. Majors' Shift to Natural Gas, The

    EIA Publications

    2001-01-01

    The Majors' Shift to Natural Gas investigates the factors that have guided the United States' major energy producers' growth in U.S. natural gas production relative to oil production. The analysis draws heavily on financial and operating data from the Energy Information Administration's Financial Reporting System (FRS)

  14. Design, science and naturalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deming, David

    2008-09-01

    The Design Argument is the proposition that the presence of order in the universe is evidence for the existence of God. The Argument dates at least to the presocratic Greek philosophers, and is largely based on analogical reasoning. Following the appearance of Aquinas' Summa Theologica in the 13th century, the Christian Church in Europe embraced a Natural Theology based on observation and reason that allowed it to dominate the entire world of knowledge. Science in turn advanced itself by demonstrating that it could be of service to theology, the recognized queen of the sciences. During the heyday of British Natural Theology in the 17th and 18th centuries, the watchmaker, shipbuilder, and architect analogies were invoked reflexively by philosophers, theologians, and scientists. The Design Argument was not systematically and analytically criticized until David Hume wrote Dialogues on Natural Religion in the 1750s. After Darwin published Origin of Species in 1859, Design withered on the vine. But in recent years, the Argument has been resurrected under the appellation "intelligent design," and been the subject of political and legal controversy in the United States. Design advocates have argued that intelligent design can be formulated as a scientific hypothesis, that new scientific discoveries validate a design inference, and that naturalism must be removed as a methodological requirement in science. If science is defined by a model of concentric epistemological zonation, design cannot be construed as a scientific hypothesis because it is inconsistent with the core aspects of scientific methodology: naturalism, uniformity, induction, and efficient causation. An analytical examination of claims by design advocates finds no evidence of any type to support either scientific or philosophical claims that design can be unambiguously inferred from nature. The apparent irreducible complexity of biological mechanisms may be explained by exaptation or scaffolding. The argument

  15. Historical and projected costs of natural disasters

    SciTech Connect

    Engi, D.

    1995-04-01

    Natural disasters cause billions of dollars of damage and thousands Of deaths globally each year. While the magnitude is clear, the exact costs (in damage and fatalities) are difficult to clearly identify. This document reports on the results of a survey of data on the costs associated with significant natural disasters. There is an impressive amount of work and effort going into natural disaster research, mitigation, and relief. However, despite this effort, there are surprisingly few consistent and reliable data available regarding the effects of natural disasters. Even lacking consistent and complete data, it is clear that the damage and fatalities from natural disasters are increasing, both in the United States, and globally. Projections using the available data suggest that, in the United States alone, the costs of natural disasters between 1995 and 2010 will be in the range of $90 billion (94$) and 5000 lives.

  16. Natural Product Molecular Fossils.

    PubMed

    Falk, Heinz; Wolkenstein, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    The natural products synthesized by organisms that were living a long time ago gave rise to their molecular fossils. These can consist of either the original unchanged compounds or they may undergo peripheral transformations in which their skeletons remain intact. In cases when molecular fossils can be traced to their organismic source, they are termed "geological biomarkers".This contribution describes apolar and polar molecular fossils and, in particular biomarkers, along the lines usually followed in organic chemistry textbooks, and points to their bioprecursors when available. Thus, the apolar compounds are divided in linear and branched alkanes followed by alicyclic compounds and aromatic and heterocyclic molecules, and, in particular, the geoporphyrins. The polar molecular fossils contain as functional groups or constituent units ethers, alcohols, phenols, carbonyl groups, flavonoids, quinones, and acids, or are polymers like kerogen, amber, melanin, proteins, or nucleic acids. The final sections discuss the methodology used and the fundamental processes encountered by the biomolecules described, including diagenesis, catagenesis, and metagenesis.

  17. Natural flexible dermal armor.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wen; Chen, Irene H; Gludovatz, Bernd; Zimmermann, Elizabeth A; Ritchie, Robert O; Meyers, Marc A

    2013-01-04

    Fish, reptiles, and mammals can possess flexible dermal armor for protection. Here we seek to find the means by which Nature derives its protection by examining the scales from several fish (Atractosteus spatula, Arapaima gigas, Polypterus senegalus, Morone saxatilis, Cyprinius carpio), and osteoderms from armadillos, alligators, and leatherback turtles. Dermal armor has clearly been developed by convergent evolution in these different species. In general, it has a hierarchical structure with collagen fibers joining more rigid units (scales or osteoderms), thereby increasing flexibility without significantly sacrificing strength, in contrast to rigid monolithic mineral composites. These dermal structures are also multifunctional, with hydrodynamic drag (in fish), coloration for camouflage or intraspecies recognition, temperature and fluid regulation being other important functions. The understanding of such flexible dermal armor is important as it may provide a basis for new synthetic, yet bioinspired, armor materials. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Suicide after natural disasters.

    PubMed

    Krug, E G; Kresnow, M; Peddicord, J P; Dahlberg, L L; Powell, K E; Crosby, A E; Annest, J L

    1998-02-05

    Among the victims of floods, earthquakes, and hurricanes, there is an increased prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder and depression, which are risk factors for suicidal thinking. We conducted this study to determine whether natural disasters affect suicide rates. From a list of all the events declared by the U.S. government to be federal disasters between 1982 and 1989, we selected the 377 counties that had each been affected by a single natural disaster during that period. We collected data on suicides during the 36 months before and the 48 months after the disaster and aligned the data around the month of the disaster. Pooled rates were calculated according to the type of disaster. Comparisons were made between the suicide rates before and those after disasters in the affected counties and in the entire United States. Suicide rates increased in the four years after floods by 13.8 percent, from 12.1 to 13.8 per 100,000 (P<0.001), in the two years after hurricanes by 31.0 percent, from 12.0 to 15.7 per 100,000 (P<0.001), and in the first year after earthquakes by 62.9 percent, from 19.2 to 31.3 per 100,000 (P<0.001). The four-year increase of 19.7 percent after earthquakes was not statistically significant. Rates computed in a similar manner for the entire United States were stable. The increases in suicide rates were found for both sexes and for all age groups. The suicide rates did not change significantly after tornadoes or severe storms. Our study shows that suicide rates increase after severe earthquakes, floods, and hurricanes and confirms the need for mental health support after severe disasters.

  19. Complexity of coupled human and natural systems.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianguo; Dietz, Thomas; Carpenter, Stephen R; Alberti, Marina; Folke, Carl; Moran, Emilio; Pell, Alice N; Deadman, Peter; Kratz, Timothy; Lubchenco, Jane; Ostrom, Elinor; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Provencher, William; Redman, Charles L; Schneider, Stephen H; Taylor, William W

    2007-09-14

    Integrated studies of coupled human and natural systems reveal new and complex patterns and processes not evident when studied by social or natural scientists separately. Synthesis of six case studies from around the world shows that couplings between human and natural systems vary across space, time, and organizational units. They also exhibit nonlinear dynamics with thresholds, reciprocal feedback loops, time lags, resilience, heterogeneity, and surprises. Furthermore, past couplings have legacy effects on present conditions and future possibilities.

  20. The social nature of natural childbirth.

    PubMed

    Mansfield, Becky

    2008-03-01

    This paper aims to develop a better understanding of what proponents of natural childbirth mean by "natural." Using a biosocial approach to birth that posits that all birth is both social and natural, the paper investigates how proponents represent the relationship between nature and society. The study asks about what kinds of nature-society relationships are expressed in proponents' representations of natural childbirth. The study examines how natural childbirth is represented by proponents in popular non-fictional English language books written for pregnant women. Claims in these books are not taken as reality, but are analyzed as ideas about nature-society relations. The central finding is that these authors simultaneously emphasize the naturalness of birth and showcase three types of social practices that they describe as being integral to natural childbirth: (1) activity during birth, (2) preparation before birth, and (3) social support, both in an individual and in a broader socio-cultural sense. At least for these authors, it is these social practices that allow natural childbirth to be natural. These findings on the social nature of natural childbirth challenge current social science scholarship, in which natural childbirth is characterized as an essentializing and nostalgic attempt to return to nature.

  1. Fire ecology in the southeastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2000-01-01

    Fire has played an important role in the structure of natural ecosystems throughout North America. As a natural process, fire helps clear away dead and dying plant matter and increases the production of native species that occur in fire prone habitats. It also reduces the invasion of exotic species and the succession to woody species in pitcher plant bogs, pine savannas, coastal prairies, marshes, and other natural plant communities of the southeastern United States.

  2. Naturally Occurring Food Toxins

    PubMed Central

    Dolan, Laurie C.; Matulka, Ray A.; Burdock, George A.

    2010-01-01

    Although many foods contain toxins as a naturally-occurring constituent or, are formed as the result of handling or processing, the incidence of adverse reactions to food is relatively low. The low incidence of adverse effects is the result of some pragmatic solutions by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and other regulatory agencies through the creative use of specifications, action levels, tolerances, warning labels and prohibitions. Manufacturers have also played a role by setting limits on certain substances and developing mitigation procedures for process-induced toxins. Regardless of measures taken by regulators and food producers to protect consumers from natural food toxins, consumption of small levels of these materials is unavoidable. Although the risk for toxicity due to consumption of food toxins is fairly low, there is always the possibility of toxicity due to contamination, overconsumption, allergy or an unpredictable idiosyncratic response. The purpose of this review is to provide a toxicological and regulatory overview of some of the toxins present in some commonly consumed foods, and where possible, discuss the steps that have been taken to reduce consumer exposure, many of which are possible because of the unique process of food regulation in the United States. PMID:22069686

  3. Naturally occurring food toxins.

    PubMed

    Dolan, Laurie C; Matulka, Ray A; Burdock, George A

    2010-09-01

    Although many foods contain toxins as a naturally-occurring constituent or, are formed as the result of handling or processing, the incidence of adverse reactions to food is relatively low. The low incidence of adverse effects is the result of some pragmatic solutions by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and other regulatory agencies through the creative use of specifications, action levels, tolerances, warning labels and prohibitions. Manufacturers have also played a role by setting limits on certain substances and developing mitigation procedures for process-induced toxins. Regardless of measures taken by regulators and food producers to protect consumers from natural food toxins, consumption of small levels of these materials is unavoidable. Although the risk for toxicity due to consumption of food toxins is fairly low, there is always the possibility of toxicity due to contamination, overconsumption, allergy or an unpredictable idiosyncratic response. The purpose of this review is to provide a toxicological and regulatory overview of some of the toxins present in some commonly consumed foods, and where possible, discuss the steps that have been taken to reduce consumer exposure, many of which are possible because of the unique process of food regulation in the United States.

  4. Short Note on Units: Planetary Units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huggins, Elisha

    2010-03-01

    While the emphasis on SI units in introductory physics textbooks has mercifully eliminated the use of English units, the exclusion of other systems of units is not necessary. For years physicists have simplified calculations by doing things like setting ℏ = c = 1. We could not imagine putting 4πɛ0 into the formulas for Bohr orbits.1

  5. Short Note on Units: Planetary Units

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huggins, Elisha

    2010-01-01

    While the emphasis on SI units in introductory physics textbooks has mercifully eliminated the use of English units, the exclusion of other systems of units is not necessary. For years physicists have simplified calculations by doing things like setting [h-bar] = c = 1. We could not imagine putting 4[pi][epsilon][subscript 0] into the formulas for…

  6. Short Note on Units: Planetary Units

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huggins, Elisha

    2010-01-01

    While the emphasis on SI units in introductory physics textbooks has mercifully eliminated the use of English units, the exclusion of other systems of units is not necessary. For years physicists have simplified calculations by doing things like setting [h-bar] = c = 1. We could not imagine putting 4[pi][epsilon][subscript 0] into the formulas for…

  7. Remediation by Natural Attenuation Treatability Study for Operable Unit 5

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-12-01

    Alternative 1-- RNA Combined with LTM, Institutional Controls, Air Sparging Along Main Street, and Groundwater Extraction and Treatment Near Well Pair MW137...Extraction and Treatment Near Well Pair MW137/MWI38, Groundwater Extraction Along 300 West, and Groundwater Extraction West of Building 1781 ............ 6-10...remedial action IRP Installation Restoration Program -vii- 022/72969 i/H1LL23.DOC 0I IWTP Industrial Waste Treatment Plant 0 JMM James M. Montgomery

  8. United Kingdom Country Analysis Brief

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    The United Kingdom (UK) is the fifth-largest economy in the world in terms of gross domestic product. Following years as a net exporter of crude oil and natural gas, the UK became a net importer of both fuels in 2004 and 2005, respectively. Production from UK oil and natural gas fields peaked in the late 1990s and has generally declined over the past several years as the discovery of new reserves and new production has not kept pace with the maturation of existing fields. Production of petroleum and other liquids increased in 2015, as investments made when oil prices were high came to fruition, but the UK remains a net importer. Renewable energy use, particularly in the electric power sector, has more than doubled over the past decade (2005-14). However, petroleum and natural gas continue to account for most of UK's energy consumption. In 2014, petroleum and natural gas accounted for 36% and 33%, respectively, of total energy consumption (Figure 2).1 Coal also continues to be a significant part of total energy consumption (16% in 2014). Energy use per unit of gross domestic product (GDP) in the UK is one of the lowest among western economies. The UK has seen total primary energy consumption decline by almost 20% over the past decade (2005-14). This decline resulted from smaller contribution of energy-intensive industry to the economy, economic contraction, and improvements in energy efficiency.

  9. Calculus Students' Understanding of Area and Volume Units

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorko, Allison; Speer, Natasha

    2015-01-01

    Units of measure are critical in many scientific fields. While instructors often note that students struggle with units, little research has been conducted about the nature and extent of these difficulties or why they exist. We investigated calculus students' unit use in area and volume computations. Seventy-three percent of students gave…

  10. Calculus Students' Understanding of Area and Volume Units

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorko, Allison; Speer, Natasha

    2015-01-01

    Units of measure are critical in many scientific fields. While instructors often note that students struggle with units, little research has been conducted about the nature and extent of these difficulties or why they exist. We investigated calculus students' unit use in area and volume computations. Seventy-three percent of students gave…

  11. 8 CFR 343b.4 - Applicant outside of United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Applicant outside of United States. 343b.4... CERTIFICATE OF NATURALIZATION FOR RECOGNITION BY A FOREIGN STATE § 343b.4 Applicant outside of United States. If the application is received by a DHS office outside the United States, an officer will,...

  12. 8 CFR 316.5 - Residence in the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Residence in the United States. 316.5... REQUIREMENTS FOR NATURALIZATION § 316.5 Residence in the United States. (a) General. Unless otherwise specified... personnel. For applicants who are serving in the Armed Forces of the United States but who do not...

  13. Eutrophication, A Natural Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monsour, William

    This environmental education learning unit deals with the topic of eutrophication. The unit is designed to allow secondary teachers of science, language arts, and social studies to use it as supplementary material in their classroom. Teacher information, unit objectives, the unit text, and appendices are included. The teacher information section…

  14. Natural gas vehicles : Status, barriers, and opportunities.

    SciTech Connect

    Rood Werpy, M.; Santini, D.; Burnham, A.; Mintz, M.; Energy Systems

    2010-11-29

    In the United States, recent shale gas discoveries have generated renewed interest in using natural gas as a vehicular fuel, primarily in fleet applications, while outside the United States, natural gas vehicle use has expanded significantly in the past decade. In this report for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities Program - a public-private partnership that advances the energy, economic, and environmental security of the U.S. by supporting local decisions that reduce petroleum use in the transportation sector - we have examined the state of natural gas vehicle technology, current market status, energy and environmental benefits, implications regarding advancements in European natural gas vehicle technologies, research and development efforts, and current market barriers and opportunities for greater market penetration. The authors contend that commercial intracity trucks are a prime area for advancement of this fuel. Therefore, we examined an aggressive future market penetration of natural gas heavy-duty vehicles that could be seen as a long-term goal. Under this scenario using Energy Information Administration projections and GREET life-cycle modeling of U.S. on-road heavy-duty use, natural gas vehicles would reduce petroleum consumption by approximately 1.2 million barrels of oil per day, while another 400,000 barrels of oil per day reduction could be achieved with significant use of natural gas off-road vehicles. This scenario would reduce daily oil consumption in the United States by about 8%.

  15. REACH. Electricity Units. Secondary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Gene; Sappe, Hoyt

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of electricity. The instructional units focus on electricity fundamentals and electric motors. Each unit follows a typical format that includes a unit sheet,…

  16. REACH. Electricity Units. Secondary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Gene; Sappe, Hoyt

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of electricity. The instructional units focus on electricity fundamentals and electric motors. Each unit follows a typical format that includes a unit sheet,…

  17. Reservoirs in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, N.O.; Harbeck, G. Earl

    1956-01-01

    Reservoir storage facilities in the United States play an important part in the national economy. Storage facilities have enabled the country to utilize to a much fuller extent one of the most valuable natural resources: water. During recent years the construction of reservoirs has continued at a high rate. This report shows the status of these facilities on January 1, 1954, and describes briefly some of the reasons for growth of reservoir facilities in the United States. Descriptive data are given for reservoirs having a capacity of 5, 000 acre-feet or more and for natural lakes having a usable capacity of 5,000 acre-feet or more. Included are reservoirs and lakes completed as of January 1, 1954, and reservoirs under construction on that date. The total number of such reservoirs and lakes is 1, 300. A descriptive list of reservoirs in the United States was first published by the United States Geological Survey in March 1948. That report, Geological Survey Circular 23, entitled Reservoirs in the United States, included reservoirs completed as of January 1, 1947. Since January 1, 1947, reservoirs representing a total usable capacity of 115,000,000 acre-feet, or an increase of 71 percent, have been constructed or are under construction. Data about these new reservoirs are presented herein, and the data shown for reservoirs constructed before 1947 have been corrected on the basis of the latest available survey to determine reservoir capacity. The total usable capacity of reservoirs and lakes included in this compilation amounts to 278, 120, 000 acre-feet, and the corresponding surface area totals 11, 046, 000 acres.

  18. [United theory of aging].

    PubMed

    Trubitsyn, A G

    2012-01-01

    In attempts to develop a means of life prolongation the humankind has created more than three hundred theories of the aging; each of them offers the original cause of aging. However, none of them has given practical result by now. The majority of the theories have now only historical interest. There are several different theories that are mainly under consideration currently. They are based on reliable, proven evidence: the free radical theory, the protein error theory, the replicative senescence theory, the theory of reparation weakening, the immunological theory, several versions of neuroendocrinal theories, and programmed aging theory. The theory presented here is based on conception that the life as the phenomenon represents many of the interconnected physical and chemical processes propelled by energy of the mitochondrial bioenergetical machine. Gradual degradation of all vital processes is caused by the programmed decrease in level of bioenergetics. This theory unites all existing theories of aging constructed on authentic facts: it is shown, that such fundamental phenomena accompanying aging process as the increase in level of reactive oxygen species (ROS), the decrease in the general level of protein synthesis, the limitation of cellular dividing (Haiflick limit), decrease in efficiency of reparation mechanisms are caused by bioenergetics attenuation. Each of these phenomena in turn generates a number of harmful secondary processes. Any of the theories bases on one of these destructive phenomena or their combination. Hence, each of them describes one of sides of process of the aging initially caused by programmed decrease of level of bioenergetics. This united theory gives the chance to understand the nature of aging clock and explains a phenomenon of increase in longevity at the condition of food restriction. Failures of attempts to develop means from aging are explained by that the manipulations with the separate secondary phenomena of attenuation of

  19. Nature Contacts: Employee Wellness in Healthcare.

    PubMed

    Trau, Deborah; Keenan, Kimberly A; Goforth, Meggan; Large, Vernon

    2016-04-01

    This study was designed to ascertain the amount of outdoor, indoor, and indirect nature contact exposures hospital employees have in a workweek. Hospital employees have been found particularly vulnerable to work-related stress. Increasing the nature contact exposure for hospital employees can reduce perceived stress; stress-related health behaviors; and stress-related health outcomes from outdoor, indoor, and indirect exposures to nature. Staff on the fourth floor postsurgical unit of a large hospital (N = 42) were ask to participate in an employee questionnaire "nature contact questionnaire". This 16-item nature environment questionnaire measures the amount and types of nature contact exposures employees have during a workweek. Majority of employees reported few, if any, nature contact exposures, specifically in the area of outdoor nature contacts with limited indoor and indirect contacts. These results indicated that employees on the fourth floor postsurgical floor have limited ability to reduce stress through nature contact exposures which could impact their perceived levels of work stress and stress-related behaviors and health outcomes. Nature contact exposures are both a relatively easy and an inexpensive way to improve employee stress. These findings indicate limitations to employees' exposure to nature contacts. Healthcare environments would benefit from a concerted effort to provide increased outdoor, indoor, and indirect nature contact exposures for employees. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. How Misapplication of the Hydrologic Unit Framework ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Hydrologic units provide a convenient nationwide set of geographic polygons based on an arbitrary subdivision of the drainage of land surface areas at several hierarchical levels. Half or more of these units, however, are not true watersheds as the official name of the framework, Watershed Boundary Dataset (WBD), implies. Hydrologic units and watersheds are commonly treated as synonymous, and this misuse and misunderstanding can have some serious consequences. We discuss some of the strengths and limitations of watersheds and hydrologic units as spatial frameworks. Using examples from the Northwest and Southeast U.S., we explain how the misuse of the hydrologic unit framework has affected the meaning of watersheds and can impair the understanding of the associations of spatial geographic phenomena relative to a potentially infinite number of points on streams due to their linear nature. Watersheds are a fundamental geographic unit used to study the effects of natural and anthropogenic characteristics on the quality and quantity of water. Most scientists and resource managers historically have been in agreement on the spatial meaning of the term ‘watershed’ – that is, the topographic area within which water drains to a specific point on a stream, river, or particular waterbody. The Hydrologic Unit Code (HUC) framework, however, has changed this understanding. Hydrologic units provide a convenient nationwide set of geographic polygons based on an arbitra

  1. Natural Language Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chowdhury, Gobinda G.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses issues related to natural language processing, including theoretical developments; natural language understanding; tools and techniques; natural language text processing systems; abstracting; information extraction; information retrieval; interfaces; software; Internet, Web, and digital library applications; machine translation for…

  2. Natural Gas Emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    Natural Gas Emergencies Extinguish cigarettes and do not light matches. You can help prevent natural gas emergencies by calling the utility locator service ... Health through the Cities Readiness Initiative (CRI) English – Natural Gas Emergencies - Last reviewed 2014

  3. Natural Language Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chowdhury, Gobinda G.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses issues related to natural language processing, including theoretical developments; natural language understanding; tools and techniques; natural language text processing systems; abstracting; information extraction; information retrieval; interfaces; software; Internet, Web, and digital library applications; machine translation for…

  4. Using SI Units in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodd, Richard

    2011-12-01

    1. Introduction; 2. An introduction to SI units; 3. Dimensional analysis; 4. Unit of angular measure (radian); 5. Unit of time (second); 6. Unit of length (metre); 7. Unit of mass (kilogram); 8. Unit of luminous intensity (candela); 9. Unit of thermodynamic temperature (kelvin); 10. Unit of electric current (ampere); 11. Unit of amount of substance (mole); 12. Astronomical taxonomy; Index.

  5. Mud Bugs: Supply, Demand, and Natural Resources in Louisiana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagel, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Louisiana's land, coast, and inland waterways are home to many natural resources such as seafood, petroleum, natural gas, and timber--and freshwater crawfish, or "mudbugs" as the locals like to call them. These natural resources are vital to Louisiana's economy. The author describes a unit of study on economics in which a teacher taught…

  6. 36 CFR 13.35 - Preservation of natural features.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Preservation of natural... INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA General Provisions § 13.35 Preservation of natural features... National Monument. (b) Gathering or collecting natural products is prohibited except as allowed by this...

  7. 75 FR 21347 - Natural Bristle Paint Brushes From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-23

    ... COMMISSION Natural Bristle Paint Brushes From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Scheduling of a full five-year review concerning the antidumping duty order on natural bristle... whether revocation of the antidumping duty order on natural bristle paint brushes from China would be...

  8. The challenge of restoring natural fire to wilderness

    Treesearch

    David J. Parsons

    2000-01-01

    Despite clear legislative and policy direction to preserve natural conditions in wilderness, the maintenance of fire as a natural process has proven to be a significant challenge to federal land managers. As of 1998, only 88 of the 596 designated wilderness areas in the United States, excluding Alaska, had approved fire plans that allow some natural ignitions to burn;...

  9. 75 FR 18237 - Natural Bristle Paint Brushes From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... COMMISSION Natural Bristle Paint Brushes From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission... duty order on natural bristle paint brushes from China. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice....C. 1675(c)(5)) to determine whether revocation of the antidumping duty order on natural bristle...

  10. High rate of methane leakage from natural gas production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2013-10-01

    Natural gas production is growing as the United States seeks domestic sources of relatively clean energy. Natural gas combustion produces less carbon dioxide emissions than coal or oil for the amount of energy produced. However, one source of concern is that some natural gas leaks to the atmosphere from the extraction point, releasing methane, a potent greenhouse gas.

  11. Mud Bugs: Supply, Demand, and Natural Resources in Louisiana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagel, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Louisiana's land, coast, and inland waterways are home to many natural resources such as seafood, petroleum, natural gas, and timber--and freshwater crawfish, or "mudbugs" as the locals like to call them. These natural resources are vital to Louisiana's economy. The author describes a unit of study on economics in which a teacher taught…

  12. Unit cost of Mohs and Dermasurgery Unit.

    PubMed

    Wanitphakdeedecha, R; Nguyen, T H; Chen, T M

    2010-04-01

    Appropriate pricing for medical services of not-for-profit hospital is necessary. The prices should be fair to the public and should be high enough to cover the operative costs of the organization. The purpose of this study was to determine the cost and unit cost of medical services performed at the Mohs and Dermasurgery Unit (MDU), Department of Dermatology, The University of Texas-MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX from the healthcare provider's perspective. MDU costs were retrieved from the Financial Department for fiscal year 2006. The patients' statistics were acquired from medical records for the same period. Unit cost calculation was based on the official method of hospital accounting. The overall unit cost for each patient visit was $673.99 United States dollar (USD). The detailed unit cost of nurse visit, new patient visit, follow-up visit, consultation, Mohs and non-Mohs procedure were, respectively, $368.27, $580.09, $477.82, $585.52, $1,086.12 and $858.23 USD. With respect to a Mohs visit, the unit cost per lesion and unit cost per stage were $867.89 and $242.30 USD respectively. Results from this retrospective study provide information that may be used for pricing strategy and resource allocation by the administrative board of MDU.

  13. The nature and ethics of natural experiments.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Angus; Sim, Julius

    2015-10-01

    Natural experiments are an important methodology often used to answer research questions that would, otherwise, be impossible to address, or employed because of ethical concerns about the use of randomisation to interventions that carry known risks. The UK Medical Research Council (MRC) recently produced an extremely useful document discussing the nature and significance of natural experiments within medical and public health research. In this paper, however, we suggest that the MRC document's definition of the term 'natural experiment' is insufficiently precise. In response, we offer a taxonomy of different types of natural experiments and related methods, and explore the ethical implications of these different types. We argue that while the ethical issues that may arise within natural experiments in relation to risks of harm or informed consent may differ from those within the randomised controlled trial, they are not thereby less pressing. The implications of the argument are explored and recommendations made for those involved in research governance.

  14. Connections: Water, Systems, and Resources. Unit Grade 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ney, Catherine R.

    Natural Resources for Grade 3 is a "hands-on" environmental activities unit designed for teachers to use with their students. Activities are chosen from natural resource programs such as Project Learning Tree, Project WILD, Aquatic Wild, and Project WET. The activities address natural resource themes and meet the Virginia Standards of…

  15. Connections: Weather, Systems, and Resources. Unit Grade 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ney, Catherine R.; Cross, Pat

    Natural Resources for Grade 4 is a "hands-on" environmental activities unit designed for teachers to use with their students. Activities are chosen from natural resource programs such as Project Learning Tree, Project WILD, Aquatic Wild, and Project WET. The activities address natural resource themes and meet the Virginia Standards of…

  16. Kansas refinery starts up coke gasification unit

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, A.K.

    1996-08-05

    Texaco Refining and Marketing Inc. has started up a gasification unit at its El Dorado, Kan., refinery. The unit gasifies delayed coke and other refinery waste products. This is the first refinery to install a coke-fueled gasification unit for power generation. Start-up of the $80-million gasification-based power plant was completed in mid-June. The gasifier produces syngas which, along with natural gas, fuels a combustion turbine. The turbine produces virtually 100% of the refinery`s electricity needs and enough heat to generate 40% of its steam requirements.

  17. Estimated United States Transportation Energy Use 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, C A; Simon, A J; Belles, R D

    2011-11-09

    A flow chart depicting energy flow in the transportation sector of the United States economy in 2005 has been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of national energy use patterns. Approximately 31,000 trillion British Thermal Units (trBTUs) of energy were used throughout the United States in transportation activities. Vehicles used in these activities include automobiles, motorcycles, trucks, buses, airplanes, rail, and ships. The transportation sector is powered primarily by petroleum-derived fuels (gasoline, diesel and jet fuel). Biomass-derived fuels, electricity and natural gas-derived fuels are also used. The flow patterns represent a comprehensive systems view of energy used within the transportation sector.

  18. Engaging Nature Aesthetically

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kupfer, Joseph H.

    2003-01-01

    For the most part, most people appreciate nature as spectators. Some portion of a natural scene is viewed as if it were a painting or photograph. However, thinking of nature solely or chiefly as an aesthetic scene to be observed is unnecessarily limiting. Regarding natural phenomena as material for detached, pictorial observation overlooks the…

  19. Naturally occurring chemical carcinogens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Natural products are chemicals found in nature which have unique pharmacological effects. Humans are exposed to many of these bioactive naturally occurring chemicals via the air breathed, the water drunk and the food eaten. Exposure also occurs in clinical settings. Naturally occurring chemicals ...

  20. Natural and near natural tropical forest values

    Treesearch

    Daniel H. Henning

    2011-01-01

    This paper identifies and describes some of the values associated with tropical rain forests in their natural and near-natural conditions. Tropical rain forests are moist forests in the humid tropics where temperature and rainfall are high and the dry season is short. These closed (non-logged) and broad-leaved forests are a global resource. Located almost entirely in...

  1. Agri-Business, Natural Resources, Marine Science; Grade 7. Cluster V.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoun, Olivia H.

    A curriculum guide for grade 7, the document is devoted to the occupational clusters "Agri-business, Natural Resources, and Marine Science." It is divided into five units: natural resources, ecology, landscaping, conservation, oceanography. Each unit is introduced by a statement of the topic, the unit's purpose, main ideas, quests, and a…

  2. United States housing, 2012

    Treesearch

    Delton Alderman

    2013-01-01

    Provides current and historical information on housing market in the United States. Information includes trends for housing permits and starts, housing completions for single and multifamily units, and sales and construction. This report will be updated annually.

  3. Malaria Treatment (United States)

    MedlinePlus

    ... a CDC Malaria Branch clinician. malaria@cdc.gov Malaria Treatment (United States) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Treatment of Malaria: Guidelines For Clinicians (United States) Download PDF version ...

  4. A Winter Survival Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Ronald E.

    1979-01-01

    The article is a condensation of materials from the winter survival unit of a Canadian snow ecology course. The unit covers: cold physiology, frostbite, snowblindness, hypothermia, winter campout, and survival strategies. (SB)

  5. The Ortho-Syllable as a Processing Unit in Handwriting: The Mute E Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Eric; Sausset, Solen; Rigalleau, François

    2015-01-01

    Some research on written production has focused on the role of the syllable as a processing unit. However, the precise nature of this syllable unit has yet to be elucidated. The present study examined whether the nature of this processing unit is orthographic (i.e., an ortho-syllable) or phonological. We asked French adults to copy three-syllable…

  6. The Ortho-Syllable as a Processing Unit in Handwriting: The Mute E Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Eric; Sausset, Solen; Rigalleau, François

    2015-01-01

    Some research on written production has focused on the role of the syllable as a processing unit. However, the precise nature of this syllable unit has yet to be elucidated. The present study examined whether the nature of this processing unit is orthographic (i.e., an ortho-syllable) or phonological. We asked French adults to copy three-syllable…

  7. Biofilm and dental unit waterlines.

    PubMed

    Szymanska, Jolanta

    2003-01-01

    Aquatic biofilms, which are well-organized communities of microorganisms, are widespread in nature. They constitute a major problem in many environmental, industrial and medical settings. The use of advanced techniques has revealed biofilm structure, formation and ecology. Special attention was given to the build-up of biofilm in dental unit waterlines (DUWLs), which are small-bore flexible plastic tubing to bring water to different handpieces. They are coated with well-established biofilms. Active biofilm is a source of microbial contamination of DUWLs water. The safety of dental treatment requires a good quality of the water used. The knowledge of nature, formation and the ways to eliminate the biofilm is the first step towards reducing health risk, both for patients and dental personnel. The article reviews these issues.

  8. The Nature of Natural Hazards Communication (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontar, Y. Y.

    2013-12-01

    Some of the many issues of interest to natural hazards professionals include the analysis of proactive approaches to the governance of risk from natural hazards and approaches to broaden the scope of public policies related to the management of risks from natural hazards, as well as including emergency and environmental management, community development and spatial planning related to natural hazards. During the talk we will present results of scientific review, analysis and synthesis, which emphasize same new trends in communication of the natural hazards theories and practices within an up-to-the-minute context of new environmental and climate change issues, new technologies, and a new focus on resiliency. The presentation is divided into five sections that focus on natural hazards communication in terms of education, risk management, public discourse, engaging the public, theoretical perspectives, and new media. It includes results of case studies and best practices. It delves into natural hazards communication theories, including diffusion, argumentation, and constructivism, to name a few. The presentation will provide information about: (1) A manual of natural hazards communication for scientists, policymakers, and media; (2) An up-to-the-minute context of environmental hazards, new technologies & political landscape; (3) A work by natural hazards scientists for geoscientists working with social scientists and communication principles; (4) A work underpinned by key natural hazards communication theories and interspersed with pragmatic solutions; (5) A work that crosses traditional natural hazards boundaries: international, interdisciplinary, theoretical/applied. We will further explore how spatial planning can contribute to risk governance by influencing the occupation of natural hazard-prone areas, and review the central role of emergency management in risk policy. The goal of this presentation is to contribute to the augmentation of the conceptual framework

  9. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves, 1992 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-18

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1992, as well as production volumes for the United States, and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1992. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), its two major components (nonassociated and associated-dissolved gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, two components of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, have their reserves and production data presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1992 is provided.

  10. Unit Cost Compendium Calculations

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Unit Cost Compendium (UCC) Calculations raw data set was designed to provide for greater accuracy and consistency in the use of unit costs across the USEPA Office of Resource Conservation and Recovery (ORCR), as well as increased accessibility to unit costs inside and outside the ORCR.

  11. "The Outsiders": Thematic Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Chad

    This thematic curriculum unit on the adolescent novel, "The Outsiders" (S.E. Hinton) discusses issues that are relevant to students' lives and important to their future decisions. In the unit, students will discuss issues relevant to the novel and will use the novel as a bridge to analyze their own lives. The unit, with an overall theme…

  12. REACH. Heating Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanfield, Carter; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized units in the area of heating. The instructional units focus on electric heating systems, gas heating systems, and oil burning systems. Each unit follows a typical format that includes a unit…

  13. REACH. Heating Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanfield, Carter; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized units in the area of heating. The instructional units focus on electric heating systems, gas heating systems, and oil burning systems. Each unit follows a typical format that includes a unit…

  14. Establishing the Intermediate Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg.

    The State of Pennsylvania Act 102 establishes a system of 29 intermediate units, creates intermediate unit boards of directors, spells out their duties and functions, and provides a system of financing their operations. This handbook has been prepared by the Pennsylvania Department of Education to provide intermediate unit boards of directors,…

  15. How EIA Estimates Natural Gas Production

    EIA Publications

    2004-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) publishes estimates monthly and annually of the production of natural gas in the United States. The estimates are based on data EIA collects from gas producing states and data collected by the U. S. Minerals Management Service (MMS) in the Department of Interior. The states and MMS collect this information from producers of natural gas for various reasons, most often for revenue purposes. Because the information is not sufficiently complete or timely for inclusion in EIA's Natural Gas Monthly (NGM), EIA has developed estimation methodologies to generate monthly production estimates that are described in this document.

  16. Digital Data Set of 14-Digit Hydrologic Units in Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeBroka, Krysten M.; Cohen, David A.; Dunn, Robert E.; Nielsen, Bruce J.

    1999-01-01

    A hydrologic unit is an area of land that can contribute surface-water runoff to a designated outlet point. As part of an initiative to create a nationally uniform hydrologic-unit data base, the U.S. Geological Survey and the Natural Resources Conservation Service, in cooperation with the Indiana Department of Environmental Management and the Indiana Department of Natural Resources Division of Water, created a Geographic Information System digital data set of 14-digit hydrologic units in Indiana. The digital data set consists of arcs and polygons defining hydrologic units in Indiana.

  17. A natural compromise: a moderate solution to the GMO & "natural" labeling disputes.

    PubMed

    Amaru, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    In the United States, genetically modified (GM) foods are labeled no differently from their natural counterparts, leaving consumers with no mechanism for deciphering genetically modified food content. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has not formally defined the term "natural," which is frequently used on food labels despite consumer confusion as to what it means. The FDA should initiate a notice and comment rulemaking addressing the narrow issue of whether use of the word "natural" should be permitted oil GM food labels. Prohibition of the use of"natural" on genetically modified foods would mitigate consumer deception regarding genetically modified food content without significantly disadvantaging genetically modified food producers.

  18. Politics of Academic Natural Scientists and Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladd, Everett Carll, Jr.; Lipset, Seymour Martin

    1972-01-01

    Analyses of a 1969 survey of over 60,000 faculty members in colleges and universities in the United States indicate that natural scientists are to the ideological left of engineers, but more conservative than social scientists; that more successful and influential scientists and engineers are more liberal than the rank-and-file; and that if…

  19. Update on Natural Orifice Translumenal Endoscopic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Bingener, Juliane; Gostout, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) has moved from the realm of laboratory experiments to the realm of human clinical trials. This paper reviews the spectrum of NOTES procedures currently available in the United States and worldwide. It also discusses the limitations and avenues for further development of these procedures, particularly those involving the transgastric approach. PMID:22933874

  20. Rethinking Terrestrial Pedagogy: Nature, Cultures, and Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Huey-Li

    2006-01-01

    In this article, I offer a clarification of the ambiguities surrounding the pivotal concepts that have shaped and will continue to shape environmental education movement in the United States and beyond: nature, conservation, sustainable development, and environmental justice. I point out that dualistic frameworks not only polarize environmental…

  1. Natural Burkholderia mallei Infection in Dromedary, Bahrain

    PubMed Central

    Wernery, Ulrich; Wernery, Renate; Joseph, Marina; Al-Salloom, Fajer; Johnson, Bobby; Kinne, Joerg; Jose, Shanti; Jose, Sherry; Tappendorf, Britta; Hornstra, Heidie

    2011-01-01

    We confirm a natural infection of dromedaries with glanders. Multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis of a Burkholderia mallei strain isolated from a diseased dromedary in Bahrain revealed close genetic proximity to strain Dubai 7, which caused an outbreak of glanders in horses in the United Arab Emirates in 2004. PMID:21762586

  2. Acid lakes from natural and anthropogenic causes

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick, R.; Binetti, V.P.; Halterman, S.G.

    1981-01-30

    Lakes may be acid because of natural ecological conditions or because of anthropogenic activities. Apparently there has been a recent increase in acidity of many lakes in the northeastern United States. Factors that may be contributing to this increase include the use by utilities of precipitators, sulfur scrubbers, and tall stacks; the use of petroleum; and methods of combustion of fossil fuels.

  3. Nature or Nurture? Gender Roles Scavenger Hunt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalen, Shannon; Maurer-Starks, Suanne

    2008-01-01

    The examination of gender roles and stereotypes and their subsequent impact on sexual behavior is a concept for discussion in many sex education courses in college and sex education units in high school. This analysis often leads to a discussion of the impact of nature vs. nurture on gender roles. The gender roles scavenger hunt is an interactive…

  4. Teaching Evolution & the Nature of Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farber, Paul

    2003-01-01

    The theory of evolution provides direction in many fields, such as ecology, genetics, and embryology. Examines issues concerning the teaching of the subject in the United States. Presents a case study approach to teach about the nature of science using the theory of evolution. (SOE)

  5. Nature or Nurture? Gender Roles Scavenger Hunt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalen, Shannon; Maurer-Starks, Suanne

    2008-01-01

    The examination of gender roles and stereotypes and their subsequent impact on sexual behavior is a concept for discussion in many sex education courses in college and sex education units in high school. This analysis often leads to a discussion of the impact of nature vs. nurture on gender roles. The gender roles scavenger hunt is an interactive…

  6. Guayule - natural rubber from the desert

    SciTech Connect

    Bucks, D.A.

    1984-11-01

    Guayule is the most likely source of home grown natural rubber in the United States and research is currently underway on methods of increasing rubber content, seed germination and survival, climate and soil requirements and rubber content determination by solvent extraction.

  7. Bullying in Europe and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, John H.; Juul, Kristen

    1993-01-01

    Examines nature and scope of group violence among children in schools on both sides of Atlantic Ocean. Reviews studies of student attitudes about victimization and offers suggestions for prevention and treatment of bullying. Focus is on studies on bullying undertaken in Europe, mostly Scandinavia, and in United States (Author/NB)

  8. Investigation of inhalation anthrax case, United States.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Jayne; Blaney, David; Shadomy, Sean; Lehman, Mark; Pesik, Nicki; Tostenson, Samantha; Delaney, Lisa; Tiller, Rebekah; DeVries, Aaron; Gomez, Thomas; Sullivan, Maureen; Blackmore, Carina; Stanek, Danielle; Lynfield, Ruth

    2014-02-01

    Inhalation anthrax occurred in a man who vacationed in 4 US states where anthrax is enzootic. Despite an extensive multi-agency investigation, the specific source was not detected, and no additional related human or animal cases were found. Although rare, inhalation anthrax can occur naturally in the United States.

  9. Bullying in Europe and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, John H.; Juul, Kristen

    1993-01-01

    Examines nature and scope of group violence among children in schools on both sides of Atlantic Ocean. Reviews studies of student attitudes about victimization and offers suggestions for prevention and treatment of bullying. Focus is on studies on bullying undertaken in Europe, mostly Scandinavia, and in United States (Author/NB)

  10. Bumble bees of the western United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bumble bees (genus Bombus) are critical pollinators of flowering plants. Thirty species of bumble bees are native to the western United States and this publication is a guide to the natural history and identification of these species. We present phenology graphs, host-plant associations, detailed ...

  11. Investigation of Inhalation Anthrax Case, United States

    PubMed Central

    Blaney, David; Shadomy, Sean; Lehman, Mark; Pesik, Nicki; Tostenson, Samantha; Delaney, Lisa; Tiller, Rebekah; DeVries, Aaron; Gomez, Thomas; Sullivan, Maureen; Blackmore, Carina; Stanek, Danielle; Lynfield, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Inhalation anthrax occurred in a man who vacationed in 4 US states where anthrax is enzootic. Despite an extensive multi-agency investigation, the specific source was not detected, and no additional related human or animal cases were found. Although rare, inhalation anthrax can occur naturally in the United States. PMID:24447835

  12. Construction of the Seven Basic Crystallographic Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Thomas; Worrell, Jay H.

    1989-01-01

    Presents an exercise to get students more intimately involved in the three dimensional nature of basic units by constructing models. Uses balsa wood, glue, sandpaper, and a square. Studies seven crystals: cubic, hexagonal, monoclinic, orthorhombic, rhombohedral, tetragonal, and triclinic. Plans are available for a Macintosh computer. (MVL)

  13. Woody encroachment in the Central United States

    Treesearch

    Greg C. Liknes; Dacia M. Meneguzzo; Kevin. Nimerfro

    2015-01-01

    The landscape of the central United States is dominated by cropland and rangeland mixed with remnants of short- and tall-grass prairies that were once prevalent. Since the last ice age, these areas had sparse tree cover due to cyclical severe droughts, intentional fires used by indigenous people as a land management tool, and natural fires caused by lightning. More...

  14. A Natural Love of Natural Products

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Recent research on the chemistry of natural products from the author’s group that led to the receipt of the ACS Ernest Guenther Award in the Chemistry of Natural Products is reviewed. REDOR NMR and synthetic studies established the T-taxol conformation as the bioactive tubulin-binding conformation, and these results were confirmed by the synthesis of compounds which clearly owed their activity or lack of activity to whether or not they could adopt the T-taxol conformation. Similar studies with the epothilones suggest that the current tubulin-binding model needs to be modified. Examples of natural products discovery and biodiversity conservation in Suriname and Madagascar are also presented, and it is concluded that natural products chemistry will continue to make significant contributions to drug discovery. PMID:18459734

  15. Fostering the rebirth of natural history.

    PubMed

    Hampton, Stephanie E; Wheeler, Terry A

    2012-04-23

    Natural history as we have known it is in decline. A growing movement is emerging across disciplines, to understand its decline, and nurture its rebirth. A network of like-minded scientists, resource managers, educators, writers and artists-natural historians-recently convened four consecutive Natural History Initiative workshops to move past the forensic study of natural history, and instead focus on solutions, conspiring to identify opportunities that dovetail the practice of natural history with essential needs of modern science and society, and suggest ways forward. This series of workshops occurred at various locations in the western United States during the winter and spring of 2011, and recently culminated in a Synthesis Summit on 20-24 June 2011.

  16. Fostering the rebirth of natural history

    PubMed Central

    Hampton, Stephanie E.; Wheeler, Terry A.

    2012-01-01

    Natural history as we have known it is in decline. A growing movement is emerging across disciplines, to understand its decline, and nurture its rebirth. A network of like-minded scientists, resource managers, educators, writers and artists—natural historians—recently convened four consecutive Natural History Initiative workshops to move past the forensic study of natural history, and instead focus on solutions, conspiring to identify opportunities that dovetail the practice of natural history with essential needs of modern science and society, and suggest ways forward. This series of workshops occurred at various locations in the western United States during the winter and spring of 2011, and recently culminated in a Synthesis Summit on 20–24 June 2011. PMID:21880624

  17. Nature's Nature: Ideas of Nature in Curricula for Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St Maurice, Henry

    2006-01-01

    Two contrasting sets of ideas about nature in environmental education are described. An analytical framework is developed from inter-disciplinary histories of ideas and used in evaluating a specific curriculum. In conclusion, some general implications are suggested for curricula in environmental education. [This article was reprinted from…

  18. Nature's Nature: Ideas of Nature in Curricula for Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St Maurice, Henry

    2006-01-01

    Two contrasting sets of ideas about nature in environmental education are described. An analytical framework is developed from inter-disciplinary histories of ideas and used in evaluating a specific curriculum. In conclusion, some general implications are suggested for curricula in environmental education. [This article was reprinted from…

  19. Natural Gas Monthly

    EIA Publications

    2017-01-01

    Highlights activities, events, and analyses associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer related activities and underground storage data are also reported.

  20. Fine Arts through Nature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentry, Carol

    1986-01-01

    Describes how high school students are involved in using natural materials found in the local environment for art projects. The materials used include wood, clay, and natural fibers. Provides photographs of ten students' projects. (JDH)

  1. Colours From Nature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Wilma

    1974-01-01

    In reference to American Indian ceremonial art, the importance of using natural pigments is emphasized, since the superior color values of natural dyes better reflect religious and philosophical depth and meaning. (JC)

  2. Demonstrating Natural Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinds, David S.; Amundson, John C.

    1975-01-01

    Describes laboratory exercises with chickens selecting their food from dyed and natural corn kernels as a method of demonstrating natural selection. The procedure is based on the fact that organisms that blend into their surroundings escape predation. (BR)

  3. Breast reconstruction - natural tissue

    MedlinePlus

    ... flap; TUG; Mastectomy - breast reconstruction with natural tissue; Breast cancer - breast reconstruction with natural tissue ... it harder to find a tumor if your breast cancer comes back. The advantage of breast reconstruction with ...

  4. Natural gas annual 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    This document provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience. The 1996 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas from it`s production to it`s end use.

  5. Demonstrating Natural Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinds, David S.; Amundson, John C.

    1975-01-01

    Describes laboratory exercises with chickens selecting their food from dyed and natural corn kernels as a method of demonstrating natural selection. The procedure is based on the fact that organisms that blend into their surroundings escape predation. (BR)

  6. Colours From Nature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Wilma

    1974-01-01

    In reference to American Indian ceremonial art, the importance of using natural pigments is emphasized, since the superior color values of natural dyes better reflect religious and philosophical depth and meaning. (JC)

  7. Natural gas annual 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1995 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1991 to 1995 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level.

  8. Natural gas annual 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-17

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1994 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1990 to 1994 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level.

  9. A Geographic Approach to the Study of Natural Gas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheskin, Ira M.

    1980-01-01

    Provides information, tips, references, and materials to high school and college level geography teachers on developing a unit on natural gas. Data are presented in the form of tables, maps, figures, and textual analysis. (Author/DB)

  10. 2. VIEW SHOWING NATURAL SAND BEACH ON KIDNEY LAKE, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW SHOWING NATURAL SAND BEACH ON KIDNEY LAKE, LOOKING WEST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Kidney Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 4.7 miles North of Miners Gulch Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  11. A Geographic Approach to the Study of Natural Gas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheskin, Ira M.

    1980-01-01

    Provides information, tips, references, and materials to high school and college level geography teachers on developing a unit on natural gas. Data are presented in the form of tables, maps, figures, and textual analysis. (Author/DB)

  12. Natural language processors

    SciTech Connect

    Rauzino, V.C.

    1983-09-05

    The development of natural language processors has required a shift in the perception of language structures to bring the user interface closer to the ultimate ease of natural language dialogue. This article explains the principles of these new natural language processors which are increasingly becoming commercially available.

  13. Learning in Nature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Michael

    2005-01-01

    This paper traces the evolution of a theory of learning in nature in order to explain how people learn in natural settings. The intellectual roots of the theory in informal learning, cognition, affective development, experiential and meaningful learning are described and the synthesis into a comprehensive theory of learning in nature are…

  14. Nature in the City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferbert, Mary Lou

    1981-01-01

    Describes a science program developed by the Cleveland Museum of Natural History, "Nature in the City," in which students and teachers learn together about the natural community surrounding their school. Includes program's rationale, list of "adventures," and methods. Discusses strategies of Sherlock Holmes'"adventure" focusing on animal tracks…

  15. Nature in the City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferbert, Mary Lou

    1981-01-01

    Describes a science program developed by the Cleveland Museum of Natural History, "Nature in the City," in which students and teachers learn together about the natural community surrounding their school. Includes program's rationale, list of "adventures," and methods. Discusses strategies of Sherlock Holmes'"adventure" focusing on animal tracks…

  16. Learning in Nature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Michael

    2005-01-01

    This paper traces the evolution of a theory of learning in nature in order to explain how people learn in natural settings. The intellectual roots of the theory in informal learning, cognition, affective development, experiential and meaningful learning are described and the synthesis into a comprehensive theory of learning in nature are…

  17. Guidelines for Use of the Modernized Metric System: The International System of Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Metric Journal, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Guidelines for use of the International System of Units (SI), informally called the metric system, that has been adopted by the National Bureau of Standards, are given. Topics include: acceptable units, fundamental constants, natural units, descriptive and essential data, and special considerations. Tables of units and conversion factors are…

  18. A comparison of sample unit designs in the national inventory of the U.S.

    Treesearch

    B. E. Borders; G. H. Brister; N. Grahl; B. D. Shiver; C. J. Cieszewski

    2000-01-01

    The Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the USDA Forest Service has adopted a new sampling unit for the national forest inventory of the U.S. We compared this new sampling unit with five other sampling units. Data from natural loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) stands in the Georgia piedmont show that all sample units produce reasonable...

  19. Gas engine heat recovery unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubasco, A. J.

    1991-07-01

    The objective of Gas Engine Heat Recovery Unit was to design, fabricate, and test an efficient, compact, and corrosion resistant heat recovery unit (HRU) for use on exhaust of natural gas-fired reciprocating engine-generator sets in the 50-500 kW range. The HRU would be a core component of a factory pre-packaged cogeneration system designed around component optimization, reliability, and efficiency. The HRU uses finned high alloy, stainless steel tubing wound into a compact helical coil heat exchanger. The corrosion resistance of the tubing allows more heat to be taken from the exhaust gas without fear of the effects of acid condensation. One HRU is currently installed in a cogeneration system at the Henry Ford Hospital Complex in Dearborn, Michigan. A second unit underwent successful endurance testing for 850 hours. The plan was to commercialize the HRU through its incorporation into a Caterpillar pre-packaged cogeneration system. Caterpillar is not proceeding with the concept at this time because of a downturn in the small size cogeneration market.

  20. Interior view of boiler house looking south. Boiler units are ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of boiler house looking south. Boiler units are on left. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

  1. General interior view of pumphouse looking southwest. Compressor unit 40 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General interior view of pumphouse looking southwest. Compressor unit 40 is in foreground. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

  2. General view looking north showing boilers with units 47 and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view looking north showing boilers with units 47 and 48 in right foreground. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

  3. DETAIL VIEW OF UNIT #3 WITH HIGH PRESSURE STAGE COMPRESSOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF UNIT #3 WITH HIGH PRESSURE STAGE COMPRESSOR IN LEFT FOREGROUND. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

  4. Detail view of unit 43 with high pressure stage compressor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of unit 43 with high pressure stage compressor in left foreground. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

  5. 33 CFR 328.5 - Changes in limits of waters of the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... also change the boundaries of the waters of the United States. For example, changing sea levels or... alterations of the boundaries of waters of the United States. Gradual changes which are due to natural...

  6. 33 CFR 328.5 - Changes in limits of waters of the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... also change the boundaries of the waters of the United States. For example, changing sea levels or... alterations of the boundaries of waters of the United States. Gradual changes which are due to natural...

  7. 33 CFR 328.5 - Changes in limits of waters of the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... also change the boundaries of the waters of the United States. For example, changing sea levels or... alterations of the boundaries of waters of the United States. Gradual changes which are due to natural...

  8. 43 CFR 3280.3 - What is BLM's general policy regarding the formation of unit agreements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES UNIT AGREEMENTS Geothermal Resources Unit Agreements-General § 3280.3 What is BLM's... natural resources of any geothermal reservoir, field, or like area, or any part thereof, lessees and...

  9. 43 CFR 3280.3 - What is BLM's general policy regarding the formation of unit agreements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES UNIT AGREEMENTS Geothermal Resources Unit Agreements-General § 3280.3 What is BLM's... natural resources of any geothermal reservoir, field, or like area, or any part thereof, lessees and...

  10. Update: nail unit dermatopathology.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Campbell L; Rubin, Adam I

    2012-01-01

    Nail unit dermatopathology is a growing field filled with many challenges. Many advances in this field have been made in the last 5 years. This review article provides an update on new information and studies published in that period of time. We divided these works into different sections, including clinical and pathologic challenges in diagnosis and treatment of nail disorders, nail unit biopsy and processing techniques, normal nail unit histology, nail plate structural and growth pathology, metabolic disease, inflammatory conditions, onychomycosis, benign growths, malignant growths, and dyschromias. Specific highlights include advances in the marking and orientation of nail unit biopsies for improved histologic interpretation, improved nail plate softening techniques, new methods for histologic evaluation of onychomycosis, descriptions of newly described benign growths unique to the nail unit, and the morphologic and immunohistochemical distinction between benign and malignant pigmented lesions of the nail unit.

  11. White Paper on Natural Products.

    PubMed

    Gabay, Michael; Smith, Judith A; Chavez, Mary L; Goldwire, Micheline; Walker, Scot; Coon, Scott A; Gosser, Rena; Hume, Anne L; Musselman, Megan; Phillips, Jennifer; Abe, Andrew M

    2017-01-01

    The American College of Clinical Pharmacy (ACCP) published an initial white paper on herbal products in 2000. Since then, the global market for natural products has continued to expand, with tens of millions of consumers using such products on an annual basis in the United States alone. However, despite this expansion, natural products remain largely unregulated compared with prescription medications, have moderate- to low-level clinical evidence for efficacy, and continue to have safety concerns, including adulteration and misbranding. As comprehensive medication management experts, clinical pharmacists are uniquely qualified to navigate these concerns and advise patients appropriately. To develop and recommend a suitable care plan involving natural products, clinical pharmacists must establish a strong pharmacist-patient relationship, assess the appropriateness of therapy, educate the patient regarding key issues, and continuously monitor and follow up on the effectiveness of the care plan. This process should not only occur in an individual community or hospital setting, but also whenever a patient transitions from one care setting to another in cooperation with other clinicians.

  12. Natural gas-assisted steam electrolyzer

    DOEpatents

    Pham, Ai-Quoc; Wallman, P. Henrik; Glass, Robert S.

    2000-01-01

    An efficient method of producing hydrogen by high temperature steam electrolysis that will lower the electricity consumption to an estimated 65 percent lower than has been achievable with previous steam electrolyzer systems. This is accomplished with a natural gas-assisted steam electrolyzer, which significantly reduces the electricity consumption. Since this natural gas-assisted steam electrolyzer replaces one unit of electrical energy by one unit of energy content in natural gas at one-quarter the cost, the hydrogen production cost will be significantly reduced. Also, it is possible to vary the ratio between the electricity and the natural gas supplied to the system in response to fluctuations in relative prices for these two energy sources. In one approach an appropriate catalyst on the anode side of the electrolyzer will promote the partial oxidation of natural gas to CO and hydrogen, called Syn-Gas, and the CO can also be shifted to CO.sub.2 to give additional hydrogen. In another approach the natural gas is used in the anode side of the electrolyzer to burn out the oxygen resulting from electrolysis, thus reducing or eliminating the potential difference across the electrolyzer membrane.

  13. On nature and bioethics.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Paul Silas

    2010-01-01

    The account of nature and humanity's relationship to nature are of central importance for bioethics. The Scientific Revolution was a critical development in the history of this question and many contemporary accounts of nature find their beginnings here. While the innovative approach to nature going out of the seventeenth century was reliant upon accounts of nature from the early modern period, the Middle Ages, late-antiquity and antiquity, it also parted ways with some of the understandings of nature from these epochs. Here I analyze this development and suggests that some of the insights from older understandings of nature may be helpful for bioethics today, even if there can be no simple return to them.

  14. 31 CFR 515.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 515.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof, including the Trust Territory...

  15. 31 CFR 515.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 515.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof, including the Trust Territory...

  16. 31 CFR 515.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 515.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof, including the Trust Territory...

  17. 31 CFR 500.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 500.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof, including U.S. trust...

  18. 31 CFR 515.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 515.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof, including the Trust Territory...

  19. 31 CFR 515.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 515.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof, including the Trust Territory...

  20. 31 CFR 535.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 535.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof including the Trust Territory...

  1. 31 CFR 535.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 535.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof including the Trust Territory...

  2. 31 CFR 535.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 535.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof including the Trust Territory...

  3. 31 CFR 535.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 535.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof including the Trust Territory...

  4. 31 CFR 535.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 535.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof including the Trust Territory...

  5. Storms & Blizzards. The Natural Disaster Series. Grades 4-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micallef, Mary

    This document provides a unit of lessons and activities on thunder storms and blizzards that are intended to provide students with a basic understanding of the causes and consequences of these natural disasters. The booklet is designed to be used in correlation with a science unit or as a supplement to an elementary science curriculum. The lessons…

  6. Storms & Blizzards. The Natural Disaster Series. Grades 4-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micallef, Mary

    This document provides a unit of lessons and activities on thunder storms and blizzards that are intended to provide students with a basic understanding of the causes and consequences of these natural disasters. The booklet is designed to be used in correlation with a science unit or as a supplement to an elementary science curriculum. The lessons…

  7. Making Meaning and Using Natural Resources: Education and Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stables, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    A natural resource is not given, but depends on human knowledge for its exploitation. Thus a "unit of resource" is, to a significant degree, a "unit of meaning", and education is potentially important not only for the use of resources but also for their creation. The paper draws on poststructuralism to confirm the intuition that it would be…

  8. Making Meaning and Using Natural Resources: Education and Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stables, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    A natural resource is not given, but depends on human knowledge for its exploitation. Thus a "unit of resource" is, to a significant degree, a "unit of meaning", and education is potentially important not only for the use of resources but also for their creation. The paper draws on poststructuralism to confirm the intuition that it would be…

  9. 8 CFR 306.2 - United States citizenship; when acquired.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false United States citizenship; when acquired. 306.2 Section 306.2 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY NATIONALITY REGULATIONS SPECIAL CLASSES OF PERSONS WHO MAY BE NATURALIZED: VIRGIN ISLANDERS § 306.2 United States citizenship...

  10. 8 CFR 306.2 - United States citizenship; when acquired.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false United States citizenship; when acquired. 306.2 Section 306.2 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY NATIONALITY REGULATIONS SPECIAL CLASSES OF PERSONS WHO MAY BE NATURALIZED: VIRGIN ISLANDERS § 306.2 United States citizenship...

  11. 8 CFR 306.2 - United States citizenship; when acquired.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false United States citizenship; when acquired. 306.2 Section 306.2 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY NATIONALITY REGULATIONS SPECIAL CLASSES OF PERSONS WHO MAY BE NATURALIZED: VIRGIN ISLANDERS § 306.2 United States citizenship...

  12. 8 CFR 306.2 - United States citizenship; when acquired.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States citizenship; when acquired. 306.2 Section 306.2 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY NATIONALITY REGULATIONS SPECIAL CLASSES OF PERSONS WHO MAY BE NATURALIZED: VIRGIN ISLANDERS § 306.2 United States citizenship...

  13. Weeds of the Midwestern United States and Central Canada

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The book, Weeds of the Central United States and Canada, includes 356 of the most common and/or troublesome weeds of agricultural and natural areas found within the central region of the United States and Canada. The books includes an introduction, a key to plant families contained in the book, glo...

  14. 8 CFR 316.5 - Residence in the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Residence in the United States. 316.5 Section 316.5 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY NATIONALITY REGULATIONS GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR NATURALIZATION § 316.5 Residence in the United States. (a) General. Unless otherwise specified...

  15. Learning on Demand: Online Education in the United States, 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, I. Elaine; Seaman, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    "Learning on Demand: Online Education in the United States, 2009" represents the seventh annual report on the state of online learning among higher education institutions in the United States. The study is aimed at answering some of the fundamental questions about the nature and extent of online education. Based on responses from over…

  16. Forest management and water in the United States [Chapter 13

    Treesearch

    Daniel G. Neary

    2017-01-01

    This chapter outlines a brief history of the United States native forests and forest plantations. It describes the past and current natural and plantation forest distribution (map, area, main species), as well as main products produced (timber, pulp, furniture, etc.). Integrated into this discussion is a characterization of the water resources of the United States and...

  17. Low Energy Technology. A Unit of Instruction in Citrus Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Jeanne A.; Becker, William J.

    This unit of instruction on citrus production was designed for use by agribusiness and natural resources teachers in Florida high schools and by agricultural extension agents as they work with adults and students. It is one of a series of 11 instructional units (see note) written to help teachers and agents to educate their students and clients…

  18. Native American Career Education Unit. Living with the Land.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Far West Lab. for Educational Research and Development, San Francisco, CA.

    One of twelve instructional units in the Native American Career Education (NACE) program, this unit is intended to help Indian junior high school students understand concepts involved in the management of natural resources, especially as they relate to traditional Indian values; understand the relationship between basic needs, resources, and waste…

  19. Low Energy Technology. A Unit of Instruction in Citrus Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Jeanne A.; Becker, William J.

    This unit of instruction on citrus production was designed for use by agribusiness and natural resources teachers in Florida high schools and by agricultural extension agents as they work with adults and students. It is one of a series of 11 instructional units (see note) written to help teachers and agents to educate their students and clients…

  20. Unit: Pushes and Pulls, Inspection Set, National Trials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Science Education Project, Toorak, Victoria.

    This trial version of an Australian Science Education Project unit concerns the nature and measurement of force. The teachers' guide, an overprinted copy of the student manual, lists objectives for each section of the unit, discusses the role of the teacher, provides hints in the use of the materials, suggests suitable references, and lists…