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Sample records for naturally coinfected sheep

  1. Detection of PrPSc in lung and mammary gland is favored by the presence of Visna/maedi virus lesions in naturally coinfected sheep

    PubMed Central

    Salazar, Eider; Monleón, Eva; Bolea, Rosa; Acín, Cristina; Pérez, Marta; Álvarez, Neila; Leginagoikoa, Iratxe; Juste, Ramón; Minguijón, Esmeralda; Reina, Ramsés; Glaria, Idoia; Berriatua, Eduardo; de Andrés, Damián; Badiola, Juan José; Amorena, Beatriz; Luján, Lluís

    2010-01-01

    There are few reports on the pathogenesis of scrapie (Sc) and Visna/maedi virus (VMV) coinfections. The aim of this work was to study in vivo as well as post mortem both diseases in 91 sheep. Diagnosis of Sc and VMV infections allowed the distribution of animals into five groups according to the presence (+) or absence (−) of infection by Sc and VMV: Sc−/VMV−, Sc−/VMV+, Sc+/VMV− and Sc+/VMV+. The latter was divided into two subgroups, with and without VMV-induced lymphoid follicle hyperplasia (LFH), respectively. In both the lung and mammary gland, PrPSc deposits were found in the germinal center of hyperplasic lymphoid follicles in the subgroup of Sc+/VMV+ having VMV-induced LFH. This detection was always associated with (and likely preceded by) PrPSc observation in the corresponding lymph nodes. No PrPSc was found in other VMV-associated lesions. Animals suffering from scrapie had a statistically significantly lower mean age than the scrapie free animals at the time of death, with no apparent VMV influence. ARQ/ARQ genotype was the most abundant among the 91 ewes and the most frequent in scrapie-affected sheep. VMV infection does not seem to influence the scrapie risk group distribution among animals from the five groups established in this work. Altogether, these data indicate that certain VMV-induced lesions can favor PrPSc deposits in Sc non-target organs such as the lung and the mammary gland, making this coinfection an interesting field that warrants further research for a better comprehension of the pathogenesis of both diseases. PMID:20423698

  2. Coinfection of sheep with Anaplasma, Theileria and Babesia species in the Kurdistan Region, Iraq.

    PubMed

    Renneker, S; Abdo, J; Bakheit, M A; Kullmann, B; Beyer, D; Ahmed, J; Seitzer, U

    2013-11-01

    Infections of small ruminants with Anaplasma, Theileria and Babesia species are widely distributed in the old world and are of great economic impact. In Iraq, data on disease occurrence in sheep caused by above-mentioned infectious agents are scarce. This study provides information on various haemoparasitic agents infecting sheep in the Kurdistan Region, Iraq, using molecular diagnostic tools. Altogether, 195 samples originating from three governorates in the Kurdistan Region, namely Duhok, Erbil and Sulaimaniya, were analysed. The following pathogens were identified: Anaplasma ovis (62.6%), Theileria ovis (14.35%), T. lestoquardi (7.7%), T. uilenbergi (5.6%) and Babesia ovis (1.5%). T. uilenbergi is detected for the first time in Iraq. Coinfection of sheep with different pathogens could be observed in this study, and it was found that 45 of 195 (23%) of the samples contained more than one pathogen. Even triple-positive samples were identified in 3% of the investigated animals. In conclusion, we confirm the coinfection of sheep with various haemoparasitic pathogen species in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. Further investigations are needed to reveal the epidemiology of the diseases, the respective tick vectors, and, in the case of coinfection, pathogens' interaction and possible cross-protection.

  3. High frequency of chlamydial co-infections in clinically healthy sheep flocks

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The epidemiological situation of ovine chlamydial infections in continental Europe, especially Germany is poorly characterised. Using the German state of Thuringia as a model example, the chlamydial sero- and antigen prevalence was estimated in thirty-two randomly selected sheep flocks with an average abortion rate lower than 1%. Seven vaccinated flocks were reviewed separately. Results A wide range of samples from 32 flocks were examined. Assumption of a seroprevalence of 10% (CI 95%) at flock level, revealed that 94% of the tested flocks were serologically positive with ongoing infection (i.e. animals with seroconversion) in nearly half (47%) of the flocks. On the basis of an estimated 25% antigen prevalence (CI 95%), PCR and DNA microarray testing, together with sequencing revealed the presence of chlamydiae in 78% of the flocks. The species most frequently found was Chlamydophila (C.) abortus (50%) followed by C. pecorum (47%) and C. psittaci genotype A (25%). Mixed infections occurred in 25% of the tested flocks. Samples obtained from the vaccinated flocks revealed the presence of C. abortus field samples in 4/7 flocks. C. pecorum was isolated from 2/7 flocks and the presence of seroconversion was determined in 3/7 flocks. Conclusions The results imply that chlamydial infections occur frequently in German sheep flocks, even in the absence of elevated abortion rates. The fact that C. pecorum and the potentially zoonotic C. psittaci were found alongside the classical abortifacient agent C. abortus, raise questions about the significance of this reservoir for animal and human health and underline the necessity for regular monitoring. Further studies are needed to identify the possible role of C. psittaci infections in sheep. PMID:21679409

  4. Fasciola hepatica from naturally infected sheep and cattle in Great Britain are diploid.

    PubMed

    Beesley, N J; Cwiklinski, K; Williams, D J L; Hodgkinson, J

    2015-08-01

    Diploid (2n = 2x = 20) and triploid (2n = 3x = 30) Fasciola hepatica have been reported in the UK, and in Asia diploid, triploid and mixoploid (2x/3x) Fasciola spp. exist but there is little information to indicate how common triploidy is, particularly in UK fluke. Here the ploidy of 565 adult F. hepatica from 66 naturally infected British sheep and 150 adult F. hepatica from 35 naturally infected British cattle was determined. All 715 of these parasites were diploid, based on observation of 10 bivalent chromosomes and sperm (n = 335) or, since triploids are aspermic, sperm alone (n = 380). This constitutes the first extensive analysis of the ploidy of F. hepatica field isolates from Great Britain and shows that most F. hepatica isolated from cattle and sheep are diploid and have the capacity to sexually reproduce. These data suggest that triploidy, and by extension parthenogenesis, is rare or non-existent in wild British F. hepatica populations. Given that F. hepatica is the only species of Fasciola present in Britain our results indicate that the parasite is predominantly diploid in areas where F. hepatica exists in isolation and suggests that triploidy may only originate in natural populations where co-infection of F. hepatica and its sister species Fasciola gigantica commonly occurs.

  5. HCV/HTLV coinfection: Does HTLV-1 interfere in the natural history of HCV-related diseases?

    PubMed

    Silva, Marcelo Costa; Silva, Carolina Alves Costa; Machado, Gustavo Uzêda; Atta, Ajax; M Freire, Songeli; Carvalho, Edgar; Schinoni, Maria Isabel; Paraná, Raymundo

    2016-11-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) coinfection occurs in many regions. However, few studies have focused on the natural history of HCV-induced liver disease in coinfected patients. To describe the clinical, epidemiological, and histopathological aspects of HTLV-1/HCV coinfection in Brazil. A cross-sectional study with 23 patients coinfected with HCV/HTLV. The control groups consisted of 21 patients monoinfected with HCV and 20 patients monoinfected with HTLV-1. The cytokine profiles (Th1 and Th2 cell responses), clinical, laboratory features, and histopathological aspects were examined. The control group for cytokine analysis validation consisted of patients monoinfected with HTLV, and a fourth group consisted of healthy blood donors. No anthropometric differences present between the three infected groups. We observed higher serum concentrations of IFN-γ in patients coinfected with HCV/HTLV-1 than those in HCV monoinfected patients. The HCV/HTLV-1 coinfected group also exhibited a higher degree of liver steatosis than the HCV monoinfected patients. Results suggest that HCV/HTLV-1 coinfection may result in a different pattern of HCV infection due to the immunologic disorders likely associated with HTLV-1, but there is no clear evidence of the HTLV role in the natural history of HCV infection. J. Med. Virol. 88:1967-1972, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Lipid profiles in brains from sheep with natural scrapie.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Antonella; Scano, Paola; Incani, Alessandra; Pilla, Federica; Maestrale, Caterina; Manca, Matteo; Ligios, Ciriaco; Pani, Alessandra

    2013-01-01

    Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative disorders affecting many mammals, ovine scrapie being the archetypal prion disease. Several independent studies in murine and cell-based models of scrapie have highlighted the presence of a link between prion generation and lipid alterations; yet, no data on natural disease are available. In this study we investigated levels of total lipids and cholesterol as well as profiles of fatty acids in brain homogenates from symptomatic and asymptomatic scrapie-infected sheep vs. healthy sheep, all belonging to the same flock. Lipid extracts were analyzed by means of gas chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography. Data of fatty acids were submitted to multivariate statistical analysis to give a picture of the brain lipid profiles of sheep. Interestingly, results revealed abnormalities in the brain fatty acid unsaturation of infected/symptomatic animals. Significant reduction of monoene 18:1 n-9 was detected in brain lipids from infected/symptomatic sheep, as compared to healthy and infected/asymptomatic animals, and this alteration occurred in combination with a significant increase in 18:0 level. The unsupervised Principal Component Analysis showed that infected/symptomatic and healthy sheep samples lie in two different regions of the plot, infected/asymptomatic lie mostly next to healthy. The increase of cerebral saturated fatty acids provides a rough indication of presumed alterations in lipid raft domains of nervous cells during scrapie, suggesting that they may exist in a notable viscous liquid-ordered state. Such physicochemical alteration would have a profound impact on the raft thermodynamic properties, its spatial organization, and signal transduction, all potentially relevant for prion generation.

  7. Wolbachia, Sodalis and trypanosome co-infections in natural populations of Glossina austeni and Glossina pallidipes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tsetse flies harbor at least three bacterial symbionts: Wigglesworthia glossinidia, Wolbachia pipientis and Sodalis glossinidius. Wigglesworthia and Sodalis reside in the gut in close association with trypanosomes and may influence establishment and development of midgut parasite infections. Wolbachia has been shown to induce reproductive effects in infected tsetse. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of these endosymbionts in natural populations of G. austeni and G. pallidipes and to assess the degree of concurrent infections with trypanosomes. Methods Fly samples analyzed originated from Kenyan coastal forests (trapped in 2009–2011) and South African G. austeni collected in 2008. The age structure was estimated by standard methods. G. austeni (n=298) and G. pallidipes (n= 302) were analyzed for infection with Wolbachia and Sodalis using PCR. Trypanosome infection was determined either by microscopic examination of dissected organs or by PCR amplification. Results Overall we observed that G. pallidipes females had a longer lifespan (70 d) than G. austeni (54 d) in natural populations. Wolbachia infections were present in all G. austeni flies analysed, while in contrast, this symbiont was absent from G. pallidipes. The density of Wolbachia infections in the Kenyan G. austeni population was higher than that observed in South African flies. The infection prevalence of Sodalis ranged from 3.7% in G. austeni to about 16% in G. pallidipes. Microscopic examination of midguts revealed an overall trypanosome infection prevalence of 6% (n = 235) and 5% (n = 552), while evaluation with ITS1 primers indicated a prevalence of about 13% (n = 296) and 10% (n = 302) in G. austeni and G. pallidipes, respectively. The majority of infections (46%) were with T. congolense. Co-infection with all three organisms was observed at 1% and 3.3% in G. austeni and G. pallidipes, respectively. Eleven out of the thirteen (85%) co-infected flies

  8. Natural interspecies recombinant bovine/porcine enterovirus in sheep.

    PubMed

    Boros, Akos; Pankovics, Péter; Knowles, Nick J; Reuter, Gábor

    2012-09-01

    Members of the genus Enterovirus (family Picornaviridae) are believed to be common and widespread among humans and different animal species, although only a few enteroviruses have been identified from animal sources. Intraspecies recombination among human enteroviruses is a well-known phenomenon, but only a few interspecies examples have been reported and, to our current knowledge, none of these have involved non-primate enteroviruses. In this study, we report the detection and complete genome characterization (using RT-PCR and long-range PCR) of a natural interspecies recombinant bovine/porcine enterovirus (ovine enterovirus type 1; OEV-1) in seven (44 %) of 16 faecal samples from 3-week-old domestic sheep (Ovis aries) collected in two consecutive years. Phylogenetic analysis of the complete coding region revealed that OEV-1 (ovine/TB4-OEV/2009/HUN; GenBank accession no. JQ277724) was a novel member of the species Porcine enterovirus B (PEV-B), implying the endemic presence of PEV-B viruses among sheep. However, the 5' UTR of OEV-1 showed a high degree of sequence and structural identity to bovine enteroviruses. The presumed recombination breakpoint was mapped to the end of the 5' UTR at nucleotide position 814 using sequence and SimPlot analyses. The interspecies-recombinant nature of OEV-1 suggests a closer relationship among bovine and porcine enteroviruses, enabling the exchange of at least some modular genetic elements that may evolve independently.

  9. Detection of Toxoplasma gondii DNA in naturally infected sheep's milk.

    PubMed

    de Santana Rocha, D; de Sousa Moura, R L; Maciel, B M; Guimarães, L A; O'dwyer, H N S; Munhoz, A D; Albuquerque, G R

    2015-07-31

    The objective of this study was to verify whether Toxoplasma gondii is excreted in the milk of naturally infected sheep. In order to accomplish this, 275 lactating ewes were used; these were bred extensively in 17 estates distributed across nine cities. Polymerase chain reaction amplification was used to detect T. gondii DNA in milk samples, and the indirect immunofluorescence test was employed for the detection of anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies in the sera, with a cut-off value of 1:64. It was possible to verify the presence of the parasite DNA in 6.5% (18/275) of the studied animals. Anti-T. gondii antibodies were present in 41.5% of the animals studied (114/275). There was no correlation between parasite excretion in milk and the presence of IgG in 38.9% of the studied animals (7/18). The high seropositivity and the presence of parasite DNA in the milk led to the conclusion that T. gondii infection is present in the sheep population in southern and southwestern Bahia, and that there is a risk of the human population becoming infected due to the consumption of raw, in natura milk.

  10. Natural history and treatment of HCV/HIV coinfection: Is it time to change paradigms?

    PubMed

    Arends, Joop E; Lieveld, Faydra I; Boeijen, Lauke L; de Kanter, Clara T M M; van Erpecum, Karel J; Salmon, Dominique; Hoepelman, Andy I M; Asselah, Tarik; Ustianowski, Andrew

    2015-11-01

    Evidence over the past decades have shown that HIV/HCV coinfected patients did not respond as well to HCV therapy as HCV mono-infected patients. However, these paradigms are being recently reassessed with the improvements of care for HIV and HCV patients. This article reviews these original paradigms and how the new data is impacting upon them. Treatment efficacy now appears comparable for HIV/HCV coinfected and HCV mono-infected patients, while liver fibrosis progression is increasingly similar in optimally managed patients. Additional importance of therapy is directed to drug-drug interactions and the impact of HCV reinfection, as well as the possibility of transmitted drug resistance.

  11. Pathology of dogs in Campo Grande, MS, Brazil naturally co-infected with Leishmania infantum and Ehrlichia canis.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Gisele Braziliano; Barreto, Wanessa Teixeira Gomes; Santos, Luciana Ladislau dos; Ribeiro, Laura Raquel Rios; Macedo, Gabriel Carvalho de; Sousa, Keyla Carstens Marques de; André, Marcos Rogério; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias; Herrera, Heitor Miraglia

    2014-01-01

    Different parasites that commonly occur concomitantly can influence one another, sometimes with unpredictable effects. We evaluated pathological aspects of dogs naturally co-infected with Leishmania infantum and Ehrlichia canis. The health status of the dogs was investigated based on histopathological, hematological and biochemical analyses of 21 animals infected solely with L. infantum and 22 dogs co- infected with L. infantum and E. canis. The skin of both groups showed chronic, predominantly lymphohistioplasmacytic inflammatory reaction. The plasmacytosis in the lymphoid tissues was likely related with the hypergammaglobulinemia detected in all the dogs. The disorganization of extracellular matrix found in the reticular dermis of the inguinal region and ear, characterized by the substitution of thick collagen fibers for thin fibers, was attributed to the degree of inflammatory reaction, irrespective of the presence of parasites. In addition, the histopathological analysis revealed that twice as many dogs in the co-infected group presented Leishmania amastigotes in the ear skin than those infected solely with Leishmania, increasing the possibility of becoming infected through sand fly vectors. Our findings highlight the fact that the health of dogs infected concomitantly with L. infantum and E. canis is severely compromised due to their high levels of total plasma protein, globulins, alkaline phosphatase and creatine kinase, and severe anemia.

  12. Calicophoron daubneyi and Fasciola hepatica: characteristics of natural and experimental co-infections of these digeneans in the snail Lymnaea glabra.

    PubMed

    Vignoles, P; Titi, A; Mekroud, A; Rondelaud, D; Dreyfuss, G

    2017-01-01

    A retrospective study on different Lymnaea glabra samples collected from central France between 1993 and 2010 was carried out to determine the prevalence of natural co-infections with Calicophoron daubneyi and Fasciola hepatica, and to specify the composition of redial burdens. Experimental infections of L. glabra performed during the same period of time were also analysed to study metacercarial production of each digenean in co-infected snails. Controls were naturally or experimentally co-infected Galba truncatula. In natural co-infections, prevalence was 0.7% in L. glabra (186/25,128) and 0.4% in G. truncatula (137/31,345). Low redial burdens were found in these snails, with F. hepatica rediae significantly more numerous in L. glabra than in G. truncatula (7.5 per snail instead of 5.2). In contrast, the total numbers of C. daubneyi rediae in both lymnaeids were close to each other (4.3 and 3.0 rediae, respectively). In experimentally co-infected groups, prevalence was greater in G. truncatula than in the other lymnaeid (6.3% instead of 3.0%). Significantly shorter patent periods and lower metacercarial production for each digenean were noted in L. glabra than in G. truncatula. However, in both lymnaeids, the two types of cercariae were released during the same shedding waves and several peaks during the patent period were synchronous. In spite of a greater shell height for L. glabra, metacercarial production of both digeneans in co-infected snails was lower than that in G. truncatula, thus indicating a still incomplete adaptation between these French L. glabra and both parasites.

  13. Natural selenium-rich feeds manage selenium deficiency in Oregon sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A natural selenium-rich feed product (SePR) was developed by the USDA, ARS, U.S. Sheep Experiment Station for the purposes of enhancing the long-term selenium status of grazing livestock. In cooperation with Intermountain Farmers Association (Salt Lake City, UT), a bulk amount of SePR was manufactur...

  14. Diagnosis and prevalence of ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma in lung tissues of naturally infected farm sheep

    PubMed Central

    Sonawane, Ganesh G.; Tripathi, Bhupendra Nath; Kumar, Rajiv; Kumar, Jyoti

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study was aimed to detect ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma (OPA) in sheep flocks affected with pulmonary disorders at organized farm. Materials and Methods: A total of 75 sheep died naturally were thoroughly examined for the lesions of OPA during necropsy. Tissue sections from affected portion of the lungs from each animal were collected aseptically and divided into two parts; one each for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and another for histopathology. Results: On PCR examination of lung tissues, six sheep (8%) were found to be positive for JSRV. Two of them were 3-6 months of age and did not show clinical signs/gross lesions of OPA. Four adult sheep positive on PCR revealed characteristic lesions of OPA on gross and histopathological examination. Conclusion: In the absence of known specific antibody response to the infection with JSRV, there is no diagnostic serological test available. The PCR assay employed in this study on lung tissues, using primers based on the U3 region of the viral long terminal repeat for JSRV would be helpful in the screening of preclinical and clinical cases of OPA in sheep. PMID:27182131

  15. Natural Immunity of Sheep and Lambs Against the Schmallenberg Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Prieto, V; Kukielka, D; Mouriño, M; Paradell, H; Plaja, L; Urniza, A; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J Manuel

    2016-04-01

    Since the first reports of the Schmallenberg disease (SBD) outbreaks in late 2011, the disease has spread across Europe, affecting cattle and sheep farms. While Schmallenberg virus (SBV) causes a mild clinical disease in adults, infection of pregnant females may lead to the production of typical congenital malformations (CMFs) in their offspring. It is speculated that the immunity acquired after a SBV infection is effective in preventing further infections. However, this has not been proven in naturally infected sheep, especially if they are pregnant when reinfected. The aim of this study was to monitor the natural immunity in SBV-infected sheep. Twenty-four ewes from the only Spanish farm with a SBV OIE-notified outbreak were sampled. Subsequently, nine pregnant ewes were inoculated with SBV infectious plasma under controlled conditions. Six of them were euthanized before delivery, and their fetuses were inspected for lesions indicative for the SBV infection. The three remaining ewes were allowed to deliver one lamb each. Inoculation of the lambs was scheduled at approx. 3 months after birth. All samples were analyzed for viral RNA by RT-PCR, and for antibodies by an indirect ELISA and a virus neutralization test (VNT). The majority of the 24 ewes showed a serological reaction against SBV. The three ewes that were allowed to lamb down demonstrated variable degrees of seroconversion which corresponded to the levels of immune reaction observed in their lambs. Moreover, no viral RNA was detected, no lesions were observed in the fetuses, and no clinical signs were detected in the inoculated animals. These findings suggest that the immunity acquired by sheep following a natural SBV infection could be sufficient to stop SBV reinfection. However, vaccination could be a valuable tool to control SBV infections and associated economic losses as it affords a more uniform and predictable protection at the flock/herd level.

  16. Incidence of infection in Prnp ARR/ARR sheep following experimental inoculation with or natural exposure to classical scrapie.

    PubMed

    Jeffrey, Martin; Martin, Stuart; Chianini, Francesca; Eaton, Samantha; Dagleish, Mark P; González, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    The prion protein gene (Prnp) is highly influential in determining risk and susceptibility of sheep exposed to classical scrapie. Sheep homozygous for alanine at codon 136 and arginine at codons 154 and 171 (ARR/ARR) of the Prnp gene are historically considered to be highly resistant to classical scrapie, although they form a significant fraction of cases of atypical scrapie. To date, experimental transmission of prions to ARR/ARR sheep has only been achieved with the BSE agent and mostly by the intracerebral route. We summarise here the results of six separate studies, in which 95 sheep of the ARR/ARR genotype were naturally exposed to (n = 18) or experimentally challenged with (n = 77) natural or experimental sources of classical scrapie by the oral, intra-intestinal, subcutaneous or intracerebral routes and allowed to survive for periods of up to 94 months post-infection. Only the intracerebral route resulted in disease and/or amplification of disease associated PrP (PrPd), and only in two of 19 sheep that survived for longer than 36 months. Discriminatory immunohistochemistry and Western blot confirmed the scrapie, non-BSE signature of PrPd in those two sheep. However, the neuropathological phenotype was different from any other scrapie (classical or atypical) or BSE source previously reported in sheep of any Prnp genotype. These studies confirm the widely held view that ARR/ARR sheep are highly resistant to classical scrapie infection, at least within their commercial lifespan. Moreover, within the constraints of the present studies (only two infected sheep), these results do not support the suggestion that atypical scrapie or BSE are generated by adaptation or mutation of classical scrapie in sheep of resistant ARR/ARR genotype.

  17. Plasma melatonin profiles of Romney Marsh sheep in natural photoperiod and in acutely extended darkness.

    PubMed

    Matthews, C D; Seamark, R F; Guerin, M V

    1992-08-01

    Plasma melatonin was measured at the summer and winter solstices and the autumn and spring equinoxes in Romney Marsh sheep held under natural conditions in South Australia (35 degrees S). The amount of melatonin detected was generally related to the extent of natural darkness, though the melatonin onset was particularly delayed after dusk in winter compared with other seasons. The duration of detectable melatonin was shorter in summer than at any other season. After each initial 24 h sampling, the sheep were resampled for a further 24 h in acutely extended darkness to mark the phase and duration of suprachiasmatic nuclei activity which is believed to be the source of the melatonin signal. The onset of high plasma melatonin was earlier than the time of natural sunset in spring and summer, but not different from the time of natural sunset in autumn and winter. The offset of high plasma melatonin was later than the time of natural sunrise at all times of year and particularly so in summer. Under the extended dark conditions, the duration of detectable melatonin was longer than that under natural photoperiod at all seasons of the year and the duration of melatonin was again shorter in summer than winter. If melatonin measurements under the conditions of extended darkness do reflect the phase and duration of suprachiasmatic nuclei function then the natural light of the photoperiod can, particularly during long photoperiod conditions, mask the expression of the pacemaker. The findings may have implications for the timing of the breeding season in Romney Marsh sheep.

  18. Identification of Natural Infections in Sheep/Goats with HoBi-like Pestiviruses in China.

    PubMed

    Shi, H; Kan, Y; Yao, L; Leng, C; Tang, Q; Ji, J; Sun, S

    2016-10-01

    The natural infections of HoBi-like pestiviruses in cattle have been reported in South America, Europe and Asia. In China, although the detections of HoBi-like pestivirus have been reported, the epidemiological investigation was limited. From January 2014 to October 2015, several flocks of sheep/goats in Henan province in central China suffered respiratory diseases which were recovered slowly after antibiotics treatment. To test whether it is the HoBi-like pestivirus caused this symptom, 49 serum samples and 22 nasal swabs were then collected for analysis by serology and RT-PCR. Serological result revealed that prevalence of pestivirus in small ruminants was 12.2% (6/49) in central China. Sequence analysis of partial 5'-UTR nucleotides of pestivirus-positive samples suggested that HoBi-like pestivirus might have circulated in sheep/goats of China for a period and have evolved into new genotype clusters. It is apparent that the study provides the molecular evidence of natural infections in goat/sheep species with HoBi-like pestiviruses in China.

  19. Immunohistochemical detection of Brucella melitensis antigens in cases of naturally occurring abortions in sheep.

    PubMed

    Ilhan, Fatma; Yener, Zabit

    2008-11-01

    Brucella melitensis, a worldwide zoonotic pathogen, is a significant cause of abortion in sheep and goats in some countries. The present study was carried out to determine, by immunohistochemistry, the presence of B. melitensis antigens in 110 naturally occurring aborted sheep fetuses. Sections of lung, liver, kidney, and spleen of each fetus were stained with immunoperoxidase to detect Brucella antigens. Brucella melitensis antigens were detected in 33 of 110 fetuses (30%). In the 33 positive cases, Brucella antigens were found in lung (25 [22.7%]), liver (21 [19%]), spleen (13 [11.8%]), and kidney (6 [5.4%]). Microscopic studies demonstrated that Brucella antigens were mainly located in the cytoplasm of macrophages and neutrophils of the lung, and in the cytoplasm of macrophages in the portal infiltrates and Kupffer cells of the liver. It was concluded that immunohistochemistry in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues is a useful tool for the diagnosis of spontaneous ovine abortion caused by B. melitensis.

  20. Characterization of naturally-occurring humoral immunity to AAV in sheep.

    PubMed

    Tellez, Joseph; Van Vliet, Kim; Tseng, Yu-Shan; Finn, Jonathan D; Tschernia, Nick; Almeida-Porada, Graça; Arruda, Valder R; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; Porada, Christopher D

    2013-01-01

    AAV vectors have shown great promise for clinical gene therapy (GT), but pre-existing human immunity against the AAV capsid often limits transduction. Thus, testing promising AAV-based GT approaches in an animal model with similar pre-existing immunity could better predict clinical outcome. Sheep have long been used for basic biological and preclinical studies. Moreover, we have re-established a line of sheep with severe hemophilia A (HA). Given the impetus to use AAV-based GT to treat hemophilia, we characterized the pre-existing ovine humoral immunity to AAV. ELISA revealed naturally-occurring antibodies to AAV1, AAV2, AAV5, AAV6, AAV8, and AAV9. For AAV2, AAV8, and AAV9 these inhibit transduction in a luciferase-based neutralization assay. Epitope mapping identified peptides that were common to the capsids of all AAV serotypes tested (AAV2, AAV5, AAV8 and AAV9), with each animal harboring antibodies to unique and common capsid epitopes. Mapping using X-ray crystallographic AAV capsid structures demonstrated that these antibodies recognized both surface epitopes and epitopes located within regions of the capsid that are internal or buried in the capsid structure. These results suggest that sheep harbor endogenous AAV, which induces immunity to both intact capsid and to capsid epitopes presented following proteolysis during the course of infection. In conclusion, their clinically relevant physiology and the presence of naturally-occurring antibodies to multiple AAV serotypes collectively make sheep a unique model in which to study GT for HA, and other diseases, and develop strategies to circumvent the clinically important barrier of pre-existing AAV immunity.

  1. Characterization of Naturally-Occurring Humoral Immunity to AAV in Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Tellez, Joseph; Van Vliet, Kim; Tseng, Yu-Shan; Finn, Jonathan D.; Tschernia, Nick; Almeida-Porada, Graça; Arruda, Valder R.; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; Porada, Christopher D.

    2013-01-01

    AAV vectors have shown great promise for clinical gene therapy (GT), but pre-existing human immunity against the AAV capsid often limits transduction. Thus, testing promising AAV-based GT approaches in an animal model with similar pre-existing immunity could better predict clinical outcome. Sheep have long been used for basic biological and preclinical studies. Moreover, we have re-established a line of sheep with severe hemophilia A (HA). Given the impetus to use AAV-based GT to treat hemophilia, we characterized the pre-existing ovine humoral immunity to AAV. ELISA revealed naturally-occurring antibodies to AAV1, AAV2, AAV5, AAV6, AAV8, and AAV9. For AAV2, AAV8, and AAV9 these inhibit transduction in a luciferase-based neutralization assay. Epitope mapping identified peptides that were common to the capsids of all AAV serotypes tested (AAV2, AAV5, AAV8 and AAV9), with each animal harboring antibodies to unique and common capsid epitopes. Mapping using X-ray crystallographic AAV capsid structures demonstrated that these antibodies recognized both surface epitopes and epitopes located within regions of the capsid that are internal or buried in the capsid structure. These results suggest that sheep harbor endogenous AAV, which induces immunity to both intact capsid and to capsid epitopes presented following proteolysis during the course of infection. In conclusion, their clinically relevant physiology and the presence of naturally-occurring antibodies to multiple AAV serotypes collectively make sheep a unique model in which to study GT for HA, and other diseases, and develop strategies to circumvent the clinically important barrier of pre-existing AAV immunity. PMID:24086458

  2. Natural Polymorphisms Conferring Resistance to HCV Protease and Polymerase Inhibitors in Treatment-Naïve HIV/HCV Co-Infected Patients in China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Charles; Hu, Fengyu; Ning, Chuanyi; Lan, Yun; Tang, Xiaoping; Tucker, Joseph D.; Cai, Weiping

    2016-01-01

    Background The advent of direct-acting agents (DAAs) has improved treatment of HCV in HIV co-infection, but may be limited by primary drug resistance. This study reports the prevalence of natural polymorphisms conferring resistance to NS3/4A protease inhibitors and NS5B polymerase inhibitors in treatment-naïve HIV/HCV co-infected individuals in China. Methods Population based NS3/4A sequencing was completed for 778 treatment-naïve HIV/HCV co-infected patients from twelve provinces. NS3 sequences were amplified by nested PCR using in-house primers for genotypes 1–6. NS5B sequencing was completed for genotyping in 350 sequences. Resistance-associated variants (RAVs) were identified in positions associated with HCV resistance. Results Overall, 72.8% (566/778) of all HCV sequences had at least one RAV associated with HCV NS3/4A protease inhibitor resistance. Variants were found in 3.6% (7/193) of genotype 1, 100% (23/23) of genotype 2, 100% (237/237) of genotype 3 and 92% (299/325) of genotype 6 sequences. The Q80K variant was present in 98.4% of genotype 6a sequences. High-level RAVs were rare, occurring in only 0.8% of patients. 93% (64/69) patients with genotype 1b also carried the C316N variant associated with NS5B low-level resistance. Conclusions The low frequency of high-level RAVs associated with primary HCV DAA resistance among all genotypes in HIV/HCV co-infected patients is encouraging. Further phenotypic studies and clinical research are needed. PMID:27341031

  3. Natural coinfection of a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) population with three Ehrlichia spp.

    PubMed

    Little, S E; Stallknecht, D E; Lockhart, J M; Dawson, J E; Davidson, W R

    1998-10-01

    The ticks Amblyomma americanum and Ixodes scapularis, strongly implicated vectors of Ehrlichia chaffeensis and the human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) agent, respectively, commonly are found on white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). As deer can be infected with E. chaffeensis, the HGE agent, and another Ehrlichia-like organism, a deer population parasitized by both tick species in coastal Georgia was tested for evidence of Ehrlichia spp. infection using serologic, molecular, and culture techniques. Antibodies to both E. chaffeensis (geometric mean titer = 111) and Ehrlichia equi, surrogate antigen for the HGE agent, (geometric mean titer = 1,024) were detected by indirect fluorescent antibody testing. Nested polymerase chain reaction employing species-specific primers demonstrated sequence-confirmed 16S rDNA fragments of 3 distinct Ehrlichia spp. in this population: E. chaffeensis (1/5), the HGE agent (3/5), and an Ehrlichia-like organism previously described from white-tailed deer (5/5). Ehrlichia chaffeensis was isolated in culture from the inguinal lymph node of a single deer. An Ehrlichia-type morula was identified in a neutrophil of 1 deer on examination of blood smears. This work provides the first evidence of the HGE agent in a nonhuman host in the southeastern United States and documents infection with both E. chaffeensis and the HGE agent in a single deer population, thereby supporting the importance of white-tailed deer in the natural history of the human ehrlichioses agents.

  4. Distribution of peripheral PrP(Sc) in sheep with naturally acquired scrapie.

    PubMed

    Garza, María Carmen; Monzón, Marta; Marín, Belén; Badiola, Juan José; Monleón, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Accumulation of prion protein (PrPSc) in the central nervous system is the hallmark of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. However, in some of these diseases such as scrapie or chronic wasting disease, the PrPSc can also accumulate in other tissues, particularly in the lymphoreticular system. In recent years, PrPSc in organs other than nervous and lymphoid have been described, suggesting that distribution of this protein in affected individuals may be much larger than previously thought. In the present study, 11 non-nervous/non-lymphoid organs from 16 naturally scrapie infected sheep in advanced stages of the disease were examined for the presence of PrPSc. Fourteen infected sheep were of the ARQ/ARQ PRNP genotype and 2 of the VRQ/VRQ, where the letters A, R, Q, and V represent the codes for amino-acids alanine, arginine, glutamine and valine, respectively. Adrenal gland, pancreas, heart, skin, urinary bladder and mammary gland were positive for PrPSc by immunohistochemistry and IDEXX HerdChek scrapie/BSE Antigen EIA Test in at least one animal. Lung, liver, kidney and skeletal muscle exhibited PrPSc deposits by immunohistochemistry only. To our knowledge, this is the first report regarding the presence of PrPSc in the heart, pancreas and urinary bladder in naturally acquired scrapie infections. In some other organs examined, in which PrPSc had been previously detected, PrPSc immunolabeling was observed to be associated with new structures within those organs. The results of the present study illustrate a wide dissemination of PrPSc in both ARQ/ARQ and VRQ/VRQ infected sheep, even when the involvement of the lymphoreticular system is scarce or absent, thus highlighting the role of the peripheral nervous system in the spread of PrPSc.

  5. Distribution of Peripheral PrPSc in Sheep with Naturally Acquired Scrapie

    PubMed Central

    Garza, María Carmen; Monzón, Marta; Marín, Belén; Badiola, Juan José; Monleón, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Accumulation of prion protein (PrPSc) in the central nervous system is the hallmark of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. However, in some of these diseases such as scrapie or chronic wasting disease, the PrPSc can also accumulate in other tissues, particularly in the lymphoreticular system. In recent years, PrPSc in organs other than nervous and lymphoid have been described, suggesting that distribution of this protein in affected individuals may be much larger than previously thought. In the present study, 11 non-nervous/non-lymphoid organs from 16 naturally scrapie infected sheep in advanced stages of the disease were examined for the presence of PrPSc. Fourteen infected sheep were of the ARQ/ARQ PRNP genotype and 2 of the VRQ/VRQ, where the letters A, R, Q, and V represent the codes for amino-acids alanine, arginine, glutamine and valine, respectively. Adrenal gland, pancreas, heart, skin, urinary bladder and mammary gland were positive for PrPSc by immunohistochemistry and IDEXX HerdChek scrapie/BSE Antigen EIA Test in at least one animal. Lung, liver, kidney and skeletal muscle exhibited PrPSc deposits by immunohistochemistry only. To our knowledge, this is the first report regarding the presence of PrPSc in the heart, pancreas and urinary bladder in naturally acquired scrapie infections. In some other organs examined, in which PrPSc had been previously detected, PrPSc immunolabeling was observed to be associated with new structures within those organs. The results of the present study illustrate a wide dissemination of PrPSc in both ARQ/ARQ and VRQ/VRQ infected sheep, even when the involvement of the lymphoreticular system is scarce or absent, thus highlighting the role of the peripheral nervous system in the spread of PrPSc. PMID:24828439

  6. Ultrasonographic fetal sex identification in pregnant sheep derived from natural mating and embryo transfer.

    PubMed

    de Freitas Neto, Leopoldo Mayer; dos Santos, Maico Henrique Barbosa; de Aguiar Filho, Cristiano Rocha; de Almeida Irmão, José Monteiro; Caldas, Eduardo Luiz Cavalcanti; Neves, Jairo Pereira; Lima, Paulo Fernandes; de Oliveira, Marcos Antonio Lemos

    2010-06-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the migration period of the genital tubercle and the period of visualization of external genital structures in fetuses of the Dorper breed of sheep derived from natural mating and from fresh, frozen and vitrified embryo transfer. Transrectal ultrasound was performed using a double-frequency linear transducer (6.0 and 8.0 MHz) to monitor 130 ewe fetuses distributed in the four treatments regarding embryo origin. The accuracy of the ultrasound was 100% in this experiment. The fetuses originated from controlled natural mating (NM) and from fresh (FrE), frozen (FE) and vitrified (VE) embryo transfer, with embryos collected 7 days after breeding. Migration of the genital tubercle occurred earlier (P<0.05) in NM (42.21+/-2.86 days) than in FrE (43.98+/-3.00 days), FE (44.97+/-1.83 days) and VE (44.58+/-1.97 days). Visualization of the scrotal bag, prepuce and vulva occurred, respectively, earlier (P<0.05) in NM (45.22+/-1.25, 45.95+/-1.53 and 45.01+/-1.03 days) than in FrE (48.91+/-1.92, 48.52+/-1.41 and 47.41+/-1.41 days), FE (49.97+/-1.08, 49.18+/-2.00 and 47.64+/-1.82 days) and VE (50.12+/-1.66, 49.27+/-1.61 and 47.93+/-1.92 days). The results show that fetal sexing can be accomplished from the 50th day onward in fetuses produced by natural mating and from the 55th day onward in fetuses derived from fresh, frozen and vitrified embryos. It can also be concluded that real-time ultrasonography is a reliable tool for fetal sex determination in sheep taking into account both the location of the genital tubercle and the identification of external genital structures.

  7. Accumulation of PrP-Sc in hemal nodes of naturally and experimentally scrapie-infected sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Classical scrapie is a naturally occurring fatal disease of sheep and goats which is caused by prions, a novel class of infectious agent. Infection is accompanied by accumulation of abnormal isoforms of the prion protein (PrP-Sc) in certain neural and lymphoid tissues. Hemal nodes, which are unique ...

  8. Study of heat-stress levels in naturally ventilated sheep barns during heat waves: development and assessment of regression models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papanastasiou, D. K.; Bartzanas, T.; Panagakis, P.; Zhang, G.; Kittas, C.

    2016-11-01

    It is well documented that heat-stress burdens sheep welfare and productivity. Peak heat-stress levels are observed when high temperatures prevail, i.e. during heat waves; however, continuous measurements inside livestock buildings are not usually available for long periods so as to study the variation of summer heat-stress levels for several years, especially during extreme hot weather. Α methodology to develop a long time series of summer temperature and relative humidity inside naturally ventilated sheep barns is proposed. The accuracy and the transferability of the developed linear regression models were verified. Temperature Humidity Index (THI) was used to assess sheep's potential heat-stress. Τhe variation of THI inside a barn during heat wave and non-heat wave days was examined, and the results were comparatively assessed. The analysis showed that sheep were exposed to moderate, severe, and extreme severe heat-stress in 10, 21 and 66 % of hours, respectively, during heat wave days, while the corresponding values during non-heat wave days were 14, 33 and 43 %, respectively. The heat load on sheep was much higher during heat wave events than during non-heat wave periods. Additionally, based on the averaged diurnal variation of THI, it was concluded that extreme severe heat-stress conditions were prevailing between 1000 and 2400 hours local time during heat wave days. Cool off night periods were never and extremely rarely detected during heat wave and non-heat wave days, respectively.

  9. Windrow co-composting of natural casings waste with sheep manure and dead leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Makan, Abdelhadi

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Waste management opportunities in small and medium companies were highlighted. • Pilot scale program for windrow co-composting of natural casings was investigated. • Compost preparation, characterization and application phases were discussed. • Natural casings co-composting has proved more viable and cost effective solution. - Abstract: After studying the waste management opportunities in small and medium companies of natural casings, composting has proved more viable and cost effective solution for the valorization of these types of waste, but its feasibility depends on the final product value. This paper investigated a pilot scale program for the windrow co-composting of natural casings waste with sheep manure and dead leaves incorporation. Processing, characterization and application of the final compost were described and the final compost was analyzed for pathogens, metals, nutrients, maturity, and agronomic parameters. The results showed that all test result levels were below the limits specified in the EPA regulations published in Title 40, Section 503, of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR 503). Moreover, the agronomic value tests which include nutrients, organic matter, pH, electrical conductivity, etc. showed that the compost had high organic-matter content and low salt content, all of which indicate good compost characteristics. The ratio of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K), or NPK ratio, was measured at 1.6–0.9–0.7. Reported units are consistent with those found on fertilizer formulations.

  10. Anthelmintic efficacy and dose determination of Albizia anthelmintica against gastrointestinal nematodes in naturally infected Ugandan sheep.

    PubMed

    Gradé, J T; Arble, B L; Weladji, R B; Van Damme, P

    2008-11-07

    Weight loss, stunted growth, and death caused by gastrointestinal parasites are major constraints to livestock productivity, especially in tropical and developing countries where regular use, and misuse, of anthelmintics has led to nematode resistance. Albizia anthelmintica Brong. (Fabaceae) is traditionally employed throughout East Africa to treat helminth parasitosis in livestock. Reported efficacy has varied from 90% against mixed nematodes to just 19% against Haemonchus contortus alone. The objective of this study was to assess the anthelmintic effect of A. anthelmintica against naturally occurring infections of mixed gastrointestinal parasites, and to establish an effective treatment dose, in sheep under pastoral field conditions of northern Uganda. A. anthelmintica bark was collected and prepared according to local custom and packed into gel capsules. Fifty-five young female local mixed-breed lambs were randomly assigned to six groups, including a positive control group that received levamisole (synthetic anthelmintic) and a negative control group that received no treatment. Following the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP) dose determination guidelines, the other four groups were treated with varying doses of A. anthelmintica. Statistical analyses (using generalized linear models) were performed to assess treatment effect. There was a significant treatment (group) effect on parasite egg/oocyte counts per gram (EPG) for nematodes, but not for coccidia. The most effective dose against nematodes (0.8g, 58.7mg/kg) closely approximates what is usually given by traditional healers, 0.9g/adult sheep. It provided major and significant reduction in EPG as compared to the negative control. Anthelmintic efficacy was estimated using percent faecal egg count reduction (FECR). Other than the positive control, animals in the standard dose group showed the greatest decline in shedding of nematode eggs, with an FECR of 78%. This study

  11. Characterization of mesenchymal stem cells in sheep naturally infected with scrapie.

    PubMed

    Mediano, Diego R; Sanz-Rubio, David; Bolea, Rosa; Marín, Belén; Vázquez, Francisco J; Remacha, Ana R; López-Pérez, Oscar; Fernández-Borges, Natalia; Castilla, Joaquin; Zaragoza, Pilar; Badiola, Juan; Rodellar, Clementina; Martín-Burriel, Inmaculada

    2015-12-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be infected with prions and have been proposed as in vitro cell-based models for prion replication. In addition, autologous MSCs are of interest for cell therapy in neurodegenerative diseases. To the best of our knowledge, the effect of prion diseases on the characteristics of these cells has never been investigated. Here, we analysed the properties of MSCs obtained from bone marrow (BM-MSCs) and peripheral blood (PB-MSCs) of sheep naturally infected with scrapie — a large mammal model for the study of prion diseases. After three passages of expansion, MSCs derived from scrapie animals displayed similar adipogenic, chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation ability as cells from healthy controls, although a subtle decrease in the proliferation potential was observed. Exceptionally, mesenchymal markers such as CD29 were significantly upregulated at the transcript level compared with controls. Scrapie MSCs were able to transdifferentiate into neuron-like cells, but displayed lower levels of neurogenic markers at basal conditions, which could limit this potential .The expression levels of cellular prion protein (PrPC) were highly variable between cultures, and no significant differences were observed between control and scrapie-derived MSCs. However, during neurogenic differentiation the expression of PrPC was upregulated in MSCs. This characteristic could be useful for developing in vitro models for prion replication. Despite the infectivity reported for MSCs obtained from scrapie-infected mice and Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease patients, protein misfolding cyclic amplification did not detect PrPSc in BM- or PB-MSCs from scrapie-infected sheep, which limits their use for in vivo diagnosis for scrapie.

  12. A Bovine Cell Line That Can Be Infected by Natural Sheep Scrapie Prions

    PubMed Central

    Oelschlegel, Anja M.; Geissen, Markus; Lenk, Matthias; Riebe, Roland; Angermann, Marlies; Schaetzl, Hermann; Groschup, Martin H.

    2015-01-01

    Cell culture systems represent a crucial part in basic prion research; yet, cell lines that are susceptible to prions, especially to field isolated prions that were not adapted to rodents, are very rare. The purpose of this study was to identify and characterize a cell line that was susceptible to ruminant-derived prions and to establish a stable prion infection within it. Based on species and tissue of origin as well as PrP expression rate, we pre-selected a total of 33 cell lines that were then challenged with natural and with mouse propagated BSE or scrapie inocula. Here, we report the successful infection of a non-transgenic bovine cell line, a sub-line of the bovine kidney cell line MDBK, with natural sheep scrapie prions. This cell line retained the scrapie infection for more than 200 passages. Selective cloning resulted in cell populations with increased accumulation of PrPres, although this treatment was not mandatory for retaining the infection. The infection remained stable, even under suboptimal culture conditions. The resulting infectivity of the cells was confirmed by mouse bioassay (Tgbov mice, Tgshp mice). We believe that PES cells used together with other prion permissive cell lines will prove a valuable tool for ongoing efforts to understand and defeat prions and prion diseases. PMID:25565633

  13. Windrow co-composting of natural casings waste with sheep manure and dead leaves.

    PubMed

    Makan, Abdelhadi

    2015-08-01

    After studying the waste management opportunities in small and medium companies of natural casings, composting has proved more viable and cost effective solution for the valorization of these types of waste, but its feasibility depends on the final product value. This paper investigated a pilot scale program for the windrow co-composting of natural casings waste with sheep manure and dead leaves incorporation. Processing, characterization and application of the final compost were described and the final compost was analyzed for pathogens, metals, nutrients, maturity, and agronomic parameters. The results showed that all test result levels were below the limits specified in the EPA regulations published in Title 40, Section 503, of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR 503). Moreover, the agronomic value tests which include nutrients, organic matter, pH, electrical conductivity, etc. showed that the compost had high organic-matter content and low salt content, all of which indicate good compost characteristics. The ratio of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K), or NPK ratio, was measured at 1.6-0.9-0.7. Reported units are consistent with those found on fertilizer formulations.

  14. A bovine cell line that can be infected by natural sheep scrapie prions.

    PubMed

    Oelschlegel, Anja M; Geissen, Markus; Lenk, Matthias; Riebe, Roland; Angermann, Marlies; Schatzl, Herman; Schaetzl, Hermann; Groschup, Martin H

    2015-01-01

    Cell culture systems represent a crucial part in basic prion research; yet, cell lines that are susceptible to prions, especially to field isolated prions that were not adapted to rodents, are very rare. The purpose of this study was to identify and characterize a cell line that was susceptible to ruminant-derived prions and to establish a stable prion infection within it. Based on species and tissue of origin as well as PrP expression rate, we pre-selected a total of 33 cell lines that were then challenged with natural and with mouse propagated BSE or scrapie inocula. Here, we report the successful infection of a non-transgenic bovine cell line, a sub-line of the bovine kidney cell line MDBK, with natural sheep scrapie prions. This cell line retained the scrapie infection for more than 200 passages. Selective cloning resulted in cell populations with increased accumulation of PrPres, although this treatment was not mandatory for retaining the infection. The infection remained stable, even under suboptimal culture conditions. The resulting infectivity of the cells was confirmed by mouse bioassay (Tgbov mice, Tgshp mice). We believe that PES cells used together with other prion permissive cell lines will prove a valuable tool for ongoing efforts to understand and defeat prions and prion diseases.

  15. Detection of PrPres in Genetically Susceptible Fetuses from Sheep with Natural Scrapie

    PubMed Central

    Garza, María Carmen; Fernández-Borges, Natalia; Bolea, Rosa; Badiola, Juan José; Castilla, Joaquín; Monleón, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Scrapie is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy with a wide PrPres dissemination in many non-neural tissues and with high levels of transmissibility within susceptible populations. Mechanisms of transmission are incompletely understood. It is generally assumed that it is horizontally transmitted by direct contact between animals or indirectly through the environment, where scrapie can remain infectious for years. In contrast, in utero vertical transmission has never been demonstrated and has rarely been studied. Recently, the use of the protein misfolding cyclic amplification technique (PMCA) has allowed prion detection in various tissues and excretions in which PrPres levels have been undetectable by traditional assays. The main goal of this study was to detect PrPres in fetal tissues and the amniotic fluid from natural scrapie infected ewes using the PMCA technique. Six fetuses from three infected pregnant ewes in an advanced clinical stage of the disease were included in the study. From each fetus, amniotic fluid, brain, spleen, ileo-cecal valve and retropharyngeal lymph node samples were collected and analyzed using Western blotting and PMCA. Although all samples were negative using Western blotting, PrPres was detected after in vitro amplification. Our results represent the first time the biochemical detection of prions in fetal tissues, suggesting that the in utero transmission of scrapie in natural infected sheep might be possible. PMID:22194786

  16. Detection of PrPres in genetically susceptible fetuses from sheep with natural scrapie.

    PubMed

    Garza, María Carmen; Fernández-Borges, Natalia; Bolea, Rosa; Badiola, Juan José; Castilla, Joaquín; Monleón, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Scrapie is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy with a wide PrPres dissemination in many non-neural tissues and with high levels of transmissibility within susceptible populations. Mechanisms of transmission are incompletely understood. It is generally assumed that it is horizontally transmitted by direct contact between animals or indirectly through the environment, where scrapie can remain infectious for years. In contrast, in utero vertical transmission has never been demonstrated and has rarely been studied. Recently, the use of the protein misfolding cyclic amplification technique (PMCA) has allowed prion detection in various tissues and excretions in which PrPres levels have been undetectable by traditional assays. The main goal of this study was to detect PrPres in fetal tissues and the amniotic fluid from natural scrapie infected ewes using the PMCA technique. Six fetuses from three infected pregnant ewes in an advanced clinical stage of the disease were included in the study. From each fetus, amniotic fluid, brain, spleen, ileo-cecal valve and retropharyngeal lymph node samples were collected and analyzed using Western blotting and PMCA. Although all samples were negative using Western blotting, PrPres was detected after in vitro amplification. Our results represent the first time the biochemical detection of prions in fetal tissues, suggesting that the in utero transmission of scrapie in natural infected sheep might be possible.

  17. Genetic and Pathological Follow-Up Study of Goats Experimentally and Naturally Exposed to a Sheep Scrapie Isolate

    PubMed Central

    Maestrale, Caterina; Cancedda, Maria G.; Pintus, Davide; Masia, Mariangela; Nonno, Romolo; Ru, Giuseppe; Carta, Antonello; Demontis, Francesca; Santucciu, Cinzia

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Thirty-seven goats carrying different prion protein genotypes (PRNP) were orally infected with a classical scrapie brain homogenate from wild-type (ARQ/ARQ) sheep and then mated to obtain 2 additional generations of offspring, which were kept in the same environment and allowed to be naturally exposed to scrapie. Occurrence of clinical or subclinical scrapie was observed in the experimentally infected goats (F0) and in only one (F1b) of the naturally exposed offspring groups. In both groups (F0 and F1b), goats carrying the R154H, H154H, R211Q, and P168Q-P240P dimorphisms died of scrapie after a longer incubation period than wild-type, G37V, Q168Q-P240P, and S240P goats. In contrast, D145D and Q222K goats were resistant to infection. The immunobiochemical signature of the scrapie isolate and its pathological aspects observed in the sheep donors were substantially maintained over 2 goat generations, i.e., after experimental and natural transmission. This demonstrates that the prion protein gene sequence, which is shared by sheep and goats, is more powerful than any possible but unknown species-related factors in determining scrapie phenotypes. With regard to genetics, our study confirms that the K222 mutation protects goats even against ovine scrapie isolates, and for the first time, a possible association of D145 mutation with scrapie resistance is shown. In addition, it is possible that the sole diverse frequencies of these genetic variants might, at least in part, shape the prevalence of scrapie among naturally exposed progenies in affected herds. IMPORTANCE This study was aimed at investigating the genetic and pathological features characterizing sheep-to-goat transmission of scrapie. We show that in goats with different prion protein gene mutations, the K222 genetic variant is associated with scrapie resistance after natural and experimental exposure to ovine prion infectivity. In addition, we observed for the first time a protective effect of the D145

  18. The reindeer abomasal nematode (Ostertagia gruehneri) is naturally transmitted to sheep when sharing pastures.

    PubMed

    Manninen, Saana-Maaria; Thamsborg, Stig M; Laaksonen, Sauli; Oksanen, Antti

    2014-11-01

    The increasing number of sheep (Ovis aries) in northern Finland, often alternately corralled with winter-fed reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus), creates potential for cross-infection of gastrointestinal nematodes. The aim of this study was to elucidate this possibility with 43 animals. Eleven reindeer and 8 sheep had shared a corral by turns, reindeer during winters, and sheep in summers. Another 12 reindeer had no known contact with sheep. Twelve sheep had no close contact to other ruminants. Both reindeer groups were free-ranging during summers. During slaughter in September to November, 2003, abomasa and parts of intestines were collected. Gastrointestinal nematodes were counted and identified. The species found were the following: in reindeer, Ostertagia gruehneri/Ostertagia arctica, Mazamastrongylus dagestanica, Nematodirus tarandi, Nematodirella longissimespiculata and Bunostomum trigonocephalum; in sheep, Teladorsagia circumcincta/Teladorsagia trifurcata, O. gruehneri/O. arctica, Nematodirus filicollis and N. spathiger. In the sheep sharing corral with reindeer, the only abomasal nematode species found was O. gruehneri, a reindeer parasite. The generation interval of O. gruehneri in Finnish reindeer appears to be shorter than in Canadian Arctic caribou, where complete larval inhibition leading to only one generation yearly has been reported.

  19. The role and immunophenotypic characteristics of myofibroblasts in liver of sheep naturally infected with the lancet liver fluke (Dicrocoelium dendriticum).

    PubMed

    Kukolj, V; Aleksić-Kovačević, S; Katić-Radivojević, S; Knežević, Dj; Jovanović, M

    2015-03-15

    The main objective of our research was to examine the role and immunophenotypic characteristics of myofibroblasts in sheep liver naturally infected by the lancet liver fluke (Dicrocoelium dendriticum). In the reported study we analyzed liver samples from 20 adult sheep, 14 infected animals and 6 controls. The liver samples were fixed in 10% buffered formalin, and routinely processed and stained using hematoxylin eosin, the periodic acid-Schiff and Masson-Goldner trichrome methods. The immunohistochemical examination was carried out by the streptavidin biotin (LSAB2) method, using antibodies for α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), desmin and vimentin. The histopathological examination revealed liver fibrosis in 6 out of 14 (42.9%) analyzed samples, while different forms of cholangitis were observed in the remaining 8 out of 14 (57.1%). The expression of α-SMA was proven in perisinusoidal hepatic stellate cells, portal/septal myofibroblasts, and interface myofibroblasts. The degree of α-SMA expression and the number of α-SMA immunopositive cells were the most intensive in the liver with fibrosis. Desmin expression in all liver samples of infected sheep was confirmed in hepatic stellate cells and smooth muscle cells. The hepatic stellate cells, portal/septal myofibroblasts, and interface myofibroblasts reacted as vimentin positive cells. In the liver without fibrotic changes hepatic stellate cells and smooth muscle cells were desmin positive. The obtained results suggest that all populations of myofibroblasts, especially hepatic stellate cells, play an important role in the increased extracellular matrix formation during parasitic liver fibrosis in sheep naturally infected with D. dendriticum.

  20. HIV-HCV Coinfection

    PubMed Central

    Sethi, Amrita

    2006-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus are global health concerns. Due to shared routes of transmission, coinfection is common. Since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy in the mid-1990s and the associated marked reduction in HIV-related mortality, the incidence of liver-related mortality in coinfected patients has risen significantly. This rise has led to increased research into the evaluation and management of the coinfected patient. This article reviews the epidemiology and evaluation of the coinfected patient and outlines the principles necessary for successful management of this challenging patient population.

  1. Gene expression profiling of mesenteric lymph nodes from sheep with natural scrapie

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Prion diseases are characterized by the accumulation of the pathogenic PrPSc protein, mainly in the brain and the lymphoreticular system. Although prions multiply/accumulate in the lymph nodes without any detectable pathology, transcriptional changes in this tissue may reflect biological processes that contribute to the molecular pathogenesis of prion diseases. Little is known about the molecular processes that occur in the lymphoreticular system in early and late stages of prion disease. We performed a microarray-based study to identify genes that are differentially expressed at different disease stages in the mesenteric lymph node of sheep naturally infected with scrapie. Oligo DNA microarrays were used to identify gene-expression profiles in the early/middle (preclinical) and late (clinical) stages of the disease. Results In the clinical stage of the disease, we detected 105 genes that were differentially expressed (≥2-fold change in expression). Of these, 43 were upregulated and 62 downregulated as compared with age-matched negative controls. Fewer genes (50) were differentially expressed in the preclinical stage of the disease. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis revealed that the differentially expressed genes were largely associated with the following terms: glycoprotein, extracellular region, disulfide bond, cell cycle and extracellular matrix. Moreover, some of the annotated genes could be grouped into 3 specific signaling pathways: focal adhesion, PPAR signaling and ECM-receptor interaction. We discuss the relationship between the observed gene expression profiles and PrPSc deposition and the potential involvement in the pathogenesis of scrapie of 7 specific differentially expressed genes whose expression levels were confirmed by real time-PCR. Conclusions The present findings identify new genes that may be involved in the pathogenesis of natural scrapie infection in the lymphoreticular system, and confirm previous reports describing scrapie

  2. Phylogenetic analysis of small ruminant lentiviruses in mixed flocks: multiple evidence of dual infection and natural transmission of types A2 and B1 between sheep and goats.

    PubMed

    Fras, Marion; Leboeuf, Anne; Labrie, François-Mikaël; Laurin, Marc-André; Singh Sohal, Jagdip; L'Homme, Yvan

    2013-10-01

    Previous molecular analyses of small ruminant lentivirus (SRLV) populations in single species herds in Quebec, Canada, have revealed a relatively simple structure where goats and sheep appeared exclusively infected with B1 and A2 subtypes respectively. The present work aimed at extending these earlier findings with the analysis of SRLVs in mixed flocks. Molecular analyses revealed a more complex picture of SRLV population structure in mixed herds compared to single species herds. Notably, phylogenetic analyses of long gag sequences strongly support transmission of A2 subtype from sheep to goats as well as transmission of B1 subtype from goats to sheep. Hence, this work uncovered for the first time natural transmission between sheep and goats of North American subtype A2. In addition, multiple evidences of mixed infection of sheep and goats with A2 and B1 subtypes were found. The data reported in this study reinforces the concept of a genetic continuum of SRLVs where strains are exchanged between sheep and goats under favourable conditions and in the absence of specific species barriers. Most interestingly, this study suggests that dual infection, which is a hallmark of the lentivirus paradigm HIV, may not be such rare events in small ruminants but may simply be understudied and underreported. Overall, the present data shows that sheep and goats in Canada can be infected with both SRLV A and B types, sometimes simultaneously, and that mixed flocks may represent a breeding ground for their evolution.

  3. Compensating for diminishing natural water: Predicting the impacts of water development on summer habitat of desert bighorn sheep

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Longshore, K.M.; Lowrey, C.; Thompson, D.B.

    2009-01-01

    Artificial water sources have been used for decades to enhance and restore wildlife habitat but the benefits of their use have been subject to debate. During the past century, the number of natural springs in Joshua Tree National Park, California, USA, has declined. In response to concerns about the viability of the bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni) population, a number of water developments were constructed throughout the park. We modeled potential historical and present-day summer habitat of female bighorn sheep to evaluate the effectiveness of the artificial and remaining natural water sources in maintaining habitat and to determine how loss of artificial sources might affect future habitat availability. Prior to 1950, 583.5 km2 of summer habitat was potentially available. Presently, only 170.6 km2 of habitat is available around natural water sources and 153.5 km2 is available around guzzlers. When all perennial water sources are included in the habitat model (minus overlap), 302.3 km2 of summer habitat is potentially available. This represents only 51.7% of summer habitat available prior to 1950. Without artificial water developments, 47.7% of present-day summer habitat would be lost, which raises important management questions regarding the debate about what is natural or artificial within otherwise protected areas.

  4. Naturally occurring sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever in North American pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two cases of sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) in pigs were diagnosed on a small farm in New York State, and in Kentucky, U.S.A. In both cases initial diagnosis was based on histopathological changes representing typical lymphoproliferative vasculitis in multiple tissues of the affect...

  5. Persistent efficacy of a long acting injectable formulation of moxidectin against natural infestations of the sheep nasal bot (Oestrus ovis) in Spain.

    PubMed

    Rugg, Douglas; Ferrer, Luis Miguel; Sarasola, Patxi; Figueras, Luis; Lacasta, Delia; Liu, Bo; Bartram, David

    2012-09-10

    Cydectin(®) 2% LA Solution for Injection for Sheep (Pfizer Animal Health) is a long-acting (LA) formulation of moxidectin for the treatment and prevention of mixed infections of gastro-intestinal nematodes, respiratory nematodes and certain arthropod parasites in sheep. To evaluate the duration of persistent efficacy against nasal bots (Oestrus ovis), a natural exposure study was conducted in Spain during the summer of 2011. One hundred and twenty nasal bot-free, Rasa Aragonesa sheep were randomly allocated to eight groups of 15 animals each. On Day 0, four groups were treated at the recommended dose rate of 1 mg moxidectin/kg bodyweight. Four groups remained untreated as negative controls. All animals were held in nasal bot-proof housing except for exposure to natural challenge when one group of treated sheep and one of group of control animals were transferred to a local pasture at either 0-20, 20-40, 40-60, or 60-80 days after treatment. Following challenge, sheep were scored for clinical signs of bot infestation, necropsied and the heads sectioned for larval recovery. Nasal bot larvae were retrieved from 7 to 11 control sheep following each exposure period indicating that adult bots were active throughout the study. In the first challenge up to 20 days after treatment, when sheep were slaughtered immediately after exposure, the majority of larvae were first instar (L1) and only 3 of the 15 control sheep were infested with second instars (L2). There was 100% efficacy against L2 and 38.1% reduction in the number of live L1 in the treated sheep but mean counts were not significantly different between treatment and control groups (P ≥ 0.05). For the subsequent exposure periods 20-80 days after treatment (necropsies 7-9 days after challenge), 6-10 sheep were infested with L1 and 9-11 control sheep were infested with L2 and third instars (L3). There was negligible efficacy against L1, but treatment with moxidectin resulted in 100% control of L2 and L3. These

  6. Efficacy of treatments with toltrazuril 7.5% and lasalocid sodium in sheep naturally infected with Eimeria spp.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Fernando de Souza; Tavares, Luiz Eduardo Roland; Paiva, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of an experimental formulation of toltrazuril 7.5% + Trimix™ on a naturally acquired infection of Eimeria spp. in suckling lambs kept on pasture and, in another trial, evaluate the comparative efficacy between lasalocid and toltrazuril 7.5% + Trimix™ in newly weaned sheep under feedlot conditions that had been naturally infected with Eimeria spp. In the first experiment, 30 suckling lambs were divided into two groups: A - treated with toltrazuril 7.5% + Trimix™ and B- control. In experiment 2, 30 weaned sheep were divided into three groups: I - treated with toltrazuril 7.5% + Trimix™, II - treated with lasalocid and III - control. Treatment group A showed an efficacy of 90, 99.4 and 87.3% on days 5, 10 and 20, respectively. Treatment group I had an efficacy of 98.2, 92.6 and 94.5%, while group II had an efficacy of 72.7, 81.6 and 95.9% on days 7, 21 and 42, respectively. Eight Eimeria species were identified; E. ovinoidalis was the most common. Treatment with the toltrazuril 7.5% +Trimix ™ formulation was effective against Eimeria spp. in suckling lambs in field conditions and lambs weaned in under feedlot conditions.

  7. Evaluation and application of a molecular method to assess the composition of strongylid nematode populations in sheep with naturally acquired infections.

    PubMed

    Roeber, Florian; Jex, Aaron R; Campbell, Angus J D; Campbell, Bronwyn E; Anderson, Garry A; Gasser, Robin B

    2011-07-01

    We evaluated the performance of a PCR method for the diagnosis of naturally acquired strongylid nematode infections in sheep (n = 470; in a temperate climatic zone of south-eastern Australia), using a panel of 100 'negative control' samples from sheep known not to harbour parasitic helminths. We compared the diagnostic sensitivity (98%) and specificity (100%) of this assay against a conventional faecal flotation method and also established a system to rank the contribution of particular strongylid nematodes to the faecal egg counts (FECs) from 'mixed infections' in individual sheep. The testing of faecal samples herein revealed that Teladorsagia circumcincta (80%) and Trichostrongylus spp. (66%) were most prevalent, followed by Chabertia ovina (33%), Oesophagostomum venulosum (28%) and Haemonchus contortus (1%). For the majority of sheep in this study, T. circumcincta and Trichostrongylus spp. represented the largest proportion of strongylid eggs in faecal samples from individual sheep. This is the first large-scale prevalence survey of gastrointestinal nematodes in live sheep using a molecular tool. The ability to rapidly rank strongylid nematodes according to their contribution to mixed infections represents a major advantage over routine coprological methods. This PCR tool has the potential to replace the conventional technique of larval culture. Future efforts will focus on enhancing and adapting this molecular method for high throughput application in routine, diagnostic settings.

  8. Molecular analyses detect natural coinfection of water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) with bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) in serologically negative animals.

    PubMed

    Craig, María I; König, Guido A; Benitez, Daniel F; Draghi, María G

    2015-01-01

    Infection of water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) with bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) has been confirmed in several studies by serological and molecular techniques. In order to determine the presence of persistently infected animals and circulating species and subtypes of BVDV we conducted this study on a buffalo herd, whose habitat was shared with bovine cattle (Bossp.). Our serological results showed a high level of positivity for BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 within the buffalo herd. The molecular analyses of blood samples in serologically negative animals revealed the presence of viral nucleic acid, confirming the existence of persistent infection in the buffaloes. Cloning and sequencing of the 5' UTR of some of these samples revealed the presence of naturally mix-infected buffaloes with at least two different subtypes (1a and 1b), and also with both BVDV species (BVDV-1 and BVDV-2).

  9. Detection of patent infections of Echinococcus granulosus ("sheep-strain", G1) in naturally infected dogs in Kosovo.

    PubMed

    Sherifi, Kurtesh; Rexhepi, Agim; Hamidi, Afrim; Behluli, Behlul; Zessin, Karl-Hans; Mathis, Alexander; Deplazes, Peter

    2011-01-01

    A survey was carried out to assess the occurrence of canine echinococcosis in naturally infected dogs in Kosovo. Using the flotation-ovassay technique, taeniid eggs were found in 23 (7.5%) out of a total of 305 dogs. Eggs from other helminths were detected as well: hookworms 139 (45.5%), Trichuris sp. 87 (28.5%), Toxocara sp. 42 (13.7%), Toxascaris leonina 21 (6.8%) and Dipylidium caninum eight (2.6%). From 21 of the 305 samples (6.9%), taeniids eggs could be collected. Using PCR primers specific for Echinococcus granulosus ("sheep strain", G1), four of these samples (1.3%) resulted positive. The E. granulosus isolates originated from each one stray dog, hunting dog, sheepdog and pet dog. A semi-quantitative analysis showed low to moderate egg counts (2-10 per 1 g faeces) in dogs positive for E. granulosus ("sheep strain", G1) whereas specimens with high (11-20) or very high numbers (> 20) of taeniid eggs were negative in the E. granulosus PCR. Using specific primers for the detection of E. multilocularis, all samples containing taeniid eggs were negative. This is the first report on identification of E. granulosus in dogs from Kosovo where human cystic echinococcosis is a significant medical problem.

  10. HIV/AIDS Coinfection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Laotian Mongolian Spanish Turkish Vietnamese Hindi Subscribe HIV/AIDS Coinfection Approximately 10% of the HIV-infected population ... Control and Prevention website to learn about HIV/AIDS and Viral Hepatitis guidelines and resources. Home About ...

  11. Naturally resident and exogenously applied T4-like and T5-like bacteriophages can reduce Escherichia coli O157:H7 levels in sheep guts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In preparing sheep for an in vivo Escherichia coli O157:H7 eradication trial, we found that 20/39 members of a single flock were naturally colonized by O157:H7-infecting phages. Characterization showed these were all one phage type (subsequently named CEV2) infecting 15/16 O157:H7, 7/72 ECOR, and c...

  12. Anthelmintic efficacy of an oral formulation of Aurixazol against gastrointestinal nematodes of naturally and experimentally infected sheep.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Claudio Alessandro M; Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Buzzulini, Carolina; Cruz, Breno Cayeiro; Felippelli, Gustavo; de Lima, Roberto Cesar Araújo; dos Santos, Thais Rabelo; Santana, Luis Fernando; de Mendonça, Rafael Paranhos; Soares, Vando Edésio; Henrique, Carlos Henrique; da Costa, Alvimar José

    2013-12-06

    As a result of the need to develop new active principles for the control of endoparasites in ruminants, the present in vivo study evaluated a formulation containing 24% Aurixazol (48 mg/kg), a parasiticide molecule based on disophenolate of levamisole. Two experiments were conducted: one evaluating the anthelmintic efficacy of 24% Aurixazol (48 mg/kg) against gastrointestinal nematodes in naturally infected sheep, compared to an association of ivermectin (0.2mg/kg)+albendazole (5.0mg/kg)+levamisole (7.5mg/kg) (IAL), and a second one which evaluated the persistent efficacy of the same formulation against immature stages (L4) and adults of Haemonchus contortus in experimentally infected animals. In experiment I, against H. contortus, the formulation of Aurixazol and the IAL association reached efficacies (arithmetic means) of 99.32% and 96.11%, respectively. For Trichostrongylus colubriformis, the efficacy values were 88.92% and 98.08% for Aurixazol and the IAL association, respectively. Both formulations were totally effective against Oesophagostomum columbianum (100%). The results of the statistical analysis demonstrated that the mean parasitic burden of treated animals was significantly different (P ≤ 0.05) compared to the average number of helminths diagnosed in animals from the control group for H. contortus, T. colubriformis and O. columbianum. Comparing only the treated groups, it was possible to verify that the average number of H. contortus recovered from animals treated with Aurixazol was different (P ≤ 0.05) when compared to the mean amount recovered from sheep treated with the IAL association. When evaluating the prevention of H. contortus infection in experiment II, Aurixazol did not present preventive efficacy. Up until 21 days after treatment the groups treated with Aurixazol contained less adults and L4 of H. contortus (P ≤ 0.05) when compared to the non-medicated control group. However, future studies will be necessary to assess the

  13. [The effect of dehelminthizations performed during the year on the seasonal dynamics of natural nematode infections in sheep].

    PubMed

    Kozdon, O; Zajícek, D

    1976-11-01

    In four sheep flocks of two age categories dynamics of natural infections by pulmonary and gastrointestinal nematodes was studied; sheep were kept on a farm in Western Bohemia. Dehelminthizations were performed in different intervals during the grazing period on the basis of the results of quantitative coprologic examinations. Total effectiveness of 80--100% intenseffectiveness (IE) was obtained as a result of single peroral or intraruminal dehelminthization with the following preparations: pyrantel hydrochloricum (Spofa), helmatac (SKF) and nilverm (ICI); the effectiveness concerned gastrointestinal nematodes of the genus Haemonchus, Cooperia, Ostertagia, Trichostrongylus, Bunostomum, Chabertia, Nematodirus, Strongyloides, Oesophagostomum and Trichocephalus. The effectiveness of nilverm on lungworms of D. filaria and P. kochi reached 100%; the preparation was less effective and ineffective on M. capillaris. Dehelminthization practices during three years were more successful as to lowering of incidence of lungworm infections of D. filaria and P. kochi than in gastrointestinal nematodes. If sping dehelminthizations had been postponed till the second half of May or June, the climax of the elimination of ova from summer re-infection was put off till November, with an initial significant increase in September. The third dehelminthization, applied in August, did not result in the increased elimination of ova in autumn, while there was no usual autumnal climax following September dehelminthization. Effective dehelminthization performed at the end of November in all three years maintained low levels of infections during winter housing and significantly influenced the health conditions of ewes before lambing. Dynamics of the elimination of ova after dehelminthization was affected by nematodes with the migration phase in organs and tissues -- S. papillosus, Oesophagostomum sp. and Ostertagia sp.; the same effect was observed, during pasture, in nematodes with relatively

  14. Natural involution of muscle in the proximal sesamoidean ligament in sheep.

    PubMed Central

    Mascarello, F; Rowlerson, A

    1995-01-01

    In sheep, the muscle component of the proximal sesamoidean ligament, which is well developed at birth, undergoes a progressive involution postnatally. The development of muscle fibres in the proximal sesamoidean ligament was compared with masseter and semimembranosus muscles from before birth into adult life, using histochemical, immunohistochemical and biochemical methods. Neonatal myosin (a marker for developmental immaturity) disappeared earlier, and the adult pattern of myosin expression and fibre type composition was reached earlier in the proximal sesamoid ligament than masseter and semimembranosus. Proximal sesamoid ligament muscle fibres therefore complete normal development, but with a faster time course than the other muscles. Invasion of fibrous connective tissue between muscle fibres of the proximal sesamoidean ligament adjoining the tendinous component (one feature of the involution) was found to begin perinatally, eventually resulting in a marked fibrosis and atrophy of peripheral fibres. Regeneration of muscle fibres was absent or abortive, even near areas of fibre necrosis. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:7649819

  15. Ovine Enzootic Abortion (OEA): a comparison of antibody responses in vaccinated and naturally-infected swiss sheep over a two year period

    PubMed Central

    Gerber, Andrea; Thoma, Ruedi; Vretou, Evangelia; Psarrou, Evgenia; Kaiser, Carmen; Doherr, Marcus G; Zimmermann, Dieter R; Polkinghorne, Adam; Pospischil, Andreas; Borel, Nicole

    2007-01-01

    Background Prevention and control of ovine enzootic abortion (OEA) can be achieved by application of a live vaccine. In this study, five sheep flocks with different vaccination and infection status were serologically tested using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) specific for Chlamydophila (Cp.) abortus over a two-year time period. Results Sheep in Flock A with recent OEA history had high antibody values after vaccination similar to Flock C with natural Cp. abortus infections. In contrast, OEA serology negative sheep (Flock E) showed individual animal-specific immunoreactions after vaccination. Antibody levels of vaccinated ewes in Flock B ranged from negative to positive two and three years after vaccination, respectively. Positive antibody values in the negative control Flock D (without OEA or vaccination) are probably due to asymptomatic intestinal infections with Cp. abortus. Excretion of the attenuated strain of Cp. abortus used in the live vaccine through the eye was not observed in vaccinated animals of Flock E. Conclusion The findings of our study indicate that, using serology, no distinction can be made between vaccinated and naturally infected sheep. As a result, confirmation of a negative OEA status in vaccinated animals by serology cannot be determined. PMID:17903243

  16. Classical scrapie prions are associated with peripheral blood monocytes and T-lymphocytes from naturally infected sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Classical scrapie is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy that affects sheep and goats. As detected by enzyme-linked immunoassay, previous studies suggested scrapie prions in the blood of sheep might be associated with B lymphocytes but not with monocytes or T lymphocytes. The association of sc...

  17. The natural atypical scrapie phenotype is preserved on experimental transmission and sub-passage in PRNP homologous sheep

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Atypical scrapie was first identified in Norwegian sheep in 1998 and has subsequently been identified in many countries. Retrospective studies have identified cases predating the initial identification of this form of scrapie, and epidemiological studies have indicated that it does not conform to the behaviour of an infectious disease, giving rise to the hypothesis that it represents spontaneous disease. However, atypical scrapie isolates have been shown to be infectious experimentally, through intracerebral inoculation in transgenic mice and sheep. The first successful challenge of a sheep with 'field' atypical scrapie from an homologous donor sheep was reported in 2007. Results This study demonstrates that atypical scrapie has distinct clinical, pathological and biochemical characteristics which are maintained on transmission and sub-passage, and which are distinct from other strains of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in the same host genotype. Conclusions Atypical scrapie is consistently transmissible within AHQ homozygous sheep, and the disease phenotype is preserved on sub-passage. PMID:20219126

  18. Whole-genome resequencing uncovers molecular signatures of natural and sexual selection in wild bighorn sheep.

    PubMed

    Kardos, Marty; Luikart, Gordon; Bunch, Rowan; Dewey, Sarah; Edwards, William; McWilliam, Sean; Stephenson, John; Allendorf, Fred W; Hogg, John T; Kijas, James

    2015-11-01

    The identification of genes influencing fitness is central to our understanding of the genetic basis of adaptation and how it shapes phenotypic variation in wild populations. Here, we used whole-genome resequencing of wild Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) to >50-fold coverage to identify 2.8 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and genomic regions bearing signatures of directional selection (i.e. selective sweeps). A comparison of SNP diversity between the X chromosome and the autosomes indicated that bighorn males had a dramatically reduced long-term effective population size compared to females. This probably reflects a long history of intense sexual selection mediated by male-male competition for mates. Selective sweep scans based on heterozygosity and nucleotide diversity revealed evidence for a selective sweep shared across multiple populations at RXFP2, a gene that strongly affects horn size in domestic ungulates. The massive horns carried by bighorn rams appear to have evolved in part via strong positive selection at RXFP2. We identified evidence for selection within individual populations at genes affecting early body growth and cellular response to hypoxia; however, these must be interpreted more cautiously as genetic drift is strong within local populations and may have caused false positives. These results represent a rare example of strong genomic signatures of selection identified at genes with known function in wild populations of a nonmodel species. Our results also showcase the value of reference genome assemblies from agricultural or model species for studies of the genomic basis of adaptation in closely related wild taxa.

  19. Effect of an Orange Oil Emulsion on Gastrointestinal Nematodes in Naturally Infected Sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing levels of anthelmintic resistance in ovine gastrointestinal strongylids, especially Haemonchus contortus, have led many investigators worldwide to examine potential anthelmintic effects of naturally occurring plant products. In previous work, we have shown that 1200 mg/kg of an orange oi...

  20. Experimental Transmission of Bighorn Sheep Sinus Tumors to Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis) and Domestic Sheep.

    PubMed

    Fox, K A; Wootton, S; Marolf, A; Rouse, N; LeVan, I; Spraker, T; Miller, M; Quackenbush, S

    2016-11-01

    Bighorn sheep sinus tumors are a recently described disease affecting the paranasal sinuses of Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis). Several features of this disease suggest an infectious cause, although a specific etiologic agent has not been identified. To test the hypothesis that bighorn sheep sinus tumors are caused by an infectious agent, we inoculated 4 bighorn sheep lambs and 4 domestic sheep lambs intranasally with a cell-free filtrate derived from a naturally occurring bighorn sheep sinus tumor; we held 1 individual of each species as a control. Within 18 months after inoculation, all 4 inoculated domestic sheep (100%) and 1 of the 4 inoculated bighorn sheep (25%) developed tumors within the ethmoid sinuses or nasal conchae, with features similar to naturally occurring bighorn sheep sinus tumors. Neither of the uninoculated sheep developed tumors. Histologically, the experimentally transmitted tumors were composed of stellate to spindle cells embedded within a myxoid matrix, with marked bone production. Tumor cells stained positively with vimentin, S100, alpha smooth muscle actin, and osteocalcin, suggesting origin from a multipotent mesenchymal cell. A periosteal origin for these tumors is suspected. Immunohistochemical staining for the envelope protein of JSRV (with cross-reactivity to ENTV) was equivocal, and PCR assays specific for these agents were negative.

  1. Serial passage of sheep scrapie inoculum in Suffolk sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scrapie is a naturally occurring fatal neurodegenerative disease of sheep and goats. Susceptibility to the disease is partly dependent upon the genetic makeup of the host. In a recent study, it was shown that sheep intracerebrally inoculated with a US scrapie agent (No. 13-7) developed scrapie and s...

  2. Effects of TMEM154 haplotypes 1 and 3 on susceptibility to ovine progressive pneumonia virus following natural exposure in sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV) adversely affect production and well-being of sheep and goats throughout much of the world. The SRLVs, including ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV) in North America, cause lifetime infections and management procedures to eradicate or reduce disease prevalenc...

  3. Comparison of hematological and biochemical parameters in sheep naturally and persistently infected with a border disease virus.

    PubMed

    Gazyağci, Serkal; Azkur, Ahmet Kursat; Cağlayan, Osman

    2011-03-01

    In this study, we investigated the changes occurring in the activities of determining the biochemical and hematological parameters in persistently infected sheep with border disease virus (BDV) and control sheep. While cholesterol, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, high-density lipoprotein, and glucose parameters were found to be statistically different between control and BDV positive groups (p<0.01), total protein, alkaline phosphotase, creatine kinase, amylase, glucose, and high-density lipoprotein were found to be statistically different between control and persistently infected group (p<0.01). Interestingly, all groups were shown only mean corpuscular volume parameter was different (p<0.01). It was found that cholesterol, aspartate aminotransferase, amylase, high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein parameters were different between PI and infected sheep (p<0.01). It was speculated that BDV might effect also the expression of low-density lipoprotein receptor and determination of the changes in BD and its clinical importance might contribute to the veterinarians and scientists studying in this area.

  4. Increased circulating microRNAs miR-342-3p and miR-21-5p in natural sheep prion disease.

    PubMed

    Sanz Rubio, David; López-Pérez, Óscar; de Andrés Pablo, Álvaro; Bolea, Rosa; Osta, Rosario; Badiola, Juan J; Zaragoza, Pilar; Martín-Burriel, Inmaculada; Toivonen, Janne M

    2017-02-01

    Scrapie is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE), or prion disease, of sheep and goats. As no simple diagnostic tests are yet available to detect TSEs in vivo, easily accessible biomarkers could facilitate the eradication of scrapie agents from the food chain. To this end, we analysed by quantitative reverse transcription PCR a selected set of candidate microRNAs (miRNAs) from circulating blood plasma of naturally infected, classical scrapie sheep that demonstrated clear scrapie symptoms and pathology. Significant scrapie-associated increase was repeatedly found for miR-342-3p and miR-21-5p. This is the first demonstration, to our knowledge, of circulating miRNA alterations in any animal suffering from TSE. Genome-wide expression studies are warranted to investigate the true depth of miRNA alterations in naturally occurring TSEs, especially in presymptomatic animals, as the presented study demonstrates the potential feasibility of miRNAs as circulating TSE biomarkers.

  5. Exploring Differentially Expressed Genes and Natural Antisense Transcripts in Sheep (Ovis aries) Skin with Different Wool Fiber Diameters by Digital Gene Expression Profiling.

    PubMed

    Yue, Yaojing; Guo, Tingting; Liu, Jianbin; Guo, Jian; Yuan, Chao; Feng, Ruilin; Niu, Chune; Sun, Xiaoping; Yang, Bohui

    2015-01-01

    Wool fiber diameter (WFD) is the most important economic trait of wool. However, the genes specifically controlling WFD remain elusive. In this study, the expression profiles of skin from two groups of Gansu Alpine merino sheep with different WFD (a super-fine wool group [FD = 18.0 ± 0.5 μm, n=3] and a fine wool group [FD=23.0 ± 0.5 μm, n=3]) were analyzed using next-generation sequencing-based digital gene expression profiling. A total of 40 significant differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected, including 9 up-regulated genes and 31 down-regulated genes. Further expression profile analysis of natural antisense transcripts (NATs) showed that more than 30% of the genes presented in sheep skin expression profiles had NATs. A total of 7 NATs with significant differential expression were detected, and all were down-regulated. Among of 40 DEGs, 3 DEGs (AQP8, Bos d2, and SPRR) had significant NATs which were all significantly down-regulated in the super-fine wool group. In total of DEGs and NATs were summarized as 3 main GO categories and 38 subcategories. Among the molecular functions, cellular components and biological processes categories, binding, cell part and metabolic process were the most dominant subcategories, respectively. However, no significant enrichment of GO terms was found (corrected P-value >0.05). The pathways that were significantly enriched with significant DEGs and NATs were mainly the lipoic acid metabolism, bile secretion, salivary secretion and ribosome and phenylalanine metabolism pathways (P < 0.05). The results indicated that expression of NATs and gene transcripts were correlated, suggesting a role in gene regulation. The discovery of these DEGs and NATs could facilitate enhanced selection for super-fine wool sheep through gene-assisted selection or targeted gene manipulation in the future.

  6. Comparison of detergent and protease enzyme combinations for the detection of scrapie-associated fibrils from the central nervous system of sheep naturally affected with scrapie.

    PubMed

    Stack, M J; Aldrich, A M; Davis, L A

    1997-02-01

    Standardized samples of tissue from the central nervous system of four sheep naturally affected with scrapie and from four healthy control sheep were subjected to a centrifugal extraction technique used to obtain scrapie-associated fibrils; the latter were then demonstrated by negative-contrast transmission electron microscopy. This regime was used to evaluate the fibril yield obtained from the 25 possible combinations of five different detergents and five different proteolytic enzymes. N-lauroylsarcosine detergent was found to be the most efficient detergent for all five enzymes, followed by sulphabetaine 3-14. Sodium dodecyl sulphate detergent was successful only in combination with a subtilisin Carlsberg enzyme. Octylglucoside and nonidet P40 detergents did not produce fibrils with any of the enzymes. Proteinase K was the least efficient of the five enzymes when used in combination with N-lauroylsarcosine; subtilisin Carlsberg, clostripain, pronase and trypsin enzymes all gave higher fibril yields. A combination of N-lauroylsarcosine detergent and subtilisin Carlsberg proteolytic enzyme gave the highest fibril yield.

  7. Ovicidal and larvicidal activity of extracts of Opuntia ficus-indica against gastrointestinal nematodes of naturally infected sheep.

    PubMed

    Féboli, Aline; Laurentiz, Antonio C; Soares, Suelen C S; Augusto, Jeferson G; Anjos, Luciano A; Magalhães, Lizandra G; Filardi, Rosemeire S; Laurentiz, Rosangela S

    2016-08-15

    This study describes the in vitro anthelmintic activity of extracts from Opuntia ficus indica against gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep. The anthelmintic activity was evaluated by inhibition of egg hatching, larval development and larval migration assays. The residual aqueous fractions from cladodes and fruits showed higher ovicidal activity with EC50 values of 7.2mg/mL and 1.5mg/mL, respectively. The aqueous, hexane, and ethyl acetate fractions from fruits and the aqueous fraction from cladodes inhibited 100% of larval development at the lowest concentration tested (1.56mg/mL). The crude cladode and fruit ethanolic extracts inhibited larval migration and showed EC50 values of 0.74mg/mL and 0.27mg/mL, respectively. Phytochemical screening detected high concentrations of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, and saponins in the fruits and cladodes. The results demonstrated that O. ficus exhibits anthelmintic activity in vitro, suggesting that, beyond its nutritional potential, this plant can also be an ally for parasite control in sheep.

  8. Virological Mechanisms in the Coinfection between HIV and HCV.

    PubMed

    Liberto, Maria Carla; Zicca, Emilia; Pavia, Grazia; Quirino, Angela; Marascio, Nadia; Torti, Carlo; Focà, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Due to shared transmission routes, coinfection with Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) is common in patients infected by Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). The immune-pathogenesis of liver disease in HIV/HCV coinfected patients is a multifactorial process. Several studies demonstrated that HIV worsens the course of HCV infection, increasing the risk of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Also, HCV might increase immunological defects due to HIV and risk of comorbidities. A specific cross-talk among HIV and HCV proteins in coinfected patients modulates the natural history, the immune responses, and the life cycle of both viruses. These effects are mediated by immune mechanisms and by a cross-talk between the two viruses which could interfere with host defense mechanisms. In this review, we focus on some virological/immunological mechanisms of the pathogenetic interactions between HIV and HCV in the human host.

  9. Examination of epithelial tissue cytokine response to natural peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) infection in sheep and goats by immunohistochemistry.

    PubMed

    Atmaca, H T; Kul, O

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to evaluate expression of IL-4, IL-10, TNF-α, IFN-γ and iNOS in lingual, buccal mucosa and lung epithelial tissue using immunoperoxidase technique and to compare with the tissues of control animals. The tissues used in the study were collected from 17 PPRV-affected and 5 healthy sheep and goats. In PPRV positive animals, the lungs, lingual and buccal mucosa had significantly higher iNOS, IFN-γ and TNF-α expressions compared to control group animals. There was no significant difference between PPRV positive and control groups for IL-4 and IL-10 expressions of epithelial tissues. In conclusion, the epithelial tissues infected by PPRV showed significant iNOS, IFN-γ and TNF-α expressions and they might play an important role in the initiation and regulation of cytokine response, as they take place in the first host barrier to be in contact with PPRV. It is suggested that the more epithelial damage produced by PPRV the more cytokine response may result in the infected epithelial cells. The first demonstration of iNOS expression and epithelial cytokine response to PPRV in natural cases is important because it may contribute to an early initiation of systemic immunity against PPRV infection, in addition to direct elimination of the virus during the initial epithelial phase of the infection.

  10. Intraspecies Prion Transmission Results in Selection of Sheep Scrapie Strains

    PubMed Central

    Yokoyama, Takashi; Masujin, Kentaro; Schmerr, Mary Jo; Shu, Yujing; Okada, Hiroyuki; Iwamaru, Yoshifumi; Imamura, Morikazu; Matsuura, Yuichi; Murayama, Yuichi; Mohri, Shirou

    2010-01-01

    Background Sheep scrapie is caused by multiple prion strains, which have been classified on the basis of their biological characteristics in inbred mice. The heterogeneity of natural scrapie prions in individual sheep and in sheep flocks has not been clearly defined. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we intravenously injected 2 sheep (Suffolk and Corriedale) with material from a natural case of sheep scrapie (Suffolk breed). These 3 sheep had identical prion protein (PrP) genotypes. The protease-resistant core of PrP (PrPres) in the experimental Suffolk sheep was similar to that in the original Suffolk sheep. In contrast, PrPres in the Corriedale sheep differed from the original PrPres but resembled the unusual scrapie isolate, CH1641. This unusual PrPres was not detected in the original sheep. The PrPres distributions in the brain and peripheral tissues differed between the 2 breeds of challenged sheep. A transmission study in wild-type and TgBoPrP mice, which overexpressing bovine PrP, led to the selection of different prion strains. The pathological features of prion diseases are thought to depend on the dominantly propagated strain. Conclusions/Significance Our results indicate that prion strain selection occurs after both inter- and intraspecies transmission. The unusual scrapie prion was a hidden or an unexpressed component in typical sheep scrapie. PMID:21103326

  11. The use of a microagglutination assay for the detection of antibodies to Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis in naturally infected sheep and goat flocks.

    PubMed Central

    Menzies, P I; Muckle, C A

    1989-01-01

    Two goat flocks comprising 326 animals and four sheep flocks comprising 343 animals, all with a previously recognized problem of abscesses due to Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, were examined for the presence of abscesses and antibody titers to C. pseudotuberculosis as detected by direct microagglutination assay. In sheep there was a strong positive relationship between age and titer (p less than 0.0001). However, the relationship in goats between age and titer could not be determined due to a strong interaction between flock and age. When the relationship between abscesses and titer was examined, it was found that goats with abscesses had higher titers than those that did not (p less than 0.05), whereas there was no difference in titer between sheep with abscesses and those without (p = 0.5753). The sensitivity of the microagglutination test was poor to good for both species (52.3% for goats and 89.7% for sheep). The specificity of the test was fair to poor (64.9% for goats and 21.7% for sheep). Given a disease prevalence of 13.5% for goats and 8.5% for sheep the predictive value of the positive test was very poor (18.9% for goats and 9.6% for sheep) but the predictive value of the negative test was good to excellent (89.7% for goats and 95.8% for sheep). The poor specificity of the test and therefore the positive predictive value may be due in part to the criterion of classification of presence of disease, i.e. presence of an abscess at the time of sampling.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2766152

  12. Influence of protein supplementation on the resistance and resilience on young hair sheep naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes during rainy and dry seasons.

    PubMed

    Louvandini, H; Veloso, C F M; Paludo, G R; Dell'Porto, A; Gennari, S M; McManus, C M

    2006-04-15

    Thirty, 4-month-old entire Santa Ines lambs were grazed on an Andropogon gayanus pasture, during a 34-week period (rainy season weeks 0-20 and dry season weeks 21-34) and allocated in two treatment groups (n = 15) each with different protein supplementation: high protein (HP-19% CP) and low protein (LP-11% CP). These were subdivided into those receiving anthelmintic treatment (c) (n = 7) and without anthelmintic treatment (i) (n = 8). The objective was to evaluate the effects of supplementation with protein on resistance and resilience to natural helminth infection of hair breed lambs. Lamb weight, blood collection and faecal egg counts (FEC) were carried out monthly. The lambs were slaughtered after 34 weeks, when worm burdens, worm length and eosinophil cell counts were taken. The sheep on treatments HPc and HPi were heavier in live weight than those from LPi and LPc (P < 0.05) at the end of the rainy period. The HPc group finished heavier (P < 0.05) than the other groups in the dry season, which had no significant differences between them. The predominant species of nematode found was T. colubriformis followed by H. contortus, Trichuris globulosa and Moniezia expansa. Animals on HPi had lower FEC than LPi (P < 0.05). The number of worms was lower for both HP groups (P < 0.05) with worm length shorter in the HPc group (P < 0.05) compared with all other groups. The number of eosinophils was higher in animals in the LPi group, which also showed anaemia and lower plasma urea at the end of the dry season. Diet supplementation with high protein was able to improve resilience and resistance to natural infection by endoparasites during the rainy season. In the dry season there was a decrease in both of these traits, which were intimately linked to the quality of available forage under tropical conditions.

  13. Sheep and farm level factors associated with contagious ovine digital dermatitis: A longitudinal repeated cross-sectional study of sheep on six farms.

    PubMed

    Angell, J W; Grove-White, D H; Duncan, J S

    2015-11-01

    Contagious ovine digital dermatitis (CODD) is a cause of severe lameness in sheep in the UK currently affecting approximately 50% of farms. Six farms were studied in North Wales to investigate (1) the prevalence dynamics of CODD, (2) the association between sheep with CODD and potential risk factors and (3) the impact of CODD on lameness in sheep. The farms were visited at approximately two-month intervals between June 2012 and October 2013 and 6515 sheep were examined. The mean sheep level prevalence of CODD varied between farms (2.5-11.9%). Within farms, prevalence may increase in the late summer/early autumn and after housing. Environmental risk factors included larger flocks, lowland pasture, lush pasture and poached pasture. Co-infection of a foot with footrot was strongly associated with CODD in that foot (OR: 7.7 95% CI: 3.9-15.5 P<0.001) but negatively associated with co-infection of a foot with interdigital dermatitis (OR: 0.04 95% CI: 0.02-0.1 P<0.001). Reinfection with CODD was observed in 78 individual sheep but there was no re-infection at foot level. Lameness on all farms reduced during the study and seasonal changes in lameness followed similar patterns to those for CODD. Infection with CODD leads to a greater increase in locomotion score compared to footrot or interdigital dermatitis and CODD lesion grade was strongly associated with being lame. Sheep with CODD in more than one foot were more likely to be lame (OR: 25.0 95% CI: 12.5-49.9 P<0.001) than those with just one foot affected (OR:10.0 95% CI: 8.6-11.6 P<0.001). The biggest risk factor for CODD is co-infection with footrot and therefore control of footrot should help reduce the risk of CODD on affected farms. Furthermore environmental risk factors for CODD are similar to those for footrot adding weight for control strategies that target both diseases in tandem. The routine repeated gathering of sheep for the purposes of treating all lame sheep might be an effective control strategy for

  14. Theileria sp. OT3 and other tick-borne pathogens in sheep and ticks in Italy: molecular characterization and phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Giangaspero, A; Marangi, M; Papini, R; Paoletti, B; Wijnveld, M; Jongejan, F

    2015-02-01

    PCR Reverse Line Blot (RLB) hybridization and sequencing were used to determine the dynamics of infection with tick-borne pathogens in one hundred apparently healthy sheep in Italy. Blood samples were tested once prior to the onset of the grazing season (June 2010) and once after the end of the grazing season (August 2010). Ticks collected from sheep and from the vegetation were also tested by PCR/RLB. Before grazing, 56% of the sheep harbored several tick-borne pathogens: Anaplasma ovis was the most prevalent (41%), followed by A. ovis co-infected with Theileria sp. OT3 (14%). After grazing, 87% of sheep were positive for A. ovis alone (41%), co-infected with Theileria sp. OT3 (8%) or co-infected with Babesia motasi (5%). Other sheep were infected with Anaplasma phagocytophilum alone (20%), co-infected with B. motasi (7%) or with Theileria sp. OT3 (5%) (p<0.001). After grazing, sheep were significantly more infected with tick-borne pathogens than before grazing. Ticks collected were all Haemaphysalis punctata (n-89) and 36% were positive for A. ovis, Ehrlichia ovina and A. ovis combined with A. phagocytophilum. Phylogenetic analysis including isolates from countries in the Mediterranean Basin show circulation of the same variants of Theileria sp. OT3, whereas two different geographical origins for the isolates of A. ovis and A. phagocytophilum were identified. This is the first report from Italy of Theileria sp. OT3 in sheep, whereas the detection of Ehrlichia ovina in ticks is worth noting, and the presence of A. phagocytophilum in sheep and in ticks poses a potential public health risk.

  15. Insights into human immunodeficiency virus-hepatitis B virus co-infection in India

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarty, Runu; Pal, Ananya

    2015-01-01

    Shared routes of transmission lead to frequent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-hepatitis B virus (HBV) co-infection in a host which results in about 10% of HIV positive individuals to have chronic hepatitis B infection worldwide. In post-antiretroviral therapy era, liver diseases have emerged as the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected individuals and HBV co-infection have become the major health issue among this population particularly from the regions with endemic HBV infection. In setting of HIV-HBV co-infection, HIV significantly impacts the natural history of HBV infection, its disease profile and the treatment outcome in negative manner. Moreover, the epidemiological pattern of HBV infection and the diversity in HBV genome (genotypic and phenotypic) are also varied in HIV co-infected subjects as compared to HBV mono-infected individuals. Several reports on the abovementioned issues are available from developed parts of the world as well as from sub-Saharan African countries. In contrast, most of these research areas remained unexplored in India despite having considerable burden of HIV and HBV infections. This review discusses present knowledge from the studies on HIV-HBV co-infection in India and relevant reports from different parts of the world. Issues needed for the future research relevant to HIV-HBV co-infection in India are also highlighted here, including a call for further investigations on this field of study. PMID:26279986

  16. Tickborne Coinfections in the United States.

    PubMed

    Diaz, James H

    2016-01-01

    Unlike mosquitoes, ticks transmit the broadest range of pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, and parasites. Ticks have capitalized on many competitive advantages offered to them by changes in climate and human lifestyle and a greater abundance of wild animal reservoir hosts no longer effectively controlled. As a result, tick-transmitted coinfections are increasing today with both recognized and newly discovered pathogens that complicate differential diagnosis and antimicrobial treatment. Without the support of immunological and molecular diagnostic techniques, usually only available at federal and some state laboratories, the initial differential diagnosis of tickborne coinfections is complicated and antimicrobial therapy may not cover coinfections. Therefore, the objectives of this review were to identify the newly emerging tickborne pathogens in the United States, to describe the evolving epidemiology of tick-transmitted coinfections, to design a decision tree analysis approach to the clinical diagnosis and management of tickborne coinfections, and to recommend effective strategies for the control and personal prevention of tickborne diseases. Clinicians should suspect tickborne coinfections in returning travelers and vacationers with clinical and immunological evidence of multiple infecting agents, especially in cases of unusual presentation or severity, prolonged duration, or nonresponse to single antibiotic therapy, typically with doxycycline. Decision tree models based on pathogen prevalence rates in ticks and their zoonotic reservoirs may assist clinicians in diagnosing tickborne coinfections and guiding initial antimicrobial therapy.

  17. Counting Sheep in Basque

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araujo, Frank P.

    1975-01-01

    Demonstrates the interplay of a cognitive system, the Basque numerative system, and a behavioral one, counting sheep. The significant features of the Basque numerative system are analyzed; then it is shown how use of these features facilitates the counting of sheep on open ranges by Basque sheep farmers in California. (Author/RM)

  18. Relationship of PrPSc molecular properties with incubation time in a natural prion disease host: a characterization of three isolates of U.S. sheep scrapie

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Determination of aspects of tertiary and quaternary structure of PrPSc associated with differences in disease presentation in the host is a key area of interest in the prion field. Previously, we determined that a U.S. scrapie isolate (136-VDEP) with a short incubation time upon passage in sheep als...

  19. Priming of soil carbon decomposition in two Inner Mongolia grassland soils following sheep dung addition: a study using ¹³C natural abundance approach.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiuzhi; Ambus, Per; Wang, Shiping; Wang, Yanfen; Wang, Chengjie

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the effect of sheep dung on soil carbon (C) sequestration, a 152 days incubation experiment was conducted with soils from two different Inner Mongolian grasslands, i.e. a Leymus chinensis dominated grassland representing the climax community (2.1% organic matter content) and a heavily degraded Artemisia frigida dominated community (1.3% organic matter content). Dung was collected from sheep either fed on L. chinensis (C3 plant with δ¹³C = -26.8‰; dung δ¹³C = -26.2‰) or Cleistogenes squarrosa (C₄ plant with δ¹³C = -14.6‰; dung δ¹³C = -15.7‰). Fresh C₃ and C₄ sheep dung was mixed with the two grassland soils and incubated under controlled conditions for analysis of ¹³C-CO₂ emissions. Soil samples were taken at days 17, 43, 86, 127 and 152 after sheep dung addition to detect the δ¹³C signal in soil and dung components. Analysis revealed that 16.9% and 16.6% of the sheep dung C had decomposed, of which 3.5% and 2.8% was sequestrated in the soils of L. chinensis and A. frigida grasslands, respectively, while the remaining decomposed sheep dung was emitted as CO₂. The cumulative amounts of C respired from dung treated soils during 152 days were 7-8 times higher than in the un-amended controls. In both grassland soils, ca. 60% of the evolved CO₂ originated from the decomposing sheep dung and 40% from the native soil C. Priming effects of soil C decomposition were observed in both soils, i.e. 1.4 g and 1.6 g additional soil C kg⁻¹ dry soil had been emitted as CO₂ for the L. chinensis and A. frigida soils, respectively. Hence, the net C losses from L. chinensis and A. frigida soils were 0.6 g and 0.9 g C kg⁻¹ soil, which was 2.6% and 7.0% of the total C in L. chinensis and A. frigida grasslands soils, respectively. Our results suggest that grazing of degraded Inner Mongolian pastures may cause a net soil C loss due to the positive priming effect, thereby accelerating soil deterioration.

  20. Molecular assessment of trematode co-infection and intraspecific competition in molluscan intermediate hosts.

    PubMed

    Thiele, Elizabeth A; Minchella, Dennis J

    2013-01-01

    In natural populations of the human parasite Schistosoma mansoni, parasite distribution among snail intermediate hosts is generally overdispersed, such that a small proportion of hosts harbor the majority of parasite genotypes. Within these few infected snails, researchers have found that it can be common for hosts to harbor multiple parasite genotypes, creating circumstances in which co-infecting parasites are faced with potential competition over limited host resources. Much theoretical modeling has focused on parasite competition, especially regarding the influence of co-infection on parasite exploitation strategy evolution. However, particularly in the case of intra-molluscan intermediate stages, empirical investigations of parasite-parasite competition have often hinged on the untested assumption that co-exposure produces co-infection. That is, infected hosts exposed to multiple strains have been assumed to harbor multiple strains, regardless of the true nature of the infection outcome. Here we describe a real-time quantitative PCR method to distinguish the conditions of multiple- versus single-strain infection, as well as quantify the relative larval output of co-infecting strains. We applied the method to an empirical investigation of intraspecific parasite competition between S. mansoni strains within the intermediate snail host Biomphalaria glabrata, assessing co-exposure's effects on parasite infectivity and productivity and the concomitant effects on host fitness. Overall, there was no effect of parasite co-infection on snail life history traits relative to single-strain infection. Parasite infectivity significantly increased as a result of increasing overall miracidial dose, rather than co-exposure, though strain-specific productivity was significantly reduced in co-infections in manner consistent with resource competition. Moreover, we show that less than half of infected, co-exposed hosts had patent co-infections and demonstrate the utility of this

  1. Epidemiological relatedness and clonal types of natural populations of Escherichia coli strains producing Shiga toxins in separate populations of cattle and sheep.

    PubMed Central

    Beutin, L; Geier, D; Zimmermann, S; Aleksic, S; Gillespie, H A; Whittam, T S

    1997-01-01

    Two separate animal populations consisting of a herd of cattle (19 animals) and a flock of sheep (25 animals) were investigated for strains of Escherichia coli producing Shiga toxins (STEC) over a time period of 6 months. Thirty-three STEC were isolated from 63.2% of cattle and grouped into 11 serotypes and eight electrophoretic types (ETs) by multilocus enzyme analysis. In sheep, 88% of the animals excreted STEC (n = 67 isolates) belonging to 17 different serotypes and 12 different ETs. STEC from cattle and sheep differed with respect to serotype, and only 4 of the 16 ETs occurred in both animal populations. In cattle, ET14 (O116:H21) strains predominated, whereas other STEC serotypes occurred only sporadically. The predominating STEC types in sheep were ET4 (O125 strains), ET11 (O128:H2 and others), and ET14 (O146:H21). In contrast to their diversity, STEC originating from the same animal population were similar with respect to Shiga toxin (stxy genes. Almost all STEC isolated from cattle were positive for stx2 and stx2c; only one was positive for stx1. In sheep, almost all STEC isolated were positive for stx1 and stx2, whereas stx2c was not found. XbaI-digested DNAs of genetically closely related O146:H21 strains have different restriction profiles which were associated with size alterations in XbaI fragments hybridizing with stx1- and stx2-specific DNA probes. Our results indicate that stx-encoding bacteriophages might be the origin of the genetic heterogeneity in STEC from animals. PMID:9172336

  2. Is the FAMACHA chart suitable for every breed? Correlations between FAMACHA scores and different traits of mucosa colour in naturally parasite infected sheep breeds.

    PubMed

    Moors, Eva; Gauly, Matthias

    2009-12-03

    Infections with gastrointestinal nematodes, in particular Haemonchus contortus, are worldwide one of the most important factors causing high economic losses in sheep production. Different methods for detecting infections with H. contortus have been described, such as, e.g. the FAMACHA system, which categorises the colour of the conjunctivae from red to pale. When H. contortus is not the predominant parasite, the FAMACHA chart might not be suitable to detect nematode infections, because of the lack of a blood feeding parasite. Otherwise breed-specific differences in the colour of the mucosa could be responsible for the limitations of the FAMACHA system. The aim of the study was to compare different methods of measuring mucosa colour in the German sheep breeds Black Head Mutton (BH) and Leine sheep (LE). In a total of 232 6-months-old lambs, the colour of mucosa was measured using the FAMACHA chart (conjunctivae) as well as the colour analyser Minolta Chroma Meter CR-200b (gingivae). Faeces and blood samples were taken at the same time to determine faecal egg counts per gram faeces (FEC) and the packed cell volume (PCV), respectively. Lambs grazed on contaminated pastures and no anthelmintic treatment was used. Lambs were moderately infected with gastrointestinal nematodes with no significant difference between the two breeds (P>0.05). The prevalence of H. contortus was 23%, based on larvae differentiation of coproculture. There was no significant correlation between FEC and PCV, nor FEC and FAMACHA (P>0.05). Significant differences (P<0.05) were found between the BH and LE lambs with regard to the colour measurement traits Chroma, hue-angle and FAMACHA. Beside the relatively low parasite pressure, these differences in the mucosa colour between the two breeds could be responsible for the limitations of the FAMACHA chart as a useful indicator of a nematode infection. Measuring the colour of the mucosa by using a colour analyser seems to be more suitable to detect less

  3. HBV and HIV co-infection: Impact on liver pathobiology and therapeutic approaches

    PubMed Central

    Parvez, Mohammad Khalid

    2015-01-01

    The consequences of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection on progression of severe liver diseases is a serious public health issue, worldwide. In the co-infection cases, about 90% of HIV-infected population is seropositive for HBV where approximately 5%-40% individuals are chronically infected. In HIV co-infected individuals, liver-related mortality is estimated over 17 times higher than those with HBV mono-infection. The spectrum of HIV-induced liver diseases includes hepatitis, steatohepatitis, endothelialitis, necrosis, granulomatosis, cirrhosis and carcinoma. Moreover, HIV co-infection significantly alters the natural history of hepatitis B, and therefore complicates the disease management. Though several studies have demonstrated impact of HIV proteins on hepatocyte biology, only a few data is available on interactions between HBV and HIV proteins. Thus, the clinical spectrum as well as the complexity of the co-infection offers challenging fronts to study the underlying molecular mechanisms, and to design effective therapeutic strategies. PMID:25625003

  4. Hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency virus coinfections.

    PubMed

    Dodig, M; Tavill, A S

    2001-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has become a major contributor to morbidity and mortality in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). It is estimated that 30% to 50% of patients with HIV are coinfected with HCV. Advances in antiretroviral therapy and improved life expectancy of HIV patients have resulted in an emergence of HCV-induced liver disease as a leading cause of significant morbidity and death in this population. Clinically, hepatitis C is a more severe disease in HIV-infected individuals, characterized by rapid progression toward end-stage liver disease. Highly active antiretroviral therapy is the mainstay of current acquired immunodeficiency syndrome management. One of the limiting side effects of combination therapy for HIV is hepatotoxicity, which is more common and often more serious in patients with underlying liver disease. Management of coinfected patients has no strict guidelines, but it is generally accepted that HIV infection needs to be treated before HCV. Hepatitis C in coinfected individuals is probably best treated using combination therapy (interferon alpha and ribavirin). It appears that combination therapy can safely be administered to this population and that previous concerns about ribavirin/zidovudine antagonism are unsubstantiated in clinical practice. Although initial results using only interferon alpha showed poor results in HIV coinfected patients, combination therapy seems to be as effective as in the general population. All HIV-HCV coinfected patients should be vaccinated against hepatitis B and hepatitis A; vaccines are safe and effective.

  5. Coinfecting viruses as determinants of HIV disease.

    PubMed

    Lisco, Andrea; Vanpouille, Christophe; Margolis, Leonid

    2009-02-01

    The human body constitutes a balanced ecosystem of its own cells together with various microbes ("host-microbe ecosystem"). The transmission of HIV-1 and the progression of HIV disease in such an ecosystem are accompanied by de novo infection by other microbes or by activation of microbes that were present in the host in homeostatic equilibrium before HIV-1 infection. In recent years, data have accumulated on the interactions of these coinfecting microbes-viruses in particular-with HIV. Coinfecting viruses generate negative and positive signals that suppress or upregulate HIV-1. We suggest that the signals generated by these viruses may largely affect HIV transmission, pathogenesis, and evolution. The study of the mechanisms of HIV interaction with coinfecting viruses may indicate strategies to suppress positive signals, enhance negative signals, and lead to the development of new and original anti-HIV therapies.

  6. Co-infection with Plasmodium berghei and Trypanosoma brucei increases severity of malaria and trypanosomiasis in mice.

    PubMed

    Ademola, Isaiah Oluwafemi; Odeniran, Paul Olalekan

    2016-07-01

    Individuals in natural populations may be infected with multiple different parasites at a time. These parasites may interact with each other or act independently in the host, and this may result to varying outcomes on host health and survival. This study therefore aimed at investigating the health impact of co-infection of mice with Plasmodium berghei and Trypanosoma brucei. Forty Swiss albino mice (14-17g) were divided into four groups of ten. Mice in groups A and B received 10(6)P. berghei and groups B and C 10(5)T. brucei, while group D were uninfected. The co-infected mice had higher P. berghei and T. brucei parasitaemia, compared with the mono-infected mice. The co-infected mice had significantly (p<0.05) lower survival rate compared with the mono-infected mice. Co-infection of mice with P. berghei and T. brucei resulted in rapid P. berghei and T. brucei development and increased parasitaemia. The leukocyte numbers significantly (p<0.05) reduced on days 12 and 15 post infection among P. berghei infected mice, in the presence or absence of T. brucei. Anaemia and hypoglycaemia was more severe in the co-infected mice. Therefore, co-infection of mice with P. berghei and T. brucei may increase pathologic impact to the host by increasing parasitaemia.

  7. Susceptibility to Ticks and Lyme Disease Spirochetes Is Not Affected in Mice Coinfected with Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Maaz, Denny; Rausch, Sebastian; Richter, Dania; Krücken, Jürgen; Kühl, Anja A.; Demeler, Janina; Blümke, Julia; Matuschka, Franz-Rainer; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg

    2016-01-01

    Small rodents serve as reservoir hosts for tick-borne pathogens, such as the spirochetes causing Lyme disease. Whether natural coinfections with other macroparasites alter the success of tick feeding, antitick immunity, and the host's reservoir competence for tick-borne pathogens remains to be determined. In a parasitological survey of wild mice in Berlin, Germany, approximately 40% of Ixodes ricinus-infested animals simultaneously harbored a nematode of the genus Heligmosomoides. We therefore aimed to analyze the immunological impact of the nematode/tick coinfection as well as its effect on the tick-borne pathogen Borrelia afzelii. Hosts experimentally coinfected with Heligmosomoides polygyrus and larval/nymphal I. ricinus ticks developed substantially stronger systemic type 2 T helper cell (Th2) responses, on the basis of the levels of GATA-3 and interleukin-13 expression, than mice infected with a single pathogen. During repeated larval infestations, however, anti-tick Th2 reactivity and an observed partial immunity to tick feeding were unaffected by concurrent nematode infections. Importantly, the strong systemic Th2 immune response in coinfected mice did not affect susceptibility to tick-borne B. afzelii. An observed trend for decreased local and systemic Th1 reactivity against B. afzelii in coinfected mice did not result in a higher spirochete burden, nor did it facilitate bacterial dissemination or induce signs of immunopathology. Hence, this study indicates that strong systemic Th2 responses in nematode/tick-coinfected house mice do not affect the success of tick feeding and the control of the causative agent of Lyme disease. PMID:26883594

  8. Comparison of conventional PCR, quantitative PCR, bacteriological culture and the Warthin Starry technique to detect Leptospira spp. in kidney and liver samples from naturally infected sheep from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fornazari, Felipe; da Silva, Rodrigo Costa; Richini-Pereira, Virginia Bodelão; Beserra, Hugo Enrique Orsini; Luvizotto, Maria Cecília Rui; Langoni, Helio

    2012-09-01

    Leptospirosis is an infectious disease of worldwide importance. The development of diagnostic techniques allows sick animals to be identified, reservoirs to be eliminated and the disease prevented and controlled. The present study aimed to compare different techniques for diagnosing leptospirosis in sheep. Samples of kidney, liver and blood were collected from 465 animals that originated from a slaughterhouse. The sera were analyzed by the Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT), and kidney and liver samples of seropositive animals were analyzed using four techniques: bacteriological culture, the Warthin Starry (WS) technique, conventional PCR (cPCR), and quantitative PCR (qPCR). With the MAT, 21 animals were positive (4.5%) to serovars Hardjo (n=12), Hebdomadis (n=5), Sentot (n=2), Wolfii (n=1) and Shermani (n=1). Titers were 100 (n=10), 200 (n=2), 400 (n=6) and 1600 (n=3). No animal was positive by bacteriological culture; four animals were positive by the WS technique in kidney samples; six animals were positive by cPCR in kidney samples; and 11 animals were positive by qPCR, eight of which in kidney samples and three in liver. The bacterial quantification revealed a median of 4.3 bacteria/μL in liver samples and 36.6 bacteria/μL in kidney samples. qPCR presented the highest sensitivity among the techniques, followed by cPCR, the WS technique and bacteriological culture. These results indicate that sheep can carry leptospires of the Sejroe serogroup, and demonstrate the efficiency of quantitative PCR to detect Leptospira spp. in tissue samples.

  9. Sheep dip chemicals and water pollution.

    PubMed

    Virtue, W A; Clayton, J W

    1997-02-24

    The Tweed River Purification Board's objective of reducing the numbers and significance of water pollution incidents by a proactive approach based on persuasion and education is described. This has consisted of prioritising potential pollutant sources which have then been investigated in detail followed by discussion and agreement with dischargers as to remedial measures. The paper describes in detail the Board's investigation of pollution from the organophosphate (OP) sheep dips, Diazinon and Propetamphos, and their effects on surface waters throughout its area. Examination of historical incidents and a preliminary survey of sheep farms in the Ettrick Water catchment in 1989 confirmed the potential for serious pollution. Comparison of OP concentrations in the Ettrick with strategic sites throughout the catchment confirmed the widespread nature of the problem and led to visits to every sheep farmer in the Board's area in 1990 and 1991, when 795 dippers were investigated. The study involved risk assessments of the location of dippers and the spent dip disposal practice which confirmed that poor siting, inadequate disposal and particularly poor management of the dipping operation were responsible for the pollution problems observed. Practical advice on the management of dipping and disposal of spent dip was given individually to farmers. The success of the project in reducing pollution is reflected in a significant and sustained reduction in OP concentrations in environmental samples. The future of ectoparasitic treatments for sheep, the potential for antidotes to spent sheep dip and legal obligations relating to its safe disposal is also considered.

  10. Elaeophorosis in bighorn sheep in New Mexico.

    PubMed

    Boyce, W; Fisher, A; Provencio, H; Rominger, E; Thilsted, J; Ahlm, M

    1999-10-01

    Two bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) in New Mexico (USA) were found to be naturally infected with Elaeophora schneideri. An adult ram examined in 1997 in the Fra Cristobal Mountains had 26 nematodes in the carotid and iliac arteries, and microfilariae were present in the skin, nasal mucosa, brain, and lungs. This ram was markedly debilitated prior to euthanasia and extensive crusty, scabby lesions were observed on its head. In 1998, a yearling ewe found dead adjacent to Watson Mountain near the Gila Wilderness area was found to have 13 nematodes present in its heart. This is the first report of E. schneideri in bighorn sheep, and we suggest that bighorn sheep are susceptible to E. schneideri infection wherever they coexist with mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus) and appropriate tabanid vectors.

  11. Potential Animal Reservoirs of Toscana Virus and Coinfections with Leishmania infantum in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Dincer, Ender; Gargari, Sepandar; Ozkul, Aykut; Ergunay, Koray

    2015-01-01

    Toscana virus (TOSV), a sandfly-borne phlebovirus, is an important agent of human meningoencephalitis in the Mediterranean region, for which vertebrates acting as reservoirs have not yet been determined. This study investigates TOSV and Leishmania infections in dogs, cats, sheep, and goats from Adana and Mersin provinces in southeastern Turkey. TOSV neutralizing antibodies were demonstrated in 40.4% of the dog and 4% of the goat samples. TOSV RNA was detected in 9.9% of the 252 samples that mainly comprise dogs (96%). Thus, canine species can be suggested as the candidate reservoirs of TOSV. Partial sequences revealed the activity of TOSV genotypes A and B. In two dogs presenting with symptoms of canine leishmaniasis, infections of TOSV genotype B and Leishmania infantum have been documented, describing the first report of coinfections with these agents. PMID:25711610

  12. Intrahepatic CD4+ cell depletion in hepatitis C virus/HIV-coinfected patients.

    PubMed

    Canchis, P Wilfredo; Yee, Herman T; Fiel, M Isabel; Dieterich, Douglas T; Liu, Ruei-Che; Chiriboga, Luis; Jacobson, Ira M; Edlin, Brian R; Talal, Andrew H

    2004-09-01

    Coinfection with HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV)-specific immune responses, increases hepatic inflammation, accelerates hepatic fibrosis, and is associated with deceased treatment responses. We quantified intrahepatic lymphocyte and hepatocyte phenotypes in HCV-infected patients with (n = 38) and without (n = 41) HIV infection. A single pathologist counted positive cells in 5 portal and 5 lobular areas. Coinfected patients had 6.81 +/- 1.9 fewer CD4 cells per portal field (10.58 +/- 1.12 vs. 4.97 +/- 1.09 cells/high-power field [HPF]; P < 0.001) and 0.48 +/- 0.15 more apoptotic lymphocytes per lobular field (0.16 +/- 0.06 vs. 0.64 +/- 0.15 cell/HPF; P = 0.002) than monoinfected patients. The number of portal CD4 cells was not associated with the peripheral CD4 cell number. Portal and lobular CD8 cells did not differ between the 2 groups. Portal proliferative hepatocytes were increased in coinfected patients with HIV RNA levels of >400 copies/mL (1.13 +/- 0.32 cells/HPF; P = 0.01) compared with those with undetectable HIV RNA (0.46 +/- 0.09 cell/HPF) and monoinfected patients (0.45 +/- 0.08 cell/HPF). In conclusion, HIV coinfection is associated with fewer portal CD4 cells and increased lobular lymphocyte apoptosis that may impact on the natural history of HCV infection.

  13. The quality of meat from sheep treated with tannin- and saponin-based remedies as a natural strategy for parasite control.

    PubMed

    Brogna, D M R; Tansawat, R; Cornforth, D; Ward, R; Bella, M; Luciano, G; Priolo, A; Villalba, J

    2014-02-01

    Lambs were assigned to four groups of seven and treated as follows for 12 days: control group (BP) was fed beet pulp; group T (tannin remedy) received the BP diet including 80 g/kg of quebracho extract; group S (saponin remedy) received the BP diet including 15 g/kg of quillaja extract; and group C had a free choice between T and S remedies. Lipid oxidation was lower in meat from S lambs compared to T lambs (P<0.05). Among the volatile compounds, lactate was lower in meat from S lambs compared to T animals (P=0.05). Metabolomic analysis showed that the T treatment increased ribose, fructose, glucose and sorbitol concentration in meat (P<0.05), while cholesterol was decreased by S and C treatments. The T treatment increased the concentration of C14:1 cis-9 (P<0.05). These findings indicate that treatments for parasite control containing tannins and saponins do not detrimentally affect sheep meat quality.

  14. Correlation between Infectivity and Disease Associated Prion Protein in the Nervous System and Selected Edible Tissues of Naturally Affected Scrapie Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Chianini, Francesca; Cosseddu, Gian Mario; Steele, Philip; Hamilton, Scott; Hawthorn, Jeremy; Síso, Sílvia; Pang, Yvonne; Finlayson, Jeanie; Eaton, Samantha L.; Reid, Hugh W.; Dagleish, Mark P.; Di Bari, Michele Angelo; D’Agostino, Claudia; Agrimi, Umberto; Terry, Linda; Nonno, Romolo

    2015-01-01

    The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) or prion diseases are a group of fatal neurodegenerative disorders characterised by the accumulation of a pathological form of a host protein known as prion protein (PrP). The validation of abnormal PrP detection techniques is fundamental to allow the use of high-throughput laboratory based tests, avoiding the limitations of bioassays. We used scrapie, a prototype TSE, to examine the relationship between infectivity and laboratory based diagnostic tools. The data may help to optimise strategies to prevent exposure of humans to small ruminant TSE material via the food chain. Abnormal PrP distribution/accumulation was assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC), Western blot (WB) and ELISA in samples from four animals. In addition, infectivity was detected using a sensitive bank vole bioassay with selected samples from two of the four sheep and protein misfolding cyclic amplification using bank vole brain as substrate (vPMCA) was also carried out in selected samples from one animal. Lymph nodes, oculomotor muscles, sciatic nerve and kidney were positive by IHC, WB and ELISA, although at levels 100–1000 fold lower than the brain, and contained detectable infectivity by bioassay. Tissues not infectious by bioassay were also negative by all laboratory tests including PMCA. Although discrepancies were observed in tissues with very low levels of abnormal PrP, there was an overall good correlation between IHC, WB, ELISA and bioassay results. Most importantly, there was a good correlation between the detection of abnormal PrP in tissues using laboratory tests and the levels of infectivity even when the titre was low. These findings provide useful information for risk modellers and represent a first step toward the validation of laboratory tests used to quantify prion infectivity, which would greatly aid TSE risk assessment policies. PMID:25807559

  15. Experimental systems for studying Plasmodium/HIV coinfection.

    PubMed

    Frischknecht, Friedrich; Fackler, Oliver T

    2016-07-01

    Coinfections with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Plasmodium, the causative agents of AIDS and malaria, respectively, are frequent and their comorbidity especially in sub-Saharan Africa is high. While clinical studies suggest an influence of the two pathogens on the outcome of the respective infections, experimental studies on the molecular and immunological impact of coinfections are rare. This reflects the limited availability of suitable model systems that reproduce key properties of both pathologies. Here, we discuss key aspects of coinfection with a focus on currently established experimental systems, their limitations for coinfection studies and potential strategies for their improvement.

  16. Tay-Sachs disease in Jacob sheep.

    PubMed

    Torres, Paola A; Zeng, Bai Jin; Porter, Brian F; Alroy, Joseph; Horak, Fred; Horak, Joan; Kolodny, Edwin H

    2010-12-01

    Autopsy studies of four Jacob sheep dying within their first 6-8 months of a progressive neurodegenerative disorder suggested the presence of a neuronal storage disease. Lysosomal enzyme studies of brain and liver from an affected animal revealed diminished activity of hexosaminidase A (Hex A) measured with an artificial substrate specific for this component of β-hexosaminidase. Absence of Hex A activity was confirmed by cellulose acetate electrophoresis. Brain lipid analyses demonstrated the presence of increased concentrations of G(M2)-ganglioside and asialo-G(M2)-ganglioside. The hexa cDNA of Jacob sheep was cloned and sequenced revealing an identical number of nucleotides and exons as in human HexA and 86% homology in nucleotide sequence. A missense mutation was found in the hexa cDNA of the affected sheep caused by a single nucleotide change at the end of exon 11 resulting in skipping of exon 11. Transfection of normal sheep hexa cDNA into COS1 cells and human Hex A-deficient cells led to expression of Hex S but no increase in Hex A indicating absence of cross-species dimerization of sheep Hex α-subunit with human Hex β-subunits. Using restriction site analysis, the heterozygote frequency of this mutation in Jacob sheep was determined in three geographically separate flocks to average 14%. This large naturally occurring animal model of Tay-Sachs disease is the first to offer promise as a means for trials of gene therapy applicable to human infants.

  17. CD4+ T-cell-independent mechanisms suppress reactivation of latent tuberculosis in a macaque model of HIV coinfection.

    PubMed

    Foreman, Taylor W; Mehra, Smriti; LoBato, Denae N; Malek, Adel; Alvarez, Xavier; Golden, Nadia A; Bucşan, Allison N; Didier, Peter J; Doyle-Meyers, Lara A; Russell-Lodrigue, Kasi E; Roy, Chad J; Blanchard, James; Kuroda, Marcelo J; Lackner, Andrew A; Chan, John; Khader, Shabaana A; Jacobs, William R; Kaushal, Deepak

    2016-09-20

    The synergy between Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and HIV in coinfected patients has profoundly impacted global mortality because of tuberculosis (TB) and AIDS. HIV significantly increases rates of reactivation of latent TB infection (LTBI) to active disease, with the decline in CD4(+) T cells believed to be the major causality. In this study, nonhuman primates were coinfected with Mtb and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), recapitulating human coinfection. A majority of animals exhibited rapid reactivation of Mtb replication, progressing to disseminated TB and increased SIV-associated pathology. Although a severe loss of pulmonary CD4(+) T cells was observed in all coinfected macaques, a subpopulation of the animals was still able to prevent reactivation and maintain LTBI. Investigation of pulmonary immune responses and pathology in this cohort demonstrated that increased CD8(+) memory T-cell proliferation, higher granzyme B production, and expanded B-cell follicles correlated with protection from reactivation. Our findings reveal mechanisms that control SIV- and TB-associated pathology. These CD4-independent protective immune responses warrant further studies in HIV coinfected humans able to control their TB infection. Moreover, these findings will provide insight into natural immunity to Mtb and will guide development of novel vaccine strategies and immunotherapies.

  18. Disease Resistance in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar): Coinfection of the Intracellular Bacterial Pathogen Piscirickettsia salmonis and the Sea Louse Caligus rogercresseyi

    PubMed Central

    Lhorente, Jean Paul; Gallardo, José A.; Villanueva, Beatriz; Carabaño, María J.; Neira, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Background Naturally occurring coinfections of pathogens have been reported in salmonids, but their consequences on disease resistance are unclear. We hypothesized that 1) coinfection of Caligus rogercresseyi reduces the resistance of Atlantic salmon to Piscirickettsia salmonis; and 2) coinfection resistance is a heritable trait that does not correlate with resistance to a single infection. Methodology In total, 1,634 pedigreed Atlantic salmon were exposed to a single infection (SI) of P. salmonis (primary pathogen) or coinfection with C. rogercresseyi (secondary pathogen). Low and high level of coinfection were evaluated (LC = 44 copepodites per fish; HC = 88 copepodites per fish). Survival and quantitative genetic analyses were performed to determine the resistance to the single infection and coinfections. Main Findings C. rogercresseyi significantly increased the mortality in fish infected with P. salmonis (SI mortality = 251/545; LC mortality = 544/544 and HC mortality = 545/545). Heritability estimates for resistance to P. salmonis were similar and of medium magnitude in all treatments (h2SI = 0.23±0.07; h2LC = 0.17±0.08; h2HC = 0.24±0.07). A large and significant genetic correlation with regard to resistance was observed between coinfection treatments (rg LC-HC = 0.99±0.01) but not between the single and coinfection treatments (rg SI-LC = −0.14±0.33; rg SI-HC = 0.32±0.34). Conclusions/Significance C. rogercresseyi, as a secondary pathogen, reduces the resistance of Atlantic salmon to the pathogen P. salmonis. Resistance to coinfection of Piscirickettsia salmonis and Caligus rogercresseyi in Atlantic salmon is a heritable trait. The absence of a genetic correlation between resistance to a single infection and resistance to coinfection indicates that different genes control these processes. Coinfection of different pathogens and resistance to coinfection needs to be considered in future research on salmon

  19. Canine vector-borne co-infections: Ehrlichia canis and Hepatozoon canis in the same host monocytes.

    PubMed

    Baneth, Gad; Harrus, Shimon; Gal, Arnon; Aroch, Itamar

    2015-02-28

    The protozoon Hepatozoon canis and the rickettsia Ehrlichia canis are tick-borne pathogens, transmitted by Rhipicephalus sanguineus, which cause canine hepatozoonosis and canine monocytic ehrlichiosis, respectively. Co-infection of the same host monocytes with H. canis and E. canis confirmed by molecular characterization of the infecting agents and quantitative assessment of co-infected cells is described for the first time in three naturally-infected dogs. Blood smear evaluation indicated that at least 50% of the leukocytes infected with H. canis gamonts contained E. canis morulae. Co-infection of the same host cell demonstrated in this report suggests that infection with one pathogen may permit or enhance invasion or prolonged cellular survival of the other.

  20. Three Thousand Years of Continuity in the Maternal Lineages of Ancient Sheep (Ovis aries) in Estonia

    PubMed Central

    Rannamäe, Eve; Lõugas, Lembi; Speller, Camilla F.; Valk, Heiki; Maldre, Liina; Wilczyński, Jarosław; Mikhailov, Aleksandr; Saarma, Urmas

    2016-01-01

    Although sheep (Ovis aries) have been one of the most exploited domestic animals in Estonia since the Late Bronze Age, relatively little is known about their genetic history. Here, we explore temporal changes in Estonian sheep populations and their mitochondrial genetic diversity over the last 3000 years. We target a 558 base pair fragment of the mitochondrial hypervariable region in 115 ancient sheep from 71 sites in Estonia (c. 1200 BC–AD 1900s), 19 ancient samples from Latvia, Russia, Poland and Greece (6800 BC–AD 1700), as well as 44 samples of modern Kihnu native sheep breed. Our analyses revealed: (1) 49 mitochondrial haplotypes, associated with sheep haplogroups A and B; (2) high haplotype diversity in Estonian ancient sheep; (3) continuity in mtDNA haplotypes through time; (4) possible population expansion during the first centuries of the Middle Ages (associated with the establishment of the new power regime related to 13th century crusades); (5) significant difference in genetic diversity between ancient populations and modern native sheep, in agreement with the beginning of large-scale breeding in the 19th century and population decline in local sheep. Overall, our results suggest that in spite of the observed fluctuations in ancient sheep populations, and changes in the natural and historical conditions, the utilisation of local sheep has been constant in the territory of Estonia, displaying matrilineal continuity from the Middle Bronze Age through the Modern Period, and into modern native sheep. PMID:27732668

  1. Three Thousand Years of Continuity in the Maternal Lineages of Ancient Sheep (Ovis aries) in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Rannamäe, Eve; Lõugas, Lembi; Speller, Camilla F; Valk, Heiki; Maldre, Liina; Wilczyński, Jarosław; Mikhailov, Aleksandr; Saarma, Urmas

    2016-01-01

    Although sheep (Ovis aries) have been one of the most exploited domestic animals in Estonia since the Late Bronze Age, relatively little is known about their genetic history. Here, we explore temporal changes in Estonian sheep populations and their mitochondrial genetic diversity over the last 3000 years. We target a 558 base pair fragment of the mitochondrial hypervariable region in 115 ancient sheep from 71 sites in Estonia (c. 1200 BC-AD 1900s), 19 ancient samples from Latvia, Russia, Poland and Greece (6800 BC-AD 1700), as well as 44 samples of modern Kihnu native sheep breed. Our analyses revealed: (1) 49 mitochondrial haplotypes, associated with sheep haplogroups A and B; (2) high haplotype diversity in Estonian ancient sheep; (3) continuity in mtDNA haplotypes through time; (4) possible population expansion during the first centuries of the Middle Ages (associated with the establishment of the new power regime related to 13th century crusades); (5) significant difference in genetic diversity between ancient populations and modern native sheep, in agreement with the beginning of large-scale breeding in the 19th century and population decline in local sheep. Overall, our results suggest that in spite of the observed fluctuations in ancient sheep populations, and changes in the natural and historical conditions, the utilisation of local sheep has been constant in the territory of Estonia, displaying matrilineal continuity from the Middle Bronze Age through the Modern Period, and into modern native sheep.

  2. Co-infections with Chikungunya and Dengue Viruses, Guatemala, 2015

    PubMed Central

    Signor, Leticia del Carmen Castillo; Williams, Christopher; Donis, Evelin; Cuevas, Luis E.; Adams, Emily R.

    2016-01-01

    We screened serum samples referred to the national reference laboratory in Guatemala that were positive for chikungunya or dengue viruses in June 2015. Co-infection with both viruses was detected by reverse transcription PCR in 46 (32%) of 144 samples. Specimens should be tested for both arboviruses to detect co-infections. PMID:27767914

  3. Lyme Disease Coinfections in the United States.

    PubMed

    Caulfield, Adam J; Pritt, Bobbi S

    2015-12-01

    Lyme disease in North America is caused by infection with the spirochetal bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi and transmitted by Ixodes scapularis and Ixodes pacificus ticks. These ticks also have the potential to transmit a rapidly expanding list of other pathogenic bacteria, viruses, and parasites, including Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Babesia microti, deer tick (Powassan) virus, Borrelia miyamotoi, and the Ehrlichia muris-like organism. Coinfections with B burgdorferi and these other agents are often difficult to diagnose and may go untreated, and thus contribute significantly to patient morbidity and mortality from tick-borne infections.

  4. Exposure to viral and bacterial pathogens among Soay sheep (Ovis aries) of the St Kilda archipelago.

    PubMed

    Graham, A L; Nussey, D H; Lloyd-Smith, J O; Longbottom, D; Maley, M; Pemberton, J M; Pilkington, J G; Prager, K C; Smith, L; Watt, K A; Wilson, K; McNEILLY, T N; Brülisauer, F

    2016-07-01

    We assessed evidence of exposure to viruses and bacteria in an unmanaged and long-isolated population of Soay sheep (Ovis aries) inhabiting Hirta, in the St Kilda archipelago, 65 km west of Benbecula in the Outer Hebrides of Scotland. The sheep harbour many metazoan and protozoan parasites but their exposure to viral and bacterial pathogens is unknown. We tested for herpes viral DNA in leucocytes and found that 21 of 42 tested sheep were infected with ovine herpesvirus 2 (OHV-2). We also tested 750 plasma samples collected between 1997 and 2010 for evidence of exposure to seven other viral and bacterial agents common in domestic Scottish sheep. We found evidence of exposure to Leptospira spp., with overall seroprevalence of 6·5%. However, serological evidence indicated that the population had not been exposed to border disease, parainfluenza, maedi-visna, or orf viruses, nor to Chlamydia abortus. Some sheep tested positive for antibodies against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) but, in the absence of retrospective faecal samples, the presence of this infection could not be confirmed. The roles of importation, the pathogen-host interaction, nematode co-infection and local transmission warrant future investigation, to elucidate the transmission ecology and fitness effects of the few viral and bacterial pathogens on Hirta.

  5. Anthelmintic activity of Artemisia annua L. extracts in vitro and the effect of an aqueous extract and artemisinin in sheep naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is no effective natural alternative control for gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) of small ruminants, with Haemonchus contortus being the most economically important GIN. Despite frequent reports of multidrug-resistant GIN, there is no new commercial anthelmintic to substitute failing ones. Alt...

  6. Agriculture. Sheep Livestock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for sheep, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task list. Each…

  7. The British HIV Association national audit on the management of subjects co-infected with HIV and hepatitis B/C.

    PubMed

    Garvey, L; Curtis, H; Brook, G

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this work was to survey current service provision and adherence to the British HIV Association (BHIVA) guidelines for the management of HIV and hepatitis B/C co-infected patients in the UK. Sites were invited to complete a survey of local care arrangements for co-infected patients. A case-note audit of all co-infected attendees during a six-month period in 2009 was performed. Data including demographics, clinical parameters, hepatitis disease status, antiretroviral and hepatitis B/C therapy were collected. Using BHIVA guidelines as audit standards, the proportion of sites and subjects meeting each standard was calculated. One-hundred and forty sites (75%) responded and data from 973 eligible co-infected patients were submitted. Approximately a third of sites reported not re-checking hepatitis serology or vaccination titres annually. Of all co-infected patients, 122 (13%) were neither vaccinated nor immune to hepatitis A and 26 (5%) of patients with hepatitis C were neither vaccinated nor naturally immune to hepatitis B. Of HBsAg-positive subjects, 25 (6%) were receiving lamivudine as the sole drug with antihepatitis B activity. In the UK, the management of HIV and hepatitis B/C co-infection remains highly variable. Optimizing the care of this high-risk patient group is a priority.

  8. Leishmaniasis–HIV coinfection: current challenges

    PubMed Central

    Lindoso, José Angelo Lauletta; Cunha, Mirella Alves; Queiroz, Igor Thiago; Moreira, Carlos Henrique Valente

    2016-01-01

    Leishmaniasis – human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection can manifest itself as tegumentary or visceral leishmaniasis. Almost 35 countries have reported autochthonous coinfections. Visceral leishmaniasis is more frequently described. However, usual and unusual manifestations of tegumentary leishmaniasis have been reported mainly in the Americas, but the real prevalence of Leishmania infection in HIV-infected patients is not clear. Regarding the clinical manifestations, there are some reports showing unusual manifestations in visceral leishmaniasis and tegumentary leishmaniasis in HIV-infected patients; yet, the usual manifestations are more frequent. Leishmaniasis diagnosis relies on clinical methods, but serological tests are used to diagnose visceral leishmaniasis despite them having a low sensitivity to tegumentary leishmaniasis. The search for the parasite is used to diagnose both visceral leishmaniasis and tegumentary leishmaniasis. Nevertheless, in HIV-infected patients, the sensitivity of serology is very low. Drugs available to treat leishmaniasis are more restricted and cause severe side effects. Furthermore, in HIV-infected patients, these side effects are more prominent and relapses and lethality are more recurrent. In this article, we discuss the current challenges of tegumentary leishmaniasis and visceral leishmaniasis–HIV infection, focusing mainly on the clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of leishmaniasis. PMID:27785103

  9. Hepatic compartmentalization of exhausted and regulatory cells in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients.

    PubMed

    Barrett, L; Trehanpati, N; Poonia, S; Daigh, L; Sarin, S Kumar; Masur, H; Kottilil, S

    2015-03-01

    Accelerated intrahepatic hepatitis C virus (HCV) pathogenesis is likely the result of dysregulation within both the innate and adaptive immune compartments, but the exact contribution of peripheral blood and liver lymphocyte subsets remains unclear. Prolonged activation and expansion of immunoregulatory cells have been thought to play a role. We determined immune cell subset frequency in contemporaneous liver and peripheral blood samples from chronic HCV-infected and HIV/HCV-coinfected individuals. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and biopsy-derived liver-infiltrating lymphocytes from 26 HIV/HCV-coinfected, 10 chronic HCV-infected and 10 HIV-infected individuals were assessed for various subsets of T and B lymphocytes, dendritic cell, natural killer (NK) cell and NK T-cell frequency by flow cytometry. CD8(+) T cells expressing the exhaustion marker PD-1 were increased in HCV-infected individuals compared with uninfected individuals (P = 0.02), and HIV coinfection enhanced this effect (P = 0.005). In the liver, regulatory CD4(+) CD25(+) Foxp3(+) T cells, as well as CD4(+) CD25(+) PD1(+) T cells, were more frequent in HIV/HCV-coinfected than in HCV-monoinfected samples (P < 0.001). HCV was associated with increased regulatory T cells, PD-1(+) T cells and decreased memory B cells, regardless of HIV infection (P ≤ 0.005 for all). Low CD8(+) expression was observed only in PD-1(+) CD8(+) T cells from HCV-infected individuals and healthy controls (P = 0.002) and was associated with enhanced expansion of exhausted CD8(+) T cells when exposed in vitro to PHA or CMV peptides. In conclusion, in HIV/HCV coinfection, ongoing HCV replication is associated with increased regulatory and exhausted T cells in the periphery and liver that may impact control of HCV. Simultaneous characterization of liver and peripheral blood highlights the disproportionate intrahepatic compartmentalization of immunoregulatory T cells, which may contribute to establishment of chronicity and

  10. Variability of the Sheep Lung Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Steven; Pollock, Jolinda; Tennant, Peter; Collie, David; McLachlan, Gerry

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Sequencing technologies have recently facilitated the characterization of bacterial communities present in lungs during health and disease. However, there is currently a dearth of information concerning the variability of such data in health both between and within subjects. This study seeks to examine such variability using healthy adult sheep as our model system. Protected specimen brush samples were collected from three spatially disparate segmental bronchi of six adult sheep (age, 20 months) on three occasions (day 0, 1 month, and 3 months). To further explore the spatial variability of the microbiotas, more-extensive brushing samples (n = 16) and a throat swab were taken from a separate sheep. The V2 and V3 hypervariable regions of the bacterial 16S rRNA genes were amplified and sequenced via Illumina MiSeq. DNA sequences were analyzed using the mothur software package. Quantitative PCR was performed to quantify total bacterial DNA. Some sheep lungs contained dramatically different bacterial communities at different sampling sites, whereas in others, airway microbiotas appeared similar across the lung. In our spatial variability study, we observed clustering related to the depth within the lung from which samples were taken. Lung depth refers to increasing distance from the glottis, progressing in a caudal direction. We conclude that both host influence and local factors have impacts on the composition of the sheep lung microbiota. IMPORTANCE Until recently, it was assumed that the lungs were a sterile environment which was colonized by microbes only during disease. However, recent studies using sequencing technologies have found that there is a small population of bacteria which exists in the lung during health, referred to as the “lung microbiota.” In this study, we characterize the variability of the lung microbiotas of healthy sheep. Sheep not only are economically important animals but also are often used as large animal models of human

  11. Associations between coinfection prevalence of Borrelia lusitaniae, Anaplasma sp., and Rickettsia sp. in hard ticks feeding on reptile hosts.

    PubMed

    Václav, Radovan; Ficová, Martina; Prokop, Pavol; Betáková, Tatiana

    2011-02-01

    An increasing number of studies reveal that ticks and their hosts are infected with multiple pathogens, suggesting that coinfection might be frequent for both vectors and wild reservoir hosts. Whereas the examination of associations between coinfecting pathogen agents in natural host-vector-pathogen systems is a prerequisite for a better understanding of disease maintenance and transmission, the associations between pathogens within vectors or hosts are seldom explicitly examined. We examined the prevalence of pathogen agents and the patterns of associations between them under natural conditions, using a previously unexamined host-vector-pathogen system--green lizards Lacerta viridis, hard ticks Ixodes ricinus, and Borrelia, Anaplasma, and Rickettsia pathogens. We found that immature ticks infesting a temperate lizard species in Central Europe were infected with multiple pathogens. Considering I. ricinus nymphs and larvae, the prevalence of Anaplasma, Borrelia, and Rickettsia was 13.1% and 8.7%, 12.8% and 1.3%, and 4.5% and 2.7%, respectively. The patterns of pathogen prevalence and observed coinfection rates suggest that the risk of tick infection with one pathogen is not independent of other pathogens. Our results indicate that Anaplasma can play a role in suppressing the transmission of Borrelia to tick vectors. Overall, however, positive effects of Borrelia on Anaplasma seem to prevail as judged by higher-than-expected Borrelia-Anaplasma coinfection rates.

  12. Supplementation of moist and dehydrated citrus pulp in the diets of sheep artificially and naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes on the parasitological parameters and performance.

    PubMed

    Nordi, E C P; Costa, R L D; David, C M G; Parren, G A E; Freitas, A C B; Lameirinha, L P; Katiki, L M; Bueno, M S; Quirino, C R; Gama, P E; Bizzo, H R; Chagas, A C S

    2014-10-15

    The inclusion of industrial byproducts such as citrus pulp in the composition of animal diets has been widely recommended due to sustainability aspects and their high level of carbohydrates. Limonene is found in citrus pulp and has been described elsewhere as a major compound of citrus essential oils with excellent anthelmintic activity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the parasitological parameters of lambs artificially infected (Experiment 1) with Haemonchus contortus and naturally infected (Experiment 2) by gastrointestinal nematodes, fed diets with dehydrated citrus pulp or silage of moist orange pulp. Both experiments had three treatments (C: control, DP: diet+dehydrated citrus pulp, and MP: diet+silage of moist orange pulp). The diets were isoproteic (11% crude protein) and the concentrate was corrected every 14 days according to animal weight. Parasitological parameters were evaluated for both experiments each 14 days (body weight, body condition; fecal egg counts-FEC, egg hatch assay-EHA, coproculture, and packed cell volume-PCV). Analysis of variance (GLM of the SAS software) was performed with repeated measures in time, and the means were compared by the Tukey test. Gas chromatography with mass spectrometry was used to detect constituents of dry or moist citrus pulp. Dehydrated citrus pulp had 0.02% essential oil (major compounds were 85.9% limonene and 7.6% valencene). Moist orange pulp contained 1.5% essential oil (major compounds were 65.5% limonene and 31.2% alpha- and gamma-terpineol). In both experiments, the weight gain among the treatments was similar (p>0.05) demonstrating that both moist and dehydrated orange pulp can be used to replace corn kernels to feed infected lambs. The supplementation with orange pulp did not decrease natural or artificial infections of gastrointestinal nematodes according to the FEC results (p>0.05). However, PCV increased from animals fed dehydrated and moist pulp in natural infection (Experiment 2, p<0

  13. "Ménage à Trois": the evolutionary interplay between JSRV, enJSRVs and domestic sheep.

    PubMed

    Armezzani, Alessia; Varela, Mariana; Spencer, Thomas E; Palmarini, Massimo; Arnaud, Frédérick

    2014-12-09

    Sheep betaretroviruses represent a fascinating model to study the complex evolutionary interplay between host and pathogen in natural settings. In infected sheep, the exogenous and pathogenic Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) coexists with a variety of highly related endogenous JSRVs, referred to as enJSRVs. During evolution, some of them were co-opted by the host as they fulfilled important biological functions, including placental development and protection against related exogenous retroviruses. In particular, two enJSRV loci, enJS56A1 and enJSRV-20, were positively selected during sheep domestication due to their ability to interfere with the replication of related competent retroviruses. Interestingly, viruses escaping these transdominant enJSRVs have recently emerged, probably less than 200 years ago. Overall, these findings suggest that in sheep the process of endogenization is still ongoing and, therefore, the evolutionary interplay between endogenous and exogenous sheep betaretroviruses and their host has not yet reached an equilibrium.

  14. HIV co-infection accelerates decay of humoral responses in spontaneous resolvers of HCV infection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Shen, T; Zhang, C; Long, L; Duan, Z; Lu, F

    2014-10-01

    Acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is primarily followed by chronic infection, while spontaneous recovery of HCV infection (SR-HCV) occurs in a minority of those infected. Identification of SR-HCV clinically depends on two combined indicators, persistently undetectable peripheral HCV RNA and positivity for anti-HCV. However, the characteristics of dynamic variation in anti-HCV antibodies in SR-HCV, especially in those patients co-infected with HIV, are still undefined. In this study, a cohort of patients infected with HCV through commercial blood collection practices was studied. We found that the annual decreasing rate of anti-HCV presented a gradually accelerated process in HCV resolvers. However, the variation in the decline of anti-HCV presented a slowly accelerated process within the early decrease stage and a gradually decelerated process within the latter decrease stage. In addition, we deduced that it expended approximately 16 years from natural HCV recovery to undetectable peripheral anti-HCV in HCV resolvers co-infected with HIV, while this time was estimated to be 20 years in SR-HCV without HIV co-infection. Our data indicated that the decay of anti-HCV was accelerated by HIV-related impairment of immune function. The prevalence of HCV infection may be severely underestimated in this large-scale retrospective epidemiologic investigation in an HIV-infected population.

  15. Granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor is elevated in alveolar macrophages from sheep naturally infected with maedi-visna virus and stimulates maedi-visna virus replication in macrophages in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z; Harkiss, G D; Hopkins, J; Woodall, C J

    2002-08-01

    Infection by maedi-visna virus, a lentivirus of sheep, leads to chronic inflammatory reactions of various tissues. In this report we have analysed the role of specific cytokines in the disease process. A significant increase in expression of interleukin-6, interleukin-10, granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and transforming growth factor-beta1 mRNA was observed in alveolar macrophages isolated from the lungs of naturally infected animals when compared with lungs of seronegative controls. Levels of GM-CSF mRNA expression in alveolar macrophages correlated with the presence of lung lesions, but there was no correlation of interleukin-10, interleukin-6, tumour necrosis factor-alpha and transforming growth factor-beta1 mRNA levels in alveolar macrophages from animals with pulmonary lesions. In vitro investigation showed that GM-CSF in the range 0.1-10 ng/ml induced a significant increase in viral p25 production after 7 days in acutely infected blood monocyte-derived macrophages. The production of p25 peaked between 7 and 14 days exposure to 10 ng/ml of GM-CSF. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed that the level of viral DNA in monocyte-derived macrophages was dose-dependent following GM-CSF treatment in the range 0.1-100 ng/ml after 7 days. Viral mRNA expression was also enhanced. These findings indicate a role for GM-CSF in the pathogenesis of lymphoid interstitial pneumonia in infected animals.

  16. Sensitivity and specificity of real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, histopathology, and immunohistochemical labeling for the detection of Rift Valley fever virus in naturally infected cattle and sheep.

    PubMed

    Odendaal, Lieza; Fosgate, Geoffrey T; Romito, Marco; Coetzer, Jacobus A W; Clift, Sarah J

    2014-01-01

    Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT-PCR), histopathology, and immunohistochemical labeling (IHC) were performed on liver specimens from 380 naturally infected cattle and sheep necropsied during the 2010 Rift Valley fever (RVF) epidemic in South Africa. Sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of real-time RT-PCR, histopathology, and IHC were estimated in a latent-class model using a Bayesian framework. The Se and Sp of real-time RT-PCR were estimated as 97.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 95.2-98.8%) and 71.7% (95% CI = 65-77.9%) respectively. The Se and Sp of histopathology were estimated as 94.6% (95% CI = 91-97.2%) and 92.3% (95% CI = 87.6-95.8%), respectively. The Se and Sp of IHC were estimated as 97.6% (95% CI = 93.9-99.8%) and 99.4% (95% CI = 96.9-100%), respectively. Decreased Sp of real-time RT-PCR was ascribed to cross-contamination of samples. Stratified analysis of the data suggested variations in test accuracy with fetuses and severely autolyzed specimens. The Sp of histopathology in fetuses (83%) was 9.3% lower than the sample population (92.3%). The Se of IHC decreased from 97.6% to 81.5% in the presence of severe autolysis. The diagnostic Se and Sp of histopathology was higher than expected, confirming the value of routine postmortem examinations and histopathology of liver specimens. Aborted fetuses, however, should be screened using a variety of tests in areas endemic for RVF, and results from severely autolyzed specimens should be interpreted with caution. The most feasible testing option for countries lacking suitably equipped laboratories seems to be routine histology in combination with IHC.

  17. Characterization of a U.S. Sheep Scrapie Isolate with Short Incubation Time

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scrapie is a naturally occurring fatal neurodegenerative disease of sheep and goats. Susceptibility to the disease is partly dependent upon the genetic makeup of the host. In a previous study it was shown that sheep intracerebrally inoculated with US scrapie inoculum (No. 13-7) developed terminal di...

  18. Comparison of two US sheep scrapie isolates supports identification as separate strains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scrapie is a naturally occurring transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) of sheep and goats. There are different strains of sheep scrapie that are associated with unique molecular, transmission, and phenotype characteristics, but very little is known about the potential presence of scrapie str...

  19. Prevalence of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae in desert bighorn sheep in Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Justice-Allen, Anne E.; Luedtke, Clint J.; Overstreet, Matthew; Cain, James W.; Stephenson, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    To assess the potential for an epizootic of pneumonia to result from either natural immigration or translocation, we compared the seroprevalence to Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae in several populations of desert bighorn sheep in Arizona. We collected blood samples and nasal or oropharyngeal swabs from 124 desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni) from 6 populations in Arizona in 2009 and 2010. M. ovipneumoniae organisms were detected by PCR in 22%, whereas antibodies to M. ovipneumoniae were detected in 47% of tested bighorn sheep. Mycoplasma antibodies were not found in 2 of 6 populations, indicating some bighorn sheep populations in Arizona are naïve to this bacterium. In contrast, others had seroprevalence rates up to 80%. We were able to compare seroprevalence rates and titers over time in 9 individuals (7 individuals included in the 124 bighorn sheep sampled in 2009 and 2010, and 2 individuals originally captured in 2006). Antibody titers persisted for 12 months in individuals from the Kofa National Wildlife Refuge (n = 7) while antibody titers appeared to decline in the Kanab Creek population (n = 2). M. ovipneumoniae is present or has been present in several, but not all, populations of bighorn sheep in Arizona. The results demonstrate the importance of routine health testing for future translocation efforts to reduce disease risk for naive populations.

  20. Reassortment of lymphocytes in lymph from normal and allografted sheep.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, H. R.; Adams, E. P.

    1977-01-01

    The distribution and nature of surface immunoglobulin-bearing (SIg) cells were studied in various sources of lymph from normal sheep and from sheep bearing renal autografts and renal allografts. In normal sheep, 12.2% +/- 1.5 of all mononuclear cells in peripheral lymph SIg and, of these, more than 50% were monocytes and macrophages. Less than 6% of the lymphocytes in peripheral lymph carried SIg. In contrast, 24.7% +/- 1.3 of the mononuclear cells in central lymph had SIg, and all of the labeled cells were lymphocytes. The frequencies of SIg cells in peripheral lymph issuing from renal autografts and from renal allografts were 6.7% +/- 1.3 and 6.9% +/- 0.8, respectively, and the labeled cells were predominantly lymphocytes. The proportion of SIg cells in central lymph from graft-bearing sheep was similar to that from normal sheep. The differences between central lymph and peripheral lymph from both normal and graft-bearing sheep are thought to reflect a restriction on the passage of SIg cells through capillary endothelium in nonlymphoid tissues. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:322506

  1. Visceral Leishmaniasis and HIV Coinfection in the Mediterranean Region

    PubMed Central

    Monge-Maillo, Begoña; Norman, Francesca F.; Cruz, Israel; Alvar, Jorge; López-Vélez, Rogelio

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is hypoendemic in Mediterranean countries, where it is caused by the flagellate protozoan Leishmania infantum. VL cases in this area account for 5%–6% of the global burden. Cases of Leishmania/HIV coinfection have been reported in the Mediterranean region, mainly in France, Italy, Portugal, and Spain. Since highly active antiretroviral therapy was introduced in 1997, a marked decrease in the number of coinfected cases in this region has been reported. The development of new diagnostic methods to accurately identify level of parasitemia and the risk of relapse is one of the main challenges in improving the treatment of coinfected patients. Clinical trials in the Mediterranean region are needed to determine the most adequate therapeutic options for Leishmania/HIV patients as well as the indications and regimes for secondary prophylaxis. This article reviews the epidemiological, diagnostic, clinical, and therapeutic aspects of Leishmania/HIV coinfection in the Mediterranean region. PMID:25144380

  2. The epidemiological consequences of leprosy-tuberculosis co-infection.

    PubMed

    Hohmann, N; Voss-Böhme, A

    2013-02-01

    While in antiquity both leprosy and tuberculosis were prevalent in Europe, leprosy declined thereafter and, simultaneously, tuberculosis prevalence increased. Since both diseases are caused by mycobacterial infections, it has been suggested that there might be a causal relationship between both epidemics. Chaussinand observed the inverse prevalence of leprosy and tuberculosis and suggested that individuals with a latent tuberculosis infection are protected from acquiring leprosy. His cross-immunity hypothesis has been countered more recently by a co-infection hypothesis. The latter suggestion, proposed by Donoghue, states that people being infected with multi-bacillary leprosy are more susceptible to tuberculosis, which leads to increased mortality from the disease. This study utilizes mathematical modeling to explore the epidemiological consequences of the co-infection hypothesis for realistically confined parameter values. While the co-infection hypothesis appears plausible at first glance, a second thought reveals that it comprises also substantial consequences for tuberculosis epidemics: if co-infection raises the mortality rate above that of purely tuberculosis infected persons, then tuberculosis might as well be eradicated by leprosy. It is the specific interplay of both increased susceptibility towards tuberculosis and increased death rate when co-infected that determines the epidemiological fate. As a result of this analysis, it is shown that there is a large parameter region where the eventual disappearance of leprosy could indeed be explained by co-infection. This parameter region is considerably larger than that predicted by the cross-immunity hypothesis. This shows that the co-infection hypothesis should be considered a significant alternative to the cross-immunity hypothesis. The time scales at which the effects of co-infection are observed depend critically on the spatial distribution of the individuals but reach epidemiologically realistic values for

  3. Sheep as maintenance host for Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo subtype hardjobovis.

    PubMed

    Gerritsen, M J; Koopmans, M J; Peterse, D; Olyhoek, T

    1994-09-01

    Transmission of Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo subtype hardjobovis from naturally infected sheep to uninfected sheep and calves was studied. A microscopic agglutination test and ELISA were used to determine specific antibody responses in serum. Polymerase chain reaction was used to detect bacterial shedding in urine. Six sheep were derived from a dairy farm where cows were infected with L hardjobovis. Three of these sheep were seropositive for L hardjobovis, and 1 also shed leptospires in the urine. The other 2 sheep shed leptospires in the urine 7 days after the first observation date. The 6 sheep were placed on an isolated pasture together with a second group of 6 noninfected sheep. During the observation period of 140 days, 1 sheep of the second group became infected with L hardjobovis. On 5 consecutive days, a urine mixture from the 4 infected sheep was sprayed on the heads of 4 noninfected calves. Within 56 days, all calves that had been sprayed with urine shed L hardjobovis in the urine and became seropositive for L hardjobovis.

  4. Neuronal plasticity and seasonal reproduction in sheep

    PubMed Central

    Lehman, Michael N.; Ladha, Zamin; Coolen, Lique M.; Hileman, Stanley M.; Connors, John M.; Goodman, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    Seasonal reproduction represents a naturally occurring example of functional plasticity in the adult brain since it reflects changes in neuroendocrine pathways controlling GnRH secretion and, in particular, the responsiveness of GnRH neurons to estradiol negative feedback. Structural plasticity within this neural circuitry may, in part, be responsible for seasonal switches in the negative feedback control of GnRH secretion that underlies annual reproductive transitions. In this paper, we review evidence for structural changes in the circuitry responsible for seasonal inhibition of GnRH secretion in sheep. These include changes in synaptic inputs onto GnRH neurons, as well as onto dopamine neurons in the A15 cell group, a nucleus that play a key role in estradiol negative feedback. We also present preliminary data suggesting a role for neurotrophins and neurotrophin receptors as an early mechanistic step in the plasticity that accompanies seasonal reproductive transitions in the sheep. Finally, we review recent evidence suggesting that kisspeptin cells of the arcuate nucleus constitute a critical intermediary in the control of seasonal reproduction. While a majority of the data for a role of neuronal plasticity in seasonal reproduction has come from the sheep model, the players and principles are likely to have relevance for reproduction in a wide variety of vertebrates, including humans, and in both health and disease. PMID:21143669

  5. Neuronal plasticity and seasonal reproduction in sheep.

    PubMed

    Lehman, Michael N; Ladha, Zamin; Coolen, Lique M; Hileman, Stanley M; Connors, John M; Goodman, Robert L

    2010-12-01

    Seasonal reproduction represents a naturally occurring example of functional plasticity in the adult brain as it reflects changes in neuroendocrine pathways controlling gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion and, in particular, the responsiveness of GnRH neurons to estradiol negative feedback. Structural plasticity within this neural circuitry may, in part, be responsible for seasonal switches in the negative feedback control of GnRH secretion that underlie annual reproductive transitions. We review evidence for structural changes in the circuitry responsible for seasonal inhibition of GnRH secretion in sheep. These include changes in synaptic inputs onto GnRH neurons, as well as onto dopamine neurons in the A15 cell group, a nucleus that plays a key role in estradiol negative feedback. We also present preliminary data suggesting a role for neurotrophins and neurotrophin receptors as an early mechanistic step in the plasticity that accompanies seasonal reproductive transitions in sheep. Finally, we review recent evidence suggesting that kisspeptin cells of the arcuate nucleus constitute a critical intermediary in the control of seasonal reproduction. Although a majority of the data for a role of neuronal plasticity in seasonal reproduction has come from the sheep model, the players and principles are likely to have relevance for reproduction in a wide variety of vertebrates, including humans, and in both health and disease.

  6. Congenital defects of sheep.

    PubMed

    Dennis, S M

    1993-03-01

    With increasing incrimination of viruses, plants, and drugs as causes of ovine congenital defects, concerted efforts are required to identify environmental teratogens. Expanding knowledge of congenital defects requires studying as many defective lambs as possible; recording and documenting; detailed diagnostic examinations; genetic analyses and chromosomal examinations, whenever possible; and field investigations. Adopting standardized classification, terminology, and diagnostic procedures should improve descriptions, diagnoses, and interdisciplinary exchange of information. That, in turn, should improve our knowledge of and diagnosis of congenital defects of sheep in the future. Finally, veterinary clinicians and diagnosticians are encouraged to take an interest in congenital defects and teratology.

  7. Hydrops foetalis in sheep.

    PubMed

    Plant, J W; Lomas, S T; Harper, P A; Duncan, D W; Carroll, S N

    1987-10-01

    Hydrops foetalis was observed in foetuses from a sheep flock in southern New South Wales over 4 years. Ewes showed marked abdominal distension and most died at parturition, being unable to deliver large affected foetuses. These had birth weights up to 18 kg and exhibited severe generalised oedema of subcutaneous tissues, fluid accumulation in the serous cavities and oedema of the placenta. Microscopically, there was a generalised extramedullary haemopoiesis and massive oedema, consistent with a chronic foetal anaemia. No infectious or environmental factors could be incriminated in the outbreak. The clinical and pathological findings resemble those of the homozygous alpha-thalassaemia in infants associated with haemoglobin Bart's.

  8. [Animal welfare aspects in raising sheep].

    PubMed

    Ganter, M

    2004-03-01

    Basing on experience in sheep herd health service light is thrown on sheep keeping in Germany concerning protection of sheep against cruelty. Despite there is at the moment no legislative regulation especially on keeping sheep, there exist a number of local and european recommendations. Cruelty and undesirable or avoidable disorders and loads occur in small sheep flocks often due to unawareness of the owner who keeps his sheep as a hobby. In large herds the increasing flock size and the more and more extensive husbandry clash increasingly with the requirements of the sheep.

  9. Severe Plasmodium knowlesi with dengue coinfection.

    PubMed

    Che Rahim, Mohd Jazman; Mohammad, Nurashikin; Besari, Alwi Muhd; Wan Ghazali, Wan Syamimee

    2017-02-20

    We report a case of severe Plasmodium knowlesi and dengue coinfection in a previously healthy 59-year-old Malay man who presented with worsening shortness of breath, high-grade fever with chills and rigors, dry cough, myalgia, arthralgia, chest discomfort and poor appetite of 1 week duration. There was a history mosquito fogging around his neighbourhood in his hometown. Further history revealed that he went to a forest in Jeli (northern part of Kelantan) 3 weeks prior to the event. Initially he was treated as severe dengue with plasma leakage complicated with type 1 respiratory failure as evidenced by positive serum NS1-antigen and thrombocytopenia. Blood for malarial parasite (BFMP) was sent for test as there was suspicion of malaria due to persistent thrombocytopenia despite recovering from dengue infection and the presence of a risk factor. The test revealed high count of malaria parasite. Confirmatory PCR identified the parasite to be Plasmodium knowlesi Intravenous artesunate was administered to the patient immediately after acquiring the BFMP result. Severe malaria was complicated with acute kidney injury and septicaemic shock. Fortunately the patient made full recovery and was discharged from the ward after 2 weeks of hospitalisation.

  10. Polioencephalomalacia in adult sheep grazing pastures with prostrate pigweed

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Polioencephalomalacia was diagnosed in 2 animals from different farms. In apparently healthy animals from same farms, fecal thiaminase and a significant reduction in erythrocyte transketolase activity was observed. The presence of thiaminase in Amaranthus blitoides could have contributed to the development of polioencephalomalacia in sheep grazing on natural pastures. PMID:15759830

  11. Coinfections of the Respiratory Tract: Viral Competition for Resources

    PubMed Central

    Pinky, Lubna; Dobrovolny, Hana M.

    2016-01-01

    Studies have shown that simultaneous infection of the respiratory tract with at least two viruses is common in hospitalized patients, although it is not clear whether these infections are more or less severe than single virus infections. We use a mathematical model to study the dynamics of viral coinfection of the respiratory tract in an effort to understand the kinetics of these infections. Specifically, we use our model to investigate coinfections of influenza, respiratory syncytial virus, rhinovirus, parainfluenza virus, and human metapneumovirus. Our study shows that during coinfections, one virus can block another simply by being the first to infect the available host cells; there is no need for viral interference through immune response interactions. We use the model to calculate the duration of detectable coinfection and examine how it varies as initial viral dose and time of infection are varied. We find that rhinovirus, the fastest-growing virus, reduces replication of the remaining viruses during a coinfection, while parainfluenza virus, the slowest-growing virus is suppressed in the presence of other viruses. PMID:27196110

  12. Treatment Options for Visceral Leishmaniasis and HIV Coinfection.

    PubMed

    Monge-Maillo, Begoña; López-Vélez, Rogelio

    2016-01-01

    Leishmania and HIV coinfection is a major health problem in more than 35 countries worldwide. The impaired immune function of visceral leishmaniasis/HIV-coinfected patients may: (i) favor the reactivation of latent Leishmania infection; (ii) induce a more severe presentation of visceral leishmaniasis; (iii) cause a poorer therapeutic response; and (iv) increase the risk of relapse after treatment. One of the major challenges in the management of visceral leishmaniasis/HIV coinfection is developing an effective drug therapy that not only resolves the first episode of visceral leishmaniasis but also prevents relapse. However, scarce evidence and data are available on the optimal therapy for visceral leishmaniasis/HIV coinfection. In our study we reviewed the efficacy of several drugs currently employed for visceral leishmaniasis in HIV patients and current knowledge of secondary prophylaxis. Additionally, we reviewed a set of ongoing clinical trials that are being performed to evaluate the efficacy of new therapeutic regimens for visceral leishmaniasis in patients with and without HIV. Finally, other therapeutic strategies based on immunotherapy, vaccination, or screening for latent leishmaniasis infection in HIV patients are reviewed. Apart from being potentially useful in clinical practice, the results obtained in our study highlight the need for further research on the management of visceral leishmaniasis/HIV coinfection.

  13. Treatment optimization for HIV/HCV co-infected patients

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Jake A.; Chew, Kara W.

    2016-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections affect millions of persons around the globe and cause profound morbidity and mortality. A major intersection exists between these two epidemics, with HCV infection being more common in persons with HIV than in the general population, largely due to shared routes of transmission. HCV co-infection increases risk for liver- and non-liver-related morbidity and mortality, making HCV treatment a priority in HIV co-infected persons, but the treatment of HCV in co-infected patients has been daunting for multiple reasons. Until recently, HCV treatment has frequently been deferred due to the low rates of cure, significant adverse effects, burdensome duration of therapy and drug–drug interactions with HIV antiretroviral medications. Untreated HCV has resulted in significant health consequences for the millions of those infected and has led to multiple downstream impacts on our healthcare systems around the world. The development of a remarkable number of new HCV direct-acting agents (DAAs) that are significantly more efficacious and tolerable than the previous interferon-based regimens has transformed this important field of medicine, with the potential to dramatically reduce the burden of infection and improve health outcomes in this population. This review will summarize the epidemiology and clinical impact of HIV/HCV co-infection and current approaches to the treatment of HCV in HIV/HCV co-infected patients. PMID:28357062

  14. The callipyge mutation and other genes that affect muscle hypertrophy in sheep

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Genetic strategies to improve the profitability of sheep operations have generally focused on traits for reproduction. However, natural mutations exist in sheep that affect muscle growth and development, and the exploitation of these mutations in breeding strategies has the potential to significantly improve lamb-meat quality. The best-documented mutation for muscle development in sheep is callipyge (CLPG), which causes a postnatal muscle hypertrophy that is localized to the pelvic limbs and loin. Enhanced skeletal muscle growth is also observed in animals with the Carwell (or rib-eye muscling) mutation, and a double-muscling phenotype has been documented for animals of the Texel sheep breed. However, the actual mutations responsible for these muscular hypertrophy phenotypes in sheep have yet to be identified, and further characterization of the genetic basis for these phenotypes will provide insight into the biological control of muscle growth and body composition. PMID:15601596

  15. Factors influencing dissipation of avermectins in sheep faeces.

    PubMed

    Virant Celestina, Tina; Kolar, Lucija; Gobec, Ivan; Kuzner, Jernej; Flajs, Vesna Cerkvenik; Pogacnik, Milan; Erzen, Nevenka Kozuh

    2010-01-01

    Factors influencing fate of avermectins (abamectin, doramectin) in faeces of treated sheep were investigated under different experimental conditions. In the laboratory, concentrations of both avermectins were declined in homogenised faeces of treated animals until day 14 of exposure, regardless of experimental conditions. After that day, no significant decrease in concentrations was observed till the end of the experiment. Established DT(50) did not exceed 9 days. In the karst pasture, an average DT(50) of 27 days was established for abamectin and 23 days for doramectin in natural faeces of treated sheep. In the compost mixture, doramectin concentration was decreased by 38.9+/-2.6% during 21 days of the thermophilic phase of composting. Therefore, DT(50) was not established. A possible influence of moisture content of sheep faeces on concentrations of avermectins was observed.

  16. Visceral Leishmaniasis and HIV coinfection in East Africa.

    PubMed

    Diro, Ermias; Lynen, Lutgarde; Ritmeijer, Koert; Boelaert, Marleen; Hailu, Asrat; van Griensven, Johan

    2014-06-01

    Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) is an important protozoan opportunistic disease in HIV patients in endemic areas. East Africa is second to the Indian subcontinent in the global VL caseload and first in VL-HIV coinfection rate. Because of the alteration in the disease course, the diagnostic challenges, and the poor treatment responses, VL with HIV coinfection has become a very serious challenge in East Africa today. Field experience with the use of liposomal amphotericin B in combination with miltefosine, followed by secondary prophylaxis and antiretroviral drugs, looks promising. However, this needs to be confirmed through clinical trials. Better diagnostic and follow-up methods for relapse and prediction of relapse should also be looked for. Basic research to understand the immunological interaction of the two infections may ultimately help to improve the management of the coinfection.

  17. Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Complicated by Co-infection with Spotted Fever Group Rickettsiae, China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qing-Bin; Li, Hao; Zhang, Pan-He; Cui, Ning; Yang, Zhen-Dong; Fan, Ya-Di; Cui, Xiao-Ming; Hu, Jian-Gong; Guo, Chen-Tao; Zhang, Xiao-Ai; Liu, Wei; Cao, Wu-Chun

    2016-11-01

    During 2013-2015 in central China, co-infection with spotted fever group rickettsiae was identified in 77 of 823 patients infected with severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus. Co-infection resulted in delayed recovery and increased risk for death, prompting clinical practices in the region to consider co-infection in patients with severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome.

  18. Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Complicated by Co-infection with Spotted Fever Group Rickettsiae, China

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Qing-Bin; Li, Hao; Zhang, Pan-He; Cui, Ning; Yang, Zhen-Dong; Fan, Ya-Di; Cui, Xiao-Ming; Hu, Jian-Gong; Guo, Chen-Tao; Zhang, Xiao-Ai; Cao, Wu-Chun

    2016-01-01

    During 2013–2015 in central China, co-infection with spotted fever group rickettsiae was identified in 77 of 823 patients infected with severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus. Co-infection resulted in delayed recovery and increased risk for death, prompting clinical practices in the region to consider co-infection in patients with severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome. PMID:27767921

  19. Leishmania and human immunodeficiency virus coinfection: the first 10 years.

    PubMed Central

    Alvar, J; Cañavate, C; Gutiérrez-Solar, B; Jiménez, M; Laguna, F; López-Vélez, R; Molina, R; Moreno, J

    1997-01-01

    Over 850 Leishmania-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection cases have been recorded, the majority in Europe, where 7 to 17% of HIV-positive individuals with fever have amastigotes, suggesting that Leishmania-infected individuals without symptoms will express symptoms of leishmaniasis if they become immunosuppressed. However, there are indirect reasons and statistical data demonstrating that intravenous drug addiction plays a specific role in Leishmania infantum transmission: an anthroponotic cycle complementary to the zoonotic one has been suggested. Due to anergy in patients with coinfection, L. infantum dermotropic zymodemes are isolated from patient viscera and a higher L. infantum phenotypic variability is seen. Moreover, insect trypanosomatids that are currently considered nonpathogenic have been isolated from coinfected patients. HIV infection and Leishmania infection each induce important analogous immunological changes whose effects are multiplied if they occur concomitantly, such as a Th1-to-Th2 response switch; however, the consequences of the viral infection predominate. In fact, a large proportion of coinfected patients have no detectable anti-Leishmania antibodies. The microorganisms share target cells, and it has been demonstrated in vitro how L. infantum induces the expression of latent HIV-1. Bone marrow culture is the most useful diagnostic technique, but it is invasive. Blood smears and culture are good alternatives. PCR, xenodiagnosis, and circulating-antigen detection are available only in specialized laboratories. The relationship with low levels of CD4+ cells conditions the clinical presentation and evolution of disease. Most patients have visceral leishmaniasis, but asymptomatic, cutaneous, mucocutaneous, diffuse cutaneous, and post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis can be produced by L. infantum. The digestive and respiratory tracts are frequently parasitized. The course of coinfection is marked by a high relapse rate. There is a lack

  20. Plaques Formed by Mutagenized Viral Populations Have Elevated Coinfection Frequencies

    PubMed Central

    Aguilera, Elizabeth R.; Erickson, Andrea K.; Jesudhasan, Palmy R.; Robinson, Christopher M.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The plaque assay is a common technique used to measure virus concentrations and is based upon the principle that each plaque represents a single infectious unit. As such, the number of plaques is expected to correlate linearly with the virus dilution plated, and each plaque should be formed by a single founder virus. Here, we examined whether more than one virus can contribute to plaque formation. By using genetic and phenotypic assays with genetically marked polioviruses, we found that multiple parental viruses are present in 5 to 7% of plaques, even at an extremely low multiplicity of infection. We demonstrated through visual and biophysical assays that, like many viral stocks, our viral stocks contain both single particles and aggregates. These data suggest that aggregated virions are capable of inducing coinfection and chimeric plaque formation. In fact, inducing virion aggregation via exposure to low pH increased coinfection in a flow cytometry-based assay. We hypothesized that plaques generated by viruses with high mutation loads may have higher coinfection frequencies due to processes restoring fitness, such as complementation and recombination. Indeed, we found that coinfection frequency correlated with mutation load, with 17% chimeric plaque formation for heavily mutagenized viruses. Importantly, the frequency of chimeric plaques may be underestimated by up to threefold, since coinfection with the same parental virus cannot be scored in our assay. This work indicates that more than one virus can contribute to plaque formation and that coinfection may assist plaque formation in situations where the amount of genome damage is high. PMID:28292984

  1. Relationship between thoracic auscultation and lung pathology detected by ultrasonography in sheep.

    PubMed

    Scott, Phil; Collie, Dave; McGorum, Bruce; Sargison, Neil

    2010-10-01

    The utility of routine auscultation to detect and characterise the nature of a range of superficial lung and pleural pathologies in domestic sheep was assessed using ultrasonographic examination to indicate and localise pathologies pre-mortem. Necropsy examination was then used to fully characterise the nature and extent of the lesions. Auscultation recordings were made from 10 normal sheep with no clinical evidence of respiratory disease and with absence of significant superficial lung pathology, which was confirmed initially by ultrasound examination and subsequently at necropsy examination. A further two sheep with endotoxaemia and 30 sheep with well-defined lung lesions were also examined. Increased audibility of normal lung sounds in 4/10 normal sheep was associated with tachypnoea as a consequence of handling and transport during hot weather and was also observed in the two sheep with endotoxaemia. Moderate to severe coarse crackles detected in all advanced cases of ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma (n=16) were audible over an area larger than the lesion distribution identified during ultrasound examination, and confirmed later at necropsy. Auscultation did not detect abnormal sounds in any of the five sheep with focal pleural abscesses (up to 10 cm diameter). Unilateral pyothorax caused attenuation of sounds relative to the contra-lateral normal lung in all three sheep with this condition. Marked fibrinous pleurisy caused attenuation of sounds relative to normal areas of lung in six sheep. No sounds resembling the description of pleural frictions rubs were heard in the sheep with marked fibrinous pleurisy (n=6) or associated with focal pleural abscesses (n=5). Routine interpretation of auscultated sound did not allow the presence of superficial lung pathology or its distribution to be accurately defined in the respiratory diseases represented in this study.

  2. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in domestic sheep in Oaxaca State, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Alvarado-Esquivel, C; Estrada-Malacón, M A; Reyes-Hernández, S O; Pérez-Ramírez, J A; Trujillo-López, J I; Villena, I; Dubey, J P

    2013-02-01

    The seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in sheep in southern Mexico is largely unknown. Antibodies to T. gondii were determined in serum samples of 429 sheep from 4 farms in 2 geographical regions in Oaxaca State, Mexico, using the modified agglutination test (MAT); 99 (23.1%) of the 429 sheep had positive MAT titers: 1:25 in 35, 1:50 in 18, 1:100 in 7, 1:200 in 1, 1:400 in 3, 1:800 in 10, 1:1,600 in 5, and 1:3,200, or higher, in 20. Seroprevalence of T. gondii infection varied with management, breed of sheep, and location. It was significantly higher in sheep raised under semi-intensive (grazed on cultivated pasture and hay) conditions than in those raised under semi-extensive conditions (grazed on communal natural grass land). The seroprevalence of T. gondii infection was significantly higher in mixed-breed sheep than in pure breeds. Sheep raised in temperate climate in municipalities at 1,560-1,600 m above sea level (Central Valley region) had a significantly higher seroprevalence of T. gondii infection than those raised in semiarid and warm-humid climates in municipalities at 1,020-1,080 m of altitude (Cañada region) (29.8% vs. 7.1%, respectively). This is the first report of T. gondii infection in sheep in Oaxaca State, Mexico.

  3. Endemic infection reduces transmission potential of an epidemic parasite during co-infection

    PubMed Central

    Randall, J.; Cable, J.; Guschina, I. A.; Harwood, J. L.; Lello, J.

    2013-01-01

    Endemic, low-virulence parasitic infections are common in nature. Such infections may deplete host resources, which in turn could affect the reproduction of other parasites during co-infection. We aimed to determine whether the reproduction, and therefore transmission potential, of an epidemic parasite was limited by energy costs imposed on the host by an endemic infection. Total lipids, triacylglycerols (TAG) and polar lipids were measured in cockroaches (Blattella germanica) that were fed ad libitum, starved or infected with an endemic parasite, Gregarina blattarum. Reproductive output of an epidemic parasite, Steinernema carpocapsae, was then assessed by counting the number of infective stages emerging from these three host groups. We found both starvation and gregarine infection reduced cockroach lipids, mainly through depletion of TAG. Further, both starvation and G. blattarum infection resulted in reduced emergence of nematode transmission stages. This is, to our knowledge, the first study to demonstrate directly that host resource depletion caused by endemic infection could affect epidemic disease transmission. In view of the ubiquity of endemic infections in nature, future studies of epidemic transmission should take greater account of endemic co-infections. PMID:23966641

  4. Visceral Leishmaniasis and HIV Coinfection in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Lindoso, José Angelo; Cota, Gláucia Fernandes; da Cruz, Alda Maria; Goto, Hiro; Maia-Elkhoury, Ana Nilce Silveira; Romero, Gustavo Adolfo Sierra; de Sousa-Gomes, Márcia Leite; Santos-Oliveira, Joanna Reis; Rabello, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an endemic zoonotic disease in Latin America caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum, which is transmitted by sand flies from the genus Lutzomyia. VL occurs in 12 countries of Latin America, with 96% of cases reported in Brazil. Recently, an increase in VL, primarily affecting children and young adults, has been observed in urban areas of Latin America. The area in which this spread of VL is occurring overlaps regions with individuals living with HIV, the number of whom is estimated to be 1.4 million people by the World Health Organization. This overlap is suggested to be a leading cause of the increased number of reported VL-HIV coinfections. The clinical progression of HIV and L. infantum infections are both highly dependent on the specific immune response of an individual. Furthermore, the impact on the immune system caused by either pathogen and by VL-HIV coinfection can contribute to an accelerated progression of the diseases. Clinical presentation of VL in HIV positive patients is similar to patients without HIV, with symptoms characterized by fever, splenomegaly, and hepatomegaly, but diarrhea appears to be more common in coinfected patients. In addition, VL relapses are higher in coinfected patients, affecting 10% to 56.5% of cases and with a lethality ranging from 8.7% to 23.5% in Latin America, depending on the study. With regards to the diagnosis of VL, parasitological tests of bone marrow aspirates have proven to be the most sensitive test in HIV-infected patients. Serologic tests have demonstrated a variable sensitivity according to the method and antigens used, with the standard tests used for diagnosing VL in Latin America displaying lower sensitivity. For this review, few articles were identified that related to VL-HIV coinfections and originated from Latin America, highlighting the need for improving research within the regions most greatly affected. We strongly support the formation of a Latin American network for

  5. Visceral leishmaniasis and HIV coinfection in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Lindoso, José Angelo; Cota, Gláucia Fernandes; da Cruz, Alda Maria; Goto, Hiro; Maia-Elkhoury, Ana Nilce Silveira; Romero, Gustavo Adolfo Sierra; de Sousa-Gomes, Márcia Leite; Santos-Oliveira, Joanna Reis; Rabello, Ana

    2014-09-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an endemic zoonotic disease in Latin America caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum, which is transmitted by sand flies from the genus Lutzomyia. VL occurs in 12 countries of Latin America, with 96% of cases reported in Brazil. Recently, an increase in VL, primarily affecting children and young adults, has been observed in urban areas of Latin America. The area in which this spread of VL is occurring overlaps regions with individuals living with HIV, the number of whom is estimated to be 1.4 million people by the World Health Organization. This overlap is suggested to be a leading cause of the increased number of reported VL-HIV coinfections. The clinical progression of HIV and L. infantum infections are both highly dependent on the specific immune response of an individual. Furthermore, the impact on the immune system caused by either pathogen and by VL-HIV coinfection can contribute to an accelerated progression of the diseases. Clinical presentation of VL in HIV positive patients is similar to patients without HIV, with symptoms characterized by fever, splenomegaly, and hepatomegaly, but diarrhea appears to be more common in coinfected patients. In addition, VL relapses are higher in coinfected patients, affecting 10% to 56.5% of cases and with a lethality ranging from 8.7% to 23.5% in Latin America, depending on the study. With regards to the diagnosis of VL, parasitological tests of bone marrow aspirates have proven to be the most sensitive test in HIV-infected patients. Serologic tests have demonstrated a variable sensitivity according to the method and antigens used, with the standard tests used for diagnosing VL in Latin America displaying lower sensitivity. For this review, few articles were identified that related to VL-HIV coinfections and originated from Latin America, highlighting the need for improving research within the regions most greatly affected. We strongly support the formation of a Latin American network for

  6. Testing GxG interactions between coinfecting microbial parasite genotypes within hosts

    PubMed Central

    Bose, Joy; Schulte, Rebecca D.

    2014-01-01

    Host–parasite interactions represent one of the strongest selection pressures in nature. They are often governed by genotype-specific (GxG) interactions resulting in host genotypes that differ in resistance and parasite genotypes that differ in virulence depending on the antagonist’s genotype. Another type of GxG interactions, which is often neglected but which certainly influences host–parasite interactions, are those between coinfecting parasite genotypes. Mechanistically, within-host parasite interactions may range from competition for limited host resources to cooperation for more efficient host exploitation. The exact type of interaction, i.e., whether competitive or cooperative, is known to affect life-history traits such as virulence. However, the latter has been shown for chosen genotype combinations only, not considering whether the specific genotype combination per se may influence the interaction (i.e., GxG interactions). Here, we want to test for the presence of GxG interactions between coinfections of the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis infecting the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans by combining two non-pathogenic and five pathogenic strains in all possible ways. Furthermore, we evaluate whether the type of interaction, reflected by the direction of virulence change of multiple compared to single infections, is genotype-specific. Generally, we found no indication for GxG interactions between non-pathogenic and pathogenic bacterial strains, indicating that virulence of pathogenic strains is equally affected by both non-pathogenic strains. Specific genotype combinations, however, differ in the strength of virulence change, indicating that the interaction type between coinfecting parasite strains and thus the virulence mechanism is specific for different genotype combinations. Such interactions are expected to influence host–parasite interactions and to have strong implications for coevolution. PMID:24860594

  7. Bartonella melophagi in blood of domestic sheep (Ovis aries) and sheep keds (Melophagus ovinus) from the southwestern US: Cultures, genetic characterization, and ecological connections.

    PubMed

    Kosoy, Michael; Bai, Ying; Enscore, Russell; Rizzo, Maria Rosales; Bender, Scott; Popov, Vsevolod; Albayrak, Levent; Fofanov, Yuriy; Chomel, Bruno

    2016-07-15

    Bartonella melophagi sp. nov. was isolated from domestic sheep blood and from sheep keds (Melophagus ovinus) from the southwestern United States. The sequence analyses of the reference strain performed by six molecular markers consistently demonstrated that B. melophagi relates to but differ from other Bartonella species isolated from domestic and wild ruminants. Presence of 183 genes specific for B. melophagi, being absent in genomes of other Bartonella species associated with ruminants also supports the separation of this bacterial species from species of other ruminants. Bartonella DNA was detected in all investigated sheep keds; however, culturing of these bacteria from sheep blood rejects a speculation that B. melophagi is an obligatory endosymbiont. Instead, the results support the hypothesis that the domestic sheep is a natural host reservoir for B. melophagi and the sheep ked its main vector. This bacterium was not isolated from the blood of bighorn sheep and domestic goats belonging to the same subfamily Caprinae. B. melophagi has also been shown to be zoonotic and needs to be investigated further.

  8. External and internal modulators of sheep reproduction.

    PubMed

    Blache, Dominique; Bickell, Samantha L

    2011-12-01

    Several factors such as season, genetics, social interaction and metabolic status control or modulate the reproductive capacity of sheep. In addition to these well-studied factors in sheep, the influence of emotional reactivity on the reproductive success of sheep has started to be investigated over the last two decades. In this paper, after briefly reviewing the impact of classical factors affecting reproduction in sheep, we define emotional reactivity and the expression of its inter-individual variability, named temperament. Then, following a description of the protocol to measure temperament in sheep and discussion on the heritability of temperament traits, we illustrate how this selection affects the reproductive biology of sheep. We will be mainly using results obtained from a unique flock of sheep selected for low or high emotional reactivity. In conclusion, we propose that energy partitioning could be one of the mechanisms by which selection for temperament in sheep affects the different steps of the reproductive cycle.

  9. Influence of HIV co-infection on hepatitis C immunopathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Koziel, Margaret James

    2006-01-01

    The role of CD4(+) or CD8(+) T cells in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is unclear. People with chronic infection have weak responses against HCV in the blood, but HCV-specific responses are present within liver. The prevailing hypothesis of liver injury in HCV is that CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell responses mediate HCV-related liver damage but are ineffectual at clearing the chronic infection. However, we recently reported that vigorous CD4(+) responses that produce interferon gamma (IFNgamma) early in infection are correlated with slower rates of disease progression, and compartmentalize to the liver. People with chronic HIV and HCV co-infection, particularly those with CD4(+) <200 cells/mm(3), have a higher rate of fibrosis development and severe liver disease. Co-infected people have variable degrees of immunosuppression that may provide insight into the relationship between cellular immune functions and the degree of liver damage as assessed by liver biopsy. People with co-infection may have quantitative or qualitative differences in the immune responses. We recently found a relationship between CD4(+) immune responses and liver histology. There are qualitative differences in the CD4(+) responses found in the liver in co-infected people compared to those with HCV alone, whereas no such differences are found when CD8(+) responses are measured. Neither CD4(+) nor CD8(+) responses correlate with the peripheral CD4 count.

  10. Fatal coinfection with Legionella pneumophila serogroup 8 and Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Guillouzouic, Aurélie; Bemer, Pascale; Gay-Andrieu, Françoise; Bretonnière, Cédric; Lepelletier, Didier; Mahé, Pierre-Joachim; Villers, Daniel; Jarraud, Sophie; Reynaud, Alain; Corvec, Stéphane

    2008-02-01

    Legionella pneumophila is an important cause of community-acquired and nosocomial pneumonia. We report on a patient who simultaneously developed L. pneumophila serogroup 8 pneumonia and Aspergillus fumigatus lung abscesses. Despite appropriate treatments, Aspergillus disease progressed with metastasis. Coinfections caused by L. pneumophila and A. fumigatus remain exceptional. In apparently immunocompetent patients, corticosteroid therapy is a key risk factor for aspergillosis.

  11. Molecular mechanisms of liver fibrosis in HIV/HCV coinfection.

    PubMed

    Mastroianni, Claudio M; Lichtner, Miriam; Mascia, Claudia; Zuccalà, Paola; Vullo, Vincenzo

    2014-05-26

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in people coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Several studies have shown that HIV infection promotes accelerated HCV hepatic fibrosis progression, even with HIV replication under full antiretroviral control. The pathogenesis of accelerated hepatic fibrosis among HIV/HCV coinfected individuals is complex and multifactorial. The most relevant mechanisms involved include direct viral effects, immune/cytokine dysregulation, altered levels of matrix metalloproteinases and fibrosis biomarkers, increased oxidative stress and hepatocyte apoptosis, HIV-associated gut depletion of CD4 cells, and microbial translocation. In addition, metabolic alterations, heavy alcohol use, as well drug use, may have a potential role in liver disease progression. Understanding the pathophysiology and regulation of liver fibrosis in HIV/HCV co-infection may lead to the development of therapeutic strategies for the management of all patients with ongoing liver disease. In this review, we therefore discuss the evidence and potential molecular mechanisms involved in the accelerated liver fibrosis seen in patients coinfected with HIV and HCV.

  12. Tuberculosis and HIV co-infection: screening and treatment strategies.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, Kartik K; Swaminathan, Soumya; Andrews, Jason R; Mayer, Kenneth H

    2011-06-18

    Globally, tuberculosis (TB) and HIV interact in deadly synergy. The high burden of TB among HIV-infected individuals underlies the importance of TB diagnosis, treatment and prevention for clinicians involved in HIV care. Despite expanding access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) to treat HIV infection in resource-limited settings, many individuals in need of therapy initiate ART too late and have already developed clinically significant TB by the time they present for care. Many co-infected individuals are in need of concurrent ART and anti-TB therapy, which dramatically improves survival, but also raises several management challenges, including drug interactions, shared drug toxicities and TB immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). Due to the survival benefits of promptly initiating ART among all HIV-infected individuals, including those with TB, it is recommended that co-infected individuals receive treatment for both diseases, regardless of CD4+ cell count. We review current screening and treatment strategies for TB and HIV co-infection. Recent findings and ongoing studies will assist clinicians in managing the prevention and treatment of TB and HIV co-infection, which remains a major global health challenge.

  13. Fecundity genes in sheep.

    PubMed

    Davis, G H

    2004-07-01

    Since 1980 there has been increasing interest in the identification and utilisation of major genes for prolificacy in sheep. Mutations that increase ovulation rate have been discovered in the BMPR-1B, BMP15 and GDF9 genes, and others are known to exist from the expressed inheritance patterns although the mutations have not yet been located. In the case of BMP15, four different mutations have been discovered but each produces the same phenotype. The modes of inheritance of the different prolificacy genes include autosomal dominant genes with additive effects on ovulation rate (BMPR-1B; Lacaune), autosomal over-dominant genes with infertility in homozygous females (GDF9), X-linked over-dominant genes with infertility in homozygous females (BMP15), and X-linked maternally imprinted genes (FecX2). The size of the effect of one copy of a mutation on ovulation rate ranges from an extra 0.4 ovulations per oestrus for the FecX2 mutation to an extra 1.5 ovulations per oestrus for the BMPR-1B mutation. DNA tests enable some of these mutations to be used in genetic improvement programmes based on marker assisted selection.

  14. Current treatment of HIV/hepatitis B virus coinfection.

    PubMed

    Iser, David M; Sasadeusz, Joseph J

    2008-05-01

    Coinfection with HIV and hepatitis B virus (HBV) has become a significant global health problem. Liver disease is now one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in individuals with HIV, particularly those with viral hepatitis. There are a number of agents available with dual activity against HIV and HBV, and effective treatment depends on understanding the potential advantages and pitfalls in using these agents. There are a number of unresolved issues in the management of HIV/HBV coinfection. These include the role of liver biopsy, the significance of normal aminotransferase levels, serum HBV DNA threshold for treatment, treatment end-points, and the treatment of HBV when HIV does not yet require treatment. Treatment of HBV should be considered in individuals with HIV/HBV coinfection with evidence of significant fibrosis (>/=F2), or with elevated serum HBV DNA levels (>2000 IU/mL). Sustained suppression of serum HBV DNA to below the level of detection by the most sensitive available assay should be the goal of therapy, and, at present, treatment of HBV in HIV/HBV coinfection is lifelong. If antiretroviral therapy is required, then two agents with anti-HBV activity should be incorporated into the regimen. If antiretroviral therapy is not required, then the options are pegylated interferon, adefovir or the early introduction of antiretroviral therapy. Close monitoring is necessary to detect treatment failure or hepatic flares, such as immune reconstitution disease. Further studies of newer anti-HBV agents in individuals HIV/HBV coinfection may advance treatment of this important condition.

  15. Modeling malaria and typhoid fever co-infection dynamics.

    PubMed

    Mutua, Jones M; Wang, Feng-Bin; Vaidya, Naveen K

    2015-06-01

    Malaria and typhoid are among the most endemic diseases, and thus, of major public health concerns in tropical developing countries. In addition to true co-infection of malaria and typhoid, false diagnoses due to similar signs and symptoms and false positive results in testing methods, leading to improper controls, are the major challenges on managing these diseases. In this study, we develop novel mathematical models describing the co-infection dynamics of malaria and typhoid. Through mathematical analyses of our models, we identify distinct features of typhoid and malaria infection dynamics as well as relationships associated to their co-infection. The global dynamics of typhoid can be determined by a single threshold (the typhoid basic reproduction number, R0(T)) while two thresholds (the malaria basic reproduction number, R0(M), and the extinction index, R0(MM)) are needed to determine the global dynamics of malaria. We demonstrate that by using efficient simultaneous prevention programs, the co-infection basic reproduction number, R0, can be brought down to below one, thereby eradicating the diseases. Using our model, we present illustrative numerical results with a case study in the Eastern Province of Kenya to quantify the possible false diagnosis resulting from this co-infection. In Kenya, despite having higher prevalence of typhoid, malaria is more problematic in terms of new infections and disease deaths. We find that false diagnosis-with higher possible cases for typhoid than malaria-cause significant devastating impacts on Kenyan societies. Our results demonstrate that both diseases need to be simultaneously managed for successful control of co-epidemics.

  16. Atypical scrapie prions from sheep and lack of disease in transgenic mice overexpressing human prion protein.

    PubMed

    Wadsworth, Jonathan D F; Joiner, Susan; Linehan, Jacqueline M; Balkema-Buschmann, Anne; Spiropoulos, John; Simmons, Marion M; Griffiths, Peter C; Groschup, Martin H; Hope, James; Brandner, Sebastian; Asante, Emmanuel A; Collinge, John

    2013-11-01

    Public and animal health controls to limit human exposure to animal prions are focused on bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), but other prion strains in ruminants may also have zoonotic potential. One example is atypical/Nor98 scrapie, which evaded statutory diagnostic methods worldwide until the early 2000s. To investigate whether sheep infected with scrapie prions could be another source of infection, we inoculated transgenic mice that overexpressed human prion protein with brain tissue from sheep with natural field cases of classical and atypical scrapie, sheep with experimental BSE, and cattle with BSE. We found that these mice were susceptible to BSE prions, but disease did not develop after prolonged postinoculation periods when mice were inoculated with classical or atypical scrapie prions. These data are consistent with the conclusion that prion disease is less likely to develop in humans after exposure to naturally occurring prions of sheep than after exposure to epizootic BSE prions of ruminants.

  17. Occult hepatitis B virus co-infection in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients: A review of prevalence, diagnosis and clinical significance

    PubMed Central

    Maldonado-Rodriguez, Angelica; Cevallos, Ana Maria; Rojas-Montes, Othon; Enriquez-Navarro, Karina; Alvarez-Muñoz, Ma Teresa; Lira, Rosalia

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) co-infection is high as they share similar mechanisms of transmission. The development and widespread use of highly sensitive tests for HBV diagnosis has demonstrated that a significant proportion of apparently healthy individuals with evidence of exposure to HBV continue to carry fully functional HBV DNA in their hepatocytes, a situation that predisposes them to the development of progressive liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma. The presence of co-infections frequently influences the natural evolution of each of the participating infections present by either facilitating their virulence or competing for resources. Furthermore, the drugs used to treat these infections may also contribute to changes in the natural course of these infections, making the analysis of the impact of co-infection more difficult. The majority of studies has examined the impact of HIV on overt chronic hepatitis B, finding that co-infection carries an increased risk of progressive liver disease and the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. Although the effect of HIV on the natural history of occult hepatitis B infection (OBI) has not been fully assessed, all available data suggest a persisting risk of repeated flares of hepatitis and progressive liver disease. We describe studies regarding the diagnosis, prevalence and clinical significance of OBI in HIV-positive patients in this short review. Discrepancies in worldwide prevalence show the urgent need for the standardization of diagnostic criteria, as established by the Taormina statements. Ideally, standardized protocols for testing should be employed to enable the comparison of data from different groups. Additional studies are needed to define the differences in risk for OBI without HIV and in HIV-HBV co-infected patients with or without overt disease. PMID:25729480

  18. Occult hepatitis B virus co-infection in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients: A review of prevalence, diagnosis and clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Maldonado-Rodriguez, Angelica; Cevallos, Ana Maria; Rojas-Montes, Othon; Enriquez-Navarro, Karina; Alvarez-Muñoz, Ma Teresa; Lira, Rosalia

    2015-02-27

    The prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) co-infection is high as they share similar mechanisms of transmission. The development and widespread use of highly sensitive tests for HBV diagnosis has demonstrated that a significant proportion of apparently healthy individuals with evidence of exposure to HBV continue to carry fully functional HBV DNA in their hepatocytes, a situation that predisposes them to the development of progressive liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma. The presence of co-infections frequently influences the natural evolution of each of the participating infections present by either facilitating their virulence or competing for resources. Furthermore, the drugs used to treat these infections may also contribute to changes in the natural course of these infections, making the analysis of the impact of co-infection more difficult. The majority of studies has examined the impact of HIV on overt chronic hepatitis B, finding that co-infection carries an increased risk of progressive liver disease and the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. Although the effect of HIV on the natural history of occult hepatitis B infection (OBI) has not been fully assessed, all available data suggest a persisting risk of repeated flares of hepatitis and progressive liver disease. We describe studies regarding the diagnosis, prevalence and clinical significance of OBI in HIV-positive patients in this short review. Discrepancies in worldwide prevalence show the urgent need for the standardization of diagnostic criteria, as established by the Taormina statements. Ideally, standardized protocols for testing should be employed to enable the comparison of data from different groups. Additional studies are needed to define the differences in risk for OBI without HIV and in HIV-HBV co-infected patients with or without overt disease.

  19. Occurrence of congenital disorders in Swiss sheep

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The rates of congenital disorders in Swiss sheep were determined by a questionnaire which was sent to 3,183 members of the Swiss Sheep Breeders’ Association. Findings A total of 993 questionnaires were returned, giving a response rate of 31.2%. Of these, 862 questionnaires originated from farms keeping one of the predominant Swiss sheep breeds: Swiss White Alpine sheep, Brown-Headed Meat sheep, Swiss Black Brown Mountain sheep and Valais Blacknose sheep. During a 10-year-period, entropion was reported in 33.6% of the farms, brachygnathia inferior in 29.5%, abdominal/umbilical hernia in 15.9%, cryptorchidism in 10.5% and torticollis in 10.5%. The most significant difference between the four breeds (P < 0.001) occurred for entropion in Swiss White Alpine sheep and Brown-Headed Meat sheep, brachygnathia inferior in Swiss Black Brown Mountain sheep, and scrotal/inguinal hernia in Valais Blacknose sheep. The Swiss White Alpine breed showed a significantly higher animal prevalence of entropion (6.2% in 2011 and 5.5% in 2012) than other breeds (P < 0.001). Conclusions These findings indicate a breed-specific necessity for action, particularly regarding Swiss animal welfare legislation, especially entropion in Swiss White Alpine sheep is concerned. In general, careful selection of breeding stock is to be recommended. PMID:23521894

  20. Sheep Production Occupations. Skills and Competencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabol, Joe

    This report summarizes the findings of a national study to determine what skills and competencies are needed by beginning employees on sheep ranches and farms, lamb feedlots, and in the sheep shearing industry. The research procedure, which involved determining from the sheep industry the competencies needed by beginning employees in the thirteen…

  1. The virus of my virus is my friend: ecological effects of virophage with alternative modes of coinfection.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Bradford P; Cortez, Michael H; Weitz, Joshua S

    2014-08-07

    Virophages are viruses that rely on the replication machinery of other viruses to reproduce within eukaryotic hosts. Two different modes of coinfection have been posited based on experimental observation. In one mode, the virophage and the virus enter the host independently. In the other mode, the virophage adheres to the virus so both virophage and virus enter the host together. Here we ask: what are the ecological effects of these different modes of coinfection? In particular, what ecological effects are common to both infection modes, and what are the differences particular to each mode? We develop a pair of biophysically motivated ODE models of viral-host population dynamics, corresponding to dynamics arising from each mode of infection. We find that both modes of coinfection allow for the coexistence of the virophage, virus, and host either at a stable fixed point or through cyclical dynamics. In both models, virophage tends to be the most abundant population and their presence always reduces the viral abundance and increases the host abundance. However, we do find qualitative differences between models. For example, via extensive sampling of biologically relevant parameter space, we only observe bistability when the virophage and the virus enter the host together. We discuss how such differences may be leveraged to help identify modes of infection in natural environments from population level data.

  2. Susceptibility of phagocytes from elk, deer, bighorn sheep, and domestic sheep to Pasteurella haemolytica cytotoxins.

    PubMed

    Silflow, R M; Foreyt, W J

    1994-10-01

    Alveolar macrophages and peripheral blood neutrophils from elk (Cervus elaphus), bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis), and domestic sheep were exposed to culture supernatants from Pasteurella haemolytica isolated from bighorn sheep and domestic sheep. In a second experiment, peripheral blood neutrophils from mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), elk, and bighorn sheep were exposed to culture supernatants from P. haemolytica isolated from elk, bighorn sheep and domestic sheep. Alveolar macrophages from elk, bighorn sheep and domestic sheep were resistant to killing by P. haemolytica supernatants from bighorn sheep and domestic sheep; susceptibility of neutrophils to cell death, as measured by release of lactate dehydrogenase, differed significantly (P < 0.05) between the four species tested. Bighorn sheep and domestic sheep neutrophils were susceptible to cytotoxin damage by the P. haemolytica isolates used; bighorn sheep neutrophils were four- to eight-fold more susceptible to cytotoxin damage than domestic sheep neutrophils. Neutrophils from deer and elk were resistant to killing by P. haemolytica cytotoxins from any species tested.

  3. Report of outbreaks of classical scrapie in Dorper sheep and associated prion protein gene polymorphisms in affected flocks.

    PubMed

    de Andrade, Caroline Pinto; de Oliveira, Eduardo Conceição; Leal, Juliano Souza; de Almeida, Laura Lopes; de Castro, Luiza Amaral; da Silva, Sergio Ceroni; Driemeier, David

    2015-08-01

    Scrapie is an infectious neurodegenerative disease affecting sheep and goats, related with conformational alteration of an isoform of the prion protein that leads to deposition and aggregation in the host's central nervous system. Occurrence of the natural disease can be influenced by host genetic factors, such as a single nucleotide polymorphism of the prion protein gene. This study reports three scrapie-affected Dorper flocks located on three different farms in Brazil. The objective of this study was to analyze these three flocks using scrapie diagnostics, combining histology, immunohistochemistry, genotyping, and western blot assays. For immunohistochemistry, 192 sheep were selected and 308 sheep blood samples were taken for genotyping. A total of 22 sheep were scrapie positive by immunohistochemistry. Of these, four presented clinical signs and had scrapie immunoreactivity at the obex in western blot assays. The sheep without clinical signs were positive in lymphoid organs, such as the third eyelid and rectal mucosa. The major genotypes found on the flocks were ARQ/ARQ, ARQ/ARR, and ARQ/VRQ for codons 136, 154, and 171. Most of the sheep were considered to be at moderate to high risk, based on risk groups for developing scrapie. Some blood samples were sequenced, and polymorphisms were identified in other codons, such as 127, 142, and 143. Our data demonstrate the importance of preclinical scrapie diagnosis in Brazilian sheep, as most of the affected sheep showed no clinical signs, and emphasize the relevance of genotyping other Dorper sheep to determine the genotypic profile of the breed.

  4. Invited review: Current state of genetic improvement in dairy sheep.

    PubMed

    Carta, A; Casu, Sara; Salaris, S

    2009-12-01

    Dairy sheep have been farmed traditionally in the Mediterranean basin in southern Europe, central Europe, eastern Europe, and in Near East countries. Currently, dairy sheep farming systems vary from extensive to intensive according to the economic relevance of the production chain and the specific environment and breed. Modern breeding programs were conceived in the 1960s. The most efficient selection scheme for local dairy sheep breeds is based on pyramidal management of the population with the breeders of nucleus flocks at the top, where pedigree and official milk recording, artificial insemination, controlled natural mating, and breeding value estimation are carried out to generate genetic progress. The genetic progress is then transferred to the commercial flocks through artificial insemination or natural-mating rams. Increasing milk yield is still the most profitable breeding objective for several breeds. Almost all milk is used for cheese production and, consequently, milk content traits are very important. Moreover, other traits are gaining interest for selection: machine milking ability and udder morphology, resistance to diseases (mastitis, internal parasites, scrapie), and traits related to the nutritional value of milk (fatty acid composition). Current breeding programs based on the traditional quantitative approach have achieved appreciable genetic gains for milk yield. In many cases, further selection goals such as milk composition, udder morphology, somatic cell count, and scrapie resistance have been implemented. However, the possibility of including other traits of selective interest is limited by high recording costs. Also, the organizational effort needed to apply the traditional quantitative approach limits the diffusion of current selection programs outside the European Mediterranean area. In this context, the application of selection schemes assisted by molecular information, to improve either traditional dairy traits or traits costly to record

  5. A spatial risk assessment of bighorn sheep extirpation by grazing domestic sheep on public lands.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Tim E; Coggins, Victor L; McCarthy, Clinton; O'Brien, Chans S; O'Brien, Joshua M; Schommer, Timothy J

    2014-04-01

    Bighorn sheep currently occupy just 30% of their historic distribution, and persist in populations less than 5% as abundant overall as their early 19th century counterparts. Present-day recovery of bighorn sheep populations is in large part limited by periodic outbreaks of respiratory disease, which can be transmitted to bighorn sheep via contact with domestic sheep grazing in their vicinity. In order to assess the viability of bighorn sheep populations on the Payette National Forest (PNF) under several alternative proposals for domestic sheep grazing, we developed a series of interlinked models. Using telemetry and habitat data, we characterized herd home ranges and foray movements of bighorn sheep from their home ranges. Combining foray model movement estimates with known domestic sheep grazing areas (allotments), a Risk of Contact Model estimated bighorn sheep contact rates with domestic sheep allotments. Finally, we used demographic and epidemiologic data to construct population and disease transmission models (Disease Model), which we used to estimate bighorn sheep persistence under each alternative grazing scenario. Depending on the probability of disease transmission following interspecies contact, extirpation probabilities for the seven bighorn sheep herds examined here ranged from 20% to 100%. The Disease Model allowed us to assess the probabilities that varied domestic sheep management scenarios would support persistent populations of free-ranging bighorn sheep.

  6. Functional analysis of the Myostatin gene promoter in sheep.

    PubMed

    Du, Rong; An, XiaoRong; Chen, YongFu; Qin, Jian

    2007-10-01

    Compared with the understanding for the functional mechanism of the myostatin gene, little is known about the regulatory mechanism of the myostatin gene transcription and expression. To better understand the function of the myostatin gene promoter (MSTNpro) in the transcriptional regulation of the myostatin gene and to further investigate the transcriptional regulation mechanism of the myostatin gene, the promoter region of the myostatin gene in sheep has been cloned in our recent study (AY918121). In this study, the wild (W) type MSTNPro(W)-EGFP vectors and E-box (E) (CANNTG) mutant (M) type MSTNPro(E(3+5+7)M)-EGFP vectors were constructed and the transcriptional regulation activities were compared by detecting the fluorescent strength of EGFP (enhanced green fluorescent protein) in C2C12 myoblasts (or myotubes) and sheep fibroblasts transfected with the vectors. Results showed that the 0.3-1.2 kb sheep myostatin promoter could activate the transcription and expression of EGFP gene in C2C12 myoblasts to different extent and the 1.2 kb promoter was the strongest. However, fluorescence was not observed in the sheep fibroblasts transfected with the 1.2 kb sheep myostatin promoter. These results suggested that the specific nature of the myostatin gene expression in skeletal muscle was attributed to the specific nature of the myostatin promoter activity. The increasing growth density of C2C12 myoblasts inhibited the transcriptional regulation activity of the wild type sheep myostatin promoter by a mechanism of feedback. The transcriptional regulation activity of the 1.2 kb wild type sheep myostatin promoter increased significantly after C2C12 myoblasts were differentiated, while the activity of 1.2 kb E(3+5+7)-mutant type myostatin promoter had no obvious change. This result suggested that MyoD may be responsible for the difference of the myostatin gene transcription and expression between growing and differentiating conditions by binding to E-box of the myostatin

  7. Interspecific transmission of small ruminant lentiviruses from goats to sheep

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Thiago S.; Pinheiro, Raymundo R.; Costa, Joselito N.; de Lima, Carla C.V.; Andrioli, Alice; de Azevedo, Dalva A.A.; dos Santos, Vanderlan W.S.; Araújo, Juscilânia F.; de Sousa, Ana Lídia M.; Pinheiro, Danielle N.S.; Fernandes, Flora M.C.; Costa, Antonio O.

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to evaluate the transmission of caprine lentivirus to sheep using different experimental groups. The first one (colostrum group) was formed by nine lambs receiving colostrum from goats positive for small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV). The second group (milk group) was established by nine lambs that received milk of these goats. Third was a control group, consisting of lambs that suckled colostrum and milk of negative mothers. Another experimental group (contact group) was formed by eight adult sheep, confined with two naturally infected goats. The groups were monitored by immunoblotting (IB), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) and nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR). All lambs that suckled colostrum and milk of infected goats and six sheep of the contact group had positive results in the nPCR, although seroconversion was detected only in three of the exposed animals, with no clinical lentiviruses manifestation, in 720 days of observation. There was a close relationship between viral sequences obtained from infected animals and the prototype CAEV-Cork. Thus, it was concluded that SRLV can be transmitted from goats to sheep, however, the degree of adaptation of the virus strain to the host species probably interferes with the infection persistence and seroconversion rate. PMID:26413072

  8. Interspecific transmission of small ruminant lentiviruses from goats to sheep.

    PubMed

    Souza, Thiago S de; Pinheiro, Raymundo R; Costa, Joselito N; Lima, Carla C V de; Andrioli, Alice; Azevedo, Dalva A A de; Santos, Vanderlan W S dos; Araújo, Juscilânia F; Sousa, Ana Lídia M de; Pinheiro, Danielle N S; Fernandes, Flora M C; Costa Neto, Antonio O

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to evaluate the transmission of caprine lentivirus to sheep using different experimental groups. The first one (colostrum group) was formed by nine lambs receiving colostrum from goats positive for small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV). The second group (milk group) was established by nine lambs that received milk of these goats. Third was a control group, consisting of lambs that suckled colostrum and milk of negative mothers. Another experimental group (contact group) was formed by eight adult sheep, confined with two naturally infected goats. The groups were monitored by immunoblotting (IB), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) and nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR). All lambs that suckled colostrum and milk of infected goats and six sheep of the contact group had positive results in the nPCR, although seroconversion was detected only in three of the exposed animals, with no clinical lentiviruses manifestation, in 720 days of observation. There was a close relationship between viral sequences obtained from infected animals and the prototype CAEV-Cork. Thus, it was concluded that SRLV can be transmitted from goats to sheep, however, the degree of adaptation of the virus strain to the host species probably interferes with the infection persistence and seroconversion rate.

  9. Ga(III) Nanoparticles Inhibit Growth of both Mycobacterium tuberculosis and HIV and Release of Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-8 in Coinfected Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seoung-ryoung; Britigan, Bradley E.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Treatment of individuals coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 and Mycobacterium tuberculosis is challenging due to the prolonged treatment requirements, drug toxicity, and emergence of drug resistance. Mononuclear phagocytes (MP; macrophages) are one of the natural reservoirs for both HIV and M. tuberculosis. Here, the treatment of HIV and M. tuberculosis coinfection was studied by preloading human macrophages with MP-targeted gallium (Ga) nanoparticles to limit subsequent simultaneous infection with both HIV and M. tuberculosis. Ga nanoparticles provided sustained drug release for 15 days and significantly inhibited the replication of both HIV and M. tuberculosis. Addition of Ga nanoparticles to MP already infected with M. tuberculosis or HIV resulted in a significant decrease in the magnitude of these infections, but the magnitude was less than that achieved with nanoparticle preloading of the MP. In addition, macrophages that were coinfected with HIV and M. tuberculosis and that were loaded with Ga nanoparticles reduced the levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-8 secretion for up to 15 days after drug loading. Ga nanoparticles also reduced the levels of IL-6 and IL-8 secretion by ionomycin- and lipopolysaccharide-induced macrophages, likely by modulating the IκB kinase-β/NF-κB pathway. Delivery of Ga nanoparticles to macrophages is a potent long-acting approach for suppressing HIV and M. tuberculosis coinfection of macrophages in vitro and sets the stage for the development of new approaches to the treatment of these important infections. PMID:28167548

  10. Number Crunching: A Sheep's Tale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sam, Chris Lam

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about an allegorical tale which he has written as a message for teachers of mathematics. The story is about Gordon, who led a flock of small sheep. Gordon was a mathematics genius; however, his flock criticized his teaching of numbers and his boring lectures. His furry-god-farmer advised him to share his…

  11. Acute selenium toxicosis in sheep

    SciTech Connect

    Blodgett, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    The toxicity, toxicokinetics, and progressive pathological changes produced by sodium selenite in sheep following parenteral administration were evaluated. In the intramuscular study, the LD/sub 50/ for sodium selenite was 0.7 mg selenium/kg body weight. In the continuous intravenous infusion study, a gradient of tissue selenium/kg body weight with a standard error of 0.035 over a 192 hour observation period. The most evident clinical signs were dyspnea and depression . At necropsy, the most consistent lesions were edematous lungs and pale mottled hearts. Highest tissue selenium concentrations in declining order were found in the liver, kidney, and heart. Four sheep injected intravenously with 0.7 mg selenium/kg body weight survived the 192 hour post-injection observation period. Semilogarithmic plots of blood selenium concentration versus time were triphasic. The ..cap alpha.. and ..gamma.. rate constants of sheep administered a single dose of selenium intravenously were significantly greater than those obtained when sheep were injected intramuscularly with 0.7 mg selenium concentrations was attained with 4, 8, and 12 hour infusions at steady state concentrations of 2500, 3000, and 3500 ppb selenium in the blood. The heart was the target organ of acute selenium toxicosis. A dose-response relationship was observed in the heart with degeneration evident in all hearts and necrosis present in the 2 hearts with the highest concentrations of selenium.

  12. Septic arthritis due to tubercular and Aspergillus co-infection

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Mukesh; Thilak, Jai; Zahoor, Adnan; Jyothi, Arun

    2016-01-01

    Aspergillus septic arthritis is a rare and serious medical and surgical problem. It occurs mainly in immunocompromised patients. Aspergillus fumigatus is the most common causative organism followed by Aspergillus flavus. The most common site affected is knee followed by shoulder, ankle, wrist, hip and sacroiliac joint. Debridement and voriconazole are primary treatment of articular aspergilosis. To the best of our knowledge, there are no reported cases of co-infection of tuberculosis (TB) and Aspergillus infecting joints. We report a case of co-infection of TB and A. flavus of hip and knee of a 60-year-old male, with type 2 diabetes mellitus. He was treated with debridement, intravenous voriconazole, and antitubercular drugs. PMID:27293296

  13. Conditioning food aversions to Ipomoea carnea var. Fistulosa in sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ipomoea carnea is a toxic plant in Brazil that often poisons sheep. Conditioned food aversion may be a tool to reduce intoxication problems in grazing sheep. Fifteen sheep were adapted to consume I. carnea for 36 days. Subsequently sheep were randomly divided into three groups of five sheep each. ...

  14. Characterization of clinical and immunological features in patients coinfected with dengue virus and HIV.

    PubMed

    Torrentes-Carvalho, Amanda; Hottz, Eugênio Damaceno; Marinho, Cintia Ferreira; da Silva, Jéssica Badolato-Corrêa; Pinto, Luzia Maria de Oliveira; Fialho, Luciana Gomes; Bozza, Fernando Augusto; Cunha, Rivaldo Venâncio; Damasco, Paulo Vieira; Kubelka, Claire Fernandes; de Azeredo, Elzinandes Leal

    2016-03-01

    The pathogenesis of dengue in subjects coinfected with HIV remains largely unknown. We investigate clinical and immunological parameters in coinfected DENV/HIV patients. According to the new dengue classification, most coinfected DENV/HIV patients presented mild clinical manifestations of dengue infection. Herein, we show that DENV/HIV coinfected patients had higher CD8 T cells percentages reflected as a lower CD4/CD8 ratio. Furthermore, CCR5 expression on CD4 T cells and CD107a expression on both T subsets were significantly higher in coinfected patients when compared with monoinfected DENV and HIV individuals respectively. Increased inflammatory response was observed in treated HAART coinfected patients despite undetectable HIV load. These data indicate that DENV infection may influence the clinical profile and immune response in individuals concomitantly infected with HIV.

  15. A localized negative genetic correlation constrains microevolution of coat color in wild sheep.

    PubMed

    Gratten, J; Wilson, A J; McRae, A F; Beraldi, D; Visscher, P M; Pemberton, J M; Slate, J

    2008-01-18

    The evolutionary changes that occur over a small number of generations in natural populations often run counter to what is expected on the basis of the heritability of traits and the selective forces acting upon them. In Soay sheep, dark coat color is associated with large size, which is heritable and positively correlated with fitness, yet the frequency of dark sheep has decreased. This unexpected microevolutionary trend is explained by genetic linkage between the causal mutation underlying the color polymorphism and quantitative trait loci with antagonistic effects on size and fitness. As a consequence, homozygous dark sheep are large, but have reduced fitness relative to phenotypically indistinguishable dark heterozygotes and light sheep. This result demonstrates the importance of understanding the genetic basis of fitness variation when making predictions about the microevolutionary consequences of selection.

  16. Interactions between gastrointestinal nematode parasites and diarrhoea in sheep: pathogenesis and control.

    PubMed

    Williams, Andrew R; Palmer, Dieter G

    2012-06-01

    Diarrhoea is a major impediment to profitable sheep production in many countries as it predisposes animals to blowfly strike and contaminates wool and meat carcasses. While it is accepted that nematode parasites are a major cause of diarrhoea in grazing animals, less is known about what facets of the host-parasite relationship lead to diarrhoea and what the most appropriate control strategies are. In this review, the relationship between gastrointestinal nematode infection and diarrhoea is discussed and it is concluded that in many cases, particularly in immunologically mature sheep, diarrhoea is not due to parasite infection per se but rather due to immunopathological processes. Mechanisms that lead to faecal softening in immune sheep are considered, and the question addressed as to whether anthelmintic treatment and selective breeding of naturally parasite-resistant sheep will effectively reduce the occurrence of diarrhoea.

  17. Enteric Pathogens and Coinfections in Foals with and without Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Olivo, Giovane; Lucas, Thays Mizuki; Borges, Alexandre Secorun; Silva, Rodrigo Otávio Silveira; Lobato, Francisco Carlos Faria; Siqueira, Amanda Keller; da Silva Leite, Domingos; Brandão, Paulo Eduardo; de Oliveira-Filho, José Paes

    2016-01-01

    Diarrhea is a major clinical problem affecting foals up to 3 months of age. The aim of this study was to identify enteric microorganisms involved in monoinfections and coinfections and the associated virulence factors in healthy and diarrheic foals. Diarrheic (D) (n = 56) and nondiarrheic (ND) foals (n = 60) up to three months of age were studied. Fecal samples were analyzed for identification of infectious agents (microbiological culturing, molecular techniques, and microscopic analyses). Escherichia coli fimH (30% versus 25%), Salmonella spp. (25% versus 7%), Strongyloides westeri (25% versus 25%), Clostridium perfringens type A (21% versus 10%), E. coli ag43 (20% versus 35%), Strongylus (11% versus 18%), and vapA-positive Rhodococcus equi (5% versus 2%) were the most frequent enteric pathogens detected in D and ND foals, respectively. The frequency of toxin A-positive C. perfringens was significantly increased in the D (p = 0.033) compared with the ND animals. R. equi strains harboring virulent plasmids were also identified (VapA 85-kb type I and VapA 87-kb type I) in D and ND foals. Coinfections were observed in 46% of the D and 33% of the ND foals. Our results demonstrate the great diversity of enteric pathogens, virulence factors, and coinfections involved in enteric infections of foals. PMID:28116290

  18. Diagnosis & treatment of tuberculosis in HIV co-infected patients

    PubMed Central

    Padmapriyadarsini, C.; Narendran, G.; Swaminathan, Soumya

    2011-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) associated tuberculosis (TB) remains a major global public health challenge, with an estimated 1.4 million patients worldwide. Co-infection with HIV leads to challenges in both the diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis. Further, there has been an increase in rates of drug resistant tuberculosis, including multi-drug (MDR-TB) and extensively drug resistant TB (XDRTB), which are difficult to treat and contribute to increased mortality. Because of the poor performance of sputum smear microscopy in HIV-infected patients, newer diagnostic tests are urgently required that are not only sensitive and specific but easy to use in remote and resource-constrained settings. The treatment of co-infected patients requires antituberculosis and antiretroviral drugs to be administered concomitantly; challenges include pill burden and patient compliance, drug interactions, overlapping toxic effects, and immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. Also important questions about the duration and schedule of anti-TB drug regimens and timing of antiretroviral therapy remain unanswered. From a programmatic point of view, screening of all HIV-infected persons for TB and vice-versa requires good co-ordination and communication between the TB and AIDS control programmes. Linkage of co-infected patients to antiretroviral treatment centres is critical if early mortality is to be prevented. We present here an overview of existing diagnostic strategies, new tests in the pipeline and recommendations for treatment of patients with HIV-TB dual infection. PMID:22310818

  19. Enteric Pathogens and Coinfections in Foals with and without Diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Olivo, Giovane; Lucas, Thays Mizuki; Borges, Alexandre Secorun; Silva, Rodrigo Otávio Silveira; Lobato, Francisco Carlos Faria; Siqueira, Amanda Keller; da Silva Leite, Domingos; Brandão, Paulo Eduardo; Gregori, Fábio; de Oliveira-Filho, José Paes; Takai, Shinji; Ribeiro, Márcio Garcia

    2016-01-01

    Diarrhea is a major clinical problem affecting foals up to 3 months of age. The aim of this study was to identify enteric microorganisms involved in monoinfections and coinfections and the associated virulence factors in healthy and diarrheic foals. Diarrheic (D) (n = 56) and nondiarrheic (ND) foals (n = 60) up to three months of age were studied. Fecal samples were analyzed for identification of infectious agents (microbiological culturing, molecular techniques, and microscopic analyses). Escherichia coli fimH (30% versus 25%), Salmonella spp. (25% versus 7%), Strongyloides westeri (25% versus 25%), Clostridium perfringens type A (21% versus 10%), E. coli ag43 (20% versus 35%), Strongylus (11% versus 18%), and vapA-positive Rhodococcus equi (5% versus 2%) were the most frequent enteric pathogens detected in D and ND foals, respectively. The frequency of toxin A-positive C. perfringens was significantly increased in the D (p = 0.033) compared with the ND animals. R. equi strains harboring virulent plasmids were also identified (VapA 85-kb type I and VapA 87-kb type I) in D and ND foals. Coinfections were observed in 46% of the D and 33% of the ND foals. Our results demonstrate the great diversity of enteric pathogens, virulence factors, and coinfections involved in enteric infections of foals.

  20. Archival search for historical atypical scrapie in sheep reveals evidence for mixed infections.

    PubMed

    Chong, Angela; Kennedy, Iain; Goldmann, Wilfred; Green, Andrew; González, Lorenzo; Jeffrey, Martin; Hunter, Nora

    2015-10-01

    Natural scrapie in sheep occurs in classical and atypical forms, which may be distinguished on the basis of the associated neuropathology and properties of the disease-associated prion protein on Western blots. First detected in 1998, atypical scrapie is known to have occurred in UK sheep since the 1980s. However, its aetiology remains unclear and it is often considered as a sporadic, non-contagious disease unlike classical scrapie which is naturally transmissible. Although atypical scrapie tends to occur in sheep of prion protein (PRNP) genotypes that are different from those found predominantly in classical scrapie, there is some overlap so that there are genotypes in which both scrapie forms can occur. In this search for early atypical scrapie cases, we made use of an archive of fixed and frozen sheep samples, from both scrapie-affected and healthy animals (∼1850 individuals), dating back to the 1960s. Using a selection process based primarily on PRNP genotyping, but also on contemporaneous records of unusual clinical signs or pathology, candidate sheep samples were screened by Western blot, immunohistochemistry and strain-typing methods using tg338 mice. We identified, from early time points in the archive, three atypical scrapie cases, including one sheep which died in 1972 and two which showed evidence of mixed infection with classical scrapie. Cases with both forms of scrapie in the same animal as recognizable entities suggest that mixed infections have been around for a long time and may potentially contribute to the variety of scrapie strains.

  1. Dengue and Scrub Typhus Coinfection in a Patient Presenting with Febrile Illness

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Dengue fever and scrub typhus are common causes of acute febrile illness of unclear origin in Asia. Though coinfections of many vector-borne diseases have been described, articles on dengue and scrub typhus coinfection are distinctly limited. In case of coinfection with dengue and scrub typhus, vigilant monitoring of vitals, platelets transfusion, and timely treatment with doxycycline are necessary. High degree of suspicion has to be made for coinfection in a patient presenting with febrile illness with thrombocytopenia and deranged laboratory parameters in postmonsoon season in endemic regions in Asia. PMID:28386493

  2. Nanomedicines in the treatment of patients with hepatitis C co-infected with HIV – focus on pegylated interferon-alpha

    PubMed Central

    Zoller, Heinz; Vogel, Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    In immuno-competent individuals, the natural course of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is highly variable and 5%–30% of patients develop cirrhosis over 20 years. Co-infection with HCV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is an important prognostic factor and associated with more frequent and accelerated progression to cirrhosis. Until recently HIV/AIDS-related complications were life limiting in patients co-infected with HCV; the introduction of highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) and the better prognosis of HIV infection has made HCV-related complications an emerging health problem in HCV/HIV co-infected individuals. Treatment of chronic HCV infection has also evolved since the introduction of interferon-alpha. Recently, introduction of pegylated interferon-alpha (peginterferon-alpha) has resulted in an increase in sustained virus clearance rates of up to 80% in selected genotypes and patient populations. The safety and efficacy of modern anti HCV treatment regimens – based on peginterferon-alpha in combination with ribavirin – was evaluated in 4 controlled trials. Sustained clearance of hepatitis C virus can be achieved in up to 35% of patients with HIV/HCV co-infection, and novel HCV treatment regimens based on peginterferon-alpha have no negative effect on the control of HIV disease. In conclusion, if HIV infection is well controlled and CD4+ cell counts >100/mm3, treatment of chronic hepatitis C with peginterferon in combination with ribavirin is safe and should be given for 48 weeks regardless of the HCV genotype. Introduction of peginterferon-alpha has significantly improved adherence to treatment and treatment efficacy; in particular sustained virologic response in patients with HCV genotype 1 or 4 infection improved, but sustained viral clearance in only 7%–38% of patients infected with genotype 1 and 4 cannot be the final step in development of effective treatments in patients with HCV/HIV co-infection. PMID:17722274

  3. Impaired quality of the hepatitis B virus (HBV)-specific T-cell response in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-HBV coinfection.

    PubMed

    Chang, J Judy; Sirivichayakul, Sunee; Avihingsanon, Anchalee; Thompson, Alex J V; Revill, Peter; Iser, David; Slavin, John; Buranapraditkun, Supranee; Marks, Pip; Matthews, Gail; Cooper, David A; Kent, Stephen J; Cameron, Paul U; Sasadeusz, Joe; Desmond, Paul; Locarnini, Stephen; Dore, Gregory J; Ruxrungtham, Kiat; Lewin, Sharon R

    2009-08-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV)-specific T cells play a key role both in the control of HBV replication and in the pathogenesis of liver disease. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) coinfection and the presence or absence of HBV e (precore) antigen (HBeAg) significantly alter the natural history of chronic HBV infection. We examined the HBV-specific T-cell responses in treatment-naïve HBeAg-positive and HBeAg-negative HIV-1-HBV-coinfected (n = 24) and HBV-monoinfected (n = 39) Asian patients. Peripheral blood was stimulated with an overlapping peptide library for the whole HBV genome, and tumor necrosis factor alpha and gamma interferon cytokine expression in CD8+ T cells was measured by intracellular cytokine staining and flow cytometry. There was no difference in the overall magnitude of the HBV-specific T-cell responses, but the quality of the response was significantly impaired in HIV-1-HBV-coinfected patients compared with monoinfected patients. In coinfected patients, HBV-specific T cells rarely produced more than one cytokine and responded to fewer HBV proteins than in monoinfected patients. Overall, the frequency and quality of the HBV-specific T-cell responses increased with a higher CD4+ T-cell count (P = 0.018 and 0.032, respectively). There was no relationship between circulating HBV-specific T cells and liver damage as measured by activity and fibrosis scores, and the HBV-specific T-cell responses were not significantly different in patients with either HBeAg-positive or HBeAg-negative disease. The quality of the HBV-specific T-cell response is impaired in the setting of HIV-1-HBV coinfection and is related to the CD4+ T-cell count.

  4. Demography of Dall's sheep in northwestern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kleckner, Christopher; Udevitz, Mark S.; Adams, Layne G.; Shults, Brad S.

    2003-01-01

    Dall’s sheep in northwestern Alaska declined in the early 1990s following the severe 1989-90 and 1990-91 winters. In the Baird Mountains of Noatak National Preserve, estimates of adult sheep declined by 50% from 800 in 1989 to under 400 in 1991. Population counts remained low throughout 1991 to 1996, reaching a minimum of 244 adult sheep in 1996. Few lambs were observed during annual midsummer aerial surveys in 1991 to 1994. We suspect that these declines resulted from a combination of poorer nutritional condition and increased vulnerability of sheep to predation resulting from severe winter conditions.As a result of these declines, both subsistence and sport hunting seasons were closed by emergency order in 1991, resulting in substantial management controversy. The affected publics, although willing to accept the closures, questioned the validity of the sheep survey data and strongly emphasized their interest in restoring harvests as soon as populations increased sufficiently. In 1995 the Northwest Arctic Regional Advisory Council, the local advisory committee for the Federal Subsistence Board, passed a motion supporting efforts to initiate research on sheep populations in the region to better understand the factors limiting sheep populations and to evaluate sheep survey methodologies.Currently estimates of Dall’s sheep population size and composition in the western Brooks Range are based on intensive fixed-wing aerial surveys conducted annually since 1986 in areas including the Baird Mountains. The annual variation in recent Baird Mountains aerial counts cannot be explained with reasonable assumptions about reproduction and survival, suggesting that there is some variability in the proportion of the population observed each year or that a substantial number of sheep move during the survey. Prior to our research, no attempt had been made to estimate visibility bias or precision for these surveys.Our understanding of Dall’s sheep population biology comes

  5. Emerging parasitic diseases of sheep.

    PubMed

    Taylor, M A

    2012-09-30

    There have been changes in the emergence and inability to control of a number of sheep parasitic infections over the last decade. This review focuses on the more globally important sheep parasites, whose reported changes in epidemiology, occurrence or failure to control are becoming increasingly evident. One of the main perceived driving forces is climate change, which can have profound effects on parasite epidemiology, especially for those parasitic diseases where weather has a direct effect on the development of free-living stages. The emergence of anthelmintic-resistant strains of parasitic nematodes and the increasing reliance placed on anthelmintics for their control, can exert profound changes on the epidemiology of those nematodes causing parasitic gastroenteritis. As a consequence, the effectiveness of existing control strategies presents a major threat to sheep production in many areas around the world. The incidence of the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, is inextricably linked to high rainfall and is particularly prevalent in high rainfall years. Over the last few decades, there have also been increasing reports of other fluke associated diseases, such as dicroceliosis and paramphistomosis, in a number of western European countries, possibly introduced through animal movements, and able to establish with changing climates. External parasite infections, such as myiasis, can cause significant economic loss and presents as a major welfare problem. The range of elevated temperatures predicted by current climate change scenarios, result in an elongated blowfly season with earlier spring emergence and a higher cumulative incidence of fly strike. Additionally, legislative decisions leading to enforced changes in pesticide usage and choices have resulted in increased reports and spread of ectoparasitic infections, particularly mite, lice and tick infestations in sheep. Factors, such as dip disposal and associated environmental concerns, and, perhaps more

  6. Selection signatures in worldwide sheep populations.

    PubMed

    Fariello, Maria-Ines; Servin, Bertrand; Tosser-Klopp, Gwenola; Rupp, Rachel; Moreno, Carole; San Cristobal, Magali; Boitard, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of populations in domestic species offers great opportunities to study genome response to selection. The recently published Sheep HapMap dataset is a great example of characterization of the world wide genetic diversity in sheep. In this study, we re-analyzed the Sheep HapMap dataset to identify selection signatures in worldwide sheep populations. Compared to previous analyses, we made use of statistical methods that (i) take account of the hierarchical structure of sheep populations, (ii) make use of linkage disequilibrium information and (iii) focus specifically on either recent or older selection signatures. We show that this allows pinpointing several new selection signatures in the sheep genome and distinguishing those related to modern breeding objectives and to earlier post-domestication constraints. The newly identified regions, together with the ones previously identified, reveal the extensive genome response to selection on morphology, color and adaptation to new environments.

  7. Selection Signatures in Worldwide Sheep Populations

    PubMed Central

    Fariello, Maria-Ines; Servin, Bertrand; Tosser-Klopp, Gwenola; Rupp, Rachel; Moreno, Carole; Cristobal, Magali San; Boitard, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of populations in domestic species offers great opportunities to study genome response to selection. The recently published Sheep HapMap dataset is a great example of characterization of the world wide genetic diversity in sheep. In this study, we re-analyzed the Sheep HapMap dataset to identify selection signatures in worldwide sheep populations. Compared to previous analyses, we made use of statistical methods that (i) take account of the hierarchical structure of sheep populations, (ii) make use of linkage disequilibrium information and (iii) focus specifically on either recent or older selection signatures. We show that this allows pinpointing several new selection signatures in the sheep genome and distinguishing those related to modern breeding objectives and to earlier post-domestication constraints. The newly identified regions, together with the ones previously identified, reveal the extensive genome response to selection on morphology, color and adaptation to new environments. PMID:25126940

  8. Isolation of Leptospira noguchii from sheep

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Éverton F.; Brod, Claudiomar S.; Cerqueira, Gustavo M.; Bourscheidt, Débora; Seyffert, Núbia; Queiroz, Adriano; Santos, Cleiton S.; Ko, Albert I.; Dellagostin, Odir A.

    2007-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to obtain new isolates of Leptospira spp. from sheep. A total of ten kidney samples and 44 blood samples were collected from sheep slaughtered in Pelotas, Southern Brazil. One isolate was obtained which was identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and serogrouping to be Leptospira noguchii serogroup Autumnalis. Microscopic agglutination test (MAT) evaluation revealed that 4.5% of the sheep sera reacted against the Autumnalis serogroup. This is the first report of isolation of L. noguchii from sheep. Together these findings indicate that L. noguchii infections may be a potentially important veterinary problem in this domestic animal species. PMID:17222993

  9. Isolation of Leptospira noguchii from sheep.

    PubMed

    Silva, Everton F; Brod, Claudiomar S; Cerqueira, Gustavo M; Bourscheidt, Débora; Seyffert, Núbia; Queiroz, Adriano; Santos, Cleiton S; Ko, Albert I; Dellagostin, Odir A

    2007-03-31

    The main goal of this study was to obtain new isolates of Leptospira spp. from sheep. A total of 10 kidney samples and 44 blood samples were collected from sheep slaughtered in Pelotas, Southern Brazil. One isolate was obtained which was identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and serogrouping to be Leptospira noguchii serogroup Autumnalis. Microscopic agglutination test (MAT) evaluation revealed that 4.5% of the sheep sera reacted against the Autumnalis serogroup. This is the first report of isolation of L. noguchii from sheep. Together these findings indicate that L. noguchii infections may be a potentially important veterinary problem in this domestic animal species.

  10. Chromosome aberration test for hydroxyapatite in sheep.

    PubMed

    Kannan, T P; Nik Ahmad Shah, N L; Azlina, A; Samsudin, A R; Narazah, M Y; Salleh, Ma'arof

    2004-05-01

    The present study is aimed at finding the mutagenicity and cytotoxicity of dense form of synthetic hydroxyapatite (Source: School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia) in the blood of sheep. The biomaterial was implanted in the tibia of Malin, an indigenous sheep breed of Malaysia. Blood was collected from the sheep before implantation of the biomaterial, cultured and a karyological study was made. Six weeks after implantation, blood was collected from the same animal, cultured and screened for chromosome aberrations. The mitotic indices and karyological analysis indicated that the implantation of synthetic hydroxyapatite (dense form) did not produce any cytotoxicity or chromosome aberrations in the blood of sheep.

  11. Naturally infected catfish concurrently transmit Ichthyophthirius multifiliis and Edwardsiella ictaluri to naive catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterium Edwardsiella ictaluri and parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich) are two common pathogens of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) which cause major losses to catfish aquaculture. There is limited information available whether fish naturally coinfected with Ich and E. ictaluri can con...

  12. Healthy ageing of cloned sheep

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, K. D.; Corr, S. A.; Gutierrez, C. G.; Fisher, P. A.; Lee, J.-H.; Rathbone, A. J.; Choi, I.; Campbell, K. H. S.; Gardner, D. S.

    2016-01-01

    The health of cloned animals generated by somatic-cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has been of concern since its inception; however, there are no detailed assessments of late-onset, non-communicable diseases. Here we report that SCNT has no obvious detrimental long-term health effects in a cohort of 13 cloned sheep. We perform musculoskeletal assessments, metabolic tests and blood pressure measurements in 13 aged (7–9 years old) cloned sheep, including four derived from the cell line that gave rise to Dolly. We also perform radiological examinations of all main joints, including the knees, the joint most affected by osteoarthritis in Dolly, and compare all health parameters to groups of 5-and 6-year-old sheep, and published reference ranges. Despite their advanced age, these clones are euglycaemic, insulin sensitive and normotensive. Importantly, we observe no clinical signs of degenerative joint disease apart from mild, or in one case moderate, osteoarthritis in some animals. Our study is the first to assess the long-term health outcomes of SCNT in large animals. PMID:27459299

  13. A method for quantifying mixed goat cashmere and sheep wool.

    PubMed

    Ji, Wan; Bai, Li; Ji, Ming; Yang, Xue

    2011-05-20

    Cashmere is a high-priced commodity in the world market. For financial gains, various interested parties often adulterate cashmere with cheap sheep wool. Here, we describe a method that can quickly extract mitochondrial DNA from natural or processed animal hair. We further designed two sets of TaqMan polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers and probes that can react specifically to goat and sheep mitochondrial 12S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. Using TaqMan PCR, we can not only distinguish between cashmere and wool but also quantify their contents in a cashmere/wool mixture. The method can be applied directly to examine the quality of cashmere products in the world markets.

  14. Neospora caninum in sheep: a herd case report.

    PubMed

    Hässig, M; Sager, H; Reitt, K; Ziegler, D; Strabel, D; Gottstein, B

    2003-11-14

    Neospora caninum was detected by means of PCR in the brain of 4 out of 20 aborted fetuses in a flock of 117 sheep exhibiting a persistent abortion problem, and N. caninum tissue cysts were furthermore found in encephalitic lesions in one of the PCR-positive fetuses. Toxoplasma gondii was detected as aborting agent in another 3 out of 20 fetuses. Antibodies to N. caninum (by indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT)) were found in 10.3% of 117 ewes and antibodies for T. gondii were found in 97.4% of 117 ewes. Other organisms associated with abortion were Chlamydia psittaci in three fetuses and Pasteurella multocida in one fetus. This is the first report of N. caninum associated abortion in naturally infected sheep.

  15. Influence of feed type and its effect on repressing wool-biting behavior in housed sheep.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chen-Yu; Takeda, Ken-Ichi

    2016-08-01

    Sheep sometimes develop an abnormal behavior termed as wool-biting when kept in an indoor system; however, little is known about this behavior. As the provided feed type may affect the foraging behavior and repress abnormal behavior in animals, we tested the effect of feed type on repressing wool-biting behavior in this study. We used hay prepared in three forms, that is hay bales, rolls and cubes. The wool-biting frequency associated with hay bales was significantly higher than that associated with rolls (P < 0.05) and cubes (P < 0.05); however, there was no significant difference between rolls and cubes. For hay rolls, wool-biting significantly decreased after feeding (P < 0.05), suggesting that rolls may provide sheep with appropriate oral stimulation; thus, decreasing the post-feeding oral abnormal behavior. An individual difference of wool-biting behavior between sheep was also detected, and an unexpected bed-eating behavior was found in the hay cube treatment. We suggest that sheep performing movements that are similar to their natural foraging behavior while grazing would repress wool-biting behavior, which happened in hay roll and hay cube treatments. Considering sanitation and animal welfare, providing sheep with hay rolls may provide an easier method to control wool-biting behavior in housed sheep.

  16. Influence of hydrothermal factors on wool development of Tan sheep in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, C. J.; Shiquan, Wang

    1992-06-01

    Hydrothermal factors in Ningxia, an arid and semi-arid area in Northwestern China, were examined to determine their influence on the geographical differentiation of the wool quality of Tan sheep lambskin. Prospective areas for extension of the Tan sheep industry were also investigated. Two sheep groups were sampled; one consisted of artificial insemination flocks (1241 lambs sampled from 25 flocks) and the other of natural mating flocks (1009 lambs from 38 flocks). Six phenotypical traits were measured for each lamb and six hydrothermal factors were collected from the meteorological stations located in the sampling areas. A significant correlation was found between wool characteristics of the lambskin and hydrothermal conditions. Data further indicated that among all the hydrothermal factors measured, those causing the geographical differentiation of soil and vegetation were the major factors responsible for the corresponding differentiation of the lambskin and wool quality of Tan sheep. Thermal factors were mostly positively correlated with wool quality, while the influence of moisture was negative. Three eco-geographical regions were defined based on a combination of the hydrothermal conditions and corresponding wool characters: (i) typical region or super-suitable region, (ii) sub-typical region or suitable region and (iii) transitional region. The delimitation could be used as a basis for the extension of the Tan sheep industry. It is also suggested that the wool quality of lambskin of Tan sheep in these three regions could be improved by means of controlled breeding and selection.

  17. Pathogen burden, co-infection and major histocompatibility complex variability in the European badger (Meles meles).

    PubMed

    Sin, Yung Wa; Annavi, Geetha; Dugdale, Hannah L; Newman, Chris; Burke, Terry; MacDonald, David W

    2014-10-01

    Pathogen-mediated selection is thought to maintain the extreme diversity in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes, operating through the heterozygote advantage, rare-allele advantage and fluctuating selection mechanisms. Heterozygote advantage (i.e. recognizing and binding a wider range of antigens than homozygotes) is expected to be more detectable when multiple pathogens are considered simultaneously. Here, we test whether MHC diversity in a wild population of European badgers (Meles meles) is driven by pathogen-mediated selection. We examined individual prevalence (infected or not), infection intensity and co-infection of 13 pathogens from a range of taxa and examined their relationships with MHC class I and class II variability. This population has a variable, but relatively low, number of MHC alleles and is infected by a variety of naturally occurring pathogens, making it very suitable for the investigation of MHC-pathogen relationships. We found associations between pathogen infections and specific MHC haplotypes and alleles. Co-infection status was not correlated with MHC heterozygosity, but there was evidence of heterozygote advantage against individual pathogen infections. This suggests that rare-allele advantages and/or fluctuating selection, and heterozygote advantage are probably the selective forces shaping MHC diversity in this species. We show stronger evidence for MHC associations with infection intensity than for prevalence and conclude that examining both pathogen prevalence and infection intensity is important. Moreover, examination of a large number and diversity of pathogens, and both MHC class I and II genes (which have different functions), provide an improved understanding of the mechanisms driving MHC diversity.

  18. Immunohistochemical distinction between preclinical bovine spongiform encephalopathy and scrapie infection in sheep.

    PubMed

    Thuring, C M A; van Keulen, L J M; Langeveld, J P M; Vromans, M E W; van Zijderveld, F G; Sweeney, T

    2005-01-01

    Sheep are susceptible experimentally to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), the clinical signs being indistinguishable from those of scrapie. Because of the possibility of natural ovine BSE infection, laboratory tests are needed to distinguish between scrapie and BSE infection. The objectives of this study were to determine whether (1) PrPSc accumulates in biopsy samples of the tonsil or third eyelid, or both, of BSE-infected sheep before the appearance of clinical disease, and (2) such samples from BSE- and scrapie-infected sheep differ in respect of PrPSc accumulations. Homozygous ARQ sheep (n = 10) were dosed orally at 4-5 months of age with a brain homogenate from BSE-infected cattle. Third eyelid and tonsillar biopsy samples were taken at < or = 6 monthly intervals post-infection and examined immunohistochemically for PrPSc. Third eyelid protuberances were difficult to identify, resulting in many unsuitable samples; however, third eyelid samples shown to contain lymphoid follicles were invariably negative for PrPSc. In contrast, tonsillar biopsy samples became positive for PrPSc from 11 to 20 months post-infection. Consistent differences in the morphology of PrPSc granules in tingible body macrophages (TBMs) between BSE- and scrapie-infected sheep were detected with anti-peptide antibodies directed towards amino acids 93-106 of the ovine prion protein: thus, PrPSc appeared as single granules in TBMs of tonsillar sections from BSE-infected sheep, whereas clusters of PrPSc granules were observed within TBMs in the tonsils of scrapie-infected sheep. In contrast, antibodies against epitopes situated N- and C-terminally from the 93-106 region of the ovine prion protein revealed no differences between BSE- and scrapie-infected sheep in terms of PrPSc granules in TBMs.

  19. Intratracheal infection as an efficient route for testing vaccines against Chlamydia abortus in sheep.

    PubMed

    Álvarez, D; Salinas, J; Buendía, A J; Ortega, N; del Río, L; Sánchez, J; Navarro, J A; Gallego, M C; Murcia-Belmonte, A; Cuello, F; Caro, M R

    2015-09-01

    Pregnant ewes have been widely used to test vaccines against Chlamydia abortus. However, this model entails many disadvantages such as high economic costs and long periods of pregnancy. The murine model is very useful for specific studies but cannot replace the natural host for the later stages of vaccine evaluation. Therefore, a non-pregnant model of the natural host might be useful for a vaccine trial to select the best vaccine candidates prior to use of the pregnant model. With this aim, two routes of infection were assessed in young non-pregnant sheep, namely, intranasal (IN) and intratracheal (IT). In addition, groups of non-vaccinated sheep and sheep immunised with an inactivated vaccine were established to investigate the suitability of the model for testing vaccines. After the experimental infection, isolation of the microorganism in several organs, with pathological and immunohistochemical analyses, antibody production assessment and investigation by PCR of the presence of chlamydia in the vagina or rectum were carried out. Experimental IT inoculation of C. abortus induced pneumonia in sheep during the first few days post-infection, confirming the suitability of the IT route for testing vaccines in the natural host. The course of infection and the resulting pathological signs were less severe in vaccinated sheep compared with non-vaccinated animals, demonstrating the success of vaccination. IN infection did not produce evident lesions or demonstrate the presence of chlamydial antigen in the lungs and cannot be considered an appropriate model for testing vaccines.

  20. War and peace between microbes: HIV-1 interactions with coinfecting viruses.

    PubMed

    Lisco, Andrea; Vanpouille, Christophe; Margolis, Leonid

    2009-11-19

    HIV-1 disrupts the homeostatic equilibrium between the host and coinfecting microbes, facilitating reactivation of persistent viruses and invasion by new viruses. These viruses usually accelerate HIV disease but occasionally create conditions detrimental for HIV-1. Understanding these phenomena may lead to anti-HIV-1 strategies that specifically target interactions between HIV-1 and coinfecting viruses.

  1. Early Induction of Cytokines in Pigs Coinfected with Swine Influenza Virus and Bordetella bronchiseptica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Respiratory disease is one of the most important health issues for the swine industry, and coinfection with two or more pathogens is a common occurrence. Bordetella bronchiseptica and swine influenza virus (SIV) are important and common respiratory pathogens of pigs. The effect of coinfection of S...

  2. Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis in a Child with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Co-Infection

    PubMed Central

    Maurya, Pradeep Kumar; Thakkar, Mayur Deepak; Kulshreshtha, Dinkar; Singh, Ajai Kumar; Thacker, Anup Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis is a fatal infectious disease of childhood caused by persistence of the measles virus in the brain. The effect of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection on subacute sclerosing panencephalitis remains elusive and rare. We report a child who developed subacute sclerosing panencephalitis following a short latency period and a rapidly progressive course with HIV co-infection. PMID:27777245

  3. An ecologic study comparing distribution of Pasteurella trehalosi and Mannheimia haemolytica between Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep, White Mountain bighorn sheep, and domestic sheep.

    PubMed

    Tomassini, Letizia; Gonzales, Ben; Weiser, Glen C; Sischo, William

    2009-10-01

    The prevalence and phenotypic variability of Pasteurella and Mannheimia isolates from Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis sierrae), White Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni), and domestic sheep (Ovis aries) from California, USA, were compared. The White Mountain bighorn sheep population had a recent history of pneumonia-associated mortality, whereas the Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep population had no recent history of pneumonia-associated mortality. The domestic sheep flocks were pastured in areas geographically near both populations but were not known to have direct contact with either bighorn sheep population. Oropharyngeal swab samples were collected from healthy domestic and bighorn sheep and cultured to characterize bacterial species, hemolysis, biogroups, and biovariants. Pasteurella trehalosi and Mannheimia haemolytica were detected in all of the study populations, but the relative proportion of each bacterial species differed among sheep populations. Pasteurella trehalosi was more common than M. haemolytica in the bighorn sheep populations, whereas the opposite was true in domestic sheep. Mannheimia haemolytica was separated into 11 biogroups, and P. trehalosi was characterized into two biogroups. Biogroup distributions for M. haemolytica and P. trehalosi differed among the three populations; however, no difference was detected for the distribution of P. trehalosi biogroups between the Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep and domestic sheep. The prevalence odds ratios (pOR) for the distribution of M. haemolytica biogroups suggested little difference between White Mountain bighorn sheep and domestic sheep compared with Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep and domestic sheep, although these comparisons had relatively large confidence intervals for the point estimates. Hemolytic activity of the isolates was not different among the sheep populations for M. haemolytica but was different for P. trehalosi. No clear evidence of association was found in the

  4. [A meningitis case of Brucella and tuberculosis co-infection].

    PubMed

    Karsen, Hasan; Karahocagil, Mustafa Kasim; Irmak, Hasan; Demiröz, Ali Pekcan

    2008-10-01

    Turkey is located at an endemic area for brusellosis and tuberculosis which are both important public health problems. Meningitis caused by Brucella and Mycobacterium spp. may be confused since the clinical and laboratory findings are similar. In this report, a meningitis case with Brucella and tuberculosis co-infection has been presented. A 19-years-old woman was admitted to our clinic with severe headache, fever, vomiting, meningeal irritation symptoms, confusion and diplopia. The patient was initially diagnosed as Brucella meningitis based on her history (stockbreeding, consuming raw milk products, clinical symptoms concordant to brucellosis lasting for 4-5 months), physical examination and laboratory findings of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Standard tube agglutination test for brucellosis was positive at 1/80 titer in CSF and at 1/640 titer in serum, whereas no growth of Brucella spp. was detected in CSF and blood cultures. Antibiotic therapy with ceftriaxone, rifampicin and doxycyclin was started, however, there was no clinical improvement and agitation and confusion of the patient continued by the end of second day of treatment. Repeated CSF examination yielded acid-fast bacteria. The patient was then diagnosed as meningitis with double etiology and the therapy was changed to ceftriaxone, streptomycin, morphozinamide, rifampicin and isoniazid for thirty days. Tuberculosis meningitis was confirmed with the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis on the 14th day of cultivation (BACTEC, Becton Dickinson, USA) of the CSF sample. On the 30th day of treatment she was discharged on anti-tuberculous treatment with isoniazid and rifampicin for 12 months. The follow-up of the patient on the first and third months of treatment revealed clinical and laboratory improvement. Since this was a rare case of Brucella and tuberculosis co-infection, this report emphasizes that such co-infections should be kept in mind especially in the endemic areas for tuberculosis and brucellosis.

  5. Malaria-Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Co-infection: Influence on Disease Outcomes and Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Pinna, Raquel A.; Silva-dos-Santos, Danielle; Perce-da-Silva, Daiana S.; Oliveira-Ferreira, Joseli; Villa-Verde, Dea M. S.; De Luca, Paula M.; Banic, Dalma M.

    2016-01-01

    Malaria and Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) are co-endemic throughout large regions in tropical countries and co-infection may impact the evolution of host-parasite interactions. In the present study, we evaluate Malaria/Leishmaniasis disease outcome, Th1/Th2 cytokine levels and the CD4 and CD8 T-cell profiles in a co-infection murine model (BALB/c) of Plasmodium yoelii 17XNL (Py) and Leishmania amazonensis (La) or L. braziliensis (Lb). Malaria parasitaemia was assessed through blood strains stained with Giemsa. Leishmania lesions were monitored with a digital caliper and parasite loads determined by limiting-dilution assay. Serum levels of IFN-γ, TNF, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-17 were determined using multiplexed bead assay and expression of CD3, CD4, and CD8 T-cells markers were determined by Flow Cytometry in the thymus, spleens and lymph nodes. Parasitaemia in Lb+Py co-infected group was lower than in Py single-infected group, suggesting a protective effect of Lb co-infection in Malaria progression. In contrast, La+Py co-infection increased parasitaemia, patent infection and induced mortality in non-lethal Malaria infection. Regarding Leishmaniasis, Lb+Py co-infected group presented smaller lesions and less ulceration than Lb single-infected animals. In contrast, La+Py co-infected group presented only a transitory delay on the development of lesions when compared to La single-infected mice. Decreased levels of IFN-γ, TNF, IL-6, and IL-10 were observed in the serum of co-infected groups, demonstrating a modulation of Malaria immune response by Leishmania co-infections. We observed an intense thymic atrophy in Py single-infected and co-infected groups, which recovered earlier in co-infected animals. The CD4 and CD8 T cell profiles in thymus, spleens and lymph nodes did not differ between Py single and co-infected groups, except for a decrease in CD4+CD8+ T cells which also increased faster in co-infected mice. Our results suggest that Py and Leishmania co-infection

  6. Malaria-Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Co-infection: Influence on Disease Outcomes and Immune Response.

    PubMed

    Pinna, Raquel A; Silva-Dos-Santos, Danielle; Perce-da-Silva, Daiana S; Oliveira-Ferreira, Joseli; Villa-Verde, Dea M S; De Luca, Paula M; Banic, Dalma M

    2016-01-01

    Malaria and Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) are co-endemic throughout large regions in tropical countries and co-infection may impact the evolution of host-parasite interactions. In the present study, we evaluate Malaria/Leishmaniasis disease outcome, Th1/Th2 cytokine levels and the CD4 and CD8 T-cell profiles in a co-infection murine model (BALB/c) of Plasmodium yoelii 17XNL (Py) and Leishmania amazonensis (La) or L. braziliensis (Lb). Malaria parasitaemia was assessed through blood strains stained with Giemsa. Leishmania lesions were monitored with a digital caliper and parasite loads determined by limiting-dilution assay. Serum levels of IFN-γ, TNF, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-17 were determined using multiplexed bead assay and expression of CD3, CD4, and CD8 T-cells markers were determined by Flow Cytometry in the thymus, spleens and lymph nodes. Parasitaemia in Lb+Py co-infected group was lower than in Py single-infected group, suggesting a protective effect of Lb co-infection in Malaria progression. In contrast, La+Py co-infection increased parasitaemia, patent infection and induced mortality in non-lethal Malaria infection. Regarding Leishmaniasis, Lb+Py co-infected group presented smaller lesions and less ulceration than Lb single-infected animals. In contrast, La+Py co-infected group presented only a transitory delay on the development of lesions when compared to La single-infected mice. Decreased levels of IFN-γ, TNF, IL-6, and IL-10 were observed in the serum of co-infected groups, demonstrating a modulation of Malaria immune response by Leishmania co-infections. We observed an intense thymic atrophy in Py single-infected and co-infected groups, which recovered earlier in co-infected animals. The CD4 and CD8 T cell profiles in thymus, spleens and lymph nodes did not differ between Py single and co-infected groups, except for a decrease in CD4(+)CD8(+) T cells which also increased faster in co-infected mice. Our results suggest that Py and Leishmania

  7. Impacts of animal science research on United States sheep production and predictions for the future.

    PubMed

    Lupton, C J

    2008-11-01

    new (or previously unused) technologies, the desire of the public for things natural, domestic niche and international fiber markets, and the ability of the sheep to control noxious weeds and thrive in suboptimal ecosystems.

  8. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) heterozygote superiority to natural multi-parasite infections in the water vole (Arvicola terrestris).

    PubMed

    Oliver, M K; Telfer, S; Piertney, S B

    2009-03-22

    The fundamental role of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in immune recognition has led to a general consensus that the characteristically high levels of functional polymorphism at MHC genes is maintained by balancing selection operating through host-parasite coevolution. However, the actual mechanism by which selection operates is unclear. Two hypotheses have been proposed: overdominance (or heterozygote superiority) and negative frequency-dependent selection. Evidence for these hypotheses was evaluated by examining MHC-parasite relationships in an island population of water voles (Arvicola terrestris). Generalized linear mixed models were used to examine whether individual variation at an MHC class II DRB locus explained variation in the individual burdens of five different parasites. MHC genotype explained a significant amount of variation in the burden of gamasid mites, fleas (Megabothris walkeri) and nymphs of sheep ticks (Ixodes ricinus). Additionally, MHC heterozygotes were simultaneously co-infected by fewer parasite types than homozygotes. In each case where an MHC-dependent effect on parasite burden was resolved, the heterozygote genotype was associated with fewer parasites, and the heterozygote outperformed each homozygote in two of three cases, suggesting an overall superiority against parasitism for MHC heterozygote genotypes. This is the first demonstration of MHC heterozygote superiority against multiple parasites in a natural population, a mechanism that could help maintain high levels of functional MHC genetic diversity in natural populations.

  9. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) heterozygote superiority to natural multi-parasite infections in the water vole (Arvicola terrestris)

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, M.K.; Telfer, S.; Piertney, S.B.

    2008-01-01

    The fundamental role of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in immune recognition has led to a general consensus that the characteristically high levels of functional polymorphism at MHC genes is maintained by balancing selection operating through host–parasite coevolution. However, the actual mechanism by which selection operates is unclear. Two hypotheses have been proposed: overdominance (or heterozygote superiority) and negative frequency-dependent selection. Evidence for these hypotheses was evaluated by examining MHC–parasite relationships in an island population of water voles (Arvicola terrestris). Generalized linear mixed models were used to examine whether individual variation at an MHC class II DRB locus explained variation in the individual burdens of five different parasites. MHC genotype explained a significant amount of variation in the burden of gamasid mites, fleas (Megabothris walkeri) and nymphs of sheep ticks (Ixodes ricinus). Additionally, MHC heterozygotes were simultaneously co-infected by fewer parasite types than homozygotes. In each case where an MHC-dependent effect on parasite burden was resolved, the heterozygote genotype was associated with fewer parasites, and the heterozygote outperformed each homozygote in two of three cases, suggesting an overall superiority against parasitism for MHC heterozygote genotypes. This is the first demonstration of MHC heterozygote superiority against multiple parasites in a natural population, a mechanism that could help maintain high levels of functional MHC genetic diversity in natural populations. PMID:19129114

  10. Genetic Diversity of US Sheep Breeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding the genetic relationships between US sheep breeds is useful in developing conservation strategies and actions. A broad sampling of individual sheep from 28 breeds was performed. Breed types included: fine wool, meat types, long wool, hair, prolific, and fat tailed. Blood and semen samp...

  11. Goats, sheep, and cattle: some basics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pasture-based finishing systems for meat goats, sheep and cattle are growing rapidly in the eastern USA. Increasing demand for pasture-raised meat and dairy products requires renewed efforts to communicate the best practical information in order to initiate mixed grazing with goats, sheep, and beef...

  12. Histoplasma capsulatum and Pneumocystis spp. co-infection in wild bats from Argentina, French Guyana, and Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Histoplasma capsulatum and Pneumocystis organisms cause host infections primarily affecting the lung tissue. H. capsulatum is endemic in the United States of America and Latin American countries. In special environments, H. capsulatum is commonly associated with bat and bird droppings. Pneumocystis-host specificity has been primarily studied in laboratory animals, and its ability to be harboured by wild animals remains as an important issue for understanding the spread of this pathogen in nature. Bats infected with H. capsulatum or Pneumocystis spp. have been found, with this mammal serving as a probable reservoir and disperser; however, the co-infection of bats with both of these microorganisms has never been explored. To evaluate the impact of H. capsulatum and Pneumocystis spp. infections in this flying mammal, 21 bat lungs from Argentina (AR), 13 from French Guyana (FG), and 88 from Mexico (MX) were screened using nested-PCR of the fragments, employing the Hcp100 locus for H. capsulatum and the mtLSUrRNA and mtSSUrRNA loci for Pneumocystis organisms. Results Of the 122 bats studied, 98 revealed H. capsulatum infections in which 55 of these bats exhibited this infection alone. In addition, 51 bats revealed Pneumocystis spp. infection of which eight bats exhibited a Pneumocystis infection alone. A total of 43 bats (eight from AR, one from FG, and 34 from MX) were found co-infected with both fungi, representing a co-infection rate of 35.2% (95% CI = 26.8-43.6%). Conclusion The data highlights the H. capsulatum and Pneumocystis spp.co-infection in bat population’s suggesting interplay with this wild host. PMID:24495513

  13. Immunohistochemical and histopathological findings of ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma (Jaagsiekte) in Egyptian sheep.

    PubMed

    Oda, Samah Shehata; Youssef, Sameh Ahmed

    2011-12-01

    Ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma (OPA) is a naturally occurring retrovirus-induced transmissible lung cancer in sheep. Lungs and associated (bronchial and mediastinal) lymph nodes of seven sheep with OPA were examined. Lungs had few multifocal consolidated slightly elevated gray to white masses ranging from 0.5 to 3 cm in diameter. Histopathologically, these masses appeared as well-differentiated acinar adenocarcinoma with little evidence of anaplasia. The acini composed of well-differentiated cuboidal to low columnar epithelium with clear or vacuolated cytoplasm and low mitotic index. No metastases were observed in the bronchial and mediastinal lymph nodes of any animal. The presence of Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) was demonstrated in the lungs by immunohistochemistry. JSRV protein was detected in all tumor epithelial cells, histologically normal alveolar type II cells, and few bronchiolar epithelial cells, alveolar macrophages, lymphocytes, and plasma cells. This study is the first to confirm the presence of natural OPA in Egypt.

  14. Pulmonary coinfection by Pneumocystis jiroveci and Cryptococcus neoformans.

    PubMed

    Javier, Bava; Susana, Lloveras; Santiago, Garro; Alcides, Troncoso

    2012-01-01

    We communicate the diagnosis by microscopy of a pulmonary coinfection produced by Cryptococcus neoformans and Pneumocystis jiroveci, from a respiratory secretion obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage of an AIDS patient. Our review of literature identified this coinfection as unusual presentation. Opportunistic infections associated with HIV infection are increasingly recognized. It may occur at an early stage of HIV-infection. Whereas concurrent opportunistic infections may occur, coexisting Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCP) and disseminated cryptococcosis with cryptococcal pneumonia is uncommon. The lungs of individuals infected with HIV are often affected by opportunistic infections and tumours and over two-thirds of patients have at least one respiratory episode during the course of their disease. Pneumonia is the leading HIV-associated infection. We present the case of a man who presented dual Pneumocystis jiroveci and cryptococcal pneumonia in a patient with HIV. Definitive diagnosis of PCP and Cryptococcus requires demonstration of these organisms in pulmonary tissues or fluid. In patients with < 200/microliter CD4-lymphocytes, a bronchoalveolar lavage should be performed. This patient was successfully treated with amphotericin B and trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole. After 1 week the patient showed clinical and radiologic improvement and was discharged 3 weeks later.

  15. Bacterial coinfections in travelers with malaria: rationale for antibiotic therapy.

    PubMed

    Sandlund, Johanna; Naucler, Pontus; Dashti, Saduddin; Shokri, Akhar; Eriksson, Sara; Hjertqvist, Marika; Karlsson, Lillemor; Capraru, Teodor; Färnert, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Malaria predisposes children in areas where malaria is endemic to concurrent bacteremia, often with severe outcomes. The importance of bacterial coinfections in patients diagnosed with malaria in nonendemic settings has, however, not been reported. A retrospective analysis of microbiology data was performed in 755 travelers diagnosed with malaria in Sweden. Bacterial cultures from blood and other locations were correlated to clinical outcome and antibiotic treatment. Blood cultures were drawn from 417 (55%) patients (88% of whom were >15 years old), and bacterial isolates of clinical relevance (Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis and Escherichia coli) were detected in 2 patients (0.3%). Cultures from other locations (mainly urine, nasopharyngeal, and fecal samples) were obtained from 44% of the patients with 4.9% positivity. Of the 38 patients given antibiotics, 47% had neither severe malaria nor positive cultures and/or radiology signs indicative of treatment. C-reactive protein levels were associated with bacterial infections but had only a fair predictive value. Bacterial coinfections are uncommon among travelers with malaria. These data suggest a weaker association between malaria and bacteremia than previously described in endemic settings and might indicate different patient populations with different pathophysiological mechanisms and microbial environments. The study supports a restrictive antibiotic policy in returning travelers with malaria.

  16. Tuberculosis and histoplasmosis co-infection in AIDS patients.

    PubMed

    Agudelo, Carlos A; Restrepo, Carlos A; Molina, Diego A; Tobón, Angela M; Kauffman, Carol A; Murillo, Carolina; Restrepo, Angela

    2012-12-01

    Abstract. Coinfection with tuberculosis in some countries occurs in 8-15% of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) -infected patients who have histoplasmosis. This coinfection interferes with prompt diagnosis, and treatment is difficult because of drug interactions. We retrospectively reviewed the cases of 14 HIV-infected patients who had concomitant tuberculosis and histoplasmosis. The most frequent clinical manifestations were weight loss (85.7%), asthenia (78.5%), and fever (64.2%). The diagnosis of histoplasmosis was made primarily by histopathology (71.4%), and the diagnosis of tuberculosis was made by means of direct microscopic examination (71.4%). Death occurred in two patients, and relapse of both infections occurred in one patient. Moxifloxacin was substituted for rifampicin in six patients, with good outcomes noted for both infections. The clinical presentation does not readily identify acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients who have tuberculosis and histoplasmosis. The use of a fluoroquinolone as an alternative agent in place of rifampicin for tuberculosis allows effective therapy with itraconazole for histoplasmosis.

  17. Haemophilus somnus (Histophilus somni) in bighorn sheep

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Respiratory disease and poor lamb recruitment have been identified as limiting factors for bighorn-sheep populations. Haemophilus somnus (recently reclassified as Histophilus somni) is associated with respiratory disease in American bison, domestic sheep, and cattle. It is also harbored in their reproductive tracts and has been associated with reproductive failure in domestic sheep and cattle. Therefore, reproductive tract and lung samples from bighorn sheep were evaluated for the presence of this organism. Organisms identified as H. somnus were isolated from 6 of 62 vaginal but none of 12 preputial swab samples. Antigen specific to H. somnus was detected by immunohistochemical study in 4 of 12 formalin-fixed lung tissue samples of bighorn sheep that died with evidence of pneumonia. Notably, H. somnus was found in alveolar debris in areas of inflammation. The 6 vaginal isolates and 2 H. somnus isolates previously cultured from pneumonic lungs of bighorn sheep were compared with 3 representative isolates from domestic sheep and 2 from cattle. The profiles of major outer membrane proteins and antigens for all of the isolates were predominantly similar, although differences that may be associated with the host–parasite relationship and virulence were detected. The DNA restriction fragment length profiles of the bighorn-sheep isolates had similarities not shared with the other isolates, suggesting distinct phylogenetic lines. All of the isolates had similar antimicrobial profiles, but the isolates from the bighorn sheep produced less pigment than those from the domestic livestock, and growth of the former was not enhanced by CO2. Wildlife biologists and diagnosticians should be aware of the potential of these organisms to cause disease in bighorn sheep and of growth characteristics that may hinder laboratory detection. PMID:16548330

  18. 9 CFR 113.45 - Sheep safety test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sheep safety test. 113.45 Section 113... Procedures § 113.45 Sheep safety test. The sheep safety test provided in this section shall be conducted when.... (1) Inject each of two sheep of the minimum age for which the product is recommended with...

  19. 9 CFR 113.45 - Sheep safety test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sheep safety test. 113.45 Section 113... Procedures § 113.45 Sheep safety test. The sheep safety test provided in this section shall be conducted when.... (1) Inject each of two sheep of the minimum age for which the product is recommended with...

  20. 9 CFR 113.45 - Sheep safety test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sheep safety test. 113.45 Section 113... Procedures § 113.45 Sheep safety test. The sheep safety test provided in this section shall be conducted when.... (1) Inject each of two sheep of the minimum age for which the product is recommended with...

  1. 9 CFR 113.45 - Sheep safety test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sheep safety test. 113.45 Section 113... Procedures § 113.45 Sheep safety test. The sheep safety test provided in this section shall be conducted when.... (1) Inject each of two sheep of the minimum age for which the product is recommended with...

  2. 9 CFR 113.45 - Sheep safety test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sheep safety test. 113.45 Section 113... Procedures § 113.45 Sheep safety test. The sheep safety test provided in this section shall be conducted when.... (1) Inject each of two sheep of the minimum age for which the product is recommended with...

  3. Anthelmintic activity of Indigofera tinctoria against gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep

    PubMed Central

    Meenakshisundaram, Ambalathaduvar; Harikrishnan, Tirunelveli Jayagopal; Anna, Thavasi

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes are considered as a major constraint for successful sheep production. Control of these parasites heavily relies on the use of chemical anthelmintics. Over the past decades, the development of anthelmintic resistance to various groups of anthelmintics and problem of drug residues in animal products has awakened interest in medicinal plants as an alternative source of anthelmintics. Hence, this study was undertaken to evaluate the anthelmintic efficacy of Indigofera tinctoria by scientifically validated in vitro and in vivo tests approved by the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology. Materials and Methods: In vitro assays such as egg hatch assay for ovicidal and larval migration inhibition and larval development assay for larvicidal properties were used to investigate in vitro effect of extracts on strongyle egg and larvae, respectively. Fecal egg count reduction test was conducted in vivo to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of the extracts administered orally at dose rates of 125, 250, 500 mg/kg to sheep naturally infected with mixed GI nematodes. Results: Ethanolic extract of I. tinctoria demonstrated significant (p<0.01) inhibition on egg hatching at concentrations of 40 mg/ml and 80 mg/ml. In in vivo assay, the ethanolic extract of I. tinctoria reduced the fecal egg count ranging between 30.82% and 47.78% at various doses (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg). Although there was a slight variation, all the hematological parameters were within the normal range reported for sheep. Except for alanine transaminase, the overall mean of all the serum biochemical profile was within the normal range for sheep. Conclusion: Based on the results obtained by in vitro and in vivo assay, the ethanolic extract of I. tinctoria possesses anthelmintic activity and could replace the chemical anthelmintics used presently. PMID:27051192

  4. Rapid and Progressive Regional Brain Atrophy in CLN6 Batten Disease Affected Sheep Measured with Longitudinal Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Sawiak, Stephen J.; Perumal, Sunthara Rajan; Rudiger, Skye R.; Matthews, Loren; Mitchell, Nadia L.; McLaughlan, Clive J.; Bawden, C. Simon; Palmer, David N.; Kuchel, Timothy; Morton, A. Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Variant late-infantile Batten disease is a neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis caused by mutations in CLN6. It is a recessive genetic lysosomal storage disease characterised by progressive neurodegeneration. It starts insidiously and leads to blindness, epilepsy and dementia in affected children. Sheep that are homozygous for a natural mutation in CLN6 have an ovine form of Batten disease Here, we used in vivo magnetic resonance imaging to track brain changes in 4 unaffected carriers and 6 affected Batten disease sheep. We scanned each sheep 4 times, between 17 and 22 months of age. Cortical atrophy in all sheep was pronounced at the baseline scan in all affected Batten disease sheep. Significant atrophy was also present in other brain regions (caudate, putamen and amygdala). Atrophy continued measurably in all of these regions during the study. Longitudinal MRI in sheep was sensitive enough to measure significant volume changes over the relatively short study period, even in the cortex, where nearly 40% of volume was already lost at the start of the study. Thus longitudinal MRI could be used to study the dynamics of progression of neurodegenerative changes in sheep models of Batten disease, as well as to assess therapeutic efficacy. PMID:26161747

  5. Prevalence of O157:H7 and non-O157 E. coli in Iranian domestic sheep.

    PubMed

    Tahamtan, Yahya; Namavari, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was the isolation of both E. coli O157 and non-O157 in sheep. Verotoxins (VT) 1, 2 and eae genes were tested for this propose. Sheep faces are an important source of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a highly virulent food-borne pathogen and threat to public health. Rectal swab samples from sheep were collected during 2009-2010. Conventional plating and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) were carried out according to virulence factors (Stx1, Stx2 and eaeA).There significant differences between prevalence of STEC and session were observed. It was at highest in spring and late summer. Six (3.92%) sheep carcasses were contaminated by E. coli O157:H7.Only six samples were positive by PCR specific for the VT2 gene and produced verocytotoxin VT2, whereas all isolates were negative for the presence of VT1 and eae virulence genes considered. Geographical variations and season may be influenced in the prevalence rate. The composition of the gastrointestinal flora may be changed by different diet and, therefore O157 STEC rate in sheep and lamb was different. Iranian sheep indicated as a natural host of E. coli O157 strains therefore, may be potentially pathogenic for humans. This is the first report of E. coli O157 detection from sheep in Iran.

  6. Prevalence of human norovirus and Clostridium difficile coinfections in adult hospitalized patients

    PubMed Central

    Stokely, Janelle N; Niendorf, Sandra; Taube, Stefan; Hoehne, Marina; Young, Vincent B; Rogers, Mary AM; Wobus, Christiane E

    2016-01-01

    Objective Human norovirus (HuNoV) and Clostridium difficile are common causes of infectious gastroenteritis in adults in the US. However, limited information is available regarding HuNoV and C. difficile coinfections. Our study was designed to evaluate the prevalence of HuNoV and C. difficile coinfections among adult patients in a hospital setting and disease symptomatology. Study design and setting For a cross-sectional analysis, 384 fecal samples were tested for the presence of C. difficile toxins from patients (n=290), whom the provider suspected of C. difficile infections. Subsequent testing was then performed for HuNoV genogroups I and II. Multinomial logistic regression was performed to determine symptoms more frequently associated with coinfections. Results The final cohort consisted of the following outcome groups: C. difficile (n=196), C. difficile + HuNoV coinfection (n=40), HuNoV only (n=12), and neither (n=136). Coinfected patients were more likely to develop nausea, gas, and abdominal pain and were more likely to seek treatment in the winter season compared with individuals not infected or infected with either pathogen alone. Conclusion Our study revealed that patients with coinfection are more likely to experience certain gastrointestinal symptoms, in particular abdominal pain, suggesting an increased severity of disease symptomatology in coinfected patients. PMID:27418856

  7. Recombinant interferon-γ lentivirus co-infection inhibits adenovirus replication ex vivo.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Yin, Sen; Tan, Wanlong; Xiao, Dong; Weng, Yunceng; Wang, Wenjing; Li, Tingting; Shi, Junwen; Shuai, Lifang; Li, Hongwei; Zhou, Jianhua; Allain, Jean-Pierre; Li, Chengyao

    2012-01-01

    Recombinant interferon-γ (IFNγ) production in cultured lentivirus (LV) was explored for inhibition of target virus in cells co-infected with adenovirus type 5 (Ad5). The ability of three different promoters of CMV, EF1α and Ubiquitin initiating the enhanced green fluorescence protein (GFP) activities within lentiviruses was systematically assessed in various cell lines, which showed that certain cell lines selected the most favorable promoter driving a high level of transgenic expression. Recombinant IFNγ lentivirus carrying CMV promoter (LV-CMV-IFNγ) was generated to co-infect 293A cells with a viral surrogate of recombinant GFP Ad5 in parallel with LV-CMV-GFP control. The best morphologic conditions were observed from the two lentiviruses co-infected cells, while single adenovirus infected cells underwent clear pathologic changes. Viral load of adenoviruses from LV-CMV-IFNγ or LV-CMV-GFP co-infected cell cultures was significantly lower than that from adenovirus alone infected cells (P=0.005-0.041), and the reduction of adenoviral load in the co-infected cells was 86% and 61%, respectively. Ad5 viral load from LV-CMV-IFNγ co-infected cells was significantly lower than that from LV-CMV-GFP co-infection (P=0.032), which suggested that IFNγ rather than GFP could further enhance the inhibition of Ad5 replication in the recombinant lentivirus co-infected cells. The results suggest that LV-CMV-IFNγ co-infection could significantly inhibit the target virus replication and might be a potential approach for alternative therapy of severe viral diseases.

  8. Recombinant Interferon-γ Lentivirus Co-Infection Inhibits Adenovirus Replication Ex Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ling; Yin, Sen; Tan, Wanlong; Xiao, Dong; Weng, Yunceng; Wang, Wenjing; Li, Tingting; Shi, Junwen; Shuai, Lifang; Li, Hongwei; Zhou, Jianhua; Allain, Jean-Pierre; Li, Chengyao

    2012-01-01

    Recombinant interferon-γ (IFNγ) production in cultured lentivirus (LV) was explored for inhibition of target virus in cells co-infected with adenovirus type 5 (Ad5). The ability of three different promoters of CMV, EF1α and Ubiquitin initiating the enhanced green fluorescence protein (GFP) activities within lentiviruses was systematically assessed in various cell lines, which showed that certain cell lines selected the most favorable promoter driving a high level of transgenic expression. Recombinant IFNγ lentivirus carrying CMV promoter (LV-CMV-IFNγ) was generated to co-infect 293A cells with a viral surrogate of recombinant GFP Ad5 in parallel with LV-CMV-GFP control. The best morphologic conditions were observed from the two lentiviruses co-infected cells, while single adenovirus infected cells underwent clear pathologic changes. Viral load of adenoviruses from LV-CMV-IFNγ or LV-CMV-GFP co-infected cell cultures was significantly lower than that from adenovirus alone infected cells (P = 0.005–0.041), and the reduction of adenoviral load in the co-infected cells was 86% and 61%, respectively. Ad5 viral load from LV-CMV-IFNγ co-infected cells was significantly lower than that from LV-CMV-GFP co-infection (P = 0.032), which suggested that IFNγ rather than GFP could further enhance the inhibition of Ad5 replication in the recombinant lentivirus co-infected cells. The results suggest that LV-CMV-IFNγ co-infection could significantly inhibit the target virus replication and might be a potential approach for alternative therapy of severe viral diseases. PMID:22916129

  9. Stronger hepatitis C virus-specific CD8+ T-cell responses in HIV coinfection.

    PubMed

    Barrett, L; Gallant, M; Howley, C; Ian Bowmer, M; Hirsch, G; Peltekian, K; Grant, M

    2011-03-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a widespread chronic infection that shares routes of transmission with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Thus, coinfection with these viruses is a relatively common and growing problem. In general, liver disease develops over years with HIV coinfection, when compared to decades in HCV monoinfection. The role of the immune system in the accelerated pathogenesis of liver disease in HIV/HCV coinfection is not clear. In this study, we compared the frequency, magnitude, breadth and specificity of peripheral blood CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses between HCV-monoinfected and HCV/HIV-coinfected individuals and between HIV/HCV-coinfected subgroups distinguished by anti-HCV antibody and HCV RNA status. While HIV coinfection tended to reduce the frequency and breadth of anti-HCV CD8+ T-cell responses in general, responses that were present were substantially stronger than in monoinfection. In all groups, HCV-specific CD4+ T-cell responses were rare and weak, independent of either nadir or concurrent CD4+ T-cell counts of HIV-infected individuals. Subgroup analysis demonstrated restricted breadth of CD8+ HCV-specific T-cell responses and lower B-cell counts in HIV/HCV-coinfected individuals without anti-HCV antibodies. The greatest difference between HIV/HCV-coinfected and HCV-monoinfected groups was substantially stronger HCV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses in the HIV-coinfected group, which may relate to accelerated liver disease in this setting.

  10. Quantification of hepatic FOXP3+ T-lymphocytes in HIV/hepatitis C coinfection.

    PubMed

    Williams, S K; Donaldson, E; Van der Kleij, T; Dixon, L; Fisher, M; Tibble, J; Gilleece, Y; Klenerman, P; Banham, A H; Howard, M; Webster, D P

    2014-04-01

    Coinfection with HIV adversely impacts every stage of hepatitis C (HCV) infection. Liver damage in HCV infection results from host antiviral responses rather than direct viral pathogenesis. Despite depressed cellular immunity, coinfected patients show accelerated hepatic fibrosis compared with HCV monoinfected patients. This paradox is poorly understood. T-regulatory (Treg) cells (CD4+ and FOXP3+) are hypothesized to limit hepatic damage in HCV. Our hypothesis was that reduced frequency of hepatic Treg in HIV/HCV coinfection compared with HCV monoinfection may explain poorer outcomes. We quantified FOXP3+, CD4+, CD8+ and CD20+ cells in liver biopsies of 35 male subjects matched by age and ISHAK fibrosis score, 12 HIV monoinfected, 11 HCV monoinfected and 12 HIV/HCV coinfected. Cell counts were performed using indirect immunohistochemical staining and light microscopy. HIV/HCV coinfected subjects had fewer hepatic FOXP3+ (P = 0.031) and CD4+ cells (P = 0.001) than HCV monoinfected subjects. Coinfected subjects had more hepatic CD8+ cells compared with HCV monoinfected (P = 0.023), and a lower ratio of FOXP3+ to CD8+ cells (0.08 vs 0.27, P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed number of CD4+ cells controlled for differences in number of FOXP3+ cells. Fewer hepatic FOXP3+ and CD4+ cells in HIV/HCV coinfection compared with HCV monoinfection suggests lower Treg activity, driven by an overall loss of CD4+ cells. Higher number of CD8+ cells in HIV/HCV coinfection suggests higher cytotoxic activity. This may explain poorer outcomes in HIV/HCV coinfected patients and suggests a potential mechanism by which highly active antiretroviral therapy may benefit these patients.

  11. Reduced Parasite Burden in Children with Falciparum Malaria and Bacteremia Coinfections: Role of Mediators of Inflammation

    DOE PAGES

    Davenport, Gregory C.; Hittner, James B.; Otieno, Vincent; ...

    2016-01-01

    Bmore » acteremia and malaria coinfection is a common and life-threatening condition in children residing in sub-Saharan Africa. We previously showed that coinfection with Gram negative (G[−]) entericacilli and Plasmodium falciparum ( Pf [+]) was associated with reduced high-density parasitemia (HDP, >10,000 parasites/ μ L), enhanced respiratory distress, and severe anemia. Since inflammatory mediators are largely unexplored in such coinfections, circulating cytokines were determined in four groups of children ( n = 206 , aged <3 yrs): healthy; Pf [+] alone; G[−] coinfected; and G[+] coinfected. Staphylococcus aureus and non-Typhi Salmonella were the most frequently isolated G[+] and G[−] organisms, respectively. Coinfected children, particularly those with G[−] pathogens, had lower parasite burden (peripheral and geometric mean parasitemia and HDP). In addition, both coinfected groups had increased IL-4, IL-5, IL-7, IL-12, IL-15, IL-17, IFN- γ , and IFN- α and decreased TNF- α relative to malaria alone. Children with G[−] coinfection had higher IL-1 β and IL-1Ra and lower IL-10 than the Pf [+] group and higher IFN- γ than the G[+] group. To determine how the immune response to malaria regulates parasitemia, cytokine production was investigated with a multiple mediation model. Cytokines with the greatest mediational impact on parasitemia were IL-4, IL-10, IL-12, and IFN- γ . Results here suggest that enhanced immune activation, especially in G[−] coinfected children, acts to reduce malaria parasite burden.« less

  12. Reduced Parasite Burden in Children with Falciparum Malaria and Bacteremia Coinfections: Role of Mediators of Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Davenport, Gregory C.; Mukundan, Harshini; Fenimore, Paul W.; Hengartner, Nicolas W.; McMahon, Benjamin H.; Ong'echa, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Bacteremia and malaria coinfection is a common and life-threatening condition in children residing in sub-Saharan Africa. We previously showed that coinfection with Gram negative (G[−]) enteric Bacilli and Plasmodium falciparum (Pf[+]) was associated with reduced high-density parasitemia (HDP, >10,000 parasites/μL), enhanced respiratory distress, and severe anemia. Since inflammatory mediators are largely unexplored in such coinfections, circulating cytokines were determined in four groups of children (n = 206, aged <3 yrs): healthy; Pf[+] alone; G[−] coinfected; and G[+] coinfected. Staphylococcus aureus and non-Typhi Salmonella were the most frequently isolated G[+] and G[−] organisms, respectively. Coinfected children, particularly those with G[−] pathogens, had lower parasite burden (peripheral and geometric mean parasitemia and HDP). In addition, both coinfected groups had increased IL-4, IL-5, IL-7, IL-12, IL-15, IL-17, IFN-γ, and IFN-α and decreased TNF-α relative to malaria alone. Children with G[−] coinfection had higher IL-1β and IL-1Ra and lower IL-10 than the Pf[+] group and higher IFN-γ than the G[+] group. To determine how the immune response to malaria regulates parasitemia, cytokine production was investigated with a multiple mediation model. Cytokines with the greatest mediational impact on parasitemia were IL-4, IL-10, IL-12, and IFN-γ. Results here suggest that enhanced immune activation, especially in G[−] coinfected children, acts to reduce malaria parasite burden. PMID:27418744

  13. High seroprevalence of granulocytic ehrlichiosis distinguishes sheep that were the source of an alimentary epidemic of tick-borne encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Zeman, Petr; Januska, Jiri; Orolinova, Marta; Stuen, Snorre; Struhar, Viktor; Jebavy, Lukas

    2004-09-30

    A sheep herd from which contaminated cheese was produced, causing 21 cases of alimentary tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) in human beings, was tested serologically for the presence of specific antibodies against both the TBE virus (TBEV) and Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the cause of tick-borne fever (TBF) in ruminants, and compared with three other herds variously exposed to tick bites but without any TBE history. Virus-neutralisation (VN) with the TBEV strain Hypr and CV-1 cells was used in TBE tests, and indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) with neutrophils from goats experimentally infected with A. phagocytophilum was used for TBF testing. In 13 sheep from the incriminated herd (N =41), VN titres ranging from 1/4 to 1/128 traced previous TBE infection and all sheep had elevated titres of A. phagocytophilum antibodies ranging from 1/80 to 1/5120 in IFA, whereas two other herds (N = 8 and 9) were seronegative for TBEV and had significantly lower levels of A. phagocytophilum antibodies, corresponding to a lesser challenge from TBF. A control herd (N = 10) that was grazed on tick-free meadows in north Norway was completely seronegative. The respective distributions of positive titres of A. phagocytophilum and TBEV antibodies in the incriminated herd were not mutually random; the animals with higher anti-A. phagocytophilum titres tended to have lower anti-TBEV titres and vice versa (Spearman correlation coeff. =-0.86, p< or =0.01). The authors hypothesize that the immunosuppressive effect of TBF co-infection in sheep could be a contributory cause of TBE-virus contamination of milk, an aspect of TBE epidemiology that has not been considered thus far.

  14. Seroprevalence, isolation and co-infection of multiple Toxoplasma gondii strains in individual bobcats (Lynx rufus) from Mississippi, USA.

    PubMed

    Verma, Shiv K; Sweeny, Amy R; Lovallo, Matthew J; Calero-Bernal, Rafael; Kwok, Oliver C; Jiang, Tiantian; Su, Chunlei; Grigg, Michael E; Dubey, Jitender P

    2017-04-01

    Toxoplasma gondii causes lifelong chronic infection in both feline definitive hosts and intermediate hosts. Multiple exposures to the parasite are likely to occur in nature due to high environmental contamination. Here, we present data of high seroprevalence and multiple T. gondii strain co-infections in individual bobcats (Lynx rufus). Unfrozen samples (blood, heart, tongue and faeces) were collected from 35 free ranging wild bobcats from Mississippi, USA. Toxoplasma gondii antibodies were detected in serum by the modified agglutination test (1:≥200) in all 35 bobcats. Hearts from all bobcats were bioassayed in mice and viable T. gondii was isolated from 21; these strains were further propagated in cell culture. Additionally, DNA was extracted from digests of tongues and hearts of all 35 bobcats; T. gondii DNA was detected in tissues of all 35 bobcats. Genetic characterisation of DNA from cell culture-derived isolates was performed by multiplex PCR using 10 PCR-RFLP markers. Results showed that ToxoDB genotype #5 predominated (in 18 isolates) with a few other types (#24 in two isolates, and #2 in one isolate). PCR-DNA sequencing at two polymorphic markers, GRA6 and GRA7, detected multiple recombinant strains co-infecting the tissues of bobcats; most possessing Type II alleles at GRA7 versus Type X (HG-12) alleles at GRA6. Our results suggest that individual bobcats have been exposed to more than one parasite strain during their life time.

  15. Co-infection with two strains of Brome mosaic bromovirus reveals common RNA recombination sites in different hosts.

    PubMed

    Kolondam, Beivy; Rao, Parth; Sztuba-Solinska, Joanna; Weber, Philipp H; Dzianott, Aleksandra; Johns, Mitrick A; Bujarski, Jozef J

    2015-01-01

    We have previously reported intra-segmental crossovers in Brome mosaic virus (BMV) RNAs. In this work, we studied the homologous recombination of BMV RNA in three different hosts: barley (Hordeum vulgare), Chenopodium quinoa, and Nicotiana benthamiana that were co-infected with two strains of BMV: Russian (R) and Fescue (F). Our work aimed at (1) establishing the frequency of recombination, (2) mapping the recombination hot spots, and (3) addressing host effects. The F and R nucleotide sequences differ from each other at many translationally silent nucleotide substitutions. We exploited this natural variability to track the crossover sites. Sequencing of a large number of cDNA clones revealed multiple homologous crossovers in each BMV RNA segment, in both the whole plants and protoplasts. Some recombination hot spots mapped at similar locations in different hosts, suggesting a role for viral factors, but other sites depended on the host. Our results demonstrate the chimeric ('mosaic') nature of the BMV RNA genome.

  16. Comparative Susceptibility of Sheep of Different Origins, Breeds and PRNP Genotypes to Challenge with Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy and Scrapie

    PubMed Central

    Houston, Fiona; Goldmann, Wilfred; Foster, James; González, Lorenzo; Jeffrey, Martin; Hunter, Nora

    2015-01-01

    Sheep are natural hosts of the prion disease, scrapie. They are also susceptible to experimental challenge with various scrapie strains and with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), which affects cattle and has been accidentally transmitted to a range of other species, including man. Incidence and incubation period of clinical disease in sheep following inoculation is controlled by the PRNP gene, which has different alleles defined on the basis of polymorphisms, particularly at codons 136, 154 and 171, although other codons are associated with survival time, and the exact responses of the sheep may be influenced by other breed-related differences. Here we report the results of a long term single study of experimental scrapie and BSE susceptibility of sheep of Cheviot, Poll Dorset and Suffolk breeds, originating from New Zealand and of a wide range of susceptible and resistant PRNP genotypes. Responses were compared with those of sheep from a closed Cheviot flock of UK origin (Roslin Cheviot flock). The unusually long observation period (6–8 years for most, but up to 12 years for others) allows us to draw robust conclusions about rates of survival of animals previously regarded as resistant to infection, particularly PRNP heterozygotes, and is the most comprehensive such study reported to date. BSE inoculation by an intracerebral route produced disease in all genotype groups with differing incubation periods, although M112T and L141F polymorphisms seemed to give some protection. Scrapie isolate SSBP/1, which has the shortest incubation period in sheep with at least one VRQ PRNP allele, also produced disease following sub-cutaneous inoculation in ARQ/ARQ animals of New Zealand origin, but ARQ/ARQ sheep from the Roslin flock survived the challenge. Our results demonstrate that the links between PRNP genotype and clinical prion disease in sheep are much less secure than previously thought, and may break down when, for example, a different breed of sheep is moved

  17. Comparative Susceptibility of Sheep of Different Origins, Breeds and PRNP Genotypes to Challenge with Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy and Scrapie.

    PubMed

    Houston, Fiona; Goldmann, Wilfred; Foster, James; González, Lorenzo; Jeffrey, Martin; Hunter, Nora

    2015-01-01

    Sheep are natural hosts of the prion disease, scrapie. They are also susceptible to experimental challenge with various scrapie strains and with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), which affects cattle and has been accidentally transmitted to a range of other species, including man. Incidence and incubation period of clinical disease in sheep following inoculation is controlled by the PRNP gene, which has different alleles defined on the basis of polymorphisms, particularly at codons 136, 154 and 171, although other codons are associated with survival time, and the exact responses of the sheep may be influenced by other breed-related differences. Here we report the results of a long term single study of experimental scrapie and BSE susceptibility of sheep of Cheviot, Poll Dorset and Suffolk breeds, originating from New Zealand and of a wide range of susceptible and resistant PRNP genotypes. Responses were compared with those of sheep from a closed Cheviot flock of UK origin (Roslin Cheviot flock). The unusually long observation period (6-8 years for most, but up to 12 years for others) allows us to draw robust conclusions about rates of survival of animals previously regarded as resistant to infection, particularly PRNP heterozygotes, and is the most comprehensive such study reported to date. BSE inoculation by an intracerebral route produced disease in all genotype groups with differing incubation periods, although M112T and L141F polymorphisms seemed to give some protection. Scrapie isolate SSBP/1, which has the shortest incubation period in sheep with at least one VRQ PRNP allele, also produced disease following sub-cutaneous inoculation in ARQ/ARQ animals of New Zealand origin, but ARQ/ARQ sheep from the Roslin flock survived the challenge. Our results demonstrate that the links between PRNP genotype and clinical prion disease in sheep are much less secure than previously thought, and may break down when, for example, a different breed of sheep is moved

  18. Wolbachia co-infection in a hybrid zone: discovery of horizontal gene transfers from two Wolbachia supergroups into an animal genome.

    PubMed

    Funkhouser-Jones, Lisa J; Sehnert, Stephanie R; Martínez-Rodríguez, Paloma; Toribio-Fernández, Raquel; Pita, Miguel; Bella, José L; Bordenstein, Seth R

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid zones and the consequences of hybridization have contributed greatly to our understanding of evolutionary processes. Hybrid zones also provide valuable insight into the dynamics of symbiosis since each subspecies or species brings its unique microbial symbionts, including germline bacteria such as Wolbachia, to the hybrid zone. Here, we investigate a natural hybrid zone of two subspecies of the meadow grasshopper Chorthippus parallelus in the Pyrenees Mountains. We set out to test whether co-infections of B and F Wolbachia in hybrid grasshoppers enabled horizontal transfer of phage WO, similar to the numerous examples of phage WO transfer between A and B Wolbachia co-infections. While we found no evidence for transfer between the divergent co-infections, we discovered horizontal transfer of at least three phage WO haplotypes to the grasshopper genome. Subsequent genome sequencing of uninfected grasshoppers uncovered the first evidence for two discrete Wolbachia supergroups (B and F) contributing at least 448 kb and 144 kb of DNA, respectively, into the host nuclear genome. Fluorescent in situ hybridization verified the presence of Wolbachia DNA in C. parallelus chromosomes and revealed that some inserts are subspecies-specific while others are present in both subspecies. We discuss our findings in light of symbiont dynamics in an animal hybrid zone.

  19. Phylogenetic and Genome-Wide Deep-Sequencing Analyses of Canine Parvovirus Reveal Co-Infection with Field Variants and Emergence of a Recent Recombinant Strain

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, Ruben; Calleros, Lucía; Marandino, Ana; Sarute, Nicolás; Iraola, Gregorio; Grecco, Sofia; Blanc, Hervé; Vignuzzi, Marco; Isakov, Ofer; Shomron, Noam; Carrau, Lucía; Hernández, Martín; Francia, Lourdes; Sosa, Katia; Tomás, Gonzalo; Panzera, Yanina

    2014-01-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV), a fast-evolving single-stranded DNA virus, comprises three antigenic variants (2a, 2b, and 2c) with different frequencies and genetic variability among countries. The contribution of co-infection and recombination to the genetic variability of CPV is far from being fully elucidated. Here we took advantage of a natural CPV population, recently formed by the convergence of divergent CPV-2c and CPV-2a strains, to study co-infection and recombination. Complete sequences of the viral coding region of CPV-2a and CPV-2c strains from 40 samples were generated and analyzed using phylogenetic tools. Two samples showed co-infection and were further analyzed by deep sequencing. The sequence profile of one of the samples revealed the presence of CPV-2c and CPV-2a strains that differed at 29 nucleotides. The other sample included a minor CPV-2a strain (13.3% of the viral population) and a major recombinant strain (86.7%). The recombinant strain arose from inter-genotypic recombination between CPV-2c and CPV-2a strains within the VP1/VP2 gene boundary. Our findings highlight the importance of deep-sequencing analysis to provide a better understanding of CPV molecular diversity. PMID:25365348

  20. Phylogenetic and genome-wide deep-sequencing analyses of canine parvovirus reveal co-infection with field variants and emergence of a recent recombinant strain.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Ruben; Calleros, Lucía; Marandino, Ana; Sarute, Nicolás; Iraola, Gregorio; Grecco, Sofia; Blanc, Hervé; Vignuzzi, Marco; Isakov, Ofer; Shomron, Noam; Carrau, Lucía; Hernández, Martín; Francia, Lourdes; Sosa, Katia; Tomás, Gonzalo; Panzera, Yanina

    2014-01-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV), a fast-evolving single-stranded DNA virus, comprises three antigenic variants (2a, 2b, and 2c) with different frequencies and genetic variability among countries. The contribution of co-infection and recombination to the genetic variability of CPV is far from being fully elucidated. Here we took advantage of a natural CPV population, recently formed by the convergence of divergent CPV-2c and CPV-2a strains, to study co-infection and recombination. Complete sequences of the viral coding region of CPV-2a and CPV-2c strains from 40 samples were generated and analyzed using phylogenetic tools. Two samples showed co-infection and were further analyzed by deep sequencing. The sequence profile of one of the samples revealed the presence of CPV-2c and CPV-2a strains that differed at 29 nucleotides. The other sample included a minor CPV-2a strain (13.3% of the viral population) and a major recombinant strain (86.7%). The recombinant strain arose from inter-genotypic recombination between CPV-2c and CPV-2a strains within the VP1/VP2 gene boundary. Our findings highlight the importance of deep-sequencing analysis to provide a better understanding of CPV molecular diversity.

  1. Wolbachia co-infection in a hybrid zone: discovery of horizontal gene transfers from two Wolbachia supergroups into an animal genome

    PubMed Central

    Sehnert, Stephanie R.; Martínez-Rodríguez, Paloma; Toribio-Fernández, Raquel; Pita, Miguel; Bella, José L.; Bordenstein, Seth R.

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid zones and the consequences of hybridization have contributed greatly to our understanding of evolutionary processes. Hybrid zones also provide valuable insight into the dynamics of symbiosis since each subspecies or species brings its unique microbial symbionts, including germline bacteria such as Wolbachia, to the hybrid zone. Here, we investigate a natural hybrid zone of two subspecies of the meadow grasshopper Chorthippus parallelus in the Pyrenees Mountains. We set out to test whether co-infections of B and F Wolbachia in hybrid grasshoppers enabled horizontal transfer of phage WO, similar to the numerous examples of phage WO transfer between A and B Wolbachia co-infections. While we found no evidence for transfer between the divergent co-infections, we discovered horizontal transfer of at least three phage WO haplotypes to the grasshopper genome. Subsequent genome sequencing of uninfected grasshoppers uncovered the first evidence for two discrete Wolbachia supergroups (B and F) contributing at least 448 kb and 144 kb of DNA, respectively, into the host nuclear genome. Fluorescent in situ hybridization verified the presence of Wolbachia DNA in C. parallelus chromosomes and revealed that some inserts are subspecies-specific while others are present in both subspecies. We discuss our findings in light of symbiont dynamics in an animal hybrid zone. PMID:26664808

  2. Inherited abnormalities of skeletal development in sheep.

    PubMed

    Thompson, K G; Piripi, S A; Dittmer, K E

    2008-09-01

    Inherited diseases of the skeleton are reported less often in sheep than in most other domestic animal species but are likely to occur more frequently than the veterinary literature would suggest. Although most are lethal or semi-lethal, the gene frequency for some of these diseases has reached surprisingly high levels in defined populations, presumably due either to the founder effect or the presence of a selective advantage of heterozygous individuals. This article reviews the clinical characteristics, pathology, mode of inheritance and molecular basis of skeletal diseases known to have a genetic aetiology in sheep. Inherited skeletal diseases of sheep are potential models for studying the treatment of similar diseases in humans.

  3. Effects of treatment on IgE responses against parasite allergen-like proteins and immunity to reinfection in childhood schistosome and hookworm coinfections.

    PubMed

    Pinot de Moira, Angela; Jones, Frances M; Wilson, Shona; Tukahebwa, Edridah; Fitzsimmons, Colin M; Mwatha, Joseph K; Bethony, Jeffrey M; Kabatereine, Narcis B; Dunne, David W

    2013-01-01

    Naturally occurring human immunity to both schistosomiasis and hookworm infection has been associated with IgE responses against parasite allergen-like proteins. Since the two helminths frequently coinfect the same individuals, there is growing advocacy for their concurrent treatment. However, both helminths are known to exert strong immunomodulatory effects; therefore, coinfected individuals could have immune responses different from those characteristically seen in monoinfected individuals. In this study, we measured changes in IgE, IgG1, and IgG4 responses to schistosome and hookworm antigens, including the allergen-like proteins Schistosoma mansoni tegumental-allergen-like 1 protein (SmTAL1), SmTAL2, and Necator americanus Ancylostoma-secreted protein-2 (Na-ASP-2), following concurrent treatment of schoolchildren coinfected with Schistosoma mansoni and hookworm. Antibody responses to schistosome egg (soluble egg antigen and SmTAL2) or somatic adult hookworm (AHW) antigens either decreased after treatment or were unchanged, whereas those to schistosome worm antigens (soluble worm antigen and SmTAL1) increased. The observed different effects of treatment likely reflect the different modes of drug action and sites of infection for these two helminths. Importantly, there was no evidence that the simultaneous treatment of coinfected children with praziquantel and albendazole affected schistosome- and hookworm-specific humoral responses differently from those characteristic of populations in which only one organism is endemic; schistosome- and hookworm-specific responses were not associated, and there was no evidence for cross-regulation. Posttreatment increases in the levels of IgE to schistosome worm antigens were associated with lower Schistosoma mansoni reinfection intensity, while no associations between humoral responses to AHW antigen and protection from hookworm reinfection were observed in this sample of school-aged children.

  4. Rumen protozoa in South African sheep with a summary of the worldwide distribution of sheep protozoa.

    PubMed

    Booyse, Dirk; Dehority, Burk A

    2011-07-15

    Protozoa species were identified in rumen contents of four domestic sheep (Ovis aries) from South Africa. All animals were fed a forage diet which consisted of 50% lucerne and 50% teff hay. Ten new host records were identified, bringing the total number of species and forms observed in sheep in South Africa to 30. The occurrence and geographic distribution of ciliate protozoa in both domestic and wild sheep from around the world are summarised. It was found that 15 genera and 131 species occur in domestic sheep globally.

  5. Future directions in the treatment of HIV-HBV coinfection.

    PubMed

    Iser, David M; Lewin, Sharon R

    2009-07-01

    Liver disease is a major cause of mortality in individuals with HIV-HBV coinfection. The pathogenesis of liver disease in this setting is unknown, but is likely to involve drug toxicity, infection of hepatic cells with both HIV and HBV, and an altered immune response to HBV. The availability of therapeutic agents that target both HIV and HBV replication enable dual viral suppression, and assessment of chronic hepatitis B is important prior to commencement of antiretroviral therapy. Greater importance is now placed on HBV DNA levels and staging of liver fibrosis, either by liver biopsy or noninvasive measurement, such as transient elastography, since significant liver fibrosis may exist in the presence of normal liver function tests. Earlier treatment of both HIV and HBV is now generally advocated and treatment is usually lifelong.

  6. Coinfection Dynamics of Two Diseases in a Single Host Population.

    PubMed

    Gao, Daozhou; Porco, Travis C; Ruan, Shigui

    2016-10-01

    A susceptible-infectious-susceptible (SIS) epidemic model that describes the coinfection and cotransmission of two infectious diseases spreading through a single population is studied. The host population consists of two subclasses: susceptible and infectious, and the infectious individuals are further divided into three subgroups: those infected by the first agent/pathogen, the second agent/pathogen, and both. The basic reproduction numbers for all cases are derived which completely determine the global stability of the system if the presence of one agent/pathogen does not affect the transmission of the other. When the constraint on the transmissibility of the dually infected hosts is removed, we introduce the invasion reproduction number, compare it with two other types of reproduction number and show the uniform persistence of both diseases under certain conditions. Numerical simulations suggest that the system can display much richer dynamics such as backward bifurcation, bistability and Hopf bifurcation.

  7. GB Virus C Coinfections in West African Ebola Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lauck, Michael; Bailey, Adam L.; Andersen, Kristian G.; Goldberg, Tony L.; Sabeti, Pardis C.

    2014-01-01

    In 49 patients with known Ebola virus disease outcomes during the ongoing outbreak in Sierra Leone, 13 were coinfected with the immunomodulatory pegivirus GB virus C (GBV-C). Fifty-three percent of these GBV-C+ patients survived; in contrast, only 22% of GBV-C− patients survived. Both survival and GBV-C status were associated with age, with older patients having lower survival rates and intermediate-age patients (21 to 45 years) having the highest rate of GBV-C infection. Understanding the separate and combined effects of GBV-C and age on Ebola virus survival may lead to new treatment and prevention strategies, perhaps through age-related pathways of immune activation. PMID:25473056

  8. Paratuberculosis in sheep and goats.

    PubMed

    Windsor, P A

    2015-12-14

    Paratuberculosis is a chronic insidious, often serious, disease of the global small ruminant industries, mainly causing losses from mortalities and reduced productivity on-farm, interference in trading and, in Australia, profound socio-economic impacts that have periodically compromised harmony of rural communities. The pathogenesis, diagnosis, impacts and disease management options for ovine and caprine paratuberculosis are reviewed, comparing current controls in the extensive management system for sheep in wool flocks in Australia with the semi-intensive system of dairy flocks/herds in Greece. Improved understanding of the immune and cellular profiles of sheep with varying paratuberculosis outcomes and the recognition of the need for prolonged vaccination and biosecurity is considered of relevance to future control strategies. Paratuberculosis in goats is also of global distribution although the prevalence, economic impact and strategic control options are less well recognized, possibly due to the relatively meagre resources available for goat industry research. Although there have been some recent advances, more work is required on developing control strategies for goats, particularly in dairy situations where there is an important need for validation of improved diagnostic assays and the recognition of the potential impacts for vaccination. For all species, a research priority remains the identification of tests that can detect latent and subclinical infections to enhance removal of future sources of infectious material from flocks/herds and the food chain, plus predict the likely outcomes of animals exposed to the organism at an early age. Improving national paratuberculosis control programs should also be a priority to manage disease risk from trade. The importance of strong leadership and communication, building trust within rural communities confused by the difficulties in managing this insidious disease, reflects the importance of change management

  9. Modelling Co-Infection with Malaria and Lymphatic Filariasis

    PubMed Central

    Slater, Hannah C.; Gambhir, Manoj; Parham, Paul E.; Michael, Edwin

    2013-01-01

    Malaria and lymphatic filariasis (LF) continue to cause a considerable public health burden globally and are co-endemic in many regions of sub-Saharan Africa. These infections are transmitted by the same mosquito species which raises important questions about optimal vector control strategies in co-endemic regions, as well as the effect of the presence of each infection on endemicity of the other; there is currently little consensus on the latter. The need for comprehensive modelling studies to address such questions is therefore significant, yet very few have been undertaken to date despite the recognised explanatory power of reliable dynamic mathematical models. Here, we develop a malaria-LF co-infection modelling framework that accounts for two key interactions between these infections, namely the increase in vector mortality as LF mosquito prevalence increases and the antagonistic Th1/Th2 immune response that occurs in co-infected hosts. We consider the crucial interplay between these interactions on the resulting endemic prevalence when introducing each infection in regions where the other is already endemic (e.g. due to regional environmental change), and the associated timescale for such changes, as well as effects on the basic reproduction number R0 of each disease. We also highlight potential perverse effects of vector controls on human infection prevalence in co-endemic regions, noting that understanding such effects is critical in designing optimal integrated control programmes. Hence, as well as highlighting where better data are required to more reliably address such questions, we provide an important framework that will form the basis of future scenario analysis tools used to plan and inform policy decisions on intervention measures in different transmission settings. PMID:23785271

  10. Reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 excretion in sheep by oral lactoferrin administration.

    PubMed

    Yekta, M Atef; Cox, E; Goddeeris, B M; Vanrompay, D

    2011-06-02

    Ruminants are an important reservoir of Escherichia coli O157:H7, therefore reducing E. coli O157:H7 excretion by these animals could play a key role in reducing human infections. The present study investigates the potential of bovine lactoferrin, a natural antimicrobial-immunomodulatory protein of milk, to prevent colonization and excretion of E. coli O157:H7 in sheep. The effect of two different doses of lactoferrin (1.5 g or 0.15 g per 12h) was evaluated on colonization of sheep intestine and faecal excretion of the NCTC12900 strain. Hereto, lactoferrin was orally administered to sheep during 30 consecutive days and sheep were experimentally infected with E. coli O157:H7 on the second day of the lactoferrin administration. Interestingly, both lactoferrin dosages significantly reduced the number of E. coli O157:H7 in faeces as well as the duration of faecal excretion. The high dose group showed a significantly higher antibody response against EspA and EspB, two structural proteins of the bacterial type III secretion system (TTSS), than the colonization control group. The results suggest that oral lactoferrin administration could be used to prevent persistent colonization of sheep with E. coli O157:H7.

  11. Sheep have an unusual variant of the brain-specific metallothionein, metallothionein-III.

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Roger S; Holloway, Adele F; Eckhardt, Bedrich L; Harris, Julie A; Vickers, James C; Chuah, Meng Inn; West, Adrian K

    2002-01-01

    Sheep metallothionein-III (MT-III) cDNA was isolated from a brain cDNA library and characterized. In contrast with MT-III from other species, sheep MT-III cDNA is predicted to encode a protein with significantly different metal-binding properties, owing to the loss of three of its cysteine residues. RT-PCR from other sheep confirmed that this aberrant structure is ubiquitous in this species. MT-III was successfully isolated from sheep brain, demonstrating that the cDNA does give rise to a protein product of the predicted structure. Sheep MT-III is similar to other mammalian MT-IIIs in that it retains the Cys-Pro-Cys-Pro motif which is thought to encode growth-inhibitory activity, and we show that it is likewise able to inhibit neuron survival in vitro. This is the first naturally occurring variant of MT-III (or any other major mammalian MT gene) which gives rise to a protein product. These findings are discussed in light of proposed roles of MT in the mammalian brain. PMID:11931634

  12. Knockout of Myostatin by Zinc-finger Nuclease in Sheep Fibroblasts and Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xuemei; Wang, Liqin; Wu, Yangsheng; Li, Wenrong; An, Jing; Zhang, Fuchun; Liu, Mingjun

    2016-01-01

    Myostatin (MSTN) can negatively regulate the growth and development of skeletal muscle, and natural mutations can cause “double-muscling” trait in animals. In order to block the inhibiting effect of MSTN on muscle growth, we transferred zinc-finger nucleases (ZFN) which targeted sheep MSTN gene into cultured fibroblasts. Gene targeted colonies were isolated from transfected fibroblasts by serial dilution culture and screened by sequencing. Two colonies were identified with mono-allele mutation and one colony with bi-allelic deletion. Further, we introduced the MSTN-ZFN mRNA into sheep embryos by microinjection. Thirteen of thirty-seven parthenogenetic embryos were targeted by ZFN, with the efficiency of 35%. Our work established the technical foundation for generation of MSTN gene editing sheep by somatic cloning and microinjection ZFN into embryos. PMID:27189642

  13. Synergistic effects between rotavirus and coinfecting pathogens on diarrheal disease: evidence from a community-based study in northwestern Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Bhavnani, Darlene; Goldstick, Jason E; Cevallos, William; Trueba, Gabriel; Eisenberg, Joseph N S

    2012-09-01

    In developing countries where diarrheal disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children under 5 years of age, enteric coinfection is common. There is little understanding, however, of the biologic interaction between coinfecting pathogens. The authors investigated the potential for synergistic interaction between coinfecting pathogens on diarrhea pathogenesis using an epidemiologic framework. They conducted community-based, case-control studies in 22 communities in northwestern Ecuador between 2003 and 2008. Risk ratios of diarrhea associated with single infections and coinfections were estimated. Interaction between coinfecting pathogens was assessed through departure from risk ratio additivity and multiplicativity after adjustment for age. On the additive scale, the authors found departure from the null value of 0 for rotavirus-Giardia coinfections (interaction contrast ratio = 8.0, 95% confidence interval: 3.1, 18.9) and for rotavirus-Escherichia coli coinfections (interaction contrast ratio = 9.9, 95% confidence interval: 2.6, 28.4). On the multiplicative scale, they found departure from the value of 1 for rotavirus-Giardia coinfections (multiplicative interaction = 3.6, 95% confidence interval: 1.3, 8.7). This research provides epidemiologic evidence for synergism between rotavirus and other enteric pathogens. During coinfection, the pathogenic potential of each organism appears to be enhanced. The potential for pathogenesis to be more severe in the presence of a rotavirus coinfection amplifies the need for rotavirus vaccination.

  14. RATE AND INFLUENCE OF RESPIRATORY VIRUS CO-INFECTION ON PANDEMIC (H1N1) INFLUENZA DISEASE

    PubMed Central

    Esper, Frank P.; Spahlinger, Timothy; Zhou, Lan

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Many patients with influenza have more than one viral agent with co-infection frequencies reported as high as 20%. The impact of respiratory virus copathogens on influenza disease is unclear. We sought to determine if respiratory virus co-infection with pandemic H1N1 altered clinical disease. Methods Respiratory samples from 229 and 267 patients identified with and without H1N1 influenza respectively were screened for the presence of 13 seasonal respiratory viruses by multiplex RT-PCR. Disease severity between coinfected and monoinfected H1N1 patients were quantified using a standardized clinical severity scale. Influenza viral load was calculated by quantitative RT-PCR. Results Thirty (13.1%) influenza samples screened positive for the presence of 31 viral copathogens. The most prominent copathogens included rhinovirus (61.3%), and coronaviruses (16.1%). Median clinical severity of both monoinfected and co-infected groups were 1. Patients coinfected with rhinovirus tended to have lower clinical severity (median 0), whereas non rhinovirus co-infections had substantially higher clinical severity (median 2). No difference in H1N1 viral load was observed between co-infected and mono infected groups. Conclusions Respiratory viruses co-infect patients with influenza disease. Patients coinfected with rhinovirus had less severe disease while non-rhinovirus co-infections were associated with substantially higher severity without changes in influenza viral titer. PMID:21546090

  15. Synergistic Effects Between Rotavirus and Coinfecting Pathogens on Diarrheal Disease: Evidence from a Community-based Study in Northwestern Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Bhavnani, Darlene; Goldstick, Jason E.; Cevallos, William; Trueba, Gabriel; Eisenberg, Joseph N. S.

    2012-01-01

    In developing countries where diarrheal disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children under 5 years of age, enteric coinfection is common. There is little understanding, however, of the biologic interaction between coinfecting pathogens. The authors investigated the potential for synergistic interaction between coinfecting pathogens on diarrhea pathogenesis using an epidemiologic framework. They conducted community-based, case-control studies in 22 communities in northwestern Ecuador between 2003 and 2008. Risk ratios of diarrhea associated with single infections and coinfections were estimated. Interaction between coinfecting pathogens was assessed through departure from risk ratio additivity and multiplicativity after adjustment for age. On the additive scale, the authors found departure from the null value of 0 for rotavirus-Giardia coinfections (interaction contrast ratio = 8.0, 95% confidence interval: 3.1, 18.9) and for rotavirus-Escherichia coli coinfections (interaction contrast ratio = 9.9, 95% confidence interval: 2.6, 28.4). On the multiplicative scale, they found departure from the value of 1 for rotavirus-Giardia coinfections (multiplicative interaction = 3.6, 95% confidence interval: 1.3, 8.7). This research provides epidemiologic evidence for synergism between rotavirus and other enteric pathogens. During coinfection, the pathogenic potential of each organism appears to be enhanced. The potential for pathogenesis to be more severe in the presence of a rotavirus coinfection amplifies the need for rotavirus vaccination. PMID:22842722

  16. Vitamin E kinetics in sheep.

    PubMed

    Hidiroglou, M; Karpinski, K

    1987-07-01

    1. Kinetics of physiological doses of D-alpha-[5-Me-3H]tocopherol (200 microCi) administered to twenty-four sheep were studied using one of four routes: intravenous, oral (capsules), intraruminal and intramuscular. 2. Blood samples were withdrawn from the jugular vein periodically for 96 h after the intravenous and oral administrations, for 168 h after the intraruminal administration and for 216 h after the intramuscular administration. 3. The study indicated that the biological availability of alpha-tocopherol followed the order intravenous greater than intramuscular greater than oral greater than intraruminal. 4. The rate of elimination was in the order intravenous greater than oral greater than intraruminal approximately intramuscular. 5. The intravenous route was fitted with a three-compartment model, whereas the other routes exhibited a good fit for either a one- or two-compartment model.

  17. GM2 gangliosidosis in British Jacob sheep.

    PubMed

    Wessels, M E; Holmes, J P; Jeffrey, M; Jackson, M; Mackintosh, A; Kolodny, E H; Zeng, B J; Wang, C B; Scholes, S F E

    2014-01-01

    GM2 gangliosidosis (Tay-Sachs disease) was diagnosed in 6- to 8-month-old pedigree Jacob lambs from two unrelated flocks presenting clinically with progressive neurological dysfunction of 10 day's to 8 week's duration. Clinical signs included hindlimb ataxia and weakness, recumbency and proprioceptive defects. Histopathological examination of the nervous system identified extensive neuronal cytoplasmic accumulation of material that stained with periodic acid--Schiff and Luxol fast blue. Electron microscopy identified membranous cytoplasmic bodies within the nervous system. Serum biochemistry detected a marked decrease in hexosaminidase A activity in the one lamb tested, when compared with the concentration in age matched controls and genetic analysis identified a mutation in the sheep hexa allele G444R consistent with Tay-Sachs disease in Jacob sheep in North America. The identification of Tay-Sachs disease in British Jacob sheep supports previous evidence that the mutation in North American Jacob sheep originated from imported UK stock.

  18. 9 CFR 91.8 - Sheep.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... be identified by eartags or tattoos approved by the Administrator. 3 except that sheep for export to... eartags or tattoos approved by the Administrator may be obtained, upon request, from the Animal and...

  19. 9 CFR 91.8 - Sheep.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... be identified by eartags or tattoos approved by the Administrator. 3 except that sheep for export to... eartags or tattoos approved by the Administrator may be obtained, upon request, from the Animal and...

  20. 9 CFR 91.8 - Sheep.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... be identified by eartags or tattoos approved by the Administrator. 3 except that sheep for export to... eartags or tattoos approved by the Administrator may be obtained, upon request, from the Animal and...

  1. 9 CFR 91.8 - Sheep.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... be identified by eartags or tattoos approved by the Administrator. 3 except that sheep for export to... eartags or tattoos approved by the Administrator may be obtained, upon request, from the Animal and...

  2. 9 CFR 91.8 - Sheep.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... be identified by eartags or tattoos approved by the Administrator. 3 except that sheep for export to... eartags or tattoos approved by the Administrator may be obtained, upon request, from the Animal and...

  3. Estimation of the secondary attack rate for delta hepatitis coinfection among injection drug users

    PubMed Central

    Poulin, Christiane; Gyorkos, Theresa; Joseph, Lawrence

    1993-01-01

    The secondary attack rate for delta hepatitis coinfection was estimated among a cluster of injection drug users (IDUs). The infections occurred during an epidemic of hepatitis B in a rural area of Nova Scotia in 1988 and 1989. Six IDUs formed a cluster of delta hepatitis coinfections, representing the first reported outbreak of delta hepatitis in Canada. Contact-tracing was used to identify a cluster of 41 IDUs potentially exposed to delta hepatitis. The index case of delta hepatitis coinfection was presumed to have led to five secondary cases. The secondary attack rate was estimated to be 13.2% (95% confidence interval 0.044 to 0.281). The estimated secondary attack rate may be a useful predictor of disease due to delta hepatitis coinfection in similar IDU populations. PMID:22346420

  4. The potential impact of coinfection on antimicrobial chemotherapy and drug resistance.

    PubMed

    Birger, Ruthie B; Kouyos, Roger D; Cohen, Ted; Griffiths, Emily C; Huijben, Silvie; Mina, Michael J; Mina, Michael; Volkova, Victoriya; Grenfell, Bryan; Metcalf, C Jessica E

    2015-09-01

    Across a range of pathogens, resistance to chemotherapy is a growing problem in both public health and animal health. Despite the ubiquity of coinfection, and its potential effects on within-host biology, the role played by coinfecting pathogens on the evolution of resistance and efficacy of antimicrobial chemotherapy is rarely considered. In this review, we provide an overview of the mechanisms of interaction of coinfecting pathogens, ranging from immune modulation and resource modulation, to drug interactions. We discuss their potential implications for the evolution of resistance, providing evidence in the rare cases where it is available. Overall, our review indicates that the impact of coinfection has the potential to be considerable, suggesting that this should be taken into account when designing antimicrobial drug treatments.

  5. The potential impact of coinfection on antimicrobial chemotherapy and drug resistance

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Ted; Griffiths, Emily C.; Huijben, Silvie; Mina, Michael J.; Volkova, Victoriya; Grenfell, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    Across a range of pathogens, resistance to chemotherapy is a growing problem in both public health and animal health. Despite the ubiquity of coinfection, and its potential effects on within-host biology, the role played by coinfecting pathogens on the evolution of resistance and efficacy of antimicrobial chemotherapy is rarely considered. In this review, we provide an overview of the mechanisms of interaction of coinfecting pathogens, ranging from immune modulation and resource modulation, to drug interactions. We discuss their potential implications for the evolution of resistance, providing evidence in the rare cases where it is available. Overall, our review indicates that the impact of coinfection has the potential to be considerable, suggesting that this should be taken into account when designing antimicrobial drug treatments. PMID:26028590

  6. Imbalanced oxidative stress causes chlamydial persistence during non-productive human herpes virus co-infection.

    PubMed

    Prusty, Bhupesh K; Böhme, Linda; Bergmann, Birgit; Siegl, Christine; Krause, Eva; Mehlitz, Adrian; Rudel, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Both human herpes viruses and Chlamydia are highly prevalent in the human population and are detected together in different human disorders. Here, we demonstrate that co-infection with human herpes virus 6 (HHV6) interferes with the developmental cycle of C. trachomatis and induces persistence. Induction of chlamydial persistence by HHV6 is independent of productive virus infection, but requires the interaction and uptake of the virus by the host cell. On the other hand, viral uptake is strongly promoted under co-infection conditions. Host cell glutathione reductase activity was suppressed by HHV6 causing NADPH accumulation, decreased formation of reduced glutathione and increased oxidative stress. Prevention of oxidative stress restored infectivity of Chlamydia after HHV6-induced persistence. We show that co-infection with Herpes simplex virus 1 or human Cytomegalovirus also induces chlamydial persistence by a similar mechanism suggesting that Chlamydia -human herpes virus co-infections are evolutionary shaped interactions with a thus far unrecognized broad significance.

  7. Abnormalities in Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potentials in Sheep with Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies and Lack of a Clear Pathological Relationship

    PubMed Central

    Konold, Timm; Phelan, Laura J.; Cawthraw, Saira; Simmons, Marion M.; Chaplin, Melanie J.; González, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Scrapie is transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE), which causes neurological signs in sheep, but confirmatory diagnosis is usually made postmortem on examination of the brain for TSE-associated markers like vacuolar changes and disease-associated prion protein (PrPSc). The objective of this study was to evaluate whether testing of brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs) at two different sound levels could aid in the clinical diagnosis of TSEs in sheep naturally or experimentally infected with different TSE strains [classical and atypical scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)] and whether any BAEP abnormalities were associated with TSE-associated markers in the auditory pathways. BAEPs were recorded from 141 clinically healthy sheep of different breeds and ages that tested negative for TSEs on postmortem tests to establish a reference range and to allow comparison with 30 sheep clinically affected or exposed to classical scrapie (CS) without disease confirmation (test group 1) and 182 clinically affected sheep with disease confirmation (test group 2). Abnormal BAEPs were found in 7 sheep (23%) of group 1 and 42 sheep (23%) of group 2. The proportion of sheep with abnormalities did not appear to be influenced by TSE strain or PrPSc gene polymorphisms. When the magnitude of TSE-associated markers in the auditory pathways was compared between a subset of 12 sheep with and 12 sheep without BAEP abnormalities in group 2, no significant differences in the total PrPSc or vacuolation scores in the auditory pathways could be found. However, the data suggested that there was a difference in the PrPSc scores depending on the TSE strain because PrPSc scores were significantly higher in sheep with BAEP abnormalities infected with classical and L-type BSE, but not with CS. The results indicated that BAEPs may be abnormal in sheep infected with TSEs but the test is not specific for TSEs and that neither vacuolation nor PrPSc accumulation appears to be

  8. The Effect of Malaria and HIV Co-Infection on Anemia: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Naing, Cho; Sandhu, Nisha Kaur; Wai, Victor Nyunt

    2016-04-01

    Malaria and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections are globally important public health concerns. The objectives of this study were (i) to determine the prevalence of malaria and HIV co-infections in people living in endemic countries, and (ii) to assess the effect of co-infection on anemia.Studies were searched on electronic databases including PubMed, Embase, Medline, Google Scholar, and African Journals Online. Observational studies, assessing the prevalence of co-infection and reporting its association with anemia, were included. The methodological quality of included studies was assessed using a tool called the risk of bias assessment for non-randomized studies. Heterogeneity among studies was investigated with the I-square test. Pooled prevalence of the co-infection and its 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated using the random-effect model, reflected on heterogeneity among studies. Summary odds ratio (OR), summary standardized mean difference (SMD), and their corresponding 95% CIs were estimated, as appropriate. Subgroup analysis and meta-regression were performed for robustness of results. Publication bias was assessed by visualization of a funnel plot.Twenty-three studies were included in the present study. Overall, the pooled prevalence of co-infection was 19% (95% CI: 15-23%, I: 98.1%), showing 26% (95% CI: 20-32%, I: 98.7%) in adults, 12% (95% CI: 7-17%, I: 95.0) in pregnant women, and 9% (95% CI: 6-11%, I: 68.6%) in children. Anemia was comparable between the monoinfected and co-infected adults (summary OR: 1.49, 95% CI: 0.93-2.37) and increased by 49% in co-infected pregnant women (summary OR: 1.49, 95% CI: 1.14-1.94). The mean hemoglobin concentration was significantly lower in the co-infected group than the monoinfected group (summary SMD: -0.47, 95% CI: -0.61 to -0.33). The results of meta-regression on the prevalence of co-infection using the publication year and total population as covariates showed the I value remained high implying

  9. Phenotype shift from atypical scrapie to CH1641 following experimental transmission in sheep.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Marion M; Moore, S Jo; Lockey, Richard; Chaplin, Melanie J; Konold, Timm; Vickery, Christopher; Spiropoulos, John

    2015-01-01

    The interactions of host and infecting strain in ovine transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are known to be complex, and have a profound effect on the resulting phenotype of disease. In contrast to classical scrapie, the pathology in naturally-occurring cases of atypical scrapie appears more consistent, regardless of genotype, and is preserved on transmission within sheep homologous for the prion protein (PRNP) gene. However, the stability of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy phenotypes on passage across and within species is not absolute, and there are reports in the literature where experimental transmissions of particular isolates have resulted in a phenotype consistent with a different strain. In this study, intracerebral inoculation of atypical scrapie between two genotypes both associated with susceptibility to atypical forms of disease resulted in one sheep displaying an altered phenotype with clinical, pathological, biochemical and murine bioassay characteristics all consistent with the classical scrapie strain CH1641, and distinct from the atypical scrapie donor, while the second sheep did not succumb to challenge. One of two sheep orally challenged with the same inoculum developed atypical scrapie indistinguishable from the donor. This study adds to the range of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy phenotype changes that have been reported following various different experimental donor-recipient combinations. While these circumstances may not arise through natural exposure to disease in the field, there is the potential for iatrogenic exposure should current disease surveillance and feed controls be relaxed. Future sheep to sheep transmission of atypical scrapie might lead to instances of disease with an alternative phenotype and onward transmission potential which may have adverse implications for both public health and animal disease control policies.

  10. Is virus coinfection a predictor of severity in children with viral respiratory infections?

    PubMed

    Asner, S A; Rose, W; Petrich, A; Richardson, S; Tran, D J

    2015-03-01

    Molecular assays have resulted in increased detection of viral respiratory infections, including virus coinfection, from children with acute respiratory infections. Yet the clinical severity of virus coinfection compared to single virus infection remains uncertain. We performed a retrospective study of children presenting with acute respiratory infections comparing clinical severity of single respiratory virus infection to virus coinfection, detected on midturbinate swabs by molecular assays. Patient characteristics and measures of clinical severity were abstracted from health records. A total of 472 virus-infected children were included, 391 with a single virus infection and 81 with virus coinfection. Virus status did not affect admission to hospital (odds ratio (OR) = 0.8; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.5-1.4; p 0.491) or clinical disease severity among inpatients (OR = 0.8; 95% CI 0.5-1.5; p 0.515) after adjusting for age and underlying comorbidities. However, children infected with rhinovirus/enterovirus (HRV/ENT) alone were more likely to be admitted to the hospital compared to those coinfected with HRV/ENT and at least another virus, although this was not significant in multivariable analyses (OR 0.47; 95% CI 0.22-1.0; p 0.051). In multivariable analyses, children coinfected with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and other viruses were significantly more likely to present with radiologically confirmed pneumonia compared to those with an isolated RSV infection (OR 3.16, 95% CI 1.07-9.34, p 0.037). Equivalent clinical severity was observed between children with single virus infection and virus coinfection, although children coinfected with RSV and other viruses presented more frequently with pneumonia than those with single RSV infection. Increased disease severity observed among children with single HRV/ENT infection requires further investigation.

  11. [Clinical, epidemiological and immunological study of patients coinfected with HIV and HTLV-1].

    PubMed

    Scapellato, Pablo G; Bottaro, Edgardo G; Seoane, María B; Rodriguez Brieschke, María T; Scapellato, Jose L; Dato, Adriana; Vidal, Gabriela I

    2004-01-01

    We studied the prevalence of antibodies against HTLV-1 among every HIV-infected outpatients assisted in our hospital between January 1st 2000 and June 30th 2003. We reviewed the epidemiological data, clinical findings, viral load and CD4 cells-count, comparing coinfected with non HTLV-1 coinfected. We found a prevalence of HTLV-1 infection of 8.1% (23/282); 8.5% (12/141) in men and 7.8% (11/141) in women [[OR=0.91 (0.36coinfected and no coinfected patients. No patient developed any disease relative to HTLV-1. The mean of CD4-cells among HTLV-1 coinfected with history of ADD naïve patients (n=7) was 211 cells/ml, and 87.9 cells/ml among those not-coinfected (n=55) [t-test=2.82; p=0.006]. The viral load was similar among every investigated group of patients. We found a high prevalence of HTLV-1 infection in HIV-infected patients (higher among IDU). The CD4-cell count of patients suffering from an AIDS defining disease was higher among HTLV-1/HIV coinfected patients than in singly HIV infected, this could show a grade of missfunction of CD4-cells in coinfected patients.

  12. Presence of contagious yawning in sheep.

    PubMed

    Yonezawa, Tomohiro; Sato, Kohei; Uchida, Mona; Matsuki, Naoaki; Yamazaki, Atusi

    2017-01-01

    Contagious yawning is triggered by others yawning, and it has previously been reported in humans, primates and several experimental and companion mammals. Whereas it might be a response to an innate releasing mechanism, contagious yawning is also considered to involve emotional contagion. Here, we demonstrate that sheep, the animal model of livestock animals, also experience contagious yawning. Twelve adult castrated Corriedale sheep were used in this study. Pairs of sheep were adjacently restrained with or without a wooden divider panel to shield them from viewing the other. Their behaviors were video-recorded for 3 days in each condition. Sheep yawned 2.0 ± 1.1 and 1.2 ± 1.1 times/day/head in the unshielded and shielded conditions, respectively. Unshielded restrained sheep yawned within 1 min after the other one 11.1% of the time, while shielded pairs did not exhibit contagious yawning. Rumination was also highly synchronized under the unshielded condition. These data reveal that contagious yawning and behavioral synchronicity occur in ruminants like sheep, making them a suitable animal model to investigate contagious yawning and the underlying mechanism.

  13. Vitamin D status predicts reproductive fitness in a wild sheep population

    PubMed Central

    Handel, Ian; Watt, Kathryn A.; Pilkington, Jill G.; Pemberton, Josephine M.; Macrae, Alastair; Scott, Philip; McNeilly, Tom N.; Berry, Jacqueline L.; Clements, Dylan N.; Nussey, Daniel H.; Mellanby, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with the development of many human diseases, and with poor reproductive performance in laboratory rodents. We currently have no idea how natural selection directly acts on variation in vitamin D metabolism due to a total lack of studies in wild animals. Here, we measured serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations in female Soay sheep that were part of a long-term field study on St Kilda. We found that total 25(OH)D was strongly influenced by age, and that light coloured sheep had higher 25(OH)D3 (but not 25(OH)D2) concentrations than dark sheep. The coat colour polymorphism in Soay sheep is controlled by a single locus, suggesting vitamin D status is heritable in this population. We also observed a very strong relationship between total 25(OH)D concentrations in summer and a ewe’s fecundity the following spring. This resulted in a positive association between total 25(OH)D and the number of lambs produced that survived their first year of life, an important component of female reproductive fitness. Our study provides the first insight into naturally-occurring variation in vitamin D metabolites, and offers the first evidence that vitamin D status is both heritable and under natural selection in the wild. PMID:26757805

  14. Determinants of sheep prices in the highlands of northeastern Ethiopia: implication for sheep value chain development.

    PubMed

    Kassa, Beneberu Teferra; Haile, Anteneh Girma; Essa, John Abdu

    2011-12-01

    In order to assess and identify the determinants of sheep price and price variation across time, a time series data were collected from four selected markets in North Shewa, Northeastern Ethiopia on weekly market day basis for a period of 2 years. Data on animal characteristics and purpose of buying were collected on a weekly basis from randomly selected 15-25 animals, and a total of 7,976 transactions were recorded. A general linear model technique was used to identify factors influencing sheep price, and the results showed that sheep price (liveweight sheep price per kilogram taken as a dependent variable) is affected by animal characteristics such as weight, sex, age, condition, season, and color. Most of the markets' purpose for which the animal was purchased did not affect significantly the price per kilogram. This may be due to the similarity of the markets in terms of buyer's purpose. The results suggest that there will be benefit from coordinated fattening, breeding, and marketing programs to take the highest advantage from the preferred animals' characteristics and selected festival markets. Finally, the study recommends for a coordinated action to enhance the benefit generated for all participant actors in the sheep value chain through raising sheep productivity, improving the capacity of sheep producers and agribusiness entrepreneurs to access and use latest knowledge and technologies; and strengthening linkages among actors in the sheep value chain.

  15. Translational neurophysiology in sheep: measuring sleep and neurological dysfunction in CLN5 Batten disease affected sheep

    PubMed Central

    Perentos, Nicholas; Martins, Amadeu Q.; Watson, Thomas C.; Bartsch, Ullrich; Mitchell, Nadia L.; Palmer, David N.; Jones, Matthew W.

    2015-01-01

    Creating valid mouse models of slowly progressing human neurological diseases is challenging, not least because the short lifespan of rodents confounds realistic modelling of disease time course. With their large brains and long lives, sheep offer significant advantages for translational studies of human disease. Here we used normal and CLN5 Batten disease affected sheep to demonstrate the use of the species for studying neurological function in a model of human disease. We show that electroencephalography can be used in sheep, and that longitudinal recordings spanning many months are possible. This is the first time such an electroencephalography study has been performed in sheep. We characterized sleep in sheep, quantifying characteristic vigilance states and neurophysiological hallmarks such as sleep spindles. Mild sleep abnormalities and abnormal epileptiform waveforms were found in the electroencephalographies of Batten disease affected sheep. These abnormalities resemble the epileptiform activity seen in children with Batten disease and demonstrate the translational relevance of both the technique and the model. Given that both spontaneous and engineered sheep models of human neurodegenerative diseases already exist, sheep constitute a powerful species in which longitudinal in vivo studies can be conducted. This will advance our understanding of normal brain function and improve our capacity for translational research into neurological disorders. PMID:25724202

  16. Does coinfection of Bartonella henselae and FIV induce clinical disorders in cats?

    PubMed

    Ueno, H; Hohdatsu, T; Muramatsu, Y; Koyama, H; Morita, C

    1996-01-01

    It was found that Bartonella henselae (B. henselae) may induce clinical disorders in cats in natural conditions from a comparison of the serological status for B. henselae with the serostatus for feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and several clinical characteristics in 170 domestic cats. Seropositivity for B. henselae was not significantly different between FIV antibody-positive and -negative cats (18.4% vs 16.0%). The incidence of clinical characteristics were compared among four cat groups distinguished by the reactivity of sera against B. henselae and FIV. The incidence of lymph node swelling was lower in only FIV antibody-positive cats (3.0%), but higher in B. henselae antibody-positive cats (13.6%) and significantly higher in both B. henselae and FIV antibody-positive cats (42.9%) compared with the incidence of lymph node swelling in cats which were negative for both antibodies (5.5%). The same relation was also observed for the incidence of gingivitis among the 4 cat groups, suggesting that coinfection of B. henselae and FIV may be associated with gingivitis and lymphadenopathy in cats.

  17. Evidence in Sheep for Pre-Natal Transmission of Scrapie to Lambs from Infected Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Foster, James D.; Goldmann, Wilfred; Hunter, Nora

    2013-01-01

    Natural scrapie transmission from infected ewes to their lambs is thought to occur by the oral route around the time of birth. However the hypothesis that scrapie transmission can also occur before birth (in utero) is not currently favoured by most researchers. As scrapie is an opportunistic infection with multiple infection routes likely to be functional in sheep, definitive evidence for or against transmission from ewe to her developing fetus has been difficult to achieve. In addition the very early literature on maternal transmission of scrapie in sheep was compromised by lack of knowledge of the role of the PRNP (prion protein) gene in control of susceptibility to scrapie. In this study we experimentally infected pregnant ewes of known PRNP genotype with a distinctive scrapie strain (SSBP/1) and looked for evidence of transmission of SSBP/1 to the offspring. The sheep were from the NPU Cheviot flock, which has endemic natural scrapie from which SSBP/1 can be differentiated on the basis of histology, genetics of disease incidence and strain typing bioassay in mice. We used embryo transfer techniques to allow sheep fetuses of scrapie-susceptible PRNP genotypes to develop in a range of scrapie-resistant and susceptible recipient mothers and challenged the recipients with SSBP/1. Scrapie clinical disease, caused by both natural scrapie and SSBP/1, occurred in the progeny but evidence (including mouse strain typing) of SSBP/1 infection was found only in lambs born to fully susceptible recipient mothers. Progeny were not protected from transmission of natural scrapie or SSBP/1 by washing of embryos to International Embryo Transfer Society standards or by caesarean derivation and complete separation from their birth mothers. Our results strongly suggest that pre-natal (in utero) transmission of scrapie may have occurred in these sheep. PMID:24260219

  18. Evidence in sheep for pre-natal transmission of scrapie to lambs from infected mothers.

    PubMed

    Foster, James D; Goldmann, Wilfred; Hunter, Nora

    2013-01-01

    Natural scrapie transmission from infected ewes to their lambs is thought to occur by the oral route around the time of birth. However the hypothesis that scrapie transmission can also occur before birth (in utero) is not currently favoured by most researchers. As scrapie is an opportunistic infection with multiple infection routes likely to be functional in sheep, definitive evidence for or against transmission from ewe to her developing fetus has been difficult to achieve. In addition the very early literature on maternal transmission of scrapie in sheep was compromised by lack of knowledge of the role of the PRNP (prion protein) gene in control of susceptibility to scrapie. In this study we experimentally infected pregnant ewes of known PRNP genotype with a distinctive scrapie strain (SSBP/1) and looked for evidence of transmission of SSBP/1 to the offspring. The sheep were from the NPU Cheviot flock, which has endemic natural scrapie from which SSBP/1 can be differentiated on the basis of histology, genetics of disease incidence and strain typing bioassay in mice. We used embryo transfer techniques to allow sheep fetuses of scrapie-susceptible PRNP genotypes to develop in a range of scrapie-resistant and susceptible recipient mothers and challenged the recipients with SSBP/1. Scrapie clinical disease, caused by both natural scrapie and SSBP/1, occurred in the progeny but evidence (including mouse strain typing) of SSBP/1 infection was found only in lambs born to fully susceptible recipient mothers. Progeny were not protected from transmission of natural scrapie or SSBP/1 by washing of embryos to International Embryo Transfer Society standards or by caesarean derivation and complete separation from their birth mothers. Our results strongly suggest that pre-natal (in utero) transmission of scrapie may have occurred in these sheep.

  19. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis sheep strains isolated from Cyprus sheep and goats.

    PubMed

    Liapi, M; Botsaris, G; Slana, I; Moravkova, M; Babak, V; Avraam, M; Di Provvido, A; Georgiadou, S; Pavlik, I

    2015-04-01

    Paratuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map), is a chronic incurable infection of intestinal tract of animals. Molecular characterization of Map isolates classifies them into two major groups, 'Cattle' or Type II and 'Sheep' or Type I/III with a different phenotype, epidemiology, virulence and pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to examine 192 Map ELISA-positive sheep and goats from Cyprus using faecal culture and genotype Map isolates using IS1311 PCR and restriction endonuclease analysis (IS1311 PCR-REA) with HinfI restriction enzyme. Map was isolated from only four (4.6%) faecal samples out of 88 sheep and 15 (14.4%) faecal samples out of 104 goats. Genotyping of the isolates using IS1311 PCR-REA revealed that sheep and goat populations on the island are infected primarily by 'Sheep' strains. Only three Map isolates from goats originated from one farm were characterized as 'Cattle' strains.

  20. A multiplexed nucleic acid microsystem for point-of-care detection of HIV co-infection with MTB and PCP.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lingjia; Kong, Jilie

    2013-12-15

    Many individuals infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), especially children in African countries, die of co-infections with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) (coinfection rate: 50%) or Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) (coinfection rate: 81%). The present proposal describes a rapid, portable, low-cost, multiplexed point-of-care diagnostic technique for simultaneously detecting HIV, MTB, and PCP. This technique incorporates a creative micro-device (hardware) and a loop-mediated isothermal amplification strategy (software).

  1. First molecular detection of co-infection of honey bee viruses in asymptomatic Bombus atratus in South America.

    PubMed

    Reynaldi, F J; Sguazza, G H; Albicoro, F J; Pecoraro, M R; Galosi, C M

    2013-11-01

    Pollination is critical for food production and has the particularity of linking natural ecosystems with agricultural production systems. Recently, losses of bumblebee species have been reported worldwide. In this study, samples from a commercial exploitation of bumblebees of Argentina with a recent history of deaths were studied using a multiplex PCR for the detection of the honey bee viruses most frequently detected in South America. All samples analysed were positive for co-infections with Deformed wing virus, Black queen cell virus and Sacbrood virus. This is the first report of infection of Bombus atratus with honey bee viruses. A better understanding of viral infections in bumblebees and of the epidemiology of viruses could be of great importance as bumblebees can serve as possible viral reservoirs, resulting in pathogen spillover towards honey bees and native bumblebees.

  2. Human Helminth Co-Infection: Analysis of Spatial Patterns and Risk Factors in a Brazilian Community

    PubMed Central

    Pullan, Rachel L.; Bethony, Jeffrey M.; Geiger, Stefan M.; Cundill, Bonnie; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Quinnell, Rupert J.; Brooker, Simon

    2008-01-01

    Background Individuals living in areas endemic for helminths are commonly infected with multiple species. Despite increasing emphasis given to the potential health impacts of polyparasitism, few studies have investigated the relative importance of household and environmental factors on the risk of helminth co-infection. Here, we present an investigation of exposure-related risk factors as sources of heterogeneity in the distribution of co-infection with Necator americanus and Schistosoma mansoni in a region of southeastern Brazil. Methodology Cross-sectional parasitological and socio-economic data from a community-based household survey were combined with remotely sensed environmental data using a geographical information system. Geo-statistical methods were used to explore patterns of mono- and co-infection with N. americanus and S. mansoni in the region. Bayesian hierarchical models were then developed to identify risk factors for mono- and co-infection in relation to community-based survey data to assess their roles in explaining observed heterogeneity in mono and co-infection with these two helminth species. Principal Findings The majority of individuals had N. americanus (71.1%) and/or S. mansoni (50.3%) infection; 41.0% of individuals were co-infected with both helminths. Prevalence of co-infection with these two species varied substantially across the study area, and there was strong evidence of household clustering. Hierarchical multinomial models demonstrated that relative socio-economic status, household crowding, living in the eastern watershed and high Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) were significantly associated with N. americanus and S. mansoni co-infection. These risk factors could, however, only account for an estimated 32% of variability between households. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that variability in risk of N. americanus and S. mansoni co-infection between households cannot be entirely explained by exposure-related risk

  3. Efficacy of anthelminthic control programs against natural Muellerius capillaris infection in sheep in the north-west of Spain. Effect on blood gases and pH in venous blood samples.

    PubMed

    López, C M; Cienfuegos, S; Dacal, V; Vázquez, L; Panadero, R; Fernández, G; Díaz, P; Lago, N; Díez-Baños, P; Morrondo, M P

    2010-06-01

    The field efficacy of a single dose treatment against natural M. capillaris infection using different anthelmintic drugs, extensively employed in ovine parasite control programs in Galicia (N.W. Spain), and the effect of protostrongylid infection on ovine respiratory functions, were evaluated. Five groups (n = 5) of ewes were used in this study; animals were treated with injectable ivermectin 10.2 mg/kg), levamisole (7.5 mg/kg) and albendazole (5 mg/kg) and monitored at 0, 7, 21, 42 and 63 days posttreatment (d.p.t.) by enumeration of the lungworm larvae per gram of faeces (l.p.g.) and determination of gas tension and pH in venous blood using an i-Stat portable clinical analyzer. No statistical difference was found either in larval elimination between untreated and treated groups or in the reduction in larval counts in all of the treated groups. A significant increase in partial oxygen tension (pO2) and saturation (sO2) between day 0 and 7 p.t. was observed in all treated animals. These values decreased significantly at day 21 to previous levels. There were no statistical differences in blood gases between uninfected and treated groups. We can conclude that under Galician field conditions, parasitic control programs are not totally effective against M. capillaris infection.

  4. Behavior of sheep drinking ethanol solution.

    PubMed

    Blair-West, J R; Deam, D R; Denton, D A; Tarjan, E; Weisinger, R S

    1995-06-01

    Sheep that were habituated to drinking 10% (vol/vol) ethanol solution instead of water were subjected to proven thirst stimuli to study the effect of chronic ethanol intake on brain mechanisms subserving thirst. Sheep that had not previously drunk 10% ethanol were also tested. All sheep were trained to press a pedal that delivered 50 ml/press of fluid (either 10% ethanol or water) into a drinking cup. In some experiments, fluids were presented in bins. All animals had access to only one fluid at a time. Five ethanol-drinking sheep appeared healthy and maintained body weight over 18 mo. They always preferred water to 10% ethanol. The intracerebroventricular (icv) infusion of angiotensin II (ANG II) at 3.8 micrograms/h for 2 h increased ethanol intake from 15 +/- 10 to 200 +/- 55 ml in the 1st h, but 2,850 +/- 320 ml of water was drunk in the 2nd h. The icv infusion of 500 mM NaCl had a similar effect. After fluid deprivation for 22 or 46 h, ethanol intake in 1 h of access was only 280 +/- 40 and 400 +/- 90 ml, respectively, and 24-h intake was not increased. Water-drinking sheep drank 1,300 +/- 195 ml of water in 1 h after 22-h water deprivation, and 24-h intake was 1.5 times normal. The icv infusion of ANG II in these sheep increased water intake in 1 h from 10 +/- 10 to 1,630 +/- 250 ml and intake of 10% ethanol to only 310 +/- 60 ml. In conclusion, sheep accept 10% ethanol as a substitute for water for daily drinking.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Breeding objectives for Targhee sheep.

    PubMed

    Borg, R C; Notter, D R; Kuehn, L A; Kott, R W

    2007-11-01

    Breeding objectives were developed for Targhee sheep under rangeland production conditions. Traits considered were those for which EPD were available from the US National Sheep Improvement Program and included direct and maternal effects on 120-d weaning weight (WW and MM, respectively); yearling weight (YW); yearling fleece weight, fiber diameter, and staple length; and percent lamb crop (PLC), measured as the number of lambs born per 100 ewes lambing. A bioeconomic model was used to predict the effects of a change of 1 additive SD in EPD for each trait, holding all other traits constant at their mean, on animal performance, feed requirements, feed costs, and economic returns. Resulting economic weightings were then used to derive selection indexes. Indexes were derived separately for 3 prolificacy levels (1.41, 1.55, and 1.70 lambs/ewe lambing), 2 triplet survival levels (50 and 67%), 2 lamb pricing policies (with or without discounting of prices for heavy feeder lambs), and 3 forage cost scenarios (renting pasture, purchasing hay, or reducing flock size to accommodate increased nutrient requirements for production). Increasing PLC generally had the largest impact on profitability, although an increase in WW was equally important, with low feed costs and no discounting of prices for heavy feeder lambs. Increases in PLC were recommended at all 3 prolificacy levels, but with low triplet survival the value of increasing PLC eventually declined as the mean litter size increased to approximately 2.15 lambs/ewe lambing and above. Increasing YW (independent of WW) increased ewe maintenance costs and reduced profitability. Predicted changes in breeding values for WW and YW under index selection varied with lamb pricing policy and feed costs. With low feed costs or no discounts for heavy lambs, YW increased at a modest rate in association with increasing WW, but with high feed costs or discounting of heavy lambs, genetic trends in WW were reduced by approximately 50% to

  6. Influenza and dengue virus co-infection impairs monocyte recruitment to the lung, increases dengue virus titers, and exacerbates pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Michael A; González, Karla N; Shah, Sanjana; Peña, José; Mack, Matthias; Talarico, Laura B; Polack, Fernando P; Harris, Eva

    2017-03-01

    Co-infections of influenza virus and bacteria are known to cause severe disease, but little information exists on co-infections with other acute viruses. Seasonal influenza and dengue viruses (DENV) regularly co-circulate in tropical regions. The pandemic spread of influenza virus H1N1 (hereafter H1N1) in 2009 led to additional severe disease cases that were co-infected with DENV. Here, we investigated the impact of co-infection on immune responses and pathogenesis in a new mouse model. Co-infection of otherwise sublethal doses of a Nicaraguan clinical H1N1 isolate and two days later with a virulent DENV2 strain increased systemic DENV titers and caused 90% lethality. Lungs of co-infected mice carried both viruses, developed severe pneumonia, and expressed a unique pattern of host mRNAs, resembling only partial responses against infection with either virus alone. A large number of monocytes were recruited to DENV-infected but not to co-infected lungs, and depletion and adoptive transfer experiments revealed a beneficial role of monocytes. Our study shows that co-infection with influenza and DENV impairs host responses, which fail to control DENV titers and instead, induce severe lung damage. Further, our findings identify key inflammatory pathways and monocyte function as targets for future therapies that may limit immunopathology in co-infected patients.

  7. 39. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, c. 1944. VIEW SHOWING SHEEP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, c. 1944. VIEW SHOWING SHEEP CROSSING BRIDGE, LOOKING WEST FROM CORRAL AT EAST APPROACH TO WALKWAY. - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  8. 9 CFR 93.435 - Sheep and goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Additional General Provisions § 93.435 Sheep and goats. (a... to the United States, of other ruminants, flocks, and herds with which the imported sheep and...

  9. 9 CFR 93.435 - Sheep and goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Additional General Provisions § 93.435 Sheep and goats. (a... to the United States, of other ruminants, flocks, and herds with which the imported sheep and...

  10. 9 CFR 93.435 - Sheep and goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Additional General Provisions § 93.435 Sheep and goats. (a... to the United States, of other ruminants, flocks, and herds with which the imported sheep and...

  11. 9 CFR 93.435 - Sheep and goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Additional General Provisions § 93.435 Sheep and goats. (a... to the United States, of other ruminants, flocks, and herds with which the imported sheep and...

  12. Small ruminant lentivirus genetic subgroups associate with sheep TMEM154 genotypes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs) are prevalent in North American sheep and a major cause of production losses for the U.S. sheep industry. Sheep susceptibility to SRLV infection is influenced by genetic variation within the ovine transmembrane 154 gene (TMEM154). Animals with either of two distinct TMEM154 haplotypes that both encode glutamate at position 35 of the protein (E35) are at greater risk of SRLV infection than those homozygous with a lysine (K35) haplotype. Prior to this study, it was unknown if TMEM154 associations with infection are influenced by SRLV genetic subgroups. Accordingly, our goals were to characterize SRLVs naturally infecting sheep from a diverse U.S. Midwestern flock and test them for associations with TMEM154 E35K genotypes. Two regions of the SRLV genome were targeted for proviral amplification, cloning, sequence analysis, and association testing with TMEM154 E35K genotypes: gag and the transmembrane region of env. Independent analyses of gag and env sequences showed that they clustered in two subgroups (1 and 2), they were distinct from SRLV subtypes originating from Europe, and that subgroup 1 associated with hemizygous and homozygous TMEM154 K35 genotypes and subgroup 2 with hemi- and homozygous E35 genotypes (gag p < 0.001, env p = 0.01). These results indicate that SRLVs in the U.S. have adapted to infect sheep with specific TMEM154 E35K genotypes. Consequently, both host and SRLV genotypes affect the relative risk of SRLV infection in sheep. PMID:23895262

  13. Genome edited sheep and cattle.

    PubMed

    Proudfoot, Chris; Carlson, Daniel F; Huddart, Rachel; Long, Charles R; Pryor, Jane H; King, Tim J; Lillico, Simon G; Mileham, Alan J; McLaren, David G; Whitelaw, C Bruce A; Fahrenkrug, Scott C

    2015-02-01

    Genome editing tools enable efficient and accurate genome manipulation. An enhanced ability to modify the genomes of livestock species could be utilized to improve disease resistance, productivity or breeding capability as well as the generation of new biomedical models. To date, with respect to the direct injection of genome editor mRNA into livestock zygotes, this technology has been limited to the generation of pigs with edited genomes. To capture the far-reaching applications of gene-editing, from disease modelling to agricultural improvement, the technology must be easily applied to a number of species using a variety of approaches. In this study, we demonstrate zygote injection of TALEN mRNA can also produce gene-edited cattle and sheep. In both species we have targeted the myostatin (MSTN) gene. In addition, we report a critical innovation for application of gene-editing to the cattle industry whereby gene-edited calves can be produced with specified genetics by ovum pickup, in vitro fertilization and zygote microinjection (OPU-IVF-ZM). This provides a practical alternative to somatic cell nuclear transfer for gene knockout or introgression of desirable alleles into a target breed/genetic line.

  14. ToRCH "co-infections" are associated with increased risk of abortion in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Rasti, Sima; Ghasemi, Fatemeh Sadat; Abdoli, Amir; Piroozmand, Ahmad; Mousavi, Seyed Gholam Abbas; Fakhrie-Kashan, Zohreh

    2016-03-01

    ToRCH infections (toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus and Herpes simplex virus) have long been known to be associated with bad obstetric outcomes. However, little information is available about the impact of ToRCH co-infections on the outcome of pregnancy. Hence, we tested the IgG and IgM antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii, Rubella, Cytomegalovirus and Herpes Simplex Virus among 81 pregnant women with abortion (case group) and 98 pregnant women with normal delivery (control group). In the single-infection model, only CMV-IgM seropositivity was significantly increased in case than control group (25.9% in case and 12.2 % in control, OR = 2.5, P = 0.019). In the co-infection model, 14 patterns were recognized, but two patterns were significantly increased in the case than the control group. Co-infection of T. gondii IgG + CMV IgM was 9.1-fold increased in the case than the control group (8.6% in the case and 1% in control, OR = 9.1; P = 0.024). Also, co-infection of T. gondii IgG + HSV IgG + CMV IgM was 7.7-fold increased in case than the control group (7.4% in case and 1 % in control, OR = 7.7; P = 0.04). Although the OR of other co-infections was higher in the case than the control group, the difference was not statistically significant. These findings indicate that ToRCH co-infections are associated with increased risk of abortion than single infection. Hence, the rates of co-infections should be considered in prenatal screening of ToRCH infections.

  15. Viral hepatitis and human immunodeficiency virus co-infections in Asia

    PubMed Central

    Utsumi, Takako; Lusida, Maria I

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) affect many people in Asian countries, although there are geographic differences. Both HBV and HIV (HBV/HIV) and HCV/HIV co-infections are highly prevalent in Asia. Hetero- and homosexual, injection drug use, and geographic area are strong predictors of HBV, HCV, and HIV serostatus. In HBV endemic regions, the prevalence and genotype distribution of HBV/HIV co-infection is almost comparable with that in the general population. In Japan, where HBV has low endemicity, the prevalence of HBV/HIV co-infection is approximately 10-fold higher than that in the general population, and HBV Ae is the most common subgenotype among HIV infected individuals. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is an effective treatment for HIV/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. Lamivudine, a component of HAART, is an effective treatment for HBV, HIV, and HBV/HIV co-infection; however, cost, emerging drug resistance, antiretroviral-associated liver toxicity and liver-related morbidity due to HCV progression are particular concerns. HCV/HIV co-infection may accelerate the clinical progression of both HCV and HIV. The high prevalence of HBV/HIV and HCV/HIV co-infections in Asia underscores the need to improve prevention and control measures, as fewer evidence-based prevention strategies are available (compared with Western countries). In this review, the most recent publications on the prevalence of HBV/HIV and HCV/HIV co-infections and related issues, such as therapy and problems in Asia, are updated and summarized. PMID:25964874

  16. Clonorchis sinensis Co-infection Could Affect the Disease State and Treatment Response of HBV Patients

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yan; Chen, Tingjin; Kong, Xiangzhan; Sun, Hengchang; Yu, Xinbing; Xu, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Background Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis) is considered to be an important parasitic zoonosis because it infects approximately 35 million people, while approximately 15 million were distributed in China. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major public health issue. Two types of pathogens have the potential to cause human liver disease and eventually hepatocellular carcinoma. Concurrent infection with HBV and C. sinensis is often observed in some areas where C. sinensis is endemic. However, whether C. sinensis could impact HBV infection or vice versa remains unknown. Principal Findings Co-infection with C. sinensis and HBV develops predominantly in males. Co-infected C. sinensis and HBV patients presented weaker liver function and higher HBV DNA titers. Combination treatment with antiviral and anti-C. sinensis drugs in co-infected patients could contribute to a reduction in viral load and help with liver function recovery. Excretory-secretory products (ESPs) may, in some ways, increase HBV viral replication in vitro. A mixture of ESP and HBV positive sera could induce peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to produce higher level of Th2 cytokines including IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10 compared to HBV alone, it seems that due to presence of ESP, the cytokine production shift towards Th2. C. sinensis/HBV co-infected patients showed higher serum IL-6 and IL-10 levels and lower serum IFN-γ levels. Conclusions/Significance Patients with concomitant C. sinensis and HBV infection presented weaker liver function and higher HBV DNA copies. In co-infected patients, the efficacy of anti-viral treatment was better in patients who were prescribed with entecavir and praziquantel than entecavir alone. One possible reason for the weaker response to antiviral therapies in co-infected patients was the shift in cytokine production from Th1 to Th2 that may inhibit viral clearance. C. sinensis/HBV co-infection could exacerbate the imbalance of Th1/Th2 cytokine. PMID:27348302

  17. Viral hepatitis and human immunodeficiency virus co-infections in Asia.

    PubMed

    Utsumi, Takako; Lusida, Maria I

    2015-05-12

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) affect many people in Asian countries, although there are geographic differences. Both HBV and HIV (HBV/HIV) and HCV/HIV co-infections are highly prevalent in Asia. Hetero- and homosexual, injection drug use, and geographic area are strong predictors of HBV, HCV, and HIV serostatus. In HBV endemic regions, the prevalence and genotype distribution of HBV/HIV co-infection is almost comparable with that in the general population. In Japan, where HBV has low endemicity, the prevalence of HBV/HIV co-infection is approximately 10-fold higher than that in the general population, and HBV Ae is the most common subgenotype among HIV infected individuals. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is an effective treatment for HIV/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. Lamivudine, a component of HAART, is an effective treatment for HBV, HIV, and HBV/HIV co-infection; however, cost, emerging drug resistance, antiretroviral-associated liver toxicity and liver-related morbidity due to HCV progression are particular concerns. HCV/HIV co-infection may accelerate the clinical progression of both HCV and HIV. The high prevalence of HBV/HIV and HCV/HIV co-infections in Asia underscores the need to improve prevention and control measures, as fewer evidence-based prevention strategies are available (compared with Western countries). In this review, the most recent publications on the prevalence of HBV/HIV and HCV/HIV co-infections and related issues, such as therapy and problems in Asia, are updated and summarized.

  18. Proteomic evaluation of sheep serum proteins

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The applications of proteomic strategies to ovine medicine remain limited. The definition of serum proteome may be a good tool to identify useful protein biomarkers for recognising sub-clinical conditions and overt disease in sheep. Findings from bovine species are often directly translated for use in ovine medicine. In order to characterize normal protein patterns and improve knowledge of molecular species-specific characteristics, we generated a two-dimensional reference map of sheep serum. The possible application of this approach was tested by analysing serum protein patterns in ewes with mild broncho-pulmonary disease, which is very common in sheep and in the peripartum period which is a stressful time, with a high incidence of infectious and parasitic diseases. Results This study generated the first reference 2-DE maps of sheep serum. Overall, 250 protein spots were analyzed, and 138 identified. Compared with healthy sheep, serum protein profiles of animals with rhino-tracheo-bronchitis showed a significant decrease in protein spots identified as transthyretin, apolipoprotein A1 and a significant increase in spots identified as haptoglobin, endopin 1b and alpha1B glycoprotein. In the peripartum period, haptoglobin, alpha-1-acid glycoprotein, apolipoprotein A1 levels rose, while transthyretin content dropped. Conclusions This study describes applications of proteomics in putative biomarker discovery for early diagnosis as well as for monitoring the physiological and metabolic situations critical for ovine welfare. PMID:22630135

  19. Medetomidine-midazolam sedation in sheep.

    PubMed

    Raekallio, M; Tulamo, R M; Valtamo, T

    1998-01-01

    Seven sheep were sedated 3 times: with medetomidine (15 micrograms kg-1), with midazolam (0.1 mg kg-1) and with a combination of the drugs. All drugs were administered intravenously. Heart and respiratory rates were measured. Arterial blood samples were collected, and PaO2, PaCO2, pH, haemoglobin concentration and saturation, and base excess were determined. Systolic and mean arterial pressures were recorded before and after the treatment with medetomidine-midazolam. Midazolam increased the time of recumbency induced by medetomidine. After administration of midazolam alone, 4 of the 7 sheep were sedated and the other 3 were excited. Heart rate decreased after both medetomidine and medetomidine-midazolam. One sheep suffered a cardiac arrest after medetomidine-midazolam injection, and it required resuscitation. PaO2 and haemoglobin oxygen saturation decreased after medetomidine, and medetomidine-midazolam caused a marked hypoxaemia. PaCO2 increased after medetomidine, both alone and combined with midazolam, but arterial pH was within the reference values after all drug administrations. Systolic and mean arterial pressures decreased after medetomidine-midazolam. This study indicates that though in sheep midazolam potentiates the sedative effect of medetomidine, the combination of medetomidine and midazolam also reduces the in PaO2 and haemoglobin oxygen saturation more than medetomidine alone. The results indicate that a medetomidine-midazolam combination is unsafe for sheep at the doses studied.

  20. Occult hepatitis B in HIV-HCV coinfected patients.

    PubMed

    Piroth, Lionel; Lafon, Marie-Edith; Binquet, Christine; Bertillon, Pascale; Gervais, Anne; Lootvoet, Enguerrand; Lang, Jean-Marie; De Jaureguiberry, Jean Pierre; Chene, Geneviève; Leport, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence of occult hepatitis B infection in HIV infected patients is controversial, varying from less than 1% to 62% in different studies. Blood samples of 111 HIV-infected patients, HCV-positive, HBs antigen negative, followed in the APROCO-ANRS EP11 cohort, were used to detect HBV DNA by using 2 different validated assays (Cobas Amplicor HBV Monitor Test and INSERM U271 qualitative ultra-sensitive PCR), completed when positive by HBV real-time PCR. HBV DNA was found in 6 (5.4%, 95% CI 1.2%-9.6%) patients by at least 1 of these assays, but none tested positive in all 3 assays. All 6 patients had anti-HBc without anti-HBs antibodies; 5 were not on lamivudine. Their median CD4 and CD8 counts were significantly lower and their HIV viral load higher than in the other 105 patients. In conclusion, the prevalence of occult hepatitis B may vary significantly according to the molecular assay used, even though these assays are validated with high specificity and quite high sensitivity. Occult hepatitis B may be encountered in HIV-HCV coinfected patients without anti-HBV treatment, with anti-HBc but without anti-HBs antibodies, and relatively low immunity, suggesting a potential risk of further reactivation, as already sporadically reported.

  1. Staphylococcus aureus and Influenza A Virus: Partners in Coinfection

    PubMed Central

    Mulcahy, Michelle E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus is a significant risk factor for secondary staphylococcal pneumonia in influenza A virus (IAV)-infected hosts. However, little research has been undertaken to define the environmental and physiological changes that cause S. aureus to shift from commensal to pathogenic organism in this setting. The ability of virus-driven danger signals to cause S. aureus to transition from commensalism to pulmonary infection was explored in a recent study by Reddinger et al. R. M. Reddinger, N. R. Luke-Marshall, A. P. Hakansson, and A. A. Campagnari, mBio 7(6):e01235-16, 2016, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.01235-16. The authors report that physiological host changes, including febrile temperature and a combination of host stress response signals, caused S. aureus biofilms to disperse from the nasal environment and cause active pulmonary infection. This commentary discusses the new finding in light of the current understanding of the mechanisms behind staphylococcal coinfection with IAV. In addition, it considers the mechanisms behind staphylococcal dispersal in this model. Overall, the study indicates that interkingdom signaling may occur following IAV infection and this likely contributes to sensitizing the IAV-infected host to secondary staphylococcal pneumonia. PMID:27965455

  2. Kinetics of Coinfection with Influenza A Virus and Streptococcus pneumoniae

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Amber M.; Adler, Frederick R.; Ribeiro, Ruy M.; Gutenkunst, Ryan N.; McAuley, Julie L.; McCullers, Jonathan A.; Perelson, Alan S.

    2013-03-21

    Secondary bacterial infections are a leading cause of illness and death during epidemic and pandemic influenza. Experimental studies suggest a lethal synergism between influenza and certain bacteria, particularly Streptococcus pneumoniae, but the precise processes involved are unclear. In this paper, to address the mechanisms and determine the influences of pathogen dose and strain on disease, we infected groups of mice with either the H1N1 subtype influenza A virus A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PR8) or a version expressing the 1918 PB1-F2 protein (PR8-PB1-F2(1918)), followed seven days later with one of two S. pneumoniae strains, type 2 D39 or type 3 A66.1. We determined that, following bacterial infection, viral titers initially rebound and then decline slowly. Bacterial titers rapidly rise to high levels and remain elevated. We used a kinetic model to explore the coupled interactions and study the dominant controlling mechanisms. We hypothesize that viral titers rebound in the presence of bacteria due to enhanced viral release from infected cells, and that bacterial titers increase due to alveolar macrophage impairment. Dynamics are affected by initial bacterial dose but not by the expression of the influenza 1918 PB1-F2 protein. Finally, our model provides a framework to investigate pathogen interaction during coinfections and to uncover dynamical differences based on inoculum size and strain.

  3. Kinetics of Coinfection with Influenza A Virus and Streptococcus pneumoniae

    DOE PAGES

    Smith, Amber M.; Adler, Frederick R.; Ribeiro, Ruy M.; ...

    2013-03-21

    Secondary bacterial infections are a leading cause of illness and death during epidemic and pandemic influenza. Experimental studies suggest a lethal synergism between influenza and certain bacteria, particularly Streptococcus pneumoniae, but the precise processes involved are unclear. In this paper, to address the mechanisms and determine the influences of pathogen dose and strain on disease, we infected groups of mice with either the H1N1 subtype influenza A virus A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PR8) or a version expressing the 1918 PB1-F2 protein (PR8-PB1-F2(1918)), followed seven days later with one of two S. pneumoniae strains, type 2 D39 or type 3 A66.1. We determinedmore » that, following bacterial infection, viral titers initially rebound and then decline slowly. Bacterial titers rapidly rise to high levels and remain elevated. We used a kinetic model to explore the coupled interactions and study the dominant controlling mechanisms. We hypothesize that viral titers rebound in the presence of bacteria due to enhanced viral release from infected cells, and that bacterial titers increase due to alveolar macrophage impairment. Dynamics are affected by initial bacterial dose but not by the expression of the influenza 1918 PB1-F2 protein. Finally, our model provides a framework to investigate pathogen interaction during coinfections and to uncover dynamical differences based on inoculum size and strain.« less

  4. Survival of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) commingled with domestic sheep (Ovis aries) in the absence of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Besser, Thomas E; Cassirer, E Frances; Yamada, Catherine; Potter, Kathleen A; Herndon, Caroline; Foreyt, William J; Knowles, Donald P; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2012-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae is an important agent of the bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) pneumonia that has previously inevitably followed experimental commingling with domestic sheep (Ovis aries), we commingled M. ovipneumoniae-free domestic and bighorn sheep (n=4 each). One bighorn sheep died with acute pneumonia 90 days after commingling, but the other three remained healthy for >100 days. This unprecedented survival rate is significantly different (P=0.002) from that of previous bighorn-domestic sheep contact studies but similar to (P>0.05) bighorn sheep survival following commingling with other ungulates. The absence of epizootic respiratory disease in this experiment supports the hypothesized role of M. ovipneumoniae as a key pathogen of epizootic pneumonia in bighorn sheep commingled with domestic sheep.

  5. Gastrolobium spp. poisoning in sheep: A case report

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report describes the history and investigation of a suspected plant poisoning event in Western Australia where fifteen sheep died. One of the poisoned sheep was necropsied and gross and microscopic pathology of the poisoned sheep is described. Monofluoroacetate was detected in rumen contents ...

  6. 4. PHOTOGRAPH OF FRANK AUZA, A BASQUE SHEEP RANCHER, WHO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. PHOTOGRAPH OF FRANK AUZA, A BASQUE SHEEP RANCHER, WHO PLAYED A PROMINENT ROLE IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE BRIDGE AND MAINTAINED THE STRUCTURE FOR MORE THAN THIRTY YEARS WHILE RAISING SHEEP IN THE AREA. February 1987. - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  7. 9 CFR 93.419 - Sheep and goats from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sheep and goats from Canada. 93.419... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.419 Sheep and goats from Canada. (a) Sheep and goats intended for importation from Canada must be accompanied by a...

  8. 9 CFR 93.419 - Sheep and goats from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sheep and goats from Canada. 93.419... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.419 Sheep and goats from Canada. (a) Sheep and goats intended for importation from Canada must be accompanied by a...

  9. 9 CFR 93.419 - Sheep and goats from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sheep and goats from Canada. 93.419... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.419 Sheep and goats from Canada. (a) Sheep and goats intended for importation from Canada must be accompanied by a...

  10. 9 CFR 93.419 - Sheep and goats from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sheep and goats from Canada. 93.419... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.419 Sheep and goats from Canada. (a) Sheep and goats intended for importation from Canada must be accompanied by a...

  11. 75 FR 75867 - National Sheep Industry Improvement Center

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... to strengthen and enhance production and marketing of sheep or goat products in the United States; (2) Optimize the use of available human capital and resources within the sheep or goat industries; (3) Provide assistance to meet the needs of the sheep or goat industry for infrastructure development,...

  12. 9 CFR 93.419 - Sheep and goats from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sheep and goats from Canada. 93.419... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.419 Sheep and goats from Canada. (a) Sheep and goats intended for importation from Canada must be accompanied by a...

  13. Candidate Gene Approach for Parasite Resistance in Sheep – Variation in Immune Pathway Genes and Association with Fecal Egg Count

    PubMed Central

    Periasamy, Kathiravan; Pichler, Rudolf; Poli, Mario; Cristel, Silvina; Cetrá, Bibiana; Medus, Daniel; Basar, Muladno; A. K., Thiruvenkadan; Ramasamy, Saravanan; Ellahi, Masroor Babbar; Mohammed, Faruque; Teneva, Atanaska; Shamsuddin, Mohammed; Podesta, Mario Garcia; Diallo, Adama

    2014-01-01

    Sheep chromosome 3 (Oar3) has the largest number of QTLs reported to be significantly associated with resistance to gastro-intestinal nematodes. This study aimed to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within candidate genes located in sheep chromosome 3 as well as genes involved in major immune pathways. A total of 41 SNPs were identified across 38 candidate genes in a panel of unrelated sheep and genotyped in 713 animals belonging to 22 breeds across Asia, Europe and South America. The variations and evolution of immune pathway genes were assessed in sheep populations across these macro-environmental regions that significantly differ in the diversity and load of pathogens. The mean minor allele frequency (MAF) did not vary between Asian and European sheep reflecting the absence of ascertainment bias. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two major clusters with most of South Asian, South East Asian and South West Asian breeds clustering together while European and South American sheep breeds clustered together distinctly. Analysis of molecular variance revealed strong phylogeographic structure at loci located in immune pathway genes, unlike microsatellite and genome wide SNP markers. To understand the influence of natural selection processes, SNP loci located in chromosome 3 were utilized to reconstruct haplotypes, the diversity of which showed significant deviations from selective neutrality. Reduced Median network of reconstructed haplotypes showed balancing selection in force at these loci. Preliminary association of SNP genotypes with phenotypes recorded 42 days post challenge revealed significant differences (P<0.05) in fecal egg count, body weight change and packed cell volume at two, four and six SNP loci respectively. In conclusion, the present study reports strong phylogeographic structure and balancing selection operating at SNP loci located within immune pathway genes. Further, SNP loci identified in the study were found to have potential for

  14. Prisoners co-infected with tuberculosis and HIV: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Edge, Chantal L; King, Emma J; Dolan, Kate; McKee, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Almost from the beginning of the HIV epidemic in 1981, an association with tuberculosis (TB) was recognized. This association between HIV and TB co-infection has been particularly evident amongst prisoners. However, despite this, few studies of TB in prisons have stratified results by HIV status. Given the high prevalence of HIV-positive persons and TB-infected persons in prisons and the documented risk of TB in those infected with HIV, it is of interest to determine how co-infection varies amongst prison populations worldwide. For this reason we have undertaken a systematic review of studies of co-infected prisoners to determine the incidence and/or prevalence of HIV/TB co-infection in prisons, as well as outcomes in this group, measured as treatment success or death. Methods A literature search was undertaken using the online databases PubMed, Embase, IBSS, Scopus, Web of Science, Global Health and CINAHL Plus. No restrictions were set on language or publication date for article retrieval, with articles included if indexed up to 18 October 2015. A total of 1975 non-duplicate papers were identified. For treatment and outcome data all eligible papers were appraised for inclusion; for incidence/prevalence estimates papers published prior to 2000 were excluded from full text review. After full text appraisal, 46 papers were selected for inclusion in the review, 41 for incidence/prevalence estimates and nine for outcomes data, with four papers providing evidence for both outcomes and prevalence/incidence. Results Very few studies estimated the incidence of TB in HIV positive prisoners, with most simply reporting prevalence of co-infection. Co-infection is rarely explicitly measured, with studies simply reporting HIV status in prisoners with TB, or a cross-sectional survey of TB prevalence amongst prisoners with HIV. Estimates of co-infection prevalence ranged from 2.4 to 73.1% and relative risks for one, given the other, ranged from 2.0 to 10.75, although

  15. SHEEP: The Search for the High Energy Extragalactic Population

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nandra, K.; Georgantopoulos, I.; Ptak, A.; Turner, T. J.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    nuclei - which is less prone to bias due to obscuration than previous optical or soft X-ray samples. They are therefore more representative of the population of AGN in the universe in general, and the SHEEP survey should produce bright examples of the sources that make up the hard X-ray background, the majority of which has recently been resolved by Chandra. This should help elucidate the nature of the new populations.

  16. Towards evenly distributed grazing patterns: including social context in sheep management strategies

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Juan Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Background. A large proportion of natural grasslands around the world is exposed to overgrazing resulting in land degradation and biodiversity loss. Although there is an increasing effort in the promotion of sustainable livestock management, rangeland degradation still occurs because animals’ foraging behaviour is highly selective at different spatial scales. The assessment of the ecological mechanisms modulating the spatial distribution of grazing and how to control it has critical implications for long term conservation of resources and the sustainability of livestock production. Considering the relevance of social interactions on animals’ space use patterns, our aim was to explore the potential effects of including animals’ social context into management strategies using domestic sheep grazing in rangelands as case study. Methods. We used GPS data from 19 Merino sheep (approximately 10% of the flock) grazing on three different paddocks (with sizes from 80 to 1000 Ha) during a year, to estimate resource selection functions of sheep grazing in flocks of different levels of heterogeneity. We assessed the effects of sheep class (i.e., ewes, wethers, and hoggets), age, body condition and time since release on habitat selection patterns. Results. We found that social rank was reflected on sheep habitat use, where dominant individuals (i.e., reproductive females) used more intensively the most preferred areas and low-ranked (i.e., yearlings) used less preferred areas. Our results showed that when sheep grazed on more heterogeneous flocks, grazing patterns were more evenly distributed at all the paddocks considered in this study. On the other hand, when high-ranked individuals were removed from the flock, low-ranked sheep shifted their selection patterns by increasing the use of the most preferred areas and strongly avoided to use less preferred sites (i.e., a highly selective grazing behaviour). Discussion. Although homogenization and segregation of flocks by

  17. Strong connectedness within Norwegian Cheviot and Fur Sheep ram circles allows reliable estimation of breeding values.

    PubMed

    Eikje, L S; Lewis, R M

    2015-07-01

    Breeding programs for sheep in Norway are based on cooperatives of ram circles (RC). The key features of RC are selection of rams across member flocks and their rotation among RC flocks during the mating season. Genetic gains are disseminated to flocks outside RC (ORC). In both groups, natural service and AI are practiced. The objectives were to investigate 1) connectedness within and across RC and across RC and ORC, which impacts bias in genetic comparisons across flocks, and 2) opportunities to improve accuracy by including data from ORC flocks in genetic evaluation of RC flocks. Weaning weights in Cheviot and Fur Sheep from 1990 to 2010 were used. In Cheviot, in the last year of data (2010), there were 4 RC with 49 flocks and 1,824 ewes. Seventy-seven ORC flocks, with 1,246 ewes, also were recorded that year. In total, 214,391 pedigree and 131,012 performance records in Cheviot were available. For Fur Sheep, there was 1 RC with 8 flocks and 468 ewes in 2010 and 134 ORC flocks with 1,932 ewes. In total, 198,339 pedigree and 110,955 performance records in Fur Sheep were available. Unbiased comparison of EBV requires that genetic means of flock founders are similar or that flocks are genetically connected. The latter requires that rams sire enough progeny across flocks. In RC in both breeds and in 28.6% of Cheviot and 20% of Fur Sheep ORC flocks, the average prediction error correlation of flock mean EBV (flock rij) exceeded a threshold (0.10) for strong connectedness. These flocks also had similar genetic means: the variance between means of flock founders (genetic groups) was 1.05 (Cheviot) and 0.51 (Fur Sheep) times that of the additive variance for weaning weight. With less connected flocks included (flock rij ≤ 0.10), the between genetic group variance increased to 1.6 times the additive variance. When weaning weights from connected ORC flocks were included in the genetic evaluation of RC flocks, the size of the data increased by 1.07 times in Cheviot and by

  18. Parameter estimation and simulations of a mathematical model of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis transmission in sheep.

    PubMed

    O'Reilly, K M; Green, L E; Malone, F E; Medley, G F

    2008-03-17

    Caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) is an infectious disease of sheep caused by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis. It is prevalent in most sheep producing countries and was introduced into the UK sheep population in 1991. The pathogen invades the host through epithelium and forms an abscess in the local draining lymph node. Typically, disease presents as clinical, with overt (externally visible) swollen lymph nodes (the parotid, submandibular, prefemoral, prescapular, popliteal or mammary) or sub-clinical, with abscesses in the lungs and associated thoracic (bronchial and mediastinal) lymph nodes. We present a mathematical model in which disease is categorised as overt and/or respiratory (sub-clinical), using the above groupings. In both situations sheep may be infected and may or may not be infectious. In the model, overt abscesses may resolve and respiratory abscesses are considered to be present for life. Using the location of the abscesses, three routes of transmission are postulated: overt to overt, respiratory to overt and respiratory to respiratory. Data from four naturally infected flocks were used to describe populations of sheep with epidemic CLA and to estimate transmission coefficients for each of the postulated transmission routes. The infection process parameters were derived from literature where possible. Parameters were estimated using maximum likelihood methods and compared to the data using a multinomial distribution. The distribution of abscesses in the flocks was similar to endemic data reported in other studies. In the model most infected sheep developed abscesses, and approximately 36% of sheep with overt abscesses recovered from infection. The average time for respiratory abscesses to become infectious was 41 days. In these data, overt to overt transmission was the most frequent route of transmission since it had the highest coefficient in the model compared with respiratory to overt and respiratory to respiratory transmission. Transmission

  19. Survival of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) commingled with domestic sheep (Ovis aries) in the absence of mycoplasma ovipneumoniae.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To test the hypothesis that Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae is an important agent of the bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) pneumonia that has previously inevitably followed experimental commingling with domestic sheep (Ovis aries), we commingled M. ovipneumoniae–free domestic and bighorn sheep (n=4 each). On...

  20. Dances with worms: the ecological and evolutionary impacts of deworming on coinfecting pathogens.

    PubMed

    Fenton, Andy

    2013-08-01

    Parasitic helminths are ubiquitous in most host, including human, populations. Helminths often alter the likelihood of infection and disease progression of coinfecting microparasitic pathogens (viruses, bacteria, protozoa), and there is great interest in incorporating deworming into control programmes for many major diseases (e.g. HIV, tuberculosis, malaria). However, such calls are controversial; studies show the consequences of deworming for the severity and spread of pathogens to be highly variable. Hence, the benefits of deworming, although clear for reducing the morbidity due to helminth infection per se, are unclear regarding the outcome of coinfections and comorbidities. I develop a theoretical framework to explore how helminth coinfection with other pathogens affects host mortality and pathogen spread and evolution under different interspecific parasite interactions. In all cases the outcomes of coinfection are highly context-dependent, depending on the mechanism of helminth-pathogen interaction and the quantitative level of helminth infection, with the effects of deworming potentially switching from beneficial to detrimental depending on helminth burden. Such context-dependency may explain some of the variation in the benefits of deworming seen between studies, and highlights the need for obtaining a quantitative understanding of parasite interactions across realistic helminth infection ranges. However, despite this complexity, this framework reveals predictable patterns in the effects of helminths that may aid the development of more effective, integrated management strategies to combat pathogens in this coinfected world.

  1. Co-infection of tuberculosis and parasitic diseases in humans: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Co-infection of tuberculosis and parasitic diseases in humans is an important public problem in co-endemic areas in developing countries. However, there is a paucity of studies on co-infection and even fewer reviews. This review examines 44 appropriate papers by PRISMA from 289 papers searched in PubMed via the NCBI Entrez system (no grey literature) up to December 2012 in order to analyze the factors that influence epidemic and host’s immunity of co-infection. The limited evidence in this review indicates that most common parasite species are concurrent with Mycobacterium tuberculosis in multiple organs; socio-demographics such as gender and age, special populations with susceptibility such as renal transplant recipients, patients on maintenance haemodialysis, HIV positive patients and migrants, and living in or coming from co-endemic areas are all likely to have an impact on co-infection. Pulmonary tuberculosis and parasitic diseases were shown to be risk factors for each other. Co-infection may significantly inhibit the host’s immune system, increase antibacterial therapy intolerance and be detrimental to the prognosis of the disease; in addition, infection with parasitic diseases can alter the protective immune response to Bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccination against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. PMID:23522098

  2. Modulation of HCV replication after combination antiretroviral therapy in HCV/HIV co-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Kenneth E; Guedj, Jeremie; Shata, Mohamed Tarek; Blackard, Jason T; Rouster, Susan D; Castro, Mario; Feinberg, Judith; Sterling, Richard K; Goodman, Zachary; Aronow, Bruce J; Perelson, Alan S

    2014-07-23

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an important contributor to morbidity and mortality in patients co-infected with HIV. Co-infection results in increased HCV replication and more rapid rates of liver disease progression. The effect of HIV combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) on HCV replication has not been studied in depth. To address this issue, we enrolled a small cohort of HCV/HIV co-infected patients into a cART initiation trial and used dynamic modeling combined with evaluation of immune responses and microarray profiles to determine how effective treatment of HIV affects HCV. Treatment with cART resulted in increased HCV replication and increased alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in a subset of patients. Subjects with evidence of hepatic injury (increased ALT) were more likely to have HCV-specific immune responses directed against HCV epitopes. Over time, HCV viral loads declined. Reproducible and biologically important gene expression changes occurred in co-infected patients who underwent successful cART. The effective suppression of HIV by cART initiated a cascade of early and late events in treated patients. Early events involving down-regulation of interferon-stimulated genes may have led to transiently increased viral replication and hepatic injury. At later time points, HCV viral load declined to levels comparable to those seen in the setting of HCV monoinfection. These findings support early antiretroviral therapy in those with HCV/HIV co-infection.

  3. Co-infection of tuberculosis and parasitic diseases in humans: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin-Xu; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2013-03-22

    Co-infection of tuberculosis and parasitic diseases in humans is an important public problem in co-endemic areas in developing countries. However, there is a paucity of studies on co-infection and even fewer reviews. This review examines 44 appropriate papers by PRISMA from 289 papers searched in PubMed via the NCBI Entrez system (no grey literature) up to December 2012 in order to analyze the factors that influence epidemic and host's immunity of co-infection. The limited evidence in this review indicates that most common parasite species are concurrent with Mycobacterium tuberculosis in multiple organs; socio-demographics such as gender and age, special populations with susceptibility such as renal transplant recipients, patients on maintenance haemodialysis, HIV positive patients and migrants, and living in or coming from co-endemic areas are all likely to have an impact on co-infection. Pulmonary tuberculosis and parasitic diseases were shown to be risk factors for each other. Co-infection may significantly inhibit the host's immune system, increase antibacterial therapy intolerance and be detrimental to the prognosis of the disease; in addition, infection with parasitic diseases can alter the protective immune response to Bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccination against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

  4. Detection of Hepatitis C Virus Coinfection in Patients with Dengue Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Machain-Williams, Carlos; Talavera-Aguilar, Lourdes; Cetina-Trejo, Rosa Carmina; Carrillo-Navarrete, Jaquelin; Rivero-Cárdenas, Nubia; Salazar, Ma. Isabel; Farfán-Ale, José Arturo; Castro-Mussot, María Eugenia

    2014-01-01

    Coinfection produced by dengue virus (DENV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a serious problem of public health in Mexico, as they both circulate in tropical zones and may lead to masking or complicating symptoms. In this research, we detected active coinfected patients by HCV residing in the endemic city of Mérida, Yucatán, Mexico, with positive diagnosis to dengue during the acute phase. We performed a retrospective analysis of 240 serum samples from dengue patients. The IgM-ELISA serological test was used for dengue diagnosis, as well as viral isolation to confirm infection. DENV and HCV were detected by RT-PCR. Thus, 31 (12.9%) samples showed DENV-HCV coinfection, but interestingly the highest frequency of coinfection cases was found in male patients presenting hemorrhagic dengue in 19/31 (61.29%), with a predominance of 12 : 7 in males. Firstly, coinfection of DENV-HCV in Mérida, Mexico, was detected in young dengue patients, between 11 and 20 years old (38.7%), followed by those between 21 and 30 years old (32%); only 16.13% were between 0 and 10 years of age. Diagnosis of HCV infection in patients with dengue is highly recommended in order to establish potential risk in clinical manifestations as well as dictate patients' special care. PMID:24949433

  5. Detection of hepatitis C virus coinfection in patients with dengue diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Machain-Williams, Carlos; Talavera-Aguilar, Lourdes; Cetina-Trejo, Rosa Carmina; Carrillo-Navarrete, Jaquelin; Rivero-Cárdenas, Nubia; Salazar, Ma Isabel; Farfán-Ale, José Arturo; Puerto, Fernando I; Castro-Mussot, María Eugenia

    2014-01-01

    Coinfection produced by dengue virus (DENV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a serious problem of public health in Mexico, as they both circulate in tropical zones and may lead to masking or complicating symptoms. In this research, we detected active coinfected patients by HCV residing in the endemic city of Mérida, Yucatán, Mexico, with positive diagnosis to dengue during the acute phase. We performed a retrospective analysis of 240 serum samples from dengue patients. The IgM-ELISA serological test was used for dengue diagnosis, as well as viral isolation to confirm infection. DENV and HCV were detected by RT-PCR. Thus, 31 (12.9%) samples showed DENV-HCV coinfection, but interestingly the highest frequency of coinfection cases was found in male patients presenting hemorrhagic dengue in 19/31 (61.29%), with a predominance of 12 : 7 in males. Firstly, coinfection of DENV-HCV in Mérida, Mexico, was detected in young dengue patients, between 11 and 20 years old (38.7%), followed by those between 21 and 30 years old (32%); only 16.13% were between 0 and 10 years of age. Diagnosis of HCV infection in patients with dengue is highly recommended in order to establish potential risk in clinical manifestations as well as dictate patients' special care.

  6. Effects of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors on Liver Fibrosis in HIV and Hepatitis C Coinfection.

    PubMed

    Reese, Lindsey J; Tider, Diane S; Stivala, Alicia C; Fishbein, Dawn A

    2012-01-01

    Background. Liver fibrosis is accelerated in HIV and hepatitis C coinfection, mediated by profibrotic effects of angiotensin. The objective of this study was to determine if angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-Is) attenuate liver fibrosis in coinfection. Methods. A retrospective review of 156 coinfected subjects was conducted to analyze the association between exposure to ACE-Is and liver fibrosis. Noninvasive indices of liver fibrosis (APRI, FIB-4, Forns indices) were compared between subjects who had taken ACE-Is and controls who had not taken them. Linear regression was used to evaluate ACE-I use as an independent predictor of fibrosis. Results. Subjects taking ACE-Is for three years were no different than controls on the APRI and the FIB-4 but had significantly higher scores than controls on the Forns index, indicating more advanced fibrosis. The use of ACE-Is for three years remained independently associated with an elevated Forns score when adjusted for age, race, and HIV viral load (P < 0.001). There were significant associations between all of the indices and significant fibrosis, as determined clinically and radiologically. Conclusions. There was not a protective association between angiotensin inhibition and liver fibrosis in coinfection. These noninvasive indices may be useful for ruling out significant fibrosis in coinfection.

  7. HIV/STI co-infection among men who have sex with men in Spain.

    PubMed

    Diaz, A; Junquera, M L; Esteban, V; Martínez, B; Pueyo, I; Suarez, J; Ureña, J M; Varela, J A; Vall, M; del Romero, J; Sanz, I; Belda, J; Boronat, J; Gomez, P; Gual, F; Colomo, C; López de Munain, J; Balaguer, J; Landa, M C; Lezaun, M E; Cámara, M C; Fernández, E; Bru, F J; Alastrue, I; Ordoñana, J R; de Armas, C; Azpiri, M A; Gomez, L; Trullén, J; Diez, M

    2009-12-03

    In Spain, neither the HIV nor the STI national surveillance systems collect information on HIV/STI co-infection. However, there are two networks based on HIV/STI clinics which gather this data. We describe HIV prevalence in men who have sex with men (MSM) diagnosed with infectious syphilis and/or gonorrhoea in 15 STI clinics; and concurrent diagnoses of STI in MSM newly diagnosed with HIV in 19 HIV/STI clinics. In total, 572 MSM were diagnosed with infectious syphilis and 580 with gonorrhoea during 2005-2007. HIV prevalence among syphilis and gonorrhoea cases was 29.8% and 15.2% respectively. In the multivariate analysis, HIV/syphilis co-infection was associated with being Latin American; having a history of STI; reporting exclusively anal intercourse; and having sex with casual or several types of partners. HIV and gonorrhoea co-infection was associated with age older than 45 years; having no education or only primary education completed; and having a history of STI. In total, 1,462 HIV infections were newly diagnosed among MSM during 2003-2007. Of these, 31.0% were diagnosed with other STI at the same time. Factors associated with STI co-infection among new HIV cases in MSM were being Latin American; and having sex with casual partners or with both steady and casual partners. In Spain, a considerable proportion of MSM are co-infected with HIV and STI.

  8. Schmallenberg virus experimental infection of sheep.

    PubMed

    Wernike, Kerstin; Hoffmann, Bernd; Bréard, Emmanuel; Bøtner, Anette; Ponsart, Claire; Zientara, Stéphan; Lohse, Louise; Pozzi, Nathalie; Viarouge, Cyril; Sarradin, Pierre; Leroux-Barc, Céline; Riou, Mickael; Laloy, Eve; Breithaupt, Angele; Beer, Martin

    2013-10-25

    Since late 2011, a novel orthobunyavirus, named Schmallenberg virus (SBV), has been implicated in many cases of severely malformed bovine and ovine offspring in Europe. In adult cattle, SBV is known to cause a mild transient disease; clinical signs include short febrile episodes, decreased milk production and diarrhoea for a few days. However, the knowledge about clinical signs and pathogenesis in adult sheep is limited. In the present study, adult sheep of European domestic breeds were inoculated with SBV either as cell culture grown virus or as virus with no history of passage in cell cultures. Various experimental set-ups were used. Sampling included blood collection at different time points during the experimental period and selected organ material at autopsy. Data from this study showed, that the RNAemic period in sheep was as short as reported for cattle; viral genome was detectable for about 3-5 days by real-time RT-PCR. In total, 13 out of 30 inoculated sheep became RNAemic, with the highest viral load in animals inoculated with virus from low cell culture passaged or the animal passaged material. Contact animals remained negative throughout the study. One RNAemic sheep showed diarrhoea for several days, but fever was not recorded in any of the animals. Antibodies were first detectable 10-14 days post inoculation. Viral RNA was detectable in spleen and lymph nodes up to day 44 post inoculation. In conclusion, as described for cattle, SBV-infection in adult sheep predominantly results in subclinical infection, transient RNAemia and a specific antibody response. Maintenance of viral RNA in the lymphoreticular system is observed for an extended period.

  9. SHEEP MOUNTAIN WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, WYOMING.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Houston, Robert S.; Patten, Lowell L.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a mineral survey the Sheep Mountain Wilderness study area in Wyoming was determined to offer little promise for metallic mineral resources. There is a probable potential for oil and gas resources in a small part of the study area along its northeast margin. Geophysical studies, such as reflection seismic profiling would help define the oil and gas potential in fault-controlled structures, such as those beneath the thrust fault that crops out along the east flank of Sheep Mountain.

  10. Co-infection and disease severity of Ohio Maize dwarf mosaic virus and Maize chlorotic dwarf virus strains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two major maize viruses have been reported in the United States: Maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV) and Maize chlorotic dwarf virus (MCDV). These viruses co-occur in regions where maize is grown such that co-infections are likely. Co-infection of different strains of MCDV is also observed frequently...

  11. Case report: Co-infection of Rickettsia rickettsii and Streptococcus pyogenes: is fatal Rocky Mountain spotted fever underdiagnosed?

    PubMed

    Raczniak, Gregory A; Kato, Cecilia; Chung, Ida H; Austin, Amy; McQuiston, Jennifer H; Weis, Erica; Levy, Craig; Carvalho, Maria da Gloria S; Mitchell, Audrey; Bjork, Adam; Regan, Joanna J

    2014-12-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever, a tick-borne disease caused by Rickettsia rickettsii, is challenging to diagnose and rapidly fatal if not treated. We describe a decedent who was co-infected with group A β-hemolytic streptococcus and R. rickettsii. Fatal cases of Rocky Mountain spotted fever may be underreported because they present as difficult to diagnose co-infections.

  12. Protection of Sheep against Rift Valley Fever Virus and Sheep Poxvirus with a Recombinant Capripoxvirus Vaccine▿

    PubMed Central

    Soi, Reuben K.; Rurangirwa, Fred R.; McGuire, Travis C.; Rwambo, Paul M.; DeMartini, James C.; Crawford, Timothy B.

    2010-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an epizootic viral disease of sheep that can be transmitted from sheep to humans, particularly by contact with aborted fetuses. A capripoxvirus (CPV) recombinant virus (rKS1/RVFV) was developed, which expressed the Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) Gn and Gc glycoproteins. These expressed glycoproteins had the correct size and reacted with monoclonal antibodies (MAb) to native glycoproteins. Mice vaccinated with rKS1/RVFV were protected against RVFV challenge. Sheep vaccinated with rKS1/RVFV twice developed neutralizing antibodies and were significantly protected against RVFV and sheep poxvirus challenge. These findings further document the value of CPV recombinants as ruminant vaccine vectors and support the inclusion of RVFV genes encoding glycoproteins in multivalent recombinant vaccines to be used where RVF occurs. PMID:20876822

  13. Mitochondrial analysis sheds light on the origin of hair sheep.

    PubMed

    Álvarez, I; Capote, J; Traoré, A; Fonseca, N; Pérez, K; Cuervo, M; Fernández, I; Goyache, F

    2013-06-01

    A total of 180 mtDNA sequences from hair Caribbean (93), West African (73) and Canarian-wooled (14) sheep were analysed to shed light on the origin of hair sheep. A comparison of 360 Iberian sheep sequences retrieved from GenBank was performed to assess a possible European origin of the Caribbean hair sheep. These 180 sequences gave 48 different haplotypes (16 in Caribbean sheep). All Caribbean and Canarian-wooled sequences and 91.8% of the West African samples belonged to haplogroup B. The sheep analysed showed wide haplotypic identity. Caribbean sheep shared roughly two-thirds of their samples with Canarian-wooled and West African samples, respectively. Principal component analysis showed that the Caribbean and the Canarian-wooled sheep clustered together. Additional analyses showed that hair and Iberian sheep had wide genetic identity. It was not possible to ascertain a single Canarian, African or European origin of the Caribbean hair sheep using mtDNA markers only. European, African and Caribbean hair sheep maternal genetic backgrounds likely result from related domestication events.

  14. Immune Responses Associated with Resistance to Haemonchosis in Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Alba-Hurtado, Fernando; Muñoz-Guzmán, Marco Antonio

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the known immunological and genetic factors associated with sheep resistance to infection by Haemonchus contortus. Such resistance is an inheritable genetic trait (h2, 0.22–0.63) associated with certain sheep breeds. Resistant sheep do not completely reject the disease; they only harbor fewer parasites than susceptible sheep and therefore have a lower fecal egg count. Protective immune response to haemonchosis is an expression of genetic resistance. Genes associated with resistance and susceptibility are described. Genetically resistant sheep have nonspecific mechanisms that block the initial colonization by Haemonchus contortus larvae. These sheep also have an efficacious Th2 type response (e.g., increases in blood and tissue eosinophils, specific IgE class antibodies, mast cells, IL-5, IL-13, and TNFα) that protects them against the infection; in contrast, susceptible sheep do not efficiently establish this type of immune response. Finally, the main reported antigens of H. contortus were reviewed. PMID:23509684

  15. Recurrent paratyphoid fever A co-infected with hepatitis A reactivated chronic hepatitis B.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanling; Xiong, Yujiao; Huang, Wenxiang; Jia, Bei

    2014-05-12

    We report here a case of recurrent paratyphoid fever A with hepatitis A co-infection in a patient with chronic hepatitis B. A 26-year-old male patient, who was a hepatitis B virus carrier, was co-infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A and hepatitis A virus. The recurrence of the paratyphoid fever may be ascribed to the coexistence of hepatitis B, a course of ceftriaxone plus levofloxacin that was too short and the insensitivity of paratyphoid fever A to levofloxacin. We find that an adequate course and dose of ceftriaxone is a better strategy for treating paratyphoid fever. Furthermore, the co-infection of paratyphoid fever with hepatitis A may stimulate cellular immunity and break immunotolerance. Thus, the administration of the anti-viral agent entecavir may greatly improve the prognosis of this patient with chronic hepatitis B, and the episodes of paratyphoid fever and hepatitis A infection prompt the use of timely antiviral therapy.

  16. Impact of Hepatitis Co-Infection on Healthcare Utilization among Persons Living with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Crowell, Trevor A.; Berry, Stephen A.; Fleishman, John A.; LaRue, Richard W.; Korthuis, P. Todd; Nijhawan, Ank E.; Moore, Richard D.; Gebo, Kelly A.

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) co-infection are increasingly important sources of morbidity among HIV-infected persons. We determined associations between hepatitis co-infection and healthcare utilization among HIV-infected adults at four U.S. sites during 2006–2011. Outpatient HIV visits did not differ by hepatitis serostatus and decreased over time. Mental health visits were more common among HIV/HCV co-infected persons than among HIV mono-infected (IRR 1.27 [1.08–1.50]). Hospitalization rates were higher among all hepatitis-infected groups than among HIV mono-infected (HIV/HBV IRR 1.23 [1.05–1.44], HIV/HCV 1.22 [1.10–1.36], HIV/HBV/HCV 1.31 [1.02–1.68]). These findings may inform the design of clinical services and allocation of resources. PMID:25559601

  17. Mechanistic insights on immunosenescence and chronic immune activation in HIV-tuberculosis co-infection

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, Esaki M; Velu, Vijayakumar; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Larsson, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Immunosenescence is marked by accelerated degradation of host immune responses leading to the onset of opportunistic infections, where senescent T cells show remarkably higher ontogenic defects as compared to healthy T cells. The mechanistic association between T-cell immunosenescence and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease progression, and functional T-cell responses in HIV-tuberculosis (HIV-TB) co-infection remains to be elaborately discussed. Here, we discussed the association of immunosenescence and chronic immune activation in HIV-TB co-infection and reviewed the role played by mediators of immune deterioration in HIV-TB co-infection necessitating the importance of designing therapeutic strategies against HIV disease progression and pathogenesis. PMID:25674514

  18. Optimal control analysis of malaria-schistosomiasis co-infection dynamics.

    PubMed

    Okosun, Kazeem Oare; Smith, Robert

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents a mathematical model for malaria--schistosomiasis co-infection in order to investigate their synergistic relationship in the presence of treatment. We first analyse the single infection steady states, then investigate the existence and stability of equilibria and then calculate the basic reproduction numbers. Both the single-infection models and the co-infection model exhibit backward bifurcations. We carrying out a sensitivity analysis of the co-infection model and show that schistosomiasis infection may not be associated with an increased risk of malaria. Conversely, malaria infection may be associated with an increased risk of schistosomiasis. Furthermore, we found that effective treatment and prevention of schistosomiasis infection would also assist in the effective control and eradication of malaria. Finally, we apply Pontryagin's Maximum Principle to the model in order to determine optimal strategies for control of both diseases.

  19. Viral bacterial co-infection of the respiratory tract during early childhood.

    PubMed

    Brealey, Jaelle C; Sly, Peter D; Young, Paul R; Chappell, Keith J

    2015-05-01

    Acute respiratory infection (ARI) is an important cause of morbidity in children. Mixed aetiology is frequent, with pathogenic viruses and bacteria co-detected in respiratory secretions. However, the clinical significance of these viral/bacterial co-infections has long been a controversial topic. While severe bacterial pneumonia following influenza infection has been well described, associations are less clear among infections caused by viruses that are more common in young children, such as respiratory syncytial virus. Although assessing the overall contribution of bacteria to disease severity is complicated by the presence of many confounding factors in clinical studies, understanding the role of viral/bacterial co-infections in defining the outcome of paediatric ARI will potentially reveal novel treatment and prevention strategies, improving patient outcomes. This review summarizes current evidence for the clinical significance of respiratory viral/bacterial co-infections in young children, discusses possible mechanisms of cooperative interaction between these pathogens and highlights areas that require further investigation.

  20. Coinfection with HIV-1 and HCV--a one-two punch.

    PubMed

    Kim, Arthur Y; Chung, Raymond T

    2009-09-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of chronic liver disease, cirrhosis, and death; it is estimated that 180 million persons are infected with HCV worldwide. The consequences of HCV are worse in those who are coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1), which is unfortunately a common scenario because of shared risk factors of the viruses. More studies into effects of HCV/HIV-1 coinfection are needed, but efforts have been hampered by limitations in our understanding of the combined pathogenesis of the 2 viruses. Gaining insight into the mechanisms that underlie the immunopathogenesis of these persistent viral infections could lead to new therapeutic strategies for patients with HCV/HIV-1 coinfection.

  1. The Influence of Coinfection on Mood States in HTLV-1-Infected Patients.

    PubMed

    Gascón, Maria Rita Polo; Capitão, Claudio Garcia; Nogueira-Martins, Maria Cezira Fantini; Casseb, Jorge; Penalva Oliveira, Augusto Cesar

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to discuss the influence of coinfection on mood states (depression and anxiety) in Human T Lymphotropic virus type 1 HTLV-1-infected patients. A cross-sectional study was performed with a sample obtained through a nonprobabilistic technique. A total of 130 patients in treatment at the HTLV Ambulatory of Instituto de Infectologia Emílio Ribas participated in the research, of whom 63 had HAM/TS and 67 were asymptomatic. A sociodemographic survey and the Beck Anxiety and Depression Inventories were used. The results indicated a prevalence of 7.2% for HTLV-1/HIV co-infection, 7.2% for HTLV-1/HCV, and 4.0% for HTLV-1/HIV/HCV. It is possible that the presence of a co-infection causes greater fear and concern about the future than asymptomatic HTLV-1 infection, increasing the observed degree of depression and anxiety.

  2. Control of the sheep blowfly in Australia and New Zealand--are we there yet?

    PubMed

    Sandeman, R M; Levot, G W; Heath, A C G; James, P J; Greeff, J C; Scott, M J; Batterham, P; Bowles, V M

    2014-10-15

    The last 50 years of research into infections in Australia and New Zealand caused by larvae of the sheep blowfly, Lucilia cuprina, have significantly advanced our understanding of this blowfly and its primary host, the sheep. However, apart from some highly effective drugs it could be argued that no new control methodologies have resulted. This review addresses the major areas of sheep blowfly research over this period describing the significant outcomes and analyses, and what is still required to produce new commercial control technologies. The use of drugs against this fly species has been very successful but resistance has developed to almost all current compounds. Integrated pest management is becoming basic to control, especially in the absence of mulesing, and has clearly benefited from computer-aided technologies. Biological control has more challenges but natural and perhaps transformed biopesticides offer possibilities for the future. Experimental vaccines have been developed but require further analysis of antigens and formulations to boost protection. Genetic technologies may provide potential for long-term control through more rapid indirect selection of sheep less prone to flystrike. Finally in the future, genetic analysis of the fly may allow suppression and perhaps eradication of blowfly populations or identification of new and more viable targets for drug and vaccine intervention. Clearly all these areas of research offer potential new controls but commercial development is perhaps inhibited by the success of current chemical insecticides and certainly requires a significant additional injection of resources.

  3. Development of a recombinant epsilon toxoid vaccine against enterotoxemia and its use as a combination vaccine with live attenuated sheep pox virus against enterotoxemia and sheep pox.

    PubMed

    Chandran, Dev; Naidu, Sureddi Satyam; Sugumar, Parthasarathy; Rani, Gudavalli Sudha; Vijayan, Shahana Pallichera; Mathur, Deepika; Garg, Lalit C; Srinivasan, Villuppanoor Alwar

    2010-06-01

    Sheep pox and enterotoxemia are important diseases of sheep, and these diseases cause severe economic losses to sheep farmers. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the potential of formaldehyde-inactivated recombinant epsilon toxin as a vaccine candidate. The potency of the recombinant epsilon toxoid with aluminum hydroxide as an adjuvant in sheep was determined. Vaccinated sheep were protected against enterotoxemia, with potency values of >5 IU being protective. Further, the use of this construct in a combination vaccine against sheep pox resulted in the sheep being protected against both sheep pox and enterotoxemia.

  4. Risk factors for monoinfections and coinfections with HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses in northern Spanish prisoners.

    PubMed Central

    Pallás, J.; Fariñas-Alvarez, C.; Prieto, D.; Llorca, J.; Delgado-Rodríguez, M.

    1999-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in prisons of Cantabria (northern Spain) from June 1992 to December 1994. Inmates were asked to participate in a survey on prevalence and risk factors for monoinfections and coinfections with HIV, HBV and HCV. Crude and multiple odds ratios of risk factors were calculated (by polychotomous logistic regression). Prevalence of coinfections was higher than that of monoinfections. IDU risk factors were the main independent variables associated with monoinfections and coinfections with these agents. The strength of association increased with the degree of coinfection for IDU risk factors and penal status, e.g. duration of injecting drug use for more than 5 years yielded an adjusted OR ranging from 1.3 (95% CI: 0.4-5.1) for HBV monoinfection to 180 (95% CI: 61.0-540.0) for HIV-HBV-HCV coinfection. In comparison, sexual behaviours were less important than IDU risk factors. PMID:10487645

  5. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Coinfections With Rhinovirus and Human Bocavirus in Hospitalized Children

    PubMed Central

    Calvo, Cristina; García-García, María Luz; Pozo, Francisco; Paula, Gallardo; Molinero, Mar; Calderón, Ana; González-Esguevillas, Mónica; Casas, Inmaculada

    2015-01-01

    Abstract It is not clearly established if coinfections are more severe than single viral respiratory infections. The aim of the study was to study and to compare simple infections and viral coinfections of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in hospitalized children. From September 2005 to August 2013, a prospective study was conducted on children younger than 14 years of age, admitted with respiratory infection to the Pediatric Department of the Severo Ochoa Hospital, in Spain. Specimens of nasopharyngeal aspirate were taken for virological study by using polymerase chain reaction, and clinical data were recorded. Simple RSV infections were selected and compared with double infections of RSV with rhinovirus (RV) or with human bocavirus (HBoV). In this study, 2993 episodes corresponding to 2525 children were analyzed. At least 1 virus was detected in 77% (2312) of the episodes. Single infections (599 RSV, 513 RV, and 81 HBoV) were compared with 120 RSV-RV and 60 RSV-HBoV double infections. The RSV-RV coinfections had fever (63% vs 43%; P < 0.001) and hypoxia (70% vs 43%; P < 0.001) more often than RV infections. Hypoxia was similar between single or dual infections (71%). Bronchiolitis was more frequent in the RSV simple group (P < 0.001). Pediatric intensive care unit admission was more common in RSV simple or RSV-RV groups than in the RV monoinfection (P = 0.042). Hospitalization was longer for both RSV simple group and RSV-HBoV coinfection, lasting about 1 day (4.7 vs 3.8 days; P < 0.001) longer than in simple HBoV infections. There were no differences in PICU admission. RSV single group was of a younger age than the other groups. Coinfections between RSV-RV and RSV-HBoV are frequent. Overall viral coinfections do not present greater severity, but have mixed clinical features. PMID:26496310

  6. Hepatitis C virus coinfection independently increases the risk of cardiovascular disease in HIV-positive patients.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Montero, J V; Barreiro, P; de Mendoza, C; Labarga, P; Soriano, V

    2016-01-01

    Patients infected with HIV are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease despite successful antiretroviral therapy. Likewise, chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with extrahepatic complications, including cardiovascular disease. However the risk of cardiovascular disease has not been formally examined in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients. A retrospective study was carried out to assess the influence of HCV coinfection on the risk of cardiovascular events in a large cohort of HIV-infected patients recruited since year 2004. A composite event of cardiovascular disease was used as an endpoint, including myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, stroke or death due to any of them. A total of 1136 patients (567 HIV-monoinfected, 70 HCV-monoinfected and 499 HIV/HCV-coinfected) were analysed. Mean age was 42.7 years, 79% were males, and 46% were former injection drug users. Over a mean follow-up of 79.4 ± 21 months, 3 patients died due to cardiovascular disease, whereas 29 suffered a first episode of coronary ischaemia or stroke. HIV/HCV-coinfected patients had a greater incidence of cardiovascular disease events and/or death than HIV-monoinfected individuals (4% vs 1.2%, P = 0.004) and HCV-monoinfected persons (4% vs 1.4%, P = 0.5). After adjusting for demographics, virological parameters and classical cardiovascular disease risk factors (smoking, hypertension, diabetes, high LDL cholesterol), both HIV/HCV coinfection (HR 2.91; CI 95%: 1.19-7.12; P = 0.02) and hypertension (HR 3.65; CI 95%: 1.34-9.94; P = 0.01) were independently associated with cardiovascular disease events and/or death in HIV-infected patients. Chronic hepatitis C and hypertension are independently associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk in HIV-infected patients. Therefore, treatment of chronic hepatitis C should be prioritized in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients regardless of any liver fibrosis staging.

  7. Tuberculosis and HIV coinfection in Europe: looking at one reality from two angles

    PubMed Central

    van der Werf, Marieke J.; Ködmön, Csaba; Zucs, Phillip; Hollo, Vahur; Amato-Gauci, Andrew J.; Pharris, Anastasia

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To better understand the epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB)/HIV coinfection in the European Union (EU) and European Economic Area (EEA) for planning of prevention and control measures. Design: Analysis of surveillance data. Methods: We performed an analysis of the 2014 TB and AIDS data to assess the burden of TB/HIV coinfection and we applied multivariable logistic regression to evaluate predictors for coinfection. Results: Twenty-one of 31 EU/EEA countries reported HIV testing results for 64.6% of the 32 892 notified TB cases. Of those, 1051 (4.9%) were reported as HIV-positive. Males [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.25; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07–1.46] and those in age group 25–44 years were more frequently coinfected. TB cases originating from the WHO African region had the highest proportion of coinfection (aOR 3.28 versus origin in EU/EEA; 95% CI 2.35–4.57). TB treatment was completed successfully by 57.9% of HIV-positive TB cases and 83.5% of HIV-negative cases. In 2014, 3863 cases of AIDS were reported by 29 EU/EEA countries; 691 (17.9%) of these cases presented with TB as an AIDS-defining illness. Persons who had acquired HIV through injecting drug use had higher odds of TB as an AIDS-defining illness (aOR 1.78 versus heterosexual route of transmission; 95% CI 1.37–2.32). Conclusion: TB/HIV coinfection is a substantial problem in the EU/EEA. The occurrence of TB in HIV-positive cases and the low TB treatment success rate suggest that international guidelines for prevention and treatment of TB in HIV-infected adults need to be better implemented. PMID:27755106

  8. Modulation of the immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis during malaria/M. tuberculosis co-infection.

    PubMed

    Chukwuanukwu, R C; Onyenekwe, C C; Martinez-Pomares, L; Flynn, R; Singh, S; Amilo, G I; Agbakoba, N R; Okoye, J O

    2017-02-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) causes significant morbidity and mortality on a global scale. The African region has 24% of the world's TB cases. TB overlaps with other infectious diseases such as malaria and HIV, which are also highly prevalent in the African region. TB is a leading cause of death among HIV-positive patients and co-infection with HIV and TB has been described as a syndemic. In view of the overlapping epidemiology of these diseases, it is important to understand the dynamics of the immune response to TB in the context of co-infection. We investigated the cytokine response to purified protein derivative (PPD) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from TB patients co-infected with HIV or malaria and compared it to that of malaria- and HIV-free TB patients. A total of 231 subjects were recruited for this study and classified into six groups; untreated TB-positive, TB positive subjects on TB drugs, TB- and HIV-positive, TB- and malaria-positive, latent TB and apparently healthy control subjects. Our results demonstrate maintenance of interferon (IFN)-γ production in HIV and malaria co-infected TB patients in spite of lower CD4 counts in the HIV-infected cohort. Malaria co-infection caused an increase in the production of the T helper type 2 (Th2)-associated cytokine interleukin (IL)-4 and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in PPD-stimulated cultures. These results suggest that malaria co-infection diverts immune response against M. tuberculosis towards a Th-2/anti-inflammatory response which might have important consequences for disease progression.

  9. Structural Bone Deficits in HIV/HCV-Coinfected, HCV-Monoinfected, and HIV-Monoinfected Women

    PubMed Central

    Lo Re, Vincent; Lynn, Kenneth; Stumm, Emily R.; Long, Jin; Nezamzadeh, Melissa S.; Baker, Joshua F.; Hoofnagle, Andrew N.; Kapalko, Angela J.; Mounzer, Karam; Zemel, Babette S.; Tebas, Pablo; Kostman, Jay R.; Leonard, Mary B.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) is associated with reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and increased fracture rates, particularly in women. The structural underpinnings for skeletal fragility in coinfected women have not been characterized. We used tibial peripheral quantitative computed tomography to evaluate skeletal parameters in women, by HIV/HCV status. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 50 HIV/HCV-coinfected, 51 HCV-monoinfected, and 50 HIV-monoinfected women. Tibial volumetric BMD and cortical dimensions were determined with peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Race-specific z scores for age were generated using 263 female reference participants without HIV infection or liver disease. Results. Coinfected participants had lower mean z scores for trabecular volumetric BMD (−0.85), cortical volumetric BMD (−0.67), cortical area (−0.61), and cortical thickness (−0.77) than reference participants (all P < .001). The smaller cortical dimensions were due to greater mean z scores for endosteal circumference (+0.67; P < .001) and comparable z scores for periosteal circumference (+0.04; P = .87). Trabecular volumetric BMD was lower in coinfected than in HCV- or HIV-monoinfected participants. HCV-infected women with stage 3–4 liver fibrosis had lower mean z scores for trabecular volumetric BMD, cortical thickness, and total hip BMD those with stage 0–2 fibrosis. Conclusions. Compared with healthy reference patients, HIV/HCV-coinfected women had decreased tibial trabecular volumetric BMD, diminished cortical dimensions, and significant endocortical bone loss. PMID:25754980

  10. Enhanced Virulence of Sheep-Passaged Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Agent Is Revealed by Decreased Polymorphism Barriers in Prion Protein Conversion Studies

    PubMed Central

    Priem, Jan; Langeveld, Jan P. M.; van Keulen, Lucien J. M.; van Zijderveld, Fred G.; Andreoletti, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) can be efficiently transmitted to small ruminants (sheep and goats) with certain prion protein (PrP) genotypes. Polymorphisms in PrP of both the host and donor influence the transmission efficiency of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) in general. These polymorphisms in PrP also modulate the PrP conversion underlying TSE agent replication. Here we demonstrate that single-round protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) can be used to assess species and polymorphism barriers at the molecular level. We assessed those within and between the ovine and bovine species in vitro using a variety of natural scrapie and experimentally generated cross-species BSE agents. These BSE agents include ovBSE-ARQ isolates (BSE derived from sheep having the ARQ/ARQ PrP genotype), and two unique BSE-derived variants: BSE passaged in VRQ/VRQ sheep and a cow BSE agent isolate generated by back-transmission of ovBSE-ARQ into its original host. PMCA allowed us to quantitatively determine PrP conversion profiles that correlated with known in vivo transmissibility and susceptibility in the two ruminant species in which strain-specific molecular signatures, like its molecular weight after protease digestion, were maintained. Furthermore, both BSE agent isolates from ARQ and VRQ sheep demonstrated a surprising transmission profile in which efficient transmissions to both sheep and bovine variants was combined. Finally, all data support the notion that ARQ-derived sheep BSE points to a significant increase in virulence compared to all other tested scrapie- and BSE-derived variants reflected by the increased conversion efficiencies of previously inefficient convertible PrP variants (including the so-called “resistant” sheep ARR variant). IMPORTANCE Prion diseases such as scrapie in sheep and goats, BSE in cattle, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in humans are fatal neurodegenerative diseases caused by prions. BSE is known to

  11. Evolutionary dynamics of endogenous Jaagsiekte sheep retroviruses proliferation in the domestic sheep, mouflon and Pyrenean chamois.

    PubMed

    Sistiaga-Poveda, M; Jugo, B M

    2014-06-01

    The oncogenic exogenous Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV), responsible for ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma, has several endogenous counterparts termed enJSRVs. Although many of these elements have been inactivated over time by the accumulation of deleterious mutations or internal recombination leading to solo long terminal repeat (LTR) formation, several members of enJSRVs have been identified as nearly intact and probably represent recent integration events. To determine the level of enJSRV polymorphism in the sheep population and related species, we have undertaken a study by characterizing enJSRVs copies and independent integration sites in six domestic sheep and two wild species of the sheep lineage. enJSRVs copies were detected by amplifying the env-LTR region by PCR, and for the detection of the insertion sites, we used two approaches: (1) an in silico approach based on the recently published Sheep Reference Genome Assembly (OARv3.0) and (2) an experimental approach based on PCR suppression and inverse PCR techniques. In total, 103 enJSRV sequences were generated across 10 individuals and enJSRV integrations were found on 11 of the 28 sheep chromosomes. These findings suggest that there are still uncharacterized enJSRVs, and that some of the integration sites are variable among the different species, breeds of the same species, subspecies and geographic locations.

  12. Genome-wide cross-amplification of domestic sheep microsatellites in bighorn sheep and mountain goats.

    PubMed

    Poissant, J; Shafer, A B A; Davis, C S; Mainguy, J; Hogg, J T; Côté, S D; Coltman, D W

    2009-07-01

    We tested for cross-species amplification of microsatellite loci located throughout the domestic sheep (Ovis aries) genome in two north American mountain ungulates (bighorn sheep, Ovis canadensis, and mountain goats, Oreamnos americanus). We identified 247 new polymorphic markers in bighorn sheep (≥ 3 alleles in one of two study populations) and 149 in mountain goats (≥ 2 alleles in a single study population) using 648 and 576 primer pairs, respectively. Our efforts increased the number of available polymorphic microsatellite markers to 327 for bighorn sheep and 180 for mountain goats. The average distance between successive polymorphic bighorn sheep and mountain goat markers inferred from the Australian domestic sheep genome linkage map (mean ± 1 SD) was 11.9 ± 9.2 and 15.8 ± 13.8 centimorgans, respectively. The development of genomic resources in these wildlife species enables future studies of the genetic architecture of trait variation.

  13. Close Vicinity of PrP Expressing Cells (FDC) with Noradrenergic Fibers in Healthy Sheep Spleen

    PubMed Central

    Lezmi, S.; Hunsmann, G.; Baron, T.

    2001-01-01

    In naturally and experimentally occurring scrapie in sheep, prions invade the immune system and replicate in lymphoid organs. Here we analysed immunohistochemically, in seven spleens of 6-month-old healthy sheep, the nature of the cells expressing prion protein (PrP) potentially supporting prion replication, as well as their relationship with autonomic innervation. PrP was identified using either RB1 rabbit antiserum or 4F2 monoclonal antibody directed against AA 108–123 portion of the bovine and AA 79–92 of human prion protein respectively. Using double labelling analysis, we demonstrated that PrPc is expressed by follicular dendritic cells using a specific monoclonal antibody (CNA42). We also showed the close vicinity of these PrP expressing cells with noradrenergic fibers, using a polyclonal tyrosine hydroxylase antibody. Our results may help the study of the cellular requirements for the possible neuroinvasion from the spleen. PMID:11785673

  14. Occurrence of co-infection by Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi and Trypanosoma (Trypanozoon) evansi in a dog in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Savani, Elisa San Martin Mouriz; Nunes, Vania Lúcia Brandão; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi; Castilho, Tiago Moreno; Araujo, Fernando Shiroma de; Ilha, Iêda Maria Novaes; Camargo, Maria Cecília Gibrail de Oliveira; D'Auria, Sandra Regina Nicoletti; Floeter-Winter, Lucile Maria

    2005-11-01

    A natural case of co-infection by Leishmania and Trypanosoma is reported in a dog (Canis familiaris) in south- western state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Both amastigote and trypomastigote forms were observed after Giemsa staining of cytological preparations of the dog's bone marrow aspirate. No parasite was detected using medium culture inoculation of the sample. DNA obtained from the bone marrow aspirate sample and from the blood buffy coat was submitted to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with a set of rDNA-based primers S4/S12. The nucleotide sequence of the PCR product was identical to that of Trypanosoma (Trypanozoon) evansi. The S4/S12 PCR was then used as template in a nested-PCR using a specific Leishmania set S17/S18 as primers, to explain the amastigote forms. The nucleotide sequence of the new PCR product was identical to that of Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi. This case, as far as we know, is the first report of a dog co-infected with these parasites, suggesting that besides L. (L.) chagasi, the natural transmission of T. (T.) evansi occurs in the area under study.

  15. Sheep Mountain Wilderness study area, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Houston, R.S.; Patten, L.L.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a mineral survey completed in 1975 and 1976, the Sheep Mountain Wilderness study area, was determined to offer little promise for metallic mineral resources. There is a probable potential for oil and gas resources in a small part of the study area along its northeast margin.

  16. Fermentation of methanol in the sheep rumen.

    PubMed

    Pol, A; Demeyer, D I

    1988-03-01

    Sheep fed a hay-concentrate diet were adapted to pectin administration and ruminal infusion of methanol. Both treatments resulted in a strong increase in the rate of methanogenesis from methanol. Quantitative data show that methanol was exclusively converted into methane. Treatments did not influence ruminal volatile fatty acid percentages.

  17. Experimental respiratory decompression sickness in sheep.

    PubMed

    Atkins, C E; Lehner, C E; Beck, K A; Dubielzig, R R; Nordheim, E V; Lanphier, E H

    1988-09-01

    Respiratory decompression sickness (RDCS, "the chokes") is a potentially lethal consequence of ambient pressure reduction. Lack of a clearly suitable animal model has impeded understanding of this condition. RDCS, unaccompanied by central nervous system signs, occurred in 17 of 18 unanesthetized sheep exposed to compressed air at 230 kPa (2.27 ATA) for 22 h, returned to normal pressure for approximately 40 min, and taken to simulated altitude (0.75 ATA, 570 Torr). Respiratory signs, including tachypnea, sporadic apnea, and labored breathing, were accompanied by precordial Doppler ultrasound evidence of marked venous bubble loading. Pulmonary arterial pressures exceeded 30 Torr in five catheterized sheep that died or became moribund. Hypoxemia (arterial Po2 less than 40 Torr), neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia were observed. Peribronchovascular edema was the most prominent necropsy finding. Chest radiography indicated interstitial edema in most affected sheep. High body weight and catheterization predisposed the sheep to severe RDCS. It appears that this protocol reliably provides a useful animal model for studies of RDCS and obstructive pulmonary hypertension, that the precipitating event is massive pulmonary embolization by bubbles, and that venous bubbles, detected by Doppler ultrasound, can signal impending RDCS.

  18. Analysis of wolves and sheep. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hogden, J.; Papcun, G.; Zlokarnik, I.; Nix, D.

    1997-08-01

    In evaluating speaker verification systems, asymmetries have been observed in the ease with which people are able to break into other people`s voice locks. People who are good at breaking into voice locks are called wolves, and people whose locks are easy to break into are called sheep. (Goats are people that have a difficult time opening their own voice locks.) Analyses of speaker verification algorithms could be used to understand wolf/sheep asymmetries. Using the notion of a ``speaker space``, it is demonstrated that such asymmetries could arise even though the similarity of voice 1 to voice 2 is the same as the inverse similarity. This explains partially the wolf/sheep asymmetries, although there may be other factors. The speaker space can be computed from interspeaker similarity data using multidimensional scaling, and such speaker space can be used to given a good approximation of the interspeaker similarities. The derived speaker space can be used to predict which of the enrolled speakers are likely to be wolves and which are likely to be sheep. However, a speaker must first enroll in the speaker key system and then be compared to each of the other speakers; a good estimate of a person`s speaker space position could be obtained using only a speech sample.

  19. The current status of sheep pox disease.

    PubMed

    Bhanuprakash, V; Indrani, B K; Hosamani, M; Singh, R K

    2006-01-01

    Sheep are the moving banks of shepherds and their economic contribution in terms of meat, wool and skin/hide is immense. Various infectious diseases jeopardize the optimum productivity; among which sheep pox is more important as the disease restricts the export of sheep and their products besides other economic losses. Although, clinical signs are indicative of the disease but a laboratory confirmation is necessary for unequivocal diagnosis and studying epidemiology. The causative agent, sheep pox virus (SPV), is antigenically and genetically closely related to goat pox virus (GPV) and lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV), the other members of the genus capripox virus. In some countries, SPV and GPV are cross infective to small ruminants posing problem in diagnosis and epidemiology. However, recent studies have showed that the viruses are phylogenetically distinct and can be differentiated by molecular tools. Prophylaxis using attenuated vaccines is the choice of control measure as the immunity is long lasting. Detailed information on isolation, identification, pathology, epidemiology, diagnosis and prophylaxis would not only help in updating the knowledge of scientific fraternity but will be useful to the policy makers in order to formulate appropriate measures for control and eradication of the disease. This synthesis is to present an up-to-date review of the disease and its control to provide the reader with an overview of the problem.

  20. The pathogenesis of liver disease in the setting of HIV-hepatitis B virus coinfection.

    PubMed

    Iser, David M; Lewin, Sharon R

    2009-01-01

    There are many potential reasons for increased liver-related mortality in HIV-hepatitis B virus (HBV) coinfection compared with either infection alone. HIV infects multiple cells in the liver and might potentially alter the life cycle of HBV, although evidence to date is limited. Unique mutations in HBV have been defined in HIV-HBV-coinfected individuals and might directly alter pathogenesis. In addition, an impaired HBV-specific T-cell immune response is likely to be important. The roles of microbial translocation, immune activation and increased hepatic stellate cell activation will be important areas for future study.

  1. Culture proven Salmonella typhi co-infection in a child with Dengue fever: a case report.

    PubMed

    Srinivasaraghavan, Rangan; Narayanan, Parameswaran; Kanimozhi, Thandapani

    2015-09-27

    Infectious diseases are one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Sometimes concurrent infections with multiple infectious agents may occur in one patient, which make the diagnosis and management a challenging task. The authors here present a case of co-infection of typhoid fever with dengue fever in a ten-year-old child and discuss the pertinent issues. The authors emphasize that the risk factors predicting the presence of such co-infections, if developed, will be immensely useful in areas where dengue outbreak occurs in the background of high transmission of endemic infections.

  2. Evidence for an increased risk of transmission of simian immunodeficiency virus and malaria in a rhesus macaque coinfection model.

    PubMed

    Trott, Kristin A; Chau, Jennifer Y; Hudgens, Michael G; Fine, Jason; Mfalila, Chelu K; Tarara, Ross P; Collins, William E; Sullivan, Joann; Luckhart, Shirley; Abel, Kristina

    2011-11-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, HIV-1 infection frequently occurs in the context of other coinfecting pathogens, most importantly, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and malaria parasites. The consequences are often devastating, resulting in enhanced morbidity and mortality. Due to the large number of confounding factors influencing pathogenesis in coinfected people, we sought to develop a nonhuman primate model of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-malaria coinfection. In sub-Saharan Africa, Plasmodium falciparum is the most common malaria parasite and is responsible for most malaria-induced deaths. The simian malaria parasite Plasmodium fragile can induce clinical symptoms, including cerebral malaria in rhesus macaques, that resemble those of P. falciparum infection in humans. Thus, based on the well-characterized rhesus macaque model of SIV infection, this study reports the development of a novel rhesus macaque SIV-P. fragile coinfection model to study human HIV-P. falciparum coinfection. Using this model, we show that coinfection is associated with an increased, although transient, risk of both HIV and malaria transmission. Specifically, SIV-P. fragile coinfected macaques experienced an increase in SIV viremia that was temporarily associated with an increase in potential SIV target cells and systemic immune activation during acute parasitemia. Conversely, primary parasitemia in SIV-P. fragile coinfected animals resulted in higher gametocytemia that subsequently translated into higher oocyst development in mosquitoes. To our knowledge, this is the first animal model able to recapitulate the increased transmission risk of both HIV and malaria in coinfected humans. Therefore, this model could serve as an essential tool to elucidate distinct immunological, virological, and/or parasitological parameters underlying disease exacerbation in HIV-malaria coinfected people.

  3. The anaerobic co-digestion of sheep bedding and ⩾ 50% cattle manure increases biogas production and improves biofertilizer quality.

    PubMed

    Cestonaro, Taiana; Costa, Mônica Sarolli Silva de Mendonça; Costa, Luiz Antônio de Mendonça; Rozatti, Marcos Antonio Teofilo; Pereira, Dercio Ceri; Lorin, Higor Eisten Francisconi; Carneiro, Leocir José

    2015-12-01

    Sheep manure pellets are peculiarly shaped as small 'capsules' of limited permeability and thus are difficult to degrade. Fragmentation of manure pellets into a homogeneous mass is important for decomposition by microorganisms, and occurs naturally by physical shearing due to animal trampling, when sheep bedding is used. However, the high lignocellulose content of sheep bedding may limit decomposition of sheep manure. Here, we evaluated if co-digestion of sheep bedding with cattle manure would improve the yield and quality of the useful products of anaerobic digestion of sheep bedding--biogas and biofertilizer--by providing a source of nutrients and readily available carbon. Mixtures of sheep bedding and cattle manure in varying proportions (0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, or 100% cattle manure) were added to 6-L digesters, used in a batch system, and analyzed by uni and multivariate statistical tools. PC1, which explained 64.96% of data variability, can be referred to as 'organic fraction/productivity', because higher rates of organic fraction consumption (COD, cellulose and hemicellulose contents) led to higher digester productivity (biogas production, nutrient concentration, and sample stability changes). Therefore, productivity and organic fraction variables were most influenced by manure mixtures with higher (⩾ 50%) or lower (⩽ 25%) ratios of cattle manure, respectively. Increasing the amount of cattle manure up to 50% enhanced the biogas potential production from 142 L kg(-1)TS (0% of cattle manure) to 165, 171, 160 L biogas kg(-1)TS for the mixtures containing 100%, 75% and 50% of cattle manure, respectively. Our results show that the addition of ⩾ 50% cattle manure to the mixture increases biogas production and improves the quality of the final biofertilizer.

  4. Intestinal Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Bacteria Mitigate Bovine Leukemia Virus Infection in Experimentally Infected Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Ferens, Witold A.; Cobbold, Rowland; Hovde, Carolyn J.

    2006-01-01

    Ruminants often carry gastrointestinal Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). Stxs belong to a large family of ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs), found in many plants and some bacteria. Plant RIPs, secreted into extracellular spaces, limit the spread of viruses through plant tissues by penetrating and killing virally infected cells. Previously, we showed Stx activity against bovine leukemia virus (BLV)-infected cells in vitro and hypothesized that STEC bacteria have antiviral activity in ruminant hosts. Here, we investigated the impact of STEC on the initial phases of BLV infection in sheep. Sheep were treated with biweekly oral doses of E. coli O157:H7 (an STEC) or an isogenic stx mutant strain. A different group of sheep were similarly treated with five naturally occurring ovine STEC isolates or stx-negative E. coli. Intestinal STEC bacteria were enumerated and identified by standard fecal culture and DNA hybridization. Oral STEC treatment did not always result in carriage of STEC, although many animals consistently presented with >104 CFU/g feces. BLV viremia was assessed by spontaneous lymphocyte proliferation (SLP) in cultures of blood mononuclear cells and by syncytium formation in cocultures of the same with F-81 indicator cells. SLP was lower (P < 0.05) and syncytia were fewer (P < 0.05) in STEC-treated sheep than in untreated sheep. Both lower SLP and fewer syncytia positively correlated with fecal STEC numbers. Average weight gain post-BLV challenge was higher in STEC-treated sheep than in untreated sheep (P < 0.05). These results support the hypothesis that in ruminants, intestinal STEC bacteria have antiviral activity and mitigate BLV-induced disease. PMID:16622229

  5. Intestinal Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli bacteria mitigate bovine leukemia virus infection in experimentally infected sheep.

    PubMed

    Ferens, Witold A; Cobbold, Rowland; Hovde, Carolyn J

    2006-05-01

    Ruminants often carry gastrointestinal Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). Stxs belong to a large family of ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs), found in many plants and some bacteria. Plant RIPs, secreted into extracellular spaces, limit the spread of viruses through plant tissues by penetrating and killing virally infected cells. Previously, we showed Stx activity against bovine leukemia virus (BLV)-infected cells in vitro and hypothesized that STEC bacteria have antiviral activity in ruminant hosts. Here, we investigated the impact of STEC on the initial phases of BLV infection in sheep. Sheep were treated with biweekly oral doses of E. coli O157:H7 (an STEC) or an isogenic stx mutant strain. A different group of sheep were similarly treated with five naturally occurring ovine STEC isolates or stx-negative E. coli. Intestinal STEC bacteria were enumerated and identified by standard fecal culture and DNA hybridization. Oral STEC treatment did not always result in carriage of STEC, although many animals consistently presented with >10(4) CFU/g feces. BLV viremia was assessed by spontaneous lymphocyte proliferation (SLP) in cultures of blood mononuclear cells and by syncytium formation in cocultures of the same with F-81 indicator cells. SLP was lower (P < 0.05) and syncytia were fewer (P < 0.05) in STEC-treated sheep than in untreated sheep. Both lower SLP and fewer syncytia positively correlated with fecal STEC numbers. Average weight gain post-BLV challenge was higher in STEC-treated sheep than in untreated sheep (P < 0.05). These results support the hypothesis that in ruminants, intestinal STEC bacteria have antiviral activity and mitigate BLV-induced disease.

  6. Energy, water and space use by free-living red kangaroos Macropus rufus and domestic sheep Ovis aries in an Australian rangeland.

    PubMed

    Munn, A J; Dawson, T J; McLeod, S R; Dennis, T; Maloney, S K

    2013-08-01

    We used doubly labelled water to measure field metabolic rates (FMR) and water turnover rates (WTR) in one of Australia's largest native herbivores, the red kangaroo (Macropus rufus) and one of Australia's dominant livestock species, the wool-breed Merino sheep, under free-living conditions in a typical Australian rangeland. Also, we used GPS technology to examine animal space use, along with the comparisons of urine concentration, diet, diet digestibility, and subsequent grazing pressures. We found smaller space-use patterns than previously reported for kangaroos, which were between 14 and 25 % those of sheep. The FMR of a 25-kg kangaroo was 30 % that of a 45-kg sheep, while WTR was 15 % and both were associated with smaller travel distances, lower salt intakes, and higher urine concentration in kangaroos than sheep. After accounting for differences in dry matter digestibility of food eaten by kangaroos (51 %) and sheep (58 %), the relative grazing pressure of a standard (mature, non-reproductive) 25-kg kangaroo was 35 % that of a 45-kg sheep. Even for animals of the same body mass (35 kg), the relative grazing pressure of the kangaroo was estimated to be only 44 % that of the sheep. After accounting for the energetic costs of wool growth by sheep, the FMRs of our sheep and kangaroos were 2-3 times their expected BMRs, which is typical for mammalian FMR:BMRs generally. Notably, data collected from our free-living animals were practically identical to those from animals confined to a semi-natural enclosure (collected in an earlier study under comparable environmental conditions), supporting the idea that FMRs are relatively constrained within species.

  7. Western-blot detection of PrP**sc in archived paraffin-embedded brainstem from scrapie-affected sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scrapie is a naturally occurring fatal neurodegenerative disease of adult sheep and goats, one of a group of mammalian diseases known as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies or prion diseases. Immunoassays that identify disease-associated prion protein (PrP**Sc) are integral to the diagnosis o...

  8. Transmission of the agent of sheep scrapie to deer results in PrPSc with two distinct molecular profiles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this work was to determine susceptibility of white-tailed deer (WTD) to the agent of sheep scrapie and to compare the resultant PrPSc to that of the original inoculum and chronic wasting disease (CWD). We inoculated WTD by a natural route of exposure (concurrent oral and intranasal (I...

  9. Possible mechanisms of host resistance to Haemonchus contortus infection in sheep breeds native to the Canary Islands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The blood feeder parasite Haemonchus contortus appears to be the most economically important helminth species for small ruminant production in many regions of the world. The two sheep breeds native to the Canary Islands display distinctly different resistant phenotypes under both natural and experim...

  10. Ovine progressive pneumonia provirus levels are unaffected by the prion 171R allele in an Idaho sheep flock

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selective breeding of sheep for arginine (R) at prion gene (PRNP) codon 171 confers resistance to Scrapie. The 171R allele naturally occurs at low frequency, possibly because it imparts a deleterious trait such as impaired disease resistance. Ovine Progressive Pneumonia/Maedi-Visna virus (OPPV) is...

  11. Salivary prions in sheep and deer.

    PubMed

    Tamgüney, Gültekin; Richt, Jürgen A; Hamir, Amir N; Greenlee, Justin J; Miller, Michael W; Wolfe, Lisa L; Sirochman, Tracey M; Young, Alan J; Glidden, David V; Johnson, Natrina L; Giles, Kurt; DeArmond, Stephen J; Prusiner, Stanley B

    2012-01-01

    Scrapie of sheep and chronic wasting disease (CWD) of cervids are transmissible prion diseases. Milk and placenta have been identified as sources of scrapie prions but do not explain horizontal transmission. In contrast, CWD prions have been reported in saliva, urine and feces, which are thought to be responsible for horizontal transmission. While the titers of CWD prions have been measured in feces, levels in saliva or urine are unknown. Because sheep produce ~17 L/day of saliva, and scrapie prions are present in tongue and salivary glands of infected sheep, we asked if scrapie prions are shed in saliva. We inoculated transgenic (Tg) mice expressing ovine prion protein, Tg(OvPrP) mice, with saliva from seven Cheviot sheep with scrapie. Six of seven samples transmitted prions to Tg(OvPrP) mice with titers of -0.5 to 1.7 log ID₅₀ U/ml. Similarly, inoculation of saliva samples from two mule deer with CWD transmitted prions to Tg(ElkPrP) mice with titers of -1.1 to -0.4 log ID₅₀ U/ml. Assuming similar shedding kinetics for salivary prions as those for fecal prions of deer, we estimated the secreted salivary prion dose over a 10-mo period to be as high as 8.4 log ID₅₀ units for sheep and 7.0 log ID₅₀ units for deer. These estimates are similar to 7.9 log ID₅₀ units of fecal CWD prions for deer. Because saliva is mostly swallowed, salivary prions may reinfect tissues of the gastrointestinal tract and contribute to fecal prion shedding. Salivary prions shed into the environment provide an additional mechanism for horizontal prion transmission.

  12. Western blot analysis of virus-specific antibody responses for capripox and contagious pustular dermatitis viral infections in sheep.

    PubMed

    Chand, P; Kitching, R P; Black, D N

    1994-10-01

    This paper reports the development and evaluation of serological tests for the differentiation of antibodies in animals infected with capripox and parapox viruses. Agar-gel immunodiffusion tests using sera from sheep with naturally-acquired infections and from sheep experimentally inoculated with orf or capripox viruses showed cross reactions. Virus-specific antibody responses to structural proteins of the viruses were analysed by Western-blot analysis. This analysis readily differentiated the infections as either capripox or contagious pustular dermatitis. The antibody responses to the 32 kDa and 26 kDa proteins of capripoxvirus provided a firm basis for differentiation.

  13. The Effect of Malaria and HIV Co-Infection on Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Naing, Cho; Sandhu, Nisha Kaur; Wai, Victor Nyunt

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Malaria and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections are globally important public health concerns. The objectives of this study were (i) to determine the prevalence of malaria and HIV co-infections in people living in endemic countries, and (ii) to assess the effect of co-infection on anemia. Studies were searched on electronic databases including PubMed, Embase, Medline, Google Scholar, and African Journals Online. Observational studies, assessing the prevalence of co-infection and reporting its association with anemia, were included. The methodological quality of included studies was assessed using a tool called the risk of bias assessment for non-randomized studies. Heterogeneity among studies was investigated with the I-square test. Pooled prevalence of the co-infection and its 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated using the random-effect model, reflected on heterogeneity among studies. Summary odds ratio (OR), summary standardized mean difference (SMD), and their corresponding 95% CIs were estimated, as appropriate. Subgroup analysis and meta-regression were performed for robustness of results. Publication bias was assessed by visualization of a funnel plot. Twenty-three studies were included in the present study. Overall, the pooled prevalence of co-infection was 19% (95% CI: 15–23%, I2: 98.1%), showing 26% (95% CI: 20–32%, I2: 98.7%) in adults, 12% (95% CI: 7–17%, I2: 95.0) in pregnant women, and 9% (95% CI: 6–11%, I2: 68.6%) in children. Anemia was comparable between the monoinfected and co-infected adults (summary OR: 1.49, 95% CI: 0.93–2.37) and increased by 49% in co-infected pregnant women (summary OR: 1.49, 95% CI: 1.14–1.94). The mean hemoglobin concentration was significantly lower in the co-infected group than the monoinfected group (summary SMD: −0.47, 95% CI: −0.61 to −0.33). The results of meta-regression on the prevalence of co-infection using the publication year and total population as covariates showed

  14. [Levamisole- and tetramisole-resistant gastrointestinal nematodes in sheep].

    PubMed

    Praslicka, J; Pilko, P; Várady, M; Corba, J

    1995-02-01

    Two experiments were carried out with sheep naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes to evaluate efficacy of anthelmintics using in vivo faecal egg count reduction (FECR) test. In experiment 1 with 28 ewes, the following efficacy of anthelmintics given at recommended dose rates was observed: albendazole 99.4%, ivermectin 99.3% and levamisole 81.8%. In experiment 2 with 18 ewes, tetramisole exhibited 71.3% efficacy. Suspected resistance to imidothiazole anthelmintics was confirmed by in vitro larval development test (LDT)--minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) values were estimated at 2.0 micrograms/ml. Infective larvae L3 cultivated from eggs produced by the population of resistant helminths were identified as Ostertagia and Trichostrongylus spp.

  15. Efficacy of intraruminal albendazole boluses against Dicrocoelium dendriticum in sheep.

    PubMed

    Corba, J; Krupicer, I

    1992-01-01

    The anthelmintic potential of albendazole (ABZ) in intraruminal boluses (Proftril-Captec) was investigated in sheep harbouring naturally acquired Dicrocoelium infection. The anthelmintic efficacy was assessed by coprological testing during the autumn pasture and comparison of worm counts in 22 necropsied animals (11 treated and 11 untreated) at the end of the experiment. The mean faecal egg count (EPG) in treated animals dropped significantly during week 2, and between the 4th and the 12th week the faecal samples were almost negative. The health status of treated animals improved significantly during the first 2 weeks. Helminthological dissection of livers and small intestines revealed 91.8% efficacy, but a small number of live adult flukes were found in all treated animals.

  16. Influence of different production strategies on the stability of color, oxygen consumption and metmyoglobin reducing activity of meat from Ningxia Tan sheep.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiaoguang; Wang, Zhenyu; Miao, Jing; Xie, Li; Dai, Yan; Li, Xingmin; Chen, Yong; Luo, Hailing; Dai, Ruitong

    2014-02-01

    Fifty male Ningxia Tan sheep were randomly divided into five groups (10 per group). Different feeding strategies were applied to each group for 120 days prior to slaughter. The sheep belong to five groups were pastured for 0 h (feedlot-fed), 2h, 4h, 8h, 12h per day on a natural grazing ground, respectively. M. semitendinosus muscle from Tan sheep was obtained after slaughter. Instrumental color, pH values, oxygen consumption rate, metmyoglobin reducing activity and relative metmyoglobin percentages were analyzed after 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 days of refrigerated storage. Long-term daily grazing and herbage-based diet were conducive to maintain a lower oxygen consumption rate, higher metmyoglobin reducing activity and lower metmyoglobin accumulation. The combination of pasture-fed and feedlot-fed was conducive to weight gain, and at the same time, increased the color stability of the meat from Ningxia Tan sheep.

  17. Oxidation of methionine 216 in sheep and elk prion protein is highly dependent upon the amino acid at position 218 but is not important for prion propagation.

    PubMed

    Silva, Christopher J; Dynin, Irina; Erickson, Melissa L; Requena, Jesús R; Balachandran, Aru; Hui, Colleen; Onisko, Bruce C; Carter, John Mark

    2013-03-26

    We employed a sensitive mass spectrometry-based method to deconstruct, confirm, and quantitate the prions present in elk naturally infected with chronic wasting disease and sheep naturally infected with scrapie. We used this approach to study the oxidation of a methionine at position 216 (Met216), because this oxidation (MetSO216) has been implicated in prion formation. Three polymorphisms (Ile218, Val218, and Thr218) of sheep recombinant prion protein were prepared. Our analysis showed the novel result that the proportion of MetSO216 was highly dependent upon the amino acid residue at position 218 (I > V > T), indicating that Ile218 in sheep and elk prion protein (PrP) renders the Met216 intrinsically more susceptible to oxidation than the Val218 or Thr218 analogue. We were able to quantitate the prions in the attomole range. The presence of prions was verified by the detection of two confirmatory peptides: GENFTETDIK (sheep and elk) and ESQAYYQR (sheep) or ESEAYYQR (elk). This approach required much smaller amounts of tissue (600 μg) than traditional methods of detection (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blot, and immunohistochemical analysis) (60 mg). In sheep and elk, a normal cellular prion protein containing MetSO216 is not actively recruited and converted to prions, although we observed that this Met216 is intrinsically more susceptible to oxidation.

  18. Mitochondrial DNA variation of domestic sheep (Ovis aries) in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Resende, Adriana; Gonçalves, Joana; Muigai, Anne W T; Pereira, Filipe

    2016-06-01

    The history of domestic sheep (Ovis aries) in Africa remains largely unknown. After being first introduced from the Near East, sheep gradually spread through the African continent with pastoral societies. The eastern part of Africa was important either for the first diffusion of sheep southward or for putative secondary introductions from the Arabian Peninsula or southern Asia. We analysed mitochondrial DNA control region sequences of 91 domestic sheep from Kenya and found a high diversity of matrilines from the widespread haplogroup B, whereas only a single individual from haplogroup A was detected. Our phylogeography analyses of more than 500 available mitochondrial DNA sequences also identified ancestral haplotypes that were probably first introduced in Africa and are now widely distributed. Moreover, we found no evidence of an admixture between East and West African sheep. The presence of shared haplotypes in eastern and ancient southern African sheep suggests the possible southward movement of sheep along the eastern part of Africa. Finally, we found no evidence of an extensive introduction of sheep from southern Asia into Africa via the Indian Ocean trade. The overall findings on the phylogeography of East African domestic sheep set the grounds for understanding the origin and subsequent movements of sheep in Africa. The richness of maternal lineages in Kenyan breeds is of prime importance for future conservation and breeding programmes.

  19. Morphological and morphometric studies of the airways of sheep with acute airway hypersensitivity to inhaled Ascaris suum.

    PubMed

    Chen, W; Alley, M R; Manktelow, B W

    1991-10-01

    The airways of 12 sheep with naturally-occurring allergic airway hypersensitivity, six of which had changes in both airway resistance and dynamic lung compliance (Group A) and six of which had changes in only dynamic lung compliance (Group B), were compared quantitatively with six non-reacting sheep (Group C) in order to examine the relation between airway hypersensitivity and various morphological features thought to be related to airway hypersensitivity. Compared to the non-reacting sheep (Group C), the hypersensitive sheep (Groups A and B) had a thinner epithelium in medium bronchi and bronchioles, fewer goblet cells in bronchioles, and greater gland area at most airway levels. The differences of the gland dimensions and the types of mucosubstance between hypersensitive and non-reacting animals were more variable. No significant differences between the three groups were noted with regard to luminal occlusion or epithelial sloughing and squamous metaplasia. Although there was a positive association between epithelial thickness and goblet cell density in the small airways, the development of allergic airway hypersensitivity in sheep may occur in the absence of major morphological changes in the airway epithelium.

  20. Large animal models of rare genetic disorders: sheep as phenotypically relevant models of human genetic disease.

    PubMed

    Pinnapureddy, Ashish R; Stayner, Cherie; McEwan, John; Baddeley, Olivia; Forman, John; Eccles, Michael R

    2015-09-02

    Animals that accurately model human disease are invaluable in medical research, allowing a critical understanding of disease mechanisms, and the opportunity to evaluate the effect of therapeutic compounds in pre-clinical studies. Many types of animal models are used world-wide, with the most common being small laboratory animals, such as mice. However, rodents often do not faithfully replicate human disease, despite their predominant use in research. This discordancy is due in part to physiological differences, such as body size and longevity. In contrast, large animal models, including sheep, provide an alternative to mice for biomedical research due to their greater physiological parallels with humans. Completion of the full genome sequences of many species, and the advent of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies, means it is now feasible to screen large populations of domesticated animals for genetic variants that resemble human genetic diseases, and generate models that more accurately model rare human pathologies. In this review, we discuss the notion of using sheep as large animal models, and their advantages in modelling human genetic disease. We exemplify several existing naturally occurring ovine variants in genes that are orthologous to human disease genes, such as the Cln6 sheep model for Batten disease. These, and other sheep models, have contributed significantly to our understanding of the relevant human disease process, in addition to providing opportunities to trial new therapies in animals with similar body and organ size to humans. Therefore sheep are a significant species with respect to the modelling of rare genetic human disease, which we summarize in this review.

  1. Integrated parasite management: products for adoption by the Australian sheep industry.

    PubMed

    Kahn, L P; Woodgate, R G

    2012-05-04

    The increasing cost of production loss caused by gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) highlights the importance of good control programs. However, the endemic nature of anthelmintic resistance also reminds of the need for nonchemical options. Both chemical and nonchemical control options need to be integrated into regional parasite management programs (IPM) with the emphasis on component options determined by factors such as major GIN species, regional climate, property size and enterprise structure. The Integrated Parasite Management of Sheep project was established to develop and demonstrate regional parasite control programs, that integrated chemical and nonchemical options, for the main sheep-producing regions of Australia. The project included research about the ecology of the main endo and ecto-parasites of sheep and a national survey of parasite control practices by sheep producers. IPM approaches developed for two contrasting regions of Australia are discussed. Barriers for the adoption of IPM programs include perceived complexity associated with a multi-component approach, time requirements and difficulty. Facilitating the industry adoption of IPM programs is discussed with relevance to the use of small group extension and involvement of the commercial sector. Perceptions of complexity of IPM may be managed by facilitating adoption of components in a step-wise process such that learning outcomes accumulate over time. Extension efforts must address the needs of industry sectors other than sheep producers and explore user pay approaches. The success of these approaches will depend on the relation of the extra profit to producers, through adoption of IPM programs, with remuneration sufficient to attract a commercial service.

  2. Factors influencing temporal variation of scrapie incidence within a closed Suffolk sheep flock.

    PubMed

    González, Lorenzo; Dagleish, Mark P; Martin, Stuart; Finlayson, Jeanie; Sisó, Sílvia; Eaton, Samantha L; Goldmann, Wilfred; Witz, Janey; Hamilton, Scott; Stewart, Paula; Pang, Yvonne; Steele, Philip; Reid, Hugh W; Chianini, Francesca; Jeffrey, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have shown that transmission of natural scrapie can occur vertically and horizontally, and that variations in scrapie incidence between and within infected flocks are mostly due to differences in the proportion of sheep with susceptible and resistant PRNP genotypes. This report presents the results of a 12-year period of scrapie monitoring in a closed flock of Suffolk sheep, in which only animals of the ARQ/ARQ genotype developed disease. Among a total of 120 of these, scrapie attack rates varied between birth cohorts from 62.5 % (5/8) to 100 % (9/9), and the incidence of clinical disease among infected sheep from 88.9 % (8/9) to 100 % (in five birth cohorts). Susceptible sheep born to scrapie-infected ewes showed a slightly higher risk of becoming infected (97.2 %), produced earlier biopsy-positive results (mean 354 days) and developed disease at a younger age (median 736 days) than those born to non-infected dams (80.3 %, 451 and 782 days, respectively). Taken together, this was interpreted as evidence of maternal transmission. However, it was also observed that, for the birth cohorts with the highest incidence of scrapie (90-100 %), sheep born to infected and non-infected dams had a similar risk of developing scrapie (97.1 and 95.3 %, respectively). Compared with moderate-attack-rate cohorts (62.5-66.7 %), high-incidence cohorts had greater numbers of susceptible lambs born to infected ewes, suggesting that increased rates of horizontal transmission in these cohorts could have been due to high levels of environmental contamination caused by infected placentas.

  3. Treatment of natural ovine malignant theileriosis with a chloroform extract of the plant Peganum harmala.

    PubMed

    Mirzaiedehaghi, M

    2006-06-01

    One hundred sheep naturally infected with Theileria lestoquardi were treated with a chloroform extract of the plant Peganum harmala. The treatment was continued for 5 days, the dose of extract being 5 mg/kg per day. Sixty-five of the sheep responded to treatment and recovered but 35 did not and died. The cure rate was 65%.

  4. Expression of conditioned preference for low-quality food in sheep is modulated by foraging costs.

    PubMed

    Catanese, F; Distel, R A; Villalba, J J

    2015-06-01

    Past positive experiences can increase herbivores' motivation to eat low-quality foods. However, this is not always translated into a higher preference for low-quality foods in choice tests among foods of higher nutritional quality. Foraging behavior is also affected by properties of the feeding context because the quality and abundance of foods in nature change in time and space. We hypothesized that in a choice situation, the expression of a past positive experience with a low-quality food is modulated by the costs associated with selecting a high-quality food option. A total of 24 sheep were randomly assigned into two groups (n=12). During conditioning phase, one group (CS+; i.e., conditioned group) was fed with oat hay (a low-quality food) for 20 min and immediately after a ration of soybean meal (a nutritious food), whereas the other group was also fed with oat hay but the offer of soybean meal was delayed 5 h (CS-; i.e., control group). After conditioning, we assessed sheep motivation to eat the oat hay in an experimental arena in which accessibility to alfalfa hay (a high-quality food) was increasingly restricted. When alfalfa hay was readily accessible, CS+ and CS- sheep almost exclusively selected this food, showing a small and similar preference for oat hay. However, when accessibility to alfalfa hay decreased, intake and selection of oat hay was greater in the CS+ sheep than in the CS- sheep. The latter was a consequence of differential changes in behavior between groups; for example, sheep in CS+ spent more time foraging oat hay and were more likely to switch to oat hay if they had previously been eating alfalfa hay than sheep in CS-. Our results show that behavioral expression of the conditioned preference for a low-quality food depends on parameters of the feeding context (e.g., availability). We suggest that this can be the link between learning models and optimal foraging models of diet selection.

  5. Cloning and comparison of bighorn sheep CD18 with that of domestic sheep, goats, cattle, humans and mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Weiguo; Brayton, Kelly A; Lagerquist, John; Foreyt, William J; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2006-03-15

    Previously, we have shown that CD18, the beta-subunit of beta(2)-integrins, serves as a receptor for leukotoxin (Lkt) secreted by Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica on bovine leukocytes. Anti-CD18 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) inhibit Lkt-induced cytolysis of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) leukocytes suggesting that CD18 may serve as a receptor for Lkt on the leukocytes of this species as well. Confirmation of bighorn sheep CD18 as a receptor for Lkt, and elucidation of the enhanced Lkt-susceptibility of bighorn sheep polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), necessitates the cloning and sequencing of cDNA encoding bighorn sheep CD18. Hence, in this study we cloned and sequenced the cDNA encoding CD18 of bighorn sheep, and compared with that of other animal species. The cDNA of bighorn sheep CD18 has an open reading frame (ORF) of 2310bp. CD18 sequences obtained individually from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and PMNs were identical to each other. Comparison of the deduced 770-amino acid sequence of CD18 of bighorn sheep with that of domestic sheep, goats, cattle, humans and mice revealed 99, 98, 95, 82 and 80% identity, respectively. Availability of cloned bighorn sheep CD18 cDNA should allow the molecular characterization of M. haemolytica Lkt-receptor interactions in bighorn sheep and other ruminants that are susceptible to this disease.

  6. Zika, dengue, and chikungunya co-infection in a pregnant woman from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Villamil-Gómez, Wilmer E; Rodríguez-Morales, Alfonso J; Uribe-García, Ana María; González-Arismendy, Edgardo; Castellanos, Jaime E; Calvo, Eliana P; Álvarez-Mon, Melchor; Musso, Didier

    2016-10-01

    The clinical findings of a pregnant woman from Colombia with a triple co-infection caused by dengue, chikungunya, and Zika viruses are described. Weekly obstetric ultrasounds from 14.6 to 29 weeks of gestation were normal. She remains under follow-up and management according to the standard guidelines for the management of Zika virus-infected pregnant women.

  7. Dermocystid-chytrid coinfection in the neotropical frog Hypsiboas pulchellus (Anura: Hylidae).

    PubMed

    Borteiro, Claudio; Cruz, Juan Carlos; Kolenc, Francisco; Verdes, José Manuel; Moraña, Antonio; Martínez Debat, Claudio; Kun, Alejandra; Ubilla, Martín; Okada, Kosuke

    2014-01-01

    We present gross and histologic evidence of coinfection in amphibians by fungal-like parasites of the order Dermocystidia (Amphibiocystidium sp.) and the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. The condition was observed in frogs Hypsiboas pulchellus (Hylidae) from Uruguay in 2009 to 2012. This report is the first of dermocystids in Neotropical amphibians since 1940.

  8. Virologic and Clinical Outcomes of Hepatitis B Virus Infection in HIV-HBV Coinfected Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Coffin, C.S.; Stock, P.G.; Dove, L.M.; Berg, C.L.; Nissen, N.N.; Curry, M.P.; Ragni, M.; Regenstein, F.G.; Sherman, K.E.; Roland, M.E.; Terrault, N.A.

    2010-01-01

    Liver transplantation (LT) is the treatment of choice for endstage liver disease, but is controversial in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Using a prospective cohort of HIV-HBV coinfected patients transplanted between 2001–2007; outcomes including survival and HBV clinical recurrence were determined. Twenty-two coinfected patients underwent LT; 45% had detectable HBV DNA pre-LT and 72% were receiving anti-HBV drugs with efficacy against lamivudine-resistant HBV. Post-LT, all patients received hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG) plus nucleos(t)ide analogues and remained HBsAg negative without clinical evidence of HBV recurrence, with a median follow-up 3.5 years. Low-level HBV viremia (median 108 IU/ml, range 9–789) was intermittently detected in 7/13 but not associated with HBsAg detection or ALT elevation. Compared with 20 HBV monoinfected patients on similar HBV prophylaxis and median follow-up of 4.0 years, patient and graft survival were similar: 100% vs. 85% in HBV mono- vs coinfected patients (p=0.08, log rank test). LT is effective for HIV-HBV coinfected patients with complications of cirrhosis, including those who are HBV DNA positive at the time of LT. Combination HBIG and antivirals is effective as prophylaxis with no clinical evidence of HBV recurrence but low level HBV DNA is detectable in ~50% of recipients. PMID:20346065

  9. Dimorphic fungal coinfection as a cause of chronic diarrhea and pancolitis.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Eduar A; Zegarra, Arturo J; Piscoya, Alejandro; Pinto, José L; de Los Rios, Raúl E; Prochazka, Ricardo A; Huerta-Mercado, Jorge L; Cok, Jaime; Tagle, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Histoplasma capsulatum and Paracoccidioides brasiliensis are dimorphic fungi that cause systemic mycosis mostly in tropical South America and some areas of North America. Gastrointestinal involvement is not uncommon among these fungal diseases, but coinfection has not previously been reported. We report a patient with chronic diarrhea and pancolitis caused by paracoccidioidomycosis and histoplasmosis.

  10. Dimorphic Fungal Coinfection as a Cause of Chronic Diarrhea and Pancolitis

    PubMed Central

    Bravo, Eduar A.; Zegarra, Arturo J.; Piscoya, Alejandro; Pinto, José L.; de los Rios, Raúl E.; Prochazka, Ricardo A.; Huerta-Mercado, Jorge L.; Cok, Jaime; Tagle, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Histoplasma capsulatum and Paracoccidioides brasiliensis are dimorphic fungi that cause systemic mycosis mostly in tropical South America and some areas of North America. Gastrointestinal involvement is not uncommon among these fungal diseases, but coinfection has not previously been reported. We report a patient with chronic diarrhea and pancolitis caused by paracoccidioidomycosis and histoplasmosis. PMID:21837244

  11. Association of Patients’ Geographic Origins with Viral Hepatitis Co-infection Patterns, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Caro-Murillo, Ana María; Berenguer, Juan; Segura, Ferran; Gutiérrez, Felix; Vidal, Francesc; Martínez-Pérez, Maria Ángeles; Sola, Julio; Muga, Roberto; Moreno, Santiago; Del Amo, Julia

    2011-01-01

    To determine if hepatitis C virus seropositivity and active hepatitis B virus infection in HIV-positive patients vary with patients’ geographic origins, we studied co-infections in HIV-seropositive adults. Active hepatitis B infection was more prevalent in persons from Africa, and hepatitis C seropositivity was more common in persons from eastern Europe. PMID:21749785

  12. Mortality Related to Chagas Disease and HIV/AIDS Coinfection in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Martins-Melo, Francisco Rogerlândio; Ramos, Alberto Novaes; Alencar, Carlos Henrique; Heukelbach, Jorg

    2012-01-01

    Chagas disease in patients with HIV infection represents a potentially serious event with high case fatality rates. This study describes epidemiological and clinical aspects of deaths related to Chagas disease and HIV/AIDS coinfection in Brazil, 1999–2007. We performed a descriptive study based on mortality data from the nationwide Mortality Information System. Of a total of about 9 million deaths, Chagas disease and HIV/AIDS were mentioned in the same death certificate in 74 cases. AIDS was an underlying cause in 77.0% (57) and Chagas disease in 17.6% (13). Males (51.4%), white skin color (50%), age group 40–49 years (29.7%), and residents in the Southeast region (75.7%) were most common. Mean age at death was significantly lower in the coinfected (47.1 years [SD ± 14.6]), as compared to Chagas disease deaths (64.1 years [SD ± 14.7], P < 0.001). Considering the lack of data on morbidity related to Chagas disease and AIDS coinfection, the use of mortality data may be an appropriate sentinel approach to monitor the occurrence of this association. Due to the epidemiological transition in Brazil, chronic Chagas disease and HIV/AIDS coinfection will be further complicated and require the development of evidence-based preventive control measures. PMID:22969814

  13. Presentation of severe combined immunodeficiency with respiratory syncytial virus and pneumocystis co-infection.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Pinilla, Nerea; Allende-Martínez, Luis; Corral Sánchez, María Dolores; Arocena, Jaime de Inocencio; González-Granado, Luis Ignacio

    2015-04-01

    Severe combined immunodeficiency can cause severe, life-threatening viral, bacterial and fungal infections at an early age. We report a case of a 4-month-old boy with co-infection by respiratory syncytial virus and Pneumocystis jiroveci infection that led to recognition of severe combined immunodeficiency.

  14. Adherence to antiretrovirals in people coinfected with the human immunodeficiency virus and tuberculosis1

    PubMed Central

    Lemos, Larissa de Araújo; Fiuza, Maria Luciana Teles; Reis, Renata Karina; Ferrer, André Carvalho; Gir, Elucir; Galvão, Marli Teresinha Gimeniz

    2016-01-01

    Objective: assess the adherence levels to antiretroviral therapy in people coinfected with HIV/tuberculosis and correlate these levels with the sociodemographic and clinical variables of the study population. Method: cross-sectional study involving 74 male and female adults coinfected with HIV/tuberculosis. For the data collection, a sociodemographic and clinical assessment form and the Antiretroviral Treatment Adherence Assessment Questionnaire were used. For the data analysis, the software STATA version 11 was used, through descriptive statistics, Fisher's chi-square exact test and the probability test. Results: men were predominant (79.7%), between 30 and 39 years of age (35.1%), low income (75.7%) and pulmonary tuberculosis (71.6%). Adherence to antiretroviral therapy was inappropriate in 78.1% of the men; 61.0% of single people; 47.0% unemployed and 76.5% among people gaining less than one minimum wage. A significant difference was observed between compliance and length of use of antiretrovirals (p=0.018), sexual orientation (p=0.024) and number of children (p=0.029). Conclusion: the coinfected patients presented inappropriate adherence to the antiretrovirals, a fact that negatively affects the health conditions of the people living with HIV/tuberculosis coinfection. A statistically significant correlation was found between the levels of adherence and some sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. PMID:27192416

  15. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis secondary to Epstein Barr virus and Leishmania co-infection in a toddler

    PubMed Central

    Domínguez-Pinilla, N; Baro-Fernández, M; González-Granado, LI

    2015-01-01

    This is the report of an EBV + Leishmanial co-infection. The patient developed hemophagocytic syndrome (HLH) and was treated with the standard HLH-2004 protocol. However, PCR in bone marrow discovered this secondary cause for HLH. In endemic countries, visceral leishmaniasis should be considered in the differential diagnosis even in EBV-related HLH, as chemotherapy toxicity may be avoided. PMID:25511219

  16. Infection-related hemolysis and susceptibility to Gram-negative bacterial co-infection

    PubMed Central

    Orf, Katharine; Cunnington, Aubrey J.

    2015-01-01

    Increased susceptibility to co-infection with enteric Gram-negative bacteria, particularly non-typhoidal Salmonella, is reported in malaria and Oroya fever (Bartonella bacilliformis infection), and can lead to increased mortality. Accumulating epidemiological evidence indicates a causal association with risk of bacterial co-infection, rather than just co-incidence of common risk factors. Both malaria and Oroya fever are characterized by hemolysis, and observations in humans and animal models suggest that hemolysis causes the susceptibility to bacterial co-infection. Evidence from animal models implicates hemolysis in the impairment of a variety of host defense mechanisms, including macrophage dysfunction, neutrophil dysfunction, and impairment of adaptive immune responses. One mechanism supported by evidence from animal models and human data, is the induction of heme oxygenase-1 in bone marrow, which impairs the ability of developing neutrophils to mount a competent oxidative burst. As a result, dysfunctional neutrophils become a new niche for replication of intracellular bacteria. Here we critically appraise and summarize the key evidence for mechanisms which may contribute to these very specific combinations of co-infections, and propose interventions to ameliorate this risk. PMID:26175727

  17. Diaphragmatic paralysis associated with herpes zoster and HIV-tuberculosis co-infection.

    PubMed

    Benabdellah, A; Souhil, Touati; Farouk, Zaoui Omar

    2014-08-01

    Motor complications after herpes zoster are not uncommon. There have been reports of muscular paralysis following herpes zoster. The association between diaphragmatic paralysis and zoster was first reported in 1949 by Halpern. The case presented below showed diaphragmatic involvement following herpes zoster in a HIV-tuberculosis coinfected patient.

  18. Hepatitis B virus coinfection in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients: A review

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hsin-Yun; Sheng, Wang-Huei; Tsai, Mao-Song; Lee, Kuan-Yeh; Chang, Sui-Yuan; Hung, Chien-Ching

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a leading cause of chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma worldwide. Due to the shared modes of transmission, coinfection with HBV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is not uncommon. It is estimated that 10% of HIV-infected patients worldwide are coinfected with HBV. In areas where an HBV vaccination program is implemented, the HBV seroprevalence has declined significantly. In HIV/HBV-coinfected patients, HBV coinfection accelerates immunologic and clinical progression of HIV infection and increases the risk of hepatotoxicity when combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) is initiated, while HIV infection increases the risk of hepatitis events, cirrhosis, and end-stage liver disease related to chronic HBV infection. With the advances in antiviral therapy, concurrent, successful long-term suppression of HIV and HBV replication can be achieved in the cART era. To reduce the disease burden of HBV infection among HIV-infected patients, adoption of safe sex practices, avoidance of sharing needles and diluent, HBV vaccination and use of cART containing tenofovir disoproxil fumarate plus emtricitabine or lamivudine are the most effective approaches. However, due to HIV-related immunosuppression, using increased doses of HBV vaccine and novel approaches to HBV vaccination are needed to improve the immunogenicity of HBV vaccine among HIV-infected patients. PMID:25356024

  19. Early Induction of Cytokines in Pigs Coinfected with Swine Influenza Virus and Bordetella bronchiseptica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Respiratory disease is one of the most important health issues for the swine industry, and coinfection with two or more pathogens is a common occurrence. Bordetella bronchiseptica and swine influenza virus (SIV) are important and common respiratory pathogens of pigs. A study examining the effect o...

  20. HIV AND HCV COINFECTION: PREVALENCE, ASSOCIATED FACTORS AND GENOTYPE CHARACTERIZATION IN THE MIDWEST REGION OF BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Solange Zacalusni; Teles, Sheila Araújo; Lorenzo, Paulo Cesar; Puga, Marco Antonio Moreira; Tanaka, Tayana Serpa Ortiz; Thomaz, Danilo Yamamoto; Martins, Regina Maria Bringel; Druzian, Angelita Fernandes; Lindenberg, Andréa Siqueira Campos; Torres, Marina Sawada; Pereira, Sérgio A.; Villar, Livia Melo; Lampe, Elisabete; Motta-Castro, Ana Rita Coimbra

    2014-01-01

    A cross-sectional study on prevalence, associated factors and genotype distribution of HCV infection was conducted among 848 HIV-infected patients recruited at reference centers in the Midwest Region of Brazil. The prevalence rate of HIV-HCV coinfection was 6.9% (95% CI: 5.2 to 8.6). In multivariable analysis, increasing age, use of illicit drugs (injection and non-injection), a history of blood transfusion before 1994, and the absence of a steady partnership were significant independent associated factors for HIV-HCV coinfection. The phylogenetic analysis based on the NS5B region revealed the presence of two major circulating genotypes of HCV: genotypes 1 (58.3%) and 3 (41.7%). The prevalence of HIV-HCV coinfection was lower than those reported in studies conducted with HIV-infected patients in different regions of Brazil, due to the fact that illicit drug use is not a frequent mode of HIV transmission in this region of Brazil. Serologic screening of HIV-patients for HCV before initiating antiretroviral treatment, a comprehensive identification of associated factors, and the implementation of effective harm reduction programs are highly recommended to provide useful information for treatment and to prevent HCV coinfection in these patients. PMID:25351547

  1. Granzyme B as a diagnostic marker of tuberculosis in patients with and without HIV coinfection.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Pronoti; Mitra, Soumik; Pant, Priyannk; Kotwal, Aarti; Kakati, Barnali; Masih, Victor; Sindhwani, Girish; Biswas, Debasis

    2016-05-01

    Immunodiagnostic tests for tuberculosis (TB) are based on the estimation of interferon γ (IFN-γ) or IFN-γ-secreting CD4(+) T cells following ex vivo stimulation with ESAT6 and CFP-10. Sensitivity of these tests is likely to be compromised in CD4(+) T-cell-depleted situations, like HIV-TB coinfection. CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, isolated from 3 groups, viz., HIV-negative patients with active TB, HIV-TB coinfected patients, and healthy household contacts (HHCs) were cocultivated with autologous dendritic cells, and the cytokine response to rESAT6 stimulation was compared between groups in supernatants. While CD4(+) T-cell stimulation yielded significantly elevated levels of IFN-γ and interleukin 4 in HIV-negative TB patients, compared to HHCs, the levels of both these cytokines were nondiscriminatory between HIV-positive TB patients and HHCs. However, CD8(+) T-cell stimulation yielded significantly elevated granzyme B titers in both groups of patients, irrespective of HIV coinfection status. Hence, contrary to IFN-γ, granzyme B might be a useful diagnostic marker for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection particularly in HIV coinfected patients.

  2. Pulmonary tuberculosis and mucormycosis co-infection in a diabetic patient

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Deepak; Chander, Jagdish; Janmeja, Ashok K.; Katyal, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    Uncontrolled diabetes mellitus is associated with a variety of infections which pose management difficulties. Herein, we report a case of diabetic patient who developed combined pulmonary tuberculosis and mucormycosis. The case illustrates management of this rare co-infection which despite being potentially fatal was treated successfully. PMID:25624598

  3. Pulmonary tuberculosis and mucormycosis co-infection in a diabetic patient.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Deepak; Chander, Jagdish; Janmeja, Ashok K; Katyal, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    Uncontrolled diabetes mellitus is associated with a variety of infections which pose management difficulties. Herein, we report a case of diabetic patient who developed combined pulmonary tuberculosis and mucormycosis. The case illustrates management of this rare co-infection which despite being potentially fatal was treated successfully.

  4. HIV and viral hepatitis co-infection in New York City, 2000-2010: prevalence and case characteristics.

    PubMed

    Prussing, C; Chan, C; Pinchoff, J; Kersanske, L; Bornschlegel, K; Balter, S; Drobnik, A; Fuld, J

    2015-05-01

    Using surveillance data, we describe the prevalence and characteristics of individuals in New York City (NYC) co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) and/or hepatitis C virus (HCV). Surveillance databases including persons reported to the NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene with HIV, HBV, and HCV by 31 December 2010 and not known to be dead as of 1 January 2000, were matched with 2000-2011 vital statistics mortality data. Of 140 606 persons reported with HIV, 4% were co-infected with HBV only, 15% were co-infected with HCV only, and 1% were co-infected with HBV and HCV. In all groups, 70-80% were male. The most common race/ethnicity and HIV transmission risk groups were non-Hispanic blacks and men who have sex with men (MSM) for HIV/HBV infection, and non-Hispanic blacks, Hispanics, and injection drug users for HIV/HCV and HIV/HBV/HCV infections. The overall age-adjusted 2000-2011 mortality was higher in co-infected than HIV mono-infected individuals. Use of population-based surveillance data provided a comprehensive characterization of HIV co-infection with HBV and HCV. Our findings emphasize the importance of targeting HIV and viral hepatitis testing and prevention efforts to populations at risk for co-infection, and of integrating HIV and viral hepatitis care and testing services.

  5. HIV, HBV and HCV Coinfection Prevalence in Iran - A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bagheri Amiri, Fahimeh; Mostafavi, Ehsan; Mirzazadeh, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background worldwide, hepatitis C and B virus infections (HCV and HCV), are the two most common coinfections with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and has become a major threat to the survival of HIV-infected persons. The review aimed to estimate the prevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV, HIV/HCV and HIV/HBV and triple coinfections in different subpopulations in Iran. Method Following PRISMA guidelines, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of reports on prevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and HIV coinfections in different subpopulations in Iran. We systematically reviewed the literature to identify eligible studies from January 1996 to March 2012 in English or Persian/Farsi databases. We extracted the prevalence of HIV antibodies (diagnosed by Elisa confirmed with Western Blot test), HCV antibodies and HBsAg (with confirmatory laboratory test) as the main primary outcome. We reported the prevalence of the three infections and coinfections as point and 95% confidence intervals. Findings HIV prevalence varied from %0.00 (95% CI: 0.00–0.003) in the general population to %17.25 (95% CI: 2.94–31.57) in people who inject drugs (PWID). HBV prevalence ranged from % 0.00 (95% CI: 0.00–7.87) in health care workers to % 30.9 (95% CI: 27.88–33.92) in PWID. HCV prevalence ranged from %0.19 (95% CI: 0.00–0.66) in health care workers to %51.46 (95% CI: 34.30–68.62) in PWID. The coinfection of HIV/HBV and also HIV/HCV in the general population and in health care workers was zero, while the most common coinfections were HIV/HCV (10.95%), HIV/HBV (1.88%) and triple infections (1.25%) in PWID. Conclusions We found that PWID are severely and disproportionately affected by HIV and the other two infections, HCV and HBV. Screenings of such coinfections need to be reinforced to prevent new infections and also reduce further transmission in their community and to others. PMID:27031352

  6. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in domestic sheep in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Verhelst, D; De Craeye, S; Vanrobaeys, M; Czaplicki, G; Dorny, P; Cox, E

    2014-09-15

    Even though infected sheep are a potential source of Toxoplasma gondii infection in humans, information is lacking concerning the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in sheep in Belgium. We examined 3170 serum samples for anti-Toxoplasma IgG in sheep by total lysate antigen (TLA) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). IgG to T. gondii was demonstrated in 87.4% of the tested sheep and in 96.2% of the 209 tested flocks. The seroprevalences in Antwerp (65.2%) and Wallonia (68.6%) are statistically lower than in the other regions in Belgium (96.7-97.8%) (P<0.05). The present study is the first report that analyzed the prevalence of T. gondii infection in sheep in Belgium and confirms the high prevalence of Toxoplasma-specific IgG antibodies in the sheep population.

  7. Co-Infection by Chytrid Fungus and Ranaviruses in Wild and Harvested Frogs in the Tropical Andes.

    PubMed

    Warne, Robin W; LaBumbard, Brandon; LaGrange, Seth; Vredenburg, Vance T; Catenazzi, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    While global amphibian declines are associated with the spread of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), undetected concurrent co-infection by other pathogens may be little recognized threats to amphibians. Emerging viruses in the genus Ranavirus (Rv) also cause die-offs of amphibians and other ectotherms, but the extent of their distribution globally, or how co-infections with Bd impact amphibians are poorly understood. We provide the first report of Bd and Rv co-infection in South America, and the first report of Rv infections in the amphibian biodiversity hotspot of the Peruvian Andes, where Bd is associated with extinctions. Using these data, we tested the hypothesis that Bd or Rv parasites facilitate co-infection, as assessed by parasite abundance or infection intensity within individual adult frogs. Co-infection occurred in 30% of stream-dwelling frogs; 65% were infected by Bd and 40% by Rv. Among terrestrial, direct-developing Pristimantis frogs 40% were infected by Bd, 35% by Rv, and 20% co-infected. In Telmatobius frogs harvested for the live-trade 49% were co-infected, 92% were infected by Bd, and 53% by Rv. Median Bd and Rv loads were similar in both wild (Bd = 101.2 Ze, Rv = 102.3 viral copies) and harvested frogs (Bd = 103.1 Ze, Rv = 102.7 viral copies). While neither parasite abundance nor infection intensity were associated with co-infection patterns in adults, these data did not include the most susceptible larval and metamorphic life stages. These findings suggest Rv distribution is global and that co-infection among these parasites may be common. These results raise conservation concerns, but greater testing is necessary to determine if parasite interactions increase amphibian vulnerability to secondary infections across differing life stages, and constitute a previously undetected threat to declining populations. Greater surveillance of parasite interactions may increase our capacity to contain and mitigate the impacts of these and other wildlife

  8. Co-Infection by Chytrid Fungus and Ranaviruses in Wild and Harvested Frogs in the Tropical Andes

    PubMed Central

    Warne, Robin W.; LaBumbard, Brandon; LaGrange, Seth; Vredenburg, Vance T.; Catenazzi, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    While global amphibian declines are associated with the spread of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), undetected concurrent co-infection by other pathogens may be little recognized threats to amphibians. Emerging viruses in the genus Ranavirus (Rv) also cause die-offs of amphibians and other ectotherms, but the extent of their distribution globally, or how co-infections with Bd impact amphibians are poorly understood. We provide the first report of Bd and Rv co-infection in South America, and the first report of Rv infections in the amphibian biodiversity hotspot of the Peruvian Andes, where Bd is associated with extinctions. Using these data, we tested the hypothesis that Bd or Rv parasites facilitate co-infection, as assessed by parasite abundance or infection intensity within individual adult frogs. Co-infection occurred in 30% of stream-dwelling frogs; 65% were infected by Bd and 40% by Rv. Among terrestrial, direct-developing Pristimantis frogs 40% were infected by Bd, 35% by Rv, and 20% co-infected. In Telmatobius frogs harvested for the live-trade 49% were co-infected, 92% were infected by Bd, and 53% by Rv. Median Bd and Rv loads were similar in both wild (Bd = 101.2 Ze, Rv = 102.3 viral copies) and harvested frogs (Bd = 103.1 Ze, Rv = 102.7 viral copies). While neither parasite abundance nor infection intensity were associated with co-infection patterns in adults, these data did not include the most susceptible larval and metamorphic life stages. These findings suggest Rv distribution is global and that co-infection among these parasites may be common. These results raise conservation concerns, but greater testing is necessary to determine if parasite interactions increase amphibian vulnerability to secondary infections across differing life stages, and constitute a previously undetected threat to declining populations. Greater surveillance of parasite interactions may increase our capacity to contain and mitigate the impacts of these and other wildlife

  9. Blood group comparisons between European mouflon sheep and north American desert bighorn sheep.

    PubMed

    Bunch, T D; Nguyen, T C

    1982-01-01

    Blood group systems in true sheep (Ovis) provide an additional method by which phylogenetic relationships can be measured. Of the eight genetic systems of blood groups identified in domestic sheep, all appeared to have their homologue in European mouflons and at least six might have their equivalent in North American desert bighorns. The red cells of the European mouflon, which is believed to be ancestral to domestic sheep, cross-reacted with domestic sheep blood-group typing reagents much more strongly and extensively than did the red cells of desert bighorn sheep. It also was noted that all the Mexican desert bighorns tested were Da positive, but their blood factor was not observed in the Nelson desert bighorns sampled. This observation indicated that the two subspecies might differ from each other with respect to the D blood group system. Transferrin type D was observed in the mouflons, while Tfs D and E were in the desert bighorns. Hemoglobins B and AB were observed in the mouflons but only Hb B occurred in the desert bighorns. The systematic implications of blood group polymorphisms are discussed.

  10. HBV-DNA levels predict overall mortality in HIV/HBV coinfected individuals.

    PubMed

    Nikolopoulos, Georgios K; Paraskevis, Dimitrios; Psichogiou, Mina; Hatzakis, Angelos

    2016-03-01

    The coinfection of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been associated with increased death rates. However, the relevant research has mostly relied on serologic HBV testing [HBV surface antigen (HBsAg)]. The aim of this work was to explore the relationship of HBV viraemia with overall mortality among HIV/HBV coinfected individuals. The analysis included 1,609 HIV seropositives of a previously described cohort (1984-2003) with limited exposure to tenofovir (12%) and a median follow-up of approximately 5 years. Those with persistent expression of HBsAg were further tested for HBV-DNA. The data were analyzed using Poisson regression models. Totally, 101 participants were chronic carriers of HBsAg (6.28%). Of these, 81 were tested for HBV-DNA. The median HBV-DNA levels were 3.81 log (base-10) International Units (IU)/ml. A third (31%) of those tested for HBV-DNA had received tenofovir. Before developing acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), the adjusted incidence rate ratio (IRR) for all-cause mortality of coinfected patients with HBV viraemia above the median value versus the HIV monoinfected group was 3.44 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.05-11.27]. Multivariable regressions in the coinfected group only (n = 81) showed that one log-10 increase in HBV-DNA levels was associated with an elevated risk for death (IRR: 1.24, 95%CI: 1.03-1.49). HBV-DNA levels predict overall mortality in the setting of HIV/HBV coinfection, especially during the period before developing AIDS, and could thus help prioritize needs and determine the frequency of medical monitoring.

  11. CXCR3 Expression Elevated on Peripheral CD8(+) Lymphocytes from HIV/HCV Coinfected Individuals.

    PubMed

    Kimball, Pam; McDougan, Felecia; Stirling, Richard

    2011-12-01

    HIV/HCV coinfected patients tend to develop hepatitis C (HCV)-associated liver disorders. Because the chemokine receptor CXCR3 participates in lymphocyte trafficking during hepatic inflammation, it may participate in the escalated liver disorders of coinfected patients. However, to date, the relative frequency and density of receptor on lymphocytes has not been established. This study compared the CXCR3(+) phenotype under various in vitro conditions between lymphocytes from healthy and coinfected individuals. Peripheral lymphocytes were stimulated with phytohemagluttinin for 0-7 d and phenotypes were determined by flow cytometry. Secreted cytokines were measured in culture supernatants by ELISA. Phenotypic differences were observed between groups. CD4(+)CXCR3(+) frequency between groups was equivalent before and during early activation, but increased only among non-infected individuals during late activation (p<0.001). In contrast, CD8(+)CXCR3(+) frequency was consistently greater (p<0.05) among HIV/HCV patients throughout activation. Among those who were non-infected, CD8(+)CXCR3(+) frequency increased (p=0.002) during late activation. However, CD8(+)CXCR3(+) frequency among HIV/HCV patients increased within 24 h of activation (p=0.008), and was nearly universal by late activation (p<0.001). Both groups elaborated Th-1 cytokine profiles; however, coinfected patients released more inflammatory cytokines (p<0.01) than non-infected individuals. In summary, we demonstrated that CD8(+) lymphocytes from HIV/HCV-infected patients expressed more CXCR3 and showed greater upregulatory ability upon activation. The atypical CXCR3 expression and enhanced Th-1 cytokine elaboration among coinfected patients could potentially stimulate increased lymphocyte migration during hepatic inflammation.

  12. Coinfection with Streptococcus pneumoniae modulates the B cell response to influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Amaya I; Strauman, Maura C; Mozdzanowska, Krystyna; Whittle, James R R; Williams, Katie L; Sharpe, Arlene H; Weiser, Jeffrey N; Caton, Andrew J; Hensley, Scott E; Erikson, Jan

    2014-10-01

    Pathogen-specific antibodies (Abs) protect against respiratory infection with influenza A virus (IAV) and Streptococcus pneumoniae and are the basis of effective vaccines. Sequential or overlapping coinfections with both pathogens are common, yet the impact of coinfection on the generation and maintenance of Ab responses is largely unknown. We report here that the B cell response to IAV is altered in mice coinfected with IAV and S. pneumoniae and that this response differs, depending on the order of pathogen exposure. In mice exposed to S. pneumoniae prior to IAV, the initial virus-specific germinal center (GC) B cell response is significantly enhanced in the lung-draining mediastinal lymph node and spleen, and there is an increase in CD4(+) T follicular helper (TFH) cell numbers. In contrast, secondary S. pneumoniae infection exaggerates early antiviral antibody-secreting cell formation, and at later times, levels of GCs, TFH cells, and antiviral serum IgG are elevated. Mice exposed to S. pneumoniae prior to IAV do not maintain the initially robust GC response in secondary lymphoid organs and exhibit reduced antiviral serum IgG with diminished virus neutralization activity a month after infection. Our data suggest that the history of pathogen exposures can critically affect the generation of protective antiviral Abs and may partially explain the differential susceptibility to and disease outcomes from IAV infection in humans. Importance: Respiratory tract coinfections, specifically those involving influenza A viruses and Streptococcus pneumoniae, remain a top global health burden. We sought to determine how S. pneumoniae coinfection modulates the B cell immune response to influenza virus since antibodies are key mediators of protection.

  13. Differential cognitive impairment in HCV coinfected men with controlled HIV compared to HCV monoinfection

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Bing; Abadjian, Linda; Rempel, Hans; Monto, Alexander; Pulliam, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Background Individuals infected with both HIV and HCV have shown impaired performance on different neuropsychological (NP) tests; however, whether coinfected individuals with controlled HIV and minimal liver damage in the era of antiretroviral therapy have impairment is understudied. Methods Nineteen HCV monoinfected, 17 HIV/HCV coinfected and 17 control male participants were evaluated for depression, attention, executive function, information processing, fine motor speed, and verbal/visual learning/memory. Eleven controls and 14 HIV monoinfected participants with controlled viral load from a previous study were also included for comparison. At time of testing, participants were not using drugs or alcohol and did not have cirrhosis. A global deficit score (GDS) was calculated from 7 domains of NP tests and alterations in specific domains were determined. Results HIV/HCV subjects had a higher depression score (11.1±7.5) than controls (5.4±4.1, p=0.010) and a higher GDS score (0.77±0.47) than HCV (0.46±0.34, p=0.036), HIV (0.45±0.36, p=0.008) and controls (0.30±0.29, p=0.001). Coinfection was associated with worse scores in attention working memory (p=0.007), executive function (p=0.01), fine motor function (p=0.011), verbal learning/memory (p<0.001) and visual learning/memory (p<0.001) compared to controls. Within the HCV group, viral load was associated with lower attention, executive function and information processing speed and positively with GDS. Conclusions Coinfection significantly increased the risk of cognitive impairment in subjects with controlled HIV viral loads. In HCV monoinfected but not coinfected subjects, HCV viral load correlated with worsening GDS, suggesting different pathways for neuropsychological impairment. PMID:23187938

  14. HIV coinfection shortens the survival of patients with hepatitis C virus-related decompensated cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Pineda, Juan A; Romero-Gómez, Manuel; Díaz-García, Fernando; Girón-González, José A; Montero, José L; Torre-Cisneros, Julián; Andrade, Raúl J; González-Serrano, Mercedes; Aguilar, José; Aguilar-Guisado, Manuela; Navarro, José M; Salmerón, Javier; Caballero-Granado, Francisco J; García-García, José A

    2005-04-01

    The impact of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection on the survival of patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related end-stage liver disease (ESLD) is unknown. Because HIV infection is no longer considered an absolute contraindication for liver transplantation in some countries, it has become a priority to address this topic. The objective of this study was to compare the survival of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected patients with decompensated cirrhosis due to HCV. In a retrospective cohort study, the survival of 1,037 HCV monoinfected and 180 HCV/HIV-coinfected patients with cirrhosis after the first hepatic decompensation was analyzed. Of the group, 386 (37%) HCV-monoinfected and 100 (56%) HCV/HIV-coinfected subjects died during the follow-up. The median survival time of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected patients was 16 and 48 months, respectively (P < .001). The relative risk (95% CI) of death for HIV-infected patients was 2.26 (1.51-3.38). Other independent predictors of survival were age older than 63 years (2.25 [1.53-3.31]); Child-Turcotte-Pugh class B versus class A (1.95 [1.41-2.68]) and class C versus class A (2.78 [1.66-4.70]); hepatitis D virus infection (1.56 [1.12-4.77]); model for end-stage liver disease score, (1.05 [1.01-1-11]); more than one simultaneous decompensation (1.23 [1.12-3.33]); and the type of the first hepatic decompensation, with a poorer prognosis associated with encephalopathy compared with portal hypertensive gastrointestinal bleeding (2.03 [1.26-3.10]). In conclusion, HIV coinfection reduces considerably the survival of patients with HCV-related ESLD independently of other markers of poor prognosis. This fact must be taken into account to establish the adequate timing of liver transplantation in HIV-coinfected subjects.

  15. Association of HIV Infection and HIV/HCV Coinfection With C-Reactive Protein Levels

    PubMed Central

    Reingold, Jason S.; Wanke, Christine; Kotler, Donald P.; Lewis, Cora E.; Tracy, Russell; Heymsfield, Steven; Tien, Phyllis C.; Bacchetti, Peter; Scherzer, Rebecca; Grunfeld, Carl; Shlipak, Michael G.

    2008-01-01

    Objective Inflammation is a potential mechanism to explain the accelerated atherosclerosis observed in HIV- and hepatitis C virus (HCV)–infected persons. We evaluated C-reactive protein (CRP) in HIV-infected and HIV/HCV-coinfected individuals in the era of effective antiretroviral (ARV) therapy. Design Cross-sectional study of Fat Redistribution and Metabolic Change in HIV Infection (FRAM) cohort and controls from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. Methods CRP levels were measured in 1135 HIV-infected participants from the FRAM cohort and 281 controls from the CARDIA study. The associations of HIV and HIV/HCV infection with CRP levels were estimated by multivariable linear regression. Results Compared with controls, HIV monoinfection was associated with an 88% higher CRP level in men (P < 0.0001) but with no difference in women (5%; P = 0.80) in multivariate analysis. CRP levels were not associated with ARV therapy, HIV RNA level, or CD4 cell count. Compared with controls, HIV/HCV coinfection was associated with a 41% lower CRP level in women (P = 0.012) but with no difference in men (+4%; P = 0.90). Among HIV-infected participants, HCV coinfection was associated with 50% lower CRP levels after multivariable analysis (P < 0.0001) in men and women. Greater visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) were strongly associated with CRP levels. Among HIV- infected participants, CRP levels were 17% (P < 0.001) and 21% (P = 0.002) higher per doubling of VAT and SAT; among controls, CRP levels were 34% (P < 0.001) and 61% (P = 0.009) higher, respectively. Conclusions In the absence of HCV coinfection, HIV infection is associated with higher CRP levels in men. HCV coinfection is associated with lower CRP levels in men and women. PMID:18344877

  16. Invasive bacterial co-infection in African children with Plasmodium falciparum malaria: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Severe malaria remains a major cause of pediatric hospital admission across Africa. Invasive bacterial infection (IBI) is a recognized complication of Plasmodium falciparum malaria, resulting in a substantially worse outcome. Whether a biological relationship exists between malaria infection and IBI susceptibility remains unclear. We, therefore, examined the extent, nature and evidence of this association. Methods We conducted a systematic search in August 2012 of three major scientific databases, PubMed, Embase and Africa Wide Information, for articles describing bacterial infection among children with P. falciparum malaria using the search string ‘(malaria OR plasmodium) AND (bacteria OR bacterial OR bacteremia OR bacteraemia OR sepsis OR septicaemia OR septicemia).’ Eligiblity criteria also included studies of children hospitalized with malaria or outpatient attendances in sub-Saharan Africa. Results A total of 25 studies across 11 African countries fulfilled our criteria. They comprised twenty cohort analyses, two randomized controlled trials and three prospective epidemiological studies. In the meta-analysis of 7,208 children with severe malaria the mean prevalence of IBI was 6.4% (95% confidence interval (CI) 5.81 to 6.98%). In a further meta-analysis of 20,889 children hospitalised with all-severity malaria and 27,641 children with non-malarial febrile illness the mean prevalence of IBI was 5.58 (95% CI 5.5 to 5.66%) in children with malaria and 7.77% (95% CI 7.72 to 7.83%) in non-malaria illness. Ten studies reported mortality stratified by IBI. Case fatality was higher at 81 of 336, 24.1% (95% CI 18.9 to 29.4) in children with malaria/IBI co-infection compared to 585 of 5,760, 10.2% (95% CI 9.3 to 10.98) with malaria alone. Enteric gram-negative organisms were over-represented in malaria cases, non-typhoidal Salmonellae being the most commonest isolate. There was weak evidence indicating IBI was more common in the severe anemia manifestation

  17. Viral co-infections are common and are associated with higher bacterial burden in children with clostridium difficile infection.

    PubMed

    El Feghaly, Rana E; Stauber, Jennifer L; Tarr, Phillip I; Haslam, David B

    2013-12-01

    Clostridium difficile infections in children are increasing. In this cohort study, we enrolled 62 children with diarrhea and C difficile. We performed polymerase chain reaction assays to detect viral agents of gastroenteritis and quantify C difficile burden. Fifteen (24%) children diagnosed as having C difficile infection had a concomitant viral co-infection. These patients tended to be younger and had a higher C difficile bacterial burden than children with no viral co-infections (median difference = 565,957 cfu/mL; P = 0.011), but were clinically indistinguishable. The contribution of viral co-infection to C difficile disease in children warrants future investigation.

  18. Baseline characteristics of HIV & hepatitis B virus (HIV/HBV) co-infected patients from Kolkata, India

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Jayeeta; Saha, Debraj; Bandyopadhyay, Bhaswati; Saha, Bibhuti; Kedia, Deepika; Guha Mazumder, D.N.; Chakravarty, Runu; Guha, Subhasish Kamal

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and HIV co-infection has variable prevalence worldwide. In comparison to HBV mono-infection, the course of chronic HBV infection is accelerated in HIV/HBV co-infected patients. The present study was carried out to analyse the baseline characteristics (clinical, biochemical, serological and virological) of treatment naïve HIV/HBV co-infected and HIV mono-infected patients. Methods: Between July 2011 and January 2013, a total number of 1331 HIV-seropositive treatment naïve individuals, enrolled in the ART Centre of Calcutta School of Tropical Medicine, Kolkata, India, were screened for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). A total of 1253 HIV mono-infected and 78 HIV/HBV co-infected patients were characterized. The co-infected patients were evaluated for HBeAg and anti-HBe antibody by ELISA. HIV RNA was quantified for all co-infected patients. HBV DNA was detected and quantified by real time-PCR amplification followed by HBV genotype determination. Results: HIV/HBV co-infected patients had proportionately more advanced HIV disease (WHO clinical stage 3 and 4) than HIV mono-infected individuals (37.1 vs. 19.9%). The co-infected patients had significantly higher serum bilirubin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase and ALT/platelet ratio index (APRI). CD4 count was non-significantly lower in co-infected patients. Majority (61.5%) were HBeAg positive with higher HIV RNA (P<0.05), HBV DNA (P<0.001) and APRI (P<0.05) compared to those who were HBeAg negative. HBV/D was the predominant genotype (73.2%) and D2 (43.7%) was the commonest subgenotype. Interpretation & conclusions: HIV/HBV co-infected patients had significantly higher serum bilirubin, ALT, alkaline phosphatase and lower platelet count. HBeAg positive co-infected patients had higher HIV RNA and HBV DNA compared to HBeAg negative co-infected patients. Prior to initiation of antiretroviral treatment (ART) all patients should be screened for HBsAg to

  19. Anaplasma phagocytophilum from Rodents and Sheep, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Lin; Jiang, Jia-Fu; Zhang, Xiao-Ai; Liu, Yun-Xi; Wu, Xiao-Ming; Zhang, Wen-Yi; Zhang, Pan-He; Bian, Chang-Ling; Dumler, J. Stephen; Yang, Hong; Zuo, Shu-Qing; Chu, Chen-Yi; Liu, Wei; Richardus, Jan H.; Habbema, J. Dik F.

    2010-01-01

    To characterize the strains of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in wild and domestic animals in China, we isolated the organism from rodents and sheep in northeastern China. We isolated 3 strains (2 from rodents and 1 from sick sheep) through propagation in BALB/c mice and then cell culture in HL60 cells. The 3 isolates were identified by Wright-Giemsa staining, immunofluorescence, and electronic microscopy and were characterized by sequence analyses of the 16S rRNA gene, partial citrate synthase gene, major surface protein 4 gene, and heat shock protein gene. The multiple sequences of the 3 isolates were identical to each other but different from all known strains from other countries. The public health and veterinary relevance of the isolates deserves further investigation. PMID:20409364

  20. Diagnosing limb paresis and paralysis in sheep

    PubMed Central

    Crilly, James Patrick; Rzechorzek, Nina; Scott, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Paresis and paralysis are uncommon problems in sheep but are likely to prompt farmers to seek veterinary advice. A thorough and logical approach can aid in determining the cause of the problem and highlighting the benefit of veterinary involvement. While this may not necessarily alter the prognosis for an individual animal, it can help in formulating preventive measures and avoid the costs – both in economic and in welfare terms – of misdirected treatment. Distinguishing between central and peripheral lesions is most important, as the relative prognoses are markedly different, and this can often be achieved with minimal equipment. This article describes an approach to performing a neurological examination of the ovine trunk and limbs, the ancillary tests available and the common and important causes of paresis and paralysis in sheep. PMID:26752801

  1. Pathology of inherited rickets in Corriedale sheep.

    PubMed

    Dittmer, K E; Thompson, K G; Blair, H T

    2009-01-01

    A skeletal disease with features of rickets and simple autosomal recessive inheritance has been discovered in Corriedale sheep in New Zealand. The clinical signs resemble rickets in other species and include decreased growth rate, thoracic lordosis and angular limb deformities. Gross lesions include segmental thickening of physes, growth arrest lines, collapse of subchondral bone of the humeral head, thickened cortices and enthesophytes around distal limb joints. Microscopically, there is persistence of hypertrophic chondrocytes at sites of endochondral ossification, inappropriate and excessive osteoclastic resorption, microfractures and wide, unmineralized osteoid seams lining trabeculae and filling secondary osteons. This study confirms that this skeletal disease of Corriedale sheep is a newly discovered form of inherited rickets and suggests that the genetic defect may be different from inherited forms of rickets described to date in man and animals.

  2. Ammonia emissions during vermicomposting of sheep manure.

    PubMed

    Velasco-Velasco, Joel; Parkinson, Robert; Kuri, Victor

    2011-12-01

    The effect of C:N ratio, temperature and water content on ammonia volatilization during two-phase composting of sheep manure was evaluated. The aerobic phase was conducted under field conditions. This was followed by Phase II, vermicomposting, conducted in the laboratory under controlled conditions of water content (70% and 80%) and temperature (15 and 22 °C). The addition of extra straw lead to a 10% reduction in NH3 volatilization compared to sheep manure composted without extra straw. Temperature and water content significantly effected ammonia volatilization at 0 day in Phase II, with a water content of 70% and temperature of 22 °C leading to greater losses of ammonia. Nitrogen loss by ammonia volatilization during vermicomposting ranged from 8% to 15% of the initial N content. The addition of extra straw did not result in significant differences in total carbon content following vermicomposting.

  3. Mastitis detection in sheep by infrared thermography.

    PubMed

    Martins, Rafhael Felipe Saraiva; do Prado Paim, Tiago; de Abreu Cardoso, Cyntia; Stéfano Lima Dallago, Bruno; de Melo, Cristiano Barros; Louvandini, Helder; McManus, Concepta

    2013-06-01

    This study aims to evaluate the use of an infrared thermograph for mastitis diagnosis in sheep. Thirty-seven Santa Inês ewes were evaluated weekly through infrared images obtained with thermograph FLIR System Series-i®. Milk was collected for somatic cell count and milk compound level determination. The clinical mastitis group had the highest fat and protein level, as well as the lowest lactose level. The udder temperatures were higher for subclinical mastitis group. The udder temperature data was able to correctly classify the animals into the mastitis groups and the canonical analysis showed that these temperatures clearly differentiated the subclinical mastitis groups from the others. Therefore, this study showed that udder infrared temperatures can be used as diagnostic method to mastitis in sheep.

  4. An individual-based modelling approach to estimate landscape connectivity for bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis)

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Corrie H.; Kyle, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Background. Preserving connectivity, or the ability of a landscape to support species movement, is among the most commonly recommended strategies to reduce the negative effects of climate change and human land use development on species. Connectivity analyses have traditionally used a corridor-based approach and rely heavily on least cost path modeling and circuit theory to delineate corridors. Individual-based models are gaining popularity as a potentially more ecologically realistic method of estimating landscape connectivity. However, this remains a relatively unexplored approach. We sought to explore the utility of a simple, individual-based model as a land-use management support tool in identifying and implementing landscape connectivity. Methods. We created an individual-based model of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) that simulates a bighorn sheep traversing a landscape by following simple movement rules. The model was calibrated for bighorn sheep in the Okanagan Valley, British Columbia, Canada, a region containing isolated herds that are vital to conservation of the species in its northern range. Simulations were run to determine baseline connectivity between subpopulations in the study area. We then applied the model to explore two land management scenarios on simulated connectivity: restoring natural fire regimes and identifying appropriate sites for interventions that would increase road permeability for bighorn sheep. Results. This model suggests there are no continuous areas of good habitat between current subpopulations of sheep in the study area; however, a series of stepping-stones or circuitous routes could facilitate movement between subpopulations and into currently unoccupied, yet suitable, bighorn habitat. Restoring natural fire regimes or mimicking fire with prescribed burns and tree removal could considerably increase bighorn connectivity in this area. Moreover, several key road crossing sites that could benefit from wildlife overpasses were

  5. Ural-Tweed Bighorn Sheep Investigation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-01

    bighcrns demonstrate a competitive inferiority when competing with sympatric ungulates for available forage. Interspecific , as well as intraspecific ...Density of Plant Fragments In Bighorn Sheep Fecal Samples Collected on a Monthly Basis for Calendar Year 1978. 76 23. Population Estirqtes for Ural... competition with domestic, as well as wild ungulates; 2) disease intro- duced by domestic livestock; 3) conversion of mountain grasslands into timber- lands

  6. Tibiotarsal arthrodesis in a Moufflon sheep.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, J G; Farrow, C S; Haigh, J C

    1978-11-01

    Restraint of a mature Moufflon sheep resulted in severe fracture and luxation of a previously osteoarthritic tibiotarsal joint. Arthrodesis was accomplished by means of internal pin fixation and an external fiberglass cast. After 3 months of hospitalization, the ram was returned to the original flock. Competition for dominance within the flock resulted in physical trauma to the ram. Seven months after surgery, the ram sustained a fractured ulna and died from exposure.

  7. Anesthesia and analgesia in sheep and goats.

    PubMed

    Galatos, Apostolos D

    2011-03-01

    Physical or chemical restraint, with or without local anesthesia, has been extensively used to perform diagnostic or minor surgical procedures in small ruminants. However, anesthetic and analgesic techniques are required when specific diagnostic procedures and painful surgery are to be performed. Apart from improving animal welfare standards, anesthesia and analgesia are essential to make the procedures easier and improve both animal and personnel safety. This article provides an overview of the anesthetic and analgesic agents and techniques commonly used in sheep and goats.

  8. Aspects of carnitine ester metabolism in sheep liver

    PubMed Central

    Snoswell, A. M.; Henderson, G. D.

    1970-01-01

    1. Carnitine acetyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.7) activity in sheep liver mitochondria was 76nmol/min per mg of protein, in contrast with 1.7 for rat liver mitochondria. The activity in bovine liver mitochondria was comparable with that of sheep liver mitochondria. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase activity was the same in both sheep and rat liver mitochondria. 2. The [free carnitine]/[acetylcarnitine] ratio in sheep liver ranged from 6:1 for animals fed ad libitum on lucerne to approx. 1:1 for animals grazed on open pastures. This change in ratio appeared to reflect the ratio of propionic acid to acetic acid produced in the rumen of the sheep under the two dietary conditions. 3. In sheep starved for 7 days the [free carnitine]/[acetylcarnitine] ratio in the liver was 0.46:1. The increase in acetylcarnitine on starvation was not at the expense of free carnitine, as the amounts of free carnitine and total acid-soluble carnitine rose approximately fivefold on starvation. An even more dramatic increase in total acid-soluble carnitine of the liver was seen in an alloxan-diabetic sheep. 4. The [free CoA]/[acetyl-CoA] ratio in the liver ranged from 1:1 in the sheep fed on lucerne to 0.34:1 for animals starved for 7 days. 5. The importance of carnitine acetyltransferase in sheep liver and its role in relieving `acetyl pressure' on the CoA system is discussed. PMID:5485754

  9. Sheep poxvirus identification by PCR in cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Mangana-Vougiouka, O; Markoulatos, P; Koptopoulos, G; Nomikou, K; Bakandritsos, N; Papadopoulos, O

    1999-01-01

    A simple, rapid and specific diagnostic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method was developed for sheep poxvirus identification. The primers used were from the sequenced genomes of the capripox viruses KS-1 and InS-1. Six different sheep pox isolates were tested against two orf (parapox) and three animal herpesviruses as controls. Material from uninfected cell cultures was also used as control. The sensitivity of the PCR was approximately equivalent with each of the two primers and for the six sheep pox isolates. All the negative control virus DNAs were negative and differed clearly from those of the sheep pox strains.

  10. Test of a modified habitat suitability model for bighorn sheep

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zeigenfuss, L.C.; Singer, F.J.; Gudorf, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    Translocation of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) is time, labor, and cost intensive and, therefore, high levels of success are desirable. We tested a widely used habitat suitability model against translocation success and then modified it to include additional factors which improved its usefulness in predicting appropriate translocation sites. The modified Smith habitat suitability model for bighorn sheep was 64% accurate in predicting success or failure of 32 translocations of bighorn sheep into the Rocky Mountains, Colorado Plateau desert, and prairie-badlands of six states. We had sheep location data for 13 populations, and the modified habitat model predicted the areas used by bighorn sheep with greater than 905 accuracy in eight populations, greater than 55% accuracy in four populations, and less than 55% accuracy in one population. Translocations were more successful when sheep were placed into discrete habitat patches containing a high proportion of lambing period habitat (>10% of suitable habitat, p = 0.05), where animals had a migratory tendency (p = 0.02), no contact with domestic sheep (p = 0.02), or greater distance to domestic sheep (>23 km, p = 0.02). Rate of population growth was best predicted by area of lambing period habitat, potential area of winter range, and distance to domestic sheep. We retested the model using these refined criteria and the refined model then predicted success or failure of these 32 translocated populations with 82% accuracy.

  11. Origin, genetic diversity, and population structure of Chinese domestic sheep.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shan-Yuan; Duan, Zi-Yuan; Sha, Tao; Xiangyu, Jinggong; Wu, Shi-Fang; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2006-07-19

    To characterize the origin, genetic diversity, and phylogeographic structure of Chinese domestic sheep, we here analyzed a 531-bp fragment of mtDNA control region of 449 Chinese autochthonous sheep from 19 breeds/populations from 13 geographic regions, together with previously reported 44 sequences from Chinese indigenous sheep. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all three previously defined lineages A, B, and C were found in all sampled Chinese sheep populations, except for the absence of lineage C in four populations. Network profiles revealed that the lineages B and C displayed a star-like phylogeny with the founder haplotype in the centre, and that two star-like subclades with two founder haplotypes were identified in lineage A. The pattern of genetic variation in lineage A, together with the divergence time between the two central founder haplotypes suggested that two independent domestication events have occurred in sheep lineage A. Considerable mitochondrial diversity was observed in Chinese sheep. Weak structuring was observed either among Chinese indigenous sheep populations or between Asian and European sheep and this can be attributable to long-term strong gene flow induced by historical human movements. The high levels of intra-population diversity in Chinese sheep and the weak phylogeographic structuring indicated three geographically independent domestication events have occurred and the domestication place was not only confined to the Near East, but also occurred in other regions.

  12. The genetic diversity and structure of 18 sheep breeds exposed to isolation and selection.

    PubMed

    Ćurković, M; Ramljak, J; Ivanković, S; Mioč, B; Ivanković, A; Pavić, V; Brka, M; Veit-Kensch, C; Medugorac, I

    2016-02-01

    The phylogenetic layout of the genotyped (30 microsatellite) 18 sheep breeds in this study demands and provides the opportunity to evaluate both neutral and adaptive components of genetic diversity in a naturally and artificially selected and subdivided sheep population. Seven Pramenka strains from Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia characterized by a very low intensity of artificial selection, preserved the highest neutral genetic variability. Eight central and north-western European breeds under considerable artificial isolation and selection preserved the lowest genetic variability. Only combinations of various phylogenetic parameters offer a reasonable explanation for underlying evolutionary forces working in the investigated island and mainland sheep breeds under variable natural and artificial selection. More than 60% of total genetic, diversity was allocated to virtually unselected Pramenka strains, and an additional 25% to native moderately selected Graue Gehoernte Heidschnucke and intensively selected Ostfriesische Milchschafe. Some economically very important breeds and strains did not contribute to a pool with maximal genetic diversity, while they play an important role in the cultural heritage of respective countries.

  13. The diagnostic accuracy of acute phase proteins and proinflammatory cytokines in sheep with pneumonic pasteurellosis

    PubMed Central

    Elmoslemany, Ahmed M.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of acute phase proteins and proinflammatory cytokines in sheep with pneumonic pasteurellosis. Blood samples were collected from 56 sheep (36 naturally infected with Pasteurella multocida and 20 healthy controls) belonging to one farm in Eastern region, Saudi Arabia. Serum samples were evaluated for acute phase proteins (Haptoglobin (Hp), serum amyloid A (SAA) and fibrinogen (Fb)), and the proinflammatory cytokines (interleukins (IL-1α, IL-1β, and IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and interferon-gamma (IFN-ϒ)). Additionally, nasopharyngeal swabs and bronchoalveolar lavages were collected from all animals for bacteriological examinations. Receiver operating characteristic curve was used to assess the diagnostic performance of each parameter. All parameters showed moderate to high degree of positive correlation with case-control status. There was no significant difference in the area under the curve (AUC) among acute phase proteins; however, both Hp and SAA showed better sensitivity and specificity than Fb. The proinflammatory cytokines (IL1-α, IL1-β, and IL6) showed similar and highly accurate diagnostic performance (AUC > 0.9), whereas IFN-ϒ was moderately accurate (AUC = 0.79). In conclusion, this study confirms the value of acute phase proteins and cytokines as diagnostic biomarkers of naturally occuring pneumonic pasteurellosis in sheep. PMID:27547520

  14. Awassi sheep reproduction and milk production: review.

    PubMed

    Talafha, Abdelsalam Q; Ababneh, Mohammed M

    2011-10-01

    Awassi is the local breed of sheep in Jordan and is the most important breed in the semi-arid regions of the near east countries. Awassi ram and ewe lambs reach puberty at around 8 and 9 months of age, respectively. The breeding season of Awassi ewes starts as early as April and lasts through September. After puberty, Awassi rams are sexually active throughout the year. The normal estrous cycle in Awassi ewes is 15-20 days (average 17 days). Estrus ranges from 16-59 h (average 29 h) during the breeding season. The reproductive performance of unimproved Awassi sheep has been low while improved Awassi has the highest fertility and milk production and are the heaviest among all Awassi populations. The gestation length varies from 149 to 155 days (average 152 days). Hormones that are commonly used for induction and synchronization of estrus in Awassi ewes include progestins, gonadotropins and PGF2α. An Awassi ewe produces 40-60 and 70-80 kg of milk per 150-day lactation period under traditional and improved production systems, respectively, in addition to the suckled milk left for lambs until weaning. The improved Awassi has the highest milk production among all Awassi populations and may reach 506 L over 214-day lactation period. The objective of this review is to summarize the reproductive pattern and milk production of Awassi sheep in the Middle East region.

  15. Differentiation among Spanish sheep breeds using microsatellites

    PubMed Central

    Arranz, Juan-José; Bayón, Yolanda; Primitivo, Fermín San

    2001-01-01

    Genetic variability at 18 microsatellites was analysed on the basis of individual genotypes in five Spanish breeds of sheep – Churra, Latxa, Castellana, Rasa-Aragonesa and Merino -, with Awassi also being studied as a reference breed. The degree of population subdivision calculated between Spanish breeds from FST diversity indices was around 7% of total variability. A high degree of reliability was obtained for individual-breed assignment from the 18 loci by using different approaches among which the Bayesian method provided to be the most efficient, with an accuracy for nine microsatellites of over 99%. Analysis of the Bayesian assignment criterion illustrated the divergence between any one breed and the others, which was highest for Awassi sheep, while no great differences were evident among the Spanish breeds. Relationships between individuals were analysed from the proportion of shared alleles. The resulting dendrogram showed a remarkable breed structure, with the highest level of clustering among members of the Spanish breeds in Latxa and the lowest in Merino sheep, the latter breed exhibiting a peculiar pattern of clustering, with animals grouped into several closely set nodes. Analysis of individual genotypes provided valuable information for understanding intra- and inter-population genetic differences and allowed for a discussion with previously reported results using populations as taxonomic units. PMID:11712973

  16. Wool Keratin-Associated Protein Genes in Sheep-A Review.

    PubMed

    Gong, Hua; Zhou, Huitong; Forrest, Rachel H J; Li, Shaobin; Wang, Jiqing; Dyer, Jolon M; Luo, Yuzhu; Hickford, Jon G H

    2016-05-28

    The importance of sheep's wool in making textiles has inspired extensive research into its structure and the underlying genetics since the 1960s. Wool keratin-associated proteins (KAPs) are a key structural component of the wool fibre. The characterisation of the genes encoding these proteins has progressed rapidly with advances in the nucleotide and protein sequencing. This review describes our knowledge of ovine KAPs, their categorisation into families, polymorphism in the proteins and genes, the clustering and chromosomal location of the genes, some characteristics of gene expression and some potential effects of the KAPs on wool traits. The extent and nature of genetic variation in wool KAP genes and its association with fibre characteristics, provides an opportunity for the development of gene-markers for selective breeding of sheep to produce better wool with properties highly matched to specific end-uses.

  17. Epidemic pasteurellosis in a bighorn sheep population coinciding with the appearance of a domestic sheep.

    PubMed

    George, Janet L; Martin, Daniel J; Lukacs, Paul M; Miller, Michael W

    2008-04-01

    A pneumonia epidemic reduced bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) survival and recruitment during 1997-2000 in a population comprised of three interconnected wintering herds (Kenosha Mountains, Sugarloaf Mountain, Twin Eagles) that inhabited the Kenosha and Tarryall Mountain ranges in central Colorado, USA. The onset of this epidemic coincided temporally and spatially with the appearance of a single domestic sheep (Ovis aires) on the Sugarloaf Mountain herd's winter range in December 1997. Although only bighorns in the Sugarloaf Mountain herd were affected in 1997-98, cases also occurred during 1998-99 in the other two wintering herds, likely after the epidemic spread via established seasonal movements of male bighorns. In all, we located 86 bighorn carcasses during 1997-2000. Three species of Pasteurella were isolated in various combinations from affected lung tissues from 20 bighorn carcasses where tissues were available and suitable for diagnostic evaluation; with one exception, beta-hemolytic mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica (primarily reported as biogroup 1(G) or 1(alphaG)) was isolated from lung tissues of cases evaluated during winter 1997-98. The epidemic dramatically lowered adult bighorn monthly survival in all three herds; a model that included an acute epidemic effect, differing between sexes and with vaccination status, that diminished linearly over the next 12 mo best represented field data. In addition to the direct mortality associated with epidemics in these three herds, lamb recruitment in years following the pneumonia epidemic also was depressed as compared to years prior to the epidemic. Based on observations presented here, pasteurellosis epidemics in free-ranging bighorn sheep can arise through incursion of domestic sheep onto native ranges, and thus minimizing contact between domestic and bighorn sheep appears to be a logical principle for bighorn sheep conservation.

  18. Immunological aspects of nematode parasite control in sheep.

    PubMed

    Miller, J E; Horohov, D W

    2006-04-01

    Gastrointestinal nematode parasitism is arguably the most serious constraint affecting sheep production worldwide. Economic losses are caused by decreased production, the costs of prophylaxis and treatment, and the death of the infected animals. The nematode of particular concern is Haemonchus contortus, which can cause severe blood loss resulting in anemia, anorexia, depression, loss of condition, and eventual death. The control of nematode parasites traditionally relies on anthelmintic treatment. The evolution of anthelmintic resistance in nematode populations threatens the success of drug treatment programs. Alternative strategies for control of nematode infections are being developed, and one approach is to take advantage of the host's natural or acquired immune responses, which can be used in selection programs to increase the level of resistance in the population. Vaccination can also be used to stimulate or boost the host's acquired immunity. The induction of protective resistance is dependent on the pattern of cytokine gene expression induced during infection by two defined CD4+ T-helper cell subsets, which have been designated as Th1 or Th2. Intracellular parasites most often invoke a Th1-type response, and helminth parasites a Th2-type response. Breeds of sheep resistant to infection have developed resistance over a much longer term of host-parasite relationship than genetically selected resistant lines. The immune components involved in these different responses and types of host-parasite relationships will be reviewed. The potential for using vaccines has been investigated, with variable results, for several decades. The few successes and potential new antigen candidates will also be reviewed.

  19. Supplementation with linseed (Linum usitatissimum) cake and/or wheat bran on feed utilization and carcass characteristics of Arsi-Bale sheep.

    PubMed

    Tafa, Abebe; Melaku, Solomon; Peters, Kurt J

    2010-04-01

    Thirty yearling male intact Arsi-Bale sheep with initial body weight (BW) of 15.5 +/- 0.21 kg (mean +/- SD) were used in 90 days feeding trial, 10 days digestibility trial followed by evaluation of carcass parameters at Bokoji, Ethiopia. The objectives were to evaluate effects of supplementation with linseed (Linum usitatissimum) cake (LSC), wheat bran (WB), and their mixtures at 2:1 and 1:2, respectively on feed intake, digestibility, daily BW gain, and carcass parameters. The five treatments included ad libitum feeding of natural pasture hay (control) and with daily supplementation of 300 g dry matter (DM) sole LSC, 2LSC:1WB mix, 1LSC:2WB mix, and sole WB. Six sheep were randomly assigned to each treatment using randomized complete-block design. Four sheep in each treatment were randomly selected and used for determination of digestibility and carcass characteristics using a completely randomized design. The intake of hay DM was higher (P < 0.001) for the non-supplemented sheep compared with the supplemented ones, but the contrary was true for total DM intake. Sheep in the control treatment lost BW (-1.5 g/day), while the supplemented ones gained 69.0-104.1 g BW/head/day. Digestibility of CP was higher (P < 0.001) for supplemented sheep as a result of higher (P < 0.001) CP intake. Slaughter weight, empty BW, and hot carcass weight were lower (P < 0.001) for sheep in the control treatment compared with the rest. Sheep supplemented with LSC and its mixtures with WB had better (P < 0.001) performance in daily BW gain than sole WB supplemented ones indicating the advantages of using supplements as mixed rations. Moreover, supplementation proved to be profitable, whereas feeding hay alone led to economic loss.

  20. Differential Susceptibility of Bighorn Sheep (Ovis Canadensis) and Domestic Sheep (Ovis Aries) Neutrophils to Mannheimia Haemolytica Leukotoxin is not due to Differential Expression of Cell Surface CD18.

    PubMed

    Dassanayake, Rohana P; Shanthalingam, Sudarvili; Liu, Weiguo; Casas, Eduardo; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2017-03-21

    Bighorn sheep ( Ovis canadensis ) are more susceptible to pneumonia caused by Mannheimia haemolytica than are domestic sheep ( Ovis aries ). Leukotoxin produced by M. haemolytica is the principal virulence factor involved in pneumonia pathogenesis. Although leukotoxin is cytolytic to all subsets of ruminant leukocytes, neutrophils are the most susceptible subset. Bighorn sheep neutrophils are 4- to 8-fold more susceptible to leukotoxin-induced cytolysis than are domestic sheep neutrophils. We hypothesized that the higher susceptibility of bighorn sheep neutrophils, in comparison to domestic sheep neutrophils, is due to higher expression of CD18, the receptor for leukotoxin on leukocytes. Our objective was to quantify CD18 expression on neutrophils of bighorn sheep and domestic sheep. Cell-surface CD18 expression on bighorn sheep and domestic sheep neutrophils was measured as antibody binding capacity of cells by flow cytometric analysis with two fluorochrome-conjugated anti-CD18 monoclonal antibodies (BAQ30A and HUH82A) and microspheres. Contrary to our expectations, CD18 expression was higher (P=0.000) with monoclonal antibody BAQ30A and was higher (P=0.000) as well with monoclonal antibody HUH80A on domestic sheep neutrophils in comparison to bighorn sheep neutrophils. These findings suggest that the higher in vitro susceptibility to leukotoxin of bighorn sheep neutrophils compared to domestic sheep neutrophils is not due to higher expression of the leukotoxin receptor CD18 on bighorn sheep neutrophils.

  1. Co-infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus: an overview and motivation for systems approaches.

    PubMed

    Deffur, Armin; Mulder, Nicola J; Wilkinson, Robert J

    2013-11-01

    Tuberculosis is a devastating disease that accounts for a high proportion of infectious disease morbidity and mortality worldwide. HIV-1 co-infection exacerbates tuberculosis. Enhanced understanding of the host-pathogen relationship in HIV-1 and Mycobacterium tuberculosis co-infection is required. While reductionist approaches have yielded many valuable insights into disease pathogenesis, systems approaches are required that develop data-driven models able to predict emergent properties of this complex co-infection system in order to develop novel therapeutic approaches and to improve diagnostics. Here, we provide a pathogenesis-focused overview of HIV-TB co-infection followed by an introduction to systems approaches and concrete examples of how such approaches are useful.

  2. The phylogeographic system survey of native sheep breeds in the eastern and southern Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Sun, W; Chang, H; Tsunoda, K; Musa, H H; Yang, Z P; Ma, Y H; Guan, W J

    2010-08-01

    The genetic diversity and phylogenetic survey of native sheep breeds in the eastern and southern Central Asia were assessed in the present study. The clustering, principal components, structure and F statistics all demonstrate that the native sheep breeds in these regions be classified into two genetic groups: Mongolia-Tibetan sheep group and South-Southeast Asia sheep group. The Mongolia sheep group and the Tibetan sheep group had a certain degree of gene communication from the ancient times. In the present study we demonstrated that the Chinese native sheep populations belonged to Mongolia-Tibetan sheep group. However, the relationships among the sheep populations in Mongolia sheep group in China were not closely related to the geographical distance among sheep populations.

  3. New agents for the treatment of hepatitis C in patients co-infected with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Munteanu, Daniela I.

    2013-01-01

    Pilot trials evaluating the efficacy and safety of the first licensed hepatitis C virus (HCV) protease inhibitors (PIs), boceprevir (BOC) and telaprevir (TVR), for the treatment of genotype 1 infection in HCV/HIV co-infected patients revealed similar results as in HCV mono-infected patients. HCV liver disease progresses more rapidly in co-infected patients, particularly with advanced immunodeficiency. Therefore, HCV treatment in HIV is of great importance. However, dual therapy with pegylated interferon (PegIFN) and ribavirin (RBV) has been associated with lower cure rates and increased toxicities in co-infected subjects, thereby limiting overall HCV therapy uptake. The availability of HCV PIs opens new perspectives for HCV cure in co-infected patients, with a 70% sustained virologic response (SVR) rate in HCV treatment-naïve patients. Despite these impressive advances, the use of the new treatment options has been low, reflecting the complex issues with modern triple HCV therapy. Indeed pill burden, adverse events (AEs), drug–drug interactions (DDIs) and high costs complicate HCV therapy in HIV. So far, studies have shown no tolerability differences in mono- and co-infected patients with the early stages of liver fibrosis. Regarding DDIs between HVC PIs and antiretroviral drugs, TVR can be safely administered with efavirenz (with dose adjustment of TVR), etravirine (ETR), rilpivirine, boosted atazanavir (ATV/r) and raltegravir (RAL), while BOC can be safely administered with ETR, RAL and potentially ATV/r for treatment-naïve patients under careful monitoring. Currently, the great number of HCV molecules under development is promising substantially improved treatment paradigms with shorter treatment durations, fewer AEs, less DDIs, once-daily administration and even interferon-free regimens. The decision to treat now with the available HCV PIs or defer therapy until the second generation of HCV direct acting antivirals become available should be based on liver

  4. Borrelia Diversity and Co-infection with Other Tick Borne Pathogens in Ticks

    PubMed Central

    Raileanu, Cristian; Moutailler, Sara; Pavel, Ionuţ; Porea, Daniela; Mihalca, Andrei D.; Savuta, Gheorghe; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel

    2017-01-01

    Identifying Borrelia burgdorferi as the causative agent of Lyme disease in 1981 was a watershed moment in understanding the major impact that tick-borne zoonoses can have on public health worldwide, particularly in Europe and the USA. The medical importance of tick-borne diseases has long since been acknowledged, yet little is known regarding the occurrence of emerging tick-borne pathogens such as Borrelia spp., Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Rickettsia spp., Bartonella spp., “Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis”, and tick-borne encephalitis virus in questing ticks in Romania, a gateway into Europe. The objective of our study was to identify the infection and co-infection rates of different Borrelia genospecies along with other tick-borne pathogens in questing ticks collected from three geographically distinct areas in eastern Romania. We collected 557 questing adult and nymph ticks of three different species (534 Ixodes ricinus, 19 Haemaphysalis punctata, and 4 Dermacentor reticulatus) from three areas in Romania. We analyzed ticks individually for the presence of eight different Borrelia genospecies with high-throughput real-time PCR. Ticks with Borrelia were then tested for possible co-infections with A. phagocytophilum, Rickettsia spp., Bartonella spp., “Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis”, and tick-borne encephalitis virus. Borrelia spp. was detected in I. ricinus ticks from all sampling areas, with global prevalence rates of 25.8%. All eight Borrelia genospecies were detected in I. ricinus ticks: Borrelia garinii (14.8%), B. afzelii (8.8%), B. valaisiana (5.1%), B. lusitaniae (4.9%), B. miyamotoi (0.9%), B. burgdorferi s.s (0.4%), and B. bissettii (0.2%). Regarding pathogen co-infection 64.5% of infected I. ricinus were positive for more than one pathogen. Associations between different Borrelia genospecies were detected in 9.7% of ticks, and 6.9% of I. ricinus ticks tested positive for co-infection of Borrelia spp. with other tick-borne pathogens. The

  5. Common mental disorders in TB/HIV co-infected patients in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background- The relationship between TB/HIV co-infection and common mental disorders (CMD) has been scarcely investigated. In this study, we compared the occurrence of CMD in TB/HIV co-infected and non-co-infected HIV patients in Ethiopia. Methods- We conducted a cross sectional study in three hospitals in Ethiopia from February to April, 2009. The study population consisted of 155 TB/HIV co-infected and 465 non-co-infected HIV patients. CMD was assessed through face to face interviews by trained clinical nurses using the Kessler 10 scale. Several risk factors for CMD were assessed using a structured questionnaire. Results- TB/HIV co-infected patients had significantly (p = 0.001) greater risk of CMD (63.7%) than the non-co-infected patients (46.7%). When adjusted for the effect of potential confounding variables, the odds of having CMD for TB/HIV co-infected individuals was 1.7 times the odds for non-co-infected patients [OR = 1.7, (95%CI: 1.0, 2.9)]. Individuals who had no source of income [OR = 1.7, (95%CI: 1.1, 2.8)], and day labourers [OR = 2.4, 95%CI: 1.2, 5.1)] were more likely to have CMD as compared to individuals who had a source of income and government employees respectively. Patients who perceived stigma [OR = 2.2, 95%CI: 1.5, 3.2)] and who rate their general health as "poor" [OR = 10.0, 95%CI: 2.8, 35.1)] had significantly greater risk of CMD than individual who did not perceive stigma or who perceived their general health to be "good". Conclusion- TB/HIV control programs should develop guidelines to screen and treat CMD among TB/HIV co-infected patients. Screening programs should focus on individuals with no source of income, jobless people and day labourers. PMID:20618942

  6. Prevalence and correlates of emotional distress in HIV/HCV coinfection.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Marco; Fialho, Renata; Canavarro, Maria Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The mental health needs of patients who are coinfected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are increasingly addressed in medical settings. This study aimed at examining the prevalence and severity of emotional distress in a sample of HIV/HCV coinfected and HIV mono-infected patients and to examine their sociodemographic, clinical, and psychosocial correlates. The Brief Symptom Inventory and the quality of life instrument WHOQOL-HIV-Bref were administered to a sample of 248 HIV/HCV coinfected patients and 482 HIV mono-infected patients. Thirty-nine (15.9%) HIV/HCV coinfected patients and 55 (11.6%) HIV mono-infected patients reported a T-score ≥ 63 for global severity index (GSI), indicative of a need for further psychological evaluation. Coinfected patients reported significantly higher scores on eight of nine dimensions of psychopathology. The larger differences were found on somatization, hostility, paranoid ideation, anxiety, and the GSI. Among HIV/HCV patients, non-highly active antiretroviral therapy (β = -0.19, p < 0.01) and lower scores for independence (β = -0.24, p < 0.01) and spiritual (β = -0.31, p < 0.001) dimensions were significantly associated with higher emotional distress and accounted for 47.2% of the total variance. Among HIV mono-infected patients, being diagnosed for a longer time (β = 0.12, p < 0.05) and having lower scores on physical (β = -0.23, p < 0.001), social relationships (β = -0.11, p < 0.05), environmental (β = -0.17, p < 0.01), and spiritual (β = -0.21, p < 0.001) dimensions explained 39.4% of the variance of emotional distress. The findings suggest that coinfection with HCV may have an adverse effect on mental health and underscore the interplay of sociodemographic, clinical, and psychosocial variables on emotional distress. Additionally, these data reinforce the need for tailored interventions to improve the overall well-being of both HIV and HIV/HCV patients.

  7. Risk of Hip Fracture Associated with Hepatitis C Virus Infection and Hepatitis C/HIV Coinfection

    PubMed Central

    Re, Vincent Lo; Volk, Jessica; Newcomb, Craig W.; Yang, Yu-Xiao; Freeman, Cristin P.; Hennessy, Sean; Kostman, Jay R.; Tebas, Pablo; Leonard, Mary B.; Localio, A. Russell

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has been associated with reduced bone mineral density, but its association with fracture rates is unknown, particularly in the setting of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection. Our objectives were to determine whether persons with HCV infection alone are at increased risk for hip fracture compared to uninfected individuals and to examine if the risk of hip fracture is higher among HCV/HIV-coinfected persons compared to those with HCV alone, those with HIV alone, and those uninfected with either virus. We conducted a cohort study in 36,950 HCV/HIV-coinfected, 276,901HCV-monoinfected, 95,827 HIV-monoinfected, and 3,110,904 HCV/HIV-uninfected persons within the U.S. Medicaid populations of California, Florida, New York, Ohio, and Pennsylvania (1999–2005). Incidence rates of hip fracture were lowest among uninfected persons (1.29 events/1000 person-years), increased with the presence of either HIV infection (1.95 events/1000 person-years) or HCV infection (2.69 events/1000 person-years), and were highest among HCV/HIV-coinfected individuals (3.06 events/1000 person-years). HCV/HIV coinfection was associated with an increased relative hazard (adjusted hazard ratio [95% confidence interval]) of hip fracture compared to HCV-monoinfected (1.38 [1.25–1.53]), HIV-monoinfected (females: 1.76 [1.44–2.16]; males: 1.36 [1.20–1.55]), and uninfected persons (females: 2.65 [2.21–3.17]; males: 2.20 [1.97–2.47]). HCV monoinfection was associated with an increased risk of hip fracture compared to uninfected individuals, and the relative increase was highest in the youngest age groups (females, 18–39 years: 3.56 [2.93–4.32]; males, 18–39 years: 2.40 [2.02–2.84]). Conclusion Among Medicaid enrollees, HCV/HIV coinfection was associated with increased rates of hip fracture compared to HCV-monoinfected, HIV-monoinfected, and HCV/HIV-uninfected persons. HCV-monoinfected patients had an increased risk of hip fracture compared to

  8. Differential predictors of ART adherence among HIV-monoinfected versus HIV/HCV-coinfected individuals.

    PubMed

    Shuper, Paul A; Joharchi, Narges; Irving, Hyacinth; Fletcher, David; Kovacs, Colin; Loutfy, Mona; Walmsley, Sharon L; Wong, David K H; Rehm, Jürgen

    2016-08-01

    Although adherence is an important key to the efficacy of antiretroviral therapy (ART), many people living with HIV (PLWH) fail to maintain optimal levels of ART adherence over time. PLWH with the added burden of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection possess unique challenges that potentially impact their motivation and ability to adhere to ART. The present investigation sought to (1) compare ART adherence levels among a sample of HIV/HCV-coinfected versus HIV-monoinfected patients, and (2) identify whether ART-related clinical and psychosocial correlates differ by HCV status. PLWH receiving ART (N = 215: 105 HIV/HCV-coinfected, 110 HIV-monoinfected) completed a comprehensive survey assessing ART adherence and its potential correlates. Medical chart extraction identified clinical factors, including liver enzymes. Results demonstrated that ART adherence did not differ by HCV status, with 83.7% of coinfected patients and 82.4% of monoinfected patients reporting optimal (i.e., ≥95%) adherence during a four-day recall period (p = .809). Multivariable logistic regression demonstrated that regardless of HCV status, optimal ART adherence was associated with experiencing fewer adherence-related behavioral skills barriers (AOR = 0.56; 95%CI = 0.43-0.73), lower likelihood of problematic drinking (AOR = 0.15; 95%CI = 0.04-0.67), and lower likelihood of methamphetamine use (AOR = 0.14; 95%CI = 0.03-0.69). However, among HIV/HCV-coinfected patients, optimal adherence was additionally associated with experiencing fewer ART adherence-related motivational barriers (AOR = 0.23; 95%CI = 0.08-0.62) and lower likelihood of depression (AOR = 0.06; 95%CI = 0.00-0.84). Findings suggest that although HIV/HCV-coinfected patients may face additional, distinct barriers to ART adherence, levels of adherence commensurate with those demonstrated by HIV-monoinfected patients might be achievable if these barriers are addressed.

  9. Development of duplex PCR for simultaneous detection of Theileria spp. and Anaplasma spp. in sheep and goats.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yanyan; Zhang, Yan; Jian, Fuchun; Zhang, Longxian; Wang, Rongjun; Cao, Shuxuan; Wang, Xiaoxing; Yan, Yaqun; Ning, Changshen

    2017-05-01

    Theileria spp. and Anaplasma spp., which are important tick-borne pathogens (TBPs), impact the health of humans and animals in tropical and subtropical areas. Theileria and Anaplasma co-infections are common in sheep and goats. Following alignment of the relevant DNA sequences, two primer sets were designed to specifically target the Theileria spp. 18S rRNA and Anaplasma spp. 16S rRNA gene sequences. Genomic DNA from the two genera was serially diluted tenfold for testing the sensitivities of detection of the primer sets. The specificities of the primer sets were confirmed when DNA from Anaplasma and Theileria (positive controls), other related hematoparasites (negative controls) and ddH2O were used as templates. Fifty field samples were also used to evaluate the utility of single PCR and duplex PCR assays, and the detection results were compared with those of the PCR methods previously published. An optimized duplex PCR assay was established from the two primer sets based on the relevant genes from the two TBPs, and this assay generated products of 298-bp (Theileria spp.) and 139-bp (Anaplasma spp.). The detection limit of the assay was 29.4 × 10(-3) ng per μl, and there was no cross-reaction with the DNA from other hematoparasites. The results showed that the newly developed duplex PCR assay had an efficiency of detection (P > 0.05) similar to other published PCR methods. In this study, a duplex PCR assay was developed that can simultaneously identify Theileria spp. and Anaplasma spp. in sheep and goats. This duplex PCR is a potentially valuable assay for epidemiological studies of TBPs in that it can detect cases of mixed infections of the pathogens.

  10. Decrease in serial prevalence of coinfection with hepatitis C virus among HIV-infected patients in Spain, 1997-2006.

    PubMed

    Pérez Cachafeiro, Santiago; Del Amo, Julia; Iribarren, Jose A; Salavert Lleti, Miguel; Gutiérrez, Félix; Moreno, Ana; Labarga, Pablo; Pineda, Juan A; Vidal, Francesc; Berenguer, Juan; Moreno, Santiago

    2009-05-15

    The prevalence of injection drug use decreased from 67.3% in 1997 to 14.5% in 2006 among Spanish patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). A parallel decrease in the prevalence of coinfection with hepatitis C virus was observed, from 73.8% in 1997 to 19.8% in 2006. This steady decrease in the prevalence of coinfection among Spanish patients was caused by a change in transmission routes of HIV infection.

  11. Generating super-shedders: co-infection increases bacterial load and egg production of a gastrointestinal helminth.

    PubMed

    Lass, Sandra; Hudson, Peter J; Thakar, Juilee; Saric, Jasmina; Harvill, Eric; Albert, Réka; Perkins, Sarah E

    2013-03-06

    Co-infection by multiple parasites is common within individuals. Interactions between co-infecting parasites include resource competition, direct competition and immune-mediated interactions and each are likely to alter the dynamics of single parasites. We posit that co-infection is a driver of variation in parasite establishment and growth, ultimately altering the production of parasite transmission stages. To test this hypothesis, three different treatment groups of laboratory mice were infected with the gastrointestinal helminth Heligmosomoides polygyrus, the respiratory bacterial pathogen Bordetella bronchiseptica lux(+) or co-infected with both parasites. To follow co-infection simultaneously, self-bioluminescent bacteria were used to quantify infection in vivo and in real-time, while helminth egg production was monitored in real-time using faecal samples. Co-infection resulted in high bacterial loads early in the infection (within the first 5 days) that could cause host mortality. Co-infection also produced helminth 'super-shedders'; individuals that chronically shed the helminth eggs in larger than average numbers. Our study shows that co-infection may be one of the underlying mechanisms for the often-observed high variance in parasite load and shedding rates, and should thus be taken into consideration for disease management and control. Further, using self-bioluminescent bacterial reporters allowed quantification of the progression of infection within the whole animal of the same individuals at a fine temporal scale (daily) and significantly reduced the number of animals used (by 85%) compared with experiments that do not use in vivo techniques. Thus, we present bioluminescent imaging as a novel, non-invasive tool offering great potential to be taken forward into other applications of infectious disease ecology.

  12. Syphilis and HIV/Syphilis Co-infection Among Men Who Have Sex With Men (MSM) in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Isabel; Johnson, Ayesha; Reina-Ortiz, Miguel; Rosas, Carlos; Sharma, Vinita; Teran, Santiago; Naik, Eknath; Salihu, Hamisu M; Teran, Enrique; Izurieta, Ricardo

    2016-12-05

    There is a reemergence of syphilis in the Latin American and Caribbean region. There is also very little information about HIV/Syphilis co-infection and its determinants. The aim of this study is to investigate knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding sexually transmitted infections (STIs), in particular syphilis infection and HIV/Syphilis co-infection, as well as to estimate the prevalence of syphilis among men who have sex with men (MSM) in a city with one of the highest HIV prevalence rates in Ecuador. In this study, questionnaires were administered to 291 adult MSM. Questions included knowledge about STIs and their sexual practices. Blood samples were taken from participants to estimate the prevalence of syphilis and HIV/syphilis co-infection. In this population, the prevalence of HIV/syphilis co-infection was 4.8%, while the prevalence of syphilis as mono-infection was 6.5%. Participants who had syphilis mono-infection and HIV/syphilis co-infection were older. Men who had multiple partners and those who were forced to have sex had increased odds of syphilis and HIV/syphilis co-infection. A high prevalence of syphilis and self-reported STI was observed, which warrants targeted behavioral interventions. Co-infections are a cause for concern when treating a secondary infection in a person who is immunocompromised. These data suggest that specific knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among MSM are associated with increased odds of STIs (including HIV/syphilis co-infections) in this region of Ecuador.

  13. An evolutionary perspective on gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep.

    PubMed

    Stear, M J; Singleton, D; Matthews, L

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this paper was to discuss from an evolutionary perspective the interaction between domestic sheep (Ovis aries) and their gastrointestinal nematodes. Although evolution is the central theme of biology, there has been little attempt to consider how evolutionary forces have shaped and continue to shape the relationships between domestic animals and their parasite community. Mathematical modelling of the host-parasite relationship indicated that the system is remarkably robust to perturbations in its parameters. This robustness may be a consequence of the long coevolution of host and parasites. Although nematodes can potentially evolve faster than the host, coevolution is not dominated by the parasite and there are several examples where breeds of cattle or sheep have evolved high levels of resistance to disease. Coevolution is a more equal partnership between host and nematode than is commonly assumed. Coevolution between parasites and the host immune system is often described as an arms race where both host immune response genes and parasite proteins evolve rapidly in response to each other. However, initial results indicate that nematode antigens are not evolving rapidly; the arms race between the immune system and nematodes, if it exists, is happening very slowly. Fisher's fundamental theorem of natural selection states that genes with positive effects on fitness will be fixed by natural selection. Consequently, heritable variation in fitness traits is expected to be low. Contrary to this argument, there is considerable genetic variation in resistance to nematode infection. In particular, the heritabilities of nematode-specific IgA and IgE activity are moderate to high. The reasons for this apparent violation of the fundamental theorem of natural selection are not clear but several possible explanations are explored. Faecal nematode egg counts increase at the beginning of the grazing season - a phenomenon known as the periparturient rise. This

  14. Analysis of a summary network of co-infection in humans reveals that parasites interact most via shared resources.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Emily C; Pedersen, Amy B; Fenton, Andy; Petchey, Owen L

    2014-05-07

    Simultaneous infection by multiple parasite species (viruses, bacteria, helminths, protozoa or fungi) is commonplace. Most reports show co-infected humans to have worse health than those with single infections. However, we have little understanding of how co-infecting parasites interact within human hosts. We used data from over 300 published studies to construct a network that offers the first broad indications of how groups of co-infecting parasites tend to interact. The network had three levels comprising parasites, the resources they consume and the immune responses they elicit, connected by potential, observed and experimentally proved links. Pairs of parasite species had most potential to interact indirectly through shared resources, rather than through immune responses or other parasites. In addition, the network comprised 10 tightly knit groups, eight of which were associated with particular body parts, and seven of which were dominated by parasite-resource links. Reported co-infection in humans is therefore structured by physical location within the body, with bottom-up, resource-mediated processes most often influencing how, where and which co-infecting parasites interact. The many indirect interactions show how treating an infection could affect other infections in co-infected patients, but the compartmentalized structure of the network will limit how far these indirect effects are likely to spread.

  15. Physiological and behavioral responses of sheep to gaseous ammonia.

    PubMed

    Phillips, C J C; Pines, M K; Latter, M; Muller, T; Petherick, J C; Norman, S T; Gaughan, J B

    2012-05-01

    Ammonia can accumulate in highly stocked sheep accommodation, for example during live export shipments, and could affect sheep health and welfare. Thus, the objective of this experiment was to test the effects of 4 NH(3) concentrations, 4 (control), 12, 21, and 34 mg/m(3), on the physiology and behavior of wether sheep. Sheep were held for 12 d under a micro-climate and stocking density similar to shipboard conditions recorded on voyages from Australia to the Middle East during the northern hemispheric summer. Ammonia increased macrophage activity in transtracheal aspirations, indicating active pulmonary inflammation; however, it had no effect (P > 0.05) on hematological variables. Feed intake decreased (P = 0.002) in proportion to ammonia concentration, and BW gain decreased (P < 0.001) at the 2 greatest concentrations. Exposure to ammonia increased (P = 0.03) the frequency of sneezing, and at the greatest ammonia concentration, sheep were less active, with less locomotion, pawing, and panting. Twenty-eight days after exposure to NH(3), the pulmonary macrophage activity and BW of the sheep returned to that of sheep exposed to only 4 mg/m(3). It was concluded that NH(3) induced a temporary inflammatory response of the respiratory system and reduced BW gain, which together indicated a transitory adverse effect on the welfare of sheep.

  16. Prevalence and Incidence of Abnormal Behaviours in Individually Housed Sheep.

    PubMed

    Lauber, Mariko; Nash, Judy A; Gatt, Allan; Hemsworth, Paul H

    2012-02-06

    This study examined the prevalence and incidence of abnormal behaviour in sheep housed individually indoors. Ninety-six castrated Merino sheep were observed using 15-min instantaneous sampling between 08:15 and 18:15 h for two consecutive days over a 3-week period. Sheep on average spent 62% of their time idle, 17% feeding, 1% drinking, 5% pacing, 10% chewing pen fixtures and 4% nosing pen fixtures. Pacing behaviour was predominantly seen in the morning with sheep on average spending 14% of their time pacing. Sheep on average spent 4% of their time in the morning and 13% of their time in the afternoon chewing pen fixtures. In the afternoon, the predominant behaviour was idle with sheep on average spending 71% of their time idle. Seventy-one percent of the sheep displayed one or more of the behaviours of pacing, and chewing and nosing pen fixtures for more than 10% of the day and 47% displayed one or more of these behaviours for more than 20% of the day. The prevalence and incidence of these 'abnormal' behaviours appears high, especially in relation to that of sheep grazed outdoors on pasture, and raises the question of the welfare risk to these animals. However, without a more comprehensive appreciation of other aspects of the animal's biology, such as stress physiology and fitness characteristics, it is difficult to understand the welfare implications of these behaviours.

  17. Discovery of a lentivirus susceptibility gene in sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ovine lentivirus targets the host immune system and causes persistent retroviral infections affecting millions of sheep worldwide. In primates, lentivirus resistance is attributed to mutant virus coreceptors that are not expressed. In sheep, some animals are resistant to lentivirus infection despit...

  18. MHC class II DR allelic diversity in bighorn sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We hypothesized that decreased diversity and/or unique polymorphisms in MHC class II alleles of bighorn sheep (BHS, Ovis canadensis) are responsible for lower titer of antibodies against Mannheimia haemolytica leukotoxin, in comparison to domestic sheep (DS, Ovis aries). To test this hypothesis, DRA...

  19. Streptococcus parasanguinis: new pathogen associated with asymptomatic mastitis in sheep.

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Garayzábal, J. F.; Fernández, E.; Las Heras, A.; Pascual, C.; Collins, M. D.; Domínguez, L.

    1998-01-01

    We describe two unusual cases in sheep of subclinical mastitis caused by Streptococcus parasanguinis. This bacterium has been associated with the development of experimental endocarditis; its presence at relatively high concentrations in apparently healthy sheep milk may pose a health risk in persons with predisposing heart lesions. PMID:9866743

  20. Glucose metabolism in pregnant sheep when placental growth is restricted

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, J.A.; Falconer, J.; Robinson, J.S. )

    1989-08-01

    The effect of restricting placental growth on glucose metabolism in pregnant sheep in late gestation was determined by primed constant infusions of D-(U-{sup 14}C)- and D-(2-{sup 3}H)glucose and antipyrine into fetuses of six control sheep and six sheep from which endometrial caruncles had been removed before pregnancy (caruncle sheep). In the latter, placental and fetal weights were reduced, as was the concentration of glucose in fetal arterial blood. Fetal glucose turnover in caruncle sheep was only 52-59% of that in controls, largely because of lower umbilical loss of glucose back to the placenta (38-39% of control) and lower fetal glucose utilization (61-74% of control). However, fetal glucose utilization on a weight-specific basis was similar in control and caruncle sheep. Significant endogenous glucose production occurred in control and caruncle fetal sheep. Maternal glucose production and partition of glucose between the gravid uterus and other maternal tissues were similar in control and caruncle sheep. In conclusion, when placental and fetal growth are restricted, fetal glucose utilization is maintained by reduced loss of glucose back to the placenta and mother and by maintaining endogenous glucose production.

  1. Zoonotic Enterocytozoon bieneusi Genotypes found in Brazilian sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The presence of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in sheep has been reported in only three countries worldwide. The present study has found E. bieneusi in Brazilian sheep for the first time; in 24/125 (19.2%) fecal samples by PCR and in 8/10 (80%) farms from three diverse locations. A significantly greater...

  2. Poisoning by Poiretia punctata in cattle and sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poiretia punctata (Willd.) Desv. was associated with cattle and sheep poisoning on nine farms in the State of Sergipe, northeastern Brazil. The animals were found dead or died later after showing clinical signs for up to 18 hours. Two sheep that ingested 40g/kg body weight (g/kg) of fresh P punctata...

  3. Ganjam virus/Nairobi sheep disease virus induces a pro-inflammatory response in infected sheep.

    PubMed

    Bin Tarif, Abid; Lasecka, Lidia; Holzer, Barbara; Baron, Michael D

    2012-10-19

    Partly due to climate change, and partly due to changes of human habitat occupation, the impact of tick-borne viruses is increasing. Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV) and Ganjam virus (GV) are two names for the same virus, which causes disease in sheep and goats and is currently known to be circulating in India and East Africa. The virus is transmitted by ixodid ticks and causes a severe hemorrhagic disease. We have developed a real-time PCR assay for the virus genome and validated it in a pilot study of the pathogenicity induced by two different isolates of NSDV/GV. One isolate was highly adapted to tissue culture, grew in most cell lines tested, and was essentially apathogenic in sheep. The second isolate appeared to be poorly adapted to cell culture and retained pathogenicity in sheep. The real-time PCR assay for virus easily detected 4 copies or less of the viral genome, and allowed a quantitative measure of the virus in whole blood. Measurement of the changes in cytokine mRNAs showed similar changes to those observed in humans infected by the closely related virus Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus.

  4. The first clinical and laboratory evidence of co-infection by Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia canis in a Brazilian dog.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Júlia A G; Valente, Pâmela C L G; Paes, Paulo R O; Vasconcelos, Artur V; Silvestre, Bruna T; Ribeiro, Múcio F B

    2015-04-01

    Information on Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Brazil is very restricted. The aim of this study was to report clinical, parasitological, hematological and molecular evidence of a natural A. phagocytophilum infection of an urban Brazilian dog. The dog was an eight-month-old male French bulldog. Veterinary clinical examinations were performed three times: in April, June and December 2013. Biochemical and hematological analyses were performed during all examinations, and blood samples were collected for parasitological surveys in June and December. Morulae were present within neutrophils in blood smears from June. Both samples were PCR positive for A. phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia spp. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the phylogenetic topology placed samples from this study in close proximity to other A. phagocytophilum isolates. Ehrlichia isolates from this dog were 100% identical to E. canis isolates, thus E. canis and A. phagocytophilum co-infection was diagnosed in this dog. Lethargy and skin lesions were the clinical signs observed in this dog. Abnormal hematological parameters, among those, severe thrombocytopenia, were observed in all three occasions. This finding highlights the growing importance of A. phagocytophilum in South America.

  5. Clinico-pathology, diagnosis and management of Cysticercus fasciolaris and Hymenolepis diminuta co-infection in wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Y. Damodar; Arya, Rahul Singh

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study was undertaken to study the pathology and control of sudden unexplained mortality in wistar rats. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in a colony of 25 male wistar rats where there was mortality of nine rats. The dead rats were subjected to thorough post-mortem examination and necropsy samples were processed for hematoxylin and eosin staining for histopathological studies. Faecal samples of live rats were studied for the presence of parasitic eggs. Treatment with anthelmintics was given to manage the mortality and infections. Results: The investigation revealed a natural co-infection of Cysticercus fasciolaris and Hymenolepis diminuta in wistar rats, which were pathogenic enough to cause mortality. Typical lesions associated with the parasites were found in the dead rats. The mortality and infection were managed with common anthelmintics. Conclusion: C. fasciolaris and H. diminuta infection can cause mortality in wistar rats even when individually they cause asymptomatic infection. The mortality and infection can be managed with common anthelmintics. PMID:27047007

  6. Neospora caninum: detection in wild rabbits and investigation of co-infection with Toxoplasma gondii by PCR analysis.

    PubMed

    Hughes, J M; Thomasson, D; Craig, P S; Georgin, S; Pickles, A; Hide, G

    2008-11-01

    Neospora caninum is an important pathogen of cattle causing significant economic loss. There is much current interest in wild animal reservoirs for this parasite. The role of the rabbit in this is currently unknown. DNA samples from the brains of wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) collected from the Malham area of the Yorkshire dales were investigated by species-specific PCR for the presence of N. caninum and Toxoplasma gondii. We found prevalences of N. caninum of 10.5% (6/57) and T. gondii of 68.4% (39/57) with 8.8% (5/57) co-infected. Strain typing of T. gondii positive rabbits revealed strain types I-III were present in this population. Investigation of tissue distribution determined N. caninum DNA was most often detected in the brain and heart, less often in the tongue and not in the liver. To our knowledge this is the first report of N. caninum detection in naturally infected wild rabbits.

  7. Gene expression in sheep skin and wool (hair).

    PubMed

    Adelson, D L; Cam, G R; DeSilva, U; Franklin, I R

    2004-01-01

    We sequenced 2939 ESTs from fetal and adult sheep skin. Stages of gestation were picked to coincide with the major events in skin appendage (wool follicle) formation. Clustering analysis generated a nonredundant set of ESTs 2435 strong (83% nonredundant). Approximately 24% of these gave no hit to NCBI build 29 of the human genome, while 35% were tentatively classified by putative function based on BLASTX hits with a p(N) of <10(-4). In addition to bioinformatics analysis of our ESTs and gene mapping, we have generated a large EST spatial expression data set using in situ hybridization. One thousand one hundred forty-two ESTs have been used for in situ localization; about 31% are from adult sheep skin, 39% from late gestation fetal sheep skin, and 30% from midgestation fetal sheep skin. These probes have been used in over 3000 hybridization experiments. In this report, we summarize the results of in situs on adult sheep skin.

  8. Mitogenome revealed multiple postdomestication genetic mixtures of West African sheep.

    PubMed

    Brahi, O H D; Xiang, H; Chen, X; Farougou, S; Zhao, X

    2015-10-01

    Notable diversity observed within African ovine breeds makes them of great interests, but limited studies on genetic origins and domestications remain poorly understood. Here, we investigate the evolutionary status of West African native breeds, Djallonke and Sahelian sheep using mitogenome sequencing. Compared with other ovine mitogenome sequences, West African sheep were revealed a Eurasian origin, and the initially tamed sheep breeds in West Africa have been genetically mixed with each other and mixed with European breeds. Worldwide domestic sheep is deemed the Eurasian origin and migrated west to Europe and Africa and east to the Far East, in which dispersed and received selection for acclimation to autochthonic environment independently and ultimately evolved into different native breeds, respectively. Our results contribute to the comprehensive understanding of the domestic sheep origin and reveal multiple postdomestication genetic amelioration processes.

  9. Quantitation of phosphorus excretion in sheep by compartmental analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, K.M.; Boston, R.C.; Leaver, D.D.

    1987-04-01

    The control of phosphorus excretion in sheep has been examined by constructing a kinetic model that contains a mechanistic set of connections between blood and gastrointestinal tract. The model was developed using experimental data from chaff-fed sheep and gives an accurate description of the absorption and excretion of /sup 32/P phosphorus in feces and urine of the ruminating sheep. These results indicated the main control site for phosphorus excretion in the ruminating sheep was the gastrointestinal tract, whereas for the non-ruminating sheep fed the liquid diet, control was exerted by the kidney. A critical factor in the induction of adaptation of phosphorus reabsorption by the kidney was the reduction in salivation, and since this response occurred independently of marked changes in the delivery of phosphorus to the kidney, a humoral factor may be involved in this communication between salivary gland and kidney.

  10. Oldest Directly Dated Remains of Sheep in China

    PubMed Central

    Dodson, John; Dodson, Eoin; Banati, Richard; Li, Xiaoqiang; Atahan, Pia; Hu, Songmei; Middleton, Ryan J.; Zhou, Xinying; Nan, Sun

    2014-01-01

    The origins of domesticated sheep (Ovis sp.) in China remain unknown. Previous workers have speculated that sheep may have been present in China up to 7000 years ago, however many claims are based on associations with archaeological material rather than independent dates on sheep material. Here we present 7 radiocarbon dates on sheep bone from Inner Mongolia, Ningxia and Shaanxi provinces. DNA analysis on one of the bones confirms it is Ovis sp. The oldest ages are about 4700 to 4400 BCE and are thus the oldest objectively dated Ovis material in eastern Asia. The graphitisised bone collagen had δ13C values indicating some millet was represented in the diet. This probably indicates sheep were in a domestic setting where millet was grown. The younger samples had δ13C values indicating that even more millet was in the diet, and this was likely related to changes in foddering practices PMID:25417648

  11. Cutaneous manifestation of disseminated strongyloidiasis in a patient coinfected with HTLV-I.

    PubMed

    Arch, Emily L; Schaefer, Jochen T; Dahiya, Anjali

    2008-12-15

    Strongyloidiasis is a potentially lethal parasitic infection. Coinfection of a patient with human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) can lead to a more severe disease course and treatment-refractoriness. Here we report a patient coinfected with HTLV-I and Strongyloides stercoralis who developed disseminated, treatment-resistant disease. The patient presented with serpiginous, nonpalpable, purpuric streaks on the abdomen and proximal lower extremities. A biopsy of this eruption demonstrating filariform larvae in the dermis was consistent with disseminated strongyloidiasis. The patient's immune dysregulation due to HTLV-I positivity likely contributed to her development of disseminated disease. Awareness of the interaction between HTLV-I and strongyloidiasis has important implications in terms of prognosis and treatment. Recognition of the cutaneous manifestations of disseminated disease can facilitate diagnosis and implementation of appropriate therapy.

  12. Toxoplasma gondii genotyping in a dog co-infected with distemper virus and ehrlichiosis rickettsia.

    PubMed

    Moretti, Leandro d'Arc; Da Silva, Aristeu Vieira; Ribeiro, Márcio Garcia; Paes, Antonio Carlos; Langoni, Hélio

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports a toxoplasmosis, ehrlichiosis and distemper co-infection in a dog with an exuberant neuropathological clinical picture. Primary involvement was discussed based on information collected in the analysis of the clinical case, such as neurological impairment, epidemiological data, poor immunoprophylactic scheme of the dog affected and the role of these diseases on immunosuppression. Canine distemper and ehrlichiosis were diagnosed based on epidemiologic data, clinical signs, hematological and cytological evaluation. Toxoplasma gondii was isolated and genetically characterized as Type I using restriction analysis (RFLP) with SAG-2 genes. Immunosuppression features of both dogs and human beings are discussed, as well as implications on animal and public health. This is the first report on toxoplasmosis, ehrlichiosis and distemper co-infection in a dog in Brazil, associated with genotyping determination of the T. gondii strain involved.

  13. HIV/HCV-coinfection: which role can new antiretrovirals such as integrase inhibitors play?

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    End-stage liver disease has become one of the most frequent causes of death in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients. The role of new antiretrovirals in the progression of liver fibrosis has yet to be defined. However with significant toxicities and drug-to-drug interactions of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors in combination with ribavirin, with drug to drug interaction of HIV protease inhibitors with HCV protease inhibitors and calcineurin-inhibitors, new antiretrovirals lacking these interactions represent attractive alternatives in the setting of anti-HCV therapy or post liver transplantation. In the following review we want to focus on the new class of HIV integrase inhibitors and discuss present data with regard to special issues of HIV and HCV co-infection. PMID:19959415

  14. Coinfection of Chlamydiae and other Bacteria in Reactive Arthritis and Spondyloarthritis: Need for Future Research

    PubMed Central

    Zeidler, Henning; Hudson, Alan P

    2016-01-01

    Reactive (inflammatory) arthritis has been known for many years to follow genital infection with the intracellular bacterial pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis in some individuals. Recent studies from several groups have demonstrated that a related bacterium, the respiratory pathogen Chlamydia pneumoniae, can elicit a similar arthritis. Studies of these organisms, and of a set of gastrointestinal pathogens also associated with engendering inflammatory arthritis, have been relatively extensive. However, reports focusing on coinfections with these and/or other organisms, and the effects of such coinfections on the host immune and other systems, have been rare. In this article, we review the extant data regarding infections by multiple pathogens in the joint as they relate to engendering arthritis, and we suggest a number of research areas that must be given a high priority if we are to understand, and therefore to treat in an effective manner, such arthritides. PMID:27681924

  15. Mandibular osteomyelitis and tooth exfoliation following zoster-CMV co-infection.

    PubMed

    Meer, Shabnum; Coleman, Hedley; Altini, Mario; Alexander, Terence

    2006-01-01

    Herpes zoster is a common viral infection, the oral soft tissue manifestations of which are widely known and recognized. Reports of spontaneous tooth exfoliation and jaw osteonecrosis following herpes zoster infection in the distribution of the trigeminal nerve are extremely infrequent and sporadic, with only 39 cases being reported in the literature. We report an additional case of mandibular osteomyelitis and spontaneous tooth exfoliation following herpes zoster infection, which occurred in the left mandible of a 70-year-old diabetic man; however, our case also showed CMV co-infection. The role of CMV in the pathogenesis of the osteonecrosis remains uncertain. Awareness of the possibility of CMV co-infection in various oral diseases including oral ulcers, Kaposi's sarcoma, and herpes zoster infections especially in immunocompromised patients is important, since spread of the CMV can easily occur to other sites with potentially fatal consequences. Early diagnosis can lead to effective treatment and prevention of complications.

  16. A co-infection model of malaria and cholera diseases with optimal control.

    PubMed

    Okosun, K O; Makinde, O D

    2014-12-01

    In this paper we formulate a mathematical model for malaria-cholera co-infection in order to investigate their synergistic relationship in the presence of treatments. We first analyze the single infection steady states, calculate the basic reproduction number and then investigate the existence and stability of equilibria. We then analyze the co-infection model, which is found to exhibit backward bifurcation. The impact of malaria and its treatment on the dynamics of cholera is further investigated. Secondly, we incorporate time dependent controls, using Pontryagin's Maximum Principle to derive necessary conditions for the optimal control of the disease. We found that malaria infection may be associated with an increased risk of cholera but however, cholera infection is not associated with an increased risk for malaria. Therefore, to effectively control malaria, the malaria intervention strategies by policy makers must at the same time also include cholera control.

  17. Fatal human metapneumovirus and influenza B virus coinfection in an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipient.

    PubMed

    Ghattas, C; Mossad, S B

    2012-10-01

    Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) infection can occur in all age groups with significant morbidity and mortality. Coinfection with influenza virus occurs mainly with influenza type A and all reported cases recovered completely. We report the case of a 61-year-old man who had hematopoietic stem cell transplant for myelodysplastic syndrome. He was admitted to hospital for septic shock and neutropenia, and blood culture was positive for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. He rapidly developed respiratory failure and required ventilator support. His respiratory culture grew P. aeruginosa and hMPV. His course was complicated by persistent shock requiring vasopressor support, and repeat nasopharyngeal swab was positive for influenza type B and hMPV. His condition rapidly deteriorated, his family elected comfort care, and the patient died shortly thereafter. Coinfection with hMPV and influenza virus type B may have a poor outcome and can be fatal, especially in immunocompromised patients.

  18. Evaluation of gestational deficiencies in cloned sheep fetuses and placentae.

    PubMed

    De Sousa, P A; King, T; Harkness, L; Young, L E; Walker, S K; Wilmut, I

    2001-07-01

    Sheep fetal development at 35 days of gestation was examined following natural mating, in vitro production (IVP) of fertilized embryos, or somatic cell nuclear transfer (NT). Five crossbred (Blackface x Black Welsh) and four purebred (Black Welsh) fetuses and their associated placentae produced by natural mating were morphologically normal and consistent with each other. From 10 ewes receiving 21 IVP embryos, 17 fetuses (81%) were recovered, and 15 of these (88%) were normal. The NT fetuses were derived from two Black Welsh fetal fibroblast cell lines (BLW1 and 6). Transfer of 21 BLW1 and 22 BLW6 NT embryos into 12 and 11 ewes, respectively, yielded 7 (33%) and 8 (36%) fetuses, respectively. Only three (43%) BLW1 and two (25%) BLW6 NT fetuses were normal, with the rest being developmentally retarded. The NT fetal and placental deficiencies included liver enlargement, dermal hemorrhaging, and lack of placental vascular development reflected by reduced or absent cotyledonary structures. Fibroblasts isolated from normal and abnormal cloned fetuses did not differ in their karyotype from sexually conceived fetuses or nuclear donor cell lines. Our results demonstrate that within the first quarter of gestation, cloned fetuses are characterized by a high incidence of developmental retardation and placental insufficiency. These deficiencies are not linked to gross defects in chromosome number.

  19. HBV and HIV co-infection: Prevalence and clinical outcomes in tertiary care hospital Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Ali; Khan, Amer Hayat; Sulaiman, Syed Azhar Syed; Soo, Chow Ting; Khan, Kashifullah

    2016-03-01

    According to WHO, Malaysia has been classified as a concentrated epidemic country due to progression of HIV infection in the population of injecting drug users. The main objectives of current study are to determine the prevalence of HBV among HIV-positive individuals in a tertiary care hospital of Malaysia and to assess the predictors involved in the outcomes of HIV-HBV co-infected patients. A retrospective, cross-sectional study is conducted at Hospital Palau Pinang, Malaysia. The collection of socio-demographic data as well as clinical data is done with the help of data collection form. Data were analyzed after putting the collected values of required data by using statistical software SPSS version 20.0 and P > 0.05 is considered as significant. Results show that the overall prevalence of HBV was 86 (13%) including 495 (74.5%) males and 169 (25.5%) females among a total of 664 HIV-infected patients. It was observed that there is a high prevalence of HIV-HBV co-infection in males 76 (11.4%) as compared to females 10 (1.5%) (P = 0.002). The median age of the study population was 39 years. The statistical significant risk factors involved in the outcomes of HIV-HBV co-infected patients were observed in the variables of gender, age groups, and injecting drug users. The findings of the present study shows that the prevalence of HBV infection among HIV-positive patients was 13% and the risk factors involved in the outcomes of HIV-HBV co-infected patients were gender, age, and intravenous drug users.

  20. Modulation of HCV Replication After Combination Antiretroviral Therapy in HCV/HIV Coinfected Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, Kenneth E.; Guedj, Jeremie; Shata, Mohamed Tarek; Blackard, Jason T.; Rouster, Susan D.; Castro, Mario; Feinberg, Judith; Sterling, Richard K.; Goodman, Zachary; Aronow, Bruce J.; Perelson, Alan S.

    2015-01-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an important contributor to morbidity and mortality in patients coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Coinfection results in increased HCV replication and more rapid rates of liver disease progression. The effect of HIV combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) on HCV replication has not been studied in depth. To address this issue, we enrolled a small cohort of HCV/HIV coinfected patients into a cART initiation trial, and used dynamic modeling combined with evaluation of immune responses and microarray profiles to determine how effective treatment of HIV affects HCV. Treatment with cART resulted in HCV flare and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) increase (2× or more increase from baseline) in a subset of treated patients. Subjects with evidence of hepatic injury (increased ALT) were more likely to have HCV-specific immune responses directed against HCV epitopes. Over time, HCV viral loads declined. Reproducible and biologically important gene expression changes occurred in patients who underwent successful cART, particularly with respect to downregulation of genes with known antiviral roles. Our findings suggest that the effective suppression of HIV by cART initiates a cascade of early and late events in treated patients with HCV. Early events involving downregulation of interferon-stimulated genes may lead to transiently increased viral replication and hepatic injury. At later time points, HCV viral load declines to levels comparable to those seen in the setting of HCV monoinfection. These findings support early antiretroviral therapy in those with HCV/HIV coinfection. PMID:25101888

  1. Immune Activation Response in Chronic HIV-Infected Patients: Influence of Hepatitis C Virus Coinfection

    PubMed Central

    Márquez, Mercedes; Romero-Cores, Paula; Montes-Oca, Monserrat; Martín-Aspas, Andrés; Soto-Cárdenas, María-José; Guerrero, Francisca; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Clotilde; Girón-González, José-Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We have analyzed the parameters (bacterial translocation, immune activation and regulation, presence of HCV coinfection) which could be implicated in an inappropriate immune response from individuals with chronic HIV infection. The influence of them on the evolution of CD4+ T cell count has been investigated. Patients and methods Seventy HIV-infected patients [monoinfected by HIV (n = 20), HCV-coinfected (with (n = 25) and without (n = 25) liver cirrhosis)] and 25 healthy controls were included. Median duration of HIV infection was 20 years. HIV- and HCV-related parameters, as well as markers relative to bacterial translocation, monocyte and lymphocyte activation and regulation were considered as independent variables. Dependent variables were the increase of CD4+ T cell count during the follow-up (12 months). Results Increased values of bacterial translocation, measured by lipopolysaccharide-binding protein, monocyte and lymphocyte activation markers and T regulatory lymphocytes were detected in HIV-monoinfected and HIV/HCV coinfected patients. Serum sCD14 and IL-6 were increased in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients with liver cirrhosis in comparison with those with chronic hepatitis or HIV-monoinfected individuals. Time with undetectable HIV load was not related with these parameters. The presence of cirrhosis was negatively associated with a CD4+ T cell count increase. Conclusion In patients with a chronic HIV infection, a persistent increase of lipopolysaccharide-binding protein and monocyte and lymphocyte modifications are present. HCV-related cirrhosis is associated with more elevated serum concentrations of monocyte-derived markers. Cirrhosis influences the continued immune reconstitution of these patients. PMID:25775475

  2. Soluble Adhesion Molecules in Patients Coinfected with HIV and HCV: A Predictor of Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Aldámiz-Echevarría, Teresa; Berenguer, Juan; Miralles, Pilar; Jiménez-Sousa, María A.; Carrero, Ana; Pineda-Tenor, Daniel; Díez, Cristina; Tejerina, Francisco; Pérez-Latorre, Leire; Bellón, José M.; Resino, Salvador

    2016-01-01

    Background Higher serum levels of adhesion molecules (sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1) are associated with advanced liver fibrosis in patients coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus. We assessed the relationship between serum levels of adhesion molecules and liver-related events (LRE) or death, in coinfected patients. Methods We studied clinical characteristics and outcomes of 182 coinfected patients with a baseline liver biopsy (58 with advanced fibrosis) and simultaneous plasma samples who were followed for median of 9 years. We used receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves to calculate optimized cutoff values (OCV) of sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1, defined as the values with the highest combination of sensitivity and specificity for LRE. We used multivariate regression analysis to test the association between OCVs of sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 and outcomes. The variables for adjustment were age, HIV transmission category, liver fibrosis, baseline CD4+ T-cell counts, antiretroviral therapy, and sustained virologic response (SVR). Results During the study period 51 patients had SVR, 19 had LRE, and 16 died. The OCVs for LRE were 5.68 Log pg/mL for sICAM-1 and 6.25 Log pg/mL for sVCAM-1, respectively. The adjusted subhazard ratio (aSHR) (95% confidence interval [CI]) of death or LRE, whichever occurred first, for sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 > OCV were 3.98 ([1.14; 13.89], P = 0.030) and 2.81 ([1.10; 7.19], respectively (P = 0.030). Conclusions Serum levels of sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 can serve as markers of outcome in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients. Therapies targeting necroinflammatory damage and fibrogenesis may have a role in the management chronic hepatitis C. PMID:26849641

  3. Hepatitis B and Schistosoma co-infection in a non-endemic area.

    PubMed

    Cuenca-Gómez, J Á; Salas-Coronas, J; Lozano-Serrano, A B; Vázquez-Villegas, J; Soriano-Pérez, M J; Estévez-Escobar, M; Villarejo-Ordóñez, A; Cabezas-Fernández, M T

    2016-09-01

    Schistosomiasis is related to the development of liver fibrosis and portal hypertension. Chronic co-infection with HBV and Schistosoma has been associated in endemic areas with a higher risk for a more severe liver disease. However, no studies have assessed the real importance of this co-infection in non-endemic regions. This is a retrospective observational study of Sub-Saharan immigrants attending between October 2004 and February 2014. Patients with chronic HBV infection with and without evidence of schistosomal infection were compared. Epidemiological, analytical, and microbiological data were analysed. Likelihood of liver fibrosis based on APRI and FIB-4 indexes was established. A total of 507 patients were included in the study, 170 (33.5 %) of them harbouring evidence of schistosome infection. No differences were found in transaminase, GGT, and ALP levels. In fibrosis tests, a higher proportion of patients with HVB and S. mansoni detection reached possible fibrosis scores (F > 2) when compared to patients without schistosomiasis: 17.4 vs 14.2 % and 4.3 % vs 4.2 % (using high sensitivity and high specificity cut-offs respectively), although differences were not statistically significant (p = 0.69, p = 0.96). For possible cirrhosis (F4) score, similar results were observed: 4.3 % of co-infected patients vs 2.1 % of mono-infected ones, p = 0.46. According to these datas, in non-endemic regions the degree of hepatic fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B is not substantially modified by schistosome co-infection.

  4. Techniques for capturing bighorn sheep lambs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Joshua B.; Walsh, Daniel P.; Goldstein, Elise J.; Parsons, Zachary D.; Karsch, Rebekah C.; Stiver, Julie R.; Cain, James W.; Raedeke, Kenneth J.; Jenks, Jonathan A.

    2014-01-01

    Low lamb recruitment is a major challenge facing managers attempting to mitigate the decline of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), and investigations into the underlying mechanisms are limited because of the inability to readily capture and monitor bighorn sheep lambs. We evaluated 4 capture techniques for bighorn sheep lambs: 1) hand-capture of lambs from radiocollared adult females fitted with vaginal implant transmitters (VITs), 2) hand-capture of lambs of intensively monitored radiocollared adult females, 3) helicopter net-gunning, and 4) hand-capture of lambs from helicopters. During 2010–2012, we successfully captured 90% of lambs from females that retained VITs to ≤1 day of parturition, although we noted differences in capture rates between an area of high road density in the Black Hills (92–100%) of South Dakota, USA, and less accessible areas of New Mexico (71%), USA. Retention of VITs was 78% with pre-partum expulsion the main cause of failure. We were less likely to capture lambs from females that expelled VITs ≥1 day of parturition (range = 80–83%) or females that were collared without VITs (range = 60–78%). We used helicopter net-gunning at several sites in 1999, 2001–2002, and