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Sample records for naturally contaminated milk

  1. On the inactivation of Brucella abortus in naturally contaminated milk by commercial pasteurisation procedures.

    PubMed

    Van den Heever, L W; Katz, K W; Te Brugge, L A

    1982-12-01

    Following concern about the recent publication indicating the possible ability of Brucella abortus to survive commercial pasteurisation of naturally contaminated milk, such milk was subjected to biological (BT), serological and bacteriological tests. The raw milk was Brucella Milk Ring Test positive and biotype I was isolated from 4/5 BT guinea pigs, the one tested being seropositive to the Rose Bengal Test, and with serum agglutination and complement fixation titres of 160 and 36 international units respectively. After batch (63 degrees C/30 min) and high temperature, short time (72 degrees C/15 sec) pasteurisation, all 10 BT guinea pigs were bacteriologically and serologically negative, indicating that officially approved methods of commercial pasteurisation rendered naturally Brucella-contaminated raw milk safe for consumption.

  2. Contaminants in human milk.

    PubMed

    Olszyna-Marzys, A E

    1978-09-01

    There is a paucity of information regarding excretion of contaminants in human milk, due to experimental difficulties and until recently a general lack of interest. Because of the high fat content of milk and as its acidity is higher than that of plasma, nearly all liposoluble and basic agents consumed by the mother will be excreted in the milk. Distinction must be made between, on the one hand drugs and social toxicants such as smoking and alcohol, whose intake can be stopped or limited during pregnancy and lactation, and ecological toxicants present in a polluted environment to which the mother is exposed. Cases have occurred of heavy prenatal and postnatal intoxication of infants with hexachlorobenzene in Turkey and methylmercury in Iraq due to consumption of fungicide-treated seed wheat by pregnant and lactating mothers. Recent attention has been concentrated on contamination of milk with organochlorine compounds such as DDT and PCB's, that are found in many parts of the world. The heaviest contamination with DDT has been found in Guatemala, resulting in suckling infants consuming many times the Acceptable Daily Intake of this compound proposed by WHO, with unknown future effects.

  3. Chemical contaminants in human milk: an overview.

    PubMed Central

    Sonawane, B R

    1995-01-01

    This review contains a succinct overview of the nature and extent of the problem of contamination of human milk with environmental and occupational chemicals, excluding drugs. Factors influencing the levels of contaminants in breast milk are discussed. Also, data on major chemicals of concern with potential health risk(s) to the general population and risk-benefit considerations are dealt with briefly. Based on the available data on the subject, research needs have been identified and policy recommendations are suggested. PMID:8549474

  4. The transfer of aflatoxin M1 in milk of ewes fed diet naturally contaminated by aflatoxins and effect of inclusion of dried yeast culture in the diet.

    PubMed

    Battacone, G; Nudda, A; Palomba, M; Mazzette, A; Pulina, G

    2009-10-01

    An experiment was carried out to investigate 1) the transfer of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) into the milk of dairy ewes fed diets naturally contaminated with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1); 2) the effect of the addition of dried yeast culture in the diet on this transfer; and 3) the alteration of enzymatic activities in the liver of ewes fed diets contaminated with AFB1. Twenty-four Sarda dairy ewes were divided in 4 groups and fed a concentrate mix containing 4 amounts of wheat meal naturally contaminated with aflatoxins. The diet of the control group had no wheat meal, whereas that of treated groups had low, medium, or high amounts of contaminated wheat, which corresponded to 1.13, 2.30, and 5.03 microg of AFB1/kg of feed, respectively. The experiment lasted 14 d. On d 8 to 14 from the beginning of the trial, 12 g/d of a commercial dried yeast product (DYP) of Kluyveromyces lactis was added to the diet of each ewe. The AFM1 concentration in individual milk samples and the blood serum metabolites were measured periodically. The presence of AFM1 was first detected in milk on d 1 of administration, and then its concentration increased and approached a steady-state condition on d 3 simultaneously in all treated groups. The AFM1 in milk at the steady-state condition, which was linearly related to the AFB1 intake, was 39.72, 50.38, and 79.29 ng/L in the low-aflatoxin, medium-aflatoxin, and high-aflatoxin groups, respectively. The AFM1 concentration in milk of the high-aflatoxin group was approximately 1.5-fold greater than the European Commission maximum tolerance level (50 ng/kg). The addition of DYP to the diet did not affect the AFM1 concentration in milk. After the withdrawal of the contaminated concentrate mix, the AFM1 mean concentrations decreased quickly and were no longer detected after 3 d in all treated groups. Daily milk yield and composition did not differ because of aflatoxin treatment. Blood serum parameters (creatinine, glutamic oxalacetic transaminase, glutamic pyruvic

  5. Enterotoxigenic Bacillus spp. DNA fingerprint revealed in naturally contaminated nonfat dry milk powder using rep-PCR.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Robin M; McKillip, John L

    2006-01-01

    Dry milk powders and functional ingredients frequently contain high levels of viable bacterial spores, some of which may result in growth of toxigenic Bacillus spp. in reconstituted and temperature-abused foods. Samples from nonfat dry milk (NFDM), infant milk formula (IMF), coffee creamer, lecithin, and cocoa powder were subjected to a short heat treatment followed by enrichment in tryptone phosphate glucose yeast extract (TPGY) broth at 32 degrees C for 12-25 hours to obtain cell densities of 10(6) CFU ml(-1). DNA was extracted using a modification of established protocol, leading to the development of an optimized method for each food system. Purified DNA was amplified by rep-PCR using extragenic sequence-targeting primers and optimized for each food. PCR fingerprints from each food were analyzed electrophoretically for banding patterns earlier correlated to that of enterotoxigenic Bacillus spp. and Bacillus cereus positive control DNA fingerprints. Reverse passive latex agglutination (RPLA) and Bacillus Diarrhoeal Enterotoxin Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (Tecra Diagnostics) confirmed the presence of HBL and NHE enterotoxin production in NFDM, Coffee creamer, infant milk formula, and two lecithin samples but not in cocoa powder. These results demonstrate the utility of rep-PCR not only as a tool for bacterial genotyping, but a unique means of quality control and hygiene monitoring in food microbiology.

  6. Microbial Contamination of Human Milk Purchased Via the Internet

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, Joseph S.; McNamara, Kelly A.; Gudimetla, Vishnu; Dillon, Chelsea E.; Kwiek, Jesse J.; Geraghty, Sheela R.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To quantify microbial contamination of human milk purchased via the Internet as an indicator of disease risk to recipient infants. METHODS: Cross-sectional sample of human milk purchased via a popular US milk-sharing Web site (2012). Individuals advertising milk were contacted to arrange purchase, and milk was shipped to a rented mailbox in Ohio. The Internet milk samples (n = 101) were compared with unpasteurized samples of milk donated to a milk bank (n = 20). RESULTS: Most (74%) Internet milk samples were colonized with Gram-negative bacteria or had >104 colony-forming units/mL total aerobic count. They exhibited higher mean total aerobic, total Gram-negative, coliform, and Staphylococcus sp counts than milk bank samples. Growth of most species was positively associated with days in transit (total aerobic count [log10 colony-forming units/mL] β = 0.71 [95% confidence interval: 0.38–1.05]), and negatively associated with number of months since the milk was expressed (β = −0.36 [95% confidence interval: −0.55 to −0.16]), per simple linear regression. No samples were HIV type 1 RNA-positive; 21% of Internet samples were cytomegalovirus DNA-positive. CONCLUSIONS: Human milk purchased via the Internet exhibited high overall bacterial growth and frequent contamination with pathogenic bacteria, reflecting poor collection, storage, or shipping practices. Infants consuming this milk are at risk for negative outcomes, particularly if born preterm or are medically compromised. Increased use of lactation support services may begin to address the milk supply gap for women who want to feed their child human milk but cannot meet his or her needs. PMID:24144714

  7. Bacillus cereus spores in raw milk: factors affecting the contamination of milk during the grazing period.

    PubMed

    Christiansson, A; Bertilsson, J; Svensson, B

    1999-02-01

    Psychrotrophic Bacillus cereus is a limiting factor for the shelf-life of pasteurized milk, particularly during the grazing season. Potential sources of contamination and factors that might affect the spore content of milk were studied in detail for a group of eight cows during three 2-wk study periods from June to September over 2 yr. The spore content of milk was strongly associated with the degree of contamination of the teats with soil. High water content of soil, low evaporation of water and dirty access alloys were the most important factors correlating with high spore concentrations. The spore content of soil varied from < 50 to 380,000/g, depending on time and sampling site. The milking equipment did not contribute significantly to the contamination. The spore contents in air during milking (< 100 cfu/m3) and in feed (silage, hay, fresh grass, and concentrates) were too low to be of importance for contamination. The spore content in dung was also low. Further support that soil was the major contamination source was found by comparison of genetic fingerprints by random amplified polymorphic DNA polymerase chain reaction of isolates of B. cereus from soil and milk and by teat cleansing experiments, which resulted in reduced contamination levels in milk.

  8. Chemical contaminants in breast milk: time trends and regional variability.

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, Gina M; Weiss, Pilar M

    2002-01-01

    Research on environmentally related chemical contaminants in breast milk spans several decades and dozens of countries. The ability to use this research as an environmental indicator is limited because of a lack of consistent protocols. Data on xenobiotics in breast milk are influenced by choices in sample selection, sample pooling, analysis, and reporting. In addition, most studies have focused only on a small panel of persistent organic pollutants, despite indications that a wide range of additional chemical contaminants may also enter breast milk. Despite these limitations, however, it is possible to draw some generalizations. In this paper we review available data on levels of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), metals, and solvents in breast milk. Examples drawn from around the world illustrate the available data and the patterns that have appeared in various areas over time. Over the past few decades, levels of the organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, and dioxins have declined in breast milk in countries where these chemicals have been banned or otherwise regulated. In contrast, the levels of PBDEs are rising. Regional differences in levels of xenobiotics in breast milk are related to historical and current local use patterns. Diet is a major factor that influences breast milk levels of persistent organic pollutants, with patterns in fish consumption playing a particularly significant role. Improved global breast milk monitoring programs would allow for more consistent data on trends over time, detection of new xenobiotics in breast milk, and identification of disproportionately exposed populations. PMID:12055065

  9. Vaccinia virus Transmission through Experimentally Contaminated Milk Using a Murine Model

    PubMed Central

    Rehfeld, Izabelle Silva; Guedes, Maria Isabel Maldonado Coelho; Fraiha, Ana Luiza Soares; Costa, Aristóteles Gomes; Matos, Ana Carolina Diniz; Fiúza, Aparecida Tatiane Lino; Lobato, Zélia Inês Portela

    2015-01-01

    Bovine vaccinia (BV) is a zoonosis caused by Vaccinia virus (VACV), which affects dairy cattle and humans. Previous studies have detected the presence of viable virus particles in bovine milk samples naturally and experimentally contaminated with VACV. However, it is not known whether milk contaminated with VACV could be a route of viral transmission. However, anti-Orthopoxvirus antibodies were detected in humans from BV endemic areas, whom had no contact with affected cows, which suggest that other VACV transmission routes are possible, such as consumption of contaminated milk and dairy products. Therefore, it is important to study the possibility of VACV transmission by contaminated milk. This study aimed to examine VACV transmission, pathogenesis and shedding in mice orally inoculated with experimentally contaminated milk. Thirty mice were orally inoculated with milk containing 107 PFU/ml of VACV, and ten mice were orally inoculated with uncontaminated milk. Clinical examinations were performed for 30 consecutive days, and fecal samples and oral swabs (OSs) were collected every other day. Mice were euthanized on predetermined days, and tissue and blood samples were collected. Nested-PCR, plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT), viral isolation, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry (IHC) methods were performed on the collected samples. No clinical changes were observed in the animals. Viral DNA was detected in feces, blood, OSs and tissues, at least in one of the times tested. The lungs displayed moderate to severe interstitial lymphohistiocytic infiltrates, and only the heart, tonsils, tongue, and stomach did not show immunostaining at the IHC analysis. Neutralizing antibodies were detected at the 20th and 30th days post infection in 50% of infected mice. The results revealed that VACV contaminated milk could be a route of viral transmission in mice experimentally infected, showing systemic distribution and shedding through feces and oral mucosa, albeit

  10. Vaccinia virus Transmission through Experimentally Contaminated Milk Using a Murine Model.

    PubMed

    Rehfeld, Izabelle Silva; Guedes, Maria Isabel Maldonado Coelho; Fraiha, Ana Luiza Soares; Costa, Aristóteles Gomes; Matos, Ana Carolina Diniz; Fiúza, Aparecida Tatiane Lino; Lobato, Zélia Inês Portela

    2015-01-01

    Bovine vaccinia (BV) is a zoonosis caused by Vaccinia virus (VACV), which affects dairy cattle and humans. Previous studies have detected the presence of viable virus particles in bovine milk samples naturally and experimentally contaminated with VACV. However, it is not known whether milk contaminated with VACV could be a route of viral transmission. However, anti-Orthopoxvirus antibodies were detected in humans from BV endemic areas, whom had no contact with affected cows, which suggest that other VACV transmission routes are possible, such as consumption of contaminated milk and dairy products. Therefore, it is important to study the possibility of VACV transmission by contaminated milk. This study aimed to examine VACV transmission, pathogenesis and shedding in mice orally inoculated with experimentally contaminated milk. Thirty mice were orally inoculated with milk containing 107 PFU/ml of VACV, and ten mice were orally inoculated with uncontaminated milk. Clinical examinations were performed for 30 consecutive days, and fecal samples and oral swabs (OSs) were collected every other day. Mice were euthanized on predetermined days, and tissue and blood samples were collected. Nested-PCR, plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT), viral isolation, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry (IHC) methods were performed on the collected samples. No clinical changes were observed in the animals. Viral DNA was detected in feces, blood, OSs and tissues, at least in one of the times tested. The lungs displayed moderate to severe interstitial lymphohistiocytic infiltrates, and only the heart, tonsils, tongue, and stomach did not show immunostaining at the IHC analysis. Neutralizing antibodies were detected at the 20th and 30th days post infection in 50% of infected mice. The results revealed that VACV contaminated milk could be a route of viral transmission in mice experimentally infected, showing systemic distribution and shedding through feces and oral mucosa, albeit

  11. Polychlorinated biphenyl contamination of nursing mothers' milk in Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Wickizer, T.M.; Brilliant, L.B.; Copeland, R.; Tilden, R.

    1981-02-01

    As part of an effort to assess the extent and distribution of PCB contamination in the human population of Michigan, PCB levels in the breast milk of Michigan nursing mothers were investigated. All of the 1057 samples collected from 68 counties contained PCB residues ranging from trace amounts to 5.1 ppm. The mean PCB level was 1.496 ppm. The public health significance of PCB contamination in human populations and the implications of PCB contamination of human milk for current breast-feeding practices are discussed. Several precautionary measures for nursing mothers are recommended.

  12. Natural attenuation of contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Mulligan, Catherine N; Yong, Raymond N

    2004-06-01

    Natural attenuation is increasing in use as a low cost means of remediating contaminated soil and groundwater. Modelling of contaminant migration plays a key role in evaluating natural attenuation as a remediation option and in ensuring that there will be no adverse impact on humans and the environment. During natural attenuation, the contamination must be characterized thoroughly and monitored through the process. In this paper, attenuation mechanisms for both organic and inorganic contaminants, use of models and protocols, role of monitoring and field case studies will be reviewed.

  13. Human milk: mother nature's prototypical probiotic food?

    PubMed

    McGuire, Michelle K; McGuire, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    The concept of "probiotic" is generally attributed to Dr. Ilya Mechnikov, who hypothesized that longevity could be enhanced by manipulating gastrointestinal microbes using naturally fermented foods. In 2001, a report of the FAO and WHO (2001 Oct, http://www.who.int/foodsafety/publications/fs_-management/en/probiotics.pdf) proposed a more restrictive definition of probiotic, as follows: "a live micro-organism which, when administered in adequate amounts, confers a health benefit on the host." As such, answering the fundamental question posed here-"Is human milk a probiotic?"-requires first grappling with the concept and meaning of the term probiotic. Nonetheless, one must also be convinced that human milk contains bacteria. Indeed, there are scores of publications providing evidence of a paradigm shift in this regard. Variation in the human-milk microbiome may be associated with maternal weight, mode of delivery, lactation state, gestation age, antibiotic use, and maternal health. Milk constituents (e.g., fatty acids and complex carbohydrates) might also be related to the abundance of specific bacterial taxa in milk. Whether these bacteria affect infant health is likely, but more studies are needed to test this hypothesis. In summary, a growing literature suggests that human milk, like all other fluids produced by the body, indeed contains viable bacteria. As such, and recognizing the extensive literature relating breastfeeding to optimal infant health, we propose that human milk should be considered a probiotic food. Determining factors that influence which bacteria are present in milk and if and how they influence the mother's and/or the recipient infant's health remain basic science and public health realms in which almost nothing is known. PMID:25593150

  14. Human milk: mother nature's prototypical probiotic food?

    PubMed

    McGuire, Michelle K; McGuire, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    The concept of "probiotic" is generally attributed to Dr. Ilya Mechnikov, who hypothesized that longevity could be enhanced by manipulating gastrointestinal microbes using naturally fermented foods. In 2001, a report of the FAO and WHO (2001 Oct, http://www.who.int/foodsafety/publications/fs_-management/en/probiotics.pdf) proposed a more restrictive definition of probiotic, as follows: "a live micro-organism which, when administered in adequate amounts, confers a health benefit on the host." As such, answering the fundamental question posed here-"Is human milk a probiotic?"-requires first grappling with the concept and meaning of the term probiotic. Nonetheless, one must also be convinced that human milk contains bacteria. Indeed, there are scores of publications providing evidence of a paradigm shift in this regard. Variation in the human-milk microbiome may be associated with maternal weight, mode of delivery, lactation state, gestation age, antibiotic use, and maternal health. Milk constituents (e.g., fatty acids and complex carbohydrates) might also be related to the abundance of specific bacterial taxa in milk. Whether these bacteria affect infant health is likely, but more studies are needed to test this hypothesis. In summary, a growing literature suggests that human milk, like all other fluids produced by the body, indeed contains viable bacteria. As such, and recognizing the extensive literature relating breastfeeding to optimal infant health, we propose that human milk should be considered a probiotic food. Determining factors that influence which bacteria are present in milk and if and how they influence the mother's and/or the recipient infant's health remain basic science and public health realms in which almost nothing is known.

  15. Contaminant Removal From Natural Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clausen, Christian A. (Inventor); Quinn, Jacqueline W. (Inventor); Geiger, Cheri L. (Inventor); Reinhart, Debra (Inventor); Fillpek, Laura B. (Inventor); Coon, Christina (Inventor); Devor, Robert (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A zero-valent metal emulsion containing zero-valent metal particles is used to remediate contaminated natural resources, such as groundwater and soil. In a preferred embodiment, the zero-valent metal emulsion removes heavy metals, such as lead (pb), from contaminated natural resources. In another preferred embodiment, the zero-valent metal emulsion is a bimetallic emulsion containing zero-valent metal particles doped with a catalytic metal to remediate halogenated aromatic compounds, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), from natural resources.

  16. Raman-spectroscopy-based chemical contaminant detection in milk powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhakal, Sagar; Chao, Kuanglin; Qin, Jianwei; Kim, Moon S.

    2015-05-01

    Addition of edible and inedible chemical contaminants in food powders for purposes of economic benefit has become a recurring trend. In recent years, severe health issues have been reported due to consumption of food powders contaminated with chemical substances. This study examines the effect of spatial resolution used during spectral collection to select the optimal spatial resolution for detecting melamine in milk powder. Sample depth of 2mm, laser intensity of 200mw, and exposure time of 0.1s were previously determined as optimal experimental parameters for Raman imaging. Spatial resolution of 0.25mm was determined as the optimal resolution for acquiring spectral signal of melamine particles from a milk-melamine mixture sample. Using the optimal resolution of 0.25mm, sample depth of 2mm and laser intensity of 200mw obtained from previous study, spectral signal from 5 different concentration of milk-melamine mixture (1%, 0.5%, 0.1%, 0.05%, and 0.025%) were acquired to study the relationship between number of detected melamine pixels and corresponding sample concentration. The result shows that melamine concentration has a linear relation with detected number of melamine pixels with correlation coefficient of 0.99. It can be concluded that the quantitative analysis of powder mixture is dependent on many factors including physical characteristics of mixture, experimental parameters, and sample depth. The results obtained in this study are promising. We plan to apply the result obtained from this study to develop quantitative detection model for rapid screening of melamine in milk powder. This methodology can also be used for detection of other chemical contaminants in milk powders.

  17. Long-term consequences of arsenic poisoning during infancy due to contaminated milk powder.

    PubMed

    Dakeishi, Miwako; Murata, Katsuyuki; Grandjean, Philippe

    2006-10-31

    Arsenic toxicity is a global health problem affecting many millions of people. The main source of exposure is drinking water contaminated by natural geological sources. Current risk assessment is based on the recognized carcinogenicity of arsenic, but neurotoxic risks have been overlooked. In 1955, an outbreak of arsenic poisoning occurred among Japanese infants, with more than 100 deaths. The source was contaminated milk powder produced by the Morinaga company. Detailed accounts of the Morinaga dried milk poisoning were published in Japanese only, and an overview of this poisoning incident and its long-term consequences is therefore presented. From analyses available, the arsenic concentration in milk made from the Morinaga milk powder is calculated to be about 4-7 mg/L, corresponding to daily doses slightly above 500 microg/kg body weight. Lower exposures would result from using diluted milk. Clinical poisoning cases occurred after a few weeks of exposure, with a total dose of about 60 mg. This experience provides clear-cut evidence for hazard assessment of the developmental neurotoxicity. At the present time, more than 600 surviving victims, now in their 50s, have been reported to suffer from severe sequelae, such as mental retardation, neurological diseases, and other disabilities. Along with more recent epidemiological studies of children with environmental arsenic exposures, the data amply demonstrate the need to consider neurotoxicity as a key concern in risk assessment of inorganic arsenic exposure.

  18. Long-term consequences of arsenic poisoning during infancy due to contaminated milk powder

    PubMed Central

    Dakeishi, Miwako; Murata, Katsuyuki; Grandjean, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    Arsenic toxicity is a global health problem affecting many millions of people. The main source of exposure is drinking water contaminated by natural geological sources. Current risk assessment is based on the recognized carcinogenicity of arsenic, but neurotoxic risks have been overlooked. In 1955, an outbreak of arsenic poisoning occurred among Japanese infants, with more than 100 deaths. The source was contaminated milk powder produced by the Morinaga company. Detailed accounts of the Morinaga dried milk poisoning were published in Japanese only, and an overview of this poisoning incident and its long-term consequences is therefore presented. From analyses available, the arsenic concentration in milk made from the Morinaga milk powder is calculated to be about 4–7 mg/L, corresponding to daily doses slightly above 500 μg/kg body weight. Lower exposures would result from using diluted milk. Clinical poisoning cases occurred after a few weeks of exposure, with a total dose of about 60 mg. This experience provides clear-cut evidence for hazard assessment of the developmental neurotoxicity. At the present time, more than 600 surviving victims, now in their 50s, have been reported to suffer from severe sequelae, such as mental retardation, neurological diseases, and other disabilities. Along with more recent epidemiological studies of children with environmental arsenic exposures, the data amply demonstrate the need to consider neurotoxicity as a key concern in risk assessment of inorganic arsenic exposure. PMID:17076881

  19. Thermal Inactivation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Artificially Contaminated Milk by Direct Steam Injection

    PubMed Central

    Butot, Sophie; Jagadeesan, Balamurugan; Bakker, Douwe; Donaghy, John

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The efficiency of direct steam injection (DSI) at 105°C for 3 s to inactivate Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in milk at a pilot-plant scale was investigated. Milk samples were artificially contaminated with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and also with cow fecal material naturally infected with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. We also tested milk artificially contaminated with Mycobacterium smegmatis as a candidate surrogate to compare thermal inactivation between M. smegmatis and M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Following the DSI process, no viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis or M. smegmatis was recovered using culture methods for both strains. For pure M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cultures, a minimum reduction of 5.6 log10 was achieved with DSI, and a minimum reduction of 5.7 log10 was found with M. smegmatis. The minimum log10 reduction for wild-type M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis naturally present in feces was 3.3. In addition, 44 dairy and nondairy powdered infant formula (PIF) ingredients used during the manufacturing process of PIF were tested for an alternate source for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and were found to be negative by quantitative PCR (qPCR). In conclusion, the results obtained from this study indicate that a >7-fold-log10 reduction of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in milk can be achieved with the applied DSI process. IMPORTANCE M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis is widespread in dairy herds in many countries. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis is the causative agent of Johne's disease in cattle, and infected animals can directly or indirectly (i.e., fecal contamination) contaminate milk. Despite much research and debate, there is no conclusive evidence that M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis is a zoonotic bacterium, i.e., one that causes disease in humans. The presence of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis or its DNA has been reported in dairy products, including pasteurized milk, cheese, and infant formula

  20. The natural history of milk allergy in an observational cohort

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Robert A.; Sicherer, Scott H.; Vickery, Brian P.; Jones, Stacie M.; Liu, Andrew H.; Fleischer, David M.; Henning, Alice K.; Mayer, Lloyd; Burks, A. Wesley; Grishin, Alexander; Stablein, Donald; Sampson, Hugh A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective There are few studies on the natural history of milk allergy. Most are single-site and not longitudinal, and these have not identified a means for early prediction of outcomes. Methods Children aged 3 to 15 months were enrolled in an observational study with either (1) a convincing history of egg allergy, milk allergy, or both with a positive skin prick test (SPT) response to the trigger food and/or (2) moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis (AD) and a positive SPT response to milk or egg. Children enrolled with a clinical history of milk allergy were followed longitudinally, and resolution was established by means of successful ingestion. Results The cohort consists of 293 children, of whom 244 were given a diagnosis of milk allergy at baseline. Milk allergy has resolved in 154 (52.6%) subjects at a median age of 63 months and a median age at last follow-up of 66 months. Baseline characteristics that were most predictive of resolution included milk-specific IgE level, milk SPT wheal size, and AD severity (all P < .001). Baseline milk-specific IgG4 level and milk IgE/IgG4 ratio were not predictive of resolution and neither was expression of cytokine-inducible SH2-containing protein, forkhead box protein 3, GATA3, IL-10, IL-4, IFN-γ, or T-bet by using real-time PCR in CD25-selected, casein-stimulated mononuclear cells. A calculator to estimate resolution probabilities using baseline milk IgE level, SPT response, and AD severity was devised for use in the clinical setting. Conclusions: In this cohort of infants with milk allergy, approximately one half had resolved over 66 months of follow-up. Baseline milk-specific IgE level, SPT wheal size, and AD severity were all important predictors of the likelihood of resolution. PMID:23273958

  1. Characterization of Contaminants from a Sanitized Milk Processing Plant

    PubMed Central

    Cleto, Sara; Matos, Sónia; Kluskens, Leon; Vieira, Maria João

    2012-01-01

    Milk processing lines offer a wide variety of microenvironments where a diversity of microorganisms can proliferate. We sampled crevices and junctions where, due to deficient reach by typical sanitizing procedures, bacteria can survive and establish biofilms. The sampling sites were the holding cell, cold storage tank, pasteurizer and storage tank - transfer pump junction. The culturable bacteria that were isolated after the sanitation procedure were predominantly Pseudomonas spp., Serratia spp, Staphylococcus sciuri and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. We assayed several phenotypic characteristics such as the ability to secrete enzymes and siderophores, as well as the capacity of the strains to form biofilms that might contribute to their survival in a mixed species environment. The Pseudomonas spp. isolates were found to either produce proteases or lecithinases at high levels. Interestingly, protease production showed an inverse correlation with siderophore production. Furthermore, all of the Serratia spp. isolates were strong biofilm formers and spoilage enzymes producers. The organisms identified were not mere contaminants, but also producers of proteins with the potential to lower the quality and shelf-life of milk. In addition, we found that a considerable number of the Serratia and Pseudomonas spp. isolated from the pasteurizer were capable of secreting compounds with antimicrobial properties. PMID:22761957

  2. Natural plant toxicants in milk: a review.

    PubMed

    Panter, K E; James, L F

    1990-03-01

    Elimination of plant toxicants via milk by lactating animals is considered a minor route of excretion; however, it may be important when the health of the neonate or food safety in humans is considered. Among plant toxicants excreted in milk is tremetol or tremetone, the toxin in white snakeroot (Eupatorium rugosum) and rayless goldenrod (Haplopappus heterophyllus). These plants have been responsible for intoxication of cows and their suckling calves and for many human poisonings. Other plant toxins excreted through the milk that pose a toxicity hazard include pyrrolizidine alkaloids in Senecio, Crotalaria, Heliotropium, Echium, Amsinckia, Symphytum (comfrey), Cynoglossum (hounds tongue) and Festuca (tall fescue); piperidine alkaloids in Conium, tobacco and others; quinolizidine alkaloids in Lupinus; sesquiterpene lactones of bitterweed and rubber weed; and glucosinolates in Amoracia (horseradish), Brassica (cabbage, broccoli, etc.), Limnanthes (meadowfoam), Nasturtium (watercress), Raphanus (radish) and Thlaspi (stinkweed). Many plants such as Astragalus, Oonopsis, Stanleya, Xylorrhiza, Aster, Atriplex, Sideranthus and Machaeranthera accumulate selenium and may cause intoxication when grazed. Selenium is found in the milk at concentrations relative to the amounts ingested by the lactating animal. Excretion of selenium via the milk is important in the deficiency state, but when in excess it may cause toxicity to offspring. PMID:2180885

  3. Phytoestrogens in milk: Overestimations caused by contamination of the hydrolytic enzyme used during sample extraction.

    PubMed

    Bláhová, L; Kohoutek, J; Procházková, T; Prudíková, M; Bláha, L

    2016-09-01

    Isoflavones are natural phytoestrogens with antioxidant and endocrine-disrupting potencies. Monitoring of their levels is important to ensure the high quality and safety of food, milk, and dairy products. The efficiency and accuracy of phytoestrogen analyses in complex matrices such as milk depend on the extraction procedure, which often uses hydrolysis by means of the β-glucuronidase/sulfatase enzyme originating from Helix pomatia. The present study reveals that the commercially available hydrolytic enzyme is contaminated by several phytoestrogen isoflavones (genistein, daidzein, formononetin, and biochanin A) and their metabolite equol, as well as flavones (naringenin and apigenin) and coumestrol. We show that the concentrations of daidzein and genistein in the enzyme could have impaired the results of analyses of the main isoflavones in several previously published studies. Of 8 analyzed compounds, only equol was confirmed in the present study and it serves as a reliable marker of phytoestrogens originating from cow feed. Critical reassessment of phytoestrogen concentrations in milk is needed because several previously published studies might have overestimated the concentrations depending on the extraction procedure used. PMID:27394955

  4. Phytoestrogens in milk: Overestimations caused by contamination of the hydrolytic enzyme used during sample extraction.

    PubMed

    Bláhová, L; Kohoutek, J; Procházková, T; Prudíková, M; Bláha, L

    2016-09-01

    Isoflavones are natural phytoestrogens with antioxidant and endocrine-disrupting potencies. Monitoring of their levels is important to ensure the high quality and safety of food, milk, and dairy products. The efficiency and accuracy of phytoestrogen analyses in complex matrices such as milk depend on the extraction procedure, which often uses hydrolysis by means of the β-glucuronidase/sulfatase enzyme originating from Helix pomatia. The present study reveals that the commercially available hydrolytic enzyme is contaminated by several phytoestrogen isoflavones (genistein, daidzein, formononetin, and biochanin A) and their metabolite equol, as well as flavones (naringenin and apigenin) and coumestrol. We show that the concentrations of daidzein and genistein in the enzyme could have impaired the results of analyses of the main isoflavones in several previously published studies. Of 8 analyzed compounds, only equol was confirmed in the present study and it serves as a reliable marker of phytoestrogens originating from cow feed. Critical reassessment of phytoestrogen concentrations in milk is needed because several previously published studies might have overestimated the concentrations depending on the extraction procedure used.

  5. Identification and Effect Decomposition of Risk Factors for Brucella Contamination of Raw Whole Milk in China

    PubMed Central

    Ning, Pengbo; Guo, Mancai; Guo, Kangkang; Xu, Lei; Ren, Min; Cheng, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Yanming

    2013-01-01

    Background Lack of clear risk factor identification is the main reason for the persistence of brucellosis infection in the Chinese population, and there has been little assessment of the factors contributing to Brucella contamination of raw whole milk. The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors affecting Brucella contamination of raw milk, and to evaluate effective measures for disease reduction in order to determine preventive strategies. Methods and Findings A nationwide survey was conducted and samples were obtained from 5211 cows corresponding to 25 sampling locations throughout 15 provinces in China. The prevalence of Brucella in the raw milk samples averaged 1.07% over the 15 Chinese provinces, while the prevalence of positive areas within these regions ranged from 0.23–3.84% among the nine provinces with positive samples. The survey examined factors that supposedly influence Brucella contamination of raw whole milk, such as management style, herd size, abortion rate, hygiene and disease control practices. A binary logistic regression analysis was carried out to determine the association between risk factors for Brucella and contamination of milk samples. Furthermore, a relative effect decomposition study was conducted to determine effective strategies for reducing the risk of Brucella contamination of raw whole milk. Our data indicate that disease prevention and control measures, abortion rate, and animal polyculture are the most important risk factors. Meanwhile, culling after quarantine was identified as an effective protective measure in the current Chinese dairy situation. Conclusions These results indicate that, although there is a low risk of contamination of milk with Brucella nationwide in China, there are individual regions where contamination is a significant problem. Controlling three factors–culling after quarantine, maintaining a low abortion rate, and avoiding mixing groups of cattle and small ruminants–could effectively

  6. It's Only Natural: Mother's Love, Mother's Milk

    MedlinePlus

    ... Enter email address Submit Home > It's Only Natural It's Only Natural Every woman’s journey to motherhood is ... a mom is how to feed your child. It's Only Natural helps African-American women and their ...

  7. Multivariate statistical approach to a data set of dioxin and furan contaminations in human milk

    SciTech Connect

    Lindstrom, G.U.M.; Sjostrom, M.; Swanson, S.E. ); Furst, P.; Kruger, C.; Meemken, H.A.; Groebel, W. )

    1988-05-01

    The levels of chlorinated dibenzodioxins, PCDDs, and dibenzofurans, PCDFs, in human milk have been of great concern after the discovery of the toxic 2,3,7,8-substituted isomers in milk of European origin. As knowledge of environmental contamination of human breast milk increases, questions will continue to be asked about possible risks from breast feeding. Before any recommendations can be made, there must be knowledge of contaminant levels in mothers' breast milk. Researchers have measured PCB and 17 different dioxins and furans in human breast milk samples. To date the data has only been analyzed by univariate and bivariate statistical methods. However to extract as much information as possible from this data set, multivariate statistical methods must be used. Here the authors present a multivariate analysis where the relationships between the polychlorinated compounds and the personalia of the mothers have been studied. For the data analysis partial least squares (PLS) modelling has been used.

  8. Food safety in raw milk production: risk factors associated to bacterial DNA contamination.

    PubMed

    Cerva, Cristine; Bremm, Carolina; Reis, Emily Marques dos; Bezerra, André Vinícius Andrade; Loiko, Márcia Regina; Cruz, Cláudio Estêvão Farias da; Cenci, Alexander; Mayer, Fabiana Quoos

    2014-06-01

    While human illness from milkborne pathogens may be linked to contamination of the product after pasteurization or improper pasteurization, such diseases are usually associated with consumption of raw milk or its by-products. Molecular biology tools were applied to investigate contamination by Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., some pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli, and Campylobacter jejuni in 548 raw milk samples from 125 dairy farms established in two regions from southern Brazil. Moreover, 15 variables were evaluated for their association with raw milk contamination levels, and the risk factors were determined by multiple regression analysis. Salmonella spp. were more frequently detected, followed by pathogenic E. coli. There was difference in contamination index between the regions, in which risk factors such as temporary cattle confinement, low milk production, low milking machine cleaning frequency, and milk storage area without tile walls were identified. The risk factors were specific to each region studied. Nevertheless, the data can be used to improve milk quality of dairy farms/herds with similar management practices.

  9. Bacillus cereus spores during housing of dairy cows: factors affecting contamination of raw milk.

    PubMed

    Magnusson, M; Christiansson, A; Svensson, B

    2007-06-01

    The contamination of raw milk with Bacillus cereus spores was studied during the indoor confinement of dairy cattle. The occurrence of spores in fresh and used bedding material, air samples, feed, feces, and the rinse water from milking equipment was compared with the spore level in bulk tank milk on 2 farms, one of which had 2 different housing systems. A less extensive study was carried out on an additional 5 farms. High spore concentrations of >100 spores/L in the raw milk were found on 4 of the farms. The number of spores found in the feed, feces, and air was too small to be of importance for milk contamination. Elevated spore contents in the rinse water from the milking equipment (up to 322 spores/L) were observed and large numbers of spores were found in the used bedding material, especially in free stalls with >5 cm deep sawdust beds. At most, 87,000 spores/g were found in used sawdust bedding. A positive correlation was found between the spore content in used bedding material and milk (r = 0.72). Comparison of the genetic fingerprints obtained by the random amplified polymorphic DNA PCR of isolates of B. cereus from the different sources indicated that used bedding material was the major source of contamination. A separate feeding experiment in which cows were experimentally fed B. cereus spores showed a positive relationship between the number of spores in the feed and feces and in the feces and milk (r = 0.78). The results showed that contaminated feed could be a significant source of spore contamination of raw milk if the number of spores excreted in the feces exceeded 100,000/g.

  10. Prions in milk from ewes incubating natural scrapie.

    PubMed

    Lacroux, Caroline; Simon, Stéphanie; Benestad, Sylvie L; Maillet, Séverine; Mathey, Jacinthe; Lugan, Séverine; Corbière, Fabien; Cassard, Hervé; Costes, Pierrette; Bergonier, Dominique; Weisbecker, Jean-Louis; Moldal, Torffin; Simmons, Hugh; Lantier, Frederic; Feraudet-Tarisse, Cécile; Morel, Nathalie; Schelcher, François; Grassi, Jacques; Andréoletti, Olivier

    2008-12-01

    Since prion infectivity had never been reported in milk, dairy products originating from transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE)-affected ruminant flocks currently enter unrestricted into the animal and human food chain. However, a recently published study brought the first evidence of the presence of prions in mammary secretions from scrapie-affected ewes. Here we report the detection of consistent levels of infectivity in colostrum and milk from sheep incubating natural scrapie, several months prior to clinical onset. Additionally, abnormal PrP was detected, by immunohistochemistry and PET blot, in lacteal ducts and mammary acini. This PrP(Sc) accumulation was detected only in ewes harbouring mammary ectopic lymphoid follicles that developed consequent to Maedi lentivirus infection. However, bioassay revealed that prion infectivity was present in milk and colostrum, not only from ewes with such lympho-proliferative chronic mastitis, but also from those displaying lesion-free mammary glands. In milk and colostrum, infectivity could be recovered in the cellular, cream, and casein-whey fractions. In our samples, using a Tg 338 mouse model, the highest per ml infectious titre measured was found to be equivalent to that contained in 6 microg of a posterior brain stem from a terminally scrapie-affected ewe. These findings indicate that both colostrum and milk from small ruminants incubating TSE could contribute to the animal TSE transmission process, either directly or through the presence of milk-derived material in animal feedstuffs. It also raises some concern with regard to the risk to humans of TSE exposure associated with milk products from ovine and other TSE-susceptible dairy species. PMID:19079578

  11. Prions in Milk from Ewes Incubating Natural Scrapie

    PubMed Central

    Lacroux, Caroline; Simon, Stéphanie; Benestad, Sylvie L.; Maillet, Séverine; Mathey, Jacinthe; Lugan, Séverine; Corbière, Fabien; Cassard, Hervé; Costes, Pierrette; Bergonier, Dominique; Weisbecker, Jean-Louis; Moldal, Torffin; Simmons, Hugh; Lantier, Frederic; Feraudet-Tarisse, Cécile; Morel, Nathalie; Schelcher, François; Grassi, Jacques; Andréoletti, Olivier

    2008-01-01

    Since prion infectivity had never been reported in milk, dairy products originating from transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE)-affected ruminant flocks currently enter unrestricted into the animal and human food chain. However, a recently published study brought the first evidence of the presence of prions in mammary secretions from scrapie-affected ewes. Here we report the detection of consistent levels of infectivity in colostrum and milk from sheep incubating natural scrapie, several months prior to clinical onset. Additionally, abnormal PrP was detected, by immunohistochemistry and PET blot, in lacteal ducts and mammary acini. This PrPSc accumulation was detected only in ewes harbouring mammary ectopic lymphoid follicles that developed consequent to Maedi lentivirus infection. However, bioassay revealed that prion infectivity was present in milk and colostrum, not only from ewes with such lympho-proliferative chronic mastitis, but also from those displaying lesion-free mammary glands. In milk and colostrum, infectivity could be recovered in the cellular, cream, and casein-whey fractions. In our samples, using a Tg 338 mouse model, the highest per ml infectious titre measured was found to be equivalent to that contained in 6 µg of a posterior brain stem from a terminally scrapie-affected ewe. These findings indicate that both colostrum and milk from small ruminants incubating TSE could contribute to the animal TSE transmission process, either directly or through the presence of milk-derived material in animal feedstuffs. It also raises some concern with regard to the risk to humans of TSE exposure associated with milk products from ovine and other TSE-susceptible dairy species. PMID:19079578

  12. Aflatoxin M1 contamination in commercial pasteurized milk from local markets in Fariman, Iran.

    PubMed

    Riahi-Zanjani, Bamdad; Balali-Mood, Mahdi

    2013-11-01

    Contamination of milk and dairy products with aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) presents a risk for human health. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of AFM1 in pasteurized milk samples in Fariman, located in the province of Khorasan Razavi, Iran, by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Forty-five samples of pasteurized milk from different supermarkets were collected during 3 months in summer (July to September, 2012). AFM1 contamination was detected in all of milk samples. The mean concentration of aflatoxin M1 was 27.2 ng/l. The range of AFM1 content was 8.8-64 ng/l. Thirteen (28.8 %) of the samples had AFM1 levels exceeding the maximum levels (50 ng/l) accepted by the European Union. Due to the fact that milk is used by all the age groups including infants and children in Fariman city, it is necessary to minimize the health risk from AFM1 contamination in milk. For this reason, the level of its precursor, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), in dairy feeds must be reduced, requiring constant aflatoxin monitoring of relevant agricultural commodities.

  13. Microbial contamination of water intended for milk container washing in smallholder dairy farming and milk retailing houses in southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Amenu, Kebede; Shitu, Desalew; Abera, Mesele

    2016-01-01

    The water used during handling and processing of milk products can be potential sources of microbial contamination with possible negative consequences on food safety. Especially, the water used in keeping the hygiene of milking and milk storage utensils is crucial to keep the quality and safety of the products. Therefore, the current study was designed to assess the bacteriological quality of water used for cleaning milking and milk storage equipment in smallholder dairy production in Hawassa and its surroundings. A total of 79 water samples were collected: 26 from milk collecting houses in Hawassa and 53 from selected smallholder dairy farms (Hawassa = 14, Arsi Negele = 29 and Yirgalem = 10). Out of the total samples, 18 samples were collected directly from pipe and 61 from storage containers (46 from narrow opening and 15 from wide opening containers). The overall prevalence of E. coli exceeding zero CFU/ml was 39.2 %. From analyzed samples, high prevalence of positive samples for E. coli was found in water samples taken from wide opening containers (66.7 %). A number of bacteria were isolated and presumptively identified which include Bacillus sp. 6.3 % (n = 5), Citrobacter sp. 1.3 %(n = 1), E. coli 39.2 % (n = 31), Enterobacter sp. 2.5 % (n = 2), Klebisella sp. 7.6 % (n = 6), Micrococcus sp. 6.3 % (n = 5), Pseudomonas sp. 6.3 % (n = 5), Staphylococcus aureus 6.3 % (n = 5), Staphylococcus epidermidis 13.9 % (n = 11) and Streptococcus sp. 1.3 % (n = 1). The bacteriological quality of water especially, water stored in household storage containers in present study area was found to be contaminated with different bacteria indicating potential food safety problem and health risk to the society. In this respect, people handling water should be educated on its proper handling and the risk of contamination during storage. To minimize contamination, materials with narrow mouth and lid should be used. Further study is recommended on

  14. Microbial contamination of water intended for milk container washing in smallholder dairy farming and milk retailing houses in southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Amenu, Kebede; Shitu, Desalew; Abera, Mesele

    2016-01-01

    The water used during handling and processing of milk products can be potential sources of microbial contamination with possible negative consequences on food safety. Especially, the water used in keeping the hygiene of milking and milk storage utensils is crucial to keep the quality and safety of the products. Therefore, the current study was designed to assess the bacteriological quality of water used for cleaning milking and milk storage equipment in smallholder dairy production in Hawassa and its surroundings. A total of 79 water samples were collected: 26 from milk collecting houses in Hawassa and 53 from selected smallholder dairy farms (Hawassa = 14, Arsi Negele = 29 and Yirgalem = 10). Out of the total samples, 18 samples were collected directly from pipe and 61 from storage containers (46 from narrow opening and 15 from wide opening containers). The overall prevalence of E. coli exceeding zero CFU/ml was 39.2 %. From analyzed samples, high prevalence of positive samples for E. coli was found in water samples taken from wide opening containers (66.7 %). A number of bacteria were isolated and presumptively identified which include Bacillus sp. 6.3 % (n = 5), Citrobacter sp. 1.3 %(n = 1), E. coli 39.2 % (n = 31), Enterobacter sp. 2.5 % (n = 2), Klebisella sp. 7.6 % (n = 6), Micrococcus sp. 6.3 % (n = 5), Pseudomonas sp. 6.3 % (n = 5), Staphylococcus aureus 6.3 % (n = 5), Staphylococcus epidermidis 13.9 % (n = 11) and Streptococcus sp. 1.3 % (n = 1). The bacteriological quality of water especially, water stored in household storage containers in present study area was found to be contaminated with different bacteria indicating potential food safety problem and health risk to the society. In this respect, people handling water should be educated on its proper handling and the risk of contamination during storage. To minimize contamination, materials with narrow mouth and lid should be used. Further study is recommended on

  15. Effects of feed naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on metabolism and immunity of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Korosteleva, S N; Smith, T K; Boermans, H J

    2009-04-01

    A previous study in dairy cows showed some effect of feed contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on metabolism and immunity. A subsequent experiment investigated the effect of feedborne Fusarium mycotoxins on some immune functions in more detail. A total mixed ration (TMR) containing a blend of feedstuffs naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins was fed for 63 d to 12 mid-lactation Holstein cows with an average milk production of 36 kg/d in a completely randomized design with repeated measures including 1) control TMR and 2) contaminated TMR. Wheat, corn, hay, and corn silage were the contaminated feedstuffs. Deoxynivalenol was the major contaminant and was found in TMR at 3.5 mg/kg of dry matter. The parameters measured were 1) performance: body weight, body condition score, dry matter intake, milk production, composition and somatic cell count; 2) health: blood serum chemistry, hematology, coagulation profile, and rumen fluid ammonia levels; 3) immune function: total serum immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG, IgM), specific antibody response to ovalbumin, and neutrophil phagocytosis. Dry matter intake, body weight, milk production, and milk composition were not affected by diet. Neutrophil phagocytosis was depressed throughout the experiment in cows fed the contaminated diet. Serum sodium concentrations and osmolality were significantly elevated throughout the experiment in cows fed the contaminated diet. Primary antibody response to ovalbumin immunization was higher in cows fed the contaminated diet compared with controls. It was concluded that feed naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins can affect metabolic parameters and immune function of dairy cows.

  16. Microbial Contamination and Hygiene of Fresh Cow's Milk Produced by Smallholders in Western Zambia.

    PubMed

    Knight-Jones, Theodore J D; Hang'ombe, M Bernard; Songe, Mwansa M; Sinkala, Yona; Grace, Delia

    2016-01-01

    A field study was performed to assess safety of smallholder fresh cow's milk around Mongu, Western Province, Zambia. This involved observation and sampling of milk along the value chain from milking to point-of-sale and storage. Samples were collected from 86 cows, from 9 farmers, selling through two dairy cooperatives, with additional samples from informal markets. Production was very low; around one litre/day/cow and 10 L/day/herd. The milk was typically transported by bicycle in high ambient temperatures without refrigeration until reaching the point-of-sale (journey times of 30-120 min), where it was sold without pasteurisation despite milk-borne zoonoses being endemic (bovine tuberculosis (bTB) and Brucellosis). Although microbiological contamination was initially low, with geometric mean total bacterial count (TBC) of 425 cfu/mL (cfu = colony forming units) upon arrival at point-of-sale, poor hygiene led to high bacterial loads later on (geometric mean TBC > 600,000 cfu/mL after two days refrigeration), with almost all samples culture positive for Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. After milking, milk was kept for 100-223 min at temperatures favouring microbial growth (median 34 °C) and sold without a microbial kill step. In this situation limited variation in observed standards of milk hygiene had no significant effect on milk end-product bacterial counts. Options for refrigerated transport are limited. Pasteurisation at the cooperative should be investigated, as this would largely remove pathogenic microbes present in the milk whether resulting from cattle infection or poor hygiene during milking and transportation. As milk is also purchased directly from producers, on-farm milk heating options should also be assessed. Smallholders may benefit from access to national markets by providing milk to large dairies, which have systems for ensuring safety. However, this requires significant investment and an increased and more consistent supply of milk

  17. Microbial Contamination and Hygiene of Fresh Cow’s Milk Produced by Smallholders in Western Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Knight-Jones, Theodore J.D.; Hang’ombe, M. Bernard; Songe, Mwansa M.; Sinkala, Yona; Grace, Delia

    2016-01-01

    A field study was performed to assess safety of smallholder fresh cow’s milk around Mongu, Western Province, Zambia. This involved observation and sampling of milk along the value chain from milking to point-of-sale and storage. Samples were collected from 86 cows, from 9 farmers, selling through two dairy cooperatives, with additional samples from informal markets. Production was very low; around one litre/day/cow and 10 L/day/herd. The milk was typically transported by bicycle in high ambient temperatures without refrigeration until reaching the point-of-sale (journey times of 30–120 min), where it was sold without pasteurisation despite milk-borne zoonoses being endemic (bovine tuberculosis (bTB) and Brucellosis). Although microbiological contamination was initially low, with geometric mean total bacterial count (TBC) of 425 cfu/mL (cfu = colony forming units) upon arrival at point-of-sale, poor hygiene led to high bacterial loads later on (geometric mean TBC > 600,000 cfu/mL after two days refrigeration), with almost all samples culture positive for Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. After milking, milk was kept for 100–223 min at temperatures favouring microbial growth (median 34 °C) and sold without a microbial kill step. In this situation limited variation in observed standards of milk hygiene had no significant effect on milk end-product bacterial counts. Options for refrigerated transport are limited. Pasteurisation at the cooperative should be investigated, as this would largely remove pathogenic microbes present in the milk whether resulting from cattle infection or poor hygiene during milking and transportation. As milk is also purchased directly from producers, on-farm milk heating options should also be assessed. Smallholders may benefit from access to national markets by providing milk to large dairies, which have systems for ensuring safety. However, this requires significant investment and an increased and more consistent supply of

  18. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry for the monitoring of she-donkey's milk contamination or adulteration.

    PubMed

    Cunsolo, Vincenzo; Muccilli, Vera; Saletti, Rosaria; Foti, Salvatore

    2013-02-01

    Donkey's milk (DM), representing a safe and alternative food in both IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated cow's milk protein allergy, can be categorized as precious pharma-food. Moreover, an economically relevant interest for the use of DM in cosmetology is also developing. The detection of adulterations and contaminations of DM is a matter of fundamental importance from both an economic and allergenic standpoint, and, to this aim, fast and efficient analytical approaches to assess the authenticity of this precious nutrient are desirable. Here, a rapid matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)-based method aimed to the detection of bovine or caprine milk in raw DM is reported. The presence of the extraneous milks was revealed by monitoring the protein profiles of the most abundant whey proteins, α-lactalbumin (α-LA) and β-lactoglobulin, used as molecular markers. The possibility of obtaining a quantitative analysis of the level of cow or goat milk in DM based on the MALDI-TOF peak areas of α-LAs was also explored. The results showed that the experimental quantitative values were in good agreement with the real composition of each mixture. As pretreatment of the milk samples is not required, and owing to the speed and the high sensitivity of MALDI-MS, the protocol here reported could represent a reliable method for routine analyses aimed to assess the absence of contamination in raw fresh DM samples.

  19. Organochlorine pesticide contaminations in human milk samples from women living in Amman, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Alawi, M A; Ammari, N; al-Shuraiki, Y

    1992-08-01

    Concentration of 15 organochlorine pesticides were determined by capillary gas chromatography in 59 human milk samples collected from the general population during 1989/1990 in the Jordanian capital of Amman. In addition to hexachlorbenzene (HCB), three groups of organochlorine compounds namely, DDT and its metabolites, hexachlorcyclohexane (HCH-isomers) and the cyclopentadiene group (aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor, and heptachlor epoxide) were analyzed. The results show that almost all samples contained HCB, beta-HCH, p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDT, whereas p,p'-DDD, heptachlor, alpha-HCH, gamma-HCH and o,p'DDT were found in 42, 40, 33, 22 and 20 analyzed samples, respectively. The concentration of HCB, beta-HCH, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT and heptachlor expressed on a milk-fat basis (median in mg/kg milk fat): 0.29, 0.4, 2.04, and 0.7 respectively. For the comparative purposes and in order to try to find the possible sources of mother-milk contaminations, different types of locally produced and imported cow milk samples were also analyzed for the same organochlorine compounds. Almost all types of tested milk were contaminated with p,p'-DDE.

  20. Natural biodegradation of organic contaminants in groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    McNab, W W; Rice, D W

    1998-09-23

    There has recently been a growing awareness that natural processes are degrading contaminants of concern, and that the contribution these natural processes make to achieving cleanup goals needs to be formally considered during site-specific cleanup. Historical case data from a large number of releases has been used to evaluate the expectation for natural attenuation to contribute to the cleanup of petroleum hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents. The use of historical case data has several advantages, among them: 1) sites can reduce characterization costs by sharing information on key hydrogeologic parameters controlling contaminant fate and transport, and 2) standard reference frameworks can be developed that individual sites can use as a basis of comparison regarding plume behavior. Definition of cleanup times must take into account basic constraints imposed by natural laws governing the transport and natural degradation process of petroleum hydrocarbons. The actual time to reach groundwater cleanup goals is determined by these laws and the limitations on residual subsurface contamination attenuation rates, through either active or natural biological processes. These limitations will practically constrain the time to achieve low concentration cleanup goals. Recognition is needed that sites will need to be transitioned to remediation by natural processes at some point following implementation of active remediation options. The results of an analysis of approximately 1800 California and 600 Texas fuel hydrocarbon (FHC) releases and 2.50 chlorinated volatile organic compound (CVOC) plumes will be summarized. Plume lengths and natural biodegradation potential were evaluated. For FHC releases, 90% of benzene groundwater plumes were less than 280 feet in length and evidence of natural biodegradation was found to be present at all sites studied in detail. For CVOC releases, source strength and groundwater flow velocity are dominant factors controlling groundwater plume

  1. AFM1 in Milk: Physical, Biological, and Prophylactic Methods to Mitigate Contamination

    PubMed Central

    Giovati, Laura; Magliani, Walter; Ciociola, Tecla; Santinoli, Claudia; Conti, Stefania; Polonelli, Luciano

    2015-01-01

    Aflatoxins (AFs) are toxic, carcinogenic, immunosuppressive secondary metabolites produced by some Aspergillus species which colonize crops, including many dietary staple foods and feed components. AFB1 is the prevalent and most toxic among AFs. In the liver, it is biotransformed into AFM1, which is then excreted into the milk of lactating mammals, including dairy animals. AFM1 has been shown to be cause of both acute and chronic toxicoses. The presence of AFM1 in milk and dairy products represents a worldwide concern since even small amounts of this metabolite may be of importance as long-term exposure is concerned. Contamination of milk may be mitigated either directly, decreasing the AFM1 content in contaminated milk, or indirectly, decreasing AFB1 contamination in the feed of dairy animals. Current strategies for AFM1 mitigation include good agricultural practices in pre-harvest and post-harvest management of feed crops (including storage) and physical or chemical decontamination of feed and milk. However, no single strategy offers a complete solution to the issue. PMID:26512694

  2. AFM₁ in Milk: Physical, Biological, and Prophylactic Methods to Mitigate Contamination.

    PubMed

    Giovati, Laura; Magliani, Walter; Ciociola, Tecla; Santinoli, Claudia; Conti, Stefania; Polonelli, Luciano

    2015-10-01

    Aflatoxins (AFs) are toxic, carcinogenic, immunosuppressive secondary metabolites produced by some Aspergillus species which colonize crops, including many dietary staple foods and feed components. AFB₁ is the prevalent and most toxic among AFs. In the liver, it is biotransformed into AFM₁, which is then excreted into the milk of lactating mammals, including dairy animals. AFM₁ has been shown to be cause of both acute and chronic toxicoses. The presence of AFM₁ in milk and dairy products represents a worldwide concern since even small amounts of this metabolite may be of importance as long-term exposure is concerned. Contamination of milk may be mitigated either directly, decreasing the AFM₁ content in contaminated milk, or indirectly, decreasing AFB₁ contamination in the feed of dairy animals. Current strategies for AFM₁ mitigation include good agricultural practices in pre-harvest and post-harvest management of feed crops (including storage) and physical or chemical decontamination of feed and milk. However, no single strategy offers a complete solution to the issue. PMID:26512694

  3. Cesium separation from contaminated milk using magnetic particles containing crystalline silicotitantes.

    SciTech Connect

    Nunez, L.; Kaminski, M.; Chemical Engineering

    2000-11-01

    The Chernobyl nuclear reactor disaster in 1986 contaminated vast regions of prime grazing land. Subsequently, milk produced in the region has been contaminated with small amounts of the long-lived fission product cesium-137, and the Ukraine is seeking to deploy a simple separation process that will remove the Cs and preserve the nutritional value of the milk. Tiny magnetic particles containing crystalline silicotitanates (CST) have been manufactured and tested to this end. The results show that partitioning efficiency is optimized with low ratios of particle mass to volume. To achieve 90% Cs decontamination in a single-stage process, <3 g of magnetic CST per l milk is sufficient with a 30-min mixing time. A two-stage process would utilize <0.4 g/l per stage. The modeling of the magnetic CST system described herein can be achieved rather simply which is important for deployment in the affected Ukraine region.

  4. Raman-spectroscopy-based chemical contaminant detection in milk powder

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Addition of edible and inedible chemical contaminants in food powders for purposes of economic benefit has become a recurring trend. In recent years, severe health issues have been reported due to consumption of food powders contaminated with chemical substances. This study examines the effect of sp...

  5. Milk contamination and resistance to processing conditions determine the fate of Lactococcus lactis bacteriophages in dairies.

    PubMed

    Madera, Carmen; Monjardín, Cristina; Suárez, Juan E

    2004-12-01

    Milk contamination by phages, the susceptibility of the phages to pasteurization, and the high levels of resistance to phage infection of starter strains condition the evolution dynamics of phage populations in dairy environments. Approximately 10% (83 of 900) of raw milk samples contained phages of the quasi-species c2 (72%), 936 (24%), and P335 (4%). However, 936 phages were isolated from 20 of 24 (85%) whey samples, while c2 was detected in only one (4%) of these samples. This switch may have been due to the higher susceptibility of c2 to pasteurization (936-like phages were found to be approximately 35 times more resistant than c2 strains to treatment of contaminated milk in a plate heat exchanger at 72 degrees C for 15 s). The restriction patterns of 936-like phages isolated from milk and whey were different, indicating that survival to pasteurization does not result in direct contamination of the dairy environment. The main alternative source of phages (commercial bacterial starters) does not appear to significantly contribute to phage contamination. Twenty-four strains isolated from nine starter formulations were generally resistant to phage infection, and very small progeny were generated upon induction of the lytic cycle of resident prophages. Thus, we postulate that a continuous supply of contaminated milk, followed by pasteurization, creates a factory environment rich in diverse 936 phage strains. This equilibrium would be broken if a particular starter strain turned out to be susceptible to infection by one of these 936-like phages, which, as a consequence, became prevalent. PMID:15574937

  6. Comparison of contaminant and residue levels in organic and conventional milk and meat products from northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Ghidini, S; Zanardi, E; Battaglia, A; Varisco, G; Ferretti, E; Campanini, G; Chizzolini, R

    2005-01-01

    Due to the growing interest in organic products, a comparison between the chemical safety of organic and conventional products was undertaken. Milk and meat were the products chosen for study. The parameters evaluated to assess chemical safety were organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), lead, cadmium and mycotoxin contamination. Pesticides and PCBs residues in both organic and conventional milk and meat were lower than legal limits. Lead and cadmium residues were very low and did not differ between organic and conventional products. However, aflatoxin M1 contamination in some but not all samples of organic milk was significantly higher than those of conventional milk, although factors other than organic production might be implicated.

  7. Freezing Point of Milk: A Natural Way to Understand Colligative Properties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novo, Mercedes; Reija, Belen; Al-Soufi, Wajih

    2007-01-01

    A laboratory experiment is presented in which the freezing point depression is analyzed using milk as solution. The nature of milk as a mixture of different solutes makes it a suitable probe to learn about colligative properties. The first part of the experiment illustrates the analytical use of freezing point measurements to control milk quality,…

  8. Milk and serum standard reference materials for monitoring organic contaminants in human samples.

    PubMed

    Schantz, Michele M; Eppe, Gauthier; Focant, Jean-François; Hamilton, Coreen; Heckert, N Alan; Heltsley, Rebecca M; Hoover, Dale; Keller, Jennifer M; Leigh, Stefan D; Patterson, Donald G; Pintar, Adam L; Sharpless, Katherine E; Sjödin, Andreas; Turner, Wayman E; Vander Pol, Stacy S; Wise, Stephen A

    2013-02-01

    Four new Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) have been developed to assist in the quality assurance of chemical contaminant measurements required for human biomonitoring studies, SRM 1953 Organic Contaminants in Non-Fortified Human Milk, SRM 1954 Organic Contaminants in Fortified Human Milk, SRM 1957 Organic Contaminants in Non-Fortified Human Serum, and SRM 1958 Organic Contaminants in Fortified Human Serum. These materials were developed as part of a collaboration between the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) with both agencies contributing data used in the certification of mass fraction values for a wide range of organic contaminants including polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, chlorinated pesticides, polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners, and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and dibenzofuran (PCDF) congeners. The certified mass fractions of the organic contaminants in unfortified samples, SRM 1953 and SRM 1957, ranged from 12 ng/kg to 2200 ng/kg with the exception of 4,4'-DDE in SRM 1953 at 7400 ng/kg with expanded uncertainties generally <14 %. This agreement suggests that there were no significant biases existing among the multiple methods used for analysis. PMID:23132544

  9. Milk and serum standard reference materials for monitoring organic contaminants in human samples.

    PubMed

    Schantz, Michele M; Eppe, Gauthier; Focant, Jean-François; Hamilton, Coreen; Heckert, N Alan; Heltsley, Rebecca M; Hoover, Dale; Keller, Jennifer M; Leigh, Stefan D; Patterson, Donald G; Pintar, Adam L; Sharpless, Katherine E; Sjödin, Andreas; Turner, Wayman E; Vander Pol, Stacy S; Wise, Stephen A

    2013-02-01

    Four new Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) have been developed to assist in the quality assurance of chemical contaminant measurements required for human biomonitoring studies, SRM 1953 Organic Contaminants in Non-Fortified Human Milk, SRM 1954 Organic Contaminants in Fortified Human Milk, SRM 1957 Organic Contaminants in Non-Fortified Human Serum, and SRM 1958 Organic Contaminants in Fortified Human Serum. These materials were developed as part of a collaboration between the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) with both agencies contributing data used in the certification of mass fraction values for a wide range of organic contaminants including polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, chlorinated pesticides, polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners, and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and dibenzofuran (PCDF) congeners. The certified mass fractions of the organic contaminants in unfortified samples, SRM 1953 and SRM 1957, ranged from 12 ng/kg to 2200 ng/kg with the exception of 4,4'-DDE in SRM 1953 at 7400 ng/kg with expanded uncertainties generally <14 %. This agreement suggests that there were no significant biases existing among the multiple methods used for analysis.

  10. Pasteurization of naturally contaminated water with solar energy.

    PubMed Central

    Ciochetti, D A; Metcalf, R H

    1984-01-01

    A solar box cooker (SBC) was constructed with a cooking area deep enough to hold several 3.7-liter jugs of water, and this was used to investigate the potential of using solar energy to pasteurize naturally contaminated water. When river water was heated either in the SBC or on a hot plate, coliform bacteria were inactivated at temperatures of 60 degrees C or greater. Heating water in an SBC to at least 65 degrees C ensures that the water will be above the milk pasteurization temperature of 62.8 degrees C for at least an hour, which appears sufficient to pasteurize contaminated water. On clear or partly cloudy days, with the SBC facing magnetic south in Sacramento, bottom water temperatures of at least 65 degrees C could be obtained in 11.1 liters of water during the 6 weeks on either side of the summer solstice, in 7.4 liters of water from mid-March through mid-September, and in 3.7 liters of water an additional 2 to 3 weeks at the beginning and end of the solar season. Periodic repositioning of the SBC towards the sun, adjusting the back reflective lid, and preheating water in a simple reflective device increased final water temperatures. Simultaneous cooking and heating water to pasteurizing temperatures was possible. Additional uses of the SBC to pasteurize soil and to decontaminate hospital materials before disposal in remote areas are suggested. PMID:6712206

  11. Pasteurization of naturally contaminated water with solar energy

    SciTech Connect

    Ciochetti, D.A.; Metcalf, R.H.

    1984-02-01

    A solar box cooker (SBC) was constructed with a cooking area deep enough to hold several 3.7-liter jugs of water, and this was used to investigate the potential of using solar energy to pasteurize naturally contaminated water. When river water was heated either in the SBC or on a hot plate, coliform bacteria were inactivated at temperatures of 60/sup 0/C or greater. Heating water in an SBC to at least 65/sup 0/C ensures that the water will be above the milk pasteurization temperature of 62.8/sup 0/C for at least an hour, which appears sufficient to pasteurize contaminated water. On clear or partly cloudy days, with the SBC facing magnetic south in Sacramento, bottom water temperatures of at least 65/sup 0/C could be obtained in 11.1 liters of water during the 6 weeks on either side of the summer solstice, in 7.4 liters of water from mid-March through mid-September, and in 3.7 liters of water an additional 2 to 3 weeks at the beginning and end of the solar season. Periodic repositioning of the SBC towards the sun, adjusting the back reflective lid, and preheating water in a simple reflective device increased final water temperatures. Simultaneous cooking and heating water to pasteurizing temperatures was possible. Additional uses of the SBC to pasteurize soil and to decontaminate hospital materials before disposal in remote areas are suggested. 14 references.

  12. Mechanisms of Clostridium tyrobutyricum removal through natural creaming of milk: A microscopy study.

    PubMed

    D'Incecco, P; Faoro, F; Silvetti, T; Schrader, K; Pellegrino, L

    2015-08-01

    Clostridium tyrobutyricum is the main spoilage agent of late blowing defect (LBD) in Grana Padano and Parmigiano-Reggiano cheeses; LBD is characterized by openings and holes and is sometimes accompanied by cracks and an undesirable flavor. Even a very few spores remaining in the cheese curd may cause LBD; thus, it is essential to eradicate them during milk natural creaming. By this process, most of the bacteria, somatic cells, and spores rise to the top of the milk, together with the fat globules, and are removed with the cream. Previous studies suggested that milk immunoglobulins mediate the interactions between fat globules and bacteria that occur upon creaming but no direct evidence for this has been found. Moreover, other physical chemical interactions could be involved; for example, physical entrapment of spores among globule clusters. To maximize the efficiency of the natural creaming step in removing Cl. tyrobutyricum, it is essential to understand the nature of spore-globule interactions. With this aim, raw milk was contaminated with spores of Cl. tyrobutyricum before going to creaming overnight at 8°C, after which spore and bacteria removal was >90%. The obtained cream was analyzed by light interference contrast and fluorescence microscopy and by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results showed that most of the vegetative cells and spores, which were stained with malachite green before addition to milk, adhered tightly to the surface of single fat globules, the membranes of which appeared heterogeneous when stained with the fluorescent dye DilC18(3)-DS. Using the same dye, we observed transient and persistent interactions among globules, with formation of clusters of different sizes and partial coalescence of adhering membranes. Transmission electron microscopy examination of replicates of freeze-fractured cream allowed us to observe tight adhesion of spores to fat globules. Ultrathin sections revealed that this adhesion is mediated by an amorphous

  13. Beta-palmitate - a natural component of human milk in supplemental milk formulas.

    PubMed

    Havlicekova, Zuzana; Jesenak, Milos; Banovcin, Peter; Kuchta, Milan

    2016-03-17

    The composition and function of human milk is unique and gives a basis for the development of modern artificial milk formulas that can provide an appropriate substitute for non-breastfed infants. Although human milk is not fully substitutable, modern milk formulas are attempting to mimic human milk and partially substitute its complex biological positive effects on infants. Besides the immunomodulatory factors from human milk, research has been focused on the composition and structure of human milk fat with a high content of β-palmitic acid (sn-2 palmitic acid, β-palmitate). According to the available studies, increasing the content of β-palmitate added to milk formulas promotes several beneficial physiological functions. β-palmitate positively influences fatty acid metabolism, increases calcium absorption, improves bone matrix quality and the stool consistency, and has a positive effect on the development of the intestinal microbiome.

  14. Quality preservation of deliberately contaminated milk using thyme free and nanoemulsified essential oils.

    PubMed

    Ben Jemaa, Mariem; Falleh, Hanen; Neves, Marcos A; Isoda, Hiroko; Nakajima, Mitsutoshi; Ksouri, Riadh

    2017-02-15

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of either a solution of Thymus capitatus essential oil or its nanoemulsion on the quality of milk contaminated by bacteria. After 24h of S. aureus inoculation, bacterial growth reached 202×10(3)CFU/ml in the presence of the essential oil while it was limited to 132×10(3)CFU/ml when treated with nanoemulsion. The reduction of antioxidant capacity of milk treated with essential oil was higher when treated with nanoemulsion. Moreover, free essential oil was more efficient in protecting proteins from degradation than the nanoemulsion. For instance, after 24h of E. hirae contamination, 26% of the total proteins were consumed in the presence of nano-encapsulated essential oil, while only 14% of the initial content was consumed when free essential oil was added. Concerning milk acidity increase and the inhibition of peroxide production, no statistical differences have been recorded between the use of free essential oil or its nano-emulsion. In conclusion, bulk or nano-encapsulated T. capitatus essential oil preserve milk quality and can extend its shelf life. PMID:27664691

  15. Naturally occurring contamination in the Mancos Shale.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Stan J; Goodknight, Craig S; Tigar, Aaron D; Bush, Richard P; Gil, April

    2012-02-01

    Some uranium mill tailings disposal cells were constructed on dark-gray shale of the Upper Cretaceous Mancos Shale. Shale of this formation contains contaminants similar to those in mill tailings. To establish the contributions derived from the Mancos, we sampled 51 locations in Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah. Many of the groundwater samples were saline with nitrate, selenium, and uranium concentrations commonly exceeding 250, 000, 1000, and 200 μg/L, respectively. Higher concentrations were limited to groundwater associated with shale beds, but were not correlated with geographic area, stratigraphic position, or source of water. The elevated concentrations suggest that naturally occurring contamination should be considered when evaluating groundwater cleanup levels. At several locations, seep water was yellow or red, caused in part by dissolved organic carbon concentrations up to 280 mg/L. Most seeps had (234)U to (238)U activity ratios greater than 2, indicating preferential leaching of (234)U. Seeps were slightly enriched in (18)O relative to the meteoric water line, indicating limited evaporation. Conceptually, major ion chemical reactions are dominated by calcite dissolution following proton release from pyrite oxidation and subsequent exchange by calcium for sodium residing on clay mineral exchange sites. Contaminants are likely released from organic matter and mineral surfaces during weathering.

  16. Arcobacter butzleri, Arcobacter cryaerophilus, and Arcobacter skirrowii Circulation in a Dairy Farm and Sources of Milk Contamination.

    PubMed

    Giacometti, Federica; Lucchi, Alex; Di Francesco, Antonietta; Delogu, Mauro; Grilli, Ester; Guarniero, Ilaria; Stancampiano, Laura; Manfreda, Gerardo; Merialdi, Giuseppe; Serraino, Andrea

    2015-08-01

    Even though dairy cows are known carriers of Arcobacter species and raw or minimally processed foods are recognized as the main sources of human Arcobacter infections in industrialized countries, data on Arcobacter excretion patterns in cows and in milk are scant. This study aimed to identify potentially pathogenic Arcobacter species in a dairy herd and to investigate the routes of Arcobacter transmission among animals and the potential sources of cattle infection and milk contamination. A strategy of sampling the same 50 dairy animals, feed, water, and milk every month for a 10-month period, as well as the sampling of quarter milk, animal teats, the milking environment, and animals living on the farm (pigeons and cats), was used to evaluate, by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), the characteristic patterns in animals, their living environment, and the raw milk they produced. Of the 463 samples collected, 105 (22.6%) were positive for Arcobacter spp. by culture examination. All the matrices except quarter milk and pigeon gut samples were positive, with prevalences ranging from 15 to 83% depending on the sample. Only three Arcobacter species, Arcobacter cryaerophilus (54.2%), A. butzleri (34.2%), and A. skirrowii (32.3%), were detected. PFGE analysis of 370 isolates from positive samples provided strong evidence of Arcobacter circulation in the herd: cattle likely acquire the microorganisms by orofecal transmission, either by direct contact or from the environment, or both. Water appears to be a major source of animal infection. Raw milk produced by the farm and collected from a bulk tank was frequently contaminated (80%) by A. butzleri; our PFGE findings excluded primary contamination of milk, whereas teats and milking machine surfaces could be sources of Arcobacter milk contamination.

  17. Aflatoxin M1 contamination of human breast milk in Isfahan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Jafarian-Dehkordi, Abbas; Pourradi, Nasibeh

    2013-01-01

    Background: During the last decades there has been great attention paid to aflatoxins. They are highly toxic, immunosuppressive, mutagenic, teratogenic, and carcinogenic compounds. Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1), a hydroxylated metabolite of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), is formed in the liver and excreted into the breast milk. It is considered to cause certain hygienic risks for infant health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of the AFM1 in the breast milk using AFM1 in milk as a biomarker for exposure to aflatoxin B1 and determine the level of AFM1 contamination in the lactating mothers in Isfahan, Iran. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out on 80 lactating women randomly selected from two urban health centers. Mother's milk samples and information on food intake were collected from the participants using structured food-frequency questionnaire. Breast milk samples were tested for AFM1 by a competitive ELISA technique. Results: Our findings showed that only one sample was contaminated with AFM1 with concentrations of 6.8 ng/L. However, the AFM1 level in this sample was lower than the maximum tolerable limit (25 ng/L) accepted by the European Communities and Codex Alimentarius. Conclusion: Although the concentration of AFM1 in none of the samples was higher than the acceptable level, the presence of AFM1 in only one of them confirms the need for developing strategies to reduce exposure to aflatoxin in foods and to carry out biological monitoring of aflatoxins as a food quality control measure routinely. PMID:24524032

  18. Phthalates in Belgian cow's milk and the role of feed and other contamination pathways at farm level.

    PubMed

    Fierens, T; Van Holderbeke, M; Willems, H; De Henauw, S; Sioen, I

    2012-08-01

    This study investigated the occurrence of dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), benzylbutyl phthalate (BBP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP) in raw cow's milk and feed from Belgian farms in order to determine their most relevant contamination pathways in milk. Measurable levels of DMP, DEP, DnBP, DCHP and DnOP were found in various feed samples, although they were not observed in milk. A plausible explanation for this is that they are rapidly metabolised in cows. DEHP and in a smaller degree also DiBP and BBP levels in milk seemed to vary across seasons and farms. DiBP and BBP levels were lower in summer than in winter milk, which was in contrast with what was observed for DEHP. This is possibly due to another feed composition during summer and winter. Comparing BBP and DEHP concentrations in manually with those in mechanically obtained milk revealed that, besides environmental contamination via feed ingestion, contact materials used during the mechanical milking process is another important contamination pathway. Concentrations observed in this study confirm the decreasing trend of DEHP in European cow's milk owing to the substitution of DEHP by other plasticisers.

  19. Aflatoxin M1 contamination of milk and ice cream in Abeokuta and Odeda local governments of Ogun State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Atanda, Olusegun; Oguntubo, Adenike; Adejumo, Oloyede; Ikeorah, John; Akpan, Iyang

    2007-07-01

    A survey was undertaken to determine the aflatoxin M(1) contamination of milk and some locally produced dairy products in Abeokuta and Odeda local governments of Ogun State, Nigeria. Samples of human and cow milk, yoghurt, "wara", ice cream and "nono" were collected randomly within the local governments and analysed for aflatoxin M(1) using the two-dimensional TLC. Aflatoxin M(1) contamination in the range of 2.04-4.00 microg l(-1) was noticed only in milk and ice cream. In particular, samples of human milk, cow milk and ice cream recorded high scores of 4.0 microg l(-1), 2.04 microg l(-1) and 2.23 microg l(-1), respectively in Abeokuta local governments and a score of 4.0 microg l(-1) for cow milk in Odeda local government. This indicates a high level contamination in the local governments since the weighted mean concentration of aflatoxin M1 in milk for African diet is 0.002 microg l(-1). Therefore the concentration of AFB1 in feeds which is transformed to AFM1 in milk should be reduced by good manufacturing and good storage practices. Furthermore, there is need for stringent quality control during processing and distribution of these products.

  20. Short communication: Toxicokinetics of ochratoxin A in dairy ewes and carryover to milk following a single or long-term ingestion of contaminated feed.

    PubMed

    Boudra, H; Saivin, S; Buffiere, C; Morgavi, D P

    2013-10-01

    Ruminal microbes have the capacity to inactivate ochratoxins, rendering ruminants less sensitive to this fungal contaminant found in cereal feeds. However, ochratoxin A has been reported in milk surveys. The objective of this study was to assess the toxicokinetics, excretion, and transmission into milk of ochratoxin A using doses similar to those of naturally occurring field contaminations. Six Lacaune dairy ewes in late lactation were separated into 2 groups that received a single dose of contaminated wheat containing 5 or 30 μg of ochratoxin A/kg of body weight. After administration, toxicokinetics and excretion were monitored for 48 h. Subsequently, ewes were administered the corresponding toxin dose daily for 24 d followed by a second toxicokinetics and excretion monitoring period for this long-term exposure. The doses used did not affect production or health of ewes. After a single dose, ochratoxin A and its main metabolite, ochratoxin α, were found in blood 1h postexposure. The maximum blood concentrations of ochratoxin A and α, respectively, were dose dependent and were observed, on average, 6 and 8h after exposure. Long-term exposure increased the maximum concentration of ochratoxin A detected in blood, whereas ochratoxin α was not affected. In contrast, the time to reach the maximum concentration was reduced to 3h for both molecules. Ochratoxins, essentially ochratoxin α, were mainly excreted in feces. Ochratoxin A and α were detected in milk at concentrations that were dose dependent but with a low carryover rate (<0.02%). Chronic administration did not increase the concentration of toxin in milk. Even though ochratoxin A can escape ruminal degradation and traces were found in milk of experimentally exposed ewes, the low carryover of ochratoxin A in milk minimizes the risk to consumers. PMID:23972496

  1. Bifidobacterium pseudolongum are efficient indicators of animal fecal contamination in raw milk cheese industry

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The contamination of raw milk cheeses (St-Marcellin and Brie) from two plants in France was studied at several steps of production (raw milk, after addition of rennet - St-Marcellin - or after second maturation - Brie -, after removal from the mold and during ripening) using bifidobacteria as indicators of fecal contamination. Results Bifidobacterium semi-quantitative counts were compared using PCR-RFLP and real-time PCR. B. pseudolongum were detected in 77% (PCR-RFLP; 1.75 to 2.29 log cfu ml-1) and 68% (real-time PCR; 2.19 to 2.73 log cfu ml-1) of St-Marcellin samples and in 87% (PCR-RFLP; 1.17 to 2.40 log cfu ml-1) of Brie cheeses samples. Mean counts of B. pseudolongum remained stable along both processes. Two other populations of bifidobacteria were detected during the ripening stage of St-Marcellin, respectively in 61% and 18% of the samples (PCR-RFLP). The presence of these populations explains the increase in total bifidobacteria observed during ripening. Further characterization of these populations is currently under process. Forty-eight percents (St-Marcellin) and 70% (Brie) of the samples were B. pseudolongum positive/E. coli negative while only 10% (St-Marcellin) and 3% (Brie) were B. pseudolongum negative/E. coli positive. Conclusions The increase of total bifidobacteria during ripening in Marcellin's process does not allow their use as fecal indicator. The presence of B. pseudolongum along the processes defined a contamination from animal origin since this species is predominant in cow dung and has never been isolated in human feces. B. pseudolongum was more sensitive as an indicator than E. coli along the two different cheese processes. B. pseudolongum should be used as fecal indicator rather than E. coli to assess the quality of raw milk and raw milk cheeses. PMID:21816092

  2. Minimization of viral contamination in human pharmaceuticals produced in the milk of transgenic goats.

    PubMed

    Ziomek, C A

    1996-01-01

    The minimization of viral contamination in therapeutic proteins produced in transgenic goats' milk can be achieved by a combinatorial approach. It begins with reduction in the risk in the starting material followed by appropriate clearance/inactivation steps in the purification process. To minimize risk in the starting material, Genzyme Transgenics Corporation (GTC)'s closed goat herds are subjected to routine serological surveillance for known viral diseases, especially those transmitted through milk. Although scrapie is defined as a slow-acting virus of sheep and goats, its incidence in goats in the US is rare (only four cases) and all four were in goats co-mingled with scrapie-infected sheep. All GTC's domestic goats were selected for previous non-exposure to sheep, cows or scrapie. In addition, milk, which is the starting material for transgenic protein production, is categorized as non-infectious for prions. Standard operating procedures are in place at GTC Farm sites to minimize human, animal or vehicular vectoring of viral diseases and the transgenic production animals are milked according to high standard Good Agricultural Practices (GAP). The transgenic protein (ATIII) purification process contains steps that should provide a high level of viral reduction. Validation of viral and prion removal will also be undertaken.

  3. Residues of legacy organochlorine contaminants in the milk of Alpine and Saanen goats from the central region of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Schettino, Beatriz; Gutiérrez, Rey; Ortiz, Rutilio; Vega, Salvador; Urban, Georgina; Ramírez, Acacia

    2013-08-01

    This study investigated a suite of legacy organochlorine contaminants in the milk of two breeds of goats raised in the central region of Mexico, where this agricultural production is of national (Mexican) economic importance. Forty milk samples from Alpine and Saanen goats were assessed. It was found that the concentrations of the majority of organochlorine pesticides in milk samples were lower than those stipulated in Mexican and international regulation. The values in both breeds of goat exceeded the upper permissible limits of Codex Alimentarius for delta hexachloro cyclohexane (HCH) (17.3 of samples of Saanen) and heptachlor plus heptachlor epoxide (50 % and 13 % of samples). It may be concluded that milk from these goat breeds from central Mexico showed some risks of contamination in certain times of the year (dry season). However, under further assessment and use of pesticides the goat's milk will likely be safe for human consumption and for use in products such as cheeses, regional candies and desserts (cajeta). In recent years, goat milk production has increased in the central regions and it is an economic alternative to milk from livestock. It is necessary to continue the monitoring of goat's milk to assess the presence and control of HCHs through best management practices.

  4. Residues of legacy organochlorine contaminants in the milk of Alpine and Saanen goats from the central region of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Schettino, Beatriz; Gutiérrez, Rey; Ortiz, Rutilio; Vega, Salvador; Urban, Georgina; Ramírez, Acacia

    2013-08-01

    This study investigated a suite of legacy organochlorine contaminants in the milk of two breeds of goats raised in the central region of Mexico, where this agricultural production is of national (Mexican) economic importance. Forty milk samples from Alpine and Saanen goats were assessed. It was found that the concentrations of the majority of organochlorine pesticides in milk samples were lower than those stipulated in Mexican and international regulation. The values in both breeds of goat exceeded the upper permissible limits of Codex Alimentarius for delta hexachloro cyclohexane (HCH) (17.3 of samples of Saanen) and heptachlor plus heptachlor epoxide (50 % and 13 % of samples). It may be concluded that milk from these goat breeds from central Mexico showed some risks of contamination in certain times of the year (dry season). However, under further assessment and use of pesticides the goat's milk will likely be safe for human consumption and for use in products such as cheeses, regional candies and desserts (cajeta). In recent years, goat milk production has increased in the central regions and it is an economic alternative to milk from livestock. It is necessary to continue the monitoring of goat's milk to assess the presence and control of HCHs through best management practices. PMID:23689930

  5. Aflatoxin M1 contamination in raw bulk milk and the presence of aflatoxin B1 in corn supplied to dairy cattle in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Kei-ichi; Hiraoka, Hisaaki; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko

    2008-01-01

    Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is a hydroxylated metabolite of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), which has been found in the milk of dairy cattle fed AFB1-contaminated feeds. Since AFM1 has been evaluated as a possible human carcinogen, the cancer risk arising from AFM1 contamination in milk is a serious problem in food safety. To evaluate the risk of AFM1 contamination in milk, it is necessary to analyze the risk factors of AFB1 contamination in corn provided for concentrated feed in Japan. The AFM1 level in domestic raw bulk milk was measured at three sampling times, January, February and June in 2004. The AFB1 contamination in corn supplied to cows was determined at the same time as the sampling of raw milk. The AFM1 contamination levels in milk in January, February and June 2004 were 0.011, 0.007 and 0.005 ng/g, respectively. The AFB1 contamination level in the corn of the concentrated feed was higher from October of 2003 to February of 2004 than from April to June in 2004. This study provides evidence that AFM1 contamination level in milk is parallel to that of AFB1 in corn of concentrated feed, so monitoring of the AFB1 level in corn is important to prevent the risk of AFM1 contamination in milk in Japan.

  6. Enterotoxin-producing Staphylococcus aureus genotype B as a major contaminant in Swiss raw milk cheese.

    PubMed

    Hummerjohann, J; Naskova, J; Baumgartner, A; Graber, H U

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize Staphylococcus aureus isolates from Swiss raw milk cheeses that had been found to be contaminated with coagulase-positive staphylococci and to estimate the frequency of the various genotypes, in particular the mastitis-associated Staph. aureus genotype B (GTB). The isolates were also tested for staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) genes and other virulence factors. From 623 coagulase-positive staphylococci isolated from 78 contaminated raw milk cheeses, 609 were found to be Staphylococcus aureus. Genotyping of all Staph. aureus isolates was performed by PCR amplification of the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region, as this method was used previously to differentiate between mastitis subtypes associated with their clinical outcome. In total, 20 different genotypes were obtained and the 5 most frequently occurring genotypes were distributed in 6.4% or more of the samples. The enterotoxin-producing Staph. aureus GTB, known for its high contagiousness and increased pathogenicity in Swiss mastitis herds, was found to be the most abundant subtype at the sample level (71.8%) as well as among the isolates (62.0%). A subset of 107 isolates of the different genotypes were analyzed for the presence of SE genes and revealed 9 different SE gene patterns, with sed being most frequently detected and 26% being PCR-negative for SE genes. Almost all isolates of the major contaminant GTB contained the SE gene pattern sed, sej, ser, with half of them additionally carrying sea. Production of SE in vitro was consistent with the SE genes detected in most of the cases; however, some isolated GTB did not produce SEA. Staphylococcus aureus Protein A (spa) typing revealed 30 different subtypes and most GTB isolates belonged to the bovine spa type t2953; GTB/t2953 was linked among other subtypes to SE production in cheese and staphylococcal intoxication cases. Furthermore, 1 of the 623 isolates was a methicillin-resistant Staph. aureus, which was an

  7. Retrospective analysis of a listeria monocytogenes contamination episode in raw milk goat cheese using quantitative microbial risk assessment tools.

    PubMed

    Delhalle, L; Ellouze, M; Yde, M; Clinquart, A; Daube, G; Korsak, N

    2012-12-01

    In 2005, the Belgian authorities reported a Listeria monocytogenes contamination episode in cheese made from raw goat's milk. The presence of an asymptomatic shedder goat in the herd caused this contamination. On the basis of data collected at the time of the episode, a retrospective study was performed using an exposure assessment model covering the production chain from the milking of goats up to delivery of cheese to the market. Predictive microbiology models were used to simulate the growth of L. monocytogenes during the cheese process in relation with temperature, pH, and water activity. The model showed significant growth of L. monocytogenes during chilling and storage of the milk collected the day before the cheese production (median increase of 2.2 log CFU/ml) and during the addition of starter and rennet to milk (median increase of 1.2 log CFU/ml). The L. monocytogenes concentration in the fresh unripened cheese was estimated to be 3.8 log CFU/g (median). This result is consistent with the number of L. monocytogenes in the fresh cheese (3.6 log CFU/g) reported during the cheese contamination episode. A variance-based method sensitivity analysis identified the most important factors impacting the cheese contamination, and a scenario analysis then evaluated several options for risk mitigation. Thus, by using quantitative microbial risk assessment tools, this study provides reliable information to identify and control critical steps in a local production chain of cheese made from raw goat's milk.

  8. Direct detection of viable bacteria, molds, and yeasts by reverse transcriptase PCR in contaminated milk samples after heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Vaitilingom, M; Gendre, F; Brignon, P

    1998-03-01

    A fast, sensitive, and target contaminant-modulable method was developed to detect viable bacteria, molds, and yeasts after heat treatment. By reverse transcriptase PCR with elongation factor gene (EF-Tu or EF-1 alpha)-specific primers, the detection level was 10 cells ml of milk-1. The simplicity and rapidity (4 h) of the procedure suggests that this method may be easily transposable to other foods and other contaminants. PMID:9501455

  9. Application of a real time PCR method to detect castor toxin contamination in fluid milk and eggs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The castor seed contains ricin, which is one of the most potent biological toxins and is widely considered to be a threat agent for bioterrorism. In this study, a rapid and sensitive PCR method was developed for the detection of castor contamination in milk and liquid egg samples. Primers targeting ...

  10. Chemical hydrogeology in natural and contaminated environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Back, W.; Baedecker, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    Chemical hydrogeology, including organic and inorganic aspects, has contributed to an increased understanding of groundwater flow systems, geologic processes, and stressed environments. Most of the basic principles of inorganic-chemical hydrogeology were first established by investigations of organic-free, regional-scale systems for which simplifying assumptions could be made. The problems of groundwater contamination are causing a shift of emphasis to microscale systems that are dominated by organic-chemical reactions and that are providing an impetus for the study of naturally occurring and manmade organic material. Along with the decrease in scale, physical and chemical heterogeneity become major controls. Current investigations and those selected from the literature demonstrate that heterogeneity increases in importance as the study site decreases from regional-scale to macroscale to microscale. Increased understanding of regional-scale flow systems is demonstrated by selection of investigations of carbonate and volcanic aquifers to show how applications of present-day concepts and techniques can identify controlling chemical reactions and determine their rates; identify groundwater flow paths and determine flow velocity; and determine aquifer characteristics. The role of chemical hydrogeology in understanding geologic processes of macroscale systems is exemplified by selection of investigations in coastal aquifers. Phenomena associated with the mixing zone generated by encroaching sea water include an increase in heterogeneity of permeability, diagenesis of minerals, and formation of geomorphic features, such as caves, lagoons, and bays. Ore deposits of manganese and uranium, along with a simulation model of ore-forming fluids, demonstrate the influence of heterogeneity and of organic compounds on geochemical reactions associated with genesis of mineral deposits. In microscale environments, importance of heterogeneity and consequences of organic reactions in

  11. Seasonal patterns of aflatoxin M1 contamination in commercial pasteurised milk from different areas in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Suriyasathaporn, Witaya; Nakprasert, Watinee

    2012-01-01

    Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) levels were determined in pasteurised milk from five commercial trademarks produced in different areas in Thailand. One hundred and twenty milk samples were collected from local markets in Chiang Mai province, Thailand, to evaluate AFM1 concentrations using immunoaffinity columns and high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The overall median AFM1 level was 0.023 µg L(-1) ranging from 0.004 to 0.293 µg L(-1). All trademarks had average AFM1 concentrations lower than 0.05 µg L(-1), with those in Trademarks 3 to 5 being higher than Trademarks 1 and 2 (P < 0.01). All trademarks had different seasonal patterns of AFM1, even though operating in the same area. However, only Trademark 3 showed significant differences of AFM1 levels between seasons. The results suggested that farm management factors, rather than environment factors, were likely to be the main cause of AFM1 contamination in dairy products.

  12. Dietary exposure to phenolic and methoxylated organohalogen contaminants in relation to their concentrations in breast milk and serum in Japan.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Yukiko; Nishimura, Eri; Kato, Yoshihisa; Harada, Kouji H; Koizumi, Akio; Haraguchi, Koichi

    2014-02-01

    This study investigated human exposure to neutral, phenolic, and methoxylated organohalogen contaminants (OHCs) in a duplicate diet study to evaluate their concentrations in breast milk and serum of Okinawan people from Japan during 2004-2009. Dietary intakes of phenolic OHCs were predominantly 2,4,6-tribromophenol (TriBP), followed by tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), and 6-hydroxy-2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (6-OH-BDE47). After exposure, TriBP and TBBPA were transferred to breast milk, whereas 6-OH-BDE47 was selectively retained in serum. Despite a lower dietary exposure to pentachlorophenol and 4-hydroxy-CB187, both were retained in serum. For the methoxylated OHCs, 2,4,6-tribromoanisole (TriBA) and 6-methoxy-BDE47 were the predominant dietary contaminants, of which TriBA was present in both breast milk and serum, whereas 6-methoxy-BDE47 was selectively transferred to breast milk. These findings suggest that dietary exposure to phenolic and methoxylated OHCs may result in differential partitioning between breast milk and serum with different pharmacokinetic or exposure routes. PMID:24263137

  13. Radiation dose to Malaysian infants from natural radionuclides via consumption of powdered milk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uwatse, Onosohwo Bemigho; Olatunji, Michael Adekunle; Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Amin, Yusoff Mohd.

    2015-04-01

    Milk is the basic food stuff for the infants because they generally consume more milk on a daily basis as its minerals and proteins are essential for their growth and development, therefore, it is very important to assess the natural radioactivity levels and the associated dose in the widely consumed powered infant's milk. As a result, 14 brands of infant's powdered milk were collected from different supermarkets around Selangor, Malaysia and analysed for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K activities. The obtained mean activity of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K are 3.05±1.84, 2.55±2.48 and 99.1±69.5 Bqkg-1, respectively. Among the analysed milk samples, the brand from Philippines (Lactogen) showed low level of radioactivity while Singaporean brand (S26 SMA Gold) showed the highest. The estimated mean annual effective doses due to the ingestion of natural radionuclides in the sampled milk are 635 and 111 µSv for infant ≤ 1y and infant 1-2y, respectively. The obtained dose value does not yet pose any significant radiological hazards to the population under investigation comparing with the 1.0 mSvy-1 recommended by ICRP for all ages.

  14. Radiation dose to Malaysian infants from natural radionuclides via consumption of powdered milk

    SciTech Connect

    Uwatse, Onosohwo Bemigho; Olatunji, Michael Adekunle; Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Amin, Yusoff Mohd.

    2015-04-24

    Milk is the basic food stuff for the infants because they generally consume more milk on a daily basis as its minerals and proteins are essential for their growth and development, therefore, it is very important to assess the natural radioactivity levels and the associated dose in the widely consumed powered infant’s milk. As a result, 14 brands of infant’s powdered milk were collected from different supermarkets around Selangor, Malaysia and analysed for {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K activities. The obtained mean activity of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K are 3.05±1.84, 2.55±2.48 and 99.1±69.5 Bqkg{sup −1}, respectively. Among the analysed milk samples, the brand from Philippines (Lactogen) showed low level of radioactivity while Singaporean brand (S26 SMA Gold) showed the highest. The estimated mean annual effective doses due to the ingestion of natural radionuclides in the sampled milk are 635 and 111 µSv for infant ≤ 1y and infant 1-2y, respectively. The obtained dose value does not yet pose any significant radiological hazards to the population under investigation comparing with the 1.0 mSvy{sup −1} recommended by ICRP for all ages.

  15. A spatial, statistical approach to map the risk of milk contamination by β-hexachlorocyclohexane in dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Battisti, Sabrina; Caminiti, Antonino; Ciotoli, Giancarlo; Panetta, Valentina; Rombolà, Pasquale; Sala, Marcello; Ubaldi, Alessandro; Scaramozzino, Paola

    2013-11-01

    In May 2005, beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH) was found in a sample of bovine bulk milk from a farm in the Sacco River valley (Latium region, central Italy). The primary source of contamination was suspected to be industrial discharge into the environment with the Sacco River as the main mean of dispersion. Since then, a surveillance programme on bulk milk of the local farms was carried out by the veterinary services. In order to estimate the spatial probability of β- HCH contamination of milk produced in the Sacco River valley and draw probability maps of contamination, probability maps of β-HCH values in milk were estimated by indicator kriging (IK), a geo-statistical estimator, and traditional logistic regression (LR) combined with a geographical information systems approach. The former technique produces a spatial view of probabilities above a specific threshold at non-sampled locations on the basis of observed values in the area, while LR gives the probabilities in specific locations on the basis of certain environmental predictors, namely the distance from the river, the distance from the pollution site, the elevation above the river level and the intrinsic vulnerability of hydro-geological formations. Based on the β-HCH data from 2005 in the Sacco River valley, the two techniques resulted in similar maps of high risk of milk contamination. However, unlike the IK method, the LR model was capable of estimating coefficients that could be used in case of future pollution episodes. The approach presented produces probability maps and define high-risk areas already in the early stages of an emergency before sampling operations have been carried out.

  16. Application of a real time polymerase chain reaction method to detect castor toxin contamination in fluid milk and eggs.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaohua; Carter, John Mark; Brandon, David L; Cheng, Luisa W; McKeon, Thomas A

    2007-08-22

    The castor seed contains ricin, which is one of the most potent biological toxins and is widely considered to be a threat agent for bioterrorism. In this study, a rapid and sensitive PCR method was applied to the detection of castor contamination in milk and liquid egg samples. The targeting gene sequence of the primer set, Ricin-F4/R4, was not found in either the bovine or chicken genome. Primers against a highly conserved sequence from the 18S ribosomal RNA gene were used as a positive control for DNA extraction and PCR reaction efficiency. The quantity and quality of DNA prepared from castor spiked or nonspiked milk and egg samples obtained from three different DNA extraction methods were compared. The cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) method yielded the highest quality of DNA and is most suitable for the sensitive detection of castor DNA by real-time PCR in both milk and liquid egg matrixes. However, taking time and cost into consideration, a commercial kit designed for extraction of DNA from stool samples could be used as an alternative method for the routine extraction of DNA from milk for real-time PCR assays. The egg matrix was found to inhibit PCR amplification and interfere with two of the three methods tested for DNA extraction. Egg yolk had a greater negative effect on PCR amplification than the egg white matrix. Our results affirm the necessity of performing individual validations for each food matrix. Both real-time PCR systems used in this study, TaqMan and SYBR Green I dye, were capable of detecting 100 ng of castor acetone powder, corresponding to 5 ng of ricin, in 1 mL of milk or liquid egg, well below the toxic dose for humans. On the basis of these results, the real-time PCR method for detection of intentional castor contamination is applicable to milk and egg matrixes. PMID:17650003

  17. Absence of growth of Listeria monocytogenes in naturally contaminated Cheddar cheese.

    PubMed

    Dalmasso, Marion; Jordan, Kieran

    2014-02-01

    Each cheese producer is responsible by the legislation for the number of Listeria monocytogenes in cheese and is required to prove that numbers will not exceed 100 cfu/g throughout the shelf-life of the cheese. Even in the case of hard-cheese such as Cheddar cheese, the absence of growth of List. monocytogenes during ripening has to be demonstrated to comply with EU legislation. Studies dedicated to assessing List. monocytogenes growth throughout cheese shelf-life are generally based on artificially contaminated cheeses. Contrary to the majority of works, the current study focused on the growth of List. monocytogenes in naturally contaminated raw milk farmhouse Cheddar cheeses during a five-month ripening period. List. monocytogenes growth was assessed by direct count and its presence was detected by enrichment in two naturally contaminated cheese batches. In order to track routes of contamination, 199 processing environment samples from inside and outside the processing facility were taken, and their analysis for the presence of List. monocytogenes was performed on four occasions over a 9-month period. List. monocytogenes isolates were differentiated using PFGE and serotyping. List. monocytogenes never exceeded 20 cfu/g in the cheeses and could not be detected after five months of ripening. Eleven pulsotypes were identified. One pulsotype was found in the yard outside the processing facility, in a vat, on the processing area floor and in a cheese. This indicated that the outside environment constitutes a potential source of contamination of the processing environment and of the cheese. These results demonstrate that this farmhouse Cheddar cheese does not support List. monocytogenes growth and suggests that the efforts to reduce processing environment contamination are worthwhile. PMID:24345459

  18. Assessment of Risk Factors in Milk Contamination with Staphylococcus aureus in Urban and Peri-Urban Small-Holder Dairy Farming in Central Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tigabu, E; Asrat, D; Kassa, T; Sinmegn, T; Molla, B; Gebreyes, W

    2015-12-01

    Assessment of risk factors associated with milk production systems is central to ensuring quality and safety of milk and milk products. This study was aimed at identifying possible risk factors in milk contamination in urban and peri-urban areas of the central high lands of Ethiopia. A total of 477 on-farm pooled milk (n = 433) and combined bulk milk samples (n = 44) were collected and processed using standard microbiological techniques to isolate and characterize Staphylococcus aureus. In addition, 433 individual farm owners and 22 collection centre owners were interviewed using a structured and pre-tested questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine risk factors. Of the total individual on-farm pooled milk samples analysed (n = 433), it was found that 103 of the individual milk samples (24%) and 17 of the combined bulk milk (39%) were positive for S. aureus. This difference in prevalence was statistically significant. Even though there were a number of potential variables associated with the recovery of S. aureus in bovine milk, four variables including cleaning milk container with hot water and detergent [Adjusted OR: 0.342, 95% CI, (0.166, 0.701)], mastitis check [Adjusted OR: 3.019, 95% CI (1.542, 5.913)], travel time to collection centres [Adjusted OR: 4.932, 95% CI, (2.265, 10.739)] and amount of milk delivered by farmers to collection centres per day [Adjusted OR: 1.059 (1.032, 1.087 β = 0.057)] were found to be statistically significantly associated with isolation of S. aureus. We recommend a targeted educational intervention on defined risk factors to reduce the post-harvest S. aureus contamination of raw milk in urban and peri-urban milk shed areas of central Ethiopia. PMID:25916167

  19. Contribution to the study of staphylococcus contamination of cows' milk on a number of farms in Algiers: its impact on human health.

    PubMed

    Hamiroune, M; Berber, A; Boubekeur, S

    2014-12-01

    The authors describe a survey and screening programme for staphylococcus. The study covers 14 dairy farms in the Algiers region, from which 203 samples of cows' milk were taken for bacteriological testing. The survey results show that poor husbandry conditions are the main cause of staphylococcus in cows' milk. Staphylococcus was found in the milk of 30% of the cows sampled. These results were influenced by a variety of factors, in that: the contamination rate rose with the number of pregnancies, age, and volume of milk output of the cow, as well as the bedding thickness; the milk contamination rate was greater when milking occurred outside a milking parlour and when it was performed by machine; higher rates of staphylococcus infection were found in the milk of cows at the end of lactation, in red and white breeds, and in those with cylindricalteats. Identification of the bacteria found (staphylococcus) showed that coagulase- negative staphylococci were present in 67.21% of samples, whereas coagulase- positive staphylococci were present in only 32.79%. The average count for the latter was equal to 0.54 x 10(4) colony-forming units per ml of Staphylococcus aureus. Seventy percent of the milk analysed was free from staphylococci and most of the bacteria identified were not pathogenic to consumers (coagulase- negative staphylococci); nevertheless, consuming fresh milk still presents a degree of risk.

  20. Natural radioactivity contamination problems. Report no. 2. (final)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-01

    Levels of naturally occurring radionuclides associated with the bauxite, columbium-tantalum, phosphate, tin, pumice, and titanium mineral extraction industries are reported. Data is also presented on radioactivity measurements in ground water, in selected geothermal waters, and in oil production brines. Radiation protection guidance is provided for uranium recovery from wet-process phosphate plants, for soil contamination limits, and for radiological exposure in natural caves. Dose pathways from incidental uses of naturally occurring radioactive materials are presented. Model state regulations for protecting public health and safety from use and disposal of naturally occurring radioactive material are outlined.

  1. Determination of transfer rate and nature of the residue(s) in milk from {sup 14}C-atrazine cows

    SciTech Connect

    Thalacker, F.W.; Ash, S.G.; Simoneaux, B.J.

    1996-10-01

    In order to determine the rate of transfer and the nature of the atrazine residues present in milk, lactating dairy cattle were treated with atrazine at three concentrations, 0.764 ppm, 0.0747 ppm and 0.0085 ppm (dry weight of food consumed). The concentrations were selected to bridge the gap between the concentration used for EPA metabolism studies (10 ppm) and the potential exposure level of dairy cattle to atrazine and its chlorotriazine metabolites through feed. The cattle were dosed following the morning milking for nine consecutive days with a single capsule bolus of {sup 14}C-atrazine. Milk was collected twice daily and aliquots of each milking and the individual cow`s daily pool of milk were analyzed by liquid scinitllation counting (LSC). The concentrations of {sup 14}C-residues in the milk plateaued on approximately day 3 and the mean {sup 14}C-atrazine levels in milk were 11.2 ppb, 1.13 ppb and 0.152 ppb for the high, middle and low dosed animals, respectively. The transfer of radioactive level of exposure to {sup 14}C-atrazine. The nature of the residues in milk were determined by extracting milk samples and analysis by HPLC, TLC or Aminex chromatography. Diaminchlorotriazine was the only chlorinated metabolite in the milk, constituting approximately 65% to 75% of the total radioactive residues (TRR).

  2. Monitoring of environmental contaminants in raw bovine milk and estimates of dietary intakes of children in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Gyu; Kim, MeeKyung; Jang, Jung-Hee; Bong, Young Hoon; Kim, Jeong-Han

    2013-09-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are ubiquitous residual contaminants in the environment and in the food chain. Milk is an important matrix for monitoring POP contamination. This study determined the concentrations of POPs including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in raw bovine milk, and the data was used to estimate dietary intakes in South Korea. The average concentrations of PBDEs, HCB, PCDD/Fs, and DL-PCBs in raw milk were 0.29 ng g(-1)fat, 0.50 ng g(-1)fat, 0.27 pg TEQ g(-1)fat, and 0.33 pg TEQ g(-1)fat, respectively. No significant relationship was found between the concentrations of analytes and the regions sampled. The dietary intakes of PBDEs from the consumption of milk was calculated to be 0.26, 0.10, and 0.05ng kg(-1)bwd(-1) for the group of ages 0-6, 7-12, and 13-19, respectively. The dietary intakes of HCB was calculated to be 0.44, 0.16, and 0.09 ng kg(-1)bwd(-1) for the group of ages 0-6, 7-12, and 13-19, respectively. The dietary intakes of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs was calculated to be 0.78, 0.29, and 0.16pgTEQ kg(-1)bwd(-1) for the group of ages 0-6, 7-12, and 13-19, respectively. These results indicated that the residual levels of PBDEs, HCB, PCDD/Fs, and DL-PCBs in raw bovine milk were within safe levels.

  3. Determination of organic milk authenticity using carbon and nitrogen natural isotopes.

    PubMed

    Chung, Ill-Min; Park, Inmyoung; Yoon, Jae-Yeon; Yang, Ye-Seul; Kim, Seung-Hyun

    2014-10-01

    Natural stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen ((12)C, (13)C, (14)N, (15)N) have abundances unique to each living creature. Therefore, measurement of the stable isotope ratio of carbon and nitrogen (δ(13)C=(13)C/(12)C, δ(15)N=(15)N/(14)N) in milk provides a reliable method to determine organic milk (OM) authenticity. In the present study, the mean δ(13)C value of OM was higher than that of conventional milk (CM), whereas the mean δ(15)N value of OM was lower than that of CM; nonetheless both δ(13)C and δ(15)N values were statistically different for the OM and CM (P<0.05). Furthermore, the values of δ(13)C and δ(15)N were found to differ statistically with the collection date and the milk brand (P<0.05). The combination of δ(13)C and δ(15)N values was more effective than either value alone in distinguishing between OM and CM. The results of the present study, which is based on preliminary data from a limited sample size and sampling period, could be highly valuable and helpful for consumers, the food industry, and/or government regulatory agencies as it can prevent fraudulent labelling of organic food. Further studies include additional analyses of other milk brands and analyses over longer time periods in order to accurately determine OM authenticity using stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen.

  4. Natural flow and water consumption in the Milk River basin, Montana and Alberta, Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the differences between natural and nonnatural Milk River streamflow, to delineate and quantify the types and effects of water consumption on streamflow, and to refine the current computation procedure into one which computes and apportions natural flow. Water consumption consists principally of irrigated agriculture, municipal use, and evapotranspiration. Mean daily water consumption by irrigation ranged from 10 cu ft/sec to 26 cu ft/sec in the Canada part and from 6 cu ft/sec to 41 cu ft/sec in the US part. Two Canadian municipalities consume about 320 acre-ft and one US municipality consumes about 20 acre-ft yearly. Evaporation from the water surface comprises 80% 0 90% of the flow reduction in the Milk River attributed to total evapotranspiration. The current water-budget approach for computing natural flow of the Milk River where it reenters the US was refined into an interim procedure which includes allowances for man-induced consumption and a method for apportioning computed natural flow between the US and Canada. The refined procedure is considered interim because further study of flow routing, tributary inflow, and man-induced consumption is needed before a more accurate procedure for computing natural flow can be developed. (Author 's abstract)

  5. Raman spectral imaging for quantitative contaminant evaluation in skim milk powder

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study uses a point-scan Raman spectral imaging system for quantitative detection of melamine in milk powder. A sample depth of 2 mm and corresponding laser intensity of 200 mW were selected after evaluating the penetration of a 785 nm laser through milk powder. Horizontal and vertical spatial r...

  6. Microbial contamination of milk and dairy products from restaurants in Spain.

    PubMed

    Sospedra, Isabel; Rubert, Josep V; Soler, Carla; Soriano, Jose M; Mañes, Jordi

    2009-12-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the microbiological quality of milk and some dairy products, including 95 lots of warm milk, 95 lots of milk conserved at room temperature, and 75 lots of dairy products collected from restaurants in Spain. According to the European microbiological criteria (92/46/EEC, 93/43/EEC, and Commission Regulation No. 2073/2005), 31% and 35% of the total examined lots exceed the adopted limits of mesophilic aerobic counts and Enterobacteriaceae, respectively. This may be due to incorrect handling of milk and dairy products and inadequate cleaning and sanitization of milk container. Further, 2% of all the lots examined were positive for the presence of Escherichia coli. All lots, however, were negative for Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella spp. These results emphasize the need for applying and maintaining good hygienic practices in the restaurants. PMID:19737068

  7. Detection of Blood Culture Bacterial Contamination using Natural Language Processing

    PubMed Central

    Matheny, Michael E.; FitzHenry, Fern; Speroff, Theodore; Hathaway, Jacob; Murff, Harvey J.; Brown, Steven H.; Fielstein, Elliot M.; Dittus, Robert S.; Elkin, Peter L.

    2009-01-01

    Microbiology results are reported in semi-structured formats and have a high content of useful patient information. We developed and validated a hybrid regular expression and natural language processing solution for processing blood culture microbiology reports. Multi-center Veterans Affairs training and testing data sets were randomly extracted and manually reviewed to determine the culture and sensitivity as well as contamination results. The tool was iteratively developed for both outcomes using a training dataset, and then evaluated on the test dataset to determine antibiotic susceptibility data extraction and contamination detection performance. Our algorithm had a sensitivity of 84.8% and a positive predictive value of 96.0% for mapping the antibiotics and bacteria with appropriate sensitivity findings in the test data. The bacterial contamination detection algorithm had a sensitivity of 83.3% and a positive predictive value of 81.8%. PMID:20351890

  8. Detection of blood culture bacterial contamination using natural language processing.

    PubMed

    Matheny, Michael E; Fitzhenry, Fern; Speroff, Theodore; Hathaway, Jacob; Murff, Harvey J; Brown, Steven H; Fielstein, Elliot M; Dittus, Robert S; Elkin, Peter L

    2009-11-14

    Microbiology results are reported in semi-structured formats and have a high content of useful patient information. We developed and validated a hybrid regular expression and natural language processing solution for processing blood culture microbiology reports. Multi-center Veterans Affairs training and testing data sets were randomly extracted and manually reviewed to determine the culture and sensitivity as well as contamination results. The tool was iteratively developed for both outcomes using a training dataset, and then evaluated on the test dataset to determine antibiotic susceptibility data extraction and contamination detection performance. Our algorithm had a sensitivity of 84.8% and a positive predictive value of 96.0% for mapping the antibiotics and bacteria with appropriate sensitivity findings in the test data. The bacterial contamination detection algorithm had a sensitivity of 83.3% and a positive predictive value of 81.8%.

  9. Farm to Fork Quantitative Risk Assessment of Listeria monocytogenes Contamination in Raw and Pasteurized Milk Cheese in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Uma; Cummins, Enda; Valero, Antonio; Walsh, Des; Dalmasso, Marion; Jordan, Kieran; Duffy, Geraldine

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to model and quantify the level of Listeria monocytogenes in raw milk cheese (RMc) and pasteurized milk cheese (PMc) from farm to fork using a Bayesian inference approach combined with a quantitative risk assessment. The modeling approach included a prediction of contamination arising from the farm environment as well from cross-contamination within the cheese-processing facility through storage and subsequent human exposure. The model predicted a high concentration of L. monocytogenes in contaminated RMc (mean 2.19 log10 CFU/g) compared to PMc (mean -1.73 log10 CFU/g). The mean probability of illness (P1 for low-risk population, LR) and (P2 for high-risk population, HR, e.g., immunocompromised) adult Irish consumers following exposure to contaminated cheese was 7 × 10(-8) (P1 ) and 9 × 10(-4) (P2 ) for RMc and 7 × 10(-10) (P1 ) and 8 × 10(-6) (P2 ) for PMc, respectively. In addition, the model was used to evaluate performance objectives at various stages, namely, the cheese making and ripening stages, and to set a food safety objective at the time of consumption. A scenario analysis predicted various probabilities of L. monocytogenes contamination along the cheese-processing chain for both RMc and PMc. The sensitivity analysis showed the critical factors for both cheeses were the serving size of the cheese, storage time, and temperature at the distribution stage. The developed model will allow food processors and policymakers to identify the possible routes of contamination along the cheese-processing chain and to reduce the risk posed to human health.

  10. TOOLS FOR ASSESSING MONITORED NATURAL RECOVERY OF PCB-CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Management of contaminated sediments poses many challenges due to varied contaminants and volumes of sediments to manage. dredging, capping, and monitored natural recovery (MNR) are the primary approaches at this time for managing contaminated sediment risks. Understanding how we...

  11. Immobilization of uranium in contaminated soil by natural apatite addition

    SciTech Connect

    Mrdakovic Popic, Jelena; Stojanovic, Mirjana; Milosevic, Sinisa; Iles, Deana; Zildzovic, Snezana

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Serbian natural mineral apatite as soil additive for reducing the migration of uranium from contaminated sediments. In laboratory study we investigated the sorption properties of domestic apatite upon different experimental conditions, such as pH, adsorbent mass, reaction period, concentration of P{sub 2}O{sub 5} in apatite, solid/liquid ratio. In second part of study, we did the quantification of uranium in soil samples, taken from uranium mine site 'Kalna', by sequential extraction method. The same procedure was, also, used for uranium determination in contaminated soil samples after apatite addition, in order to determine the changes in U distribution in soil fraction. The obtained results showed the significant level of immobilization (96.7%) upon certain conditions. Increase of %P{sub 2}O{sub 5} in apatite and process of mechano-chemical activation led to increase of immobilization capacity from 17.50% till 91.64%. The best results for uranium binding were obtained at pH 5.5 and reaction period 60 days (98.04%) The sequential extraction showed the presence of uranium (48.2%) in potentially available soil fractions, but with the apatite addition uranium content in these fractions decreased (30.64%), what is considering environmental aspect significant fact. In situ immobilization of radionuclide using inexpensive sequestering agents, such as apatite, is very adequate for big contaminated areas of soil with low level of contamination. This investigation study on natural apatite from deposit 'Lisina' Serbia was the first one of this type in our country. Key words: apatite, uranium, immobilization, soil, contamination. (authors)

  12. An analysis on how switching to a more balanced and naturally improved milk would affect consumer health and the environment.

    PubMed

    Roibás, Laura; Martínez, Ismael; Goris, Alfonso; Barreiro, Rocío; Hospido, Almudena

    2016-10-01

    This study compares a premium brand of UHT milk, Unicla, characterised by an improved nutritional composition, to conventional milk, in terms of health effects and environmental impacts. Unlike enriched milks, in which nutrients are added to the final product, Unicla is obtained naturally by improving the diet of the dairy cows. Health effects have been analysed based on literature findings, while the environmental analysis focused on those spheres of the environment where milk is expected to cause the higher impacts, and thus carbon (CF) and water footprints (WF) have been determined. Five final products have been compared: 3 conventional (skimmed, semi-skimmed, whole) and 2 Unicla (skimmed, semi-skimmed) milks. As a functional unit, one litre of packaged UHT milk entering the regional distribution centre has been chosen. The improved composition of Unicla milk is expected to decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease and to protect consumers against oxidative damage, among other health benefits. Concerning the environmental aspect, CF of Unicla products are, on average, 10% lower than their conventional equivalents, mainly due to the lower enteric emissions of caused by the Unicla diet. No significant differences were found between the WF of Unicla and conventional milk. Raw milk is the main contributor to both footprints (on average, 83.2 and 84.3% of the total CF of Unicla and conventional milk, respectively, and 99.9% of WF). The results have been compared to those found in literature, and a sensitivity analysis has been performed to verify their robustness. The study concludes that switching to healthier milk compositions can help slowing down global warming, without contributing to other environmental issues such as water scarcity. The results should encourage other milk companies to commit to the development of healthier, less environmentally damaging products, and also to stimulate consumers to bet on them. PMID:27239712

  13. An analysis on how switching to a more balanced and naturally improved milk would affect consumer health and the environment.

    PubMed

    Roibás, Laura; Martínez, Ismael; Goris, Alfonso; Barreiro, Rocío; Hospido, Almudena

    2016-10-01

    This study compares a premium brand of UHT milk, Unicla, characterised by an improved nutritional composition, to conventional milk, in terms of health effects and environmental impacts. Unlike enriched milks, in which nutrients are added to the final product, Unicla is obtained naturally by improving the diet of the dairy cows. Health effects have been analysed based on literature findings, while the environmental analysis focused on those spheres of the environment where milk is expected to cause the higher impacts, and thus carbon (CF) and water footprints (WF) have been determined. Five final products have been compared: 3 conventional (skimmed, semi-skimmed, whole) and 2 Unicla (skimmed, semi-skimmed) milks. As a functional unit, one litre of packaged UHT milk entering the regional distribution centre has been chosen. The improved composition of Unicla milk is expected to decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease and to protect consumers against oxidative damage, among other health benefits. Concerning the environmental aspect, CF of Unicla products are, on average, 10% lower than their conventional equivalents, mainly due to the lower enteric emissions of caused by the Unicla diet. No significant differences were found between the WF of Unicla and conventional milk. Raw milk is the main contributor to both footprints (on average, 83.2 and 84.3% of the total CF of Unicla and conventional milk, respectively, and 99.9% of WF). The results have been compared to those found in literature, and a sensitivity analysis has been performed to verify their robustness. The study concludes that switching to healthier milk compositions can help slowing down global warming, without contributing to other environmental issues such as water scarcity. The results should encourage other milk companies to commit to the development of healthier, less environmentally damaging products, and also to stimulate consumers to bet on them.

  14. Toxic Element Contamination of Natural Health Products and Pharmaceutical Preparations

    PubMed Central

    Genuis, Stephen J.; Schwalfenberg, Gerry; Siy, Anna-Kristen J.; Rodushkin, Ilya

    2012-01-01

    Background Concern has recently emerged regarding the safety of natural health products (NHPs)–therapies that are increasingly recommended by various health providers, including conventional physicians. Recognizing that most individuals in the Western world now consume vitamins and many take herbal agents, this study endeavored to determine levels of toxic element contamination within a range of NHPs. Methods Toxic element testing was performed on 121 NHPs (including Ayurvedic, traditional Chinese, and various marine-source products) as well as 49 routinely prescribed pharmaceutical preparations. Testing was also performed on several batches of one prenatal supplement, with multiple samples tested within each batch. Results were compared to existing toxicant regulatory limits. Results Toxic element contamination was found in many supplements and pharmaceuticals; levels exceeding established limits were only found in a small percentage of the NHPs tested and none of the drugs tested. Some NHPs demonstrated contamination levels above preferred daily endpoints for mercury, cadmium, lead, arsenic or aluminum. NHPs manufactured in China generally had higher levels of mercury and aluminum. Conclusions Exposure to toxic elements is occurring regularly as a result of some contaminated NHPs. Best practices for quality control–developed and implemented by the NHP industry with government oversight–is recommended to guard the safety of unsuspecting consumers. PMID:23185404

  15. Effects of Milk Yield, Feed Composition, and Feed Contamination with Aflatoxin B1 on the Aflatoxin M1 Concentration in Dairy Cows’ Milk Investigated Using Monte Carlo Simulation Modelling

    PubMed Central

    van der Fels-Klerx, H. J.; Camenzuli, Louise

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the presence of aflatoxin M1 (AfM1) in dairy cows’ milk, given predefined scenarios for milk production, compound feed (CF) contamination with aflatoxin B1 (AfB1), and inclusion rates of ingredients, using Monte Carlo simulation modelling. The model simulated a typical dairy farm in the Netherlands. Six different scenarios were considered, based on two lactation and three CF composition scenarios. AfB1 contamination of the CF was based on results from the Dutch national monitoring programme for AfB1 in feed materials from 2000 until 2010. Monitoring data from feed materials used in CF production for dairy cattle in the Netherlands were used. Additionally, AfB1 contamination data from an incident in maize in 2013 were used. In each scenario, five different transfer equations of AfB1 from feed to AfM1 in the milk were used, and 1000 iterations were run for each scenario. The results showed that under these six scenarios, the weekly farm concentration of AfM1 in milk was above the EC threshold in less than 1% of the iterations, with all five transfer equations considered. However, this increased substantially in weeks when concentrations from the contaminated maize batch were included, and up to 28.5% of the iterations exceeded the EC threshold. It was also observed that an increase in the milk production had a minimal effect on the exceedance of the AfM1 threshold due to an apparent dilution effect. Feeding regimes, including the composition of CF and feeding roughages of dairy cows, should be carefully considered based on the potential AfM1 contamination of the farm’s milk. PMID:27735836

  16. EVALUATING MONITORED NATURAL ATTENUATION FOR RADIONUCLIDE AND INORGANIC CONTAMINANTS IN GROUNDWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) for inorganic contaminants is dependent on naturally occurring processes in the subsurface that act without human intervention to reduce the mass, toxicity, mobility, volume or concentration of contaminants. EPA is developing a technical refer...

  17. EVALUATING MONITORED NATURAL ATTENUATION FOR RADIONUCLIDE & ORGANIC CONTAMINATION IN GROUNDWATER (SALT LAKE CITY, UT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) for radionuclides and inorganic contaminants is dependent on naturally occurring processes in the subsurface that act without human intervention to reduce the mass, toxicity, mobility, volume or concentration of contaminants. EPA is developing ...

  18. Goat milk fat naturally enriched with conjugated linoleic acid increased lipoproteins and reduced triacylglycerol in rats.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Raphaela; Soares, Juliana; Garcia, Hugo; Nascimento, Claudenice; Medeiros, Maria; Bomfim, Marco; Medeiros, Maria Carmo; Queiroga, Rita

    2014-01-01

    Goat milk is source of different lipids, including conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). CLA reduces body fat and protect against cardiovascular diseases. In the present study fat from goat milk naturally enriched with CLA was used. Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups that received during a 10 week diet with different lipid sources: soybean oil (CON), coconut oil (CO) and goat milk fat naturally enriched with CLA (GM-CLA). We evaluated the effects of a GM-CLA on biochemistry parameters--high density lipoprotein (HDL), triacylglycerol (TAG), TAG/HDL ratio, total cholesterol and glucose, body weight and histopathological aspects of the intestine and liver. GM-CLA increased body weight from the second to the fifth week of the experiment compared to CON. Feed intake differed between the CON group and GM-CLA early in the first to third week of the experiments and later between the ninth and tenth week. The CLA-diet group showed increased levels of HDL, reduced levels of TAG and TAG/HDL ratio and no effect on LDL, but enhanced total cholesterol. Serum glucose of the GM-CLA group showed no difference from the control group. Thus, a GM-CLA diet promoted growth in young rats and acted as protector of cardiovascular function, but further studies are still needed to clarify these effects. PMID:24662092

  19. Natural attenuation and enhanced bioremediation of organic contaminants in groundwater.

    PubMed

    Scow, Kate M; Hicks, Kristin A

    2005-06-01

    An area of intense scientific and practical interest is the biogeochemical and microbial processes determining the success of natural attenuation, biostimulation and/or bioaugmentation treatments for organic contaminants in groundwater. Recent studies in this area have focused on the reductive dechlorination of chlorinated solvents, the degradation of the fuel additive methyl tert-butyl ether, and the removal of long-term hydrocarbon contamination. These studies have been facilitated by the use of stable isotope analysis to demonstrate in situ bioremediation and push-pull tests, in which isotopes are injected into aquifers and then quickly retrieved and analyzed, to measure in situ activity. Molecular tools such as quantitative PCR, the detection of mRNA expression, and numerous DNA fingerprinting methods have also proved valuable, being employed to identify and sometimes quantify environmentally important organisms or changes in communities. Methods to track bacteria and tools to characterize bacterial attachment properties have also offered insight into bacterial transport in situ.

  20. Dioxins and Nonortho PCBs in Breast Milk of Vietnamese Mothers Living in the Largest Hot Spot of Dioxin Contamination.

    PubMed

    Nghi, Tran Ngoc; Nishijo, Muneko; Manh, Ho Dung; Tai, Pham The; Van Luong, Hoang; Anh, Tran Hai; Thao, Pham Ngoc; Trung, Nguyen Viet; Waseda, Tomoo; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Kido, Teruhiko; Nishijo, Hisao

    2015-05-01

    Bien Hoa Air Base is the largest dioxin contamination hot spot in Vietnam. In 2012, we recruited 216 mothers who were living in 10 communities around Bien Hoa Air Base and had delivered newborns at a prefecture hospital, and we investigated recent exposure levels of dioxins and nonortho PCBs in their breast milk. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-tetraCDD) was present at 2.6 pg/g lipid in primiparae and 2.2 pg/g lipid in multiparae. Among multiparae and total subjects, significant high prevalence of 2,3,7,8-tetraCDD≥5 pg/g lipid and 2,3,7,8-tetraCDD contribution≥40% were observed in mothers living in the five communities closest to Bien Hoa Air Base. The TEQ for nonortho PCBs was 1.6 pg-TEQ/g lipid for primiparae, and this was even lower than that in the unsprayed area. The length of residency was a strong factor to increase dioxins, including 2,3,7,8-tetraCDD. Residency in the five communities with the highest exposure was a specific risk factor for increased 2,3,7,8-tetraCDD in breast milk. Food intake might contribute partly to the increased levels of dioxin congeners other than 2,3,7,8-tetraCDD in breast milk. These results suggest that Bien Hoa Air Base has led to elevated 2,3,7,8-tetraCDD levels in breast milk of mothers in nearby areas even in the recent years.

  1. Assessment of natural background levels in potentially contaminated coastal aquifers.

    PubMed

    Molinari, A; Chidichimo, F; Straface, S; Guadagnini, A

    2014-04-01

    The estimation of natural background levels (NBLs) of dissolved concentrations of target chemical species in subsurface reservoirs relies on a proper assessment of the effects of forcing terms driving flow and transport processes taking place within the system and whose dynamics drive background concentration values. We propose coupling methodologies based on (a) global statistical analyses and (b) numerical modeling of system dynamics to distinguish between the impacts of different types of external forcing components influencing background concentration values. We focus on the joint application of a statistical methodology based on Component Separation and experimental/numerical modeling studies of groundwater flow and transport for the NBL estimation of selected chemical species in potentially contaminated coastal aquifers. We consider a site which is located in Calabria, Italy, and constitutes a typical example of a Mediterranean coastal aquifer which has been subject to intense industrial development. Our study is keyed to the characterization of NBLs of manganese and sulfate and is geared to the proper identification of the importance of a natural external forcing (i.e., seawater intrusion) on NBL assessment. Results from the Component Separation statistical approach are complemented by numerical simulations of the advective-dispersive processes that could influence the distribution of chemical species (i.e., sulfate) within the system. Estimated NBLs for manganese are consistent with the geochemical composition of soil samples. While Component Separation ascribes the largest detected sulfate concentrations to anthropogenic sources, our numerical modeling analysis suggests that they are mainly related to the natural process of seawater intrusion. Our results indicate that the use of statistical methodologies in complex groundwater systems should be assisted by a detailed characterization of the dynamics of natural (and/or induced) processes to distinguish

  2. Plasma disposition, milk excretion and parasitological efficacy of mebendazole in donkeys naturally infected by Cyathostominae.

    PubMed

    Gokbulut, Cengiz; Aksit, Dilek; Santoro, Mario; Roncoroni, Cristina; Mariani, Ugo; Buono, Francesco; Rufrano, Domenico; Fagiolo, Antonio; Veneziano, Vincenzo

    2016-02-15

    Mebendazole (MBZ) has been licensed for use in horses and donkeys, however there are no data available in the literature regarding its pharmacokinetic disposition and efficacy in donkeys. This study was designed to determine the plasma disposition, milk excretion and anthelmintic efficacy of MBZ in donkeys naturally infected by Cyathostominae. The animals were allocated to three groups, each of six donkeys. One group was untreated control (C-group) and the others were treated using a paste formulation of MBZ administered per os at the manufacturer's recommended horse dosage of 10 mg/kg body weight (MBZ 1) and at the double horse dosage 20 mg/kg body weight (MBZ 2). Blood and milk samples were collected at various times between 1h and 120 h post treatment and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector. Individual FECs (Faecal Egg Counts) were performed on each animal before the treatment (day-3) and weekly from day 7 until day 56 post treatment using a modified McMaster technique. The plasma concentrations and systemic exposure of MBZ in donkeys were relatively lower compared with the other methylcarbamate benzimidazoles. Dose-dependent plasma dispositions of MBZ were observed at the increased dosage (10 mg/kg vs 20 mg/kg) in donkeys. MBZ was not detected in any milk samples at a dosage of 10 mg/kg. However, the parent drug reached 0.01 μg/ml peak milk concentration at 10.66 h and AUCmilk/AUCplasma value was 0.18 ± 0.02 at a dosage of 20 mg/kg bodyweight. This study indicated that per os administration of MBZ has a minimal disposition rate into the milk and may be used in lactating donkeys with zero milk-withdrawal period. The results of FECRT for both MBZ dosages were efficient (>95% efficacy) until day 28. This trial demonstrates that MBZ oral paste at horse dosage (10 mg/kg B.W.) was effective and safety for the treatment of Cyathostominae in donkeys. Therefore, similar dosage regimens of MBZ could be used for horses and

  3. Use of lycopene as a natural antioxidant in extending the shelf-life of anhydrous cow milk fat.

    PubMed

    Siwach, Ruby; Tokas, Jayanti; Seth, Raman

    2016-05-15

    Oxidative rancidity in anhydrous cow milk fat leads to reduction in its shelf life. Use of synthetic antioxidants is prevalent in dairy industry to prevent the development of rancidity. Keeping in view the increasing demand for natural additives, the present study was carried out to explore the potential of lycopene as a natural antioxidant in anhydrous cow milk fat. Lycopene at five different levels (30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 ppm) and butylated hydroxyl anisole (200 ppm), were incorporated in anhydrous cow milk fat. Potential of lycopene extract to enhance the shelf life of anhydrous cow milk fat was evaluated by measuring Free Fatty Acids, peroxide value, Thiobarbituric Acid value and color value during 12 months of storage at ambient conditions (30°C). Lycopene significantly (p<0.05) prevented the development of oxidative rancidity. Lycopene containing samples scored significantly higher in terms of sensory attributes as compared to control. PMID:26776006

  4. Milk Thistle Constituents Inhibit Raloxifene Intestinal Glucuronidation: A Potential Clinically Relevant Natural Product-Drug Interaction.

    PubMed

    Gufford, Brandon T; Chen, Gang; Vergara, Ana G; Lazarus, Philip; Oberlies, Nicholas H; Paine, Mary F

    2015-09-01

    Women at high risk of developing breast cancer are prescribed selective estrogen response modulators, including raloxifene, as chemoprevention. Patients often seek complementary and alternative treatment modalities, including herbal products, to supplement prescribed medications. Milk thistle preparations, including silibinin and silymarin, are top-selling herbal products that may be consumed by women taking raloxifene, which undergoes extensive first-pass glucuronidation in the intestine. Key constituents in milk thistle, flavonolignans, were previously shown to be potent inhibitors of intestinal UDP-glucuronosyl transferases (UGTs), with IC50s ≤ 10 μM. Taken together, milk thistle preparations may perpetrate unwanted interactions with raloxifene. The objective of this work was to evaluate the inhibitory effects of individual milk thistle constituents on the intestinal glucuronidation of raloxifene using human intestinal microsomes and human embryonic kidney cell lysates overexpressing UGT1A1, UGT1A8, and UGT1A10, isoforms highly expressed in the intestine that are critical to raloxifene clearance. The flavonolignans silybin A and silybin B were potent inhibitors of both raloxifene 4'- and 6-glucuronidation in all enzyme systems. The Kis (human intestinal microsomes, 27-66 µM; UGT1A1, 3.2-8.3 µM; UGT1A8, 19-73 µM; and UGT1A10, 65-120 µM) encompassed reported intestinal tissue concentrations (20-310 µM), prompting prediction of clinical interaction risk using a mechanistic static model. Silibinin and silymarin were predicted to increase raloxifene systemic exposure by 4- to 5-fold, indicating high interaction risk that merits further evaluation. This systematic investigation of the potential interaction between a widely used herbal product and chemopreventive agent underscores the importance of understanding natural product-drug interactions in the context of cancer prevention.

  5. Milk Thistle Constituents Inhibit Raloxifene Intestinal Glucuronidation: A Potential Clinically Relevant Natural Product–Drug Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Gufford, Brandon T.; Chen, Gang; Vergara, Ana G.; Lazarus, Philip; Oberlies, Nicholas H.

    2015-01-01

    Women at high risk of developing breast cancer are prescribed selective estrogen response modulators, including raloxifene, as chemoprevention. Patients often seek complementary and alternative treatment modalities, including herbal products, to supplement prescribed medications. Milk thistle preparations, including silibinin and silymarin, are top-selling herbal products that may be consumed by women taking raloxifene, which undergoes extensive first-pass glucuronidation in the intestine. Key constituents in milk thistle, flavonolignans, were previously shown to be potent inhibitors of intestinal UDP-glucuronosyl transferases (UGTs), with IC50s ≤ 10 μM. Taken together, milk thistle preparations may perpetrate unwanted interactions with raloxifene. The objective of this work was to evaluate the inhibitory effects of individual milk thistle constituents on the intestinal glucuronidation of raloxifene using human intestinal microsomes and human embryonic kidney cell lysates overexpressing UGT1A1, UGT1A8, and UGT1A10, isoforms highly expressed in the intestine that are critical to raloxifene clearance. The flavonolignans silybin A and silybin B were potent inhibitors of both raloxifene 4′- and 6-glucuronidation in all enzyme systems. The Kis (human intestinal microsomes, 27–66 µM; UGT1A1, 3.2–8.3 µM; UGT1A8, 19–73 µM; and UGT1A10, 65–120 µM) encompassed reported intestinal tissue concentrations (20–310 µM), prompting prediction of clinical interaction risk using a mechanistic static model. Silibinin and silymarin were predicted to increase raloxifene systemic exposure by 4- to 5-fold, indicating high interaction risk that merits further evaluation. This systematic investigation of the potential interaction between a widely used herbal product and chemopreventive agent underscores the importance of understanding natural product–drug interactions in the context of cancer prevention. PMID:26070840

  6. Bacterial microbiota compositions of naturally fermented milk are shaped by both geographic origin and sample type.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Z; Hou, Q; Kwok, L; Yu, Z; Zheng, Y; Sun, Z; Menghe, B; Zhang, H

    2016-10-01

    Naturally fermented dairy products contain a rich microbial biodiversity. This study aimed to provide an overview on the bacterial microbiota biodiversity of 85 samples, previously collected across a wide region of China, Mongolia, and Russia. Data from these 85 samples, including 55 yogurts, 18 naturally fermented yak milks, 6 koumisses, and 6 cheeses, were retrieved and collectively analyzed. The most prevalent phyla shared across samples were Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria, which together accounted for 99% of bacterial sequences. The predominant genera were Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Streptococcus, Acetobacter, Acinetobacter, Leuconostoc, and Macrococcus, which together corresponded to 96.63% of bacterial sequences. Further multivariate statistical analyses revealed significant differences in the microbiota structure across sample geographic origin and type. First, on the principal coordinate score plot, samples representing the 3 main sample collection regions (Russia, Xinjiang, and Tibet) were mostly located respectively in the upper left, lower right, and lower left quadrants, although slight overlapping occurred. In contrast, samples from the minor sampling areas (Inner Mongolia, Mongolia, Gansu, and Sichuan) were predominantly distributed in the lower left quadrant. These results suggest a possible association between sample geographical origin and microbiota composition. Second, bacterial microbiota structure was stratified by sample type. In particular, the microbiota of cheese was largely distinct from the other sample types due to its high abundances of Lactococcus and Streptococcus. The fermented yak milk microbiota was most like that of the yogurts. Koumiss samples had the lowest microbial diversity and richness. In conclusion, both geographic origin and sample type shape the microbial diversity of naturally fermented milk. PMID:27474988

  7. Bacterial microbiota compositions of naturally fermented milk are shaped by both geographic origin and sample type.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Z; Hou, Q; Kwok, L; Yu, Z; Zheng, Y; Sun, Z; Menghe, B; Zhang, H

    2016-10-01

    Naturally fermented dairy products contain a rich microbial biodiversity. This study aimed to provide an overview on the bacterial microbiota biodiversity of 85 samples, previously collected across a wide region of China, Mongolia, and Russia. Data from these 85 samples, including 55 yogurts, 18 naturally fermented yak milks, 6 koumisses, and 6 cheeses, were retrieved and collectively analyzed. The most prevalent phyla shared across samples were Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria, which together accounted for 99% of bacterial sequences. The predominant genera were Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Streptococcus, Acetobacter, Acinetobacter, Leuconostoc, and Macrococcus, which together corresponded to 96.63% of bacterial sequences. Further multivariate statistical analyses revealed significant differences in the microbiota structure across sample geographic origin and type. First, on the principal coordinate score plot, samples representing the 3 main sample collection regions (Russia, Xinjiang, and Tibet) were mostly located respectively in the upper left, lower right, and lower left quadrants, although slight overlapping occurred. In contrast, samples from the minor sampling areas (Inner Mongolia, Mongolia, Gansu, and Sichuan) were predominantly distributed in the lower left quadrant. These results suggest a possible association between sample geographical origin and microbiota composition. Second, bacterial microbiota structure was stratified by sample type. In particular, the microbiota of cheese was largely distinct from the other sample types due to its high abundances of Lactococcus and Streptococcus. The fermented yak milk microbiota was most like that of the yogurts. Koumiss samples had the lowest microbial diversity and richness. In conclusion, both geographic origin and sample type shape the microbial diversity of naturally fermented milk.

  8. Levels and profiles of brominated and chlorinated contaminants in human breast milk from Thessaloniki, Greece.

    PubMed

    Dimitriadou, Lida; Malarvannan, Govindan; Covaci, Adrian; Iossifidou, Eleni; Tzafettas, John; Zournatzi-Koiou, Vassiliki; Kalantzi, Olga-Ioanna

    2016-01-01

    Human breast milk samples (n=87) collected between July 2004 and July 2005 from primipara and multipara mothers from Thessaloniki, Greece were analysed for six groups of persistent organic pollutants (POPs): polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB). DDTs [median: 410ng/g lipid weight (lw)], PCBs (median: 90ng/g lw) and HCHs (median: 40ng/g lw) were the predominantly identified compounds in all the breast milk samples. Levels of PBDEs (median: 1.5ng/g lw) in human breast milk samples from Thessaloniki, Greece were lower compared to other countries. Maternal age had a positive correlation with most compounds, but not with PBDEs. Women with a higher occupational exposure to PBDEs (i.e., working in office environments) had higher PBDE concentrations than all others and showed strong correlations, especially for BDE 47 and BDE 153. None of the analysed compounds showed any correlation with parity. Based on these levels, the daily intake of each group of POPs via human milk was calculated and compared with the tolerable daily intakes (TDI) or the reference doses (RfD). For the majority of samples (85 out of 87) a higher daily intake of PCBs than the TDI was calculated, while 11 out of 87 samples had a higher HCB intake than the TDI. The TDI and the RfD were not exceeded for DDTs and PBDEs, respectively. This is the first report of brominated flame retardants in human breast milk from Greece. PMID:26367190

  9. Clinical disease and stage of lactation influences shedding of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis into milk and colostrum of naturally infected dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative agent of Johne’s disease (JD). One mode of transmission of MAP is through ingestion of contaminated milk and colostrum by susceptible calves. The objective of this study was to determine if the amount of MAP shed into the milk and co...

  10. Synthesis of natural flows at selected sites in and near the Milk River basin, Montana, 1928-89

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cary, L.E.; Parrett, Charles

    1995-01-01

    Natural monthly streamflows were synthesized for the years 1928-89 at 2 sites in the St. Mary River Basin and 11 sites in the Milk River Basin in north- central Montana. The sites are represented as nodes in a streamflow accounting model being developed by the Bureau of Reclamation for the Milk River Basin. Recorded flows at most sites have been affected by human activities, including reservoir storage and irrigation diversions. The flows at the model nodes were corrected for the effects of these activities to obtain synthesized flows. The synthesized flows at nodes with seasonal and short-term records were extended using a statistical technique. The methods of synthesis varied, depending on upstream activities and information available. Flows at sites in the St. Mary River Basin and at the Milk River at Eastern Crossing of International Boundary pre- viously had been synthesized. The flows at mainstem sites downstream from the Milk River at Eastern Crossing were synthesized by adding synthesized natural runoff from intervening drainage areas to natural flows for Milk River at Eastern Crossing. Natural runoff from intervening drainage areas was estimated by multiplying recorded flows at selected index gaging stations on tributary streams by the ratio of the intervening drainage area to the combined drainage area of the index stations. The recorded flows for Milk River at Western Crossing of International Boundary and for Peoples Creek near Dodson, Montana, were assumed to be natural flows. The synthesized annual flows at the mouth of the Milk River compared favorably with the recorded flows near the mouth when the effects of upstream irrigation were considered.

  11. Behavior of Different Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Serotypes in Various Experimentally Contaminated Raw-Milk Cheeses

    PubMed Central

    Miszczycha, Stéphane D.; Perrin, Frédérique; Ganet, Sarah; Jamet, Emmanuel; Tenenhaus-Aziza, Fanny; Montel, Marie-Christine

    2013-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is an important cause of food-borne illness. The public health implication of the presence of STEC in dairy products remains unclear. Knowledge of STEC behavior in cheeses would help to evaluate the human health risk. The aim of our study was to observe the growth and survival of experimentally inoculated STEC strains in raw-milk cheeses manufactured and ripened according to five technological schemes: blue-type cheese, uncooked pressed cheese with long ripening and with short ripening steps, cooked cheese, and lactic cheese. Cheeses were contaminated with different STEC serotypes (O157:H7, O26:H11, O103:H2, and O145:H28) at the milk preparation stage. STEC growth and survival were monitored on selective media during the entire manufacturing process. STEC grew (2 to 3 log10 CFU · g−1) in blue-type cheese and the two uncooked pressed cheeses during the first 24 h of cheese making. Then, STEC levels progressively decreased in cheeses that were ripened for more than 6 months. In cooked cheese and in lactic cheese with a long acidic coagulation step (pH < 4.5), STEC did not grow. Their levels decreased after the cooking step in the cooked cheese and after the coagulation step in the lactic cheese, but STEC was still detectable at the end of ripening and storage. A serotype effect was found: in all cheeses studied, serotype O157:H7 grew less strongly and was less persistent than the others serotypes. This study improves knowledge of the behavior of different STEC serotypes in various raw-milk cheeses. PMID:23087038

  12. Behavior of different Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli serotypes in various experimentally contaminated raw-milk cheeses.

    PubMed

    Miszczycha, Stéphane D; Perrin, Frédérique; Ganet, Sarah; Jamet, Emmanuel; Tenenhaus-Aziza, Fanny; Montel, Marie-Christine; Thevenot-Sergentet, Delphine

    2013-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is an important cause of food-borne illness. The public health implication of the presence of STEC in dairy products remains unclear. Knowledge of STEC behavior in cheeses would help to evaluate the human health risk. The aim of our study was to observe the growth and survival of experimentally inoculated STEC strains in raw-milk cheeses manufactured and ripened according to five technological schemes: blue-type cheese, uncooked pressed cheese with long ripening and with short ripening steps, cooked cheese, and lactic cheese. Cheeses were contaminated with different STEC serotypes (O157:H7, O26:H11, O103:H2, and O145:H28) at the milk preparation stage. STEC growth and survival were monitored on selective media during the entire manufacturing process. STEC grew (2 to 3 log(10) CFU · g(-1)) in blue-type cheese and the two uncooked pressed cheeses during the first 24 h of cheese making. Then, STEC levels progressively decreased in cheeses that were ripened for more than 6 months. In cooked cheese and in lactic cheese with a long acidic coagulation step (pH < 4.5), STEC did not grow. Their levels decreased after the cooking step in the cooked cheese and after the coagulation step in the lactic cheese, but STEC was still detectable at the end of ripening and storage. A serotype effect was found: in all cheeses studied, serotype O157:H7 grew less strongly and was less persistent than the others serotypes. This study improves knowledge of the behavior of different STEC serotypes in various raw-milk cheeses.

  13. ASSESSING THE ROLE OF NATURAL ATTENUATION FOR INORGANIC CONTAMINANT REMEDIATION IN GROUND WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Monitored natural attenuation (MNA) has been applied as a knowledge-based remediation technology for organic contaminants in ground water. The application of this technology is being considered for remediation of inorganic contaminants in ground water at hazardous waste sites. ...

  14. Long-Term Prospective Study of 6104 Survivors of Arsenic Poisoning During Infancy Due to Contaminated Milk Powder in 1955

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Hideo; Tsukuma, Hideaki; Oshima, Akira

    2010-01-01

    Background In 1955, an outbreak of arsenic poisoning caused by ingestion of arsenic-contaminated dry milk occurred in western Japan. We assessed the excess mortality among Japanese who were poisoned during this episode as infants. Methods We identified and enrolled 6104 survivors (mean age at enrollment, 27.4 years) who had ingested contaminated milk when they were age 2 years or younger; they were followed until 2006 (mean duration of follow-up, 24.3 years). Death certificates of subjects who died between 1982 and 2006 were examined to calculate cause-specific standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) using the mortality rate among Osaka residents as the standard. Results There was no significant excess overall mortality (SMR: 1.1, 95% confidence interval: 1.0–1.2). However, significant excess mortality in both sexes was observed from diseases of the nervous system (3.7, 1.9–6.2). Excess mortality from all causes of death decreased to unity beyond 10 years after study enrollment. The 408 men who were unemployed at the time of enrollment in the study had a significantly elevated risk of death from diseases of the nervous system (25.3, 10.8–58.8), respiratory diseases (8.6, 3.1–16.8), circulatory diseases (3.2, 1.6–5.2), and external causes (2.6, 1.4–4.1). Conclusions As compared with the general population, survivors of arsenic poisoning during infancy had a significantly higher mortality risk from diseases of the nervous system. PMID:20736507

  15. Fixation of soil surface contamination using natural polysaccharides

    SciTech Connect

    Sackschewsky, M.R.

    1993-09-01

    Natural polysaccharides were evaluated as alternatives to commercially available dust-control agents for application in buried-waste and contaminated-soil remediation situations. Materials were identified and evaluated with specific criteria in mind: the materials must be environmentally benign and must not introduce any additional hazardous materials; they must be effective for at least 2 or 3 days, but they do not necessarily have to be effective for more than 2 to 3 weeks; they should be relatively resistant to light traffic; they must not interfere with subsequent soil treatment techniques, especially soil washing; and they must be relatively inexpensive. Two products, a pregelled potato starch and a mixture of carbohydrates derived from sugar beets, were selected for evaluation. Testing included small- and large-scale field demonstrations, laboratory physical property analyses, and wind-tunnel evaluations.

  16. DEVELOPING TOOLS FOR MONITORED NATURAL RECOVERY OF PCB-CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS AT LAKE HARTWELL, SC

    EPA Science Inventory

    Contaminated sediments pose a risk to human health and the environment . The management of this risk is currently limited practically to three technologies: dredging, capping, and natural recovery. Monitored natural recovery relies on the natural burial and removal mechanisms to...

  17. Factors associated with coliform count in unpasteurized bulk milk.

    PubMed

    Pantoja, J C F; Reinemann, D J; Ruegg, P L

    2011-06-01

    associated with CC, as estimated in milk before storage in tankers or bulk tanks, and highlight the importance of proper and consistent milking machine washes in minimizing bulk milk coliform contamination. The nature of the associations between liner CC, rate of cluster washes, rate of milking units fall-offs, and ILCC indicates that managing and monitoring such events has the potential for improving bacteriological quality of farm bulk milk. PMID:21605737

  18. Invited review: Microbial evolution in raw-milk, long-ripened cheeses produced using undefined natural whey starters.

    PubMed

    Gatti, Monica; Bottari, Benedetta; Lazzi, Camilla; Neviani, Erasmo; Mucchetti, Germano

    2014-02-01

    The robustness of the starter culture during cheese fermentation is enhanced by the presence of a rich consortium of microbes. Natural starters are consortia of microbes undoubtedly richer than selected starters. Among natural starters, natural whey starters (NWS) are the most common cultures currently used to produce different varieties of cheeses. Undefined NWS are typically used for Italian cooked, long-ripened, extra-hard, raw milk cheeses, such as Parmigiano Reggiano and Grana Padano. Together with raw milk microbiota, NWS are responsible for most cheese characteristics. The microbial ecology of these 2 cheese varieties is based on a complex interaction among starter lactic acid bacteria (SLAB) and nonstarter lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB), which are characterized by their different abilities to grow in a changing substrate. This review aims to summarize the latest findings on Parmigiano Reggiano and Grana Padano to better understand the dynamics of SLAB, which mainly arise from NWS, and NSLAB, which mainly arise from raw milk, and their possible role in determining the characteristics of these cheeses. The review is presented in 4 main sections. The first summarizes the main microbiological and chemical properties of the ripened cheese as determined by cheese-making process variables, as these variables may affect microbial growth. The second describes the microbiota of raw milk as affected by specific milk treatments, from milking to the filling of the cheese milk vat. The third describes the microbiota of NWS, and the fourth reviews the knowledge available on microbial dynamics from curd to ripened cheese. As the dynamics and functionality of complex undefined NWS is one of the most important areas of focus in current food microbiology research, this review may serve as a good starting point for implementing future studies on microbial diversity and functionality of undefined cheese starter cultures.

  19. Natural arsenic contaminated diets perturb reproduction in fish.

    PubMed

    Boyle, David; Brix, Kevin V; Amlund, Heidi; Lundebye, Anne-Katrine; Hogstrand, Christer; Bury, Nic R

    2008-07-15

    The toxicological effect of natural diets elevated in metals on reproduction in fish is poorly understood. The reproductive output of zebrafish fed the polychaete Nereis diversicolor collected from a metal-impacted estuary, Restronguet Creek, Cornwall, UK, was compared to fish fed N. diversicolor collected from a nonmetal impacted estuary, Blackwater, Essex, UK. Fish fed the metal laden N. diversicolorfor 68 days showed reduced reproductive output, characterized by reduced cumulative egg production (47%), cumulative number of spawns (30%), as well as reduced average number of eggs produced per spawn and % hatch rate. The mRNA transcript levels of the egg-yolk protein vitellogenin was also reduced 1.5 fold in the livers of female fish fed metal-laden N. diversicolor. No difference was seen between the lipid, protein, or moisture content of the two diets and no difference in growth was seen between the two fish populations. The Restronguet Creek polychaetes have elevated arsenic, cadmium, copper, zinc, lead, and silver body burdens, but the only element found to accumulate in the tissues of zebrafish fed this diet was As. The As in these N. diversicolor was found to be predominantly potentially toxic inorganic As species, 58% of total As content, which is unusual for aquatic organisms where arsenic is typically biotransformed into less toxic organoarsenical compounds. These results demonstrate that reproduction in fish is a sensitive target of exposure to a natural diet contaminated with As and this exposure route could be of significance to the health of fish populations. PMID:18754393

  20. [Surveillance of perchlorate level in wine, seafood, polished rice, milk, powdered milk and yogurt].

    PubMed

    Takatsuki, Satoshi; Watanabe, Takahiro; Matsuda, Rieko

    2011-01-01

    Perchlorate, which may be naturally occurring or artificial in origin, inhibits iodide uptake into the thyroid gland and disturbs thyroid function. In order to investigate perchlorate contamination in foods in Japan, perchlorate levels in 28 wine samples, 20 seafood samples, 10 polished rice samples, 30 milk (include whole milk, composition modified milk, low fat milk, processed milk, milk drink) samples, 10 powdered milk samples and 10 yogurt samples were measured. Perchlorate was found in all wine, milk, powdered milk and yogurt samples tested. Perchlorate levels ranged from 0.2 ng/g to 103 ng/g in wine samples, from 2 ng/g to 11 ng/g in milk samples, from 3 ng/g to 35 ng/g in powdered milk samples, and from 2 ng/g to 11 ng/g in yogurt samples. Perchlorate levels in the seafood samples were under the LOQ (0.8 ng/g) in 8 samples and ranged from 0.8 ng/g to 72 ng/g in 12 samples. In all polished rice samples, perchlorate level was under the LOQ (1.0 ng/g).

  1. Hot topic: Brown marmorated stink bug odor compounds do not transfer into milk by feeding bug-contaminated corn silage to lactating dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, R L; Zhang, A; Fultz, S W; Abubeker, S; Harris, C; Connor, E E; Van Hekken, D L

    2014-01-01

    Brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB; Halyomorpha halys) is an emerging invasive species of grave concern to agriculture as a polyphagous plant pest with potential negative effects on the dairy industry. The purpose of this study was to determine the risk of including BMSB-contaminated silage in lactating dairy cow rations. First, 6 dairies, either highly infested (n=3; 30 to 100 bugs per stalk) or not infested (n=3), were sampled to assess the prevalence of bug secretion compounds tridecane (major component) and E-2-decenal (stink odor component) in silage and milk. Second, using wild BMSB, a mini-silo dose-response experiment (adding 100, 50, 25, 10, and 1 freshly crushed bugs/0.5kg of chopped corn) was conducted to assess the effect of ensiling on BMSB stink odor compounds. Finally, synthetic BMSB stink odor compounds (10g of tridecane and 5g of E-2-decenal) were ruminally infused twice daily over 3 d, and samples of milk, urine, and rumen fluid were collected to evaluate disposition. Bug stink odor compounds were sampled by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Milk production and feed composition were unaffected when BMSB-contaminated silage was fed. Moreover, no E-2-decenal was detected in silage or milk (detection threshold = 0.00125μg/mL). The dose-response of tridecane in mini-silo samples exhibited a linear relationship (R(2)=0.78) with the amount of BMSB added; however, E-2-decenal was completely decomposed and undetectable in spiked mini-silos after ensiling. Both synthetic secretion compounds infused into rumen were undetectable in all milk and urine samples. E-2-Decenal was not detectable in rumen fluid, whereas tridecane was detected only at 15 min postinfusion but not present thereafter. Feed intake was unaffected by infusion treatment and BMSB secretion compounds (E-2-decenal and tridecane) were not observed in milk. E-2-Decenal and tridecane from the metathoracic gland of BMSB are not able to

  2. Public health and the safety of milk and milk products from sheep and goats.

    PubMed

    Klinger, I; Rosenthal, I

    1997-08-01

    Goats and sheep rank third and fourth in terms of global milk production from different species, but unlike cow milk, which has stringent hygiene and quality regulations, microbiological standards for the production and distribution of goat milk and sheep milk are more relaxed. Difficulties in managing the sanitary quality of sheep and goat milk derive from a series of factors including the low level of production per head, the milking system, the difficulty involved in machine milking, the conditions under which the herds or flocks are raised, adverse climatic conditions and the spread of production over a wide geographic area. Fresh goat milk is consumed by infants and others with allergies to cow milk and is also used for on-farm manufactured cheese, with or without thermal treatment. The high fat content and peculiar taste of cheeses made from ewe milk are also very popular. These cheese varieties, which are mostly still of 'artisan-type', are not covered by regulatory definitions and the dispute over the use of raw versus pasteurised milk is still alive. However, in documented intoxications recorded after the consumption of cheese, there has always been evidence of incorrect temperature control during pasteurisation, the deliberate addition of raw milk, or contamination during storage. Compositional differences between the milk from cows, ewes and goats (chemical composition of lipids, phosphatase level, freezing point, natural bacterial inhibitor levels, somatic cell count, etc.) preclude the nondiscriminatory use of bovine standards for regulatory purposes. Quality standards adjusted for the specifics of ewe/goat milk should be considered. The production of safe cheese is linked to a series of conditions which ensure consumer health, primarily pasteurisation. In the absence of pasteurisation, all cheeses made from raw milk should be subjected to strict periodic controls.

  3. Addition to thermized milk of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris M104, a wild, novel nisin a-producing strain, replaces the natural antilisterial activity of the autochthonous raw milk microbiota reduced by thermization.

    PubMed

    Lianou, Alexandra; Samelis, John

    2014-08-01

    Recent research has shown that mild milk thermization treatments routinely used in traditional Greek cheese production are efficient to inactivate Listeria monocytogenes and other pathogenic or undesirable bacteria, but they also inactivate a great part of the autochthonous antagonistic microbiota of raw milk. Therefore, in this study, the antilisterial activity of raw or thermized (63°C, 30 s) milk in the presence or absence of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris M104, a wild, novel, nisin A-producing (Nis-A+) raw milk isolate, was assessed. Bulk milk samples were taken from a local cheese plant before or after thermization and were inoculated with a five-strain cocktail of L. monocytogenes (approximately 4 log CFU/ml) or with the cocktail, as above, plus the Nis-A+ strain (approximately 6 log CFU/ml) as a bioprotective culture. Heat-sterilized (121°C, 5 min) raw milk inoculated with L. monocytogenes was used as a control treatment. All milk samples were incubated at 37°C for 6 h and then at 18°C for an additional 66 h. L. monocytogenes grew abundantly (>8 log CFU/ml) in heat-sterilized milk, whereas its growth was completely inhibited in all raw milk samples. Conversely, in thermized milk, L. monocytogenes increased by 2 log CFU/ml in the absence of strain M104, whereas its growth was completely inhibited in the presence of strain M104. Furthermore, nisin activity was detected only in milk samples inoculated with strain M104. Thus, postthermal supplementation of thermized bulk milk with bioprotective L. lactis subsp. cremoris cultures replaces the natural antilisterial activity of raw milk reduced by thermization.

  4. Addition to thermized milk of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris M104, a wild, novel nisin a-producing strain, replaces the natural antilisterial activity of the autochthonous raw milk microbiota reduced by thermization.

    PubMed

    Lianou, Alexandra; Samelis, John

    2014-08-01

    Recent research has shown that mild milk thermization treatments routinely used in traditional Greek cheese production are efficient to inactivate Listeria monocytogenes and other pathogenic or undesirable bacteria, but they also inactivate a great part of the autochthonous antagonistic microbiota of raw milk. Therefore, in this study, the antilisterial activity of raw or thermized (63°C, 30 s) milk in the presence or absence of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris M104, a wild, novel, nisin A-producing (Nis-A+) raw milk isolate, was assessed. Bulk milk samples were taken from a local cheese plant before or after thermization and were inoculated with a five-strain cocktail of L. monocytogenes (approximately 4 log CFU/ml) or with the cocktail, as above, plus the Nis-A+ strain (approximately 6 log CFU/ml) as a bioprotective culture. Heat-sterilized (121°C, 5 min) raw milk inoculated with L. monocytogenes was used as a control treatment. All milk samples were incubated at 37°C for 6 h and then at 18°C for an additional 66 h. L. monocytogenes grew abundantly (>8 log CFU/ml) in heat-sterilized milk, whereas its growth was completely inhibited in all raw milk samples. Conversely, in thermized milk, L. monocytogenes increased by 2 log CFU/ml in the absence of strain M104, whereas its growth was completely inhibited in the presence of strain M104. Furthermore, nisin activity was detected only in milk samples inoculated with strain M104. Thus, postthermal supplementation of thermized bulk milk with bioprotective L. lactis subsp. cremoris cultures replaces the natural antilisterial activity of raw milk reduced by thermization. PMID:25198589

  5. Immunosorbent analysis of toxin contamination in milk and ground beef using IgY-based ELISA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Analytical methodology to detect ricin and Shiga toxins (Stx) in food matrices is important because of the potential use of ricin in food as a terrorist weapon, and the presence of Stx in food as a result of contamination with Shiga-toxin producing E. coli (STEC) that has lead to serious foodborne d...

  6. Levels of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in breast milk samples from three dioxin-contaminated hotspots of Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Manh, Ho Dung; Kido, Teruhiko; Tai, Pham The; Okamoto, Rie; Honma, Seijiro; Liang, Sun Xian; Anh, Le Thai; Maruzeni, Shoko; Nghi, Tran Ngoc; Nishijo, Muneko; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Nhu, Dang Duc; Van Tung, Dao; Hung, Nguyen Ngoc; Son, Le Ke

    2015-04-01

    We determined polychlorinated dibenzodioxin (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) levels in breast milk of 143 primiparae living around the three most dioxin-contaminated areas of Vietnam. The women sampled lived in the vicinity of former U.S. air bases at Bien Hoa (n=51), Phu Cat (n=23), and Da Nang (n=69), which are known as dioxin hotspots. Breast milk samples from Bien Hoa City, where residents live very close to the air base, showed high levels of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), with 18% of the samples containing >5 pgTCDD/g lipid. However, Phu Cat residents lived far from the air base and their samples showed lower TCDD levels, with none containing >5 pgTCDD/g lipid. In Da Nang, TCDD levels in mothers from Thanh Khe (close to the air base, n=43) were significantly higher than those in mothers from Son Tra (far from the air base, n=26), but not other PCDD and PCDF (PCDD/F) congeners. Although TCDD levels in Bien Hoa were the highest among these hotspots, levels of other PCDD/F congeners as well as the geometric mean concentration of total PCDD/F level in Bien Hoa (9.3 pg toxic equivalents [TEQ]/g lipid) were significantly lower than the level observed in Phu Cat (14.1 pgTEQ/g lipid), Thanh Khe (14.3 pgTEQ/g lipid), and Son Tra (13.9 pgTEQ/g lipid). Our findings indicated that residents living close to former U.S. air bases were exposed to elevated levels of TCDD, but not of other PCDD/F congeners.

  7. Levels of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in breast milk samples from three dioxin-contaminated hotspots of Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Manh, Ho Dung; Kido, Teruhiko; Tai, Pham The; Okamoto, Rie; Honma, Seijiro; Liang, Sun Xian; Anh, Le Thai; Maruzeni, Shoko; Nghi, Tran Ngoc; Nishijo, Muneko; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Nhu, Dang Duc; Van Tung, Dao; Hung, Nguyen Ngoc; Son, Le Ke

    2015-04-01

    We determined polychlorinated dibenzodioxin (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) levels in breast milk of 143 primiparae living around the three most dioxin-contaminated areas of Vietnam. The women sampled lived in the vicinity of former U.S. air bases at Bien Hoa (n=51), Phu Cat (n=23), and Da Nang (n=69), which are known as dioxin hotspots. Breast milk samples from Bien Hoa City, where residents live very close to the air base, showed high levels of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), with 18% of the samples containing >5 pgTCDD/g lipid. However, Phu Cat residents lived far from the air base and their samples showed lower TCDD levels, with none containing >5 pgTCDD/g lipid. In Da Nang, TCDD levels in mothers from Thanh Khe (close to the air base, n=43) were significantly higher than those in mothers from Son Tra (far from the air base, n=26), but not other PCDD and PCDF (PCDD/F) congeners. Although TCDD levels in Bien Hoa were the highest among these hotspots, levels of other PCDD/F congeners as well as the geometric mean concentration of total PCDD/F level in Bien Hoa (9.3 pg toxic equivalents [TEQ]/g lipid) were significantly lower than the level observed in Phu Cat (14.1 pgTEQ/g lipid), Thanh Khe (14.3 pgTEQ/g lipid), and Son Tra (13.9 pgTEQ/g lipid). Our findings indicated that residents living close to former U.S. air bases were exposed to elevated levels of TCDD, but not of other PCDD/F congeners. PMID:25569577

  8. Lead Levels in the Breast Milk of Nursing Andean Mothers Living in a Lead-Contaminated Environment

    PubMed Central

    Counter, S. Allen; Buchanan, Leo H.; Ortega, Fernando; Chiriboga, Roberto; Correa, Rommy; Collaguaso, María Angela

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations of lead (Pb) in breast milk (PbM) and blood (PbB) were measured in a current cohort of lactating mothers living in Andean communities where women of child-bearing age engage in the occupational use of Pb, and compared to results obtained in earlier studies. Mean PbM concentration in the current group of breastfeeding mothers tested in 2012/2013 was 3.73 μg/l (SD: 7.3; range: 0.049 - 28.04), and significantly lower than the 9.83 μg/l (SD: 12.75; range: 0.2 - 49) previously observed in breastfeeding mothers in the study area from 1999 to 2007. Breastfeeding women in the current cohort showed an average PbM/PbB ratio of 3.6%, which is in agreement with other studies. The mean PbB level obtained for the current cohort was 7.8 μg/dl (SD: 5.2; range: 1.4 - 21), and significantly lower than the mean PbB level of 20.8 μg/dl (SD: 16.4; range: 4-73) obtained for the comparison group of breastfeeding mothers tested between 1999-2007. A correlation of .687 between paired PbM and maternal PbB was found, indicating that maternal PbB level is a significant predictor of PbM. Current PbM levels remain higher than international averages, but indicate that maternal Pb exposure has declined over time in the environmentally Pb-contaminated study area. The current reduction in Pb in milk and blood of breastfeeding mothers may be due to adherence to a Pb-exposure education and prevention program initiated by the authors in the study area years earlier, as well as recent improvements in local healthcare delivery. PMID:25072821

  9. Natural Attenuation of Nonvolatile Contaminants in the Capillary Fringe.

    PubMed

    Kurt, Zohre; Mack, E Erin; Spain, Jim C

    2016-09-20

    When anoxic polluted groundwater encounters the overlying vadose zone an oxic/anoxic interface is created, often near the capillary fringe. Biodegradation of volatile contaminants in the capillary fringe can prevent vapor migration. In contrast, the biodegradation of nonvolatile contaminants in the vadose zone has received comparatively little attention. Nonvolatile compounds do not cause vapor intrusion, but they still move with the groundwater and are major contaminants. Aniline (AN) and diphenylamine (DPA) are examples of toxic nonvolatile contaminants found often at dye and munitions manufacturing sites. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that bacteria can aerobically biodegrade AN and DPA in the capillary fringe and decrease the contaminant concentrations in the anoxic plume beneath the vadose zone. Laboratory multiport columns that represented the unsaturated zone were used to evaluate degradation of AN or DPA in contaminated water. The biodegradation fluxes of the contaminants were estimated to be 113 ± 26 mg AN·m(-2)·h(-1) and 76 ± 18 mg DPA·m(-2)·h(-1) in the presence of bacteria known to degrade AN and DPA. Oxygen and contaminant profiles along with enumeration of bacterial populations indicated that most of the biodegradation took place within the lower part of the capillary fringe. The results indicate that bacteria capable of contaminant biodegradation in the capillary fringe can create a sink for nonvolatile contaminants. PMID:27523982

  10. Natural Attenuation of Nonvolatile Contaminants in the Capillary Fringe.

    PubMed

    Kurt, Zohre; Mack, E Erin; Spain, Jim C

    2016-09-20

    When anoxic polluted groundwater encounters the overlying vadose zone an oxic/anoxic interface is created, often near the capillary fringe. Biodegradation of volatile contaminants in the capillary fringe can prevent vapor migration. In contrast, the biodegradation of nonvolatile contaminants in the vadose zone has received comparatively little attention. Nonvolatile compounds do not cause vapor intrusion, but they still move with the groundwater and are major contaminants. Aniline (AN) and diphenylamine (DPA) are examples of toxic nonvolatile contaminants found often at dye and munitions manufacturing sites. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that bacteria can aerobically biodegrade AN and DPA in the capillary fringe and decrease the contaminant concentrations in the anoxic plume beneath the vadose zone. Laboratory multiport columns that represented the unsaturated zone were used to evaluate degradation of AN or DPA in contaminated water. The biodegradation fluxes of the contaminants were estimated to be 113 ± 26 mg AN·m(-2)·h(-1) and 76 ± 18 mg DPA·m(-2)·h(-1) in the presence of bacteria known to degrade AN and DPA. Oxygen and contaminant profiles along with enumeration of bacterial populations indicated that most of the biodegradation took place within the lower part of the capillary fringe. The results indicate that bacteria capable of contaminant biodegradation in the capillary fringe can create a sink for nonvolatile contaminants.

  11. Activated Natural Zeolites on Textiles: Protection from Radioactive Contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grancaric, A. M.; Prlic, I.; Tarbuk, A.; Marovic, G.

    Clothing designed to protect against radioactive contamination was based on a simple principle. It was important not to inhale contaminated dust and air and to ensure that contaminated particles could not reach the skin. Therefore, the density of the textile was crucial. New developments, keeping in mind that textile should be lightweight, are focused on textiles which can chemically bind the contamination particles and not allow them either to diffuse to the skin or spread back into the environment. A great success would be if the clothing were made reusable (e.g., for use in the space station). Therefore, new methods (or chemical preparations) are being proposed for developing intelligent textiles.

  12. Monitored Natural Attenuation For Inorganic Contaminants In Ground Water - Technical Issues

    EPA Science Inventory

    Remediation of ground water contaminated with radionuclides may be achieved using attenuation-based technologies. These technologies may rely on engineered processes (e.g., bioremediation) or natural processes (e.g., monitored natural attenuation) within the subsurface. In gene...

  13. Control of extensive chorioptic mange natural infection in lactating dairy cattle without milk withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Villarroel, Aurora; Halliburton, Megan K

    2013-08-01

    Dairy cattle are becoming increasingly complicated to treat in the USA due to the great limitation of approved drugs. Additionally, most drugs require withdrawal times for milk that are not viable for treating entire dairy herds. The objective of this field trial was to determine the efficacy of eprinomectin, one of only two parasiticides approved for lactating dairy cattle, for eradication of naturally occurring chorioptic mange on a commercial dairy farm. All animals present on the farm were treated on the same day and, later, new animals introduced to the premises were treated on arrival. All cows were re-treated at dry-off. Lesion scoring was performed five times over a period of 12 months. A reduction in the proportion of cows with lesions was apparent 3 months after treatment and, although the proportion stayed low, it increased again at 12 months post-treatment. Logistic regression to evaluate factors associated with the presence of mange lesions showed that older cows, late lactation, and recent treatment, were associated with presence of lesions. It also showed that multiple treatments (whole-herd treatment and at dry-off) helped to reduce the presence of lesions. No increase in milk production could be measured, but animal wellbeing improved. The results of this study show that chorioptic mange can be controlled in entire herds, although multiple treatments will be required to potentially eradicate the parasite. The value of the study is that it shows that mange can be controlled in dairy cattle with approved drugs, eliminating the need to use non-approved agents.

  14. A preliminary risk assessment of potential exposure to naturally occurring estrogens from Beijing (China) market milk products.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen; Mi, Xiaoxia; Yuan, Yuwei; Chen, Gang; Ren, Li; Wang, Kaiqiang; Zhu, Dan; Qian, Yongzhong

    2014-09-01

    This study was conducted to determine the occurrence of the natural steroid hormones estrone (E1), 17α-estradiol (αE2), 17β-estradiol (βE2) and estriol (E3) in 38 commercial milk samples obtained from markets in Beijing, China. Liquid Chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was employed to determine estrogens levels. The concentrations of E1, αE2, βE2 and E3 in different milk products varied from 0-146.12 ng/L, 0-70.12 ng/L, 0-31.85 ng/L to 0-2.18 ng/L, respectively. We compared exposures to estrogens through milk consumption with acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) and threshold for toxicological concern (TTC) to determine whether estrogen intakes from milk consumption are larger or smaller than the toxicity-based benchmarks. The combined margin of safety MOS (MOST) for total estrogens are about 72-99, 118-161, 539-1104, for 2-4, 4-7 year-old residential children, and adults, respectively. The lowest MOST for children of 2-4 years old result from comparing total of estrogens with the lowest TTC value (0.15 μg/person/day) (MOS=3.5). The MOS values suggest that the individual and total estrogens that may present in milk are not causing a health risk for the local residents, including young children.

  15. Effects of 3 sequestering agents on milk aflatoxin M1 concentration and the performance and immune status of dairy cows fed diets artificially contaminated with aflatoxin B1.

    PubMed

    Ogunade, I M; Arriola, K G; Jiang, Y; Driver, J P; Staples, C R; Adesogan, A T

    2016-08-01

    This study examined whether adding 3 mycotoxin-sequestering agents to diets contaminated with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) would reduce milk aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) concentration, and improve the performance and alter immune status of dairy cows. Fifteen lactating dairy cows were used in an experiment with an incomplete crossover design including four 28-d periods. Treatments included a control diet (C), a toxin diet (T; 1,725µg of AFB1/head per day; 75µg/kg), and diets containing the toxin and 20g/head per day of a proprietary mixture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product containing a low (SEQ1) or high (SEQ2) dose of a chlorophyll-based additive, or a low dose of the chlorophyll-based additive and sodium bentonite clay (SEQ3). Sequestering agents were top-dressed on the total mixed ration (TMR) daily in each period, and AFB1 was dosed orally in gelatin capsules before the TMR was fed on d 21 to 25. Milk was sampled twice daily on d 20 to 28 and plasma was sampled on d 20 and 25. Sequestering agents did not affect milk AFM1 concentration during the toxin-dosing period. However, after AFB1 was withdrawn, the sequestering agents reduced the time required (24 vs. 48h) to reduce the milk AFM1 concentration below the Food and Drug Administration action level of 0.5µg/kg. Feeding T instead of C tended to reduce milk and fat-corrected milk yields, but feeding SEQ1 prevented these effects. Red blood cell count and hemoglobin concentration were reduced by feeding T instead of C, but not by feeding SEQ1, SEQ2, or SEQ3. The mean fluorescence intensity of antibody staining for 2 leukocyte adhesion molecules, L-selectin (CD62L) and β-integrin (CD18), tended to be greatest when SEQ1 and SEQ3 were fed. Plasma acid-soluble protein concentration was decreased by feeding SEQ1, SEQ2, and SEQ3 instead of T. Sequestering agents had no effect on milk AFM1 concentration, but they reduced the time required to reduce milk AFM1 concentration to a safe level after withdrawal of AFB1 from

  16. Data on milk dioxin contamination linked with the location of fodder croplands allow to hypothesize the origin of the pollution source in an Italian valley.

    PubMed

    Desiato, Rosanna; Bertolini, Silvia; Baioni, Elisa; Crescio, Maria Ines; Scortichini, Giampiero; Ubaldi, Alessandro; Sparagna, Bruno; Cuttica, Giancarlo; Ru, Giuseppe

    2014-11-15

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) have similar toxic, endocrine-disrupting, and carcinogenic activity. They are classified as persistent organic pollutants accumulating in the environment and the tissues of living organisms. High concentrations of PCDD/F and dl-PCB have been detected in bovine milk collected in a Piedmont valley (Northwestern Italy) since 2004. This geographic study describes the local distribution of pollution from PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs. Since their presence in animal products could be traced back to the ingestion of contaminated fodder, dioxin levels in cow milk were related to the distribution of fodder cropland parcels. Specifically, the aim of the study was to determine, through an exploratory approach, whether the contamination was consistent with one common point source of contamination or different scattered sources. Data for PCDD/F and dl-PCB concentrations in the bulk milk from 27 herds, sampled over a 4-year period (2004-2007), were matched to the georeferenced land parcels the dairy farmers used for growing fodder. Isopleth maps of dioxin concentrations were estimated with ordinary kriging. The highest level of pollution for both PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs was geographically juxtaposed: in both instances, the location of the local steel plant was within this extremely highly polluted area. The study results support the hypothesis for one common point source of contamination in the valley. The exploratory spatial analysis applied in this research may provide a valuable, novel approach to straightforward identification of a highly likely source of dioxin contamination of dairy products (even in the absence of top soil contamination data).

  17. Circulation of Coxiella burnetii in a Naturally Infected Flock of Dairy Sheep: Shedding Dynamics, Environmental Contamination, and Genotype Diversity.

    PubMed

    Joulié, A; Laroucau, K; Bailly, X; Prigent, M; Gasqui, P; Lepetitcolin, E; Blanchard, B; Rousset, E; Sidi-Boumedine, K; Jourdain, E

    2015-10-01

    Q fever is a worldwide zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii. Domestic ruminants are considered to be the main reservoir. Sheep, in particular, may frequently cause outbreaks in humans. Because within-flock circulation data are essential to implementing optimal management strategies, we performed a follow-up study of a naturally infected flock of dairy sheep. We aimed to (i) describe C. burnetii shedding dynamics by sampling vaginal mucus, feces, and milk, (ii) assess circulating strain diversity, and (iii) quantify barn environmental contamination. For 8 months, we sampled vaginal mucus and feces every 3 weeks from aborting and nonaborting ewes (n=11 and n=26, respectively); for lactating females, milk was obtained as well. We also sampled vaginal mucus from nine ewe lambs. Dust and air samples were collected every 3 and 6 weeks, respectively. All samples were screened using real-time PCR, and strongly positive samples were further analyzed using quantitative PCR. Vaginal and fecal samples with sufficient bacterial burdens were then genotyped by multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) using 17 markers. C. burnetii burdens were higher in vaginal mucus and feces than in milk, and they peaked in the first 3 weeks postabortion or postpartum. Primiparous females and aborting females tended to shed C. burnetii longer and have higher bacterial burdens than nonaborting and multiparous females. Six genotype clusters were identified; they were independent of abortion status, and within-individual genotype diversity was observed. C. burnetii was also detected in air and dust samples. Further studies should determine whether the within-flock circulation dynamics observed here are generalizable.

  18. A PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL, AND BIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF MONITORED NATURAL RECOVERY OF PCB-CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS IN LAKE HARTWELL, CLEMSON, NC

    EPA Science Inventory

    Management of contaminated sediments poses significant challenges due to varied contaminants and volumes of sediments to manage. Dredging, capping, and monitored natural recovery (MNR) are the primary approaches for managing the contaminated sediment risks. Understanding how eff...

  19. PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL TOOLS FOR EVALUATING, MONITORED NATURAL RECOVERY OF PCB CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS IN LAKE HARTWELL, CLEMSON, SC

    EPA Science Inventory

    Management of contaminated sediments poses significant challenges due to varied contaminants and volumes of sediments to
    manage. Dredging, capping, and monitored natural recovery (MNR) are the primary approaches for managing the contaminated sediment risks.
    Understanding ho...

  20. A General Model of Dioxin Contamination in Breast Milk: Results from a Study on 94 Women from the Caserta and Naples Areas in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Rivezzi, Gaetano; Piscitelli, Prisco; Scortichini, Giampiero; Giovannini, Armando; Diletti, Gianfranco; Migliorati, Giacomo; Ceci, Roberta; Rivezzi, Giulia; Cirasino, Lorenzo; Carideo, Pietro; Black, Dennis M.; Garzillo, Carmine; Giani, Umberto

    2013-01-01

    Background: The Caserta and Naples areas in Campania Region experience heavy environmental contamination due to illegal waste disposal and burns, thus representing a valuable setting to develop a general model of human contamination with dioxins (PCDDs-PCDFs) and dioxin-like-PCBs (dl-PCBs). Methods: 94 breastfeeding women (aged 19–32 years; mean age 27.9 ± 3.0) were recruited to determine concentrations of PCDDs-PCDFs and dl-PCBs in their milk. Individual milk samples were collected and analyzed according to standard international procedures. A generalized linear model was used to test potential predictors of pollutant concentration in breast milk: age, exposure to waste fires, cigarette smoking, diet, and residence in high/low risk area (defined at high/low environmental pressure by a specific 2007 WHO report). A Structural Equation Model (SEM) analysis was carried out by taking into account PCDDs-PCDFs and dl-PCBs as endogenous variables and age, waste fires, risk area and smoking as exogenous variables. Results: All milk samples were contaminated by PCDDs-PCDFs (8.6 pg WHO-TEQ/98g fat ± 2.7; range 3.8–19) and dl-PCBs (8.0 pg WHO-TEQ/98g fat ± 3.7; range 2.5–24), with their concentrations being associated with age and exposure to waste fires (p < 0.01). Exposure to fires resulted in larger increases of dioxins concentrations in people living in low risk areas than those from high risk areas (p < 0.01). Conclusions: A diffuse human exposure to persistent organic pollutants was observed in the Caserta and Naples areas. Dioxins concentration in women living in areas classified at low environmental pressure in 2007 WHO report was significantly influenced by exposure to burns. PMID:24217180

  1. EPA Workshop on Monitored Natural Attenuation for Inorganic Contaminants: 3 – Discussion of Specific Contaminants & Case Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this training is to present an overview of site characterization approaches to support evaluation of the potential for Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) as a remedy for inorganic contaminants in ground water. The training will include discussion of the types of ...

  2. From Sequential Extraction to Transport Modeling, Monitored Natural Attenuation as a Remediation Approach for Inorganic Contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    POWELL, KIMBERLYR.

    2004-05-25

    Implementation of monitored natural attenuation (MNA) as a remediation method requires a mechanistic understanding of the natural attenuation processes occurring at a given site. For inorganic contaminants, natural attenuation typically involves a decrease in metal toxicity and/or mobility. These natural processes include dilution, dispersion, sorption (including adsorption, absorption, and precipitation), and redox processes. In order to better quantify these processes in terms of metal availability, sequential extraction experiments were carried out on subsurface soil samples impacted by a low pH, high sulfate, metals (Be, Ni, U, As) plume associated with the long-term operation of a coal plant at the Savannah River Site. These laboratory scale studies provide mechanistic information regarding the solid phases in the soils associated with natural attenuation of the contaminant metals. This data provides input to be evaluated in the definition of the contaminant source term as well as transport of contaminants for site transport models.

  3. NATURAL RECOVERY OF PCB CONTAMINATION AT THE SANGAMO-WESTON/TWELVEMILE CREEK/LAKE HARTWELL SUPERFUND SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous natural recoy.-contaminated sediments with data from fish and invertebrate studies at lake Hartwell. The previous sediment studies showed that natural capping of contaminated sediments with progressively cleaner sediments over time resulted to concentrations below the 1 ...

  4. Levels of chlorinated pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in Norwegian breast milk (2002-2006), and factors that may predict the level of contamination.

    PubMed

    Polder, A; Skaare, J U; Skjerve, E; Løken, K B; Eggesbø, M

    2009-08-01

    In the present study, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined in 423 breast milk samples from women living in Norway. Various predictors for the contaminant levels were also investigated. The samples were collected in six counties, representing South, Central and North Norway in 2002-2006. Initial results showed significantly lower levels of OCPs in breast milk from ethnic Norwegians (N=377) compared to ethnic non-Norwegians (N=46). Median concentrations (range) of PCBs, p,p'-DDE, HCB, beta-HCH and oxychlordane in breast milk of the Norwegian women, all parities included, were 103 (34-450), 41 (5.4-492), 11 (3.6-24), 4.7 (0.9-37) and 2.8 (0.5-16) ng/g lipid weight, respectively. Results indicated that sum of 18 PCBs, p,p'-DDE and beta-HCH are good predictors for monitoring of PCB, DDT and HCH levels in Norwegian breast milk. Multivariable linear regression analyses showed that age was strongly associated with increasing OC levels (P<0.001), whereas parity was associated with decreasing OC levels (P<0.001). Smoking was associated with higher levels of PCBs, p,p'-DDE and beta-HCH. The models explained from 17 to 35% of the variance. Median levels of OCs in the present Norwegian primparaes seemed to be 29-62% lower than corresponding results found in a Norwegian study from 2000-2002.

  5. [The role of bacterial contamination of milking utensils and disinfecting solutions as a possible cause of clinical mastitis in dairy cows].

    PubMed

    Hässig, M; Sigrist, S M; Corti, S; Giezendanner, N; Stephan, R

    2011-06-01

    Various instruments and utensils used during milking as well as teat dip solutions were examined for contamination with coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS). The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between contaminated fomites and udder infection in dairy cows. A total of 344 cows from ten dairy farms with the highest rate of clinical mastitis among the farms serviced by the Ambulatory Clinic of the University of Zurich were included in the study. Each farm was visited five times. All lactating cows, with the exception of those undergoing antibiotic treatment, were examined immediately before milking using the California Mastitis Test (CMT). A milk sample was collected from positive quarters. Items used to clean the udder, which included wood wool, paper towels and disinfecting towels as well as the milker's hands and the teat dip cup were swabbed for bacteriological examination. Water samples, samples of teat dip and cleaning solutions were also collected and cultured. Our results demonstrate that cleaning and disinfecting solutions have the potential to transmit udder pathogens and cause clinical mastitis. The most common CNS isolated from quarter samples were S. saprophyticus, S. sciuri and S. chromogenes, and the most common CNS isolated from utensils, cleaning and disinfecting solutions were S. fleuretii, S. vitulus, S. equorum, S. sciuri, S. haemolyticus, S. succinus and S. saprophyticus. PMID:21638262

  6. Neurological and neuropsychological functions in adults with a history of developmental arsenic poisoning from contaminated milk powder.

    PubMed

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Kato, Tsuguhiko; Ohta, Hitoshi; Bellinger, David C; Matsuoka, Kenichi; Grandjean, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    During the summer of 1955, mass arsenic poisoning of bottle-fed infants occurred in the western part of Japan due to contaminated milk powder, and more than 100 died; some childhood victims were later found to suffer from neurological sequelae in adolescence. This unique incident enabled us to explore infancy as a critical period of arsenic exposure in regard to developmental neurotoxicity and its possible persistence through adulthood. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the association between developmental arsenic exposure and the neurological outcomes more than 50 years later. We conducted a retrospective cohort study during the period from April 2012 to February 2013 in two hospitals in Okayama Prefecture, Japan. The study sample consisted of 50 individuals: 27 known poisoning victims from Okayama Prefecture, and 23 non-exposed local controls of similar age. In addition to neurological examination, we adapted a battery of neurophysiological and neuropsychological tests to identify the types of brain functions affected by early-life arsenic exposure. While limited abnormalities were found in the neurophysiological tests, neuropsychological deficits were observed. Except for Finger tapping, all test scores in the exposed group--Vocabulary and Block Design from Wechsler Adults Intelligent Scale III, Design memory subtest from Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning 2, and Grooved pegboard test--were substantially below those obtained by the unexposed. The exposed group showed average performance at least 1.2 standard deviations below the average for the controls. Exposed participants performed less well than controls, even after exclusion of subjects with recognized disabilities or those with a high level of education. Adults who had suffered arsenic poisoning during infancy revealed neuropsychological dysfunctions, even among those subjects not recognized as having disabilities. Developmental neurotoxicity due to arsenic likely results in permanent

  7. Short communication: Inactivation of microbial contaminants in raw milk La Serena cheese by high-pressure treatments.

    PubMed

    Arqués, J L; Garde, S; Gaya, P; Medina, M; Nuñez, M

    2006-03-01

    La Serena cheese, a Spanish variety made from Merino ewes' raw milk, has a high pH value, low salt content, and high moisture, conditions that are all favorable for growth and survival of contaminating microorganisms, including pathogens. To improve its microbiological quality and safety, high-pressure treatments at 300 or 400 MPa for 10 min at 10 degrees C were applied to 2 batches of La Serena cheese on d 2 or 50 of ripening. Cheese treated on d 2 at 300 MPa showed viable aerobic counts that were 0.99 log units lower than those for control cheese on d 3 and showed counts of enterococci, coagulase-positive staphylococci, gram-negative bacteria, and coliforms that were 2.05, 0.49, 3.14, and 4.13 log units lower, respectively, than control cheese. For cheese treated on d 2 at 400 MPa, the respective reductions in counts were 2.02, 2.68, 1.45, 3.96, and 5.50 log units. On d 60, viable aerobic counts in cheese treated on d 50 at 300 MPa were 0.50 log units lower than those in control cheese, and counts of enterococci, gram-negative bacteria, and coliforms were 1.37, 2.30, and 4.85 log units lower, respectively. For cheese treated on d 50 at 400 MPa, the respective reductions in counts were 1.29, 1.98, 4.47, and > 5 log units. High-pressure treatments at 300 or 400 MPa on d 2 or 50 reduced significantly the counts of undesirable microorganisms, improving the microbiological quality and safety of La Serena cheese immediately after treatment and at the end of the ripening period.

  8. Neurological and neuropsychological functions in adults with a history of developmental arsenic poisoning from contaminated milk powder.

    PubMed

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Kato, Tsuguhiko; Ohta, Hitoshi; Bellinger, David C; Matsuoka, Kenichi; Grandjean, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    During the summer of 1955, mass arsenic poisoning of bottle-fed infants occurred in the western part of Japan due to contaminated milk powder, and more than 100 died; some childhood victims were later found to suffer from neurological sequelae in adolescence. This unique incident enabled us to explore infancy as a critical period of arsenic exposure in regard to developmental neurotoxicity and its possible persistence through adulthood. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the association between developmental arsenic exposure and the neurological outcomes more than 50 years later. We conducted a retrospective cohort study during the period from April 2012 to February 2013 in two hospitals in Okayama Prefecture, Japan. The study sample consisted of 50 individuals: 27 known poisoning victims from Okayama Prefecture, and 23 non-exposed local controls of similar age. In addition to neurological examination, we adapted a battery of neurophysiological and neuropsychological tests to identify the types of brain functions affected by early-life arsenic exposure. While limited abnormalities were found in the neurophysiological tests, neuropsychological deficits were observed. Except for Finger tapping, all test scores in the exposed group--Vocabulary and Block Design from Wechsler Adults Intelligent Scale III, Design memory subtest from Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning 2, and Grooved pegboard test--were substantially below those obtained by the unexposed. The exposed group showed average performance at least 1.2 standard deviations below the average for the controls. Exposed participants performed less well than controls, even after exclusion of subjects with recognized disabilities or those with a high level of education. Adults who had suffered arsenic poisoning during infancy revealed neuropsychological dysfunctions, even among those subjects not recognized as having disabilities. Developmental neurotoxicity due to arsenic likely results in permanent

  9. Analysis of industry-generated data. Part 2: Risk-based sampling plan for efficient self-control of aflatoxin M₁ contamination in raw milk.

    PubMed

    Farkas, Zsuzsa; Trevisani, Marcello; Horváth, Zsuzsanna; Serraino, Andrea; Szabó, István J; Kerekes, Kata; Szeitzné-Szabó, Mária; Ambrus, Arpád

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxin M₁ (AFM1) contamination in 21,969 milk samples taken in Italy during 2005-08 and 2010 provided the basis for designing an early warning self-control plan. Additionally, 4148 AFM1 data points from the mycotoxin crisis (2003-04) represented the worst case. No parametric function provided a good fit for the skewed and scattered AFM1 concentrations. The acceptable reference values, reflecting the combined uncertainty of AFM1 measured in consignments consisting of milk from one to six farms, ranged from 40 to 16.7 ng kg(-1), respectively. Asymmetric control charts with these reference values, 40 and 50 ng kg(-1) warning and action limits are recommended to assess immediately the distribution of AFM1 concentration in incoming consignments. The moving window method, presented as a worked example including 5 days with five samples/day, enabled verification of compliance of production with the legal limit in 98% of the consignments at a 94% probability level. The sampling plan developed assumes consecutive analyses of samples taken from individual farms, which makes early detection of contamination possible and also immediate corrective actions if the AFM1 concentration in a consignment exceeds the reference value. In the latter case different control plans with increased sampling frequency should be applied depending on the level and frequency of contamination. As aflatoxin B₁ increases in feed at about the same time, therefore a coordinated sampling programme performed by the milk processing plants operating in a confined geographic area is more effective and economical then the individual ones. The applicability of the sample size calculation based on binomial theorem and the fast response rate resulting from the recommended sampling plan were verified by taking 1000-10,000 random samples with replacement from the experimental databases representing the normal, moderately and highly contaminated periods. The efficiency of the control plan could be

  10. Emergency Response Planning to Reduce the Impact of Contaminated Drinking Water during Natural Disasters

    EPA Science Inventory

    Natural disasters can be devastating to local water supplies affecting millions of people. Disaster recovery plans and water industry collaboration during emergencies protect consumers from contaminated drinking water supplies and help facilitate the repair of public water system...

  11. Site Characterization To Support Use Of Monitored Natural Attentuation For Remediation Of Inorganic Contaminants In Groundwater

    EPA Science Inventory

    Technical recommendations have recently been published by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to address site characterization needed to support selection of Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) for cleanup of inorganic contaminant plumes in groundwater. Immobilization onto ...

  12. Characterization of Contaminant Transport Using Naturally-Occurring U-Series Disequilibria

    SciTech Connect

    TEH-LUNG KU

    2001-06-01

    Study the migration of nuclear waste contaminants in subsurface fractured systems using naturally occurring uranium and thorium-series radionuclides as tracers under in-situ physico-chemical and hydrogeologic conditions. Radioactive disequilibria among members of these decay-series nuclides can provide information on the rates of adsorption-desorption and transport of contaminants as well as on fluid transport and rock dissolution in a natural setting.

  13. Serum or breast milk immunoglobulins mask the self-reactivity of human natural IgG antibodies.

    PubMed

    Djoumerska-Alexieva, Iglika; Manoylov, Iliyan; Dimitrov, Jordan D; Tchorbanov, Andrey

    2014-04-01

    B cells producing IgG antibodies specific to a variety of self- or foreign antigens are a normal constituent of the immune system of all healthy individuals. These naturally occurring IgG antibodies are found in the serum, external secretions, and pooled human immunoglobulin preparations. They bind with low affinity to antigens, which can also be targets for pathologic autoantibodies. An enhancement of naturally occurring IgG autoantibody activity was observed after treatment of human IgG molecules with protein-destabilizing agents. We have investigated the interactions of human immunoglobulins that were obtained from serum or from breast milk of healthy individuals or IVIg with human liver antigens. Proteins from an individual serum or milk were isolated by two methods, one of which included exposure to low pH and the other did not. Purified serum, mucosal IgM, IgA, and the fraction containing immunoglobulin G F(ab')2 fragments each inhibited the binding of a single donor or pooled IgG to human liver antigens. Our study presents findings regarding the role of the breast milk or serum antibodies in blocking the self-reactivity of IgG antibodies. It supports the suggestion that not IVIg only, but also the pooled human IgM and IgA might possess a potent beneficial immunomodulatory activity in autoimmune patients.

  14. Non-dioxin-like PCB and PBDE deposition on Zea mays L. leaves: modelled contamination in milk from dairy animals fed on silage.

    PubMed

    Brambilla, Gianfranco; Abate, Vittorio; di Domenico, Alessandro; Esposito, Mauro; Fulgenzi, Anna Rita; Iacovella, Nicola; Serpe, Francesco Paolo; Tassinari, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) can intercept airborne pollutants before their deposition on soil. Selected non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (Σ6NDL-PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (Σ8PBDEs) with feed and food safety relevance were measured on maize leaves harvested for silage in dairy animals from 28 fields in Italy. Analyses were carried out by gas chromatography coupled to high- and low-resolution mass spectrometry. Contamination ranged from 0.65 to 5.3 ng g(-1) with 12% moisture for Σ6NDL-PCBs, and from 2.7 to 6.2 for Σ8 PBDEs. Modelled contamination in cow's milk was estimated to fall within the range 0.27-16 ng g(-1) for PCBs, 0.17-1.9 for PBDE number 47, and 0.22-2.1 for PBDE number 99 on a lipid basis. The results indicate that maize silage alone may raise Σ6NDL-PCB contamination in dairy milk up to the 95th percentile in the European Union. Results are discussed in terms of air quality standards able to support food safety.

  15. Neutrophil dynamics in the blood and milk of crossbred cows naturally infected with Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Swain, Dilip K.; Kushwah, Mohar Singh; Kaur, Mandheer; Dang, Ajay K.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study was designed to evaluate the neutrophil dynamics in terms of the functional competence during subclinical mastitis (SCM) and clinical mastitis (CM). Materials and Methods: A total of 146 Karan fries cows were screened and were divided into three groups as control (n=12), SCM, n=12 and CM, n=12 groups on the basis of California mastitis test scoring, bacteriological evaluation, gross and morphological changes in milk and by counting milk somatic cell count (SCC). Both blood and milk polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) were isolated in the study. Phagocytic activity (PA) was studied by spectrophotometrically; neutrophil extracelluar traps (NETs) were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM); CD44 was quantified by flow cytometry and apoptosis was studied by fluorescent microscopy. Results: Significantly (p<0.05) higher SCC, PA was found in milk of CM cows as compared to SCM and control cows. Significantly lower (p<0.05) apoptosis was observed in PMNs isolated from both blood and milk of CM group of cows when compared to control and SCM group. The milk neutrophils of CM group of cows formed NETs as evidenced from the SEM images. Surface expression of CD44 revealed a significantly (p<0.05) lower expression in milk neutrophils of CM group of cows when compared to SCM and control group of cows. Conclusion: The study indicated a positive correlation between delayed neutrophil apoptosis, persistent staying of neutrophils at the site of infection along with formation of NETs as the strategies to fight against the pathogens in the udder during Staphylococcal mastitis. The study forms a strong base for future molecular research in terms of neutrophil recruitment and neutrophil removal from the site of infection. PMID:27047094

  16. Subsurface Contaminant Focus Area: Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA)--Programmatic, Technical, and Regulatory Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Krupka, Kenneth M.; Martin, Wayne J.

    2001-07-23

    Natural attenuation processes are commonly used for remediation of contaminated sites. A variety of natural processes occur without human intervention at all sites to varying rates and degrees of effectiveness to attenuate (decrease) the mass, toxicity, mobility, volume, or concentration of organic and inorganic contaminants in soil, groundwater, and surface water systems. The objective of this review is to identify potential technical investments to be incorporated in the Subsurface Contaminant Focus Area Strategic Plan for monitored natural attenuation. When implemented, the technical investments will help evaluate and implement monitored natural attenuation as a remediation option at DOE sites. The outcome of this review is a set of conclusions and general recommendations regarding research needs, programmatic guidance, and stakeholder issues pertaining to monitored natural attenuation for the DOE complex.

  17. Nature and biosynthesis of galacto-oligosaccharides related to oligosaccharides in human breast milk

    PubMed Central

    Intanon, Montira; Arreola, Sheryl Lozel; Pham, Ngoc Hung; Kneifel, Wolfgang; Haltrich, Dietmar; Nguyen, Thu-Ha

    2014-01-01

    Human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) are prominent among the functional components of human breast milk. While HMO have potential applications in both infants and adults, this potential is limited by the difficulties in manufacturing these complex structures. Consequently, functional alternatives such as galacto-oligosaccharides are under investigation, and nowadays, infant formulae are supplemented with galacto-oligosaccharides to mimic the biological effects of HMO. Recently, approaches toward the production of defined human milk oligosaccharide structures using microbial, fermentative methods employing single, appropriately engineered microorganisms were introduced. Furthermore, galactose-containing hetero-oligosaccharides have attracted an increasing amount of attention because they are structurally more closely related to HMO. The synthesis of these novel oligosaccharides, which resemble the core of HMO, is of great interest for applications in the food industry. PMID:24571717

  18. MICROBIAL PROCESSES AFFECTING MONITORED NATURAL ATTENUATION OF CONTAMINANTS IN THE SUBSURFACE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Among the alternatives considered for the remediation of soil and ground water at hazardous wastes sites are the use of natural processes to reduce or remove the contaminants of concern. Under favorable conditions, the use of natural attenuation can result in significant cost sa...

  19. Transport behaviour and natural attenuation of organic contaminants at spill sites.

    PubMed

    Schirmer, Mario; Butler, Barbara J

    2004-12-15

    Organic contaminants pose a significant threat to groundwater resources. These contaminants are often released as non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) during spills of, for example, gasoline, crude oil, creosote, coal tar or chlorinated solvents. Once released, the liquids seep downward and dissolve into the groundwater. In many cases, the impacted groundwater contains a mixture of contaminants, either due to the complexity of the NAPL (e.g., gasoline) or due to co-disposal/co-spillage (e.g., landfill leachates). Many organic contaminants are hazardous to human health and the environment and therefore threaten our potable water resources and natural ecosystems. Active remediation of contaminated groundwater is often very expensive so that cost-effective alternatives have to be found. If natural attenuation is intended to be used as a means of achieving specific remedial objectives at a contaminated site, it will require a sound understanding of the ongoing processes as well as careful control and monitoring ("monitored natural attenuation" (MNA)). Therefore, a major goal of remediation research today is to develop methods to predict the mass fate of multiple organic compounds in heterogeneous aquifers under natural conditions.

  20. Protecting Consumers from Contaminated Drinking Water during Natural Disasters

    EPA Science Inventory

    Natural disasters can cause damage and destruction to local water supplies affecting millions of people. Communities should plan for and designate an authorized team to manage and prioritize emergency response in devastated areas. Sections 2.0 and 3.0 describe the Environmental...

  1. Nature's perfect food revisited: recent insights on milk consumption and chronic disease risk.

    PubMed

    Solomons, Noel W

    2002-06-01

    In Swedish volunteers, consuming spaghetti along with milk raises the insulinemic effect of the meal. In Finnish citizens followed for 19 to 24 years for cancer incidence, different consumption patterns of dairy items had different relationships with colon and rectal carcinogenesis. More definitive and conclusive research into how dairy products might influence chronic disease would seem to be warranted.

  2. Evaluation of the Effects of Natural Gas Contaminants on Corrosion in Compressed Natural Gas Storage Systems - Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Lyle, F.F. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    This report describes a research program that was conducted to define natural gas contaminant levels necessary to insure that internal corrosion of compressed natural gas (CNG) cylinders does not constitute a hazard over the lifetimes of the cylinders. A literature search was performed and companies in the natural gas transmission and distribution industries were contacted: to identify and determine the composition ranges of contaminants in natural gases; and to obtain information regarding corrosion damage of CNG cylinders and cylinder materials. Corrosion and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) tests were performed on the cylinder materials most widely used in CNG cylinders in the United States (4130X and 15B30 steels and 6061-T6 aluminum alloy). Tests were conducted in: natural gases from several producing wells and from an interstate pipeline; and in aqueous solutions saturated with varying concentrations of natural gas contaminants. Also, metallurgical analyses of nine (eight steel and one aluminum), used CNG cylinders were performed. Limiting concentrations of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), and other CNG contaminants necessary to prevent internal corrosion of CNG fuel and storage cylinders were defined. This knowledge will minimize potential hazards of using CNG as a vehicle fuel. It should also lead to reduced costs of CNG use, since it has been shown that reduction of contaminants to the very low levels currently specified by the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and the Canadian Transport Commission (CTC) is not necessary. A gas-quality standard based on program results is recommended. The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) has adopted the recommended gas-quality standard.

  3. Implementation of iodine biokinetic model for interpreting I-131 contamination in breast milk after the Fukushima nuclear disaster.

    PubMed

    Tani, Kotaro; Kurihara, Osamu; Kim, Eunjoo; Yoshida, Satoshi; Sakai, Kazuo; Akashi, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    After the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant run by Tokyo Electric Power Company in 2011, breast milk samples obtained from volunteers living in Fukushima and neighboring prefectures were examined and small amounts of I-131 (2.2-36.3 Bq/kg) were detected in some samples. In this work, the I-131 concentrations in breast milk from nursing mothers in Ibaraki prefecture were calculated based on the iodine biokinetic model during lactation together with time-variable intake scenarios by inhalation of ambient air and ingestion of tap water, using the authors' code. The calculated I-131 concentrations in breast milk generally agreed with those measured for the volunteers. Based on the results, thyroid equivalent doses to breast-fed infants were estimated for each place of residence of the volunteers on the assumption that these infants consumed 800 ml of breast milk every day, resulting in 10-11 mSv for Mito and Kasama cities and 1.1-1.8 mSv for Tsukuba and Moriya cities. It was suggested that breast milk consumption could be a major contributor to internal dose of breast-fed infants in areas with mild I-131 pollution; however, further studies considering personal behavior surveys would be necessary to estimate individual doses.

  4. Implementation of iodine biokinetic model for interpreting I-131 contamination in breast milk after the Fukushima nuclear disaster

    PubMed Central

    Tani, Kotaro; Kurihara, Osamu; Kim, Eunjoo; Yoshida, Satoshi; Sakai, Kazuo; Akashi, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    After the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant run by Tokyo Electric Power Company in 2011, breast milk samples obtained from volunteers living in Fukushima and neighboring prefectures were examined and small amounts of I-131 (2.2–36.3 Bq/kg) were detected in some samples. In this work, the I-131 concentrations in breast milk from nursing mothers in Ibaraki prefecture were calculated based on the iodine biokinetic model during lactation together with time-variable intake scenarios by inhalation of ambient air and ingestion of tap water, using the authors’ code. The calculated I-131 concentrations in breast milk generally agreed with those measured for the volunteers. Based on the results, thyroid equivalent doses to breast-fed infants were estimated for each place of residence of the volunteers on the assumption that these infants consumed 800 ml of breast milk every day, resulting in 10–11 mSv for Mito and Kasama cities and 1.1–1.8 mSv for Tsukuba and Moriya cities. It was suggested that breast milk consumption could be a major contributor to internal dose of breast-fed infants in areas with mild I-131 pollution; however, further studies considering personal behavior surveys would be necessary to estimate individual doses. PMID:26198990

  5. Implementation of iodine biokinetic model for interpreting I-131 contamination in breast milk after the Fukushima nuclear disaster.

    PubMed

    Tani, Kotaro; Kurihara, Osamu; Kim, Eunjoo; Yoshida, Satoshi; Sakai, Kazuo; Akashi, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    After the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant run by Tokyo Electric Power Company in 2011, breast milk samples obtained from volunteers living in Fukushima and neighboring prefectures were examined and small amounts of I-131 (2.2-36.3 Bq/kg) were detected in some samples. In this work, the I-131 concentrations in breast milk from nursing mothers in Ibaraki prefecture were calculated based on the iodine biokinetic model during lactation together with time-variable intake scenarios by inhalation of ambient air and ingestion of tap water, using the authors' code. The calculated I-131 concentrations in breast milk generally agreed with those measured for the volunteers. Based on the results, thyroid equivalent doses to breast-fed infants were estimated for each place of residence of the volunteers on the assumption that these infants consumed 800 ml of breast milk every day, resulting in 10-11 mSv for Mito and Kasama cities and 1.1-1.8 mSv for Tsukuba and Moriya cities. It was suggested that breast milk consumption could be a major contributor to internal dose of breast-fed infants in areas with mild I-131 pollution; however, further studies considering personal behavior surveys would be necessary to estimate individual doses. PMID:26198990

  6. Implementation of iodine biokinetic model for interpreting I-131 contamination in breast milk after the Fukushima nuclear disaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tani, Kotaro; Kurihara, Osamu; Kim, Eunjoo; Yoshida, Satoshi; Sakai, Kazuo; Akashi, Makoto

    2015-07-01

    After the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant run by Tokyo Electric Power Company in 2011, breast milk samples obtained from volunteers living in Fukushima and neighboring prefectures were examined and small amounts of I-131 (2.2-36.3 Bq/kg) were detected in some samples. In this work, the I-131 concentrations in breast milk from nursing mothers in Ibaraki prefecture were calculated based on the iodine biokinetic model during lactation together with time-variable intake scenarios by inhalation of ambient air and ingestion of tap water, using the authors’ code. The calculated I-131 concentrations in breast milk generally agreed with those measured for the volunteers. Based on the results, thyroid equivalent doses to breast-fed infants were estimated for each place of residence of the volunteers on the assumption that these infants consumed 800 ml of breast milk every day, resulting in 10-11 mSv for Mito and Kasama cities and 1.1-1.8 mSv for Tsukuba and Moriya cities. It was suggested that breast milk consumption could be a major contributor to internal dose of breast-fed infants in areas with mild I-131 pollution; however, further studies considering personal behavior surveys would be necessary to estimate individual doses.

  7. Maternal risk factors associated with increased dioxin concentrations in breast milk in a hot spot of dioxin contamination in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Anh, Nguyen Thi Nguyet; Nishijo, Muneko; Tai, Pham The; Maruzeni, Shoko; Morikawa, Yuko; Anh, Tran Hai; Van Luong, Hoang; Dam, Pham Minh; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Son, Le Ke; Nishijo, Hisao

    2014-01-01

    This study looked to identify determinants of exposure to dioxin in breast milk from breast-feeding women in a hot spot of dioxin exposure in Vietnam. Breast milk was collected from 140 mothers 1 month after delivery. The risk factors investigated included length of residency, drinking of well water and the frequency of animal food consumption. Cluster analysis was performed to identify dietary patterns of fish and meat portions, fish variety and egg variety. Residency, age and parity were clearly associated with increased dioxin levels. Drinking well water and the consumption of marine crab and shrimps were related to higher levels of furans in breast milk. The consumption of quail eggs also appeared to be associated with increased levels of some dioxin isomers in this area. Some mothers who ate no or less meat than fish and mothers who consumed more freshwater fish than marine fish had lower levels of dioxins in their breast milk. However, the type of water and the eating habits of mothers contributed only partly to the increased dioxin levels in their breast milk; the length of residency was the most important risk factor associated with increased dioxin body burdens of mothers. PMID:24149970

  8. Biosynthesis of toxic naturally-occurring seafood contaminants.

    PubMed

    Kalaitzis, John A; Chau, Rocky; Kohli, Gurjeet S; Murray, Shauna A; Neilan, Brett A

    2010-08-15

    Outbreaks of human illness caused by the consumption of contaminated seafood, continues to be a major problem particularly for the shellfish industry. Toxins from marine, brackish and freshwater environments, which are often produced as a result of harmful algal blooms, have been implicated as the causative agents of these poisonings. Commonly, poisoning events have been grouped into one of six classes, Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP), Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP), Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning (NSP), Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP), Azaspiracid Shellfish Poisoning (AZP), and Amnesiac Shellfish Poisoning (ASP). The causative agents of these specific poisonings along with their biosyntheses are discussed in this review. The highly unusual and complex structures of most common seafood toxins have made them interesting targets for biosynthetic studies. Many of the toxins presented are biosynthesized via complex pathways that have been elucidated either through isotope labelled precursor feeding studies and/or characterization of the genes encoding the producing organism's biosynthetic machinery. Feeding studies key to our understanding of a particular toxin's biosynthesis, such as the incorporation of unusual precursors, as well as unique biosynthetic pathways and rare chemical mechanisms involved in the assembly process are highlighted. More recently, however, modern genomics-based techniques have been used for the elucidation of biosynthetic pathways and these are presented in the context of polyketide, non-ribosomal peptide, and hybrid pathway derived, toxin assembly.

  9. Preventing and Removing Contamination in a Natural Radiocarbon Sample Preparation Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Zermeno, P; Kurdyla, D K; Buchholz, B A; Heller, S J; Frantz, B R; Brown, T A; Kashgarian, M

    2002-10-25

    The introduction of elevated {sup 14}C contamination into a natural radiocarbon sample preparation laboratory can occur through many different pathways. The most difficult to control is the introduction of contaminated samples from outside labs. Laboratories can remain {sup 14}C contaminated as a result of earlier tracer based research, even if ''hot'' work has not occurred in the laboratories in decades. Prior to accepting samples from outside collaborators, it is recommended that the collaborators test their labs for {sup 14}C contamination. Any surface in a lab that has high use by multiple people has the potential to be contaminated. The standard procedure for determining whether a collaborator's lab is contaminated consists of swiping lab surfaces with small glass fiber filters wetted with alcohol and measuring them for {sup 14}C content using AMS. Volatile {sup 14}C can be detected by using aerosol monitors consisting of fine soot that is depleted in {sup 14}C. These monitors can be set out in the laboratory in question to check for volatile {sup 14}C contamination. In the event that a hot sample is introduced in the natural radiocarbon sample prep laboratory, all sample submission should be stopped until the lab is declared clean. Samples already being processed should be completed along with {sup 14}C depleted material and measured by AMS. This will help determine if the contaminated samples have affected other samples in the laboratory. After a contamination event, the laboratory and associated equipment requires cleaning or disposal. All surfaces and equipment should be wiped down with acetone or ethanol. All chemicals in use should be disposed of in the appropriate waste containers and those waste containers removed from the lab. Once the natural radiocarbon laboratory has been thoroughly ''cleaned'', several background samples consisting of {sup 14}C depleted material should be processed through the lab and measured by AMS before unknown samples are

  10. Geochemistry, biota and natural background levels in an arsenic naturally contaminated volcanic aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preziosi, Elisabetta; Amalfitano, Stefano; Di Lorenzo, Tiziana; Parrone, Daniele; Rossi, David; Ghergo, Stefano; Lungarini, Silvia; Zoppini, Anna Maria

    2015-04-01

    The tight links between chemical and ecological status are largely acknowledged as for surface water bodies, while aquifers are still considered as hidden groundwater reservoirs, rather than ecosystems to be preserved. Geochemical and biological interactions play a key role in all subterranean processes, including the dynamics of the fate of anthropogenic contaminants. Studies on groundwater dependent ecosystems (GDE) were mainly focused on karst aquifers so far, but an increased awareness on the importance of water-rock interactions and methodological improvements in microbial ecology are rapidly increasing the level of characterization of groundwater ecosystems in various hydrogeological contexts. Similarly, knowledge about groundwater biodiversity is still limited, especially if porous habitats are concerned. Yet, groundwater and GDEs are populated by a diverse and highly adapted biota, dominated by crustaceans, which provide important ecosystem services and act as biological indicators of chemical and quantitative impact on groundwater resources. In a previous research (Amalfitano et al. 2014), we reported that the microbial community heterogeneity may reflect the lithological and hydrogeological complexity within volcanic and alluvial facies transition in a groundwater body. The quantitative tracking of the microbial community structure allowed disentangling the natural biogeochemical processes evolving within the aquifer flow path. The analyses of groundwater crustaceans assemblages may contribute to shed more light upon the state and dynamics of such ecosystems. In the present research, a comprehensive study of a water table aquifer flowing through a quaternary volcanic district is being performed, including the geochemical (inorganic) composition, the microbial composition, and the analysis of crustacean assemblages . Groundwater samples are periodically collected from private wells and springs under a low anthropic impact. The key issues within the

  11. Molecular identification of naturally occurring bacteriocinogenic and bacteriocinogenic-like lactic acid bacteria in raw milk and soft cheese.

    PubMed

    Ortolani, M B T; Moraes, P M; Perin, L M; Viçosa, G N; Carvalho, K G; Silva Júnior, A; Nero, L A

    2010-07-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are currently used by food industries because of their ability to produce metabolites with antimicrobial activity against gram-positive pathogens and spoilage microorganisms. The objectives of this study were to identify naturally occurring bacteriocinogenic or bacteriocinogenic-like LAB in raw milk and soft cheese and to detect the presence of nisin-coding genes in cultures identified as Lactococcus lactis. Lactic acid bacteria cultures were isolated from 389 raw milk and soft cheese samples and were later characterized for the production of antimicrobial substances against Listeria monocytogenes. Of these, 58 (14.9%) LAB cultures were identified as antagonistic; the nature of this antagonistic activity was then characterized via enzymatic tests to confirm the proteinaceous nature of the antimicrobial substances. In addition, 20 of these antagonistic cultures were selected and submitted to genetic sequencing; they were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum (n=2) and Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis (n=18). Nisin genes were identified by polymerase chain reaction in 7 of these cultures. The identified bacteriocinogenic and bacteriocinogenic-like cultures were highly variable concerning the production and activity of antimicrobial substances, even when they were genetically similar. The obtained results indicated the need for molecular and phenotypic methodologies to properly characterize bacteriocinogenic LAB, as well as the potential use of these cultures as tools to provide food safety.

  12. HIGH BREAST MILK LEVELS OF POLYCHLORINATEDE BIPHENYLS (PCBS) AMONG FOUR WOMEN LIVING ADJACENT TO A PCB-CONTAMINATED WASTE SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    As a consequence of contamination by effluents from local electronics manufacturing facilities, the New Bedford Harbor and estuary in southeastern Massachusetts is among the sites in the United States that are considered the most highly contaminated by polychlorinated biphenyls (...

  13. Natural attenuation model and biodegradation for 1,1,1-trichloroethane contaminant in shallow groundwater

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Qiang; Zhu, Rui-Li; Yang, Jie; Li, Hui; Liu, Yong-Di; Lu, Shu-Guang; Luo, Qi-Shi; Lin, Kuang-Fei

    2015-01-01

    Natural attenuation is an effective and feasible technology for controlling groundwater contamination. This study investigated the potential effectiveness and mechanisms of natural attenuation of 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA) contaminants in shallow groundwater in Shanghai by using a column simulation experiment, reactive transport model, and 16S rRNA gene clone library. The results indicated that the majority of the contaminant mass was present at 2–6 m in depth, the contaminated area was approximately 1000 m × 1000 m, and natural attenuation processes were occurring at the site. The effluent breakthrough curves from the column experiments demonstrated that the effectiveness of TCA natural attenuation in the groundwater accorded with the advection-dispersion-reaction equation. The kinetic parameter of adsorption and biotic dehydrochlorination of TCA was 0.068 m3/kg and 0.0045 d–1. The contamination plume was predicted to diminish and the maximum concentration of TCA decreased to 280 μg/L. The bacterial community during TCA degradation in groundwater belonged to Trichococcus, Geobacteraceae, Geobacter, Mucilaginibacter, and Arthrobacter. PMID:26379629

  14. Natural attenuation model and biodegradation for 1,1,1-trichloroethane contaminant in shallow groundwater.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qiang; Zhu, Rui-Li; Yang, Jie; Li, Hui; Liu, Yong-Di; Lu, Shu-Guang; Luo, Qi-Shi; Lin, Kuang-Fei

    2015-01-01

    Natural attenuation is an effective and feasible technology for controlling groundwater contamination. This study investigated the potential effectiveness and mechanisms of natural attenuation of 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA) contaminants in shallow groundwater in Shanghai by using a column simulation experiment, reactive transport model, and 16S rRNA gene clone library. The results indicated that the majority of the contaminant mass was present at 2-6 m in depth, the contaminated area was approximately 1000 m × 1000 m, and natural attenuation processes were occurring at the site. The effluent breakthrough curves from the column experiments demonstrated that the effectiveness of TCA natural attenuation in the groundwater accorded with the advection-dispersion-reaction equation. The kinetic parameter of adsorption and biotic dehydrochlorination of TCA was 0.068 m(3)/kg and 0.0045 d(-1). The contamination plume was predicted to diminish and the maximum concentration of TCA decreased to 280 μg/L. The bacterial community during TCA degradation in groundwater belonged to Trichococcus, Geobacteraceae, Geobacter, Mucilaginibacter, and Arthrobacter. PMID:26379629

  15. Natural attenuation model and biodegradation for 1,1,1-trichloroethane contaminant in shallow groundwater.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qiang; Zhu, Rui-Li; Yang, Jie; Li, Hui; Liu, Yong-Di; Lu, Shu-Guang; Luo, Qi-Shi; Lin, Kuang-Fei

    2015-01-01

    Natural attenuation is an effective and feasible technology for controlling groundwater contamination. This study investigated the potential effectiveness and mechanisms of natural attenuation of 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA) contaminants in shallow groundwater in Shanghai by using a column simulation experiment, reactive transport model, and 16S rRNA gene clone library. The results indicated that the majority of the contaminant mass was present at 2-6 m in depth, the contaminated area was approximately 1000 m × 1000 m, and natural attenuation processes were occurring at the site. The effluent breakthrough curves from the column experiments demonstrated that the effectiveness of TCA natural attenuation in the groundwater accorded with the advection-dispersion-reaction equation. The kinetic parameter of adsorption and biotic dehydrochlorination of TCA was 0.068 m(3)/kg and 0.0045 d(-1). The contamination plume was predicted to diminish and the maximum concentration of TCA decreased to 280 μg/L. The bacterial community during TCA degradation in groundwater belonged to Trichococcus, Geobacteraceae, Geobacter, Mucilaginibacter, and Arthrobacter.

  16. Cyclic Lipodepsipeptides Produced by Pseudomonas spp. Naturally Present in Raw Milk Induce Inhibitory Effects on Microbiological Inhibitor Assays for Antibiotic Residue Screening

    PubMed Central

    Reybroeck, Wim; De Vleeschouwer, Matthias; Marchand, Sophie; Sinnaeve, Davy; Heylen, Kim; De Block, Jan; Madder, Annemieke; Martins, José C.; Heyndrickx, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Two Pseudomonas strains, identified as closely related to Pseudomonas tolaasii, were isolated from milk of a farm with frequent false-positive Delvotest results for screening putative antibiotic residues in raw milk executed as part of the regulatory quality programme. Growth at 5 to 7°C of these isolates in milk resulted in high lipolysis and the production of bacterial inhibitors. The two main bacterial inhibitors have a molecular weight of 1168.7 and 1140.7 Da respectively, are heat-tolerant and inhibit Geobacillus stearothermophilus var. calidolactis, the test strain of most of the commercially available microbiological inhibitor tests for screening of antibiotic residues in milk. Furthermore, these bacterial inhibitors show antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and B. subtilis and also interfere negatively with yoghurt production. Following their isolation and purification with RP-HPLC, the inhibitors were identified by NMR analysis as cyclic lipodepsipeptides of the viscosin group. Our findings bring to light a new challenge for quality control in the dairy industry. By prolonging the refrigerated storage of raw milk, the keeping quality of milk is influenced by growth and metabolic activities of psychrotrophic bacteria such as pseudomonads. Besides an increased risk of possible spoilage of long shelf-life milk, the production at low temperature of natural bacterial inhibitors may also result in false-positive results for antibiotic residue screening tests based on microbial inhibitor assays thus leading to undue production loss. PMID:24853676

  17. Free-living ameba contamination in natural hot springs in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Lekkla, Amorn; Sutthikornchai, Chantira; Bovornkitti, Somchai; Sukthana, Yaowalark

    2005-01-01

    Thermo tolerant free-living ameba, Naegleria spp and Acanthamoeba spp contamination in natural hot springs in Thailand were carried out from 13 provinces. The temperature of hot springs water varied from 28 degrees-65 degrees C and pH from 6-8. We found that 38.2 % (26/68) of water samples were positive, Acanthamoeba was 13.2% (9/68) whilst Naegleria was 35.3% (24/68). Contamination by free-living ameba in natural hot springs may pose a significant health risk to people who use such water for recreation activities.

  18. Nature's cure for cleanup of contaminated environment- a review of bioremediation strategies.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Majeti Narasimha Vara; Prasad, Rajendra

    2012-01-01

    Population explosion, to the tune of -7.2 billion, along with excessive use of natural resources and a variety of anthropogenic activities, has resulted in large-scale contamination of the environment, especially the soil and groundwater.Contamination in the environment is an ever-increasing phenomenon, and often, regulatory systems and cleaning operations are not commensurate with waste generation. It is therefore necessary to search for effective and low-cost methods, especially following and stimulating the mechanisms of nature's cure. Bioremediation technologies resting upon the vast potential of biodiversity for the monitoring and abatement of environmental pollution have been briefly reviewed.

  19. Retention of contaminants in northern natural peatlands treating mine waste waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Katharina; Ronkanen, Anna-Kaisa; Klöve, Björn

    2014-05-01

    The mining industry in Finland is growing, leading to an increasing number of working and proposed mine sites. As a consequence, the amount of mine waste waters created is likewise increasing. This poses a great challenge for water management and purification, as these mine waste waters can lead to severe environmental and health consequences when released to receiving water bodies untreated. In the past years, the use of natural peatlands for cost-effective passive waste water treatment has been increasing. In this study, the fate of mine water contaminants in a treatment peatland receiving process waters from the Kittilä gold mine was investigated. Special attention was paid to the fate of potentially harmful substances such as arsenic, antimony or nickel. During the 4 years of operation, the peatland removed contaminants from process waters at varying efficiencies. While arsenic, antimony and nickel were retained at high efficiencies (>80% retention), other contaminants such as zinc, sulfate or iron were not retained or even leaching from the peatland. Soil samples taken in 2013 showed a linear increase of arsenic, antimony and nickel concentration in the peatland as compared to earlier sampling times, in agreement with the good retention efficiencies for those contaminants. Measured concentrations exceeded guideline values for contaminated soils, indicating that the prolonged use of treatment peatlands leads to high soil contamination and restrict further uses of the peatlands without remediation measures. Soil and pore water samples were taken along a transect with varying distance from the process water distribution ditch and analyzed for total and more easily mobile concentrations of contaminants (peat soil) as well as total and dissolved contaminants (water samples). Concentrations of contaminants such as arsenic, manganese or antimony in peat and pore water samples were highest near the distribution ditch and decreased with increasing distance from the

  20. Natural releases from contaminated groundwater, Example Reference Biosphere 2B.

    PubMed

    Simón, I; Naito, M; Thorne, M C; Walke, R

    2005-01-01

    Safety assessment is a tool which, by means of an iterative procedure, allows the evaluation of the performance of a disposal system and its potential impact on human health and the environment. Radionuclides from a deep geological disposal facility may not reach the surface environment until many tens of thousands of years after closure of the facility. The BIOMASS Programme on BIOsphere Modelling and ASSessment developed Examples of "Reference Biospheres" to illustrate the use of the methodology and to demonstrate how biosphere models can be developed and justified as being fit for purpose. The practical examples are also intended to be useful in their own right. The Example Reference Biosphere 2B presented here involves the consideration of alternative types of geosphere-biosphere interfaces and calculation of doses to members of hypothetical exposure groups arising from a wide range of exposure pathways within agricultural and semi-natural environments, but without allowing for evolution of the corresponding biosphere system. The example presented can be used as a generic analysis in some situations although it was developed around a relatively specific conceptual model. It should be a useful practical example, but the above numerical results are not intended to be understood as prescribed biosphere 'conversion factors'.

  1. Potential effect of natural gas wells on alluvial groundwater contamination at the Kansas City Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Pickering, D.A.; Laase, A.D. ); Locke, D.A. )

    1993-05-01

    This report is the result of a request for further information about several abandoned natural gas wells at the US Department of Energy's Kansas City Plant (KCP). The request was prompted by an old map showing several, possibly eight, natural gas wells located under or near what is now the southeast corner of the Main Manufacturing Building at KCP. Volatile organic compound contamination in the alluvial aquifer surrounding the gas wells might possibly contaminate the bedrock aquifer if the gas wells still exist as conduits. Several circumstances exist that make it doubtful that contamination is entering the bedrock aquifers: (1) because regional groundwater flow in the bedrock beneath the KCP is expected to be vertically upward, contaminants found in the alluvial aquifer should not migrate down the old wells; (2) because of the low hydraulic conductivity of the bedrock units, contaminant transport would be extremely slow if the contaminants were migrating down the wells; and (3) casing, apparently set through the alluvium in all of the wells, would have deteriorated and may have collapsed; if the casing collapsed, the silty clays in the alluvium would also collapse and seal the well. No definitive information has been discovered about the exact location of the wells. No further search for or consideration of the old gas wells is recommended.

  2. Potential effect of natural gas wells on alluvial groundwater contamination at the Kansas City Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Pickering, D.A.; Laase, A.D.; Locke, D.A.

    1993-05-01

    This report is the result of a request for further information about several abandoned natural gas wells at the US Department of Energy`s Kansas City Plant (KCP). The request was prompted by an old map showing several, possibly eight, natural gas wells located under or near what is now the southeast corner of the Main Manufacturing Building at KCP. Volatile organic compound contamination in the alluvial aquifer surrounding the gas wells might possibly contaminate the bedrock aquifer if the gas wells still exist as conduits. Several circumstances exist that make it doubtful that contamination is entering the bedrock aquifers: (1) because regional groundwater flow in the bedrock beneath the KCP is expected to be vertically upward, contaminants found in the alluvial aquifer should not migrate down the old wells; (2) because of the low hydraulic conductivity of the bedrock units, contaminant transport would be extremely slow if the contaminants were migrating down the wells; and (3) casing, apparently set through the alluvium in all of the wells, would have deteriorated and may have collapsed; if the casing collapsed, the silty clays in the alluvium would also collapse and seal the well. No definitive information has been discovered about the exact location of the wells. No further search for or consideration of the old gas wells is recommended.

  3. Human milk banking.

    PubMed

    O'Hare, Esther Marie; Wood, Angela; Fiske, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Forms of human milk banking and donation have been present for more than a century worldwide, but, since 1985, the Human Milk Banking Association of North America (HM BANA) has established guidelines to make the use of donor's breast milk safe and the second best form of feeding to maternal breast milk for a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) infant. The Indiana Mother's Human Milk Bank provides an extensive and meticulous process of selecting breast milk donors. The process begins with a phone interview with a potential donor and includes the review of the donor's medical records, blood laboratory screening, medication and dietary intake, as well as consent from the donor's pediatrician. The milk bank follows steps of collecting, storing, and receiving the breast milk in accordance with the guidelines of the HM BANA. Pasteurization is the method used to ensure the proper heating and cooling of breast milk. Despite the rigorous pasteurization method, the donor's breast milk will not lose most of the important beneficial components needed for sick or ill NICU infants. Every batch of pasteurized breast milk will be cultured for any possible contamination and shipped to NICUs after it has been cleared by laboratory testing. PMID:23666187

  4. Aflatoxins in Rice Artificially Contaminated with Aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus flavus under Natural Storage in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sugihara, Satoshi; Doi, Hiroyuki; Kato, Masahiko; Mitoh, Yoshihiro; Tsuda, Toshihide; Ikeda, Satoru

    2016-06-01

    Aflatoxin (AFT) contamination is frequent in foods grown in tropical regions, including rice. Although AFTs are generally not found in temperate-region foods, global warming has affected typical temperate-region climates, potentially permitting the contamination of foods with AFT-producing Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus). Here we investigated the AFT production in rice during storage under natural climate conditions in Japan. We examined AFTs in brown rice and rough rice artificially contaminated with A. flavus for 1 year in Japan, and we subjected AFTs in white rice to the same treatment in airtight containers and examined the samples in warm and cold seasons, simulating the storage of white rice in general households. In the brown rice, AFTs increased after 2 months (March) and peaked after 9 months (October). The AFT contamination in the rough rice was minimal. After the polishing and cooking of the brown rice, AFTs were undetectable. In the white rice stored in airtight containers, AFTs increased after 1 month (August) and peaked after 2 months (September). Minimal AFTs were detected in the cold season. Thus, AFT contamination in rice may occur in temperate regions following A. flavus contamination. The storage of rice as rough rice could provide be useful for avoiding AFT contamination.

  5. Presence of emerging contaminants in Natural Wetlands: L

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roig, P. V.; Blasco, C.; Andreu, V.; Pascual, J. A.; Rubio, J. L.; Picó, Y.

    2009-04-01

    latter found in 63 of the 65 analyzed samples in concentrations between 0.01 g/L and 248 mg/L. Others pharmaceuticals present in less quantities were: ciprofloxacin, codeine, diazepam, fenofibrate, ibuprofen, norfloxacin, metoprolol, ofloxacin, propanolol, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim. These results demonstrate the incidence of these pollutants in the Natural Park of ĹAlbufera, probably because raw sewage flows into the lake from houses and industries nears its shores. Increased pollution is threatening the sustainable use of ĹAlbufera, a vital resource for this touristic area. References: [1] N. Esiobu, L. Armenta, J. Ike, Int. J. Environ. Health 12. (2002), 133. [2] D. Löffler, T. A. Ternes, J. Chromatogr. A. 1021 (2003), 133-144.

  6. Natural occurrence of aflatoxins (B₁ and M₁) in feed, plasma and raw milk of lactating dairy cows in Beja, Tunisia, using ELISA.

    PubMed

    Abbès, Samir; Salah-Abbès, Jalila Ben; Bouraoui, Yousra; Oueslati, Sarra; Oueslati, Ridha

    2012-01-01

    Beja is an agricultural area in northwest Tunisia. It contributes to national needs by offering cereals and milk to the market for human and animal consumption. A small number of studies on mycotoxin occurrence in feedstuffs and raw milk from lactating dairy cows in this region are available. Therefore, 226 samples were collected from farms and local markets during November 2008 until April 2010. Samples consisted of 112 raw cow milk, 56 blood from lactating cows and 58 feed destined for dairy cows. Plasma and feed were analysed for aflatoxin B₁ (AFB₁). Milk samples were analysed for aflatoxin M₁ (AFM₁). All samples were treated using a simultaneous methanolic-aqueous extraction, followed by immunoaffinity column clean-ups and were investigated by competitive enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA). Recoveries were 80%-95% and 81%-92% for AFB₁ and AFM₁, respectively, while the limit of detection (LOD) was 0.01 µg/kg or µg/l for both mycotoxins. Results revealed the presence of AFB₁ in 84.4% of the feed samples (mean 18.7 ± 1.4 µg/kg), and 39.2% of the plasma-examined samples (median 7.1 ± 1.0 µg/l) were found to be contaminated at levels higher than the Tunisian and the European Union (EU) limit for dairy animals, which are 20 and 5 µg/kg in animal feed, respectively. AFM₁ was detected in 60.7% of the cow raw milk samples examined (median 13.6 ± 1.4 µg/l). Contaminated levels were higher than the EU limit of 0.05 µg/l. It was concluded that more precaution should be taken on hygiene controls in order to prevent fungal contamination.

  7. Development of natural sorbent based micro-solid-phase extraction for determination of phthalate esters in milk samples.

    PubMed

    Sajid, Muhammad; Basheer, Chanbasha; Alsharaa, Abdulnaser; Narasimhan, Kothandaraman; Buhmeida, Abdelbaset; Al Qahtani, Mohammed; Al-Ahwal, Mahmoud Shaheen

    2016-06-14

    In the present study, a natural sorbent based micro-solid phase extraction (μ-SPE) was developed for determination of phthalate esters in milk samples. For the first time, an efficient and cost effective natural material (seed powder of Moringa oleifera) was employed as sorbent in μ-SPE. The sorbent was found to be naturally enriched with variety of functional groups and having a network of interconnected fibers. This method of extraction integrates different steps such as removal of proteins and fatty stuff, extraction and pre-concentration of target analytes into a single step. Thirteen phthalate esters were selected as target compounds for the development and evaluation of method. Some key parameters affecting the extraction efficiency were optimized, including selection of membrane, selection and amount of sorbent, extraction time, desorption solvent, volume of desorption solvent, desorption time and effect of salt addition. Under the optimum conditions, very good linearity was achieved for all the analytes with coefficient of determinations (R(2)) ranging between 0.9768 and 0.9977. The limits of detection ranged from 0.01 to 1.2 μg L(-1). Proposed method showed satisfactory reproducibility with relative standard deviations ranging from 3.6% to 10.2% (n = 7). Finally, the developed method was applied to tetra pack and bottled milk samples for the determination of phthalate esters. The performance of natural sorbent based μ-SPE was better or comparable to the methods reported in the literature. PMID:27181642

  8. Analysis of breast milk to assess exposure to chlorinated contaminants in Kazakstan: high levels of 2,3,7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in agricultural villages of southern Kazakstan.

    PubMed Central

    Hooper, K; Petreas, M X; Chuvakova, T; Kazbekova, G; Druz, N; Seminova, G; Sharmanov, T; Hayward, D; She, J; Visita, P; Winkler, J; McKinney, M; Wade, T J; Grassman, J; Stephens, R D

    1998-01-01

    To assess levels of chlorinated contaminants in breast milk, we measured organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in breast milk samples collected in 1994 according to the World Health Organization protocol from 92 donors that were representative of regional populations in southern Kazakstan. High levels (10-120 pg/g fat) of 2,3,7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), the most toxic of the PCDD/PCDF congeners, were found in breast milk samples from an agricultural region. TCDD was the major contributor (75%) to the international toxicity equivalents of these samples. The same distinctive PCDD/PCDF congener pattern was found in 15 breast milk samples and 4 serum samples collected in 1996 in a follow-up study, and has now been confirmed by three analytical laboratories. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9831540

  9. U.S. EPA WORKSHOP ON MONITORED NATURAL ATTENUATION FOR INORGANIC CONTAMINANTS, 07/31/2007

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Office of Research and Development (ORD) has developed a one-day seminar to present an overview of site characterization approaches to support evaluation of the potential for Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) as a remedy for inorganic contaminants in ground water. These se...

  10. WORKSHOP ON MONITORED NATURAL ATTENUATION OF INORGANIC CONTAMINANTS IN GROUND WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Office of Research and Development (ORD) has developed a one-day seminar to present an overview of site characterization approaches to support evaluation of the potential for Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) as a remedy for inorganic contaminants in ground water. These sem...

  11. Workshop on Monitored Natural Attenuation for Inorganic Contaminants: 1 – Introduction, MNA Processes and Characterization

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this training is to present an overview of site characterization approaches to support evaluation of the potential for Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) as a remedy for inorganic contaminants in ground water. The training will include discussion of the types of ...

  12. NATURAL ARSENIC CONTAMINATION OF HOLOCENE ALLUVIAL AQUIFERS BY LINKED TECTONIC, WEATHERING, AND MICROBIAL PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Linked tectonic, geochemical, and biologic processes lead to natural arsenic contamination of groundwater in Holocene alluvial aquifers, which are the main threat to human health around the world. These groundwaters are commonly found a long distance from their ultimate source of...

  13. NATURAL RECOVERY OF PCB - CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS IN A FRESH WATER LAKE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: An ongoing study of natural recovery of sediments contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), is being pursued at the Sangamo-Weston/Twelvemile Creek/Lake Hartwell Superfund Site (i.e., the Lake Hart...

  14. U.S. EPA WORKSHOP ON MONITORED NATURAL ATTENUATION FOR INORGANIC CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Office of Research and Development (ORD) has developed a one-day seminar to present an overview of site characterization approaches to support evaluation of the potential for Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) as a remedy for inorganic contaminants in ground water. These se...

  15. Long-term assessment of natural attenuation: statistical approach on soils with aged PAH contamination.

    PubMed

    Ouvrard, Stéphanie; Chenot, Elodie-Denise; Masfaraud, Jean-François; Schwartz, Christophe

    2013-07-01

    Natural attenuation processes valorization for PAH-contaminated soil remediation has gained increasing interest from site owners. A misunderstanding of this method and a small amount of data available does not encourage its development. However, monitored natural attenuation (MNA) offers a valuable, cheaper and environmentally friendly alternative to more classical options such as physico-chemical treatments (e.g., chemical oxidation, thermal desorption). The present work proposes the results obtained during a long-term natural attenuation assessment of historically contaminated industrial soils under real climatic conditions. This study was performed after a 10 year natural attenuation period on 60 off-ground lysimeters filled with contaminated soils from different former industrial sites (coking industry, manufactured gas plants) whose initial concentration of PAH varied between 380 and 2,077 mg kg(-1). The analysed parameters included leached water characterization, soil PAH concentrations, evaluation of vegetation cover quality and quantity. Results showed a good efficiency of the PAH dissipation and limited transfer of contaminants to the environment. It also highlighted the importance of the fine soil fractions in controlling PAH reactivity. PAH dissipation through water leaching was limited and did not present a significant risk for the environment. This PAH water concentration appeared however as a good indicator of overall dissipation rate, thereby illustrating the importance of pollutant availability in predicting its degradation potential.

  16. Monitored natural attenuation of a long-term petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sites: a case study.

    PubMed

    Naidu, Ravi; Nandy, Subhas; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Kumar, R P; Chadalavada, Sreenivasulu; Chen, Zuliang; Bowman, Mark

    2012-11-01

    This study evaluated the potential of monitored natural attenuation (MNA) as a remedial option for groundwater at a long-term petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated site in Australia. Source characterization revealed that total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) as the major contaminant of concern in the smear zone and groundwater. Multiple lines of evidence involving the geochemical parameters, microbiological analysis, data modelling and compound-specific stable carbon isotope analysis all demonstrated natural attenuation of hydrocarbons occurring in the groundwater via intrinsic biodegradation. Groundwater monitoring data by Mann-Kendall trend analysis using properly designed and installed groundwater monitoring wells shows the plume is stable and neither expanding nor shrinking. The reason for stable plume is due to the presence of both active source and natural attenuation on the edge of the plume. Assuming no retardation and no degradation the contaminated plume would have travelled a distance of 1,096 m (best case) to 11,496 m (worst case) in 30 years. However, the plume was extended only up to about 170 m from its source. The results of these investigations provide strong scientific evidence for natural attenuation of TPH in this contaminated aquifer. Therefore, MNA can be applied as a defensible management option for this site following significant reduction of TPH in the source zone.

  17. Evaluation of the effects of ultraviolet light on bacterial contaminants inoculated into whole milk and colostrum, and on colostrum immunoglobulin G.

    PubMed

    Pereira, R V; Bicalho, M L; Machado, V S; Lima, S; Teixeira, A G; Warnick, L D; Bicalho, R C

    2014-05-01

    Raw milk and colostrum can harbor dangerous microorganisms that can pose serious health risks for animals and humans. According to the USDA, more than 58% of calves in the United States are fed unpasteurized milk. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of UV light on reduction of bacteria in milk and colostrum, and on colostrum IgG. A pilot-scale UV light continuous (UVC) flow-through unit (45 J/cm(2)) was used to treat milk and colostrum. Colostrum and sterile whole milk were inoculated with Listeria innocua, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Salmonella serovar Typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Acinetobacter baumannii before being treated with UVC. During UVC treatment, samples were collected at 5 time points and bacteria were enumerated using selective media. The effect of UVC on IgG was evaluated using raw colostrum from a nearby dairy farm without the addition of bacteria. For each colostrum batch, samples were collected at several different time points and IgG was measured using ELISA. The UVC treatment of milk resulted in a significant final count (log cfu/mL) reduction of Listeria monocytogenes (3.2 ± 0.3 log cfu/mL reduction), Salmonella spp. (3.7 ± 0.2 log cfu/mL reduction), Escherichia coli (2.8 ± 0.2 log cfu/mL reduction), Staph. aureus (3.4 ± 0.3 log cfu/mL reduction), Streptococcus spp. (3.4 ± 0.4 log cfu/mL reduction), and A. baumannii (2.8 ± 0.2 log cfu/mL reduction). The UVC treatment of milk did not result in a significant final count (log cfu/mL) reduction for M. smegmatis (1.8 ± 0.5 log cfu/mL reduction). The UVC treatment of colostrum was significantly associated with a final reduction of bacterial count (log cfu/mL) of Listeria spp. (1.4 ± 0.3 log cfu/mL reduction), Salmonella spp. (1.0 ± 0.2 log cfu/mL reduction), and Acinetobacter spp. (1.1 ± 0.3 log cfu/mL reduction), but not of E. coli (0.5 ± 0.3 log cfu/mL reduction), Strep. agalactiae (0.8 ± 0.2 log cfu/mL reduction), and

  18. The active natural anti-oxidant properties of chamomile, milk thistle, and halophilic bacterial components in human skin in vitro.

    PubMed

    Mamalis, Andrew; Nguyen, Duc-Huy; Brody, Neil; Jagdeo, Jared

    2013-07-01

    The number of skin cancers continues to rise, accounting for approximately 40% of all cancers reported in the United States and approximately 9,500 deaths per year. Studies have shown reactive oxygen species (ROS) type free radicals are linked to skin cancer and aging. Therefore, it is important for us to identify agents that have anti-oxidant properties to protect skin against free radical damage. The purpose of this research is to investigate the anti-oxidant properties of bisabolol, silymarin, and ectoin that are components from chamomile, milk thistle, and halophilic bacteria, respectively. We measured the ability of bisabolol, silymarin, and ectoin to modulate the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced upregulation of ROS free radicals in normal human skin fibroblasts in vitro. Using a flow cytometry-based assay, we demonstrated that varying concentrations of these natural components were able to inhibit upregulation of H2O2-generated free radicals in human skin fibroblasts in vitro. Our results indicate components of chamomile, milk thistle, and halophilic bacteria exhibit anti-oxidant capabilities and warrant further study in clinical trials to characterize their anti-cancer and anti-aging capabilities.

  19. Practical improvement of the radiological quality of milk produced by peasant farmers in the territories of Belarus contaminated by the Chernobyl accident. The ETHOS project.

    PubMed

    Lepicard, S; Dubreuil, G H

    2001-01-01

    The Chernobyl post-accident situation has highlighted how the sudden emergence of persistent radioactive contamination in the environment is severely affecting the quality of life of the inhabitants in the concerned territories. The management of this situation is complex, mainly conditioned by the ability of the inhabitants themselves to be directly involved in the process of improving their living conditions. In this process, quality of life cannot be restricted solely to the dimension of radiological risk, but needs to encompass the diverse aspects of daily living, including the social, psychological, economic, political and ethical aspects. This paper presents the experience of the involvement of a group of peasant farmers from a village in the Republic of Belarus, in the process of improving the radiological quality of privately produced milk. This experience took place in the context of the ETHOS project, funded by the radiation protection research programme of the European Commission. The principal objective was to implement a complementary approach to the rehabilitation strategies adopted so far in the contaminated territories of the Republic of Belarus. This paper retraces the process of involvement of the inhabitants in a working group. It describes the characterisation of the situation by local actors, the opening of new possible actions to improve the radiological quality of milk at the individual level and the positive consequences at the scale of the village. The ETHOS project also illustrates how the scientific knowledge accumulated over many years since the Chernobyl accident in the field of radiation protection and radioecology can enter into local practices in the form of practical tools, which can be used by the population to produce significant improvements in the radiological situation.

  20. Commonly asked questions regarding the use of natural attenuation for petroleum-contaminated sites at federal facilities

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    This brochure answers commonly asked questions regarding the use of natural attenuation for petroleum-contaminated sites. It includes a definition of natural attenuation, a discussion of the circumstances under which it may be effective, and the advantages and limitations.

  1. Field Investigation of Natural Attenuation of a Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminated Aquifer, Gyeonggi Province, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J.; Lee, K.; Bae, G.

    2004-12-01

    In remediation of a petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated aquifer, natural attenuation may be significant as a remedial alternative. Therefore, natural attenuation should be investigated in the field in order to effectively design and evaluate the remediation strategy at the contaminated site. This study focused on evaluating the natural attenuation for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) at a contaminated site in South Korea. At the study site, the aquifer is composed of a high permeable gravel layer and relatively low permeable sandy-silt layers. Groundwater level vertically fluctuated between 1m and 2m throughout the year (April, 2003~June, 2004) and showed direct response to rainfall events. Chemical analyses of sampled groundwater were performed to investigate the concentrations of various chemical species which are associated with the natural attenuation processes. To evaluate the degree of the biodegradation, the expressed biodegradation capacity (EBC) analysis was done using aerobic respiration, nitrate reduction, manganese reduction, ferric iron reduction, and sulfate reduction as an indicator. High EBC value of sulfate indicate that anaerobic biodegradation by sulfate reduction was a dominant process of mineralization of BTEX at this site. The EBC values decrease sensitively when heavy rainfall occurs due to the dilution and inflow of electron acceptors through a gravel layer. The first-order biodegradation rates of BTEX were estimated by means of the Buscheck and Alcantar method (1995). Results show that the natural attenuation rate of benzene was the highest among the BTEX.

  2. Natural Attenuation Software (NAS): A computer program for estimating remediation times of contaminated groundwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mendez, E.; Widdowson, M.; Brauner, S.; Chapelle, F.; Casey, C.; ,

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the development and application of a modeling system called Natural Attenuation Software (NAS). NAS was designed as a screening tool to estimate times of remediation (TORs), associated with monitored natural attenuation (MNA), to lower groundwater contaminant concentrations to regulatory limits. Natural attenuation processes that NAS models include advection, dispersion, sorption, biodegradation, and non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) dissolution. This paper discusses the three main interactive components of NAS: 1) estimation of the target source concentration required for a plume extent to contract to regulatory limits, 2) estimation of the time required for NAFL contaminants in the source area to attenuate to a predetermined target source concentration, and 3) estimation of the time required for a plume extent to contract to regulatory limits after source reduction. The model's capability is illustrated by results from a case study at a MNA site, where NAS time of remediation estimates compared well with observed monitoring data over multiple years.

  3. Raw Milk Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Lucey, John A.

    2015-01-01

    There continues to be considerable public debate on the possible benefits regarding the growing popularity of the consumption of raw milk. However, there are significant concerns by regulatory, or public health, organizations like the Food and Drug Administration and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention because of risk of contracting milkborne illnesses if the raw milk is contaminated with human pathogens. This review describes why pasteurization of milk was introduced more than 100 years ago, how pasteurization helped to reduce the incidence of illnesses associated with raw milk consumption, and the prevalence of pathogens in raw milk. In some studies, up to a third of all raw milk samples contained pathogens, even when sourced from clinically healthy animals or from milk that appeared to be of good quality. This review critically evaluates some of the popularly suggested benefits of raw milk. Claims related to improved nutrition, prevention of lactose intolerance, or provision of “good” bacteria from the consumption of raw milk have no scientific basis and are myths. There are some epidemiological data that indicate that children growing up in a farming environment are associated with a decreased risk of allergy and asthma; a variety of environmental factors may be involved and there is no direct evidence that raw milk consumption is involved in any “protective” effect. PMID:27340300

  4. Modified natural diatomite and its enhanced immobilization of lead, copper and cadmium in simulated contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xinxin; Kang, Shenghong; Wang, Huimin; Li, Hongying; Zhang, Yunxia; Wang, Guozhong; Zhao, Huijun

    2015-05-30

    Natural diatomite was modified through facile acid treatment and ultrasonication, which increased its electronegativity, and the pore volume and surface area achieved to 0.211 cm(3) g(-1) and 76.9 m(2) g(-1), respectively. Modified diatomite was investigated to immobilize the potential toxic elements (PTEs) of Pb, Cu and Cd in simulated contaminated soil comparing to natural diatomite. When incubated with contaminated soils at rates of 2.5% and 5.0% by weight for 90 days, modified diatomite was more effective in immobilizing Pb, Cu and Cd than natural diatomite. After treated with 5.0% modified diatomite for 90 days, the contaminated soils showed 69.7%, 49.7% and 23.7% reductions in Pb, Cu and Cd concentrations after 0.01 M CaCl2 extraction, respectively. The concentrations of Pb, Cu and Cd were reduced by 66.7%, 47.2% and 33.1% in the leaching procedure, respectively. The surface complexation played an important role in the immobilization of PTEs in soils. The decreased extractable metal content of soil was accompanied by improved microbial activity which significantly increased (P<0.05) in 5.0% modified diatomite-amended soils. These results suggested that modified diatomite with micro/nanostructured characteristics increased the immobilization of PTEs in contaminated soil and had great potential as green and low-cost amendments.

  5. Distinguishing Between Site Waste, Natural, and Other Sources of Contamination at Uranium and Thorium Contaminated Sites - 12274

    SciTech Connect

    Hays, David C.

    2012-07-01

    Uranium and thorium processing and milling sites generate wastes (source, byproduct, or technically enhanced naturally occurring material), that contain contaminants that are similar to naturally occurring radioactive material deposits and other industry wastes. This can lead to mis-identification of other materials as Site wastes. A review of methods used by the US Army Corps of Engineers and the Environmental Protection Agency to distinguish Site wastes from potential other sources, enhanced materials, and natural deposits, at three different thorium mills was conducted. Real case examples demonstrate the importance of understanding the methods of distinguishing wastes. Distinguishing between Site wastes and enhanced Background material can be facilitated by establishing and applying a formal process. Significant project cost avoidance may be realized by distinguishing Site wastes from enhanced NORM. Collection of information on other potential sources of radioactive material and physical information related to the potential for other radioactive material sources should be gathered and reported in the Historical Site Assessment. At a minimum, locations of other such information should be recorded. Site decision makers should approach each Site area with the expectation that non site related radioactive material may be present and have a process in place to distinguish from Site and non Site related materials. (authors)

  6. Effect of commercial-scale high-temperature, short-time pasteurization on the viability of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis in naturally infected cows' milk.

    PubMed

    Grant, Irene R; Hitchings, Edward I; McCartney, Alan; Ferguson, Fiona; Rowe, Michael T

    2002-02-01

    Raw cows' milk naturally infected with Mycobacterium paratuberculosis was pasteurized with an APV HXP commercial-scale pasteurizer (capacity 2,000 liters/h) on 12 separate occasions. On each processing occasion, milk was subjected to four different pasteurization treatments, viz., 73 degrees C for 15 s or 25 s with and without prior homogenization (2,500 lb/in(2) in two stages), in an APV Manton Gaulin KF6 homogenizer. Raw and pasteurized milk samples were tested for M. paratuberculosis by immunomagnetic separation (IMS)-PCR (to detect the presence of bacteria) and culture after decontamination with 0.75% (wt/vol) cetylpyridinium chloride for 5 h (to confirm bacterial viability). On 10 of the 12 processing occasions, M. paratuberculosis was detectable by IMS-PCR, culture, or both in either raw or pasteurized milk. Overall, viable M. paratuberculosis was cultured from 4 (6.7%) of 60 raw and 10 (6.9%) of 144 pasteurized milk samples. On one processing day, in particular, M. paratuberculosis appeared to have been present in greater abundance in the source raw milk (evidenced by more culture positives and stronger PCR signals), and on this occasion, surviving M. paratuberculosis bacteria were isolated from milk processed by all four heat treatments, i.e., 73 degrees C for 15 and 25 s with and without prior homogenization. On one other occasion, surviving M. paratuberculosis bacteria were isolated from an unhomogenized milk sample that had been heat treated at 73 degrees C for 25 s. Results suggested that homogenization increases the lethality of subsequent heat treatment to some extent with respect to M. paratuberculosis, but the extended 25-s holding time at 73 degrees C was found to be no more effective at killing M. paratuberculosis than the standard 15-s holding time. This study provides clear evidence that M. paratuberculosis bacteria in naturally infected milk are capable of surviving commercial high-temperature, short-time pasteurization if they are present in

  7. Direct Detection of Viable Bacteria, Molds, and Yeasts by Reverse Transcriptase PCR in Contaminated Milk Samples after Heat Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Vaitilingom, Marc; Gendre, Francois; Brignon, Pierre

    1998-01-01

    A fast, sensitive, and target contaminant-modulable method was developed to detect viable bacteria, molds, and yeasts after heat treatment. By reverse transcriptase PCR with elongation factor gene (EF-Tu or EF-1α)-specific primers, the detection level was 10 cells ml of milk−1. The simplicity and rapidity (4 h) of the procedure suggests that this method may be easily transposable to other foods and other contaminants. PMID:9501455

  8. Natural Magnetite: an efficient catalyst for the degradation of organic contaminant

    PubMed Central

    HE, Hongping; ZHONG, Yuanhong; LIANG, Xiaoliang; TAN, Wei; ZHU, Jianxi; Yan WANG, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Iron (hydr)oxides are ubiquitous earth materials that have high adsorption capacities for toxic elements and degradation ability towards organic contaminants. Many studies have investigated the reactivity of synthetic magnetite, while little is known about natural magnetite. Here, we first report the reactivity of natural magnetites with a variety of elemental impurities for catalyzing the decomposition of H2O2 to produce hydroxyl free radicals (•OH) and the consequent degradation of p-nitrophenol (p-NP). We observed that these natural magnetites show higher catalytic performance than that of the synthetic pure magnetite. The catalytic ability of natural magnetite with high phase purity depends on the surface site density while that for the magnetites with exsolutions relies on the mineralogical nature of the exsolved phases. The pleonaste exsolution can promote the generation of •OH and the consequent degradation of p-NP; the ilmenite exsolution has little effect on the decomposition of H2O2, but can increase the adsorption of p-NP on magnetite. Our results imply that natural magnetite is an efficient catalyst for the degradation of organic contaminants in nature. PMID:25958854

  9. Natural Magnetite: an efficient catalyst for the degradation of organic contaminant.

    PubMed

    He, Hongping; Zhong, Yuanhong; Liang, Xiaoliang; Tan, Wei; Zhu, Jianxi; Wang, Christina Yan

    2015-01-01

    Iron (hydr)oxides are ubiquitous earth materials that have high adsorption capacities for toxic elements and degradation ability towards organic contaminants. Many studies have investigated the reactivity of synthetic magnetite, while little is known about natural magnetite. Here, we first report the reactivity of natural magnetites with a variety of elemental impurities for catalyzing the decomposition of H2O2 to produce hydroxyl free radicals (•OH) and the consequent degradation of p-nitrophenol (p-NP). We observed that these natural magnetites show higher catalytic performance than that of the synthetic pure magnetite. The catalytic ability of natural magnetite with high phase purity depends on the surface site density while that for the magnetites with exsolutions relies on the mineralogical nature of the exsolved phases. The pleonaste exsolution can promote the generation of •OH and the consequent degradation of p-NP; the ilmenite exsolution has little effect on the decomposition of H2O2, but can increase the adsorption of p-NP on magnetite. Our results imply that natural magnetite is an efficient catalyst for the degradation of organic contaminants in nature.

  10. Alternative strategies for activation of the natural lactoperoxidase system in cows' milk: trials in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Fweja, Leonard W T; Lewis, Michael J; Grandison, Alistair S

    2007-11-01

    Thiocyanate content and lactoperoxidase activity of individual cow's milk of different breeds were determined, and the effects of different lactoperoxidase system (LP-s) activation strategies were compared. Lactoperoxidase activity varied significantly between Friesian and both Ayrshire and Tanzania Short Horn Zebu (TSHZ), but differences between Ayrshire and TSHZ were not significant. There was no significant variation in SCN- content between breeds. The LP-s was activated using three strategies based on SCN-: namely; equal concentrations of SCN- and H2O2 (7:7, 10:10, 15:15 mg/l), excess SCN- concentrations (15:10, 20:10, 25:10 mg SCN-:H2O2/l), and excess H2O2 concentrations (10:15, 10:20, 10:25 mg SCN-:H2O2/l), plus a fourth strategy based on I- (15:15 mg I-:H2O2/l). The keeping quality (KQ) was assessed using pH, titratable acidity, clot on boiling and alcohol stability tests. All activation strategies enhanced the shelf life of milk (typically increasing KQ from around 10 to around 20 h), but it was clear that the effectiveness of the LP-s depends on the type and concentrations of the activators of the system. The LP-s activated using I- as an electron donor was more effective than the LP-s activated using SCN- as an electron donor, increasing the KQ by a further 6-8 h compared with SCN-.

  11. Fate of Fumonisin B1 in Naturally Contaminated Corn during Ethanol Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Bothast, R. J.; Bennett, G. A.; Vancauwenberge, J. E.; Richard, J. L.

    1992-01-01

    Two lots of corn naturally contaminated with fumonisin B1 (15 and 36 ppm) and a control lot (no fumonisin B1 detected) were used as substrates for ethanol production in replicate 8.5-liter yeast fermentations. Ethanol yields were 8.8% for both the control and low-fumonisin corn, while the high-fumonisin corn contained less starch and produced 7.2% ethanol. Little degradation of fumonisin occurred during fermentation, and most was recovered in the distillers' grains, thin stillage, and distillers' solubles fractions. No toxin was detected in the distilled alcohol or centrifuge solids. Ethanol fermentation of fumonisin-contaminated corn coupled with effective detoxification of distillers' grains and aqueous stillage is suggested as a practical process strategy for salvaging contaminated corn. PMID:16348623

  12. Microplastic contamination in natural mussel beds from a Brazilian urbanized coastal region: Rapid evaluation through bioassessment.

    PubMed

    Santana, M F M; Ascer, L G; Custódio, M R; Moreira, F T; Turra, A

    2016-05-15

    Microplastic pollution (particles <5mm) is a widespread marine threat and a trigger for biological effects, especially if ingested. The mussel Perna perna, an important food resource, was used as bioindicator to investigate the presence of microplastic pollution on Santos estuary, the most urbanized area of the coast of São Paulo State, Brazil. A simple and rapid assessment showed that 75% of sampled mussels had ingested microplastics, an issue of human and environmental concern. All sampling points had contaminated mussels and this contamination had no clear pattern of distribution along the estuary. This was the first time that microplastic bioavailability was assessed in nature for the southern hemisphere and that wild P. perna was found contaminated with this pollutant. This is an important issue that should be better assessed due to an increase in seafood consumption and culture in Brazil and worldwide.

  13. Microplastic contamination in natural mussel beds from a Brazilian urbanized coastal region: Rapid evaluation through bioassessment.

    PubMed

    Santana, M F M; Ascer, L G; Custódio, M R; Moreira, F T; Turra, A

    2016-05-15

    Microplastic pollution (particles <5mm) is a widespread marine threat and a trigger for biological effects, especially if ingested. The mussel Perna perna, an important food resource, was used as bioindicator to investigate the presence of microplastic pollution on Santos estuary, the most urbanized area of the coast of São Paulo State, Brazil. A simple and rapid assessment showed that 75% of sampled mussels had ingested microplastics, an issue of human and environmental concern. All sampling points had contaminated mussels and this contamination had no clear pattern of distribution along the estuary. This was the first time that microplastic bioavailability was assessed in nature for the southern hemisphere and that wild P. perna was found contaminated with this pollutant. This is an important issue that should be better assessed due to an increase in seafood consumption and culture in Brazil and worldwide. PMID:26980138

  14. Gull-derived trace elements trigger small-scale contamination in a remote Mediterranean nature reserve.

    PubMed

    Signa, Geraldina; Mazzola, Antonio; Tramati, Cecilia Doriana; Vizzini, Salvatrice

    2013-09-15

    The role of a yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis) small colony in conveying trace elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, THg, V, Zn) was assessed in a Mediterranean nature reserve (Marinello ponds) at various spatial and temporal scales. Trace element concentrations in guano were high and seasonally variable. In contrast, contamination in the ponds was not influenced by season but showed strong spatial variability among ponds, according to the different guano input. Biogenic enrichment factor B confirmed the role of gulls in the release of trace elements through guano subsidies. In addition, comparing trace element pond concentrations to the US NOAA's SQGs, As, Cu and Ni showed contamination levels associated with possible negative biological effects. Thus, this study reflects the need to take seabirds into account as key factors influencing ecological processes and contamination levels even in remote areas, especially around the Mediterranean, where these birds are abundant but overlooked.

  15. Concentration of arsenic in water, sediments and fish species from naturally contaminated rivers.

    PubMed

    Rosso, Juan José; Schenone, Nahuel F; Pérez Carrera, Alejo; Fernández Cirelli, Alicia

    2013-04-01

    Arsenic (As) may occur in surface freshwater ecosystems as a consequence of both natural contamination and anthropogenic activities. In this paper, As concentrations in muscle samples of 10 fish species, sediments and surface water from three naturally contaminated rivers in a central region of Argentina are reported. The study area is one of the largest regions in the world with high As concentrations in groundwater. However, information of As in freshwater ecosystems and associated biota is scarce. An extensive spatial variability of As concentrations in water and sediments of sampled ecosystems was observed. Geochemical indices indicated that sediments ranged from mostly unpolluted to strongly polluted. The concentration of As in sediments averaged 6.58 μg/g ranging from 0.23 to 59.53 μg/g. Arsenic in sediments barely followed (r = 0.361; p = 0.118) the level of contamination of water. All rivers showed high concentrations of As in surface waters, ranging from 55 to 195 μg/L. The average concentration of As in fish was 1.76 μg/g. The level of contamination with As differed significantly between species. Moreover, the level of bioaccumulation of As in fish species related to the concentration of As in water and sediments also differed between species. Whilst some fish species seemed to be able to regulate the uptake of this metalloid, the concentration of As in the large catfish Rhamdia quelen mostly followed the concentration of As in abiotic compartments. The erratic pattern of As concentrations in fish and sediments regardless of the invariable high levels in surface waters suggests the existence of complex biogeochemical processes behind the distribution patterns of As in these naturally contaminated ecosystems.

  16. Insights for transformation of contaminants in leachate at a tropical landfill dominated by natural attenuation.

    PubMed

    Yin, Ke; Tong, Huanhuan; Giannis, Apostolos; Chang, Victor Wei-Chung; Wang, Jing-Yuan

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to track the long-term trends of contaminants distribution in the old landfill of Singapore through monitored natural attenuation and to explore the main parameters that rule such transition. Contaminants distribution, including dissolved organic matter (DOM), inorganic species, heavy metals, and organic compounds, was investigated via monitoring wells in the years 1997, 2004 and 2011. The data revealed that the distribution of contaminants possessed selective attention of spots associated with leachate movement. The hydrogeology of the landfill governed the fate and transportation of contaminants. More specifically, strong statistical correlations were identified between DOM and certain constituents in the leachate, suggesting enhanced mobilization potential. However, the leachate composition exhibited limited correspondence to the nearby solid waste, indicating the minor effect induced by the partitioning coefficient. The presence of sulphate unveiled air intrusion, suggesting increased stability of the landfill, where enhanced biodegradation occurred at earlier period responsible for higher BOD removal. Afterwards other parameters continued to facilitate the compounds removal resulting in overall low concentrations of the contaminants. PMID:27165543

  17. Effects of chemical contaminants on genetic diversity in natural populations: implications for biomonitoring and ecotoxicology.

    PubMed

    Bickham, J W; Sandhu, S; Hebert, P D; Chikhi, L; Athwal, R

    2000-07-01

    The conservation of genetic diversity has emerged as one of the central issues in conservation biology. Although researchers in the areas of evolutionary biology, population management, and conservation biology routinely investigate genetic variability in natural populations, only a handful of studies have addressed the effects of chemical contamination on population genetics. Chemical contamination can cause population reduction by the effects of somatic and heritable mutations, as well as non-genetic modes of toxicity. Stochastic processes in small populations, increased mutation load, and the phenomenon of mutational meltdown are compounding factors that cause reduced fitness and accelerate the process of population extirpation. Although the original damage caused by chemical contaminants is at the molecular level, there are emergent effects at the level of populations, such as the loss of genetic diversity, that are not predictable based solely on knowledge of the mechanism of toxicity of the chemical contaminants. Therefore, the study of evolutionary toxicology, which encompasses the population-genetic effects of environmental contaminants, should be an important focus of ecotoxicology. This paper reviews the issues surrounding the genetic effects of pollution, summarizes the technical approaches that can be used to address these issues, and provides examples of studies that have addressed some of them.

  18. Effects of feeding grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on performance and metabolism of broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Yegani, M; Smith, T K; Leeson, S; Boermans, H J

    2006-09-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on performance and metabolism of broiler breeders. Forty-two 26-wk-old broiler breeder hens and nine 26-wk-old roosters were fed the following diets: (1) control, (2) contaminated grains, and (3) contaminated grains + 0.2% polymeric glucomannan mycotoxin adsorbent (GMA) for 12 wk. The major contaminant was deoxynivalenol (12.6 mg/kg of feed), with lesser amounts of zearalenone and 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol. Feed consumption and BW were not affected by diet. The feeding of contaminated grains did not significantly affect egg production. Decreased eggshell thickness was seen, however, at the end of wk 4, and dietary supplementation with GMA prevented this effect. There was no effect of diet on other egg parameters measured. There was a significant increase in early (1 to 7 d) embryonic mortality in eggs from birds fed contaminated grains at wk 4, but mid- (8 to 14 d) and late- (15 to 21 d) embryonic mortalities were not affected by diet. There were no differences in newly hatched chick weights or viability. The ratio of chick weight to egg weight was not affected by the feeding of contaminated grains. Weight gains of chicks fed a standard broiler starter diet at 7, 14, and 21 d of age were not significantly affected by previous dietary treatments for the dam. It was found that rooster semen volume and sperm concentration, viability, and motility were not affected by the feeding of contaminated diets. There was no effect of diet on the relative weights of liver, spleen, kidney, and testes. The feeding of contaminated grains decreased antibody titers against infectious bronchitis virus at the end of wk 12, and this was prevented by dietary supplementation with GMA. There was no effect of the diet on serum antibody titers against Newcastle disease virus. It was concluded that the feeding of blends of grains contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins could affect

  19. From Sequential Extraction to Transport Modeling: Monitored Natural Attenuation as a Remediation Approach for Inorganic Contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Crapse, Kimberly P.; Serkiz, Steven M.; Pishko, Adrian L.; Kaplan, Daniel L.; Lee, Cindy M.; Schank, Anja

    2005-08-18

    To quantify metal natural attenuation processes in terms of environmental availability, sequential extraction experiments were carried out on subsurface soil samples impacted by a low pH, high sulfate, metals (Be, Ni, U, As) plume associated with the long-term operation of a coal plant at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. Despite significant heterogeneity resulting both from natural and anthropogenic factors, sequential extraction results demonstrate that pH is a controlling factor in the prediction of the distribution of metal contaminants within the solid phases in soils at the site as well as the contaminant partitioning between the soil and the soil solution. Results for beryllium, the most mobile metal evaluated, exhibit increasing attenuation along the plume flow path which corresponds to an increasing plume pH. These laboratory- and field-scale studies provide mechanistic information regarding partitioning of metals to soils at the site (one of the major attenuation mechanisms for the metals at the field site). Subsequently, these data have been used in the definition of the contaminant source terms and contaminant transport factors in risk modeling for the site.

  20. A MULTI-ORD LAB AND REGIONAL ASSESSMENT OF MONITORED NATURAL RECOVERY OF PCB-CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS IN LAKE HARTWELL, CLEMSON, SC

    EPA Science Inventory

    Management of contaminated sediments poses many challenges due to varied contaminants and volumes of sediments to manage. Dredging, capping, and monitored natural recovery (MNR) are the primary approaches for managing the contaminated sediment risks. Understanding how well the ...

  1. Campylobacter transfer from naturally contaminated chicken thighs to cutting boards is inversely related to initial load.

    PubMed

    Fravalo, Philippe; Laisney, Marie-Jose; Gillard, Marie-Odile; Salvat, Gilles; Chemaly, Marianne

    2009-09-01

    Foods prepared in the kitchen can become cross-contaminated with Campylobacter by contacting raw products, particularly skinned poultry. We measured the percent transfer rate from naturally contaminated poultry legs purchased in supermarkets. Transfer of Campylobacter from skin (n = 43) and from meat (n = 12) to high-density polyethylene cutting board surfaces was quantitatively assessed after contact times of 1 and 10 min. The percent transfer rate was defined as the ratio between the number of Campylobacter cells counted on the cutting board surface and the initial numbers of Campylobacter naturally present on the skin (i.e., the sum of Campylobacter cells on the skin and board). Qualitative transfer occurred in 60.5% (95% confidence interval, 45.5 to 75.4) of the naturally contaminated legs studied and reached 80.6% (95% confidence interval, 63.0 to 98.2) in the subpopulation of legs that were in contact with the surface for 10 min. The percent transfer rate varied from 5 x 10(-2)% to 35.7% and was observed as being significantly different (Kruskall-Wallis test, P < 0.025) and inversely related to the initial counts on poultry skin. This study provides quantitative data describing the evolution of the proportion of Campylobacter organisms transferred from naturally contaminated poultry under kitchen conditions. We emphasize the linear relationship between the initial load of Campylobacter on the skin and the value of the percent transfer rate. This work confirms the need for modeling transfer as a function of initial load of Campylobacter on leg skin, the weight of poultry pieces, and the duration of contact between the skin and surface.

  2. Optimization of the textural characteristics of an alumina to capture contaminants in natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    Nedez, C.; Boitiaux, J.P.; Cameron, C.J.; Didillon, B.

    1996-08-07

    Capillary condensation of water can seriously impair the performance of an adsorbent intended for use in removing contaminants (mercury, arsenic, sulfur, etc.) in natural gas. Adsorption and desorption isotherms were used to determine how the nature and pore structure distribution of the adsorbent (alumina, active carbon) affect water adsorption. The contribution of the different phenomena involved (chemisorption, physisorption, capillary condensation) have been determined. The threshold of capillary condensation is reached much more rapidly on active carbon and microporous alumina (40% relative humidity) than on a highly mesoporous alumina (75-80% relative humidity). 44 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Detection and genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii DNA in the blood and milk of naturally infected donkeys (Equus asinus)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Toxoplasma gondii is a worldwide zoonotic protozoan. Consumption of raw milk from infected animals is considered a risk factor for acquiring toxoplasmosis in humans. Recently, donkey milk has been indicated for therapeutic and nutritional purposes and T. gondii infection is common in donkeys. The purpose of the present paper was to detect the presence of parasite DNA in milk of T. gondii positive donkeys. Findings Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 11 out of 44 healthy lactating donkeys by IFAT. T. gondii DNA was detected by PCR in blood of 6 and milk of 3 seropositive jennies. Results of limited RFLP-PCR genotyping indicated the presence of T. gondii genotype II or III, commonly found in Europe. Conclusions The occurrence of T. gondii DNA in milk suggests that the consumption of raw milk from seropositive donkeys could be a potential source of human infection. PMID:24708691

  4. Simultaneous Determination of Naturally Occurring Estrogens and Mycoestrogens in Milk by Ultrahigh-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Analysis.

    PubMed

    Capriotti, Anna Laura; Cavaliere, Chiara; Piovesana, Susy; Stampachiacchiere, Serena; Samperi, Roberto; Ventura, Salvatore; Laganà, Aldo

    2015-10-14

    A simple, fast, and reproducible method for the simultaneous determination of natural estrogens and mycoestrogens (resorcylic acid lactones) in milk by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography combined with electrospray ionization triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC/ESI-MS/MS) is described. The extraction was carried out by solid-phase extraction (SPE) using graphitized carbon black as solid sorbent. The use of carbon black allowed us to avoid any type of sample pretreatment, and the extraction was performed simply by diluting milk samples in water. Correlation coefficient values were obtained in the range between 0.9991 and 1, with good recoveries (67-107% at the lowest spiked level), repeatability (4.8-16.8%), and reproducibility (3.2-16.3%). Moreover, a very low matrix effect was observed for both estrogens and mycoestrogens. With respect to a previous method based on SPE with Oasis MAX cartridges, the one here described allowed us to detect all the analytes under investigation, at the lowest tested concentration level, including free estrogens (in particular estriol). Finally, the developed UHPLC/ESI-MS/MS method was applied to the analysis of some whole milk samples from different lactating animals (cow, goat, and donkey) as well as ultrahigh-temperature-treated cow milk and powder milk samples.

  5. Contaminant and nutrient concentrations of natural ingredient rat and mouse diet used in chemical toxicology studies.

    PubMed

    Rao, G N; Knapka, J J

    1987-08-01

    The NIH-07 open formula natural ingredient rat and mouse ration is the standard diet for chemical toxicity and carcinogenicity studies conducted for the National Toxicology Program (NTP). Contaminant and nutrient concentrations were determined in 2 to 94 lots of this diet used in the NTP toxicology studies. All nutrient concentrations were equivalent to or greater than the requirements for rats and mice as set forth by the National Research Council. Aflatoxins, Hg, chlorinated hydrocarbons except methoxychlor, organophosphates except malathion, estrogenic activity, and Salmonella sp. were not present at the detectable levels. Fluorine, As, Cd, Pb, Se, N-nitrosodimethylamine, N-nitrosopyrrolidine, N-nitrosomorpholine, nitrate, nitrite, butylated hydroxyanisole, butylated hydroxytoluene, ethylene dibromide, methoxychlor, malathion, and trypsin inhibitor activity were present at or above the detectable levels. Five lots of diet had nitrosamine content of 100 to 273 ppb and 7 lots had 2.08 to 3.37 ppm of Pb. All other lots of NIH-07 diet used for NTP toxicology studies contained low levels of the contaminants. After determination of the contaminant concentrations in the 94 lots of diet and the contaminant concentrations in natural ingredients used in formulating NIH-07 diet, maximum allowable levels of contaminants were established and a flexible scoring system for acceptability of each lot of diet for chemical toxicology studies was developed. By prescreening ingredients such as fish meal for heavy metals and nitrosamines, and applying the flexible scoring system proposed, more than 95% of the lots of NIH-07 diet produced during the last 3 years had scores of greater than or equal to 95 out of 100 points and were considered acceptable for toxicology studies.

  6. Effects of deoxynivalenol in naturally contaminated wheat on feed intake and health status of horses.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Anna-Katharina; Kersten, Susanne; Dänicke, Sven; Coenen, Manfred; Vervuert, Ingrid

    2015-11-01

    The present study examined the short-term effects of deoxynivalenol (DON), administered at two different concentrations via a feed preparation using naturally contaminated wheat, on feed intake, liver and kidney metabolism and immunomodulatory properties in horses. Twelve geldings were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments for 21 days. DON was provided via naturally contaminated wheat (14.6 ± 6.5 mg DON/kg dry matter). The daily feed intake was adjusted to 4 kg of wheat and 1.7 kg of silage per 100 kg of body weight (BW). Horses were fed one of the following diets: control wheat with 0% contaminated wheat (CON), wheat mixture containing 53 ± 2% of DON-contaminated wheat [low DON intake (LDI)] or wheat mixture containing 78 ± 4% of DON-contaminated wheat [high DON intake (HDI)]. CON, LDI and HDI corresponded to a targeted daily DON intake via the complete ration of <5, 50 and 75 μg/kg BW, respectively. None of the horses demonstrated any clinical signs commonly associated with the intake of DON such as colic or depression. HDI was associated with lower daily wheat intake on day 21. Serum DON concentrations increased with higher DON intake. The non-toxic DON metabolite, deepoxy-deoxynivalenol (DOM-1) was only detected on day 21 of the DON feeding period. No changes in haematological and serum parameters or serum globulins or in the ex vivo proliferation response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells were observed. These results suggest that horses are less sensitive to DON exposure than other domestic species, for example, swine. Therefore, the European Commission guidance value for critical DON concentrations in swine feed (complete diet) of 0.9 mg/kg could be safely applied for rations intended for feeding adult horses as well.

  7. A new database on contaminant exposure and effects in terrestrial vertebrates for natural resource managers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Pearson, J.L.; Garrett, L.J.; Erwin, R.M.; Walz, A.; Ottinger, M.A.; Barrett, H.R.

    1997-01-01

    The Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends (BEST) program of the Department of the Interior is focused to identify and understand effects of contaminant stressors on biological resources under their stewardship. Despite the desire of many to continuously monitor the environmental health of our estuaries, much can be learned by summarizing existing temporal, geographic, and phylogenetic contaminant information. To this end, retrospective contaminant exposure and effects data for amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals residing within 30 km of Atlantic coast estuaries are being assembled through searches of published literature (e.g., Fisheries Review, Wildlife Review, BIOSIS Previews) and databases (e.g., US EPA Ecological Incident Information System; USGS Diagnostic and Epizootic Databases), and compilation of summary data from unpublished reports of government natural resource agencies, private conservation groups, and universities. These contaminant exposure and effect data for terrestrial vertebrates (CEE-TV) are being summarized using Borland dBASE in a 96- field format, including species, collection time and site coordinates, sample matrix, contaminant concentration, biomarker and bioindicator responses, and source of information (N>1500 records). This CEE-TV database has been imported into the ARC/INFO geographic information system (GIS), for purposes of examining geographic coverage and trends, and to identify critical data gaps. A preliminary risk assessment will be conducted to identify and characterize contaminants and other stressors potentially affecting terrestrial vertebrates that reside, migrate through or reproduce in these estuaries. Evaluations are underway, using specific measurement and assessment endpoints, to rank and prioritize estuarine ecosystems in which terrestrial vertebrates are potentially at risk for purposes of prediction and focusing future biomonitoring efforts.

  8. Autocrine regulation of milk secretion by a protein in milk.

    PubMed Central

    Wilde, C J; Addey, C V; Boddy, L M; Peaker, M

    1995-01-01

    Frequency or completeness of milk removal from the lactating mammary gland regulates the rate of milk secretion by a mechanism which is local, chemical and inhibitory in nature. Screening of goat's milk proteins in rabbit mammary explant cultures identified a single whey protein of M(r) 7600 able to inhibit synthesis of milk constituents. The active whey protein, which we term FIL (Feedback inhibitor of Lactation), also decreased milk secretion temporarily when introduced into a mammary gland of lactating goats. FIL was synthesized by primary cultures of goat mammary epithelial cells, and was secreted vectorially together with other milk proteins. N-terminal amino acid sequencing indicated that it is a hitherto unknown protein. The evidence indicates that local regulation of milk secretion by milk removal is through autocrine feedback inhibition by this milk protein. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 5 PMID:7826353

  9. Unravelling a 'miner's myth' that environmental contamination in mining towns is naturally occurring.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Louise Jane; Taylor, Mark Patrick

    2016-08-01

    Australia has a long history of metal mining and smelting. Extraction and processing have resulted in elevated levels of toxic metals surrounding mining operations, which have adverse health effects, particularly to children. Resource companies, government agencies and employees often construct 'myths' to down play potential exposure risks and responsibility arising from operating emissions. Typical statements include: contaminants are naturally occurring, the wind blows emissions away from residential areas, contaminants are not bioavailable, or the problem is a legacy issue and not related to current operations. Evidence from mining and smelting towns shows that such 'myths' are exactly that. In mining towns, the default and primary defence against contamination is that elevated metals in adjacent urban environments are from the erosion and weathering of the ore bodies over millennia-hence 'naturally occurring'. Not only is this a difficult argument to unravel from an evidence-based perspective, but also it causes confusion and delays remediation work, hindering efforts to reduce harmful exposures to children. An example of this situation is from Broken Hill, New South Wales, home to one of the world's largest lead-zinc-silver ore body, which has been mined continuously for over 130 years. Environmental metal concentration and lead isotopic data from soil samples collected from across Broken Hill are used to establish the nature and timing of lead contamination. We use multiple lines of evidence to unravel a 'miner's myth' by evaluating current soil metal concentrations and lead isotopic compositions, geological data, historical environmental assessments and old photographic evidence to assess the impacts from early smelting along with mining to the surface soils in the city. PMID:26919836

  10. Sequential Leaching of Chromium Contaminated Sediments - A Study Characterizing Natural Attenuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musa, D.; Ding, M.; Beroff, S.; Rearick, M.; Perkins, G.; WoldeGabriel, G. W.; Ware, D.; Harris, R.; Kluk, E.; Katzman, D.; Reimus, P. W.; Heikoop, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Natural attenuation is an important process in slowing down the transport of hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI), an anthropogenic environmental contaminant, either by adsorption of Cr(VI) to sediments, or by reduction to nontoxic trivalent chromium, Cr(III). The capacity and mechanism of attenuation is explored in this sequential leaching study of different particle size fractions of chromium contaminated sediments and similar uncontaminated sediments from the regional aquifer near Los Alamos, New Mexico. Using this leaching protocol each sediment sample is split in two: one half is leached three times using a 0.1 M sodium bicarbonate/carbonate solution, while the second half is leached three times using a 0.01 M nitric acid, followed by two consecutively increasing magnitudes of nitric acid concentrations. Based on the amphoteric nature of chromium, alkaline leaching is used to establish the amount of Cr(VI) sorbed on the sediment, whereas acid leaching is used to establish the amount of Cr(III). The weak acid is predicted to release the attenuated anthropogenic Cr(III), without affecting Cr-bearing minerals. The sequential, stronger, acid is anticipated to leach Cr(III)-incorporated in the minerals. The efficiency and validation of the sequential leaching method is assessed by comparing the leaching behavior of bentonite and biotite samples, with and without loaded Cr(VI). A 97% chromium mass balance of leached Cr(VI)-loaded bentonite and biotite proves the viability of this method for further use on leaching contaminated sediments. By comparing contaminated and uncontaminated sediment leachate results, of chromium and other major and trace elements, the signature of anthropogenic chromium is determined. Further mineralogical characterization of the sediments provides a quantitative measure of the natural attenuation capacity for chromium. Understanding these results is pertinent in delineating the optimal procedure for the remediation of Cr(VI) in the regional aquifer

  11. Unravelling a 'miner's myth' that environmental contamination in mining towns is naturally occurring.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Louise Jane; Taylor, Mark Patrick

    2016-08-01

    Australia has a long history of metal mining and smelting. Extraction and processing have resulted in elevated levels of toxic metals surrounding mining operations, which have adverse health effects, particularly to children. Resource companies, government agencies and employees often construct 'myths' to down play potential exposure risks and responsibility arising from operating emissions. Typical statements include: contaminants are naturally occurring, the wind blows emissions away from residential areas, contaminants are not bioavailable, or the problem is a legacy issue and not related to current operations. Evidence from mining and smelting towns shows that such 'myths' are exactly that. In mining towns, the default and primary defence against contamination is that elevated metals in adjacent urban environments are from the erosion and weathering of the ore bodies over millennia-hence 'naturally occurring'. Not only is this a difficult argument to unravel from an evidence-based perspective, but also it causes confusion and delays remediation work, hindering efforts to reduce harmful exposures to children. An example of this situation is from Broken Hill, New South Wales, home to one of the world's largest lead-zinc-silver ore body, which has been mined continuously for over 130 years. Environmental metal concentration and lead isotopic data from soil samples collected from across Broken Hill are used to establish the nature and timing of lead contamination. We use multiple lines of evidence to unravel a 'miner's myth' by evaluating current soil metal concentrations and lead isotopic compositions, geological data, historical environmental assessments and old photographic evidence to assess the impacts from early smelting along with mining to the surface soils in the city.

  12. Testing for polychlorinated biphenyls in human milk

    SciTech Connect

    Wickizer, T.M.; Brilliant, L.B.

    1981-09-01

    Reports of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination of human milk have raised questions about the possible risks of breast-feeding and whether nursing mothers ought to have their breast milk tested. Current data on contamination of human milk are needed so that pediatricians can make informed recommendations about breast milk testing and breast-feeding. With consideration of recent findings of PCB contamination of human milk in Michigan, recommendations concerning breast milk testing and breast-feeding are made. No major changes in current breast-feeding practices are advised. However, breast milk testing is recommended for certain nursing mothers who have had potentially high exposure to PCBs. Limiting the duration of breast-feeding may also be advisable for mothers with high PCB milk fat levels in order to reduce infant exposure to PCBs.

  13. Role of natural attenuation in modeling the leaching of contaminants in the risk analysis framework.

    PubMed

    Verginelli, Iason; Baciocchi, Renato

    2013-01-15

    Natural attenuation (NA) processes occurring in the subsurface can significantly affect the impact on groundwater from contamination sources located in the vadose zone, especially when mobile and readily biodegradable compounds, such as BTEX, are present. Besides, in the last decades several studies have shown natural attenuation to take place also for more persistent compounds, such as Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs). Nevertheless, common risk analysis frameworks, based on the ASTM RBCA (Risk Based Corrective Action) approach, do not include NA pathways in the fate and transport models, thus possibly leading to an overestimation of the calculated risk. The aim of this study was to provide an insight on the relevance of the different key natural attenuation processes usually taking place in the subsurface and to highlight for which contamination scenarios their inclusion in the risk-analysis framework could provide a more realistic risk assessment. To this end, an analytical model accounting for source depletion and biodegradation, dispersion and diffusion during leaching was developed and applied to several contamination scenarios. These scenarios included contamination by BTEX, characterized by relatively high mobility and biodegradation rate, and PAHs, i.e. a more persistent class of compounds. The obtained results showed that BTEX are likely to be attenuated in the source zone due to their mobility and ready biodegradation (assuming biodegradation constant rates in the order of 0.01-1 d(-1)). Instead, attenuation along transport through the vadose zone was found to be less important, as the residence time of the contaminant in the unsaturated zone is often too low with respect to the time required to get a relevant biodegradation of BTEX. On the other hand, heavier compounds such as PAHs, were found to be attenuated during leaching since the residence time in the vadose zone can reach values up to thousands of years. In these cases, even with the

  14. Role of natural attenuation in modeling the leaching of contaminants in the risk analysis framework.

    PubMed

    Verginelli, Iason; Baciocchi, Renato

    2013-01-15

    Natural attenuation (NA) processes occurring in the subsurface can significantly affect the impact on groundwater from contamination sources located in the vadose zone, especially when mobile and readily biodegradable compounds, such as BTEX, are present. Besides, in the last decades several studies have shown natural attenuation to take place also for more persistent compounds, such as Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs). Nevertheless, common risk analysis frameworks, based on the ASTM RBCA (Risk Based Corrective Action) approach, do not include NA pathways in the fate and transport models, thus possibly leading to an overestimation of the calculated risk. The aim of this study was to provide an insight on the relevance of the different key natural attenuation processes usually taking place in the subsurface and to highlight for which contamination scenarios their inclusion in the risk-analysis framework could provide a more realistic risk assessment. To this end, an analytical model accounting for source depletion and biodegradation, dispersion and diffusion during leaching was developed and applied to several contamination scenarios. These scenarios included contamination by BTEX, characterized by relatively high mobility and biodegradation rate, and PAHs, i.e. a more persistent class of compounds. The obtained results showed that BTEX are likely to be attenuated in the source zone due to their mobility and ready biodegradation (assuming biodegradation constant rates in the order of 0.01-1 d(-1)). Instead, attenuation along transport through the vadose zone was found to be less important, as the residence time of the contaminant in the unsaturated zone is often too low with respect to the time required to get a relevant biodegradation of BTEX. On the other hand, heavier compounds such as PAHs, were found to be attenuated during leaching since the residence time in the vadose zone can reach values up to thousands of years. In these cases, even with the

  15. Metabolomics identifies a biological response to chronic low-dose natural uranium contamination in urine samples.

    PubMed

    Grison, Stéphane; Favé, Gaëlle; Maillot, Matthieu; Manens, Line; Delissen, Olivia; Blanchardon, Eric; Banzet, Nathalie; Defoort, Catherine; Bott, Romain; Dublineau, Isabelle; Aigueperse, Jocelyne; Gourmelon, Patrick; Martin, Jean-Charles; Souidi, Maâmar

    2013-01-01

    Because uranium is a natural element present in the earth's crust, the population may be chronically exposed to low doses of it through drinking water. Additionally, the military and civil uses of uranium can also lead to environmental dispersion that can result in high or low doses of acute or chronic exposure. Recent experimental data suggest this might lead to relatively innocuous biological reactions. The aim of this study was to assess the biological changes in rats caused by ingestion of natural uranium in drinking water with a mean daily intake of 2.7 mg/kg for 9 months and to identify potential biomarkers related to such a contamination. Subsequently, we observed no pathology and standard clinical tests were unable to distinguish between treated and untreated animals. Conversely, LC-MS metabolomics identified urine as an appropriate biofluid for discriminating the experimental groups. Of the 1,376 features detected in urine, the most discriminant were metabolites involved in tryptophan, nicotinate, and nicotinamide metabolic pathways. In particular, N-methylnicotinamide, which was found at a level seven times higher in untreated than in contaminated rats, had the greatest discriminating power. These novel results establish a proof of principle for using metabolomics to address chronic low-dose uranium contamination. They open interesting perspectives for understanding the underlying biological mechanisms and designing a diagnostic test of exposure.

  16. Natural attenuation processes for remediation of arsenic contaminated soils and groundwater.

    PubMed

    Wang, Suiling; Mulligan, Catherine N

    2006-12-01

    Arsenic (As) contamination presents a hazard in many countries. Natural attenuation (NA) of As-contaminated soils and groundwater may be a cost-effective in situ remedial option. It relies on the site intrinsic assimilative capacity and allows in-place cleanup. Sorption to solid phases is the principal mechanism immobilizing As in soils and removing it from groundwater. Hydroxides of iron, aluminum and manganese, clay and sulfide minerals, and natural organic matter are commonly associated with soils and aquifer sediments, and have been shown to be significant As adsorbents. The extent of sorption is influenced by As speciation and the site geochemical conditions such as pH, redox potential, and the co-occurring ions. Microbial activity may catalyze the transformation of As species, or mediate redox reactions thus influencing As mobility. Plants that are capable of hyperaccumulating As may translocate As from contaminated soils and groundwater to their tissues, providing the basis for phytoremediation. However, NA is subject to hydrological changes and may take substantial periods of time, thus requiring long-term monitoring. The current understanding of As NA processes remains limited. Sufficient site characterization is critical to the success of NA. Further research is required to develop conceptual and mathematical models to predict the fate and transport of As and to evaluate the site NA capacity. Engineering enhanced NA using environmentally benign products may be an effective alternative.

  17. Monitored Natural Attenuation of ino9rganic Contaminants Treatability Study Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Crapse, K

    2004-05-19

    The identification and quantification of key natural attenuation processes for inorganic contaminants at D-Area is detailed herein. Two overarching goals of this evaluation of monitored natural attenuation (MNA) as a remediation strategy were (1) to better define the availability of inorganic contaminants as potential sources for transport to groundwater and uptake by environmental receptors and (2) to understand the site-specific mechanisms controlling attenuation of these inorganic contaminants through tandem geochemical and biological characterization. Data collected in this study provides input for more appropriate site groundwater transport models. Significant natural attenuation is occurring at D-Area as evidenced by relatively low aqueous concentrations of constituents of concern (COCs) (Be, Ni, U, and As) at all locations characterized and the decrease in groundwater concentrations with increasing distance from the source. The observed magnitude of decrease in groundwater concentrations of COCs with distance from the D-Area Coal Pile Runoff Basin (DCPRB) could not be accounted for by the modeled physical attenuation processes of dilution/dispersion. This additional attenuation, i.e., the observed difference between the groundwater concentrations of COCs and the modeled physical attenuation, is due to biogeochemical processes occurring at the D-Area. In tandem geochemical and microbiological characterization studies designed to evaluate the mechanisms contributing to natural attenuation, pH was the single parameter found to be most predictive of contaminant attenuation. The increasing pH with distance from the source is likely responsible for increased sorption of COCs to soil surfaces within the aquifer at D-Area. Importantly, because the sediments appear to have a high buffering capacity, the acid emanating from the DCPRB has been neutralized by the soil, and these conditions have led to large Kd values at the site. Two major types of soils are present at

  18. Milk Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Milk Allergy KidsHealth > For Teens > Milk Allergy Print A ... on to find out. What Happens With a Milk Allergy? Food allergies involve the body's immune system, ...

  19. Milk of nonhuman origin and infectious diseases in humans.

    PubMed

    Leedom, John M

    2006-09-01

    Milk and milk products from domestic animals, which are potential infectious hazards, are made more so by modern milk production, because milk from thousands of animals is often pooled prior to bottling or before manufacturing derivative products. Thus, contaminated milk from 1 animal can result in a widespread problem. Pasteurization largely eliminates this hazard. Most disease transmission caused by contamination of the milk supply has been eliminated by hygienic production measures and pasteurization. However, contamination may occur after pasteurization, and no process works perfectly all of the time. Despite scientific opinion that pasteurized products are safer than raw ones--and are equally nutritious--segments of the population regard raw milk products as more nutritious and better tasting than pasteurized milk products. Thus, low levels of raw milk consumption persist in the United States and other developed nations. Occasional milk-associated disease outbreaks caused by raw milk consumption or by breakdowns in the proper production of pasteurized products still occur.

  20. Can a river heal itself? Natural attenuation of metal contamination in river sediment.

    PubMed

    Moore, Johnnie N; Langner, Heiko W

    2012-03-01

    Sediment sampling of bed sediment from a large river contaminated by mining and smelting was used to determine rates of natural attenuation of metal concentrations. A "natural decay model" was developed from high-resolution temporal data and used to predict when restoration guidelines would be met without restoration and with various degrees of restoration success. The natural decay model estimates that in the most contaminated reaches it will take about 90 years for average concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn to fall below "probable effects concentrations" (PEC), i.e. levels above which we expect to see adverse environmental effects. At sites farther downstream, all metals will fall below PEC in <35 ± 8 years. It will take longer to reach "threshold effects concentrations" (TEC), i.e. concentrations at which no effects are expected. But, even in the most contaminated reaches, Cd, Pb, and Zn will reach TEC in <80 ± 57 years, while Cu and As will take ~200 years. Model simulations with different levels of remediation success show that recovery is highly dependent on source reduction and how far the goal is from the basin background concentration. Furthermore, beneficial effects of restoration may be unexpectedly small: for example a likely decrease of ~20% in the source concentration would shorten the time to reach the Cu PEC by only 13 years. We argue that conducting analyses like these can provide insight into remediation approaches and ultimately decrease the cost of restoration by identifying the role of natural attenuation in restoration design and implementation. PMID:22321287

  1. Can a river heal itself? Natural attenuation of metal contamination in river sediment.

    PubMed

    Moore, Johnnie N; Langner, Heiko W

    2012-03-01

    Sediment sampling of bed sediment from a large river contaminated by mining and smelting was used to determine rates of natural attenuation of metal concentrations. A "natural decay model" was developed from high-resolution temporal data and used to predict when restoration guidelines would be met without restoration and with various degrees of restoration success. The natural decay model estimates that in the most contaminated reaches it will take about 90 years for average concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn to fall below "probable effects concentrations" (PEC), i.e. levels above which we expect to see adverse environmental effects. At sites farther downstream, all metals will fall below PEC in <35 ± 8 years. It will take longer to reach "threshold effects concentrations" (TEC), i.e. concentrations at which no effects are expected. But, even in the most contaminated reaches, Cd, Pb, and Zn will reach TEC in <80 ± 57 years, while Cu and As will take ~200 years. Model simulations with different levels of remediation success show that recovery is highly dependent on source reduction and how far the goal is from the basin background concentration. Furthermore, beneficial effects of restoration may be unexpectedly small: for example a likely decrease of ~20% in the source concentration would shorten the time to reach the Cu PEC by only 13 years. We argue that conducting analyses like these can provide insight into remediation approaches and ultimately decrease the cost of restoration by identifying the role of natural attenuation in restoration design and implementation.

  2. Groundwater contamination and natural attenuation capacity at a petroleum spilled facility in Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyun-Mi; Lee, Jin-Yong

    2011-01-01

    As a remedial option, the natural attenuation capacity of a petroleum contaminated groundwater at a military facility was examined. Hydrogeological conditions, such as high water level, permeable uppermost layer and frequent heavy rainfall, were favorable to natural attenuation at this site. The changes in the concentrations of electron acceptors and donors, as well as the relevant hydrochemical conditions, indicated the occurrence of aerobic respiration, denitrification, iron reduction, manganese reduction and sulfate reduction. The calculated BTEX expressed biodegradation capacity ranged between 20.52 and 33.67 mg/L, which appeared effective for the reduction of the contaminants levels. The contribution of each electron accepting process to the total biodegradation was in the order: denitrification > iron reduction > sulfate reduction > aerobic respiration > manganese reduction. The BTEX and benzene point attenuation rates were 0.0058-0.0064 and 0.0005-0.0032 day(-1), respectively, and the remediation time was 0.7-1.2 and 2.5-30 years, respectively. The BTEX and benzene bulk attenuation rates were 8.69 x 10(-4) and 1.05 x 10(-3) day(-1), respectively, and the remediation times for BTEX and benzene were 7.2 and 17.5 years, respectively. However, most of the natural attenuation occurring in this site can be attributed to dilution and dispersion. Consequently, the biodegradation and natural attenuation capacities were good enough to lower the contaminants levels, but their rates appeared to be insufficient to reach the remediation goal within a reasonable time frame. Therefore, some active remedial measures would be required.

  3. Virus recovering from strawberries: Evaluation of a skimmed milk organic flocculation method for assessment of microbiological contamination.

    PubMed

    Melgaço, Fabiana Gil; Victoria, Matias; Corrêa, Adriana Abreu; Ganime, Ana Carolina; Malta, Fábio Correia; Brandão, Marcelo Luiz Lima; de Mello Medeiros, Valéria; de Oliveira Rosas, Carla; Bricio, Silvia Maria Lopes; Miagostovich, Marize Pereira

    2016-01-18

    Skimmed milk organic flocculation method was adapted, optimized and compared with polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation and filtration methods for recovering viruses from a strawberry matrix. Spiking experiments with norovirus genogroup II genotype 4 (NoV GII.4) and murine norovirus 1 (MNV-1) demonstrated that the organic flocculation method associated with a glycine elution buffer, filter bag and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) showed a recovery percentage of 2.5 and 32 times higher than PEG precipitation and filtration methodologies for NoV recovering. Furthermore, this method was used for investigating NoV and human adenoviruses (HAdVs) in 90 samples of fresh strawberries commercialized in Rio de Janeiro markets. NoV GI and GII were not detected in those samples and MNV-1, used as internal process control (IPC), was recovered in 95.5% (86) of them. HAdVs were detected in 18 (20.0%) samples and characterized by nucleotide sequencing as Human Mastadenovirus specie F and as type specie HAdV-2. Bacterial analysis did not detect Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes, however, 3.3% of fecal coliforms were detected in those samples. These results indicate the organic flocculation method as an alternative for recovering enteric viruses from strawberries, emphasizing a need for virus surveillance in food matrices.

  4. Detection and genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii DNA in the blood and milk of naturally infected donkeys (Equus asinus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasma gondii is a worldwide zoonotic protozoan. Consumption of raw milk from infected animals is considered a risk factor for acquiring toxoplasmosis in humans. Recently, donkey milk has been indicated for therapeutic and nutritional purposes and T. gondii infection is common in donkeys. The pu...

  5. Radon as a naturally occurring tracer for the assessment of residual NAPL contamination of aquifers.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Michael; Paschke, Albrecht; Lau, Steffen; Geyer, Wolfgang; Knöller, Kay

    2007-02-01

    The noble gas radon has a strong affinity to non-aqueous phase-liquids (NAPLs). That property makes it applicable as naturally occurring partitioning tracer for assessing residual NAPL contamination of aquifers. In a NAPL contaminated aquifer, radon dissolved in the groundwater partitions preferably into the NAPL. The magnitude of the resulting radon deficit in the groundwater depends on the NAPL-specific radon partition coefficient and on the NAPL saturation of the pore space. Hence, if the partition coefficient is known, the NAPL saturation is attainable by determination of the radon deficit. After a concise discussion of theoretical aspects regarding radon partitioning into NAPL, related experimental data and results of a field investigation are presented. Aim of the laboratory experiments was the determination of radon partition coefficients of multi-component NAPLs of environmental concern. The on-site activities were carried out in order to confirm the applicability of the "radon method" under field conditions.

  6. [The thermophilic streptomycetes flora in milk powders and condensed milk products (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Falkowski, J

    1978-08-01

    247 specimens of powdered milk and 165 of condensed milk were tested for their contamination with thermophile Streptomycetes. Colonies of these contaminants were isolated from all specimens of powdered milk and from 73 samples of condensed sweeted milk. The isolated strains corresponded with the following species of thermophilic Streptomycetes: Thermoactinomyces vulgaris, Tsiklinsky 1899, Thermoactinomyces vulgaris, Tsiklinsky 1899 "giant colonies", Micromonospora sp. (Agre et al., 1).

  7. Microbial interactions with naturally occurring hydrophobic sediments: Influence on sediment and associated contaminant mobility.

    PubMed

    Droppo, I G; Krishnappan, B G; Lawrence, J R

    2016-04-01

    The erosion, transport and fate of sediments and associated contaminants are known to be influenced by both particle characteristics and the flow dynamics imparted onto the sediment. The influential role of bitumen containing hydrophobic sediments and the microbial community on sediment dynamics are however less understood. This study links an experimental evaluation of sediment erosion with measured sediment-associated contaminant concentrations and microbial community analysis to provide an estimate of the potential for sediment to control the erosion, transport and fate of contaminants. Specifically the paper addresses the unique behaviour of hydrophobic sediments and the role that the microbial community associated with hydrophobic sediment may play in the transport of contaminated sediment. Results demonstrate that the hydrophobic cohesive sediment demonstrates unique transport and particle characteristics (poor settling and small floc size). Biofilms were observed to increase with consolidation/biostabilization times and generated a unique microbial consortium relative to the eroded flocs. Natural oil associated with the flocs appeared to be preferentially associated with microbial derived extracellular polymeric substances. While PAHs and naphthenic acid increased with increasing shear (indicative of increasing loads), they tended to decrease with consolidation/biostabilization (CB) time at similar shears suggesting a chemical and/or biological degradation. PAH and napthenic acid degrading microbes decreased with time as well, which may suggest that there was a reduced pool of PAHs and naphthenic acids available resulting in their die off. This study emphasizes the importance that any management strategies and operational assessments for the protection of human and aquatic health incorporate the sediment (suspended and bed sediment) and biological (biofilm) compartments and the energy dynamics within the system in order to better predict contaminant

  8. Evolution of a pathway for chlorobenzene metabolism leads to natural attenuation in contaminated groundwater

    PubMed

    van der Meer JR; Werlen; Nishino; Spain

    1998-11-01

    Complete metabolism of chlorinated benzenes is not a feature that is generally found in aerobic bacteria but is thought to be due to a novel recombination of two separate gene clusters. Such a recombination could be responsible for adaptation of a natural microbial community in response to contamination with synthetic chemicals. This hypothesis was tested in a chlorobenzene (CB)-contaminated aquifer. CB-degrading bacteria from a contaminated site were characterized for a number of years by examining a combination of growth characteristics and DNA-DNA hybridization, PCR, and DNA sequence data. The genetic information obtained for the CB pathway of the predominant microorganism, Ralstonia sp. strain JS705, revealed a unique combination of (partially duplicated) genes for chlorocatechol degradation and genes for a benzene-toluene type of aromatic ring dioxygenase. The organism was detected in CB-polluted groundwater by hybridizing colonies cultivated on low-strength heterotrophic media with probes for the CB pathway. Southern hybridizations performed to determine the organization of the CB pathway genes and the 16S ribosomal DNA indicated that CB-degrading organisms isolated from different wells at the site were identical to JS705. Physiological characterization by the Biolog test system revealed some differences. The genes for the aromatic ring dioxygenase and dihydrodiol dehydrogenase of JS705 were detected in toluene and benzene degraders from the same site. Our results suggest that recent horizontal gene transfer and genetic recombination of existing genes between indigenous microorganisms were the mechanisms for evolution of the catabolic pathway. Evolution of the CB pathway seems to have created the capacity for natural attenuation of CB at the contaminated site.

  9. Case Report of Sepsis in Neonates Fed Expressed Mother's Milk.

    PubMed

    Smith, Sandra L; Serke, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Mother's milk is the recommended food for premature infants cared for in the NICU. In the cases presented in this article, mothers pumped their milk into food-grade aseptic plastic containers. Milk was refrigerated before use. In Case 1, an infant developed Pseudomonas aeruginosa sepsis. In Case 2, an infant developed methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Both cases were attributed to contaminated mother's milk. Proper cleaning and sterilization of pump parts is essential to prevent milk contamination. PMID:27486089

  10. Survival of Escherichia coli O26:H11 exceeds that of Escherichia coli O157:H7 as assessed by simulated human digestion of contaminated raw milk cheeses.

    PubMed

    Miszczycha, Stéphane D; Thévenot, Jonathan; Denis, Sylvain; Callon, Cécile; Livrelli, Valérie; Alric, Monique; Montel, Marie-Christine; Blanquet-Diot, Stéphanie; Thevenot-Sergentet, Delphine

    2014-02-17

    Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are an important cause of human foodborne outbreaks. The consumption of raw milk dairy products may be an important route of STEC infection. For successful foodborne transmission, STEC strains must survive stress conditions met during gastrointestinal transit in humans. The aim of this study was to evaluate the survival of two STEC strains of serotypes O157:H7 and O26:H11 during simulated human digestion in the TNO gastro-Intestinal tract Model (TIM) of contaminated uncooked pressed cheeses. The survival of cheese microflora during in vitro gastrointestinal transit was also determined for the first time. The level of STEC increased from 2 log₁₀ CFU/ml to 4 log₁₀ CFU/g during the first 24h of cheese making and remained stable at around 4 log₁₀ CFU/g during cheese ripening and conservation. During transit through the artificial stomach and duodenum, levels of STEC decreased: 0.2% of E. coli O157:H7 and 1.8% of E. coli O26:H11 were recovered at 150 min in the gastric compartment, compared with 14.3% for the transit marker. Bacterial resumption was observed in the jejunum and ileum: 35.8% of E. coli O157:H7 and 663.2% of E. coli O26:H11 were recovered at 360 min in the ileal compartment, compared with 12.6% for the transit marker. The fate of STEC was strain-dependent, the survival of E. coli O26:H11 being 13 times greater than that of E. coli O157:H7 at the end of digestion in the cumulative ileal deliveries. These data provide a better understanding of STEC behavior during gastrointestinal transit in humans after ingestion of contaminated cheese.

  11. Imbalance of Nature due to Contaminant Loads in the Culiacan River Watershed, Sinaloa, México

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García Páez, F.; Ley-Aispuro, E.

    2013-05-01

    The Culiacan River discharges runoff from a large agricultural watershed into the wetlands at Ensenada de Pabellones ranked as a priority marine region of Mexico due to its high biodiversity and the economic importance of its fishing resources. This research estimated potential contaminant loads for BOD5, TSS, N and P from stormwater runoff and associated land use in the watershed. Previous studies had demonstrated the imbalance of nature due to land use change causing contamination by heavy metals, pesticides, sediment, phosphorus and eutrophication (Lopez and Osuna, 2002; Green and Paez, 2004, Gonzalez et al., 2006; Osuna et al., 2007). The methodology included: Characterizing the watershed according to land use, soil, vegetation, annual runoff and population density by sub-watershed; estimating the potential contaminant load and annual average concentrations of contaminants using the PLOAD program, comparing the result with monitored contaminant concentrations; and identifying the impact of pollutant loads in the watershed and coastal ecosystems and proposing management strategies to reduce or reverse the imbalance of nature caused by contamination in the Culiacan River watershed. Calculated contaminant loads in tonne/year were 13,682.4 of BOD5; 503,621.8 of TSS; 5,975.7 of N and 1,789.1 of P. The Tamazula and Humaya rivers watersheds provide 72% of the total load of BOD5, 68.5% of TSS, 77.6% of N and 62.7% of P discharged to the wetlands. Monitored results include: 89% of temperature observations were above 21°C, which is stressful to aquatic life due to a subsequent decrease in dissolved oxygen; 100% of the observations of P exceeded the ecological criteria for water quality; 71.5% of the observations for DO from 2001 to 2011, were above the ecological criteria for protection of aquatic life and 91.5% met the criteria for use in drinking water; 100% of the observations for BOD5 values remained in the range of Excellent to Good; 22% of the observations for the

  12. Development of an approach to estimating mid- to long-term critical loads for radiocaesium contamination of cow milk in western Europe.

    PubMed

    Wright, S M; Howard, B J; Barnett, C L; Stevens, P; Absalom, J P

    1998-09-29

    This paper describes the application of the critical load methodology, developed to set emission targets for atmospheric pollutants, to radioecology. The critical load can be redefined within radioecology as the radionuclide deposition at which radionuclide activity concentrations in a specified food product will exceed the maximum permitted level. An empirically based approach is described which provides estimates of critical load values for cow milk in the mid- to long-term after an accident when soil-to-plant transfer of radiocaesium is largely responsible for plant radiocaesium contamination. The areas identified as being most potentially vulnerable to radiocaesium deposition using this approach are those with extensive areas of organic soils such as western Scotland, parts of Ireland, The Netherlands and Denmark. The classification of European soil types into soil groups with significantly different soil-to-plant transfer of radiocaesium, and the allocation of a transfer value to each soil group provide the greatest uncertainties within this approach. Potential problems and deficiencies affecting the estimation of parameter values are discussed.

  13. Applicability of a Lactobacillus amylovorus strain as co-culture for natural folate bio-enrichment of fermented milk.

    PubMed

    Laiño, Jonathan Emiliano; Juarez del Valle, Marianela; Savoy de Giori, Graciela; LeBlanc, Jean Guy Joseph

    2014-11-17

    The ability of 55 strains from different Lactobacillus species to produce folate was investigated. In order to evaluate folic acid productivity, lactobacilli were cultivated in the folate-free culture medium (FACM). Most of the tested strains needed folate for growth. The production and the extent of vitamin accumulation were distinctive features of individual strains. Lactobacillus amylovorus CRL887 was selected for further studies because of its ability to produce significantly higher concentrations of vitamin (81.2 ± 5.4 μg/L). The safety of this newly identified folate producing strain was evaluated through healthy experimental mice. No bacterial translocation was detected in liver and spleen after consumption of CRL887 during 7 days and no undesirable side effects were observed in the animals that received this strain. This strain in co-culture with previously selected folate producing starter cultures (Lactobacillus bulgaricus CRL871, and Streptococcus thermophilus CRL803 and CRL415) yielded a yogurt containing high folate concentrations (263.1 ± 2.4 μg/L); a single portion of which would provide 15% of the recommended dietary allowance. This is the first report where a Lactobacillus amylovorus strain was successfully used as co-culture for natural folate bio-enrichment of fermented milk.

  14. Emergency response planning to reduce the impact of contaminated drinking water during natural disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, Craig L.; Adams, Jeffrey Q.

    2011-12-01

    Natural disasters can be devastating to local water supplies affecting millions of people. Disaster recovery plans and water industry collaboration during emergencies protect consumers from contaminated drinking water supplies and help facilitate the repair of public water systems. Prior to an event, utilities and municipalities can use "What if"? scenarios to develop emergency operation, response, and recovery plans designed to reduce the severity of damage and destruction. Government agencies including the EPA are planning ahead to provide temporary supplies of potable water and small drinking water treatment technologies to communities as an integral part of emergency response activities that will ensure clean and safe drinking water.

  15. Rapid intrinsic biodegradation of benzene, toluene, and xylenes at the boundary of a gasoline-contaminated plume under natural attenuation.

    PubMed

    Takahata, Yoh; Kasai, Yuki; Hoaki, Toshihiro; Watanabe, Kazuya

    2006-12-01

    A groundwater plume contaminated with gasoline constituents [mainly benzene, toluene, and xylenes (BTX)] had been treated by pumping and aeration for approximately 10 years, and the treatment strategy was recently changed to monitored natural attenuation (MNA). To gain information on the feasibility of using MNA to control the spread of BTX, chemical and microbiological parameters in groundwater samples obtained inside and outside the contaminated plume were measured over the course of 73 weeks. The depletion of electron acceptors (i.e., dissolved oxygen, nitrate, and sulfate) and increase of soluble iron were observed in the contaminated zone. Laboratory incubation tests revealed that groundwater obtained immediately outside the contaminated zone (the boundary zone) exhibited much higher potential for BTX degradation than those in the contaminated zone and in uncontaminated background zones. The boundary zone was a former contaminated area where BTX were no longer detected. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified bacterial 16S rRNA gene fragments revealed that DGGE profiles for groundwater samples obtained from the contaminated zone were clustered together and distinct from those from uncontaminated zones. In addition, unique bacterial rRNA types were observed in the boundary zone. These results indicate that the boundary zone in the contaminant plumes served as a natural barrier for preventing the BTX contamination from spreading out.

  16. Chlorination of 4-hydroxycinnamic acid and its toxic risk as a natural occurring water contaminant

    SciTech Connect

    Borlakoglu, J.T.; Kickuth, R.

    1986-12-01

    During the decay process of plant material a number of phenolic compounds are released into the environment. Previous studies on water courses have shown that five phenolic acids derived from plants predominate with 4-hydroxycinnamic acid as the major compound. Many of these compounds can travel through the soil matrix and enter a water stream. However, water supplies are routinely chlorinated which leads to the chemical chlorination of phenolic water contaminants. These naturally occurring phenolics may therefore change their chemical and biological behavior and probably become, after chlorination, increasingly toxic. Although the occurrence of water compounds in tap water have been increasingly investigated with focus on industrial water pollutants, it is not fully understood to what extent the decay of plant material contributes to phenolic water contamination. Great concern about routine water chlorination has been expressed, because of the chlorination of aliphatic and aromatic water contaminants possibly accompanied by a change in their chemical and biological behavior and the synthesis of organochlorine derivatives. The present situation does not allow any prediction of the chemical and biological behavior of the parent compound nor is it possible to anticipate the amount and potential risk of its organochlorine derivatives. The objective of the present work was to study the chemical behavior of plant-derived phenolic acids under conditions similar to the routine water chlorination. The toxicity of the chlorophenoic mixtures was assessed on a Escherichia coli strain similar to that found in the human intestine.

  17. Enumeration of aromatic oxygenase genes to evaluate monitored natural attenuation at gasoline-contaminated sites.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Brett R; Nakatsu, Cindy H; Nies, Loring

    2008-02-01

    Monitoring groundwater benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) concentrations is the typical method to assess monitored natural attenuation (MNA) and bioremediation as corrective actions at gasoline-contaminated sites. Conclusive demonstration of bioremediation, however, relies on converging lines of chemical and biological evidence to support a decision. In this study, real-time PCR quantification of aromatic oxygenase genes was used to evaluate the feasibility of MNA at two gasoline-impacted sites. Phenol hydroxylase (PHE), ring-hydroxylating toluene monooxygenase (RMO), naphthalene dioxygenase (NAH), toluene monooxygenase (TOL), toluene dioxygenase (TOD), and biphenyl dioxygenase (BPH4) genes were routinely detected in BTEX-impacted wells. Aromatic oxygenase genes were not detected in sentinel wells outside the plume indicating that elevated levels of oxygenase genes corresponded to petroleum hydrocarbon contamination. Total aromatic oxygenase gene copy numbers detected in impacted wells were on the order of 10(6)-10(9)copies L(-1). PHE, RMO, NAH, TOD, and BPH4 gene copies positively correlated to total BTEX concentration. Mann-Kendall analysis of benzene concentrations was used to evaluate the status of the dissolved BTEX plume. The combination of trend analysis of contaminant concentrations with quantification of aromatic oxygenase genes was used to assess the feasibility of MNA as corrective measures at both sites.

  18. Using ²²²Rn as a naturally occurring tracer to estimate NAPL contamination in an aquifer.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Yoon Yeol; Koh, Dong Chan; Lee, Kil Yong; Cho, Soo Young; Yang, Jae Ha; Lee, Kang Kun

    2013-11-01

    The naturally occurring radioisotope (222)Rn was used as a partitioning tracer to evaluate the presence and amount of a non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) in an aquifer. The batch experiment results of a diesel contaminated soil showed that the emanation rate of (222)Rn decreased to 31%, relative to a background rate. Batch experiment results of water contaminated by gasoline, diesel, PCE and TCE were similar. A field study to examine TCE contamination was conducted using 54 groundwater samples in Wonju city, Republic of Korea. Estimates of TCE contamination ranged from <0.001 mg/L to 14.3mg/L, and (222)Rn concentrations ranged from 1.89 Bq/L to 444. Results of (222)Rn analysis showed that TCE contamination was mainly restricted to an asphalt laboratory area and that the (222)Rn values of a NAPL-contaminated aquifer were correlated with TCE analytical results.

  19. Using ²²²Rn as a naturally occurring tracer to estimate NAPL contamination in an aquifer.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Yoon Yeol; Koh, Dong Chan; Lee, Kil Yong; Cho, Soo Young; Yang, Jae Ha; Lee, Kang Kun

    2013-11-01

    The naturally occurring radioisotope (222)Rn was used as a partitioning tracer to evaluate the presence and amount of a non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) in an aquifer. The batch experiment results of a diesel contaminated soil showed that the emanation rate of (222)Rn decreased to 31%, relative to a background rate. Batch experiment results of water contaminated by gasoline, diesel, PCE and TCE were similar. A field study to examine TCE contamination was conducted using 54 groundwater samples in Wonju city, Republic of Korea. Estimates of TCE contamination ranged from <0.001 mg/L to 14.3mg/L, and (222)Rn concentrations ranged from 1.89 Bq/L to 444. Results of (222)Rn analysis showed that TCE contamination was mainly restricted to an asphalt laboratory area and that the (222)Rn values of a NAPL-contaminated aquifer were correlated with TCE analytical results. PMID:23602707

  20. Occurrence and survival of verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 in raw cow's milk in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Heuvelink, A E; Bleumink, B; van den Biggelaar, F L; Te Giffel, M C; Beumer, R R; de Boer, E

    1998-12-01

    From May through November 1997, 1,011 samples of raw milk from bulk storage tanks were examined for the presence of verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli of serogroup O157 (O157 VTEC) by immunomagnetic separation following selective enrichment. The samples originated from 1,011 different dairy herds located throughout the Netherlands. O157 VTEC was not isolated from any of the milk samples examined. Additionally, survival of O157 VTEC in raw and UHT-sterilized cow's milk at 7 and 15 degrees C was studied, both in the absence and presence of an activated lactoperoxidase-thiocyanate-hydrogen peroxide system (LPS). Results indicated that the O157 VTEC strain tested was able to grow in raw milk at 7 degrees C as well as at 15 degrees C. Naturally occurring amounts of thiocyanate and hydrogen peroxide in the raw milk tested were not sufficient to activate the LPS. Although the LPS exhibited an antimicrobial activity against O157 VTEC in LPS-activated sterilized milk, O157 VTEC populations were not (or not as obviously) reduced in LPS-activated raw milk. Possibly background microflora were more sensitive to the LPS than the O157 VTEC test strain. It was concluded that raw milk contaminated with O157 VTEC will remain a hazard if kept at 7 or 15 degrees C. Effective pasteurization and avoiding postpasteurization contamination are necessary to ensure the safety of milk. PMID:9874335

  1. A statistical F test for the natural attenuation of contaminants in groundwater.

    PubMed

    Pelayo, Aristeo M; Evangelista, Fe S

    2003-03-01

    Natural attenuation (NA) is a catchall explanation for the overall decay and slowed movement of the contaminants in the subsurface. One direct support to NA is to demonstrate that contaminant concentrations from monitoring wells located near the source are decreasing over time. The decrease is summarily expressed in terms of an apparent half-life that is determined from the line best fitting the observed log-transformed concentration data and time. This simple (time-only) decay model assumes other factors are invariant, and so is flawed when complicating factors--such as a fluctuating water table--are present. A history of the water-table fluctuation can track changes in important NA factors like recharge, groundwater flow direction and velocity, as well as other non-NA factors like volume of water in and purged from the well before a sample is collected. When the trend in the concentrations is better associated with the water table rising or falling, any conclusion about degradation rate may be premature. We develop simple regressions to predict contaminant concentration (c) by two line models: one involving time (c approximately c(t)), and another involving groundwater elevation (c approximately c(z)). We develop a third model that includes both factors (c approximately c(t, z)). Using an F-test to compare the fits to the models, we determine which model is statistically better in explaining the observed concentrations. We applied the test to sites where benzene degradation rates had previously been estimated. The F-test can be used to determine the suitability of applying non-parametric statistics, like the Mann-Kendall, to the concentration data, because the result from the F-test can indicate instability of the contaminant plume that may be masked when the water table fluctuates.

  2. Analytical method for optimal source reduction with monitored natural attenuation in contaminated aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Widdowson, M.A.; Chapelle, F.H.; Brauner, J.S.; ,

    2003-01-01

    A method is developed for optimizing monitored natural attenuation (MNA) and the reduction in the aqueous source zone concentration (??C) required to meet a site-specific regulatory target concentration. The mathematical model consists of two one-dimensional equations of mass balance for the aqueous phase contaminant, to coincide with up to two distinct zones of transformation, and appropriate boundary and intermediate conditions. The solution is written in terms of zone-dependent Peclet and Damko??hler numbers. The model is illustrated at a chlorinated solvent site where MNA was implemented following source treatment using in-situ chemical oxidation. The results demonstrate that by not taking into account a variable natural attenuation capacity (NAC), a lower target ??C is predicted, resulting in unnecessary source concentration reduction and cost with little benefit to achieving site-specific remediation goals.

  3. Time Evolution of Activity Concentration of Natural Emitters in a Scenario Affected By Previous Phosphogypsum Contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villa, M.; Mantero, J.; Mosqueda, F.; Hurtado, S.; Manjón, G.; Vaca, F.; García-Tenorio, R.

    2008-08-01

    The estuary formed by the confluence of Tinto and Odiel river-mouths is located in the South of Spain, close to Huelva town. This estuary has been deeply studied through the years because it has a double particularity. On one hand, since the beginning of the 1960s, the estuary has been affected by direct and indirect phosphogypsum (pg.) releases from two phosphoric acid and fertilizers factories that are working in the area. On the other hand, the pyrite mining operations upstream the Odiel and Tinto rivers has caused historically the formation of H2SO4, through oxidation of the natural sulphur deposits, the acidification of the waters and the consequent mobilisation of heavy metals from the mining area to the Huelva estuary. As a consequence, enhancement contamination levels in natural emitters from the 238U series were found in the surroundings of the factories in the previous years to 1998. However, in 1998 the management policy of waste releases drastically changed in the area, and direct discharges to Tinto and Odiel River had to be ceased. A thorough study of the affected zone is being carried out. Riverbed sediments and water samples have been analyzed from four different sampling campaigns in the estuary during the years 1999, 2001, 2002 and 2005. Different radioanalytical techniques have been employed to obtain the activity concentrations of U-isotopes, Th-isotopes, 226Ra, 210Pb and 210Po. Furthermore, the results for the rates of de-contamination of the area are presented. This data will be discussed in order to establish the present status of the contamination in the area, and moreover, to predict the time-evolution of the self-cleaning

  4. Stable isotope fractionation to investigate natural transformation mechanisms of organic contaminants: principles, prospects and limitations.

    PubMed

    Elsner, Martin

    2010-11-01

    Gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-IRMS) has made it possible to analyze natural stable isotope ratios (e.g., (13)C/(12)C, (15)N/(14)N, (2)H/(1)H) of individual organic contaminants in environmental samples. They may be used as fingerprints to infer contamination sources, and may demonstrate, and even quantify, the occurrence of natural contaminant transformation by the enrichment of heavy isotopes that arises from degradation-induced isotope fractionation. This review highlights an additional powerful feature of stable isotope fractionation: the study of environmental transformation mechanisms. Isotope effects reflect the energy difference of isotopologues (i.e., molecules carrying a light versus a heavy isotope in a particular molecular position) when moving from reactant to transition state. Measuring isotope fractionation, therefore, essentially allows a glimpse at transition states! It is shown how such position-specific isotope effects are "diluted out" in the compound average measured by GC-IRMS, and how a careful evaluation in mechanistic scenarios and by dual isotope plots can recover the underlying mechanistic information. The mathematical framework for multistep isotope fractionation in environmental transformations is reviewed. Case studies demonstrate how isotope fractionation changes in the presence of mass transfer, enzymatic commitment to catalysis, multiple chemical reaction steps or limited bioavailability, and how this gives information about the individual process steps. Finally, it is discussed how isotope ratios of individual products evolve in sequential or parallel transformations, and what mechanistic insight they contain. A concluding session gives an outlook on current developments, future research directions and the potential for bridging the gap between laboratory and real world systems.

  5. Time Evolution of Activity Concentration of Natural Emitters in a Scenario Affected By Previous Phosphogypsum Contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Villa, M.; Hurtado, S.; Mantero, J.; Manjon, G.; Garcia-Tenorio, R.; Mosqueda, F.; Vaca, F.

    2008-08-07

    The estuary formed by the confluence of Tinto and Odiel river-mouths is located in the South of Spain, close to Huelva town. This estuary has been deeply studied through the years because it has a double particularity. On one hand, since the beginning of the 1960s, the estuary has been affected by direct and indirect phosphogypsum (pg.) releases from two phosphoric acid and fertilizers factories that are working in the area. On the other hand, the pyrite mining operations upstream the Odiel and Tinto rivers has caused historically the formation of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, through oxidation of the natural sulphur deposits, the acidification of the waters and the consequent mobilisation of heavy metals from the mining area to the Huelva estuary. As a consequence, enhancement contamination levels in natural emitters from the {sup 238}U series were found in the surroundings of the factories in the previous years to 1998. However, in 1998 the management policy of waste releases drastically changed in the area, and direct discharges to Tinto and Odiel River had to be ceased.A thorough study of the affected zone is being carried out. Riverbed sediments and water samples have been analyzed from four different sampling campaigns in the estuary during the years 1999, 2001, 2002 and 2005. Different radioanalytical techniques have been employed to obtain the activity concentrations of U-isotopes, Th-isotopes, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po. Furthermore, the results for the rates of de-contamination of the area are presented. This data will be discussed in order to establish the present status of the contamination in the area, and moreover, to predict the time-evolution of the self-cleaning.

  6. Review of the Occurrence of Anti-infectives in Contaminated Wastewaters and Natural and Drinking Waters

    PubMed Central

    Segura, Pedro A.; François, Matthieu; Gagnon, Christian; Sauvé, Sébastien

    2009-01-01

    Objective Anti-infectives are constantly discharged at trace levels in natural waters near urban centers and agricultural areas. They represent a cause for concern because of their potential contribution to the spread of anti-infective resistance in bacteria and other effects on aquatic biota. We compiled data on the occurrence of anti-infectives published in the last 24 years in environmental water matrices. The collected information was then compared with the available ecotoxicologic values to evaluate potential environmental concerns. Data sources We used Web of Science and Google Scholar to search for articles published in peer-reviewed journals written in the English language since 1984. Data extraction Information on compound concentrations in wastewaters and natural and drinking waters, the source of contamination, country of provenance of the samples, year of publication, limits of quantification, and method of analysis was extracted. Data synthesis From the 126 different substances analyzed in environmental waters, 68 different parent compounds and 10 degradation products or metabolites have been quantified to date. Environmental concentrations vary from about 10−1 to 109 ng/L, depending on the compound, the matrix, and the source of contamination. Conclusions Detrimental effects of anti-infectives on aquatic microbiota are possible with the constant exposure of sensitive species. Indirect impact on human health cannot be ruled out when considering the potential contribution of high anti-infective concentrations to the spreading of anti-infective resistance in bacteria. PMID:19479007

  7. Occurrence of Natural Contaminants of Emerging Concern in the Douro River Estuary, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Ana Rita; Maia, Alexandra; Santos, Mariana; Tiritan, Maria Elizabeth; Ribeiro, Cláudia Maria Rosa

    2016-02-01

    Many studies demonstrated the presence of diverse environmental contaminants in the Douro River estuary, such as natural and synthetic estrogens, pharmaceuticals, industrial compounds and pesticides. This estuary is located between two densely populated cities and is highly impacted due to anthropogenic activities, such as industry and agriculture. Although the presence of mycotoxins and phytoestrogens, such as lignans and coumestrans, in the aquatic environment is reported by some authors, their occurrence in Portuguese waters was not investigated yet. To evaluate the presence of phytoestrogens, phytosterols and mycotoxins in Douro River estuary, water samples were collected seasonally at nine sampling points, preconcentrated by solid phase extraction and analysed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Local flora was collected on the riverside, in the same sampling points, for identification and evaluation of the possible relation to the presence of phytoestrogens and/or phytosterols in the estuarine water. Results showed the ubiquitous presence of mycotoxins, namely deoxynivalenol up to 373.5 ng L(-1). Both phytoestrogens and phytosterols showed a possible seasonal fluctuation, which is in accordance to the life cycle of the local flora and agricultural practices. Physicochemical parameters were also determined for water quality evaluation. This study revealed for the first time the presence of mycotoxins and lignans in estuarine waters from Portugal, and highlights the need to consider natural contaminants in future monitoring programs.

  8. Effects of oil and natural or synthetic vitamin E on ruminal and milk fatty acid profiles in cows receiving a high-starch diet.

    PubMed

    Zened, A; Troegeler-Meynadier, A; Najar, T; Enjalbert, F

    2012-10-01

    Among trans fatty acids, trans-10,cis-12 CLA has negative effects on cow milk fat production and can affect human health. In high-yielding dairy cows, a shift from the trans-11 to the trans-10 pathway of biohydrogenation (BH) can occur in the rumen of cows receiving high-concentrate diets, especially when the diet is supplemented with unsaturated fat sources. In some but not all experiments, vitamin E has been shown to control this shift. To ascertain the effects of vitamin E on this shift of BH pathway, 2 studies were conducted. The first study explored in vitro the effects of addition of natural (RRR-α-tocopherol acetate) and synthetic (dl-α-tocopherol acetate) vitamin E. Compared with control and synthetic vitamin E, the natural form resulted in a greater trans-10/trans-11 ratio; however, the effect was very low, suggesting that vitamin E was neither a limiting factor for rumen BH nor a modulator of the BH pathway. An in vivo study investigated the effect of natural vitamin E (RRR-α-tocopherol) on this shift and subsequent milk fat depression. Six rumen-fistulated lactating Holstein cows were assigned to a 2×2 crossover design. Cows received 20-kg DM of a control diet based on corn silage with 22% of wheat, and after 2 wk of adaptation, the diet was supplemented with 600 g of sunflower oil for 2 more weeks. During the last week of this 4-wk experimental period, cows were divided into 2 groups: an unsupplemented control group and a group receiving 11 g of RRR-α-tocopherol acetate per day. A trans-10 shift of ruminal BH associated with milk fat depression due to oil supplementation of a high-wheat diet was observed, but vitamin E supplementation of dairy cows did not result in a reversal toward a trans-11 BH pathway, and did not restore milk fat content.

  9. Human Milk Fortification in India.

    PubMed

    Kler, Neelam; Thakur, Anup; Modi, Manoj; Kaur, Avneet; Garg, Pankaj; Soni, Arun; Saluja, Satish

    2015-01-01

    Human milk fortification in preterm babies has become a standard of care in developed countries. Use of human milk fortifier (HMF) in very-low-birthweight infants is not a routine practice in India. There are concerns about high osmolality, feed intolerance, necrotizing enterocolitis, risk of contamination and added cost associated with use of HMF. There are limited data from India which address the issue of safety and short-term benefits of human milk fortification. This chapter highlights the issues related to human milk fortification in our country.

  10. Characterization of Natural Attenuation in a uranium-contaminated site by means of Induced Polarization Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores Orozco, Adrián; Bücker, Matthias; Williams, Kenneth

    2014-05-01

    Field experiments at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Integrated Field Research Challenge site (IFRC) in Rifle, Colorado (USA) have repeatedly demonstrated the ability of microorganisms to reductively immobilize uranium (U) in U tailings-contaminated groundwater accompanying organic carbon amendment. At the same time, geophysical monitoring during such amendment experiments has proven that Induced Polarization (IP) datasets can provide valuable information regarding geochemical changes induced by stimulated microbial activity, such as precipitation of metallic minerals (e.g. FeS) and accumulation of reactive, electroactive ions (Fe[II]). Based on these findings, we present a novel, modified application of the IP imaging method. Specifically, we utilized an IP characterization approach to delineate areas where fluvially deposited organic material, within aquifer sediments, naturally stimulates the activity of subsurface microflora, leading to both the natural immobilization of uranium and accumulation of reduced end-products (minerals and pore fluids) capable of generating anomalous IP signatures. These so-called 'naturally reduced zones' (NRZ's) are characterized by elevated rates of microbial activity relative to sediments having a lower concentration of organic matter. As noted and based on our previous experiments at the site, the accumulation of metallic minerals represents suitable targets for the exploration with IP tomographic methods. Here, we explore the application of the IP imaging method for the characterization of NRZ's at the scale of the floodplain. We present imaging results obtained through the inversion of 70 independent lines distributed along the floodplain (~600 m2). Imaging results are validated through comparisons with lithological data obtained from wells drilled at the site and laboratory analysis of sediment and groundwater samples. Our results show the applicability of the IP method for characterizing regions of the subsurface having

  11. Analysis of breast milk to assess exposure to chlorinated contaminants in Kazakhstan: sources of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) exposures in an agricultural region of southern Kazakhstan.

    PubMed

    Hooper, K; Chuvakova, T; Kazbekova, G; Hayward, D; Tulenova, A; Petreas, M X; Wade, T J; Benedict, K; Cheng, Y Y; Grassman, J

    1999-06-01

    High levels of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD; up to 208 pg/g fat) were measured in samples of breast milk collected in 1997 from 64 donors [41 first-time mothers (primiparae)] living on state farms in southern Kazakhstan. TCDD was the major contributor (70%) to the toxic equivalents, matching the congener patterns found in breast milk and serum samples collected in 1994 and 1996 from donors in nearby villages. The highest TCDD levels were found in state farms adjacent to a reservoir (zone A), which receives agricultural runoff from cotton fields. TCDD levels in zone A were significantly higher than levels in a region more distant (zone B; > 10 miles) from the reservoir (zone A: mean 53 pg/g, n = 17; zone B: mean 21 pg/g, n = 24; p = 0.0017). Levels of TCDD in breast milk and animal-derived foodstuffs were 10 times U.S. levels. Body burden and dietary data suggest that exposures to TCDD are chronic, environmental, and long term and may be related to the use of chemicals in cotton agriculture. The data suggest that the most likely source is the use of cotton defoliants contaminated with TCDD, and the most likely pathway for human exposure is via the consumption of contaminated foodstuffs.

  12. Analysis of breast milk to assess exposure to chlorinated contaminants in Kazakhstan: sources of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) exposures in an agricultural region of southern Kazakhstan.

    PubMed Central

    Hooper, K; Chuvakova, T; Kazbekova, G; Hayward, D; Tulenova, A; Petreas, M X; Wade, T J; Benedict, K; Cheng, Y Y; Grassman, J

    1999-01-01

    High levels of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD; up to 208 pg/g fat) were measured in samples of breast milk collected in 1997 from 64 donors [41 first-time mothers (primiparae)] living on state farms in southern Kazakhstan. TCDD was the major contributor (70%) to the toxic equivalents, matching the congener patterns found in breast milk and serum samples collected in 1994 and 1996 from donors in nearby villages. The highest TCDD levels were found in state farms adjacent to a reservoir (zone A), which receives agricultural runoff from cotton fields. TCDD levels in zone A were significantly higher than levels in a region more distant (zone B; > 10 miles) from the reservoir (zone A: mean 53 pg/g, n = 17; zone B: mean 21 pg/g, n = 24; p = 0.0017). Levels of TCDD in breast milk and animal-derived foodstuffs were 10 times U.S. levels. Body burden and dietary data suggest that exposures to TCDD are chronic, environmental, and long term and may be related to the use of chemicals in cotton agriculture. The data suggest that the most likely source is the use of cotton defoliants contaminated with TCDD, and the most likely pathway for human exposure is via the consumption of contaminated foodstuffs. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:10515712

  13. Natural attenuation potential of downwelling streams for perfluorochemicals and other emerging contaminants.

    PubMed

    Hoehn, E; Plumlee, M H; Reinhard, M

    2007-01-01

    Stream augmentation with tertiary treated municipal wastewater-i.e., recycled water-is increasingly considered as an ecologically beneficial way to utilize recycled water, especially in semi-arid regions of the American Southwest. There is concern that emerging contaminants, i.e. unregulated but biologically active organic compounds, may be present in recycled water and will impact on the aquatic environment and the underlying groundwater. Emerging contaminants include a wide variety of chemically disparate compounds, including pharmaceuticals, endocrine disruptors, and residues of perfluorochemical surfactants (PFCs). This paper presents background data on the occurrence and transport of PFC in Upper Silver Creek (USC) and Coyote Creek, in San Jose, California. USC feeds into Coyote Creek, which discharges into San Francisco Bay. Augmenting the natural flow of Coyote Creek with highly treated recycled water is currently being considered as a means to provide more freshwater to the river ecosystem. The reach of interest is approximately 1,000 m where USC flows on alluvial fan deposits. Data indicate that some PFCs are refractory. PMID:18057642

  14. Natural radioactivity and metal contamination of river sediments in the Calabria region, south of Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caridi, F.; Marguccio, S.; D'Agostino, M.; Belvedere, A.; Belmusto, G.

    2016-05-01

    River sediments from eight different sites of the coast of Calabria, south of Italy, were sampled to determine natural radioactivity and metal concentrations, in order to assess any possible radiological hazard, the level of contamination and the possible anthropogenic impact in the area. Gamma and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry were employed and results of this study show that the mean activity concentrations of radium (in secular equilibrium with uranium) ranged from 15.1Bq/kg to 26.7Bq/kg, that of thorium from 21.8Bq/kg to 48.3Bq/kg and that of potassium from 541.3Bq/kg to 1452.2Bq/kg. In terms of mean mass concentrations, XRF analysis revealed that uranium was lower than 1.5ppm (minimum detectable value), thorium ranged from 6.1ppm to 10.3ppm while potassium ranged from 2.5% to 4.4%. The degree of sediment contaminations were computed using an enrichment factor (EF) and geoaccumulation index ( I geo for some potential hazardous elements. Results suggested that enrichment factor and geoaccumulation values of Pb and Mn were greatest among the studied metals. The study revealed that on the basis of computed indexes, the eight investigated rivers can be classified as no polluted ones.

  15. Effects of feeding blends of grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on performance, metabolism, hematology, and immunocompetence of ducklings.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, S R; Smith, T K; Boermans, H J; Sefton, A E; Downey, R; Woodward, B

    2005-08-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of feeding grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on performance, metabolism, hematology, and immune competence of ducklings. Four hundred sixty-four 1-d-old White Pekin male ducklings were fed starter (0 to 2 wk), grower (3 to 4 wk), and finisher (5 to 6 wk) diets formulated with uncontaminated grains, a low level of contaminated grains, a high level of contaminated grains, or the higher level of contaminated grains + 0.2% polymeric glucomannan mycotoxin adsorbent. Body weight gains, feed consumption, and feed efficiency were not affected by diet. However, consumption of contaminated grains decreased plasma calcium concentrations after 2 wk and plasma uric acid concentrations at the 4-wk assessment point. Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentrations and hematocrit decreased when ducks were fed contaminated grains for 4 or 6 wk, respectively. In contrast, total numbers of white blood cells and lymphocytes increased transiently in birds fed contaminated grains for 4 wk. The antibody response to sheep red blood cells (CD4+ T cell dependent) and the cell-mediated response to phytohemagglutinin-P (also CD4+ T cell dependent) were not affected by diet, but consumption of contaminated grains for 6 wk decreased the duration of peak cell-mediated response to dinitrochlorobenzene (CD8+ T cell dependent) assessed in a skin test. Feeding grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins, even at levels widely regarded as high, exerted only minor adverse effects on plasma chemistry and hematology of ducklings, and production parameters were unaffected in this avian species. Mycotoxin-contaminated feeds may, however, render these animals susceptible to infectious agents such as viruses against which the CD8+ T cell provides necessary defence. Glucomannan mycotoxin adsorbent was not effective in preventing alterations caused by Fusarium mycotoxins.

  16. Use of natural and synthetic aluminosilicates in decontamination of feed contaminated by fungi and micotoxins.

    PubMed

    Kołacz, R; Dobrzański, Z; Kulok, M

    2004-01-01

    The contamination of feed with micotoxin has been a serious problem in animal nutrition. Many existing methods of decontamination are not satisfying due to the toxicological safety and health quality of the fodder materials. It stimulates the scientists to search for the new methods. The use of sorbents in the form of natural and synthetic aluminosilicates is a promising direction. The efficacy of aluminosilicates towards aflatoxins has been proved. However, their influence on other micotoxins is not that obvious. According to the last investigations, the use of aluminosilicates in nutrition does not cause any side effects and widespread pathological effects are observed only when dosage is incorrect. Regarding the analyses that were published, it can be supposed that the addition of several different aluminosilicates is a sufficient protection against mycotoxicoses.

  17. Pulsed gas injection: a minimum effort approach for enhanced natural attenuation of chlorobenzene in contaminated groundwater.

    PubMed

    Balcke, Gerd Ulrich; Paschke, Heidrun; Vogt, Carsten; Schirmer, Mario

    2009-07-01

    Chlorobenzene-contaminated groundwater was used to assess pulsed gas sparging as a minimum effort aeration strategy to enhance intrinsic natural attenuation. In contrast to existing biosparging operations, oxygen was supplied at minimum rate by reducing the gas injection frequency to 0.33 day(-1). Field tests in a model aquifer were conducted in a 12 m long reactor, filled with indigenous aquifer material and continuously recharged with polluted groundwater over 3 years. The closed arrangement allowed yield balances, cost accounting as well as the investigation of spatial distributions of parameters which are sensitive to the biodegradation process. Depending on the injection frequency and on the gas chosen for injection (pure oxygen or air) oxygen-deficient conditions prevailed in the aquifer. Despite the limiting availability of dissolved oxygen in the groundwater, chlorobenzene degradation under oxygen-deficient conditions proved to be more effective than under conditions with dissolved oxygen being available in high concentrations.

  18. Distribution of potentially bioavailable natural organic carbon in aquifer sediments at a chloroethene-contaminated site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, L.K.; Widdowson, M.A.; Chapelle, F.H.; Novak, J.T.; Boncal, J.E.; Lebrón, C. A.

    2012-01-01

    The distribution of natural organic carbon was investigated at a chloroethene-contaminated site where complete reductive dechlorination of tetrachloroethene (PCE) to vinyl chloride and ethene was observed. In this study, operationally defined potentially bioavailable organic carbon (PBOC) was measured in surficial aquifer sediment samples collected at varying depths and locations in the vicinity of a dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) source and aqueous phase plume. The relationship between chloroethene concentrations and PBOC levels was examined by comparing differences in extractable organic carbon in aquifer sediments with minimal chloroethene exposure relative to samples collected in the source zone. Using performance-monitoring data, direct correlations with PBOC were also developed with chloroethene concentrations in groundwater. Results show a logarithm-normal distribution for PBOC in aquifer sediments with a mean concentration of 187  mg/kg. PBOC levels in sediments obtained from the underlying confining unit were generally greater when compared to sediments collected in the sandy surficial aquifer. Results demonstrated a statistically significant inverse correlation (p=0.007) between PBOC levels in aquifer sediments and chloroethene concentrations for selected monitoring wells in which chloroethene exposure was the highest. Results from laboratory exposure assays also demonstrated that sediment samples exhibited a reduction in PBOC levels of 35% and 73%, respectively, after a 72-h exposure period to PCE (20,000  μg/L). These results support the notion that PBOC depletion in sediments may be expected in chloroethene-contaminated aquifers, which has potential implications for the long-term sustainability of monitored natural attenuation.

  19. Importance of heterocylic aromatic compounds in monitored natural attenuation for coal tar contaminated aquifers: A review.

    PubMed

    Blum, Philipp; Sagner, Anne; Tiehm, Andreas; Martus, Peter; Wendel, Thomas; Grathwohl, Peter

    2011-11-01

    NSO heterocycles (HET) are typical constituents of coal tars. However, HET are not yet routinely monitored, although HET are relatively toxic coal tar constituents. The main objectives of the study is therefore to review previous studies and to analyse HET at coal tar polluted sites in order to assess the relevance of HET as part of monitored natural attenuation (MNA) or any other long-term monitoring programme. Hence, natural attenuation of typical HET (indole, quinoline, carbazole, acridine, methylquinolines, thiophene, benzothiophene, dibenzothiophene, benzofuran, dibenzofuran, methylbenzofurans, dimethylbenzofurans and xanthene) were studied at three different field sites in Germany. Compound-specific plume lengths were determined for all main contaminant groups (BTEX, PAH and HET). The results show that the observed plume lengths are site-specific and are above 250m, but less than 1000m. The latter, i.e. the upper limit, however mainly depends on the level of investigation, the considered compound, the lowest measured concentration and/or the achieved compound-specific detection limit and therefore cannot be unequivocally defined. All downstream contaminant plumes exhibited HET concentrations above typical PAH concentrations indicating that some HET are generally persistent towards biodegradation compared to other coal tar constituents, which results in comparatively increased field-derived half-lives of HET. Additionally, this study provides a review on physicochemical and toxicological parameters of HET. For three well investigated sites in Germany, the biodegradation of HET is quantified using the centre line method (CLM) for the evaluation of bulk attenuation rate constants. The results of the present and previous studies suggest that implementation of a comprehensive monitoring programme for heterocyclic aromatic compounds is relevant at sites, if MNA is considered in risk assessment and for remediation.

  20. Mobilization Of Polonium-210 In Naturally-Contaminated Groundwater, Churchill County, Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seiler, R. L.; Stillings, L. L.; Cutler, N.

    2009-12-01

    Polonium-210 activities in groundwater rarely exceed about 40 mBq/L because it strongly binds to sediments. The recent discovery of natural 210Po at levels ranging from below 1 to 6,300±280 mBq/L in 62 drinking-water wells in Lahontan Valley, Churchill County, Nevada, led to a geochemical investigation of the processes responsible for its mobilization from the aquifer sediments. The source of the 210Po is radioactive decay of uranium in sediments transported into the valley by erosion of granitic rocks in the Sierra Nevada during the Pleistocene. There is little spatial or depth variability in 210Pb activity in study-area sediments (average 35 Bq/kg) and detailed analysis at a contaminated well indicates mobilization of <0.5 percent of the 210Po in the sediments would account for all of the 210Po in the well water. Elevated 210Po activities (>200 mBq/L) are associated with anoxic water (DO <0.1 mg/L) with high pH (commonly >9.0). Investigations in the 1980s by William Burnett and colleagues of naturally-contaminated wells in Florida showed that 210Po was mobilized by sulfate-reducing bacteria and remained in solution as long as sulfides did not accumulate above certain levels. Similarly, δ34SSO4 values in Lahontan Valley indicate that significant sulfate reduction has occurred in wells containing >200 mBq/L of 210Po, but sulfide is not accumulating and its concentrations are low (<0.03 mg/L) in 25 of 28 of those wells. In our working hypothesis, mobilization of 210Po in Lahontan Valley is linked to reduction of Mn oxides by sulfide in an anaerobic sulfur cycle (Figure 1). Such a sulfur cycle is consistent with the high pH, less than predicted δ18OSO4 values, low sulfide concentrations, and presence of elemental sulfur in the water. Results from the Nevada and Florida investigations suggest that 210Po contamination may be more widespread than previously recognized, occurring in groundwater near uranium-mine operations and other uranium containing sediments when

  1. Mobilization of arsenic and other naturally occurring contaminants in groundwater of the Main Ethiopian Rift aquifers.

    PubMed

    Rango, Tewodros; Vengosh, Avner; Dwyer, Gary; Bianchini, Gianluca

    2013-10-01

    This study investigates the mechanisms of arsenic (As) and other naturally occurring contaminants (F(-), U, V, B, and Mo) mobilization from Quaternary sedimentary aquifers of the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER) and their enrichment in the local groundwater. The study is based on systematic measurements of major and trace elements as well as stable oxygen and hydrogen isotopes in groundwater, coupled with geochemical and mineralogical analyses of the aquifer rocks. The Rift Valley aquifer is composed of rhyolitic volcanics and Quaternary lacustrine sediments. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) results revealed that MER rhyolites (ash, tuff, pumice and ignimbrite) and sediments contain on average 72 wt. % and 65 wt. % SiO2, respectively. Petrographic studies of the rhyolites indicate predominance of volcanic glass, sanidine, pyroxene, Fe-oxides and plagioclase. The As content in the lacustrine sediments (mean = 6.6 mg/kg) was higher than that of the rhyolites (mean: 2.5 mg/kg). The lacustrine aquifers of the Ziway-Shala basin in the northern part of MER were identified as high As risk zones, where mean As concentration in groundwater was 22.4 ± 33.5 (range of 0.60-190 μg/L) and 54% of samples had As above the WHO drinking water guideline value of 10 μg/L. Field As speciation measurements showed that most of the groundwater samples contain predominantly (~80%) arsenate-As(V) over arsenite-As(III) species. The As speciation together with field data of redox potential (mean Eh = +73 ± 65 mV) and dissolved-O2 (6.6 ± 2.2 mg/L) suggest that the aquifer is predominantly oxidative. Water-rock interactions, including the dissolution of volcanic glass produces groundwater with near-neutral to alkaline pH (range 6.9-8.9), predominance of Na-HCO3 ions, and high concentration of SiO2 (mean: 85.8 ± 11.3 mg/L). The groundwater data show high positive correlation of As with Na, HCO3, U, B, V, and Mo (R(2) > 0.5; p < 0.001). Chemical modeling of the groundwater indicates that Fe-oxides and

  2. Mobilization of arsenic and other naturally occurring contaminants in groundwater of the Main Ethiopian Rift aquifers.

    PubMed

    Rango, Tewodros; Vengosh, Avner; Dwyer, Gary; Bianchini, Gianluca

    2013-10-01

    This study investigates the mechanisms of arsenic (As) and other naturally occurring contaminants (F(-), U, V, B, and Mo) mobilization from Quaternary sedimentary aquifers of the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER) and their enrichment in the local groundwater. The study is based on systematic measurements of major and trace elements as well as stable oxygen and hydrogen isotopes in groundwater, coupled with geochemical and mineralogical analyses of the aquifer rocks. The Rift Valley aquifer is composed of rhyolitic volcanics and Quaternary lacustrine sediments. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) results revealed that MER rhyolites (ash, tuff, pumice and ignimbrite) and sediments contain on average 72 wt. % and 65 wt. % SiO2, respectively. Petrographic studies of the rhyolites indicate predominance of volcanic glass, sanidine, pyroxene, Fe-oxides and plagioclase. The As content in the lacustrine sediments (mean = 6.6 mg/kg) was higher than that of the rhyolites (mean: 2.5 mg/kg). The lacustrine aquifers of the Ziway-Shala basin in the northern part of MER were identified as high As risk zones, where mean As concentration in groundwater was 22.4 ± 33.5 (range of 0.60-190 μg/L) and 54% of samples had As above the WHO drinking water guideline value of 10 μg/L. Field As speciation measurements showed that most of the groundwater samples contain predominantly (~80%) arsenate-As(V) over arsenite-As(III) species. The As speciation together with field data of redox potential (mean Eh = +73 ± 65 mV) and dissolved-O2 (6.6 ± 2.2 mg/L) suggest that the aquifer is predominantly oxidative. Water-rock interactions, including the dissolution of volcanic glass produces groundwater with near-neutral to alkaline pH (range 6.9-8.9), predominance of Na-HCO3 ions, and high concentration of SiO2 (mean: 85.8 ± 11.3 mg/L). The groundwater data show high positive correlation of As with Na, HCO3, U, B, V, and Mo (R(2) > 0.5; p < 0.001). Chemical modeling of the groundwater indicates that Fe-oxides and

  3. Effect of jenny milk addition on the inhibition of late blowing in semihard cheese.

    PubMed

    Cosentino, C; Paolino, R; Valentini, V; Musto, M; Ricciardi, A; Adduci, F; D'Adamo, C; Pecora, G; Freschi, P

    2015-08-01

    The occurrence of late blowing defects in cheese produces negative effects on the quality and commercial value of the product. In this work, we verified whether the addition of raw jenny milk to bulk cow milk reduced the late blowing defects in semihard cheeses. During cheesemaking, different aliquots of jenny milk were poured into 2 groups of 4 vats, each containing a fixed amount of cow milk. A group of cheeses was created by deliberately contaminating the 4 vats with approximately 3 log10 cfu/mL milk of Clostridium tyrobutyricum CLST01. The other 4 vats, which were not contaminated, were used for a second group of cheeses. After 120 d of ripening, some physical, chemical, and microbiological parameters were evaluated on the obtained semihard cheeses. Differences in sensory properties among cheeses belonging to the uncontaminated group were evaluated by 80 regular consumers of cheese. Our results showed that the increasing addition of jenny milk to cow milk led to a reduction of pH and total bacterial count in both cheese groups, as well as C. tyrobutyricum spores that either grew naturally or artificially inoculated. We observed a progressive reduction of the occurrence of late blowing defects in cheese as consequence of the increasing addition of jenny milk during cheese making. Moreover, the addition of jenny milk did not affect the acceptability of the product, as consumers found no difference among cheeses concerning sensorial aspects. In conclusion, the important antimicrobial activity of lysozyme contained in jenny milk has been confirmed in the current research. It is recommend for use as a possible and viable alternative to egg lysozyme for controlling late blowing defects in cheese.

  4. A naturally occurring α(s1)-casein-derived peptide in bovine milk inhibits apoptosis of granulosa cells induced by serum-free conditions.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, T; Ganzorig, K; Miyamoto, A; Ishii, T; Urashima, T; Fukuda, K

    2014-03-01

    Several naturally occurring peptides in bovine milk were characterized by tandem mass spectrometry and Edman degradation. Chromatograms of peptide fractions (passed through an ultra-filtration membrane, nominal molecular weight limit 3000) prepared from colostrum (collected immediately after parturition) and transitional milk (collected 5 days postpartum) showed that they were almost identical. In total, six peptides, α(s1)-CN (f16-23) (RPKHPIKH), α(s1)-CN (f16-24) (RPKHPIKHQ), α(s1)-CN (f17-25) (PKHPIKHQG), α(s1)-CN (f46-52) (VFGKEKV), α(s1)-CN (f94-105) (HIQKEDVPSER), and β-CN (f121-128) (HKEMPFPK), were identified. One of the major peptides, the N-terminal fragment of αs1 -casein, varied structurally during early lactation: α(s1)-CN (f17-25) (PKHPIKHQG) and α(s1)-CN (f16-23) (RPKHPIKH)/α(s1)-CN (f16-24) (RPKHPIKHQ) were found in colostrum and transitional milk, respectively. A chemically synthesized peptide, α(s1)-CN (f16-23) (RPKHPIKH), inhibited apoptosis of bovine granulosa cells induced by serum-free conditions in a dose-dependent manner, in consequence of caspase-3 and caspase-9 suppressions. The physiological function of the peptide remains unclear, but it may have potential use as pharmaceutical agent and as an anti-apoptotic agent in cell culture medium. PMID:24399684

  5. Assessment of contamination of the Issyk-Kul' valley natural waters with uranium mine wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palesski, S. V.; Nikolaeva, I. V.; Saprykin, A. I.; Gavshin, V. M.

    2003-05-01

    The Lake Issyk-Kul' of the central Tyan-Shan is characterized by increased natural uranium content. Uranium-carbon deposit situated on the southern bank of the Lake can be the reason of chemical and radioactive contamination of this unique basin by exploitation wastes. ln order to estimate possible danger, a project “Assessment and prognosis of environmental changes in Lake Issyk-Kul' (Kyrghyzstan)” was developed and supported by the Program ofthe European Commission “Copernicus-2” (2001-2003). According to this project the water assays were sampled from different depths near the banks of the Lake and from low-debit sources draining the dumping grounds of the uranium-carbon deposit. Elemental and isotopic examinations of these water samples were performed using an ELEMENT HR-ICP-MS (Finnigan Mat). The results obtained are the evidence that the ecological status of the Lake Issyk-Kul'is not damaged at present. Wastewaters from the uranium-carbon mine do not make decisive contribution into the natural radioactive background.

  6. Optimization of methods for the detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in milk and colostrum of naturally infected dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two decontamination chemicals, hexadecylpyridinium choride (HPC) and N-acetyl-L-cysteine-sodium hydroxide (NALC-NaOH), were compared for their efficacy of reducing the growth of non-specific microorganisms in milk while minimally affecting the recovery of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis ...

  7. Shedding of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis into milk and colostrum of naturally infected dairy cows over complete lactation cycles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The primary mode of transmission of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is fecal-oral. However, MAP is also shed into the milk and colostrum of infected cows. The objective of this study was to identify if an association exists between stage of MAP infection and days in lactation with ...

  8. Quantitative risk assessment of Listeriosis due to consumption of raw milk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to estimate the risk of illnesses for raw milk consumers due to L. monocytogenes contamination in raw milk sold by permitted raw milk dealers, and the risk of listeriosis for people on farms who consume raw milk. Three scenarios were evaluated for raw milk sold by ...

  9. Distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in human breast milk from various locations in Tunisia: Levels of contamination, influencing factors, and infant risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Ennaceur, S. Gandoura, N.; Driss, M.R.

    2008-09-15

    The concentrations of dichlorodiphenytrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), dieldrin, and 20 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in 237 human breast milk samples collected from 12 locations in Tunisia. Gas chromatography with electron capture detector (GC-ECD) was used to identify and quantify residue levels on a lipid basis of organochlorine compounds (OCs). The predominant OCs in human breast milk were PCBs, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT, HCHs, and HCB. Concentrations of DDTs in human breast milk from rural areas were significantly higher than those from urban locations (p<0.05). With regard to PCBs, we observed the predominance of mid-chlorinated congeners due to the presence of PCBs with high K{sub ow} such as PCB 153, 138, and 180. Positive correlations were found between concentrations of OCs in human breast milk and age of mothers and number of parities, suggesting the influence of such factors on OC burdens in lactating mothers. The comparison of daily intakes of PCBs, DDTs, HCHs, and HCB to infants through human breast milk with guidelines proposed by WHO and Health Canada shows that some individuals accumulated OCs in breast milk close to or higher than these guidelines.

  10. Aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in tea prepared from naturally contaminated powdered ginger.

    PubMed

    Iha, M H; Trucksess, M W

    2010-08-01

    The migration of several major mycotoxins, aflatoxins B(1) (AFB(1)), B(2), G(1), and G(2) (AFT, total of the aflatoxins) and ochratoxin A (OTA), from naturally contaminated powdered ginger to surrounding liquid (tea) was investigated. The toxins are commonly found in cereal grains and are toxic, carcinogenic and thermostable. Ginger root is widely used for digestive problems. Powdered ginger (2 g) found to contain AFT and OTA was placed in an empty heat sealable tea bag. The tea bag was heat-sealed and used to prepare tea under different conditions: temperature (50 and 100 degrees C), time (5 and 10 min) and volume (100 and 200 ml). The tea bag was placed in hot water and stirred every 1 min for 5 s during the first 5 min of steeping. After steeping, the tea bag was removed and the tea and ginger residue (in the tea bag) were analysed separately for AFT and OTA. After extraction and immunoaffinity column (IAC) clean-up, the isolated AFT and OTA were separated by reversed-phase liquid chromatography and quantified using a fluorescence detector. At 100 degrees C, approximately 30-40% of AFB(1) and AFT and 20-30% of OTA in the contaminated ginger were found in the ginger tea; the total amounts of AFT and OTA in tea varied less than 5% under the three conditions of preparation. At 50 degrees C, about 10% of OTA and AFT were found in tea. This is the first study on the migration of AFT from botanicals to tea. It is also the first to study the distribution of AFT and OTA from powdered ginger to tea and ginger residue.

  11. Passive consumption of marijuana through milk: a low level chronic exposure to delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol(THC).

    PubMed

    Ahmad, G R; Ahmad, N

    1990-01-01

    Cannabis sativa grows abundantly among other natural vegetation in the northern part of Pakistan. Buffalo, the common dairy animals of the region, are allowed to graze upon this vegetation. These animals ingest significant amounts of marijuana, which after absorption is metabolized into a number of psychoactive agents which are ultimately excreted through the urine and milk. This potentially contaminated milk is used by the people of the region. Depending upon the amount of milk ingested and the degree of contamination, the milk could result in a low to moderate level of chronic exposure to Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and other metabolites especially among the children raised on this milk. This research was conducted to investigate the extent of passive consumption of marijuana by the consumers of potentially contaminated milk. Urine and milk specimens were obtained from buffalo and were analyzed for 11-nor-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THC-COOH) which is a major metabolite for THC. The analysis was done by using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. It was observed that during the months of June and July, 60 percent of the buffalo contained detectable levels of THC-COOH in their urine and 50 percent of these animals produced milk which was contaminated with THC or other metabolites. Analysis of the urine obtained from children with ages ranging from six months to 3 years, who were being raised on the milk from these animals, indicated that 29 percent of them had low levels of THC-COOH in their urine.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Fecal bacterial contamination in natural water reservoirs as an indicator of seasonal infection by Opisthorchis viverrini in snail intermediate hosts.

    PubMed

    Kaewkes, Wanlop; Kaewkes, Sasithorn; Tesana, Smarn; Laha, Thewarach; Sripa, Banchob

    2012-03-01

    Opisthorchis viverrini, a carcinogenic liver fluke, requires Bithynia snails as the first intermediate host, which release cercariae after ingesting fluke eggs from contaminated water. Fecal bacterial contamination and O. viverrini-infected Bithynia snails were investigated in samples collected from natural water reservoirs in Ban Phai, Chonnabot and Muang Districts (Ban Lerngpeuy) in Khon Kaen Province, northeast Thailand, where there is a high incidence of cholangiocarcinoma. Water was sampled and examined six times (February, April, June, August, October and December 2006). The most probable number (MPN) index and coliform counts were utilized to evaluate fecal contamination; the cercarial shedding method was conducted for detecting infected snails. The data revealed that all water samples had a high MPN index number, and fecal coliform levels above the WHO standard. This indicated that water in these reservoirs was contaminated with feces or manure constituents. Water sampling from Ban Lerngpeuy showed full-scale bacterial contamination (>1609 MPN index) throughout the year. This finding was correlated with the highest prevalence of O. viverrini-infected snails, which were found nearly all year round in this area. Slightly lower fecal contamination levels were detected in water samples from Chonnabot and Ban Phai, with high MPN index numbers and coliform counts from April to October. This corresponded with the higher recovery of infected snails in June and August, but with relatively lower prevalence than those found in Ban Lerngpeuy. Among the sampling sites, the people in Ban Lerngpeuy live nearer to the reservoir than do those in Ban Phai and Chonnabot. These results indicate that fecal bacterial contamination in natural water reservoirs is an important indicator of seasonal transmission of O. viverrini eggs to snail intermediate hosts. Sanitation improvement is essential and future investigations on the sources of contamination are needed. PMID:21871971

  13. Source of enterococci in a farmhouse raw-milk cheese.

    PubMed

    Gelsomino, Robert; Vancanneyt, M; Cogan, T M; Condon, S; Swings, J

    2002-07-01

    Enterococci are widely distributed in raw-milk cheeses and are generally thought to positively affect flavor development. Their natural habitats are the human and animal intestinal tracts, but they are also found in soil, on plants, and in the intestines of insects and birds. The source of enterococci in raw-milk cheese is unknown. In the present study, an epidemiological approach with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used to type 646 Enterococcus strains which were isolated from a Cheddar-type cheese, the milk it was made from, the feces of cows and humans associated with the cheese-making unit, and the environment, including the milking equipment, the water used on the farm, and the cows' teats. Nine different PFGE patterns, three of Enterococcus casseliflavus, five of Enterococcus faecalis, and one of Enterococcus durans, were found. The same three clones, one of E. faecalis and two of E. casseliflavus, dominated almost all of the milk, cheese, and human fecal samples. The two E. casseliflavus clones were also found in the bulk tank and the milking machine even after chlorination, suggesting that a niche where enterococci could grow was present and that contamination with enterococci begins with the milking equipment. It is likely but unproven that the enterococci present in the human feces are due to consumption of the cheese. Cow feces were not considered the source of enterococci in the cheese, as Enterococcus faecium and Streptococcus bovis, which largely dominated the cows' intestinal tracts, were not found in either the milk or the cheese.

  14. Flow-Weighted Natural Contaminant Contribution and Borehole Geophysical Characterization of Three Water-Supply Wells in New Hampshire

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2008, the USEPA, NHDES and US Geological Survey initiated a data collection effort to evaluate borehole characterization methods for identifying natural contaminant flow into bedrock water-supply wells. The investigation: 1) tests methods at a variety of bedrock supply well sy...

  15. Cow's milk and goat's milk.

    PubMed

    Turck, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    Cow's milk is increasingly suggested to play a role in the development of chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders whereas goat's milk is advocated as having several health benefits. Cow's milk is a rich and cheap source of protein and calcium, and a valuable food for bone health. Despite their high content in saturated fats, consumption of full-fat dairy products does not seem to cause significant changes in cardiovascular disease risk variables. Early introduction of cow's milk is a strong negative determinant of iron status. Unmodified cow's milk does not meet nutritional requirements of infants although it is acceptable to add small volumes of cow's milk to complementary foods. Cow's milk protein allergy has a prevalence ranging from 2 to 7%, and the age of recovery is usually around 2-3 years. The evidence linking cow's milk intake to a later risk of type 1 diabetes or chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders (obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, hypertension) is not convincing. Milk probably protects against colorectal cancer, diets high in calcium are a probable cause of prostate cancer, and there is limited evidence suggesting that high consumption of milk and dairy products increases the risk for prostate cancer. There is no evidence to support the use of a cow's milk-free diet as a primary treatment for individuals with autistic spectrum disorders. Unmodified goat's milk is not suitable for infants because of the high protein and minerals content and of a low folate content. Goat's milk has no clear nutritional advantage over cow's milk and is not less allergenic. The European Food Safety Authority recently stated that proteins from goat's milk can be suitable as a protein source for infant and follow-on formula, provided the final product complies with the compositional criteria laid down in Directive 2006/141/EC.

  16. 21 CFR 510.105 - Labeling of drugs for use in milk-producing animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... conditions of use intended to prevent the contamination of milk from the use of such drugs. (b) Preparations... would result in contamination of the milk; or (2) The label should bear the following statement... contamination of the milk, neither of the above warning statements is required....

  17. Gravity separation of fat, somatic cells, and bacteria in raw and pasteurized milks.

    PubMed

    Caplan, Z; Melilli, C; Barbano, D M

    2013-04-01

    The objective of experiment 1 was to determine if the extent of gravity separation of milk fat, bacteria, and somatic cells is influenced by the time and temperature of gravity separation or the level of contaminating bacteria present in the raw milk. The objective of experiment 2 was to determine if different temperatures of milk heat treatment affected the gravity separation of milk fat, bacteria, and somatic cells. In raw milk, fat, bacteria, and somatic cells rose to the top of columns during gravity separation. About 50 to 80% of the fat and bacteria were present in the top 8% of the milk after gravity separation of raw milk. Gravity separation for 7h at 12°C or for 22h at 4°C produced equivalent separation of fat, bacteria, and somatic cells. The completeness of gravity separation of fat was influenced by the level of bacteria in the milk before separation. Milk with a high bacterial count had less (about 50 to 55%) gravity separation of fat than milk with low bacteria count (about 80%) in 22h at 4°C. Gravity separation caused fat, bacteria, and somatic cells to rise to the top of columns for raw whole milk and high temperature, short-time pasteurized (72.6°C, 25s) whole milk. Pasteurization at ≥76.9°C for 25s prevented all 3 components from rising, possibly due to denaturation of native bovine immunoglobulins that normally associate with fat, bacteria, and somatic cells during gravity separation. Gravity separation can be used to produce reduced-fat milk with decreased bacterial and somatic cell counts, and may be a critical factor in the history of safe and unique traditional Italian hard cheeses produced from gravity-separated raw milk. A better understanding of the mechanism of this natural process could lead to the development of new nonthermal thermal technology (that does not involve heating the milk to high temperatures) to remove bacteria and spores from milk or other liquids.

  18. Pre-clinical safety evaluation of the synthetic human milk, nature-identical, oligosaccharide 2'-O-Fucosyllactose (2'FL).

    PubMed

    Coulet, Myriam; Phothirath, Phoukham; Allais, Linda; Schilter, Benoit

    2014-02-01

    In order to match the composition of human breast milk more closely, it is now possible to supplement commercial infant formula (IF) with synthesised oligosaccharides that are chemically identical to human milk oligosaccharides. The safety data generated on a new human-identical milk oligosaccharide (HiMO), 2'-O-Fucosyllactose (2'FL), are presented. Standard in vitro genotoxicity tests were performed. To investigate the toxicological profile in a model representative of the intended target population, 2'FL was administered via gavage in a juvenile adapted sub-chronic rat study at dose levels of 0, 2000, 5000 and 6000 mg/kgbw/day. Fructooligosaccharide (FOS), currently acknowledged as safe and approved for use in IF, was used as a reference high-dose control at 6000 mg/kgbw/day. 2'FL was non-mutagenic in the in vitro assays. Oral administration up to 5000 mg/kgbw/day to rats over 90 days was not associated with any adverse effects based on clinical observations, body weight gain, food consumption, ophthalmoscopy, clinical pathology, organ weights and histopathology findings. Based on this 90-day study, a No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) of 5000 mg/kgbw/day for both male and female rats was established for 2'FL. These findings support the safety of synthetic 2'FL for possible use in infant food. PMID:24262411

  19. Pre-clinical safety evaluation of the synthetic human milk, nature-identical, oligosaccharide 2'-O-Fucosyllactose (2'FL).

    PubMed

    Coulet, Myriam; Phothirath, Phoukham; Allais, Linda; Schilter, Benoit

    2014-02-01

    In order to match the composition of human breast milk more closely, it is now possible to supplement commercial infant formula (IF) with synthesised oligosaccharides that are chemically identical to human milk oligosaccharides. The safety data generated on a new human-identical milk oligosaccharide (HiMO), 2'-O-Fucosyllactose (2'FL), are presented. Standard in vitro genotoxicity tests were performed. To investigate the toxicological profile in a model representative of the intended target population, 2'FL was administered via gavage in a juvenile adapted sub-chronic rat study at dose levels of 0, 2000, 5000 and 6000 mg/kgbw/day. Fructooligosaccharide (FOS), currently acknowledged as safe and approved for use in IF, was used as a reference high-dose control at 6000 mg/kgbw/day. 2'FL was non-mutagenic in the in vitro assays. Oral administration up to 5000 mg/kgbw/day to rats over 90 days was not associated with any adverse effects based on clinical observations, body weight gain, food consumption, ophthalmoscopy, clinical pathology, organ weights and histopathology findings. Based on this 90-day study, a No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) of 5000 mg/kgbw/day for both male and female rats was established for 2'FL. These findings support the safety of synthetic 2'FL for possible use in infant food.

  20. Bioavailability of a natural lead-contaminated invertebrate diet to zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Boyle, David; Amlund, Heidi; Lundebye, Anne-Katrine; Hogstrand, Christer; Bury, Nic R

    2010-03-01

    Dietary metals are increasingly recognized as key determinants of total metal burdens in fish, yet their ecotoxicological significance remains unclear. In this study, a pairwise experimental design was used to assess reproductive performance of zebrafish (Danio rerio) fed diets supplemented with a natural Pb-enriched polychaete, Nereis diversicolor. Zebrafish were fed 1% flake food (dry wt diet/wet wt fish/d), 1% brine shrimp, and 1% N. diversicolor collected from either Gannel estuary, Cornwall, United Kingdom (UK), an estuary with legacy Pb contamination, or Blackwater estuary, Essex, UK, a reference site with low background metal concentrations, for 63 d. Mean daily dietary doses of Pb were 0.417 and 0.1 mg/kg/d (dry wt feed:wet wt fish) for fish fed N. diversicolor from Gannel and Blackwater estuaries, respectively. With the exception of Ag, which was higher for fish fed N. diversicolor from Gannel estuary, there were no differences in daily dietary exposures to other metals (As, Cd, Cu, Fe, and Zn) between treatment groups. Fish fed Pb-enriched Gannel N. diversicolor exhibited no significant impairment to incidence of spawning, numbers of eggs per breeding pair or hatch rate of embryos compared with pre-exposure levels, when N. diversicolor was omitted from the dietary regimen. Nevertheless, metal analysis revealed significant increases in whole-body Pb burdens of male fish fed polychaetes from Gannel estuary, Ag in female fish fed Gannel worms, and Ag and Cd in male fish fed the Blackwater worms. These data demonstrate that Pb naturally incorporated in N. diversicolor is bioavailable to fish, and fish exhibit sex-dependent dietary metal accumulation patterns, but after 63 d of the experimental feeding regimen, reproductive performance was unaffected.

  1. Occurrence and behavior of Bacillus cereus in naturally contaminated ricotta salata cheese during refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    Spanu, Carlo; Scarano, Christian; Spanu, Vincenzo; Pala, Carlo; Casti, Daniele; Lamon, Sonia; Cossu, Francesca; Ibba, Michela; Nieddu, Gavino; De Santis, Enrico P L

    2016-09-01

    The present study shows the fate of Bacillus cereus in refrigerated ricotta salata cheese during shelf-life. 144 ricotta salata cheese belonging to nine naturally contaminated batches were stored refrigerated and analyzed at 24 h, 30, 60 and 90 days of storage. Total bacterial count, B. cereus spores and vegetative forms, intrinsic properties and composition were determined. The presence of spores was sporadic while the prevalence and the level of B. cereus vegetative cells decreased respectively from 83.3 % to 4.65 ± 0.74 cfu g(-1) at the beginning of the observation period to 33.3 % and 1.99 ± 0.55 cfu g(-1) after 90 days. No information is currently available on the fate of B. cereus in ricotta salata. The production process of ricotta salata includes steps such as whey heating followed by slow cooling of clots, which expose to the risk of spore germination and successive growth to levels compatible with toxins production. The prolonged refrigerated storage was not favorable to sporulation, explaining the successive death of vegetative cells. The present study demonstrate the potential risk of food poisoning as consequence of pre-formed emetic toxins in ricotta salata. Food safety of ricotta salata relies on the rapid refrigeration of the product during critical phases for cereulide production. PMID:27217369

  2. Assessment of the Use of Natural Materials for the Remediation of Cadmium Soil Contamination

    PubMed Central

    de O. Pinto, Tatiana; García, Andrés C.; Guedes, Jair do N.; do A. Sobrinho, Nelson M. B.; Tavares, Orlando C. H.

    2016-01-01

    Rice plants accumulate cadmium (Cd2+) within the grain, increasing the danger of human exposure. Natural materials have been used in soil remediation, but few studies have examined the risks (based on the bioavailability of these metals to plants) of using these materials, so the practice remains controversial. In the present study, we evaluated the effectiveness of biochar produced from sugarcane bagasse, vermicompost (VC), vermicompost solid residue (VCR) and humin for remediation of Cd2+-contaminated soils. We characterized the interactions between these materials and Cd2+ and evaluated their capacity to alter Cd2+ availability to rice plants. Our results show that under the conditions in this study, biochar and humin were not effective for soil remediation. Although biochar had high Cd2+ retention, it was associated with high Cd2+ bioavailability and increased Cd2+ accumulation in rice plants. VC and VCR had high Cd2+ retention capacity as well as low Cd2+ availability to plants. These characteristics were especially notable for VCR, which was most effective for soil remediation. The results of our study demonstrate that in the tested materials, the bioavailability of Cd2+ to plants is related to their structural characteristics, which in turn determine their retention of Cd2+. PMID:27341440

  3. Modeling of arsenic adsorption kinetics of synthetic and contaminated groundwater on natural laterite.

    PubMed

    Maiti, Abhijit; Sharma, Himanshu; Basu, Jayanta Kumar; De, Sirshendu

    2009-12-30

    A simple shrinking core model is applied to predict the adsorption kinetics of arsenite and arsenate species onto natural laterite (NL) in a stirred tank adsorber. The proposed model is a two-resistance model, in which two unknown parameters, external mass transfer coefficient (K(f)) and pore diffusion coefficient (D(e)) are estimated by comparing the simulation concentration profile with the experimental data using a nonlinear optimization technique. The model is applied under various operating conditions, e.g., initial arsenic concentration, NL dose, NL particle size, temperature, stirring speed, etc. Estimated values of D(e) and K(f) are found to be in the range of 2.2-2.6 x 10(-11)m(2)/s and 1.0-1.4 x 10(-6)m/s at 305K for different operating conditions, respectively. D(e) and K(f) values are found to be increasing with temperature and stirrer speed, respectively. Calculated values of Biot numbers indicate that both external mass transfer and pore diffusion are important during the adsorption. The model is also applied satisfactorily to predict the arsenic adsorption kinetics of arsenic contaminated groundwater-NL system and can be used to scale up. PMID:19717233

  4. Assessment of the Use of Natural Materials for the Remediation of Cadmium Soil Contamination.

    PubMed

    de O Pinto, Tatiana; García, Andrés C; Guedes, Jair do N; do A Sobrinho, Nelson M B; Tavares, Orlando C H; Berbara, Ricardo L L

    2016-01-01

    Rice plants accumulate cadmium (Cd2+) within the grain, increasing the danger of human exposure. Natural materials have been used in soil remediation, but few studies have examined the risks (based on the bioavailability of these metals to plants) of using these materials, so the practice remains controversial. In the present study, we evaluated the effectiveness of biochar produced from sugarcane bagasse, vermicompost (VC), vermicompost solid residue (VCR) and humin for remediation of Cd2+-contaminated soils. We characterized the interactions between these materials and Cd2+ and evaluated their capacity to alter Cd2+ availability to rice plants. Our results show that under the conditions in this study, biochar and humin were not effective for soil remediation. Although biochar had high Cd2+ retention, it was associated with high Cd2+ bioavailability and increased Cd2+ accumulation in rice plants. VC and VCR had high Cd2+ retention capacity as well as low Cd2+ availability to plants. These characteristics were especially notable for VCR, which was most effective for soil remediation. The results of our study demonstrate that in the tested materials, the bioavailability of Cd2+ to plants is related to their structural characteristics, which in turn determine their retention of Cd2+. PMID:27341440

  5. Modeling of arsenic adsorption kinetics of synthetic and contaminated groundwater on natural laterite.

    PubMed

    Maiti, Abhijit; Sharma, Himanshu; Basu, Jayanta Kumar; De, Sirshendu

    2009-12-30

    A simple shrinking core model is applied to predict the adsorption kinetics of arsenite and arsenate species onto natural laterite (NL) in a stirred tank adsorber. The proposed model is a two-resistance model, in which two unknown parameters, external mass transfer coefficient (K(f)) and pore diffusion coefficient (D(e)) are estimated by comparing the simulation concentration profile with the experimental data using a nonlinear optimization technique. The model is applied under various operating conditions, e.g., initial arsenic concentration, NL dose, NL particle size, temperature, stirring speed, etc. Estimated values of D(e) and K(f) are found to be in the range of 2.2-2.6 x 10(-11)m(2)/s and 1.0-1.4 x 10(-6)m/s at 305K for different operating conditions, respectively. D(e) and K(f) values are found to be increasing with temperature and stirrer speed, respectively. Calculated values of Biot numbers indicate that both external mass transfer and pore diffusion are important during the adsorption. The model is also applied satisfactorily to predict the arsenic adsorption kinetics of arsenic contaminated groundwater-NL system and can be used to scale up.

  6. Effects of linseed oil and natural or synthetic vitamin E supplementation in lactating ewes' diets on meat fatty acid profile and lipid oxidation from their milk fed lambs.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, B; Manca, M G; Mantecón, A R; Nudda, A; Manso, T

    2015-04-01

    Forty-eight Churra ewes with their new-born lambs were separated into four dietary treatments: Control (without added fat), LO (with 3% linseed oil), LO-Syn E (LO plus 400 mg/kg TMR of synthetic vitamin E) and LO-Nat E (LO plus 400 g/kg TMR of natural vitamin E). Linseed oil caused an increase in trans-11 C18:1 (VA), trans-10 C18:1, cis-9, trans-11 C18:2 (RA), trans-10, cis-12 C18:2 and C18:3 n-3 (ALA) in milk fat compared to the Control. The addition of vitamin E to the LO diets did not influence significantly the majority of milk fatty acids compared with the LO diet alone. Trans-10 C18:1, VA, RA, trans-10, cis-12 C18:2 and LA levels were higher in intramuscular lamb fat from treatments with linseed oil. No statistically significant differences were observed in these FA due to vitamin E supplementation or the type of vitamin E (synthetic vs. natural). Vitamin supplementation resulted in lipid oxidation levels below the threshold values for detection of rancidity in lamb meat. PMID:25553412

  7. Diversity and dynamic of lactic acid bacteria strains during aging of a long ripened hard cheese produced from raw milk and undefined natural starter.

    PubMed

    Pogačić, Tomislav; Mancini, Andrea; Santarelli, Marcela; Bottari, Benedetta; Lazzi, Camilla; Neviani, Erasmo; Gatti, Monica

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to explore diversity and dynamic of indigenous LAB strains associated with a long ripened hard cheese produced from raw milk and undefined natural starter such as PDO Grana Padano cheese. Samples of milk, curd, natural whey culture and cheeses (2nd, 6th, 9th and 13th months of ripening) were collected from 6 cheese factories in northern Italy. DNA was extracted from each sample and from 194 LAB isolates. tRNA(Ala)-23S rDNA-RFLP was applied to identify isolates. Strain diversity was assessed by (GTG)5 rep-PCR and RAPD(P1)-PCR. Finally, culture-independent LH-PCR (V1-V2 16S-rDNA), was considered to explore structure and dynamic of the microbiota. Grana Padano LAB were represented mainly by Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Lactobacillus helveticus and Pediococcus acidilactici, while the structure and dynamic of microbiota at different localities was specific. The strength of this work is to have focused the study on isolates coming from more than one cheese factories rather than a high number of isolates from one unique production. We provided a valuable insight into inter and intraspecies diversity of typical LAB strains during ripening of traditional PDO Grana Padano, contributing to the understanding of specific microbial ecosystem of this cheese.

  8. Naphthalene contamination of sterilized milk drinks contained in low-density polyethylene bottles. Part 2. Effect of naphthalene vapour in air.

    PubMed

    Lau, O W; Wong, S K; Leung, K S

    1995-04-01

    A survey on naphthalene vapour in air was conducted, revealing that the ambient atmosphere contained concentrations of naphthalene in the range of 0.005-0.100 mg m-3. The level of naphthalene vapour in air increased to 0.35 and 4.00 mg m-3 in places exposed to lacquer paint and naphthalene-based moth-repellent, respectively. The effect of naphthalene vapour in air on milk drinks contained in low-density polyethylene (LDPE) bottles was assessed. A mathematical model was suggested to describe the migration of naphthalene from the atmosphere into milk. The model was proved to be valid for milk drinks exposed to naphthalene-based moth-repellent during storage. Moreover, the extent of migration was found to increase with the fat content of foods, which might be ascribed to an increase in diffusion, in addition to the kinetic factor, that affects naphthalene migration.

  9. Short-Term and Long-Term Biological Effects of Chronic Chemical Contamination on Natural Populations of a Marine Bivalve

    PubMed Central

    Graber, Marianne; Murillo, Laurence; Becquet, Vanessa; Churlaud, Carine; Fruitier-Arnaudin, Ingrid; Huet, Valérie; Lacroix, Camille; Pante, Eric; Le Floch, Stéphane; Thomas-Guyon, Hélène

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the effects of chronic chemical contamination on natural populations of marine organisms is complex due to the combined effects of different types of pollutants and environmental parameters that can modulate the physiological responses to stress. Here, we present the effects of a chronic contamination in a marine bivalve by combining multiple approaches that provide information on individual and population health. We sampled variegated scallops (Mimachlamys varia) at sites characterized by different contaminants and contamination levels to study the short and long-term (intergenerational) responses of this species to physiological stress. We used biomarkers (SOD, MDA, GST, laccase, citrate synthase and phosphatases) as indicators of oxidative stress, immune system alteration, mitochondrial respiration and general metabolism, and measured population genetic diversity at each site. In parallel, concentration of 14 trace metals and 45 organic contaminants (PAHs, PCBs, pesticides) in tissues were measured. Scallops were collected outside and during their reproductive season to investigate temporal variability in contaminant and biomarker levels. Our analyses revealed that the levels of two biomarkers (Laccase-type phenoloxidase and malondialdehyde) were significantly correlated with Cd concentration. Additionally, we observed significant seasonal differences for four of the five biomarkers, which is likely due to the scallop reproductive status at time of sampling. As a source of concern, a location that was identified as a reference site on the basis of inorganic contaminant levels presented the same level of some persistent organic pollutants (DDT and its metabolites) than more impacted sites. Finally, potential long-term effects of heavy metal contamination were observed for variegated scallops as genetic diversity was depressed in the most polluted sites. PMID:26938082

  10. Effects of feeding corn naturally contaminated with aflatoxin B1 and B2 on hepatic functions of broilers.

    PubMed

    Yang, J; Bai, F; Zhang, K; Bai, S; Peng, X; Ding, X; Li, Y; Zhang, J; Zhao, L

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of feeding corn naturally contaminated with aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) and aflatoxin B(2) (AFB(2)) on serum biochemical parameters, hepatic antioxidant enzyme activities, and pathological lesions of broilers. In total, 1,200 Cobb male broilers were randomly allocated into 5 treatments, with 8 replicates per treatment and 30 birds per replicate, in a 42-d experiment. The dietary treatments were as follows: control, 25, 50, 75, and 100% contaminated corn groups. Results showed that serum aspartate aminotransferase activity in the 75 and 100% contaminated groups were higher than that in the control group on d 21 (P < 0.05). Decreased content of hepatic total protein and increased activities of hepatic glutathione reductase and glutathione-S-transferase were observed as the percentage of contaminated corn increased (P < 0.05). The activity of superoxide dismutase and the content of hepatic malondialdehyde increased when the broilers were fed with more than 50% contaminated corn (P < 0.05). A reduction in glutathione peroxidase level was observed in the AFB(1)- and AFB(2)-contaminated groups on d 21 (P < 0.05). The average pathological lesion scores and apoptosis rate of liver cells increased as the concentration of dietary AFB(1) and AFB(2) increased. Ultrastructural changes were found in the livers of broilers fed 100% contaminated corn. In conclusion, diets containing AFB(1) and AFB(2) could induce pathological lesions in the livers, slightly change the serum biochemical parameters, and damage the hepatic antioxidant functions when the inclusion of AFB(1)- and AFB(2)-contaminated corn reached or exceeded 50%.

  11. Short-Term and Long-Term Biological Effects of Chronic Chemical Contamination on Natural Populations of a Marine Bivalve.

    PubMed

    Breitwieser, Marine; Viricel, Amélia; Graber, Marianne; Murillo, Laurence; Becquet, Vanessa; Churlaud, Carine; Fruitier-Arnaudin, Ingrid; Huet, Valérie; Lacroix, Camille; Pante, Eric; Le Floch, Stéphane; Thomas-Guyon, Hélène

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the effects of chronic chemical contamination on natural populations of marine organisms is complex due to the combined effects of different types of pollutants and environmental parameters that can modulate the physiological responses to stress. Here, we present the effects of a chronic contamination in a marine bivalve by combining multiple approaches that provide information on individual and population health. We sampled variegated scallops (Mimachlamys varia) at sites characterized by different contaminants and contamination levels to study the short and long-term (intergenerational) responses of this species to physiological stress. We used biomarkers (SOD, MDA, GST, laccase, citrate synthase and phosphatases) as indicators of oxidative stress, immune system alteration, mitochondrial respiration and general metabolism, and measured population genetic diversity at each site. In parallel, concentration of 14 trace metals and 45 organic contaminants (PAHs, PCBs, pesticides) in tissues were measured. Scallops were collected outside and during their reproductive season to investigate temporal variability in contaminant and biomarker levels. Our analyses revealed that the levels of two biomarkers (Laccase-type phenoloxidase and malondialdehyde) were significantly correlated with Cd concentration. Additionally, we observed significant seasonal differences for four of the five biomarkers, which is likely due to the scallop reproductive status at time of sampling. As a source of concern, a location that was identified as a reference site on the basis of inorganic contaminant levels presented the same level of some persistent organic pollutants (DDT and its metabolites) than more impacted sites. Finally, potential long-term effects of heavy metal contamination were observed for variegated scallops as genetic diversity was depressed in the most polluted sites. PMID:26938082

  12. The Dnieper River Aquatic System Radioactive Contamination; Long-tern Natural Attenuation And Remediation History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voitsekhovych, Oleg; Laptev, Genadiy; Kanivets, Vladimir; Konoplev, Alexey

    2013-04-01

    Near 27 year passed after the Chernobyl Accident, and the experience gained to study radionuclide behavior in the aquatic systems and to mitigate water contamination are still pose of interest for scientists, society and regulatory austerities. There are different aspects of radionuclide transport in the environment were studied since the Chernobyl fallout in 1986 covered the river catchments, wetlands, river, lakes/reservoirs and reached the Black Sea. The monitoring time series data set and also data on the radionuclides behavior studies in the water bodies (river, lakes and the Black Sea) are available now in Ukraine and other affected countries. Its causation analyses, considering the main geochemical, physical and chemical and hydrological process, governing by radionuclide mobility and transport on the way from the initially contaminated catchments, through the river-reservoir hydrological system to the Black Sea can help in better understanding of the main factors governing be the radionuclide behavior in the environment. Radionuclide washout and its hydrological transport are determined speciation of radionuclides as well as soil types and hydrological mode and also geochemistry and landscape conditions at the affected areas. Mobility and bioavailability of radionuclides are determined by ratio of radionuclide chemical forms in fallout and site-specific environmental characteristics determining rates of leaching, fixation/remobilization as well as sorption-desorption of mobile fraction (its solid-liquid distribution). In many cases the natural attenuation processes governing by the above mentioned processes supported by water flow transportation and sedimentation played the key role in self-rehabilitation of the aquatic ecosystems. The models developed during post-Chernobyl decade and process parameters studies can help in monitoring and remediation programs planed for Fukusima Daichi affected watersheds areas as well. Some most important monitoring data

  13. Bioavailability of Fe(III) in natural soils and the impact on mobility of inorganic contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Kosson, David S.; Cowan, Robert M.; Young, Lily Y.; Hacherl, Eric L.; Scala, David J.

    2002-10-03

    Inorganic contaminants, such as heavy metals and radionuclides, can adhere to insoluble Fe(III) minerals resulting in decreased mobility of these contaminants through subsurface environments. Dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing bacteria (DIRB), by reducing insoluble Fe(III) to soluble Fe(II), may enhance contaminant mobility. The Savannah River Site, South Carolina (SRS), has been subjected to both heavy metal and radionuclide contamination. The overall objective of this project is to investigate the release of inorganic contaminants such as heavy metals and radionuclides that are bound to solid phase soil Fe complexes and to elucidate the mechanisms for mobilization of these contaminants that can be associated with microbial Fe(III) reduction. This is being accomplished by (i) using uncontaminated and contaminated soils from SRS as prototype systems, (ii) evaluating the diversity of DIRBs within the samples and isolating cultures for further study, (iii) using batch microcosms to evaluate the bioavailability of Fe(III) from pure minerals and SRS soils, (iv) developing kinetic and mass transfer models that reflect the system dynamics, and (v) carrying out soil column studies to elucidate the dynamics and interactions amongst Fe(III) reduction, remineralization and contaminant mobility.

  14. Contaminant Immobilization and Nutrient Release by Biochar Soil Amendment: Roles of Natural Organic Matter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Contamination of soil interstitial waters by labile heavy metals such as CuII, CdII, and NiII is of worldwide concern. Carbonaceous materials such as char and activated carbon have received considerable attention in recent years as soil amendment for both sequestering heavy metal contaminants and r...

  15. ESTIMATING THE RATE OF NATURAL BIOATTENUATION OF GROUND WATER CONTAMINANTS BY A MASS CONSERVATION APPROACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent field and experimental research has shown that certain classes of subsurface contaminants can biodegrade at many sites. A number of site specific factors influences the rate of biodegradation, which helps determine the ultimate extent of contamination at these sites. The...

  16. Screening Cereals Quality by Electronic Nose: the Example of Mycotoxins Naturally Contaminated Maize and Durum Wheat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campagnoli, Anna; Dell'Orto, Vittorio; Savoini, Giovanni; Cheli, Federica

    2009-05-01

    Mycotoxins represent an heterogeneous group of toxic compounds from fungi metabolism. Due to the frequent occurrence of mycotoxins in cereals commodities the develop of cost/effective screening methods represent an important topic to ensure food and feed safety. In the presented study a commercial electronic nose constituted by ten MOS (Metal Oxide Sensors) was applied to verify the possibility of discriminating between mycotoxins contaminated and non-contaminated cereals. The described analytical approach was able to discriminate contaminated and non-contaminated samples both in the case of aflatoxins infected maize and deoxynivalenol infected durum wheat samples. In the case of maize data two sensors from the array revealed a partial relation with the level of aflatoxins. These results could be promising for a further improvement of electronic nose application in order to develop a semi-quantitative screening approach to mycotoxins contamination.

  17. Natural attenuation of chlorinated-hydrocarbon contamination at Fort Wainwright, Alaska; a hydrogeochemical and microbiological investigation workplan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCarthy, Kathleen A.; Lilly, Michael R.; Braddock, Joan F.; Hinzman, Larry D.

    1998-01-01

    Natural attenuation processes include biological degradation, by which microorganisms break down contaminants into simpler product compounds; adsorption of contaminants to soil particles, which decreases the mass of contaminants dissolved in ground water; and dispersion, which decreases dissolved contaminant concentrations through dilution. The primary objectives of this study are to (1) assess the degree to which such natural processes are attenuating chlorinated-hydrocarbon contamination in ground water, and (2) evaluate the effects of ground-water/surface-water interactions on natural-attenuation processes in the area of the former East and West Quartermasters Fueling Systems for Fort Wainwright, Alaska. The study will include investigations of the hydrologic, geochemical, and microbiological processes occurring at this site that influence the transport and fate of chlorinated hydrocarbons in ground water. To accomplish these objectives, a data-collection program has been initiated that includes measurements of water-table elevations and the stage of the Chena River; measurements of vertical temperature profiles within the subsurface; characterization of moisture distribution and movement in the unsaturated zone; collection of ground-water samples for determination of both organic and inorganic chemical constituents; and collection of ground-water samples for enumeration of microorganisms and determination of their potential to mineralize contaminants. We will use results from the data-collection program described above to refine our conceptual model of hydrology and contaminant attenuation at this site. Measurements of water-table elevations and river stage will help us to understand the magnitude and direction of ground-water flow and how changes in the stage of the Chena River affect ground-water flow. Because ambient ground water and surface water typically have different temperature characteristics, temperature monitoring will likely provide further insight

  18. Nature and extent of metal-contaminated soils in urban environments (keynote talk).

    PubMed

    Mielke, Howard W

    2016-08-01

    Research on the nature and extent of metal-contaminated soil began with an urban garden study in Baltimore, MD (USA). Largest quantities of soil metals were clustered in the inner city with lesser amounts scattered throughout metropolitan Baltimore. The probability values of metal clustering varied from P value 10(-15)-10(-23) depending on element. The inner-city clustering of lead (Pb) could not be explained by Pb-based paint alone. A major Pb source was tetraethyl lead (TEL), developed as an anti-knock agent for use in vehicle fuel, thereby making highway traffic flow a toxic substance delivery system in cities. Further study in Minneapolis and St. Paul confirmed the clustering of inner-city soil metals, especially Pb. Based on the evidence, the Minnesota State Legislature petitioned Congress to curtail Pb additives resulting in the rapid phasedown of TEL on January 1, 1986, 10 years ahead of the EPA scheduled ban. Further research in New Orleans, Louisiana (NOLA), verified the link between soil Pb, blood Pb, morbidity, and societal health. Although Pb is a known cause of clinical impairment, there is no known effective medical intervention for reducing children's blood Pb exposure. Ingestion and inhalation are routes of exposure requiring prevention, and soil is a reservoir of Pb. Children's blood Pb exposure observed in pre-Hurricane Katrina (August 29, 2005) NOLA underwent substantial decreases 10 years post-Katrina due to many factors including input of low Pb sediment residues by the storm surge and the introduction of low Pb landscaping materials from outside of the city. Investigation on the topic is ongoing. PMID:26753555

  19. Quinoline and derivatives at a tar oil contaminated site: hydroxylated products as indicator for natural attenuation?

    SciTech Connect

    Anne-Kirsten Reineke; Thomas Goeen; Alfred Preiss; Juliane Hollender

    2007-08-01

    LC-MS-MS analysis of groundwater of a tar oil contaminated site (a former coal mine and coking plant in Castrop-Rauxel, Germany) showed the occurrence of the N-heterocycles quinoline and isoquinoline as well as their hydroxylated and hydrogenated metabolites. The concentrations of the hydroxylated compounds, 2(1H)-quinolinone and 1(2H)-isoquinolinone, were significantly higher than those of the nonsubstituted parent compounds. Therefore, exclusive quantification of the parent compounds leads to an underestimation of the amount of N-heterocycles present in the groundwater. Microbial degradation experiments of quinoline and isoquinoline with aquifer material of the site as inocculum showed the formation of hydroxylated and hydrogenated products under sulfate-reducing conditions, the prevailing conditions in the field. However, since analyses of seven tar products showed that these compounds are also primary constituents, their detection in groundwater is found to be a nonsufficient indicator for the occurrence of biological natural attenuation processes. Instead, the ratio of hydroxylated to parent compound (R{sub metabolite}) is proposed as a useful indicator. We found that 65-83% of all groundwater samples showed R{sub metabolite} for 2(1H)-quinolinone, 1(2H)-isoquinolinone, 3,4-dihydro-2(1H)-quinolinone, and 3,4-dihydro-1(2H)-isoquinolinone, which was higher than the highest ratio found in tar products. With respect to the observed partition coefficient between tar oil and water of 3.5 for quinoline and isoquinoline and 0.3 for 2(1H)-quinolinone and 1(2H)-isoquinolinone, the ratio in groundwater would be approximately 10 times higher than the ratio in tar oil. When paying attention to these two parameters, 19-31% of groundwater samples exceed the highest tar oil ratio. This indicates that biological processes take place in the aquifer of the site and R{sub metabolite} is an applicable indicator for natural attenuation. 42 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Bacteriological examination of milk and milk products sold in Harare.

    PubMed

    Igumbor, E O; Obi, C L; Milingo, T

    2000-01-01

    A study to assess the bacteriological quality of milk and ice cream was conducted using the direct plate count method and the methylene blue dye reduction test. A total of 105 milk and 95 ice cream samples were obtained form two factories (depots) and distributing supermarkets (outlets) in Harare. Under the methylene blue test, all milk and ice cream samples passed the hour and 2 hour tests respectively. However, 99% of the milk and 69% of the ice cream samples reduced the dye after 5.5 and 4 hrs respectively. The results from the direct plate counts revealed the presence of both pathogens and non-pathogens. The median plate counts in the milk and ice cream were found 400 cfu / ml and 100 cfu / ml respectively. Organisms isolated in both samples and in all outlets were similar, these included Bacillus spp. Coagulase Staphlococcus spp., microcuccus spp., Steptococcus spp., Diphthroids, Fusiform bacterial Klebsiella spp., and Citrobacter spp. No significant differences were found in the plate counts of the samples obtained from the depots and outlets for the milk (P = 0.542, df = 1)) and ice cream samples (P = 0.377, df = 1). Results further revealed that there was no significant difference in isolates obtained form strawberry ice cream (0.0096). The study has therefore, revealed that milk and milk product sold in various outlets in Harare contained a variety of bacteria of public health importance and also that the methylene blue dye reduction test is not reliable for the detection of bacterial contaminants in dairy products. It is thus suggested that the use of methylene blue dyes be adapted in combination with other tests such as the plate count in assessing bacterial contaminants in milk products.

  1. Genotoxic endpoints in the earthworms sub-lethal assay to evaluate natural soils contaminated by metals and radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Joana I; Pereira, Ruth O; Silva, Ana C; Morgado, José M; Carvalho, Fernando P; Oliveira, João M; Malta, Margarida P; Paiva, Artur A; Mendo, Sónia A; Gonçalves, Fernando J

    2011-02-15

    Eisenia andrei was exposed, for 56 days, to a contaminated soil from an abandoned uranium mine and to the natural reference soil LUFA 2.2. The organisms were sampled after 0, 1, 2, 7, 14 and 56 days of exposure, to assess metals bioaccumulation, coelomocytes DNA integrity and cytotoxicity. Radionuclides bioaccumulation and growth were also determined at 0 h, 14 and 56 days of exposure. Results have shown the bioaccumulation of metals and radionuclides, as well as, growth reduction, DNA damages and cytotoxicity in earthworms exposed to contaminated soil. The usefulness of the comet assay and flow cytometry, to evaluate the toxicity of contaminants such as metals and radionuclides in earthworms are herein reported. We also demonstrated that DNA strand breakage and immune cells frequency are important endpoints to be employed in the earthworm reproduction assay, for the evaluation of soil geno and cytotoxicity, as part of the risk assessment of contaminated areas. This is the first study that integrates DNA damage and cytotoxicity evaluation, growth and bioaccumulation of metals and radionuclides in a sub lethal assay, for earthworms exposed to soil contaminated with metals and radionuclides. PMID:21146299

  2. Pre-clinical safety assessment of the synthetic human milk, nature-identical, oligosaccharide Lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT).

    PubMed

    Coulet, Myriam; Phothirath, Phoukham; Constable, Anne; Marsden, Edward; Schilter, Benoit

    2013-12-01

    Lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT) is a tetrasaccharide naturally occurring in human breast milk, but not in cow's milk. The safety data generated on a potential new LNnT ingredient produced by chemical synthesis is presented. Standard in vitro genotoxicity tests were performed. LNnT was also administered via gavage in 14-, 28- and 90-day studies at levels corresponding to 0 (control), 1000, 2500 and 5000 mg/kg bw/day in juvenile rats. Fructooligosaccharide (FOS) currently approved for use in infant formulae was used as a reference control at one dose level of 5000 mg/kg bw/day. LNnT was non-mutagenic in in vitro assays. Oral administration up to 5000 mg/kg bw/day to rats over 90 days was not associated with any adverse effects, based on clinical observations, body weight gain, feed consumption, clinical pathology, organ weights and histopathology findings. Regarding gastrointestinal effects, LNnT was better tolerated than FOS during the first 2 weeks of treatment. A No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) of 5000 mg/kg bw/day for both male and female rats was identified for LNnT when administered by gavage for 90 days. These findings in the juvenile rat support the safety of LNnT for possible use in infant foods and allow further investigation in clinical studies. PMID:24071476

  3. Effects of two different blends of naturally mycotoxin-contaminated maize meal on growth and metabolic profile in replacement heifers.

    PubMed

    Abeni, F; Migliorati, L; Terzano, G M; Capelletti, M; Gallo, A; Masoero, F; Pirlo, G

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this trial was to assess the effects of the administration of different combinations of mycotoxins in naturally contaminated maize grains on dairy heifer growth, blood measurements and puberty onset. A total of 35 Friesian female heifers were randomly allotted to three experimental groups from 18-21 to 42-45 weeks of age. During the 24-week experimental period (EP), heifers were fed the same diet, but with maize meal derived from three differently contaminated lots: very low contamination, as control (C); medium-low aflatoxin-contaminated (A); and mixed aflatoxin-fumonisin contaminated (A-F). At the end of the EP, they returned to a common diet without contaminated maize, and they were monitored for an additional period of 12 weeks (post-experimental period, PEP). BW, wither height, hip height, body length and heart girth were measured every 4 weeks from the beginning of EP to the end of PEP. At the same time, body condition score was evaluated and blood samples were taken from the jugular vein to be analysed for haematological, serum protein and metabolic profiles. Age at puberty was assessed by measuring weekly plasma progesterone levels from 40 to 52 weeks of age. Body growth measurements were processed both by ANOVA of average daily gain of EP and PEP separately, and by the analysis of growth curve parameters. Haematological, serum protein and metabolic profile were evaluated using a mixed model, taking into account the repeated measurements in time on each animal. Heifers' growth was delayed both in A and A-F groups during EP, as evidenced by the different linear coefficients of the BW growth curve in the three groups. Differently contaminated diets did not affect the haematological profile, so that it can be concluded that these levels of mycotoxin contamination do not determine any specific effect on haematopoiesis and immunity in growing heifers. The main blood marker of mycotoxin chronic toxicity was the γ-glutamyl transferase activity level in

  4. Changes in the microbial composition of raw milk induced by thermization treatments applied prior to traditional Greek hard cheese processing.

    PubMed

    Samelis, John; Lianou, Alexandra; Kakouri, Athanasia; Delbès, Céline; Rogelj, Irena; Bogovic-Matijasić, Bojana; Montel, Marie-Christine

    2009-04-01

    The microbiological quality, safety, and composition of mixtures of ewe's and goat's milk (90:10) used for cheesemaking were evaluated before and after thermization at 60 and 67 degrees C for 30 s. Such mild thermal treatments are commonly applied to reduce natural contaminants of raw milk before processing for traditional hard Greek cheeses. Raw milk samples had an average total bacterial count of 7.3 log CFU/ml; most of these bacteria were lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and pseudomonads. The LAB flora of raw milk was dominated by enterococci (40.8%), followed by lactococci (20.4%), leuconostocs (18.4%), and mesophilic lactobacilli (10.2%). Enterococcus faecalis (30.1%) and Enterococcus faecium (13.7%) were the most common LAB isolates, followed by Enterococcus durans, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Leuconostoc lactis. Thermization at 60 degrees C for 30 s was effective for reducing raw milk contamination by enterobacteria (5.1 log CFU/ml), coagulase-positive staphylococci (3.3 log CFU/ml), and Listeria (present in 25-ml samples) to safe levels, but it also reduced mesophilic lactococci, leuconostocs, lactobacilli, and selected enterococci (72.0%) in thermized milk. Thermization at 67 degrees C for 30 s had a major inactivation effect on all bacterial groups. Two nisin-producing L. lactis subsp. lactis strains (M78 and M104) were isolated from raw milk, but neither nisin-producing nor other bacteriocin-producing LAB strains were isolated from thermized milk. Thus, thermization treatments control harmful bacteria but also may have a negative impact on milk quality by reducing desirable LAB and the biodiversity of raw milk bacteria overall, inactivating potentially protective LAB strains and enhancing the ability of potentially pathogenic enterococci to grow in fresh cheese curds. PMID:19435227

  5. Changes in the microbial composition of raw milk induced by thermization treatments applied prior to traditional Greek hard cheese processing.

    PubMed

    Samelis, John; Lianou, Alexandra; Kakouri, Athanasia; Delbès, Céline; Rogelj, Irena; Bogovic-Matijasić, Bojana; Montel, Marie-Christine

    2009-04-01

    The microbiological quality, safety, and composition of mixtures of ewe's and goat's milk (90:10) used for cheesemaking were evaluated before and after thermization at 60 and 67 degrees C for 30 s. Such mild thermal treatments are commonly applied to reduce natural contaminants of raw milk before processing for traditional hard Greek cheeses. Raw milk samples had an average total bacterial count of 7.3 log CFU/ml; most of these bacteria were lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and pseudomonads. The LAB flora of raw milk was dominated by enterococci (40.8%), followed by lactococci (20.4%), leuconostocs (18.4%), and mesophilic lactobacilli (10.2%). Enterococcus faecalis (30.1%) and Enterococcus faecium (13.7%) were the most common LAB isolates, followed by Enterococcus durans, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Leuconostoc lactis. Thermization at 60 degrees C for 30 s was effective for reducing raw milk contamination by enterobacteria (5.1 log CFU/ml), coagulase-positive staphylococci (3.3 log CFU/ml), and Listeria (present in 25-ml samples) to safe levels, but it also reduced mesophilic lactococci, leuconostocs, lactobacilli, and selected enterococci (72.0%) in thermized milk. Thermization at 67 degrees C for 30 s had a major inactivation effect on all bacterial groups. Two nisin-producing L. lactis subsp. lactis strains (M78 and M104) were isolated from raw milk, but neither nisin-producing nor other bacteriocin-producing LAB strains were isolated from thermized milk. Thus, thermization treatments control harmful bacteria but also may have a negative impact on milk quality by reducing desirable LAB and the biodiversity of raw milk bacteria overall, inactivating potentially protective LAB strains and enhancing the ability of potentially pathogenic enterococci to grow in fresh cheese curds.

  6. Biogeochemical assessment of natural attenuation of JP-4-contaminated ground water in the presence of fluorinated surfactants.

    PubMed

    Levine, A D; Libelo, E L; Bugna, G; Shelley, T; Mayfield, H; Stauffer, T B

    1997-12-22

    The biogeochemistry of the natural attenuation of petroleum-contaminated ground water was investigated in a field study. The focus of the study was a fire training site located on Tyndall Air Force Base in Florida. The site has been used by the Air Force for approximately 11 years in fire fighting exercises. An on-site above-ground tank of JP-4 provided fuel for setting controlled fires for the exercises. Various amounts of water and aqueous film forming foams (AFFF) were applied to extinguish the fires. The sources of contamination included leaks from pipelines transporting the fuel, leaks from an oil/water separator and runoff and percolation from the fire fighting activities. Previous investigations had identified jet fuel contamination at the site, however, no active remediation efforts have been conducted to date. The goal of this study was to use biogeochemical monitoring data to delineate redox zones within the site and to identify evidence of natural attenuation of JP-4 contamination. In addition to identifying several hydrocarbon metabolites, fluorinated surfactants (AFFF) were detected down-gradient of the hydrocarbon plume.

  7. Designer milk.

    PubMed

    Sabikhi, Latha

    2007-01-01

    Dairy biotechnology is fast gaining ground in the area of altering milk composition for processing and/or animal and human health by employing nutritional and genetic approaches. Modification of the primary structure of casein, alteration in the lipid profile, increased protein recovery, milk containing nutraceuticals, and replacement for infant formula offer several advantages in the area of processing. Less fat in milk, altered fatty acid profiles to include more healthy fatty acids such as CLA and omega-fats, improved amino acid profiles, more protein, less lactose, and absence of beta-lactoglobulin (beta-LG) are some opportunities of "designing" milk for human health benefits. Transgenic technology has also produced farm animals that secrete in their milk, human lactoferrin, lysozyme, and lipase so as to simulate human milk in terms of quality and quantity of these elements that are protective to infants. Cow milk allergenicity in children could be reduced by eliminating the beta-LG gene from bovines. Animals that produce milk containing therapeutic agents such as insulin, plasma proteins, drugs, and vaccines for human health have been genetically engineered. In order to cater to animal health, transgenic animals that express in their mammary glands, various components that work against mastitis have been generated. The ultimate acceptability of the "designer" products will depend on ethical issues such as animal welfare and safety, besides better health benefits and increased profitability of products manufactured by the novel techniques.

  8. Designer milk.

    PubMed

    Sabikhi, Latha

    2007-01-01

    Dairy biotechnology is fast gaining ground in the area of altering milk composition for processing and/or animal and human health by employing nutritional and genetic approaches. Modification of the primary structure of casein, alteration in the lipid profile, increased protein recovery, milk containing nutraceuticals, and replacement for infant formula offer several advantages in the area of processing. Less fat in milk, altered fatty acid profiles to include more healthy fatty acids such as CLA and omega-fats, improved amino acid profiles, more protein, less lactose, and absence of beta-lactoglobulin (beta-LG) are some opportunities of "designing" milk for human health benefits. Transgenic technology has also produced farm animals that secrete in their milk, human lactoferrin, lysozyme, and lipase so as to simulate human milk in terms of quality and quantity of these elements that are protective to infants. Cow milk allergenicity in children could be reduced by eliminating the beta-LG gene from bovines. Animals that produce milk containing therapeutic agents such as insulin, plasma proteins, drugs, and vaccines for human health have been genetically engineered. In order to cater to animal health, transgenic animals that express in their mammary glands, various components that work against mastitis have been generated. The ultimate acceptability of the "designer" products will depend on ethical issues such as animal welfare and safety, besides better health benefits and increased profitability of products manufactured by the novel techniques. PMID:17900499

  9. COPPER COMPLEXATION BY NATURAL ORGANIC MATTER IN CONTAMINATED AND UNCOMTAINATED GROUND WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ground-water samples were collected from an uncontaminated and a contaminated site. Copper complexation was characterized by ion-selective electrode (ISE), fluorescence quenching (FQ), and cathodic stripping voltammetric (CSV) titrations. All of the samples were titrated at their...

  10. [Natural contamination with mycotoxins in forage maize and green coffee in Nayarit State (Mexico)].

    PubMed

    Robledo, M de L; Marin, S; Ramos, A J

    2001-09-01

    The presence of mycotoxins in forage maize (zearalenone, fumonisin B1, T-2 toxin and diacetoxyscirpenol) and green coffee (ochratoxin A) from Nayarit State (Mexico) has been studied. All maize samples analyzed showed fumonisin B1 contamination, with an average concentration of 2,541 microg/kg. Fifteen percent of the samples contained zearalenone, with an average concentration of 1,610 microg/kg. Only one sample showed T-2 toxin contamination (7 microg/kg), and no diacetoxyscirpenol was detected. Sixty-seven per cent of green coffee samples were contaminated with ochratoxin A, with an average concentration of 30.1 microg/kg. This is the first study about mycotoxins developed in Nayarit and it has shown that mycotoxin contamination is a real problem in both foodstuffs studied.

  11. Thermoregulation in a naturally oil-contaminated Black-billed Murre Uria aalge

    SciTech Connect

    Jenssen, B.M.; Ekker, M.; Bech, C.

    1985-07-01

    The effect of oiled plumages on seabirds is considered to be reduced thermal insulation, with a resultant increase in metabolic rate. This conclusion is based on results from ducks with experimentally oil-contaminated plumages. In the present paper, data on body temperature, metabolic rate, and insulation in a Black-billed Murre (Uria aalge) contaminated during an oil-spill at sea are presented.

  12. EVALUATION OF DIOXIN IN U.S. COW'S MILK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Milk fat is likely to be among the highest dietary sources of exposure to persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic (PBT) contaminants, thus it is important to understand PBT levels in milk. Schaum had previously reported on concentrations of 21 PBTs in the United States milk suppl...

  13. Assessment of soil contamination by (210)Po and (210)Pb around heavy oil and natural gas fired power plants.

    PubMed

    Al-Masri, M S; Haddad, Kh; Doubal, A W; Awad, I; Al-Khatib, Y

    2014-06-01

    Soil contamination by (210)Pb and (210)Po around heavy oil and natural gas power plants has been investigated; fly and bottom ash containing enhanced levels of (210)Pb and (210)Po were found to be the main source of surface soil contamination. The results showed that (210)Pb and (210)Po in fly-ash (economizer, superheater) is highly enriched with (210)Pb and (210)Po, while bottom-ash (boiler) is depleted. The highest (210)Pb and (210)Po activity concentrations were found to be in economizer ash, whereas the lowest activity concentration was in the recirculator ash. On the other hand, (210)Pb and (210)Po activity concentrations in soil samples were found to be higher inside the plant site area than those samples collected from surrounding areas. The highest levels were found in the vicinity of Mhardeh and Tishreen power plants; both plants are operated by heavy oil and natural fuels, while the lowest values were found to be in those samples collected from Nasrieh power plant, which is only operated by one type of fuel, viz. natural gas. In addition, the levels of surface soil contamination have decreased as the distance from the power plant site center increased.

  14. Assessment of soil contamination by (210)Po and (210)Pb around heavy oil and natural gas fired power plants.

    PubMed

    Al-Masri, M S; Haddad, Kh; Doubal, A W; Awad, I; Al-Khatib, Y

    2014-06-01

    Soil contamination by (210)Pb and (210)Po around heavy oil and natural gas power plants has been investigated; fly and bottom ash containing enhanced levels of (210)Pb and (210)Po were found to be the main source of surface soil contamination. The results showed that (210)Pb and (210)Po in fly-ash (economizer, superheater) is highly enriched with (210)Pb and (210)Po, while bottom-ash (boiler) is depleted. The highest (210)Pb and (210)Po activity concentrations were found to be in economizer ash, whereas the lowest activity concentration was in the recirculator ash. On the other hand, (210)Pb and (210)Po activity concentrations in soil samples were found to be higher inside the plant site area than those samples collected from surrounding areas. The highest levels were found in the vicinity of Mhardeh and Tishreen power plants; both plants are operated by heavy oil and natural fuels, while the lowest values were found to be in those samples collected from Nasrieh power plant, which is only operated by one type of fuel, viz. natural gas. In addition, the levels of surface soil contamination have decreased as the distance from the power plant site center increased. PMID:24602817

  15. Antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella enterica isolates from bulk tank milk and milk filters in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Non-typhoid Salmonella is frequently associated with dairy cattle and their environment. Despite well-developed milking hygiene protocols, fecal contamination can occur and Salmonella has often been isolated from bulk milk. Salmonella isolates were recovered from US bulk tank milk as part of the NAH...

  16. Arsenic and other heavy metal accumulation in plants and algae growing naturally in contaminated area of West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Singh, N K; Raghubanshi, A S; Upadhyay, A K; Rai, U N

    2016-08-01

    The present study was conducted to quantify the arsenic (As) and other heavy metal concentrations in the plants and algae growing naturally in As contaminated blocks of North-24-Pargana and Nandia district, West Bengal, India to assess their bioaccumulation potential. The plant species included five macrophytes and five algae were collected from the nine selected sites for estimation of As and other heavy metals accumulated therein by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrophotometer (ICP-MS). Results revealed that maximum As concentration (117mgkg(-1)) was recorded in the agricultural soil at the Barasat followed by Beliaghat (111mgkg(-1)) sites of North-24-Pargana. Similarly, concentration of selenium (Si, 249mgkg(-1)), lead (Pb, 79.4mgkg(-1)), chromium (Cr, 138mgkg(-1)) was also found maximum in the soil at Barasat and cadmium (Cd, 163mgkg(-1)) nickel (Ni, 36.5mgkg(-1)) at Vijaynagar site. Among the macrophytes, Eichhornia crassipes found more dominating species in As contaminated area and accumulate As (597mgkg(-1)) in the shoot at kanchrapara site. The Lemna minor found to accumulate maximum As (735mgkg(-1)) in the leaves at Sonadanga and Pistia stratiotes accumulated minimum As (24.5mgkg(-1)) in the fronds from Ranaghat site. In case of diatoms, maximum As (760mgkg(-1)) was accumulated at Kanchrapara site followed by Hydrodictiyon reticulatum (403mgkg(-1)) at the Ranaghat site. High concentration of As and other heavy metal in soil indicates long term effects of irrigation with contaminated ground water, however, high concentration of heavy metals in naturally growing plants and algae revealed their mobilization through leaching and possible food chain contamination. Therefore, efficient heavy metal accumulator macrophytes Eichhornia crassipes, Lemna minor, Spirodela polyrhiza may be exploited in removing metals from contaminated water by developing a plant based treatment system. However, As accumulator algal species may be used as a bioresource for

  17. Arsenic and other heavy metal accumulation in plants and algae growing naturally in contaminated area of West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Singh, N K; Raghubanshi, A S; Upadhyay, A K; Rai, U N

    2016-08-01

    The present study was conducted to quantify the arsenic (As) and other heavy metal concentrations in the plants and algae growing naturally in As contaminated blocks of North-24-Pargana and Nandia district, West Bengal, India to assess their bioaccumulation potential. The plant species included five macrophytes and five algae were collected from the nine selected sites for estimation of As and other heavy metals accumulated therein by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrophotometer (ICP-MS). Results revealed that maximum As concentration (117mgkg(-1)) was recorded in the agricultural soil at the Barasat followed by Beliaghat (111mgkg(-1)) sites of North-24-Pargana. Similarly, concentration of selenium (Si, 249mgkg(-1)), lead (Pb, 79.4mgkg(-1)), chromium (Cr, 138mgkg(-1)) was also found maximum in the soil at Barasat and cadmium (Cd, 163mgkg(-1)) nickel (Ni, 36.5mgkg(-1)) at Vijaynagar site. Among the macrophytes, Eichhornia crassipes found more dominating species in As contaminated area and accumulate As (597mgkg(-1)) in the shoot at kanchrapara site. The Lemna minor found to accumulate maximum As (735mgkg(-1)) in the leaves at Sonadanga and Pistia stratiotes accumulated minimum As (24.5mgkg(-1)) in the fronds from Ranaghat site. In case of diatoms, maximum As (760mgkg(-1)) was accumulated at Kanchrapara site followed by Hydrodictiyon reticulatum (403mgkg(-1)) at the Ranaghat site. High concentration of As and other heavy metal in soil indicates long term effects of irrigation with contaminated ground water, however, high concentration of heavy metals in naturally growing plants and algae revealed their mobilization through leaching and possible food chain contamination. Therefore, efficient heavy metal accumulator macrophytes Eichhornia crassipes, Lemna minor, Spirodela polyrhiza may be exploited in removing metals from contaminated water by developing a plant based treatment system. However, As accumulator algal species may be used as a bioresource for

  18. Rapid detection of norovirus in naturally contaminated food: foodborne gastroenteritis outbreak on a cruise ship in Brazil, 2010.

    PubMed

    Morillo, Simone Guadagnucci; Luchs, Adriana; Cilli, Audrey; do Carmo Sampaio Tavares Timenetsky, Maria

    2012-09-01

    Norovirus (NoV) is a prevalent pathogen of foodborne diseases; however, its detection in foods other than shellfish is often time consuming and unsuccessful. In 2010, an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis occurred on a cruise ship in Brazil, and NoV was the etiologic agent suspected. The objectives of this study were to report that a handy in-house methodology was suitable for NoV detection in naturally contaminated food, and perform the molecular characterization of food strains. Food samples (blue cheese, Indian sauce, herbal butter, soup, and white sauce) were analyzed by ELISA, two methods of RNA extraction, TRIzol(®) and QIAamp(®), following conventional RT-PCR. The qPCR was used in order to confirm the NoV genogroups. GI and GII NoV genogroups were identified by conventional RT-PCR after RNA extraction by means of the TRIzol(®) method. Two GII NoV samples were successfully sequenced, classified as GII.4; and they displayed a genetic relationship with strains from the Asian continent also isolated in 2010. GII and GI NoV were identified in distinct food matrices suggesting that it was not a common source of contamination. TRIzol(®) extraction followed by conventional RT-PCR was a suitable methodology in order to identify NoV in naturally contaminated food. Moreover, food samples could be processed within 8 h indicating the value of the method used for NoV detection, and its potential to identify foodborne gastroenteritis outbreaks in food products other than shellfish. This is the first description in Brazil of NoV detection in naturally contaminated food other than shellfish involved in a foodborne outbreak.

  19. Using the Melamine Contamination of Foods to Enhance the Chemistry Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimbrough, Doris Renate; Jensen, Anna Chick

    2010-01-01

    An introduction to the chemistry of the triazine compound, melamine, is presented as well as a brief discussion of the health impacts on humans and pets when melamine contaminates milk products and pet food. Melamine has repeatedly been in the news, and its topical nature provides an excellent springboard for applications of a variety of chemical…

  20. Characterization of the frequency and nature of bleed air contamination events in commercial aircraft.

    PubMed

    Shehadi, M; Jones, B; Hosni, M

    2016-06-01

    Contamination of the bleed air used to pressurize and ventilate aircraft cabins is of concern due to the potential health and safety hazards for passengers and crew. Databases from the Federal Aviation Administration, NASA, and other sources were examined in detail to determine the frequency of bleed air contamination incidents. The frequency was examined on an aircraft model basis with the intent of identifying aircraft make and models with elevated frequencies of contamination events. The reported results herein may help investigators to focus future studies of bleed air contamination incidents on smaller number of aircrafts. Incident frequency was normalized by the number of aircraft, number of flights, and flight hours for each model to account for the large variations in the number of aircraft of different models. The focus of the study was on aircraft models that are currently in service and are used by major airlines in the United States. Incidents examined in this study include those related to smoke, oil odors, fumes, and any symptom that might be related to exposure to such contamination, reported by crew members, between 2007 and 2012, for US-based carriers for domestic flights and all international flights that either originated or terminated in the US. In addition to the reported frequency of incidents for different aircraft models, the analysis attempted to identify propulsion engines and auxiliary power units associated with aircrafts that had higher frequencies of incidents. While substantial variations were found in frequency of incidents, it was found that the contamination events were widely distributed across nearly all common models of aircraft.

  1. Characterization of the frequency and nature of bleed air contamination events in commercial aircraft.

    PubMed

    Shehadi, M; Jones, B; Hosni, M

    2016-06-01

    Contamination of the bleed air used to pressurize and ventilate aircraft cabins is of concern due to the potential health and safety hazards for passengers and crew. Databases from the Federal Aviation Administration, NASA, and other sources were examined in detail to determine the frequency of bleed air contamination incidents. The frequency was examined on an aircraft model basis with the intent of identifying aircraft make and models with elevated frequencies of contamination events. The reported results herein may help investigators to focus future studies of bleed air contamination incidents on smaller number of aircrafts. Incident frequency was normalized by the number of aircraft, number of flights, and flight hours for each model to account for the large variations in the number of aircraft of different models. The focus of the study was on aircraft models that are currently in service and are used by major airlines in the United States. Incidents examined in this study include those related to smoke, oil odors, fumes, and any symptom that might be related to exposure to such contamination, reported by crew members, between 2007 and 2012, for US-based carriers for domestic flights and all international flights that either originated or terminated in the US. In addition to the reported frequency of incidents for different aircraft models, the analysis attempted to identify propulsion engines and auxiliary power units associated with aircrafts that had higher frequencies of incidents. While substantial variations were found in frequency of incidents, it was found that the contamination events were widely distributed across nearly all common models of aircraft. PMID:25864418

  2. Aflatoxin M1 in milk powders: processing, homogeneity and stability testing of certified reference materials.

    PubMed

    Josephs, R D; Ulberth, F; Van Egmond, H P; Emons, H

    2005-09-01

    As part of the certification campaign of three candidate reference materials for the determination of aflatoxin M1 (AfM1) in whole milk powders, homogeneity, short- and long-term stability tests of naturally contaminated milk powders have been performed. The homogeneity of two AfM1-contaminated milk powders was studied by taking samples at regular intervals of the filling sequences and analysing in triplicate for their AfM1 contents by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (LC-FLD) using random stratified sampling schemes. The homogeneity testing of an AfM1 'blank' milk powder material was performed by determining the nitrogen content because AfM1 levels were below the limit of detection of the most sensitive determination method. The short-term stability of AfM1-contaminated milk powders was evaluated at three different storage temperatures (4, 18 and 40 degrees C). After storage times of 0, 1, 2 and 4 weeks, samples were investigated using LC-FLD. The long-term stability study comprised of measurements after 0, 6, 12 and 18 months after storage at -20 and 4 degrees C. Analyses were done by LC-FLD. Based on the homogeneity tests, the materials were sufficiently homogenous to serve as certified reference materials. Corresponding uncertainty contributions of 0.23-0.89% were calculated for the homogeneity. The stability measurements showed no significant trends for both short- and long-term stability studies. The long-term stability uncertainties of the AfM1-contaminated milk powders were 7.4 and 6.3%, respectively, for a shelf-life of 6 years and storage at -20 degrees C. Supplementary stability monitoring schemes over a long period of several years are currently ongoing.

  3. Investigation of the Heavy Metal Contamination of the Sediments from the Yellow River Wetland Nature Reserve of Zhengzhou, China

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Q; Wang, W; Wang, H; Wang; Zhao, Z

    2012-01-01

    Background Heavy metal pollution in the sediment of the Yellow River draws wide attention in the recent years. The Yellow River Wetland Nature Reserve of Zhengzhou is one of the major wetlands of the river and located at the beginning of the lower reach. In this article, we aimed to investigate the degree and the sources of the metal pollution in the reserve. Methods: Metals as Cu, Pb, Cr, Cd and Mn in the sediment were monitored using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The index of geo-accumulation (Igeo) and the modified degree of contamination (mCd) were developed to evaluate individual metal pollution and overall enrichment impact of the elements. Results: Compared with sediment quality guidelines, the effect of Cr and Pb are more serious than others. Igeo values show Pb pollution are moderate at the Xinzhai, Langchenggang and Nansutan sites, and mCd analysis indicate the whole contamination at the Wantan, Langchenggang and Nansutan sites was low. Principal component analysis indicated that the first factor was Cu, Mn and Cd, mainly from soil erosion and the irrational use of phosphate fertilizers; the second Pb from fossil fuel burning; and the third Cr from weathering process. Conclusion: We conclude that Pb contamination is serious in the reserve, and the main sources of the metal are crude oil consumption and coal combustion of the brick kilns around. We also draw a conclusion that it is vital to evaluate contamination degree with both individual elements and overall average. PMID:23113147

  4. In Situ Remediation of {sup 137}Cs Contaminated Wetlands Using Naturally Occurring Minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, D.I.

    1999-08-11

    Cesium-137 has contaminated a large area of the wetlands on the Savannah River Site. Remediation of the contaminated wetlands is problematic because current techniques destroy the sensitive ecosystem and generate a higher dose to workers. To address this problem, we proposed a non-trusive, in situ technology to sequester 137Cs in sediments. One intention of this study was to provide information regarding a go/no go decision for future work. Since the proof-of-concept was successful and several minerals were identified as potential candidates for this technology, a go decision was made.

  5. Natural Oxidant Demand Variability, Potential Controls, and Implications for in Situ, Oxidation-Based Remediation of Contaminated Groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dettmer, A.; Cruz, S.; Dungan, B.; Holguin, F. O.; Ulery, A. L.; Hunter, B.; Carroll, K. C.

    2014-12-01

    Naturally occurring reduced species associated with subsurface materials can impose a significant natural oxidant demand (NOD), which is the bulk consumption of oxidants by soil water, minerals, and organic matter. Although injection of oxidants has been used for chemical transformation of organic contaminants, NOD represents a challenge for the in-situ delivery of oxidants as a remediation alternative. Co-injection of complexation agents with oxidants has been proposed to facilitate the delivery of oxidants for in situ chemical oxidation remediation of contaminated groundwater. This study investigates variability of NOD for different oxidants and sediments. The effect of the addition of various complexation agents, including EDTA, tween 80, hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPCD), humic acid, and four generations of poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers, on the NOD was also examined. NOD was measured for a clay loam (collected from Air Force Plant 44 in Tucson, AZ). Varying amounts of biosolids were mixed with subsamples of the clay loam to create three additional reference soils in order to study the effect of organic matter and other soil characteristics on the NOD. Bench-scale laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the NOD for various oxidants, using the four soils, and replicated with and without various delivery agents. Measured NOD showed variability for each soil and oxidant composition. Additionally, significant differences were observed in NOD with the addition of delivery agents. The results support the elucidation of potential controls over NOD and have implications for in situ, oxidation-based remediation of contaminated groundwater.

  6. Effects of natural organic matter, anthropogenic surfactants, and model quinones on the reduction of contaminants by zero-valent iron.

    PubMed

    Tratnyek, P G; Scherer, M M; Deng, B; Hu, S

    2001-12-01

    Recent studies of contaminant reduction by zero-valent iron metal (Fe0) have highlighted the role of iron oxides at the metal-water interface and the effect that sorption has at the oxide-water interface on contaminant reduction kinetics. The results suggest that a variety of organic surface-active substances might enhance or inhibit contaminant degradation, depending on the degree to which they promote solubilization, sorption. and/or reaction. Of particular interest is the effect of natural organic matter (NOM), because of its ubiquitous presence in natural waters and amphiphilic properties; anthropogenic surfactants, because of their use in groundwater remediation; and certain quinones, which represent the redox-active functional groups associated with NOM. In this study, no well-defined effects of these substances were found on the reduction of nitro benzene by Fe0, but the reduction of carbon tetrachloride and trichloroethylene (TCE) was inhibited by NOM. Results with carbon tetrachloride showed that the inhibitory effect of humic acids was greater than fulvic acids, but that several quinonoid NOM model compounds (juglone, lawsone. and anthraquinone disulfonate) increased the rate of reduction by Fe0. Isotherms for adsorption of TCE and NOM onto Fe0 showed evidence of competition for surface sites.

  7. Food safety hazards associated with consumption of raw milk.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Stephen P; Boor, Kathryn J; Murphy, Steven C; Murinda, Shelton E

    2009-09-01

    An increasing number of people are consuming raw unpasteurized milk. Enhanced nutritional qualities, taste, and health benefits have all been advocated as reasons for increased interest in raw milk consumption. However, science-based data to substantiate these claims are limited. People continue to consume raw milk even though numerous epidemiological studies have shown clearly that raw milk can be contaminated by a variety of pathogens, some of which are associated with human illness and disease. Several documented milkborne disease outbreaks occurred from 2000-2008 and were traced back to consumption of raw unpasteurized milk. Numerous people were found to have infections, some were hospitalized, and a few died. In the majority of these outbreaks, the organism associated with the milkborne outbreak was isolated from the implicated product(s) or from subsequent products made at the suspected dairy or source. In contrast, fewer milkborne disease outbreaks were associated with consumption of pasteurized milk during this same time period. Twenty nine states allow the sale of raw milk by some means. Direct purchase, cow-share or leasing programs, and the sale of raw milk as pet food have been used as means for consumers to obtain raw milk. Where raw milk is offered for sale, strategies to reduce risks associated with raw milk and products made from raw milk are needed. Developing uniform regulations including microbial standards for raw milk to be sold for human consumption, labeling of raw milk, improving sanitation during milking, and enhancing and targeting educational efforts are potential approaches to this issue. Development of pre- and postharvest control measures to effectively reduce contamination is critical to the control of pathogens in raw milk. One sure way to prevent raw milk-associated foodborne illness is for consumers to refrain from drinking raw milk and from consuming dairy products manufactured using raw milk.

  8. Milk and Soy Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Kattan, Jacob D.; Cocco, Renata R.; Järvinen, Kirsi M.

    2011-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Cow’s milk allergy (CMA) affects 2% to 3% of young children and presents with a wide range of immunoglobulin E (IgE-) and non-IgE-mediated clinical syndromes, which have a significant economic and lifestyle impact. Definitive diagnosis is based on a supervised oral food challenge (OFC), but convincing clinical history, skin prick testing, and measurement of cow’s milk (CM)-specific IgE can aid in the diagnosis of IgE-mediated CMA and occasionally eliminate the need for OFCs. It is logical that a review of CMA would be linked to a review of soy allergy, as soy formula is often an alternative source of nutrition for infants who do not tolerate cow’s milk. The close resemblance between the proteins from soy and other related plants like peanut, and the resulting cross-reactivity and lack of predictive values for clinical reactivity, often make the diagnosis of soy allergy far more challenging. This review examines the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, natural history and diagnosis of cow’s milk and soy allergy. Cross-reactivity and management of milk allergy are also discussed. PMID:21453810

  9. FRAMEWORK APPROACH FOR MONITORED NATURAL ATTENUATION OF RADIONUCLIDE AND INORGANIC CONTAMINANTS IN GROUNDWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA is leading an effort to develop technical documentation that provides the policy, scientific and technical framework for assessing the viability of MNA for inorganic contaminants in ground water (hereafter referred to as the Framework Document). Initial guidance on the...

  10. Monitored Natural Attenuation of Inorganic Contaminants in Ground Water Volume 1 – Technical Basis for Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document represents the first volume of a set of three volumes that address the technical basis and requirements for assessing the potential applicability of MNA as part of a ground-water remedy for plumes with non-radionuclide and/or radionuclide inorganic contaminants. Vo...

  11. DETERMINATION OF RATES AND EXTENT OF DECHLORINATION IN PCB-CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS DURING MONITORED NATURAL RECOVERY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This "Sediment Issue" summarizes investigations carried out by the National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) of U.S. EPA to evaluate the long-term recovery of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated sediments via reductive dechlorination. The magnitude, extent, an...

  12. Milk Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... the word “Milk” on the label. Read all product labels carefully before purchasing and consuming any item. Ingredients ... following the circled K or U on a product label indicates the presence of milk protein or a ...

  13. Alterations in steroidogenesis in alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) exposed naturally and experimentally to environmental contaminants.

    PubMed Central

    Crain, D A; Guillette, L J; Rooney, A A; Pickford, D B

    1997-01-01

    Many environmental contaminants alter the reproduction of animals by altering the development and function of the endocrine system. The ability of environmental contaminants to alter the endocrine system of alligators was studied both in a descriptive study in which juvenile alligators from a historically contaminated lake were compared to animals from a control lake and in an experimental study in which hatchling control alligators were exposed in ovo to several endocrine-disrupting standards and two modern-use herbicides. Endocrine status was assessed by examining plasma hormone concentrations, gonadal-adrenal mesonephros (GAM) aromatase activity, and gonadal histopathology. In the descriptive study, juvenile alligators from the contaminated lake had significantly lower plasma testosterone concentrations (29.2 pg/ml compared to 51.3 pg/ml), whereas plasma 17 beta-estradiol concentrations did not vary when compared to controls. GAM aromatase activity was significantly decreased n the alligators from the contaminated lake (7.6 pmol/g/hr compared to 11.4 pmol/g/hr). In the experimental study, the endocrine-disrupting standards had the expected effects. 17 beta-Estradiol and tamoxifen caused sex reversal from male to female, with a corresponding increase in aromatase activity. Vinclozolin had no apparent effect on male or female alligators. Among the herbicides tested, atrazine induced GAM aromatase activity in male hatchling alligators that was neither characteristic of males nor females, although testicular differentiation was not altered. Exposure to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid had no effect on the endocrine parameters that were measured. Together, these studies show that exposure to some environmental chemicals (such as atrazine) can alter steroidogenesis in alligators, but the endocrine alterations previously noted for Lake Apopka, Florida, alligators can not be fully explained by this mechanism. Images Figure 1. PMID:9222139

  14. Global-scale patterns in anthropogenic Pb contamination reconstructed from natural archives.

    PubMed

    Marx, Samuel K; Rashid, Shaqer; Stromsoe, Nicola

    2016-06-01

    During the past two centuries metal loads in the Earth's atmosphere and ecosystems have increased significantly over pre-industrial levels. This has been associated with deleterious effects to ecosystem processes and human health. The magnitude of this toxic metal burden, as well as the spatial and temporal patterns of metal enrichment, is recorded in sedimentary archives across the globe. This paper presents a compilation of selected Pb contamination records from lakes (n = 10), peat mires (n = 10) and ice fields (n = 7) from Europe, North and South America, Asia, Australia and the Northern and Southern Hemisphere polar regions. These records quantify changes in Pb enrichment in remote from source environments. The presence of anthropogenic Pb in the environment has a long history, extending as far back as the early to mid-Holocene in North America, Europe and East Asia. However, results show that Pb contamination in the Earth's environment became globally ubiquitous at the beginning of the Second Industrial Revolution (c.1850-1890 CE), after which the magnitude of Pb contamination increased significantly. This date therefore serves as an effective global marker for the onset of the Anthropocene. Current global average Pb enrichment rates are between 6 and 35 times background, however Pb contamination loads are spatially variable. For example, they are >100 times background in Europe and North America and 5-15 times background in Antarctica. Despite a recent decline in Pb loads in some regions, most notably Europe and North America, anthropogenic Pb remains highly enriched and universally present in global ecosystems, while concentrations are increasing in some regions (Australia, Asia and parts of South America and Antarctica). There is, however, a paucity of Pb enrichment records outside of Europe, which limits assessments of global contamination.

  15. Global-scale patterns in anthropogenic Pb contamination reconstructed from natural archives.

    PubMed

    Marx, Samuel K; Rashid, Shaqer; Stromsoe, Nicola

    2016-06-01

    During the past two centuries metal loads in the Earth's atmosphere and ecosystems have increased significantly over pre-industrial levels. This has been associated with deleterious effects to ecosystem processes and human health. The magnitude of this toxic metal burden, as well as the spatial and temporal patterns of metal enrichment, is recorded in sedimentary archives across the globe. This paper presents a compilation of selected Pb contamination records from lakes (n = 10), peat mires (n = 10) and ice fields (n = 7) from Europe, North and South America, Asia, Australia and the Northern and Southern Hemisphere polar regions. These records quantify changes in Pb enrichment in remote from source environments. The presence of anthropogenic Pb in the environment has a long history, extending as far back as the early to mid-Holocene in North America, Europe and East Asia. However, results show that Pb contamination in the Earth's environment became globally ubiquitous at the beginning of the Second Industrial Revolution (c.1850-1890 CE), after which the magnitude of Pb contamination increased significantly. This date therefore serves as an effective global marker for the onset of the Anthropocene. Current global average Pb enrichment rates are between 6 and 35 times background, however Pb contamination loads are spatially variable. For example, they are >100 times background in Europe and North America and 5-15 times background in Antarctica. Despite a recent decline in Pb loads in some regions, most notably Europe and North America, anthropogenic Pb remains highly enriched and universally present in global ecosystems, while concentrations are increasing in some regions (Australia, Asia and parts of South America and Antarctica). There is, however, a paucity of Pb enrichment records outside of Europe, which limits assessments of global contamination. PMID:26924757

  16. Got milk?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    While celebrities wear white “milk moustaches” in a popular U.S. advertising campaign to promote the drinking of milk, they should also be concerned about the decreased amount of calcium available to many trees.Calcium levels in forest soils have decreased at locations in 10 states in the eastern United States, according to a new report by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) released in time for National Arbor Day on April 30.

  17. Monitoring of radionuclides contamination of soils in Shatsk National Natural Park (Volyn region, Ukraine) during 1994-2001.

    PubMed

    Hrabovskyy, V; Dzendzelyuk, O; Katerynchuk, I; Furgala, Y

    2004-01-01

    The results of studies of radionuclide contamination of the soils in the western part of the territory of Shatsk National Natural Park (ShNNP), Volyn region, Ukraine, performed during 1994-2001 are presented. Based on the experimental results, the three-dimensional plot of the 137Cs density contamination for the soils at the territory under investigation has been constructed. The monitoring during 1994-2001 of the 137Cs vertical distributions in the different kinds of soils from the Park and the forecasting of the distribution changes of the depth down to 50 cm for the sod loamy sandy gleyed loamy sand soil of the Park up to 2086 have been performed. PMID:15162852

  18. [Chemical pollution and breast milk: Taking positions].

    PubMed

    Díaz-Gómez, N M; Ares, S; Hernández-Aguilar, M T; Ortega-García, J A; Paricio-Talayero, J M; Landa-Rivera, L

    2013-12-01

    Chemical pollution affects all ecosystems of our planet. Human milk has been used as a biomarker of environmental pollution as, due to bioaccumulation processes in fat tissue, many chemical compounds reach measurable concentrations that can be readily tested in breast milk. Quite frequently information about the presence of contaminants in breast milk appears in the media, leading to misunderstanding among parents and health professionals, and in some cases breastfeeding the child is stopped. In this article, the Breastfeeding Committee of the Spanish Association of Paediatrics stresses the importance of promoting breastfeeding as the healthiest option, because its benefits clearly outweigh any health risks associated with chemical contaminants in breast milk. Breast milk contains protective factors that counteract the potential effects related to prenatal exposure to environmental pollutants. This article summarises the key recommendations to reduce the level of chemical contaminants in breast milk. It also highlights the importance of government involvement in the development of programs to eliminate or reduce chemical contamination of food and the environment. In this way, the negative effects on child health resulting from exposure to these toxic compounds through the placenta and breast milk may be prevented.

  19. [Chemical pollution and breast milk: Taking positions].

    PubMed

    Díaz-Gómez, N M; Ares, S; Hernández-Aguilar, M T; Ortega-García, J A; Paricio-Talayero, J M; Landa-Rivera, L

    2013-12-01

    Chemical pollution affects all ecosystems of our planet. Human milk has been used as a biomarker of environmental pollution as, due to bioaccumulation processes in fat tissue, many chemical compounds reach measurable concentrations that can be readily tested in breast milk. Quite frequently information about the presence of contaminants in breast milk appears in the media, leading to misunderstanding among parents and health professionals, and in some cases breastfeeding the child is stopped. In this article, the Breastfeeding Committee of the Spanish Association of Paediatrics stresses the importance of promoting breastfeeding as the healthiest option, because its benefits clearly outweigh any health risks associated with chemical contaminants in breast milk. Breast milk contains protective factors that counteract the potential effects related to prenatal exposure to environmental pollutants. This article summarises the key recommendations to reduce the level of chemical contaminants in breast milk. It also highlights the importance of government involvement in the development of programs to eliminate or reduce chemical contamination of food and the environment. In this way, the negative effects on child health resulting from exposure to these toxic compounds through the placenta and breast milk may be prevented. PMID:23791806

  20. Natural attenuation of fuel hydrocarbon contaminants: Hydraulic conductivity dependency of biodegradation rates in a field case study

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Guoping; Zheng, Chunmiao

    2003-07-15

    Two biodegradation models are developed to represent natural attenuation of fuel-hydrocarbon contaminants as observed in a comprehensive natural-gradient tracer test in a heterogeneous aquifer on the Columbus Air Force Base in Mississippi. The first, a first-order mass loss model, describes the irreversible losses of BTEX and its individual components, i.e., benzene (B), toluene (T), ethyl benzene (E), and xylene (X). The second, a reactive pathway model, describes sequential degradation pathways for BTEX utilizing multiple electron acceptors, including oxygen, nitrate, iron and sulfate, and via methanogenesis. The heterogeneous aquifer is represented by multiple hydraulic conductivity (K) zones delineated on the basis of numerous flowmeter K measurements. A direct propagation artificial neural network (DPN) is used as an inverse modeling tool to estimate the biodegradation rate constants associated with each of the K zones. In both the mass loss model and the reactive pathway model, the biodegradation rate constants show an increasing trend with the hydraulic conductivity. The finding of correlation between biodegradation kinetics and hydraulic conductivity distributions is of general interest and relevance to characterization and modeling of natural attenuation of hydrocarbons in other petroleum-product contaminated sites.

  1. Natural Attenuation of Fuel Hydrocarbon Contaminants: Correlation of Biodegradation with Hydraulic Conductivity in a Field Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Guoping; Zheng, Chunmiao

    2003-10-15

    Two biodegradation models are developed to represent natural attenuation of fuel-hydrocarbon contaminants as observed in a comprehensive natural-gradient tracer test in a heterogeneous aquifer on the Columbus Air Force Base in Mississippi, USA. The first, a first-order mass loss model, describes the irreversible losses of BTEX and its individual components, i.e., benzene (B), toluene (T), ethyl benzene (E), and xylene (X). The second, a reactive pathway model, describes sequential degradation pathways for BTEX utilizing multiple electron acceptors, including oxygen, nitrate, iron and sulfate, and via methanogenesis. The heterogeneous aquifer is represented by multiple hydraulic conductivity (K) zones delineated on the basis of numerous flowmeter K measurements. A direct propagation artificial neural network (DPN) is used as an inverse modeling tool to estimate the biodegradation rate constants associated with each of the K zones. In both the mass loss model and the reactive pathway model, the biodegradation rate constants show an increasing trend with the hydraulic conductivity. The finding of correlation between biodegradation kinetics and hydraulic conductivity distributions is of general interest and relevance to characterization and modeling of natural attenuation of hydrocarbons in other petroleum-product contaminated sites.

  2. Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals and Oil and Natural Gas Operations: Potential Environmental Contamination and Recommendations to Assess Complex Environmental Mixtures

    PubMed Central

    Kassotis, Christopher D.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Lin, Chung-Ho; McElroy, Jane A.; Nagel, Susan C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Hydraulic fracturing technologies, developed over the last 65 years, have only recently been combined with horizontal drilling to unlock oil and gas reserves previously deemed inaccessible. Although these technologies have dramatically increased domestic oil and natural gas production, they have also raised concerns for the potential contamination of local water supplies with the approximately 1,000 chemicals that are used throughout the process, including many known or suspected endocrine-disrupting chemicals. Objectives We discuss the need for an endocrine component to health assessments for drilling-dense regions in the context of hormonal and antihormonal activities for chemicals used. Methods We discuss the literature on a) surface and groundwater contamination by oil and gas extraction operations, and b) potential human exposure, particularly in the context of the total hormonal and antihormonal activities present in surface and groundwater from natural and anthropogenic sources; we also discuss initial analytical results and critical knowledge gaps. Discussion In light of the potential for environmental release of oil and gas chemicals that can disrupt hormone receptor systems, we recommend methods for assessing complex hormonally active environmental mixtures. Conclusions We describe a need for an endocrine-centric component for overall health assessments and provide information supporting the idea that using such a component will help explain reported adverse health trends as well as help develop recommendations for environmental impact assessments and monitoring programs. Citation Kassotis CD, Tillitt DE, Lin CH, McElroy JA, Nagel SC. 2016. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals and oil and natural gas operations: potential environmental contamination and recommendations to assess complex environmental mixtures. Environ Health Perspect 124:256–264; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409535 PMID:26311476

  3. Ten-Year Monitored Natural Recovery of Lead-Contaminated Mine Tailing in Klity Creek, Kanchanaburi Province, Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Phenrat, Tanapon; Otwong, Ashijya; Chantharit, Aphichart; Lowry, Gregory V.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Klity Creek has become Thailand’s first official remediation ordered by the court in 2013, 15 years after the spill of lead (Pb)-contaminated mine tailing into the creek. The Pollution Control Department (PCD) decided to restore the creek through monitored natural recovery (MNR) since 2006 but has not been successful. Interestingly, the most recent remediation plan in 2015 will still apply MNR to five out of the seven portions of the creek, despite no scientific feasibility evaluation of using MNR to restore the creek. Objective: This study qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated the feasibility of using MNR to clean up the creek in order to protect the Klity children from excess Pb exposure. Methods: We analyzed the physical and chemical transformation of Pb contaminated sediment in the creek and developed a remedial action goal and cleanup level using the Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic model (IEUBK). We empirically determined the natural recovery (NR) potentials and rates using 10 years of data monitoring the water and sediment samples from eight monitoring stations (KC1 to KC8). Results: Klity Creek has NR potential for water except at KC2, which is closest to the spill and the other improperly managed Pb sources. However, the creek has no NR potential for sediment except at the KC8 location (NR rate = 11.1 ± 3.0 × 10–3 month–1) farthest from the spill. Conclusion: The MNR method is not suitable to use as the sole remedial approach for Klity Creek (KC2 to KC7). Although MNR is applicable at KC8, it may require up to 377 ± 76 years to restore the sediment to the background Pb concentration. Citation: Phenrat T, Otwong A, Chantharit A, Lowry GV. 2016. Ten-year monitored natural recovery of lead-contaminated mine tailing in Klity Creek, Kanchanaburi Province, Thailand. Environ Health Perspect 124:1511–1520; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP215 PMID:27157823

  4. Methanogenic biodegradation of creosote contaminants in natural and simulated ground-water ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Godsy, E. Michael; Goerlitz, Donald; Grbic-Galic, Dunja

    1992-01-01

    Wastes from a wood preserving plant in Pensacola, Florida have contaminated the near-surface sand-and-gravel aquifer with creosote-derived compounds and pentachlorophenol. Contamination resulted from the discharge of plant waste waters to and subsequent seepage from unlined surface impoundments that were in direct hydraulic contact with the ground water. Two distinct phases resulted when the creosote and water mixed: a denser than water hydrocarbon phase that moved vertically downward, and an organic-rich aqueous phase that moved laterally with the ground-water flow. The aqueous phase is enriched in organic acids, phenolic compounds, single- and double-ring nitrogen, sulfur, and oxygen containing compounds, and single- and double-ring aromatic hydrocarbons. The ground water is devoid of dissolved O2, is 60-70% saturated with CH4 and contains H2S. Field analyses document a greater decrease in concentration of organic fatty acids, benzoic acid, phenol, 2-, 3-, 4-methylphenol, quinoline, isoquinoline, 1(2H)-quinolinone, and 2(1H)-isoquinolinone during downgradient movement in the aquifer than could be explained by dilution and/or dispersion. Laboratory microcosm studies have shown that within the study region, this effect can be attributed to microbial degradation to CH4 and CO2. A small but active methanogenic population was found on sediment materials taken from highly contaminated parts of the aquifer.

  5. Mediterranean milk and milk products.

    PubMed

    Hinrichs, Jörg

    2004-03-01

    Milk and dairy products are part of a healthy Mediterranean diet which, besides cow's milk, also consists of sheep's, goat's and buffalo's milk--alone or as a mixture---as raw material. The fat and protein composition of the milk of the various animal species differs only slightly, but in every case it has a high priority in human nutrition. The milk proteins are characterized by a high content of essential amino acids. Beyond that macromolecules,which have various biological functions, are available or may be formed by proteolysis in milk. Taking this into consideration, the technology of different well-known Italian and German cheese types is presented and the differences as well as correspondences regarding nutrition are discussed. Especially Ricotta and Mascarpone are discussed in detail. Ricotta represents a special feature as this cheese is traditionally made of whey and cream. Thus the highly valuable whey proteins which contain a higher amount of the amino acids lysine, methionine and cysteic acid in comparison to casein and, additionally, to soy protein, are made usable for human nutrition. Finally, it is pointed out on the basis of individual examples that technologies to enrich whey proteins in cheese are already available and in use. Thus, the flavor of low fat cheese is improved and the nutritional value is increased. PMID:15052494

  6. Geochemical, mineralogical and microbiological characteristics of sediment from a naturally reduced zone in a uranium-contaminated aquife

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, K M; K Kukkadapu, R K; Qafoku, N P; Peacock, A D; Lesher, E; Williams, K H; Bargar, J R; Wilkins, M J; Figueroa, L; Ranville, J; Davis, J A; Long, P E

    2012-05-23

    Localized zones or lenses of naturally reduced sediments have the potential to play a significant role in the fate and transport of redox-sensitive metals and metalloids in aquifers. To assess the mineralogy, microbiology and redox processes that occur in these zones, several cores from a region of naturally occurring reducing conditions in a U-contaminated aquifer (Rifle, CO) were examined. Sediment samples from a transect of cores ranging from oxic/suboxic Rifle aquifer sediment to naturally reduced sediment were analyzed for U and Fe content, oxidation state, and mineralogy; reduced S phases; and solid-phase organic C content using a suite of analytical and spectroscopic techniques on bulk sediment and size fractions. Solid-phase U concentrations were higher in the naturally reduced zone, with a high proportion of the U present as U(IV). The sediments were also elevated in reduced S phases and Fe(II), indicating it is very likely that U(VI), Fe(III), and SO4 reduction has occurred or is occurring in the sediment. The microbial community was assessed using lipid- and DNA-based techniques, and statistical redundancy analysis was performed to determine correlations between the microbial community and the geochemistry. Increased concentrations of solid-phase organic C and biomass in the naturally reduced sediment suggests that natural bioreduction is stimulated by a zone of increased organic C concentration associated with fine-grained material and lower permeability to groundwater flow. Characterization of the naturally bioreduced sediment provides an understanding of the natural processes that occur in the sediment under reducing conditions and how they may impact natural attenuation of radionuclides and other redox sensitive materials. Results also suggest the importance of recalcitrant organic C for maintaining reducing conditions and U immobilization.

  7. Geochemical, mineralogical and microbiological characteristics of sediment from a naturally reduced zone in a uranium-contaminated aquifer

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, Kate M.; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Qafoku, Nikolla; Peacock, Aaron D.; Lesher, E.; Williams, Kenneth H.; Bargar, John R.; Wilkins, Michael J.; Figueroa, Linda A.; Ranville, James; Davis, James; Long, Philip E.

    2012-05-23

    Localized zones or lenses of naturally reduced sediments have the potential to play a significant role in the fate and transport of redox-sensitive metals and metalloids in aquifers. To assess the mineralogy, microbiology, and redox processes that occur in these zones, we examined several cores from a region of naturally occurring reducing conditions in a uranium-contaminated aquifer (Rifle, CO). Sediment samples from a transect of cores ranging from oxic/suboxic Rifle aquifer sediment to naturally reduced sediment were analyzed for uranium and iron content, oxidation state, and mineralogy, reduced sulfur phases, and solid phase organic carbon content using a suite of analytical and spectroscopic techniques on bulk sediment and size fractions. Solid-phase uranium concentrations were higher in the naturally reduced zone, with a high proportion of the uranium present as reduced U(IV). The sediments were also elevated in reduced sulfur phases and Fe(II), indicating it is very likely that U(VI), Fe(III), and sulfate reduction occurred or is occurring in the sediment. The microbial community was assessed using lipid- and DNA-based techniques, and statistical redundancy analysis was performed to determine correlations between the microbial community and the geochemistry. Increased concentration of solid phase organic carbon and biomass in the naturally reduced sediment suggests that natural bioreduction is stimulated by a zone of increased organic carbon concentration associated with fine-grained material and lower permeability to groundwater flow. Characterization of the naturally bioreduced sediment provides an understanding of the natural processes that occur in the sediment under reducing conditions and how they may impact natural attenuation of radionuclides and other redox sensitive materials. Results also suggest the importance of recalcitrant organic carbon for maintaining reducing conditions and uranium immobilization.

  8. Geochemical, mineralogical and microbiological characteristics of sediment from a naturally reduced zone in a uranium-contaminated aquifer

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, K. M.; Kukkadapu, R. K.; Qafoku, N. P.; Peacock, A. D.; Lesher, E.; Williams, K. H.; Bargar, J. R.; Wilkins, M. J.; Figueroa, L.; Ranville, J.; Davis, J. A.; Long, P. E.

    2012-08-01

    Localized zones or lenses of naturally reduced sediments have the potential to play a significant role in the fate and transport of redox-sensitive metals and metalloids in aquifers. To assess the mineralogy, microbiology and redox processes that occur in these zones, several cores from a region of naturally occurring reducing conditions in a U-contaminated aquifer (Rifle, CO) were examined. Sediment samples from a transect of cores ranging from oxic/suboxic Rifle aquifer sediment to naturally reduced sediment were analyzed for U and Fe content, oxidation state, and mineralogy; reduced S phases; and solid-phase organic C content using a suite of analytical and spectroscopic techniques on bulk sediment and size fractions. Solid-phase U concentrations were higher in the naturally reduced zone, with a high proportion of the U present as U(IV). The sediments were also elevated in reduced S phases and Fe(II), indicating it is very likely that U(VI), Fe(III), and SO4 reduction has occurred or is occurring in the sediment. The microbial community was assessed using lipid- and DNA-based techniques, and statistical redundancy analysis was performed to determine correlations between the microbial community and the geochemistry. Increased concentrations of solid-phase organic C and biomass in the naturally reduced sediment suggests that natural bioreduction is stimulated by a zone of increased organic C concentration associated with fine-grained material and lower permeability to groundwater flow. Characterization of the naturally bioreduced sediment provides an understanding of the natural processes that occur in the sediment under reducing conditions and how they may impact natural attenuation of radionuclides and other redox sensitive materials. Results also suggest the importance of recalcitrant organic C for maintaining reducing conditions and U immobilization.

  9. Quantifying heavy metals sequestration by sulfate-reducing bacteria in an Acid mine drainage-contaminated natural wetland.

    PubMed

    Moreau, John W; Fournelle, John H; Banfield, Jillian F

    2013-01-01

    Bioremediation strategies that depend on bacterial sulfate reduction for heavy metals remediation harness the reactivity of these metals with biogenic aqueous sulfide. Quantitative knowledge of the degree to which specific toxic metals are partitioned into various sulfide, oxide, or other phases is important for predicting the long-term mobility of these metals under environmental conditions. Here we report the quantitative partitioning into sedimentary biogenic sulfides of a suite of metals and metalloids associated with acid mine drainage contamination of a natural estuarine wetland for over a century.

  10. Quantifying Heavy Metals Sequestration by Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in an Acid Mine Drainage-Contaminated Natural Wetland

    PubMed Central

    Moreau, John W.; Fournelle, John H.; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2013-01-01

    Bioremediation strategies that depend on bacterial sulfate reduction for heavy metals remediation harness the reactivity of these metals with biogenic aqueous sulfide. Quantitative knowledge of the degree to which specific toxic metals are partitioned into various sulfide, oxide, or other phases is important for predicting the long-term mobility of these metals under environmental conditions. Here we report the quantitative partitioning into sedimentary biogenic sulfides of a suite of metals and metalloids associated with acid mine drainage contamination of a natural estuarine wetland for over a century. PMID:23487496

  11. Use of 222Rn as natural tracer for LNAPL quantification and recovery efficiency in a crude-oil contaminated aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponsin, Violaine; Chablais, Amélie; Dumont, Julien; Cardetti, Marc; Radakovitch, Olivier; Höhener, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    In august 2009, five hectares of the pristine gravel aquifer of Crau in southern France were contaminated by 5,100 m3 of crude oil due to the sudden break of a pipeline. The remediation of this site is still ongoing and consists in replacement and off-site disposal of contaminated topsoils, plume management by hydraulic groundwater barriers with re-injection of activated charcoal-treated waters, and dual-phase LNAPL extraction in the source zone. It is anticipated to stop these remediation actions when the rate of hydrocarbon extraction becomes inefficient. The volume of LNAPL is estimated between 100 and 1000 m3. A more accurate estimation is needed for the implementation of natural attenuation once physical treatment is discontinued. 222Rn has been introduced as a natural tracer for the quantification of LNAPL saturation in porous media under natural gradient conditions (Hunkeler et al., 1997; Semprini et al., 2000; Schubert et al., 2007). The objective of this study was to investigate whether 222Rn in groundwater can be used as a tracer for LNAPL quantification at a field site treated by LNAPL removal. To this end, groundwater samples were obtained in pristine monitoring wells from upgradient the contamination using submersible electric pumps, and in LNAPL recovery wells. There, samples were obtained from the tap on the hard PVC tubing used for pumping groundwater to the treatment facility. For 222Rn analysis, flasks of 250 mL were gently filled and were capped thereafter without permitting air bubbles. The flasks were analysed within 6 to 24 hours. The 222Rn activity of groundwater was measured by a Rn detector (RAD7-Durridge, Co. Inc.). The measurements were spaced over more than 15 months in order to account for seasonal changes. Each well was sampled at least 3 times. In pristine groundwater, the radon activity was relatively constant and remained always > 14 Bq/L. The radon activities in the groundwater of source zone wells were also relatively constant and

  12. Dynamics of natural contamination by aluminium and iron rich colloids in the volcanic aquifers of Central Italy.

    PubMed

    Viaroli, Stefano; Cuoco, Emilio; Mazza, Roberto; Tedesco, Dario

    2016-10-01

    The dynamics of natural contamination by Al and Fe colloids in volcanic aquifers of central-southern Italy were investigated. Localized perched aquifers, and their relative discharges, are strongly affected by the presence of massive suspended solids, which confer a white-lacteous coloration to the water. This phenomenon occasionally caused the interruption of water distribution due to the exceeding of Al and Fe concentrations in aquifers exploited for human supply. The cause was ascribed to water seepage from perched aquifers. Water discharges affected by such contamination was investigated for the Rocca Ripesena area (north-eastern sector of Vulsini Volcanic District) and for the Rianale Stream Valley (Roccamonfina Volcanic Complex). Hydrogeological survey of both areas confirmed the presence of perched aquifers not previously considered due to their low productivity. Pluviometric data and chemical parameters were periodically monitored. Water mineralization decreased with increasing rainfall, conversely Al and Fe concentrations increased. Statistical analysis confirmed the dependence of all the chemical variables on rock leaching, with the sole exception of Al and Fe which were imputed to colloids mobilization from local, strongly pedogenized pyroclastic material. The similarities in hydrogeological settings and mobilization dynamics in both areas suggest that the Al and Fe colloidal contamination should be more abundant than currently known in quaternary volcanic areas. PMID:27436380

  13. Microbial respiration and natural attenuation of benzene contaminated soils investigated by cavity enhanced Raman multi-gas spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Jochum, Tobias; Michalzik, Beate; Bachmann, Anne; Popp, Jürgen; Frosch, Torsten

    2015-05-01

    Soil and groundwater contamination with benzene can cause serious environmental damage. However, many soil microorganisms are capable to adapt and are known to strongly control the fate of organic contamination. Innovative cavity enhanced Raman multi-gas spectroscopy (CERS) was applied to investigate the short-term response of the soil micro-flora to sudden surface contamination with benzene regarding the temporal variations of gas products and their exchange rates with the adjacent atmosphere. (13)C-labeled benzene was spiked on a silty-loamy soil column in order to track and separate the changes in heterotrophic soil respiration - involving (12)CO2 and O2- from the natural attenuation process of benzene degradation to ultimately form (13)CO2. The respiratory quotient (RQ) decreased from a value 0.98 to 0.46 directly after the spiking and increased again within 33 hours to a value of 0.72. This coincided with the maximum (13)CO2 concentration rate (0.63 μmol m(-2) s(-1)), indicating the highest benzene degradation at 33 hours after the spiking event. The diffusion of benzene in the headspace and the biodegradation into (13)CO2 were simultaneously monitored and 12 days after the benzene spiking no measurable degradation was detected anymore. The RQ finally returned to a value of 0.96 demonstrating the reestablished aerobic respiration.

  14. Dynamics of natural contamination by aluminium and iron rich colloids in the volcanic aquifers of Central Italy.

    PubMed

    Viaroli, Stefano; Cuoco, Emilio; Mazza, Roberto; Tedesco, Dario

    2016-10-01

    The dynamics of natural contamination by Al and Fe colloids in volcanic aquifers of central-southern Italy were investigated. Localized perched aquifers, and their relative discharges, are strongly affected by the presence of massive suspended solids, which confer a white-lacteous coloration to the water. This phenomenon occasionally caused the interruption of water distribution due to the exceeding of Al and Fe concentrations in aquifers exploited for human supply. The cause was ascribed to water seepage from perched aquifers. Water discharges affected by such contamination was investigated for the Rocca Ripesena area (north-eastern sector of Vulsini Volcanic District) and for the Rianale Stream Valley (Roccamonfina Volcanic Complex). Hydrogeological survey of both areas confirmed the presence of perched aquifers not previously considered due to their low productivity. Pluviometric data and chemical parameters were periodically monitored. Water mineralization decreased with increasing rainfall, conversely Al and Fe concentrations increased. Statistical analysis confirmed the dependence of all the chemical variables on rock leaching, with the sole exception of Al and Fe which were imputed to colloids mobilization from local, strongly pedogenized pyroclastic material. The similarities in hydrogeological settings and mobilization dynamics in both areas suggest that the Al and Fe colloidal contamination should be more abundant than currently known in quaternary volcanic areas.

  15. Cultivable microbial communities in raw cow milk and potential transfers from stables of sixteen French farms.

    PubMed

    Vacheyrou, Mallory; Normand, Anne-Cécile; Guyot, Philippe; Cassagne, Carole; Piarroux, Renaud; Bouton, Yvette

    2011-04-29

    The indigenous microflora in raw milk plays an important role in the diversity of cheese flavours and may protect against the growth of pathogens, but the sources of contamination and the factors that might affect the microbial communities in milk are not well known. The objectives of this study were to broaden knowledge of the microbial composition of milk and to assess microbial transfers from the stable to the milk. Air (collected in milking parlour and stable), dust (passively collected using plastic box), cow teat surface, and hay and milk samples were collected in 16 French farms with either stanchion barn or freestall barn configurations and plated on various culture media. Bacterial and fungal colonies were identified using phenotypic and DNA sequencing methods. Results showed that most of the fungal species and environmental bacteria found in the milk were also found in the stable and the milking parlour environments, indicating large microbial transfer from stable to milking parlour then to milk. However, milk from the stanchion barns were more contaminated than milk from freestall barns. Contrasting with other bacterial and fungal species, useful cheese-making bacteria--lactobacilli and PAB--were frequently identified in the milk and on the teat surface but were rarely found in other environments. In conclusion, milk contamination by the stable environment is considerable, even if it is lower in farms with a milking parlour. Besides this environmental contamination, the teat surface remains the main source of useful cheese-making bacteria.

  16. Microbiological Evaluation of Ultra-High-Temperature (UHT)-Treated Milk Close to Expiry Date and Routine Home Practices for Preservation of Milk

    PubMed Central

    Jeppu, Udayalaxmi; Jayaram, Namitha; Satya, Sneha; Purayil, Amrutha Kandathil

    2015-01-01

    Background: As milk is an excellent medium for growth of microorganisms, milk gets contaminated very easily leading to its early spoilage and to milk-borne diseases. Objectives: To compare the quality of pasteurized milk with milk cooker-treated milk and to compare the quality of fresh ultra-high-temperature (UHT) milk with that of UHT milk close to expiry date. Materials and Methods: Samples of pasteurized milk, milk heated in milk cooker, fresh UHT milk, and UHT milk nearing expiry date were tested by methylene blue reduction test, coliform test, and colony count test. The results were analyzed statistically using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 11.5. Results: All milk samples passed the methylene blue test and UHT-treated milk passed the coliform test also. Out of the 30 fresh pasteurized milk samples, seven (23.3%) passed the coliform test; but the same after milk cooker treatment, 16 (53.3%) passed the coliform test (P < 0.05). Fourteen (46.6%) out of 30 fresh pasteurized milk samples failed the colony count test, but the same after milk cooker treatment only eight (26.6%) failed the test (P = 0.583). Only seven out of the 60 UHT milk samples failed the colony count test and out of these six (20%) were close to expiry date (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Milk cooker-treated milk appears to be safer than the fresh pasteurized milk. Fresh UHT-treated milk is safer then UHT milk close to expiry date. PMID:26170541

  17. Effect of immiscible liquid contaminants on P-wave transmission through natural aquifer samples

    SciTech Connect

    Geller, Jil T.; Ajo-Franklin, Jonathan B.; Majer, Ernest L.

    2003-01-31

    We performed core-scale laboratory experiments to examine the effect of non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) contaminants on P-wave velocity and attenuation in heterogeneous media. This work is part of a larger project to develop crosswell seismic methods for minimally invasive NAPL detection. The test site is the former DOE Pinellas Plant in Florida, which has known NAPL contamination in the surficial aquifer. Field measurements revealed a zone of anomalously high seismic attenuation, which may be due to lithology and/or contaminants (NAPL or gas phase). Intact core was obtained from the field site, and P-wave transmission was measured by the pulse-transmission technique with a 500 kHz transducer. Two types of samples were tested: a clean fine sand from the upper portion of the surficial aquifer, and clayey-silty sand with shell fragments and phosphate nodules from the lower portion. Either NAPL trichloroethene or toluene was injected into the initially water-saturated sample. Maximum NAPL saturations ranged from 30 to 50% of the pore space. P-wave velocity varied by approximately 4% among the water-saturated samples, while velocities decreased by 5 to 9% in samples at maximum NAPL saturation compared to water-saturated conditions. The clay and silt fraction as well as the larger scatterers in the clayey-silty sands apparently caused greater P-wave attenuation compared to the clean sand. The presence of NAPLs caused a 34 to 54% decrease in amplitudes of the first arrival. The central frequency of the transmitted energy ranged from 85 to 200 kHz, and was sensitive to both grain texture and presence of NAPL. The results are consistent with previous trends observed in homogeneous sand packs. More data will be acquired to interpret P-wave tomograms from crosswell field measurements, determine the cause of high attenuation observed in the field data and evaluate the sensitivity of seismic methods for NAPL detection.

  18. Stable lead isotopes reveal a natural source of high lead concentrations to gasoline-contaminated groundwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landmeyer, J.E.; Bradley, P.M.; Bullen, T.D.

    2003-01-01

    Concentrations of total lead as high as 1,600 ??g/L were detected in gasoline-contaminated and uncontaminated groundwater at three gasoline-release sites in South Carolina. Total lead concentrations were highest in turbid groundwater samples from gasoline-contaminated and uncontaminated wells, whereas lower turbidity groundwater samples (collected using low-flow methods) had lower total lead concentrations. Dissolved lead concentrations in all wells sampled, however, were less than 15 ??g total lead/L, the current United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL). Because many total lead concentrations exceeded the MCL, the source of lead to the groundwater system at two of the three sites was investigated using a stable lead isotope ratio approach. Plots of the stable isotope ratios of lead (Pb) in groundwater as 207Pb/206Pb versus 208Pb/206Pb, and 208Pb/204Pb versus 206Pb/204Pb were similar to ratios characteristic of lead-based minerals in local rocks of the southeastern US, and were not similar to the stable lead isotopes ratios characteristic of distant lead ore deposits such as Broken Hill, Australia, used to produce tetraethyl lead in gasoline products prior to its phase-out and ban in the United States. Moreover, the isotopic composition of dissolved lead was equivalent to the isotopic composition of total lead in turbid samples collected from the same well, suggesting that the majority of the lead detected in the groundwater samples was associated with sediment particulates of indigenous aquifer material, rather than lead associated with spilled leaded gasoline. The results of this investigation indicate that (1) lead detected at some gasoline-release sites may be derived from the local aquifer material, rather than the gasoline release, and consequently may affect site-specific remediation goals; (2) non-low flow groundwater sampling methods, such as a disposable bailer, may result in turbid groundwater samples and

  19. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the analysis of free and conjugated natural estrogens in cow milk without deconjugation.

    PubMed

    Capriotti, Anna Laura; Cavaliere, Chiara; Foglia, Patrizia; Samperi, Roberto; Stampachiacchiere, Serena; Ventura, Salvatore; Laganà, Aldo

    2015-02-01

    A sensitive liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of free and conjugated estrogens in cow milk is described. Milk samples were diluted with water and then extracted and cleaned up by solid-phase extraction using graphitized carbon black as adsorbent material, without any enzymatic cleavage, derivatization, and/or protein precipitation step. Two fractions were collected (free and conjugated estrogens) and analyzed separately. Mass spectrometry analysis was performed in negative ion mode using selected reaction monitoring acquisition mode. For all compounds, the coefficients of determination (R(2)) ranged between 0.9892 and 0.9997. Analytical recoveries were in the range of 86-109% for free estrogens and 85-118% for conjugates, with relative standard deviations below 10%, and the method detection limit ranged between 3 and 80 ng L(-1). Finally, the developed method was used to determine the presence of free and conjugated estrogens in six retail milk samples (five cow milk samples and one goat milk sample) and one goat milk sample provided by a local shepherd. Estrone was found to be the major free estrogen present in commercial milk samples, and estrone 3-sulfate showed the highest concentration among the target conjugated estrogens. Estriol was also observed in some analyzed milk samples, but the concentrations were always below the limit of quantification.

  20. Genotoxicity and contamination of natural and anthropogenically transformed soils of the city of Rostov-on-Don with heavy metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbov, S. N.; Bezuglova, O. S.; Varduni, T. V.; Gorovtsov, A. V.; Tagiverdiev, S. S.; Hildebrant, Yu. A.

    2015-12-01

    The integrated characteristics of urban soils included the assessment of heavy metal pollution linked to the determination of soil genotoxicity, which characterizes the soil capacity to affect the structural and functional state of the genetic apparatus of soil biota. Increased concentration of chromium caused by the high background level was found in soils of the city of Rostov-on-Don. A weak contamination of surface horizons with lead and arsenic was also noted. Maximum permissible concentration of zinc was locally exceeded, including deep soil horizons. It was found that there is no definite correlation between the total content of heavy metals, their mobile compounds, and the parameters of genotoxicity in the natural and anthropogenically transformed soils. It was concluded that soil genotoxicity characterizes the total mutagenic activity associated with the presence of a set of genotoxicants of different nature.

  1. Environmental management: Integrating ecological evaluation, remediation, restoration, natural resource damage assessment and long-term stewardship on contaminated lands

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Ecological evaluation is essential for remediation, restoration, and Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA), and forms the basis for many management practices. These include determining status and trends of biological, physical, or chemical/radiological conditions, conducting environmental impact assessments, performing remedial actions should remediation fail, managing ecosystems and wildlife, and assessing the efficacy of remediation, restoration, and long-term stewardship. The objective of this paper is to explore the meanings of these assessments, examine the relationships among them, and suggest methods of integration that will move environmental management forward. While remediation, restoration, and NRDA, among others, are often conducted separately, it is important to integrate them for contaminated land where the risks to ecoreceptors (including humans) can be high, and the potential damage to functioning ecosystems great. Ecological evaluations can range from inventories of local plants and animals, determinations of reproductive success of particular species, levels of contaminants in organisms, kinds and levels of effects, and environmental impact assessments, to very formal ecological risk assessments for a chemical or other stressor. Such evaluations can range from the individual species to populations, communities, ecosystems or the landscape scale. Ecological evaluations serve as the basis for making decisions about the levels and kinds of remediation, the levels and kinds of restoration possible, and the degree and kinds of natural resource injuries that have occurred because of contamination. Many different disciplines are involved in ecological evaluation, including biologists, conservationists, foresters, restoration ecologists, ecological engineers, economists, hydrologist, and geologists. Since ecological evaluation forms the basis for so many different types of environmental management, it seems reasonable to integrate management options

  2. In vivo effect of deoxynivalenol (DON) naturally contaminated feed on porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection.

    PubMed

    Savard, Christian; Pinilla, Vicente; Provost, Chantale; Gagnon, Carl A; Chorfi, Younes

    2014-12-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON), also known as vomitoxin, is the most prevalent type B trichothecene mycotoxin worldwide. Pigs show a great sensitivity to DON, and because of the high proportion of grains in their diets, they are frequently exposed to this mycotoxin. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of DON naturally contaminated feed on porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection, the most important porcine viral pathogen in swine. Experimental infections were performed with 30 animals. Piglets were randomly divided into three groups of 10 animals based on DON content of diets (0, 2.5 and 3.5 mg/kg DON). All experimental groups were further divided into subgroups of 6 pigs and were inoculated with PRRSV. The remaining pigs (control) were sham-inoculated with PBS. Pigs were daily monitored for temperature, weight and clinical signs for 21 days. Blood samples were collected and tested for PRRSV RNA and for virus specific antibodies. Results of PRRSV infection showed that ingestion of diet highly contaminated with DON greatly increases the effect of PRRSV infection on weight gain, lung lesions and mortality, without increasing significantly viral replication, for which the tendency is rather directed toward a decrease of replication. These results suggest that PRRSV infection could exacerbate anorectic effect of DON, when ingested in large doses. Results also demonstrate a DON negative effect on PRRSV-specific humoral responses. This study demonstrate that high concentrations of DON naturally contaminated feed decreased the immune response against PRRSV and influenced the course of PRRSV infection in pigs.

  3. Environmental management: integrating ecological evaluation, remediation, restoration, natural resource damage assessment and long-term stewardship on contaminated lands.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna

    2008-08-01

    Ecological evaluation is essential for remediation, restoration, and Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA), and forms the basis for many management practices. These include determining status and trends of biological, physical, or chemical/radiological conditions, conducting environmental impact assessments, performing remedial actions should remediation fail, managing ecosystems and wildlife, and assessing the efficacy of remediation, restoration, and long-term stewardship. The objective of this paper is to explore the meanings of these assessments, examine the relationships among them, and suggest methods of integration that will move environmental management forward. While remediation, restoration, and NRDA, among others, are often conducted separately, it is important to integrate them for contaminated land where the risks to ecoreceptors (including humans) can be high, and the potential damage to functioning ecosystems great. Ecological evaluations can range from inventories of local plants and animals, determinations of reproductive success of particular species, levels of contaminants in organisms, kinds and levels of effects, and environmental impact assessments, to very formal ecological risk assessments for a chemical or other stressor. Such evaluations can range from the individual species to populations, communities, ecosystems or the landscape scale. Ecological evaluations serve as the basis for making decisions about the levels and kinds of remediation, the levels and kinds of restoration possible, and the degree and kinds of natural resource injuries that have occurred because of contamination. Many different disciplines are involved in ecological evaluation, including biologists, conservationists, foresters, restoration ecologists, ecological engineers, economists, hydrologist, and geologists. Since ecological evaluation forms the basis for so many different types of environmental management, it seems reasonable to integrate management options

  4. Hot Topic: Brown marmorated stink bug odor compounds do not transfer into milk by feeding bug-contaminated corn silage to lactating dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB), Halyomorpha halys, is an emerging invasive species of grave concern to agriculture as a polyphagous plant pest with potential negative impact on the dairy industry. We sought to determine the risk of including BMSB contaminated silage in lactating dairy cow ratio...

  5. Development and validation of a stochastic model for potential growth of Listeria monocytogenes in naturally contaminated lightly preserved seafood.

    PubMed

    Mejlholm, Ole; Bøknæs, Niels; Dalgaard, Paw

    2015-02-01

    A new stochastic model for the simultaneous growth of Listeria monocytogenes and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) was developed and validated on data from naturally contaminated samples of cold-smoked Greenland halibut (CSGH) and cold-smoked salmon (CSS). During industrial processing these samples were added acetic and/or lactic acids. The stochastic model was developed from an existing deterministic model including the effect of 12 environmental parameters and microbial interaction (O. Mejlholm and P. Dalgaard, Food Microbiology, submitted for publication). Observed maximum population density (MPD) values of L. monocytogenes in naturally contaminated samples of CSGH and CSS were accurately predicted by the stochastic model based on measured variability in product characteristics and storage conditions. Results comparable to those from the stochastic model were obtained, when product characteristics of the least and most preserved sample of CSGH and CSS were used as input for the existing deterministic model. For both modelling approaches, it was shown that lag time and the effect of microbial interaction needs to be included to accurately predict MPD values of L. monocytogenes. Addition of organic acids to CSGH and CSS was confirmed as a suitable mitigation strategy against the risk of growth by L. monocytogenes as both types of products were in compliance with the EU regulation on ready-to-eat foods.

  6. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals and oil and natural gas operations: Potential environmental contamination and recommendations to assess complex environmental mixtures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kassotis, Christopher D.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Lin, Chung-Ho; McElroy, Jane A.; Nagel, Susan C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hydraulic fracturing technologies, developed over the last 65 years, have only recently been combined with horizontal drilling to unlock oil and gas reserves previously deemed inaccessible. While these technologies have dramatically increased domestic oil and natural gas production, they have also raised concerns for the potential contamination of local water supplies with the approximately 1,000 chemicals used throughout the process, including many known or suspected endocrine-disrupting chemicals.Objectives: We discuss the need for an endocrine component to health assessments for drilling-dense regions in the context of hormonal and anti-hormonal activities for chemicals used.Methods: We discuss the literature on 1) surface and ground water contamination by oil and gas extraction operations, and 2) potential human exposure, particularly in context of the total hormonal and anti-hormonal activities present in surface and ground water from natural and anthropogenic sources, with initial analytical results and critical knowledge gaps discussed.Discussion: In light of the potential for environmental release of oil and gas chemicals that can disrupt hormone receptor systems, we recommend methods for assessing complex hormonally active environmental mixtures.Conclusions: We describe a need for an endocrine-centric component for overall health assessments and provide supporting information that using this may help explain reported adverse health trends as well as help develop recommendations for environmental impact assessments and monitoring programs.

  7. Bacterial Endophytes Isolated from Plants in Natural Oil Seep Soils with Chronic Hydrocarbon Contamination

    PubMed Central

    Lumactud, Rhea; Shen, Shu Yi; Lau, Mimas; Fulthorpe, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial endophytic communities of four plants growing abundantly in soils highly contaminated by hydrocarbons were analyzed through culturable and culture-independent means. Given their tolerance to the high levels of petroleum contamination at our study site, we sought evidence that Achillea millefolium, Solidago canadensis, Trifolium aureum, and Dactylis glomerata support high levels of hydrocarbon degrading endophytes. A total of 190 isolates were isolated from four plant species. The isolates were identified by partial 16S rDNA sequence analysis, with class Actinobacteria as the dominant group in all species except S. canadensis, which was dominated by Gammaproteobacteria. Microbacterium foliorum and Plantibacter flavus were present in all the plants, with M. foliorum showing predominance in D. glomerata and both endophytic bacterial species dominated T. aureum. More than 50% of the isolates demonstrated degradative capabilities for octanol, toluene, naphthalene, kerosene, or motor oil based on sole carbon source growth screens involving the reduction of tetrazolium dye. P. flavus isolates from all the sampled plants showed growth on all the petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) substrates tested. Mineralization of toluene and naphthalene was confirmed using gas-chromatography. 16S based terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis revealed significant differences between the endophytic bacterial communities showing them to be plant host specific at this site. To our knowledge, this is the first account of the degradation potential of bacterial endophytes in these commonly occurring pioneer plants that were not previously known as phytoremediating plants. PMID:27252685

  8. Infestation and Quantification of Ochratoxigenic Fungi in Barley and Wheat Naturally Contaminated with Ochratoxin A.

    PubMed

    Kuruc, Julie; Hegstad, Justin; Lee, Hyun Jung; Simons, Kristin; Ryu, Dojin; Wolf-Hall, Charlene

    2015-07-01

    Cereal grains are a significant source of ochratoxin A (OTA) in the human diet. Multiple ochratoxigenic Aspergillus and Penicillium spp. have been reported as contaminants on various cereal grains around the world, although relatively few species dominate in any given location. Efforts to mitigate the risk of fungal contamination and OTA accumulation can be made pre- and postharvest. Still, a rapid and reliable screening method is sought that can be used to predict the OTA level of a sample and to inform risk assessments prior to processing. In this study, we assessed the efficacy of two OTA-related indices for OTA level prediction. Infestation rates were determined by direct plating for freshly harvested and stored barley, durum, and hard red spring wheat samples (n = 139) with known OTA levels. Presumptive ochratoxigenic isolates were tested for their ability to produce OTA. The nonribosomal peptide synthase (otanpsPN) involved in OTA biosynthesis was used to quantify ochratoxigenic fungi in barley and wheat. Viable Penicillium verrucosum was present in 45% of the samples. In total, 62.7% (n = 110) of the P. verrucosum isolates tested produced OTA on dichloran yeast extract sucrose 18% glycerol agar. Both OTA level and infestation rate (r = 0.30), as well as OTA level and otanpsPN concentration (r = 0.56), were weakly correlated. Neither infestation rate nor otanpsPN concentration is a reliable predictor of OTA level in a sample.

  9. Modeling fish biological responses to contaminants and natural variability in estuaries.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, V F; Vasconcelos, R P; França, S; Serafim, A; Lopes, B; Company, R; Bebianno, M J; Costa, M J; Cabral, H N

    2014-05-01

    Understanding the factors that influence biological responses to contaminants has long been a major goal in marine environmental research. Seven estuarine sites along the Portuguese coast were sampled over a year, and different biological responses of Pomatoschistus microps and Atherina presbyter were determined: superoxide dismutase, catalase, ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase, glutathione S-transferase, metallothioneins, lipid peroxidation, RNA:DNA ratio and condition factor K. Generalized linear models (GLM) were developed for each biological variable per species in relation to sediment chemical characterization (metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons concentration) and environmental conditions (month, site, water temperature, salinity, depth and mud percentage in the sediment). GLM varied in explanatory power and in the set of predictor variables included in the models. Environmental factors were frequently selected as predictor variables. Individual metals concentration and sediment quality guidelines (integrating all metals) were the major contaminants explaining biological variability. Accordingly, models for metallothioneins and lipid peroxidation had highest explanatory power. Species-specific responses and dataset size were the basis of observed differences between GLM for the two species.

  10. Infestation and Quantification of Ochratoxigenic Fungi in Barley and Wheat Naturally Contaminated with Ochratoxin A.

    PubMed

    Kuruc, Julie; Hegstad, Justin; Lee, Hyun Jung; Simons, Kristin; Ryu, Dojin; Wolf-Hall, Charlene

    2015-07-01

    Cereal grains are a significant source of ochratoxin A (OTA) in the human diet. Multiple ochratoxigenic Aspergillus and Penicillium spp. have been reported as contaminants on various cereal grains around the world, although relatively few species dominate in any given location. Efforts to mitigate the risk of fungal contamination and OTA accumulation can be made pre- and postharvest. Still, a rapid and reliable screening method is sought that can be used to predict the OTA level of a sample and to inform risk assessments prior to processing. In this study, we assessed the efficacy of two OTA-related indices for OTA level prediction. Infestation rates were determined by direct plating for freshly harvested and stored barley, durum, and hard red spring wheat samples (n = 139) with known OTA levels. Presumptive ochratoxigenic isolates were tested for their ability to produce OTA. The nonribosomal peptide synthase (otanpsPN) involved in OTA biosynthesis was used to quantify ochratoxigenic fungi in barley and wheat. Viable Penicillium verrucosum was present in 45% of the samples. In total, 62.7% (n = 110) of the P. verrucosum isolates tested produced OTA on dichloran yeast extract sucrose 18% glycerol agar. Both OTA level and infestation rate (r = 0.30), as well as OTA level and otanpsPN concentration (r = 0.56), were weakly correlated. Neither infestation rate nor otanpsPN concentration is a reliable predictor of OTA level in a sample. PMID:26197287

  11. Bacterial Endophytes Isolated from Plants in Natural Oil Seep Soils with Chronic Hydrocarbon Contamination.

    PubMed

    Lumactud, Rhea; Shen, Shu Yi; Lau, Mimas; Fulthorpe, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial endophytic communities of four plants growing abundantly in soils highly contaminated by hydrocarbons were analyzed through culturable and culture-independent means. Given their tolerance to the high levels of petroleum contamination at our study site, we sought evidence that Achillea millefolium, Solidago canadensis, Trifolium aureum, and Dactylis glomerata support high levels of hydrocarbon degrading endophytes. A total of 190 isolates were isolated from four plant species. The isolates were identified by partial 16S rDNA sequence analysis, with class Actinobacteria as the dominant group in all species except S. canadensis, which was dominated by Gammaproteobacteria. Microbacterium foliorum and Plantibacter flavus were present in all the plants, with M. foliorum showing predominance in D. glomerata and both endophytic bacterial species dominated T. aureum. More than 50% of the isolates demonstrated degradative capabilities for octanol, toluene, naphthalene, kerosene, or motor oil based on sole carbon source growth screens involving the reduction of tetrazolium dye. P. flavus isolates from all the sampled plants showed growth on all the petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) substrates tested. Mineralization of toluene and naphthalene was confirmed using gas-chromatography. 16S based terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis revealed significant differences between the endophytic bacterial communities showing them to be plant host specific at this site. To our knowledge, this is the first account of the degradation potential of bacterial endophytes in these commonly occurring pioneer plants that were not previously known as phytoremediating plants. PMID:27252685

  12. EFFECTS OF CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS ON GENETIC DIVERSITY IN NATURAL POPULATIONS: IMPLICATIONS FOR BIOMONITORING AND ECOTOXICOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The conservation of genetic diversity has emerged as one of the central issues in conservation biology. Although researchers in the areas of evolutionary biology, population management, and conservation biology routinely investigate genetic variability in natural populations, onl...

  13. DECIPHERING NATURALLY-OCCURRING PB CONTAMINATION IMPACTING DRINKING WATER WELLS: SHAKER VILLAGE CATCHMENT, MAINE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Trace Pb concentrations in groundwater within glacial deposits across Maine fluctuate considerably. Deciphering the distribution and sources of naturally occurring Pb in groundwater with only the use of conventional anomaly identification techniques presents a challenge. In a rep...

  14. Antimicrobial effects of ionizing radiation on artificially and naturally contaminated cacao beans. [Aspergillus flavus; Penicillium citrinum

    SciTech Connect

    Restaino, L.; Myron, J.J.J.; Lenovich, L.M.; Bills, S.; Tscherneff, K.

    1984-04-01

    With an initial microbial level of ca. 10/sup 7/ microorganisms per g of Ivory Coast cacao beans, 5 kGy of gamma radiation from a Co/sup 60/ source under an atmosphere of air reduced the microflora per g by 2.49 and 3.03 logs at temperatures of 35 and 50/sup 0/C, respectively. Bahia cacao beans were artificially contaminated with dried spores of Aspergillus flavus and Penicillium citrinum, giving initial fungal levels of 1.9 x 10/sup 4/ and 1.4 x 10/sup 3/ spores per g of whole Bahia cacao beans, respectively. The average D/sub 10/ values for A. flavus and P. citrinum spores on Bahia cacao beans were 0.66 and 0.88 kGy, respectively. 12 references.

  15. Mycoflora and natural aflatoxin contamination in dried quince seeds from Jammu, India.

    PubMed

    Bala, Pinky; Gupta, Dimple; Sharma, Y P

    2016-01-01

    Eighty two samples of dried quince seeds, obtained from the markets of Jammu province, were examined for mycoflora by different isolation techniques. A total of 27 fungal species belonging to 11 genera were recovered and identified from these samples. The predominant fungal genera encountered were Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium. In view of the predominance of Aspergillus flavus, a known producer of aflatoxins, screening of the fungal contaminated samples was carried out for total aflatoxin levels using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Twenty one aflatoxin positive samples contained 8.07-33.45 μg g(-1) and 0.05-3946.97 μg g(-1) AFB1 and AFB2 respectively. These results suggest that biochemical composition of dried quince seeds, along with climatic conditions of the region seem to be very favourable for aflatoxin production by toxigenic strains of A. flavus. Therefore, monitoring of aflatoxins in dried quince seeds is recommended for this region. PMID:26930866

  16. Mycoflora and natural aflatoxin contamination in dried quince seeds from Jammu, India.

    PubMed

    Bala, Pinky; Gupta, Dimple; Sharma, Y P

    2016-01-01

    Eighty two samples of dried quince seeds, obtained from the markets of Jammu province, were examined for mycoflora by different isolation techniques. A total of 27 fungal species belonging to 11 genera were recovered and identified from these samples. The predominant fungal genera encountered were Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium. In view of the predominance of Aspergillus flavus, a known producer of aflatoxins, screening of the fungal contaminated samples was carried out for total aflatoxin levels using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Twenty one aflatoxin positive samples contained 8.07-33.45 μg g(-1) and 0.05-3946.97 μg g(-1) AFB1 and AFB2 respectively. These results suggest that biochemical composition of dried quince seeds, along with climatic conditions of the region seem to be very favourable for aflatoxin production by toxigenic strains of A. flavus. Therefore, monitoring of aflatoxins in dried quince seeds is recommended for this region.

  17. Fate and transport of linear alkylbenzenesulfonate in a sewage- contaminated aquifer: A comparison of natural-gradient pulsed tracer tests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krueger, C.J.; Barber, L.B.; Metge, D.W.; Field, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    Two natural-gradient tracer tests were conducted to determine the transport and biodegradation behavior of linear alkylbenzenesulfonate (LAS) surfactant under in situ conditions in a sewage-contaminated aquifer. The tests were conducted in two biogeochemically distinct zones of the aquifer: (1) an aerobic uncontaminated zone (oxic zone) and (2) a moderately aerobic, sewage-contaminated zone (transition zone). Chromatographic separation of the surfactant mixture was observed in both zones and attributed to the retardation of the longer alkyl chain homologues during transport. No significant loss of IAS mass was observed for the oxic zone while 20% of the LAS mass injected into the transition zone was removed due to biodegradation. Biodegradation preferentially removed the longer alkyl chain homologues and the external isomers (i.e., 2- and 3-phenyl). The removal of LAS mass coincided with a decrease in dissolved oxygen concentrations, the appearance of LAS metabolites, and an increase in the number of free-living bacteria with a concomitant change in bacteria morphology. The formation of LAS metabolites accounted for 86% of the LAS mass removed in the transition zone. Over the duration of the test, sorption and biodegradation enriched the LAS mixture in the more water-soluble and biologically resistant components.Two natural-gradient tracer tests were conducted to determine the transport and biodegradation behavior of linear alkylbenzenesulfonate (LAS) surfactant under in situ conditions in a sewage-contaminated aquifer. The tests were conducted in two biogeochemically distinct zones of the aquifer: (1) an aerobic uncontaminated zone (oxic zone) and (2) a moderately aerobic, sewage-contaminated zone (transition zone). Chromatographic separation of the surfactant mixture was observed in both zones and attributed to the retardation of the longer alkyl chain homologues during transport. No significant loss of LAS mass was observed for the oxic zone while 20% of the LAS

  18. Spatiotemporal variability and differentiation between anthropogenic and natural contamination of heavy metals of surface water: a case study in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guittard, A.; Baraer, M.; McKenzie, J. M.; Mark, B. G.; Fernandez, A.; Walsh, E.; Santos Perez, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Rio Santa, Peru, drains the western slopes of the glacierized Cordillera Blanca and provides water resources at almost all levels of the watershed. As it flows away from the valleys of the Cordillera Blanca, the Rio Santa takes out pollution from numerous sources, including acid mine drainage and natural sulfide oxidation by-products. The Rio Santa dry season discharge decline that is projected to be a consequence of glaciers retreat will probably have implications for the evolution of water pollution. This threat makes the characterization of the actual contamination mechanisms of primary importance. The present study focuses, first, on the spatiotemporal variability of heavy metal contamination across the entire Rio Santa Watershed and secondly on differentiating anthropogenic and natural contaminated sites. First, a macroscale sampling has been done during the summer 2013 to provide an overview of the contamination by trace metal, in water, suspended sediments and riverbed sediments. In addition, 30 water samples were taken from a point next to the city of Huaraz at a frequency of once every 2 weeks and analyzed for trace metals. Secondly, in order to identify hydrochemical contaminant origin dependant signatures in the Rio Santa watershed, 5 areas of known contamination origins were sampled during the summer 2014.Spatially speaking, we observed that most pollution is located in the south of the watershed, and that a large part of the arsenic that reaches the Santa in an aqueous phase does not make it to the outlet but remains trapped in the riverbed. Annual variation in water shows a very unusual fluctuation in Mn compare to other trace metal which are relatively stable. By differencing anthropogenic and natural sites and by considering glaciers melt and decrease water in future what would be the impact of the part of natural contaminated sites versus anthropogenic, mining and cities, on the water quality? Preliminary results show that anthropogenic sites

  19. Drying Milk With Boiler Exhaust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broussard, M. R.

    1984-01-01

    Considerable energy saved in powdered-milk industry. Only special requirement boiler fired with natural gas or other clean fuel. Boiler flue gas fed to spray drier where it directly contacts product to be dried. Additional heat supplied by auxillary combustor when boiler output is low. Approach adaptable to existing plants with minimal investment because most already equipped with natural-gas-fired boilers.

  20. Carry-over of Fusarium toxins (deoxynivalenol and zearalenone) from naturally contaminated wheat to pigs.

    PubMed

    Goyarts, Tanja; Dänicke, Sven; Valenta, Hana; Ueberschär, Karl-Heinz

    2007-04-01

    The frequent contamination of grain with the Fusarium toxins, deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZON), is an important issue in animal and human nutrition. However, data on the exposure of humans to these toxins through consumption of animal tissues exposed to Fusarium toxins (carry-over) are fragmentary. Therefore, residues of DON, ZON and their metabolites were determined in tissues and body fluids of pigs (female and castrated male) from a fattening trial. Pigs were fed a control (n = 6, 0.24 mg DON and 0.009 mg ZON per kg diet as fed) or a Fusarium toxin-contaminated diet (n = 12, 6.68 mg DON and 0.056 mg ZON per kg diet as fed) either ad libitum or for restrictive consumption for 12 weeks. After slaughter (96.3 +/- 11.6 kg live weight), the concentrations of DON and its metabolite, de-epoxy-DON, were measured in serum, bile, liver, kidney, musculus longissimus and back fat, while ZON and its metabolites, alpha- and beta-zearalenol (alpha-/beta-ZOL), were determined in serum, bile and liver. The mean carry-over factor of DON + de-epoxy-DON, defined as the concentration of both substances in the tissue/fluid divided by the DON concentration in the diet, for all pigs decreased from bile (0.1046 +/- 0.0653) > kidney (0.0151 +/- 0.0070) > liver (0.0057 +/- 0.0043) > serum (0.0023 +/- 0.0018) > muscle (0.0016 +/- 0.0016) > back fat (0.0002 +/- 0.0004). The time interval between the end of feeding and slaughter had no consistent effect on DON + de-epoxy-DON concentrations in the analysed specimen of Fusarium toxin-exposed pigs fed restrictively. No transfer of ZON and its metabolites could be observed into serum of pigs, while the mean carry-over factors of ZON + alpha-ZOL + beta-ZOL were 0.0094 +/- 0.0123 and 4.0 +/- 2.2 for liver and bile, respectively. Therefore, it can be concluded that serum is a reliable indicator for DON exposure, but an inappropriate parameter to deduce ZON exposure, which is better represented by bile concentration of ZON + alpha

  1. Vegetation: A natural capacitor for contaminant metals input into the Critical Zone (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brantley, S. L.; Herndon, E.; Jin, L.; Eissenstat, D.; Raymond, P.

    2010-12-01

    Industrial pollution from atmospheric deposition has contaminated surface soils with metals such as Pb and Hg across broad geographic regions. Other metals have also been emitted and deposited to the land surface but these are less well known. To evaluate impacts of heavy metals on the health of the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, it is important that we understand their residence time, transport, and behavior in soils. Vegetation can increase metal solubility in the soil through rhizosphere acidification and exudation of organic chelators. Soluble metals can then be more quickly transported into stream waters. Conversely, vegetation may increase the residence time of industrial pollution through biotic uptake. Often, metals taken up from pore fluids are eventually returned to the soil as leaves or woody material. During this biotic cycling, vegetation acts as a capacitor, storing contaminant metals and then releasing it slowly to the environment over time. For example, interdisciplinary studies at the Susquehanna Shale Hills Observatory, a Critical Zone Observatory in central Pennsylvania U.S.A., have enabled us to identify that significant Mn has accumulated in the watershed from atmospheric deposition. Using available geochemical databases, we have shown that Mn addition to surface soils is common in industrialized regions. We demonstrate with soil and leaf chemistry that vegetation actively recycles the Mn, potentially increasing its residence time in the soil. Soluble Mn is transferred from soil to vegetation through soil pore fluids, and we use soil pore fluid chemistry to evaluate these fluxes. Eventually, Mn is released from vegetation and transported into stream waters, and we show that dissolved metal loads in rivers have decreased over time, reflecting changes in atmospheric inputs over the past century. To elucidate the role of trees in release of nutrients and toxic Mn, we carried out controlled greenhouse experiments. The effluent solutions were

  2. Influence of enrichment and isolation media on the detection of Campylobacter spp. in naturally contaminated chicken samples.

    PubMed

    Repérant, E; Laisney, M J; Nagard, B; Quesne, S; Rouxel, S; Le Gall, F; Chemaly, M; Denis, M

    2016-09-01

    Investigating Campylobacter epidemiology requires adequate technique and media to ensure optimal culturing and accurate detection and isolation of Campylobacter strains. In the present study, we investigated the performances of three enrichment durations in Bolton broth (0, 24 and 48h) and compared four isolation media (mCCDA, Karmali, Butzler no. 2 and CampyFood agar (CFA)) for the detection of Campylobacter positive samples and the identification of Campylobacter species, from naturally contaminated broiler chicken samples (caeca, neck skin from carcasses, and skin from thighs). We compared our local results to those we obtained with samples from a European survey (caeca and neck skin) and a national survey (neck skin, thigh skin, and breast). Direct plating favored the detection of positive samples highly contaminated by Campylobacter (caeca and neck skin from carcasses) whatever the media. A longer enrichment reduced the rates of Campylobacter recovery except when using Butzler no. 2, more particularly for neck skin which background microflora was less important than in caeca. As a matter of fact, enrichment allowed a higher detection rate of positive samples with low Campylobacter contamination levels (breast, thigh skin), this detection being enhanced when using Butzler no. 2. When comparing the 3 other selective media, CFA was the 2nd most efficient media prior to mCCDA and Karmali. Interestingly, enrichment promoted the growth of Campylobacter coli but this promotion was least with Butzler no. 2 agar. Our study has confirmed the need to adapt the method to the types of samples for improving the detection of Campylobacter and that the method may affect the prevalence of the species.

  3. Decontamination of Mesquite Pod Flour Naturally Contaminated with Bacillus cereus and Formation of Furan by Ionizing Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xuetong; Felker, Peter; Sokorai, Kimberly J

    2015-05-01

    Mesquite pod flour produced from nitrogen-fixing trees of the Prosopis species has a unique aroma and flavor that is preferred by some consumers. Due to the presence of wildlife, grazing domestic animals, and insects, the pods have a high potential of being contaminated with human pathogenic bacteria, such as Bacillus cereus. Nonthermal processing technologies are helpful to reduce the population of microorganisms in the flour because heating deteriorates the characteristic flavor. A study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of ionizing radiation in decontaminating two types of mesquite pod flours (Prosopis alba and Prosopis pallida) naturally contaminated with B. cereus and the effects of irradiation on the formation of furan, a possible human carcinogen. Results showed that the populations of B. cereus were 3.8 and 5.4 log CFU/g in nonirradiated P. alba and P. pallida flours, respectively, and populations of microflora, mesophilic spores, B. cereus, and B. cereus spores decreased with increasing radiation doses. At 6 kGy, the populations fell below 1 log CFU/g. Irradiation at 6 kGy had no significant effect on the fructose, glucose, or sucrose content of the flour. Nonirradiated P. alba and P. pallida flours contained 13.0 and 3.1 ng/g of furan, respectively. Furan levels increased with irradiation doses at rates of 2.3 and 2.4 ng/g/kGy in the two flours. The level of 3-methylbutanal was reduced or not affected by irradiation, while the hexanal level was increased. Our results suggested that irradiation was effective in decontaminating contaminated mesquite flour. The significance of furan formation and possible changes in flavor due to irradiation may need to be further examined.

  4. Progress in assisted natural remediation of an arsenic contaminated agricultural soil.

    PubMed

    Mench, Michel; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Beckx, Caroline; Ruttens, Ann

    2006-11-01

    A contaminated soil was collected in a field adjacent to a derelict As((III)) smelter in Reppel (Bocholt, Belgium). A single soil treatment (% by soil weight) based on either iron grit (SS, 1%), beringite (B, 5%), or iron grit (1%) + beringite (5%) (BSS) was applied. Untreated and treated Reppel soils and a control soil were placed in lysimeters inside a greenhouse and cropped annually. The efficiency of soil treatments in decreasing As and metals in exposure sources and restoring soil functions was assessed 6 years after the treatments commenced. Decreases in extractable Cd, Mn, Zn and As occurred in the BSS soil. Only BSS treatment reduced both As and metal concentrations in leachates. BSS treatment produced best growth of lettuce and cabbage, the highest shoot and pod yields for dwarf bean, the lowest As, Cd and Zn concentrations in plant tissues, and partly restored Rhizobium nodulation on bean roots. The epigeic earthworm (Dendrobaena octaedra) could only survive in the BSS soil. Depurated living worms from the BSS soil had Cd concentration similar to those in control worms, but higher As, Ca, Fe, and Zn concentrations. Based on physiologically based extraction test (PBET), As bioaccessibility was reduced from 12% (untreated soil) to 7.4% (BSS) and 3% (SS), but only the SS treatment decreased the bioaccessibility of Cd (-30%) and Pb (-35%). The range of chemical and biological indicators suggested that BSS amendment was the most effective treatment for restoration of normal soil functions 6 years after initial treatment of the Reppel soil.

  5. Arsenic resistance and accumulation by two bacteria isolated from a natural arsenic contaminated site.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Neha; Bhatt, Renu

    2015-11-01

    Forty-three indigenous arsenic resistant bacteria were isolated from arsenic rich soil of Rajnandgaon district in the state of Chhattisgarh, India by enrichment culture technique. Among the isolates, two of the bacteria (As-9 and As-14) exhibited high resistance to As(V) [MIC ≥ 700 mM] and As(III) [MIC ≥ 10 mM] and were selected for further studies. Both these bacteria grew well in the presence of arsenic [20 mM As(V) and 5 mM As(III)], but the isolate As-14 strictly required arsenic for its survival and growth and was characterized as a novel arsenic dependent bacterium. The isolates contributed to 99% removal of arsenic from the growth medium which was efficiently accumulated in the cell. Quantitative estimation of arsenic through Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer revealed that there was >60% accumulation of both As(V) and As(III) by the two isolates. Scanning Electron Microscopic analysis showed a fourfold increase in bacterial cell volume when grown in the presence of arsenic and the results of Transmission Electron Microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy proved that such an alteration was due to arsenic accumulation. Such arsenic resistant bacteria with efficient accumulating property could be effectively applied in the treatment of arsenic contaminated water. PMID:26095615

  6. Evaluation of Natural Attenuation as One Component of Chloroethene-Contaminated Groundwater Remediation

    SciTech Connect

    K.S. Sorenson; L.N. Peterson; T.S. Green

    1998-10-01

    Test Area North (TAN) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is the site of a large trichloroethene (TCE) plume resulting from the historical injection of wastewater into the Snake River Plain Aquifer. The TAN Record of Decision (ROD) selected pump and treat as the final remedy and included a contingency for post-ROD treatability studies of alternative technologies. The technologies still under consideration are in-situ bioremediation, in-situ chemical oxidation, and natural attenuation. Both anaerobic and aerobic laboratory microcosm studies indicate the presence of microorganisms capable of chloroethene degradation. Field data indicate that TCE concentrations decrease relative to tritium and tetrachloroethene indicating an as yet unknown process is contributing to natural attenuation of TCE. Several methods for analyzing the field data have been evaluated and important limitations identified. Early results from the continued evaluation of the three alternative technologies suggest the combined approach of active remediation of the source area (in situ bioremediation and/or chemical oxidation replacing or augmenting pump and treat) and natural attenuation within the dissolved phase plume may be more cost and schedule effective than the base case pump and treat.

  7. Evaluation of Natural Attenuation as One Component of Chloroethene-Contaminated Groundwater Remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Sorenson, K.S.; Peterson, L.N.; Green, T.S.

    1998-10-01

    Test Area North (TAN) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is the site of a large trichloroethene (TCE) plume resulting from the historical injection of wastewater into the Snake River Plain Aquifer. The TAN Record of Decision (ROD) selected pump and treat as the final remedy and included a contingency for post-ROD treatability studies of alternative technologies. The technologies still under consideration are in situ bioremediation, in situ chemical oxidation, and natural attenuation. Both anaerobic and aerobic laboratory microcosm studies indicate the presence of microorganisms capable of chloroethene degradation. Field data indicate that TCE concentrations decrease relative to tritium and tetrachloroethene indicating an as yet unknown process is contributing to natural attenuation of TCE. Several methods for analyzing the field data have been evaluated and important limitations identified. Early results from the continued evaluation of the three alternative technologies suggest the combined approach of active remediation of the source area (in situ bioremediation and/or chemical oxidation replacing or augmenting pump and treat) and natural attenuation within the dissolved phase plume may be more cost and schedule effective than the base case pump and treat.

  8. Disinfection of drinking water contaminated with Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts under natural sunlight and using the photocatalyst TiO2.

    PubMed

    Méndez-Hermida, Fernando; Ares-Mazás, Elvira; McGuigan, Kevin G; Boyle, Maria; Sichel, Cosima; Fernández-Ibáñez, Pilar

    2007-09-25

    The results of a batch-process solar disinfection (SODIS) and solar photocatalytic disinfection (SPCDIS) on drinking water contaminated with Cryptosporidium are reported. Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst suspensions were exposed to natural sunlight in Southern Spain and the oocyst viability was evaluated using two vital dyes [4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) and propidium iodide (PI)]. SODIS exposures (strong sunlight) of 8 and 12h reduced oocyst viability from 98% (+/-1.3%) to 11.7% (+/-0.9%) and 0.3% (+/-0.33%), respectively. SODIS reactors fitted with flexible plastic inserts coated with TiO2 powder (SPCDIS) were found to be more effective than those which were not. After 8 and 16 h of overcast and cloudy solar irradiance conditions, SPCDIS reduced oocyst viability from 98.3% (+/-0.3%) to 37.7% (+/-2.6%) and 11.7% (+/-0.7%), respectively, versus to that achieved using SODIS of 81.3% (+/-1.6%) and 36.0% (+/-1.0%), respectively. These results confirm that solar disinfection of drinking water can be an effective household intervention against Cryptosporidium contamination.

  9. Recovery of contaminated wetland soils at the Savannah River Site by natural rainfall: An experimental, toxicological study

    SciTech Connect

    Loehle, C.

    1990-08-01

    This study was conducted at the Department of Energy Savannah River Site in South Carolina. Seepage basins at the SRS F-Area received liquid effluent from the 1950s to 1988. This effluent was typically acidic, containing high amounts of total dissolved ions, low levels of tritium and other radioactive elements, and trace levels of various heavy metals. Sodium (from NaOH), and aluminum (from soil matrix reduction due to acid leachate) were at particularly high levels in the outcropping water. The effluent gradually seeped down to the water table and subsequently outcropped along the edge of a forested wetland bordering Four Mile Creek. A laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the potential for natural remediation of contaminated wetland soils by rainfall. Contaminated soils were collected and leached repeatedly with rainwater. After 6 leachings the leachate was observed to be non-toxic to lettuce seedlings, whereas the initial leachate was very toxic. These results suggest that more detailed studies on leaching as a remediation technique would be beneficial. 6 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Sensitive enumeration of Listeria monocytogenes and other Listeria species in various naturally contaminated matrices using a membrane filtration method.

    PubMed

    Barre, Léna; Brasseur, Emilie; Doux, Camille; Lombard, Bertrand; Besse, Nathalie Gnanou

    2015-06-01

    For the enumeration of Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes) in food, a sensitive enumeration method has been recently developed. This method is based on a membrane filtration of the food suspension followed by transfer of the filter on a selective medium to enumerate L. monocytogenes. An evaluation of this method was performed with several categories of foods naturally contaminated with L. monocytogenes. The results obtained with this technique were compared with those obtained from the modified reference EN ISO 11290-2 method for the enumeration of L. monocytogenes in food, and are found to provide more precise results. In most cases, the filtration method enabled to examine a greater quantity of food thus greatly improving the sensitivity of the enumeration. However, it was hardly applicable to some food categories because of filtration problems and background microbiota interference.

  11. Bovine milk in human nutrition – a review

    PubMed Central

    Haug, Anna; Høstmark, Arne T; Harstad, Odd M

    2007-01-01

    Milk and milk products are nutritious food items containing numerous essential nutrients, but in the western societies the consumption of milk has decreased partly due to claimed negative health effects. The content of oleic acid, conjugated linoleic acid, omega-3 fatty acids, short- and medium chain fatty acids, vitamins, minerals and bioactive compounds may promote positive health effects. Full-fat milk has been shown to increase the mean gastric emptying time compared to half-skimmed milk, thereby increasing the gastrointestinal transit time. Also the low pH in fermented milk may delay the gastric emptying. Hence, it may be suggested that ingesting full-fat milk or fermented milk might be favourable for glycaemic (and appetite?) regulation. For some persons milk proteins, fat and milk sugar may be of health concern. The interaction between carbohydrates (both natural milk sugar and added sugar) and protein in milk exposed to heat may give products, whose effects on health should be further studied, and the increasing use of sweetened milk products should be questioned. The concentration in milk of several nutrients can be manipulated through feeding regimes. There is no evidence that moderate intake of milk fat gives increased risk of diseases. PMID:17894873

  12. Effects of the naturally-occurring contaminant microcystins on the Azolla filiculoides-Anabaena azollae symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Pereira, A L; Monteiro, B; Azevedo, J; Campos, A; Osório, H; Vasconcelos, V

    2015-08-01

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) contaminate aquatic ecosystems and are responsible for animal poisoning worldwide. We conducted a toxicity test with the aquatic fern and the biofertilizer, Azolla filiculoides. The sporophytes were exposed to three concentrations (0.01, 0.1 and 1μgmL(-1)) of a microcystin (MC) cyanobacterial crude extract and purified MC-LR. The growth of A. filiculoides decreased only at 1μgmL(-1) crude extract concentration while with MC-LR it decreased at all the tested concentrations, indicating that the presence of other compounds in the crude extract altered toxicity and stimulated the fern growth at lower concentrations (0.01 and 0.1μgmL(-1)). Both phycoerythrocyanin and allophycocyanin levels decreased in all the concentrations of crude extract and MC-LR. The phycocyanin had a marked increase at 0.1μgmL(-1) crude extract concentration and a marked decrease at 1μgmL(-1) MC-LR concentration. These changes in the phycobiliprotein content indicate a shift in the antenna pigments of the cyanobionts of A. filiculoides. The changes in two oxidative stress enzymes, glutathione reductase for the crude extract assay and glutathione peroxidase for MC-LR assay, points towards the induction of stress defense responses. The low bioconcentration factor in both crude extract and MC-LR treatments can suggest the low uptake of microcystins, and indicates that the aquatic fern can be used as a biofertilizer and as animal feed but is not suitable for MC phytoremediation.

  13. The combined influence of two agricultural contaminants on natural communities of phytoplankton and zooplankton.

    PubMed

    Baker, Leanne F; Mudge, Joseph F; Thompson, Dean G; Houlahan, Jeff E; Kidd, Karen A

    2016-07-01

    Concentrations of glyphosate observed in the environment are generally lower than those found to exert toxicity on aquatic organisms in the laboratory. Toxicity is often tested in the absence of other expected co-occurring contaminants. By examining changes in the phytoplankton and zooplankton communities of shallow, partitioned wetlands over a 5 month period, we assessed the potential for direct and indirect effects of the glyphosate-based herbicide, Roundup WeatherMax(©) applied at the maximum label rate, both in isolation and in a mixture with nutrients (from fertilizers). The co-application of herbicide and nutrients resulted in an immediate but transient decline in dietary quality of phytoplankton (8.3 % decline in edible carbon content/L) and zooplankton community similarity (27 % decline in similarity and loss of three taxa), whereas these effects were not evident in wetlands treated only with the herbicide. Thus, even at a worst-case exposure, this herbicide in isolation, did not produce the acutely toxic effects on plankton communities suggested by laboratory or mesocosm studies. Indirect effects of the herbicide-nutrient mixture were evident in mid-summer, when glyphosate residues were no longer detectable in surface water. Zooplankton abundance tripled, and zooplankton taxa richness increased by an average of four taxa in the herbicide and nutrient treated wetlands. The lack of significant toxicity of Roundup WeatherMax alone, as well as the observation of delayed interactive or indirect effects of the mixture of herbicide and nutrients attest to the value of manipulative field experiments as part of a comprehensive, tiered approach to risk assessments in ecotoxicology. PMID:27112456

  14. Natural selection for 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid mineralizing bacteria in agent orange contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Rice, J F; Menn, F M; Hay, A G; Sanseverino, J; Sayler, G S

    2005-12-01

    Agent Orange contaminated soils were utilized in direct enrichment culture studies to isolate 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) mineralizing bacteria. Two bacterial cultures able to grow at the expense of 2,4,5-T and/or 2,4-D were isolated. The 2,4,5-T degrading culture was a mixed culture containing two bacteria, Burkholderia species strain JR7B2 and Burkholderia species strain JR7B3. JR7B3 was able to metabolize 2,4,5-T as the sole source of carbon and energy, and demonstrated the ability to affect metabolism of 2,4-D to a lesser degree. Strain JR7B3 was able to mineralize 2,4,5-T in pure culture and utilized 2,4,5-T in the presence of 0.01% yeast extract. Subsequent characterization of the 2,4-D degrading culture showed that one bacterium, Burkholderia species strain JRB1, was able to utilize 2,4-D as a sole carbon and energy source in pure culture. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) experiments utilizing known genetic sequences from other 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T degrading bacteria demonstrated that these organisms contain gene sequences similar to tfdA, B, C, E, and R (Strain JRB1) and the tftA, C, and E genes (Strain JR7B3). Expression analysis confirmed that tftA, C, and E and tfdA, B, and C were transcribed during 2,4,5-T and 2,4-D dependent growth, respectively. The results indicate a strong selective pressure for 2,4,5-T utilizing strains under field condition. PMID:15865343

  15. The combined influence of two agricultural contaminants on natural communities of phytoplankton and zooplankton.

    PubMed

    Baker, Leanne F; Mudge, Joseph F; Thompson, Dean G; Houlahan, Jeff E; Kidd, Karen A

    2016-07-01

    Concentrations of glyphosate observed in the environment are generally lower than those found to exert toxicity on aquatic organisms in the laboratory. Toxicity is often tested in the absence of other expected co-occurring contaminants. By examining changes in the phytoplankton and zooplankton communities of shallow, partitioned wetlands over a 5 month period, we assessed the potential for direct and indirect effects of the glyphosate-based herbicide, Roundup WeatherMax(©) applied at the maximum label rate, both in isolation and in a mixture with nutrients (from fertilizers). The co-application of herbicide and nutrients resulted in an immediate but transient decline in dietary quality of phytoplankton (8.3 % decline in edible carbon content/L) and zooplankton community similarity (27 % decline in similarity and loss of three taxa), whereas these effects were not evident in wetlands treated only with the herbicide. Thus, even at a worst-case exposure, this herbicide in isolation, did not produce the acutely toxic effects on plankton communities suggested by laboratory or mesocosm studies. Indirect effects of the herbicide-nutrient mixture were evident in mid-summer, when glyphosate residues were no longer detectable in surface water. Zooplankton abundance tripled, and zooplankton taxa richness increased by an average of four taxa in the herbicide and nutrient treated wetlands. The lack of significant toxicity of Roundup WeatherMax alone, as well as the observation of delayed interactive or indirect effects of the mixture of herbicide and nutrients attest to the value of manipulative field experiments as part of a comprehensive, tiered approach to risk assessments in ecotoxicology.

  16. Natural selection for 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid mineralizing bacteria in agent orange contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Rice, J F; Menn, F M; Hay, A G; Sanseverino, J; Sayler, G S

    2005-12-01

    Agent Orange contaminated soils were utilized in direct enrichment culture studies to isolate 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) mineralizing bacteria. Two bacterial cultures able to grow at the expense of 2,4,5-T and/or 2,4-D were isolated. The 2,4,5-T degrading culture was a mixed culture containing two bacteria, Burkholderia species strain JR7B2 and Burkholderia species strain JR7B3. JR7B3 was able to metabolize 2,4,5-T as the sole source of carbon and energy, and demonstrated the ability to affect metabolism of 2,4-D to a lesser degree. Strain JR7B3 was able to mineralize 2,4,5-T in pure culture and utilized 2,4,5-T in the presence of 0.01% yeast extract. Subsequent characterization of the 2,4-D degrading culture showed that one bacterium, Burkholderia species strain JRB1, was able to utilize 2,4-D as a sole carbon and energy source in pure culture. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) experiments utilizing known genetic sequences from other 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T degrading bacteria demonstrated that these organisms contain gene sequences similar to tfdA, B, C, E, and R (Strain JRB1) and the tftA, C, and E genes (Strain JR7B3). Expression analysis confirmed that tftA, C, and E and tfdA, B, and C were transcribed during 2,4,5-T and 2,4-D dependent growth, respectively. The results indicate a strong selective pressure for 2,4,5-T utilizing strains under field condition.

  17. Milk cow feed intake and milk production and distribution estimates for Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, D.M.; Darwin, R.F.; Erickson, A.R.; Eckert, R.L.

    1992-04-01

    This report provides initial information on milk production and distribution in the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project Phase I study area. The Phase I study area consists of eight countries in central Washington and two countries in northern Oregon. The primary objective of the HEDR Project is to develop estimates of the radiation doses populations could have received from Hanford operations. The objective of Phase I of the project was to determine the feasibility of reconstructing data, models, and development of preliminary dose estimates received by people living in the ten countries surrounding Hanford from 1944 to 1947. One of the most important contributors to radiation doses from Hanford during the period of interest was radioactive iodine. Consumption of milk from cows that ate vegetation contaminated with iodine is likely the dominant pathway of human exposure. To estimate the doses people could have received from this pathway, it is necessary to estimate the amount of milk that the people living in the Phase I area consumed, the source of the milk, and the type of feed that the milk cows ate. The objective of the milk model subtask is to identify the sources of milk supplied to residents of each community in the study area as well as the sources of feeds that were fed to the milk cows. In this report, we focus on Grade A cow's milk (fresh milk used for human consumption).

  18. Shell thickening and chambering in the oyster Crassostrea gigas: natural and anthropogenic influence of tributyltin contamination.

    PubMed

    Higuera-Ruiz, R; Elorza, J

    2011-04-01

    Abnormal thickening and chambering in Crassostrea gigas oysters have been adopted for many years as bioindicators of available tributyltin (TBT) in coastal waters. Nevertheless, since natural causes can also induce the formation of multiple chambers, a field study and laboratory experimentation has been conducted with 72 examples of C. gigas in successive culture media. This work has enabled differences to be established between natural fine sediment-induced characteristics and the influence of TBT on the shells. External shell deformities have been assessed using three biometric indices, shell thickness index, weight index and volume index. Internal differences have been observed in longitudinal sections of the shell: retraction of growth, stagnation of the adductor muscle scar and thinning of the chambers in the TBT-polluted shell secretion. A new index, the opening chambers index, has been proposed, with a value of less than 1 in the TBT-polluted environment and greater than 1 in shells secreted in an unpolluted production site. These conclusions should be borne in mind when C. gigas is used in biomonitoring programmes.

  19. Heavy metals removal from contaminated sewage sludge by naturally fermented raw liquid from pineapple wastes.

    PubMed

    Dacera, Dominica Del Mundo; Babel, Sandhya

    2007-01-01

    The large amount of unutilised pineapple wastes produced every year in tropical countries, particularly in Thailand, adds to the existing environmental pollution problems of the country. This study investigated the utilisation of pineapple wastes to treat another form of waste (sludge) from wastewater treatment facilities in Thailand. Laboratory scale studies were carried out to determine the potential of using naturally fermented raw liquid from pineapple wastes as a source of citric acid in the extraction of Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn from anaerobically digested sewage sludge. Results of the leaching study revealed its effectiveness in extracting Zn (at 92%) at pH 3.67 and a short leaching time of only 2 h, and Ni at almost 60% removal at the same leaching time. Chromium removal was also high at almost 75% at a longer leaching time of 11 days. Variation in metal removal efficiencies may also be attributed to the forms of metals in sludge, with metals predominantly in the exchangeable and oxidisable phases showing ease of leachability (such as Zn). Compared to citric acid, at pH approaching 4.0, naturally fermented raw liquid seemed to be more effective in the removal of Zn and Cu at the same leaching time of 2 h, and Cr at a longer leaching time of 11 days. The pineapple pulp, which is a by-product of the process, can still be used as animal feed because of its high protein content. PMID:17951878

  20. Radionuclide transfer from feed to camel milk.

    PubMed

    Al-Masri, M S; Al-Hamwi, A; Amin, Y; Safieh, M B; Zarkawi, M; Soukouti, A; Dayyoub, R; Voigt, G; Fesenko, S

    2014-06-01

    The transfer of (137)Cs, (85)Sr, (131)I, (210)Po, (210)Pb and (238)U from feed to camel's milk was investigated in a pilot experiment with three lactating camels. For a period of 60 days, the animals were fed on spiked feed containing the studied radionuclides. They were subsequently returned to a contamination-free diet and monitored for another 90 days. The activity concentrations of (137)Cs, (85)Sr and (131)I in milk decreased with time and reached background levels after 20 days. Equilibrium transfer coefficients and biological half-lives were estimated and transfer coefficients were calculated as (8.1 ± 3.6) × 10(-4), (4.4 ± 1.6) × 10(-2), (7.8 ± 3.9) × 10(-4), (2.7 ± 3.5) × 10(-4), (1.8 ± 1.5) × 10(-4) and (7.0 ± 3.6) × 10(-3) d L(-1) for (85)Sr, (131)I, (137)Cs, (210)Po, (210)Pb and (238)U, respectively. The biological half-lives were estimated to be 6.4, 4.2, 8.9, and 53.3 days for (85)Sr, (131)I, (137)Cs, and (238)U, respectively. Estimates of the half-lives were based on a one component model: it was found that the half-life values measured for artificial radionuclides were slightly shorter than those for natural radionuclides. The data obtained in the study are the first published experimental data on radionuclide transfer to camel milk. PMID:24508949

  1. Radionuclide transfer from feed to camel milk.

    PubMed

    Al-Masri, M S; Al-Hamwi, A; Amin, Y; Safieh, M B; Zarkawi, M; Soukouti, A; Dayyoub, R; Voigt, G; Fesenko, S

    2014-06-01

    The transfer of (137)Cs, (85)Sr, (131)I, (210)Po, (210)Pb and (238)U from feed to camel's milk was investigated in a pilot experiment with three lactating camels. For a period of 60 days, the animals were fed on spiked feed containing the studied radionuclides. They were subsequently returned to a contamination-free diet and monitored for another 90 days. The activity concentrations of (137)Cs, (85)Sr and (131)I in milk decreased with time and reached background levels after 20 days. Equilibrium transfer coefficients and biological half-lives were estimated and transfer coefficients were calculated as (8.1 ± 3.6) × 10(-4), (4.4 ± 1.6) × 10(-2), (7.8 ± 3.9) × 10(-4), (2.7 ± 3.5) × 10(-4), (1.8 ± 1.5) × 10(-4) and (7.0 ± 3.6) × 10(-3) d L(-1) for (85)Sr, (131)I, (137)Cs, (210)Po, (210)Pb and (238)U, respectively. The biological half-lives were estimated to be 6.4, 4.2, 8.9, and 53.3 days for (85)Sr, (131)I, (137)Cs, and (238)U, respectively. Estimates of the half-lives were based on a one component model: it was found that the half-life values measured for artificial radionuclides were slightly shorter than those for natural radionuclides. The data obtained in the study are the first published experimental data on radionuclide transfer to camel milk.

  2. Deoxynivalenol (DON) naturally contaminated feed impairs the immune response induced by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) live attenuated vaccine.

    PubMed

    Savard, Christian; Gagnon, Carl A; Chorfi, Younes

    2015-07-31

    Cereal commodities are frequently contaminated with mycotoxins produced by the secondary metabolism of fungal infection. Among these contaminants, deoxynivalenol (DON), also known as vomitoxin, is the most prevalent type B trichothecene mycotoxin worldwide. Pigs are very sensitive to the toxic effects of DON and are frequently exposed to naturally contaminated feed. Recently, DON naturally contaminated feed has been shown to decrease porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) specific antibody responses following experimental infection. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of DON naturally contaminated feed on the immune response generated following vaccination with PRRSV live attenuated vaccine. Eighteen pigs were randomly divided into three experimental groups of 6 animals based on DON content of the diets (0, 2.5 and 3.5mg DON/kg). They were fed these rations one week prior to the vaccination and for all the duration of the immune response evaluation. All pigs were vaccinated intra-muscularly with one dose of Ingelvac(®) PRRSV modified live vaccine (MLV). Blood samples were collected at day -1, 6, 13, 20, 27 and 35 post vaccination (pv) and tested for PRRSV RNA by RT-qPCR and for virus specific antibodies by ELISA. Results showed that ingestion of DON-contaminated diets significantly decreased PRRSV viremia. All pigs fed control diet were viremic while only 1 (17%) and 3 (50%) out of 6 pigs were viremic in the groups receiving 3.5 and 2.5mg of DON/kg, respectively. Subsequently, all pigs fed control diet developed PRRSV specific antibodies while only viremic pigs that were fed contaminated diets have developed PRRSV specific antibodies. These results suggest that feeding pigs with DON-contaminated diet could inhibit vaccination efficiency of PRRSV MLV by severely impairing viral replication.

  3. Peptidomic profile of milk of Holstein cows at peak lactation.

    PubMed

    Dallas, David C; Guerrero, Andres; Parker, Evan A; Garay, Luis A; Bhandari, Aashish; Lebrilla, Carlito B; Barile, Daniela; German, J Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Bovine milk is known to contain naturally occurring peptides, but relatively few of their sequences have been determined. Human milk contains hundreds of endogenous peptides, and the ensemble has been documented for antimicrobial actions. Naturally occurring peptides from bovine milk were sequenced and compared with human milk peptides. Bovine milk samples from six cows in second-stage peak lactation at 78-121 days postpartum revealed 159 peptides. Most peptides (73%) were found in all six cows sampled, demonstrating the similarity of the intramammary peptide degradation across these cows. One peptide sequence, ALPIIQKLEPQIA from bovine perilipin 2, was identical to another found in human milk. Most peptides derived from β-casein, αs1-casein, and αs2-casein. No peptides derived from abundant bovine milk proteins such as lactoferrin, β-lactoglobulin, and secretory immunoglobulin A. The enzymatic cleavage analysis revealed that milk proteins were degraded by plasmin, cathepsins B and D, and elastase in all samples.

  4. Short communication: Typing and tracking Bacillaceae in raw milk and milk powder using pyroprinting.

    PubMed

    VanderKelen, Jennifer J; Mitchell, Ryan D; Laubscher, Andrea; Black, Michael W; Goodman, Anya L; Montana, Aldrin K; Dekhtyar, Alexander M; Jimenez-Flores, Rafael; Kitts, Christopher L

    2016-01-01

    Contamination of fluid and processed milk products with endospore-forming bacteria, such as Bacillaceae, affect milk quality and longevity. Contaminants come from a variety of sources, including the dairy farm environment, transportation equipment, or milk processing machinery. Tracking the origin of bacterial contamination to allow specifically targeted remediation efforts depends on a reliable strain-typing method that is reproducible, fast, easy to use, and amenable to computerized analysis. Our objective was to adapt a recently developed genotype-based Escherichia coli strain-typing method, called pyroprinting, for use in a microbial source-tracking study to follow endospore-forming bacillus bacteria from raw milk to powdered milk. A collection of endospores was isolated from both raw milk and its finished powder, and, after germination, the vegetative cells were subject to the pyroprinting protocol. Briefly, a ribosomal DNA intergenic transcribed spacer present in multiple copies in Bacillaceae genomes was amplified by the PCR. This multicopy locus generated a mixed PCR product that was subsequently subject to pyrosequencing, a quantitative real-time sequencing method. Through a series of enzymatic reactions, each nucleotide incorporation event produces a photon of light that is quantified at each nucleotide dispensation. The pattern of light peaks generated from this mixed template reaction is called a pyroprint. Isolates with pyroprints that match with a Pearson correlation of 0.99 or greater are considered to be in the same group. The pyroprint also contains some sequence data useful for presumptive species-level identification. This method identified groups with isolates from raw milk only, from powdered milk only, or from both sources. This study confirms pyroprinting as a rapid, reproducible, automatically digitized tool that can be used to distinguish bacterial strains into taxonomically relevant groups and, thus, indicate probable origins of bacterial

  5. Short communication: Typing and tracking Bacillaceae in raw milk and milk powder using pyroprinting.

    PubMed

    VanderKelen, Jennifer J; Mitchell, Ryan D; Laubscher, Andrea; Black, Michael W; Goodman, Anya L; Montana, Aldrin K; Dekhtyar, Alexander M; Jimenez-Flores, Rafael; Kitts, Christopher L

    2016-01-01

    Contamination of fluid and processed milk products with endospore-forming bacteria, such as Bacillaceae, affect milk quality and longevity. Contaminants come from a variety of sources, including the dairy farm environment, transportation equipment, or milk processing machinery. Tracking the origin of bacterial contamination to allow specifically targeted remediation efforts depends on a reliable strain-typing method that is reproducible, fast, easy to use, and amenable to computerized analysis. Our objective was to adapt a recently developed genotype-based Escherichia coli strain-typing method, called pyroprinting, for use in a microbial source-tracking study to follow endospore-forming bacillus bacteria from raw milk to powdered milk. A collection of endospores was isolated from both raw milk and its finished powder, and, after germination, the vegetative cells were subject to the pyroprinting protocol. Briefly, a ribosomal DNA intergenic transcribed spacer present in multiple copies in Bacillaceae genomes was amplified by the PCR. This multicopy locus generated a mixed PCR product that was subsequently subject to pyrosequencing, a quantitative real-time sequencing method. Through a series of enzymatic reactions, each nucleotide incorporation event produces a photon of light that is quantified at each nucleotide dispensation. The pattern of light peaks generated from this mixed template reaction is called a pyroprint. Isolates with pyroprints that match with a Pearson correlation of 0.99 or greater are considered to be in the same group. The pyroprint also contains some sequence data useful for presumptive species-level identification. This method identified groups with isolates from raw milk only, from powdered milk only, or from both sources. This study confirms pyroprinting as a rapid, reproducible, automatically digitized tool that can be used to distinguish bacterial strains into taxonomically relevant groups and, thus, indicate probable origins of bacterial

  6. Sensitive immunochemical approaches for quantitative (FPIA) and qualitative (lateral flow tests) determination of gentamicin in milk.

    PubMed

    Beloglazova, N V; Shmelin, P S; Eremin, S A

    2016-01-01

    Three kinds of immunoassays for the determination of gentamicin in milk samples were developed and validated. First, a fast and easily-performed fluorescence polarization immunoassay was used for characterization of the employed polyclonal antibody. The calculated Kaff were (1.9±0.4)×10(9)М(-1) and (6.0±0.2)×10(6)М(-1) for the high- and low-affinity fractions respectively. The assay was characterized with a good sensitivity, the limit of detection being 5μgkg(-1). Two different kinds of detection labels, i.e. colloidal gold (CG) and quantum dots (QDs), were evaluated for use in lateral-flow format with respect to rapid visual on-site testing. The cut-off levels for both qualitative formats were selected based on the maximum level for gentamicin in milk established by the European Commission, 100μgkg(-1), resulting in a 10μgkg(-1) cut-off considering sample dilution. The intra-laboratory validation was performed with sterilized milk samples artificially spiked with gentamicin at concentrations less than, equal to, and greater than the cut-off level. It was shown that milk products could be analyzed without any sample preparation, except for dilution with the buffer solution. The rates of false-positive and false-negative results were below 5% for both labels. The different developed immunoassays were tested towards gentamicin determination in artificially-spiked and naturally contaminated milk samples.

  7. CELLULAR BIOAVAILABILITY OF NATURAL HORMONES AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS AS A FUNCTION OF SERUM AND CYTOSOLIC BINDING FACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental contaminants have been reported to function as hormone mimics in various wildlife species. To investigate a potential mechanism for the interaction of contaminants with the endocrine system, we evaluated the cellular bioavailability of numerous chemicals. Hormone bi...

  8. Natural and bioremediated selective degradation of polycyclic aromatic alkyl isomers in oil-contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Sauer, T.C.; McCarthy, K.; Uhler, A.; Porta, A.

    1995-12-31

    In studies where 2- to 6-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are determined as part of characterizing released oil constituents in environmental samples, the changes in composition of PAHs from weathering (e.g., evaporation, dissolution) and biodegradation are most often represented by PAH alkyl homologue distributions. Concentrations of PAH alkyl groups are the sum of individual PAH isomers of similar carbon number; such as for C2-naphthalenes, the C2 alkyl group consists of dimethyl and ethyl substitutions on the parent naphthalene. In weathering and degradation studies, the changes in relative concentration of the individual isomers within an alkyl group are rarely reported. In a field study of oiled soils, the authors looked at the selective losses, for a period of a year, of individual PAH alkyl isomers that occur both naturally by weathering processes and through the use of bioremediation technology. Results showed that decreases in alkyl group concentrations were not always represented by similar losses of each isomer in the alkyl group, but were often due to the preferential or selective loss of certain isomers in the group.

  9. Kinetics of scheelite dissolution in groundwater: defining the release rate of tungsten contamination from a natural source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, S. D.; Mckibben, M. A.

    2011-12-01

    Tungsten, an emerging contaminant, has no EPA standard for its permissible levels in drinking water. At sites in California, Nevada, and Arizona there may be a correlation between elevated levels of tungsten in drinking water and clusters of childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL). Developing a better understanding of how tungsten is released from rocks into surface and groundwaters is therefore of growing environmental interest. Knowledge of tungstate ore mineral weathering processes, particularly the rates of dissolution of scheelite (CaWO4) in groundwater, could improve models of how tungsten is released and transported in natural waters. Our research is focusing on experimental determination of the rates and products of tungstate mineral dissolution in synthetic groundwater, as a function of temperature, pH and mineral surface area. The initial rate method is being used to develop rate laws. Batch reactor experiments are conducted within constant temperature circulation baths over a pH range of 2-9. Cleaned scheelite powder with grain diameters of 106-150um is placed between two screens in a sample platform and then placed inside a two liter Teflon vessel filled with synthetic groundwater. Ports on the vessel allow sample extraction, temperature and pH measurement, gas inflow, and water circulation. Aliquots of solution are taken periodically for product analysis by ICP -MS. Changes in mineral surface characteristics are monitored using SEM and EDS methods. Results so far reveal that the dissolution of scheelite is incongruent at both neutral and low pH. Solid tungstic acid forms on scheelite mineral surfaces under acidic conditions, implying that this phase controls the dissolution rate in acidic environments. The influence of dissolved CO2 and resultant calcium carbonate precipitation on the dissolution of scheelite at higher pH is also being investigated. The rate law being developed for scheelite dissolution will be useful in reactive-transport computer

  10. Bioremediation (Natural Attenuation and Biostimulation) of Diesel-Oil-Contaminated Soil in an Alpine Glacier Skiing Area

    PubMed Central

    Margesin, R.; Schinner, F.

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the feasibility of bioremediation as a treatment option for a chronically diesel-oil-polluted soil in an alpine glacier area at an altitude of 2,875 m above sea level. To examine the efficiencies of natural attenuation and biostimulation, we used field-incubated lysimeters (mesocosms) with unfertilized and fertilized (N-P-K) soil. For three summer seasons (July 1997 to September 1999), we monitored changes in hydrocarbon concentrations in soil and soil leachate and the accompanying changes in soil microbial counts and activity. A significant reduction in the diesel oil level could be achieved. At the end of the third summer season (after 780 days), the initial level of contamination (2,612 ± 70 μg of hydrocarbons g [dry weight] of soil−1) was reduced by (50 ± 4)% and (70 ± 2)% in the unfertilized and fertilized soil, respectively. Nonetheless, the residual levels of contamination (1,296 ± 110 and 774 ± 52 μg of hydrocarbons g [dry weight] of soil−1 in the unfertilized and fertilized soil, respectively) were still high. Most of the hydrocarbon loss occurred during the first summer season ([42 ± 6]% loss) in the fertilized soil and during the second summer season ([41 ± 4]% loss) in the unfertilized soil. In the fertilized soil, all biological parameters (microbial numbers, soil respiration, catalase and lipase activities) were significantly enhanced and correlated significantly with each other, as well as with the residual hydrocarbon concentration, pointing to the importance of biodegradation. The effect of biostimulation of the indigenous soil microorganisms declined with time. The microbial activities in the unfertilized soil fluctuated around background levels during the whole study. PMID:11425732

  11. Groundwater contamination in coastal urban areas: Anthropogenic pressure and natural attenuation processes. Example of Recife (PE State, NE Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertrand, G.; Hirata, R.; Pauwels, H.; Cary, L.; Petelet-Giraud, E.; Chatton, E.; Aquilina, L.; Labasque, T.; Martins, V.; Montenegro, S.; Batista, J.; Aurouet, A.; Santos, J.; Bertolo, R.; Picot, G.; Franzen, M.; Hochreutener, R.; Braibant, G.

    2016-09-01

    In a context of increasing land use pressure (over-exploitation, surface-water contamination) and repeated droughts, identifying the processes affecting groundwater quality in coastal megacities of the tropical and arid countries will condition their long-term social and environmental sustainability. The present study focuses on the Brazilian Recife Metropolitan Region (RMR), which is a highly urbanized area (3,743,854 inhabitants in 2010) on the Atlantic coast located next to an estuarial zone and overlying a multi-layered sedimentary system featured by a variable sediment texture and organic content. It investigates the contamination and redox status patterns conditioning potential attenuation within the shallow aquifers that constitute the interface between the city and the strategic deeper semi-confined aquifers. These latter are increasingly exploited, leading to high drawdown in potenciometric levels of 20-30 m and up to 70 m in some high well density places, and potentially connected to the surface through leakage. From a multi-tracer approach (major ions, major gases, δ11B, δ18O-SO4, δ34S-SO4) carried out during two field campaigns in September 2012 and March 2013 (sampling of 19 wells and 3 surface waters), it has been possible to assess the contamination sources and the redox processes. The increasing trend for mineralization from inland to coastal and estuarial wells (from 119 to around 10,000 μS/cm) is at first attributed to water-rock interactions combined with natural and human-induced potentiometric gradients. Secondly, along with this trend, one finds an environmental pressure gradient related to sewage and/or surface-channel network impacts (typically depleted δ11B within the range of 10-15‰) that are purveyors of chloride, nitrate, ammonium and sulfate. Nitrate, ammonium and sulfate (ranging from 0 to 1.70 mmol/L, from 0 to 0,65 mmol/L, from 0.03 to 3.91 mmol/L respectively are also potentially produced or consumed through various redox

  12. Groundwater contamination in coastal urban areas: Anthropogenic pressure and natural attenuation processes. Example of Recife (PE State, NE Brazil).

    PubMed

    Bertrand, G; Hirata, R; Pauwels, H; Cary, L; Petelet-Giraud, E; Chatton, E; Aquilina, L; Labasque, T; Martins, V; Montenegro, S; Batista, J; Aurouet, A; Santos, J; Bertolo, R; Picot, G; Franzen, M; Hochreutener, R; Braibant, G

    2016-09-01

    In a context of increasing land use pressure (over-exploitation, surface-water contamination) and repeated droughts, identifying the processes affecting groundwater quality in coastal megacities of the tropical and arid countries will condition their long-term social and environmental sustainability. The present study focuses on the Brazilian Recife Metropolitan Region (RMR), which is a highly urbanized area (3,743,854 inhabitants in 2010) on the Atlantic coast located next to an estuarial zone and overlying a multi-layered sedimentary system featured by a variable sediment texture and organic content. It investigates the contamination and redox status patterns conditioning potential attenuation within the shallow aquifers that constitute the interface between the city and the strategic deeper semi-confined aquifers. These latter are increasingly exploited, leading to high drawdown in potenciometric levels of 20-30m and up to 70m in some high well density places, and potentially connected to the surface through leakage. From a multi-tracer approach (major ions, major gases, δ(11)B, δ(18)O-SO4, δ(34)S-SO4) carried out during two field campaigns in September 2012 and March 2013 (sampling of 19 wells and 3 surface waters), it has been possible to assess the contamination sources and the redox processes. The increasing trend for mineralization from inland to coastal and estuarial wells (from 119 to around 10,000μS/cm) is at first attributed to water-rock interactions combined with natural and human-induced potentiometric gradients. Secondly, along with this trend, one finds an environmental pressure gradient related to sewage and/or surface-channel network impacts (typically depleted δ(11)B within the range of 10-15‰) that are purveyors of chloride, nitrate, ammonium and sulfate. Nitrate, ammonium and sulfate (ranging from 0 to 1.70mmol/L, from 0 to 0,65mmol/L, from 0.03 to 3.91mmol/L respectively are also potentially produced or consumed through various redox

  13. Groundwater contamination in coastal urban areas: Anthropogenic pressure and natural attenuation processes. Example of Recife (PE State, NE Brazil).

    PubMed

    Bertrand, G; Hirata, R; Pauwels, H; Cary, L; Petelet-Giraud, E; Chatton, E; Aquilina, L; Labasque, T; Martins, V; Montenegro, S; Batista, J; Aurouet, A; Santos, J; Bertolo, R; Picot, G; Franzen, M; Hochreutener, R; Braibant, G

    2016-09-01

    In a context of increasing land use pressure (over-exploitation, surface-water contamination) and repeated droughts, identifying the processes affecting groundwater quality in coastal megacities of the tropical and arid countries will condition their long-term social and environmental sustainability. The present study focuses on the Brazilian Recife Metropolitan Region (RMR), which is a highly urbanized area (3,743,854 inhabitants in 2010) on the Atlantic coast located next to an estuarial zone and overlying a multi-layered sedimentary system featured by a variable sediment texture and organic content. It investigates the contamination and redox status patterns conditioning potential attenuation within the shallow aquifers that constitute the interface between the city and the strategic deeper semi-confined aquifers. These latter are increasingly exploited, leading to high drawdown in potenciometric levels of 20-30m and up to 70m in some high well density places, and potentially connected to the surface through leakage. From a multi-tracer approach (major ions, major gases, δ(11)B, δ(18)O-SO4, δ(34)S-SO4) carried out during two field campaigns in September 2012 and March 2013 (sampling of 19 wells and 3 surface waters), it has been possible to assess the contamination sources and the redox processes. The increasing trend for mineralization from inland to coastal and estuarial wells (from 119 to around 10,000μS/cm) is at first attributed to water-rock interactions combined with natural and human-induced potentiometric gradients. Secondly, along with this trend, one finds an environmental pressure gradient related to sewage and/or surface-channel network impacts (typically depleted δ(11)B within the range of 10-15‰) that are purveyors of chloride, nitrate, ammonium and sulfate. Nitrate, ammonium and sulfate (ranging from 0 to 1.70mmol/L, from 0 to 0,65mmol/L, from 0.03 to 3.91mmol/L respectively are also potentially produced or consumed through various redox

  14. Toxicity of sediments potentially contaminated by coal mining and natural gas extraction to unionid mussels and commonly tested benthic invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ning; Ingersoll, Christopher G; Kunz, James L; Brumbaugh, William G; Kane, Cindy M; Evans, R Brian; Alexander, Steven; Walker, Craig; Bakaletz, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Sediment toxicity tests were conducted to assess potential effects of contaminants associated with coal mining or natural gas extraction activities in the upper Tennessee River basin and eastern Cumberland River basin in the United States. Test species included two unionid mussels (rainbow mussel, Villosa iris, and wavy-rayed lampmussel, Lampsilis fasciola, 28-d exposures), and the commonly tested amphipod, Hyalella azteca (28-d exposure) and midge, Chironomus dilutus (10-d exposure). Sediments were collected from seven test sites with mussel communities classified as impacted and in proximity to coal mining or gas extraction activities, and from five reference sites with mussel communities classified as not impacted and no or limited coal mining or gas extraction activities. Additional samples were collected from six test sites potentially with high concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and from a test site contaminated by a coal ash spill. Mean survival, length, or biomass of one or more test species was reduced in 10 of 14 test samples (71%) from impacted areas relative to the response of organisms in the five reference samples. A higher proportion of samples was classified as toxic to mussels (63% for rainbow mussels, 50% for wavy-rayed lampmussels) compared with amphipods (38%) or midge (38%). Concentrations of total recoverable metals and total PAHs in sediments did not exceed effects-based probable effect concentrations (PECs). However, the survival, length, or biomasses of the mussels were reduced significantly with increasing PEC quotients for metals and for total PAHs, or with increasing sum equilibrium-partitioning sediment benchmark toxic units for PAHs. The growth of the rainbow mussel also significantly decreased with increasing concentrations of a major anion (chloride) and major cations (calcium and magnesium) in sediment pore water. Results of the present study indicated that (1) the findings from laboratory tests were generally

  15. Toxicity of sediments potentially contaminated by coal mining and natural gas extraction to unionid mussels and commonly tested benthic invertebrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Ning; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Kunz, James L.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Kane, Cindy M.; Evans, R. Brian; Alexander, Steven; Walker, Craig; Bakaletz, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Sediment toxicity tests were conducted to assess potential effects of contaminants associated with coal mining or natural gas extraction activities in the upper Tennessee River basin and eastern Cumberland River basin in the United States. Test species included two unionid mussels (rainbow mussel, Villosa iris, and wavy-rayed lampmussel, Lampsilis fasciola, 28-d exposures), and the commonly tested amphipod, Hyalella azteca (28-d exposure) and midge, Chironomus dilutus (10-d exposure). Sediments were collected from seven test sites with mussel communities classified as impacted and in proximity to coal mining or gas extraction activities, and from five reference sites with mussel communities classified as not impacted and no or limited coal mining or gas extraction activities. Additional samples were collected from six test sites potentially with high concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and from a test site contaminated by a coal ash spill. Mean survival, length, or biomass of one or more test species was reduced in 10 of 14 test samples (71%) from impacted areas relative to the response of organisms in the five reference samples. A higher proportion of samples was classified as toxic to mussels (63% for rainbow mussels, 50% for wavy-rayed lampmussels) compared with amphipods (38%) or midge (38%). Concentrations of total recoverable metals and total PAHs in sediments did not exceed effects-based probable effect concentrations (PECs). However, the survival, length, or biomasses of the mussels were reduced significantly with increasing PEC quotients for metals and for total PAHs, or with increasing sum equilibrium-partitioning sediment benchmark toxic units for PAHs. The growth of the rainbow mussel also significantly decreased with increasing concentrations of a major anion (chloride) and major cations (calcium and magnesium) in sediment pore water. Results of the present study indicated that (1) the findings from laboratory tests were generally

  16. Role of natural attenuation, phytoremediation and hybrid technologies in the remediation of a refinery soil with old/recent petroleum hydrocarbons contamination.

    PubMed

    Couto, Maria Nazaré P F S; Pinto, Dorabela; Basto, M Clara P; Vasconcelos, Teresa S D

    2012-09-01

    Within a search for a biological remediation technology to remove petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC) from a contaminated soil from a refinery, the potential of monitored natural attenuation (MNA) was compared with the use of transplants of Cortaderia selloana both in the absence and in the presence of soil amendments. After 31 months of experiments, MNA was effective in removing most of the recent PHC contamination (50% of the initial total contamination) at 5-20 cm depth. The presence of weathered contamination explains the existence of an established community of PHC degraders, as can be inferred by the most probable number technique. C. selloana, in its turn, showed capacity to mobilize the most recalcitrant fraction of PHC to its roots, nevertheless masking its remediation capacity. The use of a hybrid technology (C. selloana together with treatments with a surfactant and a bioaugmentation product) improved the removal of PHC at 15-20 cm depth, the presence of C. selloana facilitating the migration of additives into the deeper layers of soil, which can be considered a secondary but positive role of the plant. In the surface soil layer, which was exposed to both microorganisms and the atmosphere, a further 20% of weathered PHC contamination disappeared (70% total removal) as a result of photo- and chemical degradation. Periodic revolving of the soil, like tillage, to expose all the contaminated soil to the atmosphere will therefore be a reliable option for reducing the contamination of the refinery soil if conditions (space and equipment) permit this operation.

  17. Modelling milk production from feed intake in dairy cattle

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, D.L.

    1985-05-01

    Predictive models were developed for both Holstein and Jersey cows. Since Holsteins comprised eighty-five percent of the data, the predictive models developed for Holsteins were used for the development of a user-friendly computer model. Predictive models included: milk production (squared multiple correlation .73), natural log (ln) of milk production (.73), four percent fat-corrected milk (.67), ln four percent fat-corrected milk (.68), fat-free milk (.73), ln fat-free milk (.73), dry matter intake (.61), ln dry matter intake (.60), milk fat (.52), and ln milk fat (.56). The predictive models for ln milk production, ln fat-free milk and ln dry matter intake were incorporated into a computer model. The model was written in standard Fortran for use on mainframe or micro-computers. Daily milk production, fat-free milk production, and dry matter intake were predicted on a daily basis with the previous day's dry matter intake serving as an independent variable in the prediction of the daily milk and fat-free milk production. 21 refs.

  18. Assessment of natural attenuation of ground-water contamination at sites FT03, LF13, and WP14/LF15, Dover Air Force Base, Delaware

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barbaro, Jeffrey R.

    2002-01-01

    Water-quality, aquifer-sediment, and hydro-logic data were used to assess the effectiveness of natural attenuation of ground-water contamination at Fire Training Area Three, the Rubble Area Landfill, the Liquid Waste Disposal Landfill, and the Receiver Station Landfill in the East Management Unit of Dover Air Force Base, Delaware. These sites, which are contaminated with chlorinated solvents and fuel hydrocarbons, are under-going long-term monitoring to determine if natural attenuation continues to sufficiently reduce contaminant concentrations to meet regulatory requirements. This report is the first assessment of the effectiveness of natural attenuation at these sites since long-term monitoring began in 1999, and follows a preliminary investigation done in 1995?96. This assessment was done by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force.Since 1995?96, additional information has been collected and used in the current assessment. The conclusions in this report are based primarily on ground-water samples collected from January through March 2000. Previous analytical results from selected wells, available geologic and geo-physical well logs, and newly acquired information such as sediment organic-carbon measurements, hydraulic-conductivity measurements determined from slug tests on wells in the natural attenuation study area, and water-level measurements from surficial-aquifer wells also were used in this assessment. This information was used to: (1) calculate retardation factors and estimate contaminant migration velocities, (2) improve estimates of ground-water flow directions and inferred contaminant migration pathways, (3) better define the areal extent of contamination and the proximity of contaminants to discharge areas and the Base boundary, (4) develop a better under-standing of the vertical variability of contaminant concentrations and redox conditions, (5) evaluate the effects of temporal changes on concentrations in the plumes and

  19. Somatic cells count in cow's bulk tank milk.

    PubMed

    Olechnowicz, Jan; Jaśkowski, Jedrzej M

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was therefore to present factors affecting somatic cell counts in bovine bulk milk as a result of intramammary infections as well as non-infectious factors. The paper presents also the impact of on-farm management practices on the level of bulk milk somatic cell counts and presents quality indicators in bulk tank milk. At the farm level bulk milk bacterial infection takes place through three main sources: bacterial contamination from the external surface of the udder and teats, from the surface of the milking equipment, and from mastitis microorganisms within the udder. The threshold of 200,000 cells/ml identifies bacteriological negative quarters of the udder. The counts of mammary pathogens in bulk tank milk are relatively low, on average not exceeding 1,000 cfu/ml. Environmental pathogens predominate in bulk tank milk samples with somatic cells count <300 × 10(3) ml. PMID:22230979

  20. Microorganism Utilization for Synthetic Milk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morford, Megan A.; Khodadad, Christina L.; Caro, Janicce I.; Spencer, LaShelle E.; Richards, Jeffery T.; Strayer, Richard F.; Birmele, Michele N.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2014-01-01

    A desired architecture for long duration spaceflight, like aboard the International Space Station or for future missions to Mars, is to provide a supply of fresh food crops for the astronauts. However, some crops can create a high proportion of inedible plant waste. The main goal of the Synthetic Biology project, Cow in a Column, was to produce the components of milk (sugar, lipid, protein) from inedible plant waste by utilizing microorganisms (fungi, yeast, bacteria). Of particular interest was utilizing the valuable polysaccharide, cellulose, found in plant waste, to naturally fuel-through microorganism cellular metabolism- the creation of sugar (glucose), lipid (milk fat), and protein (casein) in order to produce a synthetic edible food product. Environmental conditions such as pH, temperature, carbon source, aeration, and choice microorganisms were optimized in the laboratory and the desired end-products, sugars and lipids, were analyzed. Trichoderma reesei, a known cellulolytic fungus, was utilized to drive the production of glucose, with the intent that the produced glucose would serve as the carbon source for milk fat production and be a substitute for the milk sugar lactose. Lipid production would be carried out by Rhodosporidium toruloides, yeast known to accumulate those lipids that are typically found in milk fat. Results showed that glucose and total lipid content were below what was expected during this phase of experimentation. In addition, individual analysis of six fatty acids revealed that the percentage of each fatty acid was lower than naturally produced bovine milk. Overall, this research indicates that microorganisms could be utilized to breakdown inedible solid waste to produce useable products. For future work, the production of the casein protein for milk would require the development of a genetically modified organism, which was beyond the scope of the original project. Additional trials would be needed to further refine the required

  1. New approach to the determination of contaminants of emerging concern in natural water: study of alprazolam employing adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Chalder Nogueira; Pauluk, Lucas Ely; Dos Anjos, Vanessa Egéa; Lopes, Mauro Chierici; Quináia, Sueli Pércio

    2015-08-01

    Contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) are chemicals, including pharmaceutical and personal care products, not commonly monitored in the aquatic environment. Pharmaceuticals are nowadays considered as an important environmental contaminant. Chromatography methods which require expensive equipment and complicated sample pretreatment are used for detection of CECs in natural water. Thus, in this study we proposed a simple, fast, and low-cost voltammetric method as a screening tool for the determination of CECs in natural water prior to chromatography. A case study was conducted with alprazolam (benzodiazepine). The method was optimized and validated in-house. The limit of quantification was 0.4 μg L(-1) for a 120 s preconcentration time. The recoveries ranged from 93 to 120 % for accuracy tests. A further proposal aim was to determine for the first time the occurrence of alprazolam in Brazilian river water and to evaluate its potential use as a marker of contamination by wastewater.

  2. The Effect of Microbial Activity on Flow and Transport of an Organic Contaminant in Naturally Fractured Chalk Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnon, S.; Adar, E.; Ronen, Z.; Yakirevich, A.; Nativ, R.

    2001-12-01

    Low-permeability rock formations, such as chalk, are being selected as hydrogeological barriers for waste disposal sites and industrial areas throughout the world. Many sites constructed on chalk formations have failed due to existing fractures. Subsurface natural or enhanced microbial activity is the main biological process that causes transformation of organic contaminants in groundwater. However, this beneficial activity may result in physical, chemical, geological and biological changes affecting the hydrological properties of the fractured domain. Whereas these effects have been extensively investigated in porous media, they are less familiar in fractured formations, the topic of this work. A set of experiments was designed to quantify 2-D flow distribution along a single fracture and to assess the effect of biodegradation on its hydraulic properties. The experiments were carried out using 20-cm diameter and 30-50-cm long chalk cores, each intersected by a single natural fracture. Flow across the fracture was defined through both direct measurements of the out flux under various (controlled) hydraulic gradients, and through 2-D multi-tracer tests. The 2-D-distribution of flow in the fracture was investigated by injecting four non-reactive tracers (fluorobenzoic acids), each along a different section of the fracture inlet. Similarly, the outflux was sampled from four vertically aligned segments at the fracture outlet. Tracer breakthrough curves, mixing ratios and fluxes were evaluated for quantitative assessment of the 2-D flow distribution within the fracture. Results from the flow experiments suggested deviation from a linear relationship between the flux and the hydraulic gradient for Reynolds numbers exceeding 8, probably due to the increase of inertial forces. In addition, although flow out of the fracture was evenly distributed along the fracture width, different mixing ratios of tracers in neighboring sections were observed probably due to hydrodynamic

  3. Arsenic contamination of natural waters in San Juan and La Pampa, Argentina.

    PubMed

    O'Reilly, J; Watts, M J; Shaw, R A; Marcilla, A L; Ward, N I

    2010-12-01

    (III) and As(V) concentrations in San Juan ranged from 4-138 μg l(-1) to <0.02-22 μg l(-1) for surface waters (in the San José de Jáchal region) and 23-346 μg l(-1) and 0.04-76 μg l(-1) for groundwater, respectively. This translates to a relative As(III) abundance of 69-100% of the total arsenic in surface waters and 32-100% in groundwater. This is unexpected because it is typically thought that in oxidising conditions (surface waters), the dominant arsenic species is As(V). However, data from the SPE methodology suggests that As(III) is the prevalent species in San Juan, indicating a greater influence from reductive processes. La Pampa groundwater had As(III) and As(V) concentrations of 5-1,332 μg l(-1) and 0.09-592 μg l(-1) for EC and 32-242 μg l(-1) and 30-277 μg l(-1) As for LU, respectively. Detectable levels of MA(V) were reported in both provinces up to a concentration of 79 μg l(-1) (equating to up to 33% of the total arsenic). Previously published literature has focused primarily on the inorganic arsenic species, however this study highlights the potentially significant concentrations of organoarsenicals present in natural waters. The potential for separating and preserving individual arsenic species in the field to avoid transformation during transport to the laboratory, enabling an accurate assessment of in situ arsenic speciation in water supplies is discussed.

  4. Comparison of subtypes of Listeria monocytogenes isolates from naturally contaminated watershed samples using a combination of non-selective and selective enrichment methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two enrichment methods for Listeria monocytogenes using Immuno Magnetic Separation were tested to determine if they selected the same subtypes of isolates. Both methods included a non-selective enrichment and one included subculture in Fraser Broth. Naturally contaminated watershed samples from the ...

  5. Use of the Electronic Nose as a Screening Tool for the Recognition of Durum Wheat Naturally Contaminated by Deoxynivalenol: A Preliminary Approach

    PubMed Central

    Campagnoli, Anna; Cheli, Federica; Polidori, Carlo; Zaninelli, Mauro; Zecca, Oreste; Savoini, Giovanni; Pinotti, Luciano; Dell’Orto, Vittorio

    2011-01-01

    Fungal contamination and the presence of related toxins is a widespread problem. Mycotoxin contamination has prompted many countries to establish appropriate tolerance levels. For instance, with the Commission Regulation (EC) N. 1881/2006, the European Commission fixed the limits for the main mycotoxins (and other contaminants) in food. Although valid analytical methods are being developed for regulatory purposes, a need exists for alternative screening methods that can detect mould and mycotoxin contamination of cereal grains with high sample throughput. In this study, a commercial electronic nose (EN) equipped with metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) sensors was used in combination with a trap and the thermal desorption technique, with the adoption of Tenax TA as an adsorbent material to discriminate between durum wheat whole-grain samples naturally contaminated with deoxynivalenol (DON) and non-contaminated samples. Each wheat sample was analysed with the EN at four different desorption temperatures (i.e., 180 °C, 200 °C, 220 °C, and 240 °C) and without a desorption pre-treatment. A 20-sample and a 122-sample dataset were processed by means of principal component analysis (PCA) and classified via classification and regression trees (CART). Results, validated with two different methods, showed that it was possible to classify wheat samples into three clusters based on the DON content proposed by the European legislation: (a) non-contaminated; (b) contaminated below the limit (DON < 1,750 μg/kg); (c) contaminated above the limit (DON > 1,750 μg/kg), with a classification error rate in prediction of 0% (for the 20-sample dataset) and 3.28% (for the 122-sample dataset). PMID:22163882

  6. Adsorption of organic contaminants by graphene nanosheets, carbon nanotubes and granular activated carbons under natural organic matter preloading conditions.

    PubMed

    Ersan, Gamze; Kaya, Yasemin; Apul, Onur G; Karanfil, Tanju

    2016-09-15

    The effect of NOM preloading on the adsorption of phenanthrene (PNT) and trichloroethylene (TCE) by pristine graphene nanosheets (GNS) and graphene oxide nanosheet (GO) was investigated and compared with those of a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT), a multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT), and two coal based granular activated carbons (GACs). PNT uptake was higher than TCE by all adsorbents on both mass and surface area bases. This was attributed to the hydrophobicity of PNT. The adsorption capacities of PNT and TCE depend on the accessibility of the organic molecules to the inner regions of the adsorbent which was influenced from the molecular size of OCs. The adsorption capacities of all adsorbents decreased as a result of NOM preloading due to site competition and/or pore/interstice blockage. However, among all adsorbents, GO was generally effected least from the NOM preloading for PNT, whereas there was not observed any trend of NOM competition with a specific adsorbent for TCE. In addition, SWCNT was generally affected most from the NOM preloading for TCE and there was not any trend for PNT. The overall results indicated that the fate and transport of organic contaminants by GNSs and CNTs type of nanoadsorbents and GACs in different natural systems will be affected by water quality parameters, characteristics of adsorbent, and properties of adsorbate.

  7. Adsorption of organic contaminants by graphene nanosheets, carbon nanotubes and granular activated carbons under natural organic matter preloading conditions.

    PubMed

    Ersan, Gamze; Kaya, Yasemin; Apul, Onur G; Karanfil, Tanju

    2016-09-15

    The effect of NOM preloading on the adsorption of phenanthrene (PNT) and trichloroethylene (TCE) by pristine graphene nanosheets (GNS) and graphene oxide nanosheet (GO) was investigated and compared with those of a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT), a multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT), and two coal based granular activated carbons (GACs). PNT uptake was higher than TCE by all adsorbents on both mass and surface area bases. This was attributed to the hydrophobicity of PNT. The adsorption capacities of PNT and TCE depend on the accessibility of the organic molecules to the inner regions of the adsorbent which was influenced from the molecular size of OCs. The adsorption capacities of all adsorbents decreased as a result of NOM preloading due to site competition and/or pore/interstice blockage. However, among all adsorbents, GO was generally effected least from the NOM preloading for PNT, whereas there was not observed any trend of NOM competition with a specific adsorbent for TCE. In addition, SWCNT was generally affected most from the NOM preloading for TCE and there was not any trend for PNT. The overall results indicated that the fate and transport of organic contaminants by GNSs and CNTs type of nanoadsorbents and GACs in different natural systems will be affected by water quality parameters, characteristics of adsorbent, and properties of adsorbate. PMID:27107611

  8. Comparison of Subtypes of Listeria monocytogenes Isolates from Naturally Contaminated Watershed Samples with and without a Selective Secondary Enrichment

    PubMed Central

    Gorski, Lisa; Walker, Samarpita; Liang, Anita S.; Nguyen, Kimberly M.; Govoni, Jessica; Carychao, Diana; Cooley, Michael B.; Mandrell, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    Two enrichment methods for Listeria monocytogenes using Immuno Magnetic Separation (IMS) were tested to determine if they selected the same subtypes of isolates. Both methods used a non-selective primary enrichment and one included subculture in Fraser Broth, while the other involved direct plating of IMS beads. Sixty-two naturally contaminated watershed samples from the Central California Coast were used as a source of L. monocytogenes, and subtype diversity was measured by serotype and Multiple Number Variable Tandem Repeat Analysis (MLVA). Three different serotypes were detected from both methods with serotype 4b strains making up 87% of the isolates, serotype 1/2a making up 8%, and serotype 1/2b making up 5%. The data suggest that serotype 1/2a strains were more likely to be isolated from the Fraser Broth culture method. Sixty-two different MLVA types were detected and the more common MLVA types were detected by both culture methods. Forty-three MLVA types were detected only from one culture method or the other, while 19 types were detected from both culture methods. The most common MLVA type-12 was detected in 33 of the 62 water samples, and represented 31% of the isolates from both culture methods. This limited study provides evidence that using both enrichment culture methods allowed for detection of a greater diversity of isolates among the samples than the use of one method alone, and that a wide diversity of L. monocytogenes strains exist in this watershed. PMID:24651315

  9. A reagent for specific recognition of cysteine in aqueous buffer and in natural milk: imaging studies, enzymatic reaction and analysis of whey protein.

    PubMed

    A, Anila H; G, Upendar Reddy; Ali, Firoj; Taye, Nandaraj; Chattopadhyay, Samit; Das, Amitava

    2015-11-01

    We report a new chemodosimetric probe () for specific recognition of cysteine (Cys) in aqueous buffer and in whey protein isolated from fresh cow's milk. Using this reagent we could develop a luminescence-based methodology for estimation of Cys released from a commercially available Cys-supplement drug by aminoacylase-1 in live cells.

  10. Cow's milk and children

    MedlinePlus

    Milk and children; Cow’s milk allergy - children; Lactose intolerance - children ... You may have heard that cow's milk should not be given to babies younger than 1 year old. This is because cow's milk doesn't provide enough of certain ...

  11. Recovery and Growth Potential of Listeria monocytogenes in Temperature Abused Milkshakes Prepared from Naturally Contaminated Ice Cream Linked to a Listeriosis Outbreak.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi; Allard, Emma; Wooten, Anna; Hur, Minji; Sheth, Ishani; Laasri, Anna; Hammack, Thomas S; Macarisin, Dumitru

    2016-01-01

    The recovery and growth potential of Listeria monocytogenes was evaluated in three flavors of milkshakes (vanilla, strawberry, and chocolate) that were prepared from naturally contaminated ice cream linked to a listeriosis outbreak in the U.S. in 2015, and were subsequently held at room temperature for 14 h. The average lag phase duration of L. monocytogenes was 9.05 h; the average generation time was 1.67 h; and the average population level increase per sample at 14 h was 1.14 log CFU/g. Milkshake flavors did not significantly affect these parameters. The average lag phase duration of L. monocytogenes in milkshakes with initial contamination levels ≤ 3 CFU/g (9.50 h) was significantly longer (P < 0.01) than that with initial contamination levels > 3 CFU/g (8.60 h). The results highlight the value of using samples that are contaminated with very low levels of L. monocytogenes for recovery and growth evaluations. The behavior of L. monocytogenes populations in milkshakes prepared from naturally contaminated ice cream linked to the listeriosis outbreak should be taken into account when performing risk based analysis using this outbreak as a case study.

  12. Recovery and Growth Potential of Listeria monocytogenes in Temperature Abused Milkshakes Prepared from Naturally Contaminated Ice Cream Linked to a Listeriosis Outbreak.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi; Allard, Emma; Wooten, Anna; Hur, Minji; Sheth, Ishani; Laasri, Anna; Hammack, Thomas S; Macarisin, Dumitru

    2016-01-01

    The recovery and growth potential of Listeria monocytogenes was evaluated in three flavors of milkshakes (vanilla, strawberry, and chocolate) that were prepared from naturally contaminated ice cream linked to a listeriosis outbreak in the U.S. in 2015, and were subsequently held at room temperature for 14 h. The average lag phase duration of L. monocytogenes was 9.05 h; the average generation time was 1.67 h; and the average population level increase per sample at 14 h was 1.14 log CFU/g. Milkshake flavors did not significantly affect these parameters. The average lag phase duration of L. monocytogenes in milkshakes with initial contamination levels ≤ 3 CFU/g (9.50 h) was significantly longer (P < 0.01) than that with initial contamination levels > 3 CFU/g (8.60 h). The results highlight the value of using samples that are contaminated with very low levels of L. monocytogenes for recovery and growth evaluations. The behavior of L. monocytogenes populations in milkshakes prepared from naturally contaminated ice cream linked to the listeriosis outbreak should be taken into account when performing risk based analysis using this outbreak as a case study. PMID:27242775

  13. Recovery and Growth Potential of Listeria monocytogenes in Temperature Abused Milkshakes Prepared from Naturally Contaminated Ice Cream Linked to a Listeriosis Outbreak

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi; Allard, Emma; Wooten, Anna; Hur, Minji; Sheth, Ishani; Laasri, Anna; Hammack, Thomas S.; Macarisin, Dumitru

    2016-01-01

    The recovery and growth potential of Listeria monocytogenes was evaluated in three flavors of milkshakes (vanilla, strawberry, and chocolate) that were prepared from naturally contaminated ice cream linked to a listeriosis outbreak in the U.S. in 2015, and were subsequently held at room temperature for 14 h. The average lag phase duration of L. monocytogenes was 9.05 h; the average generation time was 1.67 h; and the average population level increase per sample at 14 h was 1.14 log CFU/g. Milkshake flavors did not significantly affect these parameters. The average lag phase duration of L. monocytogenes in milkshakes with initial contamination levels ≤ 3 CFU/g (9.50 h) was significantly longer (P < 0.01) than that with initial contamination levels > 3 CFU/g (8.60 h). The results highlight the value of using samples that are contaminated with very low levels of L. monocytogenes for recovery and growth evaluations. The behavior of L. monocytogenes populations in milkshakes prepared from naturally contaminated ice cream linked to the listeriosis outbreak should be taken into account when performing risk based analysis using this outbreak as a case study. PMID:27242775

  14. Effects of natural and human factors on groundwater quality of basin-fill aquifers in the southwestern United States-conceptual models for selected contaminants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bexfield, Laura M.; Thiros, Susan A.; Anning, David W.; Huntington, Jena M.; McKinney, Tim S.

    2011-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program, the Southwest Principal Aquifers (SWPA) study is building a better understanding of the factors that affect water quality in basin-fill aquifers in the Southwestern United States. The SWPA study area includes four principal aquifers of the United States: the Basin and Range basin-fill aquifers in California, Nevada, Utah, and Arizona; the Rio Grande aquifer system in New Mexico and Colorado; and the California Coastal Basin and Central Valley aquifer systems in California. Similarities in the hydrogeology, land- and water-use practices, and water-quality issues for alluvial basins within the study area allow for regional analysis through synthesis of the baseline knowledge of groundwater-quality conditions in basins previously studied by the NAWQA Program. Resulting improvements in the understanding of the sources, movement, and fate of contaminants are assisting in the development of tools used to assess aquifer susceptibility and vulnerability. This report synthesizes previously published information about the groundwater systems and water quality of 15 information-rich basin-fill aquifers (SWPA case-study basins) into conceptual models of the primary natural and human factors commonly affecting groundwater quality with respect to selected contaminants, thereby helping to build a regional understanding of the susceptibility and vulnerability of basin-fill aquifers to those contaminants. Four relatively common contaminants (dissolved solids, nitrate, arsenic, and uranium) and two contaminant classes (volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and pesticide compounds) were investigated for sources and controls affecting their occurrence and distribution above specified levels of concern in groundwater of the case-study basins. Conceptual models of factors that are important to aquifer vulnerability with respect to those contaminants and contaminant classes were subsequently formed. The

  15. Raman spectroscopy and imaging to detect contaminants for food safety applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study presents the use of Raman chemical imaging for the screening of dry milk powder for the presence of chemical contaminants and Raman spectroscopy for quantitative assessment of chemical contaminants in liquid milk. For image-based screening, melamine was mixed into dry milk at concentratio...

  16. Geophysical and flow-weighted natural-contaminant characterization of three water-supply wells in New Hampshire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mack, Thomas J.; Belaval, Marcel; Degnan, James R.; Roy, Stephen J.; Ayotte, Joseph D.

    2011-01-01

    The water-supply systems investigated were typical of small community water systems in New Hampshire where a water system may serve 100 connections or less. Each water system consisted of two wells, approximately 300 to 400 feet deep, in generally low-yielding (about 10 gallons per minute or less) crystalline bedrock. The wells were typically operated a few hours per day to fill a storage tank and had tens of feet of drawdown caused by the low well yields. The systems selected had contaminant concentrations slightly above MCL, or a low-level contamination. One of the water systems investigated had low-level (10 to 24 micrograms per liter) arsenic contamination, and two of the water systems had low-level uranium (30 to 40 micrograms per liter) contamination. The contaminant values were blended-water concentrations from the two wells in a system. Each water system had differences in contaminant concentrations between the two wells. In each case, the well with the greater concentration of the two was selected for investigation. In two of the three systems investigated, there was either not enough variation in the borehole contaminant concentration or not enough water-yielding fractures for borehole modifications to be a viable potential remedy to elevated contamination. However, borehole and contaminant conditions in one of the bedrock supply-well systems may be favorable to potential improvement of supplied water by borehole modification where selected fracture zones are sealed off from supplying water to the well.

  17. Assessment of raw milk quality and stakeholders' awareness on milk-borne health risks in Arusha City and Meru District, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Ngasala, J Uma Bukuku; Nonga, Hezron Emmanuel; Mtambo, Mkumbukwa Madundo Angelo

    2015-06-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the quality of raw milk and stakeholders' awareness on milk-borne health risks and factors for poor milk hygiene in Arusha City and Meru District, Tanzania between October and December 2012. A total of 105 smallholder dairy farmers, milk vendors and milk retailers were interviewed, and milk samples were collected for physical, microbial and antibiotic residue analysis using standard procedures. Questionnaire results indicated high level of awareness (94 %) that drinking raw milk can predispose consumers to milk-borne diseases; nevertheless, 65 % of respondents consumed raw milk. Physicochemical analyses showed some of the milk had sediments (20 %), bad smell (21 %) and had clotted on alcohol test (27 %). About 36 % of milk samples had pH below 6.6, and 25 % had specific gravity below 1.028 g/ml. The mean total viable count (TVC) of milk from vendors is significantly (P < 0.05) higher than that from retailers and smallholder dairy farmers. Generally, 65 % of milk samples assessed had a higher TVC than the level recommended (2.0 × 10(5) cfu/ml) by the East African Community (EAC) standards. Up to 91 % of the milk samples had bacterial growth that included Eschericia coli (66 %), Staphylococcus aureus (33 %), Corynebacterium (11 %) and Pseudomonas (10 %). All smallholder dairy farmers were aware of drug residues, but majority (57 %) were unaware of human health effects caused by veterinary drug residues in milk. Up to 97 % of respondents reported to comply with drug withdrawal periods. This possibly led to all milk samples analysed to be negative from detectable levels of antibiotic residues. It is concluded that the level of awareness on milk quality is high, although practices associated with milking and post-harvest handling predispose milk to bacterial contamination which is a public health risk to milk consumers.

  18. Natural occurrence of Fusarium and subsequent fumonisin contamination in preharvest and stored maize in Benin, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Fandohan, P; Gnonlonfin, B; Hell, K; Marasas, W F O; Wingfield, M J

    2005-03-15

    The natural occurrence of Fusarium and fumonisin contamination was evaluated from 1999 to 2003 in both preharvest and stored maize produced by small-scale farmers in four agroecological zones of Benin. Mycological analyses revealed a predominance of both Fusarium and Aspergillus in maize samples compared to other genera. The two Fusarium species most commonly isolated from maize were Fusarium verticillioides (68%) and Fusarium proliferatum (31%). Atypical isolates of F. verticillioides with some characteristics of Fusarium andiyazi but apparently closer to F. verticillioides, because the isolates were all high fumonisin producers, were also found only on preharvest maize. Study of F. verticillioides strains showed the presence of extremely high fumonisin producers in Benin with total fumonisin levels ranging from 8240 to 16,690 mg/kg. Apart from 2002-2003, Fusarium occurrence was not significantly different from one zone to another, although a slight decrease was observed from south, humid, to north, drier. Fusarium occurrence varied somewhat from one season to another. It significantly decreased over the 6 months of storage. Widespread fumonisin occurrence in maize was observed. Most of the maize samples collected were found positive for fumonisin with levels ranging from not detected to 12 mg/kg in 1999-2000, 6.7 mg/kg in 2000-2001 and 6.1 mg/kg in 2002-2003. Fumonisin levels in maize were found to be significantly higher in the two southern zones during all the surveys. The highest mean total fumonisin level was detected in 1999-2000 in maize samples from the southern Guinea Savannah (SGS) (12 mg/kg), whereas in both 2000-2001 and 2002-2003, it was in samples from the forest mosaic savannah (FMS) (6.7 and 6.1 mg/kg, respectively). Fumonisin levels varied from one season to another and, throughout the storage time, showing a decreasing trend in each zone. However, this decrease was not significant every season. An increasing trend was observed during some seasons

  19. Effects of Wheat Naturally Contaminated with Fusarium Mycotoxins on Growth Performance and Selected Health Indices of Red Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus × O. mossambicus).

    PubMed

    Tola, Siriporn; Bureau, Dominique P; Hooft, Jamie M; Beamish, Frederick W H; Sulyok, Michael; Krska, Rudolf; Encarnação, Pedro; Petkam, Rakpong

    2015-06-01

    An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to examine effects of wheat naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins (deoxynivalenol, DON 41 mg·kg(-1)) on growth performance and selected health indices of red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus × O. mossambicus; initial weight = 4.3 g/fish). Five experimental diets were formulated by replacement of clean wheat with naturally contaminated wheat resulting in graded levels of DON and zearalenone (ZEN) (Diet 1 0.07/0.01, Diet 2 0.31/0.09, Diet 3 0.50/0.21, Diet 4 0.92/0.37 and Diet 5 1.15/0.98 mg·kg(-1)). Groups of 50 fish were randomly allocated into each of 20 aquaria and fed to near-satiety for eight weeks. Growth rate, feed intake and feed efficiency of fish fed the experimental diets decreased linearly with increasing levels of Fusarium mycotoxins (p < 0.05). Although growth depression was associated with feeding diets naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins, especially DON, no biochemical and histopathological parameters measured in blood and liver appeared affected by Fusarium mycotoxin concentrations of diets (p > 0.05). Though there was no clear evidence of overt DON toxicity to red tilapia, it is recommended that feed ingredients should be screened for Fusarium mycotoxin contamination to ensure optimal growth performance. PMID:26035489

  20. Effects of Wheat Naturally Contaminated with Fusarium Mycotoxins on Growth Performance and Selected Health Indices of Red Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus × O. mossambicus)

    PubMed Central

    Tola, Siriporn; Bureau, Dominique P.; Hooft, Jamie M.; Beamish, Frederick W. H.; Sulyok, Michael; Krska, Rudolf; Encarnação, Pedro; Petkam, Rakpong

    2015-01-01

    An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to examine effects of wheat naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins (deoxynivalenol, DON 41 mg·kg−1) on growth performance