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Sample records for naturally occurring breast

  1. Naturally occurring chemical carcinogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural products are chemicals found in nature which have unique pharmacological effects. Humans are exposed to many of these bioactive naturally occurring chemicals via the air breathed, the water drunk and the food eaten. Exposure also occurs in clinical settings. Naturally occurring chemicals ...

  2. Sulphoraphane, a naturally occurring isothiocyanate induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells by targeting heat shock proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Sarkar, Ruma; Mukherjee, Sutapa; Biswas, Jaydip; Roy, Madhumita

    2012-10-12

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HSPs (27, 70 and 90) and HSF1 are overexpressed in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sulphoraphane, a natural isothiocyanate inhibited HSPs and HSF1 expressions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of HSPs and HSF1 lead to regulation of apoptotic proteins. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Alteration of apoptotic proteins activate of caspases particularly caspase 3 and 9 leading to induction of apoptosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Alteration of apoptotic proteins induce caspases leading to induction of apoptosis. -- Abstract: Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are involved in protein folding, aggregation, transport and/or stabilization by acting as a molecular chaperone, leading to inhibition of apoptosis by both caspase dependent and/or independent pathways. HSPs are overexpressed in a wide range of human cancers and are implicated in tumor cell proliferation, differentiation, invasion and metastasis. HSPs particularly 27, 70, 90 and the transcription factor heat shock factor1 (HSF1) play key roles in the etiology of breast cancer and can be considered as potential therapeutic target. The present study was designed to investigate the role of sulphoraphane, a natural isothiocyanate on HSPs (27, 70, 90) and HSF1 in two different breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells expressing wild type and mutated p53 respectively, vis-a-vis in normal breast epithelial cell line MCF-12F. It was furthermore investigated whether modulation of HSPs and HSF1 could induce apoptosis in these cells by altering the expressions of p53, p21 and some apoptotic proteins like Bcl-2, Bax, Bid, Bad, Apaf-1 and AIF. Sulphoraphane was found to down-regulate the expressions of HSP70, 90 and HSF1, though the effect on HSP27 was not pronounced. Consequences of HSP inhibition was upregulation of p21 irrespective of p53 status. Bax, Bad, Apaf-1, AIF were upregulated followed by down-regulation of Bcl-2 and this effect was prominent

  3. Characterization of a naturally occurring breast cancer subset enriched in EMT and stem cell characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Hennessy, Bryan T.; Gonzalez-Angulo, Ana-Maria; Stemke-Hale, Katherine; Gilcrease, Michael Z.; Krishnamurthy, Savitri; Lee, Ju-Seog; Fridlyand, Jane; Sahin, Aysegul; Agarwal, Roshan; Joy, Corwin; Liu, Wenbin; Stivers, David; Baggerly, Keith; Carey, Mark; Lluch, Ana; Monteagudo, Carlos; He, Xiaping; Weigman, Victor; Fan, Cheng; Palazzo, Juan; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N.; Nolden, Laura K.; Wang, Nicholas J.; Valero, Vicente; Gray, Joe W.; Perou, Charles M.; Mills, Gordon B.

    2009-05-19

    Metaplastic breast cancers (MBC) are aggressive, chemoresistant tumors characterized by lineage plasticity. To advance understanding of their pathogenesis and relatedness to other breast cancer subtypes, 28 MBCs were compared with common breast cancers using comparative genomic hybridization, transcriptional profiling, and reverse-phase protein arrays and by sequencing for common breast cancer mutations. MBCs showed unique DNA copy number aberrations compared with common breast cancers. PIK3CA mutations were detected in 9 of 19 MBCs (47.4%) versus 80 of 232 hormone receptor-positive cancers (34.5%; P = 0.32), 17 of 75 HER-2-positive samples (22.7%; P = 0.04), 20 of 240 basal-like cancers (8.3%; P < 0.0001), and 0 of 14 claudin-low tumors (P = 0.004). Of 7 phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT pathway phosphorylation sites, 6 were more highly phosphorylated in MBCs than in other breast tumor subtypes. The majority of MBCs displayed mRNA profiles different from those of the most common, including basal-like cancers. By transcriptional profiling, MBCs and the recently identified claudin-low breast cancer subset constitute related receptor-negative subgroups characterized by low expression of GATA3-regulated genes and of genes responsible for cell-cell adhesion with enrichment for markers linked to stem cell function and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). In contrast to other breast cancers, claudin-low tumors and most MBCs showed a significant similarity to a 'tumorigenic' signature defined using CD44{sup +}/CD24{sup -} breast tumor-initiating stem cell-like cells. MBCs and claudin-low tumors are thus enriched in EMT and stem cell-like features, and may arise from an earlier, more chemoresistant breast epithelial precursor than basal-like or luminal cancers. PIK3CA mutations, EMT, and stem cell-like characteristics likely contribute to the poor outcomes of MBC and suggest novel therapeutic targets.

  4. Naturally occurring insecticides.

    PubMed Central

    Soloway, S B

    1976-01-01

    Naturally occurring insecticides are abundant and varied in their effects, though but a few are articles of commerce. Even for these, pyrethrum, nicotine, rotenone, hellebore, ryania, and sabadilla, there is a paucity of information on mammalian toxicology and environmental effects. In general, these materials are characterized favorably by low acute toxicity and ready dissipation in nature. Unfavorable aspects of natural insecticides are the contained mixture of active and inactive components and the low active ingredient content on a crop yield basis pointing to a high unit cost. Natural insecticides can serve additionally as leads to unnatural mimics, of which the commercially successful synthetic pyrethroids are prime examples. The chemical nature, relationship of insecticidal activity to chemical structure, occurrence, production, and utilization, registered uses, metabolism, and insect and mammalian toxicity are reviewed. PMID:789058

  5. "Naturally occurring asbestos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cagnard, F.; Lahondère, D.; Blein, O.; Lahfid, A.; Wille, G.

    2012-04-01

    The term asbestos refers to six silicate minerals from amphibole and serpentine groups. By definition, it consists in bundles of thin and flexible long fibers, with high-tensile strength, and chemical and heat resistance. In contrast to asbestos found within commercial products and mining, the specific term ''naturally occurring asbestos'' (NOA) refers to asbestiform minerals occurring within rocks or soils that can be released by human activities or weathering processes. The fact that the exposure to asbestos is related to lung pathologies is now widely demonstrated (e.g. asbestosis, mesothelioma and lung cancer). However, if health risks associated with exposure to NOA exist, they are not yet well documented. The crystallization of natural asbestos occurs in specific Mg-rich lithologies associated with peculiar structural and metamorphic conditions. By recognizing and combining such specific geologic criteria, the presence or the absence of asbestos in bedrock terrains can be reasonably predicted and maps of NOA hazard can be drawn. We present here new results of geological mapping and petrological study concerning the evaluation of the NOA hazard in the Alps and Corsica, in France. The three folds approach consists in (1) a determination of lithologies with potential NOA from a bibliographic compilation and extraction of target zones from a geological geodatabase (2) a geological mapping of the target zones followed by a petrological characterization of sampled asbestiform minerals in the laboratory (optical microscopy, TEM, SEM, and Raman spectroscopy technics), and (3) the drawing of the final map of NOA hazard, at regional-scale. Occurrence criteria can be retained as follows: 1. NOA are abundant in the internal zones of the Alps and Corsica, especially within ophiolitic complexes. Natural asbestos are mostly concentrated within ultramafic rocks but can also occur within basic lithologies such as Mg-metagabbros, metabasalts and meta-pillow-lavas, 2. Asbestos

  6. Naturally Occurring Food Toxins

    PubMed Central

    Dolan, Laurie C.; Matulka, Ray A.; Burdock, George A.

    2010-01-01

    Although many foods contain toxins as a naturally-occurring constituent or, are formed as the result of handling or processing, the incidence of adverse reactions to food is relatively low. The low incidence of adverse effects is the result of some pragmatic solutions by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and other regulatory agencies through the creative use of specifications, action levels, tolerances, warning labels and prohibitions. Manufacturers have also played a role by setting limits on certain substances and developing mitigation procedures for process-induced toxins. Regardless of measures taken by regulators and food producers to protect consumers from natural food toxins, consumption of small levels of these materials is unavoidable. Although the risk for toxicity due to consumption of food toxins is fairly low, there is always the possibility of toxicity due to contamination, overconsumption, allergy or an unpredictable idiosyncratic response. The purpose of this review is to provide a toxicological and regulatory overview of some of the toxins present in some commonly consumed foods, and where possible, discuss the steps that have been taken to reduce consumer exposure, many of which are possible because of the unique process of food regulation in the United States. PMID:22069686

  7. Antitumor effects of naturally occurring cardiac glycosides convallatoxin and peruvoside on human ER+ and triple-negative breast cancers

    PubMed Central

    Kaushik, Vivek; Azad, Neelam; Yakisich, Juan Sebastian; Iyer, Anand Krishnan V

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is second most prevalent cancer in women, and the second only to lung cancer in cancer-related deaths. It is a heterogeneous disease and has several subtypes based on the presence or absence of hormone receptors and/or human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). Hormone receptor-positive and HER2-enriched cancers can be targeted using hormone and HER2-targeting therapies such as trastuzumab or lapatinib. However, triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) do not express any of the receptors and therefore are resistant to most targeted therapies, and cytotoxic chemotherapies are the only viable option available for the treatment of TNBCs. Recently, cardiac glycosides (CGs) have emerged as potential anticancer agents that impart their antiproliferative effect by targeting multiple pathways. In this study our aim was to evaluate anticancer effects of two naturally occurring CGs, Convallatoxin (CT) and Peruvoside (PS), on ER+ and TNBCs cells. CT and PS demonstrated dose- and time-dependent cytotoxic effect on MCF-7 cells, which was further supported by loss of colony formation on drug treatment. CT and PS arrested MCF-7 cells in the G0/G1 phase and reduced the viability of MCF-7-derived mammospheres (MMs). Interestingly, while CT and PS imparted cell death in TNBCs cells from both Caucasians (MDA-MB-231 cells) and African Americans (MDA-MB-468 cells) in a dose- and time-dependent manner, the drugs were much more potent in MDA-MB-468 as compared with TNBC MDA-MB-231 cells. Both drugs significantly inhibited migration and invasion of both MCF-7 and MDA-MB-468 cells. An assessment of intracellular pathways indicated that both drugs were able to modulate several key cellular pathways such as EMT, cell cycle, proliferation and cell death in both cell types. Our data suggest a promising role for CGs in breast cancer treatment specifically in targeting TNBCs derived from African Americans, and provides impetus for further investigation of the anticancer

  8. Fenugreek, a naturally occurring edible spice, kills MCF-7 human breast cancer cells via an apoptotic pathway.

    PubMed

    Khoja, Kholoud K; Shaf, Gowhar; Hasan, Tarique N; Syed, Naveed Ahmed; Al-Khalifa, Abdrohman S; Al-Assaf, Abdullah H; Alshatwi, Ali A

    2011-01-01

    There is growing use of anticancer complementary and alternative medicines worldwide. Trigonella foenum graecum (Fenugreek) is traditionally applied to treat disorders such as diabetes, high cholesterol, wounds, inflammation, and gastrointestinal ailments. Fenugreek is also reported to have anticancer properties due to its active beneficial chemical constituents. The mechanism of action of several anticancer drugs is based on their ability to induce apoptosis. The objective of the study was to characterize the downstream apoptotic genes targeted by FCE in MCF-7 human immortalized breast cells. FCE effectively killed MCF-7 cells through induction of apoptosis,confirmed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and RT-PCR assays. When cells were exposed to 50 μg/mL FCE for 24 hours, 23.2% apoptotic cells resulted, while a 48-hour exposure to 50 μg/mL caused 73.8% apoptosis. This was associated with increased expression of Caspase 3, 8, 9, p53, Fas, FADD, Bax and Bak in a time-and dose-dependent manner, as determined by real- time quantitative PCR. In summary, the induction of apoptosis by FCE is effected by its ability to increase the expression of pro-apoptotic genes and the spice holds promise for consideration in complementary therapy for breast cancer patients.

  9. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM)

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, P.

    1997-02-01

    This paper discusses the broad problems presented by Naturally Occuring Radioactive Materials (NORM). Technologically Enhanced naturally occuring radioactive material includes any radionuclides whose physical, chemical, radiological properties or radionuclide concentration have been altered from their natural state. With regard to NORM in particular, radioactive contamination is radioactive material in an undesired location. This is a concern in a range of industries: petroleum; uranium mining; phosphorus and phosphates; fertilizers; fossil fuels; forestry products; water treatment; metal mining and processing; geothermal energy. The author discusses in more detail the problem in the petroleum industry, including the isotopes of concern, the hazards they present, the contamination which they cause, ways to dispose of contaminated materials, and regulatory issues. He points out there are three key programs to reduce legal exposure and problems due to these contaminants: waste minimization; NORM assesment (surveys); NORM compliance (training).

  10. Mucinous carcinoma occurring in the male breast.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Mitsuaki; Umeda, Tomoko; Kawai, Yuki; Mori, Tsuyoshi; Kubota, Yoshihiro; Abe, Hajime; Iwai, Muneo; Yoshida, Keiko; Kagotani, Akiko; Tani, Tohru; Okabe, Hidetoshi

    2014-02-01

    Male breast carcinoma is an uncommon neoplasm, accounting for 0.6% of all breast carcinomas. Invasive ductal carcinoma of no special type is the most common type of male breast carcinoma, and mucinous carcinoma occurring in the male breast is extremely rare. In the present study, we report a case of mucinous carcinoma of the male breast and discuss the clinicopathological features of this type of tumor. A 63-year-old Japanese male presented with a gradually enlarged nodule in the right breast. The resected breast specimen revealed pure mucinous carcinoma and immunohistochemical analyses demonstrated that tumor cells were positive for estrogen receptor (ER), but negative for progesterone receptor (PgR). In addition, HER2 expression was not amplified. Pure mucinous carcinoma is generally associated with a low incidence of lymph node or distant metastases, and excellent disease-free survival in females. However, certain cases of this type of tumor with axillary lymph node metastasis in the male breast have been reported. In addition, the immunoprofiles of mucinous carcinoma in males are fundamentally the same as those in females. More than 90% of cases show positive immunoreactivity for ER and/or PgR, and HER2 expression is not amplified. However, it has been reported that breast cancer in males is more frequently positive for ER than in females, and has less HER2 overexpression. The high rate of hormone receptor-positive breast cancer in males is considered to be due to similar conditions as those in breast cancer in postmenopausal women. The pathogenesis of male breast carcinoma, including mucinous carcinoma, remains unclear; therefore, additional clinicopathological studies are required.

  11. TENORM (Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials)

    MedlinePlus

    Jump to main content US EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Radiation Protection Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive ...

  12. Naturally Occurring Radon and 120(h) transfers

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page contains a discussion regarding how the presence of naturally occurring radon on closing military bases affects the United States' ability to transfer parcels under §120(h) (3) and §120(h) (4).

  13. Breast reconstruction - natural tissue

    MedlinePlus

    ... After a mastectomy , some women choose to have cosmetic surgery to remake their breast. This type of surgery ... augmentation surgery Breast reconstruction - implants Mastectomy Patient Instructions Cosmetic breast surgery - discharge Mastectomy and breast reconstruction - what to ask ...

  14. Diosgenin, a naturally occurring steroid, suppresses fatty acid synthase expression in HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells through modulating Akt, mTOR and JNK phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Chun-Te; Way, Tzong-Der; Tsai, Shang-Jie; Lin, Jen-Kun

    2007-12-22

    Fatty acid synthase (FAS) expression is markedly elevated in HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells. In this study, diosgenin, a plant-derived steroid, was found to be effective in suppressing FAS expression in HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells. Diosgenin preferentially inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in HER2-overexpressing cancer cells. Furthermore, diosgenin inhibited the phosphorylation of Akt and mTOR, and enhanced phosphorylation of JNK. The use of pharmacological inhibitors revealed that the modulation of Akt, mTOR and JNK phosphorylation was required for diosgenin-induced FAS suppression. Finally, we showed that diosgenin could enhance paclitaxel-induced cytotoxicity in HER2-overexpressing cancer cells. These results suggested that diosgenin has the potential to advance as chemopreventive or chemotherapeutic agent for cancers that overexpress HER2.

  15. Medicinal significance of naturally occurring cyclotetrapeptides.

    PubMed

    Abdalla, Muna Ali

    2016-10-01

    Bioactive natural products are serendipitous drug candidates, which stimulate synthetic approaches for improving and supporting drug discovery and development. Therefore, the search for bioactive metabolites from different natural sources continues to play an important role in fashioning new medicinal agents. Several cyclic peptides were produced by organisms, such as β-defensins, gramicidin S, and tyrocidine A, and exhibited a wide range of bioactivities, such as antiviral activity against HIV-1, influenza A viruses, or antibacterial activity. Cyclic tetrapeptides are a class of natural products that were found to have a broad range of biological activities, promising pharmacokinetic properties, as well as interesting conformational dynamics and ability of slow inter-conversion to several different structures. Cyclooligopeptides, particularly medium ring-sized peptides, were obtained from marine microorganisms and exhibited a wide range of pharmacological properties, including antimicrobial and anti-dinoflagellate activities, cytotoxicity, and inhibitory activity against enzyme sortase B. Most of the naturally occurring cyclotetrapeptides are obtained from fungi. Some natural cyclic tetrapeptides were found to inhibit histone deacetylase (HDAC), which regulate the expression of genes. These compounds are very useful as cancer therapeutics. Various analogues of the natural cyclotetrapeptides were successfully synthesized to find novel lead compounds for pharmacological and biotechnological applications. Therefore, in this review, previously reported novel natural cyclotetrapeptides are briefly discussed, along with their important biological activities as drug candidates, together with their promising therapeutic properties. Moreover, their future perspective in drug discovery as potential therapeutic agents will be determined.

  16. Naturally occurring products in cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Rajesh, E.; Sankari, Leena S.; Malathi, L.; Krupaa, Jayasri R.

    2015-01-01

    Natural products have been used for the treatment of various diseases and are becoming an important research area for drug discovery. These products, especially phytochemicals have been extensively studies and have exhibited anti-carcinogenic activities by interfering with the initiation, development and progression of cancer through the modulation of various mechanisms including cellular proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and metastasis. This concept is gaining attention because it is a cost-effective alternative to cancer treatment. In this article, we have discussed some of the naturally occurring products used in cancer treatment. PMID:26015704

  17. Naturally Occuring Fish Poisons from Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannon, Jonathan G.; Burton, Robert A.; Wood, Steven G.; Owen, Noel L.

    2004-10-01

    Since prehistoric times, cultures throughout the world have used piscicidal (fish poisoning) plants for fishing. In recent times, scientists have identified many of the plant compounds responsible for killing the fish and have found that these compounds possess other important biological properties, such as insecticidal and anti-cancer activities. This article reviews some of the chemical research that has been performed on naturally occurring fish poisons, including plant sources, methods of use, toxicity, and mechanisms of action of piscicides.

  18. Estrogenic activity of naturally occurring anthocyanidins.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, E; Stopper, H

    2001-01-01

    Anthocyanins, which are natural plant pigments from the flavonoid family, represent substantial constituents of the human diet. Because some other bioflavonoids are known to have estrogenic activity, the aim of this study was to determine the estrogenic activity of the anthocyanine aglycones. Binding affinity to the estrogen receptor-alpha was 10,000- to 20,000-fold lower than that of the endogenous estrogen estradiol. In the estrogen receptor-positive cell line MCF-7, the anthocyanidins induced expression of a reporter gene. The tested anthocyanidins showed estrogen-inducible cell proliferation in two cell lines (MCF-7 and BG-1), but not in the receptor-negative human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. The phytoestrogen-induced cell proliferation could be blocked by addition of the receptor antagonist 4-hydroxytamoxifen. Combination treatments with the endogenous estrogen estradiol resulted in a reduction of estradiol-induced cell proliferation. Overall, the tested anthocyanidins exert estrogenic activity, which might play a role in altering the development of hormone-dependent adverse effects.

  19. Attention turns to naturally occurring methane seepage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvenvolden, Keith A.; Lorenson, Thomas D.; Reeburgh, William S.

    Methane is the most abundant organic compound in the Earth's atmosphere. As a powerful greenhouse gas, it has implications for global climate change. Sources of methane to the atmosphere are varied. Depending on the source, methane can contain either modern or ancient carbon. Methane exiting from swamps and wetlands contains modern carbon, whereas methane leaking from petroleum reservoirs contains ancient carbon. The total annual source of methane to the atmosphere has been constrained to about 540 teragrams (Tg) per year “Cicerone and Oremland, 1988”. Notably absent from any identified sources is the contribution of geologically sourced methane from naturally occurring seepage.

  20. Persulfate activation by naturally occurring trace minerals.

    PubMed

    Teel, Amy L; Ahmad, Mushtaque; Watts, Richard J

    2011-11-30

    The potential for 13 naturally occurring minerals to mediate the decomposition of persulfate and generate a range of reactive oxygen species was investigated to provide fundamental information on activation mechanisms when persulfate is used for in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO). Only four of the minerals (cobaltite, ilmenite, pyrite, and siderite) promoted the decomposition of persulfate more rapidly than persulfate-deionized water control systems. The other nine minerals decomposed persulfate at the same rate or more slowly than the control systems. Mineral-mediated persulfate activation was conducted with the addition of one of three probe compounds to detect the generation of reactive oxygen species: anisole (sulfate+hydroxyl radical), nitrobenzene (hydroxyl radical), and hexachloroethane (reductants and nucleophiles). The reduced mineral pyrite promoted rapid generation of sulfate+hydroxyl radical. However, the remainder of the minerals provided minimal potential for the generation of reactive oxygen species. The results of this research demonstrate that the majority of naturally occurring trace minerals do not activate persulfate to generate reactive oxygen species, and other mechanisms of activation are necessary to promote contaminant destruction in the subsurface during persulfate ISCO.

  1. Introduction to naturally occurring radioactive material

    SciTech Connect

    Egidi, P.

    1997-08-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is everywhere; we are exposed to it every day. It is found in our bodies, the food we eat, the places where we live and work, and in products we use. We are also bathed in a sea of natural radiation coming from the sun and deep space. Living systems have adapted to these levels of radiation and radioactivity. But some industrial practices involving natural resources concentrate these radionuclides to a degree that they may pose risk to humans and the environment if they are not controlled. Other activities, such as flying at high altitudes, expose us to elevated levels of NORM. This session will concentrate on diffuse sources of technologically-enhanced (TE) NORM, which are generally large-volume, low-activity waste streams produced by industries such as mineral mining, ore benefication, production of phosphate Fertilizers, water treatment and purification, and oil and gas production. The majority of radionuclides in TENORM are found in the uranium and thorium decay chains. Radium and its subsequent decay products (radon) are the principal radionuclides used in characterizing the redistribution of TENORM in the environment by human activity. We will briefly review other radionuclides occurring in nature (potassium and rubidium) that contribute primarily to background doses. TENORM is found in many waste streams; for example, scrap metal, sludges, slags, fluids, and is being discovered in industries traditionally not thought of as affected by radionuclide contamination. Not only the forms and volumes, but the levels of radioactivity in TENORM vary. Current discussions about the validity of the linear no dose threshold theory are central to the TENORM issue. TENORM is not regulated by the Atomic Energy Act or other Federal regulations. Control and regulation of TENORM is not consistent from industry to industry nor from state to state. Proposed regulations are moving from concentration-based standards to dose

  2. Tetrahydroberberine, a pharmacologically active naturally occurring alkaloid.

    PubMed

    Pingali, Subramanya; Donahue, James P; Payton-Stewart, Florastina

    2015-04-01

    Tetrahydroberberine (systematic name: 9,10-dimethoxy-5,8,13,13a-tetrahydro-6H-benzo[g][1,3]benzodioxolo[5,6-a]quinolizine), C20H21NO4, a widely distributed naturally occurring alkaloid, has been crystallized as a racemic mixture about an inversion center. A bent conformation of the molecule is observed, with an angle of 24.72 (5)° between the arene rings at the two ends of the reduced quinolizinium core. The intermolecular hydrogen bonds that play an apparent role in crystal packing are 1,3-benzodioxole -CH2···OCH3 and -OCH3···OCH3 interactions between neighboring molecules.

  3. Sundew adhesive: a naturally occurring hydrogel

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yujian; Wang, Yongzhong; Sun, Leming; Agrawal, Richa; Zhang, Mingjun

    2015-01-01

    Bioadhesives have drawn increasing interest in recent years, owing to their eco-friendly, biocompatible and biodegradable nature. As a typical bioadhesive, sticky exudate observed on the stalked glands of sundew plants aids in the capture of insects and this viscoelastic adhesive has triggered extensive interests in revealing the implied adhesion mechanisms. Despite the significant progress that has been made, the structural traits of the sundew adhesive, especially the morphological characteristics in nanoscale, which may give rise to the viscous and elastic properties of this mucilage, remain unclear. Here, we show that the sundew adhesive is a naturally occurring hydrogel, consisting of nano-network architectures assembled with polysaccharides. The assembly process of the polysaccharides in this hydrogel is proposed to be driven by electrostatic interactions mediated with divalent cations. Negatively charged nanoparticles, with an average diameter of 231.9 ± 14.8 nm, are also obtained from this hydrogel and these nanoparticles are presumed to exert vital roles in the assembly of the nano-networks. Further characterization via atomic force microscopy indicates that the stretching deformation of the sundew adhesive is associated with the flexibility of its fibrous architectures. It is also observed that the adhesion strength of the sundew adhesive is susceptible to low temperatures. Both elasticity and adhesion strength of the sundew adhesive reduce in response to lowering the ambient temperature. The feasibility of applying sundew adhesive for tissue engineering is subsequently explored in this study. Results show that the fibrous scaffolds obtained from sundew adhesive are capable of increasing the adhesion of multiple types of cells, including fibroblast cells and smooth muscle cells, a property that results from the enhanced adsorption of serum proteins. In addition, in light of the weak cytotoxic activity exhibited by these scaffolds towards a variety of

  4. Naturally occurring contamination in the Mancos Shale.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Stan J; Goodknight, Craig S; Tigar, Aaron D; Bush, Richard P; Gil, April

    2012-02-07

    Some uranium mill tailings disposal cells were constructed on dark-gray shale of the Upper Cretaceous Mancos Shale. Shale of this formation contains contaminants similar to those in mill tailings. To establish the contributions derived from the Mancos, we sampled 51 locations in Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah. Many of the groundwater samples were saline with nitrate, selenium, and uranium concentrations commonly exceeding 250, 000, 1000, and 200 μg/L, respectively. Higher concentrations were limited to groundwater associated with shale beds, but were not correlated with geographic area, stratigraphic position, or source of water. The elevated concentrations suggest that naturally occurring contamination should be considered when evaluating groundwater cleanup levels. At several locations, seep water was yellow or red, caused in part by dissolved organic carbon concentrations up to 280 mg/L. Most seeps had (234)U to (238)U activity ratios greater than 2, indicating preferential leaching of (234)U. Seeps were slightly enriched in (18)O relative to the meteoric water line, indicating limited evaporation. Conceptually, major ion chemical reactions are dominated by calcite dissolution following proton release from pyrite oxidation and subsequent exchange by calcium for sodium residing on clay mineral exchange sites. Contaminants are likely released from organic matter and mineral surfaces during weathering.

  5. Phytochemistry and pharmacognosy of naturally occurring prenyloxyanthraquinones.

    PubMed

    Epifano, Francesco; Fiorito, Serena; Carlucci, Giuseppe; Locatelli, Marcello; Genovese, Salvatore

    2013-08-01

    Several natural compounds containing an anthraquinone core linked to a prenyloxy chain have been reported in the literature in recent years. The discovery in the plant kingdom of such secondary metabolites is a novel acquisition in the phytochemistry research field and in many cases led to a re-consideration of the secondary metabolite pool of well known anthraquinone-containing plants. In this review article we will focus on the phytochemistry and pharmacognosy of prenyloxyanthraquinones putting in evidence the natural sources and their biological properties as anti-microbial and anticancer agents.

  6. Naturally Occurring Fish Poisons from Plants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon, Jonathan G.; Burton, Robert A.; Wood, Steven G.; Owen, Noel L.

    2004-01-01

    The fish poisons derived from plants used throughout the world, not only as piscicides but also for a range of other uses, including insecticident and in folk medicines, is presented. The aim of this review is to provide a useful background for students interested in natural products.

  7. Tetrahedral boron in naturally occurring tourmaline

    SciTech Connect

    Tagg, S.L.; Cho, H.; Dyar, M.D.; Grew, E.S.

    1999-09-01

    Evidence for boron in both trigonal and tetrahedral coordination has been found in {sup 11}B magic-angle-spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of natural, inclusion-free specimens of aluminum-rich lithian tourmaline from granitic pregmatites.

  8. Dog models of naturally occurring cancer.

    PubMed

    Rowell, Jennie L; McCarthy, Donna O; Alvarez, Carlos E

    2011-07-01

    Studies using dogs provide an ideal solution to the gap in animal models for natural disease and translational medicine. This is evidenced by approximately 400 inherited disorders being characterized in domesticated dogs, most of which are relevant to humans. There are several hundred isolated populations of dogs (breeds) and each has a vastly reduced genetic variation compared with humans; this simplifies disease mapping and pharmacogenomics. Dogs age five- to eight-fold faster than do humans, share environments with their owners, are usually kept until old age and receive a high level of health care. Farseeing investigators recognized this potential and, over the past decade, have developed the necessary tools and infrastructure to utilize this powerful model of human disease, including the sequencing of the dog genome in 2005. Here, we review the nascent convergence of genetic and translational canine models of spontaneous disease, focusing on cancer.

  9. Fenugreek: a naturally occurring edible spice as an anticancer agent.

    PubMed

    Shabbeer, Shabana; Sobolewski, Michelle; Anchoori, Ravi Kumar; Kachhap, Sushant; Hidalgo, Manuel; Jimeno, Antonio; Davidson, Nancy; Carducci, Michael A; Khan, Saeed R

    2009-02-01

    In recent years, various dietary components that can potentially be used for the prevention and treatment of cancer have been identified. In this study, we demonstrate that extract (FE) from the seeds of the plant Trigonella foenum graecum, commonly called fenugreek, are cytotoxic in vitro to a panel of cancer but not normal cells. Treatment with 10-15 ug/mL of FE for 72 h was growth inhibitory to breast, pancreatic and prostate cancer cell lines (PCa). When tested at higher doses (15-20 ug/mL), FE continued to be growth inhibitory to PCa cell lines but not to either primary prostate or hTert-immortalized prostate cells. At least part of the growth inhibition is due to induction of cell death, as seen by incorporation of Ethidium Bromide III into cancer cells exposed to FE. Molecular changes induced in PCa cells are: in DU-145 cells: downregulation of mutant p53, and in PC-3 cells upregulation of p21 and inhibition of TGFbeta induced phosphorylation of Akt. The surprising finding of our studies is that death of cancer cells occurs despite growth stimulatory pathways being simultaneously upregulated (phosphorylated) by FE. Thus, these studies add another biologically active agent to our armamentarium of naturally occurring agents with therapeutic potential.

  10. Natural Products for Chemoprevention of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Eun-Yi; Moon, Aree

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the primary cause of cancer death in women. Although current therapies have shown some promise against breast cancer, there is still no effective cure for the majority of patients in the advanced stages of breast cancer. Development of effective agents to slow, reduce, or reverse the incidence of breast cancer in high-risk women is necessary. Chemoprevention of breast cancer by natural products is advantageous, as these compounds have few side effects and low toxicity compared to synthetic compounds. In the present review, we summarize natural products which exert chemopreventive activities against breast cancer, such as curcumin, sauchinone, lycopene, denbinobin, genipin, capsaicin, and ursolic acid. This review examines the current knowledge about natural compounds and their mechanisms that underlie breast cancer chemopreventive activity both in vitro and in vivo. The present review may provide information on the use of these compounds for the prevention of breast cancer. PMID:26734584

  11. Comparative Toxicology of Libby Amphibole and Naturally Occurring Asbestos

    EPA Science Inventory

    Summary sentence: Comparative toxicology of Libby amphibole (LA) and site-specific naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) provides new insights on physical properties influencing health effects and mechanisms of asbestos-induced inflammation, fibrosis, and tumorigenesis.Introduction/...

  12. Naturally occurring and forced azimuthal modes in a turbulent jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raman, Ganesh; Rice, Edward J.; Reshotko, Eli

    1991-01-01

    Naturally occurring instability modes in an axisymmetric jet are studied utilizing the modal frequency spectrum method. In the early evolution of the jet the axisymmetric mode was predominant, with the azimuthal modes growing quickly but dominating only after the end of the potential core. The growth of the azimuthal modes is seen nearer to the nozzle exit for the jet in the laminar boundary layer case than for the turbulent. Based on the results from these naturally occurring jet instability mode tests, target modes for efficient excitation were determined and two cases of excitation were examined.

  13. Syntheses of naturally occurring terphenyls and related compounds.

    PubMed

    Sawayama, Yusuke; Tsujimoto, Takashi; Sugino, Kumi; Nishikawa, Toshio; Isobe, Minoru; Kawagishi, Hirokazu

    2006-12-01

    Naturally occurring terphenyls and related compounds such as terferol and its corresponding quinone and phlebiarubrone were synthesized from 2,5-diphenyl-1,4-benzoquinone. According to the proposed biosynthetic pathway, chemical conversion of phlebiarubrone to ustalic acid, a toxic compound isolated from the poisonous mushroom, Tricholoma ustale, was examined to find a low-yield conversion to the ustalic acid dimethyl ester.

  14. Naturally occurring fatty acids: source, chemistry and uses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural occurring fatty acids are a large and complex class of compounds found in plants and animals. Fatty acids are abundant and of interest because of their renewability, biodegradability, biocompatibility, low cost, and fascinating chemistry. Of the many fatty acids, only 20-25 of them are widel...

  15. The characteristics of gas hydrates occurring in natural environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, H.; Moudrakovski, I.; Udachin, K.; Enright, G.; Ratcliffe, C.; Ripmeester, J.

    2009-12-01

    In the past few years, extensive analyses have been carried out for characterizing the natural gas hydrate samples from Cascadia, offshore Vancouver Island; Mallik, Mackenzie Delta; Mount Elbert, Alaska North Slope; Nankai Trough, offshore Japan; Japan Sea and offshore India. With the results obtained, it is possible to give a general picture of the characteristics of gas hydrates occurring in natural environment. Gas hydrate can occur in sediments of various types, from sands to clay, although it is preferentially enriched in sediments of certain types, for example coarse sands and fine volcanic ash. Most of the gas hydrates in sediments are invisible, occurring in the pores of the sediments, while some hydrates are visible, appearing as massive, nodular, planar, vein-like forms and occurring around the seafloor, in the fractures related to fault systems, or any other large spaces available in sediments. Although methane is the main component of most of the natural gas hydrates, C2 to C7 hydrocarbons have been recognized in hydrates, sometimes even in significant amounts. Shallow marine gas hydrates have been found generally to contain minor amounts of hydrogen sulfide. Gas hydrate samples with complex gas compositions have been found to have heterogeneous distributions in composition, which might reflect changes in the composition of the available gas in the surrounding environment. Depending on the gas compositions, the structure type of a natural gas hydrate can be structure I, II or H. For structure I methane hydrate, the large cages are almost fully occupied by methane molecules, while the small cages are only partly occupied. Methane hydrates occurring in different environments have been identified with almost the same crystallographic parameters.

  16. Arsenic poisoning in dairy cattle from naturally occurring arsenic pyrites.

    PubMed

    Hopkirk, R G

    1987-10-01

    An outbreak of arsenic poisoning occurred in which most of a 200 cow dairy herd were affected and six died. The source of the arsenic was naturally occurring arsenic pyrites from the Waiotapu Stream, near Rotorua. Arsenic levels in the nearby soil were as high as 6618 ppm. There was little evidence to suggest that treatment affected the course of the disease. Haematology was of little use in diagnosis, post-mortem signs were not always consistent and persistence of the element in the liver appeared short. Control of further outbreaks have been based on practical measures to minimise the intake of contaminated soil and free laying water by the stock.

  17. Addressing Naturally Occurring Asbestos in the Mining Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieber, D. W.

    2012-12-01

    Mining companies deal with naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) issues on their sites in two ways, avoidance and management. Avoidance simply means that to the extent practical, new mines are located in areas where NOA is unlikely to occur. Where mines are located in areas where NOA may be present, mines implement management procedures to identify and control potential sources of NOA. Management practices may include procedures set forth in regulations such as California's Air Toxicity Control Measure that deals with surface mining, voluntary procedures, or a combination of both. The mining industry generally recognizes that addressing NOA issues is a cost of doing business.;

  18. Naturally occurring crystalline phases: analogues for radioactive waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    Haaker, R.F.; Ewing, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    Naturally occurring mineral analogues to crystalline phases that are constituents of crystalline radioactive waste forms provide a basis for comparison by which the long-term stability of these phases may be estimated. The crystal structures and the crystal chemistry of the following natural analogues are presented: baddeleyite, hematite, nepheline; pollucite, scheelite;sodalite, spinel, apatite, monazite, uraninite, hollandite-priderite, perovskite, and zirconolite. For each phase in geochemistry, occurrence, alteration and radiation effects are described. A selected bibliography for each phase is included.

  19. An Update on Antitumor Activity of Naturally Occurring Chalcones

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, En-Hui; Wang, Ru-Feng; Guo, Shu-Zhen; Liu, Bin

    2013-01-01

    Chalcones, which have characteristic 1,3-diaryl-2-propen-1-one skeleton, are mainly produced in roots, rhizomes, heartwood, leaves, and seeds of genera Angelica, Sophora, Glycyrrhiza, Humulus, Scutellaria, Parartocarpus, Ficus, Dorstenia, Morus, Artocarpus, and so forth. They have become of interest in the research and development of natural antitumor agents over the past decades due to their broad range of mechanisms including anti-initiation, induction of apoptosis, antiproliferation, antimetastasis, antiangiogenesis, and so forth. This review summarizes the studies on the antitumor activity of naturally occurring chalcones and their underlying mechanisms in detail during the past decades. PMID:23690855

  20. Synthetic muscle promoters: activities exceeding naturally occurring regulatory sequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, X.; Eastman, E. M.; Schwartz, R. J.; Draghia-Akli, R.

    1999-01-01

    Relatively low levels of expression from naturally occurring promoters have limited the use of muscle as a gene therapy target. Myogenic restricted gene promoters display complex organization usually involving combinations of several myogenic regulatory elements. By random assembly of E-box, MEF-2, TEF-1, and SRE sites into synthetic promoter recombinant libraries, and screening of hundreds of individual clones for transcriptional activity in vitro and in vivo, several artificial promoters were isolated whose transcriptional potencies greatly exceed those of natural myogenic and viral gene promoters.

  1. The Natural Occurring Compounds Targeting Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hai; Yang, Jianqiong; Li, Linfu; Shi, Weimei

    2016-01-01

    ER stress has been implicated in pathophysiological development of many diseases. Persistent overwhelming stimuli trigger ER stress to initiate apoptosis, autophagy, and cell death. IRE1-JNK and eIF2α-CHOP signaling pathways are the two important players of ER stress, which is also modulated by ROS production, calcium disturbance, and inflammatory factors. ER stress has been developed as a novel strategy for diseases management. Recently, a vast of research focuses on the natural occurring compounds targeting ER stress, which results in medical benefits to human diseases. These small reported molecules mainly include polyphenols, alkaloids, and saponins. Many of them have been developed for use in clinical applications. To better understand the pharmacological mechanism of these molecules in ER stress in diseases, efforts have been made to discover and deliver medical merits. In this paper, we will summarize the natural occurring compounds targeting ER stress. PMID:27563337

  2. Naturally Occurring Animal Models with Outer Retina Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Baehr, Wolfgang; Frederick, Jeanne M.

    2009-01-01

    Naturally occurring and laboratory generated animal models serve as powerful tools with which to investigate the etiology of human retinal degenerations, especially retinitis pigmentosa (RP), Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA), cone dystrophies (CD) and macular degeneration (MD). Much progress has been made in elucidating gene defects underlying disease, in understanding mechanisms leading to disease, and in designing molecules for translational research and gene-based therapy to interfere with the progression of disease. Key to this progress has been study of naturally occurring murine and canine retinal degeneration mutants. This article will review the history, phenotypes and gene defects of select animal models with outer retina (photoreceptor and retinal pigment epithelium) degeneration phenotypes. PMID:19375447

  3. Mineralogical Characteristics of Carbonate Rock-Hosted Naturally Occurring Asbestos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, E.; Roh, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Naturally Occurring Asbestos (NOA) occurs in rocks and soils as a result of natural weathering and human activities. The parent rocks of asbestos have been associated with ultramafic and mafic rocks, and carbonate rock. The previous studies on naturally occurring asbestos were mainly limited to ultramafic and mafic rock-hosted asbestos and studies on carbonate rock-hosted asbestos are relatively rare in South Korea. Therefore, this study was aimed to characterize mineralogy of carbonate rock-hosted NOA at Muju and Jangsu, Jeonbuk province and Seosan and Asan, Chungnam province. The rock types at the four sites are consisting mainly of Precambrian metasedimentary rock. XRD and PLM analyses showed fibrous minerals in the sites were tremolite and actinolite of acicular and columnar forms. SEM-EDS analyses showed that asbestiform tremolite and actinolite had various ratios of length and diameters over 12:1, and needle and columnar forms. A columnar forms of tremolite and actinolite were showed small acicular at the edge of the particle. Its main chemical compositions are mainly Si, O, Mg, Ca, which were identical to tremolite. Actinolite contains Fe in addition to Si, O, Mg, Ca. EPMA analyses of asbestos occurred at Muju indicated that chemical composition are 55% SiO2, 23.2% MgO, 13.1 % CaO, and 0.61 % FeO and the chemical formula calculated as (K0.01Na0.01)Ca2.01(Mg4.94Fe0.05) (Al0.004Si7.98)O22(OH)2, which is close to ideal tremolite. In addition to tremolite, actinolite was also occurred at Seosan, Chungnam. XRD analyses showed that antigorite was existed at Muju, but PLM and SEM analyses showed the antigorite was platy structure, not asbestiform. These results indicate that asbestiform tremolite and actinolite with acicular forms contains in carbonate rocks at Muju and Jangsu, Jeonbuk and Seosan and Asan, Chungnam province South Korea.

  4. A novel trauma model: naturally occurring canine trauma.

    PubMed

    Hall, Kelly E; Sharp, Claire R; Adams, Cynthia R; Beilman, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    In human trauma patients, most deaths result from hemorrhage and brain injury, whereas late deaths, although rare, are the result of multiple organ failure and sepsis. A variety of experimental animal models have been developed to investigate the pathophysiology of traumatic injury and evaluate novel interventions. Similar to other experimental models, these trauma models cannot recapitulate conditions of naturally occurring trauma, and therefore therapeutic interventions based on these models are often ineffective. Pet dogs with naturally occurring traumatic injury represent a promising translational model for human trauma that could be used to assess novel therapies. The purpose of this article was to review the naturally occurring canine trauma literature to highlight the similarities between canine and human trauma. The American College of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Veterinary Committee on Trauma has initiated the establishment of a national network of veterinary trauma centers to enhance uniform delivery of care to canine trauma patients. In addition, the Spontaneous Trauma in Animals Team, a multidisciplinary, multicenter group of researchers has created a clinical research infrastructure for carrying out large-scale clinical trials in canine trauma patients. Moving forward, these national resources can be utilized to facilitate multicenter prospective studies of canine trauma to evaluate therapies and interventions that have shown promise in experimental animal models, thus closing the critical gap in the translation of knowledge from experimental models to humans and increasing the likelihood of success in phases 1 and 2 human clinical trials.

  5. Naturally Occurring Anthraquinones: Chemistry and Therapeutic Potential in Autoimmune Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yueh-Chen

    2015-01-01

    Anthraquinones are a class of aromatic compounds with a 9,10-dioxoanthracene core. So far, 79 naturally occurring anthraquinones have been identified which include emodin, physcion, cascarin, catenarin, and rhein. A large body of literature has demonstrated that the naturally occurring anthraquinones possess a broad spectrum of bioactivities, such as cathartic, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, diuretic, vasorelaxing, and phytoestrogen activities, suggesting their possible clinical application in many diseases. Despite the advances that have been made in understanding the chemistry and biology of the anthraquinones in recent years, research into their mechanisms of action and therapeutic potential in autoimmune disorders is still at an early stage. In this paper, we briefly introduce the etiology of autoimmune diabetes, an autoimmune disorder that affects as many as 10 million worldwide, and the role of chemotaxis in autoimmune diabetes. We then outline the chemical structure and biological properties of the naturally occurring anthraquinones and their derivatives with an emphasis on recent findings about their immune regulation. We discuss the structure and activity relationship, mode of action, and therapeutic potential of the anthraquinones in autoimmune diabetes, including a new strategy for the use of the anthraquinones in autoimmune diabetes. PMID:25866536

  6. Leaching Properties of Naturally Occurring Heavy Metals from Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, M.; Hoshino, M.; Yoshikawa, M.; Hara, J.; Sugita, H.

    2014-12-01

    The major threats to human health from heavy metals are associated with exposure to arsenic, lead, cadmium, chromium, mercury, as well as some other elements. The effects of such heavy metals on human health have been extensively studied and reviewed by international organizations such as WHO. Due to their toxicity, heavy metal contaminations have been regulated by national environmental standards in many countries, and/or laws such as the Soil Contamination Countermeasures Act in Japan. Leaching of naturally occurring heavy metals from the soils, especially those around abandoned metal mines into surrounding water systems, either groundwater or surface water systems, is one of the major pathways of exposure. Therefore, understanding the leaching properties of toxic heavy metals from naturally polluted soils is of fundamentally importance for effectively managing abandoned metal mines, excavated rocks discharged from infrastructure constructions such as tunneling, and/or selecting a pertinent countermeasure against pollution when it is necessary. In this study, soil samples taken from the surroundings of abandoned metal mines in different regions in Japan were collected and analyzed. The samples contained multiple heavy metals such as lead, arsenic and chromium. Standard leaching test and sequential leaching test considering different forms of contaminants, such as trivalent and pentavalent arsenics, and trivalent and hexavalent chromiums, together with standard test for evaluating total concentration, X-ray Fluorescence Analysis (XRF), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) tests were performed. In addition, sequential leaching tests were performed to evaluate long-term leaching properties of lead from representative samples. This presentation introduces the details of the above experimental study, discusses the relationships among leaching properties and chemical and mineral compositions, indicates the difficulties associated with

  7. Purifying food-grade, naturally occurring CO/sub 2/

    SciTech Connect

    Nobles, J.E.; Stancik, J.W.

    1983-12-26

    Technology to purify naturally occurring CO/sub 2/ into products suitable for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and food grade CO/sub 2/ markets has been commercially demonstrated in a 20 MMscfd (1,100 ton/day) CO/sub 2/ processing facility owned and operated by Columbia Hydrocarbon Corp. The unit demonstrates that it is technically and economically feasible to process low grade natural gas to produce pipeline specification natural gas, raw CO/sub 2/, and food grade CO/sub 2/. The Selexol treating facility is located on a reclaimed coal strip mine with very restricted plot area. Only compression and dehydration equipment for the CO/sub 2/ is located there. The CO/sub 2/ is transported by pipeline to the Marmet site, approx. 7 miles away. This site contains the facilities for purifying the CO/sub 2/ and for storage.

  8. Temporal Sequencing of Brain Activations During Naturally Occurring Thermoregulatory Events

    PubMed Central

    Diwadkar, Vaibhav A.; Murphy, Eric R.; Freedman, Robert R.

    2014-01-01

    Thermoregulatory events are associated with activity in the constituents of the spinothalamic tract. Whereas studies have assessed activity within constituents of this pathway, in vivo functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have not determined if neuronal activity in the constituents of the tract is temporally ordered. Ordered activity would be expected in naturally occurring thermal events, such as menopausal hot flashes (HFs), which occur in physiological sequence. The origins of HFs may lie in brainstem structures where neuronal activity may occur earlier than in interoceptive centers, such as the insula and the prefrontal cortex. To study such time ordering, we conducted blood oxygen level-dependent-based fMRI in a group of postmenopausal women to measure neuronal activity in the brainstem, insula, and prefrontal cortex around the onset of an HF (detected using synchronously acquired skin conductance responses). Rise in brainstem activity occurred before the detectable onset of an HF. Activity in the insular and prefrontal trailed that in the brainstem, appearing following the onset of the HF. Additional activations associated with HF's were observed in the anterior cingulate cortex and the basal ganglia. Pre-HF brainstem responses may reflect the functional origins of internal thermoregulatory events. By comparison insular, prefrontal and striatal activity may be associated with the phenomenological correlates of HFs. PMID:23787950

  9. On incompressibility of a matrix in naturally occurring composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbatikh, Larissa; Pingle, Pawan

    2007-12-01

    The work illustrates that a soft matrix, which has the Poisson ratio close to 0.5 and is reinforced with a rigid-line inclusion, possesses an interesting behavior at the inclusion/matrix interface. It experiences a hydrostatic stress state and behaves as an incompressible fluid under longitudinal and transverse loads. The stress singularities are eliminated ahead of the inclusion tips, and when interface defects are formed, their effect on the composite compliance is minimal. These observations have far reaching applications when one is interested in mechanisms of multifunctional property improvement of composites (such as toughness and stiffness) learned from naturally occurring composites.

  10. Transmission of naturally occurring lymphoma in macaque monkeys.

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, R D; Blake, B J; Chalifoux, L V; Sehgal, P K; King, N W; Letvin, N L

    1983-01-01

    Spontaneously occurring rhesus monkey lymphomas were transmitted into healthy rhesus monkeys by using tumor cell suspensions. The naturally arising tumors included an immunoblastic sarcoma and an undifferentiated lymphoma. Recipient animals developed undifferentiated lymphomas, poorly differentiated lymphomas, or parenchymal lymphoproliferative abnormalities suggestive of early lesions of lymphoma. Some of these animals developed such opportunistic infections as cytomegalovirus hepatitis and cryptosporidiosis. They also showed evidence of an abnormal circulating peripheral blood mononuclear cell. These findings, all characteristic of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) of macaques, suggest a link between these transmissible lymphomas and AIDS in macaque monkeys. Images PMID:6576377

  11. Naturally occurring anti-tissue antibodies in rat sera

    PubMed Central

    Weir, D. M.; Pinckard, R. N.; Elson, C. J.; Suckling, Deirdre E.

    1966-01-01

    Seventy per cent of normal rat sera have been shown to contain heat labile serum component(s) active against various rat organ homogenates as demonstrated by haemolytic complement fixation and passive haemagglutination tests. The main antigenic activity in rat liver has been found in the mitochondrial fractions. It was also demonstrated by the indirect fluorescent antibody technique that both guinea-pig complement and high molecular weight rat globulins were fixed to rat organ sections. Chemotactic activity has also been observed with rat serum and rat liver mitochondria and it is suggested that these naturally occurring antibodies may be implicated in the removal of tissue breakdown products. PMID:5338951

  12. Transmission of Naturally Occurring Lymphoma in Macaque Monkeys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, Ronald D.; Blake, Beverly J.; Chalifoux, Laura V.; Sehgal, Prabhat K.; King, Norval W.; Letvin, Norman L.

    1983-08-01

    Spontaneously occurring rhesus monkey lymphomas were transmitted into healthy rhesus monkeys by using tumor cell suspensions. The naturally arising tumors included an immunoblastic sarcoma and an undifferentiated lymphoma. Recipient animals developed undifferentiated lymphomas, poorly differentiated lymphomas, or parenchymal lymphoproliferative abnormalities suggestive of early lesions of lymphoma. Some of these animals developed such opportunistic infections as cytomegalovirus hepatitis and cryptosporidiosis. They also showed evidence of an abnormal circulating peripheral blood mononuclear cell. These findings, all characteristic of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) of macaques, suggest a link between these transmissible lymphomas and AIDS in macaque monkeys.

  13. Macaques Exhibit a Naturally-Occurring Depression Similar to Humans

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Fan; Wu, Qingyuan; Xie, Liang; Gong, Wei; Zhang, Jianguo; Zheng, Peng; Zhou, Qinmin; Ji, Yongjia; Wang, Tao; Li, Xin; Fang, Liang; Li, Qi; Yang, Deyu; Li, Juan; Melgiri, Narayan D.; Shively, Carol; Xie, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Rodent models have dominated preclinical investigations into the mechanisms of depression. However, these models-which rely on subjecting individual rodents to physical stressors - do not realistically resemble the etiopathological development of depression, which occurs naturally in a social context. A non-human primate model that better reflects the social ethological aspects of depression would be more advantageous to investigating pathophysiological mechanisms and developing antidepressant therapeutics. Here, we describe and model a naturally-occurring depressive state in a non-human primate species, the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis), in a realistic social ethological context and associate the depressed behavioral phenotype with significant serum metabolic perturbations. One to two subjects per stable social colony (17–22 subjects) manifested a depressive phenotype that may be attributed to psychosocial stress. In accordance with rodent and human studies, the serum metabolic phenotype of depressed and healthy subjects significantly differed, supporting the model's face validity. However, application of the fast-acting antidepressant ketamine failed to demonstrate predictive validity. This study proposes a non-human primate depression model in a realistic social ethological context that can better approximate the psychosocial stressors underlying depression. PMID:25783476

  14. Daily intakes of naturally occurring radioisotopes in typical Korean foods.

    PubMed

    Choi, Min-Seok; Lin, Xiu-Jing; Lee, Sun Ah; Kim, Wan; Kang, Hee-Dong; Doh, Sih-Hong; Kim, Do-Sung; Lee, Dong-Myung

    2008-08-01

    The concentrations of naturally occurring radioisotopes ((232)Th, (228)Th, (230)Th, (228)Ra, (226)Ra, and (40)K) in typical Korean foods were evaluated. The daily intakes of these radioisotopes were calculated by comparing concentrations in typical Korean foods and the daily consumption rates of these foods. Daily intakes were as follows: (232)Th, 0.00-0.23; (228)Th, 0.00-2.04; (230)Th, 0.00-0.26; (228)Ra, 0.02-2.73; (226)Ra, 0.01-4.37 mBq/day; and (40)K, 0.01-5.71 Bq/day. The total daily intake of the naturally occurring radioisotopes measured in this study from food was 39.46 Bq/day. The total annual internal dose resulting from ingestion of radioisotopes in food was 109.83 muSv/y, and the radioisotope with the highest daily intake was (40)K. These values were same level compiled in other countries.

  15. Regulation of naturally occurring radioactive materials in Australia.

    PubMed

    Jeffries, Cameron; Akber, Riaz; Johnston, Andrew; Cassels, Brad

    2011-07-01

    In order to promote uniformity between jurisdictions, the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) has developed the National Directory for Radiation Protection, which is a regulatory framework that all Australian governments have agreed to adopt. There is a large and diverse range of industries involved in mining or mineral processing, and the production of fossil fuels in Australia. Enhanced levels of naturally occurring radionuclides can be associated with mineral extraction and processing, other industries (e.g. metal recycling) and some products (e.g. plasterboard). ARPANSA, in conjunction with industry and State regulators, has undertaken a review and assessment of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) management in Australian industries. This review has resulted in guidance on the management of NORM that will be included in the National Directory for Radiation Protection. The first NORM safety guide provides the framework for NORM management and addresses specific NORM issues in oil and gas production, bauxite, aluminium and phosphate industries. Over time further guidance material for other NORM-related industries will be developed. This presentation will provide an overview of the regulatory approach to managing NORM industries in Australia.

  16. Is anyone regulating naturally occurring radioactive material? A state survey

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, E.M.; Barisas, S.G.

    1993-08-01

    As far as we know, naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) has surrounded humankind since the beginning of time. However, recent data demonstrating that certain activities concentrate NORM have increased concern regarding its proper handling and disposal and precipitated the development of new NORM-related regulations. The regulation of NORM affects the management of government facilities as well as a broad range of industrial processes. Recognizing that NORM regulation at the federal level is extremely limited, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a 50-state survey to determine the extent to which states have assumed the responsibility for regulating NORM as well as the NORM standards that are currently being applied at the state level. Though the survey indicates that NORM regulation comprises a broad spectrum of controls from full licensing requirements to virtually no regulation at afl, a trend is emerging toward recognition of the need for increased regulation of potential NORM hazards, particularly in the absence of federal standards.

  17. Additive CHARMM force field for naturally occurring modified ribonucleotides.

    PubMed

    Xu, You; Vanommeslaeghe, Kenno; Aleksandrov, Alexey; MacKerell, Alexander D; Nilsson, Lennart

    2016-04-15

    More than 100 naturally occurring modified nucleotides have been found in RNA molecules, in particular in tRNAs. We have determined molecular mechanics force field parameters compatible with the CHARMM36 all-atom additive force field for all these modifications using the CHARMM force field parametrization strategy. Emphasis was placed on fine tuning of the partial atomic charges and torsion angle parameters. Quantum mechanics calculations on model compounds provided the initial set of target data, and extensive molecular dynamics simulations of nucleotides and oligonucleotides in aqueous solutions were used for further refinement against experimental data. The presented parameters will allow for computational studies of a wide range of RNAs containing modified nucleotides, including the ribosome and transfer RNAs.

  18. Naturally occurring mercury contamination in a pristine environment?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidle, W. C.

    1993-04-01

    About 19 percent of sampled residential water wells situated in a pristine, granitic Maine (USA) coastal environment have elevated mercury concentrations according to USEPA standards. There are no identified anthropogenic sources for mercury but some local granitoids have anomalous mercury concentrations in the Waldoboro Pluton Complex (WPC). Site-specific hydrogeologic conditions appear to have aggravated what is otherwise only trace amounts of some naturally occurring toxic analytes in the groundwater in contact with the suspect granitoids of the WPC. The extent of mercury in this crystalline rock environment is examined here. It is prudent to exercise preventive measures and appropriately site water supply wells and not expect complete remediation of the affected homeowners' wells.

  19. Naturally occurring B-cell autoreactivity: a critical overview.

    PubMed

    Avrameas, Stratis; Ternynck, Therese; Tsonis, Ioannis A; Lymberi, Peggy

    2007-12-01

    In over one century of research in immunology marked progress in the scientific knowledge and the implications derived from it has been made. At the same time several contradictory and seemingly opposing results have been obtained. The term autoimmunity is still conceived by many as a term directly related to an immunopathological state. However, strong evidence exist that not only the immune system is able to recognize self-constituents, but it appears also that this property is essential for homeostasis. Direct or indirect alterations of such self-recognition properties of the immune system may contribute to pathology. In this review, the most recent advances in the field of naturally occurring B-cell autoreactivity in health as well as in disease are presented and discussed.

  20. Processing and disposal of scales containing naturally occurring radioactive materials

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, D.G.; Woods, S.E.; Abernathy, S.E.

    1994-12-31

    Since the discovery that many drill cuttings, scales, sludges, and platings contain elevated amounts of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM), many companies and regulating authorities have wondered what is the best method for disposing of this material. This paper covers a process which grinds and slurries this material to a form acceptable for injection to a well. The process consists of (1) classification of material, (2) bulk breakdown, and (3) grinding and slurrying to a consistency which keeps the particles suspended in solution until time for well injection. Well injection takes the form of encapsulation by cementing the well casing below and above the injected NORM during a plug and abandonment operation. In conclusion, the philosophy of the process is to take the NORM generated through the exploration and production of oil and gas and place it back into the reservoir from which it came. This technique is one which protects the environment from the possible hazards associated with mismanaged NORM.

  1. Additive CHARMM force field for naturally occurring modified ribonucleotides

    PubMed Central

    Xu, You; Vanommeslaeghe, Kenno; Aleksandrov, Alexey; MacKerell, Alexander D.

    2016-01-01

    More than 100 naturally occurring modified nucleotides have been found in RNA molecules, in particular in tRNAs. We have determined molecular mechanics force field parameters compatible with the CHARMM36 all‐atom additive force field for all these modifications using the CHARMM force field parametrization strategy. Emphasis was placed on fine tuning of the partial atomic charges and torsion angle parameters. Quantum mechanics calculations on model compounds provided the initial set of target data, and extensive molecular dynamics simulations of nucleotides and oligonucleotides in aqueous solutions were used for further refinement against experimental data. The presented parameters will allow for computational studies of a wide range of RNAs containing modified nucleotides, including the ribosome and transfer RNAs. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Computational Chemistry Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26841080

  2. Vampire bat reproductive control by a naturally occurring phytooestrogen.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Hector; Pérez-Rivero, Juan-José; Aguilar-Setién, Alvaro; de-Paz, Octavio; Villa-Godoy, Alejandro

    2007-01-01

    Rabies transmission by wild animals has not being controlled satisfactorily. One major rabies vector to humans and cattle is the hematophagous vampire bat Desmodus rotundus whose distribution is still increasing in the Americas. Of all of the strategies currently in place to control this vector, none of them are really specific and some have ecological impacts. In the present study we used a naturally occurring phytoestrogen on a small vampire bat colony. After collection, bats were fed bovine blood containing 200 microg coumestrol for a 30-day period. After treatment, gonads were excised and processed for histological evaluation. Data indicate that coumestrol adversely affects gonad histology and has a possible impact on the fertility of both male and female vampire bats.

  3. Multifaceted ability of naturally occurring polyphenols against metastatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qingyu; Bennett, Lunawati L; Zhou, Shufeng

    2016-04-01

    Although cancer metastases are known to be the main cause of cancer-related deaths, truly effective antimetastatic therapeutics remain scarce in clinical practice. Naturally occurring polyphenols are the most abundant antioxidants in human diets. Many of them possess chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic properties against various types of cancer. Recent advances in understanding the molecular pathways that mediate cancer development and progression have led to an increase of interest in preclinical investigations on the mechanisms underlying anticancer activity of polyphenols. In particular, an increasing number of preclinical studies using cultured cells and animal models have demonstrated the inhibitory effects of polyphenols on tumour cell invasion and metastasis, thereby highlighting the potential of polyphenols against metastatic cancer. This review specifically addresses growing evidence of the capability of polyphenols to impair the invasion and migration of tumour cells through a diverse set of mechanisms, including downregulation of expression of matrix metalloproteinases, modulation of regulators of epithelial-mesenchymal transition, interference with Met signalling, inhibition of nuclear factor-kappa B mediated transcription, and so on. Given that metastasis occurs through a multistep process in which each step is regulated by a complex network of signalling pathways, the multi-function and multi-target characteristics of polyphenols render those promising candidates for effective adjuvant therapy against metastatic cancer.

  4. Naturally occurring allele diversity allows potato cultivation in northern latitudes.

    PubMed

    Kloosterman, Bjorn; Abelenda, José A; Gomez, María del Mar Carretero; Oortwijn, Marian; de Boer, Jan M; Kowitwanich, Krissana; Horvath, Beatrix M; van Eck, Herman J; Smaczniak, Cezary; Prat, Salomé; Visser, Richard G F; Bachem, Christian W B

    2013-03-14

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) originates from the Andes and evolved short-day-dependent tuber formation as a vegetative propagation strategy. Here we describe the identification of a central regulator underlying a major-effect quantitative trait locus for plant maturity and initiation of tuber development. We show that this gene belongs to the family of DOF (DNA-binding with one finger) transcription factors and regulates tuberization and plant life cycle length, by acting as a mediator between the circadian clock and the StSP6A mobile tuberization signal. We also show that natural allelic variants evade post-translational light regulation, allowing cultivation outside the geographical centre of origin of potato. Potato is a member of the Solanaceae family and is one of the world's most important food crops. This annual plant originates from the Andean regions of South America. Potato develops tubers from underground stems called stolons. Its equatorial origin makes potato essentially short-day dependent for tuberization and potato will not make tubers in the long-day conditions of spring and summer in the northern latitudes. When introduced in temperate zones, wild material will form tubers in the course of the autumnal shortening of day-length. Thus, one of the first selected traits in potato leading to a European potato type is likely to have been long-day acclimation for tuberization. Potato breeders can exploit the naturally occurring variation in tuberization onset and life cycle length, allowing varietal breeding for different latitudes, harvest times and markets.

  5. Discovering Psychological Principles by Mining Naturally Occurring Data Sets.

    PubMed

    Goldstone, Robert L; Lupyan, Gary

    2016-07-01

    The very expertise with which psychologists wield their tools for achieving laboratory control may have had the unwelcome effect of blinding psychologists to the possibilities of discovering principles of behavior without conducting experiments. When creatively interrogated, a diverse range of large, real-world data sets provides powerful diagnostic tools for revealing principles of human judgment, perception, categorization, decision-making, language use, inference, problem solving, and representation. Examples of these data sets include patterns of website links, dictionaries, logs of group interactions, collections of images and image tags, text corpora, history of financial transactions, trends in twitter tag usage and propagation, patents, consumer product sales, performance in high-stakes sporting events, dialect maps, and scientific citations. The goal of this issue is to present some exemplary case studies of mining naturally existing data sets to reveal important principles and phenomena in cognitive science, and to discuss some of the underlying issues involved with conducting traditional experiments, analyses of naturally occurring data, computational modeling, and the synthesis of all three methods.

  6. Forecasting seizures in dogs with naturally occurring epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Howbert, J Jeffry; Patterson, Edward E; Stead, S Matt; Brinkmann, Ben; Vasoli, Vincent; Crepeau, Daniel; Vite, Charles H; Sturges, Beverly; Ruedebusch, Vanessa; Mavoori, Jaideep; Leyde, Kent; Sheffield, W Douglas; Litt, Brian; Worrell, Gregory A

    2014-01-01

    Seizure forecasting has the potential to create new therapeutic strategies for epilepsy, such as providing patient warnings and delivering preemptive therapy. Progress on seizure forecasting, however, has been hindered by lack of sufficient data to rigorously evaluate the hypothesis that seizures are preceded by physiological changes, and are not simply random events. We investigated seizure forecasting in three dogs with naturally occurring focal epilepsy implanted with a device recording continuous intracranial EEG (iEEG). The iEEG spectral power in six frequency bands: delta (0.1-4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz), alpha (8-12 Hz), beta (12-30 Hz), low-gamma (30-70 Hz), and high-gamma (70-180 Hz), were used as features. Logistic regression classifiers were trained to discriminate labeled pre-ictal and inter-ictal data segments using combinations of the band spectral power features. Performance was assessed on separate test data sets via 10-fold cross-validation. A total of 125 spontaneous seizures were detected in continuous iEEG recordings spanning 6.5 to 15 months from 3 dogs. When considering all seizures, the seizure forecasting algorithm performed significantly better than a Poisson-model chance predictor constrained to have the same time in warning for all 3 dogs over a range of total warning times. Seizure clusters were observed in all 3 dogs, and when the effect of seizure clusters was decreased by considering the subset of seizures separated by at least 4 hours, the forecasting performance remained better than chance for a subset of algorithm parameters. These results demonstrate that seizures in canine epilepsy are not randomly occurring events, and highlight the feasibility of long-term seizure forecasting using iEEG monitoring.

  7. Scrap metal management issues associated with naturally occurring radioactive material

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K.P.; Blunt, D.L.

    1995-08-01

    Certain industrial processes sometimes generate waste by-products that contain naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) at elevated concentrations. Some industries, including the water treatment, geothermal energy, and petroleum industries, generate scrap metal that may be contaminated with NORM wastes. Of these three industries, the petroleum industry probably generates the largest quantity of NORM-contaminated equipment, conservatively estimated at 170,000 tons per year. Equipment may become contaminated when NORM-containing scale or sludge accumulates inside water-handling equipment. The primary radionuclides of concern in these NORM wastes are radium-226 and radium-228. NORM-contaminated equipment generated by the petroleum industry currently is managed several ways. Some equipment is routinely decontaminated for reuse; other equipment becomes scrap metal and may be disposed of by burial at a licensed landfill, encapsulation inside the wellbore of an abandoned well, or shipment overseas for smelting. In view of the increased regulatory activities addressing NORM, the economic burden of managing NORM-contaminated wastes, including radioactive scrap metal, is likely to continue to grow. Efforts to develop a cost-effective strategy for managing radioactive scrap metal should focus on identifying the least expensive disposition options that provide adequate protection of human health and the environment. Specifically, efforts should focus on better characterizing the quantity of radioactive scrap available for recycle or reuse, the radioactivity concentration levels, and the potential risks associated with different disposal options.

  8. Franckeite as a naturally occurring van der Waals heterostructure.

    PubMed

    Molina-Mendoza, Aday J; Giovanelli, Emerson; Paz, Wendel S; Niño, Miguel Angel; Island, Joshua O; Evangeli, Charalambos; Aballe, Lucía; Foerster, Michael; van der Zant, Herre S J; Rubio-Bollinger, Gabino; Agraït, Nicolás; Palacios, J J; Pérez, Emilio M; Castellanos-Gomez, Andres

    2017-02-13

    The fabrication of van der Waals heterostructures, artificial materials assembled by individual stacking of 2D layers, is among the most promising directions in 2D materials research. Until now, the most widespread approach to stack 2D layers relies on deterministic placement methods, which are cumbersome and tend to suffer from poor control over the lattice orientations and the presence of unwanted interlayer adsorbates. Here, we present a different approach to fabricate ultrathin heterostructures by exfoliation of bulk franckeite which is a naturally occurring and air stable van der Waals heterostructure (composed of alternating SnS2-like and PbS-like layers stacked on top of each other). Presenting both an attractive narrow bandgap (<0.7 eV) and p-type doping, we find that the material can be exfoliated both mechanically and chemically down to few-layer thicknesses. We present extensive theoretical and experimental characterizations of the material's electronic properties and crystal structure, and explore applications for near-infrared photodetectors.

  9. Naturally occurring regulatory T cells: markers, mechanisms, and manipulation.

    PubMed

    Schmetterer, Klaus G; Neunkirchner, Alina; Pickl, Winfried F

    2012-06-01

    Naturally occurring CD4(+)CD25(high) forkhead box protein 3 (FOXP3)(+) regulatory T cells (nTregs) are key mediators of immunity, which orchestrate and maintain tolerance to self and foreign antigens. In the recent 1.5 decades, a multitude of studies have aimed to define the phenotype and function of nTregs and to assess their therapeutic potential for modulating immune mediated disorders such as autoimmunity, allergy, and episodes of transplant rejection. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on the biology of nTregs. We address the exact definition of nTregs by specific markers and combinations thereof, which is a prerequisite for the state-of-the-art isolation of defined nTreg populations. Furthermore, we discuss the mechanism by which nTregs mediate immunosuppression and how this knowledge might translate into novel therapeutic modalities. With first clinical studies of nTreg-based therapies being finished, questions concerning the reliable sources of nTregs are becoming more and more eminent. Consequently, approaches allowing conversion of CD4(+) T cells into nTregs by coculture with antigen-presenting cells, cytokines, and/or pharmacological agents are discussed. In addition, genetic engineering approaches for the generation of antigen-specific nTregs are described.

  10. Franckeite as a naturally occurring van der Waals heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina-Mendoza, Aday J.; Giovanelli, Emerson; Paz, Wendel S.; Niño, Miguel Angel; Island, Joshua O.; Evangeli, Charalambos; Aballe, Lucía; Foerster, Michael; van der Zant, Herre S. J.; Rubio-Bollinger, Gabino; Agraït, Nicolás; Palacios, J. J.; Pérez, Emilio M.; Castellanos-Gomez, Andres

    2017-02-01

    The fabrication of van der Waals heterostructures, artificial materials assembled by individual stacking of 2D layers, is among the most promising directions in 2D materials research. Until now, the most widespread approach to stack 2D layers relies on deterministic placement methods, which are cumbersome and tend to suffer from poor control over the lattice orientations and the presence of unwanted interlayer adsorbates. Here, we present a different approach to fabricate ultrathin heterostructures by exfoliation of bulk franckeite which is a naturally occurring and air stable van der Waals heterostructure (composed of alternating SnS2-like and PbS-like layers stacked on top of each other). Presenting both an attractive narrow bandgap (<0.7 eV) and p-type doping, we find that the material can be exfoliated both mechanically and chemically down to few-layer thicknesses. We present extensive theoretical and experimental characterizations of the material's electronic properties and crystal structure, and explore applications for near-infrared photodetectors.

  11. Naturally occurring and forced azimuthal modes in a turbulent jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raman, Ganesh; Rice, Edward J.; Reshotko, Eli

    1991-01-01

    Naturally occurring instability modes in an axisymmetric jet were studied using the modal frequency technique. The evolution of the modal spectrum was obtained for a jet with a Reynolds number based on a diameter of 400,000 for both laminar and turbulent nozzle boundary layers. In the early evolution of the jet the axisymmetric mode was predominant, with the azimuthal modes growing rapidly but dominating only the end of the potential core. The growth of the azimuthal was observed closer to the nozzle exit for the jet in the laminar boundary layer case than for the turbulent. Target modes for efficient excitation of the jet were determined and two cases of excitation were studied. First, a jet was excited simultaneously by two helical modes, m equals plus 1 and m equals minus 1 at a Strouhal number based on jet diameter of 0.15 and the axisymmetric mode, m equals 0 at a jet diameter of 0.6. Second, m equals plus one and m equals minus 1 at jet diameter equals 0.3 and m equals 0 at jet diameter equals 0.6 were excited simultaneously. The downstream evolution of the hydrodynamic modes and the spreading rate of the jet were documented for each case. Higher jet spreading rates, accompanied by distorted jet cross sections were observed for the cases where combinations of axisymmetric and helical forcings were applied.

  12. Franckeite as a naturally occurring van der Waals heterostructure

    PubMed Central

    Molina-Mendoza, Aday J.; Giovanelli, Emerson; Paz, Wendel S.; Niño, Miguel Angel; Island, Joshua O.; Evangeli, Charalambos; Aballe, Lucía; Foerster, Michael; van der Zant, Herre S. J.; Rubio-Bollinger, Gabino; Agraït, Nicolás; Palacios, J. J.; Pérez, Emilio M.; Castellanos-Gomez, Andres

    2017-01-01

    The fabrication of van der Waals heterostructures, artificial materials assembled by individual stacking of 2D layers, is among the most promising directions in 2D materials research. Until now, the most widespread approach to stack 2D layers relies on deterministic placement methods, which are cumbersome and tend to suffer from poor control over the lattice orientations and the presence of unwanted interlayer adsorbates. Here, we present a different approach to fabricate ultrathin heterostructures by exfoliation of bulk franckeite which is a naturally occurring and air stable van der Waals heterostructure (composed of alternating SnS2-like and PbS-like layers stacked on top of each other). Presenting both an attractive narrow bandgap (<0.7 eV) and p-type doping, we find that the material can be exfoliated both mechanically and chemically down to few-layer thicknesses. We present extensive theoretical and experimental characterizations of the material's electronic properties and crystal structure, and explore applications for near-infrared photodetectors. PMID:28194037

  13. Antituberculosis Activity of a Naturally Occurring Flavonoid, Isorhamnetin.

    PubMed

    Jnawali, Hum Nath; Jeon, Dasom; Jeong, Min-Cheol; Lee, Eunjung; Jin, Bongwhan; Ryoo, Sungweon; Yoo, Jungheon; Jung, In Duk; Lee, Seung Jun; Park, Yeong-Min; Kim, Yangmee

    2016-04-22

    Isorhamnetin (1) is a naturally occurring flavonoid having anticancer and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study demonstrated that 1 had antimycobacterial effects on Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, multi-drug- and extensively drug-resistant clinical isolates with minimum inhibitory concentrations of 158 and 316 μM, respectively. Mycobacteria mainly affect the lungs, causing an intense local inflammatory response that is critical to the pathogenesis of tuberculosis. We investigated the effects of 1 on interferon (IFN)-γ-stimulated human lung fibroblast MRC-5 cells. Isorhamnetin suppressed the release of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-12. A nontoxic dose of 1 reduced mRNA expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12, and matrix metalloproteinase-1 in IFN-γ-stimulated cells. Isorhamnetin inhibited IFN-γ-mediated stimulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and showed high-affinity binding to these kinases (binding constants: 4.46 × 10(6) M(-1) and 7.6 × 10(6) M(-1), respectively). The 4'-hydroxy group and the 3'-methoxy group of the B-ring and the 5-hydroxy group of the A-ring of 1 play key roles in these binding interactions. A mouse in vivo study of lipopolysaccharide-induced lung inflammation revealed that a nontoxic dose of 1 reduced the levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12, and INF-γ in lung tissue. These data provide the first evidence that 1 could be developed as a potent antituberculosis drug.

  14. Probabilities of Natural Events Occurring at Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, J.C.

    2001-07-17

    This report documents the comprehensive evaluation of probability models of natural events which are applicable to Savannah River Plant. The probability curves selected for these natural events are recommended to be used by all SRP/SRL safety analysts. This will ensure a consistency in analysis methodology for postulated SAR incidents involving natural phenomena.

  15. Manufactured Home Testing in Simulated and Naturally Occurring High Winds

    SciTech Connect

    W. D. Richins; T. K. Larson

    2006-08-01

    A typical double-wide manufactured home was tested in simulated and naturally occurring high winds to understand structural behavior and improve performance during severe windstorms. Seven (7) lateral load tests were conducted on a double-wide manufactured home at a remote field test site in Wyoming. An extensive instrumentation package monitored the overall behavior of the home and collected data vital to validating computational software for the manufactured housing industry. The tests were designed to approach the design load of the home without causing structural damage, thus allowing the behavior of the home to be accessed when the home was later exposed to high winds (to 80-mph). The data generally show near-linear initial system response with significant non-linear behavior as the applied loads increase. Load transfer across the marriage line is primarily compression. Racking, while present, is very small. Interface slip and shear displacement along the marriage line are nearly insignificant. Horizontal global displacements reached 0.6 inch. These tests were designed primarily to collect data necessary to calibrate a desktop analysis and design software tool, MHTool, under development at the Idaho National Laboratory specifically for manufactured housing. Currently available analysis tools are, for the most part, based on methods developed for “stick built” structures and are inappropriate for manufactured homes. The special materials utilized in manufactured homes, such as rigid adhesives used in the connection of the sheathing materials to the studs, significantly alter the behavior of manufactured homes under lateral loads. Previous full scale tests of laterally loaded manufactured homes confirm the contention that conventional analysis methods are not applicable. System behavior dominates the structural action of manufactured homes and its prediction requires a three dimensional analysis of the complete unit, including tiedowns. This project was

  16. Committed effective dose from naturally occuring radionuclides in shellfish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Wahib, Norfadira Binti; Amin, Yusoff Mohd.; Bradley, D. A.

    2013-07-01

    Recognizing their importance in the average Malaysian daily diet, the radioactivity concentrations in mollusc- and crustacean-based food have been determined for key naturally occuring radionuclides. Fresh samples collected from various maritime locations around peninsular Malaysia have been processed using standard procedures; the radionuclide concentrations being determined using an HPGe γ-ray spectrometer. For molluscs, assuming secular equilibrium, the range of activities of 238U (226Ra), 232Th (228Ra) and 40K were found to be 3.28±0.35 to 5.34±0.52, 1.20±0.21 to 2.44±0.21 and 118±6 to 281±14 Bq kg-1 dry weight, respectively. The respective values for crustaceans were 3.02±0.57 to 4.70±0.52, 1.38±0.21 to 2.40±0.35 and 216±11 to 316±15 Bq kg-1. The estimated average daily intake of radioactivity from consumption of molluscs are 0.37 Bq kg-1 for 238U (226Ra), 0.16 Bq kg-1 for 232Th (228Ra) and 18 Bq kg-1 for 40K; the respective daily intake values from crustaceans are 0.36 Bq kg-1, 0.16 Bq kg-1 and 23 Bq kg-1. Associated annual committed effective doses from molluscs are estimated to be in the range 21.3 to 34.7 μSv for 226Ra, 19.3 to 39.1 μSv for 228Ra and 17.0 to 40.4 μSv for 40K. For crustaceans, the respective dose ranges are 19.6 to 30.5 μSv, 22.0 to 38.4 μSv and 31.1 to 45.5 μSv, being some several times world average values.

  17. Naturally Occurring Wound Healing Agents: An Evidence-Based Review.

    PubMed

    Karapanagioti, E G; Assimopoulou, A N

    2016-01-01

    Nature constitutes a pool of medicines for thousands of years. Nowadays, trust in nature is increasingly growing, as many effective medicines are naturally derived. Over the last decades, the potential of plants as wound healing agents is being investigated. Wounds and ulcers affect the patients' life quality and often lead to amputations. Approximately 43,000,000 patients suffer from diabetic foot ulcers worldwide. Annually, $25 billion are expended for the treatment of chronic wounds, with the number growing due to aging population and increased incidents of diabetes and obesity. Therefore a timely, orderly and effective wound management and treatment is crucial. This paper aims to systematically review natural products, mainly plants, with scientifically well documented wound healing activity, focusing on articles based on animal and clinical studies performed worldwide and approved medicinal products. Moreover, a brief description of the wound healing mechanism is presented, to provide a better understanding. Although a plethora of natural products are in vitro and in vivo evaluated for wound healing activity, only a few go through clinical trials and even fewer launch the market as approved medicines. Most of them rely on traditional medicine, indicating that ethnopharmacology is a successful strategy for drug development. Since only 6% of plants have been systematically investigated pharmacologically, more intensified efforts and emerging advancements are needed to exploit the potentials of nature for the development of novel medicines. This paper aims to provide a reliable database and matrix for thorough further investigation towards the discovery of wound healing agents.

  18. Naturally occurring anti-cancer agents targeting EZH2.

    PubMed

    Shahabipour, Fahimeh; Caraglia, Michele; Majeed, Muhammed; Derosa, Giuseppe; Maffioli, Pamela; Sahebkar, Amirhossein

    2017-03-18

    Natural products are considered as promising tools for the prevention and treatment of cancer. The enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) is a histone methyltransferase unit of polycomb repressor complexes such as PRC2 complex that has oncogenic roles through interference with growth and metastatic potential. Several agents targeting EZH2 has been discovered but they often induce side effects in clinical trials. Recently, EZH2 has emerged as a potential target of natural products with documented anti-cancer effects and this discloses a new scenario for the development of EZH2 inhibitory strategies with agents with low cytotoxic detrimental effects. In fact, several natural products such as curcumin, triptolide, ursolic acid, sulforaphane, davidiin, tanshindiols, gambogic acid, berberine and Alcea rosea have been shown to serve as EZH2 modulators. Mechanisms like inhibition of histone H3K4, H3K27 and H3K36 trimethylation, down-regulation of matrix metalloproteinase expression, competitive binding to the S-adenosylmethionine binding site of EZH2 and modulation of tumor-suppressive microRNAs have been demonstrated to mediate the EZH2-inhibitory activity of the mentioned natural products. This review summarizes the pathways that are regulated by various natural products resulting in the suppression of EZH2, and provides a plausible molecular mechanism for the putative anti-cancer effects of these compounds.

  19. The timing of the age at which natural menopause occurs.

    PubMed

    Gold, Ellen B

    2011-09-01

    The timing of natural menopause is a clinically important indicator of longevity and risk of morbidity and mortality. Demographic, menstrual, reproductive, familial, genetic, and lifestyle factors seem to be important in this timing. Smoking, lower parity and poor socioeconomic status are associated with earlier menopause. However, a number of relationships have been inconsistent; others remain largely unexplored. Much remains to be learned about factors that affect follicular atresia and the onset and duration of perimenopause and the timing of the natural menopause. Knowledge about these relationships offers women and their health care providers enhanced understanding and choices to deal with menopause.

  20. Overview of naturally occurring Earth materials and human health concerns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernst, W. G.

    2012-10-01

    The biosphere and the Earth's critical zone have maintained a dynamic equilibrium for more than 3.5 billion years. Except for solar energy, almost all terrestrial substances necessary for life have been derived from near-surface portions of the land, hydrosphere, and atmosphere. If aggregate biological activities are less than the rate of nutrient supply and/or resource renewal, sustained population growth is possible. Where the replenishment rate of a life-sustaining Earth material is finite, usage may reach a condition of dynamic equilibrium in which biological consumption equals but on average cannot exceed the overall supply. Although large, most natural resources are present in finite abundances; for such commodities, excessive present-day human utilization reduces future availability, and thus the ultimate planetary carrying capacity for civilization. Intensive use of Earth materials has enhanced the quality of life, especially in the developed nations. Still, natural background levels, and Earth processes such as volcanic eruptions, as well as human activities involving agriculture, construction, and the extraction, refining, and transformation of mineral resources have led to harmful side effects involving environmental degradation and public health hazards. Among naturally and anthropogenically induced risks are bioaccessible airborne dusts and gases, soluble pollutants in agricultural, industrial, and residential waters, and toxic chemical species in foods and manufactured products. At appropriate levels of ingestion, many Earth materials are necessary for existence, but underdoses and overdoses have mild to serious consequences for human health and longevity. This overview briefly sketches several natural resource health hazards. Included are volcanic ash + aerosols + gases, mineral dusts, non-volcanic aerosols + nanoparticles, asbestos + fibrous zeolites, arsenic, fluorine, iodine, uranium + thorium + radium + radon + polonium, selenium, mercury, copper

  1. Interactions between plasma proteins and naturally occurring polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Hagerman, Ann E

    2013-05-01

    The plant natural products known as polyphenols are found at micronutrient levels in fruits, vegetables, and plant-based beverages such as wine, tea, coffee and cocoa. Consumption of a fruit- and vegetable-rich diet, the "Mediterranean diet", has been epidemiologically related to health benefits especially for chronic diseases including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and Alzheimer's disease. The abundance of polyphenols in plant-rich diets, and the potent bioactivities of polyphenols, provide indirect evidence for a role for polyphenols in maintaining good health. However, molecular mechanisms for therapeutic or preventative activity have not been demonstrated in vivo. We summarize the chemical classes of natural polyphenols, their bioactivities and bioavailability and metabolism. Because many polyphenols bind protein, we focus on the potential of protein binding to mediate the health-related effects of polyphenols. We discuss interactions with plasma proteins as the first target organ past the digestive tract for these orally-ingested compounds.

  2. The Frequency, Nature, and Effects of Naturally Occurring Appearance-Focused Social Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leahey, Tricia M.; Crowther, Janis H.; Mickelson, Kristin D.

    2007-01-01

    This research examined the effects of naturally occurring appearance-focused social comparisons on women's affect, body satisfaction, and weight-related cognitions. During their daily activities, women reporting body dissatisfaction (n = 53) and women reporting body satisfaction (n = 34) recorded their reactions to comparison information.…

  3. The nature of the chromophore responsible for naturally occurring fluorescence in mouse skin.

    PubMed

    Weagle, G; Paterson, P E; Kennedy, J; Pottier, R

    1988-11-01

    Normal mouse skin has a prominent fluorescence peak at 674 nm. Fluorescence emission and fluorescence excitation spectroscopy, carried out both in vitro and in vivo, led to the conclusion that the chromophore(s) responsible for this naturally occurring fluorescence is/are pheophorbide a and/or pheophytin a, degradation products of chlorophyll a that are derived from the mouse food.

  4. Virological and serological findings in dogs with naturally occurring distemper.

    PubMed

    Elia, Gabriella; Camero, Michele; Losurdo, Michele; Lucente, Maria Stella; Larocca, Vittorio; Martella, Vito; Decaro, Nicola; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2015-03-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) is the cause of a severe and highly contagious disease in dogs. The unpredictable and variable course of CDV-related disease may hamper correct diagnosis of infection and makes it crucial the collection of samples suitable for laboratory confirmation. In the present study we were able to follow the disease in two dogs infected naturally, collecting different biological matrices during the entire period of infection. By real time RT-PCR, viral RNA was detected and quantified, suggesting that urine and rectal swabs would be useful for ante-mortem diagnosis of distemper in dogs, regardless of the clinical stage and form of the illness.

  5. A naturally-occurring 'cold earth' spot in Northern China.

    PubMed

    Niu, Fujun; Cheng, Guodong; Niu, Yonghong; Zhang, Mingyi; Luo, Jing; Lin, Zhanju

    2016-09-29

    Permafrost is determined to a large extent by the Earth's surface temperature, therefore it distributes mainly in high altitude and latitude regions. However, stable, warm (about -1 °C) permafrost occurs within a scree slope in northern China that is more than 600 km south of the southernmost limit of latitudinal permafrost on the Eurasian Continent. It is at an elevation of only 900 m above sea level (ASL). The area has a mean annual air temperature (MAAT) of 6 to 8 °C. Thermal processes of the scree slope, investigated through field monitoring and numerical simulation, showed that the permafrost is caused by winter air convection within the porous rock deposits and is stable as air convection does not occur in summer time. The deposit is covered by a 30-cm-thick peaty soil layer dated (carbon C-14) to between 1,000 to 1,600 years ago. The layer also contributes to the permafrost's existence due to the peat's thermal conductivity offset when frozen and thawed. The existence of permafrost under such warm climatic conditions confirms the effectiveness of using crushed rock layer as basement or slope cover to protect the warm permafrost subgrade of the recently-constructed Qinghai-Tibet Railway (QTR), even under the predicted climate warming conditions.

  6. Polyomavirus and Naturally Occuring Neuroglial Tumors in Raccoons (Procyon Lotor).

    PubMed

    Pesavento, Patricia A; Brostoff, Terza; Church, Molly E; Dela Cruz, Florante N; Woolard, Kevin D

    2016-01-01

    Polyomavirus (PyV) infections are widespread in human populations and, although generally associated with silent persistence, rarely cause severe disease. Among diseases convincingly associated with natural PyV infections of humans, there are remarkably different tissue tropisms and outcomes, including progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, transient or progressive nephropathy, and cancer. The variable character and unpredictable outcomes of infection attest to large gaps in our basic understanding of PyV biology. In particular, the rich history of research demonstrating the oncogenic potential of PyVs in laboratory animals begs the question of why cancer is not more often associated with infection. Raccoon polyomavirus (RacPyV), discovered in 2010, is consistently identified in neuroglial tumors in free-ranging raccoons in the western United States. Exposure to RacPyV is widespread, and RacPyV is detected in tissues of raccoons without tumors. Studying the relationship of RacPyV with its natural host is a unique opportunity to uncover cogent cellular targets and protein interactions between the virus and its host. Our hypothesis is that RacPyV, as an intact episome, alters cellular pathways within neural progenitor cells and drives oncogenesis.

  7. Structures and properties of naturally occurring polyether antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Rutkowski, Jacek; Brzezinski, Bogumil

    2013-01-01

    Polyether ionophores represent a large group of natural, biologically active substances produced by Streptomyces spp. They are lipid soluble and able to transport metal cations across cell membranes. Several of polyether ionophores are widely used as growth promoters in veterinary. Polyether antibiotics show a broad spectrum of bioactivity ranging from antibacterial, antifungal, antiparasitic, antiviral, and tumour cell cytotoxicity. Recently, it has been shown that some of these compounds are able to selectively kill cancer stem cells and multidrug-resistant cancer cells. Thus, they are recognized as new potential anticancer drugs. The biological activity of polyether ionophores is strictly connected with their molecular structure; therefore, the purpose of this paper is to present an overview of their formula, molecular structure, and properties.

  8. Structures and Properties of Naturally Occurring Polyether Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Rutkowski, Jacek; Brzezinski, Bogumil

    2013-01-01

    Polyether ionophores represent a large group of natural, biologically active substances produced by Streptomyces spp. They are lipid soluble and able to transport metal cations across cell membranes. Several of polyether ionophores are widely used as growth promoters in veterinary. Polyether antibiotics show a broad spectrum of bioactivity ranging from antibacterial, antifungal, antiparasitic, antiviral, and tumour cell cytotoxicity. Recently, it has been shown that some of these compounds are able to selectively kill cancer stem cells and multidrug-resistant cancer cells. Thus, they are recognized as new potential anticancer drugs. The biological activity of polyether ionophores is strictly connected with their molecular structure; therefore, the purpose of this paper is to present an overview of their formula, molecular structure, and properties. PMID:23586016

  9. Evidence of sublaminar drag naturally occurring in a curved pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Noorani, A.; Schlatter, P.

    2015-03-15

    Steady and unsteady flows in a mildly curved pipe for a wide range of Reynolds numbers are examined with direct numerical simulation. It is shown that in a range of Reynolds numbers in the vicinity of Re{sub b} ≈ 3400, based on bulk velocity and pipe diameter, a marginally turbulent flow is established in which the friction drag naturally reduces below the laminar solution at the same Reynolds number. The obtained values for friction drag for the laminar and turbulent (sublaminar) flows turn out to be in excellent agreement with experimental measurements in the literature. Our results are also in agreement with Fukagata et al. [“On the lower bound of net driving power in controlled duct flows,” Phys. D 238, 1082 (2009)], as the lower bound of net power required to drive the flow, i.e., the pressure drop of the Stokes solution, is still lower than our marginally turbulent flow. A large-scale traveling structure that is thought to be responsible for that behaviour is identified in the instantaneous field. This mode could also be extracted using proper orthogonal decomposition. The effect of this mode is to redistribute the mean flow in the circular cross section which leads to lower gradients at the wall compared to the laminar flow.

  10. Evidence of sublaminar drag naturally occurring in a curved pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noorani, A.; Schlatter, P.

    2015-03-01

    Steady and unsteady flows in a mildly curved pipe for a wide range of Reynolds numbers are examined with direct numerical simulation. It is shown that in a range of Reynolds numbers in the vicinity of Reb ≈ 3400, based on bulk velocity and pipe diameter, a marginally turbulent flow is established in which the friction drag naturally reduces below the laminar solution at the same Reynolds number. The obtained values for friction drag for the laminar and turbulent (sublaminar) flows turn out to be in excellent agreement with experimental measurements in the literature. Our results are also in agreement with Fukagata et al. ["On the lower bound of net driving power in controlled duct flows," Phys. D 238, 1082 (2009)], as the lower bound of net power required to drive the flow, i.e., the pressure drop of the Stokes solution, is still lower than our marginally turbulent flow. A large-scale traveling structure that is thought to be responsible for that behaviour is identified in the instantaneous field. This mode could also be extracted using proper orthogonal decomposition. The effect of this mode is to redistribute the mean flow in the circular cross section which leads to lower gradients at the wall compared to the laminar flow.

  11. Naturally Occurring Variants of the Dysglycemic Peptide Pancreastatin

    PubMed Central

    Allu, Prasanna K. R.; Chirasani, Venkat R.; Ghosh, Dhiman; Mani, Anitha; Bera, Amal K.; Maji, Samir K.; Senapati, Sanjib; Mullasari, Ajit S.; Mahapatra, Nitish R.

    2014-01-01

    Pancreastatin (PST), a chromogranin A-derived peptide, is a potent physiological inhibitor of glucose-induced insulin secretion. PST also triggers glycogenolysis in liver and reduces glucose uptake in adipocytes and hepatocytes. Here, we probed for genetic variations in PST sequence and identified two variants within its functionally important carboxyl terminus domain: E287K and G297S. To understand functional implications of these amino acid substitutions, we tested the effects of wild-type (PST-WT), PST-287K, and PST-297S peptides on various cellular processes/events. The rank order of efficacy to inhibit insulin-stimulated glucose uptake was: PST-297S > PST-287K > PST-WT. The PST peptides also displayed the same order of efficacy for enhancing intracellular nitric oxide and Ca2+ levels in various cell types. In addition, PST peptides activated gluconeogenic genes in the following order: PST-297S ≈ PST-287K > PST-WT. Consistent with these in vitro results, the common PST variant allele Ser-297 was associated with significantly higher (by ∼17 mg/dl, as compared with the wild-type Gly-297 allele) plasma glucose level in our study population (n = 410). Molecular modeling and molecular dynamics simulations predicted the following rank order of α-helical content: PST-297S > PST-287K > PST-WT. Corroboratively, circular dichroism analysis of PST peptides revealed significant differences in global structures (e.g. the order of propensity to form α-helix was: PST-297S ≈ PST-287K > PST-WT). This study provides a molecular basis for enhanced potencies/efficacies of human PST variants (likely to occur in ∼300 million people worldwide) and has quantitative implications for inter-individual variations in glucose/insulin homeostasis. PMID:24338022

  12. Naturally occurring and synthetic peptides acting on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Kasheverov, Igor E; Utkin, Yuri N; Tsetlin, Victor I

    2009-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are pentameric membrane-bound proteins belonging to the large family of ligand-gated ion channels. nAChRs possess various binding sites which interact with compounds of different chemical nature, including peptides. Historically first peptides found to act on nAChR were synthetic fragments of snake alpha-neurotoxins, competitive receptor antagonists. Later it was shown that fragments of glycoprotein from rabies virus, having homology to alpha-neurotoxins, and polypeptide neurotoxins waglerins from the venom of Wagler's pit viper Trimeresurus (Tropidolaemus) wagleri bind in a similar way, waglerins being efficient blockers of muscle-type nAChRs. Neuropeptide substance P appears to interact with the channel moiety of nAChR. beta-Amyloid, a peptide forming senile plaques in Alzheimer's disease, also can bind to nAChR, although the mode of binding is still unclear. However, the most well-studied peptides interacting with the ligand-binding sites of nAChRs are so-called alpha-conotoxins, peptide neurotoxins from marine snails of Conus genus. First alpha-conotoxins were discovered in the late 1970s, and now it is a rapidly growing family due to isolation of peptides from multiple Conus species, as well as to cloning, and chemical synthesis of new analogues. Because of their unique selectivity towards distinct nAChR subtypes, alpha-conotoxins became valuable tools in nAChR research. Recent X-ray structures of alpha-conotoxin complexes with acetylcholine-binding protein, a model of nAChR ligand-binding domains, revealed the details of the nAChR ligand-binding sites and provided the basis for design of novel ligands.

  13. Biotransformations of Plutonium and Uranium by Naturally-Occurring Bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Boukhalfa, Hakim; Icopini, Gary A.; Lack, Joe G.; Reilly, Sean D.; Hersman, Larry E.; Ruggiero, Christy E.; John, Seth G.; Neu, Mary P.

    2004-03-17

    DOE sites are contaminated by radionuclides and toxic metals, which are in contact with organic contaminants, reactive minerals, and diverse populations of microorganisms. Actinide species to be stabilized or mobilized in situ via direct and indirect chemical, biological, and geochemical processes. Actinide contamination tends to be broadly dispersed and present at low concentrations and therefore prohibitively costly to remove using conventional methods. Pu contamination is particularly challenging because of personnel exposure concerns and a lack of disposal sites. Bacterial bioremediation is a preferable treatment approach. Given that the radionuclides of most concern to the NABIR program are generally more mobile in their oxidized forms (e.g. Pu(VI), Pu(V), U(VI), Tc(VII), Cr(VI)), proposed biostabilization strategies are generally based upon either in situ sequestration of the oxidized form (e.g. actinide biosorption and bioaccumulation within exopolymers and biofilms) or biomineralization of the reduced form (e.g., direct or indirect production of insoluble hydroxides by DMRB). The feasibility of these approaches is affected by the speciation of actinides under environment conditions. For example, actinides can form complexes with co-contaminants (e.g. EDTA) or natural chelators like siderophores and biopolymers. Resulting complexes can interact with bacteria in several ways to yield biostabilized products or more mobile species that could persist. They are investigating how organic chelators affect the speciation and biotransformation of U and Pu. Previously, they reported how these siderophores bind, desorb and solubilize radionuclides. Here they present new results on EDTA complexation, siderophore-mediated Pu accumulation by aerobic bacteria, and initial studies of Pu reduction by DMRB.

  14. Bacterial quorum sensing and interference by naturally occurring biomimics.

    PubMed

    McDougald, Diane; Rice, Scott A; Kjelleberg, Staffan

    2007-01-01

    Bacteria are able to coordinate gene expression as a community through the secretion and detection of signalling molecules so that the members of the community can simultaneously express specific behaviours. This mechanism of regulation of behaviour appears to be a key trait for adaptation to specific environments and has been shown to regulate a variety of important phenotypes, from virulence factor production to biofilm formation to symbiosis related behaviours such as bioluminescence. The ability to communicate and communally regulate gene expression is hypothesised to have evolved as a way for organisms to delay expression of phenotypes until numerical supremacy is reached. For example, in the case of infection, if an invading microorganism were to express virulence factors too early, the host may be able to mount a successful defence and repel the invaders. There is growing evidence that bacterial quorum sensing (QS) systems are involved in cross-kingdom signalling with eukaryotic organisms and that eukaryotes are capable of actively responding to bacteria in their environment by detecting and acting upon the presence of these signalling molecules. Likewise, eukaryotes produce compounds that can interfere with QS systems in bacteria by acting as agonists or antagonists. An exciting new field of study, biomimetics, takes inspiration from nature's models and attempts to design solutions to human problems, and biomimics of QS systems may be one such solution. This article presents the acylated homoserine lactone and autoinducer 2 QS systems in bacteria, the means of intercepting or interfering with bacterial QS systems evolved by eukaryotes, and the rational design of synthetic antagonists.

  15. The Impact of the Natural, Social, Built, and Policy Environments on Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Coughlin, Steven S.; Smith, Selina A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The global burden of breast cancer in women is substantial and increasing. Efforts to address breast cancer have focused on primary prevention, reduction of modifiable risk factors, early detection, timely referral for appropriate treatment, and survivorship. Environmental and lifestyle factors that increase breast cancer risk include ionizing radiation, exogenous hormones, certain female reproductive factors, alcohol and other dietary factors, obesity, and physical inactivity. A variety of chemical exposures are purported to be associated with breast cancer. Methods In this article, we summarize the influence of the natural, social, built, and policy environments on breast cancer incidence and cancer recurrence in women based upon bibliographic searches and relevant search terms. Results Despite a lack of conclusive evidence from epidemiologic studies, exposures to chemicals with estrogenic or other properties relevant to sex steroid activity could influence breast cancer risk if the exposures occur at critical life stages or in combination with exposure to other similar chemicals. Results from several studies support an association between shift work and disruption of the circadian rhythm with breast cancer risk. The social environment likely influences breast cancer risk through several mechanisms including social norms pertaining to breast feeding, age at first live birth, parity, use of oral contraceptives and replacement estrogens, diet, and consumption of alcohol. Social norms also influence body weight, obesity, and physical activity, which have an effect on risk of breast cancer incidence and recurrence. Obesity, which is influenced by the social, built, and policy environments, is a risk factor for the development of postmenopausal breast cancer and certain other cancer types. Conclusions The natural, social, built, and policy environments affect breast cancer incidence and survival. Effective health care policies can encourage the provision of

  16. Measuring and Modeling Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material: Interpreting the Relationship Between the Natural Radionuclides Present

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardo, A.J.; Mucha, A.F.

    2008-07-01

    The regulatory release of sites and facilities (property) for restricted or unrestricted use has evolved beyond prescribed levels to model-derived dose and risk based limits. Dose models for deriving corresponding soil and structure radionuclide concentration guidelines are necessarily simplified representations of complex processes. A conceptual site model is often developed to present a reasonable and somewhat conservative representation of the physical and chemical properties of the impacted material. Dose modeling software is then used to estimate resulting dose and/or radionuclide specific acceptance criteria (activity concentrations). When the source term includes any or all of the uranium, thorium or actinium natural decay series radionuclides the interpretation of the relationship between the individual radionuclides of the series is critical to a technically correct and complete assessment of risk and/or derivation of radionuclide specific acceptance criteria. Unlike man-made radionuclides, modeling and measuring naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) and technologically enhanced NORM (TENORM) source terms involves the interpretation of the relationship between the radionuclide present, e.g., secular equilibrium, enrichment, depletion or transient equilibrium. Isotopes of uranium, radium, and thorium occur in all three natural decay series. Each of the three series also produces a radon gas isotope as one of its progeny. In nature, the radionuclides in the three natural decay series are in a state that is approaching or has achieved secular equilibrium, in which the activities of all radionuclides within each series are nearly equal. However, ores containing the three natural decay series may begin in approximate secular equilibrium, but after processing, equilibrium may be broken and certain elements (and the radioactive isotopes of that element) may be concentrated or removed. Where the original ore may have contained one long chain of natural

  17. Long-Term Toxicity of Naturally Occurring Asbestos in Male Fischer 344 Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) fibers are found in geologic deposits that may be disturbed by mining, earthworks, or natural processes, resulting in adverse health risks to exposed individuals. The toxicities of Libby amphibole and NOA samples including Sumas Mountain chrysot...

  18. Segregation of naturally occurring mitochondrial DNA variants in a mini-pig model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Within cells and tissues, the maternally inherited mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) is present in multimeric form and can harbour naturally occurring variants. Whilst high variant load can cause mitochondrial disease, naturally occurring mtDNA variants likely persist at low levels across generations of ...

  19. Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM) in the Oil and Gas Industry: A Review.

    PubMed

    Doyi, Israel; Essumang, David Kofi; Dampare, Samuel; Glover, Eric Tetteh

    Radiation is part of the natural environment: it is estimated that approximately 80 % of all human exposure comes from naturally occurring or background radiation. Certain extractive industries such as mining and oil logging have the potential to increase the risk of radiation exposure to the environment and humans by concentrating the quantities of naturally occurring radiation beyond normal background levels (Azeri-Chirag-Gunashli 2004).

  20. DECIPHERING NATURALLY-OCCURRING PB CONTAMINATION IMPACTING DRINKING WATER WELLS: SHAKER VILLAGE CATCHMENT, MAINE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Trace Pb concentrations in groundwater within glacial deposits across Maine fluctuate considerably. Deciphering the distribution and sources of naturally occurring Pb in groundwater with only the use of conventional anomaly identification techniques presents a challenge. In a rep...

  1. Examination of naturally occurring polyacetylenes and alpha-terthienyl for their ability to induce cytogenetic damage.

    PubMed

    MacRae, W D; Chan, G F; Wat, C K; Towers, G H; Lam, J

    1980-09-15

    alpha-Terthienyl and 5 polyacetylenes were examined for chromosome damaging activity using Syrian hamster cells. None of these naturally occurring compounds induced sister chromatid exchanges and neither alpha-terthienyl nor phenylheptatriyne induced chromosome aberrations.

  2. APPLICATION OF THE NATURALLY-OCCURRING DEUTERIUM ISOTOPE TO TRACING THE CAPILLARY FRINGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Naturally-occurring deuterium is a useful tracer of subsurface hydrologic processes. A possible application includes the identification of capillary fringes in the vadose zone. Multiple and discontinuous water tables persist in many temperate regions, under various hydrogeologi...

  3. Neovastat, a naturally occurring multifunctional antiangiogenic drug, in phase III clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Falardeau, P; Champagne, P; Poyet, P; Hariton, C; Dupont, E

    2001-12-01

    Recent studies have indicated that bone marrow angiogenesis is increased in multiple myeloma, suggesting that treatment with an antiangiogenic agent might be useful. Among the new antiangiogenic drugs in development, Neovastat (AE-941; Aeterna Laboratories, Quebec City, Canada) can be classified as a naturally occurring multifunctional antiangiogenic agent. It has a marked inhibitory effect on the formation of blood vessels in the chicken embryo vascularization assay (EVT) and endothelial cell proliferation. Furthermore, in vivo experiments showed that oral administration of Neovastat blocks the formation of blood vessels in Matrigel implants containing basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). The antiangiogenic activity of Neovastat was found to be associated with two mechanisms of action. In addition to the inhibition of the matrix metalloproteinase activities (MMP-2, MMP-9, and MMP-12), Neovastat inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) binding to endothelial cells, VEGF-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation, and VEGF-induced vascular permeability in mice. Neovastat was also found to have a significant antitumor activity. Oral administration of Neovastat in mice with subcutaneous grafted breast cancer (DA3) cells showed a significant reduction in tumor volume. Neovastat also decreased the number of lung metastases in the Lewis lung carcinoma model. Interestingly, the effect of Neovastat was additive to cisplatin in this model. Furthermore, no treatment-related mortality or loss of body weight was observed. Also, toxicology studies in rats and monkeys demonstrate no dose-limiting toxicity or target organ damage after 1 year of chronic exposure, thus suggesting that Neovastat could be safely administered in humans. Four clinical studies have been conducted to establish the dosing, safety, and early efficacy of Neovastat administered orally. In the oncology field, 482 patients have received Neovastat, of which 146 with solid tumors were exposed to the drug for

  4. Increased Epstein–Barr virus in breast milk occurs with subclinical mastitis and HIV shedding

    PubMed Central

    Sanosyan, Armen; Rutagwera, David G.; Molès, Jean-Pierre; Bollore, Karine; Peries, Marianne; Kankasa, Chipepo; Mwiya, Mwiya; Tylleskär, Thorkild; Nagot, Nicolas; Van De Perre, Philippe; Tuaillon, Edouard

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) in breast milk and subclinical mastitis (SCM) are both associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) shedding and possibly with postnatal HIV transmission. The objective of this nested case–control study was to investigate the interplay between SCM and EBV replication in breast milk of HIV-infected mothers. The relationships between EBV deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) shedding, HIV-1 ribonucleic acid (RNA) level, and SCM were explored in breast milk samples of Zambian mothers participating in the ANRS 12174 trial. Mammary gland inflammation was defined as a breast milk sodium to potassium ratio (Na+/K+) greater than 0.6 and further subclassified as either “possible SCM” (Na+/K+ ratio 0.6–1.0) or SCM (Na+/K+ ratio ≥ 1.0). Breast milk interleukin 8 (IL-8) was measured as a surrogate marker of mammary gland inflammation. EBV DNA was detected in breast milk samples from 42 out of 83 (51%) participants and was associated with HIV-1 shedding in breast milk (P = 0.006). EBV DNA levels were higher in samples with SCM and “possible SCM” compared to non-SCM breast milk samples (P = 0.06; P = 0.007). An EBV DNA level of >200 copies/mL was independently associated with SCM and “possible SCM” (OR: 2.62; 95%: 1.13–6.10). In patients with SCM, higher EBV replication in the mammary gland was associated with a lower induction of IL-8 (P = 0.013). Resistance to DNase treatment suggests that EBV DNA in lactoserum is encapsidated. SCM and decreased IL-8 responses are associated with an increased EBV shedding in breast milk which may in turn facilitate HIV replication in the mammary gland. PMID:27399077

  5. Increased Epstein-Barr virus in breast milk occurs with subclinical mastitis and HIV shedding.

    PubMed

    Sanosyan, Armen; Rutagwera, David G; Molès, Jean-Pierre; Bollore, Karine; Peries, Marianne; Kankasa, Chipepo; Mwiya, Mwiya; Tylleskär, Thorkild; Nagot, Nicolas; Van De Perre, Philippe; Tuaillon, Edouard

    2016-07-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in breast milk and subclinical mastitis (SCM) are both associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) shedding and possibly with postnatal HIV transmission. The objective of this nested case-control study was to investigate the interplay between SCM and EBV replication in breast milk of HIV-infected mothers.The relationships between EBV deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) shedding, HIV-1 ribonucleic acid (RNA) level, and SCM were explored in breast milk samples of Zambian mothers participating in the ANRS 12174 trial. Mammary gland inflammation was defined as a breast milk sodium to potassium ratio (Na/K) greater than 0.6 and further subclassified as either "possible SCM" (Na/K ratio 0.6-1.0) or SCM (Na/K ratio ≥ 1.0). Breast milk interleukin 8 (IL-8) was measured as a surrogate marker of mammary gland inflammation.EBV DNA was detected in breast milk samples from 42 out of 83 (51%) participants and was associated with HIV-1 shedding in breast milk (P = 0.006). EBV DNA levels were higher in samples with SCM and "possible SCM" compared to non-SCM breast milk samples (P = 0.06; P = 0.007). An EBV DNA level of >200 copies/mL was independently associated with SCM and "possible SCM" (OR: 2.62; 95%: 1.13-6.10). In patients with SCM, higher EBV replication in the mammary gland was associated with a lower induction of IL-8 (P = 0.013). Resistance to DNase treatment suggests that EBV DNA in lactoserum is encapsidated.SCM and decreased IL-8 responses are associated with an increased EBV shedding in breast milk which may in turn facilitate HIV replication in the mammary gland.

  6. Survival of naturally occurring Campylobacter in refrigerated and frozen rinsate from a broiler carcass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine if naturally occurring Campylobacter in a broiler rinsate could survive in cold storage. Ten commercial broiler carcasses were each rinsed with 500 ml of Butterfield’s buffer and all carcasses tested positive for the presence of 104-105/ml naturally occu...

  7. Concentrations of the naturally occurring radionucleides Pb-210, Po-210, and Ra-226 in aquatic fauna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holtzman, R. B.

    1969-01-01

    Study reveals naturally occurring radionuclides are ubiquitous and contribute a substantial fraction of the natural radiation dose to humans and various biota. Measurements may be useful in ecological and other biological problems such as tracing food chains of animals and study of the metabolism of these elements.

  8. Encapsulation of piceatannol, a naturally occurring hydroxylated analogue of resveratrol, by natural and modified cyclodextrins.

    PubMed

    Matencio, Adrián; García-Carmona, Francisco; López-Nicolás, José Manuel

    2016-05-18

    In this work, an in-depth study of the interaction between piceatannol (a type of stilbene with high biological activity) and different natural and modified cyclodextrins (CDs) is made, using steady state fluorescence. This bioactive molecule forms a 1 : 1 complex with all the natural (α-CD, β-CD and γ-CD) and modified (HP-β-CD, HE-β-CD and M-β-CD) CDs tested. Among natural CDs, the interaction of piceatannol with β-CD was the most efficient. However, the modified CDs showed higher encapsulation constants (KF) than β-CD, except M-β-CD; the highest KF being found for HP-β-CD (14 048 ± 702 M(-1)). The encapsulation of piceatannol in the internal cavity of CDs showed a strong dependence on pH and temperature. The interaction between HP-β-CD and piceatannol was less effective in the pH region where the stilbene begins to suffer the deprotonation of its hydroxyl group. Moreover, the values of KF decreased as the system temperature increased. To obtain information on the mechanism involved in the piceatannol affinity for CD, the thermodynamic parameters of the complexation (ΔH°, ΔS° and ΔG°) were studied, the results showed a negative entropy (-3.7 ± 0.2 J mol(-1) K(-1)), enthalpy (-24.6 ± 1.2 kJ mol(-1)) and Gibbs free energy change at 25 °C (-23.5 ± 1.2 J mol(-1)). Finally, molecular docking calculations provided further insights into how the different interactions influence the complexation constant. A high degree of correlation was observed between the computed scores and experimental values.

  9. Apoptosis and autophagy induction as mechanism of cancer prevention by naturally occurring dietary agents

    PubMed Central

    Mukhtar, Eiman; Adhami, Vaqar Mustafa; Khan, Naghma; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2013-01-01

    Nontoxic naturally occurring compounds, especially those from dietary sources, are receiving increasing consideration for prevention and treatment of diseases including cancer. There is a growing need for innovative anticancer therapies and therefore search for natural compounds with novel biological activities or antineoplastic potential is currently an important area in drug discovery. Support for this interest also comes from increasing concern over the efficacy and safety of many conventional therapies, especially those that run over a long course of time. Laboratory studies in different in vitro and in vivo systems have shown that many natural compounds possess the capacity to regulate response to oxidative stress and DNA damage, suppress angiogenesis, inhibit cell proliferation and induce autophagy and apoptosis. This review discusses the induction of apoptosis and autophagy as a mechanism of cancer prevention by some of the most studied naturally occurring dietary compounds. PMID:23140293

  10. Chemical constituents of peppers (Piper spp.) and application to food preservation: naturally occurring antioxidative compounds.

    PubMed Central

    Nakatani, N; Inatani, R; Ohta, H; Nishioka, A

    1986-01-01

    In a structure analysis of the compounds of the genus Piper (Family Piperaceae), we identified five phenolic amides from Piper nigrum, seven compounds from P. retrofractum, and two compounds from P. baccatum. All the phenolic amides possess significant antioxidant activities that are more effective than the naturally occurring antioxidant, alpha-tocopherol. One amide, feruperine, has antioxidant activity as high as the synthetic antioxidants, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). Naturally occurring antioxidants, therefore, may surpass BHA and BHT in their ability to inactivate mutagens in food. PMID:3757949

  11. A naturally occurring, noncanonical GTP aptamer made of simple tandem repeats

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Edward A; Liu, David R

    2014-01-01

    Recently, we used in vitro selection to identify a new class of naturally occurring GTP aptamer called the G motif. Here we report the discovery and characterization of a second class of naturally occurring GTP aptamer, the “CA motif.” The primary sequence of this aptamer is unusual in that it consists entirely of tandem repeats of CA-rich motifs as short as three nucleotides. Several active variants of the CA motif aptamer lack the ability to form consecutive Watson-Crick base pairs in any register, while others consist of repeats containing only cytidine and adenosine residues, indicating that noncanonical interactions play important roles in its structure. The circular dichroism spectrum of the CA motif aptamer is distinct from that of A-form RNA and other major classes of nucleic acid structures. Bioinformatic searches indicate that the CA motif is absent from most archaeal and bacterial genomes, but occurs in at least 70 percent of approximately 400 eukaryotic genomes examined. These searches also uncovered several phylogenetically conserved examples of the CA motif in rodent (mouse and rat) genomes. Together, these results reveal the existence of a second class of naturally occurring GTP aptamer whose sequence requirements, like that of the G motif, are not consistent with those of a canonical secondary structure. They also indicate a new and unexpected potential biochemical activity of certain naturally occurring tandem repeats. PMID:24824832

  12. Characterization of Contaminant Transport Using Naturally-Occurring U-Series Disequilibria

    SciTech Connect

    TEH-LUNG KU

    2001-06-01

    Study the migration of nuclear waste contaminants in subsurface fractured systems using naturally occurring uranium and thorium-series radionuclides as tracers under in-situ physico-chemical and hydrogeologic conditions. Radioactive disequilibria among members of these decay-series nuclides can provide information on the rates of adsorption-desorption and transport of contaminants as well as on fluid transport and rock dissolution in a natural setting.

  13. A study of the dry heat resistance of naturally occurring organisms widely dispersed on a surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garst, D. M.; Lindell, K. F.

    1971-01-01

    Although Bacillus subtilis var. niger is the standard test organism for NASA planetary quarantine sterilization studies, it was found that some naturally occurring soil organisms are more heat resistant. The separation of these organisms from soil particles is described. Experiments are discussed which were designed to show that the heat resistance is a natural characteristic of the organisms, rather than a condition induced by the clumping effect of agglomerated particles and organisms.

  14. Targeting apoptosis pathway with natural terpenoids: implications for treatment of breast and prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Yang, Huanjie; Dou, Q Ping

    2010-06-01

    Terpenoids represent a large and diverse class of naturally occurring compounds found in a variety of fruits, vegetables and medicinal plants. Structurally some of the terpenoids are similar to human hormones. A diet rich in terpenoids is inversely related with the risk of chronic diseases including cancers. Breast and prostate cancers are hormone-related diseases and the second leading cause of female and male cancer mortality. Diterpenoid paclitaxel, and its semi-synthetic analogue docetaxel, have entered clinical use against established breast and prostate cancers. Here we reviewed potential molecular targets and biological properties of natural terpenoids, including monoterpenoids, diterpenoids, triterpenoids and tetraterpenoids, and their applications in treatment of human breast and prostate cancers. These terpenoids are able to inhibit tumor cell proliferation and induce tumor cell death by inhibiting multiple cancer-specific targets including the proteasome, NF-kappaB, and antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2. The efficacy of these terpenoids against breast or prostate cancer cells, as demonstrated in pre-clinical studies support clinical application of these naturally occurring terpenoids in treatment of hormone-related human cancers.

  15. MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry of Naturally-Occurring Mixtures of Mono- and Di-rhamnolipids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been developed for high-throughput screening of naturally-occurring mixtures of rhamnolipids from Pseudomonas spp. Mono- and di-rhamnolipids are readily distinguished by characteristic molecular adduct i...

  16. Subject Reaction to Human-Caused and Naturally-Occurring Radioactive Threat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belford, Susan; Gibbs, Margaret

    While research has shown that people are adversely psychologically affected by knowledge that their communities have been toxically contaminated, it has been suggested that those who see a disaster as naturally occurring tend to be less adversely affected than those who see a disaster as caused by human acts. To examine this issue, questionnaires…

  17. Therapeutic Recreation in the Naturally Occurring Retirement Community (NORC): Benefitting "Aging in Place."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunstler, Robin

    2002-01-01

    Describes how therapeutic recreation in naturally occurring retirement communities (neighborhoods where most residents are older) can promote healthy lifestyles, presenting a case report of an in-home therapeutic recreation program offered in conjunction with nursing and social services in a such a community and discussing implications for…

  18. Comparison of selective media for detection and enumeration of naturally occurring Campylobacter spp. on poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: Campylobacter spp. are known to be among the most common bacteria to cause diarrheal illness, with poultry being linked as the primary source of contamination related to foodborne illness. Enumeration and detection of low numbers of naturally occurring Campylobacter spp. on poultry pro...

  19. Naturally occurring vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) Whisker growth of germanium sulfide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finkelman, R.B.; Larson, R.R.; Dwornik, E.J.

    1974-01-01

    The first naturally occurring terrestrial example of vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth has been observed in condensates from gases released by burning coal in culm banks. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and energy dispersive analysis indicate that the crystals consist of elongated rods (??? 100 ??m) of germanium sulfide capped by bulbs depleted in germanium. ?? 1974.

  20. Survival of naturally occurring Campylobacter in refrigerated and frozen rinsate from a broiler carcass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine if naturally occurring Campylobacter in a broiler carcass rinsate could survive in cold or frozen storage. Ten commercial broiler carcasses were each rinsed with 500 ml of Butterfield’s buffer and all carcasses tested positive for the presence of 104-105...

  1. Comparison of Selective Campylobacter Media for Detection and Enumeration of Naturally Occurring Campylobacter spp. on Poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter spp. are among the most common cause of bacterial foodborne diarrheal illness; poultry has been linked as a primary source of contamination. Detection and enumeration of low numbers of naturally occurring Campylobacter spp. on poultry is difficult due to the presence of competing micro...

  2. Does Naturally Occurring Comprehension Strategies Instruction Make a Difference when Students Read Expository Text?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braten, Ivar; Anmarkrud, Oistein

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined whether observed differences in naturally occurring classroom instruction of reading comprehension strategies were reflected in students' independent use of strategies to comprehend expository text. Based on a descriptive classroom study in 4 ninth-grade language arts classrooms, participants were divided into two groups…

  3. A library screening approach identifies naturally occurring RNA sequences for a G-quadruplex binding ligand.

    PubMed

    Mirihana Arachchilage, Gayan; Morris, Mark J; Basu, Soumitra

    2014-02-07

    An RNA G-quadruplex library was synthesised and screened against kanamycin A as the ligand. Naturally occurring G-quadruplex forming sequences that differentially bind to kanamycin A were identified and characterized. This provides a simple and effective strategy for identification of potential intracellular G-quadruplex targets for a ligand.

  4. Recent Advances in the Chemistry and Biology of Naturally Occurring Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jason S.; Edmonds, David J.; Estrada, Anthony A.

    2009-01-01

    Lead-in Ever since the world-shaping discovery of penicillin, nature’s molecular diversity has been extensively screened for new medications and lead compounds in drug discovery. The search for anti-infective agents intended to combat infectious diseases has been of particular interest and has enjoyed a high degree of success. Indeed, the history of antibiotics is marked with impressive discoveries and drug development stories, the overwhelming majority of which have their origins in nature. Chemistry, and in particular chemical synthesis, has played a major role in bringing naturally occurring antibiotics and their derivatives to the clinic, and no doubt these disciplines will continue to be key enabling technologies for future developments in the field. In this review article, we highlight a number of recent discoveries and advances in the chemistry, biology, and medicine of naturally occurring antibiotics, with particular emphasis on the total synthesis, analog design, and biological evaluation of molecules with novel mechanisms of action. PMID:19130444

  5. Size dependent fluorescence tuning of naturally occurring betacyanin with silver nano particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Arindam; Thankappan, Aparna; Nampoori, V. P. N.

    2014-10-01

    Light absorption and scattering of metal nano partilces occur in very narrow range of wavelengths. This is also dependent on the geometry and shape of metal nano particles. It is also known that scattering is related to (volume)2 and absorption is related to the volume of the spherical metal nano particles. In our work we show that using this principle metal nano particles enable fluorescence tuning of dyes. In our experiment we show such tuning in naturally occurring betacyanin extracted from red beetroot. We also show that such tuning is dependent on the size variation of the silver nano particles.

  6. Interaction of flavonoids, the naturally occurring antioxidants with different media: A UV-visible spectroscopic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naseem, Bushra; Shah, S. W. H.; Hasan, Aurangzeb; Sakhawat Shah, S.

    2010-04-01

    Quantitative parameters for interaction of flavonoids—the naturally occurring antioxidants, with solvents and surfactants are determined using UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. The availability of flavonoids; kaempferol, apigenin, kaempferide and rhamnetin in micelles of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) is reflected in terms of partition coefficient, Kc. Thermodynamic calculations show that the process of transfer of flavonoid molecules to anionic micelles of SDS is energy efficient. A distortion in flavonoid's morphology occurs in case of kaempferol and apigenin in surfactant and water, exhibited in terms of a new band in the UV region of electronic spectra of these flavonoids. The partition coefficients of structurally related flavonoids are correlated with their antioxidant activities.

  7. Is it necessary to raise awareness about technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials?

    PubMed

    Michalik, Bogusław

    2009-10-01

    Since radiation risks are usually considered to be related to nuclear energy, the majority of research on radiation protection has focused on artificial radionuclides in radioactive wastes, spent nuclear fuel or global fallout caused by A-bomb tests and nuclear power plant failures. Far less attention has been paid to the radiation risk caused by exposure to ionizing radiation originating from natural radioactivity enhanced due to human activity, despite the fact that technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials are common in many branches of the non-nuclear industry. They differ significantly from "classical" nuclear materials and usually look like other industrial waste. The derived radiation risk is usually associated with risk caused by other pollutants and can not be controlled by applying rules designed for pure radioactive waste. Existing data have pointed out a strong need to take into account the non-nuclear industry where materials containing enhanced natural radioactivity occur as a special case of radiation risk and enclose them in the frame of the formal control. But up to now there are no reasonable and clear regulations in this matter. As a result, the non-nuclear industries of concern are not aware of problems connected with natural radioactivity or they would expect negative consequences in the case of implementing radiation protection measures. The modification of widely comprehended environmental legislation with requirements taken from radiation protection seems to be the first step to solve this problem and raise awareness about enhanced natural radioactivity for all stakeholders of concern.

  8. Using naturally occurring tumours in dogs and cats to study telomerase and cancer stem cell biology.

    PubMed

    Pang, Lisa Y; Argyle, David J

    2009-04-01

    The recently described cancer stem cell theory opens up many new challenges and opportunities to identify targets for therapeutic intervention. However, the majority of cancer related therapeutic studies rely upon rodent models of human cancer that rarely translate into clinical success in human patients. Naturally occurring cancers in dogs, cats and humans share biological features, including molecular targets, telomerase biology and tumour genetics. Studying cancer stem cell biology and telomere/telomerase dynamics in the cancer bearing pet population may offer the opportunity to develop a greater understanding of cancer biology in the natural setting and evaluate the development of novel therapies targeted at these systems.

  9. Determination of naturally occurring radionuclides in soil samples of Ayranci, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agar, Osman; Eke, Canel; Boztosun, Ismail; Emin Korkmaz, M.

    2015-04-01

    The specific activity, radiation hazard index and the annual effective dose of the naturally occurring radioactive elements (238U, 232Th and 40K) were determined in soil samples collected from 12 different locations in Ayranci region by using a NaI(Tl) gamma-ray spectrometer. The measured activity concentrations of the natural radionuclides in studied soil samples were compared with the corresponding results of different countries and the internationally reported values. From the analysis, it is found that these materials may be safely used as construction materials and do not pose significant radiation hazards.

  10. A Review on the Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, and Pharmacokinetics of Amentoflavone, a Naturally-Occurring Biflavonoid.

    PubMed

    Yu, Sheng; Yan, Hui; Zhang, Li; Shan, Mingqiu; Chen, Peidong; Ding, Anwei; Li, Sam Fong Yau

    2017-02-16

    Amentoflavone (C30H18O10) is a well-known biflavonoid occurring in many natural plants. This polyphenolic compound has been discovered to have some important bioactivities, including anti-inflammation, anti-oxidation, anti-diabetes, and anti-senescence effects on many important reactions in the cardiovascular and central nervous system, etc. Over 120 plants have been found to contain this bioactive component, such as Selaginellaceae, Cupressaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Podocarpaceae, and Calophyllaceae plant families. This review paper aims to profile amentoflavone on its plant sources, natural derivatives, pharmacology, and pharmacokinetics, and to highlight some existing issues and perspectives in the future.

  11. Structural consequences of chromophore formation and exploration of conserved lid residues amongst naturally occurring fluorescent proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmer, Matthew H.; Li, Binsen; Shahid, Ramza; Peshkepija, Paola; Zimmer, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Computational methods were used to generate the lowest energy conformations of the immature precyclized forms of the 28 naturally occurring GFP-like proteins deposited in the pdb. In all 28 GFP-like proteins, the beta-barrel contracts upon chromophore formation and becomes more rigid. Our prior analysis of over 260 distinct naturally occurring GFP-like proteins revealed that most of the conserved residues are located in the top and bottom of the barrel in the turns between the β-sheets (Ong et al. 2011) [1]. Structural analyses, molecular dynamics simulations and the Anisotropic Network Model were used to explore the role of these conserved lid residues as possible folding nuclei. Our results are internally consistent and show that the conserved residues in the top and bottom lids undergo relatively less translational movement than other lid residues, and a number of these residues may play an important role as hinges or folding nuclei in the fluorescent proteins.

  12. A proposed model of naturally occurring osteoarthritis in the domestic rabbit.

    PubMed

    Arzi, Boaz; Wisner, Erik R; Huey, Daniel J; Kass, Philip H; Hu, Jerry; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A

    2011-12-19

    Osteoarthritis affects one in eight American adults over the age of 25 y and is a leading cause of chronic disability in the US. Translational research to investigate treatments for this naturally occurring joint disease requires an appropriate animal model. The authors conducted a retrospective study to assess the potential of naturally occurring osteoarthritis in the domestic rabbit as a model of the human disease. Analysis of radiographic images showed that the presence and severity of osteoarthritis were significantly influenced by both age and body weight. The most commonly affected joints were the knee and the hip. The findings reported here suggest that the rabbit is an excellent model of spontaneously arising osteoarthritis that may be useful in translational research pertaining to the human disease.

  13. Prospective trial of metronomic chlorambucil chemotherapy in dogs with naturally occurring cancer.

    PubMed

    Leach, T N; Childress, M O; Greene, S N; Mohamed, A S; Moore, G E; Schrempp, D R; Lahrman, S R; Knapp, D W

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the toxicoses and antitumor activity of metronomic chlorambucil at a dosage of 4 mg m(-2) daily in dogs with naturally occurring cancer. Thirty-six dogs were enrolled in the study. The protocol was well tolerated with no grade 3 or 4 toxicoses noted. Complete remission was achieved, and lasted over 35 weeks in three dogs (mast cell tumour, soft tissue sarcoma and thyroid carcinoma). Partial remission was noted in 1 dog with histiocytic sarcoma (39 weeks duration) for an overall remission rate of 11% (4 of 36). Stable disease was noted in 17 dogs (47%) with various other cancers. The median progression-free interval was 61 days, and the median survival time was 153 days. Chlorambucil given in a metronomic protocol showed antitumor activity in dogs with a variety of naturally occurring cancers.

  14. Effect of fermentation on naturally occurring deoxynivalenol (DON) in Argentinean bread processing technology.

    PubMed

    Samar, M M; Neira, M S; Resnik, S L; Pacin, A

    2001-11-01

    The stability of naturally occurring DON was evaluated during the fermentation stage of the bread-making process on a pilot scale. Two different products, French bread and Vienna bread, were prepared with naturally contaminated wheat flour (150 mg kg(-1)) under controlled experimental conditions. Dough was fermented at 30, 40 and 50 degrees C according to standard procedures employed in Argentinean low-technology bakeries. When the dough was fermented at 50 degrees C, the maximum reduction was 56% for the Vienna bread, with French bread being reduced by 41%. DON reduction during bread-making occurs not only in the baker due to thermal decomposition, but also during the fermentation step. The Argentinean traditional bread-making process might reduce DON levels during the fermentation stages if the dough is leavened at temperatures > 30 degrees C.

  15. Playing 'Tetris' reduces the strength, frequency and vividness of naturally occurring cravings.

    PubMed

    Skorka-Brown, Jessica; Andrade, Jackie; May, Jon

    2014-05-01

    Elaborated Intrusion Theory (EI) postulates that imagery is central to craving, therefore a visually based task should decrease craving and craving imagery. This study provides the first laboratory test of this hypothesis in naturally occurring, rather than artificially induced, cravings. Participants reported if they were experiencing a craving and rated the strength, vividness and intrusiveness of their craving. They then either played 'Tetris' or they waited for a computer program to load (they were told it would load, but it was designed not to). Before task completion, craving scores between conditions did not differ; after, however, participants who had played 'Tetris' had significantly lower craving and less vivid craving imagery. The findings support EI theory, showing that a visuospatial working memory load reduces naturally occurring cravings, and that Tetris might be a useful task for tackling cravings outside the laboratory. Methodologically, the findings show that craving can be studied in the laboratory without using craving induction procedures.

  16. Pyrethroid insecticides: A naturally occurring toxin. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the effects of pyrethrum and pyrethroid insecticides. Topics examine toxicity to fish, worms, flies, mosquitoes, and moths. Chemical residue on crops, the transportation of pyrethrum from soils to crops, and pyrethrum accumulation in ponds and lakes are among the topics discussed. Naturally occurring and synthetic pyrethroid insecticides are included. (Contains a minimum of 173 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  17. [Maternal breast-feeding: changes occurred in the father's conjugal life].

    PubMed

    de Brito, Rosineide Santana; de Oliveira, Eteniger Marcela Fernandes

    2006-06-01

    It is a qualitative study with the objective of identifying the man's perception regarding the changes that took place in his marital relationship during the child's breast-feeding. The data were collected through interview with 13 fathers. The results indicate that men develop attitudes and feelings relative to the son and the wife; they recognize that the alterations in their marital relationship are more evident during the first three months of the child's life and they try to understand or to demonstrate indifference towards the changes. Although breastfeeding results in modifications in the spouses' relationship, the fathers do not consider them as something negative in their lives.

  18. Segregation of Naturally Occurring Mitochondrial DNA Variants in a Mini-Pig Model.

    PubMed

    Cagnone, Gael; Tsai, Te-Sha; Srirattana, Kanokwan; Rossello, Fernando; Powell, David R; Rohrer, Gary; Cree, Lynsey; Trounce, Ian A; St John, Justin C

    2016-03-01

    The maternally inherited mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) is present in multimeric form within cells and harbors sequence variants (heteroplasmy). While a single mtDNA variant at high load can cause disease, naturally occurring variants likely persist at low levels across generations of healthy populations. To determine how naturally occurring variants are segregated and transmitted, we generated a mini-pig model, which originates from the same maternal ancestor. Following next-generation sequencing, we identified a series of low-level mtDNA variants in blood samples from the female founder and her daughters. Four variants, ranging from 3% to 20%, were selected for validation by high-resolution melting analysis in 12 tissues from 31 animals across three generations. All four variants were maintained in the offspring, but variant load fluctuated significantly across the generations in several tissues, with sex-specific differences in heart and liver. Moreover, variant load was persistently reduced in high-respiratory organs (heart, brain, diaphragm, and muscle), which correlated significantly with higher mtDNA copy number. However, oocytes showed increased heterogeneity in variant load, which correlated with increased mtDNA copy number during in vitro maturation. Altogether, these outcomes show that naturally occurring mtDNA variants segregate and are maintained in a tissue-specific manner across generations. This segregation likely involves the maintenance of selective mtDNA variants during organogenesis, which can be differentially regulated in oocytes and preimplantation embryos during maturation.

  19. Mechanisms and Modifications of Naturally Occurring Host Defense Peptides for Anti-HIV Microbicide Development

    PubMed Central

    Eade, Colleen R.; Wood, Matthew P.; Cole, Alexander M.

    2014-01-01

    Despite advances in the treatment of HIV infection, heterosexual transmission of HIV remains high, and vaccines to prevent HIV acquisition have been unfruitful. Vaginal microbicides, on the other hand, have demonstrated considerable potential for HIV prevention, and a variety of compounds have been screened for their activity and safety as anti-HIV microbicides. Among these are the naturally occurring host defense peptides, small peptides from diverse lineages with intrinsic antiviral activity. Naturally occurring host defense peptides with anti-HIV activity are promising candidates for vaginal microbicide development. Their structural variance and accompanying mechanistic diversity provide a wide range of inhibitors whose antiviral activity can be exerted at nearly every stage of the HIV lifecycle. Additionally, peptide modification has been explored as a method for improving the anti-HIV activity of host defense peptides. Structure- and sequence-based alterations have achieved varying success in improving the potency and specificity of anti-HIV peptides. Overall, peptides have been discovered or engineered to inhibit HIV with therapeutic indices of >1000, encouraging their advancement toward clinical trials. Here we review the naturally occurring anti-HIV host defense peptides, demonstrating their breadth of mechanistic diversity, and exploring approaches to enhance and optimize their activity in order to expedite their development as safe and effective anti-HIV vaginal microbicides. PMID:22264047

  20. Contribution of synthetic and naturally occurring organobromine compounds to bromine mass in marine organisms.

    PubMed

    Wan, Yi; Jones, Paul D; Wiseman, Steve; Chang, Hong; Chorney, Dave; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Zhang, Kun; Hu, Jian-Ying; Khim, Jong Seong; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Lam, Michael H W; Giesy, John P

    2010-08-15

    An extraction, separation, and purification method was developed for the identification and quantification of total bromine (TBr), extractable organobromine (EOBr), and five classes of identified EOBrs. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was utilized to quantify EOBr and TBr. The method was then applied to liver samples of tuna, albatross, and polar bear collected from remote marine locations. Polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), bromophenols (BRPs), hydroxylated (OH-) and methoxylated (MeO-) PBDEs were analyzed as identified EOBr. The majority of the bromine in these marine organisms was nonextractable or inorganic, with EOBr accounting for 10-28% of the TBr. Of the identified EOBr, in tuna and albatross, naturally occurring compounds, including MeO-PBDEs, OH-PBDEs, and BPRs, were prevalent. However, the identifiable EOBr in polar bears consisted primarily of synthetic compounds, including PBDEs and PBBs. Overall, 0.08-0.11% and 0.008-0.012% of EOBr and TBr, respectively, were identified. The proportion of EOBr that was identified in marine organisms was relatively small compared to the proportions for organofluorine and organochlorine compounds. This could be related to the great diversity of naturally occurring organobromine compounds in the environment. Naturally occurring brominated fatty acids were estimated to be the predominant compounds in the EOBr fraction.

  1. California Dept. of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC) Update of the Schools Naturally Occurring Asbestos Guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinowski, M.

    2012-12-01

    Prior to acquisition and/or construction of prospective school sites, the California Education Code mandates that school districts complete environmental assessments and cleanups for prospective new or expanding school sites in order to qualify for state funding. If prospective school sites are determined to have environmental contamination from hazardous materials, including naturally occurring hazardous materials such as naturally occurring asbestos (NOA), where there may be unacceptable potential health risks, the school sites must be properly mitigated prior to occupancy for protection of human health and the environment. NOA is of special concern for schools, because children who are exposed to asbestos may be at increased risk of developing asbestos-related diseases over time. In order to protect human health, the Department of Toxic Substances Control's (DTSC) goals at school sites are to: 1) identify the presence of NOA in school site soils using exposure-reducing soil thresholds; 2) manage potential NOA exposures using mitigation measures to reduce generation of airborne asbestos fibers from soils on school sites; and 3) ensure long-term monitoring and protection of mitigation measures via Operations & Maintenance activities. DTSC is currently in the process of revising its Interim Guidance Naturally Occurring Asbestos (NOA) at School Sites - September 2004. The revisions include: 1) updating the guidance to consider incremental sampling for use at NOA sites in consultation with DTSC's project manager and technical staff, and 2) documenting a tiered approach to addressing high and low activity areas on a school.

  2. Factors Affecting Comparative Resistance of Naturally Occurring and Subcultured Pseudomonas aeruginosa to Disinfectants

    PubMed Central

    Carson, L. A.; Favero, M. S.; Bond, W. W.; Petersen, N. J.

    1972-01-01

    A strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated in pure culture from the reservoir of a hospital mist therapy unit by an extinction-dilution technique; its natural distilled water environment was used as a growth and maintenance medium. After a single subculture on Trypticase soy agar, the strain showed a marked decrease in resistance to inactivation by acetic acid, glutaraldehyde, chlorine dioxide, and a quaternary ammonium compound when compared with naturally occurring cells grown in mist therapy unit water. The following factors were observed to affect the relative resistances of naturally occurring and subcultured cells of the P. aeruginosa strain: (i) temperature at which the cultures were incubated prior to exposure to disinfectants, (ii) growth phase of the cultures at the time of exposure to disinfectants, (iii) nature of the suspending menstruum for disinfectants, and (iv) exposure to fluorescent light during incubation of inocula prior to testing. The applied significance of these findings may alter the present concepts of disinfectant testing as well as routine control procedures in the hospital environment. PMID:4624209

  3. Serum canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity in experimentally induced and naturally occurring canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (Ehrlichia canis).

    PubMed

    Mylonakis, Mathios E; Xenoulis, Panagiotis G; Theodorou, Konstantina; Siarkou, Victoria I; Steiner, Jörg M; Harrus, Shimon; Leontides, Leonidas; Rallis, Timoleon; Suchodolski, Jan S; Koutinas, Christos K; Koutinas, Alexander F

    2014-03-14

    Ehrlichia canis infection causes multisystemic disease in dogs (canine monocytic ehrlichiosis, CME) which is associated with variable morbidity and mortality. Atypical clinical manifestations, including gastrointestinal signs, may occasionally occur in CME and approximately 10-15% of dogs are presented with historical or clinical evidence of vomiting, diarrhea, and/or abdominal discomfort. The objective of this study was to investigate if there are any alterations in serum canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity (cPLI) in dogs with experimentally induced or naturally occurring monocytic ehrlichiosis. Serum samples from 10 Beagle dogs experimentally infected with E. canis and two healthy uninfected Beagles were serially examined; samples from 20 naturally infected dogs (10 with non-myelosuppressive [NME] and 10 with myelosuppressive [ME] ehrlichiosis) were also examined at a given point in time (cross-sectional sampling). None of the experimentally infected Beagles showed gastrointestinal signs or increased cPLI concentrations prior to or following the artificial infection. Three naturally infected dogs with NME and one with ME demonstrated serum cPLI concentrations in the diagnostic range for pancreatitis (>400 μg/L) without showing gastrointestinal signs. The results of the present study indicated that 4/20 (20%) of dogs naturally infected with E. canis demonstrated increased serum cPLI concentrations consistent with mild and clinically inapparent pancreatitis.

  4. Intraspecific variation in testis asymmetry in birds: evidence for naturally occurring compensation

    PubMed Central

    Calhim, Sara; Birkhead, Tim R.

    2009-01-01

    In many taxa, the left and right testes often differ in size. The compensation hypothesis states that one testis of the pair serves as a ‘back-up’ for any reduced function in the other and provides a mechanism to explain intraspecific variation in degree and direction of gonad asymmetry. Although testis asymmetry is common in birds, evidence for natural testis compensation is unknown. Using a novel quantitative approach that can be applied to any bilateral organ or structure, we show that testis compensation occurs naturally in birds and can be complete when one testis fails to develop. Owing to a recurrent risk of testis impairment and an evolutionary trade-off between natural and sexual selections acting on the arrangement of internal organs in species with abdominal and/or seasonal testes, compensation adds an important, but neglected, dimension to measures of male reproductive investment. PMID:19324740

  5. Activity, specificity, and titer of naturally occurring canine anti-DEA 7 antibodies.

    PubMed

    Spada, Eva; Proverbio, Daniela; Baggiani, Luciana; Canzi, Ilaria; Perego, Roberta

    2016-11-01

    The reported prevalence of naturally occurring anti-dog erythrocyte antigen (DEA) 7 antibodies in DEA 7-negative dogs is as high as 50%. Characterization of these antibodies may better define their importance in canine transfusion medicine. We determined in vitro activity, specificity, and titer of anti-DEA 7 antibodies in DEA 7-negative dogs. Plasma samples from 317 DEA 7-negative dogs were cross-matched with DEA 7-positive red blood cells (RBCs) using gel column technology. Agglutination occurred with DEA 7-positive RBCs but not with DEA 7-negative RBCs in 73 samples (23%), which were hence classified as containing anti-DEA 7 antibodies. These samples were evaluated for hemolytic and agglutinating activity, strength of agglutination, and antibody specificity and titers. All samples showed agglutination but none showed hemolysis. Gel agglutination was graded as 1+ for 20 samples (27%), 2+ for 49 samples (67%), 3+ for 4 samples (6%); no samples were graded 4+. The agglutination titer was <1:2 for 51 samples (73%), 1:2 for 13 samples (19%), 1:4 for 4 samples (5%), and 1:8 for 2 samples (3%). Of 16 samples treated with 2-mercaptoethanol, 11 samples (69%) contained only IgM, 4 samples (25%) exhibited only IgG activity, and 1 sample (6%) had both IgG and IgM activity. Low titers of warm, weakly agglutinating, mostly naturally occurring IgM anti-DEA 7 antibodies were found in 23% of DEA 7-negative dogs. The presence of naturally occurring anti-DEA 7 antibodies suggests that cross-matching of canine blood recipients is advisable, even at first transfusion, to minimize delayed transfusion reactions.

  6. IMAGE Observations of Sounder Stimulated and Naturally Occurring Fast Z mode Cavity Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonwalkar, V. S.; Taylor, C.; Reddy, A.

    2015-12-01

    We report first observations of sounder stimulated and naturally occurring fast Z mode (ZM) cavity noise detected by the Radio Plasma Imager (RPI) on the IMAGE satellite. The fast Z mode cavity noise is a banded, structure-less radio emission trapped inside fast Z mode cavities, which are characterized by a minimum (fz,min) in fast Z mode cut-off frequency (fz) along a geomagnetic field line [Gurnett et al., JGR, 1983]. Fast Z mode waves reflect at fz ~ f, where f is the wave frequency. Waves in the frequency range fz,min < f < fz,max, where fz,max is the maximum fz above fz,min altitude, are trapped within the cavity as they bounce back and forth between reflection altitudes (fz ~ f) above and below the fz,min altitude. These trapped waves will be observed by a satellite passing through the cavity. The observed cavity noise lower cutoff is at the local Z mode cut-off frequency (fz,Sat) and the upper cut-off is presumably close to fz,max. The cavity noise is observed typically inside the plasmasphere. Comparison of cavity noise as observed on the plasmagram obtained during active sounding with that observed on the dynamic spectra obtained from the interspersed passive wave measurements indicate that the cavity noise is either stimulated by transmissions from the sounder (RPI) or is of natural origin. The sounder stimulated noise is often accompanied by fast Z mode echoes. The naturally occurring cavity noise is observed on both the plasmagram and the dynamic spectra. We believe the stimulated cavity noise is generated due to scattering from small-scale irregularities of waves transmitted by RPI. One potential candidate for the source of naturally occurring Z mode cavity noise is the ring current electrons that can generate fast ZM waves via higher order cyclotron resonance [Nishimura et al., Earth Planets Space, 2007].

  7. Transmission of murine cytomegalovirus in breast milk: a model of natural infection in neonates.

    PubMed

    Wu, Carol A; Paveglio, Sara A; Lingenheld, Elizabeth G; Zhu, Li; Lefrançois, Leo; Puddington, Lynn

    2011-05-01

    Vertical transmission of viruses in breast milk can expose neonates to infectious pathogens at a time when the capacity of their immune system to control infections is limited. We developed a mouse model to study the outcomes of acquisition of murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) when neonates are breastfed by mothers with acute or latent infection. Breast milk leukocytes collected from lactating mice were examined for the presence of MCMV IE-1 mRNA by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) with Southern analysis. As determined by this criterion, breast milk leukocytes from both acute and latent mothers were positive for MCMV. This mimics the outcome seen in humans with latent cytomegalovirus infection, where reactivation of virus occurs specifically in the lactating mammary gland. Interestingly, intraperitoneal injection of breast milk collected from mothers with latent infection was sufficient to transfer MCMV to neonatal mice, demonstrating that breast milk was a source of virus. Furthermore, we found that MCMV was transmitted from infected mothers to breastfed neonates, with MCMV IE-1 mRNA or infectious virus present in multiple organs, including the brain. In fact, 1 day of nursing was sufficient to transmit MCMV from latent mothers to breastfed neonatal mice. Together, these data validate this mouse model of vertical transmission of MCMV from mothers with acute or latent MCMV infection to breastfed neonates. Its relevance to human disease should prove useful in future studies designed to elucidate the immunological and pathological ramifications of neonatal infection acquired via this natural route.

  8. Phytohormonal basis for the plant growth promoting action of naturally occurring biostimulators.

    PubMed

    Kurepin, Leonid V; Zaman, Mohammad; Pharis, Richard P

    2014-07-01

    There is increasing interest in the use of naturally occurring 'biostimulators' for enhancing the growth of agricultural and horticultural crops. Bacteria, fungi and protozoa, as well as marine algae-based seaweed extracts, can produce or contain biostimulators. The activity of biostimulators to promote plant growth is often attributed to their ability to directly or indirectly provide mineral nutrients (mostly N, but also P, S and other macro- and micro-nutrients) to plants. Alternatively, biostimulators are postulated to increase the plant's ability to assimilate these mineral nutrients, often in return for photo-assimilates (as occurs with certain bacteria and fungi associations). Although optimal growth of plants depends on the availability of adequate mineral nutritients, that growth (and also development, including reproduction) is also regulated by plant hormones (phytohormones), including gibberellins, auxins and cytokinins. This review describes and discusses the evidence that the presence or application of biostimulators also increases plant growth directly via phytohormone action and also influences the plant's ability to control its own hormone biosynthesis and homeostasis. Finally, it discusses the need for a better understanding of the role(s) that are played by the naturally occurring biostimulators associated with the plant in the crop field. It is suggested that better understanding will allow for optimal crop yield returns, since disruptions of phytohormone homeostasis in plant organs and tissues can yield either beneficial or sub-optimal outcomes.

  9. Magic angle magnetic resonance imaging of diode laser induced and naturally occurring lesions in equine tendons.

    PubMed

    Spriet, Mathieu; Murphy, Brian; Vallance, Stuart A; Vidal, Martin A; Whitcomb, Mary Beth; Wisner, Erik R

    2012-01-01

    Magic angle magnetic resonance (MR) imaging consists of imaging tendons at 55° to the magnetic field. In people, magic angle MR imaging is valuable for detection of chronic tendon lesions and allows calculation of tendon T1 values. Increased T1 values occur in people with chronic tendinopathy. The T1 values of normal equine tendons have been reported but there are no available data for abnormal equine tendons. Twelve limbs were studied. Two limbs had diode laser tendon lesions induced postmortem, four limbs had diode laser tendon lesions induced in vivo and six limbs had naturally occurring tendon lesions. The limbs were imaged at 1.5 T using both conventional MR imaging and magic angle MR imaging. The post-mortem laser induced lesions were identified only with magic angle MR imaging. The in vivo induced lesions and naturally occurring lesions were identified with both techniques but had a different appearance with the two imaging techniques. Magic angle imaging was helpful at identifying lesions that were hypointense on conventional imaging. Increased T1 values were observed in all abnormal tendons and in several tendons with a subjectively normal MR appearance. The increased T1 value may reflect diffuse changes in the biochemical composition of tendons. Magic angle imaging has potential as a useful noninvasive tool to assess the changes of the extracellular tendon matrix using T1 values.

  10. Alaska, Naturally Occurring Asbestos: Experiences, Policy and 2012 Limitation of Liability Legislation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargesheimer, J.; Perkins, R.

    2012-12-01

    Naturally Occurring Asbestos (NOA) occurs in mineral deposits in Alaska. There are many regions in Alaska that have minerals in surface rocks that may contain asbestos and asbestos has been discovered in many locations in Alaska. Gravel is constantly in demand for heavy construction projects, but some remote localities in Alaska do not have gravel sources that are NOA-free. Determining if NOA can be safely used in heavy construction materials and what can or should be done with NOA materials that are already in place are complex questions. Answers will depend on the amount and type of asbestos mineral, how it is handled in processing, and how it is maintained - all subject to regulation and control of operations. The State of Alaska recently enacted legislation (HB 258) providing, among other things, "… immunity for the state and for landowners, extractors, suppliers, transporters, and contractors for certain actions or claims arising in connection with the use of gravel or aggregate material containing naturally occurring asbestos in certain areas." Implementation of the law and interim regulations and guidance should enable use of NOA for heavy construction materials in Alaska, but as with any new law, it will take some time to understand its full scope and effect.

  11. Hh signaling inhibitors from Vitex negundo; naturally occurring inhibitors of the GLI1-DNA complex.

    PubMed

    Arai, Midori A; Fujimatsu, Teruhisa; Uchida, Kyoko; Sadhu, Samir K; Ahmed, Firoj; Ishibashi, Masami

    2013-05-01

    The hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway has crucial roles in embryonic development, cell maintenance and proliferation, and is also known to contribute to cancer cell growth. New naturally occurring Hh inhibitors (1, 7 and 9) were isolated from Vitex negundo using our previously constructed cell-based assay. Bioactivity guided isolation provided 9 natural compounds including a new diterpene, nishindanol (9). Compounds 7 and 9 showed cytotoxicity against cancer cell lines in which Hh signaling was aberrantly activated. Vitetrifolin D (7; GLI1 transcriptional inhibition IC50 = 20.2 μM) showed inhibition of Hh related protein (PTCH and BCL2) production. Interestingly, the constructed electrophoresis mobility shift assay revealed that vitetrifolin D (7) disrupted GLI1 binding on its DNA binding domain. epi-Sclareol (8; inactive), possessing a similar structure to 7, did not show inhibition of GLI1–DNA complex formation. This is the first example of naturally occurring inhibitors of GLI1–DNA complex formation.

  12. Naturally occurring arsenic in the groundwater at the Kansas City Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Korte, N.E.

    1990-12-01

    This report describes an investigation concerning the presence of arsenic in concentrations exceeding 0.4 mg/L in the groundwater under the Department of Energy's Kansas City Plant (KCP). The study consisted of four distinct phases: a thorough review of the technical literature, a historical survey of arsenic use at the facility, a laboratory study of existing techniques for determining arsenic speciation, and a field program including water, soil, and sediment sampling. The historical survey and literature review demonstrated that plant activities had not released significant quantities of arsenic to the environment but that similar occurrences of arsenic in alluvial groundwater are widespread in the midwestern United States. Laboratory studies showed that a chromatographic separation technique was necessary to accurately determine arsenic speciation for the KCP groundwater samples. Field studies revealed that naturally occurring reducing conditions prevalent in the subsurface are responsible for dissolving arsenic previously sorbed by iron oxides. Indeed, the data demonstrated that the bulk arsenic concentration of site subsoils and sediments is {approximately}7 mg/kg, whereas the arsenic content of iron oxide subsamples is as high as 84 mg/kg. Literature showed that similar concentrations of arsenic in sediments occur naturally and are capable of producing the levels of arsenic found in groundwater monitoring wells at the KCP. The study concludes, therefore, that the arsenic present in the KCP groundwater is the result of natural phenomena. 44 refs., 8 figs., 14 tabs.

  13. Naturally Occurring Surface Antigen Variants of Hepatitis B Virus in Tunisian Patients.

    PubMed

    Chaouch, Houda; Taffon, Stefania; Villano, Umbertina; Equestre, Michele; Bruni, Roberto; Belhadj, Manel; Hannachi, Naila; Aouni, Mahjoub; Letaief, Amel; Ciccaglione, Anna Rita

    2016-01-01

    In Tunisia, the prevalence of naturally occurring surface (S) gene variants of hepatitis B virus (HBV) has not been determined. In the present study, the prevalence of these variants was examined in terms of the clinical and viral state in a series of 99 Tunisian patients with HBV infection. The S genes were amplified and directly sequenced. Genotype D was predominant (98%), 40.4% isolates belonged to subgenotypes D7 and 1 to subgenotype D2. The most common subtype was ayw2 (95.9%). In total, 60.6% of the studied strains harbored S mutations. Several novel mutation patterns were detected. Interestingly, the presence of S mutations was significantly correlated with the D7 subgenotype, low HBV DNA and advancing age (≥35 years), and tended to be higher in liver cirrhosis than in chronic infection. The global prevalence of the major hydrophilic region variants was 12.1%, with substitution S143L/T as the most frequent (4%). Only 33.9% of S substitutions produced amino acid changes in the polymerase gene. In conclusion, a high prevalence of naturally occurring HBsAg variants was observed among Tunisian HBV carriers. Natural viral variability in a geographical region and duration of infection are among the major factors associated with the occurrence of S mutations.

  14. Biological activity of some naturally occurring resins, gums and pigments against in vitro LDL oxidation.

    PubMed

    Andrikopoulos, Nikolaos K; Kaliora, Andriana C; Assimopoulou, Andreana N; Papapeorgiou, Vassilios P

    2003-05-01

    Naturally occurring gums and resins with beneficial pharmaceutical and nutraceutical properties were tested for their possible protective effect against copper-induced LDL oxidation in vitro. Chiosmastic gum (CMG) (Pistacia lentiscus var. Chia resin) was the most effective in protecting human LDL from oxidation. The minimum and maximum doses for the saturation phenomena of inhibition of LDL oxidation were 2.5 mg and 50 mg CMG (75.3% and 99.9%, respectively). The methanol/water extract of CMG was the most effective compared with other solvent combinations. CMG when fractionated in order to determine a structure-activity relationship showed that the total mastic essential oil, collofonium-like residue and acidic fractions of CMG exhibited a high protective activity ranging from 65.0% to 77.8%. The other natural gums and resins (CMG resin 'liquid collection', P. terebinthus var. Chia resin, dammar resin, acacia gum, tragacanth gum, storax gum) also tested as above, showed 27.0%-78.8% of the maximum LDL protection. The other naturally occurring substances, i.e. triterpenes (amyrin, oleanolic acid, ursolic acid, lupeol, 18-a-glycyrrhetinic acid) and hydroxynaphthoquinones (naphthazarin, shikonin and alkannin) showed 53.5%-78.8% and 27.0%-64.1% LDL protective activity, respectively. The combination effects (68.7%-76.2% LDL protection) of ursolic-, oleanolic- and ursodeoxycholic- acids were almost equal to the effect (75.3%) of the CMG extract in comparable doses.

  15. Curcumin and Resveratrol as Promising Natural Remedies with Nanomedicine Approach for the Effective Treatment of Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shindikar, Amol; Singh, Akshita; Nobre, Malcolm; Kirolikar, Saurabh

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have made considerable progress in last few decades in understanding mechanisms underlying pathogenesis of breast cancer, its phenotypes, its molecular and genetic changes, its physiology, and its prognosis. This has allowed us to identify specific targets and design appropriate chemical entities for effective treatment of most breast cancer phenotypes, resulting in increased patient survivability. Unfortunately, these strategies have been largely ineffective in the treatment of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). Hormonal receptors lacking render the conventional breast cancer drugs redundant, forcing scientists to identify novel targets for treatment of TNBC. Two natural compounds, curcumin and resveratrol, have been widely reported to have anticancer properties. In vitro and in vivo studies show promising results, though their effectiveness in clinical settings has been less than satisfactory, owing to their feeble pharmacokinetics. Here we discuss these naturally occurring compounds, their mechanism as anticancer agents, their shortcomings in translational research, and possible methodology to improve their pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics with advanced drug delivery systems. PMID:27242900

  16. [Synchronous and ipsilateral invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast occurring near a phyllodes tumor - a case report].

    PubMed

    Nagashima, Saki; Sakurai, Kenichi; Suzuki, Shuhei; Sakagami, Masashi; Enomoto, Katsuhisa; Amano, Sadao; Koshinaga, Tsugumichi

    2014-11-01

    We report 2 cases of invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast occurring near a phyllodes tumor. The first case was ofa 58- year-old woman who had a tumor in her right breast and visited our hospital. Following a core needle biopsy (CNB), a malignant phyllodes tumor was diagnosed. We performed a lumpectomy for the phyllodes tumor, with 1.5-cm surgical margins. Pathological diagnosis of the resected specimen confirmed the malignant phyllodes tumor. A ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) was also discovered near the phyllodes tumor. The second case was of another 58-year-old woman who had a big tumor in her right breast and visited our hospital. CNB resulted in pathological diagnosis ofa benign phyllodes tumor. The tumor was removed by a lumpectomy with 1.5-cm surgical margins. The pathological diagnosis from the resected specimen was borderline phyllodes tumor with invasive ductal carcinoma in the proximity. In both cases, DCIS could not have been diagnosed preoperatively.

  17. Articular Osteochondrosis: A Comparison of Naturally-Occurring Human and Animal Disease

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Annette M; Toth, Ferenc; Dolvik, Nils I; Ekman, Stina; Ellermann, Jutta; Olstad, Kristin; Ytrehus, Bjornar; Carlson, Cathy S

    2013-01-01

    Background Osteochondrosis (OC) is a common developmental orthopedic disease affecting both humans and animals. Despite increasing recognition of this disease among children and adolescents, its pathogenesis is incompletely understood because clinical signs are often not apparent until lesions have progressed to end-stage, and examination of cadaveric early lesions is not feasible. In contrast, both naturally-occurring and surgically-induced animal models of disease have been extensively studied, most notably in horses and swine, species in which OC is recognized to have profound health and economic implications. The potential for a translational model of human OC has not been recognized in the existing human literature. Objective The purpose of this review is to highlight the similarities in signalment, predilection sites and clinical presentation of naturally-occurring OC in humans and animals and to propose a common pathogenesis for this condition across species. Study Design Review Methods The published human and veterinary literature for the various manifestations of OC was reviewed. Peer-reviewed original scientific articles and species-specific review articles accessible in PubMed (US National Library of Medicine) were eligible for inclusion. Results A broad range of similarities exists between OC affecting humans and animals, including predilection sites, clinical presentation, radiographic/MRI changes, and histological appearance of the end stage lesion, suggesting a shared pathogenesis across species. Conclusion This proposed shared pathogenesis for OC between species implies that naturally-occurring and surgically-induced models of OC in animals may be useful in determining risk factors and for testing new diagnostic and therapeutic interventions that can be used in humans. PMID:23954774

  18. Heteroaggregation of multiwall Carbon Nanotubes and Naturally Occurring Colloids in Aquatic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coogan, Patricia

    The heteroaggregation of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) with naturally occurring colloids (NOCs) plays an important role in determining the ultimate fate and transport of nanomaterials in the environment. The objective of this research was to characterize the potential for heteroaggregation between functionalized multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with NOCs in the aquatic environment. Carboxylated MWCNTs (COOH-MWCNTs) and amine functionalized MWCNTs (NH2-MWCNTs) were studied. The natural clay kaolinite was chosen as a model NOC due to its widespread presence in the natural environment and unique charge heterogeneity. In this study, the aggregation between CNTs and kaolinite was analyzed for a range of CNT:NOC ratios and pH as well as in different source waters in a series of sedimentation and aggregation experiments. Sedimentation was monitored using ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS) spectroscopy, while aggregation was characterized by dynamic light scattering. The heteroaggregation of the COOH-MWCNTs was found to be heavily dependent on pH and the CNT:NOC ratio. The sedimentation rate of the CNT-NOC mixture indicated by UV-VIS spectroscopy and average particle size measured by DLS both increased at low pH while the CNT solution remained stable over time when tested at the same solution chemistry. As the CNT:NOC ratio decreased, the CNT-NOC mixture demonstrated enhanced sedimentation behavior at pH 3. The enhanced sedimentation coupled with increasing particle size of the mixture indicated the presence of CNT-NOC heteroaggregates. At higher pH, no enhanced sedimentation occurred for the range of ratios tested. The NH2-MWCNTs were not dispersible at neutral pH were therefore only tested at pH 3. All solutions regardless of ratio indicated no significant evidence of enhanced sedimentation due to heteroaggregation for the NH 2-MWCNTs in this study. Filtered and unfiltered natural water samples from Lake Houston and the Trinity River were also analyzed and found to

  19. Bibliography of reports, papers, and presentations on naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) in petroleum industry wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K.P.; Wilkey, M.L.; Hames, R.D.

    1997-07-01

    This bibliography was created to support projects conducted by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) addressing issues related to naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) in petroleum industry wastes. The bibliography provides citations for many of the available published reports, papers, articles, and presentations on petroleum industry NORM. In the past few years, the rapid expansion of NORM treatment and disposal technologies, the efforts to characterize NORM wastes and their associated potential risks, and the promulgation of state-level NORM regulatory programs have been well-documented in project reports and in papers presented at technical conferences and symposia. There are 221 citations.

  20. Occupational exposure due to naturally occurring radionuclide material in granite quarry industry.

    PubMed

    Ademola, J A

    2012-02-01

    The potential occupational exposure in granite quarry industry due to the presence of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) has been investigated. The activity concentrations of (40)K, (226)Ra and (232)Th were determined using gamma-ray spectroscopy method. The annual effective dose of workers through different exposure pathways was determined by model calculations. The total annual effective dose varied from 21.48 to 33.69 μSv y(-1). Inhalation dose contributes the highest to the total effective dose. The results obtained were much lower than the intervention exemption levels (1.0 mSv y(-1)) given in the International Commission on Radiological Protection Publication 82.

  1. Bay Area Air Quality Management District (BAAQMD) Naturally Occurring Asbestos Regulations and Enforcement Protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wall, M.

    2012-12-01

    BAAQMD has been delegated local enforcement of the Naturally-Occurring Asbestos Airborne Toxic Control Measure for Construction, Grading, Quarrying, and Surface Mining Operations, Section 93105, Title 17, California Code of Regulation ("NOA ATCM") by the state Air Resource Board. BAAQMD will present an overview of how BAAQMD administers and enforces the NOA ATCM, as well as a discussion of various issues that have arisen at NOA projects BAAQMD has overseen, and steps that have been taken in the interest of protecting the public health.

  2. Existence of long-lived isomeric states in naturally-occurring neutron-deficient Th isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Marinov, A.; Kashiv, Y.; Rodushkin, I.; Halicz, L.; Segal, I.; Pape, A.; Miller, H. W.; Kolb, D.; Brandt, R.

    2007-08-15

    Four long-lived neutron-deficient Th isotopes with atomic mass numbers 211 to 218 and abundances of (1-10)x10{sup -11} relative to {sup 232}Th have been found in a study of naturally-occurring Th using inductively coupled plasma-sector field mass spectrometry. It is deduced that long-lived isomeric states exist in these isotopes. The hypothesis that they might belong to a new class of long-lived high spin super- and hyperdeformed isomeric states is discussed.

  3. The new IAEA reference material: IAEA-434 technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials (TENORM) in phosphogypsum.

    PubMed

    Shakhashiro, A; Sansone, U; Wershofen, H; Bollhöfer, A; Kim, C K; Kim, C S; Kis-Benedek, G; Korun, M; Moune, M; Lee, S H; Tarjan, S; Al-Masri, M S

    2011-01-01

    A reliable determination of Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials in phosphogypsum is necessary to comply with radiation protection and environmental regulations. In this respect, a new phosphogypsum reference material was produced and certified to assist in the validation of analytical methods and the quality assurance of produced analytical results. This paper presents the sample preparation methodology, material homogeneity assessment, characterization campaign results and assignment of property values, and associated uncertainties. The reference values and associated uncertainties for Pb-210, Ra-226, Th-230, U-234 and U-238 were established based on consensus values calculated from analytical results reported by three National Metrology Institutes and five expert laboratories.

  4. Activity measurements of technically enhanced naturally occurring radionuclides (TENORM) in phosphogypsum.

    PubMed

    Luca, A; Margineanu, R; Sahagia, M; Wätjen, A C

    2009-05-01

    Phosphogypsum is a by-product of the phosphoric acid based fertilizer industry; it can be used in agriculture and to make building materials. Phosphogypsum is radioactive due to the presence of technically enhanced naturally occurring radionuclides (TENORM) and its environmental impact is a major concern of the public authorities. The Radionuclide Metrology Laboratory from IFIN-HH participated at the IAEA-CU-2007-06-CCRI(II)-S5 Supplementary Comparison for the Determination of TENORM in phosphogypsum. The measurement procedures and the discussion of results and problems encountered are presented.

  5. Naturally occurring bioactive Cyclobutane-containing (CBC) alkaloids in fungi, fungal endophytes, and plants.

    PubMed

    Dembitsky, Valery M

    2014-10-15

    This article focuses on the occurrence and biological activities of cyclobutane-containing (CBC) alkaloids obtained from fungi, fungal endophytes, and plants. Naturally occurring CBC alkaloids are of particular interest because many of these compounds display important biological activities and possess antitumour, antibacterial, antimicrobial, antifungal, and immunosuppressive properties. Therefore, these compounds are of great interest in the fields of medicine, pharmacology, medicinal chemistry, and the pharmaceutical industry. Fermentation and production of CBC alkaloids by fungi and/or fungal endophytes is also discussed. This review presents the structures and describes the activities of 98 CBC alkaloids.

  6. Characterization of naturally-occurring and modified fullerenes by Fourier transform mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hettich, Robert L.; Jin, Changming; Compton, Robert N.; Buseck, Peter R.; Tsipursky, Semeon J.

    1993-10-01

    Fourier transform mass spectrometry (FTMS) employing both laser desorption/ionization and thermal desorption/electron ionization is useful for the detection and structural characterization of fullerenes and chemically-modified fullerenes. Examination of a carbon-rich shungite rock sample from Russia by transmission electron microscopy and FTMS provided evidence of naturally-occurring fullerenes. Ion-molecule reactions can be studied with FTMS to investigate the electron affinities of modified fullerenes. By monitoring charge exchange reactions, the electron affinities of C60Fx (x=44,46) and C70Fy (y=52,54) were found to be substantially higher than the values for the parent fullerenes.

  7. Ectomycorrhizal symbiosis in vitro between Tricholoma matsutake and Pinus densiflora seedlings that resembles naturally occurring 'shiro'.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Akiyoshi; Maeda, Ken; Kobayashi, Hisayasu; Murata, Hitoshi

    2006-03-01

    We established an in vitro ectomycorrhizal symbiosis between Tricholoma matsutake and Pinus densiflora. Mycorrhiza formed in a substrate of Modified Norkrans' C medium and granite-based soil had features similar to those observed previously only in naturally occurring mycorrhizal system called 'shiro,' and promoted the growth of plants with smaller root/shoot ratios. The in vitro formation of 'shiro' is essential for the development of T. matsutake system to produce mushrooms and is useful for the propagation and plantation of the mycorrhizal seedlings.

  8. First Total Synthesis of a Naturally Occurring Iodinated 5′-Deoxyxylofuranosyl Marine Nucleoside

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jianyun; Dou, Yanhui; Ding, Haixin; Yang, Ruchun; Sun, Qi; Xiao, Qiang

    2012-01-01

    4-Amino-7-(5′-deoxy-β-D-xylofuranosyl)-5-iodo-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine 1, an unusual naturally occurring marine nucleoside isolated from an ascidan, Diplosoma sp., was synthesized from D-xylose in seven steps with 28% overall yield on 10 g scale. The key step was Vorbrüggen glycosylation of 5-iodo-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine with 5-deoxy-1,2-O-diacetyl-3-O-benzoyl-D-xylofuranose. Its absolute configuration was confirmed. PMID:22690148

  9. Towards the elusive structure of kotalanol, a naturally occurring glucosidase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Sankar; Pinto, B Mario

    2010-04-01

    This Highlight describes the detailed approach used to determine the absolute stereochemistry of the stereogenic centers in the acyclic side chain of kotalanol, a naturally occurring glucosidase inhibitor isolated from the plant Salacia reticulata. The plant extract itself is used in Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of Type 2 diabetes. We highlight the syntheses of proposed candidates based on structure-activity relationships, the total synthesis of kotalanol, and crystallographic studies of kotalanol and its de-O-sulfonated derivative complexed with recombinant human maltase glucoamylase (MGA), a critical intestinal glucosidase involved in the breakdown of glucose oligomers into glucose.

  10. Leishmanicidal and cytotoxic activities of extracts and naturally-occurring compounds from two Lauraceae species.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Suárez, Jeysson; Coy-Barrera, Ericsson; Cuca, Luis Enrique; Delgado, Gabriela

    2011-02-01

    The in vitro leishmanicidal effects of ethanolic extracts and fifteen naturally-occurring compounds (five lignans, eight neolignans, a diterpene and a dihydrochalcone), obtained from Pleurothyrium cinereum and Ocotea macrophylla, were evaluated on promastigotes of Leishmania panamensis and L. braziliensis. In addition, in order to determine the selective action on Leishmania species as a safety principle, in vitro cytotoxicity on J774 cells was also evaluated for test compounds and extracts. One extract and seven compounds showed activity against Leishmania parasites at different levels. Dihydroflavokawin B (8) was found to be the most potent antileishmanial compound on both parasites, whilst (+)-otobaphenol (14), was found to be the most selective compound on L. panamensis.

  11. Naturally occurring phenanthrene degrading bacteria associated with seeds of various plant species.

    PubMed

    Fernet, Jennifer L; Lawrence, John R; Germida, James J

    2016-01-01

    Seeds of 11 of 19 plant species tested yielded naturally occurring phenanthrene degrading bacteria when placed on phenanthrene impression plates. Seed associated phenanthrene degrading bacteria were mostly detected on caragana, Canada thistle, creeping red fescue, western wheatgrass, and tall wheat grass. Based on 16S rRNA analysis the most common bacteria isolated from these seeds were strains belonging to the genera Enterobacteria, Erwinia, Burkholderia, Pantoea, Pseudomonas, and Sphingomonas. These plants may provide an excellent source of pre-adapted bacterial-plant associations highly suitable for use in remediation of contaminated soil environments.

  12. Receptor mutation is not a common mechanism of naturally occurring glucocorticoid resistance in leukaemia cell lines.

    PubMed

    Beesley, Alex H; Weller, Renae E; Senanayake, Saranga; Welch, Mathew; Kees, Ursula R

    2009-02-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are among the most important drugs for the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). Cell lines cultured in high GC concentrations typically contain mutated glucocorticoid receptor (GR), something that is rarely found in primary ALL specimens. We studied naturally occurring mechanisms of GC resistance and examined sensitivity to GC in 15 T-ALL cell lines grown without prior exposure to drugs. Resistance could not be attributed to mutations in GR or variations in levels of its expression. We conclude that this panel of cell lines provides a suitable in vitro model since it reflects GC resistance in primary ALL.

  13. Naturally occurring asbestos in eastern Australia: a review of geological occurrence, disturbance and mesothelioma risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendrickx, Marc

    2009-04-01

    Potential asbestos-bearing rocks account for about 0.2% of the land area of eastern Australia. The main mode of occurrence is as narrow cross fibre and slip fibre veins of chrysotile asbestos in serpentinised ophiolite complexes along the boundaries of major tectonic domains. Smaller deposits of chrysotile and amphibole asbestos occur in metamorphosed mafic and ultramafic rocks associated with the Macquarie Volcanic Arc in New South Wales. Amphibole asbestos is also known from Proterozoic and Palaeozoic amphibolite and from Devonian basalt. Natural asbestos-bearing materials in eastern Australia have been disturbed by mining, road construction, agriculture and forestry, urban development and through natural weathering processes. Persons most at risk of potential exposure to asbestos from natural sources include: farmers who work or live in areas where asbestos-bearing materials may be routinely disturbed by agricultural activities; construction workers involved in large-scale earthwork projects in areas underlain by asbestos-bearing rocks; and quarry workers who unwittingly disturb asbestos-bearing materials. Government authorities and private enterprise need to take geological factors into account to reduce the likelihood of unplanned disturbance of natural asbestos-bearing materials.

  14. Naturally occurring IgM antibodies to oxidation-specific epitopes.

    PubMed

    Binder, Christoph J

    2012-01-01

    Naturally occurring antibodies (NAbs) have specificity for both microbial and self antigens, which allows them to act in the first line defense against invading pathogens, as well as in tissue homeostasis by mediating the clearance of cellular debris. This latter recognition of self by NAbs was often thought to reflect the polyreactivity of low affinity antibodies. The finding that oxidation-specific epitopes are dominant targets of naturally occurring IgM antibodies shed light on this and provided novel insights into the understanding of the house keeping functions of NAbs. Oxidation-specific epitopes represent stress-induced or altered self structures that are generated as a consequence of lipidperoxidation during many physiological and pathological situations. Importantly, the same structures have been found in the membranes of dying cells. Only oxidized lipids and dying cells-but not native membrane lipids or viable cells-are recognized by this set of NAbs. Thus, oxidation-specific epitopes represent ideal marks that identify biological waste for its clearance and the neutralization of its pro-inflammatory properties. Furthermore, this binding property of NAbs has also important implications for various chronic inflammatory diseases, including atherosclerosis.

  15. Thermal resistance of naturally occurring airborne bacterial spores. [Viking spacecraft dry heat decontamination simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Puleo, J. R.; Bergstrom, S. L.; Peeler, J. T.; Oxborrow, G. S.

    1978-01-01

    Simulation of a heat process used in the terminal dry-heat decontamination of the Viking spacecraft is reported. Naturally occurring airborne bacterial spores were collected on Teflon ribbons in selected spacecraft assembly areas and subsequently subjected to dry heat. Thermal inactivation experiments were conducted at 105, 111.7, 120, 125, 130, and 135 C with a moisture level of 1.2 mg of water per liter. Heat survivors were recovered at temperatures of 135 C when a 30-h heating cycle was employed. Survivors were recovered from all cycles studied and randomly selected for identification. The naturally occurring spore population was reduced an average of 2.2 to 4.4 log cycles from 105 to 135 C. Heating cycles of 5 and 15 h at temperature were compared with the standard 30-h cycle at 111.7, 120, and 125 C. No significant differences in inactivation (alpha = 0.05) were observed between 111.7 and 120 C. The 30-h cycle differs from the 5- and 15-h cycles at 125 C. Thus, the heating cycle can be reduced if a small fraction (about 0.001 to 0.0001) of very resistant spores can be tolerated.

  16. AAV-mediated cone rescue in a naturally occurring mouse model of CNGA3-achromatopsia.

    PubMed

    Pang, Ji-jing; Deng, Wen-Tao; Dai, Xufeng; Lei, Bo; Everhart, Drew; Umino, Yumiko; Li, Jie; Zhang, Keqing; Mao, Song; Boye, Sanford L; Liu, Li; Chiodo, Vince A; Liu, Xuan; Shi, Wei; Tao, Ye; Chang, Bo; Hauswirth, William W

    2012-01-01

    Achromatopsia is a rare autosomal recessive disorder which shows color blindness, severely impaired visual acuity, and extreme sensitivity to bright light. Mutations in the alpha subunits of the cone cyclic nucleotide-gated channels (CNGA3) are responsible for about 1/4 of achromatopsia in the U.S. and Europe. Here, we test whether gene replacement therapy using an AAV5 vector could restore cone-mediated function and arrest cone degeneration in the cpfl5 mouse, a naturally occurring mouse model of achromatopsia with a CNGA3 mutation. We show that gene therapy leads to significant rescue of cone-mediated ERGs, normal visual acuities and contrast sensitivities. Normal expression and outer segment localization of both M- and S-opsins were maintained in treated retinas. The therapeutic effect of treatment lasted for at least 5 months post-injection. This study is the first demonstration of substantial, relatively long-term restoration of cone-mediated light responsiveness and visual behavior in a naturally occurring mouse model of CNGA3 achromatopsia. The results provide the foundation for development of an AAV5-based gene therapy trial for human CNGA3 achromatopsia.

  17. Oocyst Discharge, Rumen Metabolism and Performance of Early Weaned Lambs with Naturally Occurring Coccidiosis Fed Monensin

    PubMed Central

    Horton, G. M. J.; Stockdale, P. H. G.

    1981-01-01

    Ninety-six 9.5 kg early-weaned lambs with naturally occurring coccidiosis were fed monensin either at 0, 11, 22, or 33 mg/kg of feed for 105 days. Fecal oocyst discharge during the first three days was highest with monensin 22 mg, lowest with monensin 33 mg and averaged 149.6 × 103 oocysts per gram feces for all lambs. Monensin at 22 mg/kg of feed reduced Eimeria ninakohlyakimovae and E. ahsata oocyst discharge. Organic matter and crude protein digestibilities were highest (P ≤ 0.05) in lambs fed monensin 22 mg/kg of feed. Monensin increased (P ≤ 0.01) rumen ammonia and propionic acid and decreased (P ≤ 0.01) acetic acid. Feeding monensin 33 mg decreased (P ≤ 0.05) feed intake by 5% and had no effect on gain or feed efficiency. Optimal responses were observed with monensin at 11 mg, feed consumption was not affected, gains were 8% higher (P ≤ 0.05) and feed was utilized 9% more efficiently (P ≤ 0.05) than the controls. In conclusion, monensin was an effective therapeutic agent against naturally occurring coccidial infections in early weaned lambs. Performance responses were largest with monensin fed at the rate of 11 mg/kg of feed. PMID:7197187

  18. HIV-1 Tat and Viral Latency: What We Can Learn from Naturally Occurring Sequence Variations.

    PubMed

    Kamori, Doreen; Ueno, Takamasa

    2017-01-01

    Despite the effective use of antiretroviral therapy, the remainder of a latently HIV-1-infected reservoir mainly in the resting memory CD4(+) T lymphocyte subset has provided a great setback toward viral eradication. While host transcriptional silencing machinery is thought to play a dominant role in HIV-1 latency, HIV-1 protein such as Tat, may affect both the establishment and the reversal of latency. Indeed, mutational studies have demonstrated that insufficient Tat transactivation activity can result in impaired transcription of viral genes and the establishment of latency in cell culture experiments. Because Tat protein is one of highly variable proteins within HIV-1 proteome, it is conceivable that naturally occurring Tat mutations may differentially modulate Tat functions, thereby influencing the establishment and/or the reversal of viral latency in vivo. In this mini review, we summarize the recent findings of Tat naturally occurring polymorphisms associating with host immune responses and we highlight the implication of Tat sequence variations in relation to HIV latency.

  19. Inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase by kaempferol and related naturally occurring flavonoids

    PubMed Central

    Thors, L; Belghiti, M; Fowler, C J

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: Recent studies have demonstrated that the naturally occurring isoflavone compounds genistein and daidzein inhibit the hydrolysis of anandamide by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) in the low micromolar concentration range. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether this property is shared by flavonoids. Experimental approach: The hydrolysis of anandamide in homogenates and intact cells was measured using the substrate labelled in the ethanolamine part of the molecule. Key results: Twenty compounds were tested. Among the commonly occurring flavonoids, kaempferol was the most potent, inhibiting FAAH in a competitive manner with a Ki value of 5 μM. Among flavonoids with a more restricted distribution in nature, the two most active toward FAAH were 7-hydroxyflavone (IC50 value of 0.5–1 μM depending on the solvent used) and 3,7-dihydroxyflavone (IC50 value 2.2 μM). All three compounds reduced the FAAH-dependent uptake of anandamide and its metabolism by intact RBL2H3 basophilic leukaemia cells. Conclusions and implications: Inhibition of FAAH is an additional in vitro biochemical property of flavonoids. Kaempferol, 7-hydroxyflavone and 3,7-dihydroxyflavone may be useful as templates for the synthesis of novel compounds, which target several systems that are involved in the control of inflammation and cancer. PMID:18552875

  20. Computational Assessment of Naturally Occurring Neutron and Photon Background Radiation Produced by Extraterrestrial Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Thomas Martin; de Wet, Wouter C.; Patton, Bruce W.

    2015-10-28

    In this study, a computational assessment of the variation in terrestrial neutron and photon background from extraterrestrial sources is presented. The motivation of this assessment is to evaluate the practicality of developing a tool or database to estimate background in real time (or near–real time) during an experimental measurement or to even predict the background for future measurements. The extraterrestrial source focused on during this assessment is naturally occurring galactic cosmic rays (GCRs). The MCNP6 transport code was used to perform the computational assessment. However, the GCR source available in MCNP6 was not used. Rather, models developed and maintained by NASA were used to generate the GCR sources. The largest variation in both neutron and photon background spectra was found to be caused by changes in elevation on Earth's surface, which can be as large as an order of magnitude. All other perturbations produced background variations on the order of a factor of 3 or less. The most interesting finding was that ~80% and 50% of terrestrial background neutrons and photons, respectively, are generated by interactions in Earth's surface and other naturally occurring and man-made objects near a detector of particles from extraterrestrial sources and their progeny created in Earth's atmosphere. In conclusion, this assessment shows that it will be difficult to estimate the terrestrial background from extraterrestrial sources without a good understanding of a detector's surroundings. Therefore, estimating or predicting background during a measurement environment like a mobile random search will be difficult.

  1. HIV-1 Tat and Viral Latency: What We Can Learn from Naturally Occurring Sequence Variations

    PubMed Central

    Kamori, Doreen; Ueno, Takamasa

    2017-01-01

    Despite the effective use of antiretroviral therapy, the remainder of a latently HIV-1-infected reservoir mainly in the resting memory CD4+ T lymphocyte subset has provided a great setback toward viral eradication. While host transcriptional silencing machinery is thought to play a dominant role in HIV-1 latency, HIV-1 protein such as Tat, may affect both the establishment and the reversal of latency. Indeed, mutational studies have demonstrated that insufficient Tat transactivation activity can result in impaired transcription of viral genes and the establishment of latency in cell culture experiments. Because Tat protein is one of highly variable proteins within HIV-1 proteome, it is conceivable that naturally occurring Tat mutations may differentially modulate Tat functions, thereby influencing the establishment and/or the reversal of viral latency in vivo. In this mini review, we summarize the recent findings of Tat naturally occurring polymorphisms associating with host immune responses and we highlight the implication of Tat sequence variations in relation to HIV latency. PMID:28194140

  2. Naturally occurring hybrids of coral reef butterflyfishes have similar fitness compared to parental species.

    PubMed

    Montanari, Stefano R; Hobbs, Jean-Paul A; Pratchett, Morgan S; Bay, Line K; van Herwerden, Lynne

    2017-01-01

    Hybridisation can produce evolutionary novelty by increasing fitness and adaptive capacity. Heterosis, or hybrid vigour, has been documented in many plant and animal taxa, and is a notable consequence of hybridisation that has been exploited for decades in agriculture and aquaculture. On the contrary, loss of fitness in naturally occurring hybrid taxa has been observed in many cases. This can have negative consequences for the parental species involved (wasted reproductive effort), and has raised concerns for species conservation. This study evaluates the relative fitness of previously documented butterflyfish hybrids of the genus Chaetodon from the Indo-Pacific suture zone at Christmas Island. Histological examination confirmed the reproductive viability of Chaetodon hybrids. Examination of liver lipid content showed that hybrid body condition was not significantly different from parent species body condition. Lastly, size at age data revealed no difference in growth rates and asymptotic length between hybrids and parent species. Based on the traits measured in this study, naturally occurring hybrids of Chaetodon butterflyfishes have similar fitness to their parental species, and are unlikely to supplant parental species under current environmental conditions at the suture zone. However, given sufficient fitness and ongoing genetic exchange between the respective parental species, hybrids are likely to persist within the suture zone.

  3. The role of mesoscale kinetic energy in natural occurring phytoplankton blooms and export in Drake Passage.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, A. R.; Veron, F.; Oliver, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Southern Ocean is an iron limited, high nitrate, low chlorophyll region that draws considerable attention as a potential site for carbon drawdown through iron fertilization. However, there are no prolonged in-situ observations of the mechanisms driving naturally occurring blooms in this region. Here we present results from an APEX biofloat that continuously profiled the Drake Passage from ~ 2,000 m to the surface every two days. The biofloat measured the development and export of a naturally occurring phytoplankton bloom in the Drake Passage. Our analysis indicates that low levels of mesoscale kinetic energy coincided with the observed phytoplankton bloom. We postulate that low KE level are a precondition for bloom onset in the Drake Passage, which is confirmed by satellite observations. High levels of mesoscale kinetic energy immediately followed the phytoplankton bloom and appear to have facilitated organic carbon export to the deep ocean by changing the neutral density depths of aggregated cells. Furthermore, satellite observations in Drake Passage suggest that high levels of mesoscale kinetic energy limit bloom formation. We suggest that low mesoscale kinetic energy is a precondition for bloom formation in the Drake Passage before other potentially limiting factors become significant (e.g. grazing relation, macronutrients, micronutrients). If mesoscale kinetic energy were to impose a limitation on phytoplankton concentrations across the entire Southern Ocean, there may be regions unsuitable for geoengineered draw down of atmospheric carbon dioxide through large scale iron additions.

  4. Definition of target antigens for naturally occurring CD4(+) CD25(+) regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Hiroyoshi; Kato, Takuma; Tawara, Isao; Saito, Kanako; Ikeda, Hiroaki; Kuribayashi, Kagemasa; Allen, Paul M; Schreiber, Robert D; Sakaguchi, Shimon; Old, Lloyd J; Shiku, Hiroshi

    2005-03-07

    The antigenic targets recognized by naturally occurring CD4(+) CD25(+) regulatory T cells (T reg cells) have been elusive. We have serologically defined a series of broadly expressed self-antigens derived from chemically induced mouse sarcomas by serological identification of antigens by recombinant expression cloning (SEREX). CD4(+) CD25(+) T cells from mice immunized with SEREX-defined self-antigens had strong suppressive activity on peptide-specific proliferation of CD4(+) CD25(-) T cells and CD8(+) T cells. The suppressive effect was observed without in vitro T cell stimulation. Foxp3 expression in these CD4(+) CD25(+) T cells from immunized mice was 5-10 times greater than CD4(+) CD25(+) T cells derived from naive mice. The suppressive effect required cellular contact and was blocked by anti-glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor family-related gene antibody. In vitro suppressive activity essentially disappeared 8 wk after the last immunization. However, it was regained by in vitro restimulation with cognate self-antigen protein but not with control protein. We propose that SEREX-defined self-antigens such as those used in this study represent self-antigens that elicit naturally occurring CD4(+) CD25(+) T reg cells.

  5. Inhibition of N-nitrosodiethylamine carcinogenesis in mice by naturally occurring organosulfur compounds and monoterpenes.

    PubMed

    Wattenberg, L W; Sparnins, V L; Barany, G

    1989-05-15

    Naturally occurring compounds belonging to two chemical groups were studied for their capacities to inhibit N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA)-induced carcinogenesis in female A/J mice. One group consists of organosulfur compounds found in Allium species, including garlic, onions, leeks, and shallots, and the other, two monoterpenes, i.e., D-limonene and D-carvone. In an initial experiment, in which organosulfur compounds were investigated, diallyl disulfide, allyl mercaptan, and allyl methyl disulfide were found to produce a marked inhibition of NDEA-induced neoplasia of the forestomach when the test compounds were administered p.o. 96 and 48 h prior to NDEA. The most potent was diallyl disulfide which reduced forestomach tumor formation by more than 90%. Pulmonary adenoma formation also was inhibited but to a considerably lesser extent, i.e., about 30%. In three additional experiments, test compounds were given p.o. either 15 min or 1 h prior to NDEA. Under these conditions diallyl disulfide and allyl mercaptan again inhibited forestomach tumor formation substantially, i.e., greater than 75%, and pulmonary adenoma formation marginally, i.e., less than 20%. In these experiments D-limonene and D-carvone were tested and reduced forestomach tumor formation by slightly over 60% and pulmonary adenoma formation by about 35%. The results of these studies provide evidence of an increasing diversity of naturally occurring compounds having the capacity to inhibit nitrosamine carcinogenesis.

  6. Naturally occurring hybrids of coral reef butterflyfishes have similar fitness compared to parental species

    PubMed Central

    Hobbs, Jean-Paul A.; Pratchett, Morgan S.; Bay, Line K.; van Herwerden, Lynne

    2017-01-01

    Hybridisation can produce evolutionary novelty by increasing fitness and adaptive capacity. Heterosis, or hybrid vigour, has been documented in many plant and animal taxa, and is a notable consequence of hybridisation that has been exploited for decades in agriculture and aquaculture. On the contrary, loss of fitness in naturally occurring hybrid taxa has been observed in many cases. This can have negative consequences for the parental species involved (wasted reproductive effort), and has raised concerns for species conservation. This study evaluates the relative fitness of previously documented butterflyfish hybrids of the genus Chaetodon from the Indo-Pacific suture zone at Christmas Island. Histological examination confirmed the reproductive viability of Chaetodon hybrids. Examination of liver lipid content showed that hybrid body condition was not significantly different from parent species body condition. Lastly, size at age data revealed no difference in growth rates and asymptotic length between hybrids and parent species. Based on the traits measured in this study, naturally occurring hybrids of Chaetodon butterflyfishes have similar fitness to their parental species, and are unlikely to supplant parental species under current environmental conditions at the suture zone. However, given sufficient fitness and ongoing genetic exchange between the respective parental species, hybrids are likely to persist within the suture zone. PMID:28257492

  7. Monitoring Natural Occurring Asbestos in ophiolite sequences and derived soils: implication with human activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Punturo, Rosalda; Bloise, Andrea; Cirrincione, Rosolino

    2016-04-01

    The present contribution focuses on soils that developed on serpentinite-metabasite bedrocks, which could potentially be rich in asbestos minerals and, as a consequence, have a negative impact on agricultural activity and on environmental quality. In order to investigate the natural occurrences of asbestos (NOA) on the surface of the soil formed from serpentinites and metabasite, we selected a study area located in Sila Piccola (Calabrian Peloritani Orogen, southern Italy), where previous studies highlighted the presence of asbestiform minerals within the large ophiolitic sequences that crop out (Punturo et al., 2015; Bloise et al., 2015). Agricultural soil samples have been collected mainly close to urban centres and characterized by using different analytical techniques such as X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), transmission electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive spectrometry (TEM-EDS), thermogravimetry (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) Results pointed out as all the collected soil samples contain serpentine minerals (e.g., chrysotile), asbestos amphiboles, clays, chlorite, muscovite, plagioclase and iron oxides in various amounts. Electron microscope images of the soils show that their contain a variety of aggregating agents such as organic matter and clay in which individual fibres of chrysotile and tremolite-actinolite are trapped. The investigation showed that both serpentinite and metabasite rocks act as a perennial source of contamination for the agriculture lands because of the high amount of tremolite-actinolite found in the studied soil samples developed on such lithotypes. Even if asbestiform minerals usually occur in aggregates which cannot be suspended in the air, agricultural activities such as plowing can destroy these soil aggregates with the creation of dust containing inhalable asbestos fibres that evolve into airborne increasing the exposure of population to them. Since the dispersion of fibres could be associated with

  8. A naturally occurring deletion mutant of figwort mosaic virus (caulimovirus) is generated by RNA splicing.

    PubMed

    Scholthof, H B; Wu, F C; Richins, R D; Shepherd, R J

    1991-09-01

    A naturally occurring deletion mutant is observed in plants infected with figwort mosaic virus (FMV), a caulimovirus. The encapsidated mutant genome is formed spontaneously in association with two different strains of FMV in four host plant species. The mutant also appears when cloned wild-type viral DNA is used as the inoculum. The deletion mutant alone is not infectious and it appears unable to replicate after its formation, even in the presence of wild-type virus. The gene for chloramphenicol acetyltransferase was inserted at different positions in the deletion mutant genome, and subsequent transient assays showed that gene expression of the mutant occurs despite the deletion. Sequence analyses of the mutant genome revealed a deletion of 1237-bp segment encompassing a major portion of the coat protein gene and the 5' end of the downstream reverse transcriptase gene. This deletion is associated with consensus signals for RNA splicing including the conserved 5' and 3' splice sites plus surrounding sequences, putative branch point(s) for lariat formation, and an extremely high adenosine content (41%) of the removed fragment. This suggests that splicing of the FMV full-length transcript has occurred prior to reverse transcription and this accounts for the presence and accumulation of encapsidated DNAs with the same deletion.

  9. Naturally occurring conjugated octadecatrienoic acids are strong inhibitors of prostaglandin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Nugteren, D H; Christ-Hazelhof, E

    1987-03-01

    Fatty acids from natural sources (mostly seed oils) were isolated and assayed for their effect on the bioconversion of arachidonic acid into prostaglandin E2, using sheep vesicular gland microsomes. Homologues and isomers of the naturally occurring fatty acids, obtained by chemical modification and/or organic synthetic methods, were also tested. Two very active cyclooxygenase inhibitors were discovered, namely jacarandic acid (8Z, 10E, 12Z-octadecatrienoic acid), isolated from Jacaranda mimosifolia, the concentration which gives 50% inhibition ([I]50) being 2.4 microM and the synthetic 8Z, 10E, 12E-octadecatrienoic acid, having an [I]50 of 1.0 microM. Under the conditions of the assay (75 microM substrate), earlier described potent inhibitors showed the following [I]50's: indomethacin: 1.3 microM; 9,12-octadecadiynoic acid: 1.3 microM, 8Z, 12E, 14Z-eicosatrienoic acid: 2.7 microM; 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraynoic acid: 4.4 microM. At a concentration of about half that of the substrate, the following naturally occurring fatty acids revealed inhibition ([I]50): columbinic acid (29 microM), calendulic acid (31 microM), liagoric acid (31 microM), ximenynic acid (39 microM), crepenynic acid (40 microM) and timnodonic acid (43 microM). Other fatty acids, and some of the above acids, were converted themselves more or less rapidly, mostly into conjugated monohydroxy fatty acids.

  10. Unravelling a 'miner's myth' that environmental contamination in mining towns is naturally occurring.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Louise Jane; Taylor, Mark Patrick

    2016-08-01

    Australia has a long history of metal mining and smelting. Extraction and processing have resulted in elevated levels of toxic metals surrounding mining operations, which have adverse health effects, particularly to children. Resource companies, government agencies and employees often construct 'myths' to down play potential exposure risks and responsibility arising from operating emissions. Typical statements include: contaminants are naturally occurring, the wind blows emissions away from residential areas, contaminants are not bioavailable, or the problem is a legacy issue and not related to current operations. Evidence from mining and smelting towns shows that such 'myths' are exactly that. In mining towns, the default and primary defence against contamination is that elevated metals in adjacent urban environments are from the erosion and weathering of the ore bodies over millennia-hence 'naturally occurring'. Not only is this a difficult argument to unravel from an evidence-based perspective, but also it causes confusion and delays remediation work, hindering efforts to reduce harmful exposures to children. An example of this situation is from Broken Hill, New South Wales, home to one of the world's largest lead-zinc-silver ore body, which has been mined continuously for over 130 years. Environmental metal concentration and lead isotopic data from soil samples collected from across Broken Hill are used to establish the nature and timing of lead contamination. We use multiple lines of evidence to unravel a 'miner's myth' by evaluating current soil metal concentrations and lead isotopic compositions, geological data, historical environmental assessments and old photographic evidence to assess the impacts from early smelting along with mining to the surface soils in the city.

  11. Preclinical characterization of naturally occurring polyketide cyclophilin inhibitors from the sanglifehrin family.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Matthew A; Bobardt, Michael; Obeid, Susan; Chatterji, Udayan; Coates, Nigel J; Foster, Teresa; Gallay, Philippe; Leyssen, Pieter; Moss, Steven J; Neyts, Johan; Nur-e-Alam, Mohammad; Paeshuyse, Jan; Piraee, Mahmood; Suthar, Dipen; Warneck, Tony; Zhang, Ming-Qiang; Wilkinson, Barrie

    2011-05-01

    Cyclophilin inhibitors currently in clinical trials for hepatitis C virus (HCV) are all analogues of cyclosporine (CsA). Sanglifehrins are a group of naturally occurring cyclophilin binding polyketides that are structurally distinct from the cyclosporines and are produced by a microorganism amenable to biosynthetic engineering for lead optimization and large-scale production by fermentation. Preclinical characterization of the potential utility of this class of compounds for the treatment of HCV revealed that the natural sanglifehrins A to D are all more potent than CsA at disrupting formation of the NS5A-CypA, -CypB, and -CypD complexes and at inhibition of CypA, CypB, and CypD isomerase activity. In particular, sanglifehrin B (SfB) was 30- to 50-fold more potent at inhibiting the isomerase activity of all Cyps tested than CsA and was also shown to be a more potent inhibitor of the 1b subgenomic replicon (50% effective concentrations [EC50s] of 0.070 μM and 0.16 μM in Huh 5-2 and Huh 9-13 cells, respectively). Physicochemical and mouse pharmacokinetic analyses revealed low oral bioavailability (F<4%) and low solubility (<25 μM), although the half-lives (t1/2) of SfA and SfB in mouse blood after intravenous (i.v.) dosing were long (t1/2>5 h). These data demonstrate that naturally occurring sanglifehrins are suitable lead compounds for the development of novel analogues that are less immunosuppressive and that have improved metabolism and pharmacokinetic properties.

  12. Background in the context of land contaminated with naturally occurring radioactive material.

    PubMed

    Read, D; Read, G D; Thorne, M C

    2013-06-01

    The financial implications of choosing a particular threshold for clearance of radioactively contaminated land are substantial, particularly when one considers the volume of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) created each year by the production and combustion of fossil fuels and the exploitation of industrial minerals. Inevitably, a compromise needs to be reached between the level of environmental protection sought and the finite resources available for remediation. In the case of natural series radionuclides, any anthropogenic input is always superimposed on the inventory already present in the soil; this 'background' inventory is conventionally disregarded when assessing remediation targets. Unfortunately, the term is not well defined and the concept of 'background dose' is open to alternative interpretations. In this paper, we address the issue of natural background from a geochemical rather than from a solely radiological perspective, illustrating this with an example from the china clay industry. We propose a simple procedure for decision making based on activity concentrations of primordial radionuclides and their progeny. Subsequent calculations of dose need to take into account the mineralogical and chemical characteristics of the contamination, which in the case of NORM are invariably reflected in uranium series disequilibrium.

  13. Beneficial Effects of Autologous Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Naturally Occurring Tendinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Roger Kenneth Whealands; Werling, Natalie Jayne; Dakin, Stephanie Georgina; Alam, Rafiqul; Goodship, Allen E.; Dudhia, Jayesh

    2013-01-01

    Tendon injuries are a common age-related degenerative condition where current treatment strategies fail to restore functionality and normal quality of life. This disease also occurs naturally in horses, with many similarities to human tendinopathy making it an ideal large animal model for human disease. Regenerative approaches are increasingly used to improve outcome involving mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), supported by clinical data where injection of autologous bone marrow derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) suspended in marrow supernatant into injured tendons has halved the re-injury rate in racehorses. We hypothesized that stem cell therapy induces a matrix more closely resembling normal tendon than the fibrous scar tissue formed by natural repair. Twelve horses with career-ending naturally-occurring superficial digital flexor tendon injury were allocated randomly to treatment and control groups. 1X107 autologous BM-MSCs suspended in 2 ml of marrow supernatant were implanted into the damaged tendon of the treated group. The control group received the same volume of saline. Following a 6 month exercise programme horses were euthanized and tendons assessed for structural stiffness by non-destructive mechanical testing and for morphological and molecular composition. BM-MSC treated tendons exhibited statistically significant improvements in key parameters compared to saline-injected control tendons towards that of normal tendons and those in the contralateral limbs. Specifically, treated tendons had lower structural stiffness (p<0.05) although no significant difference in calculated modulus of elasticity, lower (improved) histological scoring of organisation (p<0.003) and crimp pattern (p<0.05), lower cellularity (p<0.007), DNA content (p<0.05), vascularity (p<0.03), water content (p<0.05), GAG content (p<0.05), and MMP-13 activity (p<0.02). Treatment with autologous MSCs in marrow supernatant therefore provides significant benefits compared to untreated tendon repair in

  14. The effect of various naturally occurring metal-binding compounds on the electrochemical behavior of aluminum

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, D.C.; McCafferty, E.

    1996-01-01

    Naturally occurring biological molecules are of considerable interest as possible corrosion inhibitors because of increased attention on the development of environmentally compatible, nonpolluting corrosion inhibitors. A hydroxamate yeast siderophore (rhodotorulic acid), a catecholate bacterial siderophore (parabactin), an adhesive protein from the blue mussel Mytilus edulis, and two metal-binding compounds isolated from the tomato and sunflower roots, namely, chlorogenic and caffeic acid, respectively, were adsorbed from solution onto pure aluminum (99.9995%) and their effect on the critical pitting potential and polarization resistance in deaerated 0.1 M NaCl was measured. These measurements were made using anodic polarization and ac impedance spectroscopy. The catechol-containing siderophore has an inhibitive effect on the critical pitting potential of aluminum in 0.1 M NaCl and increases the polarization resistance of the metal over time. The adhesive protein from the blue mussel is also effective in inhibiting the pitting of aluminum.

  15. The corrosion inhibition of iron and aluminum by various naturally occurring biological molecules

    SciTech Connect

    McCafferty, E.; Hansen, D.C.

    1995-12-31

    Biological polymers that exhibit a strong affinity for metal surfaces are increasingly becoming the focus of research toward the development of environmentally friendly corrosion inhibitors. This paper deals with the use of various naturally occurring organic molecules as corrosion inhibitors for iron or aluminum. Among the organic molecules considered are catecholate and hydroxamate siderophores isolated from bacteria, the adhesive protein from the blue mussel Mytilus edulis L, and caffeic acid and chlorogenic acid. FTIR analysis, anodic polarization curves, and AC impedance measurements were used to determine the adsorption and effectiveness of the various organic molecules as corrosion inhibitors. Parabactin, a catecholate siderophore, was effective in inhibiting both the corrosion of iron in hydrochloric acid and the pitting of aluminum in 0.1 M sodium chloride. The adhesive protein from the blue mussel was also effective in inhibiting the pitting of aluminum.

  16. A Naturally Occurring Antibody Fragment Neutralizes Infectivity of Diverse Infectious Agents

    PubMed Central

    Polonelli, Luciano; Ciociola, Tecla; Elviri, Lisa; Zanello, Pier Paolo; Giovati, Laura; Arruda, Denise C.; Muñoz, Julián E.; Mortara, Renato A.; Morace, Giulia; Borghi, Elisa; Galati, Serena; Marin, Oriano; Casoli, Claudio; Pilotti, Elisabetta; Ronzi, Paola; Travassos, Luiz R.; Magliani, Walter; Conti, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    A phosphorylated peptide, named K40H, derived from the constant region of IgMs was detected in human serum by liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry. Synthetic K40H proved to exert a potent in vitro activity against fungal pathogens, and to inhibit HIV-1 replication in vitro and ex vivo. It also showed a therapeutic effect against an experimental infection by Candida albicans in the invertebrate model Galleria mellonella. K40H represents the proof of concept of the innate role that naturally occurring antibody fragments may exert against infectious agents, shedding a new light upon the posthumous role of antibodies and opening a new scenario on the multifaceted functionality of humoral immunity. PMID:27725769

  17. Partitioning of naturally-occurring radionuclides (NORM) in Marcellus Shale produced fluids influenced by chemical matrix.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Andrew W; Johns, Adam J; Eitrheim, Eric S; Knight, Andrew W; Basile, Madeline; Bettis, E Arthur; Schultz, Michael K; Forbes, Tori Z

    2016-04-01

    Naturally-occurring radioactive materials (NORM) associated with unconventional drilling produced fluids from the Marcellus Shale have raised environmental concerns. However, few investigations into the fundamental chemistry of NORM in Marcellus Shale produced fluids have been performed. Thus, we performed radiochemical experiments with Marcellus Shale produced fluids to understand the partitioning behavior of major radioelements of environmental health concern (uranium (U), thorium (Th), radium (Ra), lead (Pb), and polonium (Po)). We applied a novel radiotracer, (203)Pb, to understand the behavior of trace-levels of (210)Pb in these fluids. Ultrafiltration experiments indicated U, Th, and Po are particle reactive in Marcellus Shale produced fluids and Ra and Pb are soluble. Sediment partitioning experiments revealed that >99% of Ra does not adsorb to sediments in the presence of Marcellus Shale produced fluids. Further experiments indicated that although Ra adsorption is related to ionic strength, the concentrations of heavier alkaline earth metals (Ba, Sr) are stronger predictors of Ra solubility.

  18. Naturally Occurring Nrf2 Activators: Potential in Treatment of Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays a major role in acute and chronic liver injury. In hepatocytes, oxidative stress frequently triggers antioxidant response by activating nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a transcription factor, which upregulates various cytoprotective genes. Thus, Nrf2 is considered a potential therapeutic target to halt liver injury. Several studies indicate that activation of Nrf2 signaling pathway ameliorates liver injury. The hepatoprotective potential of naturally occurring compounds has been investigated in various models of liver injuries. In this review, we comprehensively appraise various phytochemicals that have been assessed for their potential to halt acute and chronic liver injury by enhancing the activation of Nrf2 and have the potential for use in humans. PMID:28101296

  19. Characterization of naturally-occurring and modified fullerenes by Fourier transform mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Hettich, R.L.; Jin, C.; Compton, R.N. ); Buseck, P.R.; Tsipursky, S.J. )

    1993-10-10

    Fourier transform mass spectrometry (FTMS) employing both laser desorption/ionization and thermal desorption/electron ionization is useful for the detection and structural characterization of fullerenes and chemically-modified fullerenes. Examination of a carbon-rich shungite rock sample from Russia by transmission electron microscopy and FTMS provided evidence of naturally-occurring fullerenes. Ion-molecule reactions can be studied with FTMS to investigate the electron affinities of modified fullerenes. By monitoring charge exchange reactions, the electron affinities of C[sub 60]F[sub x] (x=44,46) and C[sub 70]F[sub y] (y=52,54) were found to be substantially higher than the values for the parent fullerenes.

  20. Some Nutritional Characteristics of a Naturally Occurring Alga (Microcystis sp.) in a Guatemalan Lake

    PubMed Central

    de la Fuente, Gabriel; Flores, Antonio; Molina, Mario R.; Almengor, Leticia; Bressani, Ricardo

    1977-01-01

    The nutritional characteristics of an alga (Microcystis sp.) that occurs naturally in a Guatemalan lake were determined. The sun-dried material proved to have a high protein content (55.6%) and to be a possible good source of calcium and phosphorus (1, 169.1 and 633.4 mg/100 mg, respectively). Amino acid analysis showed that total sulfur amino acids were the most deficient ones, giving a protein score of 42 to the material. The in vitro protein digestibility of the material was 69.5%. Biological trials demonstrated that when the material was offered as the only protein source, very low consumption and a high mortality rate were obtained whether or not the diet was supplemented with 0.4% dl-methionine. However, when the material supplied 25% of the total protein of a corn-algae diet, the protein quality of the cereal was significantly improved (P < 0.05). PMID:16345191

  1. Naturally occurring Parelaphostrongylus tenuis-associated choriomeningitis in a guinea pig with neurologic signs.

    PubMed

    Southard, T; Bender, H; Wade, S E; Grunenwald, C; Gerhold, R W

    2013-05-01

    An adult male guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) with a 1-month history of hind limb paresis, torticollis, and seizures was euthanized and submitted for necropsy. Gross examination was unremarkable, but histologic examination revealed multifocal eosinophilic and lymphoplasmacytic choriomeningitis and cross sections of nematode parasites within the leptomeninges of the midbrain and diencephalon. Morphologic features of the nematode were consistent with a metastrongyle, and the parasite was identified as Parelaphostrongylus tenuis by polymerase chain reaction testing and nucleotide sequencing. Further questioning of the owner revealed that the guinea pig was fed grass from a yard often grazed by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of a naturally occurring P. tenuis infection in a guinea pig.

  2. Inhibition of T cell receptor signaling by cholesterol sulfate, a naturally occurring derivative of membrane cholesterol

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Feng; Beck-García, Katharina; Zorzin, Carina; Schamel, Wolfgang W. A.; Davis, Mark M.

    2016-01-01

    Most adaptive immune responses require the activation of specific T cells through the T cell antigen receptor–CD3 complex (TCR). Here we show that cholesterol sulfate (CS), a naturally occurring analog of cholesterol, inhibits CD3 ITAM phosphorylation, a crucial first step in T cell activation. Biochemical studies show that CS disrupted TCR multimers, apparently by displacing cholesterol, known to bind TCRβ. Moreover, CS-deficient mice displayed a heightened sensitivity to a self-antigen, whereas increasing CS content by intrathymic injection inhibited thymic selection, indicating that this molecule is an intrinsic regulator of thymocyte development. These results reveal a regulatory role for CS in TCR signaling and thymic selection, highlighting the importance of the membrane microenvironment in modulating cell surface receptor activation. PMID:27213689

  3. Immunohistochemical detection of Brucella melitensis antigens in cases of naturally occurring abortions in sheep.

    PubMed

    Ilhan, Fatma; Yener, Zabit

    2008-11-01

    Brucella melitensis, a worldwide zoonotic pathogen, is a significant cause of abortion in sheep and goats in some countries. The present study was carried out to determine, by immunohistochemistry, the presence of B. melitensis antigens in 110 naturally occurring aborted sheep fetuses. Sections of lung, liver, kidney, and spleen of each fetus were stained with immunoperoxidase to detect Brucella antigens. Brucella melitensis antigens were detected in 33 of 110 fetuses (30%). In the 33 positive cases, Brucella antigens were found in lung (25 [22.7%]), liver (21 [19%]), spleen (13 [11.8%]), and kidney (6 [5.4%]). Microscopic studies demonstrated that Brucella antigens were mainly located in the cytoplasm of macrophages and neutrophils of the lung, and in the cytoplasm of macrophages in the portal infiltrates and Kupffer cells of the liver. It was concluded that immunohistochemistry in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues is a useful tool for the diagnosis of spontaneous ovine abortion caused by B. melitensis.

  4. Poly(anhydride-esters) Comprised Exclusively of Naturally Occurring Antimicrobials and EDTA: Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Carvacrol, thymol, and eugenol are naturally occurring phenolic compounds known to possess antimicrobial activity against a range of bacteria, as well as antioxidant activity. Biodegradable poly(anhydride-esters) composed of an ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) backbone and antimicrobial pendant groups (i.e., carvacrol, thymol, or eugenol) were synthesized via solution polymerization. The resulting polymers were characterized to confirm their chemical composition and understand their thermal properties and molecular weight. In vitro release studies demonstrated that polymer hydrolytic degradation was complete after 16 days, resulting in the release of free antimicrobials and EDTA. Antioxidant and antibacterial assays determined that polymer release media exhibited bioactivity similar to that of free compound, demonstrating that polymer incorporation and subsequent release had no effect on activity. These polymers completely degrade into components that are biologically relevant and have the capability to promote preservation of consumer products in the food and personal care industries via antimicrobial and antioxidant pathways. PMID:24702678

  5. Systems and methods for facilitating hydrogen storage using naturally occurring nanostructure assemblies

    DOEpatents

    Fliermans,; Carl, B [Augusta, GA

    2012-08-07

    Some or all of the needs above can be addressed by embodiments of the invention. According to embodiments of the invention, systems and methods for facilitating hydrogen storage using naturally occurring nanostructure assemblies can be implemented. In one embodiment, a method for storing hydrogen can be provided. The method can include providing diatoms comprising diatomaceous earth or diatoms from a predefined culture. In addition, the method can include heating the diatoms in a sealed environment in the presence of at least one of titanium, a transition metal, or a noble metal to provide a porous hydrogen storage medium. Furthermore, the method can include exposing the porous hydrogen storage medium to hydrogen. In addition, the method can include storing at least a portion of the hydrogen in the porous hydrogen storage medium.

  6. Radon as a naturally occurring tracer for the assessment of residual NAPL contamination of aquifers.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Michael; Paschke, Albrecht; Lau, Steffen; Geyer, Wolfgang; Knöller, Kay

    2007-02-01

    The noble gas radon has a strong affinity to non-aqueous phase-liquids (NAPLs). That property makes it applicable as naturally occurring partitioning tracer for assessing residual NAPL contamination of aquifers. In a NAPL contaminated aquifer, radon dissolved in the groundwater partitions preferably into the NAPL. The magnitude of the resulting radon deficit in the groundwater depends on the NAPL-specific radon partition coefficient and on the NAPL saturation of the pore space. Hence, if the partition coefficient is known, the NAPL saturation is attainable by determination of the radon deficit. After a concise discussion of theoretical aspects regarding radon partitioning into NAPL, related experimental data and results of a field investigation are presented. Aim of the laboratory experiments was the determination of radon partition coefficients of multi-component NAPLs of environmental concern. The on-site activities were carried out in order to confirm the applicability of the "radon method" under field conditions.

  7. Poly(anhydride-esters) comprised exclusively of naturally occurring antimicrobials and EDTA: antioxidant and antibacterial activities.

    PubMed

    Carbone-Howell, Ashley L; Stebbins, Nicholas D; Uhrich, Kathryn E

    2014-05-12

    Carvacrol, thymol, and eugenol are naturally occurring phenolic compounds known to possess antimicrobial activity against a range of bacteria, as well as antioxidant activity. Biodegradable poly(anhydride-esters) composed of an ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) backbone and antimicrobial pendant groups (i.e., carvacrol, thymol, or eugenol) were synthesized via solution polymerization. The resulting polymers were characterized to confirm their chemical composition and understand their thermal properties and molecular weight. In vitro release studies demonstrated that polymer hydrolytic degradation was complete after 16 days, resulting in the release of free antimicrobials and EDTA. Antioxidant and antibacterial assays determined that polymer release media exhibited bioactivity similar to that of free compound, demonstrating that polymer incorporation and subsequent release had no effect on activity. These polymers completely degrade into components that are biologically relevant and have the capability to promote preservation of consumer products in the food and personal care industries via antimicrobial and antioxidant pathways.

  8. Naturally occurring Tyzzer's disease in cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus).

    PubMed

    Sasseville, Vito G; Simon, Meredith A; Chalifoux, Laura V; Lin, Kuei-Chin; Mansfield, Keith G

    2007-02-01

    We noted naturally occurring infection with Clostridium piliforme (Tyzzer's disease) in 2 captive-reared cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus). Spontaneous Tyzzer's disease has been reported in multiple species of laboratory, domestic, and wild animals but is extremely rare in humans and nonhuman primates. Distinct from idiopathic colitis, which is common in cotton-top tamarins, these 2 tamarins had severe, transmural, necrotizing typhlocolitis accompanied by myocarditis and hepatitis. Abundant bacteria compatible with C. piliforme, the etiologic agent of Tyzzer's disease, were present adjacent to lesions in the cecum-colon, liver, and heart. Therefore, colitis caused by C. piliforme, although rare, should be included as a differential diagnosis in cotton-top tamarins and as a cause of postnatal mortality in this species.

  9. El Dorado Air Quality Management District's Approach to Dealing With Naturally Occurring Asbestos (NOA) Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, C.

    2012-12-01

    In 2005, Naturally Occurring Asbestos (NOA) in El Dorado County made headlines with the discovery significant amounts of tremolite/actinolite asbestos in areas where residents had built, or were in the process of building, homes and residences. The El Dorado Air Quality Management District has been involved in all aspects of dealing with NOA from the very beginning of its discovery, from overseeing the rehabilitation of school sites to expanding and rewriting fugitive dust rules at construction sites. A discussion of best management practices which have been developed will be given, as well as how the El Dorado Air Quality Management District has worked to educate members of the public, as well as workers in the field, about NOA to aid in maintaining the health and safety of the public.

  10. Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) from a former phosphoric acid processing plant.

    PubMed

    Beddow, H; Black, S; Read, D

    2006-01-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing awareness of the radiological impact of non-nuclear industries that extract and/or process ores and minerals containing naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). These industrial activities may result in significant radioactive contamination of (by-) products, wastes and plant installations. In this study, scale samples were collected from a decommissioned phosphoric acid processing plant. To determine the nature and concentration of NORM retained in pipe-work and associated process plant, four main areas of the site were investigated: (1) the 'Green Acid Plant', where crude acid was concentrated; (2) the green acid storage tanks; (3) the Purified White Acid (PWA) plant, where inorganic impurities were removed; and (4) the solid waste, disposed of on-site as landfill. The scale samples predominantly comprise the following: fluorides (e.g. ralstonite); calcium sulphate (e.g. gypsum); and an assemblage of mixed fluorides and phosphates (e.g. iron fluoride hydrate, calcium phosphate), respectively. The radioactive inventory is dominated by 238U and its decay chain products, and significant fractionation along the series occurs. Compared to the feedstock ore, elevated concentrations (< or =8.8 Bq/g) of 238U were found to be retained in installations where the process stream was rich in fluorides and phosphates. In addition, enriched levels (< or =11 Bq/g) of 226Ra were found in association with precipitates of calcium sulphate. Water extraction tests indicate that many of the scales and waste contain significantly soluble materials and readily release radioactivity into solution.

  11. Naturally Occurring Asbestos in the Southern Nevada Region: Potential for Human Exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buck, B. J.; Metcalf, R. V.; Berry, D.; McLaurin, B.; Kent, D.; Januch, J.; Goossens, D.

    2015-12-01

    Naturally occurring fibrous actinolite, winchite, magnesioriebeckite, richterite, magnesiohornblende, and erionite have been found in rock, soil, and dust in southern Nevada and northwestern Arizona. The areas containing naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) include urban areas (e.g. Boulder City) and rural areas where people routinely enjoy outdoor activities including horseback riding, running, hiking, bicycling, and off-road-vehicle (ORV) recreation. A recent study showing mesothelioma in young people and women suggests some form of environmental exposure. Rock, soil, dust and clothing were analyzed using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS); additional rock samples were analyzed using wavelength dispersive electron probe microanalysis (EPMA); additional soil samples were analyzed using PLM (polarizing light microscopy) and TEM (transmission electron microscopy) using the Fluidized Bed Asbestos Segregator preparation method. Winds have transported and mixed the Ca-amphiboles, which are primarily from Nevada, with the Na-amphiboles that are primarily from northwestern Arizona. Erionite, which has not previously been reported in this area, was a common soil component found in 5 of 6 samples. The erionite source has not yet been determined. Winds have transported the amphibole and erionite particles into the Nellis Dunes Recreation Area - an ORV recreation area located 35 km north of Boulder City that otherwise would not be geologically predicted to contain fibrous amphiboles. In Boulder City, wind directions are primarily bimodal N-NE and S-SW with the strongest winds in the spring coming from the S-SW. The arid climate in this part of the Mojave Desert greatly increases the potential for wind erosion and human exposures. These results suggest that the entire Las Vegas Basin has, at times, received these particles through wind transport. Because the most likely human exposure pathway is through inhalation of dust, the Las Vegas

  12. Computational Assessment of Naturally Occurring Neutron and Photon Background Radiation Produced by Extraterrestrial Sources

    DOE PAGES

    Miller, Thomas Martin; de Wet, Wouter C.; Patton, Bruce W.

    2015-10-28

    In this study, a computational assessment of the variation in terrestrial neutron and photon background from extraterrestrial sources is presented. The motivation of this assessment is to evaluate the practicality of developing a tool or database to estimate background in real time (or near–real time) during an experimental measurement or to even predict the background for future measurements. The extraterrestrial source focused on during this assessment is naturally occurring galactic cosmic rays (GCRs). The MCNP6 transport code was used to perform the computational assessment. However, the GCR source available in MCNP6 was not used. Rather, models developed and maintained bymore » NASA were used to generate the GCR sources. The largest variation in both neutron and photon background spectra was found to be caused by changes in elevation on Earth's surface, which can be as large as an order of magnitude. All other perturbations produced background variations on the order of a factor of 3 or less. The most interesting finding was that ~80% and 50% of terrestrial background neutrons and photons, respectively, are generated by interactions in Earth's surface and other naturally occurring and man-made objects near a detector of particles from extraterrestrial sources and their progeny created in Earth's atmosphere. In conclusion, this assessment shows that it will be difficult to estimate the terrestrial background from extraterrestrial sources without a good understanding of a detector's surroundings. Therefore, estimating or predicting background during a measurement environment like a mobile random search will be difficult.« less

  13. Characterization of naturally-occurring humoral immunity to AAV in sheep.

    PubMed

    Tellez, Joseph; Van Vliet, Kim; Tseng, Yu-Shan; Finn, Jonathan D; Tschernia, Nick; Almeida-Porada, Graça; Arruda, Valder R; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; Porada, Christopher D

    2013-01-01

    AAV vectors have shown great promise for clinical gene therapy (GT), but pre-existing human immunity against the AAV capsid often limits transduction. Thus, testing promising AAV-based GT approaches in an animal model with similar pre-existing immunity could better predict clinical outcome. Sheep have long been used for basic biological and preclinical studies. Moreover, we have re-established a line of sheep with severe hemophilia A (HA). Given the impetus to use AAV-based GT to treat hemophilia, we characterized the pre-existing ovine humoral immunity to AAV. ELISA revealed naturally-occurring antibodies to AAV1, AAV2, AAV5, AAV6, AAV8, and AAV9. For AAV2, AAV8, and AAV9 these inhibit transduction in a luciferase-based neutralization assay. Epitope mapping identified peptides that were common to the capsids of all AAV serotypes tested (AAV2, AAV5, AAV8 and AAV9), with each animal harboring antibodies to unique and common capsid epitopes. Mapping using X-ray crystallographic AAV capsid structures demonstrated that these antibodies recognized both surface epitopes and epitopes located within regions of the capsid that are internal or buried in the capsid structure. These results suggest that sheep harbor endogenous AAV, which induces immunity to both intact capsid and to capsid epitopes presented following proteolysis during the course of infection. In conclusion, their clinically relevant physiology and the presence of naturally-occurring antibodies to multiple AAV serotypes collectively make sheep a unique model in which to study GT for HA, and other diseases, and develop strategies to circumvent the clinically important barrier of pre-existing AAV immunity.

  14. Urinary bladder cancer in dogs, a naturally occurring model for cancer biology and drug development.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Deborah W; Ramos-Vara, José A; Moore, George E; Dhawan, Deepika; Bonney, Patty L; Young, Kirsten E

    2014-01-01

    Each year more than 65,000 people are diagnosed with urinary bladder cancer, and more than 14,000 people die from the disease in the United States. Studies in relevant animal models are essential to improve the management of bladder cancer. Naturally occurring bladder cancer in dogs very closely mimics human invasive bladder cancer, specifically high-grade invasive transitional cell carcinoma (TCC; also referred to as invasive urothelial carcinoma) in cellular and molecular features; biological behavior, including sites and frequency of metastasis; and response to therapy. Canine bladder cancer complements experimentally induced rodent tumors in regard to animal models of bladder cancer. Results of cellular and molecular studies and -omics analyses in dogs are expected to lead to improved detection of TCC and preneoplastic lesions, earlier intervention, better prediction of patient outcome, and more effective TCC management overall. Studies in dogs are being used to help define heritable risks (through very strong breed-associated risk) and environment risks and to evaluate prevention and treatment approaches that benefit humans as well as dogs. Clinical treatment trials in pet dogs with TCC are considered a win-win scenario by clinician scientists and pet owners. The individual dog benefits from effective treatment, the results are expected to help other dogs, and the findings are expected to ultimately help humans with TCC. This article provides an overview of canine TCC, a summary of the similarities and differences between canine and human invasive TCC, and examples of the types of valuable translational research that can be done using dogs with naturally occurring TCC.

  15. Analysis of naturally-occurring radionuclides in coal combustion fly ash, gypsum, and scrubber residue samples.

    PubMed

    Roper, Angela R; Stabin, Michael G; Delapp, Rossane C; Kosson, David S

    2013-03-01

    Coal combustion residues from coal-fired power plants can be advantageous for use in building and construction materials. These by-products contain trace quantities of naturally occurring radionuclides from the uranium and thorium series, as well as other naturally occurring radionuclides such as K. Analysis was performed on samples of coal fly ash, flue gas desulfurization, gypsum and scrubber sludges, fixated scrubber sludges, and waste water filter cakes sampled from multiple coal-fired power plants in the United States. The radioactive content of U and Th decay series nuclides was determined using gamma photopeaks from progeny Pb at 352 keV and Tl at 583 keV, respectively; K specific activities were determined using the 1,461 keV photopeak. The samples were hermetically sealed to allow for secular equilibrium between the radium parents and the radon and subsequent progeny. Samples were analyzed in a common geometry using two high purity germanium photon detectors with low energy detection capabilities. The specific activities (Bq kg) were compared to results from literature studies including different building materials and fly ash specific activities. Fly ash from bituminous and subbituminous coals had U specific activities varying from 30-217 Bq kg (mean + 1 s.d. 119 ± 45 Bq kg) and 72-209 Bq kg (115 ± 40 Bq kg), respectively; Th specific activities from 10-120 Bq kg (73 ± 26 Bq kg) and 53-110 Bq kg (81 ± 18 Bq kg), respectively; and K specific activities from 177 to 928 Bq kg (569 ± 184 Bq kg) and 87-303 Bq kg (171 ± 69 Bq kg), respectively. Gypsum samples had U, Th, and K specific activities approximately one order of magnitude less than measured for fly ash samples.

  16. Acute Phase Proteins in Cerebrospinal Fluid from Dogs with Naturally-Occurring Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Kimberly M.; Welsh, C. Jane; Young, Colin; Levine, Gwendolyn J.; Kerwin, Sharon C.; Boudreau, C. Elizabeth; Reyes, Ismael; Mondragon, Armando; Griffin, John F.; Cohen, Noah D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Spinal cord injury (SCI) affects thousands of people each year and there are no treatments that dramatically improve clinical outcome. Canine intervertebral disc herniation is a naturally-occurring SCI that has similarities to human injury and can be used as a translational model for evaluating therapeutic interventions. Here, we characterized cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) acute phase proteins (APPs) that have altered expression across a spectrum of neurological disorders, using this canine model system. The concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP), haptoglobin (Hp), alpha-1-glycoprotein, and serum amyloid A were determined in the CSF of 42 acutely injured dogs, compared with 21 healthy control dogs. Concentrations of APPs also were examined with respect to initial injury severity and motor outcome 42 d post-injury. Hp concentration was significantly higher (p<0.0001) in the CSF of affected dogs, compared with healthy control dogs. Additionally, the concentrations of CRP and Hp were significantly (p=0.0001 and p=0.0079, respectively) and positively associated with CSF total protein concentration. The concentrations of CRP and Hp were significantly higher (p=0.0071 and p=0.0197, respectively) in dogs with severe injury, compared with those with mild-to-moderate SCI, but there was no significant correlation between assessed CSF APP concentrations and 42 d motor outcome. This study demonstrated that CSF APPs were dysregulated in dogs with naturally-occurring SCI and could be used as markers for SCI severity. As Hp was increased following severe SCI and is neuroprotective across a number of model systems, it may represent a viable therapeutic target. PMID:26186466

  17. Making species salinity sensitivity distributions reflective of naturally occurring communities: using rapid testing and Bayesian statistics.

    PubMed

    Hickey, Graeme L; Kefford, Ben J; Dunlop, Jason E; Craig, Peter S

    2008-11-01

    Species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) may accurately predict the proportion of species in a community that are at hazard from environmental contaminants only if they contain sensitivity data from a large sample of species representative of the mix of species present in the locality or habitat of interest. With current widely accepted ecotoxicological methods, however, this rarely occurs. Two recent suggestions address this problem. First, use rapid toxicity tests, which are less rigorous than conventional tests, to approximate experimentally the sensitivity of many species quickly and in approximate proportion to naturally occurring communities. Second, use expert judgements regarding the sensitivity of higher taxonomic groups (e.g., orders) and Bayesian statistical methods to construct SSDs that reflect the richness (or perceived importance) of these groups. Here, we describe and analyze several models from a Bayesian perspective to construct SSDs from data derived using rapid toxicity testing, combining both rapid test data and expert opinion. We compare these new models with two frequentist approaches, Kaplan-Meier and a log-normal distribution, using a large data set on the salinity sensitivity of freshwater macroinvertebrates from Victoria (Australia). The frequentist log-normal analysis produced a SSD that overestimated the hazard to species relative to the Kaplan-Meier and Bayesian analyses. Of the Bayesian analyses investigated, the introduction of a weighting factor to account for the richness (or importance) of taxonomic groups influenced the calculated hazard to species. Furthermore, Bayesian methods allowed us to determine credible intervals representing SSD uncertainty. We recommend that rapid tests, expert judgements, and novel Bayesian statistical methods be used so that SSDs reflect communities of organisms found in nature.

  18. Biased Signaling in Naturally Occurring Mutations in Human Melanocortin-3 Receptor Gene

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fan; Huang, Hui; Tao, Ya-Xiong

    2015-01-01

    The melanocortin-3 receptor (MC3R) is primarily expressed in the hypothalamus and plays an important role in the regulation of energy homeostasis. Recently, some studies demonstrated that MC3R also signals through mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), especially extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2). ERK1/2 signaling is known to alter gene expression, potentially contributing to the prolonged action of melanocortins on energy homeostasis regulation. In the present study, we performed detailed functional studies on 8 novel naturally occurring MC3R mutations recently reported, and the effects of endogenous MC3R agonist, α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH), on ERK1/2 signaling on all 22 naturally occurring MC3R mutations reported to date. We found that mutants D158Y and L299V were potential pathogenic causes to obesity. Four residues, F82, D158, L249 and L299, played critical roles in different aspects of MC3R function. α-MSH exhibited balanced activity in Gs-cAMP and ERK1/2 signaling pathways in 15 of the 22 mutant MC3Rs. The other 7 mutant MC3Rs were biased to either one of the signaling pathways. In summary, we provided novel data about the structure-function relationship of MC3R, identifying residues important for receptor function. We also demonstrated that some mutations exhibited biased signaling, preferentially activating one intracellular signaling pathway, adding a new layer of complexity to MC3R pharmacology. PMID:25798062

  19. Characterization of Naturally-Occurring Humoral Immunity to AAV in Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Tellez, Joseph; Van Vliet, Kim; Tseng, Yu-Shan; Finn, Jonathan D.; Tschernia, Nick; Almeida-Porada, Graça; Arruda, Valder R.; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; Porada, Christopher D.

    2013-01-01

    AAV vectors have shown great promise for clinical gene therapy (GT), but pre-existing human immunity against the AAV capsid often limits transduction. Thus, testing promising AAV-based GT approaches in an animal model with similar pre-existing immunity could better predict clinical outcome. Sheep have long been used for basic biological and preclinical studies. Moreover, we have re-established a line of sheep with severe hemophilia A (HA). Given the impetus to use AAV-based GT to treat hemophilia, we characterized the pre-existing ovine humoral immunity to AAV. ELISA revealed naturally-occurring antibodies to AAV1, AAV2, AAV5, AAV6, AAV8, and AAV9. For AAV2, AAV8, and AAV9 these inhibit transduction in a luciferase-based neutralization assay. Epitope mapping identified peptides that were common to the capsids of all AAV serotypes tested (AAV2, AAV5, AAV8 and AAV9), with each animal harboring antibodies to unique and common capsid epitopes. Mapping using X-ray crystallographic AAV capsid structures demonstrated that these antibodies recognized both surface epitopes and epitopes located within regions of the capsid that are internal or buried in the capsid structure. These results suggest that sheep harbor endogenous AAV, which induces immunity to both intact capsid and to capsid epitopes presented following proteolysis during the course of infection. In conclusion, their clinically relevant physiology and the presence of naturally-occurring antibodies to multiple AAV serotypes collectively make sheep a unique model in which to study GT for HA, and other diseases, and develop strategies to circumvent the clinically important barrier of pre-existing AAV immunity. PMID:24086458

  20. Risk and protective factors for cats with naturally occurring chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Piyarungsri, Kakanang; Pusoonthornthum, Rosama

    2017-04-01

    Objectives Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a significant disease in cats. Identifying risk and protective factors may help to prevent this significant disease. Methods An age-matched case-control study was performed to determine the risk factors in cats with naturally occurring CKD. Twenty-nine clinically normal cats aged ⩾5 years and 101 cats with naturally occurring CKD were studied. Risk factors were determined by interviewing cat owners from the Small Animal Hospital, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Chulalongkorn University, and veterinary hospitals in the Bangkok Metropolitan area, through questionnaires completed between June 2004 and November 2014. Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed using two independent proportional test methods and logistic regression analysis with backward elimination. Results Male sex (odd ratios [OR] 2.80, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-8.87; P = 0.02), tap water (OR 3.43, 95% CI 1.08-11.45; P = 0.03) and an outdoor lifestyle (OR 3.77, 95% CI 1.03-17.99; P = 0.04) were associated with an increased risk for CKD. Commercial dry cat food (OR 0.06, 95% CI 0.02-0.17; P = 0.00), filtered water (OR 0.13, 95% CI 0.03-0.52; P = 0.01) and an indoor lifestyle (OR 0.28, 95% CI 0.07-0.98; P = 0.02) were associated with a decreased risk. Logistic regression analysis using backward elimination demonstrated that cats fed commercial dry cat food (OR 0.042, 95% CI 0.01-0.17; P = 0.00) had a decreased risk for CKD compared with cats on other types of diet. Conclusions and relevance Multivariable analysis found only feeding commercial dry cat food to be significant, suggesting that commercial dry cat food may be a potential protective factor for CKD in cats.

  1. Naturally-Occurring Marine Brominated Indoles are Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Ligands/Agonists

    PubMed Central

    DeGroot, Danica E.; Franks, Diana G.; Higa, Tatsuo; Tanaka, Junichi; Hahn, Mark E.; Denison, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that mediates the toxic and biological effects of structurally diverse chemicals, including the environmental contaminant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). As part of a larger effort to identify the full spectrum of chemicals that can bind to and activate the AhR, we have examined the ability of several naturally-occurring marine-derived brominated indoles and brominated (methylthio)indoles (collectively referred to as “brominated indoles”) to bind to the AhR and stimulate AhR-dependent gene expression. Incubation of mouse, rat and guinea pig recombinant cell lines containing a stably transfected AhR-responsive luciferase reporter gene with eight brominated indoles revealed that all compounds stimulated luciferase reporter gene activity, although some species-specific differences were observed. All compounds induced significantly more luciferase activity when incubated with cells for 4 h as compared to 24 h, demonstrating that these compounds are transient activators of the AhR signaling pathway. Three of the brominated indoles induced CYP1A1 mRNA in human HepG2 cells in vitro and Cyp1a mRNA in zebrafish embryos in vivo. The identification of the brominated indoles as direct ligands and activators/agonists of the AhR was confirmed by their ability to compete with [3H]TCDD for binding to the AhR and to stimulate AhR transformation and DNA binding in vitro. Taken together, these marine-derived brominated indoles are members of a new class of naturally-occurring AhR agonists. PMID:26001051

  2. Characterization of contaminant transport using naturally-occurring U-series disequilibria. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Murrell, M.; Ku, T.L.

    1998-06-01

    'The goal of the research is to study the migratory behavior of contaminants in subsurface fractured systems using naturally occurring uranium- and thorium-series radionuclides as tracers under in-situ physico-chemical and hydrogeologic conditions. Naturally occurring U- and Th-series disequilibria can provide information on the rates of adsorption-desorption and transport of contaminants as well as on fluid transport and rock dissolution in a natural setting. The authors are developing a realistic model of contaminant migration in the Snake River Plain Aquifer beneath the INEEL by evaluating the retardation processes involved in the rock/water interaction. The major tasks are to: (1) determine the natural distribution of U, Th, Pa and Ra isotopes in the groundwater as well as in rock minerals and sorbed phases, and (2) study rock/water interaction processes using U/Th series disequilibria and a statistical analysis-based model code for the calculation of in-situ retardation factors of radionuclides and rock/water interaction time scales. This study will also provide an improved understanding of the hydrogeologic features of the site and their impact on the migration of contaminants. This report summarizes results after 20 months of a 36-month project. Studies performed at LANL include analysis of the long-lived nuclides {sup 238}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 234}U, {sup 230}Th, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th, and {sup 231}Pa by thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS). Studies performed at the Univ. of Southern California include the measurement of short-lived naturally occurring radionuclides by decay-counting techniques and the development of models to predict the migration behavior of these radionuclides. Initial efforts began with analysis of 31, 0.5L water samples obtained through routine sampling by USGS and INEEL personnel. One significant observation from these data is that {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U activity ratios are highest in waters that emanate from local recharge

  3. Natural Competence of Xylella fastidiosa Occurs at a High Frequency Inside Microfluidic Chambers Mimicking the Bacterium's Natural Habitats

    PubMed Central

    Kandel, Prem P.; Lopez, Samantha M.; Almeida, Rodrigo P. P.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Xylella fastidiosa is a xylem-limited bacterium that is the causal agent of emerging diseases in a number of economically important crops. Genetic diversity studies have demonstrated homologous recombination occurring among X. fastidiosa strains, which has been proposed to contribute to host plant shifts. Moreover, experimental evidence confirmed that X. fastidiosa is naturally competent for recombination in vitro. Here, as an approximation of natural habitats (plant xylem vessels and insect mouthparts), recombination was studied in microfluidic chambers (MCs) filled with media amended with grapevine xylem sap. First, different media were screened for recombination in solid agar plates using a pair of X. fastidiosa strains that were previously reported to recombine in coculture. The highest frequency of recombination was obtained with PD3 medium, compared to those with the other two media (X. fastidiosa medium [XFM] and periwinkle wilt [PW] medium) used in previous studies. Dissection of the media components led to the identification of bovine serum albumin as an inhibitor of recombination that was correlated to its previously known effect on inhibition of twitching motility. When recombination was performed in liquid culture, the frequencies were significantly higher under flow conditions (MCs) than under batch conditions (test tubes). The recombination frequencies in MCs and agar plates were not significantly different from each other. Grapevine xylem sap from both susceptible and tolerant varieties allowed high recombination frequency in MCs when mixed with PD3. These results suggest that X. fastidiosa has the ability to be naturally competent in the natural growth environment of liquid flow, and this phenomenon could have implications in X. fastidiosa environmental adaptation. IMPORTANCE Xylella fastidiosa is a plant pathogen that lives inside xylem vessels (where water and nutrients are transported inside the plant) and the mouthparts of insect

  4. Naturally occurring neuronal plasticity in visual wulst of the Baya weaver, Ploceus philippinus (Linnaeus, 1766).

    PubMed

    Srivastava, U C; Gaur, Parul

    2013-06-01

    The visual wulst (VW), the rostro-dorsal surface of the avian telencephalon extending from the midline to the lateral region of the brain, is a laminated "bulge" consisting in four histologically distinct rostro-caudally arranged laminae with a specific sequence: hyperpallium apicale, interstitial nucleus of hyperpallium apicale, hyperpallium intercalatum and hyperpallium densocellulare. The VW has been proposed to be the avian equivalent of the mammalian striate cortex. Various behavioral studies including lesion experiments have indicated the importance of the VW, which receives visual and/or auditory cues. We have investigated qualitatively and quantitatively the fascinating structural changes occurring in VW neurons of the seasonally breeding bird, Ploceus philippinus (Linnaeus, 1766). The Golgi method was used to study the seasonal fluctuations in the neuronal classes of the VW with regard to dendritic thickness, spine morphology and spine density during both the non-breeding and breeding periods of male Baya weaver birds. Significant variations in parameters studied among the various neuronal types located in the different well-demarcated regions of the VW are believed to contribute to the functional differences reported among the wulst regions. Thus, this study extends our view demonstrating naturally occurring neuronal plasticity in a seasonally dynamic avian brain of a bird that hones not only its learning and memorizing system but also its social and sexual system in preparation for the breeding season.

  5. Naturally occurring PDGF receptor inhibitors with potential anti-atherosclerotic properties.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Chiara; Ferri, Nicola

    2015-07-01

    Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) represents one of the most prominent inducer of smooth muscle cell (SMC) migration and proliferation. Homo- and heterodimers of PDGF-A, PDGF-B, PDGF-C and PDGF-D subunits act by binding to homo- or heterodimers of the PDGF tyrosine kinase receptors, PDGFR-α and PDGFR-β. The essential role of PDGFR signaling on restenosis post-angioplasty or atherosclerosis has been demonstrated by using blocking antibodies to PDGF or the tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib. More specifically, molecular studies have defined the intracellular signaling pathways activated by PDGF, inducing the cell cycle progression and the migration of SMCs. Considering the relevant role of PDGF in atherogenesis, several studies have been performed to investigate the effect of naturally occurring compounds on both in vitro and in vivo experimental models of atherogenesis. The present review will briefly summarize the pathophysiological role of PDGF and the studies of natural inhibitors tested in in vivo experimental models of restenosis in response to vascular injury and/or atherosclerosis.

  6. Identification of naturally occurring hybrids between two overexploited sciaenid species along the South African coast.

    PubMed

    Mirimin, L; Kerwath, S E; Macey, B M; Bester-van der Merwe, A E; Lamberth, S J; Bloomer, P; Roodt-Wilding, R

    2014-07-01

    Hybridisation between fish species can play a significant role in evolutionary processes and can influence management and conservation planning, however, this phenomenon has been widely understudied, especially in marine organisms. The distribution limits of two sciaenid species (silver kob, Argyrosomus inodorus, and dusky kob, A. japonicus) partly overlap along the South African coast, where both species have undergone severe depletion due to overfishing. Following the identification of a number of possible cases of species misidentification or hybridisation (21 out of 422 individuals), nuclear and mitochondrial DNA data (12microsatellite loci and 562bp of the COI gene) were analysed to investigate the genetic composition of these individuals. Results indicated a field-based species misidentification rate of approximately 2.8% and a rate of natural hybridisation of 0.7%. Interestingly, all hybrid fish resulted from first-generation (F1) hybridisation events, which occurred exclusively between silver kob females and dusky kob males. Whether hybridisation is the result of natural events (such as secondary contact following a shift in distribution range), or anthropogenic activities (size-selective pressure due to overfishing), these findings have important implications for critical recovery and future management of these species in the wild.

  7. Allelopathic properties of α-terthienyl and phenylheptatriyne, naturally occurring compounds from species of asteraceae.

    PubMed

    Campbell, G; Lambert, J D; Arnason, T; Towers, G H

    1982-06-01

    Alpha-terthienyl (α-T), a naturally occurring polyacetylene derivative from roots ofTagetes erecta L., and phenylheptatriyne (PHT), from leaves ofBidens pilosa L., were tested as possible allelopathic agents against four seedling species (Asclepias syriaca L.,Chenopodium album L.,Phleum pratense L.,Trifolium pratense L.).Asclepias was the most sensitive of the species. Allelopathic activity was enhanced in the presence of sunlight or sources of near-UV, with LC50s forA. syriaca of 0.15 ppm and 0.66 ppm with α-T and PHT, respectively; 0.27 and 0.85 forC. album; 0.79 and 1.43 forP. pratense, and 1.93 and 1.82 forT. pratense. Near-UV exposure was saturating but never more than found in summer sunlight at Ottawa, Canada. Growth inhibition was observed with seedlings treated with α-T and PHT but without near-UV irradiation. Germination of seedlings was also sensitive to α-T and PHT with or without near-UV treatment. α-T was extracted from soil surrounding the roots ofTagetes. Concentrations calculated for the soil (0.4 ppm) indicate that seedling growth could be significantly hindered. The activity and specificity of α-T was sufficiently high to warrant future field trials to assess its potential as a natural weed-control agent.

  8. In vitro conversion of vinyl to formyl groups in naturally occurring chlorophylls.

    PubMed

    Loughlin, Patrick C; Willows, Robert D; Chen, Min

    2014-08-14

    The chemical structural differences distinguishing chlorophylls in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms are either formyl substitution (chlorophyll b, d, and f) or the degree of unsaturation (8-vinyl chlorophyll a and b) of a side chain of the macrocycle compared with chlorophyll a. We conducted an investigation of the conversion of vinyl to formyl groups among naturally occurring chlorophylls. We demonstrated the in vitro oxidative cleavage of vinyl side groups to yield formyl groups through the aid of a thiol-containing compound in aqueous reaction mixture at room temperature. Heme is required as a catalyst in aqueous solution but is not required in methanolic reaction mixture. The conversion of vinyl- to formyl- groups is independent of their position on the macrocycle, as we observed oxidative cleavages of both 3-vinyl and 8-vinyl side chains to yield formyl groups. Three new chlorophyll derivatives were synthesised using 8-vinyl chlorophyll a as substrate: 8-vinyl chlorophyll d, [8-formyl]-chlorophyll a, and [3,8-diformyl]-chlorophyll a. The structural and spectral properties will provide a signature that may aid in identification of the novel chlorophyll derivatives in natural systems. The ease of conversion of vinyl- to formyl- in chlorophylls demonstrated here has implications regarding the biosynthetic mechanism of chlorophyll d in vivo.

  9. From naturally-occurring neurotoxic agents to CNS shuttles for drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Soddu, Elena; Rassu, Giovanna; Giunchedi, Paolo; Sarmento, Bruno; Gavini, Elisabetta

    2015-07-10

    Central nervous system (CNS) diseases are hard to diagnose and therapeutically target due to the blood brain barrier (BBB), which prevents most drugs from reaching their sites of action within the CNS. Brain drug delivery systems were conceived to bypass the BBB and were derived from anatomical and functional analysis of the BBB; this analysis led researchers to take advantage of brain endothelial membrane physiology to allow drug access across the BBB. Both receptors and carriers can be used to transport endogenous and exogenous substances into the CNS. Combining a drug with substances that take advantage of these internalization mechanisms is a widely exploited strategy for drug delivery because it is an indirect method that overcomes the BBB in a non-invasive way and is therefore less dangerous and costly than invasive methods. Neurotoxins, among other naturally-occurring substances, may be used as drug carriers to specifically target the CNS. This review covers the current delivery systems that take advantage of the non-toxic components of neurotoxins to overcome the BBB and reach the CNS. We hope to give insights to researchers toward developing new delivery systems that exploit the positive features of substances usually regarded as natural hazards.

  10. Naturally occurring double-stranded RNA and immune responses. III. Immunogenicity and antigenicity in animals.

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, P G; Naysmith, J D

    1975-01-01

    Naturally occurring, double-stranded RNA (ds-RNA)) was immunogenic when injected into mice, rats, guinea-pigs, rabbits, dogs and baboons. The response to native material administered intravenously (i.v.) was strongest in rabbits and mice, and weakest in baboons. Mice, guinea-pigs and baboons injected with ds-RNA complexed with methylated BSA emulsified in Freund's complete adjuvant all gave high antibody responses. When ds-RNA was given in aerosol form to mice and guinea-pigs the response was weaker than that following i.v. injection, and baboons did not respond to antigen given as an aerosol. In most species the immune response obtained was predominantly IgM in nature, and there was no evidence for cell-mediated immunity in any species. The only evidence of an adverse reaction associated with repeated administration of ds-RNA was a systemic anaphylactic-type response in a small group of mice given ds-RNA repeatedly in aerosol form and challenged with ds-RNA i.v. PMID:811555

  11. Anthropogenic and naturally occurring radionuclide content in near surface air in Cáceres (Spain).

    PubMed

    Baeza, Antonio; Rodríguez-Perulero, Antonio; Guillén, Javier

    2016-12-01

    The anthropogenic ((137)Cs, (90)Sr, (239+240)Pu and (241)Am) and naturally occurring radionuclide ((40)K, (234,238)U, (228,230,232)Th, (226)Ra and (210)Pb) content in near surface air present seasonal variations related to natural processes, such as soil erosion, resuspension of fine particles of soil and radon exhalation from soil ((210)Pb). The objective is to analyze seasonal variations of their concentrations and compare with radiological events (Fukushima fallout and wild fire) in a location without any known source of anthropogenic radionuclides. The (210)Pb, (40)K, and (137)Cs presented annual variations, with maximum activity levels in summer. Solar radiation and rainfall were correlated with (210)Pb and (40)K. The (234,238)U, (228,230,232)Th, (226)Ra, (137)Cs and (90)Sr presented positive correlation with monthly mean values of temperature. The ratio (90)Sr/(137)Cs was within the range of those reported for soils in Spain. Finally, the maximal effective dose rate was estimated to be 37 and 88 μSv/y for infants and adults, respectively, well below 1 mSv/y reference level. The main contributor to effective dose was (210)Pb, about 92%, followed by: (210)Pb ≫ (228,230,232)Th > (226)Ra, (234,238)U > (7)Be, (239+240)Pu > (40)K, (90)Sr > (137)Cs > (22)Na.

  12. In vitro Conversion of Vinyl to Formyl Groups in Naturally Occurring Chlorophylls

    PubMed Central

    Loughlin, Patrick C.; Willows, Robert D.; Chen, Min

    2014-01-01

    The chemical structural differences distinguishing chlorophylls in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms are either formyl substitution (chlorophyll b, d, and f) or the degree of unsaturation (8-vinyl chlorophyll a and b) of a side chain of the macrocycle compared with chlorophyll a. We conducted an investigation of the conversion of vinyl to formyl groups among naturally occurring chlorophylls. We demonstrated the in vitro oxidative cleavage of vinyl side groups to yield formyl groups through the aid of a thiol-containing compound in aqueous reaction mixture at room temperature. Heme is required as a catalyst in aqueous solution but is not required in methanolic reaction mixture. The conversion of vinyl- to formyl- groups is independent of their position on the macrocycle, as we observed oxidative cleavages of both 3-vinyl and 8-vinyl side chains to yield formyl groups. Three new chlorophyll derivatives were synthesised using 8-vinyl chlorophyll a as substrate: 8-vinyl chlorophyll d, [8-formyl]-chlorophyll a, and [3,8-diformyl]-chlorophyll a. The structural and spectral properties will provide a signature that may aid in identification of the novel chlorophyll derivatives in natural systems. The ease of conversion of vinyl- to formyl- in chlorophylls demonstrated here has implications regarding the biosynthetic mechanism of chlorophyll d in vivo. PMID:25119484

  13. Enrichment and particle size dependence of polonium and other naturally occurring radionuclides in coal ash.

    PubMed

    Sahu, S K; Tiwari, M; Bhangare, R C; Pandit, G G

    2014-12-01

    Coal fired thermal power contributes 70% of power in India. Coal fired power generation results in huge amounts of fly ash and bottom ash of varying properties. Coal, which contains the naturally occurring radionuclides, on burning results in enrichment of these radionuclides in the ashes. In the present study, coal, bottom ash and fly ash samples collected from six coal-fired power plants in India were measured for (210)Po using alpha spectrometry and for natural U, (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K by an HPGe γ-ray spectrometer. (210)Po in fly ash ranged from 25.7 to 70 Bq/kg with a mean value of 40.5 Bq/kg. The range and mean activities of (238)U, (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K in fly ash were 38.5-101 (78.1), 60-105.7 (79), 20-125 (61.7) and 43.6-200 (100) Bq/kg respectively. Fly ash and bottom ash contains two to five times more natural radionuclides than feed coal. The results were compared with the available data from earlier studies in other countries. The effect of particle size on enrichment factor of the nuclides in fly ash was studied. (210)Po showed the largest size dependence with its concentration favoring the smaller particle size while (232)Th showed least size dependence. (238)U and (226)Ra showed behavior intermediate to that of (210)Po and (232)Th. Also the correlation between sulfur content of the feed coal and activity of (210)Po was investigated. Increased sulfur content in feed coal enhanced enrichment of (210)Po in ash.

  14. Naturally occurring clay nanoparticles in Latosols of Brazil central region: detection and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominika Dybowska, Agnieszka; Luciene Maltoni, Katia; Piella, Jordi; Najorka, Jens; Puntes, Victor; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia

    2015-04-01

    Stability and reactivity of minerals change as a particle size function, which makes mineral nanoparticles (defined here as <100 nm) fundamentally distinct from the larger size materials. Naturally occurring mineral nanoparticles contribute to many biogeochemical processes, however much remains to be learnt about these materials, their size dependent behavior and environmental significance. Advances in analytical, imaging and spectroscopic techniques made it now possible to study such particles; however we still have limited knowledge of their chemical, structural and morphological identity and reactivity, in particular in soils. The aim of this research was to characterize the naturally occurring nanoparticles in three soils from Brazil central region. The samples were collected in the A horizon, treated with H2O2 to remove organic material, dispersed in ultrasonic bath and wet sieved (53 µm) to remove the sand fraction. The clay fraction was collected by siphoning the supernatant, conditioned in 1000 ml cylinder, according to the Stock's law. This fraction was further processed by re-suspension in water, sonication and repeated centrifugation, to separate the fraction smaller than 100nm. This material, called here the soil "nanofraction", was analyzed using a range of techniques: 1) nanoparticle size/morphology and crystallinity with Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM operateing in scanning (HAADF-STEM) and High Resolution (HRTEM) mode), 2) size distribution in water with Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) and surface charge estimated from electrophoretic mobility measurements 3) crystal phase and crystallite size with X-ray Diffraction (XRD) 4) Chemical composition by quantitative analysis of elements (e.g., Si, Fe, Al, Ti) and their spatial distribution with HRTEM/EDS elemental mappings. The nanofraction had an average hydrodynamic particle diameter ranging from 83 to 92nm with a low polydispersity index of 0.13-0.17 and was found highly stable in aqueous

  15. Characterization of kidney damage using several renal biomarkers in dogs with naturally occurring heatstroke.

    PubMed

    Segev, G; Daminet, S; Meyer, E; De Loor, J; Cohen, A; Aroch, I; Bruchim, Y

    2015-11-01

    Heatstroke is often associated with acute kidney injury (AKI). The objectives of this study were to characterize the kidney damage occurring in canine heatstroke using routine and novel biomarkers and to assess their diagnostic and prognostic performance. Thirty dogs with naturally occurring heatstroke were enrolled prospectively. Blood and urine specimens were collected at presentation, at 4 h post-presentation and every 12 h until discharge or death. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and electrolyte fractional excretion (FE) at 4 h post-presentation were also calculated, based on urinary clearances. AKI was further characterized by evaluating urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin/creatinine ratio (UNGAL), urine retinol-binding protein/creatinine ratio (URBP), urine C-reactive protein/creatinine ratio (UCRP) and urine protein to creatinine ratio (UPC). These biomarkers were compared to those for 13 healthy dogs. Thirteen dogs (43%) died and 17 (57%) survived. Median serum creatinine concentration at presentation was 1.69 mg/dL (range, 0.5-4.7 mg/dL), while concurrent GFR was markedly decreased (median 0.60 mL/min/kg; range, 0.00-3.10 mL/min/kg). Median Na fractional excretion was 0.08 (range, 0.01-0.41) and was an accurate predictor of AKI (area under curve 0.89; 95% confidence intervals 0.76-1.00). Median UPC at presentation was 4.8 (range, 0.4-46.0). Median UCRP, URBP and UNGAL were increased in all dogs with heatstroke, and were mean 232, 133, and 1213-fold higher than healthy control dogs, respectively. In conclusion, although AKI occurs invariably in dogs with heatstroke, it is often subclinical at presentation. Damage occurs in both the renal tubules and the glomeruli. Novel kidney function tests for the characterization of renal injury and its severity are superior to conventional markers and could be used to facilitate early diagnosis of AKI.

  16. Mobilization of arsenic and other naturally occurring contaminants in groundwater of the Main Ethiopian Rift aquifers.

    PubMed

    Rango, Tewodros; Vengosh, Avner; Dwyer, Gary; Bianchini, Gianluca

    2013-10-01

    This study investigates the mechanisms of arsenic (As) and other naturally occurring contaminants (F(-), U, V, B, and Mo) mobilization from Quaternary sedimentary aquifers of the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER) and their enrichment in the local groundwater. The study is based on systematic measurements of major and trace elements as well as stable oxygen and hydrogen isotopes in groundwater, coupled with geochemical and mineralogical analyses of the aquifer rocks. The Rift Valley aquifer is composed of rhyolitic volcanics and Quaternary lacustrine sediments. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) results revealed that MER rhyolites (ash, tuff, pumice and ignimbrite) and sediments contain on average 72 wt. % and 65 wt. % SiO2, respectively. Petrographic studies of the rhyolites indicate predominance of volcanic glass, sanidine, pyroxene, Fe-oxides and plagioclase. The As content in the lacustrine sediments (mean = 6.6 mg/kg) was higher than that of the rhyolites (mean: 2.5 mg/kg). The lacustrine aquifers of the Ziway-Shala basin in the northern part of MER were identified as high As risk zones, where mean As concentration in groundwater was 22.4 ± 33.5 (range of 0.60-190 μg/L) and 54% of samples had As above the WHO drinking water guideline value of 10 μg/L. Field As speciation measurements showed that most of the groundwater samples contain predominantly (~80%) arsenate-As(V) over arsenite-As(III) species. The As speciation together with field data of redox potential (mean Eh = +73 ± 65 mV) and dissolved-O2 (6.6 ± 2.2 mg/L) suggest that the aquifer is predominantly oxidative. Water-rock interactions, including the dissolution of volcanic glass produces groundwater with near-neutral to alkaline pH (range 6.9-8.9), predominance of Na-HCO3 ions, and high concentration of SiO2 (mean: 85.8 ± 11.3 mg/L). The groundwater data show high positive correlation of As with Na, HCO3, U, B, V, and Mo (R(2) > 0.5; p < 0.001). Chemical modeling of the groundwater indicates that Fe-oxides and

  17. Effects of naturally occurring coumarins on hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes inmice

    SciTech Connect

    Kleiner, Heather E. Xia, Xiaojun; Sonoda, Junichiro; Zhang, Jun; Pontius, Elizabeth; Abey, Jane; Evans, Ronald M.; Moore, David D.; DiGiovanni, John

    2008-10-15

    Cytochromes P450 (P450s) and glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) constitute two important enzyme families involved in carcinogen metabolism. Generally, P450s play activation or detoxifying roles while GSTs act primarily as detoxifying enzymes. We previously demonstrated that oral administration of the linear furanocoumarins, isopimpinellin and imperatorin, modulated P450 and GST activities in various tissues of mice. The purpose of the present study was to compare a broader range of naturally occurring coumarins (simple coumarins, and furanocoumarins of the linear and angular type) for their abilities to modulate hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes when administered orally to mice. We now report that all of the different coumarins tested (coumarin, limettin, auraptene, angelicin, bergamottin, imperatorin and isopimpinellin) induced hepatic GST activities, whereas the linear furanocoumarins possessed the greatest abilities to induce hepatic P450 activities, in particular P450 2B and 3A. In both cases, this corresponded to an increase in protein expression of the enzymes. Induction of P4502B10, 3A11, and 2C9 by xenobiotics often is a result of activation of the pregnane X receptor (PXR) and/or constitutive androstane receptor (CAR). Using a pregnane X receptor reporter system, our results demonstrated that isopimpinellin activated both PXR and its human ortholog SXR by recruiting coactivator SRC-1 in transfected cells. In CAR transfection assays, isopimpinellin counteracted the inhibitory effect of androstanol on full-length mCAR, a Gal4-mCAR ligand-binding domain fusion, and restored coactivator binding. Orally administered isopimpinellin induced hepatic mRNA expression of Cyp2b10, Cyp3a11, and GSTa in CAR(+/+) wild-type mice. In contrast, the induction of Cyp2b10 mRNA by isopimpinellin was attenuated in the CAR(-/-) mice, suggesting that isopimpinellin induces Cyp2b10 via the CAR receptor. Overall, the current data indicate that naturally occurring coumarins have

  18. Molecular characterization of a naturally occurring intraspecific recombinant begomovirus with close relatives widespread in southern Arabia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Tomato leaf curl Sudan virus (ToLCSDV) is a single-stranded DNA begomovirus of tomato that causes downward leaf curl, yellowing, and stunting. Leaf curl disease results in significant yield reduction in tomato crops in the Nile Basin. ToLCSDV symptoms resemble those caused by Tomato yellow leaf curl virus, a distinct and widespread begomovirus originating in the Middle East. In this study, tomato samples exhibiting leaf curl symptoms were collected from Gezira, Sudan. The associated viral genome was molecularly characterized, analyzed phylogenetically, and an infectious clone for one isolate was constructed. Findings The complete genomes for five newly discovered variants of ToLCSDV, ranging in size from 2765 to 2767-bp, were cloned and sequenced, and subjected to pairwise and phylogenetic analyses. Pairwise analysis indicated that the five Gezira isolates shared 97-100% nucleotide identity with each other. Further, these variants of ToLCSDV shared their highest nucleotide identity at 96-98%, 91-95%, 91-92%, and 91-92% with the Shambat, Gezira, Oman and Yemen strains of ToLCSDV, respectively. Based on the high maximum nucleotide identities shared between these ToLCSDV variants from Gezira and other previously recognized members of this taxonomic group, they are considered isolates of the Shambat strain of ToLCSDV. Analysis of the complete genome sequence for these new variants revealed that they were naturally occurring recombinants between two previously reported strains of ToLCSDV. Finally, a dimeric clone constructed from one representative ToLCSV genome from Gezira was shown to be infectious following inoculation to tomato and N. benthamiana plants. Conclusion Five new, naturally occurring recombinant begomovirus variants (>96% shared nt identity) were identified in tomato plants from Gezira in Sudan, and shown to be isolates of the Shambat strain of ToLCSDV. The cloned viral genome was infectious in N. benthamiana and tomato plants, and symptoms in

  19. Effect of calcitonin pretreatment on naturally occurring intervertebral disc degeneration in guinea pig

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xiaohua; Tian, Faming; Wang, Wenya; Yan, Jinyin; Liu, Huanjiang; Liu, Binbin; Song, Huiping; Zhang, Yingze; Shen, Yong; Zhang, Liu

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Our previous study suggested protective effects of calcitonin (CT) on experimental osteoarthritis. The aim of the present study was to provide evidence of whether CT pretreatment could prevent naturally occurring intervertebral disc degeneration in guinea pigs. Methods: Forty-two 3 months old female guinea pigs were randomly assigned into 2 groups as follows: Twenty-four were treated by normal saline as control group and sacrificed at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months of age (6 animals at each time point), the other 18 were received salmon CT (8 ug/kg/day, everyday) treatment at 3 months of age and sacrificed at the age of 6, 9 and 12 months respectively. Van Gieson stain and the histological score were used to identify the histological changes of the lumbar intervertebral discs. The disc height and vertebral body height were measured. Immunohistochemistry measurements for glycosaminoglycan, type II collagen, and matrix metalloprotease (MMP)-1 expressions were performed. Bone quality and microstructural changes in the L3-6 lumbar vertebral bodies were assessed by bone mineral density (BMD), micro-CT analysis and biomechanical testing. Results: Histological analysis indicated significantly higher disc degeneration scores in 9-month-old guinea pigs in comparison with younger animals, and grew higher with increasing age. CT treatment significantly reduced the histological score, and increased the disc height and the ratio to vertebral body height in 12 months old animals, as well as upregulated the glycosaminoglycan, type II collagen and inhibited the MMP-1 expression. Micro-CT analysis showed decreased percent bone volume (BV/TV) and increased trabecular separation (Tb.Sp), structural model index (SMI) in 12 months old animals in comparison with the younger animals. Markedly increased BV/TV and decreased Tb.Sp were observed in CT treated animals when compared with control animals. The biomechanical properties including maximum load, maximum stress, yield stress and

  20. Early and delayed effects of naturally occurring asbestos on serum biomarkers of inflammation and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kodavanti, Urmila P; Andrews, Debora; Schladweiler, Mette C; Gavett, Stephen H; Dodd, Darol E; Cyphert, Jaime M

    2014-01-01

    Studies recently showed that intratracheal (IT) instillation of Libby amphibole (LA) increases circulating acute-phase proteins (APP; α-2 macroglobulin, A2M; and α-1 acid glycoprotein, AGP) and inflammatory biomarkers (osteopontin and lipocalin) in rats. In this study, objectives were to (1) compare changes in biomarkers of rats after instillation of different naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) minerals including LA, Sumas Mountain chrysotile (SM), El Dorado Hills tremolite (ED), and Ontario ferroactinolite cleavage fragments (ON), and (2) examine biomarkers after subchronic LA or amosite inhalation exposure. Rat-respirable fractions (aerodynamic diameter approximately 2.5 μm) prepared by water elutriation were delivered via a single IT instillation at doses of 0, 0.5, and 1.5 mg/rat in male F344 rats. Nose-only inhalation exposures were performed at 0, 1, 3.3, and 10 mg/m(3) for LA and at 3.3 mg /m(3) for amosite, 6h/d, 5 d/wk for 13 wk. Inflammation, metabolic syndrome, and cancer biomarkers were analyzed in the serum for up to 18 mo. IT instillation of some asbestos materials significantly increased serum AGP and A2M but to a varying degree (SM = LA > ON = ED). Numerical increases in interleukin (IL)-6 and osteopontin occurred in rats instilled with SM. SM and ED also elevated leptin and insulin at 15 mo, suggesting potential metabolic effects. LA inhalation tended to raise A2M at d 1 but not cytokines. Serum mesothelin appeared to elevate after 18 mo of LA inhalation. These results suggest that the lung injury induced by high levels of asbestos materials may be associated with systemic inflammatory changes and predisposition to insulin resistance.

  1. Long-term toxicity of naturally occurring asbestos in male Fischer 344 rats.

    PubMed

    Cyphert, Jaime M; McGee, Marie A; Nyska, Abraham; Schladweiler, Mette C; Kodavanti, Urmila P; Gavett, Stephen H

    2016-01-01

    Naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) fibers are found in geologic deposits that may be disturbed by mining, earthworks, or natural processes, resulting in adverse health risks to exposed individuals. The toxicities of Libby amphibole and NOA samples including Sumas Mountain chrysotile (SM), El Dorado tremolite (ED), and Ontario ferroactinolite cleavage fragments (ON) were compared in male Fischer 344 (F344) rats 15 mo after exposure. Rat-respirable fractions of LA and SM displayed greater mean lengths and aspect ratios than ED and ON. After a single intratracheal (IT) instillation (0.5 or 1.5 mg/rat), persistent changes in ventilatory parameters and a significant increase in lung resistance at baseline and after methacholine aerosol dosing were found only in rats exposed to 1.5 mg SM. High-dose ED significantly elevated bronchoalveolar lavage lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and protein levels, while high-dose SM increased γ-glutamyl transferase and LDH activities. A moderate degree of lung interstitial fibrosis after exposure to 1.5 mg SM persisted 15 mo after exposure, unchanged from previous findings at 3 mo. LA induced mild fibrosis, while ED and ON produced minimal and no apparent fibrosis, respectively. Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma was observed 15 mo after exposure to LA or ED. Data demonstrated that SM, given by bolus IT dosing on an equivalent mass basis, induced greater pulmonary function deficits, airway hyperresponsiveness, and interstitial fibrosis than other NOA, although unlike LA and ED, no apparent evidence for carcinogenicity was found. All NOA samples except ON cleavage fragments produced some degree of long-term toxicity.

  2. Infrared spectroscopic examination of the interaction of urea with the naturally occurring zeolite clinoptilolite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Byler, D.M.; Gerasimowicz, W.V.; Stockette, V.M.; Eberl, D.D.

    1991-01-01

    Infrared spectroscopy has shown for the first time that the naturally occurring zeolite clinoptilolite can absorb urea, (NH2)2CO, under ambient conditions from either aqueous or ethanolic solutions. The two strongest NH stretching bands at 3441 and 3344 cm-1 in pure, solid urea shift to higher frequency (about 3504 and 3401 cm-1) after absorption. Two of the four urea bands in the 1800-1300 cm-1 range (at 1683 and 1467 cm-1) undergo marked downward shifts to about 1670 and 1445 cm-1. The other two bands show little change in frequency. The strong band at 1602 cm-1, however, diminishes in intensity to little more than an ill-defined shoulder on the 1626-cm-1 peak. When clinoptilolite is heated to 450 ??C and then treated with molten urea (ca. 140 ??C) for several minutes, and finally washed twice with ethanol to remove excess unreacted urea, further changes become apparent in the spectrum of the urea-treated clinoptilolite. The two NH stretching bands broaden without significant change in frequency. Two new bands appear in the midfrequency range at 1777 (weak) and 1719 (medium strong) cm-1. Of the four original midfrequency peaks, the one at 1602 cm-1 is now absent. Two others (1627 and 1440 cm-1) exhibit little change, while the fourth has broadened and shifted down to 1663 cm-1, where it appears as a shoulder on the band at 1627 cm-1. Both treatments clearly induce interaction between urea and the zeolite which seems to result in significant modifications in the nature of the hydrogen bonding of the substrate. ?? 1991.

  3. Pulmonary ultrasonographic abnormalities associated with naturally occurring equine influenza virus infection in standardbred racehorses.

    PubMed

    Gross, Diane K; Morley, Paul S; Hinchcliff, Kenneth W; Reichle, Jean K; Slemons, Richard D

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine if naturally occurring acute infectious upper respiratory disease (IRD) caused by equine influenza virus is associated with ultrasonographically detectable pleural and pulmonary abnormalities in horses. Standardbred racehorses were evaluated for signs of IRD, defined as acute coughing or mucopurulent nasal discharge. For every horse with IRD (n = 16), 1 or 2 horses with no signs of IRD and the same owner or trainer (n = 30) were included. Thoracic ultrasonography was performed within 5-10 days of the onset of clinical disease in horses with IRD. Horses without IRD were examined at the same time as the horses with IRD with which they were enrolled. The rank of the ultrasound scores of horses with IRD was compared to that of horses without IRD. Equine influenza virus was identified as the primary etiologic agent associated with IRD in this study. Mild lung consolidation and peripheral pulmonary irregularities were found in 11 (69%) of 16 of the horses with IRD and 11 (37%) of 30 of control horses. Lung consolidation (median score = 1) and peripheral irregularities scores (median score = 1) were greater in horses with IRD compared to horses without IRD (median score = 0; P < .05). Pleural effusion was not observed. Equine influenza virus infection can result in abnormalities of the equine lower respiratory tract. Despite the mild nature of IRD observed in this study, lung consolidation and peripheral pulmonary irregularities were more commonly observed in horses with clinical signs of IRD. Further work is needed to determine the clinical significance of these ultrasonographic abnormalities.

  4. Pennsylvania's technologically enhanced, naturally occurring radioactive material experiences and studies of the oil and gas industry.

    PubMed

    Allard, David J

    2015-02-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania's experiences and ongoing studies related to technologically enhanced, naturally occurring radioactive material (TENORM) in the oil and gas industry. It has been known for many years that Pennsylvania's geology is unique, with several areas having relatively high levels of natural uranium and thorium. In the 1950s, a few areas of the state were evaluated for commercial uranium production. In the late 1970s, scoping studies of radon in homes prompted the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) Bureau of Radiation Protection (BRP) to begin planning for a larger state-wide radon study. The BRP and Oil and Gas Bureau also performed a TENORM study of produced water in the early 1990s for a number of conventional oil and gas wells. More recently, BRP and the Bureau of Solid Waste developed radiation monitoring regulations for all Pennsylvania solid waste disposal facilities. These were implemented in 2001, prompting another evaluation of oil and gas operations and sludge generated from the treatment of conventionally produced water and brine but mainly focused on the disposal of TENORM solid waste in the state's Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Subtitle D landfills. However, since 2008, the increase in volumes of gas well wastewater and levels of Ra observed in the unconventional shale gas well flow-back fracking water has compelled DEP to fully re-examine these oil and gas operations. Specifically, with BRP in the lead, a new TENORM study of oil and gas operations and related wastewater treatment operations has been initiated (), supported by an American National Standards Institute standard on TENORM () and a U.S. Government Accountability Office report on shale resource development and risks (). This study began in early 2013 and will examine the potential public and worker radiation exposure and environmental impact as well as re-evaluate TENORM waste disposal. This

  5. Evaluation of occupational exposure to naturally occurring radioactive materials in the Iranian ceramics industry.

    PubMed

    Fathabadi, N; Farahani, M V; Amani, S; Moradi, M; Haddadi, B

    2011-06-01

    Zircon contains small amounts of uranium, thorium and radium in its crystalline structure. The ceramic industry is one of the major consumers of zirconium compounds that are used as an ingredient at ∼10-20 % by weight in glaze. In this study, seven different ceramic factories have been investigated regarding the presence of radioactive elements with focus on natural radioactivity. The overall objective of this investigation is to provide information regarding the radiation exposure to workers in the ceramic industry due to naturally occurring radioactive materials. This objective is met by collecting existing radiological data specific to glaze production and generating new data from sampling activities. The sampling effort involves the whole process of glaze production. External exposures are monitored using a portable gamma-ray spectrometer and environmental thermoluminescence dosimeters, by placing them for 6 months in some workplaces. Internal routes of exposure (mainly inhalation) are studied using air sampling, and gross alpha and beta counting. Measurement of radon gas and its progeny is performed by continuous radon gas monitors that use pulse ionisation chambers. Natural radioactivity due to the presence of ²³⁸U, ²³²Th and ⁴⁰K in zirconium compounds, glazes and other samples is measured by a gamma-ray spectrometry system with a high-purity germanium detector. The average concentrations of ²³⁸U and ²³²Th observed in the zirconium compounds are >3300 and >550 Bq kg⁻¹, respectively. The specific activities of other samples are much lower than in zirconium compounds. The annual effective dose from external radiation had a mean value of ∼0.13 mSv y⁻¹. Dust sampling revealed the greatest values in the process at the powdering site and hand weighing places. In these plants, the annual average effective dose from inhalation of long-lived airborne radionuclides was 0.226 mSv. ²²²Rn gas concentrations in the glaze production plant and

  6. Construction of a naturally occurring radioactive material project in the BeAAT hazardous waste facilities.

    PubMed

    Abuahmad, H

    2015-06-01

    This paper does not necessarily reflect the views of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is produced during exploration and production operations of subsidiaries of the Abu Dhabi National Oil Company (ADNOC) in the United Arab Emirates, and accumulates in drilling tubulars, plant equipment, and components. These NORM hazardous wastes need to be managed in such a way that they do not damage human health and the environment. The primary radionuclides of concern in the oil and gas industries are radium-226 and radium-228. These radioisotopes are the decay products of uranium and thorium isotopes that are present in subsurface formations from which hydrocarbons are produced. While uranium and thorium are largely immobile, radium is slightly more soluble and may become mobilised in the fluid phases of the formation (International Association of Oil & Gas Producers, 2008). In order to treat and dispose of NORM waste products safely, ADNOC's subsidiary 'TAKREER' is developing a new facility, on behalf of all ADNOC subsidiaries, within the existing Central Environmental Protection Facilities (BeAAT) in Ruwais city. The NORM plant is envisaged to treat, handle, and dispose of NORM waste in the forms of scale, sludge, and contaminated equipment. The NORM treatment facility will cover activities such as decontamination, volume reduction, NORM handling, and concrete immobilisation of NORM waste into packages for designated landfilling.

  7. Anabolic and Antiresorptive Modulation of Bone Homeostasis by the Epigenetic Modulator Sulforaphane, a Naturally Occurring Isothiocyanate*

    PubMed Central

    Thaler, Roman; Maurizi, Antonio; Roschger, Paul; Sturmlechner, Ines; Khani, Farzaneh; Spitzer, Silvia; Rumpler, Monika; Zwerina, Jochen; Karlic, Heidrun; Dudakovic, Amel; Klaushofer, Klaus; Teti, Anna; Rucci, Nadia; Varga, Franz; van Wijnen, Andre J.

    2016-01-01

    Bone degenerative pathologies like osteoporosis may be initiated by age-related shifts in anabolic and catabolic responses that control bone homeostasis. Here we show that sulforaphane (SFN), a naturally occurring isothiocyanate, promotes osteoblast differentiation by epigenetic mechanisms. SFN enhances active DNA demethylation via Tet1 and Tet2 and promotes preosteoblast differentiation by enhancing extracellular matrix mineralization and the expression of osteoblastic markers (Runx2, Col1a1, Bglap2, Sp7, Atf4, and Alpl). SFN decreases the expression of the osteoclast activator receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) in osteocytes and mouse calvarial explants and preferentially induces apoptosis in preosteoclastic cells via up-regulation of the Tet1/Fas/Caspase 8 and Caspase 3/7 pathway. These mechanistic effects correlate with higher bone volume (∼20%) in both normal and ovariectomized mice treated with SFN for 5 weeks compared with untreated mice as determined by microcomputed tomography. This effect is due to a higher trabecular number in these mice. Importantly, no shifts in mineral density distribution are observed upon SFN treatment as measured by quantitative backscattered electron imaging. Our data indicate that the food-derived compound SFN epigenetically stimulates osteoblast activity and diminishes osteoclast bone resorption, shifting the balance of bone homeostasis and favoring bone acquisition and/or mitigation of bone resorption in vivo. Thus, SFN is a member of a new class of epigenetic compounds that could be considered for novel strategies to counteract osteoporosis. PMID:26757819

  8. Comparison of naturally occurring shale bitumen asphaltene and retorted shale oil asphaltene

    SciTech Connect

    Shue, F.F.; Yen, T.F.

    1980-01-01

    Asphaltene is ubiquitously present in both the natural occurring bitumen and the retorted shale oil. Very few cases for the comparison of asphaltene properties are available in the literature. In this research, a comparison of the shale bitumen asphaltene and the retorted shale oil asphaltene was undertaken to investigate structural changes during thermal cracking. This was accomplished by means of elemental chemical analysis, infrared spectra, proton nmr spectra, and carbon-13 spectra of the bitumen asphaltenes and asphaltenes derived from shale oil retorted at 425 and 500/sup 0/C. Elemental analysis indicated that asphaltenes derived from retorted shale oils have smaller H/C ratio and smaller oxygen and sulfur contents, but greater nitrogen content than that derived from shale bitumen. Infrared spectra revealed that the retorted shale oil asphaltenes have greater pyrrolic N-H and hydrogen bonded O-H or N-H absorption than the shale bitumen asphaltene. Retorted shale oil asphaltenes have relatively higher aromaticity, lower degree of substitution of the aromatic sheet, and shorter alkyl substituents, which indicated that the main reactions in the retorting process are carbon-carbon bond fission and intramolecular aromatization.

  9. Genetic basis of hindlimb loss in a naturally occurring vertebrate model

    PubMed Central

    Don, Emily K.; de Jong-Curtain, Tanya A.; Doggett, Karen; Hall, Thomas E.; Heng, Benjamin; Badrock, Andrew P.; Winnick, Claire; Nicholson, Garth A.; Guillemin, Gilles J.; Currie, Peter D.; Hesselson, Daniel; Heath, Joan K.; Cole, Nicholas J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Here we genetically characterise pelvic finless, a naturally occurring model of hindlimb loss in zebrafish that lacks pelvic fin structures, which are homologous to tetrapod hindlimbs, but displays no other abnormalities. Using a hybrid positional cloning and next generation sequencing approach, we identified mutations in the nuclear localisation signal (NLS) of T-box transcription factor 4 (Tbx4) that impair nuclear localisation of the protein, resulting in altered gene expression patterns during pelvic fin development and the failure of pelvic fin development. Using a TALEN-induced tbx4 knockout allele we confirm that mutations within the Tbx4 NLS (A78V; G79A) are sufficient to disrupt pelvic fin development. By combining histological, genetic, and cellular approaches we show that the hindlimb initiation gene tbx4 has an evolutionarily conserved, essential role in pelvic fin development. In addition, our novel viable model of hindlimb deficiency is likely to facilitate the elucidation of the detailed molecular mechanisms through which Tbx4 functions during pelvic fin and hindlimb development. PMID:26892237

  10. A naturally occurring contrast agent for OCT imaging of smokers' lung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ying; Bagnaninchi, Pierre O.; Whiteman, Suzanne C.; Gey van Pittius, Daniel; El Haj, Alicia J.; Spiteri, Monica A.; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2005-08-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) offers great potential for clinical applications in terms of its cost, safety and real-time imaging capability. Improvement of its resolution for revealing sub-layers or sub-cellular components within a tissue will further widen its application. In this study we report that carbon pigment, which is frequently present in the lungs of smokers, could be used as a contrast agent to improve the OCT imaging of lung tissue. Carbon produced an intense bright OCT image at a relatively deep location. The parallel histopathological section analysis confirmed the presence of carbon pigment in such tissues. The underlying mechanism of the OCT image formation has been discussed based on a model system in which carbon particles were dispersed in agar gel. Calculations and in-depth intensity profiles of OCT revealed that higher refractive index particles with a size close to or smaller than the wavelength would greatly increase backscattering and generate a sharp contrast, while a particle size several times larger than the wavelength would absorb or obstruct the light path. The naturally occurring contrast agent could provide a diagnostic biomarker of lung tissue in smokers. Furthermore, carbon under such circumstances, can be used as an effective exogenous contrast agent, with which specific components or tissues exhibiting early tumour formation can be optically labelled to delineate the location and boundary, providing potential for early cancer detection and its treatment.

  11. Naturally occurring cancers in dogs: insights for translational genetics and medicine.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Carlos E

    2014-01-01

    Here, we briefly review the state of knowledge of human cancer genetics to elaborate on the need for different types of mammalian models, highlighting the strengths of the dog. Mouse models are unparalleled for their experimental tractability and rapid genetic manipulation but have some key limitations in the area of human relevance. Companion dog models are attractive, because they are genetically more similar to humans, share environmental exposures with their owners, suffer from the same diseases as humans, and receive a high level of health care. They are ideal for the study of chronic diseases, because they age five to eight times faster than humans and generally live to old age. In addition, each dog breed is on the order of 100-fold genetically simpler than the whole human or dog population. These traits make the dog ideal for the study of complex genetics of naturally occurring cancers. Here, we contrast the relative strengths of cancer genetics in humans and dogs. We propose that humans are most ideal for the study of somatic cancer genetics, whereas dogs are most ideal for germline genetics. That proposition is supported by comparison of genome-wide association studies (GWASs) in human and canine cancer. One of the advantages of dog cancer GWASs is the ability to rapidly map complex traits, conduct fine mapping and identification of causative variation, and thus be in a position to move on to functional studies. We mention how these strengths of dog models will lead to rapid advances in translational medicine.

  12. Characterizing Older Adults' Involvement in Naturally Occurring Retirement Community (NORC) Supportive Service Programs.

    PubMed

    Greenfield, Emily A; Fedor, James P

    2015-01-01

    Naturally Occurring Retirement Community (NORC) Supportive Service Programs constitute one of the longest-standing models for age-friendly community initiatives. As a support-focused model, NORC programs typically offer a range of benefits--including direct services, group activities, and broader community development activities--that are intended to engage older adults with diverse needs, preferences, and interests. Moreover, NORC programs are designed to be used according to the needs of the particular participant engaging with them at a particular point in time. This range and flexibility of benefits indicate the importance of more systematically characterizing the ways in which older adults are involved with NORC programs. For this purpose, we used data from in-depth interviews with 35 residents across 6 NORC programs in New York City. Qualitative analysis revealed 6 ordered categories of involvement: (a) consciously no involvement; (b) involved, but not consciously; (c) relationship with staff only; (d) selectively involved with a strong sense of security; (e) NORC program leaders; and (f) dependence on the NORC program. Overall, results indicate how older adults' involvement in NORC programs can be characterized beyond their utilization of specific types of services and by their relationship with the program as a whole. Findings suggest the importance for outcomes research on NORC programs and related models to consider subgroup differences by involvement. Results also provide directions for theory development on engagement in voluntary programs, as well as for practice to enhance older adults' involvement in supportive service programs.

  13. Short communication: Change of naturally occurring benzoic acid during skim milk fermentation by commercial cheese starters.

    PubMed

    Han, Noori; Park, Sun-Young; Kim, Sun-Young; Yoo, Mi-Young; Paik, Hyun-Dong; Lim, Sang-Dong

    2016-11-01

    This study sought to investigate the change of naturally occurring benzoic acid (BA) during skim milk fermentation by 4 kinds of commercial cheese starters used in domestic cheese. The culture was incubated at 3-h intervals for 24h at 30, 35, and 40°C. The BA content during fermentation by Streptococcus thermophilus STB-01 was detected after 12h at all temperatures, sharply increasing at 30°C. In Lactobacillus paracasei LC431, BA was detected after 9h at all temperatures, sharply increasing until 18h and decreasing after 18h at 30 and 35°C. In the case of R707 (consisting of Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis and Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris), BA increased from 6h to 15h and decreased after 15h at 40°C. The BA during STB-01 and CHN-11 (1:1; mixture of S. thermophilus, Lc. lactis ssp. lactis, Lc. lactis ssp. cremoris, Lc. lactis ssp. diacetylactis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides ssp. cremoris) fermentation was detected after 3h at 35 and 40°C, sharply increasing up to 12h and decreasing after 15h at 35°C, and after 6h, increasing up to 9h at 30°C. After 3h, it steadily decreased at 40°C. The highest amount of BA was found during the fermentation by R707 at 30°C; 15h with 12.46mg/kg.

  14. Effect of naturally occurring ozone air pollution episodes on pulmonary oxidative stress and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Pirozzi, Cheryl; Sturrock, Anne; Weng, Hsin-Yi; Greene, Tom; Scholand, Mary Beth; Kanner, Richard; Paine, Robert

    2015-05-12

    This study aimed to determine if naturally occurring episodes of ozone air pollution in the Salt Lake Valley in Utah, USA, during the summer are associated with increased pulmonary inflammation and oxidative stress, increased respiratory symptoms, and decreased lung function in individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) compared to controls. We measured biomarkers (nitrite/nitrate (NOx), 8-isoprostane) in exhaled breath condensate (EBC), spirometry, and respiratory symptoms in 11 former smokers with moderate-to-severe COPD and nine former smokers without airflow obstruction during periods of low and high ozone air pollution. High ozone levels were associated with increased NOx in EBC in both COPD (8.7 (±8.5) vs. 28.6 (±17.6) μmol/L on clean air vs. pollution days, respectively, p < 0.01) and control participants (7.6 (±16.5) vs. 28.5 (±15.6) μmol/L on clean air vs. pollution days, respectively, p = 0.02). There was no difference in pollution effect between COPD and control groups, and no difference in EBC 8-isoprostane, pulmonary function, or respiratory symptoms between clean air and pollution days in either group. Former smokers both with and without airflow obstruction developed airway oxidative stress and inflammation in association with ozone air pollution episodes.

  15. Masculinised Behaviour of XY Females in a Mammal with Naturally Occuring Sex Reversal.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Paul A; Franco, Thomas; Sottas, Camille; Maurice, Tangui; Ganem, Guila; Veyrunes, Frédéric

    2016-03-11

    Most sex differences in phenotype are controlled by gonadal hormones, but recent work on laboratory strain mice that present discordant chromosomal and gonadal sex showed that sex chromosome complement can have a direct influence on the establishment of sex-specific behaviours, independently from gonads. In this study, we analyse the behaviour of a rodent with naturally occurring sex reversal: the African pygmy mouse Mus minutoides, in which all males are XY, while females are of three types: XX, XX* or X*Y (the asterisk represents an unknown X-linked mutation preventing masculinisation of X*Y embryos). X*Y females show typical female anatomy and, interestingly, have greater breeding performances. We investigate the link between sex chromosome complement, behaviour and reproductive success in females by analysing several behavioural features that could potentially influence their fitness: female attractiveness, aggressiveness and anxiety. Despite sex chromosome complement was not found to impact male mate preferences, it does influence some aspects of both aggressiveness and anxiety: X(*)Y females are more aggressive than the XX and XX*, and show lower anxiogenic response to novelty, like males. We discuss how these behavioural differences might impact the breeding performances of females, and how the sex chromosome complement could shape the differences observed.

  16. Effect of Naturally Occurring Ozone Air Pollution Episodes on Pulmonary Oxidative Stress and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Pirozzi, Cheryl; Sturrock, Anne; Weng, Hsin-Yi; Greene, Tom; Scholand, Mary Beth; Kanner, Richard; Paine, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine if naturally occurring episodes of ozone air pollution in the Salt Lake Valley in Utah, USA, during the summer are associated with increased pulmonary inflammation and oxidative stress, increased respiratory symptoms, and decreased lung function in individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) compared to controls. We measured biomarkers (nitrite/nitrate (NOx), 8-isoprostane) in exhaled breath condensate (EBC), spirometry, and respiratory symptoms in 11 former smokers with moderate-to-severe COPD and nine former smokers without airflow obstruction during periods of low and high ozone air pollution. High ozone levels were associated with increased NOx in EBC in both COPD (8.7 (±8.5) vs. 28.6 (±17.6) μmol/L on clean air vs. pollution days, respectively, p < 0.01) and control participants (7.6 (±16.5) vs. 28.5 (±15.6) μmol/L on clean air vs. pollution days, respectively, p = 0.02). There was no difference in pollution effect between COPD and control groups, and no difference in EBC 8-isoprostane, pulmonary function, or respiratory symptoms between clean air and pollution days in either group. Former smokers both with and without airflow obstruction developed airway oxidative stress and inflammation in association with ozone air pollution episodes. PMID:25985308

  17. Relationships of phytomacrofauna to surface area in naturally occurring macrophyte stands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Charles L.; Poe, Thomas P.; French, John R. P.; Schloesser, Donald W.

    1988-01-01

    Most studies of the relationships between freshwater macrophytes and phytomacrofauna, or the macroinvertebrates associated with the macrophytes, have been based on individual plant collections or samples from monotypic plant stands. We describe the phytomacrofauna assemblages within naturally occurring, taxonomically mixed stands, and consider how macrophyte surface area and plant morphology influenced phytomacrofauna diversity and abundance. Samples of submersed macrophytes and phytomacrofauna were collected April-November 1979 in Anchor Bay of Lake St. Clair. Only the portions of macrophytes within the water column and invertebrates from above the sediment were considered. Densities of phytomacrofauna were not consistently related to fluctuations in macrophyte surface area, indicating that the use of macrophyte structure by the invertebrates changed during the year. Both the abundance and species richness of the phytomacrofauna were strongly related to macrophyte species richness reflecting the response of the invertebrates to the structural heterogeneity in taxonomically mixed stands. Vertically heterogeneous stands with an understory of Chara and an overstory of vascular macrophytes, for example, were likely to contain more invertebrates than stands with only one macrophyte taxon.

  18. SUPPLEMENTARY COMPARISON Technically enhanced naturally occurring radionuclides (TENORM) in phosphogypsum: Comparison CCRI(II)-S5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakhashiro, A.; Sansone, U.; Wershofen, H.; Bollhöfer, A.; Kim, C. K.; Kim, C. S.; Korun, M.; Moune, M.; Lee, S. H.; Tarjan, S.

    2010-01-01

    Within the frame of mutual cooperation between the IAEA and the BIPM, the Consultative Committee for Ionizing Radiation Section II—Measurement of Radionuclides accepted an IAEA-organized interlaboratory comparison in 2008 on the determination of technically enhanced naturally occurring radionuclides in phosphogypsum. The study was piloted by the Chemistry Unit at the IAEA's Laboratories in Seibersdorf (Austria). This report presents the methodology applied in conducting this comparison and the results. Activity results for Pb-210, Ra-226, Th-230, U-234, U-235 and U-238 were reported by three national metrology institutes (NMI) and five other expert laboratories or designated institutes. Four different approaches were used to calculate the nominal value of the reported results and associated uncertainties, and the results from each individual participant were evaluated and compared with this nominal reference value. The reported evaluation of the measurement results demonstrated agreement amongst the participating laboratories. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI Section II, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  19. Cytotype Regulation Facilitates Repression of Hybrid Dysgenesis by Naturally Occurring KP Elements in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Michael J.; Grimes, Craig D.; Czora, Cody S.

    2016-01-01

    P elements inserted in the Telomere Associated Sequences (TAS) at the left end of the X chromosome are determiners of cytotype regulation of the entire P family of transposons. This regulation is mediated by Piwi-interacting (pi) RNAs derived from the telomeric P elements (TPs). Because these piRNAs are transmitted maternally, cytotype regulation is manifested as a maternal effect of the TPs. When a TP is combined with a transgenic P element inserted at another locus, this maternal effect is strengthened. However, when certain TPs are combined with transgenes that contain the small P element known as KP, stronger regulation arises from a zygotic effect of the KP element. This zygotic effect is observed with transgenic KP elements that are structurally intact, as well as with KP elements that are fused to an ancillary promoter from the hsp70 gene. Zygotic regulation by a KP element occurs only when a TP was present in the maternal germ line, and it is more pronounced when the TP was also present in the grand-maternal germ line. However, this regulation does not require zygotic expression of the TP. These observations can be explained if maternally transmitted piRNAs from TPs enable a polypeptide encoded by KP elements to repress P element transposition in zygotes that contain a KP element. In nature, repression by the KP polypeptide may therefore be facilitated by cytotype-mediating piRNAs. PMID:27172198

  20. Studies of two naturally occurring compounds which effect release of acetylcholine from synaptosomes. [Leptinotarsa decemlineata

    SciTech Connect

    Koenig, M.L.

    1985-01-01

    Two naturally occurring compounds which effect the release of neurotransmitter from synaptosomes have been purified to apparent homogeneity. Iotrochotin (IOT) isolated from wound exudate of the Caribbean purple bleeder sponge promotes release in a manner that is independent of the extracellular Ca/sup 2 +/ ion concentration. Leptinotarsin (LPT-d), a protein taken from hemolymph of the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, stimulates Ca/sup 2 +/-dependent release. IOT is slightly acidic and has a molecular weight of approximately 18 kD. (/sup 3/H)acetylcholine which has been introduced into synaptosomes as (/sup 3/H)choline can be released by IOT. The toxin releasable pool of labelled neurotransmitter is not depleted by depolarization of the synaptosomes with high potassium, and therefore seems to be primarily extravesicular. LPT-d is a larger protein (molecular weight = 45 kD) than IOT, and seems to effect primarily vesicular release by opening at least one type of presynaptic Ca/sup 2 +/ channel. The facilitatory effects of the toxin on synaptosomal release can be inhibited by inorganic Ca/sup 2 +/ channel antagonists, but are not generally affected by organic antagonists.

  1. Naturally occurring p16Ink4a-positive cells shorten healthy lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Darren J.; Childs, Bennett G.; Durik, Matej; Wijers, Melinde E.; Sieben, Cynthia J.; Zhong, Jian; Saltness, Rachel; Jeganathan, Karthik B.; Versoza, Grace C.; Pezeshki, Abdul-Mohammad; Khazaie, Khashayarsha; Miller, Jordan D.; van Deursen, Jan M.

    2016-01-01

    Cellular senescence, a stress-induced irreversible growth arrest often characterized by p16Ink4a expression and a distinctive secretory phenotype, prevents the proliferation of preneoplastic cells and has beneficial roles in tissue remodelling during embryogenesis and wound healing. Senescent cells accumulate in various tissues and organs over time and have been speculated to play a role in aging. To explore the physiological relevance and consequences of naturally occurring senescent cells, we used a previously established transgene, INK-ATTAC, to induce apoptosis in p16Ink4a-expressing cells of wild-type mice by injection of AP20187 twice a week starting at one year of age. Here we show that compared to vehicle alone, AP20187 treatment extended median lifespan in both male and female mice of two distinct genetic backgrounds. Clearance of p16Ink4a-positive cells delayed tumorigenesis and attenuated age-related deterioration of several organs without apparent side effects, including kidney, heart and fat, where clearance preserved the functionality of glomeruli, cardio-protective KATP channels, and adipocytes, respectively. Thus, p16Ink4a-positive cells that accumulate during adulthood negatively influence lifespan and promote age-dependent changes in multiple organs, and their therapeutic removal may be an attractive approach to extend healthy lifespan. PMID:26840489

  2. Method for collecting naturally occurring airborne bacterial spores for determining their thermal resistance.

    PubMed

    Puleo, J R; Favero, M S; Oxborrow, G S; Herring, C M

    1975-11-01

    The ability to determine the thermal resistance of naturally occurring airborne bacterial spores associated with spacecraft and their assembly areas has been hindered by lack of an effective collecting system. Efforts to collect and concentrate spores with air samplers or from air filters have not been successful. A fallout method was developed for this purpose and tested. Sterile Teflon ribbons (7.6 by 183 cm) were exposed in pertinent spacecraft assembly areas and subsequently treated with dry heat. Thermal inactivation experiments were conducted at 125 and 113 C. Heating intervals ranged from 1 to 12 h at 125 C and 6, 12, 18, and 24 h at 113 C. Eight hours was the longest heating time yielding survivors at 125 C, whereas survivors were recovered at all of the heating intervals at 113 C. D125C values were calculated using the fractional-replicate-unit-negative technique of Pflug and Schmidt (1968) and ranged from 25 to 126 min. This variation indicated that the most probable number of survivors at each heating interval did not fall on a straight line passing through the initial spore population. However, the most-probable-number values taken alone formed a straight line suggesting logarithmic thermal destruction of a subpopulation of spores with a D125C value of 6.3 h.

  3. A Naturally-Occurring Transcript Variant of MARCO Reveals the SRCR Domain is Critical for Function

    PubMed Central

    Novakowski, Kyle E.; Huynh, Angela; Han, SeongJun; Dorrington, Michael G.; Yin, Charles; Tu, Zhongyuan; Pelka, Peter; Whyte, Peter; Guarné, Alba; Sakamoto, Kaori; Bowdish, Dawn M.E.

    2016-01-01

    Macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO) is a Class A Scavenger Receptor (cA-SR) that recognizes and phagocytoses of a wide variety of pathogens. Most cA-SRs that contain a C-terminal Scavenger Receptor Cysteine Rich (SRCR) domain use the proximal collagenous domain to bind ligands. In contrast, for the role of the SRCR domain of MARCO in phagocytosis, adhesion and pro-inflammatory signalling is less clear. The discovery of a naturally-occurring transcript variant lacking the SRCR domain, MARCOII, provided the opportunity to study the role of the SRCR domain of MARCO. We tested whether the SRCR domain is required for ligand binding, promoting downstream signalling, and enhancing cellular adhesion. Unlike cells expressing full-length MARCO, ligand binding was abolished in MARCOII-expressing cells. Furthermore, co-expression of MARCO and MARCOII impaired phagocytic function, indicating that MARCOII acts as a dominant negative variant. Unlike MARCO, expression of MARCOII did not enhance Toll-Like Receptor 2 (TLR2)-mediated pro-inflammatory signalling in response to bacterial stimulation. MARCO-expressing cells were more adherent and exhibited a dendritic-like phenotype, while MARCOII-expressing cells were less adherent and did not exhibit changes in morphology. These data suggest the SRCR domain of MARCO is the key domain in modulating ligand binding, enhancing downstream pro-inflammatory signalling, and MARCO-mediated cellular adhesion. PMID:26888252

  4. An overview of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in the petroleum industry

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K.P.

    1992-12-01

    Oil and gas extraction and processing operations sometimes accumulate naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) at concentrations above normal in by-product waste streams. Results from NORM surveys indicate that radionuclide concentrations can be quite variable, ranging from undetectable to extremely high levels. To date, efforts to characterize the geographic distribution of NORM have been limited by poor statistical representation. In addition, the fate of NORM in the environment has not been fully defined, and few human health risk assessment have been conducted. Both the petroleum industry and regulators are becoming increasingly concerned about the presence of NORM. At present, most existing federal environmental regulations do not address oil and gas NORM, and only a few states have developed regulatory programs. Available data suggest that the occurrence of NORM (and associated health risks) is significant enough to warrant increased regulatory control. However, before these regulations can be developed, additional research is needed to (1) better characterize the occurrence and distribution of NORM throughout the industry, (2) quantify hazards posed by NORM to industry workers and the general public, and (3) develop effective waste treatment and minimization technologies that will lower the risk associated with NORM and reduce disposal costs.

  5. Radiological dose assessment related to management of naturally occurring radioactive materials generated by the petroleum industry

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K.P.; Blunt, D.L.; Williams, G.P.; Tebes, C.L.

    1996-09-01

    A preliminary radiological dose assessment of equipment decontamination, subsurface disposal, landspreading, equipment smelting, and equipment burial was conducted to address concerns regarding the presence of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in production waste streams. The assessment estimated maximum individual dose equivalents for workers and the general public. Sensitivity analyses of certain input parameters also were conducted. On the basis of this assessment, it is concluded that (1) regulations requiring workers to wear respiratory protection during equipment cleaning operations are likely to result in lower worker doses, (2) underground injection and downhole encapsulation of NORM wastes present a negligible risk to the general public, and (3) potential doses to workers and the general public related to smelting NORM-contaminated equipment can be controlled by limiting the contamination level of the initial feed. It is recommended that (1) NORM wastes be further characterized to improve studies of potential radiological doses; (2) states be encouraged to permit subsurface disposal of NORM more readily, provided further assessments support this study; results; (3) further assessment of landspreading NORM wastes be conducted; and (4) the political, economic, sociological, and nonradiological issues related to smelting NORM-contaminated equipment be studied to fully examine the feasibility of this disposal option.

  6. Bismuth solubility through binding by various organic compounds and naturally occurring soil organic matter.

    PubMed

    Murata, Tomoyoshi

    2010-01-01

    The present study was performed to examine the effects of soluble organic matter and pH on the solubility of Bi in relation to inference with the behavior of metallic Bi dispersed in soil and water environments using EDTA, citric acid, tartaric acid, L-cysteine, soil humic acids (HA), and dissolved organic matter (DOM) derived from the soil organic horizon. The solubility of Bi by citric acid, tartaric acid, L-cysteine, HA, and DOM showed pH dependence, while that by EDTA did not. Bi solubility by HA seemed to be related to the distribution of pKa (acid dissociation constant) values of acidic functional groups in their molecules. That is, HA extracted at pH 3.2 solubilized Bi preferentially in the acidic range, while HA extracted at pH 8.4 showed preferential solubilization at neutral and alkaline pH. This was related to the dissociation characteristics of functional groups, their binding capacity with Bi, and precipitation of Bi carbonate or hydroxides. In addition to the dissociation characteristics of functional groups, the unique structural configuration of the HA could also contribute to Bi-HA complex formation. The solubility of Bi by naturally occurring DOM derived from the soil organic horizon (Oi) and its pH dependence were different from those associated with HA and varied among tree species.

  7. Polyhydroxyester films obtained by non-catalyzed melt-polycondensation of natural occurring fatty polyhydroxyacids.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benitez, Jose; Heredia-Guerrero, José; Guzman-Puyol, Susana; Barthel, Markus; Dominguez, Eva; Heredia, Antonio

    2015-08-01

    Free-standing polyesters films from mono and polyhydroxylated fatty acids (C16 and C18) have been obtained by non-catalyzed melt-condensation polymerization in air at 150°C. Chemical characterization by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and 13C Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (13C MAS-NMR) has confirmed the formation of the corresponding esters and the occurrence of hydroxyl partial oxidation which extent depends on the type of hydroxylation of the monomer (primary or secondary). Generally, polyester films obtained are hydrophobic, insoluble in common solvents, amorphous and infusible as revealed by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). In ?-polyhydroxy acids, esterification reaction with primary hydroxyls is preferential and, therefore, the structure can be defined as linear with variable branching depending on the amount of esterified secondary hydroxyls. The occurrence side oxidative reactions like the diol cleavage are responsible for chain cross-linking. Films are thermally stable up to 200-250°C though this limit can be extended up to 300°C in the absence of ester bonds involving secondary hydroxyls. By analogy with natural occurring fatty polyesters (i.e. cutin in higher plants) these polymers are proposed as biodegradable and non-toxic barrier films or coatings to be used, for instance, in food packing

  8. Complications following thiacetarsamide sodium therapy in Louisiana dogs with naturally-occurring heartworm disease.

    PubMed

    Hoskins, J D; Hribernik, T N; Kearney, M T

    1985-10-01

    Four hundred and sixteen dogs with naturally-occurring heartworm disease were evaluated for complications following thiacetarsamide sodium therapy. Of these, 109 dogs (26.2%) experienced complications. Increased lung sounds was the most commonly seen complication, followed by fever and coughing. In dogs with complications, 83.5% of them presented without clinical evidence of pulmonary thromboembolism or heart failure. There were no statistically significant differences between the age, sex, breed and body size of dogs that experienced complications following thiacetarsamide therapy and dogs that did not. Complications were most frequently seen 5 to 9 days following thiacetarsamide therapy although some dogs experienced initial complications as late as 28 days. Thirty-three of 109 dogs (33.0%) with complications responded to exercise restriction. The remaining 76 dogs with complications prior to or following thiacetarsamide required adjunct drug therapy. Of these, 35 dogs responded favorably to anti-inflammatory doses of prednisolone or prednisone. Five dogs died or were euthanatized because of the complications experienced. Eighteen of 416 dogs (4.3%) presented with clinical evidence of pulmonary thromboembolism or heart failure prior to the thiacetarsamide therapy. All 18 dogs experienced complications in spite of adjunct drug therapy and exercise restriction prior to, during, and following thiacetarsamide therapy. Survival rate following resolution of the thiacetarsamide-induced complications was greater than 98%.

  9. Perceived risks of produced water management and naturally occurring radioactive material content in North Dakota.

    PubMed

    Torres, Luisa; Yadav, Om Prakash; Khan, Eakalak

    2017-03-08

    Unconventional oil and gas development using hydraulic fracturing has caused conflict and controversy across the globe including the U.S. where some States banned the practice. Nevertheless, North Dakota (ND) has supported the practice because the State perceives the risks to be acceptable and because it has brought growth and opportunities to small communities. However, social acceptance of new technology is based on a number of factors and not contingent on economic benefits. To date, no research has been conducted to understand public risk perception of hazards associated with produced water from hydraulic fracturing in ND. This study focuses on understanding the risk perception of select ND stakeholder groups regarding produced water management and naturally occurring radioactive material. The software Qualtrics was used to create an online survey, collect data, and perform statistical analysis. The most important variables that seem to influence risk perception are the images and thoughts associated with produced water, level of knowledge about produced water handling and content, and knowing how to proceed in case of a spill of produced water. Overall, social risk perception could be in alignment with actual technical risk if availability of objective information is improved.

  10. Regulatory Initiatives for Control and Release of Technologically Enhanced Naturally-Occurring Radioactive Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Egidi, P.V.

    1999-03-02

    Current drafts of proposed standards and suggested State regulations for control and release of technologically-enhanced naturally-occurring radioactive material (TENORM), and standards for release of volumetrically-contaminated material in the US are reviewed. These are compared to the recommendations of the International Atomic Energy Association (IAEA) Safety Series and the European Commission (EC) proposals. Past regulatory efforts with respect to TENORM in the US dealt primarily with oil-field related wastes. Currently, nine states (AK, GA, LA, MS, NM, OH, OR SC, TX) have specific regulations pertaining to TENORM, mostly based on uranium mill tailings cleanup criteria. The new US proposals are dose- or risk-based, as are the IAEA and EC recommendations, and are grounded in the linear no threshold hypothesis (LNT). TENORM wastes involve extremely large volumes, particularly scrap metal and mine wastes. Costs to control and dispose of these wastes can be considerable. The current debate over the validity of LNT at low doses and low dose rates is particularly germane to this discussion. Most standards setting organizations and regulatory agencies base their recommendations on the LNT. The US Environmental Protection Agency has released a draft Federal Guidance Report that recommends calculating health risks from low-level exposure to radionuclides based on the LNT. However, some scientific and professional organizations are openly questioning the validity of LNT and its basis for regulations, practices, and costs to society in general. It is not clear at this time how a non-linear regulatory scheme would be implemented.

  11. Formation of naturally occurring pigments during the production of nitrite-free dry fermented sausages.

    PubMed

    De Maere, Hannelore; Fraeye, Ilse; De Mey, Eveline; Dewulf, Lore; Michiels, Chris; Paelinck, Hubert; Chollet, Sylvie

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the potential of producing red coloured dry fermented sausages without the addition of nitrite and/or nitrate. Therefore, the formation of zinc protoporphyrin IX (Zn(II)PPIX) as naturally occurring pigment, and the interrelated protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) and heme content were evaluated during nitrite-free dry fermented sausage production at different pH conditions. Zn(II)PPIX was only able to form in dry fermented sausages at pH conditions higher than approximately 4.9. Additionally, the presence of Zn(II)PPIX increased drastically at the later phase of the production process (up to day 177), confirming that in addition to pH, time is also a crucial factor for its formation. Similarly, PPIX also accumulated in the meat products at increased pH conditions and production times. In contrast, a breakdown of heme was observed. This breakdown was more gradual and independent of pH and showed no clear relationship with the formed amounts of Zn(II)PPIX and PPIX. A statistically significant relationship between Zn(II)PPIX formation and product redness was established.

  12. Differential neuropsychopharmacological influences of naturally occurring tropane alkaloids anisodamine versus scopolamine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei-Wei; Song, Ming-Ke; Cui, Yong-Yao; Wang, Hao; Zhu, Liang; Niu, Yin-Yao; Yang, Li-Min; Lu, Yang; Chen, Hong-Zhuan

    2008-10-10

    Two naturally occurring tropane alkaloids, anisodamine and scopolamine, structurally dissimilar in one OH group, are well established as muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) antagonists in clinic and basic research. However, experimental evidence for central effects of anisodamine is limited and conflicting compared with that of scopolamine. In the present study, Morris water maze test, long-term potentiation (LTP) recording and receptor radioligand binding assays were used to explore the disparity in neuropsychopharmacological influences of anisodamine versus scopolamine and possible mechanisms. Anisodamine, at 10-40-fold higher doses than those of scopolamine, did not produce any spatial cognitive deficits as scopolamine, but tended to improve cognition at the repeated high doses. LTP in vivo was then adopted to predict BBB permeability of the muscarinic antagonists following systemic drug administration. Contrary to scopolamine, anisodamine did not influence the formation of LTP in the CA(1) region of rat hippocampus at 40-fold higher dose than that of scopolamine. Additionally, receptor radioligand binding assays (RRLBA) revealed that the binding affinity of anisodamine to mice brain mAChR was much lower than that of scopolamine. The findings suggested that anisodamine did not impair cognition nor depress LTP primarily due to its poor BBB permeability. This work enlarged knowledge of structure-activity relationship among tropane alkaloids, meanwhile providing evidence for more reasonable drug prescription in clinic.

  13. Using naturally occurring polysaccharides to align molecules with nonlinear optical activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prasthofer, Thomas

    1996-01-01

    The Biophysics and Advanced Materials Branch of the Microgravity Science and Applications Division at Marshall Space Flight Center has been investigating polymers with the potential for nonlinear optical (NLO) applications for a number of years. Some of the potential applications for NLO materials include optical communications, computing, and switching. To this point the branch's research has involved polydiacetylenes, phthalocyanins, and other synthetic polymers which have inherent NLO properties. The aim of the present research is to investigate the possibility of using naturally occurring polymers such as polysaccharides or proteins to trap and align small organic molecules with useful NLO properties. Ordering molecules with NLO properties enhances 3rd order nonlinear effects and is required for 2nd order nonlinear effects. Potential advantages of such a system are the flexibility to use different small molecules with varying chemical and optical properties, the stability and cost of the polymers, and the ability to form thin, optically transparent films. Since the quality of any polymer films depends on optimizing ordering and minimizing defects, this work is particularly well suited for microgravity experiments. Polysaccharide and protein polymers form microscopic crystallites which must align to form ordered arrays. The ordered association of crystallites is disrupted by gravity effects and NASA research on protein crystal growth has demonstrated that low gravity conditions can improve crystal quality.

  14. Use of naturally occurring mercury to determine the importance of cutthroat trout to Yellowstone grizzly bears

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Felicetti, L.A.; Schwartz, C.C.; Rye, R.O.; Gunther, K.A.; Crock, J.G.; Haroldson, M.A.; Waits, L.; Robbins, C.T.

    2004-01-01

    Spawning cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki (Richardson, 1836)) are a potentially important food resource for grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis Ord, 1815) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. We developed a method to estimate the amount of cutthroat trout ingested by grizzly bears living in the Yellowstone Lake area. The method utilized (i) the relatively high, naturally occurring concentration of mercury in Yellowstone Lake cutthroat trout (508 ± 93 ppb) and its virtual absence in all other bear foods (6 ppb), (ii) hair snares to remotely collect hair from bears visiting spawning cutthroat trout streams between 1997 and 2000, (iii) DNA analyses to identify the individual and sex of grizzly bears leaving a hair sample, (iv) feeding trials with captive bears to develop relationships between fish and mercury intake and hair mercury concentrations, and (v) mercury analyses of hair collected from wild bears to estimate the amount of trout consumed by each bear. Male grizzly bears consumed an average of 5 times more trout/kg bear than did female grizzly bears. Estimated cutthroat trout intake per year by the grizzly bear population was only a small fraction of that estimated by previous investigators, and males consumed 92% of all trout ingested by grizzly bears.

  15. Theoretical simulations on the antioxidant mechanism of naturally occurring flavonoid: A DFT approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Praveena, R.; Sadasivam, K.

    2016-05-01

    Synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) are found to be toxic, hence non-carcinogenic naturally occurring radical scavengers especially flavonoids have gained considerable importance in the past two decades. In the present investigation, the radical scavenging activity of C-glycosyl flavonoids is evaluated using theoretical approach which could broaden its scope in therapeutic applications. Gas and solvent phase studies of structural and molecular characteristics of C-glycosyl flavonoid, isovitexin is investigated through hydrogen atom transfer mechanism (HAT), Electron transfer-proton transfer (ET-PT) and Sequential proton loss electron transfer (SPLET) by Density functional theory (DFT) using hybrid parameters. The computed values of the adiabatic ionization potential, electron affinity, hardness, softness, electronegativity and electrophilic index indicate that isovitexin possess good radical scavenging activity. The behavior of different -OH groups in polyphenolic compounds is assessed by considering electronic effects of the neighbouring groups and the overall geometry of molecule which in turn helps in analyzing the antioxidant capacity of the polyphenolic molecule. The studies indicate that the H-atom abstraction from 4'-OH site is preferred during the radical scavenging process. From Mulliken spin density analysis and FMOs, B-ring is found to be more delocalized center and capable of electron donation. Comparison of antioxidant activity of vitexin and isovitexin leads to the conclusion that isovitexin acts as a better radical scavenger. This is an evidence for the importance of position of glucose unit in the flavonoid.

  16. Investigation of the activity level and radiological impacts of naturally occurring radionuclides in blast furnace slag.

    PubMed

    Uğur, F A; Turhan, S; Sahan, H; Sahan, M; Gören, E; Gezer, F; Yeğingil, Z

    2013-01-01

    The activity level and possible radiological impacts of naturally occurring radionuclides on the health of workers and members of the public, as a result of utilisation of blast furnace slag (BFS) samples as a substitute for aggregate in road construction were investigated by using a gamma-ray spectrometer and potential exposure scenarios given in Radiation Protection 122. The mean activity concentrations of the (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in BFS samples were found to be 152.4, 54.9 and 183.1 Bq kg(-1), respectively. These values are compared with typical values measured in BFS samples from the European Union countries, which are 270, 70 and 240 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K, respectively. The values of radium equivalent activity index calculated for BFS samples were within the recommended safety limits. The highest total annual effective doses evaluated as 0.9 and 0.4 mSv y(-1) for members of the public and workers, respectively, were lower than the annual limit of 1 mSv y(-1).

  17. The effects of naturally occurring acids on the surface properties of chrysotile asbestos.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Emma P; Lavkulich, L M Les

    2014-01-01

    Chrysotile asbestos is considered an environmental health hazard. It is postulated that the surface of chrysotile, with its inherent positive charge and chemical content of trace transition metals within the mineral is a causative factor of the concern. Weathering may reduce the negative health effects of chrysotile asbestos, by alteration of the outer brucite layer of the chrysotile. To assess the changes in the surface properties of chrysotile asbestos by simulated weathering, chrysotile was treated with oxalic, hydrochloric, and carbonic acids. Naturally occurring chrysotile, from a mine site and serpentinitic stream sediments from the Sumas River were analyzed and compared. Oxalic acid, a chelating acid, was the most effective at extracting the majority of the trace elements present in the chrysotile, reducing their positive surface charge and producing visible changes at the surface of the fibers as shown by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microsopy (FESEM). Carbonic acid had little effect on the surface properties. Stream environments had minor detectable effects on the surface properties on the chrysotile stream sediments.

  18. Functional Studies on Twenty Novel Naturally Occurring Melanocortin-4 Receptor Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhi-Qiang; Tao, Ya-Xiong

    2011-01-01

    The melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) is a G protein-coupled receptor critically involved in regulating energy balance. MC4R activation results in decreased food intake and increased energy expenditure. Genetic and pharmacological studies demonstrated that the MC4R regulation of energy balance is conserved from fish to mammals. In humans, more than 150 naturally occurring mutations in the MC4R gene have been identified. Functional study of mutant MC4Rs is an important component in proving the causal link between MC4R mutation and obesity as well as the basis of personalized medicine. In this article, we studied 20 MC4R mutations that were either not characterized or not fully characterized. We showed that 11 mutants had decreased or absent cell surface expression. D126Y was defective in ligand binding. Three mutants were constitutively active but had decreased cell surface expression. Eleven mutants had decreased basal signaling, with two mutants defective only in this parameter, suggesting that impaired basal signaling might also be a cause of obesity. Five mutants had normal functions. In summary, we provided detailed functional data for further studies on identifying therapeutic approaches for personalized medicine to treat patients harboring these mutations. PMID:21729752

  19. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium and Giardia occurring in natural water bodies in Poland.

    PubMed

    Adamska, Małgorzata

    2015-02-01

    Cryptosporidium and Giardia protozoa are zoonotic parasites that cause human gastroenteritis and can be transmitted to human through the fecal-oral route and water or food. Several species belong to these genera and their resistant forms occur in water, but only some of them are infectious to human. Health risk depends on the occurrence of infectious Cryptosporidium and Giardia species and genotypes in water, and only molecular techniques allow detecting them, as well as enable to identify the contamination source. In this work, genotyping and phylogenetic analysis have been performed on the basis of 18S rDNA and ß-giardin genes sequences of Cryptosporidium and Giardia, respectively, in order to provide the molecular characterization of these parasites detected earlier in five natural water bodies in Poland and to track possible sources of their (oo)cysts in water. Genotyping revealed a high similarity (over 99 up to 100 %) of analyzed sequences to cattle genotype of C. parvum isolated from cattle and human and to G. intestinalis assemblage B isolated from human. The sequences obtained by others originated from patients with clinical symptoms of cryptosporidiosis or giardiasis and/or with the infection confirmed by different methods. The contamination of three examined lakes is probably human-originated, while the sources of contamination of two remaining lakes are wild and domestic animals. Obtained phylogenetic trees support suggestions of other authors that the bovine genotype of C. parvum should be a separate species, as well as A and B assemblages of G. intestinalis.

  20. Naturally occurring small-molecule inhibitors of hedgehog/GLI-mediated transcription.

    PubMed

    Hosoya, Takahiro; Arai, Midori A; Koyano, Takashi; Kowithayakorn, Thaworn; Ishibashi, Masami

    2008-05-05

    The aberrant hedgehog (Hh)/GLI signaling pathway causes the formation and progression of a variety of tumors. To search for Hh/GLI inhibitors, we screened for naturally occurring inhibitors of the transcriptional activator GLI1 by using a cell-based assay. We identified zerumbone (1), zerumbone epoxide (2), staurosporinone (9), 6-hydroxystaurosporinone (10), arcyriaflavin C (11) and 5,6-dihydroxyarcyriaflavin A (12) as inhibitors of GLI-mediated transcription. In addition, we isolated physalins F (17) and B (18) from Physalis minima, which are also potent inhibitors. These compounds also inhibited GLI2-mediated transactivation. Semiquantitative RT-PCR and Western blotting analysis further revealed that 1, 9, 17, and 18 decreased Hh-related component expressions. We also show that inhibitors of GLI-mediated transactivation reduce the level of the antiapoptosis Bcl2 expression. Finally, these identified compounds were cytotoxic to PANC1 pancreatic cancer cells, which express Hh/GLI components. These results strongly suggest that the cytotoxicity of the compounds to PANC1 cells correlates with their inhibition of GLI-mediated transcription.

  1. Microbial Utilization of Naturally Occurring Hydrocarbons at the Guaymas Basin Hydrothermal Vent Site †

    PubMed Central

    Bazylinski, Dennis A.; Wirsen, Carl O.; Jannasch, Holger W.

    1989-01-01

    The Guaymas Basin (Gulf of California; depth, 2,000 m) is a site of hydrothermal activity in which petroliferous material is formed by thermal alteration of deposited planktonic and terrestrial organic matter. We investigated certain components of these naturally occurring hydrocarbons as potential carbon sources for a specific microflora at these deep-sea vent sites. Respiratory conversion of [1-14C]hexadecane and [1(4,5,8)-14C]naphthalene to 14CO2 was observed at 4°C and 25°C, and some was observed at 55°C, but none was observed at 80°C. Bacterial isolates were capable of growing on both substrates as the sole carbon source. All isolates were aerobic and mesophilic with respect to growth on hydrocarbons but also grew at low temperatures (4 to 5°C). These results correlate well with previous geochemical analyses, indicating microbial hydrocarbon degradation, and show that at least some of the thermally produced hydrocarbons at Guaymas Basin are significant carbon sources to vent microbiota. PMID:16348045

  2. A quantitative analysis of microbially-induced calcite precipitation employing artificial and naturally-occurring sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lokier, Stephen; Krieg Dosier, Ginger

    2013-04-01

    Microbially-induced calcite precipitation is a strong candidate for the production of sustainable construction materials. The process employs the microbe Sporosarcina pasteurii as an agent to microbially mediate the precipitation of calcium carbonate to bind unconsolidated sediment. As this process can be achieved under ambient temperature conditions and can utilise a wide variety of easily-available sediments, potentially including waste materials, it is envisioned that this procedure could significantly reduce carbon-dioxide emissions in the construction industry. This study describes and quantifies the precipitation of calcite cement in a range of naturally-occurring sediments compared with a control matrix. The study establishes the optimum treatment time for effective cement precipitation in order to produce a material that meets the standards required for construction whilst keeping economic and environmental outlays at a minimum. The 'control sediment' employed industrial-grade glass beads with a grain size range of 595-1180 microns (16-30 US mesh). Sporosarcina pasteurii were mixed in a solution of urea and calcium chloride and then inoculated into the control sediment. The microbes attach to the surface of the sediment grains and employ urea as a source of energy to produce ammonia and carbon dioxide. By so doing, they increase the pH of the solution allowing calcium carbonate to precipitate at the cell walls to act as nucleation points facilitating the precipitation of cements as a grain-coating and biocementing the unconsolidated sediment. The solution treatment was repeated at eight hour intervals with samples removed for detailed analysis after each every five consecutive treatments (i.e. 40 hours). The process was repeated to produce 20 samples with treatment times between 40 and 800 hours. Cemented samples were impregnated with blue epoxy and examined petrographically to monitor cement development. Modal analysis was undertaken on each cemented

  3. Managing for Successful Control of Naturally Occurring Asbestos During Large Scale Grading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saur, R.; Harnish, D.; Cavanaugh, J.; Kendall, K.; Virdee, A.; Ludlam, D.

    2012-12-01

    Pacific Gas and Electric Company recently completed environmental remediation and civil grading of a 35-acre site in San Francisco Bay Area, and the project became recognized with local agencies as having excellent controls systems for naturally-occurring asbestos (NOA). The project began in 2010 and was completed in 2012, and involved excavating and grading over 100,000 tons of soil containing NOA. The work was subject to requirements by state, local and regional agencies, including an asbestos dust mitigation plan for the Bay Area Air Quality Management District. Effective control of NOA is attributed to management approaches combined with effective monitoring and state-of-the-art controls. Management Planning. The contract for construction specified NOA compliance management and controls, including having a NOA-control "czar" ultimately responsible for effective mitigation. An important element was daily pre-planning for excavation/grading that involved both the NOA mitigation experts and construction staff. Personnel Planning and Training. All construction personnel were trained before work regarding NOA hazards and mitigations. Daily tailboards with all construction personnel included discussions of the NOA controls integral to the daily work. Supervision. A NOA mitigation compliance leader was assigned to each excavation operation, responsible for continuously monitoring wind direction and work to ensure mitigation met requirements, and that disturbed areas were hydrosealed or covered. Adaptive Management - Daily and weekly debriefs occurred with those responsible for NOA controls to evaluate effectiveness, and identify improvements needed. If a monitoring result exceeded the project trigger level, work shut down and a root-cause analysis was performed to determine appropriate corrective actions. Deviations of results from background were researched as to cause, and any adjustments identified. Nearby non-project activities were monitored, as they occasionally

  4. A century of oil and gas exploration in Albania: assessment of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORMs).

    PubMed

    Xhixha, G; Baldoncini, M; Callegari, I; Colonna, T; Hasani, F; Mantovani, F; Shala, F; Strati, V; Xhixha Kaçeli, M

    2015-11-01

    The Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORMs) that are potentially generated from oil and gas extractions in Albania have been disposed of without regulations for many decades, and therefore, an extensive survey in one of the most productive regions (Vlora-Elbasan) was performed. A total of 52 gamma ray spectrometry measurements of soil, oil-sand, sludge, produced water and crude oil samples were performed. We discovered that relatively low activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (228)Th and (40)K, with concentrations of 23±2Bq/kg, 23±2Bq/kg, 24±3Bq/kg and 549±12Bq/kg, respectively, came from the oil-sands produced by the hydrocarbon extraction of the molasses formations. The mineralogical characterizations and the (228)Ra/(40)K and (226)Ra/(40)K ratios of these Neogene deposits confirmed the predictions of the geological and geodynamic models of a dismantling of the Mesozoic source rocks. The average activity concentrations (±standard deviations) of the radium isotopes ((226)Ra and (228)Ra) and of the (228)Th and (40)K radionuclides in soil samples were 20±5Bq/kg, 25±10Bq/kg, 25±9Bq/kg and 326±83Bq/kg, respectively. Based on the measurements in this study, the future radiological assessments of other fields in the region should be strategically planned to focus on the oil-sands from the molasses sediments. Disequilibrium in the (228)Ra decay segment was not observed in the soil, sludge or oil-sand samples within the standard uncertainties. After a detailed radiological characterization of the four primary oil fields, we concluded that the outdoor absorbed dose rate never exceeded the worldwide population weighted average absorbed dose rate in outdoor air from terrestrial gamma radiation.

  5. Polyporus tenuiculus: a new naturally occurring mushroom that can be industrially cultivated on agricultural waste.

    PubMed

    Omarini, Alejandra; Lechner, Bernardo E; Albertó, Edgardo

    2009-05-01

    Polyporus tenuiculus is a naturally occurring species from Central and South America that is consumed by different ethnic groups in the region. To determine the optimal conditions for fruiting body production, two strains were assayed on wheat straw and sawdust with or without supplements. Sixty days of incubation at 25 degrees C were needed to produce a solid block. The highest yield was obtained with strain ICFC 383/00 grown on supplemented willow sawdust. In a second experiment the strain ICFC 383/00 and different supplements were used to improve the biological efficiency (BE) and to determine the quality traits and its biodegradation capacity. The highest yields were obtained on sawdust with 25% of supplements reaching 82.7% of BE. Supplements raised the number of flushes, generally from four to five, contributing to increased yields. The type of substrate had a significant effect on fruiting body diameters of P. tenuiculus, and the largest mushrooms were harvested on supplemented substrate with the highest BE coinciding with the highest dry matter loss in substrates. P. tenuiculus showed a capacity to degrade sawdust, causing a decrease of 67.2-74.5% in cellulose, 80.4-85.7% in hemicellulose, and 60.6-66.2% in lignin content at the end of the cultivation cycle. The decrease in hemicellulose was relatively greater than that of cellulose and lignin on supplemented substrates. This is the first report of the cultivation of P. tenuiculus on lignocellulosic waste, and it is a promising species both for commercial production and for its potential use in the degradation of other biowastes.

  6. Effect of leachability on environmental risk assessment for naturally occurring radioactive materials in petroleum oil fields.

    PubMed

    Rajaretnam, G; Spitz, H B

    2000-02-01

    Elevated concentrations of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM), including 238U, 232Th, and their progeny found in underground geologic deposits, are often encountered during crude oil recovery. Radium, the predominant radionuclide brought to the surface with the crude oil and produced water, co-precipitates with barium in the form of complex compounds of sulfates, carbonates, and silicates found in sludge and scale. These NORM deposits are highly stable and very insoluble under ambient conditions at the earth's surface. However, the co-precipitated radium matrix is not thermodynamically stable at reducing conditions which may enable a fraction of the radium to eventually be released to the environment. Although the fate of radium in uranium mill tailings has been studied extensively, the leachability of radium from crude oil NORM deposits exposed to acid-rain and other aging processes is generally unknown. The leachability of radium from NORM contaminated soil collected at a contaminated oil field in eastern Kentucky was determined using extraction fluids having wide range of pH reflecting different extreme environmental conditions. The average 226Ra concentration in the samples of soil subjected to leachability testing was 32.56 Bq g(-1) +/- 0.34 Bq g(-1). The average leaching potential of 226Ra observed in these NORM contaminated soil samples was 1.3% +/- 0.46% and was independent of the extraction fluid. Risk assessment calculations using the family farm scenario show that the annual dose to a person living and working on this NORM contaminated soil is mainly due to external gamma exposure and radon inhalation. However, waterborne pathways make a non-negligible contribution to the dose for the actual resident families living on farmland with the type of residual NORM contamination due to crude oil recovery operations.

  7. Studying human respiratory disease in animals--role of induced and naturally occurring models.

    PubMed

    Williams, Kurt; Roman, Jesse

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory disorders like asthma, emphysema, and pulmonary fibrosis affect millions of Americans and many more worldwide. Despite advancements in medical research that have led to improved understanding of the pathophysiology of these conditions and sometimes to new therapeutic interventions, these disorders are for the most part chronic and progressive; current interventions are not curative and do not halt disease progression. A major obstacle to further advancements relates to the absence of animal models that exactly resemble the human condition, which delays the elucidation of relevant mechanisms of action, the unveiling of biomarkers of disease progression, and identification of new targets for intervention in patients. There are currently many induced animal models of human respiratory disease available for study, and even though they mimic features of human disease, discoveries in these models have not always translated into safe and effective treatments in humans. A major obstacle relates to the genetic, anatomical, and functional variations amongst species, which represents the major challenge to overcome when searching for appropriate models of respiratory disease. Nevertheless, rodents, in particular mice, have become the most common species used for experimentation, due to their relatively low cost, size, and adequate understanding of murine genetics, among other advantages. Less well known is the fact that domestic animals also suffer from respiratory illnesses similar to those found in humans. Asthma, bronchitis, pneumonia, and pulmonary fibrosis are among the many disorders occurring naturally in dogs, cats, and horses, among other species. These models might better resemble the human condition and are emphasized here, but further investigations are needed to determine their relevance.

  8. Interleukin-37 Enhances the Suppressive Activity of Naturally Occurring CD4+CD25+ Regulatory T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Da-Wei; Dong, Ning; Wu, Yao; Zhu, Xiao-Mei; Wang, Chun-Ting; Yao, Yong-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) are essential for the suppression of autoimmunity and can control the immune-mediated pathology during the early phase of sepsis. Our previous data showed that silencing interleukin-37 (IL-37) in human CD4+CD25+ Tregs obviously reduced the suppressive activity of CD4+CD25+ Tregs. Here, we found that rhIL-37 stimulation markedly enhanced the suppressive activity of CD4+CD25+ Tregs isolated from naive C57BL/6 J mice in the absence or presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Treatment with rhIL-37 could significantly upregulate the expression of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen (CTLA)-4 and forkhead/winged helix transcription factor p3 (Foxp3) on CD4+CD25+ Tregs. Also, rhIL-37 stimulation promoted the production of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) but not IL-10 in the supernatants of cultured CD4+CD25+ Tregs. Pretreated CD4+CD25+ Tregs with rhIL-37 in the presence or absence of LPS were cocultured with CD4+CD25− T cells, ratio of IL-4/interferon-γ in the supernatants obviously increased in IL-37-stimulated groups. In addition, early administration of IL-37 significantly improved the survival rate of septic mice induced by cecal ligation and puncture. Taken together, we concluded that rhIL-37 enhances the suppressive activity of CD4+CD25+ Tregs and might be a potential immunomodulator for the treatment of septic complications. PMID:27941849

  9. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials in Coals and Coal Combustion Residuals in the United States.

    PubMed

    Lauer, Nancy E; Hower, James C; Hsu-Kim, Heileen; Taggart, Ross K; Vengosh, Avner

    2015-09-15

    The distribution and enrichment of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in coal combustion residuals (CCRs) from different coal source basins have not been fully characterized in the United States. Here we provide a systematic analysis of the occurrence of NORM ((232)Th, (228)Ra, (238)U, (226)Ra, and (210)Pb) in coals and associated CCRs from the Illinois, Appalachian, and Powder River Basins. Illinois CCRs had the highest total Ra ((228)Ra + (226)Ra = 297 ± 46 Bq/kg) and the lowest (228)Ra/(226)Ra activity ratio (0.31 ± 0.09), followed by Appalachian CCRs (283 ± 34 Bq/kg; 0.67 ± 0.09), and Powder River CCRs (213 ± 21 Bq/kg; 0.79 ± 0.10). Total Ra and (228)Ra/(226)Ra variations in CCRs correspond to the U and Th concentrations and ash contents of their feed coals, and we show that these relationships can be used to predict total NORM concentrations in CCRs. We observed differential NORM volatility during combustion that results in (210)Pb enrichment and (210)Pb/(226)Ra ratios greater than 1 in most fly-ash samples. Overall, total NORM activities in CCRs are 7-10- and 3-5-fold higher than NORM activities in parent coals and average U.S. soil, respectively. This study lays the groundwork for future research related to the environmental and human health implications of CCR disposal and accidental release to the environment in the context of this elevated radioactivity.

  10. Naturally occurring secondary nutritional hyperparathyroidism in cattle egrets (Bubulcus ibis) from Central Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phalen, D.N.; Drew, M.L.; Contreras, C.; Roset, K.; Mora, M.

    2005-01-01

    Naturally occurring secondary nutritional hyperparathyroidism is described in the nestlings of two colonies of cattle egrets (Bubulcus ibis) from Central Texas (Bryan and San Antonio, Texas, USA). Nestlings from a third colony (Waco, Texas, USA) were collected in a subsequent year for comparison. Birds from the first two colonies consistently had severe osteopenia and associated curving deformities and folding fractures of their long bones. These birds also had reduced bone ash, increased osteoclasia, a marked decrease in osteoblast activity, variable lengthening and shortening of the hypertrophic zone of the epiphyseal cartilage, decreased and disorganized formation of new bone, and a marked hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the parathyroid glands as compared to birds collected from the third colony. Fibrous osteodystrophy was found in all of the birds from San Antonio and Bryan. Evidence of moderate to severe calcium deficiency was also identified in 33% of the cattle egrets collected from Waco. Gut contents of affected chicks contained predominately grasshoppers and crickets; vertebrate prey items were absent from the Bryan birds. Grasshoppers and crickets collected from fields frequented by the adult egrets in 1994 had 0.12-0.28% calcium and 0.76-0.81% phosphorus. Pooled grasshoppers and crickets collected during a subsequent wet early spring averaged 0.24% calcium and 0.65% phosphorus. Although the phosphorus content of the insect prey was adequate for growth, calcium was approximately one-third the minimum calcium requirement needed for growth for other species of birds. It was postulated that cattle egrets breeding in Central Texas have expanded their range into habitat that contains less vertebrate prey, and as a result, many nestling egrets are being fed diets that contain suboptimal calcium. Therefore, in years where vertebrate prey is scarce and forage for insect prey is reduced in calcium, nestling egrets are at risk for developing secondary nutritional

  11. Naturally Occurring Autoantibodies against Tau Protein Are Reduced in Parkinson's Disease Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Kronimus, Yannick; Albus, Alexandra; Balzer-Geldsetzer, Monika; Straub, Sarah; Semler, Elisa; Otto, Markus; Klotsche, Jens; Dodel, Richard; Mengel, David

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective Altered levels of naturally occurring autoantibodies (nAbs) against disease-associated neuronal proteins have been reported for neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). Recent histopathologic studies suggest a contribution of both Lewy body- and AD-related pathology to Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD). Therefore, we explored nAbs against alpha-synuclein (αS), tau and β-amyloid (Aβ) in PDD compared to cognitively normal PD patients. Materials and Methods We established three different ELISAs to quantify the nAbs-tau, nAbs-αS, and nAbs-Aβ levels and avidity towards their specific antigen in serum samples of 18 non-demented (PDND) and 18 demented PD patients (PDD), which were taken from an ongoing multi-center cohort study (DEMPARK/LANDSCAPE). Results PDD patients had significantly decreased nAbs-tau serum levels compared to PDND patients (p = 0.007), whereas the serum titers of nAbs-αS and nAbs-Aβ were unchanged. For all three nAbs, no significant differences in avidity were found between PDD and PDND cohorts. However, within both patient groups, nAbs-tau showed lowest avidity to their antigen, followed by nAbs-αS, and nAbs-Aβ. Though, due to a high interassay coefficient of variability and the exclusion of many samples below the limit of detection, conclusions for nAbs-Aβ are only conditionally possible. Conclusion We detected a significantly decreased nAbs-tau serum level in PDD patients, indicating a potential linkage between nAbs-tau serum titer and cognitive deficits in PD. Thus, further investigation in larger samples is justified to confirm our findings. PMID:27802290

  12. Wetland defense: naturally occurring pesticide resistance in zooplankton populations protects the stability of aquatic communities.

    PubMed

    Bendis, Randall J; Relyea, Rick A

    2016-06-01

    Anthropogenic stressors are ubiquitous and have been implicated in worldwide declines of terrestrial and aquatic species. Pesticides are one such stressor that can have profound effects on aquatic communities by directly affecting sensitive species and indirectly affecting other species via trophic cascades, which can alter ecosystem function. However, there is growing evidence that non-target species can evolve increased resistance. When such species are important drivers of the food web, then evolved resistance should help buffer communities from the effects of pesticides. To examine this possibility, we cultured four populations of the common zooplankton Daphnia pulex that we previously demonstrated were either sensitive or resistant to a common insecticide (i.e., chlorpyrifos) due to their proximity to agriculture. Using outdoor mesocosms that contained identical aquatic communities of phytoplankton, periphyton, and leopard frog tadpoles (Lithobates pipiens), we manipulated four D. pulex populations and four insecticide concentrations. As we monitored the communities for nearly 3 months, we found that the insecticide caused direct mortality of D. pulex in communities containing sensitive populations, and this led to a bloom of phytoplankton. In contrast, the insecticide caused much less direct mortality in communities containing resistant D. pulex populations, and the trophic cascade was prevented under low to moderate insecticide concentrations. Across all insecticide treatments, survivorship of leopard frogs was approximately 72 % in communities with resistant D. pulex but only 35 % in communities with sensitive D. pulex. To our knowledge, this is one of the first studies to use naturally occurring population variation in insecticide resistance to show that the evolution of pesticide resistance in zooplankton can mitigate the effects of insecticide-induced trophic cascades, and that this outcome can have far-reaching community effects.

  13. Identification of myeloid derived suppressor cells in dogs with naturally occurring cancer.

    PubMed

    Goulart, Michelle R; Pluhar, G Elizabeth; Ohlfest, John R

    2012-01-01

    Dogs with naturally occurring cancer represent an important large animal model for drug development and testing novel immunotherapies. However, poorly defined immunophenotypes of canine leukocytes have limited the study of tumor immunology in dogs. The accumulation of myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) is known to be a key mechanism of immune suppression in tumor-bearing mice and in human patients. We sought to identify MDSCs in the blood of dogs with cancer. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from dogs with advanced or early stage cancer and from age-matched healthy controls were analyzed by flow cytometry and microscopy. Suppressive function was tested in T cell proliferation and cytokine elaboration assays. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR was used to identify potential mechanisms responsible for immunosuppression. PBMCs from dogs with advanced or metastatic cancer exhibited a significantly higher percentage of CD11b(+)CD14(-)MHCII(-) cells compared to dogs diagnosed with early stage non-metastatic tumors and healthy dogs. These CD11b(+) CD14(-)MHCII(-) cells constitute a subpopulation of activated granulocytes that co-purify with PBMCs, display polymorphonuclear granulocyte morphology, and demonstrate a potent ability to suppress proliferation and IFN-γ production in T cells from normal and tumor-bearing donors. Furthermore, these cells expressed hallmark suppressive factors of human MDSC including ARG1, iNOS2, TGF-β and IL-10. In summary our data demonstrate that MDSCs accumulate in the blood of dogs with advanced cancer and can be measured using this three-marker immunophenotype, thereby enabling prospective studies that can monitor MDSC burden.

  14. Molecular analysis of Porcine Circovirus Type 2 strains from Uruguay: evidence for natural occurring recombination.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Natalia; Mirazo, Santiago; Castro, Gustavo; Arbiza, Juan

    2013-10-01

    Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV2) is a worldwide distributed virus and is considered an important emerging pathogen related to several distinct disease syndromes in pigs. Genomic structure consists of three major open reading frames (ORFs). ORF1 (rep gene) encodes replication-related proteins, ORF2 (cap gene) encodes the capsid protein and ORF3 encodes a protein putatively involved in virus-induced apoptosis. Based on cap gene sequences, PCV2 strains are classified into two main genotypes, PCV2a with five clusters (2A-2E) and PCV2b with three clusters (1A-1C). According to previous theoretical studies, PCV2 strains can eventually undergo intra and inter-genotype recombination, mainly within the rep gene. Ever since, several evidences of recombination in the field have been reported and confirmed this hypothesis. In South America, data regarding molecular characterization of PCV2 strains is still scant. Genotyping studies in the region have concluded that PCV2b is the predominant circulating genotype in the region and till now, no recombinant strains have ever been reported. In this work we thoroughly characterized at the molecular level Uruguayan PCV2 strains by extensive sequence data analysis. Moreover, recombination software tools were applied to explore and characterize eventual occurrence of natural recombination events. Two recombinant PCV2 strains were detected in this study, as a consequence of an inter-genotype recombination event between PCV2b-1A and PCV2a-2D, as the major and minor parent, respectively. According to recombination software analysis, in both cases the event occurred within the ORF1. Herein, extensive viral sequence dataset is provided, including the characterization of the first PCV2 recombinant strains ever reported in South America. Additionally, our results suggested a multi-centered source of PCV2 infection in Uruguay, which probably involved Brazilian and European origins.

  15. Antioxidant effect of naturally occurring xanthines on the oxidative damage of DNA bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, A. J. S. C.; Telo, J. P.; Pereira, H. F.; Patrocínio, P. F.; Dias, R. M. B.

    1999-01-01

    The repair of the oxidised radicals of adenine and guanosine by several naturally occurring xanthines was studied. Each pair of DNA purine/xanthine was made to react with the sulphate radical and the decrease of the concentration of both compounds was measured by HPLC as a function of irradiation time. The results show that xanthine efficiently prevents the oxidation of the two DNA purines. Theophyline and paraxanthine repair the oxidised radical of adenine but not the one from guanosine. Theobromine and caffeine do not show any protecting effect. An order of the oxidation potentials of all the purines studied is proposed. La réparation des radicaux oxydés de l'adénine et de la guanosine par des xanthines naturelles a été étudiée en soumettant chaque paire base de l'ADN/xanthine à l'oxydation par le radical sulfate et en mesurant par HPLC la disparition des deux composés en fonction du temps d'irradiation. Les résultats montrent que la xanthine joue un rôle protecteur efficace contre l'oxydation des deux purines de l'ADN. La théophyline et la paraxanthine réparent le radical oxydé de l'adénine mais pas celui de la guanosine. La théobromine et la cafeíne n'ont pas d'effet protecteur. Un ordre de potentiels d'oxydation des purines étudiées est proposé.

  16. Biomining with bacteriophage: selectivity of displayed peptides for naturally occurring sphalerite and chalcopyrite.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Susan B; Hewitt, Jeff; Macgillivray, Ross T A; Dunbar, W Scott

    2009-02-01

    During mineral processing, concentrates of sulfide minerals of economic interest are formed by froth flotation of fine ore particles. The method works well but recovery and selectivity can be poor for ores with complex mineralogy. There is considerable interest in methods that improve the selectivity of this process while avoiding the high costs of using flotation chemicals. Here we show the first application of phage biotechnology to the processing of economically important minerals in ore slurries. A random heptapeptide library was screened for peptide sequences that bind selectively to the minerals sphalerite (ZnS) and chalcopyrite (CuFeS2). After several rounds of enrichment, cloned phage containing the surface peptide loops KPLLMGS and QPKGPKQ bound specifically to sphalerite. Phage containing the peptide loop TPTTYKV bound to both sphalerite and chalcopyrite. By using an enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA), the phage was characterized as strong binders compared to wild-type phage. Specificity of binding was confirmed by immunochemical visualization of phage bound to mineral particles but not to silica (a waste mineral) or pyrite. The current study focused primarily on the isolation of ZnS-specific phage that could be utilized in the separation of sphalerite from silica. At mining sites where sphalerite and chalcopyrite are not found together in natural ores, the separation of sphalerite from silica would be an appropriate enrichment step. At mining sites where sphalerite and chalcopyrite do occur together, more specific phage would be required. This bacteriophage has the potential to be used in a more selective method of mineral separation and to be the basis for advanced methods of mineral processing.

  17. Estimated trichloroethene transformation rates due to naturally occurring biodegradation in a fractured-rock aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapelle, Francis H.; Lacombe, Pierre J.; Bradley, Paul M.

    2012-01-01

    Rates of trichloroethene (TCE) mass transformed by naturally occurring biodegradation processes in a fractured rock aquifer underlying a former Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) site in West Trenton, New Jersey, were estimated. The methodology included (1) dividing the site into eight elements of equal size and vertically integrating observed concentrations of two daughter products of TCE biodegradation–cis-dichloroethene (cis-DCE) and chloride–using water chemistry data from a network of 88 observation wells; (2) summing the molar mass of cis-DCE, the first biodegradation product of TCE, to provide a probable underestimate of reductive biodegradation of TCE, (3) summing the molar mass of chloride, the final product of chlorinated ethene degradation, to provide a probable overestimate of overall biodegradation. Finally, lower and higher estimates of aquifer porosities and groundwater residence times were used to estimate a range of overall transformation rates. The highest TCE transformation rates estimated using this procedure for the combined overburden and bedrock aquifers was 945 kg/yr, and the lowest was 37 kg/yr. However, hydrologic considerations suggest that approximately 100 to 500 kg/yr is the probable range for overall TCE transformation rates in this system. Estimated rates of TCE transformation were much higher in shallow overburden sediments (approximately 100 to 500 kg/yr) than in the deeper bedrock aquifer (approximately 20 to 0.15 kg/yr), which reflects the higher porosity and higher contaminant mass present in the overburden. By way of comparison, pump-and-treat operations at the NAWC site are estimated to have removed between 1,073 and 1,565 kg/yr of TCE between 1996 and 2009.

  18. Forecasting Seizures Using Intracranial EEG Measures and SVM in Naturally Occurring Canine Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Brinkmann, Benjamin H; Patterson, Edward E; Vite, Charles; Vasoli, Vincent M; Crepeau, Daniel; Stead, Matt; Howbert, J Jeffry; Cherkassky, Vladimir; Wagenaar, Joost B; Litt, Brian; Worrell, Gregory A

    2015-01-01

    Management of drug resistant focal epilepsy would be greatly assisted by a reliable warning system capable of alerting patients prior to seizures to allow the patient to adjust activities or medication. Such a system requires successful identification of a preictal, or seizure-prone state. Identification of preictal states in continuous long- duration intracranial electroencephalographic (iEEG) recordings of dogs with naturally occurring epilepsy was investigated using a support vector machine (SVM) algorithm. The dogs studied were implanted with a 16-channel ambulatory iEEG recording device with average channel reference for a mean (st. dev.) of 380.4 (+87.5) days producing 220.2 (+104.1) days of intracranial EEG recorded at 400 Hz for analysis. The iEEG records had 51.6 (+52.8) seizures identified, of which 35.8 (+30.4) seizures were preceded by more than 4 hours of seizure-free data. Recorded iEEG data were stratified into 11 contiguous, non-overlapping frequency bands and binned into one-minute synchrony features for analysis. Performance of the SVM classifier was assessed using a 5-fold cross validation approach, where preictal training data were taken from 90 minute windows with a 5 minute pre-seizure offset. Analysis of the optimal preictal training time was performed by repeating the cross validation over a range of preictal windows and comparing results. We show that the optimization of feature selection varies for each subject, i.e. algorithms are subject specific, but achieve prediction performance significantly better than a time-matched Poisson random predictor (p<0.05) in 5/5 dogs analyzed.

  19. A Naturally Occurring HER2 Carboxy-Terminal Fragment Promotes Mammary Tumor Growth and Metastasis▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Kim; Angelini, Pier-Davide; Laos, Sirle; Bach-Faig, Alba; Cunningham, Matthew P.; Ferrer-Ramón, Cristina; Luque-García, Antonio; García-Castillo, Jesús; Parra-Palau, Josep Lluis; Scaltriti, Maurizio; y Cajal, Santiago Ramón; Baselga, José; Arribas, Joaquín

    2009-01-01

    HER2 is a tyrosine kinase receptor causally involved in cancer. A subgroup of breast cancer patients with particularly poor clinical outcomes expresses a heterogeneous collection of HER2 carboxy-terminal fragments (CTFs). However, since the CTFs lack the extracellular domain that drives dimerization and subsequent activation of full-length HER2, they are in principle expected to be inactive. Here we show that at low expression levels one of these fragments, 611-CTF, activated multiple signaling pathways because of its unanticipated ability to constitutively homodimerize. A transcriptomic analysis revealed that 611-CTF specifically controlled the expression of genes that we found to be correlated with poor prognosis in breast cancer. Among the 611-CTF-regulated genes were several that have previously been linked to metastasis, including those for MET, EPHA2, matrix metalloproteinase 1, interleukin 11, angiopoietin-like 4, and different integrins. It is thought that transgenic mice overexpressing HER2 in the mammary glands develop tumors only after acquisition of activating mutations in the transgene. In contrast, we show that expression of 611-CTF led to development of aggressive and invasive mammary tumors without the need for mutations. These results demonstrate that 611-CTF is a potent oncogene capable of promoting mammary tumor progression and metastasis. PMID:19364815

  20. The stretch-shortening cycle : a model to study naturally occurring neuromuscular fatigue.

    PubMed

    Nicol, Caroline; Avela, Janne; Komi, Paavo V

    2006-01-01

    Neuromuscular fatigue has traditionally been examined using isolated forms of either isometric, concentric or eccentric actions. However, none of these actions are naturally occurring in human (or animal) ground locomotion. The basic muscle function is defined as the stretch-shortening cycle (SSC), where the preactivated muscle is first stretched (eccentric action) and then followed by the shortening (concentric) action. As the SSC taxes the skeletal muscles very strongly mechanically, its influence on the reflex activation becomes apparent and very different from the isolated forms of muscle actions mentioned above. The ground contact phases of running, jumping and hopping etc. are examples of the SSC for leg extensor muscles; similar phases can also be found for the upper-body activities. Consequently, it is normal and expected that the fatigue phenomena should be explored during SSC activities. The fatigue responses of repeated SSC actions are very versatile and complex because the fatigue does not depend only on the metabolic loading, which is reportedly different among muscle actions. The complexity of SSC fatigue is well reflected by the recovery patterns of many neuromechanical parameters. The basic pattern of SSC fatigue response (e.g. when using the complete exhaustion model of hopping or jumping) is the bimodality showing an immediate reduction in performance during exercise, quick recovery within 1-2 hours, followed by a secondary reduction, which may often show the lowest values on the second day post-exercise when the symptoms of muscle soreness/damage are also greatest. The full recovery may take 4-8 days depending on the parameter and on the severity of exercise. Each subject may have their own time-dependent bimodality curve. Based on the reviewed literature, it is recommended that the fatigue protocol is 'completely' exhaustive to reduce the important influence of inter-subject variability in the fatigue responses. The bimodality concept is

  1. A Naturally Occurring Domestic Cat APOBEC3 Variant Confers Resistance to Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Yoshikawa, Rokusuke; Izumi, Taisuke; Yamada, Eri; Nakano, Yusuke; Misawa, Naoko; Ren, Fengrong; Carpenter, Michael A.; Ikeda, Terumasa; Münk, Carsten; Harris, Reuben S.; Miyazawa, Takayuki; Koyanagi, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    [HIV-1] and simian immunodeficiency virus [SIV]) if its activity is not counteracted by the viral Vif protein. Here we investigate the ability of 7 naturally occurring variants of feline APOBEC3, APOBEC3Z3 (A3Z3), to inhibit FIV replication. Interestingly, one feline A3Z3 variant is dominant, restrictive, and naturally resistant to FIV Vif-mediated degradation. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the ancestral change that generated this variant could have been caused by positive Darwinian selection, presumably due to an ancestral FIV infection. The experimental-phylogenetic investigation sheds light on the evolutionary history of the domestic cat, which was likely influenced by lentiviral infection. PMID:26491161

  2. Manufactured Home Testing in Simulated and Naturally Occurring High Winds for WCTE Conference

    SciTech Connect

    William D. Richins; Thomas K. Larson; Jeffrey M. Lacy; Ryan G. Kobbe

    2006-08-01

    A typical double-wide manufactured home was tested in simulated and naturally occurring high winds to understand structural behavior and improve performance during severe windstorms. Seven (7) lateral load tests were conducted on a double-wide manufactured home at a remote field test site in Wyoming. An extensive instrumentation package monitored the overall behavior of the home and collected data vital to validating computational software for the manufactured housing industry. The tests were designed to approach the design load of the home without causing structural damage, thus allowing the behavior of the home to be accessed when the home was later exposed to high winds (to 80-mph). The data generally show near-linear initial system response with significant non-linear behavior as the applied loads increase. Load transfer across the marriage line is primarily compression. Racking, while present, is very small. Interface slip and shear displacement along the marriage line are nearly insignificant. Horizontal global displacements reached 0.6 inch. These tests were designed primarily to collect data necessary to calibrate a desktop analysis and design software tool, MHTool, under development at the Idaho National Laboratory specifically for manufactured housing. Currently available analysis tools are, for the most part, based on methods developed for "stick built" structures and are inappropriate for manufactured homes. The special materials utilized in manufactured homes, such as rigid adhesives used in the connection of the sheathing materials to the studs, significantly alter the behavior of manufactured homes under lateral loads. Previous full scale tests of laterally loaded manufactured homes confirm the contention that conventional analysis methods are not applicable. System behavior dominates the structural action of manufactured homes and its prediction requires a three dimensional analysis of the complete unit, including tie-downs. This project was

  3. Naturally occurring heavy radioactive elements in the geothermal microcosm of the Los Azufres (Mexico) volcanic complex.

    PubMed

    Abuhani, W A; Dasgupta-Schubert, N; Villaseñor, L M; García Avila, D; Suárez, L; Johnston, C; Borjas, S E; Alexander, S A; Landsberger, S; Suárez, M C

    2015-01-01

    The Los Azufres geothermal complex of central Mexico is characterized by fumaroles and boiling hot-springs. The fumaroles form habitats for extremophilic mosses and ferns. Physico-chemical measurements of two relatively pristine fumarolic microcosms point to their resemblance with the paleo-environment of earth during the Ordovician and Devonian periods. These geothermal habitats were analysed for the distribution of elemental mass fractions in the rhizospheric soil (RS), the native volcanic substrate (VS) and the sediments (S), using the new high-sensitivity technique of polarized x-ray energy dispersive fluorescence spectrometry (PEDXRF) as well as instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) for selected elements. This work presents the results for the naturally occurring heavy radioactive elements (NOHRE) Bi, Th and U but principally the latter two. For the RS, the density was found to be the least and the total organic matter content the most. Bi was found to be negligibly present in all substrate types. The average Th and U mass fractions in the RS were higher than in the VS and about equal to their average mass fractions in the S. The VS mass fraction of Th was higher, and of U lower, than the mass fractions in the earth's crust. In fact for the fumaroles of one site, the average RS mass fractions of these elements were higher than the averaged values for S (without considering the statistical dispersion). The immobilization of the NOHRE in the RS is brought about by the bio-geochemical processes specific to these extremophiles. Its effectiveness is such that despite the small masses of these plants, it compares with, or may sometimes exceed, the immobilization of the NOHRE in the S by the abiotic and aggressive chemical action of the hot-springs. These results indicate that the fumarolic plants are able to transform the volcanic substrate to soil and to affect the NOHRE mass fractions even though these elements are not plant nutrients. Mirrored back to

  4. Contribution of Schwann Cells to Remyelination in a Naturally Occurring Canine Model of CNS Neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Kegler, Kristel; Spitzbarth, Ingo; Imbschweiler, Ilka; Wewetzer, Konstantin; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Seehusen, Frauke

    2015-01-01

    -positive cells. This study provides novel insights into the involvement of Schwann cells in CNS remyelination under natural occurring CNS inflammation. Targeting p75NTR/Sox2-expressing Schwann cells to enhance their differentiation into competent remyelinating cells appears to be a promising therapeutic approach for inflammatory/demyelinating CNS diseases.

  5. Increased carbon uptake in marine sediment enabled by naturally occurring electrical conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, M. E.; Cahoon, D. P.; Girguis, P. R.

    2011-12-01

    Reduction-oxidation (redox) gradients are common across marine sediment-water interfaces and result from microbially-mediated reactions such as the oxidation of organic matter coupled to reduction of electron acceptors. Most microbes living in sediments do not have direct access to oxygen in their immediate environment, however it has recently been shown that sulfide-oxidizing microbes may employ extracellular electron transfer (EET) to couple the oxidation of sulfide in the anoxic zone to reduction of oxygen at the sediment-water interface located several centimeters away. However, no mechanisms for this observed phenomenon have been validated. Accordingly, we tested the hypothesis that conductive minerals in marine sediment (specifically pyrite) can couple spatially separated redox reactions such as anaerobic respiration and oxygen reduction. Marine sediment was amended with naturally occurring pyrite in varying concentrations (0, 2, 10 and 50 weight-percent) and then incubated with 10 μM 13C-labeled acetate. After six hours, the treatments with the greatest amount of added pyrite showed the greatest incorporation of acetate from the labeled pool. The fraction of labeled acetate incorporation more than doubled in the 10 and 50 weight-percent treatments compared to the control sediment. We also designed a circuit to investigate the electrical conductivity of the sediment treatments as a function of added pyrite. A potentiostat was used to establish a known voltage across a sediment column and current was measured. Resistance (the inverse of conductance) was calculated from a linear fit of current data over a range of voltages ranging from 0.5 to 1.0 V. The treatments with added pyrite had lower resistance than background sediment, with the lowest resistance corresponding to the 50% pyrite treatment. We also examined the effect of varying pyrite content on microbial community composition using massively parallel 16S rRNA sequencing. Microbial community analyses

  6. Contribution of Schwann Cells to Remyelination in a Naturally Occurring Canine Model of CNS Neuroinflammation

    PubMed Central

    Imbschweiler, Ilka; Wewetzer, Konstantin; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Seehusen, Frauke

    2015-01-01

    -positive cells. This study provides novel insights into the involvement of Schwann cells in CNS remyelination under natural occurring CNS inflammation. Targeting p75NTR/Sox2-expressing Schwann cells to enhance their differentiation into competent remyelinating cells appears to be a promising therapeutic approach for inflammatory/demyelinating CNS diseases. PMID:26196511

  7. Assessment of radiological hazards of naturally occurring radioactive materials in cement industry.

    PubMed

    Aslam, Muhammad; Gul, Rahmat; Ara, Tauseef; Hussain, Manzur

    2012-09-01

    A study on the radiological hazard in Portland cement due to the presence of naturally occurring radioactive materials is being carried out. The Portland cement manufactured in the Islamabad/Rawalpindi region of Pakistan, intermediate products (clinker) and the various raw materials which compose the product have been analysed for (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K using a gamma spectrometry system with a N-type high-purity germanium detector of 80 % relative efficiency. From the measured gamma ray spectra, specific activities were determined. The mean values of the total specific activity of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K are 34.2±11.9, 29.1±3.6 and 295.1±66.9 Bq kg(-1), respectively in Portland cement, 28.4±8.7, 11.3±1.7 and 63.1±17.3 Bq kg(-1), respectively in lime stone, 8.2±1.9, 16.2±3.9 and 187.7±53.2 Bq kg(-1), respectively in gypsum, 34.7±13.1, 41.2±6.7 and 187.6±17.2 Bq kg(-1), respectively in clay, 41.1±11.8, 39.3±6.9 and 195.1±29.2 Bq kg(-1), respectively in latrite and 51.1±18.2, 23.2±1.2 and 258.4±15.3 Bq kg(-1), respectively in clinker. The radium equivalent activities (Ra(eq)), external hazard index (H(ex)), internal hazard index (H(in)), absorbed dose rate in air (D) and annual effective dose rate (E(eff)) were also determined. The measured activity concentrations for these radio nuclides and radiological indices were compared with the reported national and international data. All these measured values are comparable with the worldwide data reported in UNSCEAR publications.

  8. A Naturally Occurring Canine Model of Autosomal Recessive Congenital Stationary Night Blindness.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Mineo; Das, Gautami; Imai, Ryoetsu; Santana, Evelyn; Nakashita, Tomio; Imawaka, Miho; Ueda, Kosuke; Ohtsuka, Hirohiko; Sakai, Kazuhiko; Aihara, Takehiro; Kato, Kumiko; Sugimoto, Masahiko; Ueno, Shinji; Nishizawa, Yuji; Aguirre, Gustavo D; Miyadera, Keiko

    2015-01-01

    Congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB) is a non-progressive, clinically and genetically heterogeneous disease of impaired night vision. We report a naturally-occurring, stationary, autosomal recessive phenotype in beagle dogs with normal daylight vision but absent night vision. Affected dogs had normal retinas on clinical examination, but showed no detectable rod responses. They had "negative-type" mixed rod and cone responses in full-field ERGs. Their photopic long-flash ERGs had normal OFF-responses associated with severely reduced ON-responses. The phenotype is similar to the Schubert-Bornschein form of complete CSNB in humans. Homozygosity mapping ruled out most known CSNB candidates as well as CACNA2D4 and GNB3. Three remaining genes were excluded based on sequencing the open reading frame and intron-exon boundaries (RHO, NYX), causal to a different form of CSNB (RHO) or X-chromosome (NYX, CACNA1F) location. Among the genes expressed in the photoreceptors and their synaptic terminals, and mGluR6 cascade and modulators, reduced expression of GNAT1, CACNA2D4 and NYX was observed by qRT-PCR in both carrier (n = 2) and affected (n = 2) retinas whereas CACNA1F was down-regulated only in the affecteds. Retinal morphology revealed normal cellular layers and structure, and electron microscopy showed normal rod spherules and synaptic ribbons. No difference from normal was observed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) for antibodies labeling rods, cones and their presynaptic terminals. None of the retinas showed any sign of stress. Selected proteins of mGluR6 cascade and its modulators were examined by IHC and showed that PKCα weakly labeled the rod bipolar somata in the affected, but intensely labeled axonal terminals that appeared thickened and irregular. Dendritic terminals of ON-bipolar cells showed increased Goα labeling. Both PKCα and Goα labeled the more prominent bipolar dendrites that extended into the OPL in affected but not normal retinas. Interestingly

  9. Investigation of Naturally Occurring Radio Nuclides in Shir-kuh Granites

    SciTech Connect

    Mazarei, Mohammad Mehdi; Zarei, Mojtaba

    2011-12-26

    One of the principle natural radiation resources is Granite which can be dangerous for human because of its radiations. Based on this fact, in this research we attempt to specify the activity amount of these natural radio nuclides, existing in Shir-kuh Granite of Yazd state. To specify the activity amount of this natural radio nuclides, it has been applied the measurement method of Gamma spectroscopy using high purity Germanium (HPGe) detector.

  10. Acute Toxicological Responses of Fischer Rats to Naturally Occurring Asbestos from theUnited States and Canada

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was designed to provide understanding of the toxicity of naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) including Libby amphibole (LA), Sumas Mountain chrysotile (SM), EI Dorado Hills tremolite (ED) and Ontario actinolite/ferroactinolite cleavage fragments (ON). Ratrespirable fra...

  11. Mortality of one-week-old chickens during naturally occurring Marek's disease virus infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek’s disease (MD) is a serious economic disease of chickens which occurs worldwide. MD can present as one of several forms, with the most commonly occurring forms being the lymphoproliferative diseases. Under experimental conditions, an early mortality syndrome has been recognized following infec...

  12. Stratigraphic and geochemical controls on naturally occurring arsenic in groundwater, eastern Wisconsin, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiber, M. E.; Simo, J. A.; Freiberg, P. G.

    High arsenic concentrations (up to 12,000μg/L) have been measured in groundwater from a confined sandstone aquifer in eastern Wisconsin. The main arsenic source is a sulfide-bearing secondary cement horizon (SCH) that has variable thickness, morphology, and arsenic concentrations. Arsenic occurs in pyrite and marcasite as well as in iron oxyhydroxides but not as a separate arsenopyrite phase. Nearly identical sulfur isotopic signatures in pyrite and dissolved sulfate and the correlation between dissolved sulfate, iron, and arsenic concentrations suggest that sulfide oxidation is the dominant process controlling arsenic release to groundwater. However, arsenic-bearing oxyhydroxides can potentially provide another arsenic source if reducing conditions develop or if they are transported as colloids in the aquifer. Analysis of well data indicates that the intersection of the SCH with static water levels measured in residential wells is strongly correlated with high concentrations of arsenic in groundwater. Field and laboratory data suggest that the most severe arsenic contamination is caused by localized borehole interactions of air, water, and sulfides. Although arsenic contamination is caused by oxidation of naturally occurring sulfides, it is influenced by water-level fluctuations caused by municipal well pumping or climate changes, which can shift geographic areas in which contamination occurs. Résumé De fortes concentrations en arsenic, jusqu'à 12000μg/L, ont été mesurées dans l'eau souterraine d'un aquifère gréseux captif, dans l'est du Wisconsin. La principale source d'arsenic est un horizon à cimentation secondaire (SCH) comportant des sulfures, dont l'épaisseur, la morphologie et les concentrations en arsenic sont variables. L'arsenic est présent dans la pyrite et dans la marcassite, de même que dans des oxy-hydroxydes de fer, mais non pas dans une phase séparée d'arsénopyrite. Les signatures isotopiques du soufre presque identiques dans la

  13. Football Injuries Occurring on Natural Grass and Tartan Turf. A Comparison Study Covering 17 Years at the University of Wisconsin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keene, J. S.; And Others

    A longitudinal study of university football players who played on Tartan Turf and/or natural grass was conducted to determine the types and severity of injuries occuring on the different field surfaces. Overall injury rates on Tartan Turf were found to be significantly lower than those sustained on natural grass. (JD)

  14. AcuteToxicological Responses of Fischer Rats to Naturally Occurring Asbestos Samples from the United States and Canada

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential public health issues related to exposure to natural asbestos deposits (commonly termed naturally occurring asbestos, NO A) has gained the regulatory and media spotlight in recent years. Arguably the most well known example is Libby, Montana, the site of the largest ...

  15. The naturally occurring furanones: formation and function from pheromone to food.

    PubMed

    Colin Slaughter, J

    1999-08-01

    Three closely related 4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanones have been found in a range of highly cooked foodstuffs where they are important flavour compounds with aroma threshold values as low as 20 micrograms kg-1 water (approximately 0.14 mumol l-1). The compounds are formed mainly as a result of the operation of the Maillard reactions between sugars and amino acids during heating but one compound, 5-(or 2)-ethyl-2-(or 5)-methyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone, appears in practice to be produced by yeast, probably from a Maillard intermediate, during the fermentation stages in the production of soy sauce and beer. The compounds are also important in the flavour of strawberry, raspberry, pineapple and tomato but the route of biosynthesis is unknown. Two 3-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanones, emoxyfuranone and sotolon, which are produced spontaneously from amino acids such as threonine and 4-hydroxy-L-leucine are major contributors to meaty and spicy/nutty flavours in foods. The biosynthesis of 5-(1,2-dihydroxyethyl)-3,4-dihydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (ascorbic acid, vitamin C) and 5-hydroxymethyl-3,4-dihydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (erythroascorbic acid) from sugars in plants and yeast, respectively, has been characterized to the enzymic level. After treatment with chlorine, humic waters contain a range of chloro-furanones, some of which, particularly 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (MX), are powerful mutagens. The furanones which occur in foods are also mutagenic to bacteria and cause DNA damage in laboratory tests. However, these compounds are, in practice, very effective anti-carcinogenic agents in the diets of animals which are being treated with known cancer-inducing compounds such as benzo[alpha]pyrene or azoxymethane. Two of the food-derived furanones have antioxidant activity comparable to that of ascorbic acid. A biological function has been discovered for some of the furanones besides vitamin C. 5-Methyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone is a male pheromone in the cockroach Eurycolis

  16. Naturally Occurring Arsenic in Ground Water, Norman, Oklahoma, 2004, and Remediation Options for Produced Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, S. Jerrod; Christenson, Scott

    2005-01-01

    can be used to bring some of Norman?s high-arsenic wells into compliance with the new arsenic standard, the EPA Office of Research and Development (ORD) initiated a three-year research project in 2003 with participation from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Oklahoma State University, and the City of Norman. The primary objectives of the project are to: (1) determine where naturally occurring arsenic is entering wells by collecting water samples at different depths, (2) investigate the utility of new methods for collecting water-quality data in a pumping well, (3) better understand the stratigraphy and composition of aquifer rocks, (4) assess 10 wells for the possibility of arsenic remediation by well modification, and (5) evaluate the effectiveness of well modification in bringing marginal wells into compliance with the new arsenic MCL. The purpose of this report is to describe the occurrence of arsenic in ground water near Norman, Oklahoma, and available options for reducing arsenic concentrations in produced ground water.

  17. Marine Natural Products as Breast Cancer Resistance Protein Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Cherigo, Lilia; Lopez, Dioxelis; Martinez-Luis, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) is a protein belonging to the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily that has clinical relevance due to its multi-drug resistance properties in cancer. BCRP can be associated with clinical cancer drug resistance, in particular acute myelogenous or acute lymphocytic leukemias. The overexpression of BCRP contributes to the resistance of several chemotherapeutic drugs, such as topotecan, methotrexate, mitoxantrone, doxorubicin and daunorubicin. The Food and Drugs Administration has already recognized that BCRP is clinically one of the most important drug transporters, mainly because it leads to a reduction of clinical efficacy of various anticancer drugs through its ATP-dependent drug efflux pump function as well as its apparent participation in drug resistance. This review article aims to summarize the different research findings on marine natural products with BCRP inhibiting activity. In this sense, the potential modulation of physiological targets of BCRP by natural or synthetic compounds offers a great possibility for the discovery of new drugs and valuable research tools to recognize the function of the complex ABC-transporters. PMID:25854646

  18. Nitro Derivatives of Naturally Occurring β-Asarone and Their Anticancer Activity

    PubMed Central

    Shenvi, Suvarna; Diwakar, Latha; Reddy, G. Chandrasekara

    2014-01-01

    β-Asarone (2, 4, 5-trimethoxy-(Z)-1-propenylbenzene) was obtained from Acorus calamus. Nitration of β-asarone with AgNO2/I2 in ether yielded 1-(2, 4, 5-trimethoxy phenyl)-2-nitropropene (1) but with NaNO2/I2 in ethylene glycol obtained 1-(2, 4, 5-trimethoxy phenyl)-1-nitropropene (2). Compound 2 was prepared for the first time and characterized using IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and GC-MS spectra and it was converted into 1-(2, 4, 5-trimethoxy) phenyl-1-propanone (3) using modified Nef reaction. Based on 1D NOESY experiments, compounds 1 and 2 have been assigned E configuration. Compounds 1 and 2 were subjected to cytotoxic activity using five human cancer cell lines, namely, MCF-7, SW-982, HeLa, PC-3, and IMR-32 by MTT assay. Except in breast cancer line (MCF-7) compound 2 exhibited five- to tenfold increase in activity compared to β-asarone and twofold increase over compound 1. PMID:25383224

  19. Bioaccessibility and degradation of naturally occurring arsenic species from food in the human gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Capilla, Teresa; Beshai, Mona; Maher, William; Kelly, Tamsin; Foster, Simon

    2016-12-01

    Humans are exposed to organic arsenic species through their diet and therefore, are susceptible to arsenic toxicity. Investigating the transformations occurring in the gastrointestinal tract will influence which arsenic species to focus on when studying metabolism in cells. Using a physiologically based extraction test, the bioaccessibility of arsenic species was determined after the simulated gastrointestinal digestion of rice, seaweed and fish. Pure standards of the major arsenic species present in these foodstuffs (arsenic glutathione complexes, arsenosugars and short chain fatty acids) were also evaluated to assess the effect of the food matrix on bioaccessibility and transformation. Approximately 80% of arsenic is released from these foodstuffs, potentially becoming available. Hydrolysis and demethylation of arsenic glutathione complexes and arsenosugars standards was observed, but no transformations occurred to arsenosugars present in seaweed. Demethylation of MA and DMA from rice occurs increasing the amount of inorganic arsenic species available for metabolism.

  20. Effects of a naturally occurring compatible osmolyte on the internal dynamics of ribonuclease A.

    PubMed

    Wang, A; Robertson, A D; Bolen, D W

    1995-11-21

    Osmolytes are small organic solutes accumulated intracellularly by many organisms as they adapt to environmental stresses. Compatible osmolytes, a functional class of osmolytes, increase protein stability while having little or no effect on protein function. To investigate the interrelationships between protein stability, function, and internal dynamics, a hydrogen exchange (HX) quench method was established and used to study the effects of sucrose (a typical compatible osmolyte) on the structural fluctuations of ribonuclease A. It was found that the HX rates of the amide protons with intermediate rates are not affected by 1 M sucrose, but the slow-exchanging amide protons exchange even slower in 1 M sucrose. The protection factors of the slow-exchanging protons fall into a comparatively narrow range while those of the intermediate-exchanging protons vary widely. In agreement with the two-process model [Woodward, C.K., & Hilton, B. D. (1980) Biophys. J. 32, 561-575], we conclude that for those slow-exchanging amide protons, the exchange occurs mainly from the compact unfolded state ensemble of the protein. The internal dynamics leading to slow exchange involve exposure of large protein surface areas, similar to that which occurs upon the unfolding of protein. Because sucrose opposes such an increase in protein surface area exposure, both the slow HX rates and the protein stability are affected by sucrose. For those amide protons with fast and intermediate HX rates, the exchange occurs mainly from the native state ensemble of the protein. The internal dynamics involved in the exchange are localized without much surface area change, and functionally important structural fluctuations are likely to occur within this dynamic range.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Naturally occurring low-molecular-weight peptides from the blowfly Phormia regina

    PubMed Central

    Bodnaryk, R. P.; Levenbook, L.

    1968-01-01

    Freely occurring α-l-aspartyl-l-histidine, β-alanyl-l-histidine (carnosine), α-l-aspartyl-α-l-lysine, l-asparaginyl-α-l-lysine, α-l-glutamyl-α-l-lysine, l-isoleucyl-α-l-lysine, l-seryl-α-l-lysine, l-valyl-α-l-lysine and glycyl-α-l-lysyl-α-l-lysine were identified in young larvae (second and third instars) of the blowfly (Phormia regina). PMID:5704824

  2. Mixed Mucinous and Infiltrating Carcinoma Occurring in Male Breast- Study of Clinico-Pathological Features: A Rare Case Report.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Kavita; Sharma, Swati; Kudva, Ranjini; Kumar, Sandeep

    2015-06-01

    Mucinous carcinoma is a less common histologic variant of breast cancer. Cases of mucinous carcinomas in male breast are extremely rare. Here, we describe a case of mixed mucinous carcinoma i.e. mucinous carcinoma with infiltrating ductal carcinoma component and showing apocrine differentiation in a 73-year-old man. This uncommon tumour entity has dismal prognosis and treatment depends largely on the tumour type, size, lymph node involvement and hormonal status.

  3. A naturally occurring nanomaterial from the Sundew (Drosera) for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Lenaghan, S C; Serpersu, K; Xia, L; He, W; Zhang, M

    2011-12-01

    In recent years advances have been made in the design of novel materials for tissue engineering through the use of polysaccharides. This study evaluated the ability of a naturally secreted polysaccharide adhesive from the Sundew (Drosera capensis) as a support for cell growth. The Sundew adhesive has several advantages including its high elasticity and antibiotic nature. By coating glass cover slips with the Sundew adhesive, a network of nanofibers was generated that was capable of promoting attachment and differentiation of a model neuronal cell line, PC-12. We also demonstrated the potential of this material for repairing bone and soft tissue injuries, by testing attachment of osteoblasts and endothelial cells. Finally, it was determined that the Sundew biomaterial was stable through testing by atomic force microscopy and prolonged cell growth. This work has proven the capabilities of using a nanomaterial derived from the Sundew adhesive for the purpose of tissue engineering.

  4. Naturally occurring variation in tadpole morphology and performance linked to predator regime

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, James B; Saenz, Daniel; Adams, Cory K; Hibbitts, Toby J

    2015-01-01

    Divergent natural selection drives a considerable amount of the phenotypic and genetic variation observed in natural populations. For example, variation in the predator community can generate conflicting selection on behavioral, life-history, morphological, and performance traits. Differences in predator regime can subsequently increase phenotypic and genetic variations in the population and result in the evolution of reproductive barriers (ecological speciation) or phenotypic plasticity. We evaluated morphology and swimming performance in field collected Bronze Frog larvae (Lithobates clamitans) in ponds dominated by predatory fish and those dominated by invertebrate predators. Based on previous experimental findings, we hypothesized that tadpoles from fish-dominated ponds would have small bodies, long tails, and large tail muscles and that these features would facilitate fast-start speed. We also expected to see increased tail fin depth (i.e., the tail-lure morphology) in tadpoles from invertebrate-dominated ponds. Our results support our expectations with respect to morphology in affecting swimming performance of tadpoles in fish-dominated ponds. Furthermore, it is likely that divergent natural selection is playing a role in the diversification on morphology and locomotor performance in this system. PMID:26357533

  5. Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) generated from lignite-fired power plants in Kosovo.

    PubMed

    Hasani, F; Shala, F; Xhixha, G; Xhixha, M K; Hodolli, G; Kadiri, S; Bylyku, E; Cfarku, F

    2014-12-01

    The energy production in Kosovo depends primarily on lignite-fired power plants. During coal combustion, huge amounts of fly ash and bottom ash are generated, which may result in enriched natural radionuclides; therefore, these radionuclides need to be investigated to identify the possible processes that may lead to the radiological exposure of workers and the local population. Lignite samples and NORMs of fly ash and bottom ash generated in lignite-fired power plants in Kosovo are analyzed using a gamma-ray spectrometry method for the activity concentration of natural radionuclides. The average activity concentrations of (40)K, (226)Ra and (232)Th in lignite are found to be 36 ± 8 Bq kg(-1), 9 ± 1 Bq kg(-1) and 9 ± 3 Bq kg(-1), respectively. Indications on the occurrence and geochemical behavior of uranium in the lignite matrix are suggested. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in fly ash and bottom ash samples are found to be concentrated from 3 to 5 times that of the feeding lignite. The external gamma-ray absorbed dose rate and the activity concentration index are calculated to assess the radiological hazard arising from ash disposal and recycling in the cement industry.

  6. When a natural disaster occurs: lessons learned in meeting students' needs.

    PubMed

    Watson, Pamela G; Loffredo, Vincent J; McKee, John C

    2011-01-01

    Across the nation, weather-related natural disasters-tropical storms, floods, tornadoes, and earthquakes-struck even areas where weather concerns are not paramount on the minds of most people. These natural disasters heightened awareness that all geographic areas are susceptible to aberrant weather conditions. The purpose of this article was to relate the lessons learned by one academic health center in meeting students' emergency preparedness and disaster recovery needs following a major hurricane in fall 2008. To gauge students' storm-related needs, a Hurricane Needs Survey (HNS) was conducted in spring 2009, 7 months after the hurricane. Students responded to 26 structured response items and 3 open-ended questions. Five hundred fifteen surveys were completed, constituting a response rate of 37.2%. Data were analyzed by creating frequencies to profile students' hurricane experiences. Results indicated that all students left the island under mandatory evacuation orders; most stayed with their families, and most experienced moderate material losses. For some students, the evacuation process and life after the storm contributed to ongoing problems, worries, and academic performance issues. Qualitative content analysis was used to derive themes from the students' narrative responses to the HNS open-ended questions about their perceptions of the extent to which the University of Texas Medical Branch met their needs. When students' hurricane response comments were analyzed, three major themes emerged: being prepared, needing to be connected, and returning to normalcy. The major lessons learned are that the emergency preparation of students requires greater specificity and that discussion about poststorm recovery expectations is essential. Following a natural disaster, students experience more distress than may be readily apparent.

  7. Naturally occurring and synthetic agents as potential anti-inflammatory and immunomodulants.

    PubMed

    Sultana, Nighat; Saify, Zafar Saeed

    2012-01-01

    Terpenes in general and triterpenes in particular showed anti-inflammatory activity and act as immunomodulators in nutraceutical agents. Antiinflammation, a useful and attractive approach in experimental oncology, helps to investigate the inflammation preventive potential of natural products and synthetic entities. During the course of our research work in natural product chemistry and synthesis of novel structures in the field of heterocyclic chemistry, we found interesting results. In natural product betulinic acid, α-amyrin acetate, lupeol acetate, oleanolic acid, ursolic acid and their derivatives showed interesting potential analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity. In this review specific reference has been made to novel classes and newly discovered compounds in the literature, which exhibited required activities. Indomethacine is a potent synthetic compound, which becomes the basis of novel anti-inflammatory agents. Shen postulated a receptor theory which indicates the physical parameters responsible for anti-inflammatory activity. Attempt has been made to cover almost all the anti-inflammatory agents which fall under the various chemical structural classes of compounds showing required activity. The objective of this review is to compile relevant data on the mechanism of action of terpenes isolated from active ethnomedicinal plants to examine the role terpenoids have in medicinal plants used against inflammatory diseases, especially those in which an immune response is implicated. In addition, a selection of several structurally related compounds has been compiled in order to analyze the possible structural characteristics and relationships between the different types of structures found in triterpenoids. The selection of active species was made on the basis of their immunomodulatory activity, and their role in the resolution of diseases in which the immune system is implicated to examine the mechanism by which they are useful as ethnopharmacological

  8. The naturally occurring carcinogen ptaquiloside is present in groundwater below bracken vegetation.

    PubMed

    Clauson-Kaas, Frederik; Jensen, Pia H; Jacobsen, Ole S; Juhler, René K; Hansen, Hans Christian B

    2014-05-01

    The present study demonstrates unequivocally the presence of the natural carcinogen ptaquiloside and its transformation product pterosin B in groundwater and surface water. Groundwater concentrations up to 0.23 nmol/L (92 ng/L) ptaquiloside and up to 2.2 nmol/L (0.47 µg/L) pterosin B were found. Of 21 groundwater samples, 5 contained ptaquiloside, exceeding the estimated threshold for drinking water (1.3-40 pmol/L). The results are critical for water abstraction in bracken-infested areas.

  9. A naturally-occurring ‘cold earth’ spot in Northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Fujun; Cheng, Guodong; Niu, Yonghong; Zhang, Mingyi; Luo, Jing; Lin, Zhanju

    2016-09-01

    Permafrost is determined to a large extent by the Earth’s surface temperature, therefore it distributes mainly in high altitude and latitude regions. However, stable, warm (about ‑1 °C) permafrost occurs within a scree slope in northern China that is more than 600 km south of the southernmost limit of latitudinal permafrost on the Eurasian Continent. It is at an elevation of only 900 m above sea level (ASL). The area has a mean annual air temperature (MAAT) of 6 to 8 °C. Thermal processes of the scree slope, investigated through field monitoring and numerical simulation, showed that the permafrost is caused by winter air convection within the porous rock deposits and is stable as air convection does not occur in summer time. The deposit is covered by a 30-cm-thick peaty soil layer dated (carbon C-14) to between 1,000 to 1,600 years ago. The layer also contributes to the permafrost’s existence due to the peat’s thermal conductivity offset when frozen and thawed. The existence of permafrost under such warm climatic conditions confirms the effectiveness of using crushed rock layer as basement or slope cover to protect the warm permafrost subgrade of the recently-constructed Qinghai-Tibet Railway (QTR), even under the predicted climate warming conditions.

  10. A naturally-occurring ‘cold earth’ spot in Northern China

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Fujun; Cheng, Guodong; Niu, Yonghong; Zhang, Mingyi; Luo, Jing; Lin, Zhanju

    2016-01-01

    Permafrost is determined to a large extent by the Earth’s surface temperature, therefore it distributes mainly in high altitude and latitude regions. However, stable, warm (about −1 °C) permafrost occurs within a scree slope in northern China that is more than 600 km south of the southernmost limit of latitudinal permafrost on the Eurasian Continent. It is at an elevation of only 900 m above sea level (ASL). The area has a mean annual air temperature (MAAT) of 6 to 8 °C. Thermal processes of the scree slope, investigated through field monitoring and numerical simulation, showed that the permafrost is caused by winter air convection within the porous rock deposits and is stable as air convection does not occur in summer time. The deposit is covered by a 30-cm-thick peaty soil layer dated (carbon C-14) to between 1,000 to 1,600 years ago. The layer also contributes to the permafrost’s existence due to the peat’s thermal conductivity offset when frozen and thawed. The existence of permafrost under such warm climatic conditions confirms the effectiveness of using crushed rock layer as basement or slope cover to protect the warm permafrost subgrade of the recently-constructed Qinghai-Tibet Railway (QTR), even under the predicted climate warming conditions. PMID:27685441

  11. Effect of temperature, pH, and oxygen level on the multiplication of naturally occurring Legionella pneumophila in potable water.

    PubMed Central

    Wadowsky, R M; Wolford, R; McNamara, A M; Yee, R B

    1985-01-01

    A water culture containing naturally occurring Legionella pneumophila and associated microbiota was maintained in the laboratory by serially transferring the culture in tap water which had been sterilized by membrane filtration. Successful maintenance of the water culture depended upon transferring the culture when the growth of L. pneumophila was in the late-exponential to early-stationary phase. The water culture was used as a source of naturally occurring bacteria to determine some of the parameters which affect the multiplication of L. pneumophila in tap water. Naturally occurring L. pneumophila multiplied at a temperature between 25 and 37 degrees C, at pH levels of 5.5 to 9.2, and at concentrations of dissolved oxygen of 6.0 to 6.7 mg/liter. Multiplication did not occur in tap water which contained less than 2.2 mg of dissolved oxygen per liter. An association was observed between the multiplication of L. pneumophila and the non-Legionellaceae bacteria which were also present in the water culture. The method of preserving naturally occurring L. pneumophila and associated microbiota may facilitate studies on the symbiosis of L. pneumophila with other microorganisms. PMID:4004233

  12. Naturally occurring diversity helps to reveal genes of adaptive importance in legumes

    PubMed Central

    Gentzbittel, Laurent; Andersen, Stig U.; Ben, Cécile; Rickauer, Martina; Stougaard, Jens; Young, Nevin D.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental changes challenge plants and drive adaptation to new conditions, suggesting that natural biodiversity may be a source of adaptive alleles acting through phenotypic plasticity and/or micro-evolution. Crosses between accessions differing for a given trait have been the most common way to disentangle genetic and environmental components. Interestingly, such man-made crosses may combine alleles that never meet in nature. Another way to discover adaptive alleles, inspired by evolution, is to survey large ecotype collections and to use association genetics to identify loci of interest. Both of these two genetic approaches are based on the use of biodiversity and may eventually help us in identifying the genes that plants use to respond to challenges such as short-term stresses or those due to global climate change. In legumes, two wild species, Medicago truncatula and Lotus japonicus, plus the cultivated soybean (Glycine max) have been adopted as models for genomic studies. In this review, we will discuss the resources, limitations and future plans for a systematic use of biodiversity resources in model legumes to pinpoint genes of adaptive importance in legumes, and their application in breeding. PMID:25954294

  13. Examining the impact of thought substitution on intentional forgetting in induced and naturally occurring dysphoria.

    PubMed

    Noreen, Saima; Ridout, Nathan

    2016-07-30

    Two experiments were conducted to determine if natural and induced dysphoria is associated with impaired forgetting and, whether a thought-substitution strategy would ameliorate any observed deficits. Study 1: 36 dysphoric & 36 non-dysphoric participants learnt a series of emotional word pairs. Participants were subsequently presented with some of the cues and were asked to recall the targets or prevent the targets from coming to mind. Half of the participants were provided with substitute words to recall instead of the original targets (aided suppression). At final memory testing, participants were asked to recall the targets to all cues. Dysphoric participants exhibited impaired forgetting, even when using a thought substitution strategy. Non-dysphoric participants, however, were able to use substitutes to suppress words. Study 2: 50 healthy participants initially completed the aided condition of the forgetting task. Participants were then given a positive or negative mood-induction, followed by another version of the forgetting task. Although all participants showed a forgetting effect prior to the mood-induction, only the positive group was successful at forgetting after the mood induction. Taken together, these findings do not support the utility of thought-substitution as an aid to forgetting in individuals in a naturally or induced dysphoric mood.

  14. ELASTOGRAPHIC EVALUATION OF NATURALLY OCCURING TENDON AND LIGAMENT INJURIES OF THE EQUINE DISTAL LIMB.

    PubMed

    Lustgarten, Meghann; Redding, W Rich; Labens, Raphael; Davis, Weston; Daniel, Thomas M; Griffith, Emily; Seiler, Gabriela S

    2015-01-01

    Compression elastography is an ultrasonographic technique that estimates tissue strain and may have utility in diagnosing and monitoring soft tissue injuries in the equine athlete. Recently, elastography has been proven to be a feasible and repeatable imaging modality for evaluating normal tendons and ligaments of the equine distal forelimb. The purposes of this prospective study were to investigate the ability of elastography to detect spontaneously occurring lesions of equine tendons and ligaments diagnosed with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and gray-scale ultrasound (US) and to characterize the differences in the elastographic appearance of acute vs. chronic injuries. Fifty seven horses with a total of 65 lesions were evaluated. Images were assessed quantitatively and qualitatively. Acute lesions were found to be significantly softer (P < 0.0001) than chronic lesions (P < 0.0001) and the stiffness of lesions increased with progression of healing (P = 0.0138). A negative correlation between lesion hypoechogenicity and softness was appreciated with more hypoechoic lesions appearing softer (P = 0.0087) and more hyperechoic regions harder (P = 0.0002). A similar finding occurred with increased signal intensity on short tau inversion recovery (STIR) and proton density (PD) MRI sequences correlating with increased softness on elastography (P = 0.0164). Using US and MRI as references, commonly encountered soft tissue injuries of the equine distal limb could be detected with elastography. However, elastography was limited for detecting small, proximal injuries of the hindlimb proximal suspensory ligament. Elastographic evaluation of equine tendons and ligaments may allow better characterization of lesion chronicity and severity, and sequential examinations may optimize lesion management, rehabilitation, and return to training.

  15. Assortative mating for relatedness in a large naturally occurring population of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Stephen P; Kennington, W J; Simmons, L W

    2012-04-01

    New theoretical work on kin selection and inclusive fitness benefits predicts that individuals will sometimes choose close or intermediate relatives as mates to maximize their fitness. However, empirical examples supporting such predictions are rare. In this study, we look for such evidence in a natural population of Drosophila melanogaster. We compared mating and nonmating individuals to test whether mating was nonrandom with respect to relatedness. Consistent with optimal inbreeding, males were more closely related to their mate than to randomly sampled females. However, all individuals collected mating showed higher relatedness and males were not significantly more related to their mate than to other mating females. We also found a negative relationship between relatedness and fecundity. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that inclusive fitness benefits may drive inbreeding tolerance despite direct costs to fitness; however, an experimental approach is needed to investigate the link between mate preference and relatedness.

  16. Effect of silver nanoparticles on fluorescence and nonlinear properties of naturally occurring betacyanin dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Arindam; Thankappan, Aparna; Nampoori, V. P. N.

    2015-01-01

    We present the linear and nonlinear optical studies of a natural dye betacyanin extracted from red beet root in the presence of silver nano particles in colloidal solution. We synthesized silver nano particles and characterized by XRD and HRTEM. We show how appropriate concentration of silver nanoparticles can enable tuning of dye fluorescence efficiency. Nonlinear properties are studied using open aperture Z scan technique with Nd:YAG laser (532 nm, 7 ns, 10 Hz). We show modification of nonlinear properties for the dye to the desired level can be achieved in the presence of silver nanoparticles. High nonlinearity we also demonstrated in PVA/Ag nano/Betacyanin composite films. Theoretical analysis is performed using model based on nonlinear absorption of materials and scattering of metal nanoparticles.

  17. Correction of MS data for naturally occurring isotopes in isotope labelling experiments.

    PubMed

    Millard, Pierre; Letisse, Fabien; Sokol, Serguei; Portais, Jean-Charles

    2014-01-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS) in combination with isotope labelling experiments is widely used for investigations of metabolism and other biological processes. Quantitative applications-e.g., (13)C metabolic flux analysis-require correction of raw MS data (isotopic clusters) for the contribution of all naturally abundant isotopes. This chapter describes how to perform such correction using the software IsoCor. This flexible, user-friendly software can be used to exploit any isotopic tracer, from well-known ((13)C, (15)N, (18)O, etc.) to unusual ((57)Fe, (77)Se, etc.) isotopes. It also provides options-e.g., correction for the isotopic purity of the tracer-to improve the accuracy of quantitative isotopic studies, and allows automated correction of large datasets that can be collected with modern MS methods.

  18. Identification and clinical relevance of naturally occurring human CD8+HLA-DR+ regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Arruvito, Lourdes; Payaslián, Florencia; Baz, Plácida; Podhorzer, Ariel; Billordo, Ariel; Pandolfi, Julieta; Semeniuk, Guillermo; Arribalzaga, Eduardo; Fainboim, Leonardo

    2014-11-01

    The lack of responsiveness to self and non-self Ags is normally maintained by multiple mechanisms, including the suppressive activities of several T cell subsets. In this study, we show that CD8(+) T cells from both adult peripheral blood and umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells constitutively expressing HLA-DR represent a natural human CD8(+) regulatory T cell subset. Their suppressive effect appears to be cell-to-cell contact dependent and may involve CTLA-4 signaling between neighboring T cells. These regulatory T cells can be expanded in vitro and exhibit a suppressive capacity similar to that observed in ex vivo CD8(+)HLA-DR(+) T cells. The high frequency of CD8(+)HLA-DR(+) T cells that we detected in patients with non-small cell lung cancer deserves further work to confirm their putative suppressor effect within the tumor.

  19. Naturally occurring radionuclides and rare earth elements in weathered Japanese soil samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, Sarata; Hosoda, Masahiro; Prasad, Ganesh; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Tokonami, Shinji; Uchida, Shigeo

    2013-08-01

    The activity concentrations of 226Ra and 228Ac in weathered Japanese soils from two selected prefectures have been measured using a γ-ray spectroscopy system with high purity germanium detector. The uranium, thorium, and rare earth elements (REEs) concentrations were determined from the same soil samples using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). For example, granitic rocks contain higher amounts of U, Th, and light REEs compared to other igneous rocks such as basalt and andesites. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the interaction between REEs and nature of soils since soils are complex heterogeneous mixture of organic and inorganic solids, water, and gases. In this paper, we will discuss about distribution pattern of 238U and 232Th along with REEs in soil samples of weathered acid rock (granite) collected from two prefectures of Japan: Hiroshima and Miyagi.

  20. Naturally occurring branched-chain polyamines induce a crosslinked meshwork structure in a giant DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muramatsu, Akira; Shimizu, Yuta; Yoshikawa, Yuko; Fukuda, Wakao; Umezawa, Naoki; Horai, Yuhei; Higuchi, Tsunehiko; Fujiwara, Shinsuke; Imanaka, Tadayuki; Yoshikawa, Kenichi

    2016-12-01

    We studied the effect of branched-chain polyamines on the folding transition of genome-sized DNA molecules in aqueous solution by the use of single-molecule observation with fluorescence microcopy. Detailed morphological features of polyamine/DNA complexes were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The AFM observations indicated that branched-chain polyamines tend to induce a characteristic change in the higher-order structure of DNA by forming bridges or crosslinks between the segments of a DNA molecule. In contrast, natural linear-chain polyamines cause a parallel alignment between DNA segments. Circular dichroism measurements revealed that branched-chain polyamines induce the A-form in the secondary structure of DNA, while linear-chain polyamines have only a minimum effect. This large difference in the effects of branched- and linear-chain polyamines is discussed in relation to the difference in the manner of binding of these polyamines to negatively charged double-stranded DNA.

  1. Pathologic, immunohistochemical, and electron microscopic findings in naturally occurring virulent systemic feline calicivirus infection in cats.

    PubMed

    Pesavento, P A; MacLachlan, N J; Dillard-Telm, L; Grant, C K; Hurley, K F

    2004-05-01

    Infection with feline calicivirus (FCV) is a common cause of upper respiratory and oral disease in cats. FCV infection is rarely fatal, however, virulent, systemic strains of FCV (VS-FCV) that cause alopecia, cutaneous ulcers, subcutaneous edema, and high mortality in affected cats have recently been described. Seven cats with natural VS-FCV infection all had subcutaneous edema and ulceration of the oral cavity, with variable ulceration of the pinnae, pawpads, nares, and skin. Other lesions that were present in some affected cats included bronchointerstitial pneumonia, and pancreatic, hepatic, and splenic necrosis. Viral antigen was present within endothelial and epithelial cells in affected tissues as determined by immunohistochemical staining with a monoclonal antibody to FCV. Mature intranuclear and intracytoplasmic virions in necrotic epithelial cells were identified by transmission electron microscopy. VS-FCV infection causes epithelial cell cytolysis and systemic vascular compromise in susceptible cats, leading to cutaneous ulceration, severe edema, and high mortality.

  2. Fluoride: A naturally-occurring health hazard in drinking-water resources of Northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Chuah, C Joon; Lye, Han Rui; Ziegler, Alan D; Wood, Spencer H; Kongpun, Chatpat; Rajchagool, Sunsanee

    2016-03-01

    In Northern Thailand, incidences of fluorosis resulting from the consumption of high-fluoride drinking-water have been documented. In this study, we mapped the high-fluoride endemic areas and described the relevant transport processes of fluoride in enriched waters in the provinces of Chiang Mai and Lamphun. Over one thousand surface and sub-surface water samples including a total of 995 collected from shallow (depth: ≤ 30 m) and deep (> 30 m) wells were analysed from two unconnected high-fluoride endemic areas. At the Chiang Mai site, 31% of the shallow wells contained hazardous levels (≥ 1.5 mg/L) of fluoride, compared with the 18% observed in the deep wells. However, at the Lamphun site, more deep wells (35%) contained water with at least 1.5mg/L fluoride compared with the shallow wells (7%). At the Chiang Mai site, the high-fluoride waters originate from a nearby geothermal field. Fluoride-rich geothermal waters are distributed across the area following natural hydrological pathways of surface and sub-surface water flow. At the Lamphun site, a well-defined, curvilinear high-fluoride anomalous zone, resembling that of the nearby conspicuous Mae Tha Fault, was identified. This similarity provides evidence of the existence of an unmapped, blind fault as well as its likely association to a geogenic source (biotite-granite) of fluoride related to the faulted zone. Excessive abstraction of ground water resources may also have affected the distribution and concentration of fluoride at both sites. The distribution of these high-fluoride waters is influenced by a myriad of complex natural and anthropogenic processes which thus created a challenge for the management of water resources for safe consumption in affected areas. The notion of clean and safe drinking water can be found in deeper aquifers is not necessarily true. Groundwater at any depth should always be tested before the construction of wells.

  3. Pig Reticulocytes. III. Glucose permeability in naturally occurring reticulocytes and red cells from newborn piglets

    PubMed Central

    Kim, HD; Luthra, MG

    1977-01-01

    The loss of facilitated glucose transport of red cells occurring in the newborn pig was monitored in 11 density-separated cells from birth to a 4 wk of age. At birth there was a threefold increase in glucose permeability from the lightest cells to the most dense, suggesting that cells having progressively less glucose permeability are released into the circulation as gestation proceeds. Because of extraordinary stimulation of erythropoietic activity, the uppermost top fraction constituting 2-3 percent of the total cells is composed purely of reticulocytes in the growing animal. The glucose permeability of these reticulocytes which at birth has a slow but significant rate of 3.7 μmol/ml cell x min at 25 degrees C is rapidly decreased within 3-4 days to the level of reticulocytes produced in the adult in response to phenylhydrazine assault. Moreover, reticulocytes themselves discard their membrane permeability to glucose in the course of maturation to red cells. Thus, even though reticulocytes at birth are permeable to glucose, they will become red cells practically impervious to glucose within a few days. These findings suggest that the transition from a glucose- permeable fetal state to a glucose-impermeable postnatal state is brought about by two mechanisms: (a) dilution of fetal cells by glucose-impervious cells produced coincidentally with or shortly after birth; and (b) elimination of fetal cells, which have a shorter half-life, from the circulation. PMID:894256

  4. Phylogeny and Virulence of Naturally Occurring Type III Secretion System-Deficient Pectobacterium Strains▿

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hye-Sook; Ma, Bing; Perna, Nicole T.; Charkowski, Amy O.

    2009-01-01

    Pectobacterium species are enterobacterial plant-pathogenic bacteria that cause soft rot disease in diverse plant species. Previous epidemiological studies of Pectobacterium species have suffered from an inability to identify most isolates to the species or subspecies level. We used three previously described DNA-based methods, 16S-23S intergenic transcribed spacer PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA), and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, to examine isolates from diseased stems and tubers and found that MLSA provided the most reliable classification of isolates. We found that strains belonging to at least two Pectobacterium clades were present in each field examined, although representatives of only three of five Pectobacterium clades were isolated. Hypersensitive response and DNA hybridization assays revealed that strains of both Pectobacterium carotovorum and Pectobacterium wasabiae lack a type III secretion system (T3SS). Two of the T3SS-deficient strains assayed lack genes adjacent to the T3SS gene cluster, suggesting that multiple deletions occurred in Pectobacterium strains in this locus, and all strains appear to have only six rRNA operons instead of the seven operons typically found in Pectobacterium strains. The virulence of most of the T3SS-deficient strains was similar to that of T3SS-encoding strains in stems and tubers. PMID:19411432

  5. Phylogeny and virulence of naturally occurring type III secretion system-deficient Pectobacterium strains.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye-Sook; Ma, Bing; Perna, Nicole T; Charkowski, Amy O

    2009-07-01

    Pectobacterium species are enterobacterial plant-pathogenic bacteria that cause soft rot disease in diverse plant species. Previous epidemiological studies of Pectobacterium species have suffered from an inability to identify most isolates to the species or subspecies level. We used three previously described DNA-based methods, 16S-23S intergenic transcribed spacer PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA), and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, to examine isolates from diseased stems and tubers and found that MLSA provided the most reliable classification of isolates. We found that strains belonging to at least two Pectobacterium clades were present in each field examined, although representatives of only three of five Pectobacterium clades were isolated. Hypersensitive response and DNA hybridization assays revealed that strains of both Pectobacterium carotovorum and Pectobacterium wasabiae lack a type III secretion system (T3SS). Two of the T3SS-deficient strains assayed lack genes adjacent to the T3SS gene cluster, suggesting that multiple deletions occurred in Pectobacterium strains in this locus, and all strains appear to have only six rRNA operons instead of the seven operons typically found in Pectobacterium strains. The virulence of most of the T3SS-deficient strains was similar to that of T3SS-encoding strains in stems and tubers.

  6. Naturally occurring tubulin-containing paracrystals in Allogromia: immunocytochemical identification and functional significance.

    PubMed

    Rupp, G; Bowser, S S; Mannella, C A; Rieder, C L

    1986-01-01

    Bundles of microtubules (MTs) are readily visualized in vivo by videomicroscopy in highly flattened reticulopodia of the foraminiferan protozoan Allogromia sp. strain NF. In this report we use videomicroscopy, immunocytochemistry, and high-voltage electron microscopy to characterize the dynamic changes that occur in this extensive MT cytoskeleton, and in the associated cytoplasmic transport, during induced withdrawal and subsequent reextension of reticulopodia. Within seconds after application of the withdrawal stimulus (seawater substitute made hypertonic with MgCl2) intracellular bidirectional transport along linear MT-containing fibrils ceases and is replaced by an inward, constant-velocity flow of cytoplasm along the fibrils. As withdrawal continues, most fibrils become wavy and coalesce to form phase-dense pools. These wavy fibrils and phase-dense pools contain a paracrystalline material and few if any MTs. Same-section correlative immunofluorescence and high-voltage electron microscopy reveal that the paracrystalline material contains tubulin. During recovery linear fibrils (MTs) rapidly extend from the phase-dense pools (paracrystals), which concurrently shrink in size, thus reestablishing normal network morphology and motility. We conclude that the MT cytoskeleton in Allogromia reticulopodia is transformed during withdrawal into a tubulin-containing paracrystal, which serves as a temporary reservoir of MT protein and an initiation site for MT regrowth.

  7. Effects of omeprazole on healing of naturally-occurring gastric ulcers in thoroughbred racehorses.

    PubMed

    Murray, M J; Haven, M L; Eichorn, E S; Zhang, D; Eagleson, J; Hickey, G J

    1997-11-01

    Seventeen Thoroughbred horses with moderate to severe gastric ulceration were purchased from a race track within 10 days of racing and were treated once daily with either omeprazole (9 horses) or vehicle (8 horses) and evaluated gastroscopically for ulcer healing. Horses were administered omeprazole (1.5 mg/kg bwt/day) or vehicle by nasogastric tube once daily. Gastroscopic examination was performed on Days 0, 4, 7, 11, 14, 17, 21, 24 and 28, until lesions healed completely. Selected images of gastric lesions were captured by computer at each endoscopic examination, with a measuring caliper included in captured images. The area and perimeter of lesions were measured by computer and healing rates of specific lesions were determined by calculating the rate of linear advance of the margins toward the centre of the lesion. Additionally, the number of days to complete healing of the entire gastric squamous mucosa was compared between treatment groups. Gastric lesions healed at a significantly faster rate in horses receiving omeprazole than in vehicle-treated horses (P < 0.001). Complete healing of the entire stomach occurred in 10-21 days in omeprazole-treated horses, and 14-28 days in 3 of 8 vehicle-treated horses, with the remaining vehicle-treated horses having unhealed lesions on Day 28. In addition, 5 vehicle-treated horses developed new lesions in the squamous epithelial mucosa during the trial; no new lesions were observed in the omeprazole-treated group.

  8. Sporadic naturally occurring melanoma in dogs as a preclinical model for human melanoma.

    PubMed

    Simpson, R Mark; Bastian, Boris C; Michael, Helen T; Webster, Joshua D; Prasad, Manju L; Conway, Catherine M; Prieto, Victor M; Gary, Joy M; Goldschmidt, Michael H; Esplin, D Glen; Smedley, Rebecca C; Piris, Adriano; Meuten, Donald J; Kiupel, Matti; Lee, Chyi-Chia R; Ward, Jerrold M; Dwyer, Jennifer E; Davis, Barbara J; Anver, Miriam R; Molinolo, Alfredo A; Hoover, Shelley B; Rodriguez-Canales, Jaime; Hewitt, Stephen M

    2014-01-01

    Melanoma represents a significant malignancy in humans and dogs. Different from genetically engineered models, sporadic canine melanocytic neoplasms share several characteristics with human disease that could make dogs a more relevant preclinical model. Canine melanomas rarely arise in sun-exposed sites. Most occur in the oral cavity, with a subset having intra-epithelial malignant melanocytes mimicking the in situ component of human mucosal melanoma. The spectrum of canine melanocytic neoplasia includes benign lesions with some analogy to nevi, as well as invasive primary melanoma, and widespread metastasis. Growing evidence of distinct subtypes in humans, differing in somatic and predisposing germ-line genetic alterations, cell of origin, epidemiology, relationship to ultraviolet radiation and progression from benign to malignant tumors, may also exist in dogs. Canine and human mucosal melanomas appear to harbor BRAF, NRAS, and c-kit mutations uncommonly, compared with human cutaneous melanomas, although both species share AKT and MAPK signaling activation. We conclude that there is significant overlap in the clinical and histopathological features of canine and human mucosal melanomas. This represents opportunity to explore canine oral cavity melanoma as a preclinical model.

  9. Sporadic naturally occurring melanoma in dogs as a preclinical model for human melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, R Mark; Bastian, Boris C; Michael, Helen T; Webster, Joshua D; Prasad, Manju L; Conway, Catherine M; Prieto, Victor M; Gary, Joy M; Goldschmidt, Michael H; Esplin, D Glen; Smedley, Rebecca C; Piris, Adriano; Meuten, Donald J; Kiupel, Matti; Lee, Chyi-Chia R; Ward, Jerrold M; Dwyer, Jennifer E; Davis, Barbara J; Anver, Miriam R; Molinolo, Alfredo A; Hoover, Shelley B; Rodriguez-Canales, Jaime; Hewitt, Stephen M

    2014-01-01

    Melanoma represents a significant malignancy in humans and dogs. Different from genetically engineered models, sporadic canine melanocytic neoplasms share several characteristics with human disease that could make dogs a more relevant preclinical model. Canine melanomas rarely arise in sun-exposed sites. Most occur in the oral cavity, with a subset having intra-epithelial malignant melanocytes mimicking the in situ component of human mucosal melanoma. The spectrum of canine melanocytic neoplasia includes benign lesions with some analogy to nevi, as well as invasive primary melanoma, and widespread metastasis. Growing evidence of distinct subtypes in humans, differing in somatic and predisposing germ-line genetic alterations, cell of origin, epidemiology, relationship to ultraviolet radiation and progression from benign to malignant tumors, may also exist in dogs. Canine and human mucosal melanomas appear to harbor BRAF, NRAS, and c-kit mutations uncommonly, compared with human cutaneous melanomas, although both species share AKT and MAPK signaling activation. We conclude that there is significant overlap in the clinical and histopathological features of canine and human mucosal melanomas. This represents opportunity to explore canine oral cavity melanoma as a preclinical model. PMID:24128326

  10. Correlation of Naturally Occurring HIV-1 Resistance to DEB025 with Capsid Amino Acid Polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Gallay, Philippe A.; Ptak, Roger G.; Bobardt, Michael D.; Dumont, Jean-Maurice; Vuagniaux, Grégoire; Rosenwirth, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    DEB025 (alisporivir) is a synthetic cyclosporine with inhibitory activity against human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) and hepatitis C virus (HCV). It binds to cyclophilin A (CypA) and blocks essential functions of CypA in the viral replication cycles of both viruses. DEB025 inhibits clinical HIV-1 isolates in vitro and decreases HIV-1 virus load in the majority of patients. HIV-1 isolates being naturally resistant to DEB025 have been detected in vitro and in nonresponder patients. By sequence analysis of their capsid protein (CA) region, two amino acid polymorphisms that correlated with DEB025 resistance were identified: H87Q and I91N, both located in the CypA-binding loop of the CA protein of HIV-1. The H87Q change was by far more abundant than I91N. Additional polymorphisms in the CypA-binding loop (positions 86, 91 and 96), as well as in the N-terminal loop of CA were detected in resistant isolates and are assumed to contribute to the degree of resistance. These amino acid changes may modulate the conformation of the CypA-binding loop of CA in such a way that binding and/or isomerase function of CypA are no longer necessary for virus replication. The resistant HIV-1 isolates thus are CypA-independent. PMID:23524389

  11. Naturally occurring feline leukemia virus subgroup A and B infections in urban domestic cats.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Fabiana Magalhães; Bomfim, Maria Rosa Quaresma; de Andrade Caxito, Fabíola; Ribeiro, Natália Almeida; Luppi, Marcela Miranda; Costa, Erica Azevedo; Oliveira, Maria Emilia; Da Fonseca, Flávio Guimarães; Resende, Mauricio

    2008-11-01

    A nested-PCR (n-PCR) was used to detect feline leukemia virus (FeLV) proviral DNA in blood samples from 464 sick and 608 healthy domestic cats (Felis catus) selected by convenience, and a significantly high prevalence of FeLV infection was observed. n-PCR results revealed the presence of FeLV proviral DNA in 47.2 % of sick cats and 47.4 % of healthy cats. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that FeLV samples from healthy or sick cats were grouped into separate clades. We determined FeLV subgroups by an n-PCR based on the envelope (env) gene. The partial env gene of FeLV Minas Gerais (MG) samples were compared to various exogenous FeLV isolates and endogenous (enFeLV) provirus from the same region. FeLV-B MG samples were more similar to endogenous sequences and to natural FeLV-B isolates than to either FeLV-A or FeLV-C. The results revealed the circulation of FeLV-B in large populations of urban domestic cats in Brazil.

  12. Stimulation effect of wide type CFTR chloride channel by the naturally occurring flavonoid tangeretin.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yu; Yu, Bo; Wang, Xue; Sui, Yujie; Zhang, Yaofang; Yang, Shuang; Yang, Hong; Ma, Tonghui

    2014-12-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a cAMP-activated chloride channel expressed in the apical membrane of serous epithelial cells. Both deficiency and overactivation of CFTR may cause fluid and salt secretion related diseases. In the present study, we identified tangeretin from Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae Viride as a CFTR activator using high-throughput screening based on FRT cell-based fluorescence assay. The activation effect of tangeretin on CFTR chloride channel and the possible underlying mechanisms were investigated. Fluorescence quenching tests showed that tangeretin dose- and time-dependently activated CFTR chloride channel, the activity had rapid and reversible characteristics and the activation effect could be completely reversed by the CFTR specific blocker CFTRinh-172. Primary mechanism studies indicated that the activation effect of tangeretin on CFTR chloride channel was FSK dependent as well as had additional effect with FSK and IBMX suggesting that tangeretin activates CFTR by direct interacting with the protein. Ex-vivo tests revealed that tangeretin could accelerate the speed of the submucosal gland fluid secretion. Short-circuit current measurement demonstrated that tangeretin activated rat colonic mucosa chloride current. Thus, CFTR Cl(-) channel is a molecular target of natural compound tangeretin. Tangeretin may have potential use for the treatment of CFTR-related diseases like cystic fibrosis, bronchiectasis and habitual constipation.

  13. Mass fractionation of noble gases in synthetic methane hydrate: Implications for naturally occurring gas hydrate dissociation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunt, Andrew G.; Stern, Laura; Pohlman, John W.; Ruppel, Carolyn; Moscati, Richard J.; Landis, Gary P.

    2013-01-01

    As a consequence of contemporary or longer term (since 15 ka) climate warming, gas hydrates in some settings may presently be dissociating and releasing methane and other gases to the ocean-atmosphere system. A key challenge in assessing the impact of dissociating gas hydrates on global atmospheric methane is the lack of a technique able to distinguish between methane recently released from gas hydrates and methane emitted from leaky thermogenic reservoirs, shallow sediments (some newly thawed), coal beds, and other sources. Carbon and deuterium stable isotopic fractionation during methane formation provides a first-order constraint on the processes (microbial or thermogenic) of methane generation. However, because gas hydrate formation and dissociation do not cause significant isotopic fractionation, a stable isotope-based hydrate-source determination is not possible. Here, we investigate patterns of mass-dependent noble gas fractionation within the gas hydrate lattice to fingerprint methane released from gas hydrates. Starting with synthetic gas hydrate formed under laboratory conditions, we document complex noble gas fractionation patterns in the gases liberated during dissociation and explore the effects of aging and storage (e.g., in liquid nitrogen), as well as sampling and preservation procedures. The laboratory results confirm a unique noble gas fractionation pattern for gas hydrates, one that shows promise in evaluating modern natural gas seeps for a signature associated with gas hydrate dissociation.

  14. Aspergillus flavus growth in the presence of chemical preservatives and naturally occurring antimicrobial compounds.

    PubMed

    López-Malo, Aurelio; Maris Alzamora, Stella; Palou, Enrique

    2005-03-15

    The combined effects of water activity ([a(w)] 0.99 or 0.95), pH (4.5 or 3.5) and antimicrobial agent (potassium sorbate, sodium benzoate, sodium bisulfite, carvacrol, citral, eugenol, thymol, or vanillin) concentration (0, 100, 200 up to 1800 ppm) on the growth of Aspergillus flavus were evaluated in potato dextrose agar (PDA). Mold spore germination time and radial growth rates (RGR) were significantly (p<0.05) affected by the variables. For equal antimicrobial concentration, reduction in pH or a(w) had important effects, lowering RGR and delaying germination time. Depending on a(w) and pH, increase in antimicrobial concentration slightly reduced RGR until a critical concentration where RGR was drastically reduced or mold growth was inhibited. Germination time increased as antimicrobial agent concentration increased and when a(w) and pH decreased. Important antimicrobial differences were observed, being, in general, the natural antimicrobials less pH-dependent than chemical preservatives. A. flavus exhibited higher sensitivity to thymol, eugenol, carvacrol, potassium sorbate, sodium bisulfite, and sodium benzoate (at pH 3.5) than to vanillin or citral.

  15. Ionospheric plasma disturbances generated by naturally occurring large-scale anomalous heat sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradipta, Rezy; Lee, Min-Chang; Coster, Anthea J.; Tepley, Craig A.; Sulzer, Michael P.; Gonzalez, Sixto A.

    2017-04-01

    We report the findings from our investigation on the possibility of large-scale anomalous thermal gradients to generate acoustic-gravity waves (AGWs) and traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs). In particular, here we consider the case of summer 2006 North American heat wave event as a concrete example of such large-scale natural thermal gradients. This special scenario of AGW/TID generation was formulated based on the results of our experiments at the Arecibo Observatory in July 2006, followed by a systematic monitoring/surveillance of total electron content (TEC) fluctuations over North America in 2005-2007 using the MIT Haystack Observatory's Madrigal database. The data from our Arecibo experiments indicate a continual occurrence of intense AGW/TID over the Caribbean on 21-24 July 2006, and the Madrigal TEC data analysis shows that the overall level of TID activity over North America had increased by ∼0.2 TECU during the summer 2006 heat wave event. Our proposed scenario is in agreement with these empirical observations, and is generally consistent with a number of past ionospheric HF heating experiments related to AGW/TID generation.

  16. Trigonelline, a naturally occurring constituent of green coffee beans behind the mutagenic activity of roasted coffee?

    PubMed

    Wu, X; Skog, K; Jägerstad, M

    1997-07-14

    Trigonelline and amino acids are natural components in green coffee beans. Model systems mimicking coffee roasting were used to produce heated samples of trigonelline, amino acids and glucose. Trigonelline and amino acids were heated separately or in combinations for 20 min at 250 degrees C. The results of bacteria mutation assays (Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 98, YG 1024 and YG 1029) showed that trigonelline, alone or in combination with most of the single amino acids and mixtures of amino acids, yielded potent mutagenic activity. Of the singly heated compounds, the highest mutagenic activity was found for trigonelline. The mutagenic activity detected with metabolic activation of the heated trigonelline samples indicated that the mutagenic compounds might be amines; however, higher mutagenic activity was found for trigonelline and its combinations without metabolic activation, which suggests that other types of mutagens (direct-acting) were predominant. High-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of some of the heated samples did not reveal the presence of any known mutagenic heterocyclic amine.

  17. Using Naturally Occurring Radionuclides To Determine Drinking Water Age in a Community Water System.

    PubMed

    Waples, James T; Bordewyk, Jason K; Knesting, Kristina M; Orlandini, Kent A

    2015-08-18

    Drinking water quality in a community water system is closely linked to the age of water from initial treatment to time of delivery. However, water age is difficult to measure with conventional chemical tracers; particularly in stagnant water, where the relationship between disinfectant decay, microbial growth, and water age is poorly understood. Using radionuclides that were naturally present in source water, we found that measured activity ratios of (90)Y/(90)Sr and (234)Th/(238)U in discrete drinking water samples of known age accurately estimated water age up to 9 days old (σest: ± 3.8 h, P < 0.0001, r(2) = 0.998, n = 11) and 25 days old (σest: ± 13.3 h, P < 0.0001, r(2) = 0.996, n = 12), respectively. Moreover, (90)Y-derived water ages in a community water system (6.8 × 10(4) m(3) d(-1) capacity) were generally consistent with water ages derived from an extended period simulation model. Radionuclides differ from conventional chemical tracers in that they are ubiquitous in distribution mains and connected premise plumbing. The ability to measure both water age and an analyte (e.g., chemical or microbe) in any water sample at any time allows for new insight into factors that control drinking water quality.

  18. Natural Occurring Silks and Their Analogues as Materials for Nerve Conduits.

    PubMed

    Radtke, Christine

    2016-10-20

    Spider silk and its synthetic derivatives have a light weight in combination with good strength and elasticity. Their high cytocompatibility and low immunogenicity make them well suited for biomaterial products such as nerve conduits. Silk proteins slowly degrade enzymatically in vivo, thus allowing for an initial therapeutic effect such as in nerve scaffolding to facilitate endogenous repair processes, and then are removed. Silks are biopolymers naturally produced by many species of arthropods including spiders, caterpillars and mites. The silk fibers are secreted by the labial gland of the larvae of some orders of Holometabola (insects with pupa) or the spinnerets of spiders. The majority of studies using silks for biomedical applications use materials from silkworms or spiders, mostly of the genus Nephila clavipes. Silk is one of the most promising biomaterials with effects not only in nerve regeneration, but in a number of regenerative applications. The development of silks for human biomedical applications is of high scientific and clinical interest. Biomaterials in use for biomedical applications have to meet a number of requirements such as biocompatibility and elicitation of no more than a minor inflammatory response, biodegradability in a reasonable time and specific structural properties. Here we present the current status in the field of silk-based conduit development for nerve repair and discuss current advances with regard to potential clinical transfer of an implantable nerve conduit for enhancement of nerve regeneration.

  19. Natural Occurring Silks and Their Analogues as Materials for Nerve Conduits

    PubMed Central

    Radtke, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Spider silk and its synthetic derivatives have a light weight in combination with good strength and elasticity. Their high cytocompatibility and low immunogenicity make them well suited for biomaterial products such as nerve conduits. Silk proteins slowly degrade enzymatically in vivo, thus allowing for an initial therapeutic effect such as in nerve scaffolding to facilitate endogenous repair processes, and then are removed. Silks are biopolymers naturally produced by many species of arthropods including spiders, caterpillars and mites. The silk fibers are secreted by the labial gland of the larvae of some orders of Holometabola (insects with pupa) or the spinnerets of spiders. The majority of studies using silks for biomedical applications use materials from silkworms or spiders, mostly of the genus Nephila clavipes. Silk is one of the most promising biomaterials with effects not only in nerve regeneration, but in a number of regenerative applications. The development of silks for human biomedical applications is of high scientific and clinical interest. Biomaterials in use for biomedical applications have to meet a number of requirements such as biocompatibility and elicitation of no more than a minor inflammatory response, biodegradability in a reasonable time and specific structural properties. Here we present the current status in the field of silk-based conduit development for nerve repair and discuss current advances with regard to potential clinical transfer of an implantable nerve conduit for enhancement of nerve regeneration. PMID:27775616

  20. Sequence and structure of VH domain from naturally occurring camel heavy chain immunoglobulins lacking light chains.

    PubMed

    Muyldermans, S; Atarhouch, T; Saldanha, J; Barbosa, J A; Hamers, R

    1994-09-01

    We cloned 17 different PCR fragments encoding VH genes of camel (Camelus dromedarius). These clones were derived from the camel heavy chain immunoglobulins lacking the light chain counterpart of normal immunoglobulins. Insight into the camel VH sequences and structure may help the development of single domain antibodies. The most remarkable difference in the camel VH, consistent with the absence of the VL interaction, is the substitution of the conserved Leu45 by an Arg or Cys. Another noteworthy substitution is the Leu11 to Ser. This amino acid normally interacts with the CH1 domain, a domain missing in the camel heavy chain immunoglobulins. The nature of these substitutions agrees with the increased solubility behavior of an isolated camel VH domain. The VH domains of the camels are also characterized by a long CDR3, possibly compensating for the absence of the VL contacts with the antigen. The CDR3 lacks the salt bridge between Arg94 and Asp101. However, the frequent occurrence of additional Cys residues in both the CDR1 and CDR3 might lead to the formation of a second internal disulfide bridge, thereby stabilizing the CDR structure as in the DAW antibody. Within CDRs of the camel VH domains we observe a broad size distribution and a different amino acid pattern compared with the mouse or human VH. Therefore the camel hypervariable regions might adopt structures which differ substantially from the known canonical structures, thereby increasing the repertoire of the camel antigen binding sites within a VH.

  1. Using naturally occurring radionuclides to determine drinking water age in a community water system

    DOE PAGES

    Waples, James T.; Bordewyk, Jason K.; Knesting, Kristina M.; ...

    2015-07-22

    Drinking water quality in a community water system is closely linked to the age of water from initial treatment to time of delivery. However, water age is difficult to measure with conventional chemical tracers; particularly in stagnant water, where the relationship between disinfectant decay, microbial growth, and water age is poorly understood. Using radionuclides that were naturally present in source water, we found that measured activity ratios of 90Y/90Sr and 234Th/238U in discrete drinking water samples of known age accurately estimated water age up to 9 days old (σest: ± 3.8 h, P < 0.0001, r2 = 0.998, n =more » 11) and 25 days old (σest: ± 13.3 h, P < 0.0001, r2 = 0.996, n = 12), respectively. Moreover, 90Y-derived water ages in a community water system (6.8 × 104 m3 d–1 capacity) were generally consistent with water ages derived from an extended period simulation model. Radionuclides differ from conventional chemical tracers in that they are ubiquitous in distribution mains and connected premise plumbing. The ability to measure both water age and an analyte (e.g., chemical or microbe) in any water sample at any time allows for new insight into factors that control drinking water quality.« less

  2. Germline TP53 alterations in Finnish breast cancer families are rare and occur at conserved mutation-prone sites

    PubMed Central

    Rapakko, K; Allinen, M; Syrjäkoski, K; Vahteristo, P; Huusko, P; Vähäkangas, K; Eerola, H; Kainu, T; Kallioniemi, O-P; Nevanlinna, H; Winqvist, R

    2001-01-01

    We have screened for germline TP53 mutations in Finnish BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation-negative families. This study represents the largest survey of the entire protein-encoding portion of TP53, and indicates that mutations are only found at conserved domains in breast cancer families also meeting the criteria for Li-Fraumeni/Li-Fraumeni-like syndrome, explaining only a very small additional fraction of the hereditary breast cancer cases. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11139324

  3. The Case of an In-Home Recreation Program for an Older Adult in a Naturally Occurring Retirement Community (NORC).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chow, Yvette

    2002-01-01

    Describes the implementation of an in-home therapeutic recreation (TR) program with an elderly woman living in a naturally occurring retirement community (NORC) by a fourth-year TR student. The program helped meet her physical, social, and cognitive needs and re-stimulate her interests. Results suggest that in-home TR can be beneficial, and TR…

  4. Predation and Parasitism Rates on Sentinel and Naturally Occurring Egg Masses of the Squash Bug (Hemiptera: Coreidae) in Maryland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seasonal changes in egg predation and parasitism rates on sentinel and naturally occurring (wild) egg masses of the squash bug, Anasa tristis (DeGeer), were evaluated in squash fields in Maryland from June through September in 2013 and 2014. Rates of egg predation and parasitism were significantly ...

  5. Elevated Appraisals of the Negative Impact of Naturally Occurring Life Events: A Risk Factor for Depressive and Anxiety Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espejo, Emmanuel Peter; Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    The tendency to appraise naturally occurring life events (LEs) as having high negative impact may be a predisposing factor for the development of depression and anxiety disorders. In the current study, appraisals of the negative impact of recent LEs were examined in relationship to depressive and anxiety disorders in a sample of 653 adolescents…

  6. Recruiting Older Adults into a Physical Activity Promotion Program: "Active Living Every Day" Offered in a Naturally Occurring Retirement Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildebrand, Mary; Neufeld, Peggy

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This article explores recruitment strategies based on the transtheoretical model (TTM) with older adults living in a naturally occurring retirement community (NORC) to encourage enrollment in a physical activity promotion program, "Active Living Every Day" (ALED). Reasons for participation or nonparticipation are identified. Design and…

  7. The Nature, Occurring Contexts, and Psychological Implications of Weight-Related Teasing in Urban Physical Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Weidong; Rukavina, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the nature, occurring contexts, and psychological implications of weight-related teasing in urban physical education programs. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 47 participants from a large urban school district. Data were analyzed using inductive analysis and constant comparisons. Most overweight adolescents…

  8. A novel Arometic compound acts synergistically with a naturally occurring monoterpene to elicit strong behavioral responses in Asian citrus psyllid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inscent, Inc. has developed methodologies for rapidly screening potential ligands of chemosensory proteins (CSPs) isolated from the antennae of target insects. These novel ligands, referred to as Arometics, mimic naturally-occurring odorants and may function as super-stimuli because of their strong ...

  9. Anti-Cancer Properties of the Naturally Occurring Aphrodisiacs: Icariin and Its Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Hui-Li; Chan, Kok-Gan; Pusparajah, Priyia; Saokaew, Surasak; Duangjai, Acharaporn; Lee, Learn-Han; Goh, Bey-Hing

    2016-01-01

    Epimedium (family Berberidaceae), commonly known as Horny Goat Weed or Yin Yang Huo, is commonly used as a tonic, aphrodisiac, anti-rheumatic and anti-cancer agent in traditional herbal formulations in Asian countries such as China, Japan, and Korea. The major bioactive compounds present within this plant include icariin, icaritin and icariside II. Although it is best known for its aphrodisiac properties, scientific and pharmacological studies suggest it possesses broad therapeutic capabilities, especially for enhancing reproductive function and osteoprotective, neuroprotective, cardioprotective, anti-inflammatory and immunoprotective effects. In recent years, there has been great interest in scientific investigation of the purported anti-cancer properties of icariin and its derivatives. Data from in vitro and in vivo studies suggests these compounds demonstrate anti-cancer activity against a wide range of cancer cells which occurs through various mechanisms such as apoptosis, cell cycle modulation, anti-angiogenesis, anti-metastasis and immunomodulation. Of note, they are efficient at targeting cancer stem cells and drug-resistant cancer cells. These are highly desirable properties to be emulated in the development of novel anti-cancer drugs in combatting the emergence of drug resistance and overcoming the limited efficacy of current standard treatment. This review aims to summarize the anti-cancer mechanisms of icariin and its derivatives with reference to the published literature. The currently utilized applications of icariin and its derivatives in cancer treatment are explored with reference to existing patents. Based on the data compiled, icariin and its derivatives are shown to be compounds with tremendous potential for the development of new anti-cancer drugs. PMID:27445824

  10. Anti-Cancer Properties of the Naturally Occurring Aphrodisiacs: Icariin and Its Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Tan, Hui-Li; Chan, Kok-Gan; Pusparajah, Priyia; Saokaew, Surasak; Duangjai, Acharaporn; Lee, Learn-Han; Goh, Bey-Hing

    2016-01-01

    Epimedium (family Berberidaceae), commonly known as Horny Goat Weed or Yin Yang Huo, is commonly used as a tonic, aphrodisiac, anti-rheumatic and anti-cancer agent in traditional herbal formulations in Asian countries such as China, Japan, and Korea. The major bioactive compounds present within this plant include icariin, icaritin and icariside II. Although it is best known for its aphrodisiac properties, scientific and pharmacological studies suggest it possesses broad therapeutic capabilities, especially for enhancing reproductive function and osteoprotective, neuroprotective, cardioprotective, anti-inflammatory and immunoprotective effects. In recent years, there has been great interest in scientific investigation of the purported anti-cancer properties of icariin and its derivatives. Data from in vitro and in vivo studies suggests these compounds demonstrate anti-cancer activity against a wide range of cancer cells which occurs through various mechanisms such as apoptosis, cell cycle modulation, anti-angiogenesis, anti-metastasis and immunomodulation. Of note, they are efficient at targeting cancer stem cells and drug-resistant cancer cells. These are highly desirable properties to be emulated in the development of novel anti-cancer drugs in combatting the emergence of drug resistance and overcoming the limited efficacy of current standard treatment. This review aims to summarize the anti-cancer mechanisms of icariin and its derivatives with reference to the published literature. The currently utilized applications of icariin and its derivatives in cancer treatment are explored with reference to existing patents. Based on the data compiled, icariin and its derivatives are shown to be compounds with tremendous potential for the development of new anti-cancer drugs.

  11. Allelic polymorphism of GIGANTEA is responsible for naturally occurring variation in circadian period in Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qiguang; Lou, Ping; Hermand, Victor; Aman, Rashid; Park, Hee Jin; Yun, Dae-Jin; Kim, Woe Yeon; Salmela, Matti Juhani; Ewers, Brent E; Weinig, Cynthia; Khan, Sarah L; Schaible, D Loring P; McClung, C Robertson

    2015-03-24

    GIGANTEA (GI) was originally identified by a late-flowering mutant in Arabidopsis, but subsequently has been shown to act in circadian period determination, light inhibition of hypocotyl elongation, and responses to multiple abiotic stresses, including tolerance to high salt and cold (freezing) temperature. Genetic mapping and analysis of families of heterogeneous inbred lines showed that natural variation in GI is responsible for a major quantitative trait locus in circadian period in Brassica rapa. We confirmed this conclusion by transgenic rescue of an Arabidopsis gi-201 loss of function mutant. The two B. rapa GI alleles each fully rescued the delayed flowering of Arabidopsis gi-201 but showed differential rescue of perturbations in red light inhibition of hypocotyl elongation and altered cold and salt tolerance. The B. rapa R500 GI allele, which failed to rescue the hypocotyl and abiotic stress phenotypes, disrupted circadian period determination in Arabidopsis. Analysis of chimeric B. rapa GI alleles identified the causal nucleotide polymorphism, which results in an amino acid substitution (S264A) between the two GI proteins. This polymorphism underlies variation in circadian period, cold and salt tolerance, and red light inhibition of hypocotyl elongation. Loss-of-function mutations of B. rapa GI confer delayed flowering, perturbed circadian rhythms in leaf movement, and increased freezing and increased salt tolerance, consistent with effects of similar mutations in Arabidopsis. Collectively, these data suggest that allelic variation of GI-and possibly of clock genes in general-offers an attractive target for molecular breeding for enhanced stress tolerance and potentially for improved crop yield.

  12. Original mechanism of failure initiation revealed through modelling of naturally occurring microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbatikh, Larissa; Lomov, Stepan V.; Verpoest, Ignaas

    2010-05-01

    Motivated to reveal original mechanisms of failure resistance, we developed a material model that encompasses most reoccurring microstructural features of natural composites. The interesting result of the work is a notion that material failure is governed by the quality of interactions between hierarchical levels in the material microstructure. With intelligent use of the structure, these interactions can be tuned to create a powerful synergetic effect on the material failure behaviour. For example, while exploring different mechanisms of failure initiation in composites with bimodal size reinforcements (an indirect way to model two levels of hierarchy simultaneously) we found that failure initiation could be shifted from stress concentration sites of the higher level to the lower level. One could say that the material behaviour became insensitive to the presence of reinforcements on the higher level—a phenomenon that is counterintuitive to what is commonly known. The new mechanism of failure initiation could only be activated in composites with a highly controlled structural organization—in the studied case, reinforcements of the lower level needed to establish lamellar pathways between reinforcements of the higher level. These pathways lead to formation of an intriguing network-like microstructure. Intelligent communication between reinforcements in such a network created the necessary synergy to change the failure initiation mechanism in a discontinuous fashion. Another finding was that by establishing such a network, tensile stresses near dangerous stress concentration sites were locally transformed into compressive stresses. Resemblance of the revealed mechanism to phenomena on the nano-scale was also discussed. In the course of this work a new method was developed to investigate interactions between reinforcements and their collective input into effective and local properties of a composite. The reinforcement phase was modelled with the use of rigid

  13. Effectiveness of mineral soil to adsorb the natural occurring radioactive material (norm), uranium and thorium

    SciTech Connect

    Amir, Muhammad Nur Iman; Ismail, Nurul Izzatiafifi; Wood, Ab. Khalik Saat, Ahmad; Hamzah, Zaini

    2015-04-29

    A study has been performed on U-soil and Th-soil adsorption of three types of soil collected from Selangor State of Malaysia which are Saujana Putra, Bukit Changgang and Jenderam Hilir. In this study, natural radionuclide (U and Th) soil adsorption based on batch experiments with various initial concentrations of the radionuclide elements were carried out. Parameters that were set constant include pH at 5;amount of soil used was 5 g each, contact time was 24 hour and different initial concentration for each solution of U and Th which is 5 mg/L, 10 mg/L, 15 mg/L, 20 mg/L, 25 mg/L and 40 mg/L were used. The K{sub d} values for each type of soil were determined in this batch experiments which was based on US-EPA method, in order to estimate adsorption capacity of the soil.The K{sub d} values of Th found higher than Kd values of U for all of the soil samples, and the highest was found on the soil collected from Bukit Changgang. The soil clay content was one of factors to influence the adsorption of both U and Th from dilute initial solution. The U-soil and Th-soil adsorption process for all the soil samples studied are generally obeying unimolecular layer Langmuir isotherm model. From Langmuir isotherm, the maximum adsorption capacity for U was 0.393mg/g and for Th was 1.53 mg/g for the soil that was taken from Bukit Changgang. From the study, it suggested that the soil from Bukit Changgang applicable as potential enhanced barrier for site disposing waste containing U and Th.

  14. Effectiveness of mineral soil to adsorb the natural occurring radioactive material (norm), uranium and thorium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amir, Muhammad Nur Iman; Ismail, Nurul Izzatiafifi; Wood, Ab. Khalik; Saat, Ahmad; Hamzah, Zaini

    2015-04-01

    A study has been performed on U-soil and Th-soil adsorption of three types of soil collected from Selangor State of Malaysia which are Saujana Putra, Bukit Changgang and Jenderam Hilir. In this study, natural radionuclide (U and Th) soil adsorption based on batch experiments with various initial concentrations of the radionuclide elements were carried out. Parameters that were set constant include pH at 5;amount of soil used was 5 g each, contact time was 24 hour and different initial concentration for each solution of U and Th which is 5 mg/L, 10 mg/L, 15 mg/L, 20 mg/L, 25 mg/L and 40 mg/L were used. The Kd values for each type of soil were determined in this batch experiments which was based on US-EPA method, in order to estimate adsorption capacity of the soil.The Kd values of Th found higher than Kd values of U for all of the soil samples, and the highest was found on the soil collected from Bukit Changgang. The soil clay content was one of factors to influence the adsorption of both U and Th from dilute initial solution. The U-soil and Th-soil adsorption process for all the soil samples studied are generally obeying unimolecular layer Langmuir isotherm model. From Langmuir isotherm, the maximum adsorption capacity for U was 0.393mg/g and for Th was 1.53 mg/g for the soil that was taken from Bukit Changgang. From the study, it suggested that the soil from Bukit Changgang applicable as potential enhanced barrier for site disposing waste containing U and Th.

  15. Microbial interactions with naturally occurring hydrophobic sediments: Influence on sediment and associated contaminant mobility.

    PubMed

    Droppo, I G; Krishnappan, B G; Lawrence, J R

    2016-04-01

    The erosion, transport and fate of sediments and associated contaminants are known to be influenced by both particle characteristics and the flow dynamics imparted onto the sediment. The influential role of bitumen containing hydrophobic sediments and the microbial community on sediment dynamics are however less understood. This study links an experimental evaluation of sediment erosion with measured sediment-associated contaminant concentrations and microbial community analysis to provide an estimate of the potential for sediment to control the erosion, transport and fate of contaminants. Specifically the paper addresses the unique behaviour of hydrophobic sediments and the role that the microbial community associated with hydrophobic sediment may play in the transport of contaminated sediment. Results demonstrate that the hydrophobic cohesive sediment demonstrates unique transport and particle characteristics (poor settling and small floc size). Biofilms were observed to increase with consolidation/biostabilization times and generated a unique microbial consortium relative to the eroded flocs. Natural oil associated with the flocs appeared to be preferentially associated with microbial derived extracellular polymeric substances. While PAHs and naphthenic acid increased with increasing shear (indicative of increasing loads), they tended to decrease with consolidation/biostabilization (CB) time at similar shears suggesting a chemical and/or biological degradation. PAH and napthenic acid degrading microbes decreased with time as well, which may suggest that there was a reduced pool of PAHs and naphthenic acids available resulting in their die off. This study emphasizes the importance that any management strategies and operational assessments for the protection of human and aquatic health incorporate the sediment (suspended and bed sediment) and biological (biofilm) compartments and the energy dynamics within the system in order to better predict contaminant

  16. Using naturally occurring radionuclides to determine drinking water age in a community water system

    SciTech Connect

    Waples, James T.; Bordewyk, Jason K.; Knesting, Kristina M.; Orlandini, Kent A.

    2015-07-22

    Drinking water quality in a community water system is closely linked to the age of water from initial treatment to time of delivery. However, water age is difficult to measure with conventional chemical tracers; particularly in stagnant water, where the relationship between disinfectant decay, microbial growth, and water age is poorly understood. Using radionuclides that were naturally present in source water, we found that measured activity ratios of 90Y/90Sr and 234Th/238U in discrete drinking water samples of known age accurately estimated water age up to 9 days old (σest: ± 3.8 h, P < 0.0001, r2 = 0.998, n = 11) and 25 days old (σest: ± 13.3 h, P < 0.0001, r2 = 0.996, n = 12), respectively. Moreover, 90Y-derived water ages in a community water system (6.8 × 104 m3 d–1 capacity) were generally consistent with water ages derived from an extended period simulation model. Radionuclides differ from conventional chemical tracers in that they are ubiquitous in distribution mains and connected premise plumbing. The ability to measure both water age and an analyte (e.g., chemical or microbe) in any water sample at any time allows for new insight into factors that control drinking water quality.

  17. Interactions between natural-occurring landscape conditions and land use influencing the abundance of riverine smallmouth bass, micropterus dolomieu

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brewer, S.K.; Rabeni, C.F.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined how interactions between natural landscape features and land use influenced the abundance of smallmouth bass, Micropterus dolomieu, in Missouri, USA, streams. Stream segments were placed into one of four groups based on natural-occurring watershed characteristics (soil texture and soil permeability) predicted to relate to smallmouth bass abundance. Within each group, stream segments were assigned forest (n = 3), pasture (n = 3), or urban (n = 3) designations based on the percentages of land use within each watershed. Analyses of variance indicated smallmouth bass densities differed between land use and natural conditions. Decision tree models indicated abundance was highest in forested stream segments and lowest in urban stream segments, regardless of group designation. Land use explained the most variation in decision tree models, but in-channel features of temperature, flow, and sediment also contributed significantly. These results are unique and indicate the importance of natural-occurring watershed conditions in defining the potential of populations and how finer-scale filters interact with land use to further alter population potential. Smallmouth bass has differing vulnerabilities to land-use attributes, and the better the natural watershed conditions are for population success, the more resilient these populations will be when land conversion occurs.

  18. Inhibition of TRPV1 channels by a naturally occurring omega-9 fatty acid reduces pain and itch

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Lázaro, Sara L.; Llorente, Itzel; Sierra-Ramírez, Félix; López-Romero, Ana E.; Ortíz-Rentería, Miguel; Serrano-Flores, Barbara; Simon, Sidney A.; Islas, León D.; Rosenbaum, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) ion channel is mainly found in primary nociceptive afferents whose activity has been linked to pathophysiological conditions including pain, itch and inflammation. Consequently, it is important to identify naturally occurring antagonists of this channel. Here we show that a naturally occurring monounsaturated fatty acid, oleic acid, inhibits TRPV1 activity, and also pain and itch responses in mice by interacting with the vanilloid (capsaicin)-binding pocket and promoting the stabilization of a closed state conformation. Moreover, we report an itch-inducing molecule, cyclic phosphatidic acid, that activates TRPV1 and whose pruritic activity, as well as that of histamine, occurs through the activation of this ion channel. These findings provide insights into the molecular basis of oleic acid inhibition of TRPV1 and also into a way of reducing the pathophysiological effects resulting from its activation. PMID:27721373

  19. Inhibition of TRPV1 channels by a naturally occurring omega-9 fatty acid reduces pain and itch.

    PubMed

    Morales-Lázaro, Sara L; Llorente, Itzel; Sierra-Ramírez, Félix; López-Romero, Ana E; Ortíz-Rentería, Miguel; Serrano-Flores, Barbara; Simon, Sidney A; Islas, León D; Rosenbaum, Tamara

    2016-10-10

    The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) ion channel is mainly found in primary nociceptive afferents whose activity has been linked to pathophysiological conditions including pain, itch and inflammation. Consequently, it is important to identify naturally occurring antagonists of this channel. Here we show that a naturally occurring monounsaturated fatty acid, oleic acid, inhibits TRPV1 activity, and also pain and itch responses in mice by interacting with the vanilloid (capsaicin)-binding pocket and promoting the stabilization of a closed state conformation. Moreover, we report an itch-inducing molecule, cyclic phosphatidic acid, that activates TRPV1 and whose pruritic activity, as well as that of histamine, occurs through the activation of this ion channel. These findings provide insights into the molecular basis of oleic acid inhibition of TRPV1 and also into a way of reducing the pathophysiological effects resulting from its activation.

  20. Naturally occurring and stress induced tubular structures from mammalian cells, a survival mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yonnie; Laughlin, Richard C; Henry, David C; Krueger, Darryl E; Hudson, JoAn S; Kuan, Cheng-Yi; He, Jian; Reppert, Jason; Tomkins, Jeffrey P

    2007-01-01

    dehydration. The disintegrative, mobile, disruptive and ubiquitous nature of straw cells makes this a possible physiological process that may be involved in human health, longevity, and various types of diseases such as cancer. PMID:17705822

  1. Tartan Turf on trial. A comparison of intercollegiate football injuries occurring on natural grass and Tartan Turf.

    PubMed

    Keene, J S; Narechania, R G; Sachtjen, K M; Clancy, W G

    1980-01-01

    We retro- and prospectively compared collegiate football injuries that occurred on the grass and Tartan Turf (3M Company, St. Paul, Minnesota) fields at the University of Wisconsin. Retrospective injury data were obtained from questionnaires returned by 235 of 450 athletes that competed from 1960 to 1973. Prospective injury data were obtained by examination of athletes injured from 1975 through 1977. Although the number of injuries occurring on each playing surface were not significantly different, the type and severity of injuries were significantly different. We found that significantly more serious sprains and torn ligaments occurred on grass than occurred on Tartan Turf. There were significantly more scrapes (minor injuries) on the Tartan Turf than on the grass. We conclude that we may be prematurely returning to natural grass playing surfaces, and--to the detriment of the athlete--ending production of one synthetic turf that helped reduce major injuries.

  2. Synthesis and insecticidal activity of novel hydrazone compounds derived from a naturally occurring lignan podophyllotoxin against Mythimna separata (Walker).

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Yu, Xiang; Zhi, Xiaoyan; Xiao, Xiao; Yang, Chun; Xu, Hui

    2014-06-15

    In continuation of our program aimed at the discovery and development of natural-product-based insecticidal agents, a series of novel hydrazone derivatives of podophyllotoxin, which is a naturally occurring aryltetralin lignan and isolated as the main secondary metabolite from the roots and rhizomes of Podophyllum species, were synthesized and evaluated as insecticidal agents against the pre-third-instar larvae of oriental armyworm, Mythimna separata (Walker) in vivo at 1mg/mL. Especially compounds 8i, 8j, 8t, and 8u showed the more potent insecticidal activity with the final mortality rates greater than 60%.

  3. Association of Cytokine Candidate Genes with Severity of Pain and Co-Occurring Symptoms in Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Chemotherapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    1, 236 breast cancer patients were enrolled across the three research sites (UCSF, Alta Bates Summit Medical Center, and El Camino Hospital), and...Precise screening procedures vary by site, and typically, at El Camino and Alta Bates, nurses or physicians are required to verify participant... Camino Hospital (N=25). On average, women were 53.5 (± 10.7) years old (range: 21 – 86). For details regarding ethnicity and race, see Table 1 below

  4. Natural history of age-related lobular involution and impact on breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Radisky, Derek C; Visscher, Daniel W; Frank, Ryan D; Vierkant, Robert A; Winham, Stacey; Stallings-Mann, Melody; Hoskin, Tanya L; Nassar, Aziza; Vachon, Celine M; Denison, Lori A; Hartmann, Lynn C; Frost, Marlene H; Degnim, Amy C

    2016-02-01

    Age-related lobular involution (LI) is a physiological process in which the terminal duct lobular units of the breast regress as a woman ages. Analyses of breast biopsies from women with benign breast disease (BBD) have found that extent of LI is negatively associated with subsequent breast cancer development. Here we assess the natural course of LI within individual women, and the impact of progressive LI on breast cancer risk. The Mayo Clinic BBD cohort consists of 13,455 women with BBD from 1967 to 2001. The BBD cohort includes 1115 women who had multiple benign biopsies, 106 of whom had developed breast cancer. Within this multiple biopsy cohort, the progression of the LI process was examined by age at initial biopsy and time between biopsies. The relationship between LI progression and breast cancer risk was assessed using standardized incidence ratios and by Cox proportional hazards analysis. Women who had multiple biopsies were younger age and had a slightly higher family history of breast cancer as compared with the overall BBD cohort. Extent of LI at subsequent biopsy was greater with increasing time between biopsies and for women age 55 + at initial biopsy. Among women with multiple biopsies, there was a significant association of higher breast cancer risk among those with involution stasis (lack of progression, HR 1.63) as compared with those with involution progression, p = 0.036. The multiple biopsy BBD cohort allows for a longitudinal study of the natural progression of LI. The majority of women in the multiple biopsy cohort showed progression of LI status between benign biopsies, and extent of progression was highest for women who were in the perimenopausal age range at initial biopsy. Progression of LI status between initial and subsequent biopsy was associated with decreased breast cancer risk.

  5. Cellular targets and mechanistic strategies of remyelination-promoting IgMs as part of the naturally occurring autoantibody repertoire

    PubMed Central

    Watzlawik, Jens O; Wootla, Bharath; Painter, Meghan M; Warrington, Arthur E; Rodriguez, Moses

    2014-01-01

    Immunoglobulins with germline sequences occur in invertebrates and vertebrates and are named naturally occurring autoantibodies (NAbs). NAbs may target foreign antigens, self- or altered self-components and are part of the normal immunoglobulin repertoire. Accumulating evidence indicates that naturally occurring antibodies can act as systemic surveillance molecules, which tag, damaged or stressed cells, invading pathogens and toxic cellular debris for elimination by the immune system. In addition to acting as detecting molecules, certain types of NAbs actively signal in different cell types with a broad range of responses from induction of apoptosis in cancer cells to stimulation of remyelination in glial cells. This review emphasizes functions and characteristics of NAbs with focus on remyelination-promoting mouse and human antibodies. Human remyelination-promoting NAbs are potential therapeutics to combat a wide spectrum of disease processes including demyelinating diseases like multiple sclerosis. We will highlight the identified glycosphingolipid (SL) antigens of polyreactive remyelination-promoting antibodies and their proposed mechanism(s) of action. The nature of the identified antigens suggests a lipid raft-based mechanism for remyelination-promoting antibodies with SLs as most essential raft components. However, accumulating evidence also suggests involvement of other antigens in stimulation of remyelination, which will be discussed in the text. PMID:24053345

  6. Magnitude-based discrimination of man-made seismic events from naturally occurring earthquakes in Utah, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koper, Keith D.; Pechmann, James C.; Burlacu, Relu; Pankow, Kristine L.; Stein, Jared; Hale, J. Mark; Roberson, Paul; McCarter, Michael K.

    2016-10-01

    We investigate using the difference between local (ML) and coda/duration (MC) magnitude to discriminate man-made seismic events from naturally occurring tectonic earthquakes in and around Utah. For 6846 well-located earthquakes in the Utah region, we find that ML-MC is on average 0.44 magnitude units smaller for mining-induced seismicity (MIS) than for tectonic seismicity (TS). Our interpretation of this observation is that MIS occurs within near-surface low-velocity layers that act as a waveguide and preferentially increase coda duration relative to peak amplitude, while the vast majority of TS occurs beneath the near-surface waveguide. A second data set of 3723 confirmed or probable explosions in the Utah region also has significantly lower ML-MC values than TS, likely for the same reason as the MIS. These observations suggest that ML-MC is useful as a depth indicator and could discriminate small explosions and mining-induced earthquakes from deeper, naturally occurring earthquakes at local-to-regional distances.

  7. Prediction of rodent carcinogenic potential of naturally occurring chemicals in the human diet using high-throughput QSAR predictive modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Valerio, Luis G. . E-mail: luis.valerio@FDA.HHS.gov; Arvidson, Kirk B.; Chanderbhan, Ronald F.; Contrera, Joseph F.

    2007-07-01

    Consistent with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Critical Path Initiative, predictive toxicology software programs employing quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models are currently under evaluation for regulatory risk assessment and scientific decision support for highly sensitive endpoints such as carcinogenicity, mutagenicity and reproductive toxicity. At the FDA's Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition's Office of Food Additive Safety and the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research's Informatics and Computational Safety Analysis Staff (ICSAS), the use of computational SAR tools for both qualitative and quantitative risk assessment applications are being developed and evaluated. One tool of current interest is MDL-QSAR predictive discriminant analysis modeling of rodent carcinogenicity, which has been previously evaluated for pharmaceutical applications by the FDA ICSAS. The study described in this paper aims to evaluate the utility of this software to estimate the carcinogenic potential of small, organic, naturally occurring chemicals found in the human diet. In addition, a group of 19 known synthetic dietary constituents that were positive in rodent carcinogenicity studies served as a control group. In the test group of naturally occurring chemicals, 101 were found to be suitable for predictive modeling using this software's discriminant analysis modeling approach. Predictions performed on these compounds were compared to published experimental evidence of each compound's carcinogenic potential. Experimental evidence included relevant toxicological studies such as rodent cancer bioassays, rodent anti-carcinogenicity studies, genotoxic studies, and the presence of chemical structural alerts. Statistical indices of predictive performance were calculated to assess the utility of the predictive modeling method. Results revealed good predictive performance using this software's rodent carcinogenicity module of over 1200 chemicals

  8. A Naturally Occurring Single Amino Acid Replacement in Multiple Gene Regulator of Group A Streptococcus Significantly Increases Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Sanson, Misu; O'Neill, Brian E.; Kachroo, Priyanka; Anderson, Jeff R.; Flores, Anthony R.; Valson, Chandni; Cantu, Concepcion C.; Makthal, Nishanth; Karmonik, Christof; Fittipaldi, Nahuel; Kumaraswami, Muthiah; Musser, James M.; Olsen, Randall J.

    2016-01-01

    Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most common source of genetic variation within a species; however, few investigations demonstrate how naturally occurring SNPs may increase strain virulence. We recently used group A Streptococcus as a model pathogen to study bacteria strain genotype–patient disease phenotype relationships. Whole-genome sequencing of approximately 800 serotype M59 group A Streptococcus strains, recovered during an outbreak of severe invasive infections across North America, identified a disproportionate number of SNPs in the gene encoding multiple gene regulator of group A Streptococcus (mga). Herein, we report results of studies designed to test the hypothesis that the most commonly occurring SNP, encoding a replacement of arginine for histidine at codon 201 of Mga (H201R), significantly increases virulence. Whole transcriptome analysis revealed that the H201R replacement significantly increased expression of mga and 54 other genes, including many proven virulence factors. Compared to the wild-type strain, a H201R isogenic mutant strain caused significantly larger skin lesions in mice. Serial quantitative bacterial culture and noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging also demonstrated that the isogenic H201R strain was significantly more virulent in a nonhuman primate model of joint infection. These findings show that the H201R replacement in Mga increases the virulence of M59 group A Streptococcus and provide new insight to how a naturally occurring SNP in bacteria contributes to human disease phenotypes. PMID:25476528

  9. Naturally Occurring Asbestos in Washington State: Swift Creek at the Intersection of Science, Law, and Risk Perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melious, J. O.

    2012-12-01

    In the northwestern corner of Washington state, a large landslide on Sumas Mountain deposits more than 100,000 cubic yards of soil containing asbestos fibers and heavy metals into Swift Creek every year. Engineers predict that asbestos-laden soils will slide into Swift Creek for at least the next 400 years. Swift Creek joins the Sumas River, which crosses the border into Canada, serving as an international delivery system for asbestos-laden soils. When the rivers flood, as happens regularly, they deliver asbestos into field, yards, and basements. The tools available to address the Swift Creek situation are at odds with the scope and nature of the problem. Asbestos regulation primarily addresses occupational settings, where exposures can be estimated. Hazardous waste regulation primarily addresses liability for abandoned waste products from human activities. Health and environmental issues relating to naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) are fundamentally different from either regulatory scheme. Liability is not a logical lever for a naturally occurring substance, the existence of which is nobody's fault, and exposures to NOA in the environment do not necessarily resemble occupational exposures. The gaps and flaws in the legal regime exacerbate the uncertainties created by uncertainties in the science. Once it is assumed that no level of exposure is safe, legal requirements adopted in very different contexts foreclose the options for addressing the Swift Creek problem. This presentation will outline the applicable laws and how they intersect with issues of risk perception, uncertainty and politics in efforts to address the Swift Creek NOA site.

  10. Naturally Occurring Radionuclides of Ash Produced by Coal Combustion. The Case of the Kardia Mine in Northern Greece

    SciTech Connect

    Fotakis, M.; Tsikritzis, L.; Tzimkas, N.; Kolovos, N.; Tsikritzi, R.

    2008-08-07

    West Macedonia Lignite Center (WMLC), located in Northwest Greece, releases into the atmosphere about 21,400 tons/year of fly ash through the stacks of four coal fired plants. The lignite ash contains naturally occurring radionuclides, which are deposited on the WMLC basin. This work investigates the natural radioactivity of twenty six ash samples, laboratory produced from combustion of lignite, which was sampled perpendicularly to the benches of the Kardia mine. The concentrations of radionuclides {sup 40}K, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 232}Th, were measured spectroscopically and found round one order of magnitude as high as those of lignite. Subsequently the Radionuclide Partitioning Coefficients of radionuclides were calculated and it was found that they are higher for {sup 232}Th, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 40}K, because the latter have closer affinity with the inorganic matrix of lignite. During combustion up to one third of the naturally occurring radioisotopes escape from the solid phase into the flue gases. With comparison to relative global data, the investigated ash has been found to have relatively high radioactivity, but the emissions of the WMLC radionuclides contribute only 0.03% to the mean annual absorbed dose.

  11. Immunocytochemical localization of the surfactant apoprotein and Clara cell antigen in chemically induced and naturally occurring pulmonary neoplasms of mice.

    PubMed Central

    Ward, J. M.; Singh, G.; Katyal, S. L.; Anderson, L. M.; Kovatch, R. M.

    1985-01-01

    The localization of surfactant apoprotein (SAP) and the Clara cell antigen(s) (CCA) was studied in naturally occurring and experimentally induced pulmonary hyperplasias and neoplasms by avidin-biotin peroxidase complex (ABC) immunocytochemistry. Lungs of B6C3F1 and A strain mice with naturally occurring lesions, B6C3F1 mice given injections of N-nitrosodiethylamine (DEN), BALB/c nu/nu or nu/+ mice exposed transplacentally on Day 16 of gestation to ethylnitrosourea (ENU), or BALB/c nu/+ mice exposed to ENU at 8-12 weeks of age were preserved in formalin or Bouin's fixative. After ABC immunocytochemistry, SAP was found in the cytoplasm of normal alveolar Type II cells; in the majority of cells in focal alveolar and solid hyperplasias originating in peribronchiolar or peripheral locations; and in solid, tubular, papillary, and mixed adenomas and carcinomas. The larger mixed-pattern neoplasms and small or large tubular neoplasms usually had the least number of cells with SAP. The majority of large papillary adenomas and carcinomas in BALB/c mice exposed to ENU and in untreated A strain mice contained SAP in the nuclei of many neoplastic cells but only in the cytoplasm of a few neoplastic cells. CCA was found in normal Clara cells of bronchi and bronchioles but not in any hyperplastic or neoplastic lesion of any mouse studied. This study provided immunocytochemical evidence that the vast majority of naturally occurring and experimentally induced pulmonary neoplasms of mice are alveolar Type II cell adenomas and carcinomas. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:3883798

  12. Distribution of the PBC-specific- (M2) and the naturally-occurring mitochondrial antigen- (NOMAg) systems in plants.

    PubMed Central

    Lang, P; Klein, R; Becker, E W; Berg, P A

    1992-01-01

    In previous studies it was demonstrated that antibodies in sera from patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and their relatives can recognize two different antigen systems in the ATPase fraction prepared from beef heart mitochondria, namely the PBC-related M2- and the naturally occurring mitochondrial antigen (NOMAg)-related epitopes. Since separation of these two antigen systems could not be achieved using mammalian mitochondria, mitochondria from a wide spectrum of plants were analysed with respect to the presence of mitochondrial antigens. Mitochondria from 29 species of plants were prepared and tested by ELISA and Western blot using marker sera from patients with PBC reacting in the Western blot with M2a,b,c,d (alpha-ketoacid-dehydrogenase complex) and NOMAg-specific sera recognizing the three major epitopes epsilon, zeta, and eta at 65, 61 and 58 kD. Naturally occurring mitochondrial antibody (NOMA)-positive marker sera reacted in the ELISA with mitochondria from all plants, and the zeta/eta positive sera gave also a positive reaction at 61/58 kD in the Western blot while the epsilon epitope could not be visualized by this method. In contrast, the M2 antigen was detected preferentially in lower plants such as algae, fungi, and ferns. Analysing these data with respect to the evolution of proteins one would have to assume that the M2 antigen was lost in most higher plants or underwent some structural alterations. Furthermore, considering the fact that the M2- and the NOMAg-related epitopes could be only partially separated, i.e. there were no plant mitochondria showing only M2 but no NOMAg, one could speculate that anti-M2 antibodies are derived from the pool of naturally occurring antibodies. Images Fig. 2 PMID:1281057

  13. Naturally occurring antibodies for the group B streptococcal surface immunogenic protein (Sip) in pregnant women and newborn babies.

    PubMed

    Manning, Shannon D; Wood, Stephen; Kasha, Katherine; Martin, Denis; Rioux, Stéphane; Brodeur, Bernard; Davies, H Dele

    2006-11-17

    Sip is a surface-exposed protein of GBS, which causes severe neonatal disease. Because Sip elicits a protective immune response in mice, we assessed whether pregnant women and newborns have Sip antibodies. Sera were collected from 644 pregnant women and 176 of their healthy newborns, and 10 newborns with GBS disease and their mothers. Using ELISA, most (99%) women and newborns (97%) had serum Sip antibodies, as did most newborns followed through 6 months. This suggests that naturally occurring Sip antibodies cross the placenta and persist into infancy, which underscores the need to study Sip further as a potential vaccine candidate.

  14. The nature, occurring contexts, and psychological implications of weight-related teasing in urban physical education programs.

    PubMed

    Li, Weidong; Rukavina, Paul

    2012-06-01

    This study examined the nature, occurring contexts, and psychological implications of weight-related teasing in urban physical education programs. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 47 participants from a large urban school district. Data were analyzed using inductive analysis and constant comparisons. Most overweight adolescents experienced many different types of teasing in physical education. Victims of teasing felt hurt and experienced uncomfortable feelings due to social comparisons. Overweight students who were not teased reported a variety of reasons. Teachers lacked awareness of and strategies to handle teasing of overweight students. There is a need to implement preventive policies and rules to eliminate weight-related teasing and create inclusive physical education environments.

  15. High-pressure liquid chromatographic separation of the naturally occurring toxicants myristicin, related aromatic ethers and falcarinol.

    PubMed

    Wulf, L W; Nagel, C W; Branen, A L

    1978-11-21

    The naturally occurring toxicants myristicin, twelve related aromatic ethers and the toxic acetylenic alcohol, falcarinol, were separated from one another by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The technique employed a microparticulate nitrile phase column and used heptane and tetrahydrofuran as the eluting solvents. Preparative HPLC with 5-micrometer silica allowed isolation of gram quantities of parsleyapiole and dillapiole from extracts of plain parsley seeds and dill seeds, respectively. Commercially available myristicin as well as other aromatic ethers were also purified in gram quantities with the preparative column.

  16. Potential utility of natural products as regulators of breast cancer-associated aromatase promoters

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Aromatase, the key enzyme in estrogen biosynthesis, converts androstenedione to estrone and testosterone to estradiol. The enzyme is expressed in various tissues such as ovary, placenta, bone, brain, skin, and adipose tissue. Aromatase enzyme is encoded by a single gene CYP 19A1 and its expression is controlled by tissue-specific promoters. Aromatase mRNA is primarily transcribed from promoter I.4 in normal breast tissue and physiological levels of aromatase are found in breast adipose stromal fibroblasts. Under the conditions of breast cancer, as a result of the activation of a distinct set of aromatase promoters (I.3, II, and I.7) aromatase expression is enhanced leading to local overproduction of estrogen that promotes breast cancer. Aromatase is considered as a potential target for endocrine treatment of breast cancer but due to nonspecific reduction of aromatase activity in other tissues, aromatase inhibitors (AIs) are associated with undesirable side effects such as bone loss, and abnormal lipid metabolism. Inhibition of aromatase expression by inactivating breast tumor-specific aromatase promoters can selectively block estrogen production at the tumor site. Although several synthetic chemical compounds and nuclear receptor ligands are known to inhibit the activity of the tumor-specific aromatase promoters, further development of more specific and efficacious drugs without adverse effects is still warranted. Plants are rich in chemopreventive agents that have a great potential to be used in chemotherapy for hormone dependent breast cancer which could serve as a source for natural AIs. In this brief review, we summarize the studies on phytochemicals such as biochanin A, genistein, quercetin, isoliquiritigenin, resveratrol, and grape seed extracts related to their effect on the activation of breast cancer-associated aromatase promoters and discuss their aromatase inhibitory potential to be used as safer chemotherapeutic agents for specific hormone

  17. Potential utility of natural products as regulators of breast cancer-associated aromatase promoters.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shabana I; Zhao, Jianping; Khan, Ikhlas A; Walker, Larry A; Dasmahapatra, Asok K

    2011-06-21

    Aromatase, the key enzyme in estrogen biosynthesis, converts androstenedione to estrone and testosterone to estradiol. The enzyme is expressed in various tissues such as ovary, placenta, bone, brain, skin, and adipose tissue. Aromatase enzyme is encoded by a single gene CYP 19A1 and its expression is controlled by tissue-specific promoters. Aromatase mRNA is primarily transcribed from promoter I.4 in normal breast tissue and physiological levels of aromatase are found in breast adipose stromal fibroblasts. Under the conditions of breast cancer, as a result of the activation of a distinct set of aromatase promoters (I.3, II, and I.7) aromatase expression is enhanced leading to local overproduction of estrogen that promotes breast cancer. Aromatase is considered as a potential target for endocrine treatment of breast cancer but due to nonspecific reduction of aromatase activity in other tissues, aromatase inhibitors (AIs) are associated with undesirable side effects such as bone loss, and abnormal lipid metabolism. Inhibition of aromatase expression by inactivating breast tumor-specific aromatase promoters can selectively block estrogen production at the tumor site. Although several synthetic chemical compounds and nuclear receptor ligands are known to inhibit the activity of the tumor-specific aromatase promoters, further development of more specific and efficacious drugs without adverse effects is still warranted. Plants are rich in chemopreventive agents that have a great potential to be used in chemotherapy for hormone dependent breast cancer which could serve as a source for natural AIs. In this brief review, we summarize the studies on phytochemicals such as biochanin A, genistein, quercetin, isoliquiritigenin, resveratrol, and grape seed extracts related to their effect on the activation of breast cancer-associated aromatase promoters and discuss their aromatase inhibitory potential to be used as safer chemotherapeutic agents for specific hormone

  18. Distribution of injected technetium(99m)-labeled mesenchymal stem cells in horses with naturally occurring tendinopathy.

    PubMed

    Becerra, Patricia; Valdés Vázquez, Miguel A; Dudhia, Jayesh; Fiske-Jackson, Andrew R; Neves, Francisco; Hartman, Neil G; Smith, Roger K W

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate immediate cell survival and distribution following different administration routes of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into naturally occurring tendon injuries. Ten million MSCs, labeled with technetium-99m hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime, were implanted into 13 horses with naturally occurring tendon or ligament injuries intra-lesionally, intravenously and by regional perfusion, and traced for up to 48 h using planar gamma scintigraphy. Labeling efficiencies varied between 1.8% and 18.5% (mean 9.3%). Cells were retained in the damaged area after intra-lesional administration but only 24% of cells were still present within the tendon after 24 h. After intravenous injection, cells largely distributed to the lung fields, with no detectable cells in the tendon lesions. Significant labeling of the tendon lesions was observed in 11/12 horses following regional perfusion but at a lower level to intra-lesional injection. The highest cell numbers were retained after intra-lesional injection, although with considerable cell loss, while regional perfusion may be a viable alternative for MSC delivery. Cells did not "home" to damaged tendon in large numbers after intravenous administration. Cells were detected in the lungs most frequently after intravascular administration, although with no adverse effects. Low cell retention has important implications for designing effective clinical therapies for human clinical use.

  19. Naturally occurring NS3 resistance-associated variants in hepatitis C virus genotype 1: Their relevance for developing countries.

    PubMed

    Echeverría, Natalia; Betancour, Gabriela; Gámbaro, Fabiana; Hernández, Nelia; López, Pablo; Chiodi, Daniela; Sánchez, Adriana; Boschi, Susana; Fajardo, Alvaro; Sóñora, Martín; Moratorio, Gonzalo; Cristina, Juan; Moreno, Pilar

    2016-09-02

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of global morbidity and mortality, with an estimated 130-150 million infected individuals worldwide. HCV is a leading cause of chronic liver diseases including cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Current treatment options in developing countries involve pegylated interferon-α and ribavirin as dual therapy or in combination with one or more direct-acting antiviral agents (DAA). The emergence of resistance-associated variants (RAVs) after treatment reveals the great variability of this virus leading to a great difficulty in developing effective antiviral strategies. Baseline RAVs detected in DAA treatment-naïve HCV-infected patients could be of great importance for clinical management and outcome prediction. Although the frequency of naturally occurring HCV NS3 protease inhibitor mutations has been addressed in many countries, there are only a few reports on their prevalence in South America. In this study, we investigated the presence of RAVs in the HCV NS3 serine protease region by analysing a cohort of Uruguayan patients with chronic hepatitis C who had not been treated with any DAAs and compare them with the results found for other South American countries. The results of these studies revealed that naturally occurring mutations conferring resistance to NS3 inhibitors exist in a substantial proportion of Uruguayan treatment-naïve patients infected with HCV genotype 1 enrolled in these studies. The identification of these baseline RAVs could be of great importance for patients' management and outcome prediction in developing countries.

  20. Ross River Virus Disease Activity Associated With Naturally Occurring Nontidal Flood Events in Australia: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Tall, Julie A; Gatton, Michelle L; Tong, Shilu

    2014-11-01

    Ross River virus (RRV) disease is the most common and widespread mosquito-borne disease in Australia, resulting in considerable health and economic cost to communities. While naturally occurring nontidal flood events may enhance mosquito abundance, little is known about the impact of such events on RRV transmission. This article critically reviews the existing evidence for an association between naturally occurring nontidal flood events and RRV transmission. A systematic literature search was conducted on RRV transmission related to flooding and inundation from rain and riverine overflow. Overall, the evidence to support a positive association between flooding and RRV outbreaks is largely circumstantial, with the literature mostly reporting only coincidental occurrence between the two. However, for the Murray River, river flow and height (surrogates of flooding) were positively and significantly associated with RRV transmission. The association between nontidal flooding and RRV transmission has not been studied comprehensively. More frequent flood events arising from climate change may result in increased outbreaks of RRV disease. Understanding the link between flood events and RRV transmission is necessary if resources for mosquito spraying and public health warnings are to be used more effectively and efficiently.

  1. A Naturally-Occurring Histone Acetyltransferase Inhibitor Derived from Garcinia indica Impairs Newly Acquired and Reactivated Fear Memories

    PubMed Central

    Maddox, Stephanie A.; Watts, Casey S.; Doyère, Valérie; Schafe, Glenn E.

    2013-01-01

    The study of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the consolidation and reconsolidation of traumatic fear memories has progressed rapidly in recent years, yet few compounds have emerged that are readily useful in a clinical setting for the treatment of anxiety disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Here, we use a combination of biochemical, behavioral, and neurophysiological methods to systematically investigate the ability of garcinol, a naturally-occurring histone acetyltransferase (HAT) inhibitor derived from the rind of the fruit of the Kokum tree (Garcina indica), to disrupt the consolidation and reconsolidation of Pavlovian fear conditioning, a widely studied rodent model of PTSD. We show that local infusion of garcinol into the rat lateral amygdala (LA) impairs the training and retrieval-related acetylation of histone H3 in the LA. Further, we show that either intra-LA or systemic administration of garcinol within a narrow window after either fear conditioning or fear memory retrieval significantly impairs the consolidation and reconsolidation of a Pavlovian fear memory and associated neural plasticity in the LA. Our findings suggest that a naturally-occurring compound derived from the diet that regulates chromatin function may be useful in the treatment of newly acquired or recently reactivated traumatic memories. PMID:23349897

  2. A Novel Naturally Occurring Class I 5-Enolpyruvylshikimate-3-Phosphate Synthase from Janibacter sp. Confers High Glyphosate Tolerance to Rice

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Shu-yuan; Cui, Ying; Zhao, Yan; Liu, Zi-duo; Lin, Yong-jun; Zhou, Fei

    2016-01-01

    As glyphosate is a broad spectrum herbicide extensively used in agriculture worldwide, identification of new aroA genes with high level of glyphosate tolerance is essential for the development and breeding of transgenic glyphosate-tolerant crops. In this study, an aroA gene was cloned from a Janibacter sp. strain isolated from marine sediment (designated as aroAJ. sp). The purified aroAJ. sp enzyme has a Km value of 30 μM for PEP and 83 μM for S3P, and a significantly higher Ki value for glyphosate (373 μM) than aroAE. coli. AroAJ. sp is characterized as a novel and naturally occurring class I aroA enzyme with glyphosate tolerance. Furthermore, we show that aroAJ. sp can be used as an effective selectable marker in both japonica and indica rice cultivar. Transgenic rice lines were tested by herbicide bioassay and it was confirmed that they could tolerate up to 3360 g/ha glyphosate, a dosage four-fold that of the recommended agricultural application level. To our knowledge, it is the first report of a naturally occurring novel class I aroA gene which can be efficiently utilized to study and develop transgenic glyphosate-tolerant crops, and can facilitate a more economical and simplified weed control system. PMID:26754957

  3. Naturally occurring rhodopsin mutation in the dog causes retinal dysfunction and degeneration mimicking human dominant retinitis pigmentosa.

    PubMed

    Kijas, James W; Cideciyan, Artur V; Aleman, Tomas S; Pianta, Michael J; Pearce-Kelling, Susan E; Miller, Brian J; Jacobson, Samuel G; Aguirre, Gustavo D; Acland, Gregory M

    2002-04-30

    Rhodopsin is the G protein-coupled receptor that is activated by light and initiates the transduction cascade leading to night (rod) vision. Naturally occurring pathogenic rhodopsin (RHO) mutations have been previously identified only in humans and are a common cause of dominantly inherited blindness from retinal degeneration. We identified English Mastiff dogs with a naturally occurring dominant retinal degeneration and determined the cause to be a point mutation in the RHO gene (Thr4Arg). Dogs with this mutant allele manifest a retinal phenotype that closely mimics that in humans with RHO mutations. The phenotypic features shared by dog and man include a dramatically slowed time course of recovery of rod photoreceptor function after light exposure and a distinctive topographic pattern to the retinal degeneration. The canine disease offers opportunities to explore the basis of prolonged photoreceptor recovery after light in RHO mutations and determine whether there are links between the dysfunction and apoptotic retinal cell death. The RHO mutant dog also becomes the large animal needed for preclinical trials of therapies for a major subset of human retinopathies.

  4. Association of naturally occurring radionuclides in sludges from Drinking Water Treatment Plants previously optimized for their removal.

    PubMed

    Baeza, A; Salas, A; Guillén, J; Muñoz-Serrano, A

    2014-02-01

    The raw water used in Drinking Water Treatment Plants (DWTPs) can present high values of naturally occurring radionuclides. In order to reduce this content, the routine working conditions of DWTPs were successfully modified. This meant that those radionuclides were accumulated in the sludges generated, whose radioactive content was frequently above the exemption levels. It therefore becomes necessary to assess the association of naturally occurring radionuclides in the sludges for their potential use as agricultural fertilizers. Two approaches were studied: (a) the effect of different sequential extraction methods applied to a selected sludge; and (b) the effect of the different contents of inorganic complexes dissolved in the input water on the composition of the sludges generated by two DWTPs with different origins of their input water. Uranium and radium were mainly associated with the carbonated and reducible fractions, while (210)Po and (228)Th were associated with the residual fraction. There were differences between the two speciation methods, but the order of bioavailable radionuclides was roughly the same: (226)Ra≈(234,238)U>(228)Th>(210)Po. The major inorganic complexes content, mainly carbonate, in the raw water affected the radionuclide association. The greater the carbonate content in the raw water, the greater was the association of uranium and radium with the carbonated and easily reducible fractions.

  5. A Novel Naturally Occurring Class I 5-Enolpyruvylshikimate-3-Phosphate Synthase from Janibacter sp. Confers High Glyphosate Tolerance to Rice.

    PubMed

    Yi, Shu-yuan; Cui, Ying; Zhao, Yan; Liu, Zi-duo; Lin, Yong-jun; Zhou, Fei

    2016-01-12

    As glyphosate is a broad spectrum herbicide extensively used in agriculture worldwide, identification of new aroA genes with high level of glyphosate tolerance is essential for the development and breeding of transgenic glyphosate-tolerant crops. In this study, an aroA gene was cloned from a Janibacter sp. strain isolated from marine sediment (designated as aroAJ. sp). The purified aroAJ. sp enzyme has a Km value of 30 μM for PEP and 83 μM for S3P, and a significantly higher Ki value for glyphosate (373 μM) than aroAE. coli. AroAJ. sp is characterized as a novel and naturally occurring class I aroA enzyme with glyphosate tolerance. Furthermore, we show that aroAJ. sp can be used as an effective selectable marker in both japonica and indica rice cultivar. Transgenic rice lines were tested by herbicide bioassay and it was confirmed that they could tolerate up to 3360 g/ha glyphosate, a dosage four-fold that of the recommended agricultural application level. To our knowledge, it is the first report of a naturally occurring novel class I aroA gene which can be efficiently utilized to study and develop transgenic glyphosate-tolerant crops, and can facilitate a more economical and simplified weed control system.

  6. A Nonselective Cyclooxygenase Inhibitor Enhances the Activity of Vinblastine in a Naturally-Occurring Canine Model of Invasive Urothelial Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Knapp, Deborah W.; Ruple-Czerniak, Audrey; Ramos-Vara, José A.; Naughton, James F.; Fulkerson, Christopher M.; Honkisz, Sonia I.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Chemotherapy is expected to remain an important part of invasive urothelial carcinoma (UC) treatment. Strategies to enhance chemotherapy efficacy are needed. Objective: To determine the chemotherapy-enhancing effects of a nonselective cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor on vinblastine in a naturally-occurring canine model of invasive UC. Methods: With IACUC approval, privately-owned dogs with naturally-occurring histologically-diagnosed invasive UC, expected survival ≥6 weeks, and informed owner consent were randomly allocated to receive vinblastine (2.5 mg/m2 intravenously every 2 weeks) plus piroxicam (0.3 mg/kg daily per os) or vinblastine alone (same dose) with the option to receive piroxicam alone when vinblastine failed. Scheduled evaluations included physical exam, standard laboratory analyses, thoracic radiography, abdominal ultrasonography, and standardized measurement of urinary tract tumors. Results: Dogs receiving vinblastine alone (n = 27) and vinblastine-piroxicam (n = 24) were similar in age, sex, breed, tumor stage, and grade. Remission occurred more frequently (P <  0.02) with vinblastine-piroxicam (58.3%) than with vinblastine alone (22.2%). The median progression free interval was 143 days with vinblastine alone and 199 days with the combination. Interestingly, the overall median survival time was significantly longer (P <  0.03) in dogs receiving vinblastine alone followed by piroxicam alone (n = 20, 531 days) than in dogs receiving the combination (299 days). Treatment was well tolerated in both arms. Conclusions: Piroxicam significantly enhanced the activity of vinblastine in dogs with UC where the cancer closely mimics the human condition, clearly justifying further study. The study suggest the potential importance of tracking COX inhibitor use in patients in clinical trials as COX inhibitors could affect treatment response. PMID:27376143

  7. Naturally-occurring changes in social-cognitive factors modify change in physical activity during early adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Dowda, Marsha; McIver, Kerry L.; Saunders, Ruth P.; Pate, Russell R.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether naturally-occurring changes in children’s motives and beliefs are associated with the steep decline in physical activity observed from childhood to early adolescence. Methods Latent growth modeling was applied in longitudinal tests of social-cognitive influences, and their interactions, on physical activity in a large cohort of boys and girls evaluated annually between 5th and 7th grades. Results Measurement equivalence of motives and beliefs was confirmed between boys and girls. After adjustment for gender and maturity differences, physical activity declined less in children who reported the least decreases in self-efficacy for overcoming barriers to activity and perceived parental support. Physical activity also declined less in students who persistently felt they had more parental and friend support for activity compared to those who reported the largest decrease in support from friends. After further adjustment for race, the decline in physical activity was less in those who had the largest decrease in perceived barriers and maintained a favorable perception of their neighborhood environment. Changes in enjoyment and social motives were unrelated to change in physical activity. Conclusion Using an objective measure of physical activity, we confirm that naturally-occurring changes in children’s beliefs about barriers to physical activity and their ability to overcome them, as well as perceptions of their neighborhood environment and social support, are concurrent with age-related declines in children’s physical activity. The longitudinal findings confirm these putative social-cognitive mediators as plausible, interacting targets of interventions designed to mitigate the marked decline in physical activity that occurs during the transition between elementary and middle schools. PMID:28187192

  8. A Polymorphism in the Processing Body Component Ge-1 Controls Resistance to a Naturally Occurring Rhabdovirus in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Bayer, Florian; Jiggins, Francis M.

    2016-01-01

    Hosts encounter an ever-changing array of pathogens, so there is continual selection for novel ways to resist infection. A powerful way to understand how hosts evolve resistance is to identify the genes that cause variation in susceptibility to infection. Using high-resolution genetic mapping we have identified a naturally occurring polymorphism in a gene called Ge-1 that makes Drosophila melanogaster highly resistant to its natural pathogen Drosophila melanogaster sigma virus (DMelSV). By modifying the sequence of the gene in transgenic flies, we identified a 26 amino acid deletion in the serine-rich linker region of Ge-1 that is causing the resistance. Knocking down the expression of the susceptible allele leads to a decrease in viral titre in infected flies, indicating that Ge-1 is an existing restriction factor whose antiviral effects have been increased by the deletion. Ge-1 plays a central role in RNA degradation and the formation of processing bodies (P bodies). A key effector in antiviral immunity, the RNAi induced silencing complex (RISC), localises to P bodies, but we found that Ge-1-based resistance is not dependent on the small interfering RNA (siRNA) pathway. However, we found that Decapping protein 1 (DCP1) protects flies against sigma virus. This protein interacts with Ge-1 and commits mRNA for degradation by removing the 5’ cap, suggesting that resistance may rely on this RNA degradation pathway. The serine-rich linker domain of Ge-1 has experienced strong selection during the evolution of Drosophila, suggesting that this gene may be under long-term selection by viruses. These findings demonstrate that studying naturally occurring polymorphisms that increase resistance to infections enables us to identify novel forms of antiviral defence, and support a pattern of major effect polymorphisms controlling resistance to viruses in Drosophila. PMID:26799957

  9. Naturally occurring proteinaceous nanoparticles in Coptidis Rhizoma extract act as concentration-dependent carriers that facilitate berberine absorption.

    PubMed

    Ma, Bing-Liang; Yin, Chun; Zhang, Bo-Kai; Dai, Yan; Jia, Yi-Qun; Yang, Yan; Li, Qiao; Shi, Rong; Wang, Tian-Ming; Wu, Jia-Sheng; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Lin, Ge; Ma, Yue-Ming

    2016-01-29

    Pharmacological activities of some natural products diminish and even disappear after purification. In this study, we explored the mechanisms underlying the decrease of acute oral toxicity of Coptidis Rhizoma extract after purification. The water solubility, in vitro absorption, and plasma exposure of berberine (the major active compound) in the Coptidis Rhizoma extract were much better than those of pure berberine. Scanning electron microscopy, laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), and dynamic light scattering experiments confirmed that nanoparticles attached to very fine precipitates existed in the aqueous extract solution. The LSCM experiment showed that the precipitates were absorbed with the particles by the mouse intestine. High-speed centrifugation of the extract could not remove the nanoparticles and did not influence plasma exposure or acute oral toxicity. However, after extract dilution, the attached precipitates vanished, although the nanoparticles were preserved, and there were no differences in the acute oral toxicity and plasma exposure between the extract and pure berberine. The nanoparticles were then purified and identified as proteinaceous. Furthermore, they could absorb co-dissolved berberine. Our results indicate that naturally occurring proteinaceous nanoparticles in Coptidis Rhizoma extract act as concentration-dependent carriers that facilitate berberine absorption. These findings should inspire related studies in other natural products.

  10. Naturally occurring proteinaceous nanoparticles in Coptidis Rhizoma extract act as concentration-dependent carriers that facilitate berberine absorption

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Bing-Liang; Yin, Chun; Zhang, Bo-Kai; Dai, Yan; Jia, Yi-Qun; Yang, Yan; Li, Qiao; Shi, Rong; Wang, Tian-Ming; Wu, Jia-Sheng; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Lin, Ge; Ma, Yue-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacological activities of some natural products diminish and even disappear after purification. In this study, we explored the mechanisms underlying the decrease of acute oral toxicity of Coptidis Rhizoma extract after purification. The water solubility, in vitro absorption, and plasma exposure of berberine (the major active compound) in the Coptidis Rhizoma extract were much better than those of pure berberine. Scanning electron microscopy, laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), and dynamic light scattering experiments confirmed that nanoparticles attached to very fine precipitates existed in the aqueous extract solution. The LSCM experiment showed that the precipitates were absorbed with the particles by the mouse intestine. High-speed centrifugation of the extract could not remove the nanoparticles and did not influence plasma exposure or acute oral toxicity. However, after extract dilution, the attached precipitates vanished, although the nanoparticles were preserved, and there were no differences in the acute oral toxicity and plasma exposure between the extract and pure berberine. The nanoparticles were then purified and identified as proteinaceous. Furthermore, they could absorb co-dissolved berberine. Our results indicate that naturally occurring proteinaceous nanoparticles in Coptidis Rhizoma extract act as concentration-dependent carriers that facilitate berberine absorption. These findings should inspire related studies in other natural products. PMID:26822920

  11. Radiological Impact Associated to Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM) from Coal-Fired Power Plants Emissions - 13436

    SciTech Connect

    Dinis, Maria de Lurdes; Fiuza, Antonio; Soeiro de Carvalho, Jose; Gois, Joaquim; Meira Castro, Ana Cristina

    2013-07-01

    Certain materials used and produced in a wide range of non-nuclear industries contain enhanced activity concentrations of natural radionuclides. In particular, electricity production from coal is one of the major sources of increased human exposure to naturally occurring radioactive materials. A methodology was developed to assess the radiological impact due to natural radiation background. The developed research was applied to a specific case study, the Sines coal-fired power plant, located in the southwest coastline of Portugal. Gamma radiation measurements were carried out with two different instruments: a sodium iodide scintillation detector counter (SPP2 NF, Saphymo) and a gamma ray spectrometer with energy discrimination (Falcon 5000, Canberra). Two circular survey areas were defined within 20 km of the power plant. Forty relevant measurements points were established within the sampling area: 15 urban and 25 suburban locations. Additionally, ten more measurements points were defined, mostly at the 20-km area. The registered gamma radiation varies from 20 to 98.33 counts per seconds (c.p.s.) corresponding to an external gamma exposure rate variable between 87.70 and 431.19 nGy/h. The highest values were measured at locations near the power plant and those located in an area within the 6 and 20 km from the stacks. In situ gamma radiation measurements with energy discrimination identified natural emitting nuclides as well as their decay products (Pb-212, Pb-2142, Ra-226, Th-232, Ac-228, Th-234, Pa-234, U- 235, etc.). According to the results, an influence from the stacks emissions has been identified both qualitatively and quantitatively. The developed methodology accomplished the lack of data in what concerns to radiation rate in the vicinity of Sines coal-fired power plant and consequently the resulting exposure to the nearby population. (authors)

  12. Dynamic Angular Petrissage as Treatment for Axillary Web Syndrome Occurring after Surgery for Breast Cancer: a Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Paul A.; Cunningham, Joan E.

    2016-01-01

    Background In the context of breast cancer, axillary web syndrome (AWS), also called lymphatic cording, typically presents in the weeks after axillary surgery. This painful condition, likely lymphofibrotic in origin, restricts upper extremity range of motion (ROM). There is no established treatment, although physical therapy and other approaches have been used to variable effect. This report describes treatment of a female client with AWS, who had recently undergone a unilateral simple mastectomy with sentinel node biopsy plus axillary dissection. Methods The client presented with pain upon movement (self-reported as 5 on the 0–10 Oxford Pain Scale), visible cording and restricted use of the ipsilateral upper extremity. Clinical assessment included determining the extent of AWS cording (taut, from axilla to wrist) and measuring glenohumeral joint ROM (140° flexion by goniometer). A therapeutic massage with movement protocol, termed dynamic angular petrissage, was administered over two sessions: Swedish massage combined with dynamically taking the limb through all possible angles of movement (passive ROM), controlling stretch and tension while simultaneously and segmentally applying petrissage and non-petrissage techniques to the underlying soft tissue. Careful attention was taken to not break the cord. Home care consisted of prescribed exercises performed by the patient. Results After Session One, pain was reduced (to 0/10), ROM improved (to 170° flexion), and cording was visibly reduced. After Session Two the cord was residually apparent only on hyperextension, with no ROM restrictions in glenohumeral joint flexion. Follow-up at three months revealed absence of visual or palpable evidence of cording, unrestricted glenohumeral joint ROM, and absence of movement-associated pain. Conclusion The signs and symptoms of AWS were quickly and effectively eliminated, without causing any pain or discomfort to the client. We propose that dynamic angular petrissage may be

  13. Association of Cytokine Candidate Genes with Severity of Pain and Co-Occurring Symptoms in Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Chemotherapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    interest (i.e., pain, fatigue, sleep disturbance, depression) closely resembles components of cytokine-induced sickness behavior observed in animal...influenced by intrinsic and extrinsic factors. In addition, other symptoms commonly co-occur with pain, including fatigue, sleep disturbance, and...fatigue, sleep disturbance, and depression in patients undergoing radiation therapy and their family caregivers. Moreover, the symptom cluster of

  14. Targeting breast cancer stem cells with HER2-specific antibodies and natural killer cells.

    PubMed

    Diessner, Joachim; Bruttel, Valentin; Becker, Kathrin; Pawlik, Miriam; Stein, Roland; Häusler, Sebastian; Dietl, Johannes; Wischhusen, Jörg; Hönig, Arnd

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women worldwide. Every year, nearly 1.4 million new cases of breast cancer are diagnosed, and about 450.000 women die of the disease. Approximately 15-25% of breast cancer cases exhibit increased quantities of the trans-membrane receptor tyrosine kinase human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) on the tumor cell surface. Previous studies showed that blockade of this HER2 proto-oncogene with the antibody trastuzumab substantially improved the overall survival of patients with this aggressive type of breast cancer. Recruitment of natural killer (NK) cells and subsequent induction of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) contributed to this beneficial effect. We hypothesized that antibody binding to HER2-positive breast cancer cells and thus ADCC might be further improved by synergistically applying two different HER2-specific antibodies, trastuzumab and pertuzumab. We found that tumor cell killing via ADCC was increased when the combination of trastuzumab, pertuzumab, and NK cells was applied to HER2-positive breast cancer cells, as compared to the extent of ADCC induced by a single antibody. Furthermore, a subset of CD44(high)CD24(low)HER2(low) cells, which possessed characteristics of cancer stem cells, could be targeted more efficiently by the combination of two HER2-specific antibodies compared to the efficiency of one antibody. These in vitro results demonstrated the immunotherapeutic benefit achieved by the combined application of trastuzumab and pertuzumab. These findings are consistent with the positive results of the clinical studies, CLEOPATRA and NEOSPHERE, conducted with patients that had HER2-positive breast cancer. Compared to a single antibody treatment, the combined application of trastuzumab and pertuzumab showed a stronger ADCC effect and improved the targeting of breast cancer stem cells.

  15. Serum or breast milk immunoglobulins mask the self-reactivity of human natural IgG antibodies.

    PubMed

    Djoumerska-Alexieva, Iglika; Manoylov, Iliyan; Dimitrov, Jordan D; Tchorbanov, Andrey

    2014-04-01

    B cells producing IgG antibodies specific to a variety of self- or foreign antigens are a normal constituent of the immune system of all healthy individuals. These naturally occurring IgG antibodies are found in the serum, external secretions, and pooled human immunoglobulin preparations. They bind with low affinity to antigens, which can also be targets for pathologic autoantibodies. An enhancement of naturally occurring IgG autoantibody activity was observed after treatment of human IgG molecules with protein-destabilizing agents. We have investigated the interactions of human immunoglobulins that were obtained from serum or from breast milk of healthy individuals or IVIg with human liver antigens. Proteins from an individual serum or milk were isolated by two methods, one of which included exposure to low pH and the other did not. Purified serum, mucosal IgM, IgA, and the fraction containing immunoglobulin G F(ab')2 fragments each inhibited the binding of a single donor or pooled IgG to human liver antigens. Our study presents findings regarding the role of the breast milk or serum antibodies in blocking the self-reactivity of IgG antibodies. It supports the suggestion that not IVIg only, but also the pooled human IgM and IgA might possess a potent beneficial immunomodulatory activity in autoimmune patients.

  16. Superoxide dismutase activity of the naturally occurring human serum albumin-copper complex without hydroxyl radical formation.

    PubMed

    Kato, Ryunosuke; Akiyama, Matofusa; Kawakami, Hiroyoshi; Komatsu, Teruyuki

    2014-01-01

    The superoxide radical anion (O2(.-)) is biologically toxic and contributes to the pathogenesis of various diseases. Here we describe the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of human serum albumin (HSA) complexed with a single Cu(II) ion at the N-terminal end (HSA-Cu complex). The structure of this naturally occurring copper-coordinated blood serum protein has been characterized by several physicochemical measurements. The O2(.-) dismutation ability of the HSA-Cu (1:1) complex is almost the same as that of the well-known SOD mimics, such as Mn(III) -tetrakis(N-methylpyridinium)porphyrin. Interestingly, the HSA-Cu complex does not induce a subsequent Fenton reaction to produce the hydroxyl radical (OH(.)), which is one of the most harmful reactive oxygen species.

  17. A method for the determination of vanadium and iron oxidation states in naturally occurring oxides and silicates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wanty, R.B.; Goldhaber, M.B.

    1985-01-01

    A valence-specific analytical method for determining V3+ in ore minerals has been developed that involves two steps: dissolution of a mineral sample without disturbing the V3+/Vtot ratio, followed by determination of V3+ in the presence of V4+. The samples are dissolved in a mixture of hydrofluoric and sulphuric acids at 100?? in Teflon-lined reaction vessels. Tervalent vanadium is then determined colorimetrically by formation of a V3+-thiocyanate complex in aqueous-acetone medium. Fe3+ is measured semi-quantitatively in the same solution. The method has been tested with two naturally occurring samples containing vanadium and iron. The results obtained were supported by those obtained by other methods, including electron spin resonance spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and Mo??ssbauer spectroscopy. ?? 1985.

  18. A method for the determination of vanadium and iron oxidation states in naturally occurring oxides and silicates.

    PubMed

    Wanty, R B; Goldhaber, M B

    1985-05-01

    A valence-specific analytical method for determining V(3+) in ore minerals has been developed that involves two steps: dissolution of a mineral sample without disturbing the V(3+)/V(tot) ratio, followed by determination of V(3+) in the presence of V(4+). The samples are dissolved in a mixture of hydrofluoric and sulphuric acids at 100 degrees in Teflon-lined reaction vessels. Tervalent vanadium is then determined colorimetrically by formation of a V(3+)-thiocyanate complex in aqueous-acetone medium. Fe(3+) is measured semi-quantitatively in the same solution. The method has been tested with two naturally occurring samples containing vanadium and iron. The results obtained were supported by those obtained by other methods, including electron spin resonance spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and Mössbauer spectroscopy.

  19. First detection of the presence of naturally occurring grapevine downy mildew in the field by a fluorescence-based method.

    PubMed

    Latouche, Gwendal; Debord, Christian; Raynal, Marc; Milhade, Charlotte; Cerovic, Zoran G

    2015-10-01

    Early detection of fungal pathogen presence in the field would help to better time or avoid some of the fungicide treatments used to prevent crop production losses. We recently introduced a new phytoalexin-based method for a non-invasive detection of crop diseases using their fluorescence. The causal agent of grapevine downy mildew, Plasmopara viticola, induces the synthesis of stilbenoid phytoalexins by the host, Vitis vinifera, early upon infection. These stilbenoids emit violet-blue fluorescence under UV light. A hand-held solid-state UV-LED-based field fluorimeter, named Multiplex 330, was used to measure stilbenoid phytoalexins in a vineyard. It allowed us to non-destructively detect and monitor the naturally occurring downy mildew infections on leaves in the field.

  20. Zinc-Substituted Myoglobin Is a Naturally Occurring Photo-antimicrobial Agent with Potential Applications in Food Decontamination.

    PubMed

    Delcanale, Pietro; Montali, Chiara; Rodríguez-Amigo, Beatriz; Abbruzzetti, Stefania; Bruno, Stefano; Bianchini, Paolo; Diaspro, Alberto; Agut, Montserrat; Nonell, Santi; Viappiani, Cristiano

    2016-11-16

    Zinc-substituted myoglobin (ZnMb) is a naturally occurring photosensitizer that generates singlet oxygen with a high quantum yield. Using a combination of photophysical and fluorescence imaging techniques, we demonstrate the interaction of ZnMb with Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative Escherichia coli. An efficient antibacterial action against S. aureus was observed, with a reduction up to 99.9999% in the number of colony-forming units, whereas no sizable effect was detected against E. coli. Because ZnMb is known to form during the maturation of additive-free not-cooked cured ham, the use of this protein as a built-in photodynamic agent may constitute a viable method for the decontamination of these food products from Gram-positive bacteria.

  1. The complex nature of oestrogen signalling in breast cancer: enemy or ally?

    PubMed Central

    Lipovka, Yulia; Konhilas, John P.

    2016-01-01

    The pleiotropic nature of oestradiol, the main oestrogen found in women, has been well described in the literature. Oestradiol is positioned to play a unique role since it can respond to environmental, genetic and non-genetic cues to affect genetic expression and cellular signalling. In breast cancer, oestradiol signalling has a dual effect, promoting or inhibiting cancer growth. The potential impact of oestradiol on tumorigenesis depends on the molecular and cellular characteristics of the breast cancer cell. In this review, we provide a broad survey discussing the cellular and molecular consequences of oestrogen signalling in breast cancer. First, we review the structure of the classical oestrogen receptors and resultant transcriptional (genomic) and non-transcriptional (non-genomic) signalling. We then discuss the nature of oestradiol signalling in breast cancer including the specific receptors that initiate these signalling cascades as well as potential outcomes, such as cancer growth, proliferation and angiogenesis. Finally, we examine cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the dimorphic effect of oestrogen signalling in breast cancer. PMID:27160081

  2. Mechanisms for differential effects between natural progesterone and synthetic progestogens on normal breast tissue.

    PubMed

    Söderqvist, Gunnar

    2010-12-01

    Both epidemiological studies and experimental data on normal breast tissue suggest increased cancer risk, proliferation and mammographic breast density (MD) during hormone therapy (HT) containing synthetic progestogens in traditional doses, and the relative risk or RR is approximately 1.5-3 (for women treated vs. untreated with the above therapies), proliferation levels of normal breast epithelial cells of around 10% and increase in MD in up to around 50% of women during treatment. Dose-response relationships have been inferred by correlations between progestogens as levonorgestrel, norethisterone acetate and medroxyprogesterone acetate on the one hand and proliferation and/or MD on the other hand, and of indications of lower relative risk of breast cancer with modern low or ultra-low dose HT. In contrast, natural progesterone endogenously during the menstrual cycle has a weak effect and exogenous estrogen in combination with oral micronized progesterone in HT has shown to yield an indifferent effect on proliferation. Furthermore, in epidemiological studies such as the French E3N cohort, these combinations have not shown any risk increase for breast cancer for at least 5 years of treatment. Experimental data supporting or not supporting the view that the main proliferative mechanism for natural progesterone is through binding to its nascent progesterone receptors is discussed as well as the pros and cons that the non-physiological higher proliferation levels induced by synthetic progestogens is mainly mediated through interaction with potent growth factors and their paracrine and/or cell signaling pathways.

  3. Fate of the naturally occurring radioactive materials during treatment of acid mine drainage with coal fly ash and aluminium hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Madzivire, Godfrey; Maleka, Peane P; Vadapalli, Viswanath R K; Gitari, Wilson M; Lindsay, Robert; Petrik, Leslie F

    2014-01-15

    Mining of coal is very extensive and coal is mainly used to produce electricity. Coal power stations generate huge amounts of coal fly ash of which a small amount is used in the construction industry. Mining exposes pyrite containing rocks to H2O and O2. This results in the oxidation of FeS2 to form H2SO4. The acidic water, often termed acid mine drainage (AMD), causes dissolution of potentially toxic elements such as, Fe, Al, Mn and naturally occurring radioactive materials such as U and Th from the associated bedrock. This results in an outflow of AMD with high concentrations of sulphate ions, Fe, Al, Mn and naturally occurring radioactive materials. Treatment of AMD with coal fly ash has shown that good quality water can be produced which is suitable for irrigation purposes. Most of the potentially toxic elements (Fe, Al, Mn, etc) and substantial amounts of sulphate ions are removed during treatment with coal fly ash. This research endeavours to establish the fate of the radioactive materials in mine water with coal fly ash containing radioactive materials. It was established that coal fly ash treatment method was capable of removing radioactive materials from mine water to within the target water quality range for drinking water standards. The alpha and beta radioactivity of the mine water was reduced by 88% and 75% respectively. The reduced radioactivity in the mine water was due to greater than 90% removal of U and Th radioactive materials from the mine water after treatment with coal fly ash as ThO2 and UO2. No radioisotopes were found to leach from the coal fly ash into the mine water.

  4. Naturally occurring hypothermia is more advantageous than fever in severe forms of lipopolysaccharide- and Escherichia coli-induced systemic inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Elaine; Lewis, Kevin; Al-Saffar, Hiba; Krall, Catherine M.; Singh, Anju; Kulchitsky, Vladimir A.; Corrigan, Joshua J.; Simons, Christopher T.; Petersen, Scott R.; Musteata, Florin M.; Bakshi, Chandra S.; Romanovsky, Andrej A.; Sellati, Timothy J.

    2012-01-01

    The natural switch from fever to hypothermia observed in the most severe cases of systemic inflammation is a phenomenon that continues to puzzle clinicians and scientists. The present study was the first to evaluate in direct experiments how the development of hypothermia vs. fever during severe forms of systemic inflammation impacts the pathophysiology of this malady and mortality rates in rats. Following administration of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 5 or 18 mg/kg) or of a clinical Escherichia coli isolate (5 × 109 or 1 × 1010 CFU/kg), hypothermia developed in rats exposed to a mildly cool environment, but not in rats exposed to a warm environment; only fever was revealed in the warm environment. Development of hypothermia instead of fever suppressed endotoxemia in E. coli-infected rats, but not in LPS-injected rats. The infiltration of the lungs by neutrophils was similarly suppressed in E. coli-infected rats of the hypothermic group. These potentially beneficial effects came with costs, as hypothermia increased bacterial burden in the liver. Furthermore, the hypotensive responses to LPS or E. coli were exaggerated in rats of the hypothermic group. This exaggeration, however, occurred independently of changes in inflammatory cytokines and prostaglandins. Despite possible costs, development of hypothermia lessened abdominal organ dysfunction and reduced overall mortality rates in both the E. coli and LPS models. By demonstrating that naturally occurring hypothermia is more advantageous than fever in severe forms of aseptic (LPS-induced) or septic (E. coli-induced) systemic inflammation, this study provides new grounds for the management of this deadly condition. PMID:22513748

  5. Strategies for transformation of naturally-occurring amphibian antimicrobial peptides into therapeutically valuable anti-infective agents.

    PubMed

    Conlon, J Michael; Al-Ghaferi, Nadia; Abraham, Bency; Leprince, Jérôme

    2007-08-01

    The emergence of strains of pathogenic microorganisms with resistance to commonly used antibiotics has necessitated a search for novel types of antimicrobial agents. Many frog species produce amphipathic alpha-helical peptides with broad spectrum antimicrobial activity in the skin but their therapeutic potential is limited by varying degrees of cytolytic activity towards eukaryotic cells. Methods for development of such peptides into anti-infective drugs are illustrated by the example of temporin-1DRa (HFLGTLVNLAK KIL.NH(2)). Studies with model alpha-helical peptides have shown that increase in cationicity promotes antimicrobial activity whereas increases in hydrophobicity, helicity and amphipathicity promote hemolytic activity and loss of selectivity for microorganisms. Analogs of temporin-1DRa in which each amino acid is replaced by L-lysine and D-lysine were synthesized and their cytolytic activities tested against a range of microorganisms and human erythrocytes. Small changes in structure produced marked changes in conformation, as determined by retention time on reversed-phase HPLC, and in biological activity. However, peptides containing the substitutions (Val(7) -->L-Lys), (Thr(5)-->D-Lys) and (Asn(8)-->D-Lys) retained the high solubility and potent, broad spectrum antimicrobial activity of the naturally occurring peptide but were appreciably (up to 10-fold) less hemolytic. In contrast, analogs in which Leu(9) and Ile(13) were replaced by the more hydrophobic cyclohexylglycine residue showed slightly increased antimicrobial potencies (up to 2-fold) but a 4-fold increase in hemolytic activity. The data suggest a strategy of selective increases in cationicity concomitant with decreases in helicity and hydrophobicity in the transformation of naturally-occurring antimicrobial peptides into non-toxic therapeutic agents.

  6. Functional characterization of naturally occurring melittin peptide isoforms in two honey bee species, Apis mellifera and Apis cerana.

    PubMed

    Park, Doori; Jung, Je Won; Lee, Mi Ok; Lee, Si Young; Kim, Boyun; Jin, Hye Jun; Kim, Jiyoung; Ahn, Young-Joon; Lee, Ki Won; Song, Yong Sang; Hong, Seunghun; Womack, James E; Kwon, Hyung Wook

    2014-03-01

    Insect-derived antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have diverse effects on antimicrobial properties and pharmacological activities such as anti-inflammation and anticancer properties. Naturally occurring genetic polymorphism have a direct and/or indirect influence on pharmacological effect of AMPs, therefore information on single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) occurring in natural AMPs provides an important clue to therapeutic applications. Here we identified nucleotide polymorphisms in melittin gene of honey bee populations, which is one of the potent AMP in bee venoms. We found that the novel SNP of melittin gene exists in these two honey bee species, Apis mellifera and Apis cerana. Nine polymorphisms were identified within the coding region of the melittin gene, of which one polymorphism that resulted in serine (Ser) to asparagine (Asp) substitution that can potentially effect on biological activities of melittin peptide. Serine-substituted melittin (Mel-S) showed more cytotoxic effect than asparagine-substituted melittin (Mel-N) against E. coli. Also, Mel-N and Mel-S had different inhibitory effects on the production of inflammatory factors such as IL-6 and TNF-α in BV-2 cells. Moreover, Mel-S showed stronger cytotoxic activities than Mel-N peptide against two human ovarian cancer cell lines. Using carbon nanotube-based transistor, we here characterized that Mel-S interacted with small unilamellar liposomes more strongly than Mel-N. Taken together, our present study demonstrates that there exist different characteristics of the gene frequency and the biological activities of the melittin peptide in two honey bee species, Apis mellifera and A. cerana.

  7. EFFECTS OF EXERCISE ON THE PLASMA LIPID PROFILE IN HISPANIOLAN AMAZON PARROTS (AMAZONA VENTRALIS) WITH NATURALLY OCCURRING HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIA.

    PubMed

    Gustavsen, Kate A; Stanhope, Kimber L; Lin, Amy S; Graham, James L; Havel, Peter J; Paul-Murphy, Joanne R

    2016-09-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is common in psittacines, and Amazon parrots ( Amazona spp.) are particularly susceptible. Associations have been demonstrated between naturally occurring and experimentally induced hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis in psittacines. Daily exercise improves lipid metabolism in humans and other mammals, as well as pigeons and chickens, under varying experimental conditions. Hispaniolan Amazon parrots ( Amazona ventralis ) with naturally occurring hypercholesterolemia (343-576 mg/dl) were divided into two groups. An exercised group (n = 8) was housed as a flock and exercised daily with 30 min of aviary flight and 30 min walking on a rotating perch. A sedentary control group (n = 4) was housed in individual cages with no exercise regime. A plasma lipid panel, including total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides, was validated for this species. Body weight, chest girth, and the lipid panel were measured at 0, 61, and 105 days. Hematology and plasma biochemistry were measured at 0 and 105 days. Weight and girth were significantly lower in exercised than sedentary parrots at 61 and 105 days. HDL-C concentrations were significantly higher in exercised parrots at 61 days but returned to near baseline by 105 days. There were no significant changes in hematology, biochemistry, or other lipid panel parameters. Results were similar to studies in humans and animal models, in which increased HDL-C was the most consistent effect of exercise on circulating lipid and lipoprotein parameters. The return toward baseline HDL-C may have resulted from decreased participation in aviary flight. Additional investigation will be required to determine the amount of exercise and change in circulating lipid-related parameters necessary to improve long-term wellness in psittacine species predisposed to hypercholesterolemia.

  8. Novel Artificial Natural Products Against Breast Cancer Through Combinatorial Biosynthesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-07-01

    compounds normally produced by a certain strain. Our investigations on the discovery of novel natural metabolites using type II polyketide synthase ...limitations, shall be included on any reproduction hereof which includes any part of the portions subject to such limitations. THIS TECHNICAL REPORT HAS... polyketides remain the central group of natural products in this research area, since this class of natural products form one of the largest and most

  9. Intraear Compensation of Field Corn, Zea mays, from Simulated and Naturally Occurring Injury by Ear-Feeding Larvae.

    PubMed

    Steckel, S; Stewart, S D

    2015-06-01

    Ear-feeding larvae, such as corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea Boddie (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), can be important insect pests of field corn, Zea mays L., by feeding on kernels. Recently introduced, stacked Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) traits provide improved protection from ear-feeding larvae. Thus, our objective was to evaluate how injury to kernels in the ear tip might affect yield when this injury was inflicted at the blister and milk stages. In 2010, simulated corn earworm injury reduced total kernel weight (i.e., yield) at both the blister and milk stage. In 2011, injury to ear tips at the milk stage affected total kernel weight. No differences in total kernel weight were found in 2013, regardless of when or how much injury was inflicted. Our data suggested that kernels within the same ear could compensate for injury to ear tips by increasing in size, but this increase was not always statistically significant or sufficient to overcome high levels of kernel injury. For naturally occurring injury observed on multiple corn hybrids during 2011 and 2012, our analyses showed either no or a minimal relationship between number of kernels injured by ear-feeding larvae and the total number of kernels per ear, total kernel weight, or the size of individual kernels. The results indicate that intraear compensation for kernel injury to ear tips can occur under at least some conditions.

  10. Combining metagenomics with metaproteomics and stable isotope probing reveals metabolic pathways used by a naturally occurring marine methylotroph.

    PubMed

    Grob, Carolina; Taubert, Martin; Howat, Alexandra M; Burns, Oliver J; Dixon, Joanna L; Richnow, Hans H; Jehmlich, Nico; von Bergen, Martin; Chen, Yin; Murrell, J Colin

    2015-10-01

    A variety of culture-independent techniques have been developed that can be used in conjunction with culture-dependent physiological and metabolic studies of key microbial organisms in order to better understand how the activity of natural populations influences and regulates all major biogeochemical cycles. In this study, we combined deoxyribonucleic acid-stable isotope probing (DNA-SIP) with metagenomics and metaproteomics to characterize an uncultivated marine methylotroph that actively incorporated carbon from (13) C-labeled methanol into biomass. By metagenomic sequencing of the heavy DNA, we retrieved virtually the whole genome of this bacterium and determined its metabolic potential. Through protein-stable isotope probing, the RuMP cycle was established as the main carbon assimilation pathway, and the classical methanol dehydrogenase-encoding gene mxaF, as well as three out of four identified xoxF homologues were found to be expressed. This proof-of-concept study is the first in which the culture-independent techniques of DNA-SIP and protein-SIP have been used to characterize the metabolism of a naturally occurring Methylophaga-like bacterium in the marine environment (i.e. Methylophaga thiooxydans L4) and thus provides a powerful approach to access the genome and proteome of uncultivated microbes involved in key processes in the environment.

  11. Ecological physiology of Synechococcus sp. strain SH-94-5, a naturally occurring cyanobacterium deficient in nitrate assimilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, S. R.; Castenholz, R. W.

    2001-01-01

    Synechococcus sp. strain SH-94-5 is a nitrate assimilation-deficient cyanobacterium which was isolated from an ammonium-replete hot spring in central Oregon. While this clone could grow on ammonium and some forms of organic nitrogen as sole nitrogen sources, it could not grow on either nitrate or nitrite, even under conditions favoring passive diffusion. It was determined that this clone does not express functional nitrate reductase or nitrite reductase and that the lack of activity of either enzyme is not due to inactivation of the cyanobacterial nitrogen control protein NtcA. A few other naturally occurring cyanobacterial strains are also nitrate assimilation deficient, and phylogenetic analyses indicated that the ability to utilize nitrate has been independently lost at least four times during the evolutionary history of the cyanobacteria. This phenotype is associated with the presence of environmental ammonium, a negative regulator of nitrate assimilation gene expression, which may indicate that natural selection to maintain functional copies of nitrate assimilation genes has been relaxed in these habitats. These results suggest how the evolutionary fates of conditionally expressed genes might differ between environments and thereby effect ecological divergence and biogeographical structure in the microbial world.

  12. Enhanced dechlorination of carbon tetrachloride by Geobacter sulfurreducens in the presence of naturally occurring quinones and ferrihydrite.

    PubMed

    Doong, Ruey-an; Lee, Chun-chi; Lien, Chia-min

    2014-02-01

    The effect of naturally occurring quinones including lawsone (LQ), ubiquinone (UQ), juglone (JQ), and 1,4-naphthoquinone (NQ) on the biotransformation of carbon tetrachloride (CT) in the presence of Geobacter sulfurreducens and ferrihydrite was investigated. AQDS was used as the model compound for comparison. The reductive dissolution of ferrihydrite by G. sulfurreducens was enhanced by AQDS, NQ, and LQ. However, addition of UQ and JQ had little enhancement effect on Fe(II) production. The bioreduction efficiency and rate of ferrihydrite was highly dependent on the natural property and concentration of quinone compounds and the addition of low concentrations of LQ and NQ significantly accelerated the biotransformation rate of CT. The pseudo-first-order rate constants for CT dechlorination (kobsCT) in AQDS-, LQ- and NQ-amended batches were 5.4-5.8, 4.6-7.4 and 2.4-5.8 times, respectively, higher than those in the absence of quinone. A good relationship between kobsCT for CT dechlorination and bioreduction ratio of ferrihydrite was observed, indicating the important role of biogenic Fe(II) in dechlorination of CT under iron-reducing conditions. Spectroscopic analysis showed that AQDS and NQ could be reduced to semiquinones and hydroquinones, while only hydroquinones were generated in LQ-amended batches.

  13. Radial growth rate increases in naturally occurring ponderosa pine trees: a late-20th century CO2 fertilization effect?

    PubMed

    Soulé, Peter T; Knapp, Paul A

    2006-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine if gradually increasing levels of atmospheric CO2, as opposed to 'step' increases commonly employed in controlled studies, have a positive impact on radial growth rates of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) in natural environments, and to determine the spatial extent and variability of this growth enhancement. We developed a series of tree-ring chronologies from minimally disturbed sites across a spectrum of environmental conditions. A series of difference of means tests were used to compare radial growth post-1950, when the impacts of rising atmospheric CO2 are best expressed, with that pre-1950. Spearman's correlation was used to relate site stress to growth-rate changes. Significant increases in radial growth rates occurred post-1950, especially during drought years, with the greatest increases generally found at the most water-limited sites. Site harshness is positively related to enhanced radial growth rates. Atmospheric CO2 fertilization is probably operative, having a positive effect on radial growth rates of ponderosa pine through increasing water-use efficiency. A CO2-driven growth enhancement may affect ponderosa pine growing under both natural and controlled conditions.

  14. Thermoluminescence (TL) Analysis and Fading Studies of Naturally Occurring Salt Irradiated by 500 mGy Gamma Rays

    SciTech Connect

    Tiwari, Ramesh Chandra; Pau, Kham Suan

    2011-10-20

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of the naturally occurring salt for the dosimetry purposes, using TL. The fine powder samples (20 mg) were irradiated by {gamma}- rays from 500 mGy to 2500 mGy by using Theratron-780C Cobalt-60 source, however, this paper discusses about 500 mGy only. The TL glow curve peak parameters were studied by using Chen's peak shape equation. TL glow curves were compared with fitted curves using glow curve deconvolution (GCD) method by using Kitis expression. The kinetic parameter values (E, b and s) so calculated, are in good agreement with those available in literature. The calculated energy values were also verified by using various heating rate (VHR) method. {chi}{sup 2} test and figure of merit (FOM) calculation was done to accept the goodness of fit between the curves. Fading studies of the sample showed a good fitting between the curves. The analysis suggests that natural salt should be considered for dosimetry purposes.

  15. Influence of naturally occurring dissolved organic matter, colloids, and cations on nanofiltration of pharmaceutically active and endocrine disrupting compounds.

    PubMed

    Sadmani, A H M Anwar; Andrews, Robert C; Bagley, David M

    2014-12-01

    This study examined the rejection of selected pharmaceutically active (PhAC) and endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) when using nanofiltration as a function of naturally occurring dissolved organic matter (DOM), colloidal particles, cations and their interactions. Lake Ontario water served as a source of natural DOM and colloidal particles. PhAC/EDC rejection experiments were conducted using raw Lake Ontario water and Lake Ontario water that was pre-treated with either ultrafiltration to remove colloidal particles, or fluidized ion exchange resins to remove DOM. Additionally, the concentration of cations (Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and Na(+)) in the raw and pre-treated water matrices was varied. While ionic PhACs and EDCs exhibited high rejections from all the water matrices examined, neutral compounds were most effectively rejected in water containing DOM and no colloids, and least effectively rejected from colloid-containing water with increased cations but no DOM. The presence of DOM significantly improved compound rejection and the increase in cation concentration significantly decreased rejection. The presence of colloids had comparatively little effect except to mitigate the impact of increased cation concentration, apparently providing some cation-buffering capacity. The sequence in which constituents are removed from waters during treatment may significantly impact PhAC and EDC removal, especially of neutral compounds.

  16. Removal naturally occurring radionuclides from drinking water using a filter specifically designed for Drinking Water Treatment Plants.

    PubMed

    Baeza, A; Salas, A; Guillén, J; Muñoz-Serrano, A; Ontalba-Salamanca, M Á; Jiménez-Ramos, M C

    2017-01-01

    The occurrence of naturally occurring radionuclides in drinking water can pose health hazards in some populations, especially taking into account that routine procedures in Drinking Water Treatment Plants (DWTPs) are normally unable to remove them efficiently from drinking water. In fact, these procedures are practically transparent to them, and in particular to radium. In this paper, the characterization and capabilities of a patented filter designed to remove radium from drinking water with high efficiency is described. This filter is based on a sandwich structure of silica and green sand, with a natural high content manganese oxide. Both sands are authorized by Spanish authorities to be used in Drinking Water Treatment Plants. The Mn distribution in the green sand was found to be homogenous, thus providing a great number of adsorption sites for radium. Kinetic studies showed that the (226)Ra adsorption on green sand was influenced by the content of major cations solved in the treated water, but the saturation level, about 96-99%, was not affected by it. The physico-chemical parameters of the treated water were unaltered by the filter. The efficiency of the filter for the removal of (226)Ra remained unchanged with large water volumes passed through it, proving its potential use in DWTP. This filter was also able to remove initially the uranium content due to the presence of Fe2O3 particles in it, although it is saturated faster than radium.

  17. Analysis of reserve pit sludge from unconventional natural gas hydraulic fracturing and drilling operations for the presence of technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material (TENORM).

    PubMed

    Rich, Alisa L; Crosby, Ernest C

    2013-01-01

    Soil and water (sludge) obtained from reserve pits used in unconventional natural gas mining was analyzed for the presence of technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material (TENORM). Samples were analyzed for total gamma, alpha, and beta radiation, and specific radionuclides: beryllium, potassium, scandium, cobalt, cesium, thallium, lead-210 and -214, bismuth-212 and -214, radium-226 and -228, thorium, uranium, and strontium-89 and -90. Laboratory analysis confirmed elevated beta readings recorded at 1329 ± 311 pCi/g. Specific radionuclides present in an active reserve pit and the soil of a leveled, vacated reserve pit included 232Thorium decay series (228Ra, 228Th, 208Tl), and 226Radium decay series (214Pb, 214Bi, 210Pb) radionuclides. The potential for impact of TENORM to the environment, occupational workers, and the general public is presented with potential health effects of individual radionuclides. Current oversight, exemption of TENORM in federal and state regulations, and complexity in reporting are discussed.

  18. Evaluation of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) in inorganic and organic oilfield scales from the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Bassioni, Ghada; Abdulla, Fareed; Morsy, Zeinab; El-Faramawy, Nabil

    2012-04-01

    The distribution of natural nuclide gamma-ray activities and their respective annual effective dose rates, produced by potassium-40 (⁴⁰K), uranium-238 (²³⁸U), thorium-232 (²³²Th), and radium-226 (²²⁶Ra), were determined for 14 oilfield scale samples from the Middle East. Accumulated radioactive materials concentrate in tubing and surface equipment, and workers at equipment-cleaning facilities and naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) disposal facilities are the population most at risk for exposure to NORM radiation. Gamma-spectra analysis indicated that photo-gamma lines represent the parents of 10 radioactive nuclides: ²³⁴Th, plutonium-239, actinium-228, ²²⁶Ra, lead-212 (²¹²Pb), ²¹⁴Pb, thallium-238 (²⁰⁸Tl), bismuth-212 (²¹²Bi), ²¹⁴Bi, and ⁴⁰K. These nuclides represent the daughters of the natural radioactive series ²³⁸U and ²³²Th with ⁴⁰K as well. The mean activity concentration of ²³⁸U, ²³²Th, and ⁴⁰K were found to be 25.8 ± 11.6, 18.3 ± 8.1, and 4487.2 ± 2.5% Bq kg⁻¹ (average values for 14 samples), respectively. The annual effective dose rates and the absorbed doses in air, both indoor and outdoor, for the samples were obtained as well. The results can be used to assess the respective hazard on workers in the field and represent a basis for revisiting current engineering practices.

  19. The effect of weathering on ecopersistence, reactivity, and potential toxicity of naturally occurring asbestos and asbestiform minerals.

    PubMed

    Enrico Favero-Longo, Sergio; Turci, Francesco; Tomatis, Maura; Compagnoni, Roberto; Piervittori, Rosanna; Fubini, Bice

    2009-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying asbestos toxicity mainly rely on experiments performed on "laboratory" fibers, but little data is available on naturally occurring asbestos (NOA). Human exposure to NOA is subject to their ecopersistence and the modulation of their potential toxicity following weathering. The effect of weathering on three fibrous minerals from the Italian Western Alps, chrysotile, tremolite, and balangeroite-a Fe-rich asbestiform mineral-was investigated by mimicking more than 100 yr of physical (freezing-thawing/wetting-drying cycles in a climatic chamber) and biochemical forces (incubation with oxalic acid). Ion release, evaluated by means of inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), and variation in chemical composition, evaluated by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), indicated that weathering modified the fibers in the series: chrysotile > balangeroite > tremolite. Kinetics of ion release from the fibers (Mg, Fe, and Si) revealed different ion removal pathways. Tremolite was poorly affected. Chrysotile preferentially released cations up to a plateau, with physical and biochemical forces acting competitively. Conversely, for balangeroite, upon which weathering forces acted synergistically, the initial loss of ions facilitated further dissolution and more Si than Mg was released, suggesting an ongoing collapse of the crystal structure. Depletion of redox-reactive ions produced a significant reduction in fiber-derived *OH radicals (EPR, spin-trapping technique), but the fibrous nature was always retained. Despite weathered fibers appearing less toxic than "stored/laboratory" ones, NOA is to be considered far from safe because of fibrous nature and residual surface reactivity. Risk assessment needs to consider the effect of weathering on exposures. Both tremolite and balangeroite may contaminate, in some areas, chrysotile asbestos. However, in contrast to tremolite, balangeroite

  20. Cytotoxic activities of naturally occurring oleanane-, ursane-, and lupane-type triterpenes on HepG2 and AGS cells

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Heejung; Kim, Hyun Woo; Kim, Young Choong; Sung, Sang Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Background: It is well known that the naturally occurring modified triterpenes in plants have a wide diversity of chemical structures and biological functions. The lupane-, oleanane-, and ursane-type triterpenes are the three major members of natural triterpenes with a wide range of biological properties. A systematic approach is necessary to review their structures and biological activities according to the backbones and the different substituents. Objective: Thirty lupane-(L1-7), oleanane-(O1-14), and ursane-type (U1-9) triterpenes with structural diversity were examined to evaluate their cytotoxic activities against two cancer cell lines, human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) and AGS cells. Materials and Methods: They were isolated from Hedera helix, Juglans sinensis, and Pulsatilla koreana using a series of column chromatography methods and were treated to evaluate their cytotoxic activities against HepG2 and AGS human gastric adenocarcinoma cell. Further, two triterpenes showing the most potent activities were subjected to the apoptotic screening assay using flow cytometry. Results: The polar groups, such as an oxo group at C-1, a free hydroxyl at C-2, C-3, or C-23, and a carboxylic moiety at C-28, as well as the type of backbone, explicitly increased the cytotoxic activity on two cancer cells. O5 and U5 showed significantly the potent cytotoxic activity in comparison to other glycosidic triterpenes. In annexin-V/propidium iodide (PI) staining assay, the percentage of late apoptosis (annexin-V+/PI+) 12 and 24 h after treatment with O5 and U5 at 25 μM increased from 14.5% to 93.1% and from 46.4% to 49.1%, respectively, in AGS cells. The cytotoxicity induced by O5 showed a significant difference compared to U5 for 12 and 24 h. Conclusion: In the study, we can suggest the potent moieties which influence their cytotoxic activities against two cancer cells. The polar groups at C-1, C-2, C-3, C-23, and C-28 and the linkage of sugar moieties influenced the

  1. [Brain metastases in breast cancer. Epidemiology and natural history. The Institut Curie experience].

    PubMed

    Gachet, Julie; Giroux, Julie; Girre, Véronique; Brain, Étienne; Kirova, Youlia; Mignot, Laurent; Mazeron, Jean-Jacques; Dutertre, Guillaume; Pouit, Bernard; Mosseri, Véronique; Falcou, Marie-Christine; Cottu, Paul H

    2011-04-01

    Breast cancer is the second cause for brain metastases. Their incidence is rising, partly due to the therapeutic improvements which alter the natural history of breast cancer. Predictive factors for brain metastases have been identified: HER2 oncogene overexpression, lack of expression of hormone receptors, young age and triple negative status. Brain metastases prognosis remains poor with a median survival shorter than 1 year, except for solitary lesions treated by surgery or radiosurgery. We have analysed two series of data from Institut Curie (Paris and Saint-Cloud). In women younger than 65 years, with HER2 negative breast carcinoma, median survival was 7.1 months. In women older than 65 years, median survival was 4 months.

  2. Evaluation of the varying Naturally Occurring Asbestos mitigation measures at School and Commercial construction projects in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalika, S.

    2012-12-01

    In commercial development or K-12 school construction, project sites are often purchased and much of the planning process completed prior to an assessment of the soils proposed for excavation or potential offhaul. Geologic maps, while initially helpful for identifying potential hazards such as landslides and earthquake faults, are less helpful in the identification of naturally occurring hazardous minerals, such as the seven regulated minerals currently classified as asbestos. Geologic maps identify mafic and ultramafic bedrock zones; however, a skilled geologist with knowledge of asbestos hazards will further visualize the earth-shaping processes that may have resulted in the deposition of naturally occurring asbestos in locations outside mapped ultramafic zones including the base of an alluvial fan or within streambed channels. When sampled as an afterthought prior to disposal, property owners are surprised by the budget-crippling costs of waste handling and disposal of NOA, as well as mitigations required to protect the health of construction workers, the public, and future site occupants. The California Air Resources Board (CARB) continues to lead the way in evaluation and regulation of NOA, through development of the CARB 435 preparation and laboratory analytical method, local enforcement of the Asbestos Airborne Toxic Control Measure for Construction, Grading, Quarrying, and Surface Mining Operations (ATCM), and implementation of dust control measures to protect public health. A thorough site evaluation and construction design includes utilization of the sampling methods developed by the California Geological Survey, laboratory analytical methods within CARB 435, and mitigation measures required by CARB, DTSC, and OSHA for the protection of worker and public health after NOA is discovered. The site evaluation should additionally include an assessment of the future site usage, as regulations differ based on potential health affects to future occupants

  3. Naturally Occurring Eccentric Cleavage Products of Provitamin A β-Carotene Function as Antagonists of Retinoic Acid Receptors*

    PubMed Central

    Eroglu, Abdulkerim; Hruszkewycz, Damian P.; dela Sena, Carlo; Narayanasamy, Sureshbabu; Riedl, Ken M.; Kopec, Rachel E.; Schwartz, Steven J.; Curley, Robert W.; Harrison, Earl H.

    2012-01-01

    β-Carotene is the major dietary source of provitamin A. Central cleavage of β-carotene catalyzed by β-carotene oxygenase 1 yields two molecules of retinaldehyde. Subsequent oxidation produces all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA), which functions as a ligand for a family of nuclear transcription factors, the retinoic acid receptors (RARs). Eccentric cleavage of β-carotene at non-central double bonds is catalyzed by other enzymes and can also occur non-enzymatically. The products of these reactions are β-apocarotenals and β-apocarotenones, whose biological functions in mammals are unknown. We used reporter gene assays to show that none of the β-apocarotenoids significantly activated RARs. Importantly, however, β-apo-14′-carotenal, β-apo-14′-carotenoic acid, and β-apo-13-carotenone antagonized ATRA-induced transactivation of RARs. Competitive radioligand binding assays demonstrated that these putative RAR antagonists compete directly with retinoic acid for high affinity binding to purified receptors. Molecular modeling studies confirmed that β-apo-13-carotenone can interact directly with the ligand binding site of the retinoid receptors. β-Apo-13-carotenone and the β-apo-14′-carotenoids inhibited ATRA-induced expression of retinoid responsive genes in Hep G2 cells. Finally, we developed an LC/MS method and found 3–5 nm β-apo-13-carotenone was present in human plasma. These findings suggest that β-apocarotenoids function as naturally occurring retinoid antagonists. The antagonism of retinoid signaling by these metabolites may have implications for the activities of dietary β-carotene as a provitamin A and as a modulator of risk for cardiovascular disease and cancer. PMID:22418437

  4. The Inactivation of Human CYP2E1 by Phenethyl Isothiocyanate, a Naturally Occurring Chemopreventive Agent, and Its Oxidative Bioactivation

    PubMed Central

    Yoshigae, Yasushi; Sridar, Chitra; Kent, Ute M.

    2013-01-01

    Phenethylisothiocyanate (PEITC), a naturally occurring isothiocyanate and potent cancer chemopreventive agent, works by multiple mechanisms, including the inhibition of cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes, such as CYP2E1, that are involved in the bioactivation of carcinogens. PEITC has been reported to be a mechanism-based inactivator of some P450s. We describe here the possible mechanism for the inactivation of human CYP2E1 by PEITC, as well as the putative intermediate that might be involved in the bioactivation of PEITC. PEITC inactivated recombinant CYP2E1 with a partition ratio of 12, and the inactivation was not inhibited in the presence of glutathione (GSH) and not fully recovered by dialysis. The inactivation of CYP2E1 by PEITC is due to both heme destruction and protein modification, with the latter being the major pathway for inactivation. GSH-adducts of phenethyl isocyanate (PIC) and phenethylamine were detected during the metabolism by CYP2E1, indicating formation of PIC as a reactive intermediate following P450-catalyzed desulfurization of PEITC. Surprisingly, PIC bound covalently to CYP2E1 to form protein adducts but did not inactivate the enzyme. Liquid chromatography mass spectroscopy analysis of the inactivated CYP2E1 apo-protein suggests that a reactive sulfur atom generated during desulfurization of PEITC is involved in the inactivation of CYP2E1. Our data suggest that the metabolism of PEITC by CYP2E1 that results in the inactivation of CYP2E1 may occur by a mechanism similar to that observed with other sulfur-containing compounds, such as parathion. Digestion of the inactivated enzyme and analysis by SEQUEST showed that Cys 268 may be the residue modified by PIC. PMID:23371965

  5. Effects of a naturally occurring neurosteroid on GABAA IPSCs during development in rat hippocampal or cerebellar slices

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Elizabeth J; Johnston, Graham A R; Edwards, Frances A

    1999-01-01

    The effects of the naturally occurring neurosteroid tetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone (THDOC) on GABAA receptor-mediated miniature, spontaneous and evoked IPSCs was tested using patch-clamp techniques in slices of hippocampus and cerebellum from rats at two developmental stages (≈10 and ≈20 days postnatal). The cells studied were hippocampal granule cells and cerebellar Purkinje and granule cells. Most miniature GABAergic currents (mIPSCs) decayed with two exponentials and neurosteroids caused a ≈4-fold increase in the decay time constant of the second exponential at the highest concentration used (2 μm). Similar effects were seen at high concentrations of THDOC (1-2 μm) in all cell groups tested. No effects were seen on amplitude or rise time of mIPSCs. The effects of THDOC (1 μm) were shown to be stereoselective and rapidly reversible, indicating that the neurosteroid binds to the GABAA receptor, rather than acting genomically. At concentrations of THDOC likely to occur physiologically (50–100 nm), the decay time of IPSCs was also enhanced (25–50 %) in all cerebellar cell groups tested. In contrast, at 100 nm THDOC, seven of 11 hippocampal granule cells were sensitive from the 10 day group but the 20 day hippocampal granule cells showed no significant enhancement in the presence of these lower concentrations of THDOC. The differences in sensitivity of hippocampal and cerebellar cells to THDOC are compared to data reported in the literature on regional development of expression of different receptor subunits in the brain and it is suggested that the progressive relative insensitivity of the 20 day hippocampal cells may depend on increasing expression of the δ subunit of the GABAA receptor and possibly an increase in the α4 subunit. PMID:10581314

  6. Influence of Asellus aquaticus on Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Campylobacter jejuni and naturally occurring heterotrophic bacteria in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Sarah C B; Nissen, Erling; Arvin, Erik; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2012-10-15

    Water lice, Asellus aquaticus (isopoda), frequently occur in drinking water distribution systems where they are a nuisance to consumers and water utilities. Whether they are solely an aesthetic problem or also affect the microbial water quality is a matter of interest. We studied the influence of A. aquaticus on microbial water quality in non-chlorinated drinking water in controlled laboratory experiments. Pure cultures of the indicator organisms Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae and the pathogen Campylobacter jejuni as well as naturally occurring heterotrophic drinking water bacteria (measured as heterotrophic plate counts, HPC) were investigated in microcosms at 7 °C, containing non-sterilised drinking water, drinking water sediment and A. aquaticus collected from a non-chlorinated ground water based drinking water supply system. Concentrations of E. coli, K. pneumoniae and C. jejuni decreased over time, following a first order decay with half lives of 5.3, 18.4 and 1.3 days, respectively. A. aquaticus did not affect survival of indicators and pathogens substantially whereas HPC were influenced by presence of dead A. aquaticus. Growth rates increased with an average of 48% for bacteria grown on R-2A agar and an average of 83% for bacteria grown on yeast extract agar when dead A. aquaticus were present compared to no and living A. aquaticus present. A. aquaticus associated E. coli, K. pneumoniae and C. jejuni were measured (up to 25 per living and 500 per dead A. aquaticus) and so were A. aquaticus associated heterotrophic bacteria (>1.8*10(4) CFU per living and >6*10(4) CFU per dead A. aquaticus). A. aquaticus did not serve as an optimised habitat that increased survival of indicators and pathogens, since A. aquaticus associated E. coli, K. pneumoniae and C. jejuni were only measured as long as the bacteria were also present in the water and sediment.

  7. Naturally Occurring Peer Support through Social Media: The Experiences of Individuals with Severe Mental Illness Using YouTube

    PubMed Central

    Naslund, John A.; Grande, Stuart W.; Aschbrenner, Kelly A.; Elwyn, Glyn

    2014-01-01

    Increasingly, people with diverse health conditions turn to social media to share their illness experiences or seek advice from others with similar health concerns. This unstructured medium may represent a platform on which individuals with severe mental illness naturally provide and receive peer support. Peer support includes a system of mutual giving and receiving where individuals with severe mental illness can offer hope, companionship, and encouragement to others facing similar challenges. In this study we explore the phenomenon of individuals with severe mental illness uploading videos to YouTube, and posting and responding to comments as a form of naturally occurring peer support. We also consider the potential risks and benefits of self-disclosure and interacting with others on YouTube. To address these questions, we used qualitative inquiry informed by emerging techniques in online ethnography. We analyzed n = 3,044 comments posted to 19 videos uploaded by individuals who self-identified as having schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or bipolar disorder. We found peer support across four themes: minimizing a sense of isolation and providing hope; finding support through peer exchange and reciprocity; sharing strategies for coping with day-to-day challenges of severe mental illness; and learning from shared experiences of medication use and seeking mental health care. These broad themes are consistent with accepted notions of peer support in severe mental illness as a voluntary process aimed at inclusion and mutual advancement through shared experience and developing a sense of community. Our data suggest that the lack of anonymity and associated risks of being identified as an individual with severe mental illness on YouTube seem to be overlooked by those who posted comments or uploaded videos. Whether or not this platform can provide benefits for a wider community of individuals with severe mental illness remains uncertain. PMID:25333470

  8. Antioxidant capacity of polychaetes occurring at a natural CO2 vent system: Results of an in situ reciprocal transplant experiment.

    PubMed

    Ricevuto, E; Benedetti, M; Regoli, F; Spicer, J I; Gambi, M C

    2015-12-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) is occurring at a fast rate, resulting in changes of carbonate chemistry in the oceans and in lowering of the pH. Previous studies have documented significant changes in the antioxidant defenses of marine species in response to OA. Here, selected polychaete species, Platynereis dumerilii, Polyophthalmus pictus and Syllis prolifera, were sampled from a natural CO2 vent system (pH = 7.3) and from a non-venting 'control' site (pH = 8.1), and reciprocally transplanted in these areas for 30 days. Total antioxidant capacity toward different forms of oxyradicals was compared in native and transplanted polychaetes: the aim was to assess whether the environmental conditions at the vent site would act as a prooxidant stressor, and the capability of polychaetes to modulate their antioxidant capacity to counteract a varied oxyradicals formation. None of the investigated species enhanced the antioxidant potential during the experiment. A significant reduction of the capability to neutralize different forms of oxyradicals was observed in P. pictus and, partially, in S. prolifera when transplanted from control to naturally-acidified conditions. On the other hand, populations of P. dumerilii originating from the vent and of S. prolifera from both control and acidified sites, showed higher constitutive antioxidant efficiency toward peroxyl radicals and peroxynitrite, which may allow them to cope with short-term and chronic exposure to higher oxidative pressure without further enhancement of antioxidant defenses. Since low pH - high pCO2 is the greatest environmental difference between the control and the vent sites, we suggest that the pro-oxidant challenge due to such peculiarities may have different biological consequences in different polychaete species. Some appear more susceptible to oxidative effects, while others acquire a long term acclimatization to vent conditions through the enhancement of their basal antioxidant protection.

  9. Inhibition of Hedgehog-dependent tumors and cancer stem cells by a newly identified naturally occurring chemotype

    PubMed Central

    Infante, Paola; Alfonsi, Romina; Ingallina, Cinzia; Quaglio, Deborah; Ghirga, Francesca; D'Acquarica, Ilaria; Bernardi, Flavia; Di Magno, Laura; Canettieri, Gianluca; Screpanti, Isabella; Gulino, Alberto; Botta, Bruno; Mori, Mattia; Di Marcotullio, Lucia

    2016-01-01

    Hedgehog (Hh) inhibitors have emerged as valid tools in the treatment of a wide range of cancers. Indeed, aberrant activation of the Hh pathway occurring either by ligand-dependent or -independent mechanisms is a key driver in tumorigenesis. The smoothened (Smo) receptor is one of the main upstream transducers of the Hh signaling and is a validated target for the development of anticancer compounds, as underlined by the FDA-approved Smo antagonist Vismodegib (GDC-0449/Erivedge) for the treatment of basal cell carcinoma. However, Smo mutations that confer constitutive activity and drug resistance have emerged during treatment with Vismodegib. For this reason, the development of new effective Hh inhibitors represents a major challenge for cancer therapy. Natural products have always represented a unique source of lead structures in drug discovery, and in recent years have been used to modulate the Hh pathway at multiple levels. Here, starting from an in house library of natural compounds and their derivatives, we discovered novel chemotypes of Hh inhibitors by mean of virtual screening against the crystallographic structure of Smo. Hh functional based assay identified the chalcone derivative 12 as the most effective Hh inhibitor within the test set. The chalcone 12 binds the Smo receptor and promotes the displacement of Bodipy-Cyclopamine in both Smo WT and drug-resistant Smo mutant. Our molecule stands as a promising Smo antagonist able to specifically impair the growth of Hh-dependent tumor cells in vitro and in vivo and medulloblastoma stem-like cells and potentially overcome the associated drug resistance. PMID:27899820

  10. Naturally occurring radioactive material from the aluminium industry--a case study: the Egyptian Aluminium Company, Nag Hammady, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Abbady, Adel G E; El-Arabi, A M

    2006-12-01

    The activity concentrations and the gamma-absorbed dose rates of the terrestrial naturally occurring radionuclides (226)Ra and (232)Th were determined in samples of bauxite, alumina and aluminium dross tailings industrial waste (used to produce two types of alums) using high purity germanium (HPGe) gamma ray spectrometry. The bauxite and alumina are imported by Egyptalum (The Egyptian Aluminium Company, Nag Hammady, Egypt) from Guinea and India. The activity concentrations in the bauxite range from 29 +/- 1 to 112 +/- 6 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, and 151 +/- 8 to 525 +/- 12 Bq kg(-1) for (232)Th, with mean values of 62 +/- 8 and 378 +/- 50 Bq kg(-1), respectively. With respect to alumina and tail, the mean values are 5.7 +/- 1.1 and 8.4 +/- 0.8 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra and 7.2 +/- 1.6 and 10.7 +/- 1.2 Bq kg(-1) for (232)Th. Potassium-40 was not detected in any of the studied samples. The measured activity concentrations of (226)Ra and (232)Th in bauxite are higher than the world average while in alumina and tail they are lower. As a measure of radiation hazard to the occupational workers and members of the public, the Ra equivalent activities and external gamma dose rates due to natural radionuclides at 1 m above the ground surface were calculated. The external gamma-radiation doses received by the Egyptalum workers are 97, 409, 8.5 and 12.7 microSv y(-1) for the Guinean and Indian bauxite, the alumina and tail, respectively, which is well below the recommended allowed dose of 1 mSv y(-1) for non-exposed workers.

  11. Modeling the effects of naturally occurring organic carbon on chlorinated ethene transport to a public supply well

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapelle, Francis H.; Kauffman, Leon J.; Widdowson, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    The vulnerability of public supply wells to chlorinated ethene (CE) contamination in part depends on the availability of naturally occurring organic carbon to consume dissolved oxygen (DO) and initiate reductive dechlorination. This was quantified by building a mass balance model of the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer, which is widely used for public water supply in New Jersey. This model was built by telescoping a calibrated regional three-dimensional (3D) MODFLOW model to the approximate capture zone of a single public supply well that has a history of CE contamination. This local model was then used to compute a mass balance between dissolved organic carbon (DOC), particulate organic carbon (POC), and adsorbed organic carbon (AOC) that act as electron donors and DO, CEs, ferric iron, and sulfate that act as electron acceptors (EAs) using the Sequential Electron Acceptor Model in three dimensions (SEAM3D) code. SEAM3D was constrained by varying concentrations of DO and DOC entering the aquifer via recharge, varying the bioavailable fraction of POC in aquifer sediments, and comparing observed and simulated vertical concentration profiles of DO and DOC. This procedure suggests that approximately 15% of the POC present in aquifer materials is readily bioavailable. Model simulations indicate that transport of perchloroethene (PCE) and its daughter products trichloroethene (TCE), cis-dichloroethene (cis-DCE), and vinyl chloride (VC) to the public supply well is highly sensitive to the assumed bioavailable fraction of POC, concentrations of DO entering the aquifer with recharge, and the position of simulated PCE source areas in the flow field. The results are less sensitive to assumed concentrations of DOC in aquifer recharge. The mass balance approach used in this study also indicates that hydrodynamic processes such as advective mixing, dispersion, and sorption account for a significant amount of the observed natural attenuation in this system.

  12. Modeling the Effects of Naturally Occurring Organic Carbon on Chlorinated Ethene Transport to a Public Supply Well†

    PubMed Central

    Chapelle, Francis H; Kauffman, Leon J; Widdowson, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    The vulnerability of public supply wells to chlorinated ethene (CE) contamination in part depends on the availability of naturally occurring organic carbon to consume dissolved oxygen (DO) and initiate reductive dechlorination. This was quantified by building a mass balance model of the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer, which is widely used for public water supply in New Jersey. This model was built by telescoping a calibrated regional three-dimensional (3D) MODFLOW model to the approximate capture zone of a single public supply well that has a history of CE contamination. This local model was then used to compute a mass balance between dissolved organic carbon (DOC), particulate organic carbon (POC), and adsorbed organic carbon (AOC) that act as electron donors and DO, CEs, ferric iron, and sulfate that act as electron acceptors (EAs) using the Sequential Electron Acceptor Model in three dimensions (SEAM3D) code. SEAM3D was constrained by varying concentrations of DO and DOC entering the aquifer via recharge, varying the bioavailable fraction of POC in aquifer sediments, and comparing observed and simulated vertical concentration profiles of DO and DOC. This procedure suggests that approximately 15% of the POC present in aquifer materials is readily bioavailable. Model simulations indicate that transport of perchloroethene (PCE) and its daughter products trichloroethene (TCE), cis-dichloroethene (cis-DCE), and vinyl chloride (VC) to the public supply well is highly sensitive to the assumed bioavailable fraction of POC, concentrations of DO entering the aquifer with recharge, and the position of simulated PCE source areas in the flow field. The results are less sensitive to assumed concentrations of DOC in aquifer recharge. The mass balance approach used in this study also indicates that hydrodynamic processes such as advective mixing, dispersion, and sorption account for a significant amount of the observed natural attenuation in this system. PMID:24372440

  13. Modeling the effects of naturally occurring organic carbon on chlorinated ethene transport to a public supply well.

    PubMed

    Chapelle, Francis H; Kauffman, Leon J; Widdowson, Mark A

    2014-09-01

    The vulnerability of public supply wells to chlorinated ethene (CE) contamination in part depends on the availability of naturally occurring organic carbon to consume dissolved oxygen (DO) and initiate reductive dechlorination. This was quantified by building a mass balance model of the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer, which is widely used for public water supply in New Jersey. This model was built by telescoping a calibrated regional three-dimensional (3D) MODFLOW model to the approximate capture zone of a single public supply well that has a history of CE contamination. This local model was then used to compute a mass balance between dissolved organic carbon (DOC), particulate organic carbon (POC), and adsorbed organic carbon (AOC) that act as electron donors and DO, CEs, ferric iron, and sulfate that act as electron acceptors (EAs) using the Sequential Electron Acceptor Model in three dimensions (SEAM3D) code. SEAM3D was constrained by varying concentrations of DO and DOC entering the aquifer via recharge, varying the bioavailable fraction of POC in aquifer sediments, and comparing observed and simulated vertical concentration profiles of DO and DOC. This procedure suggests that approximately 15% of the POC present in aquifer materials is readily bioavailable. Model simulations indicate that transport of perchloroethene (PCE) and its daughter products trichloroethene (TCE), cis-dichloroethene (cis-DCE), and vinyl chloride (VC) to the public supply well is highly sensitive to the assumed bioavailable fraction of POC, concentrations of DO entering the aquifer with recharge, and the position of simulated PCE source areas in the flow field. The results are less sensitive to assumed concentrations of DOC in aquifer recharge. The mass balance approach used in this study also indicates that hydrodynamic processes such as advective mixing, dispersion, and sorption account for a significant amount of the observed natural attenuation in this system.

  14. Floral visitation and reproductive traits of Stamenoid petals, a naturally occurring floral homeotic variant of Capsella bursa-pastoris (Brassicaceae).

    PubMed

    Ziermann, Janine; Ritz, Markus S; Hameister, Steffen; Abel, Christian; Hoffmann, Matthias H; Neuffer, Barbara; Theissen, Günter

    2009-11-01

    Homeotic changes played a considerable role during the evolution of flowers, but how floral homeotic mutants initially survive in nature has remained enigmatic. To better understand the evolutionary potential of floral homeotic mutants, we established as a model system Stamenoid petals (Spe), a natural variant of Capsella bursa-pastoris (Brassicaceae). In the flowers of Spe plants, petals are transformed into stamens, whereas all other floral organs are unaffected. In contrast with most other homeotic mutants, the Spe variant occurs in relatively stable populations in the wild. In order to determine how the profound change in floral architecture influences plant performance in the wild, we performed common garden experiments running over 3 years. Here, we show that Spe and wild-type plants attract the same assemblage of floral visitors: mainly hoverflies, wild bees and thrips. However, floral visitation is about twice as frequent in wild-type plants as in Spe plants. Nevertheless, the numbers of seeds per fruit were about the same in both variants. Wild-type plants produced more flowers, fruits and seeds per plant than Spe plants, whereas the germination capacity of Spe seeds was higher than that of the wild-type. Determination of volatile composition revealed monoterpenes and 3,4-dimethylbenzaldehyde, which were detected only in wild-type flowers, presumably because they are produced only by petals. Our data indicate that the similar fitness of Spe and wild-type C. bursa-pastoris in the field results from complex compensation between plant architecture and germination capacity. In contrast, flower structure and floral visitation are only of minor importance, possibly because C. bursa-pastoris is mainly self-pollinating.

  15. Naturally occurring peer support through social media: the experiences of individuals with severe mental illness using YouTube.

    PubMed

    Naslund, John A; Grande, Stuart W; Aschbrenner, Kelly A; Elwyn, Glyn

    2014-01-01

    Increasingly, people with diverse health conditions turn to social media to share their illness experiences or seek advice from others with similar health concerns. This unstructured medium may represent a platform on which individuals with severe mental illness naturally provide and receive peer support. Peer support includes a system of mutual giving and receiving where individuals with severe mental illness can offer hope, companionship, and encouragement to others facing similar challenges. In this study we explore the phenomenon of individuals with severe mental illness uploading videos to YouTube, and posting and responding to comments as a form of naturally occurring peer support. We also consider the potential risks and benefits of self-disclosure and interacting with others on YouTube. To address these questions, we used qualitative inquiry informed by emerging techniques in online ethnography. We analyzed n = 3,044 comments posted to 19 videos uploaded by individuals who self-identified as having schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or bipolar disorder. We found peer support across four themes: minimizing a sense of isolation and providing hope; finding support through peer exchange and reciprocity; sharing strategies for coping with day-to-day challenges of severe mental illness; and learning from shared experiences of medication use and seeking mental health care. These broad themes are consistent with accepted notions of peer support in severe mental illness as a voluntary process aimed at inclusion and mutual advancement through shared experience and developing a sense of community. Our data suggest that the lack of anonymity and associated risks of being identified as an individual with severe mental illness on YouTube seem to be overlooked by those who posted comments or uploaded videos. Whether or not this platform can provide benefits for a wider community of individuals with severe mental illness remains uncertain.

  16. Multiple forms of metallothionein from the digestive gland of naturally occurring and cadmium-exposed mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanković, Dušica; Pavičić, Jasenka; Kozar, Sonja; Raspor, Biserka

    2002-06-01

    Polymorphism of metallothioneins in the digestive gland of naturally occurring (control) and experimentally Cd-exposed mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis (200 µg Cd l-1; 14 days) was studied by applying the conventional methods of Sephadex column liquid chromatography (G-75 and DEAE A-25), and by an electrochemical method (DPASV) for determination of Cd, Zn and Cu concentrations in chromatographic fractions. In both control and Cd-exposed mussels, two distinct molecular mass components of the metallothioneins, monomeric (MT-10) and dimeric (MT-20), were resolved by Sephadex G-75 gel filtration chromatography. In control mussels, the MT-10 component was predominantly expressed as containing markedly higher constitutive levels of Zn (100×) and Cu (10×) than of Cd. Each of these two molecular mass components was further resolved into seven metal-rich peaks by anion-exchange chromatography. In Cd-exposed mussels the larger proportion of Cd was bound to the MT-20 than to the MT-10 component, suggesting that the dimeric component may be considered as a primarily inducible metallothionein. The elution positions of metal-binding maxima of Cd-exposed and control mussels on the respective DEAE chromatographic profiles were comparable. A great similarity in elution positions of Cd maxima between the composite and single-specimen samples was also observed. Our study confirms a high multiplicity of MT forms in mussels from the Mytilus genus not only under the laboratory high-level metal exposure conditions, but also at a natural seawater metal exposure level. The ecotoxicological significance of dimeric and monomeric MT forms, as well as their possible application in the biomonitoring of seawater for trace metals, has been considered.

  17. [Natural history of breast cancer: a systematic review of worldwide randomized controlled trials of mammography screening].

    PubMed

    Yue, X P; Shi, J F; Mao, A Y; Wang, L; Ma, H M; Chen, L L; Zhu, J; Cheng, X; Dai, M

    2017-02-23

    Objective: To parameterize the 1-year transition probabilities between different health status of the natural history of breast cancer based on the data of randomized controlled trial of X-ray mammography screening worldwide. Methods: Based on the breast cancer screening randomized controlled trials defined by a mammography screening review from the Cochrane 2013 and the International Agency for Research on Cancer, a systematic review was initiated in PubMed by searching names of the key investigators of the trials, combined with the diseases, screening intervention and outcome indicators. If applicable, all the original cumulative incidence rates were converted into one-year transition rate, using the life-table approach considering time length of follow-up. Results: A total of 23 reports from 9 RCTs were included. The data on transition rate between the healthy status to precancerous lesions was absent. The 1-year transition rate from health to carcinoma in situ was 17.78 to 50.21 per 100 000 persons in the intervention group and 9.16 to 26.84 per 100 000 persons in the control group. Correspondingly, the 1-year transition rate from health to breast cancer (including carcinoma in situ and invasive cancer) were estimated as 143.75 to 316.97 per 100 000 persons in the intervention group, and 141.45 to 288.84 per 100 000 persons in the control group. Furthermore, the transition rate from the healthy status to invasive breast cancer was 159.79 to 264.60 per 100 000 persons in intervention group and 170.12 to 255.33 per 100 000 persons in control group. The transition rate from carcinoma in situ to invasive breast cancer varied among different pathological types. Conclusions: The most common natural history states of reported by the included trials involved the full healthy status, carcinoma in situ and invasive breast cancer. The findings of transition rates between different health statuses will be informative for future model development of natural history studies

  18. Natural Products as Promising Antitumoral Agents in Breast Cancer: Mechanisms of Action and Molecular Targets.

    PubMed

    Bonofiglio, Daniela; Giordano, Cinzia; De Amicis, Francesca; Lanzino, Marilena; Andò, Sebastiano

    2016-01-01

    Extensive research over the past several decades has identified numerous dietary and phytochemical compounds that have chemopreventive potential and could represent an important source of anti-cancer lead molecules. In this scenario several nutritional factors have attracted considerable attention as modifiable risk factor in the prevention of breast cancer, the most frequently diagnosed cancer and a major cause of death among women worldwide. There is an immediate need for more effective and less toxic therapeutic and preventive strategies for breast cancers able also to counteract the recurrent phenomenon of resistance to hormonal and targeted therapy that represent the first-line treatment in the management of breast cancer patients. The present review focuses on chemopreventive and anti-cancer activities of different bioactive compounds obtained from dietary sources such as Omega-3 fatty acids, naturally present in fish, Resveratrol (3,5,40-trihydroxy-transstilbene), a phytoalexin found in grapes and Epigallocatechin Gallate, a polyphenolic compound found in green tea, or purified from medicinal plant (Oldenlandia Diffusa) and fruits (Ziziphus Jujube) highlighting their potential use in breast cancer treatment. Herein, we discuss the molecular mechanisms by which the bioactive compounds can inhibit carcinogenesis by regulating antioxidant enzyme activities, and inducing antiproliferative and apoptotic effects in different breast cancer cell lines. Understanding the mechanism of action of dietary compounds or traditionally used herbs having potential preventive and therapeutic effects on cancer may provide a rationale for further translational studies. This review emphasizes the importance, in the next future, of a proper scientific validation of these natural bioactive compounds for clinical use in the therapeutic portfolio for breast cancer.

  19. 5' terminal deletions in the genome of a coxsackievirus B2 strain occurred naturally in human heart

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Nora M.; Kim, Kyung-Soo; Drescher, Kristen M.; Oka, Kuniyuki; Tracy, Steven

    2008-01-01

    Enteroviruses can induce human myocarditis, which can be modeled in mice inoculated with group B coxsackieviruses (CVB) and in which CVB evolve to produce defective, terminally deleted genomes. The 5' non-translated region (NTR) was enzymatically amplified from heart tissue of a fatal case of enterovirus-associated myocarditis in Japan in 2002. While no intact 5' viral genomic termini were detected, 5' terminal deletions ranged in size from 22−36 nucleotides. Sequence of the 5' third of this viral genome is of a modern strain, closely related to CVB2 strains isolated in Japan in 2002. A CVB3 chimera containing the 5’ NTR with a 22 nt deletion produced progeny virus upon transfection of HeLa cells. When the 5' 22 nucleotide deletion was repaired, the virus induced myocarditis in mice and replicated like wild-type virus in murine heart cells. This is the first report of these naturally occurring defective enteroviral genomes in human myocarditis. PMID:18378272

  20. A novel naturally occurring hybrid gene encoded by a plant RNA virus facilitates long distance virus movement.

    PubMed Central

    Ding, S W; Li, W X; Symons, R H

    1995-01-01

    We recently identified a new cucumovirus-specific gene (2b) which is encoded by RNA 2 of the cucumber mosaic cucumovirus (CMV) tripartite RNA genome and whose coding sequence overlaps the C-terminal 69 codons of ORF 2a encoding the RNA polymerase protein. We have now found that although a CMV mutant lacking ORF 2b accumulated in the inoculated cotyledons of cucumber plants, it was unable to spread systemically, demonstrating involvement of 2b in long distance movement. The same mutant infected tobacco systemically with a much reduced virulence and delayed appearance of symptoms, indicating that 2b may contribute to long distance movement in this host. Deletion of the overlapping C-terminal part of ORF 2a did not change infectivity of the mutant in either host species, ruling out 2a mutation as the reason for the change of phenotype. Further infectivity studies with mutants containing partial deletions in ORF 2b further supported the conclusion that 2b encodes a host-specific long distance movement function. Sequence analysis revealed that 2b may represent a novel naturally occurring hybrid gene important to the evolutionary formation of the cucumovirus group and that it could provide a genetic basis for the wide host range of these viruses. Images PMID:8846770

  1. Discerning the antioxidant mechanism of rapanone: A naturally occurring benzoquinone with iron complexing and radical scavenging activities.

    PubMed

    de la Vega-Hernández, Karen; Antuch, Manuel; Cuesta-Rubio, Osmany; Núñez-Figueredo, Yanier; Pardo-Andreu, Gilberto L

    2017-05-01

    Oxidative stress resulting from iron and reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis breakdown has been implicated in several diseases. Therefore, molecules capable of binding iron and/or scavenging ROS may be reasonable strategies for protecting cells. Rapanone is a naturally occurring hydroxyl-benzoquinone with a privileged chelating structure. In this work, we addressed the antioxidant properties of rapanone concerning its iron-chelating and scavenging activities, and its protective potential against iron and tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced damage to mitochondria. Experimental determinations revealed the formation of rapanone-Fe(II)/Fe(III) complexes. Additionally, the electrochemical assays indicated that rapanone oxidized Fe(II) and O2(-), thus inhibiting Fenton-Haber-Weiss reactions. Furthermore, rapanone displayed an increased 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging ability in the presence of Fe(II). The above results explained the capacity of rapanone to provide near-full protection against iron and tert-butyl hydroperoxide induced mitochondrial lipid peroxidation in energized organelles, which fail under non-energized condition. We postulate that rapanone affords protection against iron and reactive oxygen species by means of both iron chelating and iron-stimulated free radical scavenging activity.

  2. Molecular basis for the catalytic inactivity of a naturally occurring near-null variant of human ALOX15.

    PubMed

    Horn, Thomas; Ivanov, Igor; Di Venere, Almerinda; Kakularam, Kumar Reddy; Reddanna, Pallu; Conrad, Melanie L; Richter, Constanze; Scheerer, Patrick; Kuhn, Hartmut

    2013-12-01

    Mammalian lipoxygenases belong to a family of lipid-peroxidizing enzymes, which have been implicated in cardiovascular, hyperproliferative and neurodegenerative diseases. Here we report that a naturally occurring mutation in the hALOX15 gene leads to expression of a catalytically near-null enzyme variant (hGly422Glu). The inactivity may be related to severe misfolding of the enzyme protein, which was concluded from CD-spectra as well as from thermal and chemical stability assays. In silico mutagenesis experiments suggest that most mutations at hGly422 have the potential to induce sterical clash, which might be considered a reason for protein misfolding. hGly422 is conserved among ALOX5, ALOX12 and ALOX15 isoforms and corresponding hALOX12 and hALOX5 mutants also exhibited a reduced catalytic activity. Interestingly, in the hALOX5 Gly429Glu mutants the reaction specificity of arachidonic acid oxygenation was shifted from 5S- to 8S- and 12R-H(p)ETE formation. Taken together, our data indicate that the conserved glycine is of functional importance for these enzyme variants and most mutants at this position lose catalytic activity.

  3. Characterization of naturally occurring cutaneous neurofibromatosis in Holstein cattle. A disorder resembling neurofibromatosis type 1 in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Sartin, E. A.; Doran, S. E.; Riddell, M. G.; Herrera, G. A.; Tennyson, G. S.; D'Andrea, G.; Whitley, R. D.; Collins, F. S.

    1994-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis in cattle is typically a noncutaneous disease. A small group of cows in a Holstein dairy herd developed cutaneous neurofibromatosis. This unique condition was investigated and compared with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) in humans. All cutaneous lesions but one were consistent with neurofibromas in noncutaneous sites in cattle and neurofibromas in patients with NF1. One bovine lesion was classified as a neurofibrosarcoma. Immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy supported Schwannian differentiation in benign and malignant lesions. Linkage analysis with a polymorphism in the bovine NF1 gene confirmed that two affected animals from the same sire inherited the same paternal NF1 allele. Bovine cutaneous neurofibromatosis is a naturally occurring disease in this group of animals, characterized by skin tumors morphologically identical to those of NF1. An informative polymorphism at the NF1 locus of two animals and their sire suggests this disorder may be caused by hereditary mutations at the bovine NF1 locus. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:7977647

  4. A naturally occurring GIP receptor variant undergoes enhanced agonist-induced desensitization, which impairs GIP control of adipose insulin sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Sameer; Patel, Rajesh T; Bruno, Joanne; Panhwar, Muhammad Siyab; Wen, Jennifer; McGraw, Timothy E

    2014-10-01

    Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), an incretin hormone secreted from gastrointestinal K cells in response to food intake, has an important role in the control of whole-body metabolism. GIP signals through activation of the GIP receptor (GIPR), a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). Dysregulation of this pathway has been implicated in the development of metabolic disease. Here we demonstrate that GIPR is constitutively trafficked between the plasma membrane and intracellular compartments of both GIP-stimulated and unstimulated adipocytes. GIP induces a downregulation of plasma membrane GIPR by slowing GIPR recycling without affecting internalization kinetics. This transient reduction in the expression of GIPR in the plasma membrane correlates with desensitization to the effects of GIP. A naturally occurring variant of GIPR (E354Q) associated with an increased incidence of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease in humans responds to GIP stimulation with an exaggerated downregulation from the plasma membrane and a delayed recovery of GIP sensitivity following cessation of GIP stimulation. This perturbation in the desensitization-resensitization cycle of the GIPR variant, revealed in studies of cultured adipocytes, may contribute to the link of the E354Q variant to metabolic disease.

  5. Fusion activity of African henipavirus F proteins with a naturally occurring start codon directly upstream of the signal peptide.

    PubMed

    Weis, Michael; Behner, Laura; Binger, Tabea; Drexler, Jan Felix; Drosten, Christian; Maisner, Andrea

    2015-04-02

    Compared to the fusion proteins of pathogenic Nipah and Hendra viruses, the F protein of prototype African henipavirus GH-M74a displays a drastically reduced surface expression and fusion activity. A probable reason for limited F expression is the unusually long sequence located between the gene start and the signal peptide (SP) not present in other henipaviruses. Such a long pre-SP extension can prevent efficient ER translocation or protein maturation and processing. As its truncation can therefore enhance surface expression, the recent identification of a second in-frame start codon directly upstream of the SP in another African henipavirus F gene (GH-UP28) raised the question if such a naturally occurring minor sequence variation can lead to the synthesis of a pre-SP truncated translation product, thereby increasing the production of mature F proteins. To test this, we analyzed surface expression and biological activity of F genes carrying the second SP-proximal start codon of GH-UP28. Though we observed minor differences in the expression levels, introduction of the additional start codon did not result in an increased fusion activity, even if combined with further mutations in the pre-SP region. Thus, limited bioactivity of African henipavirus F protein is maintained even after sequence changes that alter the gene start allowing the production of F proteins without an unusually long pre-SP.

  6. Naturally occurring anti-band-3 antibodies and complement together mediate phagocytosis of oxidatively stressed human erythrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Lutz, H.U.; Bussolino, F.; Flepp, R.; Fasler, S.; Stammler, P.; Kazatchkine, M.D.; Arese, P.

    1987-11-01

    Treatment of erythrocytes with the thiol-specific oxidant azodicarboxylic acid bis(dimethylamide) (diamide) enhances their phagocytosis by adherent monocytes. Phagocytosis of diamide-treated erythrocytes required that the cells were opsonized with whole serum, since complement inactivation abolished phagocytosis. Opsonization with whole serum containing 20-100 times the physiological concentration of naturally occurring anti-band-3- antibodies enhanced phagocytosis of diamide-treated erythrocytes. High inputs of anti-band-3 also restored phagocytosis of erythrocytes that had been incubated with complement-inactivated serum. Elevated concentrations of anti-spectrin antibodies were ineffective in whole and complement-inactivated serum. Specific recognition of diamide-treated erythrocytes by anti-band-3 antibodies may be due to generation of anti-band-3 reactive protein oligomers on intact diamide-treated erythrocytes. Generation of such oligomers was dose-dependent with respect to diamide. Bound anti-band-3 alone was not sufficient to mediate phagocytosis. It resulted in deposition of complement component C3b on the cells through activation of the alternative complement pathway in amounts exceeding that of bound antibodies by two orders of magnitude. Thus, anti-band-3 and complement together mediate phagocytosis of oxidatively stressed erythrocytes, which simulate senescent erythrocytes with respect to bound antibody and complement.

  7. A computer aided thermodynamic approach for predicting the formation of Z-DNA in naturally occurring sequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, P. S.; Ellison, M. J.; Quigley, G. J.; Rich, A.

    1986-01-01

    The ease with which a particular DNA segment adopts the left-handed Z-conformation depends largely on the sequence and on the degree of negative supercoiling to which it is subjected. We describe a computer program (Z-hunt) that is designed to search long sequences of naturally occurring DNA and retrieve those nucleotide combinations of up to 24 bp in length which show a strong propensity for Z-DNA formation. Incorporated into Z-hunt is a statistical mechanical model based on empirically determined energetic parameters for the B to Z transition accumulated to date. The Z-forming potential of a sequence is assessed by ranking its behavior as a function of negative superhelicity relative to the behavior of similar sized randomly generated nucleotide sequences assembled from over 80,000 combinations. The program makes it possible to compare directly the Z-forming potential of sequences with different base compositions and different sequence lengths. Using Z-hunt, we have analyzed the DNA sequences of the bacteriophage phi X174, plasmid pBR322, the animal virus SV40 and the replicative form of the eukaryotic adenovirus-2. The results are compared with those previously obtained by others from experiments designed to locate Z-DNA forming regions in these sequences using probes which show specificity for the left-handed DNA conformation.

  8. Naturally Occurring Fc-Dependent Antibody From HIV-Seronegative Individuals Promotes HIV-Induced IFN-α Production

    PubMed Central

    Lum, Thomas; Green, Jon A.

    2016-01-01

    A majority of adults without HIV infection and with a low risk of HIV-exposure have plasma IgG antibodies that enhance the rate and magnitude of HIV-induced interferon alpha (IFN-α) production. Fc-dependent IgG-HIV complexes induce IFN-α rapidly and in high titers in response to HIV concentrations that are too low to otherwise stimulate an effective IFN-α response. IFN-α promoting antibody (IPA) counters HIV-specific inhibition of IFN-α production, and compensates for the inherent delay in IFN-α production common to HIV infection and other viruses. Naturally occurring IPA has the potential to initiate a potent IFN-α response early in the course of HIV mucosal invasion in time to terminate infection prior to the creation of a pool of persistently infected cells. The current study adds IPA as a mediator of an Fc-dependent antiviral state capable of preventing HIV infection. PMID:27881846

  9. Validation of a procedure for the analysis of (226)Ra in naturally occurring radioactive materials using a liquid scintillation counter.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyuncheol; Jung, Yoonhee; Ji, Young-Yong; Lim, Jong-Myung; Chung, Kun Ho; Kang, Mun Ja

    2017-01-01

    An analytical procedure for detecting (226)Ra in naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) using a liquid scintillation counter (LSC) was developed and validated with reference materials (zircon matrix, bauxite matrix, coal fly ash, and phosphogypsum) that represent typical NORMs. The (226)Ra was released from samples by a fusion method and was separated using sulfate-coprecipitation. Next, a (222)Rn-emanation technique was applied for the determination of (226)Ra. The counting efficiency was 238 ± 8% with glass vials. The recovery for the reference materials was 80 ± 11%. The linearity of the method was tested with different masses of zircon matrix reference materials. Using 15 types of real NORMs, including raw materials and by-products, this LSC method was compared with γ-spectrometry, which had already been validated for (226)Ra analysis. The correlation coefficient for the results from the LSC method and γ-spectrometry was 0.993 ± 0.058.

  10. Structural and solubility parameter correlations of gelation abilities for dihydroxylated derivatives of long-chain, naturally occurring fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mohan; Selvakumar, Sermadurai; Zhang, Xinran; Sibi, Mukund P; Weiss, Richard G

    2015-06-01

    Creating structure-property correlations at different distance scales is one of the important challenges to the rational design of molecular gelators. Here, a series of dihydroxylated derivatives of long-chain fatty acids, derived from three naturally occurring molecules-oleic, erucic and ricinoleic acids-are investigated as gelators of a wide variety of liquids. Conclusions about what constitutes a more (or less!) efficient gelator are based upon analyses of a variety of thermal, structural, molecular modeling, and rheological results. Correlations between the manner of molecular packing in the neat solid or gel states of the gelators and Hansen solubility data from the liquids leads to the conclusion that diol stereochemistry, the number of carbon atoms separating the two hydroxyl groups, and the length of the alkanoic chains are the most important structural parameters controlling efficiency of gel formation for these gelators. Some of the diol gelators are as efficient or even more efficient than the well-known, excellent gelator, (R)-12-hydroxystearic acid; others are much worse. The ability to form extensive intermolecular H-bonding networks along the alkyl chains appears to play a key role in promoting fiber growth and, thus, gelation. In toto, the results demonstrate how the efficiency of gelation can be modulated by very small structural changes and also suggest how other structural modifications may be exploited to create efficient gelators.

  11. Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and other naturally occurring microorganisms in apple cider by electron beam irradiation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Reitmeier, Cheryll A; Glatz, Bonita A

    2004-08-01

    Two Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains, SEA 13 B88 gfp 73ec and B6-914 gfp 90ec, together with two bacteria, three yeasts, and two molds that were randomly selected from a collection of microorganisms found on apples or in apple cider, were inoculated into apple cider and subjected to electron beam irradiation at several doses between 0.0 and 2.3 kGy at the Iowa State University Linear Accelerator Facility. The D-values for the E. coli O157:H7 strains ranged between 0.25 and 0.34 kGy; the D-values for most of the normal flora from apples ranged between 0.24 and 0.59 kGy. By taking into account possible variations in treatment conditions, it was calculated that irradiation at 2.47 kGy should achieve a 5-log reduction of E. coli O157:H7 in apple cider at the 95% confidence level. Naturally occurring yeasts might survive such irradiation treatment.

  12. Punishment and reward sensitivity: are naturally occurring clusters in these traits related to eating and weight problems in adolescents?

    PubMed

    Matton, Annelies; Goossens, Lien; Braet, Caroline; Vervaet, Myriam

    2013-05-01

    Little is known about the role of sensitivity to punishment (SP) and reward (SR) in eating problems during adolescence. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the naturally occurring clusters of high and low SP and SR among nonclinical adolescents and the between-cluster differences in various eating problems and weight. A total of 579 adolescents (14-19 years, 39.8% boys) completed the Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire (SPSRQ), the Behavioural Inhibition System and Behavioural Activation System scales (BIS/BAS scales), the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire and the Child Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire and were weighed and measured. On the basis of the SPSRQ, four clusters were established, interpreted as lowSP × lowSR, lowSP × highSR, highSP × highSR and highSP × lowSR. These were associated with eating problems but not with adjusted body mass index. It seemed that specifically the highSP × highSR cluster outscored the other clusters on eating problems. These results were partly replicated with the BIS/BAS scales, although less significant relations between the clusters and eating problems were found. The implications of the findings in terms of possible risk and protective clusters are discussed.

  13. The therapeutic value of natural agents to treat miRNA targeted breast cancer in African-American and Caucasian-American women.

    PubMed

    Rahman, K M Wahidur; Sakr, Wael A

    2012-12-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women in the United States, with African-American (AA) women showing significantly higher rates than Caucasian-American (CA) women do. The reason for this racial disparity remains unknown, and factors that might be responsible for the differences in incidence and mortality have not been identified. One possible factor could be microRNAs (miRs), which are small noncoding regulatory RNAs involved intimately in cancer, and the expression of certain miRs may be decreased or increased in the breast tumors of AA and CA women. Therefore, modulation of miRs using natural agents could lead to the development of a novel therapeutic strategy to treat aggressive forms of breast cancer in women of different racial backgrounds. The function of natural agents in the regulation of miRs has not been investigated extensively. In this review, we will discuss the potential role of naturally occurring agents as potent antitumor agents thought to function by targeting miRs as contributing factors to the disparity in breast cancer between AA and CA women.

  14. Characterization of naturally occurring radioactive materials in Libyan oil pipe scale using a germanium detector and Monte Carlo simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habib, A. S.; Shutt, A. L.; Regan, P. H.; Matthews, M. C.; Alsulaiti, H.; Bradley, D. A.

    2014-02-01

    Radioactive scale formation in various oil production facilities is acknowledged to pose a potential significant health and environmental issue. The presence of such an issue in Libyan oil fields was recognized as early as 1998. The naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) involved in this matter are radium isotopes (226Ra and 228Ra) and their decay products, precipitating into scales formed on the surfaces of production equipment. A field trip to a number of onshore Libyan oil fields has indicated the existence of elevated levels of specific activity in a number of locations in some of the more mature oil fields. In this study, oil scale samples collected from different parts of Libya have been characterized using gamma spectroscopy through use of a well shielded HPGe spectrometer. To avoid potential alpha-bearing dust inhalation and in accord with safe working practices at this University, the samples, contained in plastic bags and existing in different geometries, are not permitted to be opened. MCNP, a Monte Carlo simulation code, is being used to simulate the spectrometer and the scale samples in order to obtain the system absolute efficiency and then to calculate sample specific activities. The samples are assumed to have uniform densities and homogeneously distributed activity. Present results are compared to two extreme situations that were assumed in a previous study: (i) with the entire activity concentrated at a point on the sample surface proximal to the detector, simulating the sample lowest activity, and; (ii) with the entire activity concentrated at a point on the sample surface distal to the detector, simulating the sample highest activity.

  15. Phase I-II clinical trial of hyaluronan-cisplatin nanoconjugate in dogs with naturally occurring malignant tumors.

    PubMed

    Cai, Shuang; Zhang, Ti; Forrest, W C; Yang, Qiuhong; Groer, Chad; Mohr, Eva; Aires, Daniel J; Axiak-Bechtel, Sandra M; Flesner, Brian K; Henry, Carolyn J; Selting, Kimberly A; Tate, Deborah; Swarz, Jeffrey A; Bryan, Jeffrey N; Forrest, M Laird

    2016-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To conduct a phase I-II clinical trial of hyaluronan-cisplatin nanoconjugate (HA-Pt) in dogs with naturally occurring malignant tumors. ANIMALS 18 healthy rats, 9 healthy mice, and 16 dogs with cancer. PROCEDURES HA-Pt was prepared and tested by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry; DNA-platinum adduct formation and antiproliferation effects of cisplatin and HA-Pt were compared in vitro. Effects of cisplatin (IV) and HA-Pt (SC) in rodents were tested by clinicopathologic assays. In the clinical trial, dogs with cancer received 1 to 4 injections of HA-Pt (10 to 30 mg/m(2), intratumoral or peritumoral, q 3 wk). Blood samples were collected for pharmacokinetic analysis; CBC, serum BUN and creatinine concentration measurement, and urinalysis were conducted before and 1 week after each treatment. Some dogs underwent hepatic enzyme testing. Tumors were measured before the first treatment and 3 weeks after each treatment to assess response. RESULTS No adverse drug effects were detected in pretrial assessments in rodents. Seven of 16 dogs completed the study; 3 had complete tumor responses, 3 had stable disease, and 1 had progressive disease. Three of 7 dogs with oral and nasal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) that completed the study had complete responses. Myelosuppression and cardiotoxicosis were identified in 6 and 2 dogs, respectively; none had nephrotoxicosis. Four of 5 dogs with hepatic enzymes assessed had increased ALT activities, attributed to diaquated cisplatin products in the HA-Pt. Pharmacokinetic data fit a 3-compartment model. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE HA-Pt treatment resulted in positive tumor responses in some dogs, primarily those with SCC. The adverse effect rate was high. IMPACT FOR HUMAN MEDICINE Oral SCC in dogs has characteristics similar to human head and neck SCC; these results could be useful in developing human treatments.

  16. Electrosynthesis and characterization of nanostructured polyquinone for use in detection and quantification of naturally occurring dsDNA.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Loreto A; Del Valle, María A; Armijo, Francisco

    2016-05-15

    The detection of naturally occurring desoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) has become a subject of study by the projections that would generate to be able to sense the genetic material for the detection of future diseases. Bearing this in mind, to provide new measuring strategies, in the current work the preparation of a low-cost electrode, modified with poly(1-amino-9,10-anthraquinone) nanowires using a SiO2 template, is carried out; the assembly is next modified by covalently attaching ssDNA strands. It must be noted that all this is accomplished by using solely electrochemical techniques, according to methodology developed for this purpose. SEM images of the modified surface show high order and homogeneity in the distribution of modified nanowires over the electrode surface. In turn, after the hybridization with its complementary strand, the voltammetric responses enable corroborating the linear relationship between hybridization at different DNA concentrations and normalized current response, obtaining a limit of detection (LOD) 5.7·10(-12)gL(-1) and limit of quantification (LOQ) 1.9·10(-11)gL(-1). The working dynamic range is between 1.4·10(-7) and 8.5·10(-9)gL(-1) with a correlation coefficient 0.9998. The successful obtaining of the modified electrode allows concluding that the high order reached by the nanostructures, guides the subsequent single strand of DNA (ssDNA) covalent attachment, which after hybridization with its complementary strand brings about a considerable current increase. This result allows foreseeing a guaranteed breakthrough with regard to the use of the biosensor in real samples.

  17. Intraplacental gene therapy with Ad-IGF-1 corrects naturally occurring rabbit model of intrauterine growth restriction.

    PubMed

    Keswani, Sundeep G; Balaji, Swathi; Katz, Anna B; King, Alice; Omar, Khaled; Habli, Mounira; Klanke, Charles; Crombleholme, Timothy M

    2015-03-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) due to placental insufficiency is a leading cause of perinatal complications for which there is no effective prenatal therapy. We have previously demonstrated that intraplacental injection of adenovirus-mediated insulin-like growth factor-1 (Ad-IGF-1) corrects fetal weight in a murine IUGR model induced by mesenteric uterine artery branch ligation. This study investigated the effect of intraplacental Ad-IGF-1 gene therapy in a rabbit model of naturally occurring IUGR (runt) due to placental insufficiency, which is similar to the human IUGR condition with onset in the early third trimester, brain sparing, and a reduction in liver weight. Laparotomy was performed on New Zealand White rabbits on day 21 of 30 days of gestation and litters were divided into five groups: Control (first position)+phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), control+Ad-IGF-1, runt (third position)+PBS, runt+Ad-IGF-1, and runt+Ad-LacZ. The effect of IGF-1 gene therapy on fetal, placental, liver, heart, lung, and musculoskeletal weights of the growth-restricted pups was examined. Protein expression after gene transfer was seen along the maternal-fetal placenta interface (n=12) 48 hr after gene therapy. There was minimal gene transfer detected in the pups or maternal organs. At term, compared with the normally grown first-position control, the runted third-position pups demonstrated significantly lower fetal, placental, liver, lung, and musculoskeletal weights. The fetal, liver, and musculoskeletal weights were restored to normal by intraplacental Ad-IGF-1 gene therapy (p<0.01), with no change in the placental weight. Intraplacental gene therapy is a novel strategy for the treatment of IUGR caused by placental insufficiency that takes advantage of an organ that will be discarded at birth. Development of nonviral IGF-1 gene delivery using placenta-specific promoters can potentially minimize toxicity to the mother and fetus and facilitate clinical translation of

  18. The Model State Emergency Health Powers Act: planning for and response to bioterrorism and naturally occurring infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Gostin, Lawrence O; Sapsin, Jason W; Teret, Stephen P; Burris, Scott; Mair, Julie Samia; Hodge, James G; Vernick, Jon S

    2002-08-07

    The Center for Law and the Public's Health at Georgetown and Johns Hopkins Universities drafted the Model State Emergency Health Powers Act (MSEHPA or Model Act) at the request of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The Model Act provides state actors with the powers they need to detect and contain bioterrorism or a naturally occurring disease outbreak. Legislative bills based on the MSEHPA have been introduced in 34 states. Problems of obsolescence, inconsistency, and inadequacy may render current state laws ineffective or even counterproductive. State laws often date back to the early 20th century and have been built up in layers over the years. They frequently predate the vast changes in the public health sciences and constitutional law. The Model Act is structured to reflect 5 basic public health functions to be facilitated by law: (1) preparedness, comprehensive planning for a public health emergency; (2) surveillance, measures to detect and track public health emergencies; (3) management of property, ensuring adequate availability of vaccines, pharmaceuticals, and hospitals, as well as providing power to abate hazards to the public's health; (4) protection of persons, powers to compel vaccination, testing, treatment, isolation, and quarantine when clearly necessary; and (5) communication, providing clear and authoritative information to the public. The Model Act also contains a modernized, extensive set of principles and requirements to safeguard personal rights. Law can be a tool to improve public health preparedness. A constitutional democracy must balance the common good with respect for personal dignity, toleration of groups, and adherence to principles of justice.

  19. Gait Changes Vary among Horses with Naturally Occurring Osteoarthritis Following Intra-articular Administration of Autologous Platelet-Rich Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Mirza, Mustajab H.; Bommala, Prakash; Richbourg, Heather A.; Rademacher, Nathalie; Kearney, Michael T.; Lopez, Mandi J.

    2016-01-01

    Mechanisms to reduce lameness associated with osteoarthritis (OA) are vital to equine health and performance. This study was designed to quantify response to autologous, intra-articular platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in horses with OA. Kinetic gait analysis was performed on 12 horses with unilateral forelimb lameness and OA in the same limb before and after intra-articular anesthesia (IAA). Radiographs and kinetic data were obtained before and 6 and 16 weeks after PRP administration to same joint, 4 weeks after IAA. Statistical evaluations included filtration effect on platelet concentration, relationship between kinetic variable changes after IAA versus PRP in the affected limb, and associations between response to PRP and response to IAA, platelet concentration, and radiographic OA. A positive response to IAA or PRP was defined as ≥5% improvement in peak vertical force, vertical impulse, or breaking impulse of the affected limb. Out of 10 horses that responded to IAA, 3 responded to PRP at both time points and 4 responded at one. Of the two horses that did not respond to IAA, one responded to PRP at both time points. Filtration increased platelet concentration significantly. The relationship between kinetic variable alterations of the affected limb after IAA and PRP was not significant, and response to PRP was not associated with response to IAA, platelet concentration, or radiographic OA. Changes in kinetic variables following IAA in joints with naturally occurring OA provide a custom standard to assess intra-articular therapy. Kinetic gait changes after intra-articular PRP are variable in horses with moderate to severe forelimb OA. PMID:27148544

  20. Effectiveness of Naturally Occurring Substances Added to Duck Litter in Reducing Emergence and Landing of Adult Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Lachance, Simon; Shiell, Justine; Guerin, Michele T; Scott-Dupree, Cynthia

    2017-02-01

    Poultry barns provide an ideal breeding environment for Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) owing to the controlled temperatures and litter (manure plus bedding material) accumulation. Management techniques that render the litter less suitable for immature stage development, such as the addition of naturally occurring insecticidal substances, could reduce fly infestations. The effectiveness of acetic, boric, and citric acids; diatomaceous earth; and hydrated lime at restricting female landing and growth of house flies in duck litter was evaluated. Litter treated with 1.9% and 4.7% by weight of acetic or boric acid had significantly lower adult emergence rates compared with the same concentrations of citric acid, diatomaceous earth, hydrated lime, or the untreated control litter. The pH of duck litter treated with acetic or citric acid was significantly reduced and remained significantly lower than the control litter (pH 8.7) for 10 d. Significantly more house flies landed on a house fly-rearing substrate (wheat bran, powdered milk, bloodmeal, water, and yeast) than litter treated with any of the other test substances or the control. The LC50 for boric acid was estimated to be 0.01% by weight, which was lower than that of acetic acid (1.42%). Similarly, the LC90 of boric acid was estimated to be 0.12%, which was lower than that of acetic acid (10.03%). Acetic acid and boric acid have the potential to be incorporated into litter as a pest management tactic to reduce house fly populations in duck production facilities.

  1. Tissue-specific gene silencing mediated by a naturally occurring chalcone synthase gene cluster in Glycine max.

    PubMed

    Tuteja, Jigyasa H; Clough, Steven J; Chan, Wan-Ching; Vodkin, Lila O

    2004-04-01

    Chalcone synthase, a key regulatory enzyme in the flavonoid pathway, constitutes an eight-member gene family in Glycine max (soybean). Three of the chalcone synthase (CHS) gene family members are arranged as inverted repeats in a 10-kb region, corresponding to the I locus (inhibitor). Spontaneous mutations of a dominant allele (I or i(i)) to a recessive allele (i) have been shown to delete promoter sequences, paradoxically increasing total CHS transcript levels and resulting in black seed coats. However, it is not known which of the gene family members contribute toward pigmentation and how this locus affects CHS expression in other tissues. We investigated the unusual nature of the I locus using four pairs of isogenic lines differing with respect to alleles of the I locus. RNA gel blots using a generic open reading frame CHS probe detected similar CHS transcript levels in stems, roots, leaves, young pods, and cotyledons of the yellow and black isolines but not in the seed coats, which is consistent with the dominant I and i(i) alleles mediating CHS gene silencing in a tissue-specific manner. Using real-time RT-PCR, a variable pattern of expression of CHS genes in different tissues was demonstrated. However, increase in pigmentation in the black seed coats was associated with release of the silencing effect specifically on CHS7/CHS8, which occurred at all stages of seed coat development. These expression changes were linked to structural changes taking place at the I locus, shown to encompass a much wider region of at least 27 kb, comprising two identical 10.91-kb stretches of CHS gene duplications. The suppressive effect of this 27-kb I locus in a specific tissue of the G. max plant represents a unique endogenous gene silencing mechanism.

  2. Tissue-Specific Gene Silencing Mediated by a Naturally Occurring Chalcone Synthase Gene Cluster in Glycine maxW⃞

    PubMed Central

    Tuteja, Jigyasa H.; Clough, Steven J.; Chan, Wan-Ching; Vodkin, Lila O.

    2004-01-01

    Chalcone synthase, a key regulatory enzyme in the flavonoid pathway, constitutes an eight-member gene family in Glycine max (soybean). Three of the chalcone synthase (CHS) gene family members are arranged as inverted repeats in a 10-kb region, corresponding to the I locus (inhibitor). Spontaneous mutations of a dominant allele (I or ii) to a recessive allele (i) have been shown to delete promoter sequences, paradoxically increasing total CHS transcript levels and resulting in black seed coats. However, it is not known which of the gene family members contribute toward pigmentation and how this locus affects CHS expression in other tissues. We investigated the unusual nature of the I locus using four pairs of isogenic lines differing with respect to alleles of the I locus. RNA gel blots using a generic open reading frame CHS probe detected similar CHS transcript levels in stems, roots, leaves, young pods, and cotyledons of the yellow and black isolines but not in the seed coats, which is consistent with the dominant I and ii alleles mediating CHS gene silencing in a tissue-specific manner. Using real-time RT-PCR, a variable pattern of expression of CHS genes in different tissues was demonstrated. However, increase in pigmentation in the black seed coats was associated with release of the silencing effect specifically on CHS7/CHS8, which occurred at all stages of seed coat development. These expression changes were linked to structural changes taking place at the I locus, shown to encompass a much wider region of at least 27 kb, comprising two identical 10.91-kb stretches of CHS gene duplications. The suppressive effect of this 27-kb I locus in a specific tissue of the G. max plant represents a unique endogenous gene silencing mechanism. PMID:15064367

  3. Repellency of naturally occurring volatile alcohols to fungus gnat Bradysia sp. nr. coprophila (Diptera: Sciaridae) adults under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Cloyd, Raymond A; Marley, Karen A; Larson, Richard A; Dickinson, Amy; Arieli, Bari

    2011-10-01

    This study, conducted under laboratory conditions, was designed to determine the repellent activity of 10 naturally occurring volatile alcohol constituents against adults of the fungus gnat, Bradysia sp. nr. coprophila (Lintner) (Diptera: Sciaridae). The essential oil constituents were octanoic acid, furfural, acetophenone, benzaldehyde, dimethoxybenzene, borneol, menthol, 1-octen-3-ol, and 7-hydroxycitronellol, and alpha-terpineol. alpha-Terpineol, octanoic acid and furfural were tested at several concentrations, whereas the remaining seven were tested at only one concentration. The essential oil constituents' menthol, 1-octen-3-ol, and borneol displayed the most repellent activity. The mean percentage of fungus gnat adults recovered from the test compound petri dishes associated with the three essential oil constituents was between 6 and 15% compared with between 36 and 50% for the petri dishes with distilled water. The mean +/- SEM number of fungus gnat adults present in the sample compartments associated with menthol (10.4 +/- 2.6), 1-octen-3-ol (18.8 +/- 2.4), and borneol (23.4 +/- 5.6) was statistically lower than those in the petri dishes containing distilled water (60.9 +/- 7.4, 49.8 +/- 4.0, and 79.7 +/- 13.5), respectively. Only the highest concentration of alpha-terpineol (8.0 micromol) displayed significant repellent activity against fungus gnat adults. The other essential constituents tested, including octanoic acid (all three concentrations), furfural (both concentrations), acetophenone, dimethoxybenzene, and 7-hydroxycitronellol, were not statistically different from the distilled water control. The results of this study indicate that certain essential oil constituents repel fungus gnat adults, which may be useful, from a practical standpoint, in deterring adults from laying eggs into growing media.

  4. Pharmacological blockade of fatty acid synthase (FASN) reverses acquired autoresistance to trastuzumab (Herceptin by transcriptionally inhibiting 'HER2 super-expression' occurring in high-dose trastuzumab-conditioned SKBR3/Tzb100 breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Vazquez-Martin, Alejandro; Colomer, Ramon; Brunet, Joan; Menendez, Javier A

    2007-10-01

    the cytotoxic effects occurring upon C75-induced inhibition of FASN enzymatic activity. Both HER2 mRNA and HER2 protein 'super-expression', which have not been reported in earlier Tzb-resistant breast cancer models, were entirely suppressed following pharmacological blockade of FASN activity. Moreover, while Tzb was still able to reduce HER2 protein expression by approximately 20% in SKBR/Tzb100 cells, C75 and Tzb co-exposure synergistically down-regulated HER2 protein levels by >85%. The nature of the interaction between Tzb and C75 in Tzb-resistant SKBR3/Tzb100 cells was also found to be strongly synergistic when analyzing the extent of apoptotic cell death using ELISA-based detection of histone-associated DNA fragments. In summary, a) the molecular mechanism(s) contributing to Tzb resistance in our SKBR3/Tzb100 model appear to be clearly different to those previously reported as we found important transcriptional up-regulatory transcriptional changes in HER2 gene expression levels relative to parental cells; b) since FASN inhibition acts on HER2 gene expression via reduction of its transcription rate, Tzb-conditioned HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells not only retain but further gain sensitivity to FASN inhibition; and c) transcriptional suppression of HER2 expression using FASN blockers may represent a new molecular strategy in the management of Tzb-resistant breast cancer disease.

  5. Compilation of minimum and maximum isotope ratios of selected elements in naturally occurring terrestrial materials and reagents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coplen, T.B.; Hopple, J.A.; Böhlke, J.K.; Peiser, H.S.; Rieder, S.E.; Krouse, H.R.; Rosman, K.J.R.; Ding, T.; Vocke, R.D.; Revesz, K.M.; Lamberty, A.; Taylor, P.; De Bievre, P.

    2002-01-01

    laboratories comparable. The minimum and maximum concentrations of a selected isotope in naturally occurring terrestrial materials for selected chemical elements reviewed in this report are given below: Isotope Minimum mole fraction Maximum mole fraction -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2H 0 .000 0255 0 .000 1838 7Li 0 .9227 0 .9278 11B 0 .7961 0 .8107 13C 0 .009 629 0 .011 466 15N 0 .003 462 0 .004 210 18O 0 .001 875 0 .002 218 26Mg 0 .1099 0 .1103 30Si 0 .030 816 0 .031 023 34S 0 .0398 0 .0473 37Cl 0 .240 77 0 .243 56 44Ca 0 .020 82 0 .020 92 53Cr 0 .095 01 0 .095 53 56Fe 0 .917 42 0 .917 60 65Cu 0 .3066 0 .3102 205Tl 0 .704 72 0 .705 06 The numerical values above have uncertainties that depend upon the uncertainties of the determinations of the absolute isotope-abundance variations of reference materials of the elements. Because reference materials used for absolute isotope-abundance measurements have not been included in relative isotope abundance investigations of zinc, selenium, molybdenum, palladium, and tellurium, ranges in isotopic composition are not listed for these elements, although such ranges may be measurable with state-of-the-art mass spectrometry. This report is available at the url: http://pubs.water.usgs.gov/wri014222.

  6. In-Situ Sampling and Characterization of Naturally Occurring Marine Methane Hydrate Using the D/V JOIDES Resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Frank R. Rack

    2006-09-20

    Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41329 between Joint Oceanographic Institutions and DOE-NETL was divided into two phases based on successive proposals and negotiated statements of work pertaining to activities to sample and characterize methane hydrates on ODP Leg 204 (Phase 1) and on IODP Expedition 311 (Phase 2). The Phase 1 Final Report was submitted to DOE-NETL in April 2004. This report is the Phase 2 Final Report to DOE-NETL. The primary objectives of Phase 2 were to sample and characterize methane hydrates using the systems and capabilities of the D/V JOIDES Resolution during IODP Expedition 311, to enable scientists the opportunity to establish the mass and distribution of naturally occurring gas and gas hydrate at all relevant spatial and temporal scales, and to contribute to the DOE methane hydrate research and development effort. The goal of the work was to provide expanded measurement capabilities on the JOIDES Resolution for a dedicated hydrate cruise to the Cascadia continental margin off Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada (IODP Expedition 311) so that hydrate deposits in this region would be well characterized and technology development continued for hydrate research. IODP Expedition 311 shipboard activities on the JOIDES Resolution began on August 28 and were concluded on October 28, 2005. The statement of work for this project included three primary tasks: (1) research management oversight, provided by JOI; (2) mobilization, deployment and demobilization of pressure coring and core logging systems, through a subcontract with Geotek Ltd.; and, (3) mobilization, deployment and demobilization of a refrigerated container van that will be used for degassing of the Pressure Core Sampler and density logging of these pressure cores, through a subcontract with the Texas A&M Research Foundation (TAMRF). Additional small tasks that arose during the course of the research were included under these three primary tasks in consultation with the DOE

  7. Naturally occurring IgG antibody levels to the Staphylococcus aureus protein IsdB in humans.

    PubMed

    Zorman, Julie K; Esser, Mark; Raedler, Michael; Kreiswirth, Barry N; Ala'Aldeen, Dlawer A A; Kartsonis, Nicholas; Smugar, Steven S; Anderson, Annaliesa S; McNeely, Tessie; Arduino, Jean Marie

    2013-09-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a well-recognized, clinically important cause of nosocomial infections, and as such, a vaccine to prevent S. aureus infections would be an important achievement. A Phase IIB/III study of V710, a vaccine containing iron-regulated surface determinant B (IsdB), demonstrated significant sero-conversion rates in cardiovascular surgery patients following a single pre-surgery immunization. However, the vaccine was not efficacious in preventing bacteremia or deep sternal wound infection post-surgery, thus raising the possibility that IsdB might not be available for immune recognition during infection. The purpose of the work described herein was to evaluate and quantify the naturally occurring anti-IsdB levels at baseline and over time during infection, to understand whether IsdB is expressed during a S. aureus infection in hospitalized non-vaccinated patients. We evaluated baseline and follow-up titers in 3 populations: (1) healthy subjects, (2) hospitalized patients with non-S. aureus infections, and (3) hospitalized patients with S. aureus infections. Baseline anti-IsdB levels generally overlapped between the 3 groups, but were highly variable within each group. In healthy subjects, baseline and follow-up levels were highly correlated (Spearman's rho = 0.93), and the geometric mean fold-rise (GMFR) in anti-IsdB levels between study entry and last value was 0.9-fold (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.8 to 1.0 ; p = 0.09), showing no trend over time. The convalescent GMFR in anti-IsdB levels from baseline was 1.7-fold (95% CI: 1.3 to 2.2, p = 0.0008) during S. aureus infection, significantly different from the 1.0-fold GMFR (95% CI: 0.9-1.2, p = 0.60) in non-S. aureus infection, p = 0.005. Additionally, S. aureus isolates (51) obtained from the hospitalized patient group expressed the IsdB protein in vitro. Collectively, these data suggest that IsdB expression levels rise substantially following infection with S. aureus, but not with other pathogens

  8. Characterization of the National Petroleum Reserve No. 3 (NPR-3) Site for Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material(NORM)

    SciTech Connect

    White, G.J; Rood, A.S.

    1999-01-21

    The National Petroleum Reserve No. 3 site (NPR-3) near Casper, Wyoming is being prepared for transfer to private industry. Remediation of the NPR-3 site has already begun in anticipation of this transfer. This document describes the characterization of the NPR-3 site for Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM). Data generated on radionuclide concentrations and radon emanation may be used to determine disposal options and the need for remediation at this site. A preliminary gamma survey of the NPR-3 site was conducted to identify areas of potential NORM contamination. Based on these gamma surveys, two general areas of NORM contamination were found: the North Water Flood area and the BTP-10 produced water discharge steam. A maximum surface exposure rate of 120 {micro}R h{sup -1} was observed in the North Water Flood area, with the highest readings found along the drainage channel from the area. Exposure rates dropped to background quickly with increasing distance from the center of the drainage. The maximum observed exposure rate in the BTP-10 produced water drainage was 40 {micro}R h{sup -1}. Soil and sediment sampling were concentrated in these two areas. All samples were analyzed for concentration of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, and {sup 40}K. Maximum {sup 226}Ra concentrations observed in the samples collected were 46 pCi g{sup -1} for soil and 78 pCi g{sup -1} for sediment. Concentrations in most samples were considerably lower than these values. Radon emanation fraction was also measured for a randomly selected fraction of the samples. The mean Rn emanation fraction measured was 0.10, indicating that on average only 10 percent of the Rn produced is released from the medium. Based on the results of these analyses, NORM contamination at the NPR-3 site is minimal, and appears to be restricted to the two general areas sampled. Concentrations of NORM radionuclides found soils and sediments in these two locations do not justify remedial actions at present

  9. Intraplacental Gene Therapy with Ad-IGF-1 Corrects Naturally Occurring Rabbit Model of Intrauterine Growth Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Keswani, Sundeep G.; Balaji, Swathi; Katz, Anna B.; King, Alice; Omar, Khaled; Habli, Mounira; Klanke, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) due to placental insufficiency is a leading cause of perinatal complications for which there is no effective prenatal therapy. We have previously demonstrated that intraplacental injection of adenovirus-mediated insulin-like growth factor-1 (Ad-IGF-1) corrects fetal weight in a murine IUGR model induced by mesenteric uterine artery branch ligation. This study investigated the effect of intraplacental Ad-IGF-1 gene therapy in a rabbit model of naturally occurring IUGR (runt) due to placental insufficiency, which is similar to the human IUGR condition with onset in the early third trimester, brain sparing, and a reduction in liver weight. Laparotomy was performed on New Zealand White rabbits on day 21 of 30 days of gestation and litters were divided into five groups: Control (first position)+phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), control+Ad-IGF-1, runt (third position)+PBS, runt+Ad-IGF-1, and runt+Ad-LacZ. The effect of IGF-1 gene therapy on fetal, placental, liver, heart, lung, and musculoskeletal weights of the growth-restricted pups was examined. Protein expression after gene transfer was seen along the maternal–fetal placenta interface (n=12) 48 hr after gene therapy. There was minimal gene transfer detected in the pups or maternal organs. At term, compared with the normally grown first-position control, the runted third-position pups demonstrated significantly lower fetal, placental, liver, lung, and musculoskeletal weights. The fetal, liver, and musculoskeletal weights were restored to normal by intraplacental Ad-IGF-1 gene therapy (p<0.01), with no change in the placental weight. Intraplacental gene therapy is a novel strategy for the treatment of IUGR caused by placental insufficiency that takes advantage of an organ that will be discarded at birth. Development of nonviral IGF-1 gene delivery using placenta-specific promoters can potentially minimize toxicity to the mother and fetus and facilitate clinical

  10. Cytotoxicity of respirable dusts from industrial minerals: comparison of two naturally occurring and two man-made silicates.

    PubMed

    Nadeau, D; Fouquette-Couture, L; Paradis, D; Khorami, J; Lane, D; Dunnigan, J

    1987-01-01

    The membranolytic and cytotoxic properties of two naturally occurring (chrysotile asbestos; attapulgite clay) and two man-made (Fiberfrax, an aluminium-silicate, and xonotlite, a calcium silicate) industrial minerals were compared. "Short" fiber fractions of chrysotile and Fiberfrax were obtained by sedimentation in demineralized water, while the attapulgite and xonotlite samples were used as obtained. The aluminium silicate fibers were found to be non- hemolytic, while for the other three silicates, chrysotile had the strongest hemolysis potential, followed very closely by xonotlite; attapulgite was less hemolytic than the former two silicates, but was nevertheless highly hemolytic to the rat erythrocytes. Using rat pulmonary alveolar macrophages, the in vitro cytotoxicity assays showed that with fresh cell monolayers, all four silicates were equivalent in causing cell damages at a dose of 250 micrograms; at a lower dose (50 micrograms), the intensity of the cytotoxic effect was in the decreasing order: Fiberfrax greater than attapulgite greater than chrysotile greater than xonotlite. With one day-old cultured cell monolayers, a dose of 250 micrograms of the silicates fibers was less cytotoxic, with the exception of the attapulgite fibers which remained essentially as cytotoxic as with the fresh cell monolayers. The reduced cytotoxic response was especially noticeable with the chrysotile fibers. At 50 micrograms, the cytotoxicity scale of the mineral dusts with one day-old cell monolayers was essentially the same as the one obtained with the fresh cell monolayers, that is: Fiberfrax approximately equal to attapulgite greater than chrysotile greater than or equal to xonotlite. Overall, these in vitro tests imply: 1) that all four industrial silicates tested can be considered to be "biologically active"; 2) that on the basis of their different reactivities with the two types of cell culture conditions used, their biological reactivity in vivo might be quite distinct

  11. Alteration of substrate specificity by a naturally-occurring aldolase B mutation (Ala337-->Val) in fructose intolerance.

    PubMed

    Rellos, P; Ali, M; Vidailhet, M; Sygusch, J; Cox, T M

    1999-05-15

    A molecular analysis of human aldolase B genes in two newborn infants and a 4-year-old child with hereditary fructose intolerance, the offspring of a consanguineous union, has identified the novel mutation Ala337-->Val in homozygous form. This mutation was also detected independently in two other affected individuals who were compound heterozygotes for the prevalent aldolase B allele, Ala149-->Pro, indicating that the mutation causes aldolase B deficiency. To test for the effect of the mutation, catalytically active wild-type human aldolase B and the Val337 variant enzyme were expressed in Escherichia coli. The specific activities of the wild-type recombinant enzyme were 4.8 units/mg and 4.5 units/mg towards fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (FBP) and fructose 1-phosphate (F-1-P) as substrates with Michaelis constants of 4 microM and 2.4 mM respectively. The specific activities of purified tetrameric Val337 aldolase B, which affects an invariant residue in the C-terminal region, were 4.2 units/mg and 2.6 units/mg towards FBP and F-1-P as substrates respectively; the corresponding Michaelis constants were 22 microM and 24 mM. The FBP-to-F-1-P substrate activity ratios were 0.98 and 1.63 for wild-type and Val337 variant enzymes respectively. The Val337 mutant aldolase had an increased susceptibility to proteolytic cleavage in E. coli and rapidly lost activity on storage. Comparative CD determinations showed that the Val337 protein had a distinct thermal denaturation profile with markedly decreased enthalpy, indicating that the mutant protein is partly unfolded. The undegraded mutant had preferentially decreased affinity and activity towards its specific F-1-P substrate and maintained appreciable activity towards FBP. In contrast, fluorescence studies of the mutant showed an increased binding affinity for products of the aldolase reaction, indicating a role for the C-terminus in mediating product release. These findings in a rare but widespread naturally occurring mutant

  12. IN-SITU SAMPLING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NATURALLY OCCURRING MARINE METHANE HYDRATE USING THE D/V JOIDES RESOLUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Rack, Frank R.; Dickens, Gerald; Ford, Kathryn; Schroeder, Derryl; Storms, Michael

    2002-08-01

    report. An infrared-thermal imaging system (IR-TIS) was deployed for the first time on ODP Leg 201. This system was used to identify methane hydrate intervals in the recovered cores. Initial discussions of these experiments are provided in this report. This report is an overview of the field measurements made on recovered sediment cores and the downhole measurements made during ODP Leg 201. These results are currently being used to incorporate the ''lessons learned'' from these deployments to prepare for a dedicated ODP leg to study the characteristics of naturally-occurring hydrates in the subsurface environment of Hydrate Ridge, offshore Oregon during ODP Leg 204, which will take place from July through September, 2002.

  13. Combined steam and ultrasound treatment of broilers at slaughter: a promising intervention to significantly reduce numbers of naturally occurring campylobacters on carcasses.

    PubMed

    Musavian, Hanieh S; Krebs, Niels H; Nonboe, Ulf; Corry, Janet E L; Purnell, Graham

    2014-04-17

    Steam or hot water decontamination treatment of broiler carcasses is hampered by process limitations due to prolonged treatment times and adverse changes to the epidermis. In this study, a combination of steam with ultrasound (SonoSteam®) was investigated on naturally contaminated broilers that were processed at conventional slaughter speeds of 8,500 birds per hour in a Danish broiler plant. Industrial-scale SonoSteam equipment was installed in the evisceration room, before the inside/outside carcass washer. The SonoSteam treatment was evaluated in two separate trials performed on two different dates. Numbers of naturally occurring Campylobacter spp. and TVC were determined from paired samples of skin excised from opposite sides of the breast of the same carcass, before and after treatments. Sampling was performed at two different points on the line: i) before and after the SonoSteam treatment and ii) before the SonoSteam treatment and after 80 min of air chilling. A total of 44 carcasses were examined in the two trials. Results from the first trial showed that the mean initial Campylobacter contamination level of 2.35 log₁₀ CFU was significantly reduced (n=12, p<0.001) to 1.40 log₁₀ CFU after treatment. A significant reduction (n=11, p<0.001) was also observed with samples analyzed before SonoSteam treatment (2.64 log₁₀ CFU) and after air chilling (1.44 log₁₀ CFU). In the second trial, significant reductions (n=10, p<0.05) were obtained for carcasses analyzed before (mean level of 2.23 log₁₀ CFU) and after the treatment (mean level of 1.36 log₁₀ CFU). Significant reductions (n=11, p<0.01) were also found for Campylobacter numbers analyzed before the SonoSteam treatment (2.02 log₁₀ CFU) and after the air chilling treatment (1.37 log₁₀ CFU). The effect of air chilling without SonoSteam treatment was determined using 12 carcasses pre- and postchill. Results showed insignificant reductions of 0.09 log₁₀ from a mean initial level of

  14. The Scope of Our Affective Influences: When and How Naturally Occurring Positive, Negative, and Neutral Affects Alter Judgment.

    PubMed

    Gasper, Karen; Danube, Cinnamon L

    2016-03-01

    To determine how naturally arising affect alters judgment, we examined whether (a) affective states exert a specific, rather than a general, influence on valenced-specific judgments; (b) neutral affect is associated with increased neutral judgments, independent of positive, negative, and ambivalent affects, and whether neutral judgments are associated with behavioral disengagement; and (c) the informational value of naturally arising states may be difficult to alter via salience and relevance manipulations. The results support several conclusions: (a) Affective states exerted a judgment-specific effect-positive affect was most strongly associated with positive judgments, negative affect with negative judgments, and neutral affect with neutral judgments. (b) Neutral affect influenced judgments, taking into account positive, negative, and ambivalent affects; and neutral judgments predicted behavioral disengagement. (c) With the exception of negative affect, naturally arising affective states typically influenced judgments regardless of their salience and relevance.

  15. Adolescents' Experiences of Sexual Assault by Peers: Prevalence and Nature of Victimization Occurring within and outside of School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Amy M.; Grey, Melissa; Boyd, Carol J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined adolescent peer-on-peer sexual assault victimization occurring within and outside school. The sample consisted of 1,086 7th through 12th grade students, with a mean age of 15. Most of the respondents were White (54%) or Black (45%), and approximately half of respondents were female (54%). A modified version of the Sexual…

  16. Isotopic Composition and Origin of Indigenous Natural Perchlorate and Co-Occurring Nitrate in the Southwestern United States

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Andrew; Bohlke, J. K.; Gu, Baohua; Hatzinger, Paul B.; Sturchio, N. C.

    2010-01-01

    Perchlorate (ClO4-) has been detected over an expansive area in groundwater and soils in the southwestern United States. Because of its wide distribution, much of the ClO4- is presumed to be from natural sources, primarily atmospheric deposition and accumulation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the range of the isotopic composition of natural ClO4- indigenous to the southwestern U.S. Stable isotope ratios of Cl and O were determined for ClO4- collected from numerous sources, including: groundwater from several locations in the southern high plains (SHP) of Texas and New Mexico and the middle Rio Grande Basin in New Mexico, vadose zone soil from the SHP, and surface NO3--rich caliches from four locations in Death Valley, CA. The data suggest that natural ClO4- in the southwestern U.S. has at least two distinctive isotope signatures that differ both from each other and from those previously reported for natural ClO4- from the Atacama Desert of Chile and all anthropogenic ClO4- sources tested to date. The ClO4- in four caliche samples collected in Death Valley has high 17O values (8.6 to 18.4 ), similar to those described for ClO4- from the Atacama, and suggesting atmospheric formation via reaction with ozone (O3). However, the Death Valley samples have 37Cl values (-3.1 to -0.8 ) and 18O values (+2.9 to +26.1 ), that are appreciably higher than Atacama perchlorate ( 37Cl; -14.3 to -10.2 and 18O; (-10.5 to -2.2 , respectively). In contrast, samples from 8 locations in West Texas and New Mexico were characterized by only a slight elevation in 17O (0.3 to 1.3 ), suggesting either that this material is not primarily generated with O3 as a reactant or that the ClO4- has been consistently altered post-deposition by one or more processes that caused isotopic exchange of O. The 37Cl values in the SHP perchlorate (+ 3.4 to + 5.1 ) were consistently higher than for the Atacama or Death Valley salts, while the 18O values (+ 0.5 to + 4.8 ) overlapped significantly