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Sample records for naturally spawning hatchery

  1. Broodstock History Strongly Influences Natural Spawning Success in Hatchery Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Ford, Michael J; Murdoch, Andrew R; Hughes, Michael S; Seamons, Todd R; LaHood, Eric S

    2016-01-01

    We used genetic parentage analysis of 6200 potential parents and 5497 juvenile offspring to evaluate the relative reproductive success of hatchery and natural steelhead (Onchorhynchus mykiss) when spawning in the wild between 2008 and 2011 in the Wenatchee River, Washington. Hatchery fish originating from two prior generation hatchery parents had <20% of the reproductive success of natural origin spawners. In contrast, hatchery females originating from a cross between two natural origin parents of the prior generation had equivalent or better reproductive success than natural origin females. Males originating from such a cross had reproductive success of 26-93% that of natural males. The reproductive success of hatchery females and males from crosses consisting of one natural origin fish and one hatchery origin fish was 24-54% that of natural fish. The strong influence of hatchery broodstock origin on reproductive success confirms similar results from a previous study of a different population of the same species and suggests a genetic basis for the low reproductive success of hatchery steelhead, although environmental factors cannot be entirely ruled out. In addition to broodstock origin, fish size, return time, age, and spawning location were significant predictors of reproductive success. Our results indicate that incorporating natural fish into hatchery broodstock is clearly beneficial for improving subsequent natural spawning success, even in a population that has a decades-long history of hatchery releases, as is the case in the Wenatchee River.

  2. Broodstock History Strongly Influences Natural Spawning Success in Hatchery Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    PubMed Central

    Murdoch, Andrew R.; Hughes, Michael S.; Seamons, Todd R.; LaHood, Eric S.

    2016-01-01

    We used genetic parentage analysis of 6200 potential parents and 5497 juvenile offspring to evaluate the relative reproductive success of hatchery and natural steelhead (Onchorhynchus mykiss) when spawning in the wild between 2008 and 2011 in the Wenatchee River, Washington. Hatchery fish originating from two prior generation hatchery parents had <20% of the reproductive success of natural origin spawners. In contrast, hatchery females originating from a cross between two natural origin parents of the prior generation had equivalent or better reproductive success than natural origin females. Males originating from such a cross had reproductive success of 26–93% that of natural males. The reproductive success of hatchery females and males from crosses consisting of one natural origin fish and one hatchery origin fish was 24–54% that of natural fish. The strong influence of hatchery broodstock origin on reproductive success confirms similar results from a previous study of a different population of the same species and suggests a genetic basis for the low reproductive success of hatchery steelhead, although environmental factors cannot be entirely ruled out. In addition to broodstock origin, fish size, return time, age, and spawning location were significant predictors of reproductive success. Our results indicate that incorporating natural fish into hatchery broodstock is clearly beneficial for improving subsequent natural spawning success, even in a population that has a decades-long history of hatchery releases, as is the case in the Wenatchee River. PMID:27737000

  3. Monitoring the Reproductive Success of Naturally Spawning Hatchery and Natural Spring Chinook Salmon in the Wenatchee River, 2008-2009 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, Michael J.; Williamson, Kevin S.

    2009-05-28

    We investigated differences in the statistical power to assign parentage between an artificially propagated and wild salmon population. The propagated fish were derived from the wild population, and are used to supplement its abundance. Levels of genetic variation were similar between the propagated and wild groups at 11 microsatellite loci, and exclusion probabilities were >0.999999 for both groups. The ability to unambiguously identify a pair of parents for each sampled progeny was much lower than expected, however. Simulations demonstrated that the proportion of cases the most likely pair of parents were the true parents was lower for propagated parents than for wild parents. There was a clear relationship between parentage assignment ability and the degree of linkage disequilibrium, the estimated effective number of breeders that produced the parents, and the size of the largest family within the potential parents. If a stringent threshold for parentage assignment was used, estimates of relative fitness were biased downward for the propagated fish. The bias appeared to be largely eliminated by either fractionally assigning progeny among parents in proportion to their likelihood of parentage, or by assigning progeny to the most likely set of parents without using a statistical threshold. We used a DNA-based parentage analysis to measure the relative reproductive success of hatchery- and natural-origin spring Chinook salmon in the natural environment. Both male and female hatchery-origin fish produced far fewer juvenile progeny per parent when spawning naturally than did natural origin fish. Differences in age structure, spawning location, weight and run timing were responsible for some of the difference in fitness. Male size and age had a large influence on fitness, with larger and older males producing more offspring than smaller or younger individuals. Female size had a significant effect on fitness, but the effect was much smaller than the effect of size on

  4. Spawning Success of Hatchery Spring Chinook Salmon Outplanted as Adults in the Clearwater River Basin, Idaho, 2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Cramer, Steven P.; Ackerman, Nichlaus; Witty, Kenneth L.

    2002-04-16

    The study described in this report evaluated spawning distribution, overlap with naturally-arriving spawners, and pre-spawning mortality of spring chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, outplanted as adults in the Clearwater River Subbasin in 2001. Returns of spring chinook salmon to Snake River Basin hatcheries and acclimation facilities in 2001 exceeded needs for hatchery production goals in Idaho. Consequently, management agencies including the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) and Nez Perce Tribe (NPT) agreed to outplant chinook salmon adults as an adaptive management strategy for using hatchery adults. Adult outplants were made in streams or stream sections that have been typically underseeded with spawners. This strategy anticipated that outplanted hatchery chinook salmon would spawn successfully near the areas where they were planted, and would increase natural production. Outplanting of adult spring chinook salmon from hatcheries is likely to be proposed in years when run sizes are similar to those of the 2001 run. Careful monitoring of results from this year's outplanting can be used to guide decisions and methods for future adult outplanting. Numbers of spring chinook salmon outplanted was based on hatchery run size, hatchery needs, and available spawning habitat. Hatcheries involved in outplanting in the Clearwater Basin included Dworshak National Fish Hatchery, Kooskia National Fish Hatchery, Clearwater Anadromous Fish Hatchery, and Rapid River Fish Hatchery. The NPT, IDFG, FWS, and the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) agreed upon outplant locations and a range of numbers of spring chinook salmon to be outplanted (Table 1). Outplanting occurred mainly in the Selway River Subbasin, but additional outplants were made in tributaries to the South Fork Clearwater River and the Lochsa River (Table 1). Actual outplanting activities were carried out primarily by the NPT with supplemental outplanting done

  5. Spawning site fidelity of wild and hatchery lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in northern Lake Huron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Binder, Thomas; Riley, Stephen C.; Holbrook, Christopher; Hansen, Michael J.; Bergstedt, Roger A.; Bronte, Charles R.; He, Ji; Krueger, Charles C.

    2016-01-01

    Fidelity to high-quality spawning sites helps ensure that adults repeatedly spawn at sites that maximize reproductive success. Fidelity is also an important behavioural characteristic to consider when hatchery-reared individuals are stocked for species restoration, because artificial rearing environments may interfere with cues that guide appropriate spawning site selection. Acoustic telemetry was used in conjunction with Cormack–Jolly–Seber capture–recapture models to compare degree of spawning site fidelity of wild and hatchery-reared lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in northern Lake Huron. Annual survival was estimated to be between 77% and 81% and did not differ among wild and hatchery males and females. Site fidelity estimates were high in both wild and hatchery-reared lake trout (ranging from 0.78 to 0.94, depending on group and time filter), but were slightly lower in hatchery-reared fish than in wild fish. The ecological implication of the small difference in site fidelity between wild and hatchery-reared lake trout is unclear, but similarities in estimates suggest that many hatchery-reared fish use similar spawning sites to wild fish and that most return to those sites annually for spawning.

  6. Spatial and temporal use of a spawning site in the middle green river by wild and hatchery-reared razorback suckers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Modde, T.; Bowen, Z.H.; Kitcheyan, D.C.

    2005-01-01

    The population of endangered razorback suckers Xyrauchen texanus in the middle Green River (upper Colorado River basin) has declined during the last 40 years. The apparent cause for this decline is a lack of successful recruitment. This study used radiotelemetry to evaluate the ability of hatchery-reared razorback suckers to locate spawning areas where wild fish congregate during the ascending hydrographic limb of the snowmelt runoff. Hatchery-reared razorback suckers appeared to show similar reproductive behavior to wild fish. Both wild and hatchery-reared fish were found near the middle Green River spawning area between 1 and 25 May 2000. Hatchery fish occupied the same areas on the spawning site as wild fish, and remained on the spawning site during both nocturnal and diurnal hours. Males were more abundant on the spawning area than females, but the few females captured tended to stage away from the primary spawning area. The results from this study suggest hatchery-reared fish are capable of responding to natural cues that prompt spawning aggregations and are successful in locating existing spawning aggregations of wild fish. Given attention to stocking criteria, including genetic diversity and the size and time of stocking, the challenges of recovering razorback suckers will center on those factors that led to the population declines, particularly the survival of early life stages in off-channel habitats. ?? American Fisheries Society 2005.

  7. Evaluation of the Reproductive Success of Wild and Hatchery Steelhead in Hatchery and Natural and Hatchery Environments : Annual Report for 2008.

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, Thomas P.; Seamons, todd; Hauser, Lorenz; Naish, Kerry

    2008-12-05

    This report summarizes the field, laboratory, and analytical work from December 2007 through November 2008 on a research project that investigates interactions and comparative reproductive success of wild and hatchery origin steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) trout in Forks Creek, a tributary of the Willapa River in southwest Washington. First, we continued to successfully sample hatchery and wild (i.e., naturally spawned) adult and wild smolt steelhead at Forks Creek. Second, we revealed microsatellite genotype data for adults and smolts through brood year 2008. Finally, four formal scientific manuscripts were published in 2008 and two are in press, one is in revision and two are in preparations.

  8. Using a semi-natural stream to produce young sturgeons for conservation stocking: Maintaining natural selection during spawning and rearing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kynard, B.; Pugh, D.; Parker, T.; Kieffer, M.

    2011-01-01

    Young sturgeons used for conservation stocking are presently produced using the same methods used for commercial culture. To determine if young sturgeons could be produced without relaxing natural selection factors, we developed a semi-natural stream where we annually studied mating of wild shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) observed movement of gametes released freely during spawning, and estimated the number of larvae produced by various densities of spawned eggs. The stream had a bottom area of 18.8m2, a rubble-gravel bottom, and a mean bottom current at 0.6 depth during spawning of 48cms-1 (range, 17-126cms-1). Wild adults successfully spawned in the stream each year for 7years (2002-2008). Some females and males were more successful during spawning than others, suggesting an unequal fitness during spawning among wild individuals, which is different than the controlled spawning fitness of individuals in hatcheries. Male and female gametes spawned naturally must connect quickly in the fast current or fail, a selection factor absent in hatcheries. The number of larvae produced was inversely related to spawned egg densitym-2 (R2=0.65) and the maximum number of larvae produced was 8000-16000 (425-851larvaem-2 of bottom). Artificial spawning streams have the potential to contribute to sturgeon restoration. ?? 2011 Blackwell Verlag, Berlin.

  9. Tradeoffs between homing and habitat quality for spawning site selection by hatchery-origin Chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cram, Jeremy M.; Torgersen, Christian E.; Klett, Ryan S.; Pess, George R.; May, Darran; Pearsons, Todd N.; Dittman, Andrew H.

    2013-01-01

    Spawning site selection by female salmon is based on complex and poorly understood tradeoffs between the homing instinct and the availability of appropriate habitat for successful reproduction. Previous studies have shown that hatchery-origin Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) released from different acclimation sites return with varying degrees of fidelity to these areas. To investigate the possibility that homing fidelity is associated with aquatic habitat conditions, we quantified physical habitat throughout 165 km in the upper Yakima River basin (Washington, USA) and mapped redd and carcass locations from 2004 to 2008. Principal components analysis identified differences in substrate, cover, stream width, and gradient among reaches surrounding acclimation sites, and canonical correspondence analysis revealed that these differences in habitat characteristics were associated with spatial patterns of spawning (p < 0.01). These analyses indicated that female salmon may forego spawning near their acclimation area if the surrounding habitat is unsuitable. Evaluating the spatial context of acclimation areas in relation to surrounding habitat may provide essential information for effectively managing supplementation programs and prioritizing restoration actions.

  10. To stock or not to stock? Assessing restoration potential of a remnant American shad spawning run with hatchery supplementation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bailey, Michael M.; Zydlewski, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Hatchery supplementation has been widely used as a restoration technique for American Shad Alosa sapidissima on the East Coast of the USA, but results have been equivocal. In the Penobscot River, Maine, dam removals and other improvements to fish passage will likely reestablish access to the majority of this species’ historic spawning habitat. Additional efforts being considered include the stocking of larval American Shad. The decision about whether to stock a river system undergoing restoration should be made after evaluating the probability of natural recolonization and examining the costs and benefits of potentially accelerating recovery using a stocking program. However, appropriate evaluation can be confounded by a dearth of information about the starting population size and age structure of the remnant American Shad spawning run in the river. We used the Penobscot River as a case study to assess the theoretical sensitivity of recovery time to either scenario (stocking or not) by building a deterministic model of an American Shad population. This model is based on the best available estimates of size at age, fecundity, rate of iteroparity, and recruitment. Density dependence was imposed, such that the population reached a plateau at an arbitrary recovery goal of 633,000 spawning adults. Stocking had a strong accelerating effect on the time to modeled recovery (as measured by the time to reach 50% of the recovery goal) in the base model, but stocking had diminishing effects with larger population sizes. There is a diminishing return to stocking when the starting population is modestly increased. With a low starting population (a spawning run of 1,000), supplementation with 12 million larvae annually accelerated modeled recovery by 12 years. Only a 2-year acceleration was observed if the starting population was 15,000. Such a heuristic model may aid managers in assessing the costs and benefits of stocking by incorporating a structured decision framework.

  11. Environmental enrichment in steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) hatcheries: Field evaluation of aggression, foraging, and territoriality in natural and hatchery fry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tatara, C.P.; Riley, S.C.; Scheurer, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Reforms for salmonid hatcheries include production of hatchery fish with behavioral characteristics similar to wild conspecifics. Enrichment of the hatchery environment has been proposed to achieve this goal. Field experiments of steelhead (i.e., sea-run rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry from a common stock reared under natural (i.e., stream), enriched hatchery, and conventional hatchery conditions indicated no significant differences in the rates of foraging or aggression between rearing treatments. However, the rates of foraging and aggression of natural fry were significantly affected by the type of hatchery fry stocked with them. Natural steelhead fry fed at lower rates and exhibited higher rates of aggression when stocked with steelhead fry raised in enriched hatchery environments. Territory sizes of steelhead fry ranged from 0.015 to 0.801 m2; were significantly, positively related to body length; and were not significantly different between rearing treatments. We conclude that hatchery steelhead fry released into streams establish territories that are proportional to their body length and similar in size to territories of natural steelhead fry. Our results indicate that both conventional and enriched hatchery environments produce natural social behaviors in steelhead released as fry and that fry from enriched hatchery environments may alter the foraging and aggressive behavior of natural, resident steelhead fry. ?? 2008 NRC.

  12. Natural Reproductive Success and Demographic Effects of Hatchery-Origin Steelhead in Abernathy Creek, Washington : Annual Report 2008.

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, Abernathy Fish Technology Center

    2008-12-01

    Many hatchery programs for steelhead pose genetic or ecological risks to natural populations because those programs release or outplant fish from non-native stocks. The goal of many steelhead programs has been to simply provide 'fishing opportunities' with little consideration given to conservation concerns. For example, the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) has widely propagated and outplanted one stock of winter-run steelhead (Chambers Creek stock) and one stock of summer-run steelhead (Skamania stock) throughout western Washington. Biologists and managers now recognize potential negative effects can occur when non-native hatchery fish interact biologically with native populations. Not only do non-native stocks pose genetic and ecological risks to naturally spawning populations, but non-native fish stray as returning adults at a much higher rate than do native fish (Quinn 1993). Biologists and managers also recognize the need to (a) maintain the genetic resources associated with naturally spawning populations and (b) restore or recover natural populations wherever possible. As a consequence, the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (USFWS) and the NOAA Fisheries have been recommending a general policy that discourages the use of non-native hatchery stocks and encourages development of native broodstocks. There are two primary motivations for these recommendations: (1) reduce or minimize potential negative biological effects resulting from genetic or ecological interactions between hatchery-origin and native-origin fish and (2) use native broodstocks as genetic repositories to potentially assist with recovery of naturally spawning populations. A major motivation for the captive-rearing work described in this report resulted from NOAA's 1998 Biological Opinion on Artificial Propagation in the Columbia River Basin. In that biological opinion (BO), NOAA concluded that non-native hatchery stocks of steelhead jeopardize the continued existence of U

  13. Genetic characterization of naturally spawned Snake River fall-run Chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marshall, A.R.; Blankenship, H.L.; Connor, W.P.

    1999-01-01

    We sampled juvenile Snake River chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha to genetically characterize the endangered Snake River fall-run population. Juveniles from fall and spring–summer lineages coexisted in our sampling areas but were differentiated by large allozyme allele frequency differences. We sorted juveniles by multilocus genotypes into putative fall and spring lineage subsamples and determined lineage composition using maximum likelihood estimation methods. Paired sMEP-1* and PGK-2* genotypes—encoding malic enzyme (NADP+) and phosphoglycerate kinase, respectively—were very effective for sorting juveniles by lineage, and subsamples estimated to be 100% fall lineage were obtained in four annual samples. We examined genetic relationships of these fall lineage juveniles with adjacent populations from the Columbia River and from Lyons Ferry Hatchery, which was established to perpetuate the Snake River fall-run population. Our samples of naturally produced Snake River fall lineage juveniles were most closely aligned with Lyons Ferry Hatchery samples. Although fall-run strays of Columbia River hatchery origin found on spawning grounds threaten the genetic integrity of the Snake River population, juvenile samples (a) showed distinctive patterns of allelic diversity, (b) were differentiated from Columbia River populations, and (c) substantiate earlier conclusions that this population is an important genetic resource. This first characterization of naturally produced Snake River fall chinook salmon provides a baseline for monitoring and recovery planning.

  14. Estimating the hatchery fraction of a natural population: a Bayesian approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barber, Jarrett J.; Gerow, Kenneth G.; Connolly, Patrick J.; Singh, Sarabdeep

    2011-01-01

    There is strong and growing interest in estimating the proportion of hatchery fish that are in a natural population (the hatchery fraction). In a sample of fish from the relevant population, some are observed to be marked, indicating their origin as hatchery fish. The observed proportion of marked fish is usually less than the actual hatchery fraction, since the observed proportion is determined by the proportion originally marked, differential survival (usually lower) of marked fish relative to unmarked hatchery fish, and rates of mark retention and detection. Bayesian methods can work well in a setting such as this, in which empirical data are limited but for which there may be considerable expert judgment regarding these values. We explored a Bayesian estimation of the hatchery fraction using Monte Carlo–Markov chain methods. Based on our findings, we created an interactive Excel tool to implement the algorithm, which we have made available for free.

  15. Lower fitness of hatchery and hybrid rainbow trout compared to naturalized populations in Lake Superior tributaries.

    PubMed

    Miller, L M; Close, T; Kapuscinski, A R

    2004-11-01

    We have documented an early life survival advantage by naturalized populations of anadromous rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss over a more recently introduced hatchery population and outbreeding depression resulting from interbreeding between the two strains. We tested the hypothesis that offspring of naturalized and hatchery trout, and reciprocal hybrid crosses, survive equally from fry to age 1+ in isolated reaches of Lake Superior tributary streams in Minnesota. Over the first summer, offspring of naturalized females had significantly greater survival than offspring of hatchery females in three of four comparisons (two streams and 2 years of stocking). Having an entire naturalized genome, not just a naturalized mother, was important for survival over the first winter. Naturalized offspring outperformed all others in survival to age 1+ and hybrids had reduced, but intermediate, survival relative to the two pure crosses. Averaging over years and streams, survival relative to naturalized offspring was 0.59 for hybrids with naturalized females, 0.37 for the reciprocal hybrids, and 0.21 for hatchery offspring. Our results indicate that naturalized rainbow trout are better adapted to the conditions of Minnesota's tributaries to Lake Superior so that they outperform the hatchery-propagated strain in the same manner that many native populations of salmonids outperform hatchery or transplanted fish. Continued stocking of the hatchery fish may conflict with a management goal of sustaining the naturalized populations.

  16. Integrated Hatchery Operations Team: Policies and Procedures for Columbia Basin Anadromous Salmonid Hatcheries, 1994 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Integrated Hatchery Operations Team

    1995-01-01

    This document outlines regional policies and procedures for hatchery operations in the Columbia River Basin. The purpose of these policies is to provide regional guidelines by which all anadromous fish hatcheries will be operated. These policies will be adopted by the fisheries co-managers, and will provide guidance to operate hatcheries in an efficient and biologically sound manner. The hatchery policies presented in this manual are not intended to establish production priorities. Rather, the intent is to guide hatchery operations once production numbers are established. Hatchery operations discussed in this report include broodstock collection, spawning, incubation of eggs, fish rearing and feeding, fish release, equipment maintenance and operations, and personnel training. Decisions regarding production priorities must be provided by fishery managers through a comprehensive plan that addresses both natural and hatchery fish production. The Integrated Hatchery Operations Team is a multi-agency group called for by the Northwest Power Planning Council. This team was directed to develop new basinwide policies for managing and operating all existing and future anadromous fish hatcheries in the Columbia River Basin. The parties pledge to confer with each other and to use their authorities and resources to accomplish these mutually acceptable hatchery practices.

  17. Effect of incubation temperature on post-embryonic survival and growth of steelhead in a natural stream and a hatchery (Study sites: Dworshak Hatchery and North Fork Palouse River; Stocks: Dworshak hatchery; Year classes: 1994 and 1995): Chapter 5

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Stenberg, Karl D.; Baker, Bruce M.; Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Hayes, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    We tested whether varying incubation temperatures to match development between embryos from different spawning dates affected survival and growth of unfed steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss fry released in a stream and in hatchery ponds. Hatchery steelhead returning to the Clearwater River, Idaho were artificially spawned on two dates separated by a four week interval. Progeny from the early date (ExE, from early males and early females) were incubated in chilled (7°C) water and those from the late date (LxL) in ambient (12°C) water until developmental stage matched. A third group, created by fertilizing eggs from late females with cryopreserved milt from early males (ExL), was included to control for any genetic differences between early and late returning adults. Survival in the stream to 3 and 15 months after release was similar among crosses. Survival in the hatchery to near the end of the standard one year rearing period was similar among crosses for one of two year - classes but different for the other; however, it was difficult to ascribe the differences (ExL>ExE; LxL intermediate but closer to ExE) to incubation temperature differences. We conclude that there was little if any effect of incubation temperature on survival. Length of juveniles of one year - class differed among crosses in the stream and in the hatchery. Length of the other year - class differed among crosses in one pond at the hatchery but not in the other pond or in the stream. When length differed the pattern was always the same: ExE>LxL; ExL intermediate but closer to LxL. We speculate that incubation temperature may have affected growth of juveniles, and in particular that a longer period of incubation in chilled water may have caused fast juvenile growth relative to a shorter incubation period in ambient water.

  18. Genetic versus Rearing-Environment Effects on Phenotype: Hatchery and Natural Rearing Effects on Hatchery- and Wild-Born Coho Salmon

    PubMed Central

    Chittenden, Cedar M.; Biagi, Carlo A.; Davidsen, Jan Grimsrud; Davidsen, Anette Grimsrud; Kondo, Hidehiro; McKnight, Allison; Pedersen, Ole-Petter; Raven, Peter A.; Rikardsen, Audun H.; Shrimpton, J. Mark; Zuehlke, Brett; McKinley, R. Scott; Devlin, Robert H.

    2010-01-01

    With the current trends in climate and fisheries, well-designed mitigative strategies for conserving fish stocks may become increasingly necessary. The poor post-release survival of hatchery-reared Pacific salmon indicates that salmon enhancement programs require assessment. The objective of this study was to determine the relative roles that genotype and rearing environment play in the phenotypic expression of young salmon, including their survival, growth, physiology, swimming endurance, predator avoidance and migratory behaviour. Wild- and hatchery-born coho salmon adults (Oncorhynchus kisutch) returning to the Chehalis River in British Columbia, Canada, were crossed to create pure hatchery, pure wild, and hybrid offspring. A proportion of the progeny from each cross was reared in a traditional hatchery environment, whereas the remaining fry were reared naturally in a contained side channel. The resulting phenotypic differences between replicates, between rearing environments, and between cross types were compared. While there were few phenotypic differences noted between genetic groups reared in the same habitat, rearing environment played a significant role in smolt size, survival, swimming endurance, predator avoidance and migratory behaviour. The lack of any observed genetic differences between wild- and hatchery-born salmon may be due to the long-term mixing of these genotypes from hatchery introgression into wild populations, or conversely, due to strong selection in nature—capable of maintaining highly fit genotypes whether or not fish have experienced part of their life history under cultured conditions. PMID:20808853

  19. A comparison of the survival and migratory behavior of hatchery-reared and naturally reared steelhead smolts in the Alsea river and estuary, Oregon, using acoustic telemetry

    EPA Science Inventory

    We tracked three groups of steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss smolts implanted with acoustic transmitters to determine whether the degree of hatchery domestication or the juvenile rearing environment (hatchery raceway versus natural stream) influenced migration timing and survival in ...

  20. Genetic differences between hatchery and wild steelhead for survival, growth, dispersal, and male maturation in a natural stream (Study site: Twenty-Mile Creek; Stocks: Dworshak hatchery and Selway River wild; Year classes: 1994 and 1995): Chapter 3

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Hensleigh, Jay E.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Baker, Bruce M.; Leonetti,; Stenberg, Karl D.; Slatton, Stacey L.; Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Hayes, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    This study was initiated in the early 1990s to provide managers with data comparing genetic fitness for natural rearing, as measured by survival of juveniles in freshwater, between steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss from Dworshak National Fish Hatchery and wild steelhead from the Clearwater River, Idaho. We artificially spawned hatchery steelhead and wild steelhead from the Selway River, a Clearwater River tributary, released the resulting genetically marked (at the PEPA allozyme locus) progeny (HxH, HxW from hatchery females and wild males, and WxW) as unfed fry in a second order tributary of the South Fork Clearwater River, and monitored fish residing in the stream or emigrating from it for five years. Barrier falls prevented access to the stream by naturally produced steelhead. Over 90% of the emigrants were one or two years of age and too small to be smolts (mean fork length at age-2 = 103 mm). Per fry released, the HxH cross produced 0.64-0.83 times as many emigrants as the WxW cross (P<0.05). The HxH cross produced 0.63 times as many age-4 residuals as the WxW cross for one year-class (P=0.051) and 0.68 times as many for the other (ns). Survival from age-1 to age-4 was lower for HxH than for WxW residuals of one year-class (P<0.05) and survival from age-2 to age-4 may have been lower for HxH than for WxW residuals of the other (P=0.062). Collectively, these results indicate lower survival for HxH than for WxW fish. Size was often greater for HxH than for WxW fish indicating faster growth for the former, and condition factor was also usually greater for HxH than for WxW fish. Dispersal of fry from release sites and emigration of one- and two-year olds from the study stream were greater for WxW than for HxH fish, and apparently neither was from competitive displacement of small by larger fish. Incidence of flowing milt was higher for HxH than for WxW fish at age-2. Peak incidence of flowing milt for older residuals was similar among crosses (about 50%), but the peak

  1. Distinguishing between natural and hatchery Snake River fall Chinook salmon subyearlings in the field using body morphology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiffan, K.F.; Connor, W.P.

    2011-01-01

    We used body morphology to distinguish between natural- and hatchery-origin subyearling fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in rearing areas of the Snake River and at a downstream dam during seaward migration. Using subjective eye and body shape characteristics, field personnel correctly classified 88.9–100% of natural subyearlings (N = 626) and 90.0–100% of hatchery subyearlings (N = 867) in rearing areas from 2001 to 2008. The morphological characteristics used by these personnel proved to have a quantitative basis, as was shown by digital photography and principal components analysis. Natural subyearlings had smaller eyes and pupils, smaller heads, deeper bodies, and shorter caudal peduncles than their hatchery counterparts during rearing and at the dam. A discriminant function fitted from this set of morphological characteristics classified the origin of fish during rearing and at the dam with over 97% accuracy. We hypothesize that these morphological differences were primarily due to environmental influences during incubation and rearing because it is highly probable that a large portion of the natural juveniles we studied were the offspring of hatchery × hatchery mating in the wild. The findings in this paper might provide guidance for others seeking to differentiate between natural and hatchery fish.

  2. Emigration of Natural and Hatchery Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Smolts from the Imnaha River, Oregon, Progress Report 2000-2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Cleary, Peter; Kucera, Paul; Blenden, Michael

    2003-12-01

    This report summarizes the emigration studies of the Nez Perce Tribe in the Imnaha River subbasin during the 2001 and 2002 migration years. A migration year for the Imnaha River is defined here as beginning July 31 of the previous year and ending July 30 the following year. The conclusion of the studies at the end of migration year 2002 marked the 11th year of the Nez Perce Tribe's Lower Snake River Emigration Studies. The Nez Perce Tribe has participated in the Fish Passage Center's Smolt Monitoring Program for nine of the 11 years. These studies collect and tag juvenile chinook salmon and steelhead at two locations in the fall, rkm 74 and rkm 7, and at rkm 7 during the spring. Data from captured and tagged fish provide an evaluation of hatchery production and releases strategies, post release survival of hatchery chinook salmon, abundance of natural chinook salmon, and downstream survival and arrival timing of natural and hatchery chinook salmon and steelhead. The hydrologic conditions that migrating fish encountered in 2001 were characterized as a drought and conditions in 2002 were characterized as below average. Hatchery chinook salmon had a mean fork length that was 34 mm greater in 2001 and 35 mm greater in 2002 than the mean fork length of natural chinook smolts. Hatchery steelhead smolt mean fork lengths were 39 mm greater than natural steelhead smolts in 2001 and 44 mm greater than natural steelhead smolt fork lengths in 2002. A significant difference (p < 0.05) between hatchery and natural chinook salmon and steelhead fork lengths has been documented by these emigration studies from 1997 to 2002. Hatchery chinook salmon were volitionally released in 2001 and 2002 and the 90% arrivals for 2001 and 2002 at the lower rkm 7 trap were within the range of past observations of 22 to 38 days observed in 1999 and 2000. We estimated that 93.9% of the 123,014 hatchery chinook salmon released in 2001 survived to the lower trap and 90.2% of the 303,769 hatchery

  3. Effects of hatchery fish density on emigration, growth, survival, and predation risk of natural steelhead parr in an experimental stream channel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tatara, Christopher P.; Riley, Stephen C.; Berejikian, Barry A.

    2011-01-01

    Hatchery supplementation of steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss raises concerns about the impacts on natural populations, including reduced growth and survival, displacement, and increased predation. The potential risks may be density dependent.We examined how hatchery stocking density and the opportunity to emigrate affect the responses of natural steelhead parr in an experimental stream channel and after 15 d found no density-dependent effects on growth, emigration, or survival at densities ranging from 1-6 hatchery parr/m2. The opportunity for steelhead parr to emigrate reduced predation by coastal cutthroat trout O. clarkii clarkii on both hatchery and natural steelhead parr. The cutthroat trout exhibited a type-I functional response (constant predation rate with increased prey density) for the hatchery and composite populations. In contrast, the predation rate on natural parr decreased as hatchery stocking density increased. Supplementation with hatchery parr at any experimental stocking density reduced the final natural parr density. This decline was explained by increased emigration fromthe supplemented groups. Natural parr had higher mean instantaneous growth rates than hatchery parr. The proportion of parr emigrating decreased as parr size increased over successive experimental trials. Smaller parr had lower survival and suffered higher predation. The final density of the composite population, a measure of supplementation effectiveness, increased with the hatchery steelhead stocking rate. Our results indicate that stocking larger hatchery parr (over 50 d postemergence) at densities within the carrying capacity would have low short-term impact on the growth, survival, and emigration of natural parr while increasing the density of the composite population; in addition, a stocking density greater than 3 fish/m2 might be a good starting point for the evaluation of parr stocking in natural streams.

  4. Monitoring and evaluation plan for the Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery

    SciTech Connect

    Steward, C.R.

    1996-08-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe has proposed to build and operate the Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery (NPTH) in the Clearwater River subbasin of Idaho for the purpose of restoring self-sustaining populations of spring, summer, and fall chinook salmon to their native habitats. The project comprises a combination of incubation and rearing facilities, satellite rearing facilities, juvenile and adult collection sites, and associated production and harvest management activities. As currently conceived, the NPTH program will produce approximately 768,000 spring chinook parr, 800,000 summer chinook fry, and 2,000,000 fall chinook fry on an annual basis. Hatchery fish would be spawned, reared, and released under conditions that promote wild-type characteristics, minimize genetic changes in both hatchery and wild chinook populations, and minimize undesirable ecological interactions. The primary objective is to enable hatchery-produced fish to return to reproduce naturally in the streams in which they are released. These and other characteristics of the project are described in further detail in the Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Master Plan, the 1995 Supplement to the Master Plan, and the Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Program Environmental Impact Statement. The report in hand is referred to in project literature as the NPTH Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) Plan. This report describes monitoring and evaluation activities that will help NPTH managers determine whether they were successful in restoring chinook salmon populations and avoiding adverse ecological impacts.

  5. Genetic differences between hatchery and wild steelhead for growth and survival in the hatchery and seaward migration after release (Study sites: Dworshak Hatchery and Clearwater Hatchery; Stocks: Dworshak hatchery and Selway River wild; Year classes: 1994 and 1995): Chapter 2

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Hensleigh, Jay E.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Baker, Bruce M.; Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Hayes, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    Various studies suggest that sea ranching of anadromous salmonids can result in domestication (increased fitness in the hatchery program) and a loss of fitness for natural production; however, the mechanism has not been characterized adequately. We artificially spawned hatchery and wild steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss from the Clearwater River, Idaho, reared the resulting genetically marked (at the PEPA allozyme locus) progeny (HxH, HxW from hatchery females and wild males, and WxW) in hatcheries, and tested for differences in survival, growth, early maturation, downstream migration, and adult returns. Rearing treatments were mixed (crosses reared together) and separate (crosses reared separately from each other) at the hatchery of origin for the hatchery population where smolts are produced in one year, and at a nearby hatchery employing lower rations, lower winter temperatures, and two years of rearing to more closely mimic the natural life history (natural smolt age = 2-4 years). The hatchery population had been artificially propagated for six generations at the onset of our study. We found little or no difference in survival in the hatchery but substantially higher rates of growth and subsequent downstream migration for HxH than for WxW fish. Faster growth for HxH fish resulted in greater size at release which contributed to their higher migration rate, but other as yet uncharacterized traits also affected migration since the migration difference between crosses was apparent even within size classes. Growth of WxW fish was slower in the mixed than in the separate treatment indicating that WxW fish were competitively inferior to HxH fish in the hatchery environment. Incidence of precocious males was higher for WxW than for HxH fish in the separate but not in the mixed treatment. Incidence of HxH precocious males was similar between treatments. Apparently, the presence of HxH fish suppressed high incidence of early maturation by WxW males. A direct effect beyond

  6. Spring Emigration of Natural and Hatchery Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Trout Smolts from the Imnaha River, Oregon; 1997 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Blenden, Michael L.; Veach, Eric R.; Kucera, Paul A.

    1998-10-01

    For the fourth consecutive year, the Nez Perce Tribe, in conjunction with the Fish Passage Center, participated in the smolt monitoring program in the Imnaha River. A screw trap was used to collect emigrating natural and hatchery chinook salmon (Uncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) smolts from February 25 to June 27, 1997. A total of 270 natural chinook salmon, 10,616 hatchery chinook salmon, 864 natural steelhead trout (and 13 natural steelhead parr), and 7,345 hatchery steelhead trout smolts were captured during emigration studies on the Imnaha River. Mortality associated with trapping, handling and tagging was low: 0.37% for natural chinook, 0.11% for hatchery chinook, 0.11% for natural steelhead, and 0.39% for hatchery steelhead trout smolts. Natural chinook salmon smolts emigrated from the Imnaha River from February 25 to June 10 and had a mean length of 108 mm, average weight of 13 g, and mean condition factor of 1.02. The peak period of natural chinook smolt emigration, based on number of fish collected, occurred between March 25 and April 30. Hatchery reared chinook salmon smolts were collected from April 9 to May 9, with 99% of the smolts being caught within 10 days after release. Hatchery chinook smolts mean length, weight, and condition factor were 131 mm, 25.4 g, and 1.12, respectively. Emigration of natural steelhead smolts in the Imnaha River occurred between March 14 and June 25. Peak emigration occurred from May 1 to May 15. Natural steelhead smolts averaged 175 mm in fork length, 55.8 g in weight and had a mean condition factor of 1 .OO. Hatchery steelhead smolts emigrated from the Imnaha River between April 15 and June 27. Hatchery steelhead smolts averaged 210 mm in fork length, 88 g in weight and had a mean condition factor of 0.93. Spring runoff water conditions in 1997 provided above average flows for emigrating anadromous salmonid smolts. Imnaha River mean daily discharge during spring emigration ranged from 7

  7. Quantity, structure, and habitat selection of natural spawning reefs by walleyes in a north temperate lake: A multiscale analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raabe, Joshua K.; Bozek, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Spawning habitat, the cornerstone of self-sustaining, naturally reproducing walleyeSander vitreus populations, has received limited quantitative research. Our goal was to quantitatively describe the structure and quantity of natural walleye spawning habitat and evaluate potential selection of habitat in Big Crooked Lake, Wisconsin. In 2004 and 2005, we located and delineated walleye egg deposition polygons through visual snorkel and scuba surveys. We also delineated recently deposited, adhesive egg patches daily along one spawning reef in 2005. To determine habitat selection, we quantified and compared spawning and lakewide available habitat at different scales. In both years, walleyes used similar spawning habitat, including three geomorphic types: linear shorelines, a point bar, and an island. Walleyes used only 14% of the entire lake shoreline and 39% of the shoreline comprised of gravel (6.4–76.0 mm), cobble (76.1–149.9 mm), or coarser substrates for spawning in 2005, indicating selection of specific spawning habitat. Lakewide, walleyes spawned close to shore (outer egg deposition polygon boundary mean distance = 2.7 m), in shallow water (outer egg deposition polygon boundary mean depth = 0.3 m), and over gravel substrate (percent coverage mean = 64.3) having low embeddedness (mean = 1.30). Our best nearshore (0–13-m) resource selection function predicted an increase in the relative probability of egg deposition with the increasing abundance of gravel, cobble, and rubble (150.0–303.9-mm) substrates and a decrease with increasing distance from shore and water depth (89.9% overall correct classification). Adhesive egg patches confirmed that walleyes actively chose nearshore, shallow-water, and coarse-substrate spawning habitat. The quantitative habitat information and predictive models will assist biologists in developing walleye spawning reef protection strategies and potentially aid in designing and evaluating artificial spawning reefs.

  8. Emigration of Natural and Hatchery Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Smolts from the Imnaha River, Oregon, 1998-1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Cleary, Peter J.; Blenden, Michael L.; Kucera, Paul A.

    2002-08-01

    This report summarizes the results of the Lower Snake River Compensation Plan Hatchery Evaluation Studies (LSRCP) and the Imnaha Smolt Monitoring Program (SMP) for the 1999 smolt migration from the Imnaha River, Oregon. These studies were designed and closely coordinated to provide information about juvenile natural and hatchery chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) biological characteristics, behavior and emigrant timing, survival, arrival timing and travel time to the Snake River dams and McNary Dam on the Columbia River. Data collected from these studies are shared with the Fish Passage Center (FPC). These data are essential to quantify smolt survival rates under the current passage conditions and to evaluate the future recovery strategies that seek to optimize smolt survival through the hydroelectric system. Information shared with the FPC assists with in-season shaping of flow and spill management requests in the Snake River reservoirs. The Bonneville Power Administration and the United States Fish and Wildlife Service contracted the Nez Perce Tribe (NPT) to monitor emigration timing and tag 21,200 emigrating natural and hatchery chinook salmon and steelhead smolts from the Imnaha River during the spring emigration period (March 1-June 15) with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags. The completion of trapping in the spring of 1999 marked the eighth year of emigration studies on the Imnaha River and the sixth year of participating in the FPC smolt monitoring program. Monitoring and evaluation objectives were to: (1) Determine spring emigration timing of chinook salmon and steelhead smolts collected at the Imnaha River trap. (2) Evaluate effects of flow, temperature and other environmental factors on emigration timing. (3) Monitor the daily catch and biological characteristics of juvenile chinook salmon and steelhead smolts collected at the Imnaha River screw trap. (4) Determine emigration timing, travel time, and in

  9. Effects of telemetry transmitter placement on egg retention in naturally spawning, captively reared steelhead

    SciTech Connect

    Berejikian, Barry A.; Brown, Richard S.; Tatara, Chris P.; Cooke, Steven J.

    2007-05-01

    Maturing female anadromous salmonids receiving surgical intraperitoneally-implanted telemetry transmitters may experience difficulty depositing eggs during natural spawning. We allocated maturing adult steelhead females to three treatments: tags surgically implanted in the body cavity (internal), tags implanted between the skin and muscle tissue (subdermal), and non-tagged, and allowed them to spawn naturally in an experimental channel. Internally tagged females retained significantly more eggs than both the subdermally tagged treatment (P = 0.005) and non-tagged controls (P = 0.001); the subdermal and non-tag controls did not differ significantly (P = 0.934). The internal, subdermal and non-tag treatments retained an average of 49%, 11% and 2% of their eggs, respectively. The onset of sexual activity did not differ significantly among treatments (P = 0.413). Post-spawning mortality was 70% for both internally and subdermally tagged females and 0% for non-tagged females (P <0.01). We suggest that subdermal implantation techniques be considered in future studies during the reproductive period to reduce egg retention caused by internal implantation of transmitters.

  10. Spawning and hatching of endangered Gila Chub in captivity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schultz, Andrew A.; Bonar, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    Information on reproductive characteristics of the endangered Gila Chub Gila intermedia is largely limited and qualitative, and culture techniques and requirements are virtually unknown. Here we provide the first published data on spawning and selected reproductive and developmental characteristics of Gila Chub. Fish were brought to the laboratory in March 2003 from Sabino Creek, Arizona (12.3°C). Fish were then warmed slowly and spawned at 14.9°C, 10 d after collection. Following this initial spawning, Gila Chub spawned consistently in the laboratory without hormonal, chemical, photoperiod, temperature, or substrate manipulation during all times of the year. Spawns were noted at temperatures ranging from about 15°C to 26°C; however, we noted that Gila Chub spawned less frequently at temperatures above 24°C. Multiple spawning attempts per year per individual are probable. There was a strong, inverse relationship between time to hatch and incubation temperature. The hatch rate of eggs was high (mean = 99.43%), and larval Gila Chub accepted a variety of natural and formulated diets at first feeding. The future of Gila Chub may someday depend in part on hatchery propagation to provide specimens for restocking formerly occupied habitats and establishing refuge populations. Information from our study can aid future efforts to successfully spawn and rear Gila Chub and related species.

  11. Management of Sexual Maturation and Natural Spawning of Captive- Reared Yellowtail Kingfish, Seriola lalandi, in an Indoor Rearing Tank

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Sang Geun; Ji, Seung Cheol; Lim, Sang Gu; Hur, Sang Woo; Jeong, Minhwan; Lee, Chi Hoon; Kim, Bong Seok; Lee, Young-Don

    2016-01-01

    This study describes results on sexual maturation and characteristics of natural spawned eggs to develop a method for the production of stable, healthy fertilized eggs from captive-reared yellowtail kingfish, Seriola lalandi. A total of 59 yellowtail kingfish were captured off the coast of Jeju Island, after which the broodstock was cultured in indoor culture tank (100 m3) until they were 6.1–14.9 kg in body weight. As part of the rearing management for induced sex maturation, the intensity of illumination was maintained at 130 lux. The photoperiod (light/dark; L/D) was set to a 12 L/12 D from October 2013 to January 2014, and 15 L/9 D from February 2014 to June 2014. Feeds comprised mainly EP (Extruded Pellets), with squid cuttlefish added for improvement of egg quality, and was given from April to June 2014. The first spawning of yellowtail kingfish occurred in May 3, 2014, at a water temperature of 17.0°C. Spawning continued until June 12, 2014, with the water temperature set at 20.5°C. Time of spawning was 26 times at this period. The total number of eggs that spawned during the spawning period was 4,449×103. The buoyant rate of spawning eggs and fertilization rate of buoyant eggs during the spawned period were 76.1% and 100%, respectively. The diameters of the egg and oil globule were 1.388 ± 0.041 mm and 0.378 ± 0.029 mm, respectively, which was higher in early eggs than in those from late during the spawned period. PMID:27660829

  12. Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Complex; Operations and Maintenance and 2005 Annual Operation Plan, 2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Harty, Harold R.; Lundberg, Jeffrey H.; Penney, Aaron K.

    2005-02-01

    The Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery (NPTH) responds directly to a need to mitigate for naturally-reproducing salmon in the Clearwater River subbasin. The overall goal is to produce and release fish that will survive to adulthood, spawn in the Clearwater River subbasin and produce viable offspring that will support future natural production and genetic integrity. Several underlying purposes of fisheries management will be maintained through this program: (1) Protect, mitigate, and enhance Columbia River subbasin anadromous fish resources. (2) Develop, reintroduce, and increase natural spawning populations of salmon within the Clearwater River subbasin. (3) Provide long-term harvest opportunities for Tribal and non-Tribal anglers within Nez Perce Treaty lands within four generations (20 years) following project completion. (4) Sustain long-term fitness and genetic integrity of targeted fish populations. (5) Keep ecological and genetic impacts to non-target populations within acceptable limits. (6) Promote Nez Perce Tribal Management of Nez Perce Tribal hatchery Facilities and production areas within Nez Perce Treaty lands. Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery is a supplementation program that will rear and release spring, fall, and early-fall stocks of chinook salmon. Two life stages of spring chinook salmon will be released: parr and presmolts. Fall and early-fall chinook salmon will be released as subyearling smolts. The intent of NPTHC is to use conventional hatchery and Natural Rearing Enhancement Systems (NATURES) techniques to develop, increase and restore natural populations of spring and fall chinook salmon in the Clearwater River subbasin.

  13. Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Complex; Operations and Maintenance and 2004 Annual Operation Plan, 2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Harty, Harold R.; Penney, Aaron K.; Larson, Roy Edward

    2005-12-01

    The Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery (NPTH) responds directly to a need to mitigate for naturally-reproducing salmon in the Clearwater River subbasin. The overall goal is to produce and release fish that will survive to adulthood, spawn in the Clearwater River subbasin and produce viable offspring that will support future natural production and genetic integrity. Several underlying purposes of fisheries management will be maintained through this program: (1) Protect, mitigate, and enhance Columbia River subbasin anadromous fish resources. (2) Develop, reintroduce, and increase natural spawning populations of salmon within the Clearwater River subbasin. (3) Provide long-term harvest opportunities for Tribal and non-Tribal anglers within Nez Perce Treaty lands within four generations (20 years) following project completion. (4) Sustain long-term fitness and genetic integrity of targeted fish populations. (5) Keep ecological and genetic impacts to non-target populations within acceptable limits. (6) Promote Nez Perce Tribal Management of Nez Perce Tribal hatchery Facilities and production areas within Nez Perce Treaty lands. Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery is a supplementation program that will rear and release spring, fall, and early-fall stocks of chinook salmon. Two life stages of spring chinook salmon will be released: parr and presmolts. Fall and early-fall chinook salmon will be released as subyearling smolts. The intent of NPTHC is to use conventional hatchery and Natural Rearing Enhancement Systems (NATURES) techniques to develop, increase and restore natural populations of spring and fall chinook salmon in the Clearwater River subbasin.

  14. Impact of the Three Gorges Dam on the spawning stock and natural reproduction of Chinese sturgeon in Changjiang River, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xin; Lin, Pengcheng; Li, Mingzheng; Duan, Zhonghua; Liu, Huanzhang

    2016-09-01

    Chinese sturgeon ( Acipenser sinensis) is the flagship species of the Changjiang River. The migration route of this species is blocked by the first dam, the Gezhou Dam, and its reproduction is affected by the Three Gorges Dam (TGD), one of the largest dams in the world. We studied the impact of the impoundment of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) since 2003 on the spawning stock and the natural reproduction of the Chinese sturgeon by using our monitoring data from 1997 to 2013. Results indicate that TGR impoundment has delayed the first spawning dates of the fish from middle-late October to late November, decreased the amount of spawning activities from twice to only once each year, and significantly reduced egg production. In particular, the fish did not demonstrate any spawning activities in 2013. Therefore, TGR impoundment significantly affects the natural reproduction of the fish downstream of the TGD. The spawning stock size of the fish is also predicted to further decrease in the future, which will lead to a risk of population extinction. Ecological regulations must be imposed on decreasing the water temperature to 20°C before mid-October and increasing water discharge downstream of the TGD in October to induce spawning of the Chinese sturgeon.

  15. Columbia River Hatchery Reform System-Wide Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, Dan

    2009-04-16

    The US Congress funded the Puget Sound and Coastal Washington Hatchery Reform Project via annual appropriations to the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) beginning in fiscal year 2000. Congress established the project because it recognized that while hatcheries have a necessary role to play in meeting harvest and conservation goals for Pacific Northwest salmonids, the hatchery system was in need of comprehensive reform. Most hatcheries were producing fish for harvest primarily to mitigate for past habitat loss (rather than for conservation of at-risk populations) and were not taking into account the effects of their programs on naturally spawning populations. With numerous species listed as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act (ESA), conservation of salmon in the Puget Sound area was a high priority. Genetic resources in the region were at risk and many hatchery programs as currently operated were contributing to those risks. Central to the project was the creation of a nine-member independent scientific review panel called the Hatchery Scientific Review Group (HSRG). The HSRG was charged by Congress with reviewing all state, tribal and federal hatchery programs in Puget Sound and Coastal Washington as part of a comprehensive hatchery reform effort to: conserve indigenous salmonid genetic resources; assist with the recovery of naturally spawning salmonid populations; provide sustainable fisheries; and improve the quality and cost-effectiveness of hatchery programs. The HSRG worked closely with the state, tribal and federal managers of the hatchery system, with facilitation provided by the non-profit organization Long Live the Kings and the law firm Gordon, Thomas, Honeywell, to successfully complete reviews of over 200 hatchery programs at more than 100 hatcheries across western Washington. That phase of the project culminated in 2004 with the publication of reports containing the HSRG's principles for hatchery reform and recommendations for

  16. Post-Release Performance of Natural and Hatchery Subyearling Fall Chinook Salmon in the Snake and Clearwater Rivers.

    SciTech Connect

    Connor, William P.

    2008-04-01

    In 2006, we continued a multi-year study to compare smolt-to-adult return rate (SAR) ratios between two groups of Snake River Basin fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha that reached the sea through a combination of either (1) transportation and inriver migration or (2) bypass and inriver migration. We captured natural subyearlings rearing along the Snake and Clearwater rivers and implanted them with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags, but knew in advance that sample sizes of natural fish would not be large enough for precise comparisons of SAR ratios. To increase sample sizes, we also cultured Lyons Ferry Hatchery subyearlings under a surrogate rearing strategy, implanted them with PIT tags, and released them into the Snake and Clearwater rivers to migrate seaward. The surrogate rearing strategy involved slowing growth at Dworshak National Fish Hatchery to match natural subyearlings in size at release as closely as possible, while insuring that all of the surrogate subyearlings were large enough for tagging (i.e., 60-mm fork length). Surrogate subyearlings were released from late May to early July 2006 to coincide with the historical period of peak beach seine catch of natural parr in the Snake and Clearwater rivers. We also PIT tagged a large representative sample of hatchery subyearlings reared under a production rearing strategy and released them into the Snake and Clearwater rivers in 2006 as part of new research on dam passage experiences (i.e., transported from a dam, dam passage via bypass, dam passage via turbine intakes or spillways). The production rearing strategy involved accelerating growth at Lyons Ferry Hatchery, sometimes followed by a few weeks of acclimation at sites along the Snake and Clearwater rivers before release from May to June. Releasing production subyearlings has been suggested as a possible alternative for making inferences on the natural population if surrogate fish were not available. Smoltto-adult return rates are not

  17. Aggression and feeding of hatchery-reared and naturally reared steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry in a laboratory flume and a comparison with observations in natural streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riley, S.C.; Tatara, C.P.; Scheurer, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    We quantified the aggression and feeding of naturally reared steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry stocked into a laboratory flume with naturally reared fry or hatchery-reared fry from conventional and enriched rearing environments at three densities in the presence and absence of predators, and compared the aggression and feeding observed in the flume to that observed in two streams. Steelhead fry attack rate increased with density and was reduced in the presence of predators, but was not affected by rearing treatment. Threat rate appeared to increase with density and was significantly affected by rearing treatment combination, but was not significantly affected by predator presence. Feeding rate was not affected by density or rearing treatment, but was reduced in the presence of predators. The rate of aggression by steelhead fry in two streams was lower than that observed in the laboratory and did not increase with density. Rates of aggression and feeding of hatchery-reared and wild steelhead fry were not significantly different in the streams. Overall, we found no evidence that hatchery rearing environments caused higher aggression in steelhead fry. Laboratory observations of salmonid aggression, particularly at high density, may not reflect aggression levels in the wild. ?? 2005 NRC.

  18. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Kline, Paul A.; Willard, Catherine; Baker, Dan J.

    2003-08-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Marine Fisheries Service at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Marine Fisheries Service are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases (annual report to the Bonneville Power Administration for the research element of the program) are also reported separately. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 2001 and December 31, 2001 for the hatchery element of the program are presented in this report. In 2001, 26 anadromous sockeye salmon returned to the Sawtooth Basin. Twenty-three of these adults were captured at adult weirs located on the upper Salmon River and on Redfish Lake Creek. Three of the anadromous sockeye salmon that returned were observed below the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery weir and allowed to migrate upstream volitionally (following the dismantling of the weir on October 12, 2001). Nine anadromous adults were incorporated into the captive broodstock program spawning design in 2001. The remaining adults were released to Redfish Lake for natural spawning. Based on their marks, returning adult sockeye salmon originated from a variety of release options. Two sockeye salmon females from the anadromous group and 152 females from the brood year 1998 captive

  19. Monitoring and Evaluation Plan for the Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery, 1996 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Steward, Cleveland R.

    1996-08-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe has proposed to build and operate the Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery (NPTH) in the Clearwater River subbasin of Idaho for the purpose of restoring self-sustaining populations of spring, summer, and fall chinook salmon to their native habitats. The project comprises a combination of incubation and rearing facilities, satellite rearing facilities, juvenile and adult collection sites, and associated production and harvest management activities. As currently conceived, the NPTH program will produce approximately 768,000 spring chinook parr, 800,000 summer chinook fry, and 2,000,000 fall chinook fry on an annual basis. Hatchery fish would be spawned, reared, and released under conditions that promote wild-type characteristics, minimize genetic changes in both hatchery and wild chinook populations, and minimize undesirable ecological interactions. The primary objective is to enable hatchery-produced fish to return to reproduce naturally in the streams in which they are released. These and other characteristics of the project are described in further detail in the Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Master Plan (Larson and Mobrand 1992), the 1995 Supplement to the Master Plan (Johnson et al. 1995), and the Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Program Environmental Impact Statement (Bonneville Power Administration et al. 1996). The report in hand is referred to in project literature as the NPTH Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) Plan. This report describes monitoring and evaluation activities that will help NPTH managers determine. whether they were successful in restoring chinook salmon populations and avoiding adverse ecological impacts. Program success will be gauged primarily by changes in the abundance and distribution of supplemented chinook populations. The evaluation of project-related impacts will focus on the biological effects of constructing and operating NPTH hatchery facilities, introducing hatchery fish into the natural environment, and removing or displacing wild

  20. Colville Tribal Fish Hatchery, 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Arteburn, John; Christensen, David

    2003-03-01

    Federal hydropower projects as well as private power utility systems have had a devastating impact upon anadromous fish resources that once flourished in the Columbia River and it's tributaries. Several areas were completely blocked to anadromous fish by dams, causing the native people who's number one food resource was salmon to rely entirely upon resident fish to replace lost fisheries resources. The Colville Tribal Fish Hatchery is an artificial production program to partially mitigate for anadromous fish losses in the ''Blocked Area'' above Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams pursuant to Resident Fish Substitution Policy of the Northwest Power Planning Councils Fish and Wildlife Program. The hatchery was accepted into the Council's Fish and Wildlife Program in 1984 as a resident fish substitution measure and the hatchery was completed in 1990. The minimum production quota for this facility is 22,679 kg (50,000 lbs.) of trout. To achieve this quota the Colville Tribal Hatchery was scheduled to produce 174,000 fingerling rainbow trout (5 grams/fish), 330,000 sub-yearling rainbow trout (15 grams/fish), 80,000 legal size rainbow trout (90 grams/fish), 196,000 fingerling brook trout (5 grams/fish), 330,000 subyearling brook trout (15 grams/fish) and 60,000 lahontan cutthroat trout (15 grams/fish) in 2001. All fish produced are released into reservation waters, including boundary waters in an effort to provide a successful subsistence /recreational fishery for Colville Tribal members as well as a successful non-member sport fishery. The majority of the fish distributed from the facility are intended to provide a ''carry-over'' fishery. Fish produced at the facility are intended to be capable of contributing to the natural production component of the reservation fish populations. Contribution to the natural production component will be achieved by producing and releasing fish of sufficient quality and quantity for fish to survive to spawning maturity, to spawn

  1. Comparing the Reproductive Success of Yakima River Hatchery-and Wild-Origin Spring Chinook; Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Monitoring and Evaluation, 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Schroder, S.L.; Knudsen, C.M.; Rau, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    In the Yakima Spring Chinook supplementation program, wild fish are brought into the Cle Elum Hatchery, artificially crossed, reared, transferred to acclimation sites, and released into the upper Yakima River as smolts. When these fish mature and return to the Yakima River most of them will be allowed to spawn naturally; a few, however, will be brought back to the hatchery and used for research purposes. In order for this supplementation approach to be successful, hatchery-origin fish must be able to spawn and produce offspring under natural conditions. Recent investigations on salmonid fishes have indicated that exposure to hatchery environments during juvenile life may cause significant behavioral, physiological, and morphological changes in adult fish. These changes appear to reduce the reproductive competence of hatchery fish. In general, males are more affected than females; species with prolonged freshwater rearing periods are more strongly impacted than those with shorter rearing periods; and stocks that have been exposed to artificial culture for multiple generations are more impaired than those with a relatively short exposure history to hatchery conditions.

  2. Source-sink estimates of genetic introgression show influence of hatchery strays on wild chum salmon populations in Prince William Sound, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Jasper, James R; Habicht, Christopher; Moffitt, Steve; Brenner, Rich; Marsh, Jennifer; Lewis, Bert; Creelman Fox, Elisabeth; Grauvogel, Zac; Rogers Olive, Serena D; Grant, W Stewart

    2013-01-01

    The extent to which stray, hatchery-reared salmon affect wild populations is much debated. Although experiments show that artificial breeding and culture influence the genetics of hatchery salmon, little is known about the interaction between hatchery and wild salmon in a natural setting. Here, we estimated historical and contemporary genetic population structures of chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) in Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska, with 135 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. Historical population structure was inferred from the analysis of DNA from fish scales, which had been archived since the late 1960's for several populations in PWS. Parallel analyses with microsatellites and a test based on Hardy-Weinberg proportions showed that about 50% of the fish-scale DNA was cross-contaminated with DNA from other fish. These samples were removed from the analysis. We used a novel application of the classical source-sink model to compare SNP allele frequencies in these archived fish-scales (1964-1982) with frequencies in contemporary samples (2008-2010) and found a temporal shift toward hatchery allele frequencies in some wild populations. Other populations showed markedly less introgression, despite moderate amounts of hatchery straying. The extent of introgression may reflect similarities in spawning time and life-history traits between hatchery and wild fish, or the degree that hybrids return to a natal spawning area. The source-sink model is a powerful means of detecting low levels of introgression over several generations.

  3. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Willard, Catherine; Baker, Dan J.; Heindel, Jeff A.

    2003-12-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases (annual report to the Bonneville Power Administration for the research element of the program) are also reported separately. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2002 for the hatchery element of the program are presented in this report. n 2002, 22 anadromous sockeye salmon returned to the Sawtooth Valley. Fifteen of these adults were captured at adult weirs located on the upper Salmon River and on Redfish Lake Creek. Seven of the anadromous sockeye salmon that returned were observed below the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery weir and allowed to migrate upstream volitionally (following the dismantling of the weir on September 30, 2002). All adult returns were released to Redfish Lake for natural spawning. Based on their marks, returning adult sockeye salmon originated from a variety of release options. Sixty-six females from brood year 1999 and 28 females from brood year 2000 captive broodstock groups were spawned at the Eagle Hatchery in 2002. Spawn pairings produced approximately 65

  4. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Dan J,; Heindel, Jeff A.; Kline, Paul A.

    2005-08-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Marine Fisheries Service at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Marine Fisheries Service are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases are also reported under separate cover. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 1999 and December 31, 1999 are presented in this report. In 1999, seven anadromous sockeye salmon returned to the Sawtooth Valley and were captured at the adult weir located on the upper Salmon River. Four anadromous adults were incorporated in the captive broodstock program spawning design for year 1999. The remaining three adults were released to Redfish Lake for natural spawning. All seven adults were adipose and left ventral fin-clipped, indicating hatchery origin. One sockeye salmon female from the anadromous group and 81 females from the captive broodstock group were spawned at the Eagle Fish Hatchery in 1999. Spawn pairings produced approximately 63,147 eyed-eggs with egg survival to eyed-stage of development averaging 38.97%. Eyed-eggs (20,311), presmolts (40,271), smolts (9,718), and adults (21) were planted or released into Sawtooth Valley waters in 1999. Supplementation strategies involved releases to Redfish Lake, Redfish Lake Creek

  5. Characteristics of the Cross-Sectional Vorticity of the Natural Spawning Grounds of Schizothorax prenanti and a Vague-Set Similarity Model for Ecological Restoration.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ming-Yang; Zhang, Ling-Lei; Li, Jia; Li, Yong; Li, Nan; Chen, Ming-Qian

    2015-01-01

    Schizothorax prenanti is an endemic fish in the mountain rivers of southwestern China with unique protection value. To further explore the vortex motion of hydraulic habitats, which is closely related to the fish breeding process, the cross-sectional vorticity was used to evaluate the hydraulic conditions of the natural spawning habitat of S. prenanti. A coupled level-set and volume-of-fluid (CLSVOF) three-dimensional (3D) model was applied to simulate the hydraulic habitat of the Weimen reach, a typical natural spawning ground for S. prenanti in the upper Yangtze River. The model was used in conjunction with the Wilcoxon rank sum test to distinguish the distributions of vertical vorticity in spawning and non-spawning reaches. Statistical analysis revealed that the cross-sectional vorticity in spawning reaches was significantly greater than in non-spawning reaches, with likely biological significance in the spawning process. The range of cross-sectional mean values of vorticity was 0.17 s(-1)-0.35 s(-1) in areas with concentrated fish sperm and eggs; the minimum value was 0.17 s(-1), and the majority of values were greater than 0.26 s(-1). Based on this study, a vague-set similarity model was used to assess the effectiveness of ecological restoration by evaluating the similarity of the cross-sectional vorticity of the natural spawning reach and rehabilitated spawning reach after implementing ecological restoration measures. The outcome might provide a theoretical basis for the recovery of damaged S. prenanti spawning grounds and act as an important complement for the assessment of recovery effectiveness and as a useful reference for the coordination of ecological water use with the demands of hydraulic and hydropower engineering.

  6. Characteristics of the Cross-Sectional Vorticity of the Natural Spawning Grounds of Schizothorax prenanti and a Vague-Set Similarity Model for Ecological Restoration

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ming-Yang; Zhang, Ling-Lei; Li, Jia; Li, Yong; Li, Nan; Chen, Ming-Qian

    2015-01-01

    Schizothorax prenanti is an endemic fish in the mountain rivers of southwestern China with unique protection value. To further explore the vortex motion of hydraulic habitats, which is closely related to the fish breeding process, the cross-sectional vorticity was used to evaluate the hydraulic conditions of the natural spawning habitat of S. prenanti. A coupled level-set and volume-of-fluid (CLSVOF) three-dimensional (3D) model was applied to simulate the hydraulic habitat of the Weimen reach, a typical natural spawning ground for S. prenanti in the upper Yangtze River. The model was used in conjunction with the Wilcoxon rank sum test to distinguish the distributions of vertical vorticity in spawning and non-spawning reaches. Statistical analysis revealed that the cross-sectional vorticity in spawning reaches was significantly greater than in non-spawning reaches, with likely biological significance in the spawning process. The range of cross-sectional mean values of vorticity was 0.17 s-1–0.35 s-1 in areas with concentrated fish sperm and eggs; the minimum value was 0.17 s-1, and the majority of values were greater than 0.26 s-1. Based on this study, a vague-set similarity model was used to assess the effectiveness of ecological restoration by evaluating the similarity of the cross-sectional vorticity of the natural spawning reach and rehabilitated spawning reach after implementing ecological restoration measures. The outcome might provide a theoretical basis for the recovery of damaged S. prenanti spawning grounds and act as an important complement for the assessment of recovery effectiveness and as a useful reference for the coordination of ecological water use with the demands of hydraulic and hydropower engineering. PMID:26317847

  7. Spawning migration of lacustrine-adfluvial bull trout in a natural area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brenkman, Samuel J.; Larson, Gary L.; Gresswell, Robert E.

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the spawning migration of lacustrine-adfluvial bull trout Salvelinus confluentus in the North Fork Skokomish River in Olympic National Park (Washington State) during 1996. Day-snorkeling and electrofishing were conducted to determine timing and duration of the migration and the distribution and abundance of bull trout. The primary spawning migration began in early October and was waning by December. Bull trout migrated 6 km or less up the river from Lake Cushman. Increased river discharge and decreased water temperature appeared to be the primary environmental variables corresponding to the initiation of the migration. Mean length of migratory bull trout increased from June to December. Comparisons with other lacustrine-adfluvial bull trout populations in Oregon, Montana, Idaho, and British Columbia suggested that these populations exhibit specific migratory strategies related to local environmental conditions.

  8. Kalispel Resident Fish Project: Kalispel Tribal Hatchery Operations and Maintenance, 1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bluff, Stanley

    2000-12-01

    In October of 1997, The construction of the Kalispel Tribal Hatchery was complete. No spawning activity was recorded for the spring of 1998. On June 14, 1999 the first spawn at the Kalispel Tribal Hatchery was successful. A total of seven nests were fertilized that produced approximately 144,000 fry. The second spawn occurred on July 13, 1999 and a total of six nests were fertilized producing approximately 98,0000 fry. The total amount of largemouth bass fry produced at the Kalispel Tribal Hatchery was 242,000.

  9. Spawning redfish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Researchers at the University of Texas at Austin have succeeded in spawning redfish continuously for 16 months, according to Connie Arnold, head of the university's mariculture program. The scientists witnessed the 138th separate spawn in November. Their work makes year-round spawning possible and, with it, the development of a fully productive mariculture industry, Arnold said. A severe decline in the redfish population off the Texas coast this year prompted the banning of commercial redfish harvesting for 2 years.

  10. Recovery of white sturgeon populations through natural production: Understanding the influence of abiotic and biotic factors on spawning and subsequent recruitment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsley, M.J.; Anders, P.J.; Miller, A.I.; Beckman, L.G.; McCabe, G.T.

    2002-01-01

    Recovery or maintenance of sturgeon populations through natural production in perturbed rivers requires adequate knowledge of the abiotic and biotic factors that influence spawning and cause mortality of embryonic, larval, and juvenile life stages. Although it is known that year-class strength of white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus is determined within 2-3 months after spawning, little is known about specific causes of mortality to early life stages during this period. Initial spawning success is critical in the development of a strong year-class, and maximized recruitment may be dependent upon water temperature and the availability of optimal in-river habitat. Analyses have shown that increased river discharge combined with suitable water temperatures during spawning, egg incubation, yolk sac larvae dispersal, and first exogenous feeding result in greater recruitment. However, little is known about the importance of other variables, such as food availability or losses due to predation that influence year-class strength. ?? 2002 by the American Fisheries Society.

  11. Habitat selection and spawning success of walleye in a tributary to Owasco Lake, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chalupnicki, Marc A.; Johnson, James H.; McKenna, James E.; Dittman, Dawn E.

    2010-01-01

    Walleyes Sander vitreus are stocked into Owasco Lake, New York, to provide a sport fishery, but the population must be sustained by annual hatchery supplementation despite the presence of appropriate habitat. Therefore, we evaluated walleye spawning success in Dutch Hollow Brook, a tributary of Owasco Lake, to determine whether early survival limited recruitment. Spawning success during spring 2006 and 2007 was evaluated by estimating egg densities from samples collected in the lower 725 m of the stream. Environmental variables were also recorded to characterize the selected spawning habitat. Drift nets were set downstream of the spawning section to assess egg survival and larval drift. We estimated that 162,596 larvae hatched in 2006. For 2007, we estimated that 360,026 eggs were deposited, with a hatch of 127,500 larvae and hatching success of 35.4%. Egg density was significantly correlated to percent cover, substrate type, and depth : velocity ratio. Two sections had significantly higher egg deposition than other areas. Adult spawning walleyes selected shallow, slow habitats with some cover and gravel substrate in the accessible reaches of Dutch Hollow Brook. Our results show that walleyes found suitable spawning habitat in Dutch Hollow Brook and that egg and larval development does not appear to limit natural reproduction.

  12. Effectiveness of an integrated hatchery program: Can genetic-based performance differences between hatchery and wild Chinook salmon be avoided?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayes, Michael C.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Rubin, Stephen P.; Drake, Deanne C.; Stenberg, Karl D.; Young, Sewall F.

    2013-01-01

    Performance of wild (W) and hatchery (H) spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) was evaluated for a sixth generation hatchery program. Management techniques to minimize genetic divergence from the wild stock included regular use of wild broodstock and volitional releases of juveniles. Performance of HH, WW, and HW (hatchery female spawned with wild male) crosses was compared in hatchery and stream environments. The WW juveniles emigrated from the hatchery at two to three times the rate of HH fish in the fall (HW intermediate) and 35% more HH than WW adults returned (27% more HW than WW adults). Performance in the stream did not differ statistically between HH and WW fish, but outmigrants (38% WW, 30% HW, and 32% HH fish) during the first 39 days of the 16-month sampling period composed 74% of total outmigrants. Differences among hatchery-reared crosses were partially due to additive genetic effects, were consistent with domestication (increased fitness for the hatchery population in the hatchery program), and suggested that selection against fall emigration from the hatchery was a possible mechanism of domestication.

  13. Kalispel Resident Fish Project- Kalispel Tribal Hatchery Operations and Maintenance, 1997 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Kalispel Tribe, Department of Natural Resources

    1998-01-01

    In 1996, construction activities commenced on a largemouth bass hatchery located on the Kalispel Indian Reservation. The major construction activities were complete as of October 1997. Of the six objectives identified in the 1997 Annual Operating Plan two objectives were fully achieved: the assembly of the life support system, and the preparation of the hatchery Operations and Maintenance Manual. The remaining four objectives were not fully achieved due to the hatchery not being completed before the spawning season (spring).

  14. Kalispel Resident Fish Project: Kalispel Tribal Hatchery Operations and Maintenance, 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bluff, Stanley

    2000-12-01

    No Annual Production Goals were achieved for the year. The Kalispel Hatchery experienced two episodes of brood fish mortality. The first due to a standpipe malfunction and the second attributed to gas bubble disease caused by elevated Total Dissolved Gases (TDG's) in the reservoir. To date, the hatchery has 29 brood fish in the raceway and ready to spawn. If all things go well this spring, hatchery operations should be well underway next year.

  15. Kalispel Resident Fish Project : Tribal Hatchery Operations and Maintenance Annual Report, 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Nenema, David

    2003-03-01

    The Kalispel Tribal hatchery successfully spawned largemouth bass broodfish in spring 2002. Approximately 150,000 eggs were produced and hatched. These fry were started on brine shrimp for a period of ten days. At this time, the fry needed more abundance food supply. Cannibalism started and the hatchery staff transferred the remaining fry to the river in hopes that some fish would survive.

  16. Comparing life history characteristics of Lake Michigan’s naturalized and stocked Chinook Salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kerns, Janice A; Rogers, Mark W.; Bunnell, David; Claramunt, Randall M.; Collingsworth, Paris D.

    2016-01-01

    Lake Michigan supports popular fisheries for Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha that have been sustained by stocking since the late 1960s. Natural recruitment of Chinook Salmon in Lake Michigan has increased in the past few decades and currently contributes more than 50% of Chinook Salmon recruits. We hypothesized that selective forces differ for naturalized populations born in the wild and hatchery populations, resulting in divergent life history characteristics with implications for Chinook Salmon population production and the Lake Michigan fishery. First, we conducted a historical analysis to determine if life history characteristics changed through time as the Chinook Salmon population became increasingly naturalized. Next, we conducted a 2-year field study of naturalized and hatchery stocked Chinook Salmon spawning populations to quantify differences in fecundity, egg size, timing of spawning, and size at maturity. In general, our results did not indicate significant life history divergence between naturalized and hatchery-stocked Chinook Salmon populations in Lake Michigan. Although historical changes in adult sex ratio were correlated with the proportion of naturalized individuals, changes in weight at maturity were better explained by density-dependent factors. The field study revealed no divergence in fecundity, timing of spawning, or size at maturity, and only small differences in egg size (hatchery > naturalized). For the near future, our results suggest that the limited life history differences observed between Chinook Salmon of naturalized and hatchery origin will not lead to large differences in characteristics important to the dynamics of the population or fishery.

  17. Umatilla Hatchery Satellite Facilities; Operations and Maintenance, Annual Report 2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Rowan, Gerald

    2003-05-01

    , and were transported to South Fork Walla Walla. An estimated 1,017,113 green eggs were taken from 266 females and were transferred to Umatilla Hatchery. Excess unmarked broodstock (seven adult males, five jacks, and 34 females) were released into the South Fork Walla Walla River at the end of spawning. A total of 168 adult and eight jack spring chinook salmon were transferred from Three Mile Dam to South Fork Walla Walla between June 6 and June 23 for temporary holding. On August 8, 154 adults and eight jacks were released into the South Fork Walla Walla River to spawn naturally. A total of 214 adult spring chinook salmon were transferred from Ringold Hatchery to South Fork Walla Walla between June 7 and June 20 for temporary holding. On August 8, 171 were released into natural production areas in the Walla Walla River basin to spawn naturally. A total of 525 adult and 34 jack fall chinook salmon were collected and held for broodstock at Three Mile Dam from September 16 to November 17, 2002. An estimated 678,122 green eggs were taken from 183 females. The eggs were transferred to Umatilla Hatchery. Coho salmon broodstock were not collected in 2002. Personnel from the ODFW Eastern Oregon Fish Pathology Laboratory in La Grande took samples of tissues and reproductive fluids from Umatilla River summer steelhead and spring and fall chinook salmon broodstock for monitoring and evaluation purposes. Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) was detected in five of 68 spawned summer steelhead. Summer steelhead were not examined for bacterial kidney disease (Renibacterium salmoninarum; BKD) in 2002. Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus was detected in 27 of 78 spawned spring chinook females. Two hundred sixty-six spawned spring chinook females were sampled for BKD and two had low to moderate levels of Rs antigen (ELISA OD{sub 405} readings of 0.260 and 0.365). All others had low to negative levels of Rs antigen (ELISA OD{sub 405} readings of 0.00 to 0.099). Twenty

  18. Genetic evaluation of a Great Lakes lake trout hatchery program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Page, K.S.; Scribner, K.T.; Bast, D.; Holey, M.E.; Burnham-Curtis, M. K.

    2005-01-01

    Efforts over several decades to restore lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in U.S. waters of the upper Great Lakes have emphasized the stocking of juveniles from each of six hatchery broodstocks. Retention of genetic diversity across all offspring life history stages throughout the hatchery system has been an important component of the restoration hatchery and stocking program. Different stages of the lake trout hatchery program were examined to determine how effective hatchery practices have been in minimizing the loss of genetic diversity in broodstock adults and in progeny stocked. Microsatellite loci were used to estimate allele frequencies, measures of genetic diversity, and relatedness for wild source populations, hatchery broodstocks, and juveniles. We also estimated the effective number of breeders for each broodstock. Hatchery records were used to track destinations of fertilized eggs from all spawning dates to determine whether adult contributions to stocking programs were proportional to reproductive effort. Overall, management goals of maintaining genetic diversity were met across all stages of the hatchery program; however, we identified key areas where changes in mating regimes and in the distribution of fertilized gametes and juveniles could be improved. Estimates of effective breeding population size (Nb) were 9-41% of the total number of adults spawned. Low estimates of Nb were primarily attributed to spawning practices, including the pooling of gametes from multiple males and females and the reuse of males. Nonrandom selection and distribution of fertilized eggs before stocking accentuated declines in effective breeding population size and increased levels of relatedness of juveniles distributed to different rearing facilities and stocking locales. Adoption of guidelines that decrease adult reproductive variance and promote more equitable reproductive contributions of broodstock adults to juveniles would further enhance management goals of

  19. Emigration of Natural and Hatchery Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Smolts from the Imnaha River, Oregon, October 20, 1999 to June 15, 2000 : 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Cleary, Peter J.

    2002-12-01

    This report details the smolt performance of natural and hatchery chinook salmon and steelhead from the Imnaha River to the Snake River and Columbia River dams during migration year 2000. Flow conditions in the Imnaha River and Snake River were appreciably lower during May and June in 2000, compared to historic levels at gauging stations, but flow conditions in the Imnaha and Snake River were above average during April. Overall, water conditions for the entire Columbia River were characterized by the Fish Passage Center as below normal levels. Spill occurred continuously at Lower Granite Dam (LGR), Little Goose Dam (LGO), and Lower Monumental Dam (LMO) from April 5, April 10, and April 4, respectively, to June 20, and encompassed the periods of migration of Imnaha River juvenile chinook salmon and steelhead, with a few exceptions. Outflow in the tailraces of LGR, LGO, and LMO decreased in May and June while temperatures increased. Chinook salmon and steelhead were captured using rotary screw traps at river kilometer (rkm) 74 and 7 during the fall from October 20 to November 24, 1999, and during the spring period from February 26 to June 15, 2000, at rkm 7. Spring trapping information was reported weekly to the Fish Passage Center's Smolt Monitoring Program. A portion of these fish were tagged weekly with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags and were detected migrating past interrogation sites at Snake River and Columbia River dams. Survival of PIT tagged fish was estimated with the Survival Using Proportional Hazards model (SURPH model). Estimated survival of fall tagged natural chinook (with {+-} 95% confidence intervals in parenthesis) from the upper Imnaha (rkm 74) to LGR was 29.6% ({+-} 2.8 ). Natural chinook salmon tagged in the fall in the lower Imnaha River at rkm 7, which over wintered in the Snake River, had an estimated survival of 36.8% ({+-} 2.9%) to LGR. Spring tagged natural chinook salmon from the lower site had an estimated survival of 84

  20. On the reproductive success of early-generation hatchery fish in the wild

    PubMed Central

    Christie, Mark R; Ford, Michael J; Blouin, Michael S

    2014-01-01

    Large numbers of hatchery salmon spawn in wild populations each year. Hatchery fish with multiple generations of hatchery ancestry often have heritably lower reproductive success than wild fish and may reduce the fitness of an entire population. Whether this reduced fitness also occurs for hatchery fish created with local- and predominantly wild-origin parents remains controversial. Here, we review recent studies on the reproductive success of such ‘early-generation’ hatchery fish that spawn in the wild. Combining 51 estimates from six studies on four salmon species, we found that (i) early-generation hatchery fish averaged only half the reproductive success of their wild-origin counterparts when spawning in the wild, (ii) the reduction in reproductive success was more severe for males than for females, and (iii) all species showed reduced fitness due to hatchery rearing. We review commonalities among studies that point to possible mechanisms (e.g., environmental versus genetic effects). Furthermore, we illustrate that sample sizes typical of these studies result in low statistical power to detect fitness differences unless the differences are substantial. This review demonstrates that reduced fitness of early-generation hatchery fish may be a general phenomenon. Future research should focus on determining the causes of those fitness reductions and whether they lead to long-term reductions in the fitness of wild populations. PMID:25469167

  1. Genetic differences in growth and survival of juvenile hatchery and wild steelhead trout, Salmo gairdneri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reisenbichler, R.R.; McIntyre, J.D.

    1997-01-01

    Relative growth and survival of offspring from matings of hatchery and wild Deschutes River (Oregon) summer steelhead trout, Salmo gairdneri, were measured to determine if hatchery fish differ genetically from wild fish in traits that can affect the stock–recruitment relationship of wild populations. Sections of four natural streams and a hatchery pond were each stocked with genetically marked (lactate dehydrogenase genotypes) eyed eggs or unfed swim-up fry from each of three matings: hatchery × hatchery (HH), hatchery × wild (HW), and wild × wild (WW). In streams, WW fish had the highest survival and HW fish the highest growth rates when significant differences were found; in the hatchery pond, HH fish had the highest survival and growth rates. The hatchery fish were genetically different from wild fish and when they interbreed with wild fish may reduce the number of smolts produced. Hatchery procedures can be modified to reduce the genetic differences between hatchery and wild fish.

  2. Comparing the Reproductive Success of Yakima River Hatchery- and Wild-Origin Spring Chinook; Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Monitoring and Evaluation, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Schroder, S.L.; Pearsons, T.N.; Knudsen, C.M.

    2005-05-01

    A growing body of literature suggests that adult salmon produced by artificial culture are not as reproductively successful as wild fish when they spawn under natural conditions. Behavioral, morphological, and physiological divergences have been observed between hatchery and wild fish. These disparities are the likely proximate causes of the differences seen in the reproductive success of hatchery and wild salmonids. Two evolutionary paradigms have been proposed to explain why salmonids cultured in hatcheries are genetically and phenotypically different from wild cohorts. The first proposes that natural selection has been significantly relaxed in hatcheries. Consequently, fish that normally would have perished because of the possession of unsuitable traits are able to survive. If these traits have a genetic basis, they may become established in a hatchery population and cause its productivity to be less than expected if the fish are once again exposed to natural selection pressures. The second theorizes that environmental and social conditions in hatcheries are less variable than in the natural environment and that these conditions will remain relatively constant from one generation to the next. In this circumstance, selection for genetic traits that adapt fish to artificial culture will become prevalent in the population. Such traits may be mal-adaptive under natural conditions. Many of the studies that have compared the reproductive success (RS) of hatchery and wild fish, however, have used non-local hatchery fish that have experienced multiple generations of hatchery culture. Few efforts have been made where both the hatchery and wild fish have originated from the same population. When such studies have been performed differences in the competency of the fish to produce offspring have not been detected or are not as great as those expressed when non-local hatchery fish have been used. The hatchery spring Chinook produced by the Yakima Fisheries Project

  3. Predation on Chinook Salmon parr by hatchery salmonids and Fallfish in the Salmon River, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, James H.; Nack, Christopher C.; Chalupnicki, Marc; Abbett, Ross; McKenna, James E.

    2016-01-01

    Naturally reproduced Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha contribute substantially to the fishery in Lake Ontario. The Salmon River, a Lake Ontario tributary in New York, produces the largest numbers of naturally spawned Chinook Salmon, with parr abundance in the river often exceeding 10 million. In the spring of each year, large numbers of hatchery salmonid yearlings—potential predators of Chinook Salmon parr—are released into the Salmon River by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. We sought to examine predation on Chinook Salmon parr in the Salmon River during May and June prior to out-migration. Over the 4 years examined (2009–2012), annual consumption of Chinook Salmon parr by hatchery-released yearling steelhead O. mykiss and Coho Salmon O. kisutch ranged from 1.5 to 3.3 million and from 0.4 to 2.1 million, respectively. In 2009, Fallfish Semotilus corporalis were estimated to consume 2.9 million Chinook Salmon parr. Predation was higher in May, when the average TL of Chinook Salmon parr was 44.5 mm, than in June. Fallfish were also important predators of naturally reproduced steelhead subyearlings, consuming an estimated 800,000 steelhead in 2009. Hatchery-released yearling salmonids consumed 13.8–15.3% of the Chinook Salmon parr that were estimated to be present in the Salmon River during 2010–2012. Earlier releases of hatchery salmonid yearlings could reduce the riverine consumption of Chinook Salmon parr by facilitating the out-migration of yearlings prior to Chinook Salmon emergence.

  4. Reproductive Ecology of Yakima River Hatchery and Wild Spring Chinook; Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Monitoring and Evaluation, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Knudsen, Curtis M.

    2003-05-01

    This report is intended to satisfy two concurrent needs: (1) provide a contract deliverable from Oncorh Consulting to the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), with emphasis on identification of salient results of value to ongoing Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project (YKFP) planning, and (2) summarize results of research that have broader scientific relevance. This is the second in a series of reports that address reproductive ecological research and monitoring of spring chinook in the Yakima River basin. In addition to within-year comparisons, between-year comparisons will be made to determine if traits of the wild Naches basin control population, the naturally spawning population in the upper Yakima River and the hatchery control population are diverging over time. This annual report summarizes data collected between April 1, 2002 and March 31, 2003. In the future, these data will be compared to previous years to identify general trends and make preliminary comparisons. Supplementation success in the Yakima Klickitat Fishery Project's (YKFP) spring chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) program is defined as increasing natural production and harvest opportunities, while keeping adverse ecological interactions and genetic impacts within acceptable bounds (Busack et al. 1997). Within this context demographics, phenotypic traits, and reproductive ecology have significance because they directly affect natural productivity. In addition, significant changes in locally adapted traits due to hatchery influence, i.e. domestication, would likely be maladaptive resulting in reduced population productivity and fitness (Taylor 1991; Hard 1995). Thus, there is a need to study demographic and phenotypic traits in the YKFP in order to understand hatchery and wild population productivity, reproductive ecology, and the effects of domestication (Busack et al. 1997). Tracking trends in these traits over time is also a critical aspect of domestication monitoring (Busack et al

  5. Differences in survival and growth in hatchery and stream environments, and in maturation of residuls in a stream, between progeny of hatchery and wild steelhead (Study sites: Brushy Fork Creek and Dworshak Hatchery; Stocks:Dworshak hatchery and Fish Creek wild; Year classes: 1992 and 1993): Chapter 1

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Hensleigh, Jay E.; Leonetti,; Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Hayes, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    Freshwater survival in hatchery and natural rearing environments was compared between progeny of hatchery (H) and wild (W) steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss from the Clearwater River drainage in Idaho. Adults from Dworshak National Fish Hatchery and wild adults from Fish Creek fish were artificially spawned, and their progeny were genetically marked at the PEPA allozyme locus and released together as unfed fry in production facilities at the hatchery and in Brushy Fork Creek, also in the Clearwater River drainage, in a common garden design. Survival was higher for H than for W progeny at the hatchery but lower for H than for W progeny in Brushy Fork, indicating reduced fitness of the hatchery population for natural rearing and suggesting domestication as the cause. Survival at the hatchery was lower than is typical due to disease outbreaks. Survival of the first year-class of experimental fish to smolt release was only 18%. Survival of H fish was 3.8 times that of W fish under these poor survival conditions. All fish from the second year-class died halfway through the scheduled 10 month rearing period. Survival of H fish was 5.2 times that of W fish to when 1% of the initial fry were still alive indicating that W fish succumbed to the epizootic sooner than did H fish. Emigrants from the Brushy Fork study reach were sampled for three years and fish residing in the study reach were sampled for six years following fry release. Most emigrants were one or two years old and too small to be smolts (mean fork length at age-2 = 93 mm). Survival in Brushy Fork was lower for H than for W fish of the first year-class. Survival of the second year-class was higher for H than for W fish during the first two months in the stream but was lower for H than for W fish thereafter, and net survival from release to ages 3 and older was also lower for H than for W fish if our emigrant samples were representative (periods of inoperative emigrant traps prevented certainty about this

  6. Spawning Distribution of Fall Chinook Salmon in the Snake River : Annual Report 1998.

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, Aaron P.

    1999-03-01

    In 1998 data was collected on the spawning distribution of the first adult fall chinook salmon to return from releases of yearling hatchery fish upriver of Lower Granite Dam. Yearling fish were released at three locations with the intent of distributing spawning throughout the existing habitat. The project was designed to use radio-telemetry to determine if the use of multiple release sites resulted in widespread spawning.

  7. Identification of biofloc microscopic composition as the natural bioremediation in zero water exchange of Pacific white shrimp, Penaeus vannamei, culture in closed hatchery system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manan, Hidayah; Moh, Julia Hwei Zhong; Kasan, Nor Azman; Suratman, Suhaimi; Ikhwanuddin, Mhd

    2016-06-01

    Study on the microscopic composition of biofloc in closed hatchery culture system was carried out to determine the interaction between the aggregation flocs in the bioremediation process for the decomposition and degradation of organic matter loaded in the shrimp culture tanks. The study was done for 105 days of culture period in zero water exchange. All of the organic loaded in the culture tanks identified comes from the shrimp feces, uneaten fed, and the decomposed macro- and microorganisms died in the culture tanks. All of the microscopic organisms in the biofloc were identified using Advance microscopes Nikon 80i. From the present study, there were abundances and high varieties of phytoplankton, zooplankton, protozoa, nematodes and algae species identified as aggregates together in the flocs accumulation. All of these microscopic organisms identified implemented the symbiotic process together for food supply, become the algae grazer, act as natural water stabilizer in regulating the nutrients in culture tank and serve as decomposer for dead organic matter in the water environment. Heterotrophic bacteria identified from Pseudomonas and Aeromonas family consumed the organic matter loaded at the bottom of culture tank and converted items through chemical process as useful protein food to be consumed back by the shrimp. Overall it can be concluded that the biofloc organisms identified really contributed as natural bioremediation agents in zero water exchange culture system to ensure the water quality in the optimal condition until the end of culture period.

  8. Northeast Oregon Hatchery Project, Final Siting Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, Montgomery

    1995-03-01

    This report presents the results of site analysis for the Bonneville Power Administration Northeast Oregon Hatchery Project. The purpose of this project is to provide engineering services for the siting and conceptual design of hatchery facilities for the Bonneville Power Administration. The hatchery project consists of artificial production facilities for salmon and steelhead to enhance production in three adjacent tributaries to the Columbia River in northeast Oregon: the Grande Ronde, Walla Walla, and Imnaha River drainage basins. Facilities identified in the master plan include adult capture and holding facilities; spawning incubation, and early rearing facilities; full-term rearing facilities; and direct release or acclimation facilities. The evaluation includes consideration of a main production facility for one or more of the basins or several smaller satellite production facilities to be located within major subbasins. The historic and current distribution of spring and fall chinook salmon and steelhead was summarized for the Columbia River tributaries. Current and future production and release objectives were reviewed. Among the three tributaries, forty seven sites were evaluated and compared to facility requirements for water and space. Site screening was conducted to identify the sites with the most potential for facility development. Alternative sites were selected for conceptual design of each facility type. A proposed program for adult holding facilities, final rearing/acclimation, and direct release facilities was developed.

  9. Fish Research Project, Oregon : Evaluation of the Success of Supplementing Imnaha River Steelhead with Hatchery Reared Smolts: Phase One : Completion Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Carmichael, Richard W.; Whitesel, Timothy A.; Jonasson, Brian C.

    1995-08-01

    Two streams in the Imnaha River subbasin (Camp Creek and Little Sheep Creek) and eight streams in the Grande Ronde River subbasin (Catherine, Deer, Five Points, Fly, Indian, Lookingglass, Meadow, and Sheep creeks) were selected as study streams to evaluate the success and impacts of steelhead supplementation in northeast Oregon. The habitat of the study streams was inventoried to compare streams and to evaluate whether habitat might influence the performance parameters we will measure in the study. The mean fecundity of hatchery and natural steelhead 1-salts returning to Little Sheep Creek fish facility in 1990 and 1991 ranged from 3,550 to 4,663 eggs/female; the mean fecundity of hatchery and natural steelhead 2-salts ranged from 5,020 to 5,879 eggs/female. Variation in length explained 57% of the variation in fecundity of natural steelhead, but only 41% to 51% of the variation in fecundity of hatchery steelhead. Adult steelhead males had an average spermatocrit of 43.9% at spawning. We were also able to stain sperm cells so that viable cells could be distinguished from dead cells. Large, red disc tags may be the most useful for observing adults on the spawning grounds. The density of wild, juvenile steelhead ranged from 0 fish/l00{sup 2} to 35.1 (age-0) and 14.0 (age-1) fish/l00m{sup 2}. Evidence provided from the National Marine Fisheries Service suggests that hatchery and wild fish within a subbasin are genetically similar. The long-term experimental design is presented as a component of this report.

  10. Reproductive Ecology of Yakima River Hatchery and Wild Spring Chinook; Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Monitoring and Evaluation, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Knudsen, Curtis M.; Schroder, Steven L.; Johnston, Mark V.

    2005-05-01

    deals specifically with identification of putative populations of wild spring chinook in the Yakima River basin based on differences in quantitative and genetic traits. The third chapter is a progress report on gametic traits and progeny produced by upper Yakima River wild and hatchery origin fish spawned in 2004 including some comparisons with Little Naches River fish. In the fourth chapter, we present a progress report on comparisons naturally spawning wild and hatchery fish in the upper Yakima River and in an experimental spawning channel at CESRF in 2004. The chapters in this report are in various stages of development. Chapters One and Two will be submitted for peer reviewed publication. Chapters Three and Four should be considered preliminary and additional fieldwork and/or analysis are in progress related to these topics. Readers are cautioned that any preliminary conclusions are subject to future revision as more data and analytical results become available.

  11. Occurrence of antibiotics in water from fish hatcheries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thurman, Earl M.; Dietze, Julie E.; Scribner, Elisabeth A.

    2002-01-01

    The recent discovery of pharmaceuticals in streams across the United States (Kolpin and others, 2002) has raised the visibility and need for monitoring of antibiotics in the environment. Possible sources of antibiotics and other pharmaceuticals in streams may include fish hatcheries. This fact sheet presents the results from a preliminary study of fish hatcheries across the United States for the occurrence and concentration of antibiotics present in fish hatchery water. The study examines both sufonamides and tetracyclines. Sulfonamides are synthetic compounds, and tetracyclines are naturally occurring compounds. The use of antibiotics added to specially formulated feed is a common practice in fish hatcheries to treat and prevent bacterial infections in large fish populations. U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved antibiotics are oxytetracycline-HCI, sulfamerazine, and a combination drug containing ormetoprim and sulfadiamethoxine (U.S. Food and Drug Administration, 2003). During January 2001?June 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Organic Geochemistry Research Laboratory (OGRL), Lawrence, Kansas, cooperatively collected water samples from 13 fish hatcheries across the United States (fig. 1) with the assistance of hatchery operators. A method for the analysis of antibiotics was developed and used to identify and quantify these compounds in fish hatchery water (Lindsey and others, 2001). This study was completed to determine if trace levels of antibiotics [approximately 1 microgram per liter (?g/L) or 1 part per billion or greater occurred] in which water associated with fish hatcheries, which are a potential source of these compounds in surface water.

  12. Emigration of Natural and Hatchery Naco x (Chinook salmon; Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and Heeyey (Steelhead; Oncorhynchus mykiss) Smolts from the Imnaha River, Oregon from 5 October 2006 to 21 June 2007, Annual Report 2007.

    SciTech Connect

    Michaels, Brian; Espinosa, Neal

    2009-02-18

    This report summarizes the Nez Perce Tribe (NPT) Department of Fisheries Resources Management (DFRM) results for the Lower Snake River Compensation Plan (LSRCP) Hatchery Evaluation studies and the Imnaha River Smolt Monitoring Program (SMP) for the 2007 smolt migration from the Imnaha River, Oregon. These studies are closely coordinated and provide information about juvenile natural and hatchery spring/summer Naco x (Chinook Salmon; Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and Heeyey (steelhead; O. mykiss) biological characteristics, emigrant timing, survival, arrival timing and travel time to the Snake River dams and McNary Dam (MCD) on the Columbia River. These studies provide information on listed Naco x (Chinook salmon) and Heeyey (steelhead) for the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) Biological Opinion (NMFS 2000). The Lower Snake River Compensation Plan program's goal is to maintain a hatchery production program of 490,000 Naco x (Chinook salmon) and 330,000 Heeyey (steelhead) for annual release in the Imnaha River (Carmichael et al. 1998, Whitesel et al. 1998). These hatchery releases occur to compensate for fish losses due to the construction and operation of the four lower Snake River hydroelectric facilities. One of the aspects of the LSRCP hatchery evaluation studies in the Imnaha River is to determine natural and hatchery Naco x (Chinook salmon) and Heeyey (steelhead) smolt performance, emigration characteristics and survival (Kucera and Blenden 1998). A long term monitoring effort was established to document smolt emigrant timing and post release survival within the Imnaha River, estimate smolt survival downstream to McNary Dam, compare natural and hatchery smolt performance, and collect smolt-to-adult return information. This project collects information for, and is part of, a larger effort entitled Smolt Monitoring by Federal and Non-Federal Agencies (BPA Project No. 198712700). This larger project provides data on movement of smolts out of major drainages

  13. Deepwater Spawning of Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) Near Ives and Pierce Island of the Columbia River, 2000.

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Robert P.

    2001-10-01

    Fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), thought to originate from Bonneville Hatchery, were first noted to be spawning downstream of Bonneville Dam by Washington Department of Fisheries and Wildlife (WDFW) biologists in 1993 (Hymer 1997). Known spawning areas included gravel beds on the Washington side of the river near Hamilton Creek and Ives Island. The size of this population from 1994 to 1996 was estimated at 1,800 to 5,200 fish (Hymer 1997), and 554 fish in 1998 (Van der Naald et al. 1999). These estimates were based on carcass surveys and visual observation of redds by boat near the shoreline. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted underwater video surveys in the fall of 1999 and 2000 to determine the extent of the fall chinook salmon spawning and to estimate the number of redds occurring in deeper water. Estimates of redds occurring in water depths exceeding 2.2 m at 143,000 cubic feet per second (kcfs) were 499 in 1999 (Mueller and Dauble 1999) and 567 redds >2.2 m at 127 kcfs in 2000 (this study). The majority of the redds found were confined near the main river channel adjacent to Pierce Island. Chum salmon (O. keta) also have been documented using the mouth of Hamilton Creek and portions of Hamilton Slough for spawning. The majority of chum salmon were found to spawn in shallow water at the mouth of Hamilton Creek adjacent to Ives Island. Estimates of the natural chum salmon spawning population for 1998 were 226 (Van der Naald et al. 1999). Chum salmon spawning near Ives Island are part of the Columbia River evolutionary significant unit (ESU), and are included in the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA) listing in March 1999. Our main objective of this study was to locate deep water spawning locations of fall chinook salmon in the main Columbia River channel and to collect additional data on physical habitat parameters at spawning sites. The secondary objective was to map any chum salmon redds located in the deep sections of

  14. Pump for spawning channels includes a turbine and motor. Turbine ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Pump for spawning channels includes a turbine and motor. Turbine is Berkeley H-17500, model 8C2PH, Serial No. 2889, B.M. No. 4886 - Berkeley Pump Co. The Motor is G.E. Induction Motor, model 5K4256XA3YI, serial no. GAJ728337, Tri-Clad. View looking northeast. - Prairie Creek Fish Hatchery, Hwy. 101, Orick, Humboldt County, CA

  15. Do stocked hatchery-reared juveniles ecologically suppress wild juveniles in Salvelinus leucomaenis?

    PubMed

    Nakamura, T; Doi, T

    2014-05-01

    The dominancy of semi-wild and hatchery-reared white-spotted charr Salvelinus leucomaenis juveniles was evaluated using pair-wise enclosure tests and field stocking tests. The semi-wild S. leucomaenis originated in a hatchery, being stocked into the test stream as eyed-eggs. In the pair-wise enclosure test, the semi-wild S. leucomaenis dominated the hatchery S. leucomaenis that were of a similar standard length (L(S) ). The semi-wild S. leucomaenis were subordinate to hatchery S. leucomaenis that were > 11% larger in LS . In the field stocking test, the abundance and growth of semi-wild S. leucomaenis was decreased in the presence of larger hatchery S. leucomaenis (14% larger LS ). Taken together, these results suggest that larger hatchery S. leucomaenis ecologically suppress the smaller semi-wild S. leucomaenis. Salvelinus leucomaenis juveniles that are stocked with the intention of supplementing natural populations should be < 10% larger than their wild counterparts at the time of stocking to minimize their competitive advantage. The semi-wild and hatchery S. leucomaenis used in both tests were genetically similar individuals, suggesting that the differences are due to the early rearing environment of either a natural stream or hatchery. The hatchery S. leucomaenis have lower levels of aggression as a result of selection in the hatchery rearing environment. Rearing in a natural stream from the eyed-egg stage is likely to increase their lowered aggression.

  16. "Research to Improve the Efficacy of Captive Broodstock Programs and Advance Hatchery Reform Throughout the Columbia River Basin." [from the Abstract], 2007-2008 Annual Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Berejikian, Barry A.

    2009-04-08

    This project was developed to conduct research to improve the efficacy of captive broodstock programs and advance hatchery reform throughout the Columbia river basin. The project has three objectives: (1) maintain adaptive life history characteristics in Chinook salmon, (2) improve imprinting in juvenile sockeye salmon, and (3) match wild phenotypes in Chinook and sockeye salmon reared in hatcheries. A summary of the results are as follows: Objective 1: Adult and jack Chinook salmon males were stocked into four replicate spawning channels at a constant density (N = 16 per breeding group), but different ratios, and were left to spawn naturally with a fixed number of females (N = 6 per breeding group). Adult males obtained primary access to females and were first to enter the nest at the time of spawning. Jack male spawning occurred primarily by establishing satellite positions downstream of the courting pair, and 'sneaking' into the nest at the time of spawning. Male dominance hierarchies were fairly stable and strongly correlated with the order of nest entry at the time of spawning. Spawning participation by jack and adult males is consistent with a negative frequency dependent selection model, which means that selection during spawning favors the rarer life history form. Results of DNA parentage assignments will be analyzed to estimate adult-to-fry fitness of each male. Objective 2: To determine the critical period(s) for imprinting for sockeye salmon, juvenile salmon were exposed to known odorants at key developmental stages. Molecular assessments of imprinting-induced changes in odorant receptor gene expression indicated that regulation of odorant expression is influenced by developmental status and odor exposure history. The results suggest that sockeye salmon are capable of imprinting to homing cues during the developmental periods that correspond to several of current release strategies employed as part of the Captive Broodstock program (specifically

  17. Comparing the Reproductive Success of Yakima River Hatchery- and Wild-Origin Spring Chinook; Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Monitoring and Evaluation, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Schroder, Steven L.; Knudsen, Curtis M.; Watson, Bruce D.

    2003-05-01

    and 5. In addition, male reproductive success was more than twice as variable as that seen in females. Some males apparently never spawned and others produced more than 7,000 offspring an amount that was more than double the quantity generated by the most successful female. Behavioral observations showed that a number of factors besides male origin influenced their reproductive success. One was relative body size; larger males tended to dominate smaller opponents and therefore had greater access to females. However, male dominance was not always related to relative size. The ability to attack and chase opponents was, however, positively related to reproductive success. We also discovered that the reproductive status of females and the social status of males were often reflected by their nuptial coloration. Territorial females typically had a single broad purple black stripe, light green or brown backs and white or gray ventral surfaces. Dominate males on the other hand, were generally a uniform dark brown or black color. The percentage of time that a male possessed a dark color pattern was positively linked to his reproductive success, as was the percentage of time he was observed courting or defending a female. The number of times a male was chased or attacked by a female also affected his reproductive success, in this situation the greater the frequency of such attacks the lower the reproductive success of the male. The pedigree analyses also disclosed that both hatchery and wild precocious males were able to fertilize eggs and produce offspring under natural spawning conditions. In conclusion we found differences in the reproductive competency of hatchery- and wild origin spring chinook. Wild females were better at depositing their eggs and having those eggs produce fry. In one study group wild males were more successful at producing offspring than hatchery males. Additional replications of such evaluations are being carried out to determine if the differences seen

  18. Genetic differences in growth, migration, and survival between hatchery and wild steelhead and Chinook salmon: Introduction and executive summary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rubin, Steve P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Hayes, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    This report presents results of studies testing for genetically based differences in performance (growth, migration, and survival) between hatchery and wild populations of steelhead and Chinook salmon (Project Number 90-052). The report is organized into 10 chapters with a general study introduction preceding the first chapter. A growing body of data shows that domestication and a resulting loss of fitness for natural rearing occur in hatchery populations of anadromous salmonids; however, the magnitude of domestication will vary among species and hatchery programs. Better information on domestication is needed to accurately predict the consequences when hatchery and wild fish interbreed. The intent of hatchery supplementation is to increase natural production through introduction of hatchery fish into natural production areas. The goal of this study was to provide managers with information on the genetic risks of hatchery supplementation to wild populations of Columbia River Basin summer steelhead and spring Chinook salmon.

  19. Effective size of a wild salmonid population is greatly reduced by hatchery supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Christie, M R; Marine, M L; French, R A; Waples, R S; Blouin, M S

    2012-01-01

    Many declining and commercially important populations are supplemented with captive-born individuals that are intentionally released into the wild. These supplementation programs often create large numbers of offspring from relatively few breeding adults, which can have substantial population-level effects. We examined the genetic effects of supplementation on a wild population of steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) from the Hood River, Oregon, by matching 12 run-years of hatchery steelhead back to their broodstock parents. We show that the effective number of breeders producing the hatchery fish (broodstock parents; Nb) was quite small (harmonic mean Nb=25 fish per brood-year vs 373 for wild fish), and was exacerbated by a high variance in broodstock reproductive success among individuals within years. The low Nb caused hatchery fish to have decreased allelic richness, increased average relatedness, more loci in linkage disequilibrium and substantial levels of genetic drift in comparison with their wild-born counterparts. We also documented a substantial Ryman–Laikre effect whereby the additional hatchery fish doubled the total number of adult fish on the spawning grounds each year, but cut the effective population size of the total population (wild and hatchery fish combined) by nearly two-thirds. We further demonstrate that the Ryman–Laikre effect is most severe in this population when (1) >10% of fish allowed onto spawning grounds are from hatcheries and (2) the hatchery fish have high reproductive success in the wild. These results emphasize the trade-offs that arise when supplementation programs attempt to balance disparate goals (increasing production while maintaining genetic diversity and fitness). PMID:22805657

  20. Supportive breeding boosts natural population abundance with minimal negative impacts on fitness of a wild population of Chinook salmon

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Maureen A; Rabe, Craig D; Vogel, Jason L; Stephenson, Jeff J; Nelson, Doug D; Narum, Shawn R

    2012-01-01

    While supportive breeding programmes strive to minimize negative genetic impacts to populations, case studies have found evidence for reduced fitness of artificially produced individuals when they reproduce in the wild. Pedigrees of two complete generations were tracked with molecular markers to investigate differences in reproductive success (RS) of wild and hatchery-reared Chinook salmon spawning in the natural environment to address questions regarding the demographic and genetic impacts of supplementation to a natural population. Results show a demographic boost to the population from supplementation. On average, fish taken into the hatchery produced 4.7 times more adult offspring, and 1.3 times more adult grand-offspring than naturally reproducing fish. Of the wild and hatchery fish that successfully reproduced, we found no significant differences in RS between any comparisons, but hatchery-reared males typically had lower RS values than wild males. Mean relative reproductive success (RRS) for hatchery F1 females and males was 1.11 (P = 0.84) and 0.89 (P = 0.56), respectively. RRS of hatchery-reared fish (H) that mated in the wild with either hatchery or wild-origin (W) fish was generally equivalent to W × W matings. Mean RRS of H × W and H × H matings was 1.07 (P = 0.92) and 0.94 (P = 0.95), respectively. We conclude that fish chosen for hatchery rearing did not have a detectable negative impact on the fitness of wild fish by mating with them for a single generation. Results suggest that supplementation following similar management practices (e.g. 100% local, wild-origin brood stock) can successfully boost population size with minimal impacts on the fitness of salmon in the wild. PMID:23025818

  1. Migratory behavior of Chinook salmon microjacks reared in artificial and natural environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayes, Michael C.; Rubin, Steve P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Wetzel, Lisa A.

    2015-01-01

    Emigration was evaluated for hatchery Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) microjacks (age-1 mature males) and immature parr (age-1 juveniles, both sexes) released from both a hatchery and a natural stream (fish released as fry). In the hatchery, volitional releases (∼14 to 15 months post-fertilization) to an adjacent river occurred during October–November. The hatchery release was monitored by using an experimental volitional release that diverted fish to a neighboring raceway. Fish captured during the experimental release (range 361–4,321 volitional migrants) were made up of microjacks and immature parr. Microjacks were found only in the migrant samples, averaged 18% (range 0–52%) of all migrants, and were rarely found in non-migrant samples. In comparison, immature parr were common in both the migrant and non-migrant samples. Microjacks were significantly longer (9%), heavier (36%), and had a greater condition factor (16%) than migrant immature parr (P<0.01). In addition, they differed significantly (P<0.01) from non-migrant immature parr; 10% longer, 44% heavier and 14% greater condition factor. In natural streams, microjacks were captured significantly earlier (P<0.01) than immature parr during the late-summer/fall migration and comprised 9–89% of all fish captured. Microjacks have the potential to contribute to natural spawning populations but can also represent a loss of productivity to hatchery programs or create negative effects by introducing non-native genes to wild populations and should be monitored by fishery managers.

  2. Use of egg traps to investigate lake trout spawning in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schreiner, Donald R.; Bronte, Charles R.; Payne, N. Robert; Fitzsimons, John D.; Casselman, John M.

    1995-01-01

    Disk-shaped traps were used to examine egg deposition by lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) at 29 sites in the Great Lakes. The main objectives were to; first, evaluate the disk trap as a device for sampling lake trout eggs in the Great Lakes, and second, summarize what has been learned about lake trout spawning through the use of disk traps. Of the 5,085 traps set, 60% were classified as functional when retrieved. Evidence of lake trout egg deposition was documented in each of the lakes studied at 14 of 29 sites. A total of 1,147 eggs were trapped. The percentage of traps functioning and catch per effort were compared among sites based on depth, timing of egg deposition, distance from shore, size of reef, and type of reef (artificial or natural). Most eggs were caught on small, shallow, protected reefs that were close to shore. Use of disk traps on large, shallow, unprotected offshore reefs or along unprotected shorelines was generally unsuccessful due to the effects of heavy wind and wave action. Making multiple lifts at short intervals, and retrieval before and re-deployment after storms are recommended for use in exposed areas. On large reefs, preliminary surveys to identify preferred lake trout spawning habitat may be required to deploy disk traps most effectively. Egg deposition by hatchery-reared fish was widespread throughout the Great Lakes, and the use of artificial structures by these fish was extensive.

  3. SpawnNet

    SciTech Connect

    2014-12-23

    SpawnNet provides a networking interface similar to Linux sockets that runs natively on High-performance network interfaces. It is intended to be used to bootstrap parallel jobs and communication libraries like MPI.

  4. Northeast Oregon Hatchery Project, Conceptual Design Report, Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, Montgomery

    1995-03-01

    This report presents the results of site analysis for the Bonneville Power Administration Northeast Oregon Hatchery Project. The purpose of this project is to provide engineering services for the siting and conceptual design of hatchery facilities for the Bonneville Power Administration. The hatchery project consists of artificial production facilities for salmon and steelhead to enhance production in three adjacent tributaries to the Columbia River in northeast Oregon: the Grande Ronde, Walla Walla, and Imnaha River drainage basins. Facilities identified in the master plan include adult capture and holding facilities; spawning incubation, and early rearing facilities; full-term rearing facilities; and direct release or acclimation facilities. The evaluation includes consideration of a main production facility for one or more of the basins or several smaller satellite production facilities to be located within major subbasins. The historic and current distribution of spring and fall chinook salmon and steelhead was summarized for the Columbia River tributaries. Current and future production and release objectives were reviewed. Among the three tributaries, forty seven sites were evaluated and compared to facility requirements for water and space. Site screening was conducted to identify the sites with the most potential for facility development. Alternative sites were selected for conceptual design of each facility type. A proposed program for adult holding facilities, final rearing/acclimation, and direct release facilities was developed.

  5. Angler harvest, hatchery return, and tributary stray rates of recycled adult summer steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss in the Cowlitz River, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kock, Tobias J.; Perry, Russell W.; Gleizes, Chris; Dammers, Wolf; Liedtke, Theresa L.

    2016-01-01

    Hatchery ‘recycling’ programs have been used to increase angling opportunities by re-releasing fish into a river after they returned to a hatchery or fish trap. Recycling is intended to increase opportunities for fishermen, but this strategy could affect wild fish populations if some recycled fish remain in the river and interact with wild fish populations. To quantify hatchery return and angler harvest rates of recycled steelhead, we conducted a 2-year study on the Cowlitz River, Washington. A total of 1051 steelhead were recycled, including 218 fish that were radio-tagged. Fates of recycled steelhead were similar between years: 48.4% returned to the hatchery, 19.2% were reported captured by anglers, and 32.4% remained in the river. A multistate model quantified the effects of covariates on hatchery return and angler harvest rates, which were positively affected by river discharge and negatively affected by time since release. However, hatchery return rates increased and angler harvest rates decreased during periods of increasing discharge. A total of 21.1% (46 fish) of the radio-tagged steelhead failed to return to the hatchery or be reported by anglers, but nearly half of those fish (20 fish) appeared to be harvested and not reported. The remaining tagged fish (11.9% of the radio-tagged population) were monitored into the spawning period, but only five fish (2.3% of the radio-tagged population) entered tributaries where wild steelhead spawning occurs. Future research focused on straying behaviour, and spawning success of recycled steelhead may further advance the understanding of the effects of recycling as a management strategy.

  6. Impact of naturally spawning captive-bred Atlantic salmon on wild populations: depressed recruitment and increased risk of climate-mediated extinction.

    PubMed

    McGinnity, Philip; Jennings, Eleanor; DeEyto, Elvira; Allott, Norman; Samuelsson, Patrick; Rogan, Gerard; Whelan, Ken; Cross, Tom

    2009-10-22

    The assessment report of the 4th International Panel on Climate Change confirms that global warming is strongly affecting biological systems and that 20-30% of species risk extinction from projected future increases in temperature. It is essential that any measures taken to conserve individual species and their constituent populations against climate-mediated declines are appropriate. The release of captive bred animals to augment wild populations is a widespread management strategy for many species but has proven controversial. Using a regression model based on a 37-year study of wild and sea ranched Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) spawning together in the wild, we show that the escape of captive bred animals into the wild can substantially depress recruitment and more specifically disrupt the capacity of natural populations to adapt to higher winter water temperatures associated with climate variability. We speculate the mechanisms underlying this seasonal response and suggest that an explanation based on bio-energetic processes with physiological responses synchronized by photoperiod is plausible. Furthermore, we predict, by running the model forward using projected future climate scenarios, that these cultured fish substantially increase the risk of extinction for the studied population within 20 generations. In contrast, we show that positive outcomes to climate change are possible if captive bred animals are prevented from breeding in the wild. Rather than imposing an additional genetic load on wild populations by releasing maladapted captive bred animals, we propose that conservation efforts should focus on optimizing conditions for adaptation to occur by reducing exploitation and protecting critical habitats. Our findings are likely to hold true for most poikilothermic species where captive breeding programmes are used in population management.

  7. Ecological interactions between hatchery summer steelhead and wild Oncorhynchus mykiss in the Willamette River basin, 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Harnish, Ryan A.; Green, Ethan D.; Vernon, Christopher R.; Mcmichael, Geoffrey A.

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which juvenile hatchery summer steelhead and wild winter steelhead overlap in space and time, to evaluate the extent of residualism among hatchery summer steelhead in the South Santiam River, and to evaluate the potential for negative ecological interactions among hatchery summer steelhead and wild winter steelhead. Because it is not possible to visually discern juvenile winter steelhead from resident rainbow trout, we treated all adipose-intact juvenile O. mykiss as one group that represented juvenile wild winter steelhead. The 2014 study objectives were to 1) estimate the proportion of hatchery summer steelhead that residualized in the South Santiam River in 2014, 2) determine the extent to which hatchery and naturally produced O. mykiss overlapped in space and time in the South Santiam River, and 3) characterize the behavioral interactions between hatchery-origin juvenile summer steelhead and naturally produced O. mykiss. We used a combination of radio telemetry and direct observations (i.e., snorkeling) to determine the potential for negative interactions between hatchery summer and wild winter steelhead juveniles in the South Santiam River. Data collected from these two independent methods indicated that a significant portion of the hatchery summer steelhead released as smolts did not rapidly emigrate from the South Santiam River in 2014. Of the 164 radio-tagged steelhead that volitionally left the hatchery, only 66 (40.2%) were detected outside of the South Santiam River. Forty-four (26.8% of 164) of the radio-tagged hatchery summer steelhead successfully emigrated to Willamette Falls. Thus, the last known location of the majority of the tagged fish (98 of 164 = 59.8%) was in the South Santiam River. Thirty-three of the tagged hatchery steelhead were detected in the South Santiam River during mobile-tracking surveys. Of those, 21 were found to be alive in the South Santiam River over three months after

  8. Umatilla Hatchery Final Predesign Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown Author

    1988-04-01

    This report provides information on the preliminary design of Umatilla Fish Hatchery near Irrigon, Oregon. The fish hatchery will be capable of rearing steelhead and chinook with an initial capacity of 290,000 pounds. Future expansion will allow for a total capacity of 500,000 pounds if the initial production goals are met. The hatchery will consist of both Oregon and Michigan style ponds. The Oregon ponds are similar to those at Irrigon. The Michigan ponds are more narrow and shallow, are self cleaning, and use oxygen supplementation to obtain higher rearing densities as is currently being done in the state of Michigan. The Oregon ponds are a two-pass system with the capability to convert to Michigan style ponds, if this mode of operation proves to be an effective method in the west. The Michigan ponds are three-pass with the capability to expand to four-pass.

  9. Do hatchery-reared sea urchins pose a threat to genetic diversity in wild populations?

    PubMed Central

    Segovia-Viadero, M; Serrão, E A; Canteras-Jordana, J C; Gonzalez-Wangüemert, M

    2016-01-01

    In salmonids, the release of hatchery-reared fish has been shown to cause irreversible genetic impacts on wild populations. However, although responsible practices for producing and releasing genetically diverse, hatchery-reared juveniles have been published widely, they are rarely implemented. Here, we investigated genetic differences between wild and early-generation hatchery-reared populations of the purple sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus (a commercially important species in Europe) to assess whether hatcheries were able to maintain natural levels of genetic diversity. To test the hypothesis that hatchery rearing would cause bottleneck effects (that is, a substantial reduction in genetic diversity and differentiation from wild populations), we compared the levels and patterns of genetic variation between two hatcheries and four nearby wild populations, using samples from both Spain and Ireland. We found that hatchery-reared populations were less diverse and had diverged significantly from the wild populations, with a very small effective population size and a high degree of relatedness between individuals. These results raise a number of concerns about the genetic impacts of their release into wild populations, particularly when such a degree of differentiation can occur in a single generation of hatchery rearing. Consequently, we suggest that caution should be taken when using hatchery-reared individuals to augment fisheries, even for marine species with high dispersal capacity, and we provide some recommendations to improve hatchery rearing and release practices. Our results further highlight the need to consider the genetic risks of releasing hatchery-reared juveniles into the wild during the establishment of restocking, stock enhancement and sea ranching programs. PMID:26758187

  10. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Dan J.; Heindel, Jeff A.; Redding, Jeremy

    2006-05-01

    Eagle Fish Hatchery on September 14, 2004 and later incorporated into hatchery spawn matrices. Nine anadromous females, 102 captive females from brood year 2001, and one captive female from brood year 2000 broodstock groups were spawned at the Eagle Hatchery in 2004. Spawn pairings produced approximately 140,823 eyed-eggs with egg survival to eyed stage of development averaging 72.8%. Eyed-eggs (49,134), presmolts (130,716), smolts (96), and adults (241) were planted or released into Sawtooth Valley waters in 2004. Reintroduction strategies involved releases to Redfish Lake, Alturas Lake, and Pettit Lake. During this reporting period, five broodstocks and five unique production groups were in culture at Idaho Department of Fish and Game (Eagle Fish Hatchery and Sawtooth Fish Hatchery) and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (Oxbow Fish Hatchery) facilities. Two of the five broodstocks were incorporated into the 2004 spawning design.

  11. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 1997 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Kline, Paul A.; Heindel, Jeff A.; Willard, Catherine

    2003-08-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Marine Fisheries Service at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Marine Fisheries Service are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases (annual report to the Bonneville Power Administration for the research element of the program) are also reported under separate cover. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 1997 and December 31, 1997 are presented in this report. One hundred twenty-six female sockeye salmon from one captive broodstock group were spawned at the Eagle Fish Hatchery in 1997. Successful spawn pairings produced approximately 148,781 eyed-eggs with a cumulative mean survival to eyed-egg rate of 57.3%. Approximately 361,600 sockeye salmon were released to Sawtooth basin waters in 1997. Reintroduction strategies included eyed-eggs (brood year 1997), presmolts (brood year 1996), and prespawn adults for volitional spawning (brood year 1994). Release locations included Redfish Lake, Alturas Lake, and Pettit Lake. During this reporting period, four broodstocks and two unique production groups were in culture at the Eagle Fish Hatchery. Two of the four broodstocks were incorporated into the 1997 spawning design, and one broodstock was terminated following

  12. Multiscale Terrain Analysis of Multibeam Bathymetry Data for Lake Trout Spawning Habitat Mapping in the Drummond Island Refuge, northern Lake Huron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wattrus, N. J.; Binder, T.

    2012-12-01

    Until the 1950s, lake trout supported a valuable commercial fishery in the Great Lakes. The introduction of sea lamprey into the Great Lakes and overfishing resulted in the loss of most populations. Despite consistent stocking efforts since the 1960s, restoration of these populations has been slow. The reasons are numerous, but may be related to differences in the spawning behavior between hatchery and wild trout. A four-year study initiated in 2010, utilizes acoustic telemetry to characterize and compare the spawning behaviors of hatchery and wild lake trout in the Drummond Island Refuge in northern Lake Huron. In this project, the movement of tagged fish are monitored by an array of over 125 lake floor hydrophones during the fall spawning period. Fish behavior is overlaid over detailed bathymetric and substrate data and compared with environmental variables (e.g. water temperature, wind speed and direction, and wave height and direction) to develop a conceptual behavioral model. Sites suspected of being spawning sites based upon telemetry data are verified through the use of divers and trapping eggs and fry. Prior to this study, the factors that influenced how the spawning fish utilize the lake floor shoals have been poorly understood. Among the factors thought to impact spawning success were: bathymetry and substrate composition. Diver and telemetry data suggest that the fish(both hatchery raised and wild) are particularly attracted to rocky substrates and that fragment size is important. High resolution multibeam bathymetric surveys conducted in 2010 and 2011 have been used to characterize the shape and composition of the lake floor in the study area. Classification of the substrate is a labor intensive process requiring divers, drop cameras and sediment sampling. To improve this, the traditional approach has been to use supervised and unsupervised classification techniques that are based upon measured acoustic backscatter from an echosounder or sidescan sonar

  13. Differences in Lateral Line Morphology between Hatchery- and Wild-Origin Steelhead

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Andrew D.; Sisneros, Joseph A.; Jurasin, Tyler; Nguyen, Chau; Coffin, Allison B.

    2013-01-01

    Despite identification of multiple factors mediating salmon survival, significant disparities in survival-to-adulthood among hatchery- versus wild-origin juveniles persist. In the present report, we explore the hypothesis that hatchery-reared juveniles might exhibit morphological defects in vulnerable mechanosensory systems prior to release from the hatchery, potentiating reduced survival after release. Juvenile steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) from two different hatcheries were compared to wild-origin juveniles on several morphological traits including lateral line structure, otolith composition (a proxy for auditory function), and brain weight. Wild juveniles were found to possess significantly more superficial lateral line neuromasts than hatchery-reared juveniles, although the number of hair cells within individual neuromasts was not significantly different across groups. Wild juveniles were also found to possess primarily normal, aragonite-containing otoliths, while hatchery-reared juveniles possessed a high proportion of crystallized (vaterite) otoliths. Finally, wild juveniles were found to have significantly larger brains than hatchery-reared juveniles. These differences together predict reduced sensitivity to biologically important hydrodynamic and acoustic signals from natural biotic (predator, prey, conspecific) and abiotic (turbulent flow, current) sources among hatchery-reared steelhead, in turn predicting reduced survival fitness after release. Physiological and behavioral studies are required to establish the functional significance of these morphological differences. PMID:23554988

  14. Differences in lateral line morphology between hatchery- and wild-origin steelhead.

    PubMed

    Brown, Andrew D; Sisneros, Joseph A; Jurasin, Tyler; Nguyen, Chau; Coffin, Allison B

    2013-01-01

    Despite identification of multiple factors mediating salmon survival, significant disparities in survival-to-adulthood among hatchery- versus wild-origin juveniles persist. In the present report, we explore the hypothesis that hatchery-reared juveniles might exhibit morphological defects in vulnerable mechanosensory systems prior to release from the hatchery, potentiating reduced survival after release. Juvenile steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) from two different hatcheries were compared to wild-origin juveniles on several morphological traits including lateral line structure, otolith composition (a proxy for auditory function), and brain weight. Wild juveniles were found to possess significantly more superficial lateral line neuromasts than hatchery-reared juveniles, although the number of hair cells within individual neuromasts was not significantly different across groups. Wild juveniles were also found to possess primarily normal, aragonite-containing otoliths, while hatchery-reared juveniles possessed a high proportion of crystallized (vaterite) otoliths. Finally, wild juveniles were found to have significantly larger brains than hatchery-reared juveniles. These differences together predict reduced sensitivity to biologically important hydrodynamic and acoustic signals from natural biotic (predator, prey, conspecific) and abiotic (turbulent flow, current) sources among hatchery-reared steelhead, in turn predicting reduced survival fitness after release. Physiological and behavioral studies are required to establish the functional significance of these morphological differences.

  15. Physiological and endocrine changes in Atlantic salmon smolts during hatchery rearing, downstream migration and ocean entry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCormick, Stephen D.; Sheehan, Timothy F.; Björnsson, Björn Thrandur; Lipsky, Christine; Kocik, John F.; Regish, Amy M.; O'Dea, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    Billions of hatchery salmon smolts are released annually in an attempt to mitigate anthropogenic impacts on freshwater habitats, often with limited success. Mortality of wild and hatchery fish is high during downstream and early ocean migration. To understand changes that occur during migration, we examined physiological and endocrine changes in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolts during hatchery rearing, downstream migration, and early ocean entry in two successive years. Gill Na+/K+-ATPase activity increased in the hatchery during spring, increased further after river release, and was slightly lower after recapture in the ocean. Plasma growth hormone levels increased in the hatchery, were higher in the river, and increased further in the ocean. Plasma IGF-I remained relatively constant in the hatchery, increased in the river, then decreased in the ocean. Plasma thyroid hormones were variable in the hatchery, but increased in both river- and ocean-captured smolts. Naturally reared fish had lower condition factor, gill NKA activity, and plasma thyroxine than hatchery fish in the river but were similar in the ocean. This novel data set provides a vital first step in understanding the role and norms of endocrine function in smolts and the metrics of successful marine entry.

  16. Evidence of Deepwater Spawning of Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus Tshawytscha) : Spawning Near Ives and Pierce Island of the Columbia River, 1999.

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Robert P.; Dauble, Dennis D.

    2000-04-01

    Fall chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, thought to originate from Bonneville Hatchery, were first noted to be spawning downstream of Bonneville Dam by Washington Department of Fisheries and Wildlife (WDFW) biologists in 1993 (Hymer 1997). Known spawning areas include gravel beds on the Washington side of the river near Hamilton Creek and Ives island. Limited spawning ground surveys were conducted in the area around Ives and Pierce Islands during 1994-1997 and based on these surveys it was believed that fall chinook salmon successfully spawned in this area. The size of this population from 1994 to 1996 was estimated at 1,800 to 5,200 fish (Hymer 1997). Recently, chum salmon were also documented spawning downstream of Bonneville Dam. Chum salmon O. kisutch were listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) in March, 1999. There are several ongoing investigations to define the physical habitat characteristics associated with fall chinook and chum salmon spawning areas downstream of Bonneville Dam. A major concern is to determine what flows (i.e. surface elevations) are necessary to ensure their long-term survival. Our objective was to locate deepwater spawning locations in the main Columbia River channel and to collect additional data on physical habitat parameters at the site. This objective is consistent with the high priority that the Northwest Power Planning Council's Independent Advisory Board and the salmon managers have placed on determining the importance of mainstem habitats to the production of salmon in the Columbia River Basin.

  17. Rapid River Hatchery - Spring Chinook, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, M.

    1996-05-01

    This report presents the findings of the independent audit of the Rapid River Hatchery (Spring Chinook). The hatchery is located in the lower Snake River basin near Riggins Idaho. The hatchery is used for adult collection, egg incubation, and rearing of spring chinook. The audit was conducted in April 1996 as part of a two-year effort that will include 67 hatcheries and satellite facilities located on the Columbia and Snake River system in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. The hatchery operating agencies include the US Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife.

  18. Do open-cycle hatcheries relying on tourism conserve sea turtles? Sri Lankan developments and economic-ecological considerations.

    PubMed

    Tisdell, Clem; Wilson, Clevo

    2005-04-01

    By combining economic analysis of markets with ecological parameters, this article considers the role that tourism-based sea turtle hatcheries (of an open-cycle type) can play in conserving populations of sea turtles. Background is provided on the nature and development of such hatcheries in Sri Lanka. The modeling facilitates the assessment of the impacts of turtle hatcheries on the conservation of sea turtles and enables the economic and ecological consequences of tourism, based on such hatcheries, to be better appreciated. The results demonstrate that sea turtle hatcheries serving tourists can make a positive contribution to sea turtle conservation, but that their conservation effectiveness depends on the way they are managed. Possible negative effects are also identified. Economic market models are combined with turtle population survival relationships to predict the conservation impact of turtle hatcheries and their consequence for the total economic value obtained from sea turtle populations.

  19. Integrated Hatchery Operations Team: Operations Plans for Anadromous Fish Production Facilities in the Columbia River Basin, Volume IV of IV; Washington: Rocky Reach Hatchery Addendum, 1992 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Peck, Larry

    1993-08-01

    Rocky Reach Hatchery is located along the Columbia Paver, just downstream from Rocky Reach Dam. Site elevation is 800 feet above sea level. The Turtle Rock Island facility, located 2 miles upstream, is operated as a satellite facility (shared with the Washington Department of Wildlife). The facility is staffed with 2.75 FTE`S. The hatchery was originally designed as a mile-long spawning channel at Turtle Rock Island. Rearing units consist of eight vinyl raceways at Rocky Reach and four rearing ponds at Turtle Rock. Water rights are held by Chelan County PUD and total 3,613 gpm from the Columbia River. Water available for use in the Turtle Rock rearing ponds averages 12,000 gpm from the Columbia River. Rocky Reach Hatchery and the Turtle Rock satellite facility are owned by Chelan County PUD. They are operated as mitigation facilities for the fishery impacts caused by the construction and operation of Rocky Reach Dam. Rocky Reach Hatchery is used for incubation and early rearing of upriver bright (URB) fall chinook. Fingerlings are later transferred to the Turtle Rock facility for final rearing and release.

  20. Consecutive spawnings of Chinese amphioxus, Branchiostoma belcheri, in captivity.

    PubMed

    Li, Guang; Yang, Xi; Shu, Zonghuang; Chen, Xiaoying; Wang, Yiquan

    2012-01-01

    Cephalochordate amphioxus is a promising model animal for studying the evolutionary and developmental mechanisms of vertebrates because its unique phylogenetic position, simple body plan and sequenced genome. However, one major drawback for using amphioxus as a model organism is the restricted supply of living embryos since they are available only during spawning season that varies from a couple of days to several months according to species. Therefore we are aiming to develop methods for obtaining viable amphioxus embryos in non-spawning season. In the current study, we found that Branchiostoma belcheri could develop their gonads and spawn consecutively in the laboratory when cultured in a low density at a high temperature (25-28 °C) supplied with sufficient food and proper cleanness. Among the approximate 150 observed animals, which spawned spontaneously between November and December 2011, 10% have spawned twice, 10% three times, and 80% four times, through April 2012. The quality and quantity of the gametes reproduced in the consecutive spawning have no obvious difference with those spawned once naturally. Spawning intervals varied dramatically both among different animals (from 1 to 5 months) and between intervals of a single individual (from 27 to 74 days for one animal). In summary, we developed a method with which, for the first time, consecutive spawnings of amphioxus in captivity can be achieved. This has practical implications for the cultivation of other amphioxus species, and eventually will greatly promote the utilization of amphioxus as a model system.

  1. Stocking of Offsite Waters for Hungry Horse Dam Mitigation Creston National Fish Hatchery, FY 2006 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hooley, Sharon

    2009-03-20

    through June. The stocking locations on the Flathead Reservation and State managed waters were identified by Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribe (CSKT) and MFWP fishery biologists. Post release survival and angler success is monitored routinely by CSKT and MFWP fishery technicians. Stocking numbers and locations vary annually based on the results of biological monitoring, creel evaluations and adaptive management decisions. A total of 99,126 WCT were stocked during nine distribution trips in management approved waters (see Table 1). The average size of WCT at stocking was 3.91-inches. A total of 101,600, Arlee strain, rainbow trout (RBT) eggs were received from the Ennis National Fish Hatchery, Ennis, Montana, in December of 2005 and 35,000 Kamloops strain eggs were received from Murray Springs SFH, Eureka, Montana, in March of 2006 to accomplish this fishery management objective. The RBT were reared using approved fish culture techniques as recommended in the USFWS Fish Hatchery Management Handbook. There was no fish health related problems associated with this lot of fish. Survival from swim up fry stage to stocking was 93% for the Arlee's and 79% for the Kamloops. The hatchery achieved a 0.68 feed fed to pounds gained conversion ratio for the Arlee and 0.97 for the Kamloops RBT. The excellent feed conversion ratio can be attributed to refined feeding techniques and the use of an extruded high performance fry feed made with premium fish meal and marine fish oil. The Arlee strain of rainbow trout is requested for this fishery mitigation objective because the chosen stocking locations are terminal basin reservoirs or lakes, habitat conditions prevent natural spawning runs and returns to the creel are more favorable then for native westslope cutthroat trout. MFWP also requested a fall plant of Kamloops strain RBT and they will be evaluated for performance and future fall stockings in Echo Lake. Post release survival and angler success is monitored routinely by the

  2. Fitness of hatchery-reared salmonids in the wild

    PubMed Central

    Araki, Hitoshi; Berejikian, Barry A; Ford, Michael J; Blouin, Michael S

    2008-01-01

    Accumulating data indicate that hatchery fish have lower fitness in natural environments than wild fish. This fitness decline can occur very quickly, sometimes following only one or two generations of captive rearing. In this review, we summarize existing data on the fitness of hatchery fish in the wild, and we investigate the conditions under which rapid fitness declines can occur. The summary of studies to date suggests: nonlocal hatchery stocks consistently reproduce very poorly in the wild; hatchery stocks that use wild, local fish for captive propagation generally perform better than nonlocal stocks, but often worse than wild fish. However, the data above are from a limited number of studies and species, and more studies are needed before one can generalize further. We used a simple quantitative genetic model to evaluate whether domestication selection is a sufficient explanation for some observed rapid fitness declines. We show that if selection acts on a single trait, such rapid effects can be explained only when selection is very strong, both in captivity and in the wild, and when the heritability of the trait under selection is high. If selection acts on multiple traits throughout the life cycle, rapid fitness declines are plausible. PMID:25567636

  3. Spring Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Supplementation in the Clearwater Subbasin ; Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Monitoring and Evaluation Project, 2007 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Backman, Thomas; Sprague, Sherman; Bretz, Justin

    2009-06-10

    The Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery (NPTH) program has the following goals (BPA, et al., 1997): (1) Protect, mitigate, and enhance Clearwater Subbasin anadromous fish resources; (2) Develop, reintroduce, and increase natural spawning populations of salmon within the Clearwater Subbasin; (3) Provide long-term harvest opportunities for Tribal and non-Tribal anglers within Nez Perce Treaty lands within four generations (20 years) following project initiation; (4) Sustain long-term fitness and genetic integrity of targeted fish populations; (5) Keep ecological and genetic impacts to non-target populations within acceptable limits; and (6) Promote Nez Perce Tribal management of Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Facilities and production areas within Nez Perce Treaty lands. The NPTH program was designed to rear and release 1.4 million fall and 625,000 spring Chinook salmon. Construction of the central incubation and rearing facility NPTH and spring Chinook salmon acclimation facilities were completed in 2003 and the first full term NPTH releases occurred in 2004 (Brood Year 03). Monitoring and evaluation plans (Steward, 1996; Hesse and Cramer, 2000) were established to determine whether the Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery program is achieving its stated goals. The monitoring and evaluation action plan identifies the need for annual data collection and annual reporting. In addition, recurring 5-year program reviews will evaluate emerging trends and aid in the determination of the effectiveness of the NPTH program with recommendations to improve the program's implementation. This report covers the Migratory Year (MY) 2007 period of the NPTH Monitoring & Evaluation (M&E) program. There are three NPTH spring Chinook salmon treatment streams: Lolo Creek, Newsome Creek, and Meadow Creek. In 2007, Lolo Creek received 140,284 Brood Year (BY) 2006 acclimated pre-smolts at an average weight of 34.9 grams per fish, Newsome Creek received 77,317 BY 2006 acclimated pre-smolts at an average of 24.9 grams

  4. Physiological Assessment of Wild and Hatchery Juvenile Salmonids : Final Report, 2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, Donald A.; Beckman, Brian R.; Dickhoff, Walton W.

    2003-08-01

    It is generally held that hatchery-reared salmonids are of inferior quality and have lower smolt-to-adult survival compared to naturally-reared salmon. The overall objectives of the work performed under this contract were the following: (1) Characterize the physiology and development of naturally rearing juvenile salmonids to: (2) Allow for the design of effective rearing programs for producing wild-like smolts in supplementation and production hatchery programs. (3) Examine the relationship between growth rate and size on the physiology and migratory performance of fish reared in hatchery programs. (4) Examine the interaction of rearing temperature and feed rate on the growth and smoltification of salmon for use in producing a more wild-like smolt in hatchery programs.

  5. Dynamic in-lake spawning migrations by female sockeye salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Young, D.B.; Woody, C.A.

    2007-01-01

    Precise homing by salmon to natal habitats is considered the primary mechanism in the evolution of population-specific traits, yet few studies have focused on this final phase of their spawning migration. We radio tagged 157 female sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) as they entered Lake Clark, Alaska, and tracked them every 1-10 days to their spawning locations. Contrary to past research, no specific shoreline migration pattern was observed (e.g., clockwise) nor did fish enter a tributary unless they spawned in that tributary. Tributary spawning fish migrated faster (mean = 4.7 km??day-1, SD = 2.7, vs. 1.6 km??day-1, SD = 2.1) and more directly (mean linearity = 0.8, SD = 0.2, vs. 0.4, SD = 0.2) than Lake Clark beach spawning fish. Although radio-tagged salmon migrated to within 5 km of their final spawning location in an average of 21.2 days (SD = 13.2), some fish migrated five times the distance necessary and over 50 days to reach their spawning destination. These results demonstrate the dynamic nature of this final phase of migration and support studies indicating a higher degree of homing precision by tributary spawning fish. ?? Journal compilation 2007 Blackwell Munksgaard No claim to original US government works.

  6. Umatilla Hatchery Satellite Facilities Operation and Maintenance; 1996 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rowan, Gerald D.

    1997-06-01

    The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) are cooperating in a joint effort to enhance steelhead and re-establish salmon runs in the Umatilla River Basin. As an integral part of this program, Bonifer Pond, Minthorn Springs, Imeques C-mem-ini-kem and Thornhollow satellite facilities are operated for acclimation and release of juvenile summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), fall and spring chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) and coho salmon (O. kisutch). Minthorn is also used for holding and spawning adult summer steelhead and Three Mile Dam is used for holding and spawning adult fall chinook and coho salmon. Bonifer, Minthorn, Imeques and Thornhollow facilities are operated for acclimation and release of juvenile salmon and summer steelhead. The main goal of acclimation is to reduce stress from trucking prior to release and improve imprinting of juvenile salmonids in the Umatilla River Basin. Juveniles are transported to the acclimation facilities primarily from Umatilla and Bonneville Hatcheries. This report details activities associated with operation and maintenance of the Bonifer, Minthorn, Imeques, Thornhollow and Three Mile Dam facilities in 1996.

  7. 29 CFR 780.127 - Hatchery operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE... of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.127 Hatchery operations. Hatchery operations incident to the breeding of poultry, whether performed in a rural or...

  8. 29 CFR 780.127 - Hatchery operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE... of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.127 Hatchery operations. Hatchery operations incident to the breeding of poultry, whether performed in a rural or...

  9. 29 CFR 780.127 - Hatchery operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE... of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.127 Hatchery operations. Hatchery operations incident to the breeding of poultry, whether performed in a rural or...

  10. 29 CFR 780.127 - Hatchery operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE... of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.127 Hatchery operations. Hatchery operations incident to the breeding of poultry, whether performed in a rural or...

  11. 29 CFR 780.127 - Hatchery operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE... of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.127 Hatchery operations. Hatchery operations incident to the breeding of poultry, whether performed in a rural or...

  12. 9 CFR 147.23 - Hatchery sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hatchery sanitation. 147.23 Section... AGRICULTURE LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT AUXILIARY PROVISIONS ON NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN Sanitation Procedures § 147.23 Hatchery sanitation. An effective program for the prevention and control of...

  13. 9 CFR 147.23 - Hatchery sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hatchery sanitation. 147.23 Section... AGRICULTURE LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT AUXILIARY PROVISIONS ON NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN Sanitation Procedures § 147.23 Hatchery sanitation. An effective program for the prevention and control of...

  14. 9 CFR 147.23 - Hatchery sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hatchery sanitation. 147.23 Section... AGRICULTURE LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT AUXILIARY PROVISIONS ON NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN Sanitation Procedures § 147.23 Hatchery sanitation. An effective program for the prevention and control of...

  15. 9 CFR 147.23 - Hatchery sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hatchery sanitation. 147.23 Section... AGRICULTURE LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT AUXILIARY PROVISIONS ON NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN Sanitation Procedures § 147.23 Hatchery sanitation. An effective program for the prevention and control of...

  16. 9 CFR 147.23 - Hatchery sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hatchery sanitation. 147.23 Section... AGRICULTURE LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT AUXILIARY PROVISIONS ON NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN Sanitation Procedures § 147.23 Hatchery sanitation. An effective program for the prevention and control of...

  17. PEPA-1* genotype affects return rate for hatchery steelhead

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reisenbichler, R.R.; Hayes, M.C.; Rubin, S.P.; Wetzel, L.A.; Baker, B.M.

    2006-01-01

    Allozymes continue to be useful as genetic markers in a variety of studies; however, their utility often hinges on the selective neutrality of the allelic variation. Our study tested for neutrality between the two most common alleles (*100 and *110) at the cytosol nonspecific dipeptidase locus (PEPA-1*) in steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss from Dworshak National Fish Hatchery in Idaho. We tested for differential growth and survival among fish with the * 100/100, *100/ 110, and *110/110 genotypes rearing in a hatchery or a natural stream. We repeated the study for two year-classes, using heterozygous (*100/110) adults to make the experimental crosses. This design avoided differences in family contribution among genotypes because each cross produced all three genotypes. We divided the progeny from each family into two groups. One group was reared in a hatchery for 1 year and then released for migration to the sea and subsequent return to the hatchery as adults. The other group was released into a natural stream and monitored for 3 years. We found no significant differences in size or survival among PEPA-1* genotypes for either the naturally reared fish or the hatchery-reared fish immediately prior to release as smolts. For females, survival to returning adult also was similar among genotypes; however, hatchery-reared males with the *110/110 genotype returned at a higher rate than did males with the *100/ 100 genotype; heterozygous males were intermediate. These results indicate that selection occurs at the PEPA-1* locus or at one or more loci tightly linked to it. The finding of nearly equal frequencies for these two alleles in the source population suggests that selection differentials among genotypes reverse or vary from year to year; otherwise, steady directional selection would drive the *100 allele to low frequencies or extinction. Locus PEPA-1* seems inappropriate for genetic marks in studies of steelhead that span the full life cycle and probably should be avoided

  18. Maladaptation and phenotypic mismatch in hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon Salmo salar released in the wild.

    PubMed

    Stringwell, R; Lock, A; Stutchbury, C J; Baggett, E; Taylor, J; Gough, P J; Garcia de Leaniz, C

    2014-12-01

    Changes in body shape, fluctuating asymmetry (FA) and crypsis were compared among Atlantic salmon Salmo salar fry kept as controls in captivity and those released and subsequently recaptured in the wild according to a before-after-control-impact (BACI) design. Hatchery fish that survived in the wild became more cryptic and displayed a much lower incidence of fin erosion and of asymmetric individuals than control fish kept in captivity. Significant differences in body shape were also apparent, and survivors had longer heads, thicker caudal peduncles and a more streamlined body shape than hatchery controls as early as 20 days following stocking, most likely as a result of phenotypic plasticity and non-random, selective mortality of maladapted phenotypes. Hatchery-reared fish typically perform poorly in the wild and the results of this study indicate that this may be due to phenotypic mismatch, i.e. because hatcheries generate fish that are phenotypically mismatched to the natural environment.

  19. Lynch Ferry Hatchery - Summer Steelhead, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, M.

    1996-05-01

    This report presents the findings of the independent audit of the Lyons Ferry Hatchery (Summer Steelhead). Lyons Ferry Hatchery is located downstream of the confluence of the Palouse and Snake rivers, about 7 miles west of Starbuck, Washington. The hatchery is used for adult collection of fall chinook and summer steelhead, egg incubation of fall chinook, spring chinook, steelhead, and rainbow trout and rearing of fall chinook, spring chinook, summer steelhead, and rainbow trout. The audit was conducted in April 1996 as part of a two-year effort that will include 67 hatcheries and satellite facilities located on the Columbia and Snake River system in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. The hatchery operating agencies include the US Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife.

  20. Umatilla Hatchery Monitoring and Evaluation, 1998-1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Stonecypher, R. Wess; Groberg, Jr., Warren J.; Farman, Brett M.

    2001-07-01

    The Northwest Power Planning Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program authorized construction of Umatilla Fish Hatchery (UFH) in 1986. Measure 703 of the program amended the original authorization for the hatchery and specified evaluation of the Michigan (MI) raceways using oxygen supplementation to reach production goals of 290,000 lb of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (O. mykiss). The hatchery was completed in fall 1991. Partial justification for the hatchery was to evaluate new production and supplementation techniques. MI raceways at UFH increase smolt production with a limited water supply. Test results for MI raceways will have systematic application in the Columbia River basin. The UFH is the foundation for rehabilitating chinook salmon and enhancing steelhead in the Umatilla River (CTUIR and ODFW 1990) and is expected to contribute significantly to the Northwest Power Planning Council's goal of doubling salmon production in the Columbia Basin. Hatchery production goals and a comprehensive monitoring and evaluation plan were presented in the Umatilla Hatchery Master Plan (CTUIR and ODFW 1990). The Comprehensive Plan for Monitoring and Evaluation of Umatilla Hatchery (Carmichael 1990) was approved by the Northwest Power Planning Council as a critical adaptive management guide for fisheries rehabilitation in the Umatilla River. Monitoring and evaluation will be used to increase knowledge about uncertainties inherent in the fisheries rehabilitation and will complement the developing systematic monitoring and evaluation program. The monitoring and evaluation goals are: (1) Provide information and recommendations for the culture and release of hatchery fish, harvest regulations, and natural escapement to accomplish long-term natural and hatchery production goals in the Umatilla River basin that are consistent with provisions of the Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. (2) Assess the success of achieving

  1. Reproductive Ecology of Yakima River Hatchery and Wild Spring Chinook and Juvenile-to-Adult PIT-tag Retention; Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Monitoring and Evaluation, 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Knudsen, Curtis M.

    2002-11-01

    This report is intended to satisfy two concurrent needs: (1) provide a contract deliverable from Oncorh Consulting to the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), with emphasis on identification of salient results of value to ongoing Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project (YKFP) planning, and (2) summarize results of research that have broader scientific relevance. This is the first in an anticipated series of reports that address reproductive ecological research and monitoring of spring chinook in the Yakima River basin. In addition to within-year comparisons, between-year comparisons will be made to determine if traits of the wild Naches basin control population, the naturally spawning population in the upper Yakima River and the hatchery control population are diverging over time. This annual report summarizes data collected between April 1, 2001 and March 31, 2002. In the future, these data will be compared to previous years to identify general trends and make preliminary comparisons.

  2. Identifying spawning behavior in Pacific halibut (Hippoglossus stenolepis) using electronic tags

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seitz, A.C.; Norcross, Brenda L.; Wilson, D.; Nielsen, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    Identifying spawning behavior in Pacific halibut, Hippoglossus stenolepis, is particularly challenging because they occupy a deep, remote environment during the spawning season. To identify spawning events, a method is needed in which direct observation by humans is not employed. Spawning behavior of seven other flatfish, species has been directly observed in their natural environment by investigators using SCUBA. All of these flatfish species display almost identical spawning behavior that follows a routine. Therefore, it is reasonable to believe that this spawning behavior occurs in other flatfish species, including Pacific halibut. As part of a larger study, we recaptured two Pacific halibut on which Pop-up Archival Transmitting (PAT) tags had been attached during the winter spawning season. Because the tags were physically retrieved, we were able to collect minute-by-minute depth records for 135 and 155 days. We used these depth data to tentatively identify spawning events. On seven separate occasions between 20 January 2001 and 9 February 2001, one fish displayed a conspicuous routine only seen during the spawning season of Pacific halibut and the routine parallels the actions of other spawning flatfish directly observed by humans using SCUBA. Therefore, we propose this routine represents spawning behavior in Pacific halibut. The second tagged fish did not display the conspicuous routine, thus challenging the assumption that Pacific halibut are annual spawners. PAT tags may prove to be a useful tool for identifying spawning events of Pacific halibut, and that knowledge may be used for improved management in the future. 

  3. Hatchery hygiene evaluation by microbiological examination of hatchery samples.

    PubMed

    Kim, J H; Kim, K S

    2010-07-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the bacterial contamination of air and the surface of equipment and facilities in hatchery. In addition, the inhibitory effects of formaldehyde application methods on aerosol bacterial counts in the hatchers were also investigated. In the operating hatchers, the contamination of air by aerobic bacteria, coliform, and fungi was high, measuring over 300 cfu/63.6 cm(2). In the egg sorting room, contamination was moderate, whereas in the remaining sampling sites such as the setter room, candling-transfer room, and chick counting room, contamination was minimal, measuring less than 10 cfu/63.6 cm(2) for aerobic bacteria, 5 cfu/63.6 cm(2) for coliform, and 2 cfu/63.6 cm(2) for fungi. The bacterial contamination on the surface of the equipment and facilities showed similar tendencies with that of air. However, on the surfaces of the equipment and facilities in the hatcher room corridors and nonoperating hatchers where the bacterial contamination of the air was low, bacterial counts were high, measuring over 100 cfu/16 cm(2). Salmonella was mainly isolated from the hatcher rooms, chick counting room, and the related equipment and facilities but not from the areas used for the earlier processing step such as the egg receiving room, egg sorting room, setter rooms, and candling-transfer room. The Salmonella serotype that was most frequently isolated from the hatchery was Salmonella Senftenberg. The other occasional Salmonella serotypes such as Salmonella Schwarzengrund, Salmonella Madelia, Salmonella Montevideo, and Salmonella Enteritidis were isolated. The experimental group receiving formaldehyde by constant rate infusion during hatching had a significantly superior inhibitory effect on aerosol bacterial count 4 h before hatching as compared with the group receiving formaldehyde into a basin and the negative control group (P < 0.05).

  4. Review of probiotics for use in bivalve hatcheries.

    PubMed

    Prado, Susana; Romalde, Jesús L; Barja, Juan L

    2010-10-26

    The aquaculture of bivalve molluscs has attained a considerable level of production but it is not enough to cover the demand of worldwide consumers. In the development of this sector, hatcheries play an important role, as suppliers of competent spat of different bivalves, including species with an aquaculture based on natural extraction present. Besides, these installations may help in the recovery of exhausted natural beds and in the obtaining of populations under genetic selection. Unfortunately, the disease outbreaks caused by bacterial pathogens are frequent, with the loss of complete batches, compromising the regular production and the economic viability of the industry. There are many descriptive studies about these outbreaks, but only a few focused on the control of microbiota. The particularities of bivalve aquaculture in hatchery must be taken into account to design methods of control. A common environment is shared by larvae and bacteria, including both beneficial and potentially pathogenic. The filter-feeding behaviour of larvae increases the strong influence of these populations. The classical treatments are directed toward to the complete elimination of bacteria from culture seawater. That objective is unfeasible, because the cultures are not axenic, and undesirable, since some bacteria enhance larval development. Taking into account these considerations, the most promising alternative is the use of probiotic bacteria. In this review we summarize the scientific literature about this subject, considering the particularities of bivalve larval cultures and the need to adapt the concept of probiotic and the strategies to use in marine bivalve hatcheries.

  5. Spawning by lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) in the Detroit River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caswell, N.M.; Peterson, D.L.; Manny, B.A.; Kennedy, G.W.

    2004-01-01

    Overfishing and habitat destruction in the early 1900s devastated lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) populations in the Great Lakes. Although a comprehensive restoration strategy for this species was recently drafted by the Michigan Department of Natural Resources, a lack of current data on Great Lakes sturgeon stocks has hindered rehabilitation efforts. Historically, the Detroit River supported one of the largest lake sturgeon populations in the Great Lakes; however, little is known about the current population or its habitat use. The main objective of this study was to determine if lake sturgeon spawns in the Detroit River. As part of a larger study, baited setlines were used to capture lake sturgeon in the Detroit River in the spring and summer of 2000 and 2001. In each year of the study, ultrasonic transmitters were surgically implanted in 10 adult fish to track their movements, evaluate habitat use and identify possible spawning sites. Using telemetry and egg mats to verify spawning activity, one spawning site was located and verified in the Detroit River. Spawning was verified by recovering sturgeon eggs deposited on egg collection mats anchored at the site. Telemetry data suggested that several other possible spawning sites also may exist, however, spawning activity was not verified at these sites.

  6. Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Program : Draft Environmental Impact Statement.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery .

    1996-06-01

    Bonneville Power Administration, the Bureau of Indian Affairs, the Nez Perce Tribe propose a supplementation program to restore chinook salmon to the Clearwater River Subbasin in Idaho. The Clearwater River is a tributary to the Snake River, which empties into the Columbia River. The Nez Perce Tribe would build and operate two central incubation and rearing hatcheries and six satellite facilities. Spring, summer and fall chinook salmon would be reared and acclimated to different areas in the Subbasin and released at the hatchery and satellite sites or in other watercourses throughout the Subbasin. The supplementation program differs from other hatchery programs because the fish would be released at different sizes and would return to reproduce naturally in the areas where they are released. Several environmental issues were identified during scoping: the possibility that the project would fail if mainstem Columbia River juvenile and adult passage problems are not solved; genetic risks to fish listed as endangered or threatened; potential impacts to wild and resident fish stocks because of increase competition for food and space; and water quality. The Proposed Action would affect several important aspects of Nez Perce tribal life, primarily salmon harvest, employment, and fisheries management.

  7. Hotchkiss National Fish Hatchery NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service is authorized to discharge from outfalls at its Hotchkiss National Fish Hatchery wastewater treatment facility to the North Fork of the Gunnison River in Delta County, Colorado.

  8. Leadville National Fish Hatchery NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit number CO-0000582, the U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service is authorized to discharge from its Leadville National Fish Hatchery wastewater treatment facility in Colorado.

  9. Benzocaine as a fish anesthetic: efficacy and safety for spawning-phase salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilderhus, P.A.

    1990-01-01

    The anesthetic benzocaine was tested for efficacy and safety for spawning-phase chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) at federal fish hatcheries. Tests were conducted in the existing hatchery water supplies (soft water; temperatures, 10–13 °C. Crystalline benzocaine was dissolved in ethanol (1 g/30 mL), and aliquots of that stock solution were added to the water in test tanks. Benzocaine concentrations of 25–30 mg/L anesthetized most fish in less than 3.5 min, and most fish recovered in less than 10 min after 15 min of exposure. Safety margins were narrow; both species tolerated 30 mg/L for about 20 min, but 25 min of exposure caused deaths. For 15 min exposures, concentrations of 35 mg/L for chinook salmon and 40 mg/L for Atlantic salmon were lethal.

  10. Hood River Steelhead Genetics Study; Relative Reproductive Success of Hatchery and Wild Steelhead in the Hood River, Final Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Blouin, Michael

    2003-05-01

    There is a considerable interest in using hatcheries to speed the recovery of wild populations. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), under the authority of the Northwest Power Planning Act, is currently funding several hatchery programs in the Columbia Basin as off-site mitigation for impacts to salmon and steelhead caused by the Columbia River federal hydropower system. One such project is located on the Hood River, an Oregon tributary of the Columbia. These hatchery programs cost the region millions of dollars. However, whether such programs actually improve the status of wild fish remains untested. The goal of this project was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Hood River hatchery program as required by the Northwest Power Planning Council Fish and Wildlife Program, by the Oregon Plan for Coastal Salmonids, by NMFS ESA Section 4(d) rulings, and by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) Wild Fish Management Policy (OAR 635-07-525 through 529) and the ODFW Hatchery Fish Gene Resource Management Policy (OAR 635-07-540 through 541). The Hood River supports two populations of steelhead, a summer run and a winter run. They spawn only above the Powerdale Dam, which is a complete barrier to all salmonids. Since 1991 every adult passed above the dam has been measured, cataloged and sampled for scales. Therefore, we have a DNA sample from every adult steelhead that went over the dam to potentially spawn in the Hood River from 1991 to the present. Similar numbers of hatchery and wild fish have been passed above the dam during the last decade. During the 1990's 'old' domesticated hatchery stocks of each run (multiple generations in the hatchery, out-of-basin origin; hereafter H{sub old}) were phased out, and conservation hatchery programs were started for the purpose of supplementing the two wild populations (hereafter 'new' hatchery stocks, H{sub new}). These samples gave us the unprecedented ability to estimate, via microsatellite-based pedigree

  11. Techno-Arrogance and Halfway Technologies: Salmon Hatcheries on the Pacific Coast of North America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meffe, Gary K.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses an attempt to recover Pacific salmonid fisheries with hatcheries as an example of a human attitude toward nature that places technological mastery over nature at the forefront of our approach to many environmental problems. Points out how this approach addresses the symptoms but not the causes of the salmon population decline. Suggests…

  12. Kokanee Stock Status and Contribution of Cabinet Gorge Hatchery, Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho, 1989 Annual Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hoelscher, Brian

    1990-04-01

    The kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka rehabilitation program for Lake Pend Oreille continued to show progress during 1989. Estimated kokanee abundance in late August was 7.71 million fish. Decreased population size is the result of lower hatchery and wild fry recruitment and low age 1+ survival. Lower recruitment of wild fry in 1989 resulted from a smaller parental escapement in 1988 and lower wild fry survival. Six fry release strategies were evaluated in 1989. Two groups were released in Clark Fork River to help improve a spawning run to Cabinet Gorge Hatchery. Survival from the mid-summer release, which was barged down Clark Fork River to avoid low flow problems, was not significantly different from the early release. The final assessment of these release strategies will be evaluated when adults return to Cabinet gorge Hatchery in 1992 and 1993. Fry released to support the Sullivan Springs Creek spawning run also survived will in 1989. Two open-water releases were made during early and mid-summer. 30 refs., 26 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Microphytoplankton variations during coral spawning at Los Roques, Southern Caribbean

    PubMed Central

    Zubillaga, Ainhoa L.; Bastidas, Carolina

    2016-01-01

    Phytoplankton drives primary productivity in marine pelagic systems. This is also true for the oligotrophic waters in coral reefs, where natural and anthropogenic sources of nutrients can alter pelagic trophic webs. In this study, microphytoplankton assemblages were characterized for the first time in relation to expected coral spawning dates in the Caribbean. A hierarchical experimental design was used to examine these assemblages in Los Roques archipelago, Venezuela, at various temporal and spatial scales for spawning events in both 2007 and 2008. At four reefs, superficial water samples were taken daily for 9 days after the full moon of August, including days before, during and after the expected days of coral spawning. Microphytoplankton assemblages comprised 100 microalgae taxa at up to 50 cells per mL (mean ± 8 SD) and showed temporal and spatial variations related to the coral spawning only in 2007. However, chlorophyll a concentrations increased during and after the spawning events in both years, and this was better matched with analyses of higher taxonomical groups (diatoms, cyanophytes and dinoflagellates), that also varied in relation to spawning times in 2007 and 2008, but asynchronously among reefs. Heterotrophic and mixotrophic dinoflagellates increased in abundance, correlating with a decrease of the diatom Cerataulina pelagica and an increase of the diatom Rhizosolenia imbricata. These variations occurred during and after the coral spawning event for some reefs in 2007. For the first time, a fresh-water cyanobacteria species of Anabaena was ephemerally found (only 3 days) in the archipelago, at reefs closest to human settlements. Variability among reefs in relation to spawning times indicated that reef-specific processes such as water residence time, re-mineralization rates, and benthic-pelagic coupling can be relevant to the observed patterns. These results suggest an important role of microheterotrophic grazers in re-mineralization of organic

  14. Hatchery Evaluation Report/Rapid River Hatchery - Spring Chinook : An Independent Audit Based on Integrated Hatchery Operations Team (IHOT) Performance Measures.

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, Montgomery.

    1996-05-01

    This report presents the findings of the independent audit of the Rapid River Hatchery (Spring Chinook). The hatchery is located in the lower Snake River basin near Riggins Idaho. The hatchery is used for adult collection egg incubation, and rearing of spring chinook. The audit was conducted in April 1996 as part of a two-year effort that will include 67 hatcheries and satellite facilities located on the Columbia and Snake River system in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. The hatchery operating agencies include the U.S Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife.

  15. Colville Tribal Fish Hatchery, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Fairgrieve, William; Christensen, David

    2004-04-01

    The Colville Tribal Hatchery produced 62,335 pounds of trout during the contract period, however, only 46,092 pounds were liberated to lakes and streams. The remaining production will be carried over to 2004 to be planted as larger fish into reservation waters for the lakes opener. New raceways were completed in November and brought on line in the spring. These raceways currently hold the redband rainbow brood stock and will be spawned in 2004. Efforts are continuing to capture redbands from other streams in coordination with the monitoring and evaluation program. Creel was expanded by hiring a second creel clerk to give better coverage of reservation waters by reducing travel time. Marking continues on all fish planted from CTH and refinements continue to be made. The first tag retention study has been completed and the second study is now underway to determine long term tag recognition. Lakes continue to be surveyed to complete the baseline analysis of all reservation lakes and will be completed in 2004.

  16. Comparing the Reproductive Success of Yakima River Hatchery- and Wild-Origin Spring Chinook; Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Monitoring and Evaluation, 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Schroder, S.L.; Pearsons, T.N.; Knudsen, C.M.

    2006-05-01

    Reproductive success in wild- and first generation hatchery-origin spring Chinook males was examined by allowing the fish to compete for spawning opportunities in two sections of an observation stream. Behavioral observations were used to characterize the frequency of aggression and courting activities. Microsatellite DNA from each male and fry collected from the observation stream were used in pedigree analyses to estimate reproductive success. The coefficient of variation in male reproductive success equaled 116 and 86% in the two populations. No differences were detected in reproductive success due to hatchery or wild origin. Nor were any behavioral differences found between hatchery and wild males. Although statistical power was low due to intrinsic variation a great deal of overlap existed in the reproductive success values of hatchery and wild males. Significant disparities existed among the males on their ability to produce offspring. Males achieving high reproductive success mated with numerous females, were socially dominant, aggressive, and tended to stay in localized areas, courting and spawning with females that were adjacent to one another.

  17. Spawning and rearing Atlantic menhaden

    SciTech Connect

    Hettler, W.F.

    1981-04-01

    Two-year-old Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus) held in the laboratory at ambient temperatures and salinities for more than 1 year, were induced to spawn by injecting first human chorionic gonadotropin and then carp pituitary powder. Spawning took place at temperatures of 16 to 20/sup 0/C in a 2100-L indoor tank modified to recover the buoyant fertilized eggs. Larvae were reared to the juvenile stage on a diet of cultured rotifers (Brachionus plicatilus), sieved wild zooplankton (64 to 500 ..mu..m), brine shrimp (Artemia salina) nauplii, and powdered trout food.

  18. Spokane Tribal Hatchery, 2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Peone, Tim L.

    2004-05-01

    Due to the construction and operation of Grand Coulee Dam (1939), anadromous salmon have been eradicated and resident fish populations permanently altered in the upper Columbia River region. Federal and private hydropower dam operations throughout the Columbia River system severely limits indigenous fish populations in the upper Columbia. Artificial production has been determined appropriate for supporting a harvestable fishery for kokanee salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in Lake Roosevelt and Banks Lake (Grand Coulee Dam impoundments). A collaborative multi-agency artificial production program for the Lake Roosevelt and Banks Lake fisheries exists consisting of the Spokane Tribal Hatchery, Sherman Creek Hatchery, Ford Trout Hatchery and the Lake Roosevelt Kokanee and Rainbow Trout Net Pen Rearing Projects. These projects operate complementary of one another to target an annual release of 1 million yearling kokanee and 500,000 yearling rainbow trout for Lake Roosevelt and 1.4 million kokanee fry/fingerlings for Banks Lake. Combined fish stocking by the hatcheries and net pen rearing projects in 2003 included: 899,168 kokanee yearlings released into Lake Roosevelt; 1,087,331 kokanee fry/fingerlings released into Banks Lake, 44,000 rainbow trout fingerlings and; 580,880 rainbow trout yearlings released into Lake Roosevelt. Stock composition of 2003 releases consisted of Lake Whatcom kokanee, 50:50 diploid-triploid Spokane Trout Hatchery (McCloud River) rainbow trout and Phalon Lake red-band rainbow trout. All kokanee were marked with either thermal, oxytetracyline or fin clips prior to release. Preliminary 2003 Lake Roosevelt fisheries investigations indicate hatchery/net pen stocking significantly contributed to harvestable rainbow trout and kokanee salmon fisheries. An increase in kokanee harvest was primarily owing to new release strategies. Walleye predation, early maturity and entrainment through Grand Coulee Dam continues to

  19. Spokane Tribal Hatchery, 2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Peone, Tim L.

    2005-03-01

    Due to the construction and operation of Grand Coulee Dam (1939), anadromous salmon have been eradicated and resident fish populations permanently altered in the upper Columbia River region. Federal and private hydropower dam operations throughout the Columbia River system severely limits indigenous fish populations in the upper Columbia. Artificial production has been determined appropriate for supporting a harvestable fishery for kokanee salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in Lake Roosevelt and Banks Lake (Grand Coulee Dam impoundments). A collaborative multi-agency artificial production program for the Lake Roosevelt and Banks Lake fisheries exists consisting of the Spokane Tribal Hatchery, Sherman Creek Hatchery, Ford Trout Hatchery and the Lake Roosevelt Kokanee and Rainbow Trout Net Pen Rearing Projects. These projects operate complementary of one another to target an annual release of 1 million yearling kokanee and 500,000 yearling rainbow trout for Lake Roosevelt and 1.4 million kokanee fry/fingerlings for Banks Lake. Fish produced by this project in 2004 to meet collective fish production and release goals included: 1,655,722 kokanee fingerlings, 537,783 rainbow trout fingerlings and 507,660 kokanee yearlings. Kokanee yearlings were adipose fin clipped before release. Stock composition consisted of Lake Whatcom kokanee, 50:50 diploid-triploid Spokane Trout Hatchery (McCloud River) rainbow trout and Phalon Lake red-band rainbow trout. All kokanee were marked with either thermal, oxytetracyline or fin clips prior to release. Preliminary 2004 Lake Roosevelt fisheries investigations indicate hatchery/net pen stocking significantly contributed to harvestable rainbow trout and kokanee salmon fisheries. An increase in kokanee harvest was primarily owing to new release strategies. Walleye predation, early maturity and entrainment through Grand Coulee Dam continues to have a negative impact on adult kokanee returns and limits the

  20. Integrated Hatchery Operations Team: Operations Plans for Anadromous Fish Production Facilities in the Columbia River Basin, Volume I of V; 1992 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Shelldrake, Tom

    1993-08-01

    Individual operational plans for 1993 are provided for the Abernathy Salmon Culture Technology Center, Carson National Fish Hatchery, Dworshak National Fish Hatchery, Eagle Creek National Fish Hatchery, Entiat National Fish Hatchery, Hagerman National Fish Hatchery, Kooskia National Fish Hatchery, Leavenworth National Fish Hatchery, Little White Salmon National Fish Hatchery, Spring Creek National Fish Hatchery, Warm Springs National Fish Hatchery, Willard National Fish Hatchery, and the Winthrop National Fish Hatchery.

  1. 25 CFR 242.6 - Spawning season.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Spawning season. 242.6 Section 242.6 Indians BUREAU OF... RESERVATION § 242.6 Spawning season. Walleye and northern pike (or pickerel) shall not be taken during their spawning season except for propagation purposes....

  2. 25 CFR 242.6 - Spawning season.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Spawning season. 242.6 Section 242.6 Indians BUREAU OF... RESERVATION § 242.6 Spawning season. Walleye and northern pike (or pickerel) shall not be taken during their spawning season except for propagation purposes....

  3. 25 CFR 242.6 - Spawning season.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Spawning season. 242.6 Section 242.6 Indians BUREAU OF... RESERVATION § 242.6 Spawning season. Walleye and northern pike (or pickerel) shall not be taken during their spawning season except for propagation purposes....

  4. 25 CFR 242.6 - Spawning season.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Spawning season. 242.6 Section 242.6 Indians BUREAU OF... RESERVATION § 242.6 Spawning season. Walleye and northern pike (or pickerel) shall not be taken during their spawning season except for propagation purposes....

  5. Spore: Spawning Evolutionary Misconceptions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bean, Thomas E.; Sinatra, Gale M.; Schrader, P. G.

    2010-10-01

    The use of computer simulations as educational tools may afford the means to develop understanding of evolution as a natural, emergent, and decentralized process. However, special consideration of developmental constraints on learning may be necessary when using these technologies. Specifically, the essentialist (biological forms possess an immutable essence), teleological (assignment of purpose to living things and/or parts of living things that may not be purposeful), and intentionality (assumption that events are caused by an intelligent agent) biases may be reinforced through the use of computer simulations, rather than addressed with instruction. We examine the video game Spore for its depiction of evolutionary content and its potential to reinforce these cognitive biases. In particular, we discuss three pedagogical strategies to mitigate weaknesses of Spore and other computer simulations: directly targeting misconceptions through refutational approaches, targeting specific principles of scientific inquiry, and directly addressing issues related to models as cognitive tools.

  6. Protein profiles of hatchery egg shell membrane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Eggshells, which consist largely of calcareous outer shell and shell membranes, constitute a significant part of poultry hatchery waste. The shell membranes (ESM) not only contain proteins that originate from egg whites but also from the developing embryos and different contaminants of m...

  7. Some problems of private trout hatchery operators

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rucker, Robert R.

    1957-01-01

    Disease, nutritional, and environmental problems in commercial production of trout are discussed, including mortality and age of spawners, copepod and gyrodactylid infections, suitable water temperatures, diseases (especially red mouth and back peel) and inspection of fish. It is concluded that experiences with hatchery procedures have varied greatly and often the commercial trout producer must adjust methods to fit his particular needs and conditions.

  8. Leadville National Fish Hatchery NPDES Permit Documents

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    NPDES public notice, permit and statement of basis would authorize discharge of treated water from settling ponds of the Leadville National Fish Hatchery to an unnamed tributary to Hunt Gulch, which flows into Lake Fork, a tributary to the Arkansas River.

  9. Hatchery Evaluation Report / Lyons Ferry Hatchery - Fall Chinook : An Independent Audit Based on Integrated Hatchery Operations Teams (IHOT) Performance Measures : Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, Montgomery

    1996-05-01

    This report presents the findings of the independent audit of the Lyons Ferry Hatchery (Fall Chinook). The audit is being conducted as a requirement of the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) ``Strategy for Salmon`` and the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. Under the audit, the hatcheries are evaluated against policies and related performance measures developed by the Integrated Hatchery Operations Team (IHOT). IHOT is a multi-agency group established by the NPPC to direct the development of new basinwide standards for managing and operating fish hatcheries. The audit was conducted in April 1996 as part of a two-year effort that will include 67 hatcheries and satellite facilities located on the Columbia and Snake River system in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. The hatchery operating agencies include the US Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife.

  10. White sturgeon spawning areas in the lower Snake River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsley, M.J.; Kappenman, K.M.

    2000-01-01

    We documented 17 white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus spawning locations in the Snake River from the mouth to Lower Granite Dam (river km 0 to 173). Spawning locations were determined by the collection of fertilized eggs on artificial substrates or in plankton nets. We collected 245 eggs at seven locations in McNary Reservoir, 22 eggs at three locations in Ice Harbor Reservoir, 30 eggs from two locations in Lower Monumental Reservoir, and 464 eggs at five locations in Little Goose Reservoir. All 17 locations were in high water velocity areas and between 1.0 and 7.0 km downstream from a hydroelectric dam. The documentation of spawning areas is important because this habitat is necessary to maintain natural and viable populations.

  11. Genetic diversity of wild and hatchery lake trout populations: Relevance for management and restoration in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Page, K.S.; Scribner, K.T.; Burnham-Curtis, M.

    2004-01-01

    The biological diversity of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in the upper Great Lakes was historically high, consisting of many recognizable morphological types and discrete spawning populations. During the 1950s and 1960s, lake trout populations were extirpated from much of the Great Lakes primarily as a result of overfishing and predation by the parasitic sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus. Investigations of how genetic diversity is partitioned among remnant wild lake trout populations and hatchery broodstocks have been advocated to guide lake trout management and conservation planning. Using microsatellite genetic markers, we estimated measures of genetic diversity and the apportionment of genetic variance among 6 hatchery broodstocks and 10 wild populations representing three morphotypes (lean, humper, and siscowet). Analyses revealed that different hatchery broodstocks and wild populations contributed disproportionally to the total levels of genetic diversity. The genetic affinities of hatchery lake trout reflected the lake basins of origin of the wild source populations. The variance in allele frequency over all sampled extant wild populations was apportioned primarily on the basis of morphotype (??MT = 0.029) and secondarily among geographically dispersed populations within each morphotype (??ST = 0.024). The findings suggest that the genetic divergence reflected in recognized morphotypes and the associated ecological and physiological specialization occurred prior to the partitioning of large proglacial lakes into the Great Lakes or as a consequence of higher contemporary levels of gene flow within than among morphotypes. Information on the relative contributions of different broodstocks to total gene diversity within the regional hatchery program can be used to prioritize the broodstocks to be retained and to guide future stocking strategies. The findings highlight the importance of ecological and phenotypic diversity in Great Lakes fish communities and

  12. Effect of developmental stage of unfed fry on survival and growth of steelhead released in a stream and hatchery ponds (Study sites: Dworshak Hatchery and North Fork Palouse River; Stock: Dworshak hatchery; Year class: 1996): Chapter 6

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Stenberg, Karl D.; Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Hayes, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    We tested whether differences in developmental stage of unfed fry at release affected subsequent survival and growth of steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss in a stream and hatchery ponds. Differences in development were created by artificially spawning hatchery steelhead from the Clearwater River, Idaho, and incubating their progeny at three different temperatures (means=10.9, 11.3, and 11.7°C). Time between fertilization and maximum alevin wet weight (MAWW) was predicted from incubation temperature using a model. MAWW is equivalent to the button - up fry stage of development. Developmental stages at release were “underdeveloped” (97.7% of model - predicted time to MAWW, mean weight=0.177 g, proportion yolk=0.087), “intermediate” (102.5%, 0.179 g, 0.044), and “overdeveloped” (107.9%, 0.156 g, 0.030). Neither survival nor growth in the hatchery to near the end of the standard one year rearing period differed among groups. In the stream, frequency of overdeveloped fish relative to the other two groups decreased fro m release in May to September, probably indicating lower survival for the overdeveloped fish during that interval since emigration of sub - yearlings is typically negligible. Length in September was less for overdeveloped than for intermediate fish and was in between for underdeveloped fish, suggesting that growth between May and September was less for overdeveloped fish than for intermediate fish. Although changes in relative frequency and size occurred among fry development groups from September to one ye ar later, those changes may have reflected differences in emigration rate during the interval rather than differential survival or growth. Our results show a cost to survival and growth in a stream, but not in a hatchery, from overdevelopment characterize d by loss of weight and yolk reserves relative to fry closer to MAWW at release. We didn’t find any cost from underdevelopment; however, our underdeveloped fry were closer to MAWW than the

  13. Breeding Astyanax mexicanus through Natural Spawning.

    PubMed

    Borowsky, Richard

    2008-11-01

    INTRODUCTIONMale and female Astyanax mexicanus can be bred successfully in tanks under appropriate conditions. Females should be maintained on a diet high in fats for 10-14 d before breeding. The transfer of a male and female into clean water in a fresh tank and a change (increase) in water temperature are cues for breeding. Newly fertilized eggs may also be obtained through in vitro fertilization. Note that blind fish should never be paired with eyed fish in illuminated aquaria, because the eyed fish are aggressive and will kill even much larger blind fish. Such matings must be carried out in the dark or by using in vitro fertilization.

  14. Ford Hatchery; Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife Fish Program, Hatcheries Division, Annual Report 2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Lovrak, Jon; Ward, Glen

    2004-01-01

    Bonneville Power Administration's participation with the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Ford Hatchery, provides the opportunity for enhancing the recreational and subsistence kokanee fisheries in Banks Lake. The artificial production and fisheries evaluation is done cooperatively through the Spokane Hatchery, Sherman Creek Hatchery (WDFW), Banks Lake Volunteer Net Pen Project, and the Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Evaluation Program. Ford Hatchery's production, together with the Sherman Creek and the Spokane Tribal Hatchery, will contribute to an annual goal of one million kokanee yearlings for Lake Roosevelt and 1.4 million kokanee fingerlings and fry for Banks Lake. The purpose of this multi-agency program is to restore and enhance kokanee salmon and rainbow trout populations in Lake Roosevelt and Banks Lake due to Grand Coulee Dam impoundments. The Ford Hatchery will produce 9,533 lbs. (572,000) kokanee annually for release as fingerlings into Banks Lake in October. An additional 2,133 lbs. (128,000) kokanee will be transferred to net pens on Banks Lake at Electric City in October. The net pen raised kokanee will be reared through the fall, winter, and early spring to a total of 8,533 lbs and released in May. While the origin of kokanee comes from Lake Whatcom, current objectives will be to increase the use of native (or, indigenous) stocks for propagation in Banks Lake and the Upper Columbia River. Additional stocks planned for future use in Banks Lake include Lake Roosevelt kokanee and Meadow Creek kokanee. The Ford Hatchery continues to produce resident trout (80,584 lb. per year) to promote the sport fisheries in trout fishing lakes in eastern Washington (WDFW Management, Region 1). Operation and maintenance funding for the increased kokanee program was implemented in FY 2001 and scheduled to continue through FY 2010. Funds from BPA allow for an additional employee at the Ford Hatchery to assist in the operations and maintenance associated with

  15. Testing for genetic differences in survival and growth between hatchery and wild Chinook salmon from Warm Springs River, Oregon (Study sites: Warm Springs Hatchery and Little White Salmon River; Stocks: Warm Springs hatchery and Warm Springs River wild; Year classes: 1992 and 1996): Chapter 8

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Leonetti,; Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Hayes, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    The program at Warm Springs National Fish Hatchery in north - central Oregon was initiated with spring Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha from the Warm Springs River. Managers included wild fish in the broodstock most years and avoided artificial selection to minimize genetic divergence from the wild founder population. We tested for genetic differences in survival and growth between the hatchery and wild populations to ascertain whether this goal has been achieved. Progeny of hatchery x hatchery (HH), hatchery female x wild male (HW), and wild x wild (WW) crosses were genetically marked at the sSOD - 1* allozyme locus and released together as unfed fry in hatchery ponds in 1992 and 1996 and in the Little White Salmon River, in south - central Washington, in 1996. Fish were evaluated to returning adult at the hatchery and over their freshwater residence of 16 months in the stream. The three crosses differed on several measures including survival to outmigration in the stream (WW>HH>HW) and juvenile growth in the hatchery (1992 year - class; WW>HW>HH); however, results may have been confounded. The genetic marks were found to differentially effect survival in a companion study (HH mark favored over WW mark; HW mark intermediate). Furthermore, HW survival in the current study was neither intermediate, as would be expect ed from additive genetic effects, nor similar to that of HH fish as would be expected from maternal effects since HW and HH fish were maternal half - siblings. Finally, the unexpected performance of HW fish precludes ruling out maternal differences between hatchery and wild mothers as the cause of differences between HH and WW fish. The key finding that survival of HH fish in a stream was 0.91 that for WW fish, indicating a small loss of fitness for natural rearing in the hatchery population, is valid only if three conditions hold: (1) any selection on the genetic marks was in the same direction as in the companion study, (2) lower survival in

  16. Spokane Tribal Hatchery, 2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Peone, Tim L.

    2006-03-01

    Due to the construction and operation of Grand Coulee Dam (1939), anadromous salmon have been eradicated and resident fish populations permanently altered in the upper Columbia River region. Federal and private hydropower dam operations throughout the Columbia River system severely limits indigenous fish populations in the upper Columbia. Artificial production has been determined appropriate for supporting harvestable fisheries for kokanee salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in Lake Roosevelt and Banks Lake (Grand Coulee Dam impoundments). The Spokane Tribe, Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Colville Confederated Tribes and Lake Roosevelt Development Association/Lake Roosevelt Volunteer Net Pen Project are cooperating in a comprehensive artificial production program to produce kokanee salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) for annual releases into the project area. The program consists of the Spokane Tribal Hatchery, Sherman Creek Hatchery, Ford Trout Hatchery and Lake Roosevelt Rainbow Trout Net Pen Rearing Projects. The Lake Roosevelt and Banks Lake Fisheries Evaluation Program monitor and evaluates release strategies and production methods for the aforementioned projects. Between 1985 and 2005 the projects have collectively produced up to 800,000 rainbow trout and 4 million kokanee salmon for release into Lake Roosevelt and 1.4 million kokanee fry for Banks Lake annually. In 2005, the annual release goal included 3.3 million kokanee fry, 475,000 kokanee yearlings and 500,000 rainbow trout yearlings. Fish produced by this project in 2005 to meet collective fish production and release goals included: 3,446,438 kokanee fingerlings, 347,730 rainbow trout fingerlings and 525,721 kokanee yearlings. Kokanee yearlings were adipose fin clipped before release. Stock composition consisted of Meadow Creek and Lake Whatcom kokanee, diploid-triploid Spokane Trout Hatchery (McCloud River) rainbow trout and

  17. Evaluation of Salmon Spawning Below Bonneville Dam, 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Arntzen, Evan; Mueller, Robert; Murray, Christopher

    2007-03-01

    Since FY 2000, scientists at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) have conducted research to assess the extent of spawning by chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) and fall Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) in the lower mainstem Columbia River. Their work supports a larger project funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) aimed at characterizing the physical habitat used by mainstem fall Chinook and chum salmon populations. Multiple collaborators in addition to PNNL are involved in the BPA project--counterparts include the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission (PSMFC), U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW). Data resulting from the individual tasks each agency conducts are providing a sound scientific basis for developing strategies to operate the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) in ways that will effectively protect and enhance the chum and tule fall Chinook salmon populations--both listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). Fall Chinook salmon, thought to originate from Bonneville Hatchery, were first noted to be spawning downstream of Bonneville Dam by WDFW biologists in 1993. Known spawning areas include gravel beds on the Washington side of the river near Hamilton Creek and near Ives Island. Limited surveys of spawning ground were conducted in the area around Ives and Pierce islands from 1994 through 1997. Based on those surveys, it is believed that fall Chinook salmon are spawning successfully in this area. The size of this population from 1994 to 1996 was estimated at 1800 to 5200 fish. Chum salmon also have been documented spawning downstream of Bonneville Dam. Chum salmon were listed as threatened under the ESA in March 1999. At present there is a need to determine the number of fall Chinook and chum salmon spawning downstream of Bonneville Dam, the characteristics of their spawning

  18. Evaluation of Salmon Spawning Below Bonneville Dam, Annual Report October 2005 - September 2006.

    SciTech Connect

    Arntzen, Evan V.; Mueller, Robert P.; Murray, Christopher J.

    2007-09-21

    Since FY 2000, scientists at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) have conducted research to assess the extent of spawning by chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) and fall Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) in the lower mainstem Columbia River. Their work supports a larger project funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) aimed at characterizing the physical habitat used by mainstem fall Chinook and chum salmon populations. Multiple collaborators in addition to PNNL are involved in the BPA project--counterparts include the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission (PSMFC), U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW). Data resulting from the individual tasks each agency conducts are providing a sound scientific basis for developing strategies to operate the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) in ways that will effectively protect and enhance the chum and tule fall Chinook salmon populations--both listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). Fall Chinook salmon, thought to originate from Bonneville Hatchery, were first noted to be spawning downstream of Bonneville Dam by WDFW biologists in 1993. Known spawning areas include gravel beds on the Washington side of the river near Hamilton Creek and near Ives Island. Limited surveys of spawning ground were conducted in the area around Ives and Pierce islands from 1994 through 1997. Based on those surveys, it is believed that fall Chinook salmon are spawning successfully in this area. The size of this population from 1994 to 1996 was estimated at 1800 to 5200 fish. Chum salmon also have been documented spawning downstream of Bonneville Dam. Chum salmon were listed as threatened under the ESA in March 1999. At present there is a need to determine the number of fall Chinook and chum salmon spawning downstream of Bonneville Dam, the characteristics of their spawning

  19. Hatchery Evaluation Report / Bonneville Hatchery - Tule Fall Chinook : An Independent Audit Based on Integrated Hatchery Operations Team (IHOT) Performance Measures : Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, Montgomery

    1996-05-01

    This report presents the findings of the independent audit of the Bonneville Hatchery (Tule Fall Chinook). The hatchery is located on the Columbia River just west of Cascade Locks, Oregon. The hatchery is used for adult collection, egg incubation, and rearing of Tule Fall Chinook and URB Fall Chinook. The audit was conducted in April 1996 as part of a two-year effort that will include 67 hatcheries and satellite facilities located on the Columbia and Snake River system in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. The hatchery operating agencies include the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife.

  20. Hatchery Evaluation Report / Bonneville Hatchery - Urb Fall Chinook : An Independent Audit Based on Integrated Hatchery Operations Team (IHOT) Performance Measures : Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, Montgomery

    1996-05-01

    This report presents the findings of the independent audit of the Bonneville Hatchery (Upriver bright [URB] Fall Chinook). The hatchery is located on the Columbia River just west of Cascade Locks, Oregon. The hatchery is used for adult collection, egg incubation, and rearing of Tule Fall Chinook and URB Fall Chinook. The audit was conducted in April 1996 as part of at two-year effort that will include 67 hatcheries and satellite facilities located on the Columbia and Snake River system in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. The hatchery operating agencies include the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife.

  1. Hatchery Evaluation Report/Lyons Ferry Hatchery - Summer Steelhead : an Independent Audit Based on Integrated Hatchery Operations Team (IHOT) Performance Measures.

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, Montgomery.

    1996-05-01

    This report presents the findings of the independent audit of the Lyons Ferry Hatchery (Summer Steelhead). Lyons Ferry Hatchery is located downstream of the confluence of the Palouse and Snake rivers, about 7 miles west of Starbuck, Washington. The hatchery is used for adult collection of tall chinook and summer steelhead, egg incubation of fall chinook, spring chinook, steelhead, and rainbow trout and rearing of fall chinook, spring chinook, summer steelhead, and rainbow trout. The audit was conducted in April 1996 as part of a two-year effort that will include 67 hatcheries and satellite facilities located on the Columbia and Snake River system in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. The hatchery operating agencies include the U.S Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife.

  2. Hatchery Evaluation Report/Lyons Ferry Hatchery - Spring Chinook : an Independent Audit Based on Integrated Hatchery Operations Team (IHOT) Performance Measures.

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, Montgomery.

    1996-05-01

    This report presents the findings of the independent audit of the Lyons Ferry Hatchery (Spring Chinook). Lyons Ferry Hatchery is located downstream of the confluence of the Palouse and Snake rivers, about 7 miles west of Starbuck, Washington. The hatchery is used for adult collection of fall chinook and summer steelhead, egg incubation of fall chinook, spring chinook, steelhead. and rainbow trout and rearing of fall chinook, spring chinook, summer steelhead, and rainbow trout. The audit was conducted in April 1996 as part of a two-year effort that will include 67 hatcheries and satellite facilities located on the Columbia and Snake River system in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. The hatchery operating agencies include the U.S Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife.

  3. Umatilla Hatchery Monitoring and Evaluation, 1992-1993 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Keefe, MaryLouise; Hayes, Michael C.; Groberg, Jr., Warren J.

    1994-06-01

    The Umatilla Hatchery is the foundation for rehabilitating chinook salmon and enhancing summer steelhead in the Umatilla River and expected to contribute significantly to the Northwest Power Planning Council`s goal of doubling salmonid production in the Columbia Basin. This report covers the second year of comprehensive monitoring and evaluation of the Umatilla Hatchery. As both the hatchery and the evaluation study are in the early stages of implementation, much of the information contained in this report is preliminary.

  4. Management of bacterial kidney disease in Chinook Salmon hatcheries based on broodstock testing by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay: A multiyear study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Munson, A. Douglas; Elliott, Diane G.; Johnson, Keith

    2010-01-01

    From the mid-1980s through the early 1990s, outbreaks of bacterial kidney disease (BKD) caused by Renibacterium salmoninarum continued in Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) hatcheries despite the use of three control methods: (1) injection of returning adult fish with erythromycin to reduce prespawning BKD mortality and limit vertical transmission of R. salmoninarum, (2) topical disinfection of green eggs with iodophor, and (3) prophylactic treatments of juvenile fish with erythromycin-medicated feed. In addition, programs to manage BKD through measurement of R. salmoninarum antigen levels in kidney tissues from spawning female Chinook salmon by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were tested over 13–15 brood years at three IDFG hatcheries. The ELISA results were used for either (1) segregated rearing of progeny from females with high ELISA optical density (OD) values (usually ≥0.25), which are indicative of high R. salmoninarum antigen levels, or (2) culling of eggs from females with high ELISA OD values. The ELISA-based culling program had the most profound positive effects on the study populations. Mortality of juvenile fish during rearing was significantly lower at each hatchery for brood years derived from culling compared with brood years for which culling was not practiced. The prevalence of R. salmoninarum in juvenile fish, as evidenced by detection of the bacterium in kidney smears by the direct fluorescent antibody test, also decreased significantly at each hatchery. In addition, the proportions of returning adult females with kidney ELISA OD values of 0.25 or more decreased 56–85% for fish reared in brood years during which culling was practiced, whereas the proportions of ELISA-negative adults increased 55–58%. This management strategy may allow IDFG Chinook salmon hatcheries to reduce or eliminate prophylactic erythromycin-medicated feed treatments. We recommend using ELISA

  5. Dairy Wastewater, Aquaculture, and Spawning Fish as Sources of Steroid Hormones in the Aquatic Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolodziej, E. P.; Harter, T.; Sedlak, D. L.

    2004-12-01

    A suite of androgens, estrogens, and progestins were measured in samples from dairy farms, aquaculture facilities, and surface waters with actively spawning fish using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC/MS/MS) to assess the potential importance of these sources of steroid hormones to surface waters. In a dairy waste lagoon, the endogenous estrogens 17beta-estradiol and estrone, and the androgens testosterone and androstenedione were detected at concentrations as high as 650 ng/L. Samples from nearby groundwater monitoring wells demonstrated removal of steroid hormones in the subsurface. Samples from nearby surface waters and tile drains likely impacted by animal wastes demonstrated the sporadic presence of the steroids 17beta-estradiol, estrone, testosterone, and medroxyprogesterone, usually at concentrations near or below 1 ng/L. The endogenous steroids estrone, testosterone, and androstenedione were detected in the raceways and effluents of three fish hatcheries at concentrations near 1 ng/L. Similar concentrations were detected in a river containing spawning adult Chinook salmon. These results indicate that dairy wastewater, aquaculture effluents, and even spawning fish are sources that can lead to detectable concentrations of steroid hormones in surface waters and that the concentrations of these compounds exhibit considerable temporal and spatial variation.

  6. Dairy wastewater, aquaculture, and spawning fish as sources of steroid hormones in the aquatic environment.

    PubMed

    Kolodziej, Edward P; Harter, Thomas; Sedlak, David L

    2004-12-01

    A suite of androgens, estrogens, and progestins were measured in samples from dairy farms, aquaculture facilities, and surface waters with actively spawning fish using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC/MS/ MS) to assess the potential importance of these sources of steroid hormones to surface waters. In a dairywaste lagoon, the endogenous estrogens 17beta-estradiol and estrone and the androgens testosterone and androstenedione were detected at concentrations as high as 650 ng/L. Samples from nearby groundwater monitoring wells demonstrated removal of steroid hormones in the subsurface. Samples from nearby surface waters and tile drains likely impacted by animal wastes demonstrated the sporadic presence of the steroids 17beta-estradiol, estrone, testosterone, and medroxyprogesterone, usually at concentrations near or below 1 ng/L. The endogenous steroids estrone,testosterone, and androstenedione were detected in the raceways and effluents of three fish hatcheries at concentrations near 1 ng/L. Similar concentrations were detected in a river containing spawning adult Chinook salmon. These results indicate that dairy wastewater, aquaculture effluents, and even spawning fish can lead to detectable concentrations of steroid hormones in surface waters and that the concentrations of these compounds exhibit considerable temporal and spatial variation.

  7. Redd site selection and spawning habitat use by fall chinook salmon: The importance of geomorphic features in large rivers

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, D.R. |; Dauble, D.D.

    1998-09-01

    Knowledge of the three-dimensional connectivity between rivers and groundwater within the hyporheic zone can be used to improve the definition of fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) spawning habitat. Information exists on the microhabitat characteristics that define suitable salmon spawning habitat. However, traditional spawning habitat models that use these characteristics to predict available spawning habitat are restricted because they can not account for the heterogeneous nature of rivers. The authors present a conceptual spawning habitat model for fall chinook salmon that describes how geomorphic features of river channels create hydraulic processes, including hyporheic flows, that influence where salmon spawn in unconstrained reaches of large mainstem alluvial rivers. Two case studies based on empirical data from fall chinook salmon spawning areas in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River are presented to illustrate important aspects of the conceptual model. The authors suggest that traditional habitat models and the conceptual model be combined to predict the limits of suitable fall chinook salmon spawning habitat. This approach can incorporate quantitative measures of river channel morphology, including general descriptors of geomorphic features at different spatial scales, in order to understand the processes influencing redd site selection and spawning habitat use. This information is needed in order to protect existing salmon spawning habitat in large rivers, as well as to recover habitat already lost.

  8. Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Master Plan and Appendices.

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, Roy Edward; Mobrand, Lars Erik

    1992-03-01

    This report describes the findings that have resulted from the effort to create a proposed Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery (NPTH) in northern Idaho. This effort has been undertaken because of low population densities of salmon in the Clearwater and Salmon River Basins. The Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) has approved the NPTH concept. For the NPTH to proceed, the Council must approve a master plan and amend the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (CBFWP). Requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) also must be met. The goals of NPTH are to: (1) develop, increase, and reintroduce natural populations of spring, summer, and fall chinook in the Clearwater and Salmon River Basins; (2) sustain long-term preservation and genetic integrity of target fish populations; (3) keep the ecological and genetic impacts of nontarget fish populations within acceptable limits; and, (4) provide harvest opportunities for both tribal and non-tribal anglers.

  9. High Variance within Salmonid Spawning Gravels at Restoration Sites Creates More Suitable Habitat within the Hyporheic Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janes, M. K.; Heffernan, J. E.; Rosenberry, J. W.; Horner, T.

    2012-12-01

    The Lower American River has historically provided natural spawning habitat for approximately one third of Northern California's salmon population. However, since the construction of Folsom and Nimbus Dams, downstream reaches have become sediment starved and periodic high outflow from the dam has caused channel armoring and incision, thereby degrading the natural spawning habitat. Restoration work on spawning sites in the Lower American River has consisted primarily of importing gravel to create riffles during periods of moderate flow. This is an effort to mitigate armoring of the riverbed and to rehabilitate salmonid spawning habitat by providing suitable grain size for all stages of spawning (redd construction, incubation, and emergence). Since restoration activities began, all rehabilitated sites have not been equally used for spawning. This study attempts to examine and compare the physical properties of each site in order to ascertain which characteristics create more suitable rehabilitated habitat. To do this, we compared restored areas to pre-restoration conditions through the assessment of three main aspects of the restored spawning habitat; grain size and its natural mobility, water flow in the surface and subsurface, and intragravel water quality. We found that some augmentation sites are more heterogeneous than others, and this correlates with higher spawning use. Most spawning was at fin height, and salmonids tend to use sites with higher depth variance (surface features) and higher variance in flow directions and velocities. With time, salmonids alter the spawning sites, creating small ridges and valleys perpendicular to flow. This creates more variable subsurface flow and generates hyporheic flow through the new gravel. This may have an effect on spawning as the more seasoned additions have a higher frequency of spawning than the newer augmentations. In order to efficiently rehabilitate a site and expedite the "seasoning process", creating variance

  10. Potential spawn induction and suppression agents in Caribbean Acropora cervicornis corals of the Florida Keys

    PubMed Central

    Than, John T.

    2016-01-01

    The enhanced ability to direct sexual reproduction may lead to improved restoration outcomes for Acropora cervicornis. Gravid fragments of A. cervicornis were maintained in a laboratory for two sequential trials in the seven days prior to natural spawning in the Florida Keys. Ten replicates of five chemicals known to affect spawning in various invertebrate taxa were tested. Hydrogen peroxide at 2 mM (70%) and L-5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) at 5 (40%) and 20 µM (30%) induced spawning within 15.4 h, 38.8 h and 26.9 h of dosing at or above the rate of release of the control (30%) within 14.6 h. Serotonin acetate monohydrate at 1 µM (20%) and 10 µM (20%), naloxone hydrochloride dihydrate at 0.01 µM (10%) and potassium phosphate monobasic at 0.25 µM (0%) induced spawning at rates less than the control. Although the greatest number of fragments spawned using hydrogen peroxide, it was with 100% mortality. There was a significantly higher induction rate closer to natural spawn (Trial 2) compared with Trial 1 and no genotype effect. Mechanisms of action causing gamete release were not elucidated. In Caribbean staghorn corals, 5-HTP shows promise as a spawning induction agent if administered within 72 h of natural spawn and it will not result in excessive mortality. Phosphate chemicals may inhibit spawning. This is the first study of its kind on Caribbean acroporid corals and may offer an important conservation tool for biologists currently charged with restoring the imperiled Acropora reefs of the Florida Keys. PMID:27168990

  11. Measuring nighttime spawning behavior of chum salmon using a dual-frequency identification sonar (DIDSON)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiffan, K.F.; Rondorf, D.W.

    2005-01-01

    The striking body coloration and morphology that Pacific salmon display during spawning coupled with elaborate courtship behaviors suggest that visual cues are important during their reproductive period. To date, virtually all existing information on chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) spawning behavior has been derived from studies conducted during the daytime, and has contributed to the assumption that salmon do not spawn at night. We tested this assumption using a new technology - a dual-frequency identification sonar (DIDSON) - to describe and measure nighttime spawning behavior of wild chum salmon in the Columbia River. The DIDSON produces detailed, video-like images using sound, which enabled us to collect behavioral information at night in complete darkness. The display of DIDSON images enabled fish movements and behaviors to be spatially quantified. We collected continuous observational data on 14 pairs of chum salmon in a natural spawning channel during the daytime and nighttime. Spawners of both genders were observed chasing intruders during nighttime and daytime as nests were constructed. Regardless of diel period, females were engaged in digging to both construct nests and cover eggs, and courting males exhibited the pre-spawning behavior of tail crossing. We observed a total of 13 spawning events, of which nine occurred at night and four occurred during the day. The behaviors we observed at night suggest the assumption that chum salmon do not spawn at night is false. Once chum salmon begin nest construction, visual cues are apparently not required for courtship, nest defense, and spawning. We speculate that non-visual cues (e.g. tactile and auditory) enable chum salmon to carry out most spawning behaviors at night. Our findings have implications for how nighttime flows from hydroelectric dams on the Columbia River are managed for power production and protection of imperiled salmon stocks.

  12. 25 CFR 242.6 - Spawning season.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Spawning season. 242.6 Section 242.6 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE COMMERCIAL FISHING ON RED LAKE INDIAN RESERVATION § 242.6 Spawning season. Walleye and northern pike (or pickerel) shall not be taken during...

  13. Integrated Hatchery Operations : Existing Policy Affecting Hatcheries in the Columbia River Basin, 1992 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Shelldrake, Tom

    1993-05-01

    Collected together in this document is relevant laws and policy of the US Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington State Department of Wildlife, Oregon State, Washington Department of Fisheries, and Idaho Department of Fish and Game as they affect hatcheries in the Columbia River Basin.

  14. Endocrine events associated with spawning behavior in the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Linville, Jane E.; Hanson, Lee H.; Sower, Stacia A.

    1987-01-01

    Levels of estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone were determined in plasma of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) undergoing certain behaviors associated with spawning in natural and artifical stream environments. Significantly higher levels of estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone were found in males than in females. In the artifical spawning channel, levels of estradiol were significantly higher in females exhibiting resting and swimming behaviors than in fanning, nest building, and spawning behaviors. No significant correlation was found with either progesterone or testosterone levels and the various reproductive behaviors. The data presented are the first experimental evidence that suggest gonadal steroids may be correlated with certain reproductive behaviors in the sea lamprey.

  15. Habitat-related predation on juvenile wild-caught and hatchery-reared red drum Sciaenops ocellatus (Linnaeus).

    PubMed

    Stunz, G W.; Minello, T J.

    2001-05-31

    We examined the patterns of habitat-specific mortality for newly settled red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) using an experimental mesocosm approach. Experiments were designed to analyze prey vulnerability and fish rearing-type (wild-caught or hatchery-reared) in estuarine habitats of varying structural complexity including marsh (Spartina alterniflora Loisel), oyster reef (Crassostrea virginica Gmelin), seagrass (Halodule wrightii Aschers), and nonvegetated sand bottom. We used two different predators, pinfish (Lagodon rhomboides Linnaeus) and spotted seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus Cuvier). For both predators, vulnerability of wild-caught red drum was significantly lower in structurally complex habitats such as seagrass and oyster reef; the highest vulnerability was associated with the nonvegetated bottom. This habitat effect was not apparent for hatchery-reared prey. In trials using a combination of both rearing-types, there was no significant habitat effect on prey selection, but hatchery-reared red drum suffered higher overall mortality than wild-caught fish from pinfish predators. In these trials, spotted seatrout did not select for either prey type. Differences we observed in prey vulnerability were likely caused by behavioral differences between wild-caught and hatchery-reared red drum. Our results reinforce the conclusion that structural complexity in estuarine habitats increases survival of newly settled fishes. Our data also suggest that hatchery-reared red drum may be more vulnerable to predation than natural fishes, and that survival of stocked fish may be enhanced through habitat-related behavior modification.

  16. Assessing genetic diversity of wild and hatchery samples of the Chinese sucker (Myxocyprinus asiaticus) by the mitochondrial DNA control region.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiayun; Wu, Bo; Hou, Feixia; Chen, Yongbai; Li, Chong; Song, Zhaobin

    2016-01-01

    To restore the natural populations of Chinese sucker (Myxocyprinus asiaticus), a hatchery release program has been underway for nearly 10 years. Using DNA sequences of the mitochondrial control region, we assessed the genetic diversity and genetic structure among samples collected from three sites of the wild population as well as from three hatcheries. The haplotype diversity of the wild samples (h = 0.899-0.975) was significantly higher than that of the hatchery ones (h = 0.296-0.666), but the nucleotide diversity was almost identical between them (π = 0.0170-0.0280). Relatively high gene flow was detected between the hatchery and wild samples. Analysis of effective population size indicated that M. asiaticus living in the Yangtze River has been expanding following a bottleneck in the recent past. Our results suggest the hatchery release programs for M. asiaticus have not reduced the genetic diversity, but have influenced the genetic structure of the species in the upper Yangtze River.

  17. Spawning habitat selection of hickory shad

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, Julianne E.; Hightower, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the spawning habitat selectivity of hickory shad Alosa mediocris, an anadromous species on the Atlantic coast of North America. Using plankton tows and artificial substrates (spawning pads), we collected hickory shad eggs in the Roanoke River, North Carolina, to identify spawning timing, temperature, and microhabitat use. Hickory shad eggs were collected by both sampling gears in March and April. The results from this and three other studies in North Carolina indicate that spawning peaks at water temperatures between 12.0??C and 14.9??C and that approximately 90% occurs between 11.0??C and 18.9??C. Hickory shad eggs were collected in run and riffle habitats. Water velocity and substrate were significantly different at spawning pads with eggs than at those without eggs, suggesting that these are important microhabitat factors for spawning. Hickory shad eggs were usually collected in velocities of at least 0.1 m/s and on all substrates except those dominated by silt. Eggs were most abundant on gravel, cobble, and boulder substrates. Hickory shad spawned further upstream in years when water discharge rates at Roanoke Rapids were approximately average during March and April (2005 and 2007), as compared with a severe drought year (2006), suggesting that water flows may affect not only spawning site selection but also the quantity and quality of spawning habitat available at a macrohabitat scale. Using our field data and a Bayesian approach to resource selection analysis, we developed a preliminary habitat suitability model for hickory shad. This Bayesian approach provides an objective framework for updating the model as future studies of hickory shad spawning habitat are conducted. ?? American Fisheries Society 2011.

  18. Effect of size of unfed fry at release on survival and growth of juvenile steelhead in streams and a hatchery (Study sites: Dworshak Hatchery, Silver Creek, and Twenty-Mile Creek; Stock: Dworshak hatchery; Year classes: 1996 and 1999): Chapter 7

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Stenberg, Karl D.

    2012-01-01

    We tested whether differences in size of unfed fry at release affected survival and growth of juvenile steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss in hatchery ponds and streams. Differences in fry size were produced by selecting and spawning females that differed in the mean size of their eggs. Experiments were initiated in 1996 and 1999 with hatchery steelhead returning to the Clearwater River, Idaho. Fry size groups were small (mean fork length=26.7 mm, mean weight=0.149 g) and large (28.1 mm, 0.197 g) in 1996 and small (27.5 mm, 0.159 g), medium (28.2 mm, 0.190 g), and large (28.9 mm, 0.201 g) in 1999. Survival in the hatchery to near the end of the standard one year rearing period and in streams to late summer, three months after release, was higher for the large than for the small group in 1996 but was similar among groups in 1999. Survival in streams to age - 1 appeared to show the same pattern (large>small in 1996; no difference in 1999), but differences among fry size groups in emigration as well as mortality may have been involved. The inconsistency between years may have resulted because some 1996 female parents of the small group had exceptionally small eggs and were a year younger than the other 1996 females and all 1999 females. Growth in the hatchery was similar among groups in both years whereas growth in streams was faster for the large than for the small group in both years and intermediate for the medium group in 1999. Growth in streams appeared to be limited by food availability. Initially large fry probably out - competed smaller fry for limited food; however, we found no evidence that dispersal from release sites or emigration from streams was caused by competitive displacement of small by larger fish. 

  19. A test for the relative strength of maternal and stock effects in spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) from two different hatcheries (Study site: Warm Springs Hatchery; Stocks: Warm Springs Hatchery and Carson Hatchery; Year class: 1993): Chapter 10

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wetzel, Lisa A.; Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Stenberg, Karl D.; Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Hayes, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was undertaken to determine the relative strength of maternal and stock effects in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) reared in a common environment, as a companion study to our investigation of hatchery and wild Chinook salmon. Pure-strain and reciprocal crosses were made between two hatchery stocks (Carson and Warm Springs National Fish Hatcheries). The offspring were reared together in one of the hatcheries to the smolt stage, and then were transferred to a seawater rearing facility (USGS-Marrowstone Field Station). Differences in survival, growth and disease prevalence were assessed. Fish with Carson parentage grew to greater size at the hatchery and in seawater than the pure-strain Warm Springs fish, but showed higher mortality at introduction to seawater. The analyses of maternal and stock effects were inconclusive, but the theoretical responses to different combinations of maternal and stock effects may be useful in interpreting stock comparison studies.

  20. Molecular epidemiology reveals emergence of a virulent infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN) virus strain in wild salmon and its transmission to hatchery fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Eric D.; Engelking, H. Mark; Emmenegger, Eveline J.; Kurath, Gael

    2000-01-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) has been known to be a significant salmonid pathogen in the Pacific Northwest of North America for decades. The goal of this study was to characterize the IHNV genetic heterogeneity and viral traffic over time at a study site in the Deschutes River watershed in Oregon, with an emphasis on the epidemiology of IHNV types causing epidemics in wild kokanee Oncorhynchus nerkabetween 1991 and 1995. The study site included kokanee spawning grounds in the Metolius River and Lake Billy Chinook downstream, in which the IHNV epidemics occurred in 2- and 3-year-old kokanee, and the Round Butte Fish Hatchery at the outflow of the lake. Forty-two IHNV isolates collected from this area between 1975 and 1995 were characterized on a genetic basis by ribonuclease (RNase) protection fingerprint analyses of the virus nucleocapsid, glycoprotein, and nonvirion genes. Analysis of the 16 identified composite haplotypes suggested that both virus evolution and introduction of new IHNV strains contributed to the genetic diversity observed. The results indicated that the 1991–1995 epidemics in kokanee from Lake Billy Chinook were due to a newly introduced IHNV type that was first detected in spawning adult kokanee in 1988 and that this virus type was transmitted from the wild kokanee to hatchery fish downstream in 1991. Twelve IHNV haplotypes were found at Round Butte Fish Hatchery, indicating a series of virus displacement events during the 20-year period examined. This work shows that IHNV traffic can be much more complex than was previously recognized, and the results have implications for fisheries management at the hatchery and throughout the watershed.

  1. Upstream Passage, Spawning, and Stock Identification of Fall Chinook in the Snake River, 1992 and 1993 : Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Blankenship, H. Lee; Mendel, Glen W.

    1997-05-01

    This final report of the 3-year study summarizes activities and results for 1993. Study objectives were to: (1) determine the source of losses (or accounting errors) for adult chinook salmon between Ice Harbor Dam (IHR) and Lower Granite Dam (LGR), and upstream of LGR in the Snake River; (2) identify spawning locations upstream of LGR for calibration of aerial redd surveys, redd habitat mapping, carcass recovery for genetic stock profile analysis, and correction of estimated adult/redd ratios; and (3) estimate passage and migration times at Snake River. 200 fall chinook salmon were radio tagged and tracked with aerial, fixed-site, and ground mobile tracking. Fish were released upstream of IHR at Charbonneau Park (CHAR). 190 of the fish were tracked or relocated away from CHAR. 59 fish descended to below IHR without crossing Lower Monumental Dam (LMO). Another 128 salmon passed upstream of LMO without falling back at IHR. Only 80 salmon passed Little Goose Dam (LGO) without falling back at a downstream dam; 66 of these fish passed LGR. Many fish that fell back reascended the dams. A total of 72 salmon released at CHAR passed upstream of LGR, including fish that had fallen back and reascended a dam. Over 80 percent of the salmon that entered Lyons Ferry Hatchery each year had reached LGO before descending to the hatchery. Extensive wandering was documented between LMO and upstream of LGR before salmon entered Lyons Ferry Hatchery or the Tucannon River. In 1993, 41 salmon were found to be of hatchery origin when recovered. These fish entered Lyons Ferry Hatchery with similar movements to unmarked salmon. Each year a few salmon have remained near the hatchery without entering, which suggests the hatchery may have inadequate attraction flows. Fall chinook passed lower Snake River dams in 2-5 days each on average. Median travel times through LMO and LGO were 1.0-1.3 days each, which was slower than for spring chinook or steelhead in 1993. 5 refs., 21 figs., 20 tabs.

  2. Reestablishing a spawning population of lake trout in Lake Superior with fertilized eggs in artificial turf incubators

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bronte, Charles R.; Schram, Stephen T.; Selgeby, James H.; Swanson, Bruce L.

    2002-01-01

    Fertilized eggs from lake trout Salvelinus namaycush were placed in artificial turf incubators and deployed on Devils Island Shoal, Lake Superior, in an attempt to reestablish a spawning population on this once important spawning area. Efficacy was measured by the changes in catch rates, age composition, and origin of adult lake trout returning to the shoal in the fall in subsequent years. The abundance of lake trout spawners without fin clips, which implies that these fish hatched in the lake, increased throughout the sampling period, whereas the abundance of hatchery-reared fish (indicated by one or more fin clips) stocked for restoration purposes remained low. Year-class-specific stock-recruitment analysis suggested that the recruitment of unclipped spawners was related to the number of eggs planted in previous years rather than to spawning by the few adult lake trout visiting the reef. Increases in adult fish at Devils Island Shoal were independent of trends at adjacent sites, where unclipped spawner abundances remained low. Enhanced survival to hatch and apparent site imprinting of young lake trout make this technique a viable alternative to stocking fingerling and yearling lake trout to reestablish spawning populations on specific sites in the Great Lakes.

  3. Response of ecosystem metabolism to low densities of spawning Chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benjamin, Joseph R.; Bellmore, J. Ryan; Watson, Grace A.

    2016-01-01

    Marine derived nutrients delivered by large runs of returning salmon are thought to subsidize the in situ food resources that support juvenile salmon. In the Pacific Northwest, USA, salmon have declined to <10% of their historical abundance, with subsequent declines of marine derived nutrients once provided by large salmon runs. We explored whether low densities (<0.001 spawners/m2) of naturally spawning Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) can affect ecosystem metabolism. We measured gross primary production (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (ER) continuously before, during, and after salmon spawning. We compared downstream reaches with low densities of spawning salmon to upstream reaches with fewer or no spawners in 3 mid-sized (4th-order) rivers in northern Washington. In addition, we measured chemical, physical, and biological factors that may be important in controlling rates of GPP and ER. We observed that low densities of spawning salmon can increase GPP by 46% during spawning, but values quickly return to those observed before spawning. No difference in ER was observed between up- and downstream reaches. Based on our results, salmon density, temperature, and the proximity to salmon redds were the most important factors controlling rates of GPP, whereas temperature was most important for ER. These results suggest that even at low spawning densities, salmon can stimulate basal resources that may propagate up the food web. Understanding how recipient ecosystems respond to low levels of marine derived nutrients may inform nutrient augmentation studies aimed at enhancing fish populations.

  4. Investigation of Head Burns in Adult Salmonids : Phase 1, Examination of Fish at Lookingglass Hatchery in 1996 : Addendum to Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Groberg, Warren J.

    1996-11-01

    This information is an addendum to the report 'Investigation of Head Burns in Adult Salmonids, Phase 1: Examination of Fish at Lower Granite Dam, July 2, 1996' by Ralph Elston because there may be relevant observations included here. The author of this document participated in the examinations at Lower Granite Dam described in that report. Because of Endangered Species Act issues, the Rapid River stock of spring chinook salmon reared at Lookingglass Hatchery on the Grande Ronde River in northeastern Oregon are annually being captured as returning adults at Lower Granite Dam on the Snake River and trucked to Lookingglass. During the peak migration period they are held in an adult holding facility at Lower Granite for as long as 72 hours and then transported by truck to Lookingglass for holding in an adult pond for spawning. In 1996 a total of 572 adults were transported from Lower Granite Dam between May 3 and August 6. Two-hundred eighty-one of these were later transported from Lookingglass to Wallowa Hatchery for artificial spawning and the remaining 291 were held for spawning at Lookingglass. On May 21, 24, 30 and June 2, 1996 hatchery personnel identified a total of 32 off-loaded fish with lesions on the dorsal area of the head they described as having the appearance of blisters (Robert Lund personal communication). By date these are shown in Table 1 (fish with similar lesions were also observed on May 27 but the number of these was not recorded). Such lesions were not observed on fish offloaded on any other dates. On May 24, 1996 hatchery personnel took photographs of fish with these lesions but do to light-meter problems the photographs did not turn out. On June 28, 1996 personnel of the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) Fish Pathology laboratory in La Grande were notified by James Lauman, ODFW Northeast Region supervisor, of discussions and concerns of head burn on returning adult chinook while he was on a visitation to Lower Granite Dam. That led

  5. Spawning Distribution of Fall Chinook Salmon in the Snake River : Annual Report 2000.

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, Aaron P.

    2001-08-01

    Pittsburgh Landing, three from Big Canyon Creek, and three from the Captain John area. All of the fish from Pittsburgh Landing spawned in the Snake River (nine in the upper half, and one in the lower half). All of the fish from Big Canyon Creek spawned in the Clearwater River, and all of the fish from Captain John area spawned in the lower half of the Snake River study area. We also tagged and tracked six adult natural fish. These fish were initially captured and PIT-tagged in the Snake River when they were juveniles, and, based on our observations, all spawned in the Snake River and did not wander into other rivers after crossing Lower Granite Dam. Our results indicate that the supplementation program will accomplish its objective in terms of spawning distribution, although currently the sample size for some groups is too small for the results to be conclusive. To finish the study we plan to tag 340 fish in the fall-winter of 2001-2002, and complete the final report by November 2002.

  6. The protozoan diseases of hatchery fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fish, F.F.

    1935-01-01

    Following the somewhat bleak picture painted in the consideration of the bacterial diseases of hatchery fish in the last number of The Progressive Fish Culturist, it is a relief to turn to another large group of fish diseases caused by small, single-celled parasitic animals known as the protozoa. To the hatcheryman, the protozoan diseases of fish are just as important as the bacterial diseases for they are equally destructive if allowed to run unchecked. The protozoan diseases are just as common as those caused by bacteria, particularly at those hatcheries which depend upon lakes or streams for their water supplies. However, a very cheery point of difference exists between these two groups of diseases—the protozoan diseases are easier to recognize and, for the most part, they are exceedingly easy to eradicate. To the hatcheryman who has struggled day and night for weeks in an attempt to combat an epidemic wherein he is rewarded immediately by the satisfying sight of a complete recovery of his infected fish as the direct result of his labors.

  7. Froude Number is the Single Most Important Hydraulic Parameter for Salmonid Spawning Habitat.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillies, E.; Moir, H. J.

    2015-12-01

    Many gravel-bed rivers exhibit historic straightening or embanking, reducing river complexity and the available habitat for key species such as salmon. A defensible method for predicting salmonid spawning habitat is an important tool for anyone engaged in assessing a river restoration. Most empirical methods to predict spawning habitat use lookup tables of depth, velocity and substrate. However, natural site selection is different: salmon must pick a location where they can successfully build a redd, and where eggs have a sufficient survival rate. Also, using dimensional variables, such as depth and velocity, is problematic: spawning occurs in rivers of differing size, depth and velocity range. Non-dimensional variables have proven useful in other branches of fluid dynamics, and instream habitat is no different. Empirical river data has a high correlation between observed salmon redds and Froude number, without insight into why. Here we present a physics based model of spawning and bedform evolution, which shows that Froude number is indeed a rational choice for characterizing the bedform, substrate, and flow necessary for spawning. It is familiar for Froude to characterize surface waves, but Froude also characterizes longitudinal bedform in a mobile bed river. We postulate that these bedforms and their hydraulics perform two roles in salmonid spawning: allowing transport of clasts during redd building, and oxygenating eggs. We present an example of this Froude number and substrate based habitat characterization on a Scottish river for which we have detailed topography at several stages during river restoration and subsequent evolution of natural processes. We show changes to the channel Froude regime as a result of natural process and validate habitat predictions against redds observed during 2014 and 2015 spawning seasons, also relating this data to the Froude regime in other, nearby, rivers. We discuss the use of the Froude spectrum in providing an indicator of

  8. Erosion of interspecific reproductive barriers resulting from hatchery supplementation of rainbow trout sympatric with cutthroat trout.

    PubMed

    Docker, Margaret F; Dale, Angie; Heath, Daniel D

    2003-12-01

    The frequency of hybridization between cutthroat (Onchorhynchus clarki clarki) and rainbow (O. mykiss irideus) trout from coastal habitats in British Columbia, Canada, was examined in seven populations where the two species are sympatric with no history of rainbow trout stocking and compared with areas where native rainbow trout populations have been supplemented with hatchery fish (three populations). Four nuclear markers were used to identify each species and interspecific hybrids and one mitochondrial marker showed the direction of gene exchange between species. The frequency of hybrids was significantly higher (Fisher exact test, P < 0.001) in river systems where hatchery rainbow trout have been introduced (50.6% hybrids) than in populations where the two species naturally co-occur without supplementation (9.9% hybrids).

  9. Dual Annual Spawning Races in Atlantic Sturgeon

    PubMed Central

    Balazik, Matthew T.; Musick, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus, Acipenseridae) populations in the United States were listed as either endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act in 2012. Because of the endangered/threatened status, a better understanding of Atlantic sturgeon life-history behavior and habitat use is important for effective management. It has been widely documented that Atlantic sturgeon reproduction occurs from late winter to early summer, varying clinally with latitude. However, recent data show Atlantic sturgeon also spawn later in the year. The group that spawns later in the year seems to be completely separate from the spring spawning run. Recognition of the later spawning season has drastically modified estimates of the population status of Atlantic sturgeon in Virginia. With the combination of new telemetry data and historical documentation we describe a dual spawning strategy that likely occurs in various degrees along most, if not all, of the Atlantic sturgeon's range. Using new data combined with historical sources, a new spawning strategy emerges which managers and researchers should note when determining the status of Atlantic sturgeon populations and implementing conservation measures. PMID:26020631

  10. Dual annual spawning races in Atlantic sturgeon.

    PubMed

    Balazik, Matthew T; Musick, John A

    2015-01-01

    Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus, Acipenseridae) populations in the United States were listed as either endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act in 2012. Because of the endangered/threatened status, a better understanding of Atlantic sturgeon life-history behavior and habitat use is important for effective management. It has been widely documented that Atlantic sturgeon reproduction occurs from late winter to early summer, varying clinally with latitude. However, recent data show Atlantic sturgeon also spawn later in the year. The group that spawns later in the year seems to be completely separate from the spring spawning run. Recognition of the later spawning season has drastically modified estimates of the population status of Atlantic sturgeon in Virginia. With the combination of new telemetry data and historical documentation we describe a dual spawning strategy that likely occurs in various degrees along most, if not all, of the Atlantic sturgeon's range. Using new data combined with historical sources, a new spawning strategy emerges which managers and researchers should note when determining the status of Atlantic sturgeon populations and implementing conservation measures.

  11. Evaluation of Salmon Spawning below the Four Lowermost Columbia River Dams, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, David; Currie, Andrea

    2006-02-01

    Since FY 2000, scientists at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) have conducted research to assess the extent of spawning by chum (Oncorhynchus keta) and fall Chinook (O. tshawytscha) salmon in the lower mainstem Columbia River. Their work supports a larger Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) project aimed at characterizing the physical habitat used by mainstem fall Chinook and chum salmon populations. Multiple collaborators in addition to PNNL are involved in the BPA project--counterparts include the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission (PSMFC), U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW). Data resulting from the individual tasks each agency conducts are providing a sound scientific basis for developing strategies to operate the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) in ways that will effectively protect and enhance the chum and fall Chinook salmon populations--both listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. Fall Chinook salmon, thought to originate from Bonneville Hatchery, were first noted to be spawning downstream of Bonneville Dam by biologists from the WDFW in 1993. Known spawning areas include gravel beds on the Washington side of the river near Hamilton Creek and Ives Island. Limited spawning ground surveys were conducted in the area around Ives and Pierce islands during 1994 through 1997. Based on these surveys, fall Chinook salmon were believed to be spawning successfully in this area. In addition, chum salmon have been documented spawning downstream of Bonneville Dam. In FY 1999, BPA Project No. 1999-003 was initiated by the WDFW, ODFW, and the USFWS to characterize the variables associated with physical habitat used by mainstem fall Chinook and chum salmon populations and to better understand the effects of hydropower project operations on spawning and incubation. Pacific Northwest National

  12. Spokane Tribal Hatchery, 2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Peone, Tim L.

    2003-03-01

    The Spokane Tribal Hatchery (Galbraith Springs) project originated from the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) 1987 Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. The goal of this project is to aid in the restoration and enhancement of the Lake Roosevelt and Banks Lake fisheries adversely affected by the construction and operation of Grand Coulee Dam. The objective is to produce kokanee salmon and rainbow trout for release into Lake Roosevelt for maintaining a viable fishery. The goal and objective of this project adheres to the NPPC Resident Fish Substitution Policy and specifically to the biological objectives addressed in the NPPC Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program to mitigate for hydropower related fish losses in the blocked area above Chief Joseph/Grand Coulee Dams.

  13. Shovelnose sturgeon spawning in relation to varying discharge treatments in a Missouri River tributary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goodman, B.J.; Guy, C.S.; Camp, S.L.; Gardner, W.M.; Kappenman, K.M.; Webb, M.A.H.

    2013-01-01

    Many lotic fish species use natural patterns of variation in discharge and temperature as spawning cues, and these natural patterns are often altered by river regulation. The effects of spring discharge and water temperature variation on the spawning of shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus have not been well documented. From 2006 through 2009, we had the opportunity to study the effects of experimental discharge levels on shovelnose sturgeon spawning in the lower Marias River, a regulated tributary to the Missouri River in Montana. In 2006, shovelnose sturgeon spawned in the Marias River in conjunction with the ascending, peak (134 m3/s) and descending portions of the spring hydrograph and water temperatures from 16°C to 19°C. In 2008, shovelnose sturgeon spawned in conjunction with the peak (118 m3/s) and descending portions of the spring hydrograph and during a prolonged period of increased discharge (28–39 m3/s), coupled with water temperatures from 11°C to 23°C in the lower Marias River. No evidence of shovelnose sturgeon spawning was documented in the lower Marias River in 2007 or 2009 when discharge remained low (14 and 20 m3/s) despite water temperatures suitable and optimal (12°C-24°C) for shovelnose sturgeon embryo development. A similar relationship between shovelnose sturgeon spawning and discharge was observed in the Teton River. These data suggest that discharge must reach a threshold level (28 m3/s) and should be coupled with water temperatures suitable (12°C-24°C) or optimal (16°C-20°C) for shovelnose sturgeon embryo development to provide a spawning cue for shovelnose sturgeon in the lower Marias River.

  14. Modification of fluvial gravel size by spawning salmonids

    SciTech Connect

    Kondolf, G.M. ); Sale, M.J. ); Wolman, M.G. )

    1993-07-01

    Salmonids (salmon and trout) winnow fine sediment from streambed gravels during construction of the nest or [open quotes]redd[close quotes] used for spawning and incubation of fertilized eggs. The gravels and interstitial fine sediments excavated during this process are exposed to currents and differently transported: Gravels move a short distance, while the fine sediments are swept further downstream from the redd. To quantify the resultant modification of particle size distributions in redds, the authors sampled redds and adjacent undisturbed gravels to document changes in size distributions. These data were compiled with previously published observations to analyze the general nature of size modification during spawning. The final percentage finer than 1 mm in the gravels, P1[sub f], is related to the initial percentage finer than 1 mm, P1[sub i], by the equation P1[sub f] = 0.63 P1[sub i]. Hydraulic variables (water surface slope, mean column velocity, depth, shear stress, unit stream power) explained little of the variance and did not appear in the optimal models. Because fisheries biologists are called upon to evaluate gravels as potential spawning sites, these findings should prove useful in such evaluations. 44 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Kokanee Stock Status and Contribution of Cabinet Gorge Hatchery, Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho, 1991 Annual Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Paragamian, Vaughn L.

    1991-01-01

    water temperatures of July, and higher cladoceran densities compared to June. River release Lower survival of the early Clark Fork is attributed to the exceptionally high river flows (1,984 cm /s or 70,000 ft /s) and low density of zooplankton. Age of adult kokanee sampled at Sullivan Springs was 1% age 2, 46% age 3, and 53% age 4. The high proportion of age 3 kokanee resulted in lower average fecundity. Recovery of about 160 fin clipped kokanee at Sullivan Springs provided evidence of imprinting. About 0.4% of the marked kokanee released in 1988 returned to spawn at age 3. This failure of a spawning run to Clark Fork River and low (<0.000l%) returns to the Cabinet Gorge Hatchery is a major concern. Total fishing effort was 460,679 h (220%) or about 12 h/hectare. A sport fishery survey indicated anglers harvested 276,457 fish of which 227,140 were kokanee and 2,157 Gerrard rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (>610 mm) while an additional 14,800 rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss were released. The harvest of kokanee is at 33% of the management goals, but the harvest of large Gerrard rainbow trout was the best in 15 years.

  16. Reproductive development, GnRHa-induced spawning and egg quality of wild meagre (Argyrosomus regius) acclimatised to captivity.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Neil; Estévez, Alicia; Porta, Javier; Carazo, Ignacio; Norambuena, Fernando; Aguilera, Cristobal; Gairin, Ignaci; Bucci, Francesco; Valles, Roser; Mylonas, Constantinos C

    2012-10-01

    observed in proximal composition and fatty acid profile and for all spawns mean (% dry weight) lipid content was 17.3 ± 3.0%, carbohydrate was 4.4 ± 1.9% and protein was 31.5 ± 6.4% and the essential fatty acids: Arachidonic acid (ARA, 20:4n-6) ranged between 0.9 and 1% (of total fatty acids), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA 20:5n-3) 7.7-10.4% and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA 22:6n-3), 28.6-35.4%. All good quality spawns were obtained in the second and/or third spawn after GnRHa treatment, whereas all bad quality spawns were obtained either on the first spawn or after the fifth spawn. Both spawning protocols gave commercially viable (1,000,000+) numbers of good quality eggs that could form the basis of a hatchery production.

  17. An Enriched Environment Promotes Shelter-Seeking Behaviour and Survival of Hatchery-Produced Juvenile European Lobster (Homarus gammarus).

    PubMed

    Aspaas, Stian; Grefsrud, Ellen Sofie; Fernö, Anders; Jensen, Knut Helge; Trengereid, Henrik; Agnalt, Ann-Lisbeth

    2016-01-01

    The high loss of newly released hatchery-reared European lobster (Homarus gammarus) juveniles for stock enhancement is believed to be the result of maladaptive anti-predator behaviour connected to deprived stimuli in the hatchery environment. Our objective was to learn if an enriched hatchery environment enhances shelter-seeking behaviour and survival. In the "naïve" treatment, the juveniles were raised in single compartments without substrate and shelter whereas juveniles in the "exposed" treatment experienced substrate, shelter and interactions with conspecifics. Three experiments with increasing complexity were conducted. Few differences in shelter-seeking behaviour were found between treatments when one naïve or one exposed juvenile were observed alone. When observing interactions between one naïve and one exposed juvenile competing for shelter, naïve juveniles more often initiated the first aggressive encounter. The third experiment was set up to simulate a release for stock enhancement. Naïve and exposed juveniles were introduced to a semi-natural environment including substrate, a limited number of shelters and interactions with conspecifics. Shelter occupancy was recorded three times during a period of 35 days. Exposed juveniles occupied more shelters, grew larger and had higher survival compared with naïve juveniles. Our results demonstrate that experience of environmental complexity and social interactions increase shelter-seeking ability and survival in hatchery reared lobster juveniles.

  18. An Enriched Environment Promotes Shelter-Seeking Behaviour and Survival of Hatchery-Produced Juvenile European Lobster (Homarus gammarus)

    PubMed Central

    Aspaas, Stian; Grefsrud, Ellen Sofie; Fernö, Anders; Jensen, Knut Helge; Trengereid, Henrik; Agnalt, Ann-Lisbeth

    2016-01-01

    The high loss of newly released hatchery-reared European lobster (Homarus gammarus) juveniles for stock enhancement is believed to be the result of maladaptive anti-predator behaviour connected to deprived stimuli in the hatchery environment. Our objective was to learn if an enriched hatchery environment enhances shelter-seeking behaviour and survival. In the “naïve” treatment, the juveniles were raised in single compartments without substrate and shelter whereas juveniles in the “exposed” treatment experienced substrate, shelter and interactions with conspecifics. Three experiments with increasing complexity were conducted. Few differences in shelter-seeking behaviour were found between treatments when one naïve or one exposed juvenile were observed alone. When observing interactions between one naïve and one exposed juvenile competing for shelter, naïve juveniles more often initiated the first aggressive encounter. The third experiment was set up to simulate a release for stock enhancement. Naïve and exposed juveniles were introduced to a semi-natural environment including substrate, a limited number of shelters and interactions with conspecifics. Shelter occupancy was recorded three times during a period of 35 days. Exposed juveniles occupied more shelters, grew larger and had higher survival compared with naïve juveniles. Our results demonstrate that experience of environmental complexity and social interactions increase shelter-seeking ability and survival in hatchery reared lobster juveniles. PMID:27560932

  19. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Investigations : White Sturgeon Spawning and Recruitment Evaluation, 1998 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Paragamian, Vaughn L.; Kruse, Gretchen L.; Wakkinen, Virginia

    2001-03-01

    and twenty (87%) of the 484 white sturgeon eggs collected in 1998 were viable. Development ranged from stage 12 to 28 (1 h to 12 d old), with 95% of the viable eggs at stage 21 (about 2.4 days) or earlier. The oldest egg was estimated at 293 hours old or about 12 days. Based on ages of viable eggs and the dates of egg collection, we estimated that white sturgeon spawned during at least 20 days in 1998. The first spawning episode was estimated to have occurred on May 6. The next episode was estimated to have occurred May 7 with a gap in spawning until May 10. Thereafter, spawning occurred for the next three days with a second break. From May 22, spawning occurred nearly every day through June 6. Peak spawning appeared to occur between from May 23 through May 28. Juvenile sampling yielded 163 individual fish (several fish were recaptured) of which 160 were hatchery and three wild sturgeon recruited from flow test years. Food habit studies of hatchery age-3 sturgeon indicated Chironomids comprised about 36% of the total food items by number while the Ephemeropterans Ephemerellidae and Baetidae contributed 22%. Continuous seismic profiling of a 12-km (7.45 mi) reach of the Kootenai River (rkm 228-240) indicated the riverbed was comprised primarily of fine and coarse sand. There was no evidence to suggest pre-dam gravels were overlain with sand. Recommendations for the 1999 spawning season include coordinating the flow test with sturgeon behavior and river temperatures of 8-10 C (46-50 F), and discharge should be in increments of 57 m{sup 3}/s (2,000 cfs) per day to a minimum of 1,130 m{sup 3}/s (40,000 cfs) at Bonners Ferry. We also recommend no load following.

  20. Successful mitigation of viral disease based on a delayed exposure rearing strategy at a large-scale steelhead trout conservation hatchery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breyta, R.; Samson, Corie; Blair, Marilyn; Black, Allison; Kurath, Gael

    2015-01-01

    In 2009, the largest steelhead trout conservation hatchery in the state of Idaho, Dworshak National Fish Hatchery (NFH), lost over 50% of the juvenile steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) population being reared for release. The causative agent of this high mortality was the viral pathogen infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV). This was neither the first nor the worst epidemic of IHNV to occur at the hatchery, but it was the worst in over a decade. Genetic analysis of IHNV isolates taken from juveniles suffering epidemic IHN disease in 2009 revealed that the virus was of the M group of IHNV viruses, known to have high virulence for trout. The water supply for steelhead trout rearing at Dworshak NFH is untreated water taken directly from the Clearwater River. Further genetic analysis of IHNV isolates from adults spawned in 2009 indicated that adult steelhead trout in the river (in the hatchery water supply) were the most probable transmission source for the epidemic IHN disease in the juvenile fish. Previously, Dworshak NFH had been able to gain access to reservoir water from behind the Dworshak Dam for nursery egg incubation and the earliest stage of fry rearing, which nearly eliminated incidence of IHN disease in that stage of rearing. Additionally, the nearby Clearwater State Fish Hatchery (SFH), which operates entirely with reservoir water, has never had a case of IHN disease in juvenile steelhead trout. Therefore, staff at Dworshak NFH sought and obtained access to a limited supply of reservoir water for the first few months of outdoor rearing of juvenile steelhead trout, beginning in 2010. This strategy delayed the exposure of juvenile steelhead trout to river water for several months. The effects of this program change were: drastic reduction in IHN disease in juvenile steelhead trout; interruption in the transmission of highly virulent M group IHNV from adult steelhead trout; no interruption in the transmission of low virulent U group IHNV from

  1. Analytical verification of waterborne chemical treatment regimens in hatchery raceways

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rach, J.J.; Ramsay, R.T.

    2000-01-01

    Chemical therapy for control and prevention of fish diseases is a necessary and common practice in aquaculture. Many factors affect the accuracy of a chemical treatment application, such as the functioning of the chemical delivery system, calculation of chemical quantities to be delivered, water temperature, geometry of the culture unit, inlet-outlet structure, the influence of aerators, wind movement, and measurement of water volumes and flow rates. Three separate trials were conducted at the Osceola Fish Hatchery, a facility of the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, evaluating the accuracy of flow-through hydrogen peroxide treatments applied to 1, 3, or 9 raceways that were connected in series. Raceways were treated with 50 or 75 ??L/L of hydrogen peroxide for 30 min. Chemical concentrations were determined titrimetrically. The target treatment regimen was not realized in any of the applications. Chemical concentrations dropped and exposure times increased with each additional raceway treated in series. Single introduction of a therapeutant to more than three raceways in series is not recommended. Factors that interfered with the accuracy of the treatments were culture unit configuration, aeration, and flow rates. Several treatment modifications were identified that would result in more accurate chemical treatments.

  2. "Research to Improve the Efficacy of Captive Broodstock Programs and Advance Hatchery Reform Throughout the Columbia River Basin." [from the Abstract], 2008-2009 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Berejikian, Barry A.

    2009-08-18

    This project was developed to conduct research to improve the efficacy of captive broodstock programs and advance hatchery reform throughout the Columbia River Basin. The project has three objectives: (1) maintain adaptive life history characteristics in Chinook salmon, (2) improve imprinting in juvenile sockeye salmon, and (3) match wild phenotypes in Chinook and sockeye salmon reared in hatcheries. A summary of the results are as follows: Objective 1: The ratio of jack to adult male Chinook salmon were varied in experimental breeding populations to test the hypothesis that reproductive success of the two male phenotypes would vary with their relative frequency in the population. Adult Chinook salmon males nearly always obtained primary access to nesting females and were first to enter the nest at the time of spawning. Jack male spawning occurred primarily by establishing satellite positions downstream of the courting pair, and 'sneaking' into the nest at the time of spawning. Male dominance hierarchies were fairly stable and strongly correlated with the order of nest entry at the time of spawning. Observed participation in spawning events and adult-to-fry reproductive success of jack and adult males was consistent with a negative frequency-dependent selection model. Overall, jack males sired an average of 21% of the offspring produced across a range of jack male frequencies. Implications of these and additional findings on Chinook salmon hatchery broodstock management will be presented in the FY 2009 Annual Report. Objective 2: To determine the critical period(s) for imprinting for sockeye salmon, juvenile salmon were exposed to known odorants at key developmental stages. Molecular assessments of imprinting-induced changes in odorant receptor gene expression indicated that regulation of odorant expression is influenced by developmental status and odor exposure history. Expression levels of basic amino acid receptor (BAAR) mRNA in the olfactory epithelium

  3. Catatropis hatcheri n. sp. (Digenea: Notocotylidae) from Heleobia hatcheri (Prosobranchia: Hydrobiidae) and notes on its life-cycle in Patagonia, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Flores, Verónica; Brugni, Norma

    2006-02-01

    A new species of Catatropis Oghner, 1905 from a freshwater Neotropical prosobranch snail, Heleobia hatcheri (Hydrobiidae), is described. Naturally infected snails were collected from Nahuel Huapí Lake in Andean Patagonia. The characteristics of the larval stages are also presented. Experimental adults were recovered from the distal region of the intestinal caeca of chicks and ducklings and natural adults from a wild duck Anas platyrhynchos. Adults of Catatropis hatcheri n. sp. can be distinguished from all other species of the genus in having 10-12 (11) ventral glands in each lateral row, the cirrus-sac extending back to between the first third and the middle of the body, the metraterm shorter than the cirrus-sac, a previtelline field of 1,258-1,544 (1,396), vitelline follicles reach back to the anterior border of the testes with some follicles extending slightly lateral to them, only external testicular margin lobed and genital pore in median line just posterior to the intestinal bifurcation. In addition, the eggs have one filament on each pole, the rediae contain one or two mature cercariae, and the cercariae are tri-oculate, with a long tail and encyst in the environment.

  4. Spatial and Temporal Variability of Macroinvertebrates in Spawning and Non-Spawning Habitats during a Salmon Run in Southeast Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Emily Y.; Merritt, Richard W.; Cummins, Kenneth W.; Benbow, M. Eric

    2012-01-01

    Spawning salmon create patches of disturbance through redd digging which can reduce macroinvertebrate abundance and biomass in spawning habitat. We asked whether displaced invertebrates use non-spawning habitats as refugia in streams. Our study explored how the spatial and temporal distribution of macroinvertebrates changed during a pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) spawning run and compared macroinvertebrates in spawning (riffle) and non-spawning (refugia) habitats in an Alaskan stream. Potential refugia included: pools, stream margins and the hyporheic zone, and we also sampled invertebrate drift. We predicted that macroinvertebrates would decline in riffles and increase in drift and refugia habitats during salmon spawning. We observed a reduction in the density, biomass and taxonomic richness of macroinvertebrates in riffles during spawning. There was no change in pool and margin invertebrate communities, except insect biomass declined in pools during the spawning period. Macroinvertebrate density was greater in the hyporheic zone and macroinvertebrate density and richness increased in the drift during spawning. We observed significant invertebrate declines within spawning habitat; however in non-spawning habitat, there were less pronounced changes in invertebrate density and richness. The results observed may be due to spawning-related disturbances, insect phenology, or other variables. We propose that certain in-stream habitats could be important for the persistence of macroinvertebrates during salmon spawning in a Southeast Alaskan stream. PMID:22745724

  5. Application of a bioenergetics model for hatchery production: Largemouth bass fed commercial diets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Csargo, Isak J.; Michael L. Brown,; Chipps, Steven R.

    2012-01-01

    Fish bioenergetics models based on natural prey items have been widely used to address research and management questions. However, few attempts have been made to evaluate and apply bioenergetics models to hatchery-reared fish receiving commercial feeds that contain substantially higher energy densities than natural prey. In this study, we evaluated a bioenergetics model for age-0 largemouth bass Micropterus salmoidesreared on four commercial feeds. Largemouth bass (n ≈ 3,504) were reared for 70 d at 25°C in sixteen 833-L circular tanks connected in parallel to a recirculation system. Model performance was evaluated using error components (mean, slope, and random) derived from decomposition of the mean square error obtained from regression of observed on predicted values. Mean predicted consumption was only 8.9% lower than mean observed consumption and was similar to error rates observed for largemouth bass consuming natural prey. Model evaluation showed that the 97.5% joint confidence region included the intercept of 0 (−0.43 ± 3.65) and slope of 1 (1.08 ± 0.20), which indicates the model accurately predicted consumption. Moreover model error was similar among feeds (P = 0.98), and most error was probably attributable to sampling error (unconsumed feed), underestimated predator energy densities, or consumption-dependent error, which is common in bioenergetics models. This bioenergetics model could provide a valuable tool in hatchery production of largemouth bass. Furthermore, we believe that bioenergetics modeling could be useful in aquaculture production, particularly for species lacking historical hatchery constants or conventional growth models.

  6. Umatilla Hatchery Monitoring and Evaluation, 1995-1996 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Focher, Shannon M.; Carmichael, Richard W.; Hayes, Michael C.

    1997-01-01

    This report summarizes the monitoring and evaluation studies of salmonids reared at Umatilla Hatchery for the period November 1, 1995 to October 31, 1996. Studies at Umatilla Hatchery are designed to evaluate rearing of chinook salmon and steelhead in Michigan raceways. Characteristics of Michigan raceways include high fish densities, rapid water turnover, oxygen supplementation, reuse of water, and baffles designed to reduce cleaning. Fish health at Umatilla Hatchery and other facilities associated with the Umatilla program is intensively monitored and evaluated as part of the overall research project. Further, under the Integrated Hatchery Operations Team guidelines, specific requirements for fish health monitoring are mandatory and have become the responsibility of the fish health staff conducting the studies at Umatilla Hatchery. Additional studies include evaluations of sport fisheries in the Umatilla River and mass marking and straying of fall chinook salmon. Juvenile rearing experiments have been completed for subyearling fall chinook salmon reared in Michigan and Oregon raceways. Although preliminary adult return data has been recovered, the most data on post-release survival is incomplete. Conclusions in this report should be viewed as preliminary and used in conjunction with additional information as it becomes available.

  7. Changes in spawning time led to the speciation of the broadcast spawning corals Acropora digitifera and the cryptic species Acropora sp. 1 with similar gamete recognition systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohki, Shun; Kowalski, Radoslaw K.; Kitanobo, Seiya; Morita, Masaya

    2015-12-01

    Multi-species spawning is reported in the coral genus Acropora, but hybridization in nature rarely occurs because of the incompatibility of gametes and the timing of spawning. However, the evolutionary relationships between gamete compatibility and spawning time are obscure. Investigations of gamete compatibility in sister species that spawn at different times may provide clues to answering this question. Acropora sp. 1 has been defined as a cryptic species of Acropora digitifera, and they are morphologically similar, but spawn in different months, suggesting that they are either a cryptic species or a different species. We examined the morphology and conducted crossing experiments using cryopreserved sperm. The morphologies (branch length, branch width, and outer diameter of axial corallites) of A. digitifera and Acropora sp. 1 differed significantly. A phylogenetic tree of partial Pax- C nuclear sequences from A. digitifera and Acropora sp. 1 shows that they are monophyletic and closely related genetically, based on F ST values and P-distance. These results imply that these two species originated recently from a common ancestor. In addition, cryopreserved sperm from both A. digitifera and Acropora sp. 1 showed bidirectional inter-crossing (cryopreserved sperm of A. digitifera and eggs of Acropora sp. 1 from Sesoko: 32.1 ± 6.7 %, control-conspecific cryopreserved sperm and eggs: 46.1 ± 10.6 %; cryopreserved sperm of Acropora sp. 1 and eggs of A. digitifera from Oku: 63.3 ± 16.6 %, control: 83.6 ± 6.0 %). The results suggest that the gametes of these two species are compatible and that the pre-zygotic isolation mechanism is relaxed because their gametes do not interact. Overall, these two species should be classified as distinct species, and changes in spawning time are related to speciation in a similar gamete recognition system.

  8. Salmon Spawning Effects on Streambed Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buxton, T. H.; Buffington, J. M.; Yager, E.; Fremier, A. K.; Hassan, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    Female salmon build nests ("redds") in streambeds to protect their eggs from predation and damage by bed scour. During spawning, streambed material is mixed, fine sediment is winnowed downstream, and sediment is moved into a tailspill mound resembling the shape of a dune. Redd surfaces are coarser and better sorted than unspawned beds, which is thought to increase redd stability because larger grains are heavier and harder to move and sorting leads to higher friction angles for grain mobility. However, spawning also loosens sediment and creates topography that accelerates flow, both of which may increase particle mobility. We address factors controlling the relative stability of redds and unspawned beds using simulated salmon redds and water worked ("unspawned") beds composed of mixed-grain surfaces in a laboratory flume. Results show that simulated spawning lowered packing resistance to particle mobility on redds by an average of 32-39% compared to unspawned beds. Reductions in packing were sufficient to counter the higher inherent stability of relatively coarse, well sorted grains on redds, overall reducing critical shear stress by 8-20% relative to unspawned beds. In addition, boundary shear stress was 13-41% higher on redds due to flow convergence over the tailspill structure. Finally, redd instability relative to unspawned beds was observed in visual measurements of grain mobility, where bed-averaged shear stress was 22% lower at incipient motion and 29% lower at the discharge that mobilized all grain sizes on redds. Results of these complementary observations, along with sediment mass transport rates being nearly five times higher on a redd than an unspawned bed, indicate that redds are unstable compared to unspawned beds. Given these findings, further research is needed to investigate linkages between spawning disturbance and streambed mobility that may affect salmon reproduction in streams, and to assess whether a certain level of bed disturbance from

  9. Summer spawning in the fourhorn sculpin, Myoxocephalus quadricornis, from Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldberg, S.R.; Yasutake, W.T.; West, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    Histological ovarian analysis indicates summer spawning occurs in Myoxocephalus quadricornis (Fourhorn Sculpin) from Alaska. Previous studies have shown this species spawns during winter in the Baltic Sea; the data presented herein suggests that geographical variation may occur in the timing of spawning of this species.

  10. An elegant application of appropriate technology: the Sheep Creek Hatchery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Lewis F.; Macaulay, Ladd; Coffey, Catherine M.

    1986-01-01

    Alaska's program for rebuilding salmon stock is called fishery enhancement. Hatchery technology can produce dramatic increases in numbers of fish homing to selected streams. The Sheep Creek Hatchery is unusually efficient— it increases a fish run by a factor of 3000 and produces salmon at 9 11c/kg by minimizing mechanical energy inputs and human labor. The design harnesses the force of gravity and capitalizes on instinctual behavior of the fish. Since migratory fish collect protein from ocean “pasturage,” the technology increases the share of this resource collected and concentrated for harvest in a specific country or region. While small seaside hatcheries can solve biological problems of depleted fish stocks, economic and political considerations may preclude efficient utilization of the protein produced. Further, the potential for one state or country to concentrate fish near its shores poses new dilemmas for international regulation of harvests.

  11. Environmental Assessment on Construction of the Cabinet Gorge Kokanee Hatchery.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1984-10-01

    Bonneville Power Administration, the Washington Water Power Company, and Idaho Department of Fish and Game plan to enter into a cooperative cost-sharing agreement for the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of a kokanee hatchery in northern Idaho. The proposed hatchery shall supplement mitigation of adverse federal and non-federal hydroelectric and nonhydroelectric impacts. Hydroelectric impacts were primarily degradation of the Lake Pend Oreille shoreline kokanee habitat and blockage of migrating Clark Fork River kokanee. The introduction and establishment of Mysis relicta, the opossum shrimp, created further adverse effects on the kokanee fishery. The proposed hatchery will produce 20 million advanced-stage kokanee fry which will restore the Lake Pend Oreille kokanee fishery level to 744,000 harvestable adults after the first 5 years of operation. 6 references, 4 figures.

  12. Willamette Hatchery Oxygen Supplementation Studies : Annual Report 1993.

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, R.D.; Ewing, S.K.; Sheahan, J.E.

    1993-11-01

    Hydropower development and operations in the Columbia River basin have caused the loss of 5 million to 11 million salmonids. An interim goal of the Northwest Power Planning Council is to reestablish these historical numbers by doubling the present adult runs from 2.5 million to 5.0 million fish. This increase in production will be accomplished through comprehensive management of both wild and hatchery fish, but artificial propagation will play a major role in the augmentation process. The current husbandry techniques in existing hatcheries require improvements that may include changes in rearing densities, addition of oxygen, removal of excess nitrogen, and improvement in raceway design. Emphasis will be placed on the ability to increase the number of fish released from hatcheries that survive to return as adults.

  13. 50 CFR 71.1 - Opening of national fish hatchery areas to hunting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Opening of national fish hatchery areas to hunting. 71.1 Section 71.1 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FISH HATCHERY AREAS Hunting § 71.1 Opening of national fish hatchery areas to hunting. National...

  14. 50 CFR 71.11 - Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing. 71.11 Section 71.11 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FISH HATCHERY AREAS Fishing § 71.11 Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing. National...

  15. 50 CFR 71.1 - Opening of national fish hatchery areas to hunting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Opening of national fish hatchery areas to hunting. 71.1 Section 71.1 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FISH HATCHERY AREAS Hunting § 71.1 Opening of national fish hatchery areas to hunting. National...

  16. 50 CFR 71.11 - Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing. 71.11 Section 71.11 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FISH HATCHERY AREAS Fishing § 71.11 Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing. National...

  17. Does dopamine block the spawning of the acroporid coral Acropora tenuis?

    PubMed Central

    Isomura, N.; Yamauchi, C.; Takeuchi, Y.; Takemura, A.

    2013-01-01

    Most corals undergo spawning after a particular moon phase, but how moon-related spawning is endogenously regulated in corals remains unknown. The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether dopamine (DA) affects spawning in Acropora tenuis. When pieces of four A. tenuis colonies were reared under a natural photoperiod and water temperature, spawning was observed after the predicted moon phase. After exposure to water containing DA at 0.1 μM, pieces of the same colonies only released 5 to 10 bundles. Co-treatment with DA and pimozide (D1 and D2 receptors antagonist), but not domperidone (D2 receptor antagonist), induced mass release of bundles from the colonies. A cross-experiment revealed high fertilization rates between the control colonies (95%) and between the control and DA-treated colonies (90%), suggesting that gametes developed normally in coral tissue. Therefore, DA appears to have an inhibitory effect on the spawning of A. tenuis. PMID:24026104

  18. Response of spawning lake sturgeons to change in hydroelectric facility operation

    SciTech Connect

    Auer, N.A.

    1996-01-01

    Spawning of lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens was documented from 1987 to 1992 below the Prickett hydroelectric facility on the Sturgeon River, a tributary to Portage Lake, Michigan. Lake sturgeons were captured at the spawning site with dip nets during periods of reduced flow. A change in the spawning characteristics of the population was noted that corresponded to a changed in the operation of the hydroelectric facility. In 1987 and 1988 the facility operated in a peaking mode, which resulted in large daily fluctuations in river flows. The years 1989 and 1990 were years of transition, and in 1991 and 1992 the facility released near run-of-the-river (ROR) flows. Under near-ROR flows, which were more natural, adult lake sturgeons spent 4-6 weeks less at the spawning sites, 74% more fish were observed, weights were greater due to a 68% increase in number of females, and fish had increased reproductive readiness. The change in flow regime was the result of a Federal Energy Regulatory Commission relicensing action. The positive response observed in lake sturgeon spawning activity that resulted from the change of facility operation to near-ROR flows should be beneficial to the survival and perpetuation of this population. Similar results may be experienced in other lake sturgeon waters affected by manipulated flow regimes. 28 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. A simple method for in situ monitoring of water temperature in substrates used by spawning salmonids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zimmerman, Christian E.; Finn, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Interstitial water temperature within spawning habitats of salmonids may differ from surface-water temperature depending on intragravel flow paths, geomorphic setting, or presence of groundwater. Because survival and developmental timing of salmon are partly controlled by temperature, monitoring temperature within gravels used by spawning salmonids is required to adequately describe the environment experienced by incubating eggs and embryos. Here we describe a simple method of deploying electronic data loggers within gravel substrates with minimal alteration of the natural gravel structure and composition. Using data collected in spawning sites used by summer and fall chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta from two streams within the Yukon River watershed, we compare contrasting thermal regimes to demonstrate the utility of this method.

  20. Broadcast spawning by Pocillopora species on the Great Barrier Reef.

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Roach, Sebastian; Miller, Karen J; Woolsey, Erika; Gerlach, Gabriele; Baird, Andrew H

    2012-01-01

    The coral genus Pocillopora is one of the few to include some species that broadcast spawn gametes and some species that brood larvae, although reports of reproductive mode and timing vary within and among species across their range. Notably, the ubiquitous Pocillopora damicornis has been described as both a brooder and spawner, although evidence of broadcast spawning is rare. Here, we report observations of broadcast-spawning in four species of Pocillopora on the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), including P. damicornis. All species spawned predictably during the early morning, two days following the full moon, and spawning was observed in multiple months over the summer period (November to February). Eggs and sperm were free-spawned concurrently. Eggs were negatively buoyant and contained Symbiodinium. This newfound knowledge on the mode, timing and regularity of broadcast spawning in Pocillopora spp. on the GBR brings us one step closer to elucidating the complex reproductive ecology of these species.

  1. 9 CFR 145.6 - Specific provisions for participating hatcheries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... combination represented. (d) Eggs incubated should be sound in shell, typical for the breed, variety, strain... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Specific provisions for participating hatcheries. 145.6 Section 145.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION...

  2. 9 CFR 145.6 - Specific provisions for participating hatcheries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... combination represented. (d) Eggs incubated should be sound in shell, typical for the breed, variety, strain... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Specific provisions for participating hatcheries. 145.6 Section 145.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION...

  3. 9 CFR 145.6 - Specific provisions for participating hatcheries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... combination represented. (d) Eggs incubated should be sound in shell, typical for the breed, variety, strain... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Specific provisions for participating hatcheries. 145.6 Section 145.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION...

  4. 9 CFR 145.6 - Specific provisions for participating hatcheries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... combination represented. (d) Eggs incubated should be sound in shell, typical for the breed, variety, strain... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Specific provisions for participating hatcheries. 145.6 Section 145.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION...

  5. 9 CFR 145.6 - Specific provisions for participating hatcheries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... combination represented. (d) Eggs incubated should be sound in shell, typical for the breed, variety, strain... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Specific provisions for participating hatcheries. 145.6 Section 145.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION...

  6. Evaluation of Zooplankton in Hatchery Diets for Channel Catfish Fry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficacy of zooplankton as a supplemental hatchery diet for fry of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus was evaluated. When a commercial diet is used as a reference, fry fed exclusively on zooplankton–either live or dried–performed poorly in their growth rate. However, when live or dried zooplan...

  7. Northeast Oregon Hatchery Spring Chinook Master Plan, Technical Report 2000.

    SciTech Connect

    Ashe, Becky L.; Concannon, Kathleen; Johnson, David B.

    2000-04-01

    Spring chinook salmon populations in the Imnaha and Grande Ronde rivers are listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and are at high risk of extirpation. The Nez Perce Tribe, the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, are co-managers of conservation/restoration programs for Imnaha and Grande Ronde spring chinook salmon that use hatchery supplementation and conventional and captive broodstock techniques. The immediate goal of these programs is to prevent extirpation and provide the potential for restoration once factors limiting production are addressed. These programs redirect production occurring under the Lower Snake River Compensation Plan (LSRCP) from mitigation to conservation and restoration. Both the Imnaha and Grande Ronde conservation/restoration programs are described in ESA Section 10 permit applications and the co-managers refer to the fish production from these programs as the Currently Permitted Program (CPP). Recently, co-managers have determined that it is impossible to produce the CPP at Lookingglass Hatchery, the LSRCP facility intended for production, and that without additional facilities, production must be cut from these conservation programs. Development of new facilities for these programs through the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program is considered a new production initiative by the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) and requires a master plan. The master plan provides the NPPC, program proponents and others with the information they need to make sound decisions about whether the proposed facilities to restore salmon populations should move forward to design. This master plan describes alternatives considered to meet the facility needs of the CPP so the conservation program can be fully implemented. Co-managers considered three alternatives: modify Lookingglass Hatchery; use existing facilities elsewhere in the Basin; and use new facilities in

  8. Development of a carbon filter system for removing malachite green from hatchery effluents

    SciTech Connect

    Marking, L.L. ); Leith, D. ); Davis, J. )

    1990-04-01

    The US Fish and Wildlife Service was granted an investigational New Animal Drug permit by the US Food and Drug Administration for the use of malachite green as a fungicide at selected state and federal fish hatcheries. However, the permit required that the fungicide be removed from all treated water after March 1989. A study was designed to (1) determine the type of filter and kind of carbon that was most efficient for removal of malachite green and (2) demonstrate that carbon filters can be used to remove malachite green from water used for egg incubation or to hold adult salmon before spawning. Minicolumn simulation studies showed that 8 {times} 30-mesh granular carbon was effective for continuously removing malachite green from water for 230 d at a flow rate of 500 gal/min and for only 62 d at a flow rate of 1,000 gal/min. The removal capacity at the slower flow rate was 1.1 oz of malachite green per pound of carbon. A filter system that contained 20,000 lb of activated carbon in each of two chambers was effective for removal of malachite green from treated water in adult salmon holding ponds at flows of 500 gal/min (6.4 gal/min per ft{sup 2}) and greater. The removal efficiency was 99.8% after 105 h of operation, and the adsorption capacity of the system was projected to be sufficient for 20 or more years of routine hatchery operation. A filter system that contained 2,000 lb of activated carbon in each of two chambers was effective for removal of malachite green from treated water in salmon egg incubation units at the designated flow rate of 50 gal/min (4.0 gal/min per ft{sup 2}) and also at faster flow rates. Removal efficiency decreased only slightly for faster flows in both filter systems, and the efficiency improved when treated water was passed through two filter chambers in series.

  9. Comparing the Reproductive Success of Yakima River Hatchery and Wild-Origin Spring Chinook; Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Monitoring and Evaluation Report 4 of 7, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Schroder, S.L.; Knudsen, C.M.; Watson, B.D.

    2004-05-01

    In September of 2003, twenty-nine hatchery and twenty-eight wild spring chinook adults were placed into the observation stream located at the Cle Elum Supplementation Research Facility. In, addition 20 precocious males, 7 hatchery and 13 wild, were simultaneously released into the structure. As in previous years, the fish had small amounts of fin material removed prior to being introduced into the stream so that microsatellite DNA based pedigree analyses could be performed on their subsequent progeny. The entire 127 m long by 7.9 m wide stream was made available to this group of fish. Continuous behavioral observations were made while the females prepared nests and spawned. Moreover, standard measurements of adult longevity, spawning participation, water velocity, redd sizes, gravel composition, water temperature and flow were taken. Fry produced from these fish started to emigrate from the stream in early January 2004. They were trapped and sub-sampled for later microsatellite DNA analyses. In mid May of 2004 fry emergence from the channel was complete and residual fish were captured by seine and electro-fishing so that the entire juvenile population could be proportionately sampled. Audiotape records of the behavior of wild and hatchery adults spawning in the observation stream in 2001 were transcribed into continuous ethograms. Courting, agonistic, and location data were extracted from these chronological records and analyzed to characterize the reproductive behavior of both hatchery and wild fish. In addition, a ''gold standard'' pedigree analysis was completed on the fry originating from the adults placed into the observation stream in 2001. Behavioral and morphological data collected on hatchery and wild males were linked to the results of the pedigree analysis to ascertain what factors affected their reproductive success (RS) or capacity to produce fry. Individual RS values were calculated for each male placed into the observation stream and the coefficient

  10. Flowing-recirculated water system for inducing spawning phase sea lampreys to spawn in the laboratory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fredricks, Kim T.; Seelye, James G.

    1995-01-01

    We describe a water-recirculating system for inducing spawning of sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) held under laboratory conditions. Water temperature in the system was gradually increased to and maintained at 18 ± 2°C, the optimal temperature for spawning. About 10% freshwater was added daily to prevent buildup of waste products. Sea lampreys were provided substrate (approximately 3–6 cm in diameter) to build nests, and a water velocity of 0.2–0.3 m!s was maintained with an electric trolling motor. Sea lampreys held in this system exhibited characteristic spawning behavior. Prolarvae produced from artificial fertilization of gametes developed according to the standard timeline.

  11. On the Frontline: Tracking Ocean Acidification in an Alaskan Shellfish Hatchery.

    PubMed

    Evans, Wiley; Mathis, Jeremy T; Ramsay, Jacqueline; Hetrick, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    The invasion of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) into the ocean is shifting the marine carbonate system such that saturation states of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) minerals are decreasing, and this is having a detrimental impact on early life stages of select shellfish species. The global, secular decrease in CaCO3 saturation states is occurring on top of a backdrop of large natural variability in coastal settings; progressively shifting the envelope of variability and leading to longer and more frequent exposure to adverse conditions. This is a great concern in the State of Alaska, a high-latitude setting vulnerable to rapid changes in the marine carbonate system, where an emerging shellfish industry plans major growth over the coming decades. Currently, the Alutiiq Pride Shellfish Hatchery (APSH) in Seward, Alaska is the only hatchery in the state, and produces many shellfish species with early life stages known to be sensitive to low CaCO3 saturation states. Here we present the first land-based OA measurements made in an Alaskan shellfish hatchery, and detail the trends in the saturation state of aragonite (Ωarag), the more soluble form of CaCO3, over a 10-month period in the APSH seawater supply. These data indicate the largest changes are on the seasonal time scale, with extended periods of sub-optimal Ωarag levels (Ωarag < 1.5) in winter and autumn associated with elevated water column respiration and short-lived runoff events, respectively. The data pinpoint a 5-month window of reprieve with favorable Ωarag conditions above the sub-optimal Ωarag threshold, which under predicted upper-bound CO2 emissions trajectories is estimated to close by 2040. To date, many species in production at APSH remain untested in their response to OA, and the data presented here establish the current conditions at APSH as well as provide a framework for hatchery-based measurements in Alaska. The current and expected conditions seen at APSH are essential to consider for this

  12. On the Frontline: Tracking Ocean Acidification in an Alaskan Shellfish Hatchery

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Wiley; Mathis, Jeremy T.; Ramsay, Jacqueline; Hetrick, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    The invasion of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) into the ocean is shifting the marine carbonate system such that saturation states of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) minerals are decreasing, and this is having a detrimental impact on early life stages of select shellfish species. The global, secular decrease in CaCO3 saturation states is occurring on top of a backdrop of large natural variability in coastal settings; progressively shifting the envelope of variability and leading to longer and more frequent exposure to adverse conditions. This is a great concern in the State of Alaska, a high-latitude setting vulnerable to rapid changes in the marine carbonate system, where an emerging shellfish industry plans major growth over the coming decades. Currently, the Alutiiq Pride Shellfish Hatchery (APSH) in Seward, Alaska is the only hatchery in the state, and produces many shellfish species with early life stages known to be sensitive to low CaCO3 saturation states. Here we present the first land-based OA measurements made in an Alaskan shellfish hatchery, and detail the trends in the saturation state of aragonite (Ωarag), the more soluble form of CaCO3, over a 10-month period in the APSH seawater supply. These data indicate the largest changes are on the seasonal time scale, with extended periods of sub-optimal Ωarag levels (Ωarag < 1.5) in winter and autumn associated with elevated water column respiration and short-lived runoff events, respectively. The data pinpoint a 5-month window of reprieve with favorable Ωarag conditions above the sub-optimal Ωarag threshold, which under predicted upper-bound CO2 emissions trajectories is estimated to close by 2040. To date, many species in production at APSH remain untested in their response to OA, and the data presented here establish the current conditions at APSH as well as provide a framework for hatchery-based measurements in Alaska. The current and expected conditions seen at APSH are essential to consider for this

  13. Rearing in Seawater Mesocosms Improves the Spawning Performance of Growth Hormone Transgenic and Wild-Type Coho Salmon

    PubMed Central

    Leggatt, Rosalind A.; Hollo, Tanya; Vandersteen, Wendy E.; McFarlane, Kassandra; Goh, Benjamin; Prevost, Joelle; Devlin, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) transgenes can significantly accelerate growth rates in fish and cause associated alterations to their physiology and behaviour. Concern exists regarding potential environmental risks of GH transgenic fish, should they enter natural ecosystems. In particular, whether they can reproduce and generate viable offspring under natural conditions is poorly understood. In previous studies, GH transgenic salmon grown under contained culture conditions had lower spawning behaviour and reproductive success relative to wild-type fish reared in nature. However, wild-type salmon cultured in equal conditions also had limited reproductive success. As such, whether decreased reproductive success of GH transgenic salmon is due to the action of the transgene or to secondary effects of culture (or a combination) has not been fully ascertained. Hence, salmon were reared in large (350,000 L), semi-natural, seawater tanks (termed mesocosms) designed to minimize effects of standard laboratory culture conditions, and the reproductive success of wild-type and GH transgenic coho salmon from mesocosms were compared with that of wild-type fish from nature. Mesocosm rearing partially restored spawning behaviour and success of wild-type fish relative to culture rearing, but remained lower overall than those reared in nature. GH transgenic salmon reared in the mesocosm had similar spawning behaviour and success as wild-type fish reared in the mesocosm when in full competition and without competition, but had lower success in male-only competition experiments. There was evidence of genotype×environmental interactions on spawning success, so that spawning success of transgenic fish, should they escape to natural systems in early life, cannot be predicted with low uncertainty. Under the present conditions, we found no evidence to support enhanced mating capabilities of GH transgenic coho salmon compared to wild-type salmon. However, it is clear that GH transgenic salmon are

  14. Rearing in seawater mesocosms improves the spawning performance of growth hormone transgenic and wild-type coho salmon.

    PubMed

    Leggatt, Rosalind A; Hollo, Tanya; Vandersteen, Wendy E; McFarlane, Kassandra; Goh, Benjamin; Prevost, Joelle; Devlin, Robert H

    2014-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) transgenes can significantly accelerate growth rates in fish and cause associated alterations to their physiology and behaviour. Concern exists regarding potential environmental risks of GH transgenic fish, should they enter natural ecosystems. In particular, whether they can reproduce and generate viable offspring under natural conditions is poorly understood. In previous studies, GH transgenic salmon grown under contained culture conditions had lower spawning behaviour and reproductive success relative to wild-type fish reared in nature. However, wild-type salmon cultured in equal conditions also had limited reproductive success. As such, whether decreased reproductive success of GH transgenic salmon is due to the action of the transgene or to secondary effects of culture (or a combination) has not been fully ascertained. Hence, salmon were reared in large (350,000 L), semi-natural, seawater tanks (termed mesocosms) designed to minimize effects of standard laboratory culture conditions, and the reproductive success of wild-type and GH transgenic coho salmon from mesocosms were compared with that of wild-type fish from nature. Mesocosm rearing partially restored spawning behaviour and success of wild-type fish relative to culture rearing, but remained lower overall than those reared in nature. GH transgenic salmon reared in the mesocosm had similar spawning behaviour and success as wild-type fish reared in the mesocosm when in full competition and without competition, but had lower success in male-only competition experiments. There was evidence of genotype×environmental interactions on spawning success, so that spawning success of transgenic fish, should they escape to natural systems in early life, cannot be predicted with low uncertainty. Under the present conditions, we found no evidence to support enhanced mating capabilities of GH transgenic coho salmon compared to wild-type salmon. However, it is clear that GH transgenic salmon are

  15. Steelhead Spawning Surveys Near Locke Island, Hanford Reach of the Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Geist,; Mueller, RP

    1999-10-19

    In 1997, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) listed upper Columbia River steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus znykiss) as endangered. This action affected management of land-use activities along and within the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, which flows through the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. Steelhead covered in this listing include all naturally spawned populations of steel-head and their progeny in streams in the Columbia River Basin upstream from the Yakima River to the United States/Canada border. The NMFS has identified a general listing of activities that could potentially result in harm to steelhead (62 FR 43937, August 18, 1997). One of these concerns includes land-use changes resulting in mass wasting or surface erosion. Landslide activity along the White Bluffs on the east ,side of Locke Island has redirected river flow into the island where substantial erosion has occurred. This erosion has exposed important anthropological and archaeological resources that were previously buried on the island. The DOE is working with affected tribes and other agencies to develop a plan for addressing the erosion of Locke Island. As part of this effort, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers has prepared an assessment of potential alternatives to stabilize the erosion, including a no-action alternative. Steelhead historically spawned in the vicinity of Locke Island, but recent information on the occurrence of steelhead spawning or availability of spawning habitat was lacking. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if steelhead spawned in the vicinity of Locke Island erosion and to evaluate the composition of substrate in the affected area. Surveys to document the occurrence of steelheads redds were conducted in Spring 1999. The surveys were conducted from the air as well as with the use of an underwater video camera. Neither aerial nor underwater surveys documented steelhead spawning within the survey area. Habitat surveys were

  16. Observations on the spawning behavior, egg masses and paralarval development of the ommastrephid squid Todarodes pacificus in a laboratory mesocosm.

    PubMed

    Puneeta, Pandey; Vijai, Dharmamony; Yoo, Hae-Kyun; Matsui, Hajime; Sakurai, Yasunori

    2015-12-01

    The spawning behavior of ommastrephid squids has never been observed under natural conditions. Previous laboratory observations of Japanese flying squid (Todarodes pacificus) suggest that pre-spawning females might rest on the continental shelf or slope before they ascend above the pycnocline to spawn, and that the egg masses might settle in the pycnocline. Here, two mesocosm experiments were conducted in a 300 m(3) tank that was 6 m deep to investigate this hypothesis. In the first experiment, a thermocline (2.5-3.5 m) was established in the tank by creating a thermally stratified (17-22°C) water column. In the second experiment, the temperature was uniform (22°C) at all depths. Prior to spawning, females did not rest on the tank floor. In the stratified water column, egg masses remained suspended in the thermocline, but in an unstratified water column, they settled on the tank bottom, collapsed and were infested by microbes, resulting in abnormal or nonviable embryos. Eleven females spawned a total of 18 egg masses (17-80 cm in diameter), indicating that females can spawn more than once when under stress. Paralarvae hatched at stage 30/31 and survived for up to 10 days, allowing us to observe the most advanced stage of paralarvae in captivity. Paralarvae survived after consumption of the inner yolk, suggesting they might have fed in the tank.

  17. Lake sturgeon response to a spawning reef constructed in the Detroit river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roseman, Edward F.; Manny, B.; Boase, J.; Child, M.; Kennedy, G.; Craig, J.; Soper, K.; Drouin, R.

    2011-01-01

    Prior to the First World War, the bi-national Detroit River provided vast areas of functional fish spawning and nursery habitat. However, ongoing conflicting human uses of these waters for activities such as waste disposal, water withdrawals, shoreline development, shipping, recreation, and fishing have altered many of the chemical, physical, and biological processes of the Detroit River. Of particular interest and concern to resource managers and stakeholders is the significant loss and impairment of fish spawning and nursery habitat that led to the decline in abundance of most fish species using this ecosystem. Lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) populations for example, were nearly extirpated by the middle of the 20th century, leaving only a small fraction of their former population. Fisheries managers recognized that the loss of suitable fish spawning habitat is a limiting factor in lake sturgeon population rehabilitation in the Detroit River. In efforts to remediate this beneficial water use impairment, a reef consisting of a mixture of natural rock and limestone was constructed at the upstream end of Fighting Island in 2008. This paper focuses on the response by lake sturgeon to the different replicates of suitable natural materials used to construct the fish spawning habitat at Fighting Island in the Detroit River. Pre-construction fisheries assessment during 2006–2008 showed that along with the presence of adult lake sturgeon, spawning conditions were favorable. However, no eggs were found in assessments conducted prior to reef construction. The 3300 m2 Fighting Island reef was placed at the upstream end of the island in October of 2008. The construction design included 12 spawning beds of three replicates each consisting of either round rock, small or large (shot-rock) diameter limestone or a mixture thereof. An observed response by spawning lake sturgeon occurred the following year when spawning-ready adults (ripe), viable eggs, and larvae were

  18. Lake trout in northern Lake Huron spawn on submerged drumlins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riley, Stephen C.; Binder, Thomas; Wattrus, Nigel J.; Faust, Matthew D.; Janssen, John; Menzies, John; Marsden, J. Ellen; Ebener, Mark P.; Bronte, Charles R.; He, Ji X.; Tucker, Taaja R.; Hansen, Michael J.; Thompson, Henry T.; Muir, Andrew M.; Krueger, Charles C.

    2014-01-01

    Recent observations of spawning lake trout Salvelinus namaycush near Drummond Island in northern Lake Huron indicate that lake trout use drumlins, landforms created in subglacial environments by the action of ice sheets, as a primary spawning habitat. From these observations, we generated a hypothesis that may in part explain locations chosen by lake trout for spawning. Most salmonines spawn in streams where they rely on streamflows to sort and clean sediments to create good spawning habitat. Flows sufficient to sort larger sediment sizes are generally lacking in lakes, but some glacial bedforms contain large pockets of sorted sediments that can provide the interstitial spaces necessary for lake trout egg incubation, particularly if these bedforms are situated such that lake currents can penetrate these sediments. We hypothesize that sediment inclusions from glacial scavenging and sediment sorting that occurred during the creation of bedforms such as drumlins, end moraines, and eskers create suitable conditions for lake trout egg incubation, particularly where these bedforms interact with lake currents to remove fine sediments. Further, these bedforms may provide high-quality lake trout spawning habitat at many locations in the Great Lakes and may be especially important along the southern edge of the range of the species. A better understanding of the role of glacially-derived bedforms in the creation of lake trout spawning habitat may help develop powerful predictors of lake trout spawning locations, provide insight into the evolution of unique spawning behaviors by lake trout, and aid in lake trout restoration in the Great Lakes.

  19. Biannual Spawning and Temporal Reproductive Isolation in Acropora Corals

    PubMed Central

    Gilmour, James P.; Underwood, Jim N.; Howells, Emily J.; Gates, Emily; Heyward, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Coral spawning on the oceanic reef systems of north-western Australia was recently discovered during autumn and spring, but the degree to which species and particularly colonies participated in one or both of these spawnings was unknown. At the largest of the oceanic reef systems, the participation by colonies in the two discrete spawning events was investigated over three years in 13 species of Acropora corals (n = 1,855 colonies). Seven species spawned during both seasons; five only in autumn and one only in spring. The majority of tagged colonies (n = 218) spawned once a year in the same season, but five colonies from three species spawned during spring and autumn during a single year. Reproductive seasonality was not influenced by spatial variation in habitat conditions, or by Symbiodinium partners in the biannual spawner Acropora tenuis. Colonies of A. tenuis spawning during different seasons separated into two distinct yet cryptic groups, in a bayesian clustering analysis based on multiple microsatellite markers. These groups were associated with a major genetic divergence (G”ST = 0.469), despite evidence of mixed ancestry in a small proportion of individuals. Our results confirm that temporal reproductive isolation is a common feature of Acropora populations at Scott Reef and indicate that spawning season is a genetically determined trait in at least A. tenuis. This reproductive isolation may be punctuated occasionally by interbreeding between genetic groups following favourable environmental conditions, when autumn spawners undergo a second annual gametogenic cycle and spawn during spring. PMID:26963249

  20. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Investigations; White Sturgeon Spawning and Recruitment Evaluation, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rust, Pete; Wakkinen, Virginia

    2005-06-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the environmental requirements for successful spawning and recruitment of the Kootenai River white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus population. Annual tasks include monitoring and evaluating the various life stages of Kootenai River white sturgeon. Sampling for adult Kootenai River white sturgeon in 2003 began in March and continued through April. Eighty-one adult white sturgeon were captured with 3,576 hours of angling and set-lining effort in the Kootenai River. Discharge from Libby Dam and river stage at Bonners Ferry in 2003 peaked in May and early June. Flows remained above 500 m{sup 3}/s throughout June, decreased rapidly through mid July, and increased back to near 500 m{sup 3}/s after mid July and through mid August. By late August, flows had decreased to below 400 m{sup 3}/s. We monitored the movements of 24 adult sturgeon in Kootenay Lake, British Columbia (BC) and the Kootenai River from March 15, 2003 to August 31, 2003. Some of the fish were radio or sonic tagged in previous years. Twelve adult white sturgeon were moved upstream to the Hemlock Bar reach (rkm 260.0) and released as part of the Set and Jet Program. Transmitters were attached to seven of these fish, and their movements were monitored from the time of release until they moved downstream of Bonners Ferry. Eight additional radio-tagged white sturgeon adults were located in the traditional spawning reach (rkm 228-240) during May and June. Sampling with artificial substrate mats began May 21, 2003 and ended June 30, 2003. We sampled 717 mat d (a mat d is one 24 h set) during white sturgeon spawning. Three white sturgeon eggs were collected near Shortys Island on June 3, 2003, and five eggs were collected from the Hemlock Bar reach on June 5, 2003. Prejuvenile sampling began June 17, 2003 and continued until July 31, 2003. Sampling occurred primarily at Ambush Rock (rkm 244.0) in an attempt to document any recruitment that might have occurred from

  1. Removal of excess nitrogen in a hatchery water supply

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rucker, R.R.

    1948-01-01

    The water system at the U. S. Fish Cultural Station, Leavenworth, Washington, has been supplemented with two wells that were to be used to increase the temperature of the water during the winter and to cool the Water in the summer if necessary. The well water proved to be unsuitable for hatchery purposes because it was supersaturated with nitrogen, causing "gas-bubble" disease among fish subjected to 11. Mr. R. E. Burrows, the district biologist at the Leavenworth laboratory, devised a system by which the water from one well could be used satisfactorily in the hatchery after a  circuitous routing through a mixing chamber with considerable agitation and a settling basin. The circuitous routing precluded the use of the rearing ponds, and it did not sufficiently reduce the nitrogen tension of the water from the other well.

  2. Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Project, 1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, David B.; Larson, Roy Edward; Walker, Grant W.

    2001-08-17

    This report consists of activities/events conducted in response to the Objectives and Tasks described in the 1999 contract Statement Of Work for the Planning and Planning and Design (P and D) and Maintenance (O and M) activities of the Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery (NPTH). The report follows the format of the contract for ease in finding accomplishments. Although specific emphasis will be placed on activities related directly to the NPTH, activities from other artificial production related projects might also be noted because of overlap in staff duties and production facilities. Additionally, the project leader's role has evolved as other Tribal fisheries projects have been developed and assigned to the Production Division, Department of Fisheries Resource Management (DFRM), and Nez Perce Tribe (NPT). Thus, implementation of the project leader role for the NPTH actually entails specific duties of the Production Division Director and the Production Division Coordinator, as well as the Hatchery Division Coordinator.

  3. Umatilla Hatchery Monitoring and Evaluation, 1999-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Chess, Dale W.; Cameron, William A.; Stonecypher, Jr., R. Wes

    2003-12-01

    REPORT A: UMATILLA HATCHERY MONITORING AND EVALUATION--This report summarizes monitoring and evaluation studies of salmonids reared at Umatilla Fish Hatchery (UFH) for 1 November, 1999 to 31 October, 2002. Studies at UFH are designed to evaluate rearing of chinook salmon and steelhead in ''Michigan raceways''. Characteristics of Michigan raceways include high fish densities, rapid water turnover, oxygen supplementation, reuse of water, and baffles designed to reduce cleaning. Fish health at UFH and other facilities associated with the Umatilla program are intensively monitored and evaluated along with the overall research project. Further, under the Integrated Hatchery Operations Team guidelines, specific requirements for fish health monitoring at UFH are mandatory. An experiment designed to evaluate rearing subyearling fall chinook salmon in Michigan and Oregon raceways has been completed. An evaluation of survival of subyearling fall chinook salmon reared at three densities will be completed with final returns in 2005. Two new evaluations were started during this reporting period. The first is an evaluation of spring chinook survival of groups transferred to Imeques acclimation facility in the fall, overwinter-acclimated and released with the standard acclimated production groups in March. The second is an evaluation of subyearling fall chinook survival and straying of a direct-stream released group in the lower Umatilla River and the standard group acclimated at Thornhollow acclimation facility in the upper Umatilla River. An important aspect of the project is evaluation of the spring chinook and summer steelhead fisheries in the upper and lower Umatilla River. REPORT B: Fish Health Monitoring and Evaluation, 2000 Fiscal Year--The results presented in this report are from the ninth year of Fish Health Monitoring and Evaluation in the Umatilla Hatchery program. Broodstock monitoring for hatchery production was conducted on adult returns to the Umatilla River at

  4. Activity of the pituitary-gonadal axis is increased prior to the onset of spawning migration of chum salmon.

    PubMed

    Onuma, Takeshi A; Sato, Shunpei; Katsumata, Hiroshi; Makino, Keita; Hu, Weiwei; Jodo, Aya; Davis, Nancy D; Dickey, Jon T; Ban, Masatoshi; Ando, Hironori; Fukuwaka, Masa-Aki; Azumaya, Tomonori; Swanson, Penny; Urano, Akihisa

    2009-01-01

    The activity of the pituitary-gonadal axis (PG axis) in pre-migratory and homing chum salmon was examined because endocrine mechanisms underlying the onset of spawning migration remain unknown. Pre-migratory fish were caught in the central Bering Sea in June, July and September 2001, 2002 and 2003, and in the Gulf of Alaska in February 2006. They were classified into immature and maturing adults on the basis of gonadal development. The maturing adults commenced spawning migration to coastal areas by the end of summer, because almost all fish in the Bering Sea were immature in September. In the pituitaries of maturing adults, the copy numbers of FSHbeta mRNA and the FSH content were 2.5- to 100-fold those of the immature fish. Similarly, the amounts of LHbeta mRNA and LH content in the maturing adults were 100- to 1000-fold those of immature fish. The plasma levels of testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone and estradiol were higher than 10 nmol l(-1) in maturing adults, but lower than 1.0 nmol l(-1) in immature fish. The increase in the activity of the PG-axis components had already initiated in the maturing adults while they were still in the Gulf of Alaska in winter. In the homing adults, the pituitary contents and the plasma levels of gonadotropins and plasma sex steroid hormones peaked during upstream migration from the coast to the natal hatchery. The present results thus indicate that the seasonal increase in the activity of the PG axis is an important endocrine event that is inseparable from initiation of spawning migration of chum salmon.

  5. Hatchery workers' IgG antibody profiles to airborne bacteria.

    PubMed

    Brauner, Paul; Gromöller, Silvana; Pfeifer, Yvonne; Wilharm, Gottfried; Jäckel, Udo

    2017-04-01

    Occupational exposure to high concentrations of airborne bacteria in poultry production is related to an increased risk of respiratory disorders. However, etiology and in particular microorganisms' potential role in pathogenesis still needs to be elucidated. Thus, detection of specific antibodies against occupational microbial antigens may lead to identification of potentially harmful species. For the purpose of IgG titer determination, indirect immunofluorescence on various bacterial isolates from duck hatchery air was combined with image-based quantification of fluorescence intensity. Moreover, in addition to established assays with pure bacterial cultures, a new approach utilized complex bioaerosol samples for detection of anti-microbial antibodies in human sera by determination of percentages of antibody-bound cells in different serum dilutions. Mean titers in sera from hatchery workers and a non-exposed control group did not display significant differences for most tested isolates and application of comprehensive cluster analysis to entire titer data revealed no structure reflecting workers and controls group. Furthermore, determination of immunoreactivity to the complete microbial community in workplace air displayed similar proportions of antibody-bound cells in both groups. Although no general differences in immunoreaction patterns were observed, mean titers to a Proteus mirabilis isolate and to 3 of 4 distinct Acinetobacter baumannii isolates were higher in the group of hatchery workers than in the reference group indicating a potential applicability as exposure markers. We conclude, despite long term bioaerosol exposure, hatchery workers' IgG antibody profiles to tested antigens did not differ substantially from those of the control group. However, increased workers' titers to A. baumannii and clinical relevance of this species should lead to further investigations regarding potential involvement in pathogenesis of occupational respiratory disorders.

  6. Spawning Habitat Studies of Hanford Reach Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, David R.; Arntzen, Evan V.; Chien, Yi-Ju

    2009-03-02

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted this study for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) with funding provided through the Northwest Power and Conservation Council(a) and the BPA Fish and Wildlife Program. The study was conducted in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. The goal of study was to determine the physical habitat factors necessary to define the redd capacity of fall Chinook salmon that spawn in large mainstem rivers like the Hanford Reach and Snake River. The study was originally commissioned in FY 1994 and then recommissioned in FY 2000 through the Fish and Wildlife Program rolling review of the Columbia River Basin projects. The work described in this report covers the period from 1994 through 2004; however, the majority of the information comes from the last four years of the study (2000 through 2004). Results from the work conducted from 1994 to 2000 were covered in an earlier report. More than any other stock of Pacific salmon, fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) have suffered severe impacts from the hydroelectric development in the Columbia River Basin. Fall Chinook salmon rely heavily on mainstem habitats for all phases of their life cycle, and mainstem hydroelectric dams have inundated or blocked areas that were historically used for spawning and rearing. The natural flow pattern that existed in the historic period has been altered by the dams, which in turn have affected the physical and biological template upon which fall Chinook salmon depend upon for successful reproduction. Operation of the dams to produce power to meet short-term needs in electricity (termed power peaking) produces unnatural fluctuations in flow over a 24-hour cycle. These flow fluctuations alter the physical habitat and disrupt the cues that salmon use to select spawning sites, as well as strand fish in near-shore habitat that becomes dewatered. The quality of spawning gravels has been affected by dam construction, flood protection, and

  7. Size of spawning population, residence time, and territory shifts of individuals in the spawning aggregation of a riverine catostomid

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grabowski, T.B.; Isely, J.J.

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about the behavior of individual fish in a spawning aggregation, specifically how long an individual remains in an aggregation. We monitored Moxostoma robustum (Cope) (Robust Redhorse) in a Savannah River spawning aggregation during spring 2004 and 2005 to provide an estimate of the total number of adults and the number of males comprising the aggregation and to determine male residence time and movements within a spawning aggregation. Robust Redhorse were captured using prepostioned grid electrofishers, identified to sex, weighed, measured, and implanted with a passive integrated transponder. Spawning aggregation size was estimated using a multiple census mark-and-recapture procedure. The spawning aggregation seemed to consist of approximately the same number of individuals (82-85) and males (50-56) during both years of this study. Individual males were present for a mean of 3.6 ?? 0.24 days (?? SE) during the 12-day spawning period. The mean distance between successive recaptures of individual males was 15.9 ?? 1.29 m (?? SE). We conclude that males establish spawning territories on a daily basis and are present within the spawning aggregation for at least 3-4 days. The relatively short duration of the aggregation may be the result of an extremely small population of adults. However, the behavior of individuals has the potential to influence population estimates made while fish are aggregated for spawning.

  8. Bio-foam enhances larval retention in a free-spawning marine tunicate.

    PubMed

    Castilla, Juan Carlos; Manríquez, Patricio H; Delgado, Alejandro P; Gargallo, Ligia; Leiva, Angel; Radic, Deodato

    2007-11-13

    Here we report a mechanism that reduces dispersal of early developing stages and larvae in a free-spawning intertidal and shallow subtidal tunicate, Pyura praeputialis (Heller 1878), in the Bay of Antofagasta, Chile. The spawning of gametes by the tunicate into the naturally turbulent aerated seawater decreases their surface tension and induces the formation of a bio-foam. Water collected from foamy intertidal pools and tide channels showed a high concentration of P. praeputialis early developing stages and tadpole larvae in the foam. Because gametes are synchronically spawned for external fertilization and larvae settle near adults, our results suggest that this bio-foam increases fertilization success and effective settlement of their short-lived larvae in the vicinity of the adults spawning the gametes. This mechanism reinforces published evidence suggesting that local retention of intertidal and inshore marine invertebrate larvae may be more common than previously thought, offering, for instance, new perspectives for the design and networking of marine protected and management areas.

  9. Linking air-sea energy exchanges and European anchovy potential spawning ground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grammauta, R.; Molteni, D.; Basilone, G.; Guisande, C.; Bonanno, A.; Aronica, S.; Giacalone, G.; Fontana, I.; Zora, M.; Patti, B.; Cuttitta, A.; Buscaino, G.; Sorgente, R.; Mazzola, S.

    2008-10-01

    The physical and chemical processes of the sea greatly affect the reproductive biology of fishes, mainly influencing both the numbers of spawned eggs and the survivorship of early stages up to the recruitment period. In the central Mediterranean, the European anchovy constitutes one of the most important fishery resource. Because of its short living nature and of its recruitment variability, associated to high environmental variability, this small pelagic species undergo high interannual fluctuation in the biomass levels. Despite several efforts were addressed to characterize fishes spawning habitat from the oceanographic point of view, very few studies analyze the air-sea exchanges effects. To characterize the spawning habitat of these resources a specific technique (quotient rule analysis) was applied on air-sea heat fluxes, wind stress, sea surface temperature and turbulence data, collected in three oceanographic surveys during the summer period of 2004, 2005 and 2006. The results showed the existence of preferred values in the examined physical variables, associated to anchovy spawning areas. Namely, for heat fluxes the values were around -40 W/m2, for wind stress 0.04-0.11 N/m2, for SST 23°C, and 300 - 500 m3s-3 for wind mixing. Despite the obtained results are preliminary, this is the first relevant analysis on the air-sea exchanges and their relationship with the fish biology of pelagic species.

  10. Year-round reproduction and induced spawning of Chinese amphioxus, Branchiostoma belcheri, in laboratory.

    PubMed

    Li, Guang; Shu, ZongHuang; Wang, Yiquan

    2013-01-01

    Amphioxus is a best candidate for studying the evolutionary and developmental mechanisms of vertebrates, because of its vertebrate-like but much simpler morphology, embryonic development and genome structure. Producing live amphioxus embryos throughout the year is an ideal for comparative evolution and developmental studies. However, all amphioxus species have distinct breeding seasons in the wild and laboratory. We recently found that Chinese amphioxus B. belcheri could reproduce repeatedly beyond its natural breeding season when reared under proper conditions. In this study, we were able to extend further and produce embryos throughout the year from October 2011 to October 2012. We found all examined animals had spawned repeatedly during the examined period. In addition, both lancelets B. belcheri and B. japonicum could be induced to spawn by heat-shock method, although the induced spawning efficiency was not as high as that observed in the European lancelet. In general, we have succeeded in producing B. belcheri embryos almost daily throughout the year. This advancement will provide essential embryonic material for evolutionary and developmental studies, and have great implications for the cultivation and spawning induction of other amphioxus species.

  11. Fish Research Project Oregon; Umatilla Hatchery Monitoring and Evaluation, 1992 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Keefe, MaryLouise; Carmichael, Richard W.; French, Rod A.

    1993-03-01

    This report covers the first year of comprehensive monitoring and evaluation of the Umatilla Hatchery. As both the hatchery and the evaluation study are in the early stages of implementation, much of the information contained in this report is preliminary. The most crucial data for evaluating the success of the hatchery program, the data on post-release performance and survival, is yet unavailable. In addition, several years of data are necessary to make conclusions about rearing performance at Umatilla Hatchery. The conclusions drawn in this report should be viewed as preliminary and should be used in conjunction with additional information as it becomes available. A comprehensive fish health monitoring regimen was incorporated into the monitoring and evaluation study for Umatilla Hatchery. This is a unique feature of the Umatilla Hatchery evaluation project.

  12. Fuzzy modeling to predict chicken egg hatchability in commercial hatchery.

    PubMed

    Peruzzi, N J; Scala, N L; Macari, M; Furlan, R L; Meyer, A D; Fernandez-Alarcon, M F; Kroetz Neto, F L; Souza, F A

    2012-10-01

    Experimental studies have shown that hatching rate depends, among other factors, on the main physical characteristics of the eggs. The physical parameters used in our work were egg weight, eggshell thickness, egg sphericity, and yolk per albumen ratio. The relationships of these parameters in the incubation process were modeled by Fuzzy logic. The rules of the Fuzzy modeling were based on the analysis of the physical characteristics of the hatching eggs and the respective hatching rate using a commercial hatchery by applying a trapezoidal membership function into the modeling process. The implementations were performed in software. Aiming to compare the Fuzzy with a statistical modeling, the same data obtained in the commercial hatchery were analyzed using multiple linear regression. The estimated parameters of multiple linear regressions were based on a backward selection procedure. The results showed that the determination coefficient and the mean square error were higher using the Fuzzy method when compared with the statistical modeling. Furthermore, the predicted hatchability rates by Fuzzy Logic agreed with hatching rates obtained in the commercial hatchery.

  13. Simulated hatchery system to assess bacteriophage efficacy against Vibrio harveyi.

    PubMed

    Raghu Patil, J; Desai, Srividya Narayanamurthy; Roy, Panchali; Durgaiah, Murali; Saravanan, R Sanjeev; Vipra, Aradhana

    2014-12-02

    Vibriosis caused by luminous Vibrio harveyi commonly contributes to poor survival in shrimp hatcheries and aquaculture ponds. Lytic bacteriophages pathogenic for V. harveyi are currently being investigated as an alternative to antibiotics to prevent vibriosis. Here, 8 bacteriophages were isolated from oysters and clams using V. harveyi strains as baiting hosts. Among these bacteriophages, 1 strain (VHP6b) identified as broadly pathogenic for 27 V. harveyi strains examined was further characterized by electron microscopy and genome sequence analysis. Phage VHP6b possessed a tail and morphology consistent with it being a member of the family Siphoviridae, and its genome and proteome were most closely related to the Vibrio phages SSP02 and MAR10. An integrase gene essential for lysogeny was not evident. The ability of bacteriophage VHP6b to protect shrimp postlarvae against vibriosis caused by V. harveyi strain VH6 was demonstrated in a model system designed to simulate typical hatchery conditions. Bacteriophage treatment improved survival of postlarvae by 40 to 60% under these conditions, so therapies based on this or other bacteriophages may be useful in shrimp hatcheries.

  14. Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Program : Draft Environmental Impact Statement Summary.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery

    1996-06-01

    This summary gives the major points of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) prepared for the Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery by the Nez Perce Tribe (NPT), the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA), and other interested parties. The Nez Perce once were one of the largest Plateau tribes in the Northwest and occupied a territory that included north central Idaho, southeastern Washington and northeastern Oregon. Salmon and other migratory fish species are an invaluable food resource and an integral part of the Nez Perce Tribe`s culture. Anadromous fish have always made up the bulk of the Nez Perce tribal diet and this dependence on salmon was recognized in the treaties made with the Tribe by the US. The historic economic, social, and religious significance of the fish to the Nez Perce Tribe continues to this day, which makes the decline of fish populations in the Columbia River Basin a substantial detrimental impact to the Nez Perce way of life. The Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery is a supplementation program that would rear and release spring, summer, and fall chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), biologically similar to wild fish, to reproduce in the Clearwater River Subbasin. Program managers propose techniques that are compatible with existing aquatic and riparian ecosystems and would integrate hatchery-produced salmon into the stream and river environments needed to complete their life cycle.

  15. Umatilla Hatchery Monitoring and Evaluation, 1997-1998 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, Michael C.; Brown, Kassandra A.; Waln, Karen

    1999-11-01

    This report summarizes monitoring and evaluation studies of salmonids reared at Umatilla Fish Hatchery (UFH) for the period November 1, 1997 to October 31, 1998. Studies at Umatilla Hatchery are designed to evaluate rearing of chinook salmon and steelhead in ''Michigan raceways''. Characteristics of Michigan raceways include high fish densities, rapid water turnover, oxygen supplementation, reuse of water, and baffles designed to reduce cleaning. Fish health at UFH and other facilities associated with the Umatilla program are intensively monitored and evaluated as part of the overall research project. Further, under the Integrated Hatchery Operations Team guidelines, specific requirements for fish health monitoring are mandatory and have become the responsibility of the fish health staff conducting studies at UFH. Additional studies include evaluations of sport fisheries in the Umatilla River and mass marking and straying of fall chinook salmon. Except for adult recovery data, an experiment designed to evaluate rearing subyearling fall chinook salmon in Michigan and Oregon raceways has been completed. We are currently in the second year of rearing subyearling fall chinook salmon at three densities. Experimental rearing of subyearling, fall release, and yearling spring chinook salmon, and steelhead has also been conducted. Although preliminary adult return data has been recovered, data on smolt-to-adult survival for all groups is incomplete. Conclusions in this report should be viewed as preliminary and used in conjunction with additional data as it becomes available.

  16. Spatial variability of Chinook salmon spawning distribution and habitat preferences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cram, Jeremy M.; Torgersen, Christian; Klett, Ryan S.; Pess, George R.; May, Darran; Pearsons, Todd N.; Dittman, Andrew H.

    2017-01-01

    We investigated physical habitat conditions associated with the spawning sites of Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and the interannual consistency of spawning distribution across multiple spatial scales using a combination of spatially continuous and discrete sampling methods. We conducted a census of aquatic habitat in 76 km of the upper main-stem Yakima River in Washington and evaluated spawning site distribution using redd survey data from 2004 to 2008. Interannual reoccupation of spawning areas was high, ranging from an average Pearson’s correlation of 0.62 to 0.98 in channel subunits and 10-km reaches, respectively. Annual variance in the interannual correlation of spawning distribution was highest in channel units and subunits, but it was low at reach scales. In 13 of 15 models developed for individual years (2004–2008) and reach lengths (800 m, 3 km, 6 km), stream power and depth were the primary predictors of redd abundance. Multiple channels and overhead cover were patchy but were important secondary and tertiary predictors of reach-scale spawning site selection. Within channel units and subunits, pool tails and thermal variability, which may be associated with hyporheic exchange, were important predictors of spawning. We identified spawning habitat preferences within reaches and channel units that are relevant for salmonid habitat restoration planning. We also identified a threshold (i.e., 2-km reaches) beyond which interannual spawning distribution was markedly consistent, which may be informative for prioritizing habitat restoration or conservation. Management actions may be improved through enhanced understanding of spawning habitat preferences and the consistency with which Chinook Salmon reoccupy spawning areas at different spatial scales.

  17. Trends in spawning populations of Pacific anadromous salmonids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Konkel, G.W.; McIntyre, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    Annual escapement records for 1968-1984 for five species of Pacific salmon-chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), coho (O. kisutch), sockeye (O. nerka), pink (O. gorbuscha), and chum (O. keta)—and steelhead (Salmo gairdneri) were obtained from published and unpublished sources and organized in a computer database. More than 25,500 escapement records were obtained for more than 1,100 locations throughout Alaska, Washington, Idaho, Oregon, and California. Escapement trends for naturally reproducing populations for which data were available for at least 7 years from 1968 to 1984 and at least 4 years from 1975 to 1984 were analyzed by linear regression. Significant trends were observed in about 30% of the 886 populations examined. Trends were summarized by species for three geographic regions in Alaska and four in the Pacific Northwest (including California). For chinook, sockeye, and pink salmon, trends were predominantly increasing in the Alaska regions and either lacking or predominantly decreasing in most of the Pacific Northwest regions; for coho and chum salmon, trends were predominantly decreasing in one or more Alaska regions as well as in most of the Pacific Northwest regions. For steelhead, too few populations were examined to enable us to characterize trends throughout their range. Among the 657 salmonid populations excluded from the trend analysis because the data sets were incomplete, 13 (of which 2 were in Alaska) declined to zero during the period of analysis. For coho, sockeye, pink, and chum salmon and steelhead, major data gaps were revealed by a comparison of the geographic distribution of escapement records with the spawning distribution of the species. For chinook salmon, escapement records were more geographically representative of the spawning distribution.

  18. Reproductive Ecology of Yakima River Hatchery and Wild Spring Chinook; Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Monitoring and Evaluation Report 3 of 7, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Knudsen, Curtis

    2004-05-01

    This is the third in a series of annual reports that address reproductive ecological research and comparisons of hatchery and wild origin spring chinook in the Yakima River basin. Data have been collected prior to supplementation to characterize the baseline reproductive ecology, demographics and phenotypic traits of the unsupplemented upper Yakima population, however this report focuses on data collected on hatchery and wild spring chinook returning in 2003; the third year of hatchery adult returns. This report is organized into three chapters, with a general introduction preceding the first chapter and summarizes data collected between April 1, 2003 and March 31, 2004 in the Yakima basin. Summaries of each of the chapters in this report are included below. A major component of determining supplementation success in the Yakima Klickitat Fishery Project's spring chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) program is an increase in natural production. Within this context, comparing upper Yakima River hatchery and wild origin fish across traits such as sex ratio, age composition, size-at-age, fecundity, run timing and gamete quality is important because these traits directly affect population productivity and individual fish fitness which determine a population's productivity.

  19. Evaluating spawning migration patterns and predicting spawning success of shovelnose sturgeon in the Lower Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wildhaber, M.L.; Holan, S.H.; Davis, G.M.; Gladish, D.W.; DeLonay, A.J.; Papoulias, D.M.; Sommerhauser, D.K.

    2011-01-01

    Approaches using telemetry, precise reproductive assessments, and surgically implanted data storage tags (DSTs) were used in combination with novel applications of analytical techniques for fish movement studies to describe patterns in migratory behavior and predict spawning success of gravid shovelnose sturgeon. From 2004 to 2007, over 300 gravid female shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus) from the Lower Missouri River, that were expected to spawn in the year they were collected, were surgically implanted with transmitters and archival DSTs. Functional cluster modeling of telemetry data from the spawning season suggested two common migration patterns of gravid female shovelnose sturgeon. Fish implanted from 958 to 1181 river kilometer (rkm) from the mouth of the Missouri River (or northern portion of the Lower Missouri River within 354 rkm of the lowest Missouri River dam at rkm 1305) had one migration pattern. Of fish implanted from 209 to 402 rkm from the mouth of the Missouri River (or southern portion of the Lower Missouri River), half demonstrated a movement pattern similar to the northern fish while the other half demonstrated a migration pattern that covered more of the river. There was no apparent difference in migration patterns between successful and unsuccessful spawners. Multiple hypotheses exist to explain differences in migratory patterns among fish from different river reaches. Additional work is required to determine if observed differences are due to multiple adapted strategies, environmental alteration, and/or initial tagging date. Hierarchical Bayesian modeling of DST data indicated that variation in depth usage patterns was consistently different between successful and unsuccessful spawners, as indicated by differences in likelihood of switching between high and low variability states. Analyses of DST data, and data collected at capture, were sufficient to predict 8 of 10 non-spawners/incomplete spawners and all 30 spawners in the

  20. Evaluating spawning migration patterns and predicting spawning success of shovelnose sturgeon in the Lower Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wildhaber, M.L.; Holan, S.H.; Davis, G.M.; Gladish, D.W.; DeLonay, A.J.; Papoulias, D.M.; Sommerhauser, D.K.

    2011-01-01

    Approaches using telemetry, precise reproductive assessments, and surgically implanted data storage tags (DSTs) were used in combination with novel applications of analytical techniques for fish movement studies to describe patterns in migratory behavior and predict spawning success of gravid shovelnose sturgeon. From 2004 to 2007, over 300 gravid female shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus) from the Lower Missouri River, that were expected to spawn in the year they were collected, were surgically implanted with transmitters and archival DSTs. Functional cluster modeling of telemetry data from the spawning season suggested two common migration patterns of gravid female shovelnose sturgeon. Fish implanted from 958 to 1181 river kilometer (rkm) from the mouth of the Missouri River (or northern portion of the Lower Missouri River within 354rkm of the lowest Missouri River dam at rkm 1305) had one migration pattern. Of fish implanted from 209 to 402rkm from the mouth of the Missouri River (or southern portion of the Lower Missouri River), half demonstrated a movement pattern similar to the northern fish while the other half demonstrated a migration pattern that covered more of the river. There was no apparent difference in migration patterns between successful and unsuccessful spawners. Multiple hypotheses exist to explain differences in migratory patterns among fish from different river reaches. Additional work is required to determine if observed differences are due to multiple adapted strategies, environmental alteration, and/or initial tagging date. Hierarchical Bayesian modeling of DST data indicated that variation in depth usage patterns was consistently different between successful and unsuccessful spawners, as indicated by differences in likelihood of switching between high and low variability states. Analyses of DST data, and data collected at capture, were sufficient to predict 8 of 10 non-spawners/incomplete spawners and all 30 spawners in the

  1. Colville Tribal Fish Hatchery, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Arteburn, John; Christensen, David

    2003-03-01

    Federal hydropower projects as well as private power utility systems have had a major negative impact upon anadromous fish resources that once flourished in the Columbia River and it's tributaries. Several areas have been completely blocked to anadromous fish by dams, destroying the primary food resource (salmon) for many native people forcing them to rely heavily upon resident fish to replace these lost resources. The Colville Tribal Fish Hatchery is an artificial production program that addresses the loss of anadromous fish resources in the Upper Columbia Sub-Region within the ''blocked area'' created by the construction of Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams. This project enhances resident fisheries located in the Intermountain and Columbia Cascade Provinces, specifically within the Colville Reservation portion of the Upper Columbia, SanPoil and Oakanogan Sub-Basins. The project partially mitigates for anadromous fish losses through protection/augmentation of resident fish populations to enhance fishery potential (i.e. in-place, out-of-kind mitigation) pursuant to Resident Fish Substitution Policy of the Northwest Power Planning Councils Fish and Wildlife Program. The hatchery was accepted into the Council's Fish and Wildlife Program in 1984 and the hatchery was completed in 1990. The Colville Tribal Hatchery (CTH) is located on the northern bank of the Columbia River just down stream of the town of Bridgeport, Washington that is just down stream of Chief Joseph Dam. The hatchery is located on land owned by the Colville Tribes. The minimum production quota for this facility is 22,679 kg (50,000 lbs.) of trout annually. All fish produced are released into reservation waters, including boundary waters in an effort to provide a successful subsistence/recreational fishery for Colville Tribal members and provide for a successful nonmember sport fishery. The majority of the fish distributed from the facility are intended to support ''carry-over'' fisheries. Fish

  2. 29 CFR 780.113 - Seeds, spawn, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....” Thus, since mushrooms and beans are considered “agricultural or horticultural commodities,” the spawn of mushrooms and bean sprouts are also so considered and the production, cultivation, growing, and harvesting of mushroom spawn or bean sprouts is “agriculture” within the meaning of section 3(f)....

  3. 29 CFR 780.113 - Seeds, spawn, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....” Thus, since mushrooms and beans are considered “agricultural or horticultural commodities,” the spawn of mushrooms and bean sprouts are also so considered and the production, cultivation, growing, and harvesting of mushroom spawn or bean sprouts is “agriculture” within the meaning of section 3(f)....

  4. 29 CFR 780.113 - Seeds, spawn, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....” Thus, since mushrooms and beans are considered “agricultural or horticultural commodities,” the spawn of mushrooms and bean sprouts are also so considered and the production, cultivation, growing, and harvesting of mushroom spawn or bean sprouts is “agriculture” within the meaning of section 3(f)....

  5. 29 CFR 780.113 - Seeds, spawn, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....” Thus, since mushrooms and beans are considered “agricultural or horticultural commodities,” the spawn of mushrooms and bean sprouts are also so considered and the production, cultivation, growing, and harvesting of mushroom spawn or bean sprouts is “agriculture” within the meaning of section 3(f)....

  6. 29 CFR 780.113 - Seeds, spawn, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....” Thus, since mushrooms and beans are considered “agricultural or horticultural commodities,” the spawn of mushrooms and bean sprouts are also so considered and the production, cultivation, growing, and harvesting of mushroom spawn or bean sprouts is “agriculture” within the meaning of section 3(f)....

  7. Deschutes River Spawning Gravel Study, Volume I, Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Huntington, Charles W.

    1985-09-01

    Spawning habitat in the Deschutes River was inventoried, gravel permeability and composition were sampled at selected gravel bars, historical flow records for the Deschutes were analyzed, salmon and trout utilization of spawning habitat was examined, and potential methods of enhancing spawning habitat in the river were explored. Some changes in river conditions since the mid-1960's were identified, including a reduction in spawning habitat immediately downstream from the hydroelectric complex. The 1964 flood was identified as a factor which profoundly affected spawning habitat in the river, and which greatly complicated efforts to identify recent changes which could be attributed to the hydrocomplex. A baseline on present gravel quality at both chinook and steelhead spawning areas in the river was established using a freeze-core methodology. Recommendations are made for enhancing spawning habitat in the Deschutes River, if it is independently determined that spawning habitat is presently limiting populations of summer steelhead or fall chinook in the river. 53 refs., 40 figs., 21 tabs.

  8. First direct confirmation of grass carp spawning in a Great Lakes tributary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Embke, Holly S.; Kocovsky, Patrick M.; Richter, Catherine A.; Pritt, Jeremy J.; Christine M. Mayer,; Qian, Song

    2016-01-01

    Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), an invasive species of Asian carp, has been stocked for many decades in the United States for vegetation control. Adult individuals have been found in all of the Great Lakes except Lake Superior, but no self-sustaining populations have yet been identified in Great Lakes tributaries. In 2012, a commercial fisherman caught four juvenile diploid grass carp in the Sandusky River, a major tributary to Lake Erie. Otolith microchemistry and the capture location of these fish permitted the conclusion that they were most likely produced in the Sandusky River. Due to this finding, we sampled ichthyoplankton using paired bongo net tows and larval light traps during June–August of 2014 and 2015 to determine if grass carp are spawning in the Sandusky River. From the samples collected in 2015, we identified and staged eight eggs that were morphologically consistent with grass carp. Five eggs were confirmed as grass carp using quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction for a grass carp-specific marker, while the remaining three were retained for future analysis. Our finding confirms that grass carp are naturally spawning in this Great Lakes tributary. All eggs were collected during high-flow events, either on the day of peak flow or 1–2 days following peak flow, supporting an earlier suggestion that high flow conditions favor grass carp spawning. The next principal goal is to identify the spawning and hatch location(s) for the Sandusky River. Predicting locations and conditions where grass carp spawning is most probable may aid targeted management efforts.

  9. Survival of Hatchery Subyearling Fall Chinook Salmon in the Free-Flowing Snake River and Lower Snake River Reservoirs, 1998-2001 Summary Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Steven G.; Muir, William D.

    2002-09-01

    We report results from four years (1998-2001) of an ongoing study of survival and travel time of subyearling fall chinook salmon in the Snake River. We report analyses of associations among river conditions and survival and travel time estimates, which include data from 1995 through 1997. At weekly intervals from early June to early July each year (mid-May to late June in 2001), hatchery-reared subyearling fall chinook salmon were PIT tagged at Lyons Ferry Hatchery, trucked upstream, acclimated, and released above Lower Granite Dam at Pittsburgh Landing and Billy Creek on the Snake River and at Big Canyon Creek on the Clearwater River. Each year, a small proportion of fish released were not detected until the following spring. However, the number that overwintered in the river and migrated seaward as yearlings the following spring was small and had minimal effect on survival estimates. Concurrent with our studies, a number of subyearling fall chinook salmon that reared naturally in the Snake River were caught by beach seine, PIT tagged, and released. We compared a number of characteristics of hatchery and wild fish. Hatchery and wild fish were similar in 2001, and from 1995 through 1997. Results for 1998 through 2000 showed some relatively large differences between hatchery and wild fish. However, recent information suggests that a considerable proportion of wild subyearling chinook salmon migrating in a given year may actually be stream-type (spring/summer), rather than ocean-type (fall) fish, which may account for some of the differences we have observed.

  10. Fish Research Project Oregon; Umatilla Hatchery Monitoring and Evaluation, 1994-1995 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, Michael C.; Waln, Karen; Carmichael, Richard W.

    1996-01-01

    The Northwest Power Planning Council`s Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program authorized construction of the Umatilla Hatchery in 1986. Measure 703 of the program amended the original authorization for the hatchery and specified evaluation of the Michigan type of rearing using oxygen supplementation to reach production goals of 290,000 lb of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (Oncorhynchus nzykiss). The hatchery was completed in the fall of 1991. Partial justification for the hatchery was to develop considerable knowledge and understanding of new production and supplementation techniques. The use of the Michigan raceways in rearing at Umatilla Hatchery was selected because it could increase smolt production given the limited hatchery well water supply and allow comparison of Michigan raceways with the standard Oregon raceways. Results of testing the Michigan raceways will have systematic application in the Columbia Basin. The Umatilla Hatchery is the foundation for rehabilitating chinook salmon and enhancing steelhead in the Umatilla River and is expected to contribute significantly to the Northwest Power Planning Council`s goal of doubling salmon production in the Columbia Basin. Hatchery production goals and a comprehensive monitoring and evaluation plan were presented in the Umatilla Hatchery Master Plan . The Comprehensive Plan for Monitoring and Evaluation of Umatilla Hatchery was approved by the Northwest Power Planning Council as a critical adaptive management guide for fisheries rehabilitation in the Umatilla River. Monitoring and evaluation will be used to increase knowledge about uncertainties inherent in the fisheries rehabilitation and will complement the developing systematic monitoring and evaluation program. This report covers the first four years of the monitoring of the hatchery.

  11. Umatilla Basin Natural Production Monitoring and Evaluation; 1998-2002 Summary Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Contor, Craig R.

    2004-07-01

    The Umatilla Basin Natural Production Monitoring and Evaluation Project (WWNPME) was funded by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) as directed by section 4(h) of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980 (P. L. 96-501). This project is in accordance with and pursuant to measures 4.2A, 4.3C.1, 7.1A.2, 7.1C.3, 7.1C.4 and 7.1D.2 of the Northwest Power Planning Council's (NPPC) Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC 1994). Work was conducted by the Fisheries Program of the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) under the Umatilla Basin Natural Production Monitoring and Evaluation Project (UBNPME). Chapter One provides an overview of the entire report and shows how the objectives of each statement of work from 1999, 2000, 2001, and 2002 contract years are organized and reported. This chapter also provides background information relevant to the aquatic resources of the Umatilla River Basin. (Figure 1-1, Tables 1-1 and 1-2). Data and reports from this and previous efforts are available on the CTUIR website http://www.umatilla.nsn.us. This project was one of several subprojects of the Umatilla River Basin Fisheries Restoration Master Plan (CTUIR 1984, ODFW 1986) orchestrated to rehabilitate salmon and steelhead runs in the Umatilla River Basin. Subprojects in additions to this project include: Watershed Enhancement and Rehabilitation; Hatchery Construction and Operation; Hatchery Monitoring and Evaluation; Satellite Facility Construction and Operations for Juvenile Acclimation and Adult Holding and Spawning; Fish Passage Construction and Operation; Juvenile and Adult Passage Facility Evaluations; Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Outmigration and Survival in the Lower Umatilla River Basin, and Flow Augmentation to Increase Stream Flows below Irrigation Diversions.

  12. Delineating recurrent fish spawning habitats in the North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lelièvre, S.; Vaz, S.; Martin, C. S.; Loots, C.

    2014-08-01

    The functional value of spawning habitats makes them critically important for the completion of fish life cycles and spawning grounds are now considered to be “essential habitats”. Inter-annual fluctuations in spawning ground distributions of dab (Limanda Limanda), plaice (Pleuronectes platessa), cod (Gadus morhua) and whiting (Merlangius merlangus) were investigated in the southern North Sea and eastern English Channel, from 2006 to 2009. The preferential spawning habitats of these species were modelled using generalised linear models, with egg distribution being used as proxy of spawners' location. Egg spatial and temporal distributions were explored based on six environmental variables: sea surface temperature and salinity, chlorophyll a concentration, depth, bedstress and seabed sediment types. In most cases, egg density was found to be strongly related to these environmental variables. Egg densities were positively correlated with shallow to intermediate depths having low temperature and relatively high salinity. Habitat models were used to map annual, i.e. 2006 to 2009, winter spatial distributions of eggs, for each species separately. Then, annual maps were combined to explore the spatial variability of each species' spawning grounds, and define recurrent, occasional, rare and unfavourable spawning areas. The recurrent spawning grounds of all four species were located in the south-eastern part of the study area, mainly along the Dutch and German coasts. This study contributes knowledge necessary to the spatial management of fishery resources in the area, and may also be used to identify marine areas with particular habitat features that need to be preserved.

  13. Is hyporheic flow an indicator for salmonid spawning site selection?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benjankar, R. M.; Tonina, D.; Marzadri, A.; McKean, J. A.; Isaak, D.

    2015-12-01

    Several studies have investigated the role of hydraulic variables in the selection of spawning sites by salmonids. Some recent studies suggest that the intensity of the ambient hyporheic flow, that present without a salmon egg pocket, is a cue for spawning site selection, but others have argued against it. We tested this hypothesis by using a unique dataset of field surveyed spawning site locations and an unprecedented meter-scale resolution bathymetry of a 13.5 km long reach of Bear Valley Creek (Idaho, USA), an important Chinook salmon spawning stream. We used a two-dimensional surface water model to quantify stream hydraulics and a three-dimensional hyporheic model to quantify the hyporheic flows. Our results show that the intensity of ambient hyporheic flows is not a statistically significant variable for spawning site selection. Conversely, the intensity of the water surface curvature and the habitat quality, quantified as a function of stream hydraulics and morphology, are the most important variables for salmonid spawning site selection. KEY WORDS: Salmonid spawning habitat, pool-riffle system, habitat quality, surface water curvature, hyporheic flow

  14. 29 CFR 780.210 - The typical hatchery operations constitute “agriculture.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Agriculture as It Relates to Specific Situations Hatchery Operations § 780.210 The typical hatchery operations constitute “agriculture.” As stated in § 780.127, the typical...

  15. 29 CFR 780.210 - The typical hatchery operations constitute “agriculture.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Agriculture as It Relates to Specific Situations Hatchery Operations § 780.210 The typical hatchery operations constitute “agriculture.” As stated in § 780.127, the typical...

  16. 29 CFR 780.210 - The typical hatchery operations constitute “agriculture.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Agriculture as It Relates to Specific Situations Hatchery Operations § 780.210 The typical hatchery operations constitute “agriculture.” As stated in § 780.127, the typical...

  17. 29 CFR 780.210 - The typical hatchery operations constitute “agriculture.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Agriculture as It Relates to Specific Situations Hatchery Operations § 780.210 The typical hatchery operations constitute “agriculture.” As stated in § 780.127, the typical...

  18. 29 CFR 780.210 - The typical hatchery operations constitute “agriculture.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Agriculture as It Relates to Specific Situations Hatchery Operations § 780.210 The typical hatchery operations constitute “agriculture.” As stated in § 780.127, the typical...

  19. 50 CFR 70.3 - State cooperation in national fish hatchery area management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false State cooperation in national fish hatchery area management. 70.3 Section 70.3 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE... § 70.3 State cooperation in national fish hatchery area management. State cooperation may be...

  20. Occurrence of antibiotics in water from 13 fish hatcheries, 2001-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dietze, J.E.; Scribner, E.A.; Meyer, M.T.; Kolpin, D.W.

    2005-01-01

    A 2-year study of extensive and intensive fish hatcheries was conducted to assess the general temporal occurrence of antibiotics in aquaculture. Antibiotics were detected in 15% of the water samples collected during the 2001-2002 collection period and in 31% of the samples during the 2003 collection period. Antibiotics were detected more frequently in samples from the intensive hatcheries (17 and 39%) than in samples from the extensive hatcheries (14 and 4%) during the 2001-2002 and 2003 collection periods, respectively. The maximum ormetoprim, oxytetracycline, and sulphadimethoxine concentrations were higher in samples from the intensive hatcheries (12, 10, and 36 µg L-1), respectively, than in samples from the extensive hatcheries (<0.05, 0.31, and 1.2 µg L-1), respectively. Sulphadimethoxine persisted for a longer period of time (up to 48 days) than ormetoprim (up to 28 days) and oxytetracycline (less than 20 days).

  1. 50 CFR 223.102 - Enumeration of threatened marine and anadromous species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Program; Fall Chinook Acclimation Ponds Program; Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Program; and the Oxbow Hatchery...; Sandy Hatchery Program (ODFW Stock #11); and the Bonneville/Cascade/Oxbow Complex (ODFW Stock #14.... Salmon, sockeye (Ozette Lake ESU) Oncorhynchus nerka Naturally spawned sockeye salmon originating...

  2. 50 CFR 223.102 - Enumeration of threatened marine and anadromous species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...; Mar 19, 2003. (3) Ozette Lake sockeye Oncorhynchus nerka U.S.A.- WA, including all naturally spawned populations of sockeye salmon in Ozette Lake and streams and tributaries flowing into Ozette Lake, Washington... Program, Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery, and Oxbow Hatchery fall-run Chinook hatchery programs. 57 FR...

  3. Method of making compost and spawned compost, mushroom spawn and generating methane gas

    SciTech Connect

    Stoller, B.B.

    1981-04-28

    Newly designed ribbon-type mixers provide an improved method for making composts, aerating composts, growing mushroom spawn, generating methane gas, and filling conveyors in the mushroom-growing industry. The mixers may be the double-ribbon type for purely mixing operations or the single-ribbon type for moving the material from one place to another. Both types can operate under pressure. In preparing compost for mushroom growing, operators can first use the airtight mixers for a preliminary anaerobic fermentation to produce methane, then by changing the atmosphere to an oxidizing one, complete the compost preparation under the necessary aerobic conditions.

  4. Comparison of ozone and formaldehyde as poultry hatchery disinfectants

    SciTech Connect

    Whistler, P.E.; Sheldon, B.W. )

    1989-10-01

    Ozone and formaldehyde were compared as poultry hatchery disinfectants in a poultry setter, and evaluated for effectiveness. Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Salmonella typhimurium, and Proteus spp. were inoculated onto open petri plates and exposed to ozone or onto filter paper strips and exposed to ozone or formaldehyde in a poultry setter. Ozone (1.41 to 1.68% by weight) resulted in significant bacterial reductions of greater than 4 log10 on the open plates and greater than 3 log10 on filter paper strips, whereas formaldehyde (triple strength) resulted in greater than 7 log10 reduction on filter paper strips. Ozone was similarly lethal to organisms on filter paper strips at 90% relative humidity (RH) and 13.9 C, and at 50% RH and 37.7 C. Although under the conditions of this study formaldehyde (triple strength) was more lethal than ozone, ozone killed greater than 99.9% of the starting microbial populations. In the event that formaldehyde can no longer be used in the hatchery, an effective alternative may be ozone.

  5. Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Project, 1998 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, David B.; Larson, Roy Edward; Walker, Grant W.

    2000-01-27

    This report consists of activities/events conducted in response to the Objectives and Tasks described in the 1998 contract Statement Of Work for the Planning and Predesign activities of the Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery (NPTH). The report follows the format of the contract for ease in finding accomplishments. Although specific emphasis will be placed on activities related directly to the NPTH, activities from other artificial production related projects may also be noted because of overlap in staff duties and production facilities. Additionally, the project leader's role has evolved as other Tribal fisheries projects have been developed and assigned to the Production Services Division, Department of Fisheries Resource Management (DFRM), Nez Perce Tribe (NPT). Thus, implementation of the project leader role for the NPTH actually entails specific duties of the Hatchery Supervisor, the Production Coordinator as well as the Production Director. The Production Director, Ed Larson was absent mos t of January and part of February before he began working part time from home while recovering from back surgery.

  6. An evaluation of the effects of conservation and fishery enhancement hatcheries on wild populations of salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naish, Kerry A.; Taylor, Joseph E.; Levin, Phillip S.; Quinn, Thomas P; Winton, James R.; Huppert , Daniel; Hilborn , Ray

    2007-01-01

    The historical, political and scientific aspects of salmon hatchery programmes designed to enhance fishery production, or to recover endangered populations, are reviewed. We start by pointing out that the establishment of hatcheries has been a political response to societal demands for harvest and conservation; given this social context, we then critically examined the levels of activity, the biological risks, and the economic analysis associated with salmon hatchery programmes. A rigorous analysis of the impacts of hatchery programmes was hindered by the lack of standardized data on release sizes and survival rates at all ecological scales, and since hatchery programme objectives are rarely defined, it was also difficult to measure their effectiveness at meeting release objectives. Debates on the genetic effects of hatchery programmes on wild fish have been dominated by whether correct management practices can reduce negative outcomes, but we noted that there has been an absence of programmatic research approaches addressing this important issue. Competitive interactions between hatchery and wild fish were observed to be complex, but studies researching approaches to reduce these interactions at all ecological scales during the entire salmon life history have been rare, and thus are not typically considered in hatchery management. Harvesting of salmon released from fishery enhancement hatcheries likely impacts vulnerable wild populations; managers have responded to this problem by mass marking hatchery fish, so that fishing effort can be directed towards hatchery populations. However, we noted that the effectiveness of this approach is dependant on accurate marking and production of hatchery fish with high survival rates, and it is not yet clear whether selective fishing will prevent overharvest of wild populations. Finally, research demonstrating disease transmission from hatchery fish to wild populations was observed to be equivocal; evidence in this area has

  7. Development of an Implantable Fish Spawning Sensor Tag

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-24

    GOALS The goals of this project were to develop an implantable tag to measure, record, and transmit data on fish spawning events. The design was...concept for the design of this tag was based on field observations at spawning aggregation sites offish with greatly distended abdomens. These...events and the circuitry and board layout for the prototype were designed and built (Figure 1A and IB). The sensor recording board uses an open source

  8. Mass spawning of corals on a high latitude coral reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babcock, R. C.; Wills, B. L.; Simpson, C. J.

    1994-07-01

    Evidence is presented that at least 60% of the 184 species of scleractinian corals found on reefs surrounding the Houtman Abrolhos Islands (Western Australia) participate in a late summer mass spawning. These populations are thus reproductively active, despite most species being at the extreme southern limit of their latitudinal range (28° 29°S). In the present study, coral mass spawning occurred in the same month on both temperate (Houtman-Abrolhos) and tropical (Ningaloo) reefs of Western Australia, despite more than two months difference in the timing of seasonal temperture minima between the two regions. This concurrence in the month of spawning suggests that temperature does not operate as a simple direct proximate cue for seasonal spawning synchrony in these populations. Seasonal variation in photoperiod may provide a similar and more reliable signal in the two regions, and thus might be more likely to synchronize the seasonal reproductive rhythms of these corals. Also there is overlap in the nights of mass spawning on the Houtman Abrolhos and tropical reefs of Western Australia, despite significant differences in tidal phase and amplitude between the two regions. This indicates that tidal cycle does not synchronize with the night(s) of spawning on these reefs. Spawning is more likely to be synchronised by lunar cycles. The co-occurrence of the mass spawning with spring tides in Houtman Abrolhos coral populations may be evidence of a genetic legacy inherited from northern, tropical ancestors. Micro-tidal regimes in the Houtman Abrolhos region may have exerted insufficient selective pressure to counteract this legacy.

  9. Preferred stream discharges for salmon spawning and rearing in Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swift, C.H.

    1977-01-01

    Stream discharges preferred by salmon for spawning were determined from relationships between discharge and spawnable area at 84 study reaches on 28 streams in Washington. Preferred discharges for spawning were found statistically equivalent for chinook, pink, and chum salmon. Regression equations developed for estimating discharges preferred by these species for spawning at other stream sites had standard errors of estimate of 40 percent where a relationship with toe-of-bank channel width was used, and 55 percent where basin drainage area was used. Similarly, equations for estimating the preferred discharge for spawning by sockeye and coho salmon (also statistically equivalent) had standard errors of 48 percent using channel width and 61 percent using drainage area. In general, the discharges preferred for spawning by salmon ranged in magnitude from about 0.3 to 11 times the median monthly mean discharges for September and October and about 0.1 to 6 times the median monthly means for November and December--the four months when spawning is greatest. Stream discharges preferred by salmon for rearing were determined from relationships between discharge and wetted perimeter at the study reaches. Those discharges ranged from about 0.7 to 4 times the median monthly mean discharge for September, when low flows are usually most limiting on the rearing capacity of streams. Equations developed for estimating preferred rearing discharges at other stream sites had standard errors of 57 percent using channel width and 81 percent using drainage area. (Woodard-USGS).

  10. Genet-specific spawning patterns in Acropora palmata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, M. W.; Williams, D. E.; Fisch, J.

    2016-12-01

    The broadcast spawning elkhorn coral, Acropora palmata, requires outcrossing among different genets for effective fertilization. Hence, a low density of genets in parts of its range emphasizes the need for precise synchrony among neighboring genets as sperm concentration dilutes rapidly in open-ocean conditions. We documented the genet-specific nightly occurrence of spawning of A. palmata over 8 yr in a depauperate population in the Florida Keys to better understand this potential reproductive hurdle. The observed population failed to spawn within the predicted monthly window (nights 2-6 after the full moon in August) in three of the 8 yr of observation; negligible spawning was observed in a fourth year. Moreover, genet-specific patterns are evident in that (1) certain genets have significantly greater odds of spawning overall and (2) certain genets predictably spawn on the earlier and others on the later lunar nights within the predicted window. Given the already low genet density in this population, this pattern implies a substantial degree of wasted reproductive effort and supports the hypothesis that depensatory factors are impairing recovery in this species.

  11. Integrated Hatchery Operations Team: Operations Plans for Anadromous Fish Production Facilities in the Columbia River Basin, Volume V of V; 1992 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Weld, Enair

    1993-04-01

    Virtually all fishery resources of the Columbia River Basin are affected by water resource development initiatives. Mitigation is an action taken to lessen or reduce impacts of projects on fishery resources. The Washington Department of Wildlife`s (WDW) mitigation goal has been one that replaces in-kind or substitutes fishery resources of equal value for those impacted. WDW mitigation efforts have focused on providing hatchery-reared fish of the proper strains needed to compensate for loss of naturally produced stocks. Stewardship of these resources is based on existing WDW policies. WDW policies are written statements designed to resolve a recurring management need or problem. They do not include program goals or organization statements. The existing policies which affect fish hatchery operations are described herein.

  12. Chemical and histological studies of wild and hatchery salmon in fresh water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, E.M.; Yasutake, W.T.; Halver, J.E.; Woodall, A.N.

    1960-01-01

    In a study of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), the gross chemical and histological changes occurring over a 14-month period spent in fresh water were determined. The determinations were made at 3-month intervals on: 1) hatchery-reared fish, 2) fish hatchery-reared for 3, 6, 9, and 12 months and then planted in a controlled stream for the remainder of the period; and 3) an indigenous group of wild fish in this stream. Wild fish showed high incidence of tissue damage from spinose hairs of the moth larva, Halisidota argentata. Hatchery fish were similarly affected with the severity and incidence of lesions varying directly with the time of exposure of the larvae in the wild environment. Both groups of fish were heavily parasitized by sporozoan organisms in the kidney and spinal cord. Kidney disease appeared in both wild and planted hatchery fish. The gross chemical composition of hatchery fish transformed rapidly after planting to that of the wild fish. Although the initial rate of fat loss is essentially constant for all hatchery groups after planting, fish that were hatchery reared for 9 to 12 months did not complete the transformation to the wild-type body composition by the time of downstream migration at 14 months.

  13. Are antipredator behaviours of hatchery Salmo salar juveniles similar to wild juveniles?

    PubMed

    Salvanes, A G V

    2017-01-27

    This study explores how antipredator behaviour of juvenile Atlantic salmon Salmo salar developed during conventional hatchery rearing of eggs from wild brood stock, compared with the behaviour of wild-caught juveniles from the same population. Juveniles aged 1+ years were tested in two unfamiliar environments; in one S. salar were presented with simulated predator attacks and in the other they were given the opportunity to explore an open-field arena. No difference was found in their spontaneous escape responses or ventilation rate (reflex responses) after simulated predator attacks. Hatchery-reared juveniles were more risk-prone in their behaviours than wild-caught individuals. Hatchery juveniles stayed less time in association with shelter. In the open-field arena, hatchery juveniles were more active than wild juveniles. Hatchery juveniles were also immobile for less time and spent a shorter amount of time than wild juveniles in the fringe of the open-field arena. Salmo salar size had no effect on the observed behaviour. Overall, this study provides empirical evidence that one generation of hatchery rearing does not change reflex responses associated with threats, whereas antipredator behaviour, typically associated with prior experience, was less developed in hatchery-reared than in wild individuals.

  14. Coral spawning in the Gulf of Oman and relationship to latitudinal variation in spawning season in the northwest Indian Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Howells, E. J.; Abrego, D.; Vaughan, G. O.; Burt, J. A.

    2014-01-01

    Despite a wealth of information on sexual reproduction in scleractinian corals, there are regional gaps in reproductive records. In the Gulf of the Oman in the Arabian Sea, reproductive timing was assessed in four common species of broadcast spawning corals using field surveys of gamete maturity and aquarium observations of spawning activity. The appearance of mature gametes within the same month for Acropora downingi, A. hemprichii, Cyphastrea microphthalma and Platygyra daedalea (≥ 75% of colonies, n = 848) indicated a synchronous and multi-specific spawning season. Based on gamete disappearance and direct observations, spawning predominantly occurred during April in 2013 (75–100% of colonies) and May in 2014 (77–94% of colonies). The difference in spawning months between survey years was most likely explained by sea temperature and the timing of lunar cycles during late-stage gametogenesis. These reproductive records are consistent with a latitudinal gradient in peak broadcast spawning activity at reefs in the northwestern Indian Ocean which occurs early in the year at low latitudes (January to March) and progressively later in the year at mid (March to May) and high (June to September) latitudes. PMID:25501043

  15. Remote-sensing of Riverine Environments Utilized by Spawning Pallid Sturgeon Using a Suite of Hydroacoustic Tools and High-resolution DEMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, C. M.; Jacobson, R. B.; DeLonay, A. J.; Braaten, P. J.

    2013-12-01

    relevant to spawning fish and developing embryos (< 1 meter). The Yellowstone River in Montana and North Dakota provides the closest analog to a reference condition for pallid sturgeon spawning habitat with a natural flow regime and relatively natural channel geomorphology. Recent documented suspected spawning on the Yellowstone River occurs in a a sand-bedded reach with patches of gravel deposits, in zones of higher velocity (1.0-1.5 meters per second) compared to the ranges of velocities available in an adjacent reach and over a range of depths (2-5 meters). Results from substrate assessments at pallid sturgeon spawning sites on the Missouri and Yellowstone Rivers may have implications for sediment and flow management as well as provide guidance for potential habitat manipulation in support of the recovery of the pallid sturgeon.

  16. Extreme Inverted Trophic Pyramid of Reef Sharks Supported by Spawning Groupers.

    PubMed

    Mourier, Johann; Maynard, Jeffrey; Parravicini, Valeriano; Ballesta, Laurent; Clua, Eric; Domeier, Michael L; Planes, Serge

    2016-08-08

    The extent of the global human footprint [1] limits our understanding of what is natural in the marine environment. Remote, near-pristine areas provide some baseline expectations for biomass [2, 3] and suggest that predators dominate, producing an inverted biomass pyramid. The southern pass of Fakarava atoll-a biosphere reserve in French Polynesia-hosts an average of 600 reef sharks, two to three times the biomass per hectare documented for any other reef shark aggregations [4]. This huge biomass of predators makes the trophic pyramid inverted. Bioenergetics models indicate that the sharks require ∼90 tons of fish per year, whereas the total fish production in the pass is ∼17 tons per year. Energetic theory shows that such trophic structure is maintained through subsidies [5-9], and empirical evidence suggests that sharks must engage in wide-ranging foraging excursions to meet energy needs [9, 10]. We used underwater surveys and acoustic telemetry to assess shark residency in the pass and feeding behavior and used bioenergetics models to understand energy flow. Contrary to previous findings, our results highlight that sharks may overcome low local energy availability by feeding on fish spawning aggregations, which concentrate energy from other local trophic pyramids. Fish spawning aggregations are known to be targeted by sharks, but they were previously believed to play a minor role representing occasional opportunistic supplements. This research demonstrates that fish spawning aggregations can play a significant role in the maintenance of local inverted pyramids in pristine marine areas. Conservation of fish spawning aggregations can help conserve shark populations, especially if combined with shark fishing bans.

  17. Coupling channel hydro-morphodynamics and fish spawning habitat in a forested montane stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cienciala, P.; Hassan, M. A.

    2011-12-01

    In this paper we couple a hydrodynamic model with field data to investigate channel dynamics and spawning habitat potential for small-bodied salmonids in coarse-bed streams in British Columbia. We studied four reaches of East Creek, a small montane stream near Vancouver, BC, which display rapid (plane bed) and riffle-pool morphologies and provide habitat for a population of resident coastal cutthroat trout. Repeated channel surveys were conducted to obtain detailed information on channel topography and dynamics; net change in bed elevation between successive surveys was utilized as an index of scour and fill. Extensive bed surface sampling and low altitude vertical imagery were used in order to investigate bed surface texture and structures and to identify suitable spawning substrate patches. A 2-D hydrodynamic model, FaSTMECH (within MultiDimensional Surface Water Modeling System interface), was calibrated using field data and applied to simulate the spatial pattern of bed shear stress during a bankfull flow event. During small-to-intermediate floods significant bed scour, deeper than the estimated egg burial depth, occurred on a small proportion of bed area, in well-defined zones associated with obstacles such as large woody debris. Usually, distinct depositional zones developed just downstream of the scour locations. The spatial distribution of forcing elements and modeled bed shear stress explained well the observed pattern of scour and fill. Suitable spawning gravel was very limited in the study sites, particularly in two upstream reaches, primarily due to the coarse nature of the bed. In summary, scour disturbance risk appears to be relatively low in coarse-bed channels, except during extreme flow events, and shortage of suitable spawning substrate may be more important for small-bodied salmonids. This study demonstrates that coupling of hydro-morphodynamic and ecological data can provide a useful tool in fish habitat assessment and restoration.

  18. Stocking of Offsite Waters for Hungry Horse Dam Mitigation; Creston National Fish Hatchery, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    US Fish and Wildlife Service Staff,

    2004-02-01

    Mitigation Objective 1: Produce Native Westslope Cutthroat Trout at Creston NFH--Task: Acquire eggs and rear up to 100,000 Westslope Cutthroat trout annually for offsite mitigation stocking. Accomplishments: A total of 141,000 westslope cutthroat eggs (M012 strain) was acquired from the State of Montana Washoe Park State Fish Hatchery in May 2002 for this objective. We also received an additional 22,000 westslope cutthroat eggs, MO12 strain naturalized, from feral fish at Rogers Lake, Flathead County, Montana. The fish were reared using approved fish culture techniques as defined in the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Fish Hatchery Management guidelines. Survival from the swim up fry stage to stocking was 95.6%. We achieved a 0.80 feed conversion this year on a new diet, Skretting ''Nutra Plus''. Post release survival and angler success is monitored annually by Montana Fish Wildlife and Parks (MFWP) and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribe (CSKT). Stocking numbers and locations vary yearly based on results of biological monitoring and adaptive management. Mitigation Objective 2: Produce Rainbow Trout at Creston NFH--Task: Acquire and rear up to 100,000 Rainbow trout annually for offsite mitigation in closed basin waters. Accomplishments: A total of 54,000 rainbow trout eggs (Arlee strain) was acquired from the Ennis National Fish Hatchery in December 2002 for this objective. The fish were reared using approved fish culture techniques as defined in the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Fish Hatchery Management guidelines. Survival from the swim up fry stage to stocking was 99.9%. We achieved a 0.79 feed conversion this year on a new diet, Skretting ''Nutra Plus''. Arlee rainbow trout are being used for this objective because the stocking locations are terminal basin reservoirs and habitat conditions and returns to the creel are unsuitable for native cutthroat. Post release survival and angler success is monitored annually by the Confederated Salish and Kootenai

  19. Multiscale hydrogeomorphic influences on bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) spawning habitat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bean, Jared R; Wilcox, Andrew C.; Woessner, William W.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated multiscale hydrogeomorphic influences on the distribution and abundance of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) spawning in snowmelt-dominated streams of the upper Flathead River basin, northwestern Montana. Within our study reaches, bull trout tended to spawn in the finest available gravel substrates. Analysis of the mobility of these substrates, based on one-dimensional hydraulic modeling and calculation of dimensionless shear stresses, indicated that bed materials in spawning reaches would be mobilized at moderate (i.e., 2-year recurrence interval) high-flow conditions, although the asynchronous timing of the fall–winter egg incubation period and typical late spring – early summer snowmelt high flows in our study area may limit susceptibility to redd scour under current hydrologic regimes. Redd occurrence also tended to be associated with concave-up bedforms (pool tailouts) with downwelling intragravel flows. Streambed temperatures tracked stream water diurnal temperature cycles to a depth of at least 25 cm, averaging 6.1–8.1 °C in different study reaches during the spawning period. Ground water provided thermal moderation of stream water for several high-density spawning reaches. Bull trout redds were more frequent in unconfined alluvial valley reaches (8.5 versus 5.0 redds·km−1 in confined valley reaches), which were strongly influenced by hyporheic and groundwater – stream water exchange. A considerable proportion of redds were patchily distributed in confined valley reaches, however, emphasizing the influence of local physical conditions in supporting bull trout spawning habitat. Moreover, narrowing or “bounding” of these alluvial valley segments did not appear to be important. Our results suggest that geomorphic, thermal, and hydrological factors influence bull trout spawning occurrence at multiple spatial scales.

  20. Offshore spawning of Conger myriaster in the western North Pacific: evidence for convergent migration strategies of anguilliform eels in the Atlantic and Pacific.

    PubMed

    Miller, Michael J; Yoshinaga, Tatsuki; Aoyama, Jun; Otake, Tsuguo; Mochioka, Noritaka; Kurogi, Hiroaki; Tsukamoto, Katsumi

    2011-06-01

    The spawning area of the common Japanese conger, Conger myriaster, had remained unknown because spawning adults or its newly hatched larvae were never collected. Using genetic identification, we determined that C. myriaster spawns far offshore in the western North Pacific, just west of the spawning area of the Japanese eel, Anguilla japonica. In June 2008, six newly hatched C. myriaster larvae, 5.6-6.9 mm, were collected at the eastern edge of where many small unidentified Conger leptocephali (7-20 mm) were collected previously. The offshore spawning location of C. myriaster is analogous to that of the American conger eel, Conger oceanicus, and the American eel, Anguilla rostrata, in the Sargasso Sea, suggesting that convergent evolution of large-scale reproductive migration strategies in both anguillid and conger eels has occurred in the north Atlantic and Pacific subtropical gyres. The realization that two anguillids, A. rostrata and A. japonica, and two congers, C. oceanicus and C. myriaster, have evolved almost identical migration strategies in widely separated ocean basins suggests that natural selection for larval survival and recruitment success has resulted in long offshore spawning migrations in two phylogenetically distant taxa of anguilliform eels.

  1. Offshore spawning of Conger myriaster in the western North Pacific: evidence for convergent migration strategies of anguilliform eels in the Atlantic and Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Michael J.; Yoshinaga, Tatsuki; Aoyama, Jun; Otake, Tsuguo; Mochioka, Noritaka; Kurogi, Hiroaki; Tsukamoto, Katsumi

    2011-06-01

    The spawning area of the common Japanese conger, Conger myriaster, had remained unknown because spawning adults or its newly hatched larvae were never collected. Using genetic identification, we determined that C. myriaster spawns far offshore in the western North Pacific, just west of the spawning area of the Japanese eel, Anguilla japonica. In June 2008, six newly hatched C. myriaster larvae, 5.6-6.9 mm, were collected at the eastern edge of where many small unidentified Conger leptocephali (7-20 mm) were collected previously. The offshore spawning location of C. myriaster is analogous to that of the American conger eel, Conger oceanicus, and the American eel, Anguilla rostrata, in the Sargasso Sea, suggesting that convergent evolution of large-scale reproductive migration strategies in both anguillid and conger eels has occurred in the north Atlantic and Pacific subtropical gyres. The realization that two anguillids, A. rostrata and A. japonica, and two congers, C. oceanicus and C. myriaster, have evolved almost identical migration strategies in widely separated ocean basins suggests that natural selection for larval survival and recruitment success has resulted in long offshore spawning migrations in two phylogenetically distant taxa of anguilliform eels.

  2. Understanding mechanisms that control fish spawning and larval recruitment: Parameter optimization of an Eulerian model (SEAPODYM-SP) with Peruvian anchovy and sardine eggs and larvae data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, Olga; Lehodey, Patrick; Senina, Inna; Echevin, Vincent; Ayón, Patricia; Bertrand, Arnaud; Gaspar, Philippe

    2014-04-01

    The Spatial Ecosystem And Populations Dynamics Model "SEAPODYM", based on a system of Eulerian equations and initially developed for large pelagic fish (e.g., tuna), was modified to describe spawning habitat and eggs and larvae dynamics of small pelagic fish. The spawning habitat is critical since it controls the initial recruitment of larvae and the subsequent spatio-temporal variability of natural mortality during their drift with currents. A robust statistical approach based on Maximum Likelihood Estimation is presented to optimize the model parameters defining the spawning habitat and the eggs and larvae dynamics. To improve parameterization, eggs and larvae density observations are assimilated in the model. The model and its associated optimization approach allow investigating the significance of the mechanisms proposed to control fish spawning habitat and larval recruitment: temperature, prey abundance, trade-off between prey and predators, and retention and dispersion processes. An application to the Peruvian anchovy (Engraulis ringens) and sardine (Sardinops sagax) illustrates the ability of the model to simulate the main features of spatial dynamics of these two species in the Humboldt Current System. For both species, in climatological conditions, the main observed spatial patterns are well reproduced and are explained by the impact of prey and predator abundance and by physical retention with currents, while temperature has a lower impact. In agreement with observations, sardine larvae are mainly predicted in the northern part of the Peruvian shelf (5-10°S), while anchovy larvae extend further south. Deoxygenation, which can potentially limit the accessibility of adult fish to spawning areas, does not appear to have an impact in our model setting. Conversely, the observed seasonality in spawning activity, especially the spawning rest period in austral autumn, is not well simulated. It is proposed that this seasonal cycle is more likely driven by the

  3. Chemical regulation of spawning in the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ram, Jeffrey L.; Nichols, S. Jerrine; Nalepa, Thomas F.; Schloesser, Donald W.

    1992-01-01

    Previous literature suggests that spawning in bivalves is chemically regulated, both by environmental chemical cues and by internal chemical mediators. In a model proposed for zebra mussels, chemicals from phytoplankton initially trigger spawning, and chemicals associated with gametes provide further stimulus for spawning. The response to environmental chemicals is internally mediated by a pathway utilizing serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, a neurotransmitter), which acts directly on both male and female gonads. The role of serotonin and most other aspects of the model have been tested only on bivalves other than zebra mussels. The effect of serotonin on zebra mussel spawning was tested. Serotonin (10-5 and 10-3 M) injected into ripe males induced spawning, but injection of serotonin into females did not. Gametes were not released by 10-6 serotonin; in most cases, serotonin injection did not release gametes from immature recipients. Serotonin injection provides a reliable means for identifying ripe male zebra mussels and for obtaining zebra mussel sperm without the need for dissection.

  4. Diel spawning behavior of chum salmon in the Columbia River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiffan, K.F.; Rondorf, D.W.; Skalicky, J.J.

    2005-01-01

    We conducted a study during 2003 in a side channel of the Columbia River downstream of Bonneville Dam to describe the diel spawning behavior of wild chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta. We collected observational data on 14 pairs of chum salmon using a dual-frequency identification sonar. Spawners of both genders were observed chasing intruders during nighttime and daytime as nests were constructed. Regardless of diel period, females were engaged in digging to both construct nests and cover eggs, and courting males exhibited the prespawning behavior of tail-crossing. We observed a total of 13 spawning events, of which 9 occurred at night and 4 occurred during the day. Once chum salmon begin nest construction, visual cues are apparently not required for courtship, nest defense, and spawning. To enhance successful spawning, flows from Bonneville Dam during the spawning season were reduced during the day but were sometimes increased at night to pass water and meet power demand (i.e., reverse loading), the assumption being that chum salmon are inactive at night. Our findings show that this assumption was violated. Therefore, reverse loading may disrupt the complex prespawning behavior that occurs both during the day and at night, as well as attract spawners to areas that were dewatered during the day.

  5. Spawning synchrony in Arenicola marina: evidence for sex pheromonal control

    PubMed Central

    Hardege, J. D.; Bentley, M. G.

    1997-01-01

    Chemical communication systems controlling reproductive behaviour have been shown in a number of marine polychaetes. This study investigated the use of sex pheromones to coordinate spawning behaviour in gravid lugworms (Arenicola marina). Lugworms typically reproduce in the autumn, during low water of spring tides, and often exhibit epidemic spawning. Females release gametes within the burrow whereas males deposit spermatozoa on to the beach surface. The incoming tide dilutes the spermatozoa and transports them to the females' burrows. Sperm is diluted rapidly and sperm concentrations fall below the minimum required for fertilization within a few minutes. The present investigation establishes the existence of chemical signals synchronizing spawning for the first time in an iteroparous polychaete. The process can be divided into two steps, the induction of gamete release by waterborne chemical cues and burrow irrigation behaviour in females: burrow irrigation representing the means by which spermatozoa are carried to the eggs. In both sexes, the release of gametes can be induced by exposure to sea water into which other individuals had previously spawned. Males also respond to odour compounds from other males. The overall effect of the chemical signals results in synchronized, mass spawning of a population.

  6. Imprinting Hatchery Reared Salmon and Steelhead Trout for Homing, Volume I of III; Narrative, 1978-1983 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Slatick, Emil; Gilbreath, Lyle G.; Harmon, Jerrel R.

    1988-02-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service began conducting homing research on Pacific salmon and steelhead. Over 4 million juvenile salmon and steelhead were marked and released, and 23 individual experiments were conducted. The research had the following objectives: (1) develop the techniques for imprinting homing cues while increasing survival of hatchery reared salmonids and (2) provide fishery managers with the information necessary to increase the returns of salmon and steelhead to the Columbia River system and to effectively distribute these fish to the various user groups. Our imprint methods were grouped into three general categories: (1) natural migration imprint from a hatchery of origin or an alternate homing site (by allowing fish to volitionally travel downstream through the river on their seaward journey), (2) single exposure imprinting (cueing fish to a single unique water supply with or without mechanical stimuli prior to transport and release), and (3) sequential exposure imprinting (cueing fish to two or more water sources in a step-by-step process to establish a series of signposts for the route ''home''). With variations, all three techniques were used with all salmonid groups tested: coho salmon, spring and fall chinook salmon, and steelhead. For the single and sequential imprint, fish were transported around a portion of their normal migration route before releasing them into the Columbia River.

  7. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Investigations; White Sturgeon Spawning and Recruitment Evaluation, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rust, Pete; Wakkinen, Virginia

    2006-05-01

    (a mat day is one 24 h set) during white sturgeon spawning. Most of the sampling occurred in the post-Libby dam spawning reach (rkm 229.0 to 246.0) but some sampling occurred near Crossport (rkm 253.5) and in the Canyon reach above Hemlock Bar (rkm 261.0). We collected eight white sturgeon eggs near Shortys Island in 2004. Sampling for larval white sturgeon began June 8 and continued until July 22, 2004. Sampling occurred primarily at Ambush Rock (rkm 244.0) in an attempt to document any recruitment that might have occurred from the Set and Jet Program. We collected 103 larval fish, but none were white sturgeon larvae or embryos. Juvenile white sturgeon sampling started July 26 and continued through September 27, 2004. A total of 271 hours of gillnetting effort captured 256 juvenile hatchery white sturgeon and two juvenile wild white sturgeon.

  8. Fish Research Project Oregon; Umatilla Hatchery Monitoring and Evaluation, 1993-1994 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, Michael C.; Onjukka, Sam T.; Focher, Shannon M.

    1995-01-01

    This report covers the first three years of comprehensive monitoring and evaluation of the Umatilla Hatchery. Because the hatchery and the evaluation study and the fish health monitoring investigations are in the early stages of implementation, much of the information contained in this report is preliminary. The majority of the data that is crucial for evaluating the success of the hatchery program, the data on post-release performance and survival, is yet unavailable. In addition, several years of data are necessary to make conclusions about rearing performance at Umatilla Hatchery. The conclusions drawn in this report should be viewed as preliminary and should be used in conjunction with additional information as it becomes available.

  9. Age of ground water in basalt aquifers near Spring Creek National Fish Hatchery, Skamania County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinkle, Stephen R.

    1996-01-01

    A comparison of CFC data with both adjusted and unadjusted 14C data suggests that water discharging at the hatchery springs contains a mixture of modem and old water, where old water is defined as water recharged prior to 1944. The CFC data support a component of modem water, whereas the 14C data suggest a component of old water. Similar results were obtained from a comparison of CFC data with adjusted and unadjusted 14C data for water collected from Well 3. Well 3 is north of the hatchery springs, on a flow path that appears to be parallel to and similar in length to the flow path leading to the hatchery springs. Water from the Hatchery Well, however, may be devoid of modem water and appears to have an overall age on the order of thousands of years.

  10. Bioenergetics estimate of the effects of stocking density on hatchery production of smallmouth bass fingerlings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robel, G.L.; Fisher, W.L.

    1999-01-01

    Production of and consumption by hatchery-reared tingerling (age-0) smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu at various simulated stocking densities were estimated with a bioenergetics model. Fish growth rates and pond water temperatures during the 1996 growing season at two hatcheries in Oklahoma were used in the model. Fish growth and simulated consumption and production differed greatly between the two hatcheries, probably because of differences in pond fertilization and mortality rates. Our results suggest that appropriate stocking density depends largely on prey availability as affected by pond fertilization and on fingerling mortality rates. The bioenergetics model provided a useful tool for estimating production at various stocking density rates. However, verification of physiological parameters for age-0 fish of hatchery-reared species is needed.

  11. Investigations of the distribution and persistence of Salmonella and ciprofloxacin-resistant Escherichia coli in turkey hatcheries in the UK.

    PubMed

    Mueller-Doblies, D; Clouting, C; Davies, R H

    2013-06-01

    This study aimed at gaining information on the presence of Salmonella in UK turkey hatcheries and possible epidemiological links between breeding farms, hatcheries and finishing farms. The presence of ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli in hatchery samples, as well as in faecal samples from farms, and trends in occurrence of resistance were also investigated. Over a 2 year-period, four British turkey hatcheries were visited and intensively sampled for the presence of Salmonella and ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli. In two hatcheries, a link could be demonstrated between the presence of certain Salmonella serovars in the hatcheries and on breeding and finishing farms. Within the hatcheries, serovars linked to breeding farms were found more frequently in the poult processing and dispatch areas, whereas serovars identified as 'resident hatchery contaminants' were predominantly found inside the hatcher cabinets. Ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates of S. Senftenberg were identified in one hatchery, which coincided with enrofloxacin treatment of some of the breeding flocks. Ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli was found in two hatcheries, and the majority of these isolates showed multidrug resistance.

  12. Effective population size of steelhead trout: influence of variance in reproductive success, hatchery programs, and genetic compensation between life-history forms.

    PubMed

    Araki, Hitoshi; Waples, Robin S; Ardren, William R; Cooper, Becky; Blouin, Michael S

    2007-03-01

    The effective population size is influenced by many biological factors in natural populations. To evaluate their relative importance, we estimated the effective number of breeders per year (Nb) and effective population size per generation (Ne) in anadromous steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the Hood River, Oregon (USA). Using demographic data and genetic parentage analysis on an almost complete sample of all adults that returned to the river over 15 years (>15,000 individuals), we estimated Nb for 13 run years and Ne for three entire generations. The results are as follows: (i) the ratio of Ne to the estimated census population size (N) was 0.17-0.40, with large variance in reproductive success among individuals being the primary cause of the reduction in Ne/N; (ii) fish from a traditional hatchery program (Htrad: nonlocal, multiple generations in a hatchery) had negative effects on Nb, not only by reducing mean reproductive success but also by increasing variance in reproductive success among breeding parents, whereas no sign of such effects was found in fish from supplementation hatchery programs (Hsupp: local, single generation in a hatchery); and (iii) Nb was relatively stable among run years, despite the widely fluctuating annual run sizes of anadromous adults. We found high levels of reproductive contribution of nonanadromous parents to anadromous offspring when anadromous run size is small, suggesting a genetic compensation between life-history forms (anadromous and nonanadromous). This is the first study showing that reproductive interaction between different life-history forms can buffer the genetic impact of fluctuating census size on Ne.

  13. Detection of estradiol-17β during a mass coral spawn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, S.; Atkinson, M. J.

    1992-04-01

    The steroid estradiol-17β (E2) is associated with female gametogenesis in all vertebrates and many invertebrates. This is the first report of estrogens in scleractinian corals. Seawater and egg slicks were collected during a mass coral spawn at Ningaloo reef, Western Australia for the measurement of total phosphate (TP) and E2. Total P in the water column increased 600 times, from 0.5μM to 300μM. Concentrations of E2 increased nearly 8 fold during the spawn, from 55 to 420 pg/100 ml seawater. Coral eggs collected from egg slicks contained 368±40 pg E2/g dry wt of eggs. Estrogen may be a key hormone in a simple endocrine system of scleractinian corals that synchronizes growth and development of coral oocytes. Its potential role in triggering spawning via chemical messengers in the water column warrants further research.

  14. Oceanic spawning migration of the European eel (Anguilla anguilla).

    PubMed

    Aarestrup, Kim; Okland, Finn; Hansen, Michael M; Righton, David; Gargan, Patrik; Castonguay, Martin; Bernatchez, Louis; Howey, Paul; Sparholt, Henrik; Pedersen, Michael I; McKinley, Robert S

    2009-09-25

    European eels (Anguilla anguilla) undertake a approximately 5000-kilometer (km) spawning migration from Europe to the Sargasso Sea. The larvae are transported back to European waters by the Gulf Stream and North Atlantic Drift. However, details of the spawning migration remain unknown because tracking eels in the Atlantic Ocean has, so far, eluded study. Recent advances in satellite tracking enable investigation of migratory behavior of large ocean-dwelling animals. However, sizes of available tags have precluded tracking smaller animals like European eels. Here, we present information about the swimming direction, depth, and migratory behavior of European eels during spawning migration, based on a miniaturized pop-up satellite archival transmitter. Although the tagging experiment fell short of revealing the full migration to the Sargasso Sea, the data covered the first 1300 km and provided unique insights.

  15. Spawning behaviour and post-spawning migration patterns of atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) ascertained from satellite archival tags.

    PubMed

    Aranda, Guillermo; Abascal, Francisco Javier; Varela, José Luis; Medina, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Spawning behaviour of Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) was investigated using electronic satellite tags deployed in the western Mediterranean spawning ground, around the Balearic Islands (years 2009-2011). All the fish were tagged underwater and released within schools. In general, the fish tagged in the same year/school displayed common migratory trends. Following extended residency around the Balearic Islands, most tagged tuna crossed the Strait of Gibraltar heading for the North Atlantic. Discrepancies between the migratory tracks reconstructed from this and previous electronic tagging studies suggest that the bluefin tuna Mediterranean population may comprise distinct units exhibiting differing migratory behaviours. The diving behaviour varied between oceanic regions throughout the migratory pathways, the shallowest distribution taking place in the spawning ground and the deepest at the Strait of Gibraltar. A unique diving pattern was found on the majority of nights while the fish stayed at the spawning ground; it consisted of frequent and brief oscillatory movements up and down through the mixed layer, resulting in thermal profiles characterized by oscillations about the thermocline. Such a pattern is believed to reflect recent courtship and spawning activity. Reproductive parameters inferred from the analysis of vertical profiles are consistent with those estimated in previous studies based on biological samples.

  16. Spawning Behaviour and Post-Spawning Migration Patterns of Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus thynnus) Ascertained from Satellite Archival Tags

    PubMed Central

    Aranda, Guillermo; Abascal, Francisco Javier; Varela, José Luis; Medina, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Spawning behaviour of Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) was investigated using electronic satellite tags deployed in the western Mediterranean spawning ground, around the Balearic Islands (years 2009-2011). All the fish were tagged underwater and released within schools. In general, the fish tagged in the same year/school displayed common migratory trends. Following extended residency around the Balearic Islands, most tagged tuna crossed the Strait of Gibraltar heading for the North Atlantic. Discrepancies between the migratory tracks reconstructed from this and previous electronic tagging studies suggest that the bluefin tuna Mediterranean population may comprise distinct units exhibiting differing migratory behaviours. The diving behaviour varied between oceanic regions throughout the migratory pathways, the shallowest distribution taking place in the spawning ground and the deepest at the Strait of Gibraltar. A unique diving pattern was found on the majority of nights while the fish stayed at the spawning ground; it consisted of frequent and brief oscillatory movements up and down through the mixed layer, resulting in thermal profiles characterized by oscillations about the thermocline. Such a pattern is believed to reflect recent courtship and spawning activity. Reproductive parameters inferred from the analysis of vertical profiles are consistent with those estimated in previous studies based on biological samples. PMID:24098502

  17. Acoustic monitoring indicates a correlation between calling and spawning in captive spotted seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus)

    PubMed Central

    Hoover, Matt; Kehrer, Christopher; Yost, Justin; Brenkert, Karl; O’Donnell, Tim; Denson, Michael R.

    2017-01-01

    Background Fish sound production is widespread throughout many families. Territorial displays and courtship are the most common reasons for fish sound production. Yet, there is still some questions on how acoustic signaling and reproduction are correlated in many sound-producing species. In the present study, our aim was to determine if a quantitative relationship exists between calling and egg deposition in captive spotted seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus). This type of data is essential if passive acoustics is to be used to identify spawning aggregations over large spatial scales and monitor reproductive activity over annual and decadal timeframes. Methods Acoustic recorders (i.e., DSG-Oceans) were placed in three laboratory tanks to record underwater sound over an entire, simulated reproductive season. We enumerated the number of calls, calculated the received sound pressure level, and counted the number of eggs every morning in each tank. Results Spotted seatrout produced three distinct call types characterized as “drums,” “grunts,” and “staccatos.” Spotted seatrout calling increased as the light cycle shifted from 13.5 to 14.5 h of light, and the temperature increased to 27.7 °C. Calling decreased once the temperature fell below 27.7 °C, and the light cycle shifted to 12 h of light. These temperature and light patterns followed the natural reproductive season observed in wild spotted seatrout in the Southeast United States. Spotted seatrout exhibited daily rhythms in calling. Acoustic signaling began once the lights turned off, and calling reached maximum activity approximately 3 h later. Eggs were released only on evenings in which spotted seatrout were calling. In all tanks, spotted seatrout were more likely to spawn when male fish called more frequently. A positive relationship between SPL and the number of eggs collected was found in Tanks 1 and 3. Discussion Our findings indicate that acoustic metrics can predict spawning potential. These

  18. Barriers impede upstream spawning migration of flathead chub

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walters, David M.; Zuellig, Robert E.; Crockett, Harry J.; Bruce, James F.; Lukacs, Paul M.; Fitzpatrick, Ryan M.

    2014-01-01

    Many native cyprinids are declining throughout the North American Great Plains. Some of these species require long reaches of contiguous, flowing riverine habitat for drifting eggs or larvae to develop, and their declining populations have been attributed to habitat fragmentation or barriers (e.g., dams, dewatered channels, and reservoirs) that restrict fish movement. Upstream dispersal is also needed to maintain populations of species with passively drifting eggs or larvae, and prior researchers have suggested that these fishes migrate upstream to spawn. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a mark–recapture study of Flathead Chub Platygobio gracilis within a 91-km reach of continuous riverine habitat in Fountain Creek, Colorado. We measured CPUE, spawning readiness (percent of Flathead Chub expressing milt), and fish movement relative to a channel-spanning dam. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that Flathead Chub migrate upstream to spawn during summer. The CPUE was much higher at the base of the dam than at downstream sites; the seasonal increases in CPUE at the dam closely tracked seasonal increases in spawning readiness, and marked fish moved upstream as far as 33 km during the spawning run. The upstream migration was effectively blocked by the dam. The CPUE of Flathead Chub was much lower upstream of the OHDD than at downstream sites, and <0.2% of fish marked at the dam were recaptured upstream. This study provides the first direct evidence of spawning migration for Flathead Chub and supports the general hypothesis that barriers limit adult dispersal of these and other plains fishes.

  19. Surficial substrates and bathymetry of five historical lake trout spawning reefs in near-shore waters of the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edsall, Thomas A.; Brown, Charles L.; Kennedy, Gregory W.; French, John R. P.

    1992-01-01

    The reestablishment of self-sustaining stocks of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in the lower four Great Lakes has been substantially impeded because planted fish do not produce enough progeny that survive and reproduce. The causes for this failure are unknown, but many historical spawning sites of lake trout have been degraded by human activities and can no longer produce viable swim-up fry. In this study, we used side-scan sonar and an underwater video camera to survey, map, and evaluate the sustainability of one reef in each of the five Great Lakes for lake trout spawning and fry production. At four of the reef sites, we found good-to-excellent substrate for spawning and fry production by the shallow-water strains of lake trout that are now being planted. These substrates were in water 6-22 m deep and were composed largely of rounded or angular rubble and cobble. Interstitial spaces in these substrates were 20 cm or deeper and would protect naturally spawned eggs and fry from predators, ice scour, and buffeting by waves and currents. Subsequent studies of egg survival by other researchers confirmed our evaluation that the best substrates at two of these sites still have the potential to produce viable swim-up fry.

  20. Habitat quality of historic Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning locations and implications for incubation survival: part 1, substrate quality

    SciTech Connect

    Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Geist, David R.; Arntzen, Evan V.

    2005-07-01

    We evaluated substrate quality at two historic fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) spawning sites in the Snake River, Idaho, USA. The primary objective of this evaluation was to measure sediment permeability within these areas to determine the potential quality of the habitat in the event that anadromous salmonids are reintroduced to the upper Snake River. Riverbed sediments within the two sites in the upper Snake River were sampled using freeze cores and hydraulic slug tests. Sediment grain size distributions at both sites were typical of gravel-bed rivers with the surface layer coarser than the underlying substrate, suggesting the riverbed surface was armored. Despite the armored nature of the bed, the size of the largest material present on the riverbed surface was well within the size limit of material capable of being excavated by spawning fall Chinook salmon. The percentage of fines was low, suggesting good quality substrate for incubating salmon embryos. Geometric mean particle sizes found in this study compared to a 55% to 80% survival to emergence based on literature values. Hydraulic slug tests showed moderate to high hydraulic conductivity and were comparable to values from current fall Chinook salmon spawning areas in the Hells Canyon Reach of the Snake River and the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. Predicted estimates of mean egg survival at both sites (48% and 74%) equaled or exceeded estimates from fall Chinook salmon spawning areas in the Hells Canyon Reach and the Hanford Reach.

  1. Upstream movement of residual hatchery steelhead into areas containing bull trout and cutthroat trout.

    SciTech Connect

    McMichael, Geoffrey A. ); Pearsons, Todd N.

    2000-11-01

    Hatchery-reared steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss that do not emigrate as smolts shortly after release may negatively impact wild fish communities through ecological interactions. We used systematic, stratified snorkeling surveys to document the relative abundance of wild rainbow trout O. mykiss, bull trout Salvelinus confluentus, and westslope cutthroat trout O. clarki lewisi as well as the upstream limit of residual hatchery steelhead (hatchery-reared steelhead that had failed to emigrate before June 1). Our objective was to determine whether residual hatchery steelhead had migrated upstream from their release point into an area containing a threatened population of bull trout and cutthroat trout. Hatchery steelhead made up a larger portion of the salmonid community in the sites near their release location (mean= 52.5%, range= 29-79%), and constituted a lower proportion (mean= 4.8%, range= 0-14%) of the salmonid community as distance upstream of the release location increased. However, residual hatchery steelhead had migrated over 12 km upstream into an area containing a threatened stock of bull trout and westslope cutthroat trout O. clarki lewisi.

  2. Evidence of spring spawning lake trout in Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bronte, Charles R.

    1993-01-01

    In 1992, the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service began research on the life history, population dynamics, and stock delineation of siscowet lake trout Salvelinus namaycush siscowet in Lake Superior. Siscowet were captured with gill nets in 80-150 m of water on 23-26 April 1992 north of the Apostle Islands in western Lake Superior. Of 91 captured siscowets, one male had fully developed testes in nearly ripe condition and one female had eggs running from the vent. This observation represents the earliest dates that lake trout of any morphotype have been found in spawning or near-spawning condition.

  3. Evaluation of methods for identifying spawning sites and habitat selection for alosines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, Julianne E.; Hightower, Joseph E.

    2010-01-01

    Characterization of riverine spawning habitat is important for the management and restoration of anadromous alosines. We examined the relative effectiveness of oblique plankton tows and spawning pads for collecting the eggs of American shad Alosa sapidissima, hickory shad A. mediocris, and “river herring” (a collective term for alewife A. pseudoharengus and blueback herring A. aestivalis) in the Roanoke River, North Carolina. Relatively nonadhesive American shad eggs were only collected by plankton tows, whereas semiadhesive hickory shad and river herring eggs were collected by both methods. Compared with spawning pads, oblique plankton tows had higher probabilities of collecting eggs and led to the identification of longer spawning periods. In assumed spawning areas, twice-weekly plankton sampling for 15 min throughout the spawning season had a 95% or greater probability of collecting at least one egg for all alosines; however, the probabilities were lower in areas with more limited spawning. Comparisons of plankton tows, spawning pads, and two other methods of identifying spawning habitat (direct observation of spawning and examination of female histology) suggested differences in effectiveness and efficiency. Riverwide information on spawning sites and timing for all alosines is most efficiently obtained by plankton sampling. Spawning pads and direct observations of spawning are the best ways to determine microhabitat selectivity for appropriate species, especially when spawning sites have previously been identified. Histological examination can help determine primary spawning sites but is most useful when information on reproductive biology and spawning periodicity is also desired. The target species, riverine habitat conditions, and research goals should be considered when selecting methods with which to evaluate alosine spawning habitat.

  4. Mycobacteria in adult salmonid fishes returning to national fish hatcheries in Washington, Oregon and California in 1958-59

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ross, A.J.

    1963-01-01

    Incidence of acid-fast bacillus infections in salmonid fishes at West Coast hatcheries was determined for 1957-59. No evidence was obtained which would indicate a definite trend towards either increased or decreased rates of infection. It is apparent that the incidence of infection is higher in hatchery-marked fish than in unmarked fish. Only one hatchery was found free of infection during the 3 years covered by the investigation. This installation had never used raw salmon products in diet.

  5. Five-year evaluation of habitat remediation in Thunder Bay, Lake Huron: Comparison of constructed reef characteristics that attract spawning lake trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marsden, J. Ellen; Binder, Thomas R.; Johnson, James; He, Ji; Dingledine, Natalie; Adams, Janice; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Buchinger, Tyler J.; Krueger, Charles C.

    2016-01-01

    Degradation of aquatic habitats has motivated construction and research on the use of artificial reefs to enhance production of fish populations. However, reefs are often poorly planned, reef design characteristics are not evaluated, and reef assessments are short-term. We constructed 29 reefs in Thunder Bay, Lake Huron, in 2010 and 2011 to mitigate for degradation of a putative lake trout spawning reef. Reefs were designed to evaluate lake trout preferences for height, orientation, and size, and were compared with two degraded natural reefs and a high-quality natural reef (East Reef). Eggs and fry were sampled on each reef for five years post-construction, and movements of 40 tagged lake trout were tracked during three spawning seasons using acoustic telemetry. Numbers of adults and spawning on the constructed reefs were initially low, but increased significantly over the five years, while remaining consistent on East Reef. Adult density, egg deposition, and fry catch were not related to reef height or orientation of the constructed reefs, but were related to reef size and adjacency to East Reef. Adult lake trout visited and spawned on all except the smallest constructed reefs. Of the metrics used to evaluate the reefs, acoustic telemetry produced the most valuable and consistent data, including fine-scale examination of lake trout movements relative to individual reefs. Telemetry data, supplemented with diver observations, identified several previously unknown natural spawning sites, including the high-use portions of East Reef. Reef construction has increased the capacity for fry production in Thunder Bay without apparently decreasing the use of the natural reef. Results of this project emphasize the importance of multi-year reef assessment, use of multiple assessment methods, and comparison of reef characteristics when developing artificial reef projects. Specific guidelines for construction of reefs focused on enhancing lake trout spawning are suggested.

  6. Modeling the Potential Impacts of Climate Change on Pacific Salmon Culture Programs: An Example at Winthrop National Fish Hatchery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, Kyle C.; Peterson, Douglas P.

    2014-09-01

    Hatcheries have long been used in an attempt to mitigate for declines in wild stocks of Pacific salmon ( Oncorhynchus spp.), though the conservation benefit of hatcheries is a topic of ongoing debate. Irrespective of conservation benefits, a fundamental question is whether hatcheries will be able to function as they have in the past given anticipated future climate conditions. To begin to answer this question, we developed a deterministic modeling framework to evaluate how climate change may affect hatcheries that rear Pacific salmon. The framework considers the physiological tolerances for each species, incorporates a temperature-driven growth model, and uses two metrics commonly monitored by hatchery managers to determine the impacts of changes in water temperature and availability on hatchery rearing conditions. As a case study, we applied the model to the US Fish and Wildlife Service's Winthrop National Fish Hatchery. We projected that hatchery environmental conditions remained within the general physiological tolerances for Chinook salmon in the 2040s (assuming A1B greenhouse gas emissions scenario), but that warmer water temperatures in summer accelerated juvenile salmon growth. Increased growth during summer coincided with periods when water availability should also be lower, thus increasing the likelihood of physiological stress in juvenile salmon. The identification of these climate sensitivities led to a consideration of potential mitigation strategies such as chilling water, altering rations, or modifying rearing cycles. The framework can be refined with new information, but in its present form, it provides a consistent, repeatable method to assess the vulnerability of hatcheries to predicted climate change.

  7. Evidence for competition at sea between Norton Sound chum salmon and Asian hatchery chum salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruggerone, Gregory T.; Agler, B.A.; Nielsen, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing production of hatchery salmon over the past four decades has led to concerns about possible density-dependent effects on wild Pacific salmon populations in the North Pacific Ocean. The concern arises because salmon from distant regions overlap in the ocean, and wild salmon populations having low productivity may compete for food with abundant hatchery populations. We tested the hypothesis that adult length-at-age, age-at-maturation, productivity, and abundance of a Norton Sound, Alaska, chum salmon population were influenced by Asian hatchery chum salmon, which have become exceptionally abundant and surpassed the abundance of wild chum salmon in the North Pacific beginning in the early 1980s. We found that smaller adult length-at-age, delayed age-at-maturation, and reduced productivity and abundance of the Norton Sound salmon population were associated with greater production of Asian hatchery chum salmon since 1965. Modeling of the density-dependent relationship, while controlling for other influential variables, indicated that an increase in adult hatchery chum salmon abundance from 10 million to 80 million adult fish led to a 72% reduction in the abundance of the wild chum salmon population. These findings indicate that competition with hatchery chum salmon contributed to the low productivity and abundance of Norton Sound chum salmon, which includes several stocks that are classified as Stocks of Concern by the State of Alaska. This study provides new evidence indicating that large-scale hatchery production may influence body size, age-at-maturation, productivity and abundance of a distant wild salmon population.

  8. Umatilla Hatchery Satellite Facilities Operation and Maintenance; 1995 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rowan, Gerald D.

    1996-05-01

    The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservoir (CTUIR) and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) are cooperating in a joint effort to enhance steelhead and re-establish salmon runs in the Umatilla River Basin. As an integral part of this program, Bonifer Pond, Minthorn Springs, Imeques C-mem-ini-kem and Thornhollow facilities are operated for acclimation and release of juvenile summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), fall and spring chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) and coho salmon (O. kisutch). Minthorn is also used for holding and spawning adult summer steelhead, fall chinook and coho salmon. Personnel from the ODFW Eastern Oregon Fish Pathology Laboratory in La Grande took samples of tissues and reproductive fluids from Umatilla River summer steelhead and coho salmon broodstock for monitoring and evaluation purposes. Coded-wire tag recovery information was accessed to determine the contribution of Umatilla river releases to ocean, Columbia River and Umatilla River fisheries.

  9. Distribution, abundance, and spawning season and grounds of the kiyi, Leucichthys kiyi Koelz, in Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hile, Ralph; Deason, Hilary J.

    1947-01-01

    The depth of water on known spawning grounds (all in southern Lake Michigan) was 57.5 to 84 fathoms. There is evidence that the kiyi may spawn in more than 90 fathoms. Spawning appears to be widespread throughout waters of suitable depth.

  10. A Computational Model for Asynchronous Oocyte Growth Dynamics in Spawning Fish

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manuscript describes the development of a computational model that simulates a time course of oocyte growth and spawning for asynchronous spawning fish, based upon plasma vitellogenin concentrations and a critical oocyte size for spawning. The model provides a framework that...

  11. Salvelinus namaycush spawning substratum attracts egg predators and opportunists through chemosensory cues.

    PubMed

    Wasylenko, B A; Callaghan, D T; Blanchfield, P J; Pyle, G G

    2014-05-01

    Two separate field experiments were conducted in a series of small boreal lakes to test for the attraction of egg predators to lake trout Salvelinus namaycush spawning shoals and subsequently to determine whether chemosensory cues attract egg predators to these sites. In the first experiment, minnow traps set on spawning sites captured significantly more egg predators than those set on structurally similar non-spawning sites. Captures of slimy sculpin Cottus cognatus, common shiner Luxilus cornutus, blacknose shiner Notropis heterolepis and virile crayfish Orconectes virilis were more than double on spawning sites relative to non-spawning sites for the two study lakes. To test whether chemosensory cues could attract egg predators to S. namaycush spawning sites, paired minnow traps were placed on eight to 10 sites in each of the three study lakes; one trap contained visually concealed S. namaycush spawning substratum and the other with visually concealed non-spawning substratum. Traps containing spawning substratum consistently captured more fish and had higher mean daily catches than those that contained non-spawning substratum. The combined results demonstrate a greater prevalence of egg predators on S. namaycush spawning shoals that appears to be the result of chemosensory attraction to spawning substratum.

  12. 2008 Spawning Cisco Investigations in the Canadian Waters of Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yule, Daniel; Addison, Peter A.; Evrard, Lori M.; Cullis, Ken I.; Cholwek, Gary A.

    2009-01-01

    The Great Lakes Science Center of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) is working cooperatively with the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources (OMNR) on a threeyear study to develop standard procedures for acoustic and midwater trawl (AC-MT) assessments of spawning cisco Coregonus artedi that the OMNR can carry forward as a management activity. In year two (2008), we conducted an AC-MT survey of the northern shore from Nipigon Bay to Thunder Bay. Spawning-cisco (> 250 mm total length) densities were lowest near Nipigon Bay (<10/ha), moderate in and around Black Bay (15- 30/ha), and highest in Thunder Bay (118/ha). Rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax densities were highest in Nipigon (2,179/ha) and Black (3,219/ha) bays, and lowest in Thunder Bay (961/ha). We combined our AC-MT survey results with commercial catch records to estimate exploitation fractions of female cisco in Thunder Bay during the 2008 fishery at 4% for ages 1-5, 8.7% for ages 6-12, and 4.4% for ages ≥ 13. Lake Superior fishery managers recently recommended that annual exploitation of adult female lake cisco be kept below 10-15%. Recruitment of cisco since 2003 has been low and there is a strong probability the Thunder Bay stock will decline into the future. Using a simple population dynamics approach we estimated that if the current total allowable catch (TAC) quota is held constant, exploitation fractions could exceed 10% by 2010 and 15% by 2011. Our 2008 collections suggested the survey of Black Bay was likely conducted before all spawners had returned there to spawn. Our data also suggested that cisco collected in Black Bay and east of this site in mid-November may be from the same stock. During November 2009 we will attempt to get better definition of the area occupied by cisco around Black Bay and also determine when surveys should be conducted at this location.

  13. Spatial segregation of spawning habitat limits hybridization between sympatric native Steelhead and Coastal Cutthroat Trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buehrens, T.W.; Glasgow, J.; Ostberg, Carl O.; Quinn, T.P.

    2013-01-01

    Native Coastal Cutthroat Trout Oncorhynchus clarkii clarkii and Coastal Steelhead O. mykiss irideus hybridize naturally in watersheds of the Pacific Northwest yet maintain species integrity. Partial reproductive isolation due to differences in spawning habitat may limit hybridization between these species, but this process is poorly understood. We used a riverscape approach to determine the spatial distribution of spawning habitats used by native Coastal Cutthroat Trout and Steelhead as evidenced by the distribution of recently emerged fry. Molecular genetic markers were used to classify individuals as pure species or hybrids, and individuals were assigned to age-classes based on length. Fish and physical habitat data were collected in a spatially continuous framework to assess the relationship between habitat and watershed features and the spatial distribution of parental species and hybrids. Sampling occurred in 35 reaches from tidewaters to headwaters in a small (20 km2) coastal watershed in Washington State. Cutthroat, Steelhead, and hybrid trout accounted for 35%, 42%, and 23% of the fish collected, respectively. Strong segregation of spawning areas between Coastal Cutthroat Trout and Steelhead was evidenced by the distribution of age-0 trout. Cutthroat Trout were located farther upstream and in smaller tributaries than Steelhead were. The best predictor of species occurrence at a site was the drainage area of the watershed that contributed to the site. This area was positively correlated with the occurrence of age-0 Steelhead and negatively with the presence of Cutthroat Trout, whereas hybrids were found in areas occupied by both parental species. A similar pattern was observed in older juveniles of both species but overlap was greater, suggesting substantial dispersal of trout after emergence. Our results offer support for spatial reproductive segregation as a factor limiting hybridization between Steelhead and Coastal Cutthroat Trout.

  14. Conspecific sperm precedence is a reproductive barrier between free-spawning marine mussels in the northwest atlantic mytilus hybrid zone.

    PubMed

    Klibansky, Lara K J; McCartney, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    Reproductive isolation at the gamete stage has become a focus of speciation research because of its potential to evolve rapidly between closely related species. Conspecific sperm precedence (CSP), a type of gametic isolation, has been demonstrated in a number of taxa, both marine and terrestrial, with the potential to play an important role in speciation. Free-spawning marine invertebrates are ideal subjects for the study of CSP because of a likely central role for gametic barriers in reproductive isolation. The western Atlantic Mytilus blue mussel hybrid zone, ranging from the Atlantic Canada to eastern Maine, exhibits characteristics conducive to the study of CSP. Previous studies have shown that gametic incompatibility is incomplete, variable in strength and the genotype distribution is bimodal-dominated by the parental species, with a low frequency of hybrids. We conducted gamete crossing experiments using M. trossulus and M. edulis individuals collected from natural populations during the spring spawning season in order to detect the presence or absence of CSP within this hybrid zone. We detected CSP, defined here as a reduction in heterospecific offspring from competitive fertilizations in vitro compared to that seen in non-competitive fertilizations, in five of the twelve crosses in which conspecific crosses were detectable. This is the first finding of CSP in a naturally hybridizing population of a free-spawning marine invertebrate. Our findings support earlier predictions that CSP can promote assortative fertilization in bimodal hybrid zones, further advancing their hypothesized progression towards full speciation. Despite strong CSP numerous heterospecific fertilizations remain, reinforcing the hypothesis that compatible females are a source of hybrid offspring in mixed natural spawns.

  15. Sherman Creek Hatchery; Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife Fish Program, 2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Lovrak, Jon; Combs, Mitch

    2004-01-01

    Sherman Creek Hatchery's primary objective is the restoration and enhancement of the recreational and subsistence fishery in Lake Roosevelt and Banks Lake. The Sherman Creek Hatchery (SCH) was designed to rear 1.7 million kokanee fry for acclimation and imprinting during the spring and early summer. Additionally, it was designed to trap all available returning adult kokanee during the fall for broodstock operation and evaluation. Since the start of this program, the operations on Lake Roosevelt have been modified to better achieve program goals. The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Spokane Tribe of Indians and the Colville Confederated Tribes form the interagency Lake Roosevelt Hatcheries Coordination Team (LRHCT) which sets goals and objectives for both Sherman Creek and the Spokane Tribal Hatchery. The LRHCT also serves to coordinate enhancement efforts on Lake Roosevelt and Banks Lake. Since 1994 the kokanee fingerling program has changed to yearling releases. By utilizing both the hatcheries and additional net pens, up to 1,000,000 kokanee yearlings can be reared and released. The construction and operation of twenty net pens in 2001 enabled the increased production. Another significant change has been to rear up to 300,000 rainbow trout fingerling at SCH from July through October, for stocking into the volunteer net pens. This enables the Spokane Tribal Hatchery (STH) to rear additional kokanee to further the enhancement efforts on Lake Roosevelt. Current objectives include increased use of native tributary stocks where available for propagation into Upper Columbia River Basin waters. The Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Evaluation Program (LRFEP) is responsible for monitoring and evaluation on the Lake Roosevelt Projects. From 1988 to 1998, the principal sport fishery on Lake Roosevelt has shifted from walleye to include rainbow trout and kokanee salmon (Underwood et al. 1997, Tilson and Scholz 1997). The angler use, harvest rates for rainbow and kokanee

  16. Mass mortality of hatchery-produced larvae of Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer (Bloch), associated with viral nervous necrosis in Sabah, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ransangan, Julian; Manin, Benny Obrain

    2010-09-28

    Culture of Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer (Bloch) is a popular aquaculture activity in Malaysia. This fish is in high demand and fetches a good price in the local market. The seed for this fish is commercially produced by induced spawning in hatcheries. However, the seed supply is affected by frequent mass mortality of larvae aged between 15 and 60 dph. The clinical signs shown by the affected larvae include lethargy, loss of appetite, uncoordinated swimming, unusual spiral movement pattern and dark coloration. Histological examination of brain and eye of the affected specimens revealed extensive cell vacuolation in larvae aged 15-25 dph. Partial nucleotide sequence of the nervous necrosis virus coat protein gene of the affected larvae showed 94.0-96.1% homology to the nucleotide sequences of coat protein gene from nervous necrosis virus isolated from other countries in the Southeast Asia and Australia. This study provides scientific evidence based on molecular technique that many episodes of mass mortality in seabass larvae in Sabah is associated with the viral nervous necrosis. Because no effective treatment has been reported for this infection, stringent biosecurity measures must be adopted for exclusion of the pathogen from the culture system.

  17. Occurrence, size, and tag retention of sneaker male hatchery rainbow trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Isely, J.J.; Grabowski, T.B.

    2004-01-01

    One alternative reproductive tactic involving early-maturing, cryptic males is referred to as "sneaking." Although sneakers tend to be easily detectable upon close inspection, little is known about the proportion of a fish population consisting of sneakers. We examined 15,400 age-1 rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in a hatchery. Total length (mm), wet weight (g), and sex (sneaker male or unknown) were recorded for each fish. We also individually tagged each sneaker male with soft visual implant alphanumeric (VIalpha) tags that were sequentially numbered and held the fish for 25 d before inspection. Sneakers constituted 2.8% of the hatchery rainbow trout population and were smaller in total length and weight than typical rainbow trout of the same age. Retention of the VIalpha tags in sneakers was 58.9%, significantly lower than has been reported under similar circumstances. We found that sneaker males may contribute substantially to hatchery populations. Reduced tag retention in sneakers may bias studies evaluating the effect of hatchery fish on wild populations. We believe that hatchery-produced sneaker males have the potential to contribute importantly to the genetic composition of wild populations.

  18. Kokanee Stock Status and Contribution Cabinet Gorge Hatchery, Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho, 1988 Annual Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bowles, Edward C.

    1989-02-01

    The kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka rehabilitation program for Lake Pend Oreille continued to show progress during 1988. Estimated kokanee abundance in early September was 10.2 million fish. This estimate is 70% higher than 1987 and 140% higher than the populations's low point in 1986. Increased population size over the past two years is the result of two consecutive strong year classes produced from high recruitment of hatchery and wild fry. High recruitment of wild fry in 1988 resulted from good parental escapement (strong year class) in 1987 and relatively high fry survival. Hatchery fry made up 51% of total fry recruitment (73% of total fry biomass), which is the largest contribution since hatchery supplementation began in the 1970s. High hatchery fry abundance resulted from a large release (13 million fry) from Cabinet Gorge Hatchery and excellent fry survival (29%) during their first summer in Lake Pend Oreille. Improved fry release strategies enhanced survival, which doubled from 1987 to 1988 and was ten times higher than survival in 1986. Our research goal is to maintain 30% survival so we are very optimistic, but need to replicate additional years to address annual variability. 27 refs., 24 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Vertebral deformities in hatchery-reared and wild-caught juvenile Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, Hongjian; Zhang, Xiumei; Fu, Mei; Xi, Dan; Su, Shengqi; Yao, Weizhi

    2015-01-01

    The present study compared vertebral deformities of hatchery-reared and wild-caught juvenile Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. A total of 362 hatchery-reared flounder (total length 122.5-155.8 mm) were collected from three commercial hatcheries located in Yantai, East China, and 89 wild fish (total length 124.7-161.3 mm) were caught off Yangma Island near Yantai City (37°27'N, 121°36'E). All the fish were dissected, photographed, and images of the axial skeleton were examined for vertebral deformities. Compared with wild-caught flounder in which no deformed vertebrae were detected, 48 (13.3%) hatcheryreared fish had deformed vertebrae. The deformities were classified as compression, compression-ankylosis, and dislocation-ankylosis. The vertebral deformities were mainly localized between post-cranial vertebra 1 and 3, with vertebrae number 1 as the most commonly deformed. The causative factors leading to vertebral deformities in reared Japanese flounder may be related to unfavorable temperature conditions, inflammation, damage, or rupture to the intervertebral ligaments under rearing conditions. Furthermore, no significant difference in the total number of vertebral bodies was observed between wild-caught (38.8±0.4) and hatchery-reared flounder (38.1±0.9) ( P>0.05). However, the number of vertebral bodies of hatchery-reared and wild-caught flounder ranged from 35 to 39 and from 38 to 39, respectively.

  20. Evaluation of chemical control for nonnative crayfish at a warm-water fish production hatchery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allert, Ann L.; McKee, M.J.; DiStefano, R.J.; Fairchild, J.F.

    2016-01-01

    Invasive crayfish are known to displace native crayfish species, alter aquatic habitat and community structure and function, and are serious pests for fish hatcheries. White River Crawfish (WRC; Procambarus acutus) were inadvertently introduced to a warm-water fish hatchery in Missouri, USA, possibly in an incoming fish shipment. We evaluated the use of chemical control for crayfish to ensure incoming and outgoing fish shipments from hatcheries do not contain live crayfish. We conducted acute (≤24 hr) static toxicity tests to determine potency, dose-response, and selectivity of pesticides to WRC, Virile Crayfish (VC; Orconectes virilis), and Fathead Minnow (FHM; Pimephales promelas). Testing identified a formulation of cypermethrin (Cynoff®) as the most potent of five pesticides evaluated for toxicity to crayfish. A 4-hr exposure to a cypermethrin concentration of 100 μg · L-1 was found to kill 100% of juvenile and adult WRC; however, adult VC were not consistently killed. Concentrations of cypermethrin ≤100 μg · L-1 did not cause significant (>10%) mortality in juvenile FHM. Additional testing is needed to examine selectivity between crayfish and hatchery fish species. Biosecurity protocols at hatcheries that use chemical control have the potential to reliably prevent inadvertent transfers of live crayfish in fish shipments.

  1. Adaptive Significance of the Formation of Multi-Species Fish Spawning Aggregations near Submerged Capes

    PubMed Central

    Karnauskas, Mandy; Chérubin, Laurent M.; Paris, Claire B.

    2011-01-01

    Background Many fishes are known to spawn at distinct geomorphological features such as submerged capes or “promontories,” and the widespread use of these sites for spawning must imply some evolutionary advantage. Spawning at these capes is thought to result in rapid offshore transport of eggs, thereby reducing predation levels and facilitating dispersal to areas of suitable habitat. Methodology/Principal Findings To test this “off-reef transport” hypothesis, we use a hydrodynamic model and explore the effects of topography on currents at submerged capes where spawning occurs and at similar capes where spawning does not occur, along the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef. All capes modeled in this study produced eddy-shedding regimes, but specific eddy attributes differed between spawning and non-spawning sites. Eddies at spawning sites were significantly stronger than those at non-spawning sites, and upwelling and fronts were the products of the eddy formation process. Frontal zones, present particularly at the edges of eddies near the shelf, may serve to retain larvae and nutrients. Spawning site eddies were also more predictable in terms of diameter and longevity. Passive particles released at spawning and control sites were dispersed from the release site at similar rates, but particles from spawning sites were more highly aggregated in their distributions than those from control sites, and remained closer to shore at all times. Conclusions/Significance Our findings contradict previous hypotheses that cape spawning leads to high egg dispersion due to offshore transport, and that they are attractive for spawning due to high, variable currents. Rather, we show that current regimes at spawning sites are more predictable, concentrate the eggs, and keep larvae closer to shore. These attributes would confer evolutionary advantages by maintaining relatively similar recruitment patterns year after year. PMID:21760954

  2. Spawning Dynamics and Size Related Trends in Reproductive Parameters of Southern Bluefin Tuna, Thunnus maccoyii

    PubMed Central

    Farley, Jessica. H.; Davis, Tim L. O.; Bravington, Mark V.; Andamari, Retno; Davies, Campbell R.

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of spawning behaviour and fecundity of fish is important for estimating the reproductive potential of a stock and for constructing appropriate statistical models for assessing sustainable catch levels. Estimates of length-based reproductive parameters are particularly important for determining potential annual fecundity as a function of fish size, but they are often difficult to estimate reliably. Here we provide new information on the reproductive dynamics of southern bluefin tuna (SBT) Thunnus maccoyii through the analysis of fish size and ovary histology collected on the spawning ground in 1993–1995 and 1999–2002. These are used to refine previous parameter estimates of spawning dynamics and investigate size related trends in these parameters. Our results suggest that the small SBT tend to arrive on the spawning ground slightly later and depart earlier in the spawning season relative to large fish. All females were mature and the majority were classed as spawning capable (actively spawning or non-spawning) with a very small proportion classed as regressing. The fraction of females spawning per day decreased with fish size, but once females start a spawning episode, they spawned daily irrespective of size. Mean batch fecundity was estimated directly at 6.5 million oocytes. Analysis of ovary histology and ovary weight data indicated that relative batch fecundity, and the duration of spawning and non-spawning episodes, increased with fish size. These reproductive parameter estimates could be used with estimates of residency time on the spawning ground as a function of fish size (if known) and demographic data for the spawning population to provide a time series of relative annual fecundity for SBT. PMID:25993276

  3. Spawning site selection and contingent behavior in Common Snook, Centropomus undecimalis.

    PubMed

    Lowerre-Barbieri, Susan; Villegas-Ríos, David; Walters, Sarah; Bickford, Joel; Cooper, Wade; Muller, Robert; Trotter, Alexis

    2014-01-01

    Reproductive behavior affects spatial population structure and our ability to manage for sustainability in marine and diadromous fishes. In this study, we used fishery independent capture-based sampling to evaluate where Common Snook occurred in Tampa Bay and if it changed with spawning season, and passive acoustic telemetry to assess fine scale behavior at an inlet spawning site (2007-2009). Snook concentrated in three areas during the spawning season only one of which fell within the expected spawning habitat. Although in lower numbers, they remained in these areas throughout the winter months. Acoustically-tagged snook (n = 31) showed two seasonal patterns at the spawning site: Most fish occurred during the spawning season but several fish displayed more extended residency, supporting the capture-based findings that Common Snook exhibit facultative catadromy. Spawning site selection for iteroparous, multiple-batch spawning fishes occurs at the lifetime, annual, or intra-annual temporal scales. In this study we show colonization of a new spawning site, indicating that lifetime spawning site fidelity of Common Snook is not fixed at this fine spatial scale. However, individuals did exhibit annual and intra-seasonal spawning site fidelity to this new site over the three years studied. The number of fish at the spawning site increased in June and July (peak spawning months) and on new and full lunar phases indicating within population variability in spawning and movement patterns. Intra-seasonal patterns of detection also differed significantly with sex. Common Snook exhibited divergent migration tactics and habitat use at the annual and estuarine scales, with contingents using different overwintering habitat. Migration tactics also varied at the spawning site at the intra-seasonal scale and with sex. These results have important implications for understanding how reproductive behavior affects spatio-temporal patterns of fish abundance and their resilience to

  4. Effects of lake surface elevation on shoreline-spawning Lost River Suckers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burdick, Summer M.; Hewitt, David A.; Rasmussen, J.E.; Hayes, Brian; Janney, Eric; Harris, Alta C.

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed remote detection data from PIT-tagged Lost River Suckers Deltistes luxatus at four shoreline spawning areas in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, to determine whether spawning of this endangered species was affected by low water levels. Our investigation was motivated by the observation that the surface elevation of the lake during the 2010 spawning season was the lowest in 38 years. Irrigation withdrawals in 2009 that were not replenished by subsequent winter-spring inflows caused a reduction in available shoreline spawning habitat in 2010. We compared metrics of skipped spawning, movement among spawning areas, and spawning duration across 8 years (2006-2013) that had contrasting spring water levels. Some aspects of sucker spawning were similar in all years, including few individuals straying from the shoreline areas to spawning locations in lake tributaries and consistent effects of increasing water temperatures on the accumulation of fish at the spawning areas. During the extreme low water year of 2010, 14% fewer female and 8% fewer male suckers joined the shoreline spawning aggregation than in the other years. Both males and females visited fewer spawning areas within Upper Klamath Lake in 2010 than in other years, and the median duration at spawning areas in 2010 was at least 36% shorter for females and 20% shorter for males relative to other years. Given the imperiled status of the species and the declining abundance of the population in Upper Klamath Lake, any reduction in spawning success and egg production could negatively impact recovery efforts. Our results indicate that lake surface elevations above 1,262.3-1,262.5 m would be unlikely to limit the number of spawning fish and overall egg production.

  5. Evidence of local short-distance spawning migration of tropical freshwater eels, and implications for the evolution of freshwater eel migration.

    PubMed

    Arai, Takaomi

    2014-10-01

    Freshwater eels have fascinated biologists for centuries due to the spectacular long-distance migrations between the eels' freshwater habitats and their spawning areas far out in the ocean and the mysteries of their ecology. The spawning areas of Atlantic eels and Japanese eel were located far offshore in the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean, respectively, and their reproduction took place thousands of kilometers away from their growth habitats. Phylogenetic studies have revealed that freshwater eels originated in the Indonesian region. However, remarkably little is known about the life histories of tropical freshwater eels despite the fact that tropical eels are key to understanding the nature of primitive forms of catadromous migration. This study found spawning-condition tropical freshwater eels in Lake Poso, central Sulawesi, Indonesia, with considerably high gonadosomatic index values and with histologically fully developed gonads. This study provides the first evidence that under certain conditions, freshwater eels have conditions that are immediately able to spawn even in river downstream. The results suggest that, in contrast to the migrations made by the Atlantic and Japanese eels, freshwater eels originally migrated only short distances of <100 kilometers to local spawning areas adjacent to their freshwater growth habitats. Ancestral eels most likely underwent a catadromous migration from local short-distance movements in tropical coastal waters to the long-distance migrations characteristic of present-day temperate eels, which has been well established as occurring in subtropical gyres in both hemispheres.

  6. Spawning aggregation of white-streaked grouper Epinephelus ongus: spatial distribution and annual variation in the fish density within a spawning ground.

    PubMed

    Nanami, Atsushi; Sato, Taku; Kawabata, Yuuki; Okuyama, Junichi

    2017-01-01

    White-streaked grouper (Epinephelus ongus) is an important fisheries target and forms spawning aggregations at particular spawning grounds. The aims of the present study were to investigate the ecological characteristics of annual spawning aggregations such as (1) spatial variations in the density of E. ongus at the spawning ground, (2) the relationship between fish density and environmental variables, (3) inter-annual variations in the spawning aggregation, (4) the proportion of males to females at the spawning ground for several days pre-and post-spawning and (5) the relationship between male density and female density at the protected spawning ground, based on observations over five years at an Okinawan coral reef. Although the protected spawning ground area was large (ca. 2,500 m × 700 m), high density of E. ongus (over 25 individuals per 100 m(2)) was found in a limited area (within c.a. 750 m × 50 m). Current velocity and coverage of rocks had significant positive effects on the spatial distribution of E. ongus at the spawning ground. Inter-annual variation in the degree of aggregation was found and this variation was explained by the annual variation of mean seawater temperature during 40 days before the spawning day. The male-female ratio (male:female) at the spawning ground was ca. 3:1 for three years (May 2012, May 2014 and May 2015) whereas >13:1 for one year (May 2013). Significant positive relationships between male density and female density were found at the aggregation sites. It is suggested that E. ongus use aggregation sites with greater current velocity to reduce the risk of egg predation and seawater temperature is one of the main factors that is responsible for determining the degree of aggregation. It is also suggested that females possibly select sites with a greater density of males and this selection behavior might be the reason why females arrived at the spawning ground after the arrival of the males. For effective management of

  7. Spawning aggregation of white-streaked grouper Epinephelus ongus: spatial distribution and annual variation in the fish density within a spawning ground

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Taku; Kawabata, Yuuki; Okuyama, Junichi

    2017-01-01

    White-streaked grouper (Epinephelus ongus) is an important fisheries target and forms spawning aggregations at particular spawning grounds. The aims of the present study were to investigate the ecological characteristics of annual spawning aggregations such as (1) spatial variations in the density of E. ongus at the spawning ground, (2) the relationship between fish density and environmental variables, (3) inter-annual variations in the spawning aggregation, (4) the proportion of males to females at the spawning ground for several days pre—and post-spawning and (5) the relationship between male density and female density at the protected spawning ground, based on observations over five years at an Okinawan coral reef. Although the protected spawning ground area was large (ca. 2,500 m × 700 m), high density of E. ongus (over 25 individuals per 100 m2) was found in a limited area (within c.a. 750 m × 50 m). Current velocity and coverage of rocks had significant positive effects on the spatial distribution of E. ongus at the spawning ground. Inter-annual variation in the degree of aggregation was found and this variation was explained by the annual variation of mean seawater temperature during 40 days before the spawning day. The male–female ratio (male:female) at the spawning ground was ca. 3:1 for three years (May 2012, May 2014 and May 2015) whereas >13:1 for one year (May 2013). Significant positive relationships between male density and female density were found at the aggregation sites. It is suggested that E. ongus use aggregation sites with greater current velocity to reduce the risk of egg predation and seawater temperature is one of the main factors that is responsible for determining the degree of aggregation. It is also suggested that females possibly select sites with a greater density of males and this selection behavior might be the reason why females arrived at the spawning ground after the arrival of the males. For effective management of

  8. Evaluation of chlorine dioxide based product as a hatchery sanitizer.

    PubMed

    Maharjan, P; Cox, S; Gadde, U; Clark, F D; Bramwell, K; Watkins, S E

    2016-12-05

    Formaldehyde is commonly used to overcome contaminants introduced by hatching eggs or water supply in the hatcher cabinets. However, health risks associated with its use make economical alternatives important. This project evaluated a chlorine dioxide based product (CDBP) (0.3% concentrate) as a hatchery sanitizer in decontaminating microbial populations on the shell surface of hatching eggs (>18 d old), as well as its impact on hatchability and chick performance. Hatchers (0.20 m(2)) designed to hold approximately 50 eggs and equipped with circulation fans, heaters, and thermostats were used for the evaluation. For each of the 2 trials conducted, 450 hatching eggs were obtained and incubated in a common setter. Eggs used in trial 1 were floor eggs whereas in trial 2 nest eggs were used. On d 18 of incubation, eggs were removed from the setter, and viable eggs were randomly allocated to 9 hatchers. Pre-treatment egg rinse samples (10 eggs per hatcher) were collected for initial microbial analysis. Three hatchers were treated with CDBP and 3 hatchers with a formaldehyde based product (FBP). Three untreated hatchers served as control (C). Prior to hatch, 10 eggs/incubator, not previously rinsed, were used for post treatment microbial counts. The hatched chicks were reared until d 21 in floor pens with a common starter diet. For the CDBP treated eggs, hatchability and chick performance (weight gains, mortality, and FCR on d 7 and d 21) were similar to the other treatments. The application rate of CDBP evaluated in this study was not an effective antimicrobial alternative to formaldehyde for sanitizing hatching eggs in hatcher cabinets prior to hatch.

  9. Influence of plankton concentration on gametogenesis and spawning of the black lip pearl oyster Pinctada margaritifera in Ahe atoll lagoon (Tuamotu Archipelago, French polynesia).

    PubMed

    Fournier, Jonathan; Levesque, Emmanuelle; Pouvreau, Stephane; Le Pennec, Marcel; Le Moullac, Gilles

    2012-01-01

    Pearl culture industry represents one of the dominant business sector of French Polynesia. However, it still entirely relies on unpredictable spat collection success. Our aim was to assess the influence of natural plankton concentration fluctuations on maturation and spawning of the black lip pearl oyster Pinctada margaritifera, during a 4 months survey conducted in Ahe atoll lagoon. Plankton concentration was assessed by chlorophyll a extraction and by microscope counts while gonadic index, gonado-visceral dry weights and histology were used to measure pearl oysters reproduction activity. We found that (i) plankton concentration fluctuations were mainly related to wind regime, (ii) gametogenesis rate was mainly related to plankton concentration, (iii) spawning occurred when maximal gonad storage was reached, (iv) plankton concentration was the main spawning synchronizing factor. These results contribute explaining P. margaritifera spat collection variability in French Polynesian atoll lagoon.

  10. Variation in feeding, aggression, and position choice between hatchery and wild cutthroat trout in an artificial stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mesa, Matthew G.

    1991-01-01

    I compared feeding, aggressive behavior, and spatial distribution of differently ranked individuals of hatchery and wild coastal cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki clarki in an artificial stream. Both hatchery and wild groups established stable dominance hierarchies that seemed to be based on size differences. Hatchery and wild fish within a hierarchical rank fed at similar rates. Hatchery fish were more aggressive than their wild conspecifics, irrespective of rank. Dominant hatchery fish were evenly distributed in pools and riffles, whereas dominant wild fish were three times more often in pools than in riffles. In both groups, socially intermediate fish were almost evenly distributed between pools and riffles, and subordinate fish spent most of their time in pools. On average, hatchery fish spent 57% of their time in pools and 43% in riffles, whereas wild fish spent 71% of their time in pools and 29% in riffles. These results support the hypothesis that excessive expenditure of energy for unnecessary aggression, use of fast-flowing water, or other purposes contributes to poor survival of hatchery fish after they are stocked in streams. Poor survival would reduce the efficacy of using hatchery stocks to supplement wild production.

  11. Incidence of Renibacterium salmoninarum infections in juvenile hatchery spring chinook salmon in the Columbia and Snake Rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maule, A.G.; Rondorf, D.W.; Beeman, J.W.; Haner, P.V.

    1996-01-01

    From 1988 through 1992, we assessed the prevalence (frequency of occurrence) and severity (degree of infection) of Renibacterium salmoninarum (RS) among fish in marked groups of Columbia River basin and Snake River basin hatchery spring chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha before release and during their seaward migration. During the study, prevalence of RS infection decreased (from >90% to <65%) in six of the eight hatchery groups. We attributed this decrease to changes in hatchery practices that reduced vertical and horizontal transmission. Fish from Snake River hatcheries had a higher prevalence of infection when sampled at dams (mean >90%) than in the hatchery (mean <70%), but there were no differences in similar comparisons of Columbia River fish. Although prevalence and severity of RS infection were not correlated in the groups studied, it appears that fish from the Snake River were more severely infected than those from the Columbia River. Some groups of Snake River fish had higher severity of infection at dams than in the hatchery, but infection in fish from Columbia River hatcheries did not change. These differences between Snake River and Columbia River fish might have resulted from differences in river conditions and the distances from hatcheries to dams.

  12. Modeling the spawning strategies and larval survival of the Brazilian sardine (Sardinella brasiliensis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, Daniela Faggiani; Pezzi, Luciano Ponzi; Gherardi, Douglas Francisco Marcolino; Camargo, Ricardo

    2014-04-01

    An Individual Based Model (IBM), coupled with a hydrodynamic model (ROMS), was used to investigate the spawning strategies and larval survival of the Brazilian Sardine in the South Brazil Bight (SBB). ROMS solutions were compared with satellite and field data to assess their representation of the physical environment. Two spawning experiments were performed for the summer along six years, coincident with ichthyoplankton survey cruises. In the first one, eggs were released in spawning habitats inferred from a spatial model. The second experiment simulated a random spawning to test the null hypothesis that there are no preferred spawning sites. Releasing eggs in the predefined spawning habitats increases larval survival, suggesting that the central-southern part of the SBB is more suitable for larvae development because of its thermodynamic characteristics. The Brazilian sardine is also capable of exploring suitable areas for spawning, according to the interannual variability of the SBB. The influence of water temperature, the presence of Cape Frio upwelling, and surface circulation on the spawning process was tested. The Cape Frio upwelling plays an important role in the modulation of Brazilian sardine spawning zones over SBB because of its lower than average water temperature. This has a direct influence on larval survival and on the interannual variability of the Brazilian sardine spawning process. The hydrodynamic condition is crucial in determining the central-southern part of SBB as the most suitable place for spawning because it enhances simulated coastal retention of larvae.

  13. Standardized seawater rearing of chinook salmon smolts to evaluate hatchery practices showed low statistical power

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Palmisano, Aldo N.; Elder, N.E.

    2001-01-01

    We examined, under standardized conditions, seawater survival of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha at the smolt stage to evaluate the experimental hatchery practices applied to their rearing. The experimental rearing practices included rearing fish at different densities; attempting to control bacterial kidney disease with broodstock segregation, erythromycin injection, and an experimental diet; rearing fish on different water sources; and freeze branding the fish. After application of experimental rearing practices in hatcheries, smolts were transported to a rearing facility for about 2-3 months of seawater rearing. Of 16 experiments, 4 yielded statistically significant differences in seawater survival. In general we found that high variability among replicates, plus the low numbers of replicates available, resulted in low statistical power. We recommend including four or five replicates and using ?? = 0.10 in 1-tailed tests of hatchery experiments to try to increase the statistical power to 0.80.

  14. Assessment of High Rates of Precocious Male Maturation in a Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Hatchery Program, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, Donald; Beckman, Brian; Cooper, Kathleen

    2003-08-01

    The Yakima River Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Project in Washington State is currently one of the most ambitious efforts to enhance a natural salmon population in the United States. Over the past five years we have conducted research to characterize the developmental physiology of naturally- and hatchery-reared wild progeny spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Yakima River basin. Fish were sampled at the main hatchery in Cle Elum, at remote acclimation sites and, during smolt migration, at downstream dams. Throughout these studies the maturational state of all fish was characterized using combinations of visual and histological analysis of testes, gonadosomatic index (GSI), and measurement of plasma 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT). We established that a plasma 11-KT threshold of 0.8 ng/ml could be used to designate male fish as either immature or precociously maturing approximately 8 months prior to final maturation (1-2 months prior to release as 'smolts'). Our analyses revealed that 37-49% of the hatchery-reared males from this program undergo precocious maturation at 2 years of age and a proportion of these fish appear to residualize in the upper Yakima River basin throughout the summer. An unnaturally high incidence of precocious male maturation may result in loss of potential returning anadromous adults, skewing of female: male sex ratios, ecological, and genetic impacts on wild populations and other native species. Precocious male maturation is significantly influenced by growth rate at specific times of year and future studies will be conducted to alter maturation rates through seasonal growth rate manipulations.

  15. Does small-bodied salmon spawning activity enhance streambed mobility?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Marwan A.; Tonina, Daniele; Buxton, Todd H.

    2015-09-01

    Female salmonids bury and lay their eggs in streambeds by digging a pit, which is then covered with sediment from a second pit that is dug immediately upstream. The spawning process alters streambed topography, winnows fine sediment, and mixes sediment in the active layer. The resulting egg nests (redds) contain coarser and looser sediments than those of unspawned streambed areas, and display a dune-like shape with an amplitude and length that vary with fish size, substrate conditions, and flow conditions. Redds increase local bed surface roughness (<10-1 channel width, W), but may reduce the size of macro bedforms by eroding reach-scale topography (100-101W). Research has suggested that spawning may increase flow resistance due to redd form drag, resulting in lower grain shear stress and less particle mobility. Spawning, also prevents streambed armoring by mixing surface and subsurface material, potentially increasing particle mobility. Here we use two-dimensional hydraulic modeling with detailed prespawning and postspawning bathymetries and field observations to test the effect of spawning by small-bodied salmonids on sediment transport. Our results show that topographical roughness from small salmon redds has negligible effects on shear stress at the reach-unit scale, and limited effects at the local scale. Conversely, results indicate sediment mixing reduces armoring and enhances sediment mobility, which increases potential bed load transport by subsequent floods. River restoration in fish-bearing streams should take into consideration the effects of redd excavation on channel stability. This is particularly important for streams that historically supported salmonids and are the focus of habitat restoration actions.

  16. Mainstem Clearwater River Study: Assessment for Salmonid Spawning, Incubation, and Rearing.

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, William P.

    1989-01-01

    Chinook salmon reproduced naturally in the Clearwater River until damming of the lower mainstem in 1927 impeded upstream spawning migrations and decimated the populations. Removal of the Washington Water Power Dam in 1973 reopened upriver passage. This study was initiated to determine the feasibility of re-introducing chinook salmon into the lower mainstem Clearwater River based on the temperature and flow regimes, water quality, substrate, and invertebrate production since the completion of Dworshak Dam in 1972. Temperature data obtained from the United States Geological Survey gaging stations at Peck and Spalding, Idaho, were used to calculate average minimum and maximum water temperature on a daily, monthly and yearly basis. The coldest and warmest (absolute minimum and maximum) temperatures that have occurred in the past 15 years were also identified. Our analysis indicates that average lower mainstem Clearwater River water temperatures are suitable for all life stages of chinook salmon, and also for steelhead trout rearing. In some years absolute maximum water temperatures in late summer may postpone adult staging and spawning. Absolute minimum temperatures have been recorded that could decrease overwinter survival of summer chinook juveniles and fall chinook eggs depending on the quality of winter hiding cover and the prevalence of intra-gravel freezing in the lower mainstem Clearwater River.

  17. Modeling River Hydrologic Regime and Spawning of Migratory Catfishes in Southeastern Peruvian Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canas, C. M.; Waylen, P. R.

    2008-05-01

    Seasonal hydrologic conditions and catfish larvae production were evaluated in the Madre de Dios River in order to determine whether environmental conditions influence the reproductive activity of a group of large, commercially important catfishes, in the Southeastern Peruvian Amazon. A simple stochastic model of floods is presented to describe the influence of the natural high flow regime on observed patterns of catfish larvae release and drifting. Daily river stage records at Puerto Maldonado are related to weekly larval catches to determine the association between flood and spawning events. On the basis of hydroclimatologic characteristics of Andean- Amazon regions, available long-term historical rainfall records are employed to approximate the likely inter- annual variability of floods within this Amazon headwater basin. Major larval drift appeared associated with stages of over the 5 m, or "Biologic Hydrologic Significant Events" (BSE), which act as triggers, or a reasonable surrogates, for spawning responses of these species. The timing of BSEs, estimated from the historical rainfall records, appear to be uniformly distributed during the rain season and their inter-arrival times exponential. These observations provided the basis of the stochastic model describing the likelihood of volumes of larvae releases from the headwater region to lowland Amazon. The ecologically significant role of the hydroclimatology of this region in the complete life cycle of this important Amazon fish resource is illustrated.

  18. Ammonia disinfection of hatchery waste for elimination of single-stranded RNA viruses.

    PubMed

    Emmoth, Eva; Ottoson, Jakob; Albihn, Ann; Belák, Sándor; Vinnerås, Björn

    2011-06-01

    Hatchery waste, an animal by-product of the poultry industry, needs sanitation treatment before further use as fertilizer or as a substrate in biogas or composting plants, owing to the potential presence of opportunistic pathogens, including zoonotic viruses. Effective sanitation is also important in viral epizootic outbreaks and as a routine, ensuring high hygiene standards on farms. This study examined the use of ammonia at different concentrations and temperatures to disinfect hatchery waste. Inactivation kinetics of high-pathogenic avian influenza virus H7N1 and low-pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N3, as representatives of notifiable avian viral diseases, were determined in spiked hatchery waste. Bovine parainfluenza virus type 3, feline coronavirus, and feline calicivirus were used as models for other important avian pathogens, such as Newcastle disease virus, infectious bronchitis virus, and avian hepatitis E virus. Bacteriophage MS2 was also monitored as a stable indicator. Coronavirus was the most sensitive virus, with decimal reduction (D) values of 1.2 and 0.63 h after addition of 0.5% (wt/wt) ammonia at 14 and 25°C, respectively. Under similar conditions, high-pathogenic avian influenza H7N1 was the most resistant, with D values of 3.0 and 1.4 h. MS2 was more resistant than the viruses to all treatments and proved to be a suitable indicator of viral inactivation. The results indicate that ammonia treatment of hatchery waste is efficient in inactivating enveloped and naked single-stranded RNA viruses. Based on the D values and confidence intervals obtained, guidelines for treatment were proposed, and one was successfully validated at full scale at a hatchery, with MS2 added to hatchery waste.

  19. Endocrine and physiological changes in Atlantic salmon smolts following hatchery release

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCormick, S.D.; O'Dea, M. F.; Moeckel, Amy M.; Bjornsson, Bjorn Thrandur

    2003-01-01

    Physiological and endocrine changes during smolt development were examined in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) reared and released as part of a restoration program on the Connecticut River and its tributaries. Fish were reared in a cold water hatchery in Pittsford, VT and released into the Farmington River, CT (a major tributary of the Connecticut River) or into 'imprint ponds' fed by the Farmington River. Smelts were recaptured 10-20 days after their release at a smolt bypass facility 16 km downstream of their release site. Fish sampled at the hatchery from January to May had only moderate smolt development based on salinity tolerance, gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity and hormone profiles. In contrast, smolts released into the river or imprint ponds had higher salinity tolerance, gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity, plasma growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and thyroxine than smolts that remained in the hatchery. These physiological and endocrine changes were nearly identical to those of smolts that had been released into the river 2 years earlier as fry and were captured as active migrants at the same bypass facility (stream-reared smolts). The stomach contents as a percent of body weight (primarily aquatic insects) varied greatly among individuals and were greater in hatchery-reared fish than stream-reared smolts. Results from the rearing of hatchery fish at temperatures similar to that of the Farmington River indicate that some of the physiological changes may be due to increased temperature after release, though other factors may also be involved. The results indicate that substantial physiological smolt development can occur after hatchery release, coincident with downstream migration. ?? 2003 Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  20. Twilight spectral dynamics and the coral reef invertebrate spawning response.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Alison M; Boch, Charles A; Johnsen, Sonke; Morse, Daniel E

    2011-03-01

    There are dramatic and physiologically relevant changes in both skylight color and intensity during evening twilight as the pathlength of direct sunlight through the atmosphere increases, ozone increasingly absorbs long wavelengths and skylight becomes increasingly blue shifted. The moon is above the horizon at sunset during the waxing phase of the lunar cycle, on the horizon at sunset on the night of the full moon and below the horizon during the waning phase. Moonlight is red shifted compared with daylight, so the presence, phase and position of the moon in the sky could modulate the blue shifts during twilight. Therefore, the influence of the moon on twilight color is likely to differ somewhat each night of the lunar cycle, and to vary especially rapidly around the full moon, as the moon transitions from above to below the horizon during twilight. Many important light-mediated biological processes occur during twilight, and this lunar effect may play a role. One particularly intriguing biological event tightly correlated with these twilight processes is the occurrence of mass spawning events on coral reefs. Therefore, we measured downwelling underwater hyperspectral irradiance on a coral reef during twilight for several nights before and after the full moon. We demonstrate that shifts in twilight color and intensity on nights both within and between evenings, immediately before and after the full moon, are correlated with the observed times of synchronized mass spawning, and that these optical phenomena are a biologically plausible cue for the synchronization of these mass spawning events.

  1. Influence of habitat characteristics on shore-spawning kokanee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitlock, Steven L.; Quist, Michael; Dux, Andrew M.

    2014-01-01

    Sockeye Salmon Oncorhynchus nerka and kokanee (lacustrine Sockeye Salmon) commonly spawn in both lentic and lotic environments; however, the habitat requirements of shore spawners are virtually unknown relative to those of stream spawners. A laboratory experiment and an in situ incubation study were conducted to better understand the influence of habitat characteristics on the shoreline incubation success of kokanee. The laboratory experiment assessed kokanee intragravel survival, fry emergence, and fry condition in response to eight substrate treatments. The in situ study, conducted at three major shoreline spawning sites in Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho, evaluated the effect of depth, substrate composition, dissolved oxygen, shoreline slope, and groundwater on intragravel survival. Substrate size composition was generally a poor predictor of survival in both the laboratory experiment and in situ study; although, fry condition and counts of emerged fry in the laboratory were lowest for the substrate treatment that had the highest proportion of fine sediment. Results of the in situ study suggest that groundwater flow plays an important role in enhancing intragravel survival in habitats generally considered unsuitable for spawning.

  2. Salmon spawning migration: metabolic shifts and environmental triggers.

    PubMed

    Miller, Kristina M; Schulze, Angela D; Ginther, Norma; Li, Shaorong; Patterson, David A; Farrell, Anthony P; Hinch, Scott G

    2009-06-01

    A large-scale functional genomics study revealed shifting metabolic processes in white muscle during the final 1300 km migration of wild sockeye salmon to their spawning grounds in the Fraser River, British Columbia. In 2006, Lower Adams stock sockeye salmon ceased feeding after passing the Queen Charlotte Islands, 850 km from the Fraser River. Enhanced protein turnover and reduced transcription of actin, muscle contractile and heme-related proteins were early starvation responses in saltwater. Arrival to the estuarine environment triggered massive protein turnover through induction of proteasomal and lysosomal proteolysis and protein biosynthesis, and a shift from anaerobic glycolysis to oxidative phosphorylation. Response to entry into freshwater was modest, with up-regulation of heat shock proteins and nitric oxide biosynthesis. High river temperatures resulted in a strong defense/immune response and high mortalities in 50% of fish. Arrival to the spawning grounds triggered further up-regulation of oxidative phosphorylation and proteolysis, down-regulation of protein biosynthesis and helicase activity, and continued down-regulation of muscle proteins and most glycolytic enzymes. However, sharp up-regulation of PFK-I indicated induction of glycolytic potential at the spawning grounds. The identification of potential environmental cues triggering genome-wide transcriptional shifts in white muscle associated with migration and the strong activation of proteasomal proteolysis were both novel findings.

  3. Spawning salmon and the phenology of emergence in stream insects

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Jonathan W.; Schindler, Daniel E.

    2010-01-01

    Phenological dynamics are controlled by environmental factors, disturbance regimes and species interactions that alter growth or mortality risk. Ecosystem engineers can be a key source of disturbance, yet their effects on the phenologies of co-occurring organisms are virtually unexplored. We investigated how the abundance of a dominant ecosystem engineer, spawning sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), alters the emergence phenology of stream insects. In streams with high densities of salmon, peak insect emergence occurred in early July, immediately prior to salmon spawning. By contrast, peak insect emergence in streams with low densities of salmon was weeks later and more protracted. The emergence of specific taxa was also significantly related to salmon density. A common rearing experiment revealed that differences in emergence timing are maintained in the absence of spawning salmon. We hypothesize that these patterns are probably driven by predictable and severe disturbance from nest-digging salmon driving local adaptation and being a trait filter of insect emergence. Thus, salmon regulate the timing and duration of aquatic insect emergence, a cross-ecosystem flux from streams to riparian systems. PMID:20129980

  4. Spring Outmigration of Wild and Hatchery Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Trout Smolts from the Imnaha River; 1994 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Ashe, Becky L.; Miller, Alan C.; Kucera, Paul A.

    1995-01-01

    In 1994, the Nez Perce Tribe began a smolt monitoring study on the Imnaha River in cooperation with the Fish Passage Center (FPC). A rotary screw trap was used to collect emigrating wild and hatchery chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) smolts from March 1 to June 15, 1994. We PIT tagged and released 956 wild chinook salmon, 661 hatchery chinook salmon, 1,432 wild steelhead trout and 2,029 hatchery steelhead trout. Cumulative interrogation rates at mainstem Snake and Columbia River dams were 62.2% for wild chinook salmon, 45.2% for hatchery chinook salmon, 51.3% for wild steelhead trout, and 34.3% for hatchery steelhead trout.

  5. Spring Outmigration of Wild and Hatchery Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Trout Smolts from the Imnaha River, Oregon; 1996 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Blenden, Michael L.; Rocklage, Stephen J.; Kucera, Paul A.

    1997-04-01

    For the third consecutive year, the Nez Perce Tribe, in conjunction with the Fish Passage Center, participated in the smolt monitoring program in the Imnaha River. A rotary screw trap was used to collect emigrating wild and hatchery chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) smolts from February 23 to June 24, 1996. A total of 1,797 wild chinook salmon, 11,896 hatchery chinook salmon, 3,786 wild steelhead trout, and 31,094 hatchery steelhead trout smolts were captured during outmigration studies on the Imnaha River in 1996. Mortality associated with trapping, handling and tagging was low, being 1.4% for wild chinook, 0.18% for hatchery chinook, 0.21% for wild steelhead and 0.28% for hatchery steelhead trout smolts.

  6. Discovery of a spawning ground reveals diverse migration strategies in Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus)

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, David E.; Marancik, Katrin E.; Guyon, Jeffrey R.; Lutcavage, Molly E.; Galuardi, Benjamin; Lam, Chi Hin; Walsh, Harvey J.; Wildes, Sharon; Yates, Douglas A.; Hare, Jonathan A.

    2016-01-01

    Atlantic bluefin tuna are a symbol of both the conflict between preservationist and utilitarian views of top ocean predators, and the struggle to reach international consensus on the management of migratory species. Currently, Atlantic bluefin tuna are managed as an early-maturing eastern stock, which spawns in the Mediterranean Sea, and a late-maturing western stock, which spawns in the Gulf of Mexico. However, electronic tagging studies show that many bluefin tuna, assumed to be of a mature size, do not visit either spawning ground during the spawning season. Whether these fish are spawning in an alternate location, skip-spawning, or not spawning until an older age affects how vulnerable this species is to anthropogenic stressors including exploitation. We use larval collections to demonstrate a bluefin tuna spawning ground in the Slope Sea, between the Gulf Stream and northeast United States continental shelf. We contend that western Atlantic bluefin tuna have a differential spawning migration, with larger individuals spawning in the Gulf of Mexico, and smaller individuals spawning in the Slope Sea. The current life history model, which assumes only Gulf of Mexico spawning, overestimates age at maturity for the western stock. Furthermore, individual tuna occupy both the Slope Sea and Mediterranean Sea in separate years, contrary to the prevailing view that individuals exhibit complete spawning-site fidelity. Overall, this complexity of spawning migrations questions whether there is complete independence in the dynamics of eastern and western Atlantic bluefin tuna and leads to lower estimates of the vulnerability of this species to exploitation and other anthropogenic stressors. PMID:26951668

  7. Discovery of a spawning ground reveals diverse migration strategies in Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus).

    PubMed

    Richardson, David E; Marancik, Katrin E; Guyon, Jeffrey R; Lutcavage, Molly E; Galuardi, Benjamin; Lam, Chi Hin; Walsh, Harvey J; Wildes, Sharon; Yates, Douglas A; Hare, Jonathan A

    2016-03-22

    Atlantic bluefin tuna are a symbol of both the conflict between preservationist and utilitarian views of top ocean predators, and the struggle to reach international consensus on the management of migratory species. Currently, Atlantic bluefin tuna are managed as an early-maturing eastern stock, which spawns in the Mediterranean Sea, and a late-maturing western stock, which spawns in the Gulf of Mexico. However, electronic tagging studies show that many bluefin tuna, assumed to be of a mature size, do not visit either spawning ground during the spawning season. Whether these fish are spawning in an alternate location, skip-spawning, or not spawning until an older age affects how vulnerable this species is to anthropogenic stressors including exploitation. We use larval collections to demonstrate a bluefin tuna spawning ground in the Slope Sea, between the Gulf Stream and northeast United States continental shelf. We contend that western Atlantic bluefin tuna have a differential spawning migration, with larger individuals spawning in the Gulf of Mexico, and smaller individuals spawning in the Slope Sea. The current life history model, which assumes only Gulf of Mexico spawning, overestimates age at maturity for the western stock. Furthermore, individual tuna occupy both the Slope Sea and Mediterranean Sea in separate years, contrary to the prevailing view that individuals exhibit complete spawning-site fidelity. Overall, this complexity of spawning migrations questions whether there is complete independence in the dynamics of eastern and western Atlantic bluefin tuna and leads to lower estimates of the vulnerability of this species to exploitation and other anthropogenic stressors.

  8. Spawning Sites of the Japanese Eel in Relation to Oceanographic Structure and the West Mariana Ridge

    PubMed Central

    Aoyama, Jun; Watanabe, Shun; Miller, Michael J.; Mochioka, Noritaka; Otake, Tsuguo; Yoshinaga, Tatsuki; Tsukamoto, Katsumi

    2014-01-01

    The Japanese eel, Anguilla japonica, spawns within the North Equatorial Current that bifurcates into both northward and southward flows in its westward region, so its spawning location and larval transport dynamics seem important for understanding fluctuations in its recruitment to East Asia. Intensive research efforts determined that Japanese eels spawn along the western side of the West Mariana Ridge during new moon periods, where all oceanic life history stages have been collected, including eggs and spawning adults. However, how the eels decide where to form spawning aggregations is unknown because spawning appears to have occurred at various latitudes. A salinity front formed from tropical rainfall was hypothesized to determine the latitude of its spawning locations, but an exact spawning site was only found once by collecting eggs in May 2009. This study reports on the collections of Japanese eel eggs and preleptocephali during three new moon periods in June 2011 and May and June 2012 at locations indicating that the distribution of lower salinity surface water or salinity fronts influence the latitude of spawning sites along the ridge. A distinct salinity front may concentrate spawning south of the front on the western side of the seamount ridge. It was also suggested that eels may spawn at various latitudes within low-salinity water when the salinity fronts appeared unclear. Eel eggs were distributed within the 150–180 m layer near the top of the thermocline, indicating shallow spawning depths. Using these landmarks for latitude (salinity front), longitude (seamount ridge), and depth (top of the thermocline) to guide the formation of spawning aggregations could facilitate finding mates and help synchronize their spawning. PMID:24551155

  9. Environmental and biological cues for spawning in the crown-of-thorns starfish.

    PubMed

    Caballes, Ciemon Frank; Pratchett, Morgan S

    2017-01-01

    Sporadic outbreaks of the coral-eating crown-of-thorns starfish are likely to be due, at least in part, to spatial and temporal variation in reproductive and settlement success. For gonochoric and broadcast spawning species such as crown-of-thorns starfish, spawning synchrony is fundamental for achieving high rates of fertilization. Highly synchronized gamete release within and among distinct populations is typically the result of the entrainment of neurohormonal endogenous rhythms by cues from the environment. In this study, we conducted multiple spawning assays to test the effects of temperature change, reduced salinity and nutrient enrichment of seawater, phytoplankton, gametes (sperm and eggs), and the combined effect of sperm and phytoplankton on the likelihood of spawning in male and female crown-of-thorns starfish. We also investigated sex-specific responses to each of these potential spawning cues. We found that (1) abrupt temperature change (an increase of 4°C) induced spawning in males, but less so in females; (2) males often spawned in response to the presence of phytoplankton, but none of the females spawned in response to these cues; (3) the presence of sperm in the water column induced males and females to spawn, although additive and synergistic effects of sperm and phytoplankton were not significant; and (4) males are more sensitive to the spawning cues tested and most likely spawn prior to females. We propose that environmental cues act as spawning 'inducers' by causing the release of hormones (gonad stimulating substance) in sensitive males, while biological cues (pheromones) from released sperm, in turn, act as spawning 'synchronizers' by triggering a hormonal cascade resulting in gamete shedding by conspecifics. Given the immediate temporal linkage between the timing of spawning and fertilization events, variability in the extent and synchronicity of gamete release will significantly influence reproductive success and may account for

  10. Environmental and biological cues for spawning in the crown-of-thorns starfish

    PubMed Central

    Pratchett, Morgan S.

    2017-01-01

    Sporadic outbreaks of the coral-eating crown-of-thorns starfish are likely to be due, at least in part, to spatial and temporal variation in reproductive and settlement success. For gonochoric and broadcast spawning species such as crown-of-thorns starfish, spawning synchrony is fundamental for achieving high rates of fertilization. Highly synchronized gamete release within and among distinct populations is typically the result of the entrainment of neurohormonal endogenous rhythms by cues from the environment. In this study, we conducted multiple spawning assays to test the effects of temperature change, reduced salinity and nutrient enrichment of seawater, phytoplankton, gametes (sperm and eggs), and the combined effect of sperm and phytoplankton on the likelihood of spawning in male and female crown-of-thorns starfish. We also investigated sex-specific responses to each of these potential spawning cues. We found that (1) abrupt temperature change (an increase of 4°C) induced spawning in males, but less so in females; (2) males often spawned in response to the presence of phytoplankton, but none of the females spawned in response to these cues; (3) the presence of sperm in the water column induced males and females to spawn, although additive and synergistic effects of sperm and phytoplankton were not significant; and (4) males are more sensitive to the spawning cues tested and most likely spawn prior to females. We propose that environmental cues act as spawning ‘inducers’ by causing the release of hormones (gonad stimulating substance) in sensitive males, while biological cues (pheromones) from released sperm, in turn, act as spawning ‘synchronizers’ by triggering a hormonal cascade resulting in gamete shedding by conspecifics. Given the immediate temporal linkage between the timing of spawning and fertilization events, variability in the extent and synchronicity of gamete release will significantly influence reproductive success and may account for

  11. Multispecies spawning sites for fishes on a low-latitude coral reef: spatial and temporal patterns.

    PubMed

    Claydon, J A B; McCormick, M I; Jones, G P

    2014-04-01

    Spawning sites used by one or more species were located by intensively searching nearshore coral reefs of Kimbe Bay (New Britain, Papua New Guinea). Once identified, the spawning sites were surveyed repeatedly within fixed 5 m radius circular areas, for  > 2000 h of observations ranging from before dawn to after dusk spanning 190 days between July 2001 and May 2004. A total of 38 spawning sites were identified on the seven study reefs distributed at an average of one site every 60 m of reef edge. Pelagic spawning was observed in 41 fish species from six families. On three intensively studied reefs, all 17 spawning sites identified were used by at least three species, with a maximum of 30 different species observed spawning at a single site. Spawning was observed during every month of the study, on all days of the lunar month, at all states of the tide and at most hours of the day studied. Nevertheless, the majority of species were observed spawning on proportionately more days from December to April, on more days around the new moon and in association with higher tides. The strongest temporal association, however, was with species-specific diel spawning times spanning < 3 h for most species. While dawn spawning, afternoon spawning and dusk spawning species were differentiated, the time of spawning for the striated surgeonfish Ctenochaetus striatus also differed significantly among sites. The large number of species spawning at the same restricted locations during predictable times suggests that these sites are extremely important on this low-latitude coral reef.

  12. Population recovery and natural recruitment of lake trout at Gull Island Shoal, Lake Superior, 1964-1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schram, Stephen T.; Selgeby, James H.; Bronte, Charles R.; Swanson, Bruce L.

    1995-01-01

    We documented an increase in the abundance of wild lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) at Gull Island Shoal in western Lake Superior and examined the relationship between parental-stock size and recruitment of age-0 fish in 1964–1992. Abundance of adult wild female lake trout and densities of age-0 fish both increased during the 28-year period. A significant positive, linear relationship (P = 0.0002) was found between the abundance of wild females on the spawning reef in the fall and density of age-0 lake trout on adjacent nursery grounds in August and September of the following year. The abundance of hatchery-origin females did not explain significant amounts (P = 0.107) of variation in recruitment. We concluded that most recruitment in 1965–1992 was the result of natural reproduction of wild females. After 28 years of recovery the Gull Island Shoal lake trout population appears to have additional capacity to increase because the stock-recruitment relationship is still linear. Therefore, restoration periods on the order of 30 years may be needed for other lake trout populations in the Great Lakes. We recommend that the refuge established to protect this population be maintained to allow further study of the relationship between parental stock and recruitment, and to provide a major source of recruitment to the lake trout population in the surrounding waters

  13. Simulation of hydraulic characteristics in the white sturgeon spawning habitat of the Kootenai River near Bonners Ferry, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berenbrock, Charles

    2005-01-01

    Hydraulic characterization of the Kootenai River, especially in the white sturgeon spawning habitat reach, is needed by the Kootenai River White Sturgeon Recovery Team to promote hydraulic conditions that improve spawning conditions for the white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) in the Kootenai River. The decreasing population and spawning failure of white sturgeon has led to much concern. Few wild juvenile sturgeons are found in the river today. Determining the location of the transition between backwater and free-flowing water in the Kootenai River is a primary focus for biologists who believe that hydraulic changes at the transition affect the location where the sturgeon choose to spawn. The Kootenai River begins in British Columbia, Canada, and flows through Montana, Idaho, and back into British Columbia. The 65.6-mile reach of the Kootenai River in Idaho was studied. The study area encompasses the white sturgeon spawning reach that has been designated as a critical habitat. A one-dimensional hydraulic-flow model of the study reach was developed, calibrated, and used to develop relations between hydraulic characteristics and water-surface elevation, discharge, velocity, and backwater extent. The model used 164 cross sections, most of which came from a previous river survey conducted in 2002-03. The model was calibrated to water-surface elevations at specific discharges at five gaging stations. Calibrated water-surface elevations ranged from about 1,743 to about 1,759 feet, and discharges used in calibration ranged from 5,000 to 47,500 cubic feet per second. Model calibration was considered acceptable when the difference between measured and simulated water-surface elevations was ?0.15 foot or less. Measured and simulated average velocities also were compared. These comparisons indicated agreement between measured and simulated values. The location of the transition between backwater and free-flowing water was determined using the calibrated model. The model

  14. Sherman Creek Hatchery; Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife Fish Program; 2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Combs, Mitch

    2003-01-01

    Sherman Creek Hatchery's primary objective is the restoration and enhancement of the recreational and subsistence fishery in Lake Roosevelt and Banks Lake. The Sherman Creek Hatchery (SCH) was designed to rear 1.7 million kokanee fry for acclimation and imprinting during the spring and early summer. Additionally, it was designed to trap all available returning adult kokanee during the fall for broodstock operations and evaluations. Since the start of this program, the operations on Lake Roosevelt have been modified to better achieve program goals. The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Spokane Tribe of Indians and the Colville Confederated Tribe form the interagency Lake Roosevelt Hatcheries Coordination Team (LRHCT) which sets goals and objectives for both Sherman Creek and the Spokane Tribal Hatchery and serves to coordinate enhancement efforts on Lake Roosevelt and Banks Lake. The primary changes have been to replace the kokanee fingerling program with a yearling (post smolt) program of up to 1,000,000 fish. To construct and operate twenty net pens to handle the increased production. The second significant change was to rear up to 300,000 rainbow trout fingerling at SCH from July through October, for stocking into the volunteer net pens. This enables the Spokane Tribal Hatchery (STH) to rear additional kokanee to further the enhancement efforts on Lake Roosevelt. Current objectives include increased use of native/indigenous stocks where available for propagation into Upper Columbia River Basin Waters. The Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Evaluation Program (LRFEP) is responsible for monitoring and evaluation on the Lake Roosevelt Projects. From 1988 to 1998, the principal sport fishery on Lake Roosevelt has shifted from walleye to include rainbow trout and kokanee salmon (Underwood et al. 1997, Tilson and Scholz 1997). The angler use, harvest rates for rainbow and kokanee and the economic value of the fishery has increased substantially during this 10-year

  15. Short-term physiological responses of wild and hatchery-produced red drum during angling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gallman, E.A.; Isely, J.J.; Tomasso, J.R.; Smith, T.I.J.

    1999-01-01

    Serum cortisol concentrations, plasma glucose concentrations, plasma lactate concentrations, and plasma osmolalities increased in red drum Sciaenops ocellatus (26.0-65.5 cm total length) during angling in estuarine waters (17-33 g/L salinity, 21-31??C). Angling time varied from as fast as possible (10 s) to the point when fish ceased resisting (up to 350 s). The increases in the physiological characteristics were similar in wild and hatchery-produced fish. This study indicates that hatchery-produced red drum may be used in catch-and-release studies to simulate the responses of wild fish.

  16. Recycling ground water in Waushara County, Wisconsin : resource management for cold-water fish hatcheries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Novitzki, R.P.

    1976-01-01

    Other recharge-recycling schemes can also be evaluated. Estimating the recycling efficiency (of recharge ponds, trenches, spreading areas, or irrigated fields) provides a basis for predicting water-level declines, the concentration of conservative ions (conservative in the sense that no reaction other than mixing occurs to change the character of the ion being considered) in the water supply and in the regional ground-water system, and the temperature of the water supply. Hatchery development and management schemes can be chosen to optimize hatchery productivity or minimize operation costs while protecting the ground-water system.

  17. Modeling the response of native steelhead to hatchery supplementation programs in an Idaho River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Byrne, Alan; Bjornn, T.C.; McIntyre, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    A life history model was used to predict the response of native steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss in the Lochsa River, Idaho, to long-term supplementation with hatchery fry and smolts. The four key factors affecting the response of the native fish to a stocking program were (1) the number of native spawners, (2) the number of stocked fish, (3) the number and fitness of progeny from stocked fish, and (4) the amount of mating between hatchery and native fish. Long-term stocking of fry or smolts led to the extinction of native fish in some scenarios. The model can be used to help assess the risks and benefits of proposed stocking programs.

  18. Repeat surveys of spawning cisco (Coregonus artedi) in western Lake Superior: timing, distribution and composition of spawning stocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yule, Daniel L.; Schreiner, Donald R.; Addison, Peter A.; Seider, Michael J.; Evrard, Lori M.; Geving, Steven A.; Quinlan, Henry R.

    2012-01-01

    Acoustic (AC) and midwater trawl (MT) surveys of spawning cisco (Coregonus artedi) in Lake Superior have been combined with commercial yield to estimate exploitation. To time surveys properly, it is important to understand when adults typically arrive at spawning grounds and how numbers change as the spawning season progresses. We conducted repeat autumn surveys during nighttime hours at coastal sites where commercial roe fisheries occur. Spawner densities increased significantly from October to mid-November, but differences measured at sites sampled from mid- to late-November were comparatively small. Spawners occupied the upper 20–30 m of the water column during mid-November before utilizing a wider range of depths by late-November. We compared repeat AC densities to temporal trends of catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) in suspended commercial gillnets and found good agreement within sites. Because different gillnet mesh sizes were used in each roe fishery. CPUE and AC density were poorly correlated among sites. We recommend that future surveys be conducted between mid- and late-November, and that MT gear be used to measure cisco densities in the uppermost 10 m of the water column where AC estimates may be conservative. Given the short temporal window for assessing spawner density, we believe both AC-MT and gillnet surveys will be needed to ensure that harvest of different stocks is kept at a sustainable level.

  19. Pre-spawning parental stress affects channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus reproduction and subsequent progeny performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Routine fish handling procedures associated with seining, selecting, transportation, crowding, weighing, and stripping have shown to cause negative physiological responses to hatchery performance. In teleosts, cortisol is the main corticosteroid released during stress, and hence, plasma cortisol co...

  20. Channel catfish hatchery production efficiency using a vertical-lift incubator the see-saw at various egg loading densities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Channel catfish spawns are typically incubated in ¼-in mesh baskets suspended in water that is agitated with paddles positioned between baskets. We tested a new vertical-lift incubator (the “See-Saw”) to incubate channel catfish spawns. Previous research demonstrated that when loaded with spawns at...

  1. Expression of GnRH genes is elevated in discrete brain loci of chum salmon before initiation of homing behavior and during spawning migration.

    PubMed

    Onuma, Takeshi A; Makino, Keita; Ando, Hironori; Ban, Masatoshi; Fukuwaka, Masa-Aki; Azumaya, Tomonori; Urano, Akihisa

    2010-09-15

    Our previous studies suggested the importance of gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRHs) for initiation of spawning migration of chum salmon, although supporting evidence had been not available from oceanic fish. In farmed masu salmon, the amounts of salmon GnRH (sGnRH) mRNAs in the forebrain increased in the pre-pubertal stage from winter through spring, followed by a decrease toward summer. We thus hypothesized that gene expression for GnRHs in oceanic chum salmon changes similarly, and examined this hypothesis using brain samples from winter chum salmon in the Gulf of Alaska and summer fish in the Bering Sea. They were classified into sexually immature and maturing adults, which had maturing gonads and left the Bering Sea for the natal river by the end of summer. The absolute amounts of GnRH mRNAs were determined by real-time PCRs. The amounts of sGnRH mRNA in the maturing winter adults were significantly larger than those in the maturing summer adults. The amounts of sGnRH and chicken GnRH mRNAs then peaked during upstream migration from the coast to the natal hatchery. Such changes were observed in various brain loci including the olfactory bulb, terminal nerve, ventral telencephalon, nucleus preopticus parvocellularis anterioris, nucleus preopticus magnocellularis and midbrain tegmentum. These results suggest that sGnRH neurons change their activity for gonadal maturation prior to initiation of homing behavior from the Bering Sea. The present study provides the first evidence to support a possible involvement of neuropeptides in the onset of spawning migration.

  2. Relationships between water temperatures and upstream migration, cold water refuge use, and spawning of adult bull trout from the Lostine River, Oregon, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howell, P.J.; Dunham, J.B.; Sankovich, P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding thermal habitat use by migratory fish has been limited by difficulties in matching fish locations with water temperatures. To describe spatial and temporal patterns of thermal habitat use by migratory adult bull trout, Salvelinus confluentus, that spawn in the Lostine River, Oregon, we employed a combination of archival temperature tags, radio tags, and thermographs. We also compared temperatures of the tagged fish to ambient water temperatures to determine if the fish were using thermal refuges. The timing and temperatures at which fish moved upstream from overwintering areas to spawning locations varied considerably among individuals. The annual maximum 7-day average daily maximum (7DADM) temperatures of tagged fish were 16-18 ??C and potentially as high as 21 ??C. Maximum 7DADM ambient water temperatures within the range of tagged fish during summer were 18-25 ??C. However, there was no evidence of the tagged fish using localized cold water refuges. Tagged fish appeared to spawn at 7DADM temperatures of 7-14 ??C. Maximum 7DADM temperatures of tagged fish and ambient temperatures at the onset of the spawning period in late August were 11-18 ??C. Water temperatures in most of the upper Lostine River used for spawning and rearing appear to be largely natural since there has been little development, whereas downstream reaches used by migratory bull trout are heavily diverted for irrigation. Although the population effects of these temperatures are unknown, summer temperatures and the higher temperatures observed for spawning fish appear to be at or above the upper range of suitability reported for the species. Published 2009. This article is a US Governmentwork and is in the public domain in the USA.

  3. Epidemiological characterization of VNNV in hatchery-reared and wild marine fish on Hainan Island, China, and experimental infection of golden pompano (Trachinotus ovatus) juveniles.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hongling; Wen, Weigeng; Su, Youlu; Feng, Juan; Xu, Liwen; Peng, Chao; Guo, Zhixun

    2015-12-01

    The current epidemiological situation of viral nervous necrosis virus (VNNV) on Hainan Island was investigated. A total of 490 hatchery-reared fish and 652 wild fish were sampled for VNNV detection from March 2013 to May 2014. Positive detection rates of 84.53% (153/181) and 0.97 % (3/309) were obtained in diseased and healthy hatchery-reared samples, respectively, by conventional RT-PCR. However, using more-sensitive nested RT-PCR, the positive detection rates in healthy hatchery-reared fish reached up to 64.08% (198/309), suggesting that asymptomatic VNNV carriers commonly exist among larvae and juveniles breeding on Hainan Island. In wild-fish samples, 2.6% (17/652) and 34.2% (223/652) positive detection rates were observed using RT-PCR and nested RT-PCR, respectively, indicating that wild fish may be a potential reservoir for VNNV. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all 52 VNNV isolates from cultured fish belong to the RGNNV genotype, but 2 out of 48 VNNV isolates from wild fish samples were found to be of the SJNNV genotype. This study is the first to confirm the existence of SJNNV-genotype VNNV in China. Golden pompano, an important fish species for culture, was selected as a fish model to investigate the optimal conditions for RGNNV disease progression in artificial infection experiments. The effects of temperature, salinity, and fish size were evaluated. Results showed that 28 °C and 20 ‰ are the optimal infection temperature and salinity, respectively, and golden pompano juveniles with small body sizes are more susceptible to RGNNV. These findings are highly consistent with those conditions involved in the natural outbreak of RGNNV.

  4. Fine-scale natal homing and localized movement as shaped by sex and spawning habitat in chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neville, Helen; Isaak, Daniel; Dunham, J.B.; Thurow, Russel; Rieman, B.

    2006-01-01

    Natal homing is a hallmark of the life history of salmonid fishes, but the spatial scale of homing within local, naturally reproducing salmon populations is still poorly understood. Accurate homing (paired with restricted movement) should lead to the existence of fine-scale genetic structuring due to the spatial clustering of related individuals on spawning grounds. Thus, we explored the spatial resolution of natal homing using genetic associations among individual Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in an interconnected stream network. We also investigated the relationship between genetic patterns and two factors hypothesized to influence natal homing and localized movements at finer scales in this species, localized patterns in the distribution of spawning gravels and sex. Spatial autocorrelation analyses showed that spawning locations in both sub-basins of our study site were spatially clumped, but the upper sub-basin generally had a larger spatial extent and continuity of redd locations than the lower sub-basin, where the distribution of redds and associated habitat conditions were more patchy. Male genotypes were not autocorrelated at any spatial scale in either sub-basin. Female genotypes showed significant spatial autocorrelation and genetic patterns for females varied in the direction predicted between the two sub-basins, with much stronger autocorrelation in the sub-basin with less continuity in spawning gravels. The patterns observed here support predictions about differential constraints and breeding tactics between the two sexes and the potential for fine-scale habitat structure to influence the precision of natal homing and localized movements of individual Chinook salmon on their breeding grounds.

  5. Effects of short periods of warm water fluctuations on reproductive endocrine axis of the pejerrey (Odontesthes bonariensis) spawning.

    PubMed

    Elisio, Mariano; Chalde, Tomás; Miranda, Leandro A

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess fluctuations in daily water temperature in Chascomús Lagoon during one year, and to evaluate whether the highest temperature recorded during pejerrey spawning season can produce an endocrine disruption on brain-pituitary-gonads axis. Fish were subjected to daily temperature fluctuations: 17 °C to 19 °C (reproductive control), 19 °C to 25 °C, and 19 °C to 27 °C. After 8 days, ten fish per treatment were sacrificed and gene expression of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH-I, GnRH-II, GnRH-III), gonadotropin subunits-β (FSH-β, LH-β), glycoprotein hormone-α (GPH-α), gonadotropin receptors (FSH-R, LH-R), and gonadal aromatase (cyp19a1a) was analyzed. Also, plasma levels of sexual steroids and gonadal reproductive status were studied. Fish exposed to high temperature fluctuations quit spawning, presenting clear signs of gonadal regression. Fish recovered its spawning activity 11 weeks after heat treatment. At endocrine level, GnRH-I and FSH-β in both sexes, LH-β and GPH-α in males and FSH-R, LH-R and cyp19a1a in females decreased significantly in treated fish. Also, a strong reduction in plasma sex steroid levels was found for both sexes. This study demonstrated that pulses of warm water in natural environment during pejerrey spawning season can disrupt all levels of the reproductive axis, impairing reproduction.

  6. Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife Fish Program Hatcheries Division: Ford Hatchery, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Mike; Polacek, Matt; Knuttgen, Kamia

    2002-11-01

    will also evaluate the success of several rearing and stocking strategies for hatchery kokanee in Banks Lake.

  7. Disease management strategies for shellfish aquaculture: the important role of hatcheries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Disease management is a critical component of the successful production of bivalves. Infections by bacterial pathogens can cause rapid mortality of shellfish larvae with devastating consequences for both the hatcheries and the farmers that rely upon them. Furthermore, several bacterial and parasiti...

  8. Energy and resource consumption of land-based hatchery systems for finfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The early rearing of most marine species will be land-based because of the need for precise control of the rearing environment. This chapter evaluates the resource and energy requirements of six different types of land-based, hatchery production systems: flow-through with a gravity water supply, flo...

  9. Hatchery mortalities of larval oysters caused by Vibrio tubiashii and Vibrio coralliilyticus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hatchery production of bivalve shellfish has been hampered by the occasional presence of opportunistic pathogens, particularly Vibrio coralliilyticus and Vibrio tubiashii. The present study reports the results of several avenues of research to better define these pathogens and the roles they play i...

  10. 50 CFR 71.11 - Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing. 71.11 Section 71.11 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... distribution of fish or other aquatic animal life....

  11. 50 CFR 71.11 - Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing. 71.11 Section 71.11 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... distribution of fish or other aquatic animal life....

  12. 50 CFR 71.11 - Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing. 71.11 Section 71.11 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... distribution of fish or other aquatic animal life....

  13. 50 CFR 70.3 - State cooperation in national fish hatchery area management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false State cooperation in national fish hatchery area management. 70.3 Section 70.3 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) MANAGEMENT OF FISHERIES CONSERVATION AREAS NATIONAL FISH...

  14. Use of copper sulfate to control Saprolegniasis at a commercial sunshine bass hatchery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An obstacle to sunshine bass (female white bass Morone chrysops × male striped bass M. saxatilis) larval production is fungal growth on eggs caused by the water-mold Saprolegnia spp. Copper sulfate (CuSO4) is commonly used for fungus control in troughs of catfish hatcheries, but the effectiveness o...

  15. Egg saprolegniasis in a commercial sunshine bass hatchery: Control regime developed using copper sulfate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An obstacle to sunshine bass (female white bass Morone chrysops × male striped bass M. saxatilis) larval production is fungal growth on eggs caused by the water-mold Saprolegnia spp. Copper sulfate (CuSO4) is commonly used for fungus control in troughs of catfish hatcheries, but the effectiveness o...

  16. 9 CFR 145.9 - Terminology and classification; hatcheries and dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Terminology and classification; hatcheries and dealers. 145.9 Section 145.9 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN FOR...

  17. 9 CFR 145.9 - Terminology and classification; hatcheries and dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Terminology and classification; hatcheries and dealers. 145.9 Section 145.9 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN FOR...

  18. 9 CFR 145.9 - Terminology and classification; hatcheries and dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terminology and classification; hatcheries and dealers. 145.9 Section 145.9 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN FOR...

  19. 9 CFR 145.9 - Terminology and classification; hatcheries and dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Terminology and classification; hatcheries and dealers. 145.9 Section 145.9 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN FOR...

  20. 9 CFR 145.9 - Terminology and classification; hatcheries and dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Terminology and classification; hatcheries and dealers. 145.9 Section 145.9 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN FOR...

  1. Nutritional supplement of hatchery eggshell membrane improves poultry performance and provides resistance against endotoxin stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eggshells are significant part of hatchery waste which consist of calcium carbonate crust, membranes, and proteins and peptides of embryonic origins along with other entrapped contaminants including microbes. We hypothesized that using this product as a nutritional additive in poultry diet may confe...

  2. Sherman Creek Hatchery; Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife Fish Program, 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Combs, Mitch

    2002-01-01

    Sherman Creek Hatchery's primary objective is the restoration and enhancement of the recreational and subsistence fishery in Lake Roosevelt and Banks Lake. The Sherman Creek Hatchery (SCH) was designed to rear 1.7 million kokanee fry for acclimation and imprinting during the spring and early summer. Additionally, it was designed to trap all available returning adult kokanee during the fall for broodstock operations and evaluations. Since the start of this program, the operations on Lake Roosevelt have been modified to better achieve program goals. The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Spokane Tribe of Indians and the Colville Confederated Tribe form the interagency Lake Roosevelt Hatcheries Coordination Team (LRHCT) which sets goals and objectives for both Sherman Creek and the Spokane Tribal Hatchery and serves to coordinate enhancement efforts on Lake Roosevelt and Banks Lake. The primary changes have been to replace the kokanee fingerling program with a yearling (post smolt) program of up to 1,000,000 fish. To construct and operate twenty net pens to handle the increased production. The second significant change was to rear up to 300,000 rainbow trout fingerling at SCH from July through October, for stocking into the volunteer net pens. This enables the Spokane Tribal Hatchery (STH) to rear additional kokanee to further the enhancement efforts on Lake Roosevelt. Current objectives include increased use of native/indigenous stocks where available for propagation into Upper Columbia River Basin Waters. Monitoring and evaluation is preformed by the Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Monitoring Program. From 1988 to 1998, the principle sport fishery on Lake Roosevelt has shifted from walleye to include rainbow trout and kokanee salmon (Underwood et al. 1997, Tilson and Scholz 1997). The angler use, harvest rates for rainbow and kokanee and the economic value of the fishery has increased substantially during this 10-year period. The most recent information from the

  3. Oxbow Fish Hatchery Snake River Sockeye Salmon Smolt Program, 2008 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Banks, Duane D.

    2009-11-14

    This contract proposal is in response to the Federal Columbia River Power System Biological Opinion Implementation Plan/Update Proposed Action (UPA) associated with increasing the number of Snake River sockeye smolts by 150,000. To accomplish this proposal the cooperation and efforts of three government entities has been planned (e.g., Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), and the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS)). Improvements at the IDFG Eagle Fish Hatchery and NMFS Burley Creek Hatchery will focus on increasing sockeye salmon captive broodstock and egg production. Improvements at the ODFW Oxbow Fish Hatchery will be made to accommodate the incubation, hatching and rearing of 150,000 sockeye salmon smolts for release into Idaho's Sawtooth Valley, Upper Salmon River near IDFG's Sawtooth Fish Hatchery and/or Redfish Lake Creek 1.4 km downstream of Redfish Lake. Modifications to Oxbow Fish Hatchery (ODFW) will include retro-fit existing pond drains so pond cleaning effluent water can be routed to the pollution abatement pond, and modifications to the abatement pond. Also included in this project as an added phase, was the rerouting of the hatchery building effluent water to meet state DEQ guidelines for the use of formalin to treat salmonid eggs. Some additional funding for the described Oxbow Hatchery modifications will come from Mitchell Act Funding. All personnel costs associated with this project will come from Mitchell Act funding. Due to heavy work load issues, being under staffed, and two emergency projects in the spring and summer of 2006, ODFW engineers were not able to complete all plans and get them out for bid in 2006. As a result of these circumstances retro-fitting pond drains and modifications to the abatement pond was carried over into fiscal year 2007-2008. A no cost time extension to the contract was approved by BPA. The format for this report will follow the standard format for Statement

  4. Evaluation of shortnose sturgeon spawning in the Pinopolis Dam tailrace, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duncan, M.S.; Isely, J.J.; Cooke, D.W.

    2004-01-01

    Fifty egg mats and up to five D-shaped plankton nets were deployed in the tailrace of Pinopolis Dam at river kilometer 77 on the Cooper River, South Carolina, to evaluate the spawning activity of shortnose sturgeon Acipenser brevirostrum. Spawning times were estimated by back-calculation based on developmental phase. Eggs were collected on 17 of 21 d sampled continuously from March 4 through March 25, 2002, when water temperatures were 10-16??C. A total of 31 shortnose sturgeon eggs were collected from egg mats. An additional 338 shortnose sturgeon eggs and 1 newly hatched yolk sac larva were collected from plankton nets. A minimum of 20 spawning events occurred in the tailrace during the 2002 spawning season. No relationship between mean daily discharge and spawning date was observed. Shortnose sturgeon spawned more often during the night than at any other time of day independent of generation.

  5. Gametogenesis, spawning and fecundity of Platygyra daedalea (Scleractinia) on equatorial reefs in Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangubhai, S.; Harrison, P. L.

    2008-03-01

    The reproductive ecology of the hermaphroditic broadcast spawning scleractinian reef coral Platygyra daedalea was studied on lagoonal reefs in Kenya. While single annual gametogenic cycles occurred in 84% of colonies, biannual gametogenic cycles were recorded in 16% of colonies and these patterns occurred in two morphotypes. In colonies with a single annual cycle, oogenesis occurred for 6 7 months from September to March and spermatogenesis for 5 months from November to March. In biannually spawning colonies, oogenic cycles overlapped for at least 2 months prior to gamete release. The major spawning period occurred in February and March, with minor spawning also occurring in August October in biannually spawning colonies. Reproductive effort was lower during the minor winter compared to the major summer spawning, with fewer colonies reproducing (12.5 19.2%), not all mesenteries producing oocytes (32.5%) and less than half of the mesenteries with mature oocytes had associated spermaries (48.1%).

  6. Relying on fin erosion to identify hatchery-reared brown trout in a Tennessee river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meerbeek, Jonathan R.; Bettoli, Phillip William

    2012-01-01

    Hatchery-induced fin erosion can be used to identify recently stocked catchable-size brown trout Salmo trutta during annual surveys to qualitatively estimate contributions to a fishery. However, little is known about the longevity of this mark and its effectiveness as a short-term (≤ 1 year) mass-marking technique. We evaluated hatchery-induced pectoral fin erosion as a mass-marking technique for short-term stocking evaluations by stocking microtagged brown trout in a tailwater and repeatedly sampling those fish to observe and measure their pectoral fins. At Dale Hollow National Fish Hatchery, 99.1% (228 of 230) of microtagged brown trout in outdoor concrete raceways had eroded pectoral fins 1 d prior to stocking. Between 34 and 68 microtagged and 26-35 wild brown trout were collected during eight subsequent electrofishing samples. In a blind test based on visual examination of pectoral fins at up to 322 d poststocking, one observer correctly identified 91.7% to 100.0% (mean of 96.9%) of microtagged brown trout prior to checking for microtags. In the laboratory, pectoral fin length and width measurements were recorded to statistically compare the fin measurements of wild and microtagged hatchery brown trout. With only one exception, all pectoral fin measurements on each date averaged significantly larger for wild trout than for microtagged brown trout. Based on the number of pectoral fin measurements falling below 95% prediction intervals, 93.7% (148 of 158) of microtagged trout were correctly identified as hatchery fish based on regression models up to 160 d poststocking. Only 72.2% (70 of 97) of microtagged trout were identified correctly after 160 d based on pectoral fin measurements and the regression models. We concluded that visual examination of pectoral fin erosion was a very effective way to identify stocked brown trout for up to 322 d poststocking.

  7. Documentation of a Gulf sturgeon spawning site on the Yellow River, Alabama, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kreiser, Brian R.; Berg, J.; Randall, M.; Parauka, F.; Floyd, S.; Young, B.; Sulak, Kenneth J.

    2008-01-01

    Parauka and Giorgianni (2002) reported that potential Gulf sturgeon spawning habitat is present in the Yellow River; however, efforts to document spawning by the collection of eggs or larvae have been unsuccessful in the past. Herein, we report on the first successful collection of eggs from a potential spawning site on the Yellow River and the verification of their identity as Gulf sturgeon by using molecular methods.

  8. Pattern of shoreline spawning by sockeye salmon in a glacially turbid lake: evidence for subpopulation differentiation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burger, C.V.; Finn, J.E.; Holland-Bartels, L.

    1995-01-01

    Alaskan sockeye salmon typically spawn in lake tributaries during summer (early run) and along clear-water lake shorelines and outlet rivers during fall (late run). Production at the glacially turbid Tustumena Lake and its outlet, the Kasilof River (south-central Alaska), was thought to be limited to a single run of sockeye salmon that spawned in the lake's clear-water tributaries. However, up to 40% of the returning sockeye salmon enumerated by sonar as they entered the lake could not be accounted for during lake tributary surveys, which suggested either substantial counting errors or that a large number of fish spawned in the lake itself. Lake shoreline spawning had not been documented in a glacially turbid system. We determined the distribution and pattern of sockeye salmon spawning in the Tustumena Lake system from 1989 to 1991 based on fish collected and radiotagged in the Kasilof River. Spawning areas and time were determined for 324 of 413 sockeye salmon tracked upstream into the lake after release. Of these, 224 fish spawned in tributaries by mid-August and 100 spawned along shoreline areas of the lake during late August. In an additional effort, a distinct late run was discovered that spawned in the Kasilof River at the end of September. Between tributary and shoreline spawners, run and spawning time distributions were significantly different. The number of shoreline spawners was relatively stable and independent of annual escapement levels during the study, which suggests that the shoreline spawning component is distinct and not surplus production from an undifferentiated run. Since Tustumena Lake has been fully deglaciated for only about 2,000 years and is still significantly influenced by glacier meltwater, this diversification of spawning populations is probably a relatively recent and ongoing event.

  9. Spawning behavior in Atlantic cod: analysis by use of data storage tags

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grabowski, Timothy B.; Thorsteinsson, Vilhjalmur; Marteinsdóttir, Gudrún

    2014-01-01

     Electronic data storage tags (DSTs) were implanted into Atlantic cod captured in Icelandic waters from 2002 to 2007 and the depth profiles recovered from these tags (females: n = 31, males: n = 27) were used to identify patterns consistent with published descriptions of cod courtship and spawning behavior. The individual periods of time that males spent exhibiting behavior consistent with being present in a spawning aggregation—i.e. periods consisting of a clear tidal signature in the DST depth profile associated with an individual remaining on or near the substrate—were longer than those of females. Over the course of a spawning season, male cod spent approximately twice the amount of time in spawning aggregations than females, but female cod visited more aggregations per unit time. On average, males participated in approximately 57% more putative spawning events, i.e. vertical ascents potentially corresponding to gamete release, than did females. However, males <85 cm total length participated in the same number of putative spawning events as females of comparable size. In both sexes, larger individuals and/or individuals that spent a longer period of time within an aggregation participated in a larger number of putative spawning events. Although further validation and refinement is necessary, particularly in the identification of spawning events, the ability offered by DSTs to quantify cod spawning behavior may aid in the development of management and conservation plans.

  10. Multi-species spawning synchrony within scleractinian coral assemblages in the Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouwmeester, J.; Baird, A. H.; Chen, C. J.; Guest, J. R.; Vicentuan, K. C.; Berumen, M. L.

    2015-03-01

    Early work on coral reproduction in the far northern Red Sea suggested that the spawning times of ecologically abundant species did not overlap, unlike on the Great Barrier Reef where many species spawn with high synchrony. In contrast, recent work in the northern and central Red Sea indicates a high degree of synchrony in the reproductive condition of Acropora species: over 90 % of species sampled in April/May contain mature gametes. However, it has yet to be determined when most Acropora release their gametes. In addition, there is a lack of data for other ecologically important scleractinian species such as merulinids and poritids. Here, we document the date and time of spawning for 51 species in the central Red Sea over three consecutive years, and the month of spawning for an additional 17 species inferred from the presence of mature gametes. Spawning occurs on nights around the full moon, the spawning season lasts at least 4 months from April until July, and observations are consistent with the few other records from the Red Sea. The number of Acropora species spawning was highest in April with 13 species spawning two nights before the full moon in 2011, 13 species spawning on the night of the full moon in 2012, and eight species spawning four nights after the full moon in 2013. The total number of species spawning was high in April, May, and June and involved 15-19 species per month in 2012. Only four species spawned in July 2012. Few regions worldwide have been similarly sampled and include the Philippines, Okinawa in Japan, and Palau, where spawning patterns are very similar to those in the central Red Sea and where corals spawn on nights around the full moon over a period of 3-4 months. In particular, in all four locations, Acropora are among the first species to spawn. Our results add to a growing body of evidence indicating that multi-species spawning synchrony is a feature of all speciose coral assemblages.

  11. Population characteristics of a recovering US Virgin Islands red hind spawning aggregation following protection

    PubMed Central

    Nemeth, Richard S.

    2006-01-01

    Many species of groupers form spawning aggregations, dramatic events where 100s to 1000s of individuals gather annually at specific locations for reproduction. Spawning aggregations are often targeted by local fishermen, making them extremely vulnerable to over fishing. The Red Hind Bank Marine Conservation District located in St. Thomas, United States Virgin Islands, was closed seasonally in 1990 and closed permanently in 1999 to protect an important red hind Epinephelus guttatus spawning site. This study provides some of the first information on the population response of a spawning aggregation located within a marine protected area. Tag-and-release fishing and fish transects were used to evaluate population characteristics and habitat utilization patterns of a red hind spawning aggregation between 1999 and 2004. Compared with studies conducted before the permanent closure, the average size of red hind increased mostly during the seasonal closure period (10 cm over 12 yr), but the maximum total length of male red hind increased by nearly 7 cm following permanent closure. Average density and biomass of spawning red hind increased by over 60% following permanent closure whereas maximum spawning density more than doubled. Information from tag returns indicated that red hind departed the protected area following spawning and migrated 6 to 33 km to a ca. 500 km2 area. Protection of the spawning aggregation site may have also contributed to an overall increase in the size of red hind caught in the commercial fishery, thus increasing the value of the grouper fishery for local fishermen. PMID:16612415

  12. A simple method for selecting spawning-ready individuals out from laboratorial cultured amphioxus population.

    PubMed

    Li, Guang; Wang, Jing; Yuan, Liang; Wang, Hui; Wang, Yi-Quan

    2015-11-01

    Amphioxus is an emerging model organism for evolutionary developmental (Evo-Dev) studies owing to its key phylogenetic position in chordates. However, the rare supply of living embryonic materials is a major drawback for using amphioxus as a laboratorial model animal. Although the problem has been partially resolved in several recent reports, the spawning of amphioxus still remains unpredictable to some extent. In the present study, we reported an accurate method to distinguish spawning-ready and non-spawning-ready individuals of amphioxus Branchiostoma belcheri. In comparison with non-spawning-ready amphioxus, all spawning-ready individuals display following features several hours before their spawning: 1) for both males and females, the interstices between two adjacent gonads are obvious and relatively wide; and 2) the connections among eggs are loose and the crannies appear in each individual ovary of females. These morphological features were also observed in B. japonicum, indicating their conservation among different lancelet species. Based on this observable criterion, we made predictions on the spawning of about 600 ripe B. belcheri individuals and acquired an accuracy of 86.7% for females and 80.4% for males. In addition, we found that advancing or delaying onset of darkness has no detectable effect on the timing of spawning of B. belcheri. Our study makes amphioxus spawning more amenable for our experiments and will greatly facilitate its utilization as a laboratorial model animal.

  13. Use of behavioral and physiological indicators to evaluate Scaphirhynchus sturgeon spawning success

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeLonay, A.J.; Papoulias, D.M.; Wildhaber, M.L.; Annis, M.L.; Bryan, J.L.; Griffith, S.A.; Holan, S.H.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2007-01-01

    Thirty gravid, female shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus) were captured in the Lower Missouri River in March 2004 to evaluate the effectiveness of physiology, telemetry and remote sensor technology coupled with change point analysis in identifying when and where Scaphirhynchus sturgeon spawn. Captured sturgeons were instrumented with ultrasonic transmitters and with archival data storage tags (DST) that recorded temperature and pressure. Female sturgeon were tracked through the suspected spawning period. Thereafter, attempts were made to recapture fish to evaluate spawning success. At the time of transmitter implantation, blood and an ovarian biopsy were taken. Reproductive hormones and cortisol were measured in blood. Polarization indices and germinal vesicle breakdown were assessed on the biopsied oocytes to determine readiness to spawn. Behavioral data collected using telemetry and DST sensors were used to determine the direction and magnitude of possible spawning-related movements and to identify the timing of potential spawning events. Upon recapture observations of the ovaries and blood chemistry provided measures of spawning success and comparative indicators to explain differences in observed behavior. Behavioral and physiological indicators of spawning interpreted along with environmental measures may assist in the determination of variables that may cue sturgeon reproduction and the conditions under which sturgeon successfully spawn.

  14. Coral spawn timing is a direct response to solar light cycles and is not an entrained circadian response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brady, A. K.; Hilton, J. D.; Vize, P. D.

    2009-09-01

    Broadcast spawning corals release gametes into the oceans with extraordinarily accurate timing. While the date of spawning is set by the lunar cycle, the hour/minute of spawning is set by the solar cycle. In this report, we describe experiments that test whether the time of spawning is regulated by an entrained biological clock or whether it is directly controlled by the solar cycle. Montastraea franksi samples were collected on the morning of the predicted spawning. Fragments from colonies were kept under three different lighting conditions and spawning monitored. The three conditions were sunset times of 0, 1 or 2 h earlier than normal. Fragments from the same colony spawned differently under these three conditions, with an early sunset causing a corresponding early shift in spawning. These results indicate that spawn timing is not controlled by a circadian rhythm and that it is directly controlled by local solar light cycle.

  15. Quantification of coral sperm collected during a synchronous spawning event

    PubMed Central

    Teo, Aaron; Guest, James R.; Neo, Mei Lin; Vicentuan, Kareen

    2016-01-01

    Most studies of coral reproductive biology to date have focused on oocyte numbers and sizes. Only one (ex situ) study has enumerated sperm numbers, even though these data have multiple potential applications. We quantified total coral sperm and eggs per gamete bundle collected from six species in situ during a synchronous spawning event in Singapore. Egg-sperm bundles were captured midwater as they floated towards the surface after being released by the colony. For each sample, a semi-transparent soft plastic bottle was squeezed and released to create a small suction force that was used to ‘catch’ the bundles. This technique provided several advantages over traditional methods, including low cost, ease of use, no diving prior to the night of collection needed, and the ability to target specific areas of the colony. The six species sampled were Echinophyllia aspera, Favites abdita, F. chinensis, Merulina ampliata, M. scabricula and Platygyra pini. The mean number of sperm packaged within one egg-sperm bundle ranged from 2.04 × 106 to 1.93 × 107. The mean number of eggs per egg-sperm bundle ranged from 26.67 (SE ± 3.27) to 85.33 (SE ± 17.79). These data are critical for fertilisation success models, but the collection technique described could also be applied to studies requiring in situ spawning data at the polyp level. PMID:27478697

  16. A proposed mechanism for turbulent enhancement of broadcast spawning efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crimaldi, J. P.; Browning, H. S.

    2004-08-01

    The broadcast spawning reproductive strategy relies on turbulent-stirring processes in the flow to bring together gametes previously released by adult males and females. The subsequent fertilization rate depends on the product of co-occurring concentrations of egg and sperm. Turbulent mixing produces a strong average dilution in these concentrations, suggesting that an increase in turbulence would reduce the average local fertilization rate. However, turbulent dilution occurs at time scales that may be long compared to those associated with fertilization. Therefore, the instantaneous structure of egg and sperm filaments at shorter time scales must be considered. In this paper, a mechanism is proposed whereby coherent turbulent structures in the velocity field cause coalescence between high-concentration filaments of egg and sperm, significantly enhancing the average fertilization rate. Simple analytical and numerical models are used to demonstrate how the mechanism works, and to make qualitative estimates of its effect on the resulting fertilization rate. The results suggest that the efficiency of broadcast spawning is a consequence of features in the instantaneous turbulent field, and that this efficiency is not captured by models that consider only time-averaged features of the flow.

  17. Bacterial Acquisition in Juveniles of Several Broadcast Spawning Coral Species

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, Koty H.; Ritchie, Kim B.; Schupp, Peter J.; Ritson-Williams, Raphael; Paul, Valerie J.

    2010-01-01

    Coral animals harbor diverse microorganisms in their tissues, including archaea, bacteria, viruses, and zooxanthellae. The extent to which coral-bacterial associations are specific and the mechanisms for their maintenance across generations in the environment are unknown. The high diversity of bacteria in adult coral colonies has made it challenging to identify species-specific patterns. Localization of bacteria in gametes and larvae of corals presents an opportunity for determining when bacterial-coral associations are initiated and whether they are dynamic throughout early development. This study focuses on the early onset of bacterial associations in the mass spawning corals Montastraea annularis, M. franksi, M. faveolata, Acropora palmata, A. cervicornis, Diploria strigosa, and A. humilis. The presence of bacteria and timing of bacterial colonization was evaluated in gametes, swimming planulae, and newly settled polyps by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using general eubacterial probes and laser-scanning confocal microscopy. The coral species investigated in this study do not appear to transmit bacteria via their gametes, and bacteria are not detectable in or on the corals until after settlement and metamorphosis. This study suggests that mass-spawning corals do not acquire, or are not colonized by, detectable numbers of bacteria until after larval settlement and development of the juvenile polyp. This timing lays the groundwork for developing and testing new hypotheses regarding general regulatory mechanisms that control bacterial colonization and infection of corals, and how interactions among bacteria and juvenile polyps influence the structure of bacterial assemblages in corals. PMID:20526374

  18. Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Project, Operations and Maintenance and Planning and Design, 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, Roy Edward; Walker, Grant W.; Penney, Aaron K.

    2006-03-01

    This report fulfills the contract obligations based on the Statement of Work (SOW) for the project as contracted with Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery (NPTH) Year-2001 annual report combines information from two contracts with a combined value of $2,336,491. They are identified by Bonneville Power Administration as follows: (1) Operations and Maintenance--Project No. 1983-350-00, Contract No. 4504, and (2) Planning and Design--Project No. 1983-350-00, Contract No. 4035. The Operations and Maintenance (O&M) budget of $2,166,110 was divided as follows: Facility Development and Fish Production Costs--$860,463; and Equipment Purchases as capital cost--$1,305,647 for equipment and subcontracts. The Planning and Design (P&D) budget of $170,381 was allocated to development of a Coho master planning document in conjunction with Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery. The O&M budget expenditures represent personnel and fish production expenses; e.g., administration, management, coordination, facility development, personnel training and fish production costs for spring Chinook and Coho salmon. Under Objective 1: Fish Culture Training and Education, tribal staff worked at Clearwater Anadromous Hatchery (CAFH) an Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) facility to produce spring Chinook smolt and parr for release that are intended to provide future broodstock for NPTH. As a training exercise, BPA allowed tribal staff to rear Coho salmon at Dworshak National Fish Hatchery, a U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) facility. This statement of work allows this type of training to prepare tribal staff to later rear salmon at Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery under Task 1.6. As a subset of the O&M budget, the equipment purchase budget of $1,305,647 less $82,080 for subcontracts provides operational and portable equipment necessary for NPTH facilities after construction. The equipment budget for the year was $1,223,567; this year's purchases amounted $287,364.48 (see

  19. Results of a survey of U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species and Ecological Services Field Offices, Refuges, Hatcheries, and Research Centers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gladwin, Douglas N.; Asherin, Duane A.; Manci, Karen M.

    1988-01-01

    The National Ecology Research Center (Center), as part of an ongoing research study on the effects of low altitude aircraft operations on fish and wildlife, conducted a survey in January 1987 of all U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) regional directors, research center directors, Ecological Services and Endangered Species field offices supervisors, refuge manager, and hatchery manager. The objective of the survey was to determine the nature and extent of aircraft-induced impacts on fish and wildlife species, populations, and habitat utilization. The field installation managers and biologists were asked to provide background information or data on fish and wildlife reactions to low-altitude aircraft disturbances, including physiological, behavioral, and reproductive/population effects. Specifically, the survey asked for information such as: (1) observations of animal reaction(s) to aircraft operations, e.g., desert bighorn sheep scare behavior in response to aircraft overflights and hatchery fish seizures and death following intense sonic booms; and instances of areas where aircraft noise is known or believed to be responsible for reduced population size, e.g. areas along heavily used aircraft flight corridors where breeding waterfowl densities are lower than in similar habitat away from the noise area.

  20. Identifying and Quantifying Sources of Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Gravel to the Snake River in Hells Canyon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welcker, C. W.; Burke, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Snake River in Hells Canyon supports a growing population of spawning Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) immediately downstream of the Hells Canyon Complex (HCC) of hydroelectric dams for the last 60 years. The long-term survival of this salmon run depends on the input of spawning gravel (25-150 mm) from local tributaries balancing the losses of spawning gravel through attrition and export out of the reach between the HCC and the Salmon River confluence. We are working to quantify the gravel input of these local tributaries at different time-scales and put this into the context of historical supply and transport. Long-term total sediment production rates of these tributaries estimated through various methods have varied by over 2 orders of magnitude, but we have recently completed 10Be work to constrain these estimates. We are measuring the change in storage of Fall Chinook spawning-size gravel through repeat multibeam echosounder surveys of the riverbed. The limited amount of repeat data collected to date has shown complex patterns of change in the riverbed. One possible driver of this complexity is the episodic and spatially variable nature of sediment inputs from these tributaries. We are attempting to quantify the frequency of the debris flows or floods capable of transporting spawning gravel through digitizing historic imagery of the last 60 years to determine the recurrence interval. We are measuring the magnitude of these events by surveying tributary fans pre and post-event to measure the sediment volume and particle size produced by specific events. These floods and debris flows are driven by extreme rainfall or snowmelt events, so we have also reconstructed historical meteorological conditions to identify the triggering conditions for transport, and identify the areas where snowmelt or rainfall is the more likely trigger. We are currently testing whether the unique bedrock geology of Hells Canyon can be used as a tracer to identify the

  1. Verifying success of artificial spawning reefs in the St. Clair-Detroit River System for lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens Rafinesque, 1817)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bouckaert, Emliy K.; Auer, Nancy A.; Roseman, Edward F.; James Boase,

    2014-01-01

    Lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) were historically abundant in the St. Clair – Detroit River System (SCDRS), a 160 km river/channel network. In the SCDRS, lake sturgeon populations have been negatively affected by the loss/degradation of natural spawning habitat. To address habitat loss for lake sturgeon and other species, efforts are underway to restore spawning substrate by constructing artificial reefs. The main objective of this study was to conduct post-construction monitoring of lake sturgeon egg deposition and larval emergence near two of these artificial reefs: Fighting Island Reef (FIR) in the Detroit River, and Middle Channel Reef in the St. Clair River. An additional site in the St. Clair River where lake sturgeon spawn on a coal clinker bed was also investigated. From 2010 to 2012, viable eggs and larvae were collected from all of these reefs, indicating that conditions are suitable for egg deposition, incubation, and larval emergence. In the St. Clair River, the results indicate the likelihood of other spawning sites upstream of these artificial reef sites.

  2. Passive acoustic monitoring to detect spawning in large-bodied catostomids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Straight, Carrie A.; Freeman, Byron J.; Freeman, Mary C.

    2014-01-01

    Documenting timing, locations, and intensity of spawning can provide valuable information for conservation and management of imperiled fishes. However, deep, turbid or turbulent water, or occurrence of spawning at night, can severely limit direct observations. We have developed and tested the use of passive acoustics to detect distinctive acoustic signatures associated with spawning events of two large-bodied catostomid species (River Redhorse Moxostoma carinatum and Robust Redhorse Moxostoma robustum) in river systems in north Georgia. We deployed a hydrophone with a recording unit at four different locations on four different dates when we could both record and observe spawning activity. Recordings captured 494 spawning events that we acoustically characterized using dominant frequency, 95% frequency, relative power, and duration. We similarly characterized 46 randomly selected ambient river noises. Dominant frequency did not differ between redhorse species and ranged from 172.3 to 14,987.1 Hz. Duration of spawning events ranged from 0.65 to 11.07 s, River Redhorse having longer durations than Robust Redhorse. Observed spawning events had significantly higher dominant and 95% frequencies than ambient river noises. We additionally tested software designed to automate acoustic detection. The automated detection configurations correctly identified 80–82% of known spawning events, and falsely indentified spawns 6–7% of the time when none occurred. These rates were combined over all recordings; rates were more variable among individual recordings. Longer spawning events were more likely to be detected. Combined with sufficient visual observations to ascertain species identities and to estimate detection error rates, passive acoustic recording provides a useful tool to study spawning frequency of large-bodied fishes that displace gravel during egg deposition, including several species of imperiled catostomids.

  3. Spring Outmigration of Wild and Hatchery Chinook Salmonid Steelhead Trout Smolts from the Imnaha River, Oregon; 1995 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Blenden, Michael L.; Kucera, Paul A.; Osborne, Randall S.

    1996-04-01

    For the second consecutive year, the Nez Perce Tribe, in conjunction with the Fish Passage Center, participated in the smolt monitoring program in the Imnaha River. A rotary screw trap was used to collect emigrating wild and hatchery chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) smolts from February 6 to June 20, 1995. We PIT tagged and released 421 wild chinook salmon smolts, 747 hatchery chinook salmon smolts (445 HxW and 302 HxH), 227 wild steelhead trout smolts and 1,296 hatchery steelhead trout smolts. Cumulative interrogation rates at mainstem Snake and Columbia River dams were 78.4% for wild chinook salmon, 58.9% for hatchery chinook salmon (HxW), 56.6% for hatchery chinook salmon (HxH), 76.2% for wild steelhead trout, and 69.2% for hatchery steelhead trout. Peak outmigration of NPT tagged wild Imnaha River chinook salmon smolts occurred from early to mid-May at Lower Granite, Little Goose, and Lower Monumental Dams. Median and 90% passage dates for wild chinook salmon smolts at Lower Granite Dam were May 1 and May 11, respectively. Continuous spill at Lower Granite Dam was initiated on May 3 and lasted for 51 days. The 90% passage date of wild chinook salmon smolts at Lower Granite Dam (May 11) preceded peak Snake River and Lower Granite (June 6) flows by 26 days. Although hatchery chinook salmon exhibited a shorter outmigration period through the Snake River than their wild counterparts, peak arrival for both groups occurred at approximately the same time. Median and 90% passage dates at Lower Granite Dam for other PIT tagged groups were: hatchery chinook salmon (NPT-HxW) - May 2 and May 13; hatchery chinook salmon (FPC-HxH) - May 8 and May 15; wild steelhead trout - May 2 and May 9; and hatchery steelhead trout (NPT and FPC) - May 31 and June 16. Hatchery steelhead trout displayed small peaks in arrival timing at Lower Granite and Little Goose Dams in mid-May to mid-June.

  4. Spawning Cisco investigations in Canada waters of Lake Superior during 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yule, Daniel L.; Evrard, Lori M.; Cholwek, Gary A.; Addison, Peter A.; Cullis, Ken I.

    2008-01-01

    Cisco Coregonus artedi form pre-spawning aggregations in Lake Superior during November with the bulk of spawning occurring during late November through early December (Dryer and Beil 1964). Eggs are broadcast into open water (Smith 1956) with fertilized eggs settling to the lakebed (Dryer and Beil 1964). Peak hatching occurs the following May (United States Geological Survey – Great Lakes Science Center, GLSC, unpublished data). Interannual variability in year class strength is high, but tends to be synchronous across different regions of Lake Superior (Bronte et al. 2003). November 2005 sampling of Thunder Bay showed 14 year-classes were present with the oldest fish being from the 1984 year-class (Yule et al. 2008). The ciscoes sampled were predominantly from five year classes that hatched during 1988, 1989, 1990, 1998, and 2003. These same strong year-classes were found in the western arm of Lake Superior during November 2006 (GLSC, unpublished data). Growth is rapid in the first few years of life with minimal growth after age-8 (Yule et al. 2008). Ciscoes exceeding 250 mm total length (TL) are typically sexually mature (Yule et al. 2006b, 2008). Thunder Bay ciscoes have high annual survival with rates for females and males averaging 0.80 and 0.75, respectively; females have higher rates of fishing-induced mortality compared to males but lower rates of natural mortality (Yule et al. 2008). Some Lake Superior stocks are currently commercially fished with the bulk of harvest occurring during November when fishers target females for their roe. The bulk of fish are harvested from Thunder Bay using suspended gillnets with mesh sizes ranging from 79-89 mm stretch measure. Ciscoes younger then age-5 make up a very small proportion (<0.1%) of the harvest (Yule, et al. 2008).

  5. Genetic Diversity and Structure Analysis of Percocypris pingi (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae): Implications for Conservation and Hatchery Release in the Yalong River

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Kun; Gan, Weixiong; Zeng, Rukui; Deng, Longjun; Song, Zhaobin

    2016-01-01

    Percocypris pingi is a near threatened cyprinid species, which has suffered a dramatic decline due to anthropogenic factors. As one response to this decline, hatchery release for P. pingi has been conducted in the lower reaches of the Yalong River since 2012. To understand the conservation status of this species and the potential impact of the release of hatchery-reared fish, we studied the genetic diversity and population structure of wild and hatchery populations of P. pingi. Two hatchery populations (Jinping [JPH] and Ya’an [YAH]) and two wild populations (Muli [MLW] and Woluo [WLW]) of P. pingi were analyzed based on microsatellite markers and the mitochondrial DNA control region. The results showed that P. pingi possesses moderate levels of genetic diversity, with observed heterozygosities ranging from 0.657 to 0.770 and nucleotide diversities ranging from 0.00212 to 0.00491. Our results also suggested WLW harbors considerable proportions of genetic diversity in this species and serves as a refuge for P. pingi during anthropogenic disturbance, thus playing an important role for the conservation of P. pingi populations. Microsatellite and mitochondrial markers both indicated close genetic relationships between YAH and MLW, JPH and WLW, respectively. The results to some extent reflected the geographical provenances for original broodstocks of the two hatchery populations, which provide some practical guidance for hatchery release of P. pingi. The existence of remarkable genetic divergence distributed along limited geographical range (approximately 10 kilometers) suggests the two wild populations should be regarded at least as two distinct evolutionary significant units (ESUs) and management units (MUs). Considering reduced intra-population genetic variation in hatchery population for release and significant genetic compositions of the two hatchery populations, some appropriate breeding strategies were proposed to benefit conservation of P. pingi. PMID:27911911

  6. Genetic Diversity and Structure Analysis of Percocypris pingi (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae): Implications for Conservation and Hatchery Release in the Yalong River.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoyan; Deng, Yuanping; Yang, Kun; Gan, Weixiong; Zeng, Rukui; Deng, Longjun; Song, Zhaobin

    2016-01-01

    Percocypris pingi is a near threatened cyprinid species, which has suffered a dramatic decline due to anthropogenic factors. As one response to this decline, hatchery release for P. pingi has been conducted in the lower reaches of the Yalong River since 2012. To understand the conservation status of this species and the potential impact of the release of hatchery-reared fish, we studied the genetic diversity and population structure of wild and hatchery populations of P. pingi. Two hatchery populations (Jinping [JPH] and Ya'an [YAH]) and two wild populations (Muli [MLW] and Woluo [WLW]) of P. pingi were analyzed based on microsatellite markers and the mitochondrial DNA control region. The results showed that P. pingi possesses moderate levels of genetic diversity, with observed heterozygosities ranging from 0.657 to 0.770 and nucleotide diversities ranging from 0.00212 to 0.00491. Our results also suggested WLW harbors considerable proportions of genetic diversity in this species and serves as a refuge for P. pingi during anthropogenic disturbance, thus playing an important role for the conservation of P. pingi populations. Microsatellite and mitochondrial markers both indicated close genetic relationships between YAH and MLW, JPH and WLW, respectively. The results to some extent reflected the geographical provenances for original broodstocks of the two hatchery populations, which provide some practical guidance for hatchery release of P. pingi. The existence of remarkable genetic divergence distributed along limited geographical range (approximately 10 kilometers) suggests the two wild populations should be regarded at least as two distinct evolutionary significant units (ESUs) and management units (MUs). Considering reduced intra-population genetic variation in hatchery population for release and significant genetic compositions of the two hatchery populations, some appropriate breeding strategies were proposed to benefit conservation of P. pingi.

  7. Optimum Pathways of Fish Spawning Migrations in Rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McElroy, B. J.; Jacobson, R. B.; Delonay, A.

    2010-12-01

    Many fish species migrate large distances upstream in rivers to spawn. These migrations require energetic expenditures that are inversely related to fecundity of spawners. Here we present the theory necessary to quantify relative energetic requirements of upstream migration pathways and then test the hypothesis that least-cost paths are taken by the federally endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphyrhyncus Albus), a benthic rheophile, in the lower Missouri River, USA. Total work done by a fish through a migratory path is proportional to the size of the fish, the total drag on the fish, and the distance traversed. Normalizing by the work required to remain stationary at the beginning of a path, relative work expenditure at each point of the path is found to be the cube of the ratio of the velocity along the path to the velocity at the start of the path. This is the velocity of the fish relative to the river flow. A least-cost migratory pathway can be determined from the velocity field in a reach as the path that minimizes a fish's relative work expenditure. We combine location data from pallid sturgeon implanted with telemetric tags and pressure-sensitive data storage tags with depth and velocity data collected with an acoustic Doppler profiler. During spring 2010 individual sturgeon were closely followed as they migrated up the Missouri River to spawn. These show that, within a small margin, pallid sturgeon in the lower Missouri River select least-cost paths as they swim upstream (typical velocities near 1.0 - 1.2 m/s). Within the range of collected data, it is also seen that many alternative paths not selected for migration are two orders of magnitude more energetically expensive (typical velocities near 2.0 - 2.5 m/s). In general these sturgeon migrated along the inner banks of bends avoiding high velocities in the thalweg, crossing the channel where the thalweg crosses in the opposite direction in order to proceed up the inner bank of subsequent bends. Overall, these

  8. Imprinting Hatchery Reared Salmon and Steelhead Trout for Homing, Volume II of III; Data Summaries, 1978-1983 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Slatick, Emil; Ringe, R.R.; Zaugg, Waldo S.

    1988-02-02

    The main functions of the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) aquaculture task biologists and contractual scientists involved in the 1978 homing studies were primarily a surveillance of fish physiology, disease, and relative survival during culture in marine net-pens, to determine if there were any unusual factors that might affect imprinting and homing behavior. The studies were conducted with little background knowledge of the implications of disease and physiology on imprinting and homing in salmonids. The health status or the stocks were quite variable as could be expected. The Dworshak and Wells Hatcheries steelhead suffered from some early stresses in seawater, probably osmoregulatory. The incidences of latent BKD in the Wells and Chelan Hatcheries steelhead and Kooskia Hatchery spring chinook salmon were extremely high, and how these will affect survival in the ocean is not known. Gill enzyme activity in the Dworshak and Chelan Hatcheries steelhead at release was low. Of the steelhead, survival in the Tucannon Hatchery stock will probably be the highest, with Dworshak Hatchery stock the lowest. This report contains the data for the narratives in Volume I.

  9. Migration and spawning of female surubim (Pseudoplatystoma corruscans, Pimelodidae) in the São Francisco river, Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Godinho, Alexandre L.; Kynard, Boyd; Godinho, Hugo P.

    2007-01-01

    Surubim, Pseudoplatystoma corruscans, is the most valuable commercial and recreational fish in the São Francisco River, but little is known about adult migration and spawning. Movements of 24 females (9.5–29.0 kg), which were radio-tagged just downstream of Três Marias Dam (TMD) at river kilometer 2,109 and at Pirapora Rapids (PR) 129 km downstream of TMD, suggest the following conceptual model of adult female migration and spawning. The tagged surubims used only 274 km of the main stem downstream of TMD and two tributaries, the Velhas and Abaeté rivers. Migration style was dualistic with non-migratory (resident) and migratory fish. Pre-spawning females swam at ground speeds of up to 31 km day-1 in late September–December to pre-spawning staging sites located 0–11 km from the spawning ground. In the spawning season (November–March), pre-spawning females migrated back and forth from nearby pre-spawning staging sites to PR for short visits to spawn, mostly during floods. Multiple visits to the spawning site suggest surubim is a multiple spawner. Most post-spawning surubims left the spawning ground to forage elsewhere, but some stayed at the spawning site until the next spawning season. Post-spawning migrants swam up or downstream at ground speeds up to 29 km day-1 during January–March. Construction of proposed dams in the main stem and tributaries downstream of TMD will greatly reduce surubim abundance by blocking migrations and changing the river into reservoirs that eliminate riverine spawning and non-spawning habitats, and possibly, cause extirpation of populations.

  10. Spawning Distribution of Fall Chinook Salmon in the Snake River : Annual Report 1999.

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, Aaron P.

    2000-04-01

    This report is separated into 2 chapters. The chapters are (1) Progress toward determining the spawning distribution of supplemented fall chinook salmon in the Snake River in 1999; and (2) Fall chinook salmon spawning ground surveys in the Snake River, 1999.

  11. Deschutes River Spawning Gravel Study, Volume II, Appendices I-XIV, Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Huntington, Charles W.

    1985-09-01

    Spawning habitat in the Deschutes River was inventoried, gravel permeability and composition were sampled at selected gravel bars, historical flow records for the Deschutes were analyzed, salmon and trout utilization of spawning habitat was examined, and potential methods of enhancing spawning habitat in the river were explored. Some changes in river conditions since the mid-1960's were identified, including a reduction in spawning habitat immediately downstream from the hydroelectric complex. The 1964 flood was identified as a factor which profoundly affected spawning habitat in the river, and which greatly complicated efforts to identify recent changes which could be attributed to the hydrocomplex. A baseline on present gravel quality at both chinook and steelhead spawning areas in the river was established using a freeze-core methodology. Recommendations are made for enhancing spawning habitat in the Deschutes River, if it is independently determined that spawning habitat is presently limiting populations of summer steelhead or fall chinook in the river. Volume II contains appendices to the study.

  12. Evidence of autumn spawning in Suwannee River Gulf sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi (Vladykov, 1955)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Randall, M.T.; Sulak, K.J.

    2012-01-01

    Evidence of autumn spawning of Gulf sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi in the Suwannee River, Florida, was compiled from multiple investigations between 1986 and 2008. Gulf sturgeon are known from egg collections to spawn in the springtime months following immigration into rivers. Evidence of autumn spawning includes multiple captures of sturgeon in September through early November that were ripe (late-development ova; motile sperm) or exhibited just-spawned characteristics, telemetry of fish that made >175 river kilometer upstream excursions to the spawning grounds in September–October, and the capture of a 9.3 cm TL age-0 Gulf sturgeon on 29 November 2000 (which would have been spawned in late September 2000). Analysis of age-at-length data indicates that ca. 20% of the Suwannee River Gulf sturgeon population may be attributable to autumn spawning. However, with the very low sampling effort expended, eggs or early life stages have not yet been captured in the autumn, which would be the conclusive proof of autumn spawning. More sampling, and sampling at previously unknown sites frequented by acoustic telemetry fish, would be required to find eggs.

  13. 18 CFR 1304.411 - Fish attractor, spawning, and habitat structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fish attractor, spawning, and habitat structures. 1304.411 Section 1304.411 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... STRUCTURES AND OTHER ALTERATIONS Miscellaneous § 1304.411 Fish attractor, spawning, and habitat...

  14. 18 CFR 1304.411 - Fish attractor, spawning, and habitat structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fish attractor, spawning, and habitat structures. 1304.411 Section 1304.411 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... STRUCTURES AND OTHER ALTERATIONS Miscellaneous § 1304.411 Fish attractor, spawning, and habitat...

  15. 18 CFR 1304.411 - Fish attractor, spawning, and habitat structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fish attractor, spawning, and habitat structures. 1304.411 Section 1304.411 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... STRUCTURES AND OTHER ALTERATIONS Miscellaneous § 1304.411 Fish attractor, spawning, and habitat...

  16. 18 CFR 1304.411 - Fish attractor, spawning, and habitat structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fish attractor, spawning, and habitat structures. 1304.411 Section 1304.411 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... STRUCTURES AND OTHER ALTERATIONS Miscellaneous § 1304.411 Fish attractor, spawning, and habitat...

  17. 18 CFR 1304.411 - Fish attractor, spawning, and habitat structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Fish attractor, spawning, and habitat structures. 1304.411 Section 1304.411 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE... OTHER ALTERATIONS Miscellaneous § 1304.411 Fish attractor, spawning, and habitat structures....

  18. Gulf sturgeon spawning migration and habitat in the Choctawhatchee River system, Alabama-Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fox, D.A.; Hightower, J.E.; Parauka, F.M.

    2000-01-01

    Information about spawning migration and spawning habitat is essential to maintain and ultimately restore populations of endangered and threatened species of anadromous fish. We used ultrasonic and radiotelemetry to monitor the movements of 35 adult Gulf sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi (a subspecies of the Atlantic sturgeon A. oxyrinchus) as they moved between Choctawhatchee Bay and the Choctawhatchee River system during the spring of 1996 and 1997. Histological analysis of gonadal biopsies was used to determine the sex and reproductive status of individuals. Telemetry results and egg sampling were used to identify Gulf sturgeon spawning sites and to examine the roles that sex and reproductive status play in migratory behavior. Fertilized Gulf sturgeon eggs were collected in six locations in both the upper Choctawhatchee and Pea rivers. Hard bottom substrate, steep banks, and relatively high flows characterized collection sites. Ripe Gulf sturgeon occupied these spawning areas from late March through early May, which included the interval when Gulf sturgeon eggs were collected. For both sexes, ripe fish entered the Choctawhatchee River significantly earlier and at a lower water temperature and migrated further upstream than did nonripe fish. Males entered the Choctawhatchee River at a lower water temperature than females. Results from histology and telemetry support the hypothesis that male Gulf sturgeon may spawn annually, whereas females require more than 1 year between spawning events. Upper river hard bottom areas appear important for the successful spawning of Gulf sturgeon, and care should be taken to protect against habitat loss or degradation of known spawning habitat.

  19. Fall spawning of Atlantic sturgeon in the Roanoke River, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Joseph A.; Hightower, Joseph E.; Flowers, H. Jared

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) declared Atlantic Sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus to be threatened or endangered throughout its range in U.S. waters. Restoration of the subspecies will require much new information, particularly on the location and timing of spawning. We used a combination of acoustic telemetry and sampling with anchored artificial substrates (spawning pads) to detect fall (September–November) spawning in the Roanoke River in North Carolina. This population is included in the Carolina Distinct Population Segment, which was classified by NOAA as endangered. Sampling was done immediately below the first shoals encountered by anadromous fishes, near Weldon. Our collection of 38 eggs during the 21 d that spawning pads were deployed appears to be the first such collection (spring or fall) for wild-spawned Atlantic Sturgeon eggs. Based on egg development stages, estimated spawning dates were September 17–18 and 18–19 at water temperatures from 25.3°C to 24.3°C and river discharge from 55 to 297 m3/s. These observations about fall spawning and habitat use should aid in protecting critical habitats and planning research on Atlantic Sturgeon spawning in other rivers.

  20. Family size and effective population size in a hatchery stock of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simon, R.C.; McIntyre, J.D.; Hemmingsen, A.R.

    1986-01-01

    Means and variances of family size measured in five year-classes of wire-tagged coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) were linearly related. Population effective size was calculated by using estimated means and variances of family size in a 25-yr data set. Although numbers of age 3 adults returning to the hatchery appeared to be large enough to avoid inbreeding problems (the 25-yr mean exceeded 4500), the numbers actually contributing to the hatchery production may be too low. Several strategies are proposed to correct the problem perceived. Argument is given to support the contention that the problem of effective size is fairly general and is not confined to the present study population.

  1. Spawning behaviour of Allis shad Alosa alosa: new insights based on imaging sonar data.

    PubMed

    Langkau, M C; Clavé, D; Schmidt, M B; Borcherding, J

    2016-06-01

    Spawning behaviour of Alosa alosa was observed by high resolution imaging sonar. Detected clouds of sexual products and micro bubbles served as a potential indicator of spawning activity. Peak spawning time was between 0130 and 0200 hours at night. Increasing detections over three consecutive nights were consistent with sounds of mating events (bulls) assessed in hearing surveys in parallel to the hydro acoustic detection. In 70% of the analysed mating events there were no additional A. alosa joining the event whilst 70% of the mating events showed one or two A. alosa leaving the cloud. In 31% of the analysed mating events, however, three or more A. alosa were leaving the clouds, indicating that matings are not restricted to a pair. Imaging sonar is suitable for monitoring spawning activity and behaviour of anadromous clupeids in their spawning habitats.

  2. Sherman Creek Hatchery; Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife Fish Program, 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Combs, Mitch

    2001-03-01

    The Sherman Creek Hatchery (SCH) was designed to rear 1.7 million kokanee fry for acclimation and imprinting during the spring and early summer. Additionally, it was designed to trap all available returning adult kokanee during the fall for broodstock operations and evaluations. Since the start of this program, the operations on Lake Roosevelt have been modified to better achieve program goals. These strategic changes have been the result of recommendations through the Lake Roosevelt Hatcheries Coordination Team (LRHCT) and were done to enhance imprinting, improve survival and operate the two kokanee facilities more effectively. The primary changes have been to replace the kokanee fingerling program with a yearling (post smolt) program of up to 1,000,000 fish. To construct and operate twenty net pens to handle the increased production. The second significant change was to rear 200,000 rainbow trout fingerling at SCH from July through October, for stocking into the volunteer net pens. This enables the Spokane Tribal Hatchery (STH) to rear additional kokanee to further the enhancement efforts on Lake Roosevelt. Monitoring and evaluation is preformed by the Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Monitoring Program. From 1988 to 1998, the principle sport fishery on Lake Roosevelt has shifted from walleye to include rainbow trout and kokanee salmon (Underwood et al. 1997, Tilson and Scholz 1997). The angler use, harvest rates for rainbow and kokanee and the economic value of the fishery has increased substantially during this 10-year period. The most recent information from the monitoring program also suggests that the hatchery and net pen rearing programs have been beneficial to enhancing the Lake Roosevelt fishery while not negatively impacting wild and native stocks within the lake.

  3. Spawning migration of telemetered striped bass in the Roanoke River, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carmichael, J.T.; Haeseker, S.L.; Hightower, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    The spring spawning migration is a key period for effective management of anadromous populations of striped bass Morone saxatilis. Information on migratory behavior is needed in order to develop appropriate harvest regulations and to conduct effective surveys while fish are on the spawning grounds. We used ultrasonic telemetry to estimate the timing and duration of the upriver spawning migration for the Roanoke River, North Carolina, population and to evaluate whether a short-term fluctuation in temperature or flow would alter the distribution of telemetered fish on the spawning grounds. Seventy-eight fish implanted with transmitters were released during 1993 and 1994. Twenty-nine telemetered fish migrated upriver in 1994, and 14 telemetered fish entered the river in 1995. Migration of telemetered fish began in mid- to late April when water temperatures in the lower river reached 17-18??C. Males began their spawning migration significantly earlier than females in 1994; the difference was not significant in 1995. The 165-km upriver migration took about a week, as did the downriver migration after the spawning season. In 1994 and 1995 respectively, males remained on the spawning grounds for averages of 22 and 21 d, females for 8 and 11 d. Because of shorter residency times only about half the telemetered females were on the spawning grounds at any one time during the peak of the spawning season. Striped bass remained on the spawning grounds during a short-term temperature decrease of about 4??C (over 5 d) and an increase in flow from about 190 to 390 m3/s (over 1 d).

  4. Vibrios in hatchery cultures of the razor clam, Solen marginatus (Pulteney).

    PubMed

    Prado, S; Dubert, J; da Costa, F; Martínez-Patiño, D; Barja, J L

    2014-03-01

    Hatchery culture of the razor clam, Solen marginatus (Pulteney), has recently been developed in Galicia (NW Spain). However, recurrent episodes of mortalities of larval and post-larval cultures have been recorded during the course of various studies. The disease signs were similar to those described for other bivalve species in outbreaks caused by bacteria of the genus Vibrio. In this article, we present the results of microbiological monitoring of two batches of razor clams with different survival rates. All fermentative isolates were identified as members of the Splendidus clade within the genus Vibrio. Some of these isolates, identified as Vibrio splendidus-like, were clearly associated with the batch suffering mortalities, indicating their possible role as pathogens. Similar strains were found in the broodstock, suggesting vertical transmission of these bacteria. This is the first study of the microbiota associated with hatchery culture of S. marginatus, and the results will provide useful information for the optimization of a protocol for hatchery culture of this bivalve species.

  5. Survival of hatchery Gulf sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi Mitchill, 1815) in the Suwannee River, Florida: a 19-year evaluation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sulak, Kenneth J.; Randall, Michael; Clugston, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    An experimental release of 1192 hatchery-reared, individually PIT tagged, 220 days old (296–337 mm TL) Gulf sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi, was undertaken in 1992 in the Suwannee River, Florida. The original objectives of the 1992 release experiment were to: (1) evaluate survival rate of cultured Gulf sturgeon in the wild vs survival rate of their wild 1992 cohort counterparts, (2) determine the differential effect of release site within the river upon long-term survival, and (3) evaluate comparative growth rates of recaptured hatchery vs captured wild 1992 cohort Gulf sturgeon. The present investigation addressed those original objectives, plus an additional fourth objective: (4) evaluation of hatchery fish recapture rate change over the 19-year experiment. The primary objective was to determine efficacy of potential conservation aquaculture for this species in terms of long-term survival in the wild. Follow-up 1993–2011 gill net sampling in freshwater reaches (rkm 4–237) and the estuarine river mouth (rkm −6 to 4) yielded recaptures representing 13.0% of the total released. Mean annual hatchery fish mortality (including emigration) rate estimated for the 19-year period (1993–2011) was more than twice that for same cohort wild fish. Mark-recapture survival probability (phi) for hatchery fish, 1993–2011, was substantially lower (0.733) than for their wild counterparts (0.888). Mean annual hatchery fish recapture rate, as a percentage of all 1992 cohort fish recaptures, declined significantly after age-7, coinciding with age of onset of migration into the open Gulf of Mexico. Hypothesized causal factors may be differentially lower fitness in the marine habitat or permanent outmigration due to natal river imprinting failure. Hatchery fish recapture rates varied significantly for fish from the ten release sites, being highest near the river mouth, and lowest for the furthest upriver sites in the Suwannee River and its Santa Fe River tributary

  6. Development of a Natural Rearing System to Improve Supplemental Fish Quality, 1999-2003 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Maynard, Desmond J.

    2003-02-25

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) has been conducting Natural Rearing Enhancement System (NATURES) research since the early 1990s. NATURES studies have looked at a variety of mechanisms to enhance production of wild-like salmonids from hatcheries. The goal of NATURES research is to develop fish culture techniques that enable hatcheries to produce salmon with more wild-like characteristics and increased postrelease survival. The development of such techniques is called for in the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. This document is the draft report for the Supplemental Fish Quality Contract DE-AI79-91BP20651 Over the history of the project, the effects of seminatural raceway habitats, automated underwater feeders, exercise current velocities, live food diets, and predator avoidance training have been investigated. The findings of these studies are reported in an earlier contract report (Maynard et al. 1996a). The current report focuses on research that has been conducted between 1999 and 2002. This includes studies on the effect of exercise on salmon and steelhead trout, effects of predator avoid training, integration of NATUES protocols into production hatcheries, and the study of social behavior of steelhead grown in enriched and conventional environments. Traditionally, salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) are reared in barren concrete raceways that lack natural substrate, in-stream structure, or overhead cover. The fish are fed in an unnatural manner with artificial feeds mechanically or hand broadcast across the water surface. This traditional approach has increased the egg-to-smolt survival of hatchery-reared fish by an order of magnitude over that experienced by wild-reared salmon. However, once hatchery-reared fish are released into the wild their smolt-to-adult survival is usually much lower than wild-reared salmon. The reduced postrelease survival of hatchery-reared fish may stem from differences in their behavior and morphology compared to wild

  7. Post-release feeding and growth of hatchery-reared Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus: relevance to stocking effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Tomiyama, T; Watanabe, M; Kawata, G; Ebe, K

    2011-05-01

    The feeding and growth of hatchery-reared (HR) Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus of c. 100 mm total length (L(T) ) released off the coast of Fukushima, Japan, were investigated. From 2 to 15 days after release, the HR P. olivaceus frequently exhibited high empty-stomach frequency (>40%), low stomach-content mass (<1% of body mass), reduced somatic condition from release (c.-10%) and negligible growth. Thereafter, empty-stomach frequency decreased, the stomach-content mass of HR fish increased to 2-8% of body mass, the somatic condition recovered and growth rate increased to 0·5-1·5 mm day(-1) . Prey items were initially mysids, shifting thereafter to fishes such as the Japanese anchovy Engraulis japonica, as observed similarly in wild counterparts. The proportion of mysids decreased with time after release irrespective of size at release, indicating the importance of mysids for adaptation to natural food. Recapture rates at age 1 year, derived from fish market surveys, varied greatly among release years (4-11%). The variation in the recapture rates was largely accounted for by the post-release growth rates (r(2) = 0·5), suggesting a relationship between the post-release growth of HR fish and their survival and subsequent stocking effectiveness.

  8. Evaluation of Pure Oxygen Systems at the Umatilla Hatchery: Task 1-Review and Evaluation of Supplemental O2 Systems, Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Fish Factory

    1991-03-01

    The Northwest Power Planning Council has established a goal of doubling the size of salmon runs in the Columbia River Basin. The achievement of this important goal is largely dependent upon expanding the production of hatchery fish. Pure oxygen has been commonly used to increase the carrying capacity of private sector salmonid hatcheries in the Pacific Northwest. The use of supplemental oxygen to increase hatchery production is significantly less expensive than the construction of new hatcheries and might save up to $500 million in construction costs.

  9. Distribution, migration behavior, habitat use, and species interactions of fall-released juvenile hatchery spring Chinook salmon in the Deschutes River, Oregon, 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reagan, R.E.; Adams, N.S.; Rondorf, D.W.; Fitzgerald, G.; Spateholts, R.; Hoffman, T.; Olson, D.E.

    2005-01-01

    In a review of National Fish Hatcheries (NFH), the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) identified the need to assess the fate of hatchery-reared fish and their potential effect on the aquatic community (USFWS 1998). Additionally, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) recommended monitoring and evaluating ecological interactions between hatchery and wild fish (NMFS 1999; Columbia River Biological Opinion). In 2003, a study was designed to investigate the fate of hatchery-reared fish and to assess habitat use and fish interactions in the Deschutes River, Oregon.

  10. Deepwater Spawning of Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus Tshawytscha) : Spawning Near Ives and Pierce Island of the Columbia River, 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Robert P.

    2002-10-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory initiated studies to identify potential fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) spawning habitat and assess the extent of spawning in deep water (>1 m) downstream of Bonneville Dam in the fall of 1999. This report provides results from 2001, the third year of our effort. The main objective of this study was to find deepwater spawning locations of fall chinook salmon in the main Columbia River channel, collect additional data on physical habitat parameters at spawning sites, and provide estimates of adult spawners in the area. The secondary objective was to map any chum salmon redds located in the deeper sections near Hamilton Slough. River flows during the spawning surveys in 2001 were lower than in 1999 and 2000. Peak spawning activity, based on redd counts and live fish seen near redds, was on or near November 9, 2001. The location of the spawning area was similar to that of 1999 and 2000. One difference was the majority of redds were found in deeper water (>1.5 m) and closer to the shoreline adjacent to Pierce Island. Because of the low river flows during the fall of 2001, only a handful of redds were found using the boat-deployed video system within Hamilton Slough. No chum salmon (O. keta) redds were found in areas surveyed during 2000. (Note: surveys were limited to deeper sections of Hamilton Slough and near the main river channel.) An estimated 717 fall chinook salmon redds at water depths exceeding 1.5 m ({approx} 125 kcfs) were documented in 2001. These estimates are expanded from the number of redds found within a predefined survey area. Fall chinook salmon redds were found at water depths from 1.5-4.6 m and were located in a general area of {approx} 4.9 ha. Fall chinook salmon redds were constructed in gravels ranging from 3.2-13.4 cm in diameter and water velocities of 0.29-0.70 m/s.

  11. Not All Offspring Are Created Equal: Variation in Larval Characteristics in a Serially Spawning Damselfish

    PubMed Central

    Maddams, Jessica Claire; McCormick, Mark Ian

    2012-01-01

    The way organisms allocate their resources to growth and reproduction are key attributes differentiating life histories. Many organisms spawn multiple times in a breeding season, but few studies have investigated the impact of serial spawning on reproductive allocation. This study investigated whether resource allocation was influenced by parental characteristics and prior spawning history in a serial spawning tropical damselfish (Pomacentrus amboinensis). The offspring attributes of isolated parents of known characteristics were monitored over a 6-week breeding period in the field. Smaller females produced larvae of longer length and larger energy reserves at hatching. This finding is contrary to several other studies that found larger females produce offspring of greater quality. We found that resource allocation in the form of reproductive output was not influenced by the number of spawning events within the breeding season, with larger females producing the greatest number of offspring. Larval characteristics changed as spawning progressed. There was a general decline in length of larvae produced, with an increase in the size of the larval yolk-sac, for all females regardless of size as spawning progressed. This trend was accentuated by the smallest females. This change in larval characteristics may reflect a parental ability to forecast unfavourable conditions as the season progresses or a mechanism to ensure that some will survive no matter what conditions they encounter. This study highlights the importance of accounting for temporal changes in reproductive allocation in studies of reproductive trade-offs and investigations into the importance of parental effects. PMID:23155389

  12. Frequent skipped spawning in the world’s largest cod population

    PubMed Central

    Skjæraasen, Jon Egil; Nash, Richard D. M.; Korsbrekke, Knut; Fonn, Merete; Nilsen, Trygve; Kennedy, James; Nedreaas, Kjell H.; Thorsen, Anders; Witthames, Peter R.; Geffen, Audrey J.; Høie, Hans; Kjesbu, Olav Sigurd

    2012-01-01

    Life-history theory suggests that animals may skip reproductive events after initial maturation to maximize lifetime fitness. In iteroparous teleosts, verifying past spawning history is particularly difficult; the degree of skipped spawning at the population level therefore remains unknown. We unequivocally show frequent skipped spawning in Northeast Arctic cod (NEAC) in a massive field and laboratory effort from 2006 to 2008. This was verified by postovulatory follicles in temporarily arrested ovaries close to the putative spawning period. At the population level, “skippers” were estimated to be approximately equally abundant as spawning females in 2008, constituting ∼24% of the females 60–100 cm. These females never truly started vitellogenesis and principally remained on the feeding grounds when spawners migrated southward, avoiding any migration costs. The proximate cause of skipping seems to be insufficient energy to initiate oocyte development, indicating that skipped spawning may partly be a density-dependent response important in population regulation. Our data also indicate more skipping among smaller females and potential tradeoffs between current and future reproductive effort. We propose that skipped spawning is an integral life-history component for NEAC, likely varying annually, and it could therefore be an underlying factor causing some of the currently unexplained large NEAC recruitment variation. The same may hold for other teleosts. PMID:22615381

  13. Distribution and spawning dynamics of capelin (Mallotus villosus) in Glacier Bay, Alaska: A cold water refugium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arimitsu, M.L.; Piatt, J.F.; Litzow, Michael A.; Abookire, Alisa A.; Romano, Marc D.; Robards, Martin D.

    2008-01-01

    Pacific capelin (Mallotus villosus) populations declined dramatically in the Northeastern Pacific following ocean warming after the regime shift of 1977, but little is known about the cause of the decline or the functional relationships between capelin and their environment. We assessed the distribution and abundance of spawning, non-spawning adult and larval capelin in Glacier Bay, an estuarine fjord system in southeastern Alaska. We used principal components analysis to analyze midwater trawl and beach seine data collected between 1999 and 2004 with respect to oceanographic data and other measures of physical habitat including proximity to tidewater glaciers and potential spawning habitat. Both spawning and non-spawning adult Pacific capelin were more likely to occur in areas closest to tidewater glaciers, and those areas were distinguished by lower temperature, higher turbidity, higher dissolved oxygen and lower chlorophyll a levels when compared with other areas of the bay. The distribution of larval Pacific capelin was not sensitive to glacial influence. Pre-spawning females collected farther from tidewater glaciers were at a lower maturity state than those sampled closer to tidewater glaciers, and the geographic variation in the onset of spawning is likely the result of differences in the marine habitat among sub-areas of Glacier Bay. Proximity to cold water in Glacier Bay may have provided a refuge for capelin during the recent warm years in the Gulf of Alaska.

  14. Location and timing of Asian carp spawning in the Lower Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Deters, Joseph E.; Chapman, Duane C.; McElroy, Brandon

    2013-01-01

    We sampled for eggs of Asian carps, (bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, silver carp H. molitrix, and grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella) in 12 sites on the Lower Missouri River and in six tributaries from the months of May through July 2005 and May through June 2006 to examine the spatial and temporal dynamics of spawning activity. We categorized eggs into thirty developmental stages, but usually they could not be identified to species. We estimated spawning times and locations based on developmental stage, temperature dependent rate of development and water velocity. Spawning rate was higher in the daytime between 05:00 and 21:00 h than at night. Spawning was not limited to a few sites, as has been reported for the Yangtze River, where these fishes are native, but more eggs were spawned in areas of high sinuosity. We employ a sediment transport model to estimate vertical egg concentration profiles and total egg fluxes during spawning periods on the Missouri River. We did not identify substantial spawning activity within tributaries or at tributary confluences examined in this study.

  15. Spawning aggregations of three protogynous groupers in the southern Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Tuz-Sulub, A; Brulé, T

    2015-01-01

    Spawning aggregations of red hind Epinephelus guttatus, tiger grouper Mycteroperca tigris and yellowfin grouper Mycteroperca venenosa were identified at two coral-reef systems: Arrecife Alacranes (emergent bank reef) and Bajos del Norte (submerged bank reef) on the continental shelf of the Yucatan Peninsula (Campeche Bank), Mexico. At both reefs, E. guttatus forms large spawning aggregations between February and March. At Bajos del Norte, M. tigris reproduces in a small, low-density aggregation in May, while M. venenosa aggregates at high densities for spawning between March and May. Multi-species use of an aggregation site by E. guttatus and M. venenosa was observed at Bajos del Norte. The identified spawning aggregations are apparently stable in location over time, and all three species were commonly observed to spawn within 1 week following the full moon. Development and survival of the larvae spawned in these aggregations are probably aided by a seasonal (spring-summer) upwelling in the north-east Campeche Bank. A permanent area closure at Bajos del Norte, currently outside any specific fisheries management area or regulations, would provide protection needed for the spawning aggregations of these three species.

  16. Spawning related movement of shovelnose sturgeon in the Missouri River above Fort Peck Reservoir, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richards, Ryan R.; Guy, Christopher S.; Webb, Molly A.; Gardner, William M.; Jensen, C.B.

    2014-01-01

    The hypotheses of this study were (i) that shovelnose sturgeon would make upstream movements to spawn, (ii) movement of spawning fish would be greater in a year with higher discharge, and (iii) that spawning fish would have greater movements than reproductively inactive fish. Shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus (Rafinesque, 1820) in five reproductive categories (e.g. males, confirmed spawning females, potentially spawning females, atretic females, and reproductively inactive females) were tracked in 2008 and 2009. All reproductive categories, except reproductively inactive females, exhibited large-scale movements and had omnidirectional movements. No differences in movement rates were observed in confirmed spawning females between years despite a 45% higher peak discharge in 2008 (839 m3 s−1) than in 2009 (578 m3 s−1). A peak discharge was obtained at a faster rate in 2008 (165 m3 s−1 day−1) than in 2009 (39 m3 s−1 day−1), and high discharge was of greater duration in 2008. Reproductively inactive females did not exhibit large-scale movements and their movement rate differed from other reproductive categories. Shovelnose sturgeon spawned in both years, despite highly varying hydrographs between years.

  17. Lake sturgeon spawning on artificial habitat in the St Lawrence River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, J.H.; LaPan, S.R.; Klindt, R.M.; Schiavone, A.

    2006-01-01

    In 1996, lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) spawning was documented for the third consecutive year on an artificially placed gravel bed in the St Lawrence River. Two distinct spawning periods were observed in 1996. Spawning initially commenced on 17 June, when water temperature reached 15°C. A second spawning event was documented from 28 June to 1 July (16°C). Sturgeon egg densities were monitored in three transects on egg trays, on the gravel surface, and within interstitial spaces in the gravel. Counts of developing eggs in the gravel bed during both spawning periods were used to estimate a total of 275 000 eggs on the study area (0.075 ha). Average egg density was highest in the transect with the highest water velocities. Lake sturgeon fry were first observed in the gravel on 24 June (15.5°C), and first emergence from the gravel was documented on 28 June. Hatching following the second spawning event commenced on 3 July. Based on assessment of average embryo viability (61.6%) and egg-to-emergent fry survival (17.6%) an estimate of about 171 000 sturgeon eggs hatched, producing over 49 000 emergent fry. Current velocity, substrate particle size, depth of substrate, and maintenance of sediment-free interstitial spaces are important considerations in planning future spawning habitat enhancement projects.

  18. Biogeochemical responses following coral mass spawning on the Great Barrier Reef: pelagic-benthic coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wild, C.; Jantzen, C.; Struck, U.; Hoegh-Guldberg, O.; Huettel, M.

    2008-03-01

    This study quantified how the pulse of organic matter from the release of coral gametes triggered a chain of pelagic and benthic processes during an annual mass spawning event on the Australian Great Barrier Reef. Particulate organic matter (POM) concentrations in reef waters increased by threefold to 11-fold the day after spawning and resulted in a stimulation of pelagic oxygen consumption rates that lasted for at least 1 week. Water column microbial communities degraded the organic carbon of gametes of the broadcast-spawning coral Acropora millepora at a rate of >15% h-1, which is about three times faster than the degradation rate measured for larvae of the brooding coral Stylophora pistillata. Stable isotope signatures of POM in the water column reflected the fast transfer of organic matter from coral gametes into higher levels of the food chain, and the amount of POM reaching the seafloor immediately increased after coral spawning and then tailed-off in the next 2 weeks. Short-lasting phytoplankton blooms developed within a few days after the spawning event, indicating a prompt recycling of nutrients released through the degradation of spawning products. These data show the profound effects of coral mass spawning on the reef community and demonstrate the tight recycling of nutrients in this oligotrophic ecosystem.

  19. Opportunistic spawning of tropical anguillid eels Anguilla bicolor bicolor and A. bengalensis bengalensis

    PubMed Central

    Arai, Takaomi; Abdul Kadir, Siti Raudah

    2017-01-01

    Information on the spawning migration, spawning ecology and life history of tropical eels in the Indo-Pacific region is very limited. The physiological and morphological characteristics of tropical freshwater eels, Anguilla bicolor bicolor and A. bengalensis bengalensis collected in Malaysia were examined in relation to their downstream migration patterns. A total of 455 eels were collected over monthly intervals between February 2014 and January 2016 and we examined both gonadosomatic index and gonad histology features. In both species, close positive relationships between advanced maturation stages and eye, fin, gonadosomatic indexes were found in males and females. A. bengalensis bengalensis was found to be larger and heavier than A. bicolor bicolor at the time of seaward migration. The final stage of maturation for seaward spawning migration occurred throughout the year in A. bicolor bicolor, although that of A. bengalensis bengalensis was estimated to six months due to the limited number of samples. These results suggest that year-round spawning in the open ocean occurs in the tropical eel. This non-seasonal spawning ecology is notably different from that of temperate eels, which are known to follow a well-defined spawning season, with spawning migrations generally taking place during autumn months. PMID:28134305

  20. Impact of coral spawning on the biogeochemistry of a Hawaiian reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, R. A.; Padilla-Gamiño, J. L.; Bidigare, R. R.; Gates, R. D.; Ruttenberg, K. C.

    2013-12-01

    We examined the impact of Montipora capitata coral spawning on local biogeochemistry in Kane'ohe Bay, Hawai'i. This event supplied labile, spawn-derived organic matter (SDOM) to the water column, triggering a cascading series of related effects on the biogeochemistry of the reef. Specifically, we measured the isotopic composition and nutrient ratios of spawning material and coral tissues, and utilized these signatures to track pathways of SDOM incorporation into this coral-dominated ecosystem. We observed: (1) shifts in the isotopic signatures of coral tissues after the spawning event, (2) rapid turnover of SDOM within the water column and enhanced deposition of POM to the sediment surface, (3) enhanced sediment efflux of NH after the spawning event that triggered a phytoplankton bloom in the overlying water, and (4) drawdown of dissolved nutrients in the water column after spawning that coincided with the occurrence of a water column phytoplankton bloom. Our results show that single-species spawning events can serve as a source of substantial nutrient input to the water column, contributing in similar ways to storm-driven river nutrient input, and with measurable impact on the biogeochemistry of the reef.

  1. Timing and locations of reef fish spawning off the southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Nicholas A; Heyman, William D; Karnauskas, Mandy; Kobara, Shinichi; Smart, Tracey I; Ballenger, Joseph C; Reichert, Marcel J M; Wyanski, David M; Tishler, Michelle S; Lindeman, Kenyon C; Lowerre-Barbieri, Susan K; Switzer, Theodore S; Solomon, Justin J; McCain, Kyle; Marhefka, Mark; Sedberry, George R

    2017-01-01

    Managed reef fish in the Atlantic Ocean of the southeastern United States (SEUS) support a multi-billion dollar industry. There is a broad interest in locating and protecting spawning fish from harvest, to enhance productivity and reduce the potential for overfishing. We assessed spatiotemporal cues for spawning for six species from four reef fish families, using data on individual spawning condition collected by over three decades of regional fishery-independent reef fish surveys, combined with a series of predictors derived from bathymetric features. We quantified the size of spawning areas used by reef fish across many years and identified several multispecies spawning locations. We quantitatively identified cues for peak spawning and generated predictive maps for Gray Triggerfish (Balistes capriscus), White Grunt (Haemulon plumierii), Red Snapper (Lutjanus campechanus), Vermilion Snapper (Rhomboplites aurorubens), Black Sea Bass (Centropristis striata), and Scamp (Mycteroperca phenax). For example, Red Snapper peak spawning was predicted in 24.7-29.0°C water prior to the new moon at locations with high curvature in the 24-30 m depth range off northeast Florida during June and July. External validation using scientific and fishery-dependent data collections strongly supported the predictive utility of our models. We identified locations where reconfiguration or expansion of existing marine protected areas would protect spawning reef fish. We recommend increased sampling off southern Florida (south of 27° N), during winter months, and in high-relief, high current habitats to improve our understanding of timing and location of reef fish spawning off the southeastern United States.

  2. Timing and locations of reef fish spawning off the southeastern United States

    PubMed Central

    Heyman, William D.; Karnauskas, Mandy; Kobara, Shinichi; Smart, Tracey I.; Ballenger, Joseph C.; Reichert, Marcel J. M.; Wyanski, David M.; Tishler, Michelle S.; Lindeman, Kenyon C.; Lowerre-Barbieri, Susan K.; Switzer, Theodore S.; Solomon, Justin J.; McCain, Kyle; Marhefka, Mark; Sedberry, George R.

    2017-01-01

    Managed reef fish in the Atlantic Ocean of the southeastern United States (SEUS) support a multi-billion dollar industry. There is a broad interest in locating and protecting spawning fish from harvest, to enhance productivity and reduce the potential for overfishing. We assessed spatiotemporal cues for spawning for six species from four reef fish families, using data on individual spawning condition collected by over three decades of regional fishery-independent reef fish surveys, combined with a series of predictors derived from bathymetric features. We quantified the size of spawning areas used by reef fish across many years and identified several multispecies spawning locations. We quantitatively identified cues for peak spawning and generated predictive maps for Gray Triggerfish (Balistes capriscus), White Grunt (Haemulon plumierii), Red Snapper (Lutjanus campechanus), Vermilion Snapper (Rhomboplites aurorubens), Black Sea Bass (Centropristis striata), and Scamp (Mycteroperca phenax). For example, Red Snapper peak spawning was predicted in 24.7–29.0°C water prior to the new moon at locations with high curvature in the 24–30 m depth range off northeast Florida during June and July. External validation using scientific and fishery-dependent data collections strongly supported the predictive utility of our models. We identified locations where reconfiguration or expansion of existing marine protected areas would protect spawning reef fish. We recommend increased sampling off southern Florida (south of 27° N), during winter months, and in high-relief, high current habitats to improve our understanding of timing and location of reef fish spawning off the southeastern United States. PMID:28264006

  3. Flowing recirculated-water system for inducing laboratory spawning of sea lampreys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fredricks, Kim T.; Seelye, James G.

    1995-01-01

    We describe a water-recirculating system for inducing spawning of sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) held under laboratory conditions. Water temperature in the system was gradually increased to and maintained at 18 +/- 2 degrees C, the optimal temperature for spawning. About 10% freshwater was added daily to prevent buildup of waste products. Sea lampreys were provided substrate (approximately 3-6 cm in diameter) to build nests, and a water velocity of 0.2-0.3 m/s was maintained with an electric trolling motor. Sea lampreys held in this system exhibited characteristic spawning behavior. Prolarvae produced from artificial fertilization of gametes developed according to the standard timeline.

  4. Mechanical forces imposed on echinoid eggs during spawning: mitigation of forces by fibrous networks within egg extracellular layers.

    PubMed

    Thomas, F; Bolton, T; Sastry, A

    2001-03-01

    Many echinoderms spawn large numbers of eggs in rapid spawning bouts directly into the water column. During spawning, the eggs pass from the gonad along a narrow oviduct and through a rigid gonopore before reaching the water. As the eggs traverse this pathway, they are exposed to shear stress induced by the development of a velocity gradient within the fluid formed by the eggs. In some species, the diameter of the eggs is larger than the diameter of the gonopore. In these cases, the eggs also experience strain resulting from compression of the egg as it passes through the relatively small gonopore. The magnitude of shear stress experienced by eggs differs among species depending upon the viscosity of the eggs. The degree of strain experienced by eggs differs among species depending upon the relative sizes of the egg and gonopore and also changes within species as they grow. Recent evidence suggests that these forces have the propensity to damage eggs, thereby reducing their fertilizability, or to destroy them. Experimental evidence shows that the jelly coat around the eggs can protect them from shear stresses and reduce the strain imposed on them under a compressive force. Echinoderm eggs are surrounded by a jelly coat that has a composite structure of irregularly arranged fibrous networks embedded in a jelly matrix. These fibrous networks have characteristics that are similar to those of engineered and biological materials that are known to reduce the transmission of mechanical forces to other structures. Given this similarity to other materials, three possible mechanisms for the action of the jelly coat may be identified. First, the apparent viscosity of the eggs of echinoids declines as the rate at which they are sheared during spawning increases. This reduction in viscosity with increasing shear rate (shear-thinning) may, in part, be due to the structure of the jelly coat and its resultant non-Newtonian nature. Second, experimental evidence indicates that the

  5. Growth, smoltification, and smolt-to-adult return of spring chinook salmon from hatcheries on the Deschutes river, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beckman, B.R.; Dickhoff, Walton W.; Zaugg, W.S.; Sharpe, C.; Hirtzel, S.; Schrock, R.; Larsen, D.A.; Ewing, R.D.; Palmisano, A.; Schreck, C.B.; Mahnken, C.V.W.

    1999-01-01

    The relationship between smoltification and smolt-to-adult return (SAR) of spring chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha from the Deschutes River, Oregon, was examined for four release groups in each of three successive years. Fish were reared, marked with coded wire tags, and released from Round Butte Hatchery, Pelton Ladder rearing facility, and Warm Springs National Fish Hatchery. Smolt releases occurred in nearly the same place at similar times, allowing a direct comparison of SAR to several characters representing smolt quality. Return rates varied significantly among facilities, varying over an order of magnitude each year. The highest average SAR was from Pelton Ladder, the lowest was from Warm Springs. Each of the characters used as metrics of smoltification - fish size, spring growth rate (February-April), condition factor, plasma hormone concentration (thyroxine, cortisol, and insulin-like growth factor-I [IGF-I]), stress challenge, gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity, and liver glycogen concentration - varied significantly among facilities and seasonally within hatchery groups. However, only spring growth rate, gill ATPase activity, and plasma IGF-I concentration showed significant relationships to SAR. These characters and SAR itself were consistently lower for fish released from Warm Springs Hatchery than for fish from Round Butte Hatchery and Pelton Ladder. This demonstrates that differences in the quality of fish released by facilities may have profound effects on subsequent survival and suggests that manipulations of spring growth rate may be used to influence the quality of smolts released from facilities.

  6. Feeding response by northern squawfish to a hatchery release of juvenile salmonids in the Clearwater River, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shively, R.S.; Poe, T.P.; Sauter, S.T.

    1996-01-01

    We collected gut contents from northern squawfish Ptychocheilus oregonensis captured in the Clearwater River, Idaho, 0–6 km from its confluence with the Snake River, following the release of 1.1 million yearling chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha from the Dworshak National Fish Hatchery. Before the hatchery release, northern squawfish gut contents (by weight) in the study area were 38% crayfish Pacifastacus spp., 26% insects, 19% nonsalmonid fish, and 16% wheat kernels Triticum spp. Juvenile salmonids constituted 54% of gut contents about 24 h after the hatchery release, 78% after 5 d, and 86% after 7 d. The mean number of salmonids per gut (1.2) after release was higher than typically seen in guts from northern squawfish collected in mid-reservoir areas away from hydroelectric dams on the Snake and Columbia rivers. Length-frequency distributions of juvenile salmonids eaten and those captured in a scoop trap 4 km upstream of the study area indicated that northern squawfish were selectively feeding on the smaller individuals. We attribute the high rates of predation in the study area to the artificially high density of juvenile salmonids resulting from the hatchery release and to the physical characteristics of the study area in which the river changed from free flowing to impounded. Our results suggest that northern squawfish can quickly exploit hatchery releases of juvenile salmonids away from release sites in the Columbia River basin.

  7. Kokanee Stock Status and Contribution of Cabinet Gorge Hatchery, Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho, 1990 Annual Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Paragamian, Vaughn L.

    1991-03-01

    Rehabilitation of kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka in Lake Pend Oreille met with some success in 1990, but unexpected results have raised new questions. Estimated kokanee abundance during late August of 1990 was about 6.9 million fish. This is a decline of 19% from 1989, a continued decrease since 1988. The decreased population was attributed to low stocking of hatchery fry (7.3 million), lower wild fry survival in 1990 (1.5%), and exceptionally poor survival of fish ages 3+ and 4+. Average survival of the older fish was only 11% in 1990 compared to 72% in prior years. Compensatory survival was noted for kokanee ages 1+ and 2+, with an average of 81% in 1990 compared to 44% in 1989. Hatchery fry comprised 47% of the total kokanee fry recruitment in 1990 (80% of fry biomass). This contribution ranked third behind 1988 and 1989 since hatchery supplementation began in the 1970s. Survival of hatchery fry was 20%, the second highest since this investigation began. Findings of 1990 indicate a more comprehensive approach to managing kokanee must take into account predator stockings and predator/prey interaction. An unexpected low adult escapement was responsible for an egg-take of only 5.6 million eggs in 1990, 58% of the previous year, which will limit experimental stocking in 1991. Modification of the fish ladder at the Cabinet Gorge Fish Hatchery to improve adult escapement is strongly recommended to increase egg-take. 27 refs., 28 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. Inorganic carbon dynamics in the upwelling system off the Oregon coast and implications for commercial shellfish hatcheries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vance, J. M.; Hales, B. R.

    2010-12-01

    The increasing absorption of anthropogenic CO2 by the global ocean and concomitant decrease in pH will alter seawater carbonate chemistry in ways that may negatively impact calcifying organisms. In particular, the change in saturation state (Ω) of calcium carbonate minerals calcite and aragonite may be energetically unfavorable for shell formation while favoring shell dissolution. Eastern boundary upwelling systems may provide insights into how ecosystems respond to future conditions of ocean acidification when deep water with high dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), low pH and low Ω is forced toward the surface. Mortality in commercial seed stock and reduced wild set of the oyster Crassostrea gigas in the northeast Pacific during 2005-2009 reinforced the need for understanding biological responses to acidified ocean water. In response, a long-term strategy to understand local carbonate chemistry dynamics, seasonal perturbations and the effects on development of calcifying bivalves was developed. At present, a time-series of pCO2 measurements was implemented in April 2010 in Netarts Bay, Oregon at Whiskey Creek Shellfish Hatchery (WCH). The intake sits at a depth of 0.5-8ft and water is pumped in at 100gpm. A line taken off the intake is run continuously through a thermosalinograph at approximately 1.5gpm into a showerhead style equilibrator in which the headspace is recirculated by aerating the water for enhanced gas exchange. CO2 in equilibrated air is analyzed by NDIR. Additionally two discrete samples of intake seawater were taken across tidal cycles weekly and analyzed for total CO2 (TCO2) according to the methods of Hales et al. (2004) and pCO2 for quality control. The pCO2 in the bay exhibits a diurnal cycle representative of daytime photosynthesis and nighttime respiration. However, the phasing and profiles of these cycles are dominated by tidal mixing and are affected by the introduction of high pCO2 water during upwelling events. Diurnal pCO2 during

  9. Optimum swimming pathways of fish spawning migrations in rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McElroy, Brandon; DeLonay, Aaron; Jacobson, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Fishes that swim upstream in rivers to spawn must navigate complex fluvial velocity fields to arrive at their ultimate locations. One hypothesis with substantial implications is that fish traverse pathways that minimize their energy expenditure during migration. Here we present the methodological and theoretical developments necessary to test this and similar hypotheses. First, a cost function is derived for upstream migration that relates work done by a fish to swimming drag. The energetic cost scales with the cube of a fish's relative velocity integrated along its path. By normalizing to the energy requirements of holding a position in the slowest waters at the path's origin, a cost function is derived that depends only on the physical environment and not on specifics of individual fish. Then, as an example, we demonstrate the analysis of a migration pathway of a telemetrically tracked pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) in the Missouri River (USA). The actual pathway cost is lower than 105 random paths through the surveyed reach and is consistent with the optimization hypothesis. The implication—subject to more extensive validation—is that reproductive success in managed rivers could be increased through manipulation of reservoir releases or channel morphology to increase abundance of lower-cost migration pathways.

  10. Endogenous and exogenous control of gametogenesis and spawning in echinoderms.

    PubMed

    Mercier, Annie; Hamel, Jean-François

    2009-01-01

    Most echinoderms display seasonal or other temporal cycles of reproduction that presumably result from the complex interplay of endogenous and exogenous signals. Various environmental, chemical and hormonal factors, acting directly or indirectly, individually or in combination, have been proposed to cue, favour or modulate a suite of reproductive functions from the onset of gametogenesis to gamete release. From as early as the nineteenth century, an astonishing array of studies has been published on topics related to the control of reproduction in echinoderms, ranging from fortuitous behavioural observations to complex experimental demonstrations and molecular analyses. Although the exact pathways involved in the perception of external signals and their transduction into coordinated spawning events remain obscure for most species, significant advances have been made that shed new light on the information gathered over decades of research. By compiling the existing literature (over 1000 references), interpreting the main results, critically assessing the methodologies used and reviewing the emerging hypotheses, we endeavour to draw a clearer picture of the existing knowledge and to provide a framework for future investigation of the mechanisms that underlie reproductive strategies in echinoderms and, by extension, in other marine invertebrates.

  11. Identification of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush spawning habitat in northern Lake Huron using high-resolution satellite imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grimm, Amanda G.; Brooks, Colin N.; Binder, Thomas R.; Riley, Stephen C.; Farha, Steve A.; Shuchman, Robert A.; Krueger, Charles C.

    2016-01-01

    The availability and quality of spawning habitat may limit lake trout recovery in the Great Lakes, but little is known about the location and characteristics of current spawning habitats. Current methods used to identify lake trout spawning locations are time- and labor-intensive and spatially limited. Due to the observation that some lake trout spawning sites are relatively clean of overlaying algae compared to areas not used for spawning, we suspected that spawning sites could be identified using satellite imagery. Satellite imagery collected just before and after the spawning season in 2013 was used to assess whether lake trout spawning habitat could be identified based on its spectral characteristics. Results indicated that Pléiades high-resolution multispectral satellite imagery can be successfully used to estimate algal coverage of substrates and temporal changes in algal coverage, and that models developed from processed imagery can be used to identify potential lake trout spawning sites based on comparison of sites where lake trout eggs were and were not observed after spawning. Satellite imagery is a potential new tool for identifying lake trout spawning habitat at large scales in shallow nearshore areas of the Great Lakes.

  12. Effects of Dissolved Oxygen Concentration on Oxygen Consumption and Development of Channel Catfish Eggs and Fry: Implications for Hatchery Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Channel catfish spawns were incubated under controlled conditions to determine the effect of dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration on development and survival. Routine metabolic rate and limiting oxygen concentration were determined on eggs, sac fry and swim-up fry. Eight channel catfish spawns were s...

  13. Effects of flow fluctuations on the spawning habitat of a riverine fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grabowski, T.B.; Isely, J.J.

    2007-01-01

    Shallow-water, lithophilic spawning fishes are among the most vulnerable to anthropogenic fluctuations in water levels. We monitored water levels and environmental conditions at the nest sites of Moxostoma robustum (Robust Redhorse) on a main-channel gravel bar in the Savannah River, GA-SC During the course of the 2005 spawning season, over 50% of the observed nest sites were either completely dewatered or left in near zero-flow conditions for several days. This occurred on two separate occasions, once early during the spawning season and then again near its conclusion. We hypothesize the habitat preferences of spawning Robust Redhorse leave them vulnerable to water-level fluctuations, and this phenomenon may be widespread in regulated river systems.

  14. Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Activity Versus Daylight and Flow in the Tailrace of a Large Hydroelectric Dam

    SciTech Connect

    McMichael, Geoffrey A.; McKinstry, Craig A.; Vucelick, Jessica A.; Lukas, Joe

    2005-05-01

    We deployed an acoustic system during the fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) spawning season in 2001 to determine whether fall Chinook salmon spawning activity in a hydroelectric dam tailrace area was affected by daylight or river flow dynamics. The system was deployed following a randomized study design to record fall Chinook salmon spawning activity during day and night periods in two index areas downstream of Wanapum Dam on the Columbia River in Washington, USA. One index area was a deepwater spawning area located (river kilometer (rkm) 663) in 9 to 11 m of water. The other index site was a moderate depth mid-channel bar, where water depths ranged from 2.5 to 6 m. The acoustic system was used to collect spawning activity data during free-drifts in a boat through the index areas. Spawning activity was defined as digs per minute from underwater sound recordings. Fall Chinook salmon spawning activity in the Wanapum Dam tailrace was influenced by daylight and river discharge. Results showed there was a substantial amount of spawning activity occurring during both daylight and darkness. However, there was significantly more spawning activity during daylight than at night in both index areas. Spawning activity was also affected by flow. Project discharge had a pronounced non-linear effect on spawning activity. Spawning activity was generally highest at project discharges between 1,700 and 2266 m3 sec-1 in both spawning areas, with reduced activity as discharge increased to between 3,400 and 4,250 m3 sec-1. We concluded that fall Chinook salmon spawning activity in highly variable environments was affected more by flow (and velocity) than by daylight.

  15. A survey of chemical constituents in National Fish Hatchery fish feed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maule, Alec G.; Gannam, Ann; Davis, Jay

    2006-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that various fish feeds contain significant concentrations of contaminants, many of which can bioaccumulate and bioconcentrate in fish. It appears that numerous organochlorine (OC) contaminants are present in the fish oils and fish meals used in feed manufacture, and some researchers speculate that all fish feeds contain measurable levels of some contaminants. To determine the presence and concentration of contaminants in feeds used in National Fish Hatcheries managed by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, we systematically collected samples of feed from 11 hatcheries that raise cold-water species, and analyzed them for a suite of chemical contaminants. All of the samples (collected from October 2001 to October 2003) contained measurable concentrations of at least one dioxin, furan, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener, or dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) metabolite. All samples which were assayed for all contaminants contained one or more of those classes of compounds and most contained more than one; dioxin was detected in 39 of the 55 samples for which it was assayed, 24 of 55 contained furans and 24 of 55 samples contained DDT or its metabolites. There with 10- to 150-fold differences in the range in concentrations of the additive totals for PCBs, dioxins, furans and DDT. Although PCBs were the most commonly detected contaminant in our study (all samples in which it was assayed), the concentrations (range: 0.07 to 10.46 ng g·1 wet weight) were low compared to those reported previously. In general, we also found lower levels of organochlorine contaminants than have been reported previously in fish feed. Perhaps most notable is the near absence of OC pesticides~xcept for DDT (and its metabolites) and just two samples containing benzene hexachloride (Lindane). While contaminant concentrations were generally low, the ecological impacts can not be determined without a measure of the bioaccumulation of these compounds in the

  16. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Investigations; White Sturgeon Spawning and Recruitment Evaluation, 1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Paragamian, Vaughn L.; Kruse, Gretchen L.; Wakkinen, Virginia

    2001-11-01

    Sampling for adult Kootenai River white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus began in March and continued through April 1999. Forty-six adult sturgeon were captured with 4,091 hours of angling and set-lining effort, while an additional three adult sturgeon were captured during gillnetting for juveniles. Flows for Kootenai River white sturgeon spawning were expected to be high because the snow pack in the basin was estimated at 130% of normal, but runoff came very slowly. Discharge from Libby Dam from mid-March through mid-June was maintained at 113 m{sup 3}/s (4,000 cfs). Flows in the Kootenai River at Bonners Ferry during early April, including local inflow, were 227-255 m{sup 3}/s (8,000-9,000 cfs) but increased gradually in late April to a peak of 657 m{sup 3}/s (23,200 cfs). Flows subsided in early May to about 340 m{sup 3}/s (12,000 cfs), but rose to 1,031 m{sup 3}/s (36,370 cfs) by Mary 26 because of local runoff, and white sturgeon began spawning. However, flows subsided again to 373 m{sup 3}/s (13,200 cfs) June 11, 1999 and some female white sturgeon with transmitters began leaving the spawning reach. Water temperature ranged from about 8 C to 10 C (45 F to 50 F) during these two weeks. On June 13 (two weeks after sturgeon began spawning), spawning and incubation flows from Libby Dam began. The flow was brought up to 1,136 m{sup 3}/s (40,100 cfs) and temperature rose to about 11 C (52 F). They sampled for 3,387 mat days (one mat day is a single 24 h set) with artificial substrate mats and captured 184 white sturgeon eggs. The Middle Shorty's Island reach (river kilometer [rkm] 229.6-231.5) produced the most eggs (144), with 388 mat days of effort; the Refuge section (rkm 234.8 to 237.5) with 616 mat days of effort produced 23 eggs; and the Lower Shorty's section produced 19 eggs with 548 days of mat effort. No eggs were collected above the Refuge section (> rkm 240.5) with 988 mat days of effort. They do not believe flows for sturgeon spawning in 1999 were very

  17. Kootenai river velocities, depth, and white sturgeon spawning site selection - A mystery unraveled?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paragamian, V.L.; McDonald, R.; Nelson, G.J.; Barton, G.

    2009-01-01

    The Kootenai River white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus population in Idaho, US and British Columbia (BC), Canada became recruitment limited shortly after Libby Dam became fully operational on the Kootenai River, Montana, USA in 1974. In the USA the species was listed under the Endangered Species Act in September of 1994. Kootenai River white sturgeon spawn within an 18-km reach in Idaho, river kilometer (rkm) 228.0-246.0. Each autumn and spring Kootenai River white sturgeon follow a 'short two-step' migration from the lower river and Kootenay Lake, BC, to staging reaches downstream of Bonners Ferry, Idaho. Initially, augmented spring flows for white sturgeon spawning were thought to be sufficient to recover the population. Spring discharge mitigation enhanced white sturgeon spawning but a series of research investigations determined that the white sturgeon were spawning over unsuitable incubation and rearing habitat (sand) and that survival of eggs and larvae was negligible. It was not known whether post-Libby Dam management had changed the habitat or if the white sturgeon were not returning to more suitable spawning substrates farther upstream. Fisheries and hydrology researchers made a team effort to determine if the spawning habitat had been changed by Libby Dam operations. Researchers modeled and compared velocities, sediment transport, and bathymetry with post-Libby Dam white sturgeon egg collection locations. Substrate coring studies confirmed cobbles and gravel substrates in most of the spawning locations but that they were buried under a meter or more of post-Libby Dam sediment. Analysis suggested that Kootenai River white sturgeon spawn in areas of highest available velocity and depths over a range of flows. Regardless of the discharge, the locations of accelerating velocities and maximum depth do not change and spawning locations remain consistent. Kootenai River white sturgeon are likely spawning in the same locations as pre-dam, but post-Libby Dam

  18. Spawning habitat associations and selection by fishes in a flow-regulated prairie river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brewer, S.K.; Papoulias, D.M.; Rabeni, C.F.

    2006-01-01

    We used histological features to identify the spawning chronologies of river-dwelling populations of slenderhead darter Percina phoxocephala, suckermouth minnow Phenacobius mirabilis, stonecat Noturus flavus, and red shiner Cyprinella lutrensis and to relate their reproductive status to microhabitat associations. We identified spawning and nonspawning differences in habitat associations resulting from I year of field data via logistic regression modeling and identified shifts in microhabitat selection via frequency-of-use and availability histograms. Each species demonstrated different habitat associations between spawning and nonspawning periods. The peak spawning period for slenderhead darters was April to May in high-velocity microhabitats containing cobble. Individuals were associated with similar microhabitats during the postspawn summer and began migrating to deeper habitats in the fall. Most suckermouth minnow spawned from late March through early May in shallow microhabitats. The probability of the presence of these fish in shallow habitats declined postspawn, as fish apparently shifted to deeper habitats. Stonecats conducted prespawn activities in nearshore microhabitats containing large substrates but probably moved to deeper habitats during summer to spawn. Microhabitats with shallow depths containing cobble were associated with the presence of spawning red shiners during the summer. Prespawn fish selected low-velocity microhabitats during the spring, whereas postspawn fish selected habitats similar to the spawning habitat but added a shallow depth component. Hydraulic variables had the most influence on microhabitat models for all of these species, emphasizing the importance of flow in habitat selection by river-dwelling fishes. Histological analyses allowed us to more precisely document the time periods when habitat use is critical to species success. Without evidence demonstrating the functional mechanisms behind habitat associations, protective flows

  19. Assessment of Present Anadromous Fish Production Facilities in the Columbia River Basin, Washington Department of Wildlife Hatcheries, Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Delarm, Michael R.; Smith, Robert Z.

    1990-07-01

    The goal of this report is to document current production practices for hatcheries which rear anadromous fish in the Columbia River Basin and to identify those facilities where production can be increased. A total of 85 hatchery and satellite facilities operated by the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Oregon Department of Fish and Game, US Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington Department of Wildlife, Washington Department of Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fisheries were evaluated. The years 1985 to 1987 were used in this evaluation. During those years, releases averaged 143,306,596 smolts weighing 7,693,589 pounds. A total of 48 hatchery or satellite facilities were identified as having expansion capability. They were estimated to have the potential for increasing production by an 84,448,000 smolts weighing 4,853,306 pounds. 2 refs., 25 tabs.

  20. Genetic variation in wild and hatchery population of Catla catla (Hamilton, 1822) analyzed through mtDNA cytochrome b region.

    PubMed

    Behera, Bijay Kumar; Kunal, Swaraj Priyaranjan; Baisvar, Vishwamitra Singh; Meena, Dharmendra Kumar; Panda, Debarata; Pakrashi, Sudip; Paria, Prasenjit; Das, Pronob; Debnath, Dipesh; Parida, Pranaya Kumar; Das, Basanta Kumar; Jena, Joykrushna

    2017-01-10

    Catla (Catla catla) is a one of the most harvested Indian major carps and is widely cultured fish species in Indian subcontinent. In the present study, genetic variability between hatchery and wild stocks of Catla was surveyed using sequence data of mitochondrial DNA of partial 307 bp of cytochrome b region. A total of 174 Catla individuals were examined from three different river basins and hatcheries. Significant genetic heterogeneity was observed for the sequence data (FST = 0.308, p ≤ 0.001). However, analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) resulted in insignificant genetic differentiation among the samples of three rivers and culture zones (FCT = -0.10, p = 0.44). The result suggested a significant genetic variation within different riverine system, low genetic differentiation among samples from river basins and a lack of genetic variation in hatchery populations.

  1. Assessment of Present Anadromous Fish Production Facilities in the Columbia River Basin, US Fish and Wildlife Hatcheries, Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Delarm, Michael R.; Smith, Robert Z.

    1990-07-01

    The goal of this report is to document current production practices for hatcheries which rear anadromous fish in the Columbia River Basin and to identify those facilities where production can be increased. A total of 85 hatchery and satellite facilities operated by the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Oregon Department of Fish and Game, US Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington Department of Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fisheries were evaluated. The years 1985 to 1987 were used in this evaluation. During those years, releases averaged 143,306,596 smolts weighing 7,693,589 pounds. A total of 48 hatchery or satellite facilities were identified as having expansion capability. They were estimated to have the potential for increasing production by an 84,448,000 smolts weighing 4,853,306 pounds. 2 refs., 25 tabs.

  2. Assessment of Present Anadromous Fish Production Facilities in the Columbia River Basin, Washington Department of Fish Hatcheries, Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Delarm, Michael R.; Smith, Robert Z.

    1990-07-01

    The goal of this report is to document current production practices for hatcheries which rear anadromous fish in the Columbia River Basin and to identify those facilities where production can be increased. A total of 85 hatchery and satellite facilities operated by the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Oregon Department of Fish and Game, US Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington Department of Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fisheries were evaluated. The years 1985 to 1987 were used in this evaluation. During those years, releases averaged 143,306,596 smolts weighing 7,693,589 pounds. A total of 48 hatchery or satellite facilities were identified as having expansion capability. They were estimated to have the potential for increasing production by an 84,448,000 smolts weighing 4,853,306 pounds. 2 refs., 25 figs.

  3. Data in support of manuscript "Evaluation of Chemical Control for Invasive Crayfish at a Warmwater Fish Production Hatchery"

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allert, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Invasive crayfish are known to displace native crayfish species, alter aquatic habitat and community structure and function, and are serious pests for fish hatcheries. White River Crawfish (WRC; Procambarus acutus) were inadvertently introduced to a warm-water fish hatchery in Missouri, USA, possibly in an incoming fish shipment. We evaluated the use of chemical control for crayfish to ensure incoming and outgoing fish shipments from hatcheries do not contain live crayfish. We conducted acute (less than or equal to 24 hr) static toxicity tests to determine potency, dose-response, and selectivity of pesticides to WRC, Virile Crayfish (VC; Orconectes virilis), and Fathead Minnow (FHM; Pimephales promelas). Data included are: Collection location and size of test organisms; Test chemical concentrations and recovery; Mortality and effect-based responses of test organisms; Water quality of test solutions

  4. Contaminant levels in rainbow trout, oncorhynchus mykiss, and their diets from Missouri coldwater hatcheries.

    PubMed

    McKee, Michael J; Kromrey, George B; May, Thomas W; Orazio, Carl E

    2008-05-01

    Organochlorine and metal contaminants often occur in commercial fish diets and can accumulate in fish to levels of concern for human consumption. Contaminant levels were investigated in diet and rainbow trout fillets from Missouri coldwater hatcheries used in "put and take" fisheries. The average fillet:diet ratio was <0.1 for lead and cadmium, 0.4-0.6 for organochlorine compounds, and about 0.8 for mercury. Trout fillet concentrations for all contaminants were low (<50 ng/g) and below Missouri's fish consumption advisory trigger levels.

  5. Kokanee Stock Status and Contribution of Cabinet Gorge Hatchery, Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho, Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Paragamian, Vaugh L.

    1994-07-01

    Lake Pend Oreille once provided the most popular kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka fishery in northern Idaho. A dramatic decline in the population occurred from the mid-1960s to 1970s. Restoration efforts included construction of the Cabinet Gorge Fish Hatchery to supplement the wild population and restore the fishery. In this study, hatchery-reared age 0 kokanee were stocked into Lake Pend Oreille from 1986 through 1992. Seven experimental stocking strategies for kokanee were tested using five locations and two time periods (early May through early June or late July). In 1985, the age 3 and older kokanee totaled about 0.35 million, but rose to 0.78 million in 1986, was stable, was then followed by a decline in 1990 to 0.53 million, then improved to 1.75 million in 1992. Much of the annual variation in total numbers of kokanee, ranging from 4.5 million to 10.2 million, was due to hatchery stockings of age 0 fish. Standing stocks of kokanee remained stable and ranged from 8 to 10 kg/hectare de spite dramatic changes in density due to age 0 fish. Prior to this study (1985), standing stocks were substantially higher (mean = 13.6 kg/hectare), indicating that the population may be operating below carrying capacity. The authors found survival of age 0 hatchery kokanee by each release season to range from 3% in 1986 to 39% in 1992, while the mean from 1987 through 1992 was 23%. They found significant (P=0.05) differences in survival between years, but they could not detect differences between stocking locations (P>0.71). Their analysis of survival between time (early vs late) and location was weak and inconclusive because after 1989 they had fewer fish to stock and could not repeat testing of some release strategies. They believe some of the variation in survival between release groups each year was due to the length of time between release in the lake and trawling.

  6. Contaminant levels in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, and their diets from Missouri coldwater hatcheries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKee, M.J.; Kromrey, G.B.; May, T.W.; Orazio, C.E.

    2008-01-01

    Organochlorine and metal contaminants often occur in commercial fish diets and can accumulate in fish to levels of concern for human consumption. Contaminant levels were investigated in diet and rainbow trout fillets from Missouri coldwater hatcheries used in 'put and take' fisheries. The average fillet:diet ratio was <0.1 for lead and cadmium, 0.4-0.6 for organochlorine compounds, and about 0.8 for mercury. Trout fillet concentrations for all contaminants were low (<50 ng/g) and below Missouri's fish consumption advisory trigger levels. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  7. Open-jaw syndrome in chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) at a hatchery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crouch, Dennis E.; Yasutake, William T.; Rucker, Robert R.

    1973-01-01

    Nearly 0.5% of the yearling spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) at a national fish hatchery were observed with mouth agape, the condition occurring in two of 16 ponds. X-radiographs and histological preparations indicated that the articular bone of the lower jaw was malformed and dislocated dorsal and posterior to its normal point of attachment. The bone appeared to be embedded in the mandibular muscle and surrounded by an extensive fibrous tissue network. Genetic aberration, environmental interaction, and teratogenic substances are discussed as possible causes of the anomaly.

  8. Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Project : Combined-Planning & Design and Operations & Maintenance Reports, 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, Roy Edward; Walker, Grant W.

    2002-12-31

    Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery (NPTH) Year-2000 Combined Maintenance and Operations (O&M) and Planning and Design (P&D) contract is hereby completed based on this annual report patterned after the Statement of Work (SOW) for the project as contracted with Bonneville Power Administration. Primary project activities focused on completion of the Northwest Power Planning Council Step-3 process that: (1) Accepted final design, (2) Authorized a capital construction amount of $16,050,000, and (3) Authorized contractor selection, and (4) Provided construction site dedication, and (5) Implemented construction activities over an anticipated 2-year period of July 2000 through October 2002.

  9. 2009 Spawning cisco investigations in the Canadian waters of Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yule, Daniel L.; Cholwek, Gary A.; Evrard, Lori M.; E. Berglund,; K.I. Cullis,

    2010-01-01

    We sampled with acoustics (AC) and midwater trawls (MT) to determine cisco abundance in Lake Superior’s Thunder and Black bays during 8-14 November, 2009. Total abundance of spawning-size (≥ 250 mm total length) ciscoes was estimated at 6.25 million in Thunder Bay and 1.12 million in Black Bay. Exploitation fractions of market-size (≥ age 6) females from Thunder and Black bays for 2009 were estimated at 7.1% and 11.3%, respectively; below the recommended maximum annual harvest of 15% recently adopted by Lake Superior fisheries managers. Given Thunder Bay spawner densities are on a downward trajectory, and recruitment since the 2003 year-class has been low, it is likely the exploitation fractions will increase in the future. After 2010, the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources (OMNR) will carry on the AC program as a management activity. It is likely suspended experimental gill net (GN) samples will be used to ground truth future AC samples. In 2009, we characterized the length and age structure of Thunder Bay ciscoes using both MT samples and GN samples. Females represented 49% of the MT catch, but only 39% in GN samples. Catching a smaller proportion of females in GN samples resulted in a lower female population estimate and a higher estimated exploitation fraction (10.4%) compared to MT samples (7.1%). Experimental gill net effort was limited to 10-11.8 m water column depths where midwater trawl samples also caught roughly 40% females. Ciscoes ≥ age 17 (≥ 1992 year class) were common in Black Bay, but rare in Thunder Bay suggesting: 1) the stocks may be distinct; and 2) total mortality of ciscoes returning to spawn in Black Bay in recent years has been lower than ciscoes returning to Thunder Bay. Our mid-November 2009 effort to assess the Black Bay stock by sampling outside of the 3 bay in the lake proper was deemed successful, but this should be confirmed by sampling the Black Bay region during both mid- and late-November 2010.