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Sample records for naturally-occurring estradiol-17beta-fatty acid

  1. Naturally-occurring estradiol-17{beta}-fatty acid esters, but not estradiol-17{beta}, preferentially induce mammary tumorigenesis in female rats: Implications for an important role in human breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, Laura H.; Yu Jina; Xu Xiaomeng; Lee, Anthony J.; Zhu Baoting

    2008-06-15

    Because mammary glands are surrounded by adipose tissues, we hypothesize that the ultra-lipophilic endogenous estrogen-17{beta}-fatty acid esters may have preferential hormonal and carcinogenic effects in mammary tissues compared to other target organs (such as the uterus and pituitary). This hypothesis is tested in the present study. We found that all 46 rats implanted with an estradiol-17{beta} pellet developed large pituitary tumors (average weight = 251 {+-}103 mg) and had to be terminated early, but only 48% of them developed mammary tumors. In addition, approximately one-fourth of them developed a huge uterus. In the 26 animals implanted with a mixture containing estradiol-17{beta}-stearate and estradiol-17{beta}-palmitate (two representative estradiol-17{beta}-fatty acid esters) or in the 29 animals implanted with estradiol-17{beta}-stearate alone (in the same molar dose as estradiol-17{beta}), 73% and 79%, respectively, of them developed mammary tumors, whereas only 3 or 2 animals, respectively, had to be terminated early due to the presence of a large pituitary tumor. Both tumorous and normal mammary tissues contained much higher levels of estrogen esterase than other tissues, which catalyzes the releases of bioactive estrogens from their fatty acid esters. In conclusion, while estradiol-17{beta} is much stronger in inducing pituitary tumor (100% incidence) than mammary tumor, estradiol-17{beta}-fatty acid esters have a higher efficacy than estradiol-17{beta} in inducing mammary tumor and yet it only has little ability to induce uterine out-growth and pituitary tumorigenesis. This study establishes the endogenous estrogen-17{beta}-fatty acid esters as preferential inducers of mammary tumorigenesis.

  2. Naturally occurring fatty acids: source, chemistry and uses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural occurring fatty acids are a large and complex class of compounds found in plants and animals. Fatty acids are abundant and of interest because of their renewability, biodegradability, biocompatibility, low cost, and fascinating chemistry. Of the many fatty acids, only 20-25 of them are widel...

  3. Serum concentration of sialic acids in naturally occurring ovine babesiosis.

    PubMed

    Esmaeilnejad, Bijan; Tavassoli, Mousa; Asri-Rezaei, Siamak; Dalir-Naghadeh, Bahram; Abtahi Froushani, Seyyed Meysam; Arjmand, Jafar; Golabi, Mostafa

    2014-10-01

    This study is designated to assess the effect of the severity of Babesia ovis infection on sialic acid concentration in blood sera in naturally infected sheep. Infected animals (diseased group) comprised 38 Iranian fat-tailed sheep, about 1-3 years old, naturally infected with B. ovis, divided into four subgroups with respect to parasitemia rates (low 0.1-0.3 %, moderate 0.4-0.9 %, high 1-2.5 %, and very high >2.5 %). The parasitological diagnosis was confirmed using PCR analysis. As a control group, ten clinically healthy sheep reared under the same management and environmental conditions were also sampled. Hematological parameters and the concentrations of total sialic acid (TSA), lipid-bound sialic acid (LBSA), and protein-bound sialic acid (PBSA) were measured in both groups. Compared to controls, sialic acid concentrations showed significant increase (p < 0.05) in infected sheep. Parasitemia rate was positively correlated with sialic acid concentrations. This study demonstrated that B. ovis infection induced marked and persistent elevations of serum sialic acid concentrations. It seems that increase of serum sialic acid concentrations during parasitemia alter receptor-ligand interactions, which are known to play important role in immune response. Furthermore, sialic acid would indirectly inhibit the action of leukocytes and consequently promote the evasion of the immune response and persistence of the parasite in the host. This factor could influence the parasite-host cell adhesion, but further detailed biochemical investigations are needed to precisely explain the exact role of sialic acid in invasion process of the parasite to the host cells.

  4. Naturally Occurring Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Tomato Pomace Silage

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jing-jing; Du, Rui-ping; Gao, Min; Sui, Yao-qiang; Xiu, Lei; Wang, Xiao

    2014-01-01

    Silage making has become a significant method of forage conservation worldwide. To determine how tomato pomace (TP) may be used effectively as animal feed, it was ensilaged for 90 days and microbiology counts, fermentation characteristics and chemical composition of tomato pomace silage (TPS) were evaluated at the 30th, 60th, and 90th days, respectively. In addition, 103 lactic acid bacteria were isolated from TPS. Based on the phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, 16S rDNA sequence and carbohydrate fermentation tests, the isolates were identified as 17 species namely: Lactobacillus coryniformis subsp. torquens (0.97%), Lactobacillus pontis (0.97%), Lactobacillus hilgardii (0.97%), Lactobacillus pantheris (0.97%), Lactobacillus amylovorus (1.9%), Lactobacillus panis (1.9%), Lactobacillus vaginalis (1.9%), Lactobacillus rapi (1.9%), Lactobacillus buchneri (2.9%), Lactobacillus parafarraginis (2.9%), Lactobacillus helveticus (3.9%), Lactobacillus camelliae (3.9%), Lactobacillus fermentum (5.8%), Lactobacillus manihotivorans (6.8%), Lactobacillus plantarum (10.7%), Lactobacillus harbinensis (16.5%) and Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei (35.0%). This study has shown that TP can be well preserved for 90 days by ensilaging and that TPS is not only rich in essential nutrients, but that physiological and biochemical properties of the isolates could provide a platform for future design of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) inoculants aimed at improving the fermentation quality of silage. PMID:25049999

  5. Cox-2 inhibitory effects of naturally occurring and modified fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Ringbom, T; Huss, U; Stenholm, A; Flock, S; Skattebøl, L; Perera, P; Bohlin, L

    2001-06-01

    In the search for new cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) selective inhibitors, the inhibitory effects of naturally occurring fatty acids and some of their structural derivatives on COX-2-catalyzed prostaglandin biosynthesis were investigated. Among these fatty acids, linoleic acid (LA), alpha-linolenic acid (alpha-LNA), myristic acid, and palmitic acid were isolated from a CH(2)Cl(2) extract of the plant Plantago major by bioassay-guided fractionation. Inhibitory effects of other natural, structurally related fatty acids were also investigated: stearic acid, oleic acid, pentadecanoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Further, the inhibitory effects of these compounds on COX-2- and COX-1-catalyzed prostaglandin biosynthesis was compared with the inhibition of some synthesized analogues of EPA and DHA with ether or thioether functions. The most potent COX-2-catalyzed prostaglandin biosynthesis inhibitor was all-(Z)-5-thia-8,11,14,17-eicosatetraenoic acid (2), followed by EPA, DHA, alpha-LNA, LA, (7E,11Z,14Z,17Z)-5-thiaeicosa-7,11,14,17-tetraenoic acid, all-(Z)-3-thia-6,9,12,15-octadecatetraenoic acid, and (5E,9Z,12Z,15Z,18Z)-3-oxaheneicosa-5,9,12,15,18-pentaenoic acid, with IC(50) values ranging from 3.9 to180 microM. The modified compound 2 and alpha-LNA were most selective toward COX-2, with COX-2/COX-1 ratios of 0.2 and 0.1, respectively. This study shows that several of the natural fatty acids as well as all of the semisynthetic thioether-containing fatty acids inhibited COX-2-catalyzed prostaglandin biosynthesis, where alpha-LNA and compound 2 showed selectivity toward COX-2. PMID:11421736

  6. Transporters in Arabidopsis roots mediating uptake of amino acids at naturally occurring concentrations.

    PubMed

    Svennerstam, Henrik; Jämtgård, Sandra; Ahmad, Iftikhar; Huss-Danell, Kerstin; Näsholm, Torgny; Ganeteg, Ulrika

    2011-07-01

    Recent studies of Arabidopsis have identified several transporters as being important for amino acid uptake. We used Arabidopsis plants with altered expression of lysine histidine transporter 1 (LHT1), amino acid permease 1 (AAP1) and amino acid permease 5 (AAP5) with the aim of disentangling the roles of each transporter in the uptake of different amino acids at naturally occurring concentrations (2-50 μM). LHT1 mutants displayed reduced uptake rates of L-Gln, L-Ala, L-Glu and L-Asp but not of L-Arg or L-Lys, while AAP5 mutants were affected in the uptake of L-Arg and L-Lys only. Double mutants (lht1aap5) exhibited reduced uptake of all tested amino acids. In the concentration range tested, AAP1 mutants did not display altered uptake rates for any of the studied amino acids. Expression analysis of amino acid transporter genes with important root functions revealed no major differences in the individual mutants other than for genes targeted for mutation. We conclude that LHT1 and AAP5, but not AAP1, are crucial for amino acid uptake at concentrations typically found in soils. LHT1 and AAP5 displayed complementary affinity spectra, and no redundancy with respect to gene expression was found between the two transporters, suggesting these two transporters have separate roles in amino acid uptake.

  7. The effects of naturally occurring acids on the surface properties of chrysotile asbestos.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Emma P; Lavkulich, L M Les

    2014-01-01

    Chrysotile asbestos is considered an environmental health hazard. It is postulated that the surface of chrysotile, with its inherent positive charge and chemical content of trace transition metals within the mineral is a causative factor of the concern. Weathering may reduce the negative health effects of chrysotile asbestos, by alteration of the outer brucite layer of the chrysotile. To assess the changes in the surface properties of chrysotile asbestos by simulated weathering, chrysotile was treated with oxalic, hydrochloric, and carbonic acids. Naturally occurring chrysotile, from a mine site and serpentinitic stream sediments from the Sumas River were analyzed and compared. Oxalic acid, a chelating acid, was the most effective at extracting the majority of the trace elements present in the chrysotile, reducing their positive surface charge and producing visible changes at the surface of the fibers as shown by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microsopy (FESEM). Carbonic acid had little effect on the surface properties. Stream environments had minor detectable effects on the surface properties on the chrysotile stream sediments. PMID:25072777

  8. The effects of naturally occurring acids on the surface properties of chrysotile asbestos.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Emma P; Lavkulich, L M Les

    2014-01-01

    Chrysotile asbestos is considered an environmental health hazard. It is postulated that the surface of chrysotile, with its inherent positive charge and chemical content of trace transition metals within the mineral is a causative factor of the concern. Weathering may reduce the negative health effects of chrysotile asbestos, by alteration of the outer brucite layer of the chrysotile. To assess the changes in the surface properties of chrysotile asbestos by simulated weathering, chrysotile was treated with oxalic, hydrochloric, and carbonic acids. Naturally occurring chrysotile, from a mine site and serpentinitic stream sediments from the Sumas River were analyzed and compared. Oxalic acid, a chelating acid, was the most effective at extracting the majority of the trace elements present in the chrysotile, reducing their positive surface charge and producing visible changes at the surface of the fibers as shown by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microsopy (FESEM). Carbonic acid had little effect on the surface properties. Stream environments had minor detectable effects on the surface properties on the chrysotile stream sediments.

  9. Chlorination of 4-hydroxycinnamic acid and its toxic risk as a natural occurring water contaminant

    SciTech Connect

    Borlakoglu, J.T.; Kickuth, R.

    1986-12-01

    During the decay process of plant material a number of phenolic compounds are released into the environment. Previous studies on water courses have shown that five phenolic acids derived from plants predominate with 4-hydroxycinnamic acid as the major compound. Many of these compounds can travel through the soil matrix and enter a water stream. However, water supplies are routinely chlorinated which leads to the chemical chlorination of phenolic water contaminants. These naturally occurring phenolics may therefore change their chemical and biological behavior and probably become, after chlorination, increasingly toxic. Although the occurrence of water compounds in tap water have been increasingly investigated with focus on industrial water pollutants, it is not fully understood to what extent the decay of plant material contributes to phenolic water contamination. Great concern about routine water chlorination has been expressed, because of the chlorination of aliphatic and aromatic water contaminants possibly accompanied by a change in their chemical and biological behavior and the synthesis of organochlorine derivatives. The present situation does not allow any prediction of the chemical and biological behavior of the parent compound nor is it possible to anticipate the amount and potential risk of its organochlorine derivatives. The objective of the present work was to study the chemical behavior of plant-derived phenolic acids under conditions similar to the routine water chlorination. The toxicity of the chlorophenoic mixtures was assessed on a Escherichia coli strain similar to that found in the human intestine.

  10. Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) from a former phosphoric acid processing plant.

    PubMed

    Beddow, H; Black, S; Read, D

    2006-01-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing awareness of the radiological impact of non-nuclear industries that extract and/or process ores and minerals containing naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). These industrial activities may result in significant radioactive contamination of (by-) products, wastes and plant installations. In this study, scale samples were collected from a decommissioned phosphoric acid processing plant. To determine the nature and concentration of NORM retained in pipe-work and associated process plant, four main areas of the site were investigated: (1) the 'Green Acid Plant', where crude acid was concentrated; (2) the green acid storage tanks; (3) the Purified White Acid (PWA) plant, where inorganic impurities were removed; and (4) the solid waste, disposed of on-site as landfill. The scale samples predominantly comprise the following: fluorides (e.g. ralstonite); calcium sulphate (e.g. gypsum); and an assemblage of mixed fluorides and phosphates (e.g. iron fluoride hydrate, calcium phosphate), respectively. The radioactive inventory is dominated by 238U and its decay chain products, and significant fractionation along the series occurs. Compared to the feedstock ore, elevated concentrations (< or =8.8 Bq/g) of 238U were found to be retained in installations where the process stream was rich in fluorides and phosphates. In addition, enriched levels (< or =11 Bq/g) of 226Ra were found in association with precipitates of calcium sulphate. Water extraction tests indicate that many of the scales and waste contain significantly soluble materials and readily release radioactivity into solution.

  11. Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) from a former phosphoric acid processing plant.

    PubMed

    Beddow, H; Black, S; Read, D

    2006-01-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing awareness of the radiological impact of non-nuclear industries that extract and/or process ores and minerals containing naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). These industrial activities may result in significant radioactive contamination of (by-) products, wastes and plant installations. In this study, scale samples were collected from a decommissioned phosphoric acid processing plant. To determine the nature and concentration of NORM retained in pipe-work and associated process plant, four main areas of the site were investigated: (1) the 'Green Acid Plant', where crude acid was concentrated; (2) the green acid storage tanks; (3) the Purified White Acid (PWA) plant, where inorganic impurities were removed; and (4) the solid waste, disposed of on-site as landfill. The scale samples predominantly comprise the following: fluorides (e.g. ralstonite); calcium sulphate (e.g. gypsum); and an assemblage of mixed fluorides and phosphates (e.g. iron fluoride hydrate, calcium phosphate), respectively. The radioactive inventory is dominated by 238U and its decay chain products, and significant fractionation along the series occurs. Compared to the feedstock ore, elevated concentrations (< or =8.8 Bq/g) of 238U were found to be retained in installations where the process stream was rich in fluorides and phosphates. In addition, enriched levels (< or =11 Bq/g) of 226Ra were found in association with precipitates of calcium sulphate. Water extraction tests indicate that many of the scales and waste contain significantly soluble materials and readily release radioactivity into solution. PMID:16303218

  12. Inhibition of TRPV1 channels by a naturally occurring omega-9 fatty acid reduces pain and itch

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Lázaro, Sara L.; Llorente, Itzel; Sierra-Ramírez, Félix; López-Romero, Ana E.; Ortíz-Rentería, Miguel; Serrano-Flores, Barbara; Simon, Sidney A.; Islas, León D.; Rosenbaum, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) ion channel is mainly found in primary nociceptive afferents whose activity has been linked to pathophysiological conditions including pain, itch and inflammation. Consequently, it is important to identify naturally occurring antagonists of this channel. Here we show that a naturally occurring monounsaturated fatty acid, oleic acid, inhibits TRPV1 activity, and also pain and itch responses in mice by interacting with the vanilloid (capsaicin)-binding pocket and promoting the stabilization of a closed state conformation. Moreover, we report an itch-inducing molecule, cyclic phosphatidic acid, that activates TRPV1 and whose pruritic activity, as well as that of histamine, occurs through the activation of this ion channel. These findings provide insights into the molecular basis of oleic acid inhibition of TRPV1 and also into a way of reducing the pathophysiological effects resulting from its activation. PMID:27721373

  13. Chemopreventive mechanisms of α-keto acid metabolites of naturally occurring organoselenium compounds.

    PubMed

    Pinto, John T; Lee, Jeong-In; Sinha, Raghu; MacEwan, Melanie E; Cooper, Arthur J L

    2011-06-01

    Previous studies on the chemopreventive mechanisms of dietary selenium have focused on its incorporation into antioxidative selenoproteins, such as glutathione peroxidase and thioredoxin reductase. Several studies, however, have revealed that dietary selenium in the form of L-selenomethionine and the 21st amino acid, selenocysteine, also have intrinsic anti-cancer properties. Biochemical mechanisms previously investigated to contribute to their anticancer effects involve β- and γ-lyase reactions. Some pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-containing enzymes can catalyze a β-lyase reaction with Se-methyl-L-selenocysteine (MSC) generating pyruvate and ammonia. Other PLP-enzymes can catalyze a γ-lyase reaction with L-selenomethionine (SM) generating α-ketobutyrate and ammonia. In both cases, a purported third product is methylselenol (CH(3)SeH). Although not directly quantifiable, as a result of its extreme hydrophobicity and high vapor pressure, CH(3)SeH has been indirectly observed to act through the alteration of protein-sulfhydryl moieties on redox-responsive signal and transcription factors, thereby maintaining a non-proliferative intracellular environment. We have considered the possibility that α-keto acid analogues of MSC (i.e., methylselenopyruvate; MSP) and SM (i.e., α-keto-γ-methylselenobutyrate; KMSB), generated via a transamination and/or L-amino acid oxidase reaction may also be chemoprotective. Indeed, these compounds were shown to increase the level of histone-H3 acetylation in human prostate and colon cancer cells. MSP and KMSB structurally resemble butyrate, an inhibitor of several histone deacetylases. Thus, the seleno α-keto acid metabolites of MSC and SM, along with CH(3)SeH derived from β- and γ-lyase reactions, may be potential direct-acting metabolites of organoselenium that lead to de-repression of silenced tumor suppressor proteins and/or regulation of genes and signaling molecules.

  14. Amino acid substitutions in naturally occurring variants of ail result in altered invasion activity.

    PubMed Central

    Beer, K B; Miller, V L

    1992-01-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica is the causative agent of a variety of gastrointestinal syndromes ranging from acute enteritis to mesenteric lymphadenitis. In addition, systemic infections resulting in high mortality rates can occur in elderly and immunocompromised patients. More than 50 serotypes of Y. enterocolitica have been identified, but only a few of them commonly cause disease in otherwise healthy hosts. Those serotypes that cause disease have been divided into two groups, American and non-American, based on their geographical distributions, biotypes, and pathogenicity. We have been studying two genes, inv and ail, from Y. enterocolitica that confer in tissue culture assays an invasive phenotype that strongly correlates with virulence. Some differences between the American and non-American serotypes at the ail locus were noted previously and have been investigated further in this report. The ail locus was cloned from seven Y. enterocolitica strains (seven different serotypes). Although the different clones produced similar amounts of Ail, the product of the ail gene from non-American serotypes (AilNA) was less able to promote invasion by Escherichia coli than was the product of the ail gene from American serotypes (AilA). This difference is probably due to one or more of the eight amino acid changes found in the derived amino acid sequence for the mature form of AilNA compared with that of AilA. Seven of these changes are predicted to be in cell surface domains of the protein (a model for the proposed folding of Ail within the outer membrane is presented). These results are discussed in relation to the growing family of outer membrane proteins, which includes Lom from bacteriophage lambda, PagC from salmonella typhimurium, and OmpX from Enterobacter cloacae. Images PMID:1370953

  15. Uranium pollution in an estuary affected by pyrite acid mine drainage and releases of naturally occurring radioactive materials.

    PubMed

    Villa, M; Manjón, G; Hurtado, S; García-Tenorio, R

    2011-07-01

    After the termination of phosphogypsum discharges to the Huelva estuary (SW Spain), a unique opportunity was presented to study the response of a contaminated environmental compartment after the cessation of its main source of pollution. The evolution over time of uranium concentrations in the estuary is presented to supply new insights into the decontamination of a scenario affected by Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) discharges. The cleaning of uranium isotopes from the area has not taken place as rapidly as expected due to leaching from phosphogypsum stacks. An in-depth study using various techniques of analysis, including (234)U/(238)U and (230)Th/(232)Th ratios and the decreasing rates of the uranium concentration, enabled a second source of uranium contamination to be discovered. Increased uranium levels due to acid mine drainage from pyrite mines located in the Iberian Pyrite Belt (SW Spain) prevent complete uranium decontamination and, therefore, result in levels nearly twice those of natural background levels.

  16. Fate of the naturally occurring radioactive materials during treatment of acid mine drainage with coal fly ash and aluminium hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Madzivire, Godfrey; Maleka, Peane P; Vadapalli, Viswanath R K; Gitari, Wilson M; Lindsay, Robert; Petrik, Leslie F

    2014-01-15

    Mining of coal is very extensive and coal is mainly used to produce electricity. Coal power stations generate huge amounts of coal fly ash of which a small amount is used in the construction industry. Mining exposes pyrite containing rocks to H2O and O2. This results in the oxidation of FeS2 to form H2SO4. The acidic water, often termed acid mine drainage (AMD), causes dissolution of potentially toxic elements such as, Fe, Al, Mn and naturally occurring radioactive materials such as U and Th from the associated bedrock. This results in an outflow of AMD with high concentrations of sulphate ions, Fe, Al, Mn and naturally occurring radioactive materials. Treatment of AMD with coal fly ash has shown that good quality water can be produced which is suitable for irrigation purposes. Most of the potentially toxic elements (Fe, Al, Mn, etc) and substantial amounts of sulphate ions are removed during treatment with coal fly ash. This research endeavours to establish the fate of the radioactive materials in mine water with coal fly ash containing radioactive materials. It was established that coal fly ash treatment method was capable of removing radioactive materials from mine water to within the target water quality range for drinking water standards. The alpha and beta radioactivity of the mine water was reduced by 88% and 75% respectively. The reduced radioactivity in the mine water was due to greater than 90% removal of U and Th radioactive materials from the mine water after treatment with coal fly ash as ThO2 and UO2. No radioisotopes were found to leach from the coal fly ash into the mine water. PMID:24355687

  17. Effects of naturally-occurring acid fog on inflammatory mediators in airway and pulmonary functions in asthmatic patients.

    PubMed

    Honma, S; Tanaka, H; Teramoto, S; Igarashi, T; Abe, S

    2000-10-01

    Floating fog occurs every summer in Kushiro City in Japan, and the annual average of fog water pH in the past 4 years has been under 5.0. We previously reported that epidemiologically fog was the most important positive factor contributing to increased hospital visits of asthmatic patients compared with other meteorological values and air pollutants. This study aimed to investigate the mechanism of the effects of naturally-occurring acid fog on asthmatic patients. We compared pulmonary functions and inflammatory mediators in induced sputum between the foggy (July 1995) and the non-foggy (May 1996) season, and assessed airway responsiveness to hypo-osmolar aerosol. Forty-four out of 118 asthmatic patients of Kushiro City residents participated, pulmonary function tests were completed in 36 patients, and sputum data were available in 26 patients in both seasons. Percent forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1) was significantly (P< 0.05) decreased, and % peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) had a trend to decrease in the foggy season more than in the non-foggy, and sputum eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and interleukin (IL)-8 were higher in the foggy season but not significantly. A moderate inverse correlation was revealed between sputum ECP and %PEFR in the foggy season (r= -0.55, P<0.005). Subjects were divided into two groups according to the best PEFR; one had >10% lower PEFR levels in the foggy season than in the non-foggy season (Group A, n = 7), the remainder did not (Group B, n = 19). In group A, sputum ECP was significantly increased (P< 0.01) in the foggy season, but there were no changes in IL-8 and prostaglandin D2. Ultrasonic nebulized distilled water provocation test revealed no differences between group A and B. These results suggested that eosinophilic inflammation rather than hypo-osmolar effect of fog might contribute to respiratory deterioration by inhalation of naturally-occurring acid fog.

  18. Fate of the naturally occurring radioactive materials during treatment of acid mine drainage with coal fly ash and aluminium hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Madzivire, Godfrey; Maleka, Peane P; Vadapalli, Viswanath R K; Gitari, Wilson M; Lindsay, Robert; Petrik, Leslie F

    2014-01-15

    Mining of coal is very extensive and coal is mainly used to produce electricity. Coal power stations generate huge amounts of coal fly ash of which a small amount is used in the construction industry. Mining exposes pyrite containing rocks to H2O and O2. This results in the oxidation of FeS2 to form H2SO4. The acidic water, often termed acid mine drainage (AMD), causes dissolution of potentially toxic elements such as, Fe, Al, Mn and naturally occurring radioactive materials such as U and Th from the associated bedrock. This results in an outflow of AMD with high concentrations of sulphate ions, Fe, Al, Mn and naturally occurring radioactive materials. Treatment of AMD with coal fly ash has shown that good quality water can be produced which is suitable for irrigation purposes. Most of the potentially toxic elements (Fe, Al, Mn, etc) and substantial amounts of sulphate ions are removed during treatment with coal fly ash. This research endeavours to establish the fate of the radioactive materials in mine water with coal fly ash containing radioactive materials. It was established that coal fly ash treatment method was capable of removing radioactive materials from mine water to within the target water quality range for drinking water standards. The alpha and beta radioactivity of the mine water was reduced by 88% and 75% respectively. The reduced radioactivity in the mine water was due to greater than 90% removal of U and Th radioactive materials from the mine water after treatment with coal fly ash as ThO2 and UO2. No radioisotopes were found to leach from the coal fly ash into the mine water.

  19. Molecular identification of naturally occurring bacteriocinogenic and bacteriocinogenic-like lactic acid bacteria in raw milk and soft cheese.

    PubMed

    Ortolani, M B T; Moraes, P M; Perin, L M; Viçosa, G N; Carvalho, K G; Silva Júnior, A; Nero, L A

    2010-07-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are currently used by food industries because of their ability to produce metabolites with antimicrobial activity against gram-positive pathogens and spoilage microorganisms. The objectives of this study were to identify naturally occurring bacteriocinogenic or bacteriocinogenic-like LAB in raw milk and soft cheese and to detect the presence of nisin-coding genes in cultures identified as Lactococcus lactis. Lactic acid bacteria cultures were isolated from 389 raw milk and soft cheese samples and were later characterized for the production of antimicrobial substances against Listeria monocytogenes. Of these, 58 (14.9%) LAB cultures were identified as antagonistic; the nature of this antagonistic activity was then characterized via enzymatic tests to confirm the proteinaceous nature of the antimicrobial substances. In addition, 20 of these antagonistic cultures were selected and submitted to genetic sequencing; they were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum (n=2) and Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis (n=18). Nisin genes were identified by polymerase chain reaction in 7 of these cultures. The identified bacteriocinogenic and bacteriocinogenic-like cultures were highly variable concerning the production and activity of antimicrobial substances, even when they were genetically similar. The obtained results indicated the need for molecular and phenotypic methodologies to properly characterize bacteriocinogenic LAB, as well as the potential use of these cultures as tools to provide food safety.

  20. A naturally occurring single amino acid replacement in multiple gene regulator of group A Streptococcus significantly increases virulence.

    PubMed

    Sanson, Misu; O'Neill, Brian E; Kachroo, Priyanka; Anderson, Jeff R; Flores, Anthony R; Valson, Chandni; Cantu, Concepcion C; Makthal, Nishanth; Karmonik, Christof; Fittipaldi, Nahuel; Kumaraswami, Muthiah; Musser, James M; Olsen, Randall J

    2015-02-01

    Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most common source of genetic variation within a species; however, few investigations demonstrate how naturally occurring SNPs may increase strain virulence. We recently used group A Streptococcus as a model pathogen to study bacteria strain genotype-patient disease phenotype relationships. Whole-genome sequencing of approximately 800 serotype M59 group A Streptococcus strains, recovered during an outbreak of severe invasive infections across North America, identified a disproportionate number of SNPs in the gene encoding multiple gene regulator of group A Streptococcus (mga). Herein, we report results of studies designed to test the hypothesis that the most commonly occurring SNP, encoding a replacement of arginine for histidine at codon 201 of Mga (H201R), significantly increases virulence. Whole transcriptome analysis revealed that the H201R replacement significantly increased expression of mga and 54 other genes, including many proven virulence factors. Compared to the wild-type strain, a H201R isogenic mutant strain caused significantly larger skin lesions in mice. Serial quantitative bacterial culture and noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging also demonstrated that the isogenic H201R strain was significantly more virulent in a nonhuman primate model of joint infection. These findings show that the H201R replacement in Mga increases the virulence of M59 group A Streptococcus and provide new insight to how a naturally occurring SNP in bacteria contributes to human disease phenotypes.

  1. A naturally occurring single amino acid replacement in multiple gene regulator of group A Streptococcus significantly increases virulence.

    PubMed

    Sanson, Misu; O'Neill, Brian E; Kachroo, Priyanka; Anderson, Jeff R; Flores, Anthony R; Valson, Chandni; Cantu, Concepcion C; Makthal, Nishanth; Karmonik, Christof; Fittipaldi, Nahuel; Kumaraswami, Muthiah; Musser, James M; Olsen, Randall J

    2015-02-01

    Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most common source of genetic variation within a species; however, few investigations demonstrate how naturally occurring SNPs may increase strain virulence. We recently used group A Streptococcus as a model pathogen to study bacteria strain genotype-patient disease phenotype relationships. Whole-genome sequencing of approximately 800 serotype M59 group A Streptococcus strains, recovered during an outbreak of severe invasive infections across North America, identified a disproportionate number of SNPs in the gene encoding multiple gene regulator of group A Streptococcus (mga). Herein, we report results of studies designed to test the hypothesis that the most commonly occurring SNP, encoding a replacement of arginine for histidine at codon 201 of Mga (H201R), significantly increases virulence. Whole transcriptome analysis revealed that the H201R replacement significantly increased expression of mga and 54 other genes, including many proven virulence factors. Compared to the wild-type strain, a H201R isogenic mutant strain caused significantly larger skin lesions in mice. Serial quantitative bacterial culture and noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging also demonstrated that the isogenic H201R strain was significantly more virulent in a nonhuman primate model of joint infection. These findings show that the H201R replacement in Mga increases the virulence of M59 group A Streptococcus and provide new insight to how a naturally occurring SNP in bacteria contributes to human disease phenotypes. PMID:25476528

  2. Naturally occurring insecticides.

    PubMed Central

    Soloway, S B

    1976-01-01

    Naturally occurring insecticides are abundant and varied in their effects, though but a few are articles of commerce. Even for these, pyrethrum, nicotine, rotenone, hellebore, ryania, and sabadilla, there is a paucity of information on mammalian toxicology and environmental effects. In general, these materials are characterized favorably by low acute toxicity and ready dissipation in nature. Unfavorable aspects of natural insecticides are the contained mixture of active and inactive components and the low active ingredient content on a crop yield basis pointing to a high unit cost. Natural insecticides can serve additionally as leads to unnatural mimics, of which the commercially successful synthetic pyrethroids are prime examples. The chemical nature, relationship of insecticidal activity to chemical structure, occurrence, production, and utilization, registered uses, metabolism, and insect and mammalian toxicity are reviewed. PMID:789058

  3. Naturally Occurring Food Toxins

    PubMed Central

    Dolan, Laurie C.; Matulka, Ray A.; Burdock, George A.

    2010-01-01

    Although many foods contain toxins as a naturally-occurring constituent or, are formed as the result of handling or processing, the incidence of adverse reactions to food is relatively low. The low incidence of adverse effects is the result of some pragmatic solutions by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and other regulatory agencies through the creative use of specifications, action levels, tolerances, warning labels and prohibitions. Manufacturers have also played a role by setting limits on certain substances and developing mitigation procedures for process-induced toxins. Regardless of measures taken by regulators and food producers to protect consumers from natural food toxins, consumption of small levels of these materials is unavoidable. Although the risk for toxicity due to consumption of food toxins is fairly low, there is always the possibility of toxicity due to contamination, overconsumption, allergy or an unpredictable idiosyncratic response. The purpose of this review is to provide a toxicological and regulatory overview of some of the toxins present in some commonly consumed foods, and where possible, discuss the steps that have been taken to reduce consumer exposure, many of which are possible because of the unique process of food regulation in the United States. PMID:22069686

  4. Naturally occurring hybrids derived from γ-amino acids and sugars with potential tail to tail ether-bonds

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Zi-ming; Zhan, Zhi-lai; Yang, Ya-nan; Jiang, Jian-shuang; Zhang, Pei-cheng

    2016-01-01

    The basic substances of life include various amino acids and sugars. To search such molecules is the precondition to understand the essential nature. Here we reported four unprecedented hybrids of γ-amino acids and sugars from the roots of Ranunculus ternatus, which possess potential tail to tail ether-connected (6,6-ether-connected) modes in the sugar moiety. The structures of these hybrids were elucidated by extensive analyses of spectra and calculated electronic circular dichroism (ECD) method. PMID:27166276

  5. Naturally occurring hybrids derived from γ-amino acids and sugars with potential tail to tail ether-bonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Zi-Ming; Zhan, Zhi-Lai; Yang, Ya-Nan; Jiang, Jian-Shuang; Zhang, Pei-Cheng

    2016-05-01

    The basic substances of life include various amino acids and sugars. To search such molecules is the precondition to understand the essential nature. Here we reported four unprecedented hybrids of γ-amino acids and sugars from the roots of Ranunculus ternatus, which possess potential tail to tail ether-connected (6,6-ether-connected) modes in the sugar moiety. The structures of these hybrids were elucidated by extensive analyses of spectra and calculated electronic circular dichroism (ECD) method.

  6. "Naturally occurring asbestos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cagnard, F.; Lahondère, D.; Blein, O.; Lahfid, A.; Wille, G.

    2012-04-01

    The term asbestos refers to six silicate minerals from amphibole and serpentine groups. By definition, it consists in bundles of thin and flexible long fibers, with high-tensile strength, and chemical and heat resistance. In contrast to asbestos found within commercial products and mining, the specific term ''naturally occurring asbestos'' (NOA) refers to asbestiform minerals occurring within rocks or soils that can be released by human activities or weathering processes. The fact that the exposure to asbestos is related to lung pathologies is now widely demonstrated (e.g. asbestosis, mesothelioma and lung cancer). However, if health risks associated with exposure to NOA exist, they are not yet well documented. The crystallization of natural asbestos occurs in specific Mg-rich lithologies associated with peculiar structural and metamorphic conditions. By recognizing and combining such specific geologic criteria, the presence or the absence of asbestos in bedrock terrains can be reasonably predicted and maps of NOA hazard can be drawn. We present here new results of geological mapping and petrological study concerning the evaluation of the NOA hazard in the Alps and Corsica, in France. The three folds approach consists in (1) a determination of lithologies with potential NOA from a bibliographic compilation and extraction of target zones from a geological geodatabase (2) a geological mapping of the target zones followed by a petrological characterization of sampled asbestiform minerals in the laboratory (optical microscopy, TEM, SEM, and Raman spectroscopy technics), and (3) the drawing of the final map of NOA hazard, at regional-scale. Occurrence criteria can be retained as follows: 1. NOA are abundant in the internal zones of the Alps and Corsica, especially within ophiolitic complexes. Natural asbestos are mostly concentrated within ultramafic rocks but can also occur within basic lithologies such as Mg-metagabbros, metabasalts and meta-pillow-lavas, 2. Asbestos

  7. Mechano-Responsive, Thermo-Reversible, Luminescent Organogels Derived from a Long-Chained, Naturally Occurring Fatty Acid.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mohan; Weiss, Richard G

    2016-06-01

    The gelating ability of an α-diketo derivative of oleic acid, 9,10-dioxooctadecanoic acid (DODA), is investigated. DODA can gelate aromatic liquids and many other organic liquids. By contrast, none of the liquids examined can be gelated by the methyl ester of DODA. DODA is a more efficient gelator than stearic acid and the monoketo derivative due to its more extensive intermolecular dipole-dipole interactions. Formation of organogels of DODA can be induced by both thermal and mechanical stimuli, during which the luminescent and mechanical properties can be modulated significantly. The emission from DODA in 1-octanol exhibits a large, reversible, hypsochromic shift (≈25 nm) between its thermally cycled gel and sol states. The emission changes have been exploited to probe the kinetics of the aggregation and deaggregation processes. DODA is the simplest gelator of which we are aware that exhibits a reversible shift in the emission. Although the self-assembled fibrillar networks of the DODA gels in 1-octanol, benzonitrile, or silicone oil are crystalline, isothermal mechanical cycling between the gel and the sol states is rapid and can be repeated several times (i.e., they are thixotropic). The single-crystal structure of DODA indicates that extended intermolecular dipole-dipole interactions are crucial to the thermal and mechanical formation of DODA gels and the consequential changes in emissive and mechanical properties. From analyses of structural information, gelator packing, and morphology differences, we hypothesize that the mechanical destruction and reformation of the gel networks involves interconversion between the 3D networks and 1D fiber bundles. The thermal processes allow the fibrillar 3D networks and their 0D components (i.e., isolated molecules or small aggregates of DODA) to be interconverted. These results describe a facile approach to the design of mechano-responsive, thermo-reversible gels with control over their emission wavelengths. PMID

  8. Strong and Long-Lasting Antinociceptive and Anti-inflammatory Conjugate of Naturally Occurring Oleanolic Acid and Aspirin

    PubMed Central

    Bednarczyk-Cwynar, Barbara; Wachowiak, Natalia; Szulc, Michal; Kamińska, Ewa; Bogacz, Anna; Bartkowiak-Wieczorek, Joanna; Zaprutko, Lucjusz; Mikolajczak, Przemyslaw L.

    2016-01-01

    The conjugate 8 was obtained as a result of condensation of 3-hydroxyiminooleanolic acid morfolide (7) and aspirin in dioxane. Analgesic effect of OAO-ASA (8) for the range of doses 0.3–300.0 mg/kg (p.o.) was performed in mice using a hot-plate test. Anti-inflammatory activity was assessed on carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats for the same range of doses. The conjugate OAO-ASA (8) did not significantly change locomotor activity of mice, therefore sedative properties of the compound should be excluded. The compound 8 proved a simple, proportional, dose-dependent analgesic action and expressed strong anti-inflammatory activity showing a reversed U-shaped, dose-dependent relation with its maximum at 30.0 mg/kg. After its combined administration with morphine (MF, 5.0 mg/kg, s.c.) the lowering of antinociceptive activity was found; however, the interaction with naloxone (NL, 3.0 mg/kg, s.c.) did not affect the antinociceptive effect of OAO-ASA (8), therefore its opioid mechanism of action should be rather excluded. After combined administration with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, 300.0 mg/kg, p.o.) in hot-plate test, the examined compound 8 enhanced the antinociceptive activity in significant way. It also shows that rather the whole molecule is responsible for the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effect of the tested compound 8, however, it cannot be excluded that the summarizing effect is produced by ASA released from the compound 8 and the rest of triterpene derivative. The occurrence of tolerance for triterpenic derivative 8 was not observed, since the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects after chronic administration of the conjugate OAO-ASA (8) was on the same level as after its single treatment. It seemed that the anti-inflammatory mechanism of action of OAO-ASA (8) is not simple, even its chronic administration lowered both blood concentration of IL-6 and mRNA IL-6 expression. However, the effects of the conjugate OAO-ASA (8) on TNF-α level and m

  9. Naturally occurring single amino acid replacements in a regulatory protein alter streptococcal gene expression and virulence in mice

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Ronan K.; Shelburne, Samuel A.; Olsen, Randall J.; Suber, Bryce; Sahasrabhojane, Pranoti; Kumaraswami, Muthiah; Beres, Stephen B.; Shea, Patrick R.; Flores, Anthony R.; Musser, James M.

    2011-01-01

    Infection with different strains of the same species of bacteria often results in vastly different clinical outcomes. Despite extensive investigation, the genetic basis of microbial strain-specific virulence remains poorly understood. Recent whole-genome sequencing has revealed that SNPs are the most prevalent form of genetic diversity among different strains of the same species of bacteria. For invasive serotype M3 group A streptococci (GAS) strains, the gene encoding regulator of proteinase B (RopB) has the highest frequency of SNPs. Here, we have determined that ropB polymorphisms alter RopB function and modulate GAS host-pathogen interactions. Sequencing of ropB in 171 invasive serotype M3 GAS strains identified 19 distinct ropB alleles. Inactivation of the ropB gene in strains producing distinct RopB variants had dramatically divergent effects on GAS global gene expression. Additionally, generation of isoallelic GAS strains differing only by a single amino acid in RopB confirmed that variant proteins affected transcript levels of the gene encoding streptococcal proteinase B, a major RopB-regulated virulence factor. Comparison of parental, RopB-inactivated, and RopB isoallelic strains in mouse infection models demonstrated that ropB polymorphisms influence GAS virulence and disease manifestations. These data detail a paradigm in which unbiased, whole-genome sequence analysis of populations of clinical bacterial isolates creates new avenues of productive investigation into the pathogenesis of common human infections. PMID:21490401

  10. Inhibition of the mutagenicity of bay-region diol epoxides of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by naturally occurring plant phenols: Exceptional activity of ellagic acid

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Alexander W.; Huang, Mou-Tuan; Chang, Richard L.; Newmark, Harold L.; Lehr, Roland E.; Yagi, Haruhiko; Sayer, Jane M.; Jerina, Donald M.; Conney, Allan H.

    1982-01-01

    Ferulic, caffeic, chlorogenic, and ellagic acids, four naturally occurring plant phenols, inhibit the mutagenicity and cytotoxicity of (±)-7β,8α-dihydroxy-9α, 10α-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P 7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide-2), the only known ultimate carcinogenic metabolite of benzo[a]pyrene. The mutagenicity of 0.05 nmol of B[a]P 7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide-2 in strain TA100 of Salmonella typhimurium is inhibited 50% by incubation of the bacteria and the diol epoxide with 150 nmol of ferulic acid, 75 nmol of caffeic acid, 50 nmol of chlorogenic acid or, most strikingly, 1 nmol of ellagic acid in the 0.5-ml incubation mixture. A 3-nmol dose of ellagic acid inhibits mutation induction by 90%. Ellagic acid is also a potent antagonist of B[a]P 7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide-2 in Chinese hamster V79 cells. Mutations to 8-azaguanine resistance induced by 0.2 μM diol epoxide are reduced by 50% when tissue culture media also contains 2 μM ellagic acid. Similar to results obtained with the bacteria, ferulic, caffeic, and chlorogenic acids are approximately two orders of magnitude less active than ellagic acid in the mammalian cell assay. The antimutagenic effects of the plant phenols result from their direct interaction with B[a]P 7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide-2, because a concentration-dependent increase in the rate of diol epoxide disappearance in cell-free solutions of 1:9 dioxane/water, pH 7.0, is observed with all four phenols. In parallel with the mutagenicity studies, ellagic acid is 80-300 times more effective than the other phenols in accelerating the disappearance of B[a]P 7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide-2. Ellagic acid at 10 μM increases the disappearance of B[a]P 7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide-2 by approximately 20-fold relative to the spontaneous and hydronium ion-catalyzed hydrolysis of the diol epoxide at pH 7.0. Ellagic acid is a highly potent inhibitor of the mutagenic activity of bay-region diol epoxides of benzo[a]pyrene, dibenzo[a,h]pyrene, and dibenzo[a,i]pyrene, but higher

  11. Helix-coil stability constants for the naturally occurring amino acids in water. IX. Glutamic acid parameters from random poly(hydroxybutylglutamine-co-L-glutamic acid).

    PubMed

    Maxfield, F R; Alter, J E; Taylor, G T; Scheraga, H A

    1975-01-01

    The synthesis and characterization of water-soluble random copolymers containing L-glutamic acid with N5-(4-hydroxybutyl)-L-glutamine and the thermally induced helix-coil transitions of these copolymers in water and in 0.1 N KCl are described. The incorporation of L-glutamic acid was found to increase the helix content of the polymer at low pH and to decrease it at high pH even though the presence of 0.1 N KCl effectively eliminated the difference between the electrostatic free energies of the helix and the coil. The Zimm-Bragg parameters sigma and s for the helix-coil transition in poly(L-glutamic acid) in water and in 0.1 N KCl were deduced from an analysis of the melting curves of the copolymers in the manner described in earlier papers. The synthesis of N-acetyl-N'-methylglutamic acid amide and its titration, as well as that of the copolymers and poly(L-glutamic acid), in 0.1 N KCl are described.

  12. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM)

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, P.

    1997-02-01

    This paper discusses the broad problems presented by Naturally Occuring Radioactive Materials (NORM). Technologically Enhanced naturally occuring radioactive material includes any radionuclides whose physical, chemical, radiological properties or radionuclide concentration have been altered from their natural state. With regard to NORM in particular, radioactive contamination is radioactive material in an undesired location. This is a concern in a range of industries: petroleum; uranium mining; phosphorus and phosphates; fertilizers; fossil fuels; forestry products; water treatment; metal mining and processing; geothermal energy. The author discusses in more detail the problem in the petroleum industry, including the isotopes of concern, the hazards they present, the contamination which they cause, ways to dispose of contaminated materials, and regulatory issues. He points out there are three key programs to reduce legal exposure and problems due to these contaminants: waste minimization; NORM assesment (surveys); NORM compliance (training).

  13. Caffeine, a naturally occurring acaricide.

    PubMed

    Russell, D W; Fernández-Caldas, E; Swanson, M C; Seleznick, M J; Trudeau, W L; Lockey, R F

    1991-01-01

    Since caffeine is a plant alkaloid that has been described as a naturally occurring insecticide, its acaricidal effect on Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp) was investigated. Twelve cultures were established by adding 30 Dp to 200 mg of Tetramin fish food and brewer's yeast (8:2 ratio); six cultures were treated with 20 mg of finely ground caffeine. All 12 cultures were incubated at 75% relative humidity, 25 degrees C, and observed during 8 weeks. Live mites were then counted under a stereoscope, cultures were extracted, and supernatants were analyzed for Der p I and Der f I allergen content with a two-site monoclonal RIA. Live mite counts in untreated cultures varied from 146 to 274 (215 +/- 47.1), and in caffeine-treated cultures from 0 to 3 (1 +/- 1.2; p less than or equal to 0.0001). Der p I concentrations in untreated cultures varied from 588 to 9000 ng/gm (3138.3 +/- 2990.8 ng/gm), and in caffeine-treated cultures from 52 to 117 ng/gm (78 +/- 23.8 ng/gm; p less than or equal to 0.01). Der p I was not detected in the food media or caffeine; Der f I was not detected in any of the cultures. Results demonstrate that caffeine inhibits mite growth and allergen production.

  14. The influence of naturally-occurring organic acids on model estimates of lakewater acidification using the model of acidification of groundwater in catchments (MAGIC)

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, T.J.; Eilers, J.M. ); Cosby, B.J. . Dept. of Environmental Sciences); Driscoll, C.T. . Dept. of Civil Engineering); Hemond, H.F. . Dept. of Civil Engineering); Charles, D.F.

    1993-03-05

    A project for the US Department of Energy, entitled Incorporation of an organic acid representation into MAGIC (Model of Acidification of Groundwater in Catchments) and Testing of the Revised Model UsingIndependent Data Sources'' was initiated by E S Environmental Chemistry, Inc. in March, 1992. Major components of the project include: improving the MAGIC model by incorporating a rigorous organic acid representation, based on empirical data and geochemical considerations, and testing the revised model using data from paleolimnological hindcasts of preindustrial chemistry for 33 Adirondack Mountain lakes, and the results of whole-catchment artificial acidification projects in Maine and Norway. The ongoing research in this project involves development of an organic acid representation to be incorporated into the MAGIC modeland testing of the improved model using three independent data sources. The research during Year 1 has included conducting two workshops to agree on an approach for the organic acid modeling, developing the organic subroutine and incorporating it into MAGIC (Task 1), conducing MAGIC hindcasts for Adirondack lakes and comparing the results with paleolimnological reconstructions (Task 2), and conducting site visits to the manipulation project sites in Maine and Norway. The purpose of this report is to provide a summary of the work that has been conducted on this project during Year 1. Tasks 1 and 2 have now been completed.

  15. Functional dissection of naturally occurring amino acid substitutions in eIF4E that confers recessive potyvirus resistance in plants.

    PubMed

    Yeam, Inhwa; Cavatorta, Jason R; Ripoll, Daniel R; Kang, Byoung-Cheorl; Jahn, Molly M

    2007-09-01

    Naturally existing variation in the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) homolog encoded at the pvr1 locus in Capsicum results in recessively inherited resistance against several potyviruses. Previously reported data indicate that the physical interaction between Capsicum-eIF4E and the viral genome-linked protein (VPg) is required for the viral infection in the Capsicum-Tobacco etch virus (TEV) pathosystem. In this study, the potential structural role(s) of natural variation in the eIF4E protein encoded by recessive resistance alleles and their biological consequences have been assessed. Using high-resolution three-dimensional structural models based on the available crystallographic structures of eIF4E, we show that the amino acid substitution G107R, found in many recessive plant virus resistance genes encoding eIF4E, is predicted to result in a substantial modification in the protein binding pocket. The G107R change was shown to not only be responsible for the interruption of VPg binding in planta but also for the loss of cap binding ability in vitro, the principal function of eIF4E in the host. Overexpression of the Capsicum-eIF4E protein containing the G107R amino acid substitution in Solanum lycopersicum indicated that this polymorphism alone is sufficient for the acquisition of resistance against several TEV strains.

  16. Photoinduced chemical reactions on natural single crystals and synthesized crystallites of mercury(II) sulfide in aqueous solution containing naturally occurring amino acids.

    PubMed

    Pal, Bonamali; Ikeda, Shigeru; Ohtani, Bunsho

    2003-03-10

    Photoirradiation at >300 nm of aqueous suspensions of several natural crystal specimens and synthesized crystallites of mercury(II) sulfide (HgS) induced deaminocyclization of optically active or racemic lysine into pipecolinic acid (PCA) under deaerated conditions. This is the first example, to the best of our knowledge, of photoinduced chemical reactions of natural biological compounds over natural minerals. It was found that the natural HgS crystals had activity higher than those of synthesized ones but lower than those of other sulfides of transition metals, e.g., CdS and ZnS, belonging to the same II-IV chalcogenides. In almost all of the photoreactions, decompostion of HgS occurred to liberate hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) and Hg(2+), and the latter seemed to have undergone in-situ reductive deposition on HgS as Hg(0) after a certain induction period (24-70 h) during the photoirradiation, as indicated by the darkened color of the suspensions. The formation of PCA, presumably through combination of oxidation of lysine and reduction of an intermediate, cyclic Schiff base, could also be seen after a certain induction time of the Hg(0) formation. This was supported by the fact that the addition of small amount of Hg(2+) (0.5 wt % of HgS) increased the PCA yield by almost 2-fold. We also tried to elucidate certain aspects of the plausible stereochemical reactions in relation to the chiral crystal structure of HgS. Although, in some experiments, slight enantiomeric excess of the product PCA was observed, the excess was below or equal to the experimental error and no other supporting analytical data could not be obtained; we cannot conclude the enantiomeric photoproduction of PCA by the natural chiral HgS specimen. PMID:12611518

  17. Identification of 8-O-4/8-5(Cyclic)- and 8-8(Cyclic)/5-5-Coupled Dehydrotriferulic Acids, Naturally Occurring in Cell Walls of Mono- and Dicotyledonous Plants.

    PubMed

    Waterstraat, Martin; Bunzel, Diana; Bunzel, Mirko

    2016-09-28

    Besides ferulate dimers, higher oligomers of ferulic acid such as trimers and tetramers were previously demonstrated to occur in plant cell walls. This paper reports the identification of two new triferulic acids. 8-O-4/8-5(cyclic)-triferulic acid was synthesized from ethyl ferulate under oxidative conditions using copper(II)-tetramethylethylenediamine [CuCl(OH)-TMEDA] as a catalyst, whereas 8-8(cyclic)/5-5-triferulic acid was isolated (preparative size exclusion chromatography, reversed-phase HPLC) from saponified insoluble maize fiber. Structures of both trimers were unambiguously elucidated by high-resolution LC-ToF-MS/MS and one- ((1)H) and two-dimensional (HSQC, HMBC, COSY, NOESY) NMR spectroscopy. The newly described trimers were identified by LC-MS/MS in alkaline hydrolysates of insoluble fibers from maize, wheat, and sugar beet, indicating that ferulic acid cross-links between cell wall polymers are more diverse than previously recognized. Saponification experiments also suggest that the newly identified 8-O-4/8-5(cyclic)-triferulic acid is the naturally occurring precursor of the previously identified 8-O-4/8-5(noncyclic)-triferulic acid in plant cell walls.

  18. Identification of 8-O-4/8-5(Cyclic)- and 8-8(Cyclic)/5-5-Coupled Dehydrotriferulic Acids, Naturally Occurring in Cell Walls of Mono- and Dicotyledonous Plants.

    PubMed

    Waterstraat, Martin; Bunzel, Diana; Bunzel, Mirko

    2016-09-28

    Besides ferulate dimers, higher oligomers of ferulic acid such as trimers and tetramers were previously demonstrated to occur in plant cell walls. This paper reports the identification of two new triferulic acids. 8-O-4/8-5(cyclic)-triferulic acid was synthesized from ethyl ferulate under oxidative conditions using copper(II)-tetramethylethylenediamine [CuCl(OH)-TMEDA] as a catalyst, whereas 8-8(cyclic)/5-5-triferulic acid was isolated (preparative size exclusion chromatography, reversed-phase HPLC) from saponified insoluble maize fiber. Structures of both trimers were unambiguously elucidated by high-resolution LC-ToF-MS/MS and one- ((1)H) and two-dimensional (HSQC, HMBC, COSY, NOESY) NMR spectroscopy. The newly described trimers were identified by LC-MS/MS in alkaline hydrolysates of insoluble fibers from maize, wheat, and sugar beet, indicating that ferulic acid cross-links between cell wall polymers are more diverse than previously recognized. Saponification experiments also suggest that the newly identified 8-O-4/8-5(cyclic)-triferulic acid is the naturally occurring precursor of the previously identified 8-O-4/8-5(noncyclic)-triferulic acid in plant cell walls. PMID:27540862

  19. Naturally occurring iridoids. A review, part 1.

    PubMed

    Dinda, Biswanath; Debnath, Sudhan; Harigaya, Yoshihiro

    2007-02-01

    A compilation of new naturally occurring iridoid glycosides, iridoid aglycones, iridoid derivatives and bis-iridoids reported during 1994-2005 is provided with available physical and spectral data: mp, [alpha]D, UV, IR, 1H- and 13C-NMR as well as natural source with family and references. 418 compounds with 202 references are cited.

  20. Synthesis of Naturally Occurring Tropones and Tropolones

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Na; Song, Wangze; Schienebeck, Casi M.; Zhang, Min; Tang, Weiping

    2014-01-01

    Tropones and tropolones are an important class of seven-membered non-benzenoid aromatic compounds. They can be prepared directly by oxidation of seven-membered rings. They can also be derived from cyclization or cycloaddition of appropriate precursors followed by elimination or rearrangement. This review discusses the types of naturally occurring tropones and tropolones and outlines important methods developed for the synthesis of tropone and tropolone natural products. PMID:25400298

  1. Naturally occurring products in cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Rajesh, E.; Sankari, Leena S.; Malathi, L.; Krupaa, Jayasri R.

    2015-01-01

    Natural products have been used for the treatment of various diseases and are becoming an important research area for drug discovery. These products, especially phytochemicals have been extensively studies and have exhibited anti-carcinogenic activities by interfering with the initiation, development and progression of cancer through the modulation of various mechanisms including cellular proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and metastasis. This concept is gaining attention because it is a cost-effective alternative to cancer treatment. In this article, we have discussed some of the naturally occurring products used in cancer treatment. PMID:26015704

  2. Naturally occurring antimicrobials for minimally processed foods.

    PubMed

    Davidson, P Michael; Critzer, Faith J; Taylor, T Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Natural antimicrobials are gaining increased interest from researchers and food manufacturers alike seeking to discover label-friendly alternatives to the widely implemented synthetic compounds. Naturally occurring antimicrobials can be applied directly to food to protect food quality, extend food shelf life by inhibiting or inactivating spoilage microorganisms, and improve food safety by inhibiting or inactivating food-borne pathogens. There are a great number of natural antimicrobials derived from animal, plant, and microbial sources. This manuscript reviews their efficacy against spoilage and pathogenic organisms, their methods of evaluation, and their application in various foods as well as the development of novel delivery systems and incorporation with other hurdles.

  3. Naturally occurring secoiridoids and bioactivity of naturally occurring iridoids and secoiridoids. A review, part 2.

    PubMed

    Dinda, Biswanath; Debnath, Sudhan; Harigaya, Yoshihiro

    2007-05-01

    Naturally occurring new secoiridoids published during 1994-2005 are reviewed with available physical and spectral data: mp, [alpha](D), UV, IR, (1)H- and (13)C-NMR and plant source. The works on biological and pharmacological activity of naturally occurring iridoids and secoiridoids reported during 1998-2005 are also reviewed. Bioactivities like antiallergic, antiarthritis, antibacterial, anticancer, anticoagulant, anticomplement, antifungal, antiinflammatory, antioxidative, antiprotozoal, antispasmodic, antiviral, immunomodulatory, neuroprotective, nerve growth factor potentiating and wound healing activities are highlighted.

  4. Naturally occurring contamination in the Mancos Shale.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Stan J; Goodknight, Craig S; Tigar, Aaron D; Bush, Richard P; Gil, April

    2012-02-01

    Some uranium mill tailings disposal cells were constructed on dark-gray shale of the Upper Cretaceous Mancos Shale. Shale of this formation contains contaminants similar to those in mill tailings. To establish the contributions derived from the Mancos, we sampled 51 locations in Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah. Many of the groundwater samples were saline with nitrate, selenium, and uranium concentrations commonly exceeding 250, 000, 1000, and 200 μg/L, respectively. Higher concentrations were limited to groundwater associated with shale beds, but were not correlated with geographic area, stratigraphic position, or source of water. The elevated concentrations suggest that naturally occurring contamination should be considered when evaluating groundwater cleanup levels. At several locations, seep water was yellow or red, caused in part by dissolved organic carbon concentrations up to 280 mg/L. Most seeps had (234)U to (238)U activity ratios greater than 2, indicating preferential leaching of (234)U. Seeps were slightly enriched in (18)O relative to the meteoric water line, indicating limited evaporation. Conceptually, major ion chemical reactions are dominated by calcite dissolution following proton release from pyrite oxidation and subsequent exchange by calcium for sodium residing on clay mineral exchange sites. Contaminants are likely released from organic matter and mineral surfaces during weathering.

  5. Sundew adhesive: a naturally occurring hydrogel

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yujian; Wang, Yongzhong; Sun, Leming; Agrawal, Richa; Zhang, Mingjun

    2015-01-01

    Bioadhesives have drawn increasing interest in recent years, owing to their eco-friendly, biocompatible and biodegradable nature. As a typical bioadhesive, sticky exudate observed on the stalked glands of sundew plants aids in the capture of insects and this viscoelastic adhesive has triggered extensive interests in revealing the implied adhesion mechanisms. Despite the significant progress that has been made, the structural traits of the sundew adhesive, especially the morphological characteristics in nanoscale, which may give rise to the viscous and elastic properties of this mucilage, remain unclear. Here, we show that the sundew adhesive is a naturally occurring hydrogel, consisting of nano-network architectures assembled with polysaccharides. The assembly process of the polysaccharides in this hydrogel is proposed to be driven by electrostatic interactions mediated with divalent cations. Negatively charged nanoparticles, with an average diameter of 231.9 ± 14.8 nm, are also obtained from this hydrogel and these nanoparticles are presumed to exert vital roles in the assembly of the nano-networks. Further characterization via atomic force microscopy indicates that the stretching deformation of the sundew adhesive is associated with the flexibility of its fibrous architectures. It is also observed that the adhesion strength of the sundew adhesive is susceptible to low temperatures. Both elasticity and adhesion strength of the sundew adhesive reduce in response to lowering the ambient temperature. The feasibility of applying sundew adhesive for tissue engineering is subsequently explored in this study. Results show that the fibrous scaffolds obtained from sundew adhesive are capable of increasing the adhesion of multiple types of cells, including fibroblast cells and smooth muscle cells, a property that results from the enhanced adsorption of serum proteins. In addition, in light of the weak cytotoxic activity exhibited by these scaffolds towards a variety of

  6. Introduction to naturally occurring radioactive material

    SciTech Connect

    Egidi, P.

    1997-08-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is everywhere; we are exposed to it every day. It is found in our bodies, the food we eat, the places where we live and work, and in products we use. We are also bathed in a sea of natural radiation coming from the sun and deep space. Living systems have adapted to these levels of radiation and radioactivity. But some industrial practices involving natural resources concentrate these radionuclides to a degree that they may pose risk to humans and the environment if they are not controlled. Other activities, such as flying at high altitudes, expose us to elevated levels of NORM. This session will concentrate on diffuse sources of technologically-enhanced (TE) NORM, which are generally large-volume, low-activity waste streams produced by industries such as mineral mining, ore benefication, production of phosphate Fertilizers, water treatment and purification, and oil and gas production. The majority of radionuclides in TENORM are found in the uranium and thorium decay chains. Radium and its subsequent decay products (radon) are the principal radionuclides used in characterizing the redistribution of TENORM in the environment by human activity. We will briefly review other radionuclides occurring in nature (potassium and rubidium) that contribute primarily to background doses. TENORM is found in many waste streams; for example, scrap metal, sludges, slags, fluids, and is being discovered in industries traditionally not thought of as affected by radionuclide contamination. Not only the forms and volumes, but the levels of radioactivity in TENORM vary. Current discussions about the validity of the linear no dose threshold theory are central to the TENORM issue. TENORM is not regulated by the Atomic Energy Act or other Federal regulations. Control and regulation of TENORM is not consistent from industry to industry nor from state to state. Proposed regulations are moving from concentration-based standards to dose

  7. Naturally occurring esterification reactions with Bryostatin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bryostatin structures share a commonality of a central bryophan ring, but each differs due to two groups (R1 and R2) that are attached to the bryophan ring via ester bonds. This research examines the impact that conditions such as UV light, acidic and basic conditions can have on the bryostatin stru...

  8. Analyzing Effects of Naturally Occurring Missense Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhe; Miteva, Maria A.; Wang, Lin; Alexov, Emil

    2012-01-01

    Single-point mutation in genome, for example, single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) or rare genetic mutation, is the change of a single nucleotide for another in the genome sequence. Some of them will produce an amino acid substitution in the corresponding protein sequence (missense mutations); others will not. This paper focuses on genetic mutations resulting in a change in the amino acid sequence of the corresponding protein and how to assess their effects on protein wild-type characteristics. The existing methods and approaches for predicting the effects of mutation on protein stability, structure, and dynamics are outlined and discussed with respect to their underlying principles. Available resources, either as stand-alone applications or webservers, are pointed out as well. It is emphasized that understanding the molecular mechanisms behind these effects due to these missense mutations is of critical importance for detecting disease-causing mutations. The paper provides several examples of the application of 3D structure-based methods to model the effects of protein stability and protein-protein interactions caused by missense mutations as well. PMID:22577471

  9. Naturally occurring organic osmolytes: from cell physiology to disease prevention.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shagufta H; Ahmad, Nihal; Ahmad, Faizan; Kumar, Raj

    2010-12-01

    Osmolytes are naturally occurring organic compounds, which represent different chemical classes including amino acids, methylamines, and polyols. By accumulating high concentrations of osmolytes, organisms adapt to perturbations that can cause structural changes in their cellular proteins. Osmolytes shift equilibrium toward natively-folded conformations by raising the free energy of the unfolded state. As osmolytes predominantly affect the protein backbone, the balance between osmolyte-backbone interactions and amino acid side chain-solvent interactions determines protein folding. Abnormal cell volume regulation significantly contributes to the pathophysiology of several disorders, and cells respond to these changes by importing, exporting, or synthesizing osmolytes to maintain volume homeostasis. In recent years, it has become quite evident that cells regulate many biological processes such as protein folding, protein disaggregation, and protein-protein interactions via accumulation of specific osmolytes. Many genetic diseases are attributed to the problems associated with protein misfolding/aggregation, and it has been shown that certain osmolytes can protect these proteins from misfolding. Thus, osmolytes can be utilized as therapeutic targets for such diseases. In this review article, we discuss the role of naturally occurring osmolytes in protein stability, underlying mechanisms, and their potential use as therapeutic molecules. PMID:21190292

  10. The influence of naturally-occurring organic acids on model estimates of lakewater acidification using the model of acidification of groundwater in catchments (MAGIC). Summary of research conducted during year 1

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, T.J.; Eilers, J.M.; Cosby, B.J.; Driscoll, C.T.; Hemond, H.F.; Charles, D.F.; Norton, S.A.

    1993-03-05

    A project for the US Department of Energy, entitled ``Incorporation of an organic acid representation into MAGIC (Model of Acidification of Groundwater in Catchments) and Testing of the Revised Model UsingIndependent Data Sources`` was initiated by E&S Environmental Chemistry, Inc. in March, 1992. Major components of the project include: improving the MAGIC model by incorporating a rigorous organic acid representation, based on empirical data and geochemical considerations, and testing the revised model using data from paleolimnological hindcasts of preindustrial chemistry for 33 Adirondack Mountain lakes, and the results of whole-catchment artificial acidification projects in Maine and Norway. The ongoing research in this project involves development of an organic acid representation to be incorporated into the MAGIC modeland testing of the improved model using three independent data sources. The research during Year 1 has included conducting two workshops to agree on an approach for the organic acid modeling, developing the organic subroutine and incorporating it into MAGIC (Task 1), conducing MAGIC hindcasts for Adirondack lakes and comparing the results with paleolimnological reconstructions (Task 2), and conducting site visits to the manipulation project sites in Maine and Norway. The purpose of this report is to provide a summary of the work that has been conducted on this project during Year 1. Tasks 1 and 2 have now been completed.

  11. Comparative Toxicology of Libby Amphibole and Naturally Occurring Asbestos

    EPA Science Inventory

    Summary sentence: Comparative toxicology of Libby amphibole (LA) and site-specific naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) provides new insights on physical properties influencing health effects and mechanisms of asbestos-induced inflammation, fibrosis, and tumorigenesis.Introduction/...

  12. Identification of Telomerase-activating Blends From Naturally Occurring Compounds.

    PubMed

    Ait-Ghezala, Ghania; Hassan, Samira; Tweed, Miles; Paris, Daniel; Crynen, Gogce; Zakirova, Zuchra; Crynen, Stefan; Crawford, Fiona

    2016-06-01

    telomerase activity, and combinations of the top-ranking compounds were able to increase telomerase activity significantly, from 51% to 290%, relative to controls. Conclusions • The results have confirmed that many naturally occurring compounds hold the potential to activate telomerase and that certain of those compounds have demonstrated synergistic effects to produce more potent blends. Given the relationship between telomere shortening, aging, and the decline of tissue function, it is reasonable to hypothesize that such telomerase-activating blends may have health-promoting benefits, particularly in relation to aging-associated conditions. Further investigation of such blends in human studies that are designed to evaluate safety and the effects on telomere length are thus warranted.

  13. Identification of Telomerase-activating Blends From Naturally Occurring Compounds.

    PubMed

    Ait-Ghezala, Ghania; Hassan, Samira; Tweed, Miles; Paris, Daniel; Crynen, Gogce; Zakirova, Zuchra; Crynen, Stefan; Crawford, Fiona

    2016-06-01

    telomerase activity, and combinations of the top-ranking compounds were able to increase telomerase activity significantly, from 51% to 290%, relative to controls. Conclusions • The results have confirmed that many naturally occurring compounds hold the potential to activate telomerase and that certain of those compounds have demonstrated synergistic effects to produce more potent blends. Given the relationship between telomere shortening, aging, and the decline of tissue function, it is reasonable to hypothesize that such telomerase-activating blends may have health-promoting benefits, particularly in relation to aging-associated conditions. Further investigation of such blends in human studies that are designed to evaluate safety and the effects on telomere length are thus warranted. PMID:27433836

  14. URBAN STORMWATER TRACING WITH THE NATURALLY OCCURRING DEUTERIUM ISOTOPE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Measurements of the naturally-occurring deuterium isotope assist the tracing of water components during wet-weather flows in an urban watershed. A transect of installations in the vadose and saturated zones was completed in the vicinity of a small stream and storm sewer. High-r...

  15. The Natural Occurring Compounds Targeting Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hai; Yang, Jianqiong; Li, Linfu; Shi, Weimei; Yuan, Xiaoliang; Wu, Longhuo

    2016-01-01

    ER stress has been implicated in pathophysiological development of many diseases. Persistent overwhelming stimuli trigger ER stress to initiate apoptosis, autophagy, and cell death. IRE1-JNK and eIF2α-CHOP signaling pathways are the two important players of ER stress, which is also modulated by ROS production, calcium disturbance, and inflammatory factors. ER stress has been developed as a novel strategy for diseases management. Recently, a vast of research focuses on the natural occurring compounds targeting ER stress, which results in medical benefits to human diseases. These small reported molecules mainly include polyphenols, alkaloids, and saponins. Many of them have been developed for use in clinical applications. To better understand the pharmacological mechanism of these molecules in ER stress in diseases, efforts have been made to discover and deliver medical merits. In this paper, we will summarize the natural occurring compounds targeting ER stress. PMID:27563337

  16. The Natural Occurring Compounds Targeting Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hai; Yang, Jianqiong; Li, Linfu; Shi, Weimei

    2016-01-01

    ER stress has been implicated in pathophysiological development of many diseases. Persistent overwhelming stimuli trigger ER stress to initiate apoptosis, autophagy, and cell death. IRE1-JNK and eIF2α-CHOP signaling pathways are the two important players of ER stress, which is also modulated by ROS production, calcium disturbance, and inflammatory factors. ER stress has been developed as a novel strategy for diseases management. Recently, a vast of research focuses on the natural occurring compounds targeting ER stress, which results in medical benefits to human diseases. These small reported molecules mainly include polyphenols, alkaloids, and saponins. Many of them have been developed for use in clinical applications. To better understand the pharmacological mechanism of these molecules in ER stress in diseases, efforts have been made to discover and deliver medical merits. In this paper, we will summarize the natural occurring compounds targeting ER stress. PMID:27563337

  17. Naturally occurring iridoids and secoiridoids. An updated review, part 4.

    PubMed

    Dinda, Biswanath; Debnath, Sudhan; Banik, Rajarshi

    2011-01-01

    A compilation of new naturally occurring iridoids and secoiridoids including their glycosides, esters, aglycones, derivatives and dimers reported during mid 2008-2010 is provided with available physical and spectral data: mp, [α](D), UV, IR, circular dichroism (CD), (1)H- and (13)C-NMR as well as natural source with family and references. The important bioactivity of new and known iridoids and secoiridoids reported during this period is also highlighted.

  18. Leaching Properties of Naturally Occurring Heavy Metals from Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, M.; Hoshino, M.; Yoshikawa, M.; Hara, J.; Sugita, H.

    2014-12-01

    The major threats to human health from heavy metals are associated with exposure to arsenic, lead, cadmium, chromium, mercury, as well as some other elements. The effects of such heavy metals on human health have been extensively studied and reviewed by international organizations such as WHO. Due to their toxicity, heavy metal contaminations have been regulated by national environmental standards in many countries, and/or laws such as the Soil Contamination Countermeasures Act in Japan. Leaching of naturally occurring heavy metals from the soils, especially those around abandoned metal mines into surrounding water systems, either groundwater or surface water systems, is one of the major pathways of exposure. Therefore, understanding the leaching properties of toxic heavy metals from naturally polluted soils is of fundamentally importance for effectively managing abandoned metal mines, excavated rocks discharged from infrastructure constructions such as tunneling, and/or selecting a pertinent countermeasure against pollution when it is necessary. In this study, soil samples taken from the surroundings of abandoned metal mines in different regions in Japan were collected and analyzed. The samples contained multiple heavy metals such as lead, arsenic and chromium. Standard leaching test and sequential leaching test considering different forms of contaminants, such as trivalent and pentavalent arsenics, and trivalent and hexavalent chromiums, together with standard test for evaluating total concentration, X-ray Fluorescence Analysis (XRF), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) tests were performed. In addition, sequential leaching tests were performed to evaluate long-term leaching properties of lead from representative samples. This presentation introduces the details of the above experimental study, discusses the relationships among leaching properties and chemical and mineral compositions, indicates the difficulties associated with

  19. An Update on Antitumor Activity of Naturally Occurring Chalcones

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, En-Hui; Wang, Ru-Feng; Guo, Shu-Zhen; Liu, Bin

    2013-01-01

    Chalcones, which have characteristic 1,3-diaryl-2-propen-1-one skeleton, are mainly produced in roots, rhizomes, heartwood, leaves, and seeds of genera Angelica, Sophora, Glycyrrhiza, Humulus, Scutellaria, Parartocarpus, Ficus, Dorstenia, Morus, Artocarpus, and so forth. They have become of interest in the research and development of natural antitumor agents over the past decades due to their broad range of mechanisms including anti-initiation, induction of apoptosis, antiproliferation, antimetastasis, antiangiogenesis, and so forth. This review summarizes the studies on the antitumor activity of naturally occurring chalcones and their underlying mechanisms in detail during the past decades. PMID:23690855

  20. Synthetic muscle promoters: activities exceeding naturally occurring regulatory sequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, X.; Eastman, E. M.; Schwartz, R. J.; Draghia-Akli, R.

    1999-01-01

    Relatively low levels of expression from naturally occurring promoters have limited the use of muscle as a gene therapy target. Myogenic restricted gene promoters display complex organization usually involving combinations of several myogenic regulatory elements. By random assembly of E-box, MEF-2, TEF-1, and SRE sites into synthetic promoter recombinant libraries, and screening of hundreds of individual clones for transcriptional activity in vitro and in vivo, several artificial promoters were isolated whose transcriptional potencies greatly exceed those of natural myogenic and viral gene promoters.

  1. Arsenic poisoning in dairy cattle from naturally occurring arsenic pyrites.

    PubMed

    Hopkirk, R G

    1987-10-01

    An outbreak of arsenic poisoning occurred in which most of a 200 cow dairy herd were affected and six died. The source of the arsenic was naturally occurring arsenic pyrites from the Waiotapu Stream, near Rotorua. Arsenic levels in the nearby soil were as high as 6618 ppm. There was little evidence to suggest that treatment affected the course of the disease. Haematology was of little use in diagnosis, post-mortem signs were not always consistent and persistence of the element in the liver appeared short. Control of further outbreaks have been based on practical measures to minimise the intake of contaminated soil and free laying water by the stock. PMID:16031332

  2. Arsenic poisoning in dairy cattle from naturally occurring arsenic pyrites.

    PubMed

    Hopkirk, R G

    1987-10-01

    An outbreak of arsenic poisoning occurred in which most of a 200 cow dairy herd were affected and six died. The source of the arsenic was naturally occurring arsenic pyrites from the Waiotapu Stream, near Rotorua. Arsenic levels in the nearby soil were as high as 6618 ppm. There was little evidence to suggest that treatment affected the course of the disease. Haematology was of little use in diagnosis, post-mortem signs were not always consistent and persistence of the element in the liver appeared short. Control of further outbreaks have been based on practical measures to minimise the intake of contaminated soil and free laying water by the stock.

  3. Naturally occurring crystalline phases: analogues for radioactive waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    Haaker, R.F.; Ewing, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    Naturally occurring mineral analogues to crystalline phases that are constituents of crystalline radioactive waste forms provide a basis for comparison by which the long-term stability of these phases may be estimated. The crystal structures and the crystal chemistry of the following natural analogues are presented: baddeleyite, hematite, nepheline; pollucite, scheelite;sodalite, spinel, apatite, monazite, uraninite, hollandite-priderite, perovskite, and zirconolite. For each phase in geochemistry, occurrence, alteration and radiation effects are described. A selected bibliography for each phase is included.

  4. An update on antitumor activity of naturally occurring chalcones.

    PubMed

    Zhang, En-Hui; Wang, Ru-Feng; Guo, Shu-Zhen; Liu, Bin

    2013-01-01

    Chalcones, which have characteristic 1,3-diaryl-2-propen-1-one skeleton, are mainly produced in roots, rhizomes, heartwood, leaves, and seeds of genera Angelica, Sophora, Glycyrrhiza, Humulus, Scutellaria, Parartocarpus, Ficus, Dorstenia, Morus, Artocarpus, and so forth. They have become of interest in the research and development of natural antitumor agents over the past decades due to their broad range of mechanisms including anti-initiation, induction of apoptosis, antiproliferation, antimetastasis, antiangiogenesis, and so forth. This review summarizes the studies on the antitumor activity of naturally occurring chalcones and their underlying mechanisms in detail during the past decades.

  5. Daily intakes of naturally occurring radioisotopes in typical Korean foods.

    PubMed

    Choi, Min-Seok; Lin, Xiu-Jing; Lee, Sun Ah; Kim, Wan; Kang, Hee-Dong; Doh, Sih-Hong; Kim, Do-Sung; Lee, Dong-Myung

    2008-08-01

    The concentrations of naturally occurring radioisotopes ((232)Th, (228)Th, (230)Th, (228)Ra, (226)Ra, and (40)K) in typical Korean foods were evaluated. The daily intakes of these radioisotopes were calculated by comparing concentrations in typical Korean foods and the daily consumption rates of these foods. Daily intakes were as follows: (232)Th, 0.00-0.23; (228)Th, 0.00-2.04; (230)Th, 0.00-0.26; (228)Ra, 0.02-2.73; (226)Ra, 0.01-4.37 mBq/day; and (40)K, 0.01-5.71 Bq/day. The total daily intake of the naturally occurring radioisotopes measured in this study from food was 39.46 Bq/day. The total annual internal dose resulting from ingestion of radioisotopes in food was 109.83 muSv/y, and the radioisotope with the highest daily intake was (40)K. These values were same level compiled in other countries.

  6. Pathologic features of naturally occurring juvenile polyarteritis in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Snyder, P W; Kazacos, E A; Scott-Moncrieff, J C; HogenEsch, H; Carlton, W W; Glickman, L T; Felsburg, P J

    1995-07-01

    Eighteen young Beagle dogs (eight males and 10 females), ages 6-40 months, with canine juvenile polyarteritis syndrome (CJPS), a naturally occurring vasculitis and perivasculitis of unknown etiology, were necropsied, and their tissues were examined by histopathologic and histochemical methods. The condition is characterized by recurring episodes of an acute onset of fever (> 40 C) and neck pain that persist for 3-7 days. The major histopathologic alterations were a systemic vasculitis and perivasculitis. During the febrile, painful period of CJPS, the vascular lesions ranged from a histiocytic-lymphocytic periarterial infiltration to transmural arterial inflammation with concomitant fibrinoid necrosis and vascular thrombosis. Massive periarterial accumulations of inflammatory cells were common and often extended into adjacent tissues. The small- to medium-sized muscular arteries of the heart, cranial mediastinum, and cervical spinal meninges were consistently involved. Vasculitis occasionally occurred in other organ systems. The vascular lesions in dogs examined during clinically normal periods consisted of intimal and medial fibrosis, ruptured elastic laminae, and mild perivasculitis; these lesions were probably related to previous episodes of vasculitis. Eight dogs that had experienced repeated acute episodes also developed splenic, hepatic, and renal amyloidosis. The clinical signs, laboratory abnormalities, and the vascular lesions suggest that the condition may be immune-system mediated. CJPS may serve as a naturally occurring animal model of human immune-system-mediated vasculitides such as polyarteritis nodosa, infantile polyarteritis, and Kawasaki disease.

  7. Beauveria caledonica is a naturally occurring pathogen of forest beetles.

    PubMed

    Glare, Travis R; Reay, Stephen D; Nelson, Tracey L; Moore, Roger

    2008-03-01

    In New Zealand, two introduced scolytid beetles, Hylastes ater and Hylurgus ligniperda (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) are pests in pine plantations. Investigation of the naturally occurring pathogens of these exotic pests revealed that both are attacked by Beauveria caledonica, a species originally isolated and described from soil in Scotland. The isolates in New Zealand were identical in morphology and conserved DNA region (rDNA, elongation factor alpha) sequence to isolates held in the USDA-ARS insect pathogens culture collection. In bioassay, the B. caledonica isolates were highly pathogenic to adults of H. ligniperda and larvae of Tenebrio molitor. Sporulation was observed on cadavers, confirming the species can utilise the cadavers. As both species were likely to have been introduced to New Zealand from Europe, a search was made for B. caledonica in the northern UK and Ireland. The fungus was found as a naturally-occurring pathogen of the weevil pest, Hylobius abietis (Curculionidae: Scolytinae), developing in spruce and other beetles in forests in both regions. PMID:18308525

  8. Radiological protection in North American naturally occurring radioactive material industries.

    PubMed

    Chambers, D B

    2015-06-01

    All soils and rocks contain naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). Many ores and raw materials contain relatively high levels of natural radionuclides, and processing such materials can further increase the concentrations of natural radionuclides, sometimes referred to as 'technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material' (TENORM). Examples of NORM minerals include uranium ores, monazite (a source of rare earth minerals), and phosphate rock used to produce phosphate fertiliser. Such activities have the potential to result in above background radiation exposure to workers and the public. The objective of this paper is to review the sources and exposure from NORM in North American industries, and provide a perspective on the potential radiological hazards to workers and the environment. Proper consideration of NORM issues is important and needs to be integrated in the assessment of these projects. Concerns over radioactivity and radiation amongst non-governmental organisations and the local public have resulted in the cancellation of NORM mining and mineral extraction projects, as well as inhibition of the safe use of by-product materials from various NORM industries. This paper also briefly comments on the current regulatory framework for NORM (TENORM) in Canada and the USA, as well as the potential implications of the recent activities of the International Commission on Radiological Protection for NORM industries. PMID:25816274

  9. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials in Cargo at US Borders

    SciTech Connect

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Ely, James H.; Evans, John C.; Hensley, Walter K.; Lepel, Elwood A.; McDonald, Joseph C.; Schweppe, John E.; Siciliano, Edward R.; Strom, Daniel J.; Woodring, Mitchell L.

    2006-01-01

    In the U.S. and other countries, large numbers of vehicles pass through border crossings each day. The illicit movement of radioactive sources is a concern that has resulted in the installation of radiation detection and identification instruments at border crossing points. This activity is judged to be necessary because of the possibility of an act of terrorism involving a radioactive source that may include any number of dangerous radionuclides. The problem of detecting, identifying, and interdicting illicit radioactive sources is complicated by the fact that many materials present in cargo are somewhat radioactive. Some cargo contains naturally occurring radioactive material or technologically-enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material that may trigger radiation portal monitor alarms. Man-made radioactive sources, especially medical isotopes, are also frequently observed and produce alarms. Such nuisance alarms can be an operational limiting factor for screening of cargo at border crossings. Information about the nature of the radioactive materials in cargo that can interfere with the detection of radionuclides of concern is necessary. This paper provides such information for North American cargo, but the information may also be of use to border control officials in other countries. (PIET-43741-TM-361)

  10. Vampire bat reproductive control by a naturally occurring phytooestrogen.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Hector; Pérez-Rivero, Juan-José; Aguilar-Setién, Alvaro; de-Paz, Octavio; Villa-Godoy, Alejandro

    2007-01-01

    Rabies transmission by wild animals has not being controlled satisfactorily. One major rabies vector to humans and cattle is the hematophagous vampire bat Desmodus rotundus whose distribution is still increasing in the Americas. Of all of the strategies currently in place to control this vector, none of them are really specific and some have ecological impacts. In the present study we used a naturally occurring phytoestrogen on a small vampire bat colony. After collection, bats were fed bovine blood containing 200 microg coumestrol for a 30-day period. After treatment, gonads were excised and processed for histological evaluation. Data indicate that coumestrol adversely affects gonad histology and has a possible impact on the fertility of both male and female vampire bats.

  11. Active experiments, magnetospheric modification, and a naturally occurring analogue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kivelson, M. G.; Russell, C. T.

    1973-01-01

    Recently, a scheme has been proposed which would modify the magnetosphere by injecting plasma near the equator beyond the plasmapause and initiating wave-particle instabilities. The expected effects have been examined theoretically. Injection of plasma into this region is also a naturally occurring phenomenon produced by the cross-tail electric fields which are associated with geomagnetic activity. For further investigation of magnetospheric instabilities, the advantages of examining artificially injected plasma (control of time and location of injection and of the volume of plasma injected) contrast with the advantages of studying natural enhancements (no extra payload, frequent occurrence). Thus, the two types of experiments are complementary. In preliminary studies of natural plasma enhancements both ULF and ELF emissions have been observed. The ELF noise is consistent with generation by the electron cyclotron instability.

  12. Additive CHARMM force field for naturally occurring modified ribonucleotides

    PubMed Central

    Xu, You; Vanommeslaeghe, Kenno; Aleksandrov, Alexey; MacKerell, Alexander D.

    2016-01-01

    More than 100 naturally occurring modified nucleotides have been found in RNA molecules, in particular in tRNAs. We have determined molecular mechanics force field parameters compatible with the CHARMM36 all‐atom additive force field for all these modifications using the CHARMM force field parametrization strategy. Emphasis was placed on fine tuning of the partial atomic charges and torsion angle parameters. Quantum mechanics calculations on model compounds provided the initial set of target data, and extensive molecular dynamics simulations of nucleotides and oligonucleotides in aqueous solutions were used for further refinement against experimental data. The presented parameters will allow for computational studies of a wide range of RNAs containing modified nucleotides, including the ribosome and transfer RNAs. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Computational Chemistry Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26841080

  13. Issues related to regulatory control of naturally occurring radioactive materials

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, S.Y.

    1997-04-01

    Nearly 80% of human radiation exposure is from naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). While exposure from man-made sources of radiation has been well regulated, no consistent regulatory controls exist for NORM. Because elevated radiation levels have resulted from NORM enhancement activities such as occur in the petroleum, fertilizer, mining, and processing industries, some form of regulatory control is in order. In the US, regulation of NORM by federal agencies such as the Nuclear Regulatory Commission or the Environmental Protection Agency is not anticipated in the near future because there are no authorizing federal statutes. Important issues for addressing the control of NORM include source characterization and generation, radiation protection concerns, waste management and disposition, and the regulatory framework.

  14. Vampire bat reproductive control by a naturally occurring phytooestrogen.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Hector; Pérez-Rivero, Juan-José; Aguilar-Setién, Alvaro; de-Paz, Octavio; Villa-Godoy, Alejandro

    2007-01-01

    Rabies transmission by wild animals has not being controlled satisfactorily. One major rabies vector to humans and cattle is the hematophagous vampire bat Desmodus rotundus whose distribution is still increasing in the Americas. Of all of the strategies currently in place to control this vector, none of them are really specific and some have ecological impacts. In the present study we used a naturally occurring phytoestrogen on a small vampire bat colony. After collection, bats were fed bovine blood containing 200 microg coumestrol for a 30-day period. After treatment, gonads were excised and processed for histological evaluation. Data indicate that coumestrol adversely affects gonad histology and has a possible impact on the fertility of both male and female vampire bats. PMID:17394795

  15. Additive CHARMM force field for naturally occurring modified ribonucleotides.

    PubMed

    Xu, You; Vanommeslaeghe, Kenno; Aleksandrov, Alexey; MacKerell, Alexander D; Nilsson, Lennart

    2016-04-15

    More than 100 naturally occurring modified nucleotides have been found in RNA molecules, in particular in tRNAs. We have determined molecular mechanics force field parameters compatible with the CHARMM36 all-atom additive force field for all these modifications using the CHARMM force field parametrization strategy. Emphasis was placed on fine tuning of the partial atomic charges and torsion angle parameters. Quantum mechanics calculations on model compounds provided the initial set of target data, and extensive molecular dynamics simulations of nucleotides and oligonucleotides in aqueous solutions were used for further refinement against experimental data. The presented parameters will allow for computational studies of a wide range of RNAs containing modified nucleotides, including the ribosome and transfer RNAs. PMID:26841080

  16. Is anyone regulating naturally occurring radioactive material? A state survey

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, E.M.; Barisas, S.G.

    1993-08-01

    As far as we know, naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) has surrounded humankind since the beginning of time. However, recent data demonstrating that certain activities concentrate NORM have increased concern regarding its proper handling and disposal and precipitated the development of new NORM-related regulations. The regulation of NORM affects the management of government facilities as well as a broad range of industrial processes. Recognizing that NORM regulation at the federal level is extremely limited, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a 50-state survey to determine the extent to which states have assumed the responsibility for regulating NORM as well as the NORM standards that are currently being applied at the state level. Though the survey indicates that NORM regulation comprises a broad spectrum of controls from full licensing requirements to virtually no regulation at afl, a trend is emerging toward recognition of the need for increased regulation of potential NORM hazards, particularly in the absence of federal standards.

  17. Additive CHARMM force field for naturally occurring modified ribonucleotides.

    PubMed

    Xu, You; Vanommeslaeghe, Kenno; Aleksandrov, Alexey; MacKerell, Alexander D; Nilsson, Lennart

    2016-04-15

    More than 100 naturally occurring modified nucleotides have been found in RNA molecules, in particular in tRNAs. We have determined molecular mechanics force field parameters compatible with the CHARMM36 all-atom additive force field for all these modifications using the CHARMM force field parametrization strategy. Emphasis was placed on fine tuning of the partial atomic charges and torsion angle parameters. Quantum mechanics calculations on model compounds provided the initial set of target data, and extensive molecular dynamics simulations of nucleotides and oligonucleotides in aqueous solutions were used for further refinement against experimental data. The presented parameters will allow for computational studies of a wide range of RNAs containing modified nucleotides, including the ribosome and transfer RNAs.

  18. Naturally occurring animal models of human hepatitis E virus infection.

    PubMed

    Yugo, Danielle M; Cossaboom, Caitlin M; Meng, Xiang-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus in the family Hepeviridae. Hepatitis E caused by HEV is a clinically important global disease. There are currently four well-characterized genotypes of HEV in mammalian species, although numerous novel strains of HEV likely belonging to either new genotypes or species have recently been identified from several other animal species. HEV genotypes 1 and 2 are limited to infection in humans, whereas genotypes 3 and 4 infect an expanding host range of animal species and are zoonotic to humans. Historical animal models include various species of nonhuman primates, which have been indispensable for the discovery of human HEV and for understanding its pathogenesis and course of infection. With the genetic identification and characterization of animal strains of HEV, a number of naturally occurring animal models such as swine, chicken, and rabbit have recently been developed for various aspects of HEV research, including vaccine trials, pathogenicity, cross-species infection, mechanism of virus replication, and molecular biology studies. Unfortunately, the current available animal models for HEV are still inadequate for certain aspects of HEV research. For instance, an animal model is still lacking to study the underlying mechanism of severe and fulminant hepatitis E during pregnancy. Also, an animal model that can mimic chronic HEV infection is critically needed to study the mechanism leading to chronicity in immunocompromised individuals. Genetic identification of additional novel animal strains of HEV may lead to the development of better naturally occurring animal models for HEV. This article reviews the current understanding of animal models of HEV infection in both natural and experimental infection settings and identifies key research needs and limitations.

  19. Mineralogical Characteristics of Carbonate Rock-Hosted Naturally Occurring Asbestos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, E.; Roh, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Naturally Occurring Asbestos (NOA) occurs in rocks and soils as a result of natural weathering and human activities. The parent rocks of asbestos have been associated with ultramafic and mafic rocks, and carbonate rock. The previous studies on naturally occurring asbestos were mainly limited to ultramafic and mafic rock-hosted asbestos and studies on carbonate rock-hosted asbestos are relatively rare in South Korea. Therefore, this study was aimed to characterize mineralogy of carbonate rock-hosted NOA at Muju and Jangsu, Jeonbuk province and Seosan and Asan, Chungnam province. The rock types at the four sites are consisting mainly of Precambrian metasedimentary rock. XRD and PLM analyses showed fibrous minerals in the sites were tremolite and actinolite of acicular and columnar forms. SEM-EDS analyses showed that asbestiform tremolite and actinolite had various ratios of length and diameters over 12:1, and needle and columnar forms. A columnar forms of tremolite and actinolite were showed small acicular at the edge of the particle. Its main chemical compositions are mainly Si, O, Mg, Ca, which were identical to tremolite. Actinolite contains Fe in addition to Si, O, Mg, Ca. EPMA analyses of asbestos occurred at Muju indicated that chemical composition are 55% SiO2, 23.2% MgO, 13.1 % CaO, and 0.61 % FeO and the chemical formula calculated as (K0.01Na0.01)Ca2.01(Mg4.94Fe0.05) (Al0.004Si7.98)O22(OH)2, which is close to ideal tremolite. In addition to tremolite, actinolite was also occurred at Seosan, Chungnam. XRD analyses showed that antigorite was existed at Muju, but PLM and SEM analyses showed the antigorite was platy structure, not asbestiform. These results indicate that asbestiform tremolite and actinolite with acicular forms contains in carbonate rocks at Muju and Jangsu, Jeonbuk and Seosan and Asan, Chungnam province South Korea.

  20. A naturally occurring, noncanonical GTP aptamer made of simple tandem repeats.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Edward A; Liu, David R

    2014-01-01

    Recently, we used in vitro selection to identify a new class of naturally occurring GTP aptamer called the G motif. Here we report the discovery and characterization of a second class of naturally occurring GTP aptamer, the "CA motif." The primary sequence of this aptamer is unusual in that it consists entirely of tandem repeats of CA-rich motifs as short as three nucleotides. Several active variants of the CA motif aptamer lack the ability to form consecutive Watson-Crick base pairs in any register, while others consist of repeats containing only cytidine and adenosine residues, indicating that noncanonical interactions play important roles in its structure. The circular dichroism spectrum of the CA motif aptamer is distinct from that of A-form RNA and other major classes of nucleic acid structures. Bioinformatic searches indicate that the CA motif is absent from most archaeal and bacterial genomes, but occurs in at least 70 percent of approximately 400 eukaryotic genomes examined. These searches also uncovered several phylogenetically conserved examples of the CA motif in rodent (mouse and rat) genomes. Together, these results reveal the existence of a second class of naturally occurring GTP aptamer whose sequence requirements, like that of the G motif, are not consistent with those of a canonical secondary structure. They also indicate a new and unexpected potential biochemical activity of certain naturally occurring tandem repeats.

  1. Analysis of coal slag for naturally occurring radioactive material.

    PubMed

    Spitz, H B; Rajaretnam, G

    1998-07-01

    Samples of aerosolized coal slag were collected during an abrasive blasting operation to determine the concentration of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in the respirable and nonrespirable fractions. Each slag fraction was analyzed using alpha and gamma spectrometry. Since the slag is insoluble, it was necessary to dissolve samples completely by fusion with potassium fluoride and, after additional transposing and separation, mount the precipitate containing radium (Ra), the main radioactive component in NORM, on a membrane filter for alpha counting. The concentration of 226Ra in coal slag was independent of the particle size fraction and equal to 2.28 picocuries/gram (pCi/g) +/- 0.43 pCi/g, which is approximately twice the typical concentration of NORM in uncontaminated soil. Analysis of NORM by gamma spectrometry identified low concentrations of uranium, thorium, and potassium, all primordial radioactive materials that are commonly encountered in normal background soil. Integral exposure to workers from inhalation of NORM during abrasive blasting with coal slag is extremely low and could be essentially eliminated by use of appropriate respiratory protection. External radiation exposure to workers handling large quantities of NORM-contaminated coal slag during shipping or storage is also low, but would vary depending on the concentration of NORM in the slag.

  2. Naturally occurring and forced azimuthal modes in a turbulent jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raman, Ganesh; Rice, Edward J.; Reshotko, Eli

    1991-01-01

    Naturally occurring instability modes in an axisymmetric jet were studied using the modal frequency technique. The evolution of the modal spectrum was obtained for a jet with a Reynolds number based on a diameter of 400,000 for both laminar and turbulent nozzle boundary layers. In the early evolution of the jet the axisymmetric mode was predominant, with the azimuthal modes growing rapidly but dominating only the end of the potential core. The growth of the azimuthal was observed closer to the nozzle exit for the jet in the laminar boundary layer case than for the turbulent. Target modes for efficient excitation of the jet were determined and two cases of excitation were studied. First, a jet was excited simultaneously by two helical modes, m equals plus 1 and m equals minus 1 at a Strouhal number based on jet diameter of 0.15 and the axisymmetric mode, m equals 0 at a jet diameter of 0.6. Second, m equals plus one and m equals minus 1 at jet diameter equals 0.3 and m equals 0 at jet diameter equals 0.6 were excited simultaneously. The downstream evolution of the hydrodynamic modes and the spreading rate of the jet were documented for each case. Higher jet spreading rates, accompanied by distorted jet cross sections were observed for the cases where combinations of axisymmetric and helical forcings were applied.

  3. Discovering Psychological Principles by Mining Naturally Occurring Data Sets.

    PubMed

    Goldstone, Robert L; Lupyan, Gary

    2016-07-01

    The very expertise with which psychologists wield their tools for achieving laboratory control may have had the unwelcome effect of blinding psychologists to the possibilities of discovering principles of behavior without conducting experiments. When creatively interrogated, a diverse range of large, real-world data sets provides powerful diagnostic tools for revealing principles of human judgment, perception, categorization, decision-making, language use, inference, problem solving, and representation. Examples of these data sets include patterns of website links, dictionaries, logs of group interactions, collections of images and image tags, text corpora, history of financial transactions, trends in twitter tag usage and propagation, patents, consumer product sales, performance in high-stakes sporting events, dialect maps, and scientific citations. The goal of this issue is to present some exemplary case studies of mining naturally existing data sets to reveal important principles and phenomena in cognitive science, and to discuss some of the underlying issues involved with conducting traditional experiments, analyses of naturally occurring data, computational modeling, and the synthesis of all three methods. PMID:27404718

  4. Discovering Psychological Principles by Mining Naturally Occurring Data Sets.

    PubMed

    Goldstone, Robert L; Lupyan, Gary

    2016-07-01

    The very expertise with which psychologists wield their tools for achieving laboratory control may have had the unwelcome effect of blinding psychologists to the possibilities of discovering principles of behavior without conducting experiments. When creatively interrogated, a diverse range of large, real-world data sets provides powerful diagnostic tools for revealing principles of human judgment, perception, categorization, decision-making, language use, inference, problem solving, and representation. Examples of these data sets include patterns of website links, dictionaries, logs of group interactions, collections of images and image tags, text corpora, history of financial transactions, trends in twitter tag usage and propagation, patents, consumer product sales, performance in high-stakes sporting events, dialect maps, and scientific citations. The goal of this issue is to present some exemplary case studies of mining naturally existing data sets to reveal important principles and phenomena in cognitive science, and to discuss some of the underlying issues involved with conducting traditional experiments, analyses of naturally occurring data, computational modeling, and the synthesis of all three methods.

  5. Solution of naturally-occurring glasses in the geological environment

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, B.P.

    1982-12-01

    As part of a study to investigate the feasibility of putting nuclear wastes in glass containers and burying them on land or dumping them in the ocean, we have made a study of the amount of solution experienced by naturally occurring glasses from two land sites and thirty-four deep-sea sites. The glasses used in this study are microtektites from three strewn fields (Australasian, Ivory Coast, and North American) and from the Zhamanshin impact crater in southern Siberia. The microtektites range in age from 0.7 to 35 m.y. and they have a wide range in composition. Although several criteria for determining the amount of solution were considered, most of the conclusions are based on two criteria: (1) width of cracks, and (2) elevation of silica-rich inclusions above the adjacent microtektite surface. The amount of solution was determined for about 170 microtektites; and measured amounts of solution range from 0.2 to at least 28 {mu}m, but most are less than 5 {mu}m. There appears to be no systematic relationship between age and amount of solution. 21 refs., 7 tabs.

  6. Identifying Naturally Occurring Retirement Communities: A Spatial Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rivera-Hernandez, Maricruz; Yamashita, Takashi; Kinney, Jennifer M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Guided by the concept of “aging in place” and potential policy implications, the study analyzed naturally occurring retirement communities (NORCs; 40% or greater house owners and renters aged 65 years and older) and whether there were spatiotemporal patterns in Ohio between 2000 and 2010. Method Data were derived from the 2000 and 2010 census tracts. Geovisualization was used to visually examine the distribution of NORCs in 2000 and 2010. Global Moran’s I was used to quantify the spatial distribution of NORCs in Ohio and Local Moran’s I was used to identify clusters of NORCs (i.e., hot spots). Results The number of NORCs slightly decreased despite the overall increase of the older population from 2000 to 2010. NORCs were identified in one of the 3 most populous counties (i.e., Cuyahoga) and its neighboring counties. A number of hot spots were identified in Cuyahoga County (among Ohio’s most populous and NORC-rich counties), both in 2000 and 2010. There were different patterns including emerging, disappearing, and enduring NORCs and disproportionate distributions of NORCs across the state between 2000 and 2010. Discussion Locating NORCs could aid governments to create “aging in place” sensitive policies to address issues of independence, social care, health care, volunteerism, and community participation. PMID:24958694

  7. Characteristics of Cherenkov radiation in naturally occurring ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikkelsen, R. E.; Poulsen, T.; Uggerhøj, U. I.; Klein, S. R.

    2016-03-01

    We revisit the theory of Cherenkov radiation in uniaxial crystals. Historically, a number of flawed attempts have been made at explaining this radiation phenomenon, and a consistent error-free description is nowhere available. We apply our calculation to a large modern day telescope—IceCube. Located in Antarctica, this detector makes use of the naturally occurring ice as a medium to generate Cherenkov radiation. However, due to the high pressure at the depth of the detector site, large volumes of hexagonal ice crystals are formed. We calculate how this affects the Cherenkov radiation yield and angular dependence. We conclude that the effect is small, at most about a percent, and would only be relevant in future high-precision instruments like e.g. Precision IceCube Next Generation Upgrade (PINGU). For radio-Cherenkov experiments which use the presence of a clear Cherenkov cone to determine the arrival direction, any variation in emission angle will directly and linearly translate into a change in apparent neutrino direction. In closing, we also describe a simple experiment to test this formalism and calculate the impact of anisotropy on light yields from lead tungstate crystals as used, for example, in the CMS calorimeter at the CERN LHC.

  8. Macaques Exhibit a Naturally-Occurring Depression Similar to Humans

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Fan; Wu, Qingyuan; Xie, Liang; Gong, Wei; Zhang, Jianguo; Zheng, Peng; Zhou, Qinmin; Ji, Yongjia; Wang, Tao; Li, Xin; Fang, Liang; Li, Qi; Yang, Deyu; Li, Juan; Melgiri, Narayan D.; Shively, Carol; Xie, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Rodent models have dominated preclinical investigations into the mechanisms of depression. However, these models-which rely on subjecting individual rodents to physical stressors - do not realistically resemble the etiopathological development of depression, which occurs naturally in a social context. A non-human primate model that better reflects the social ethological aspects of depression would be more advantageous to investigating pathophysiological mechanisms and developing antidepressant therapeutics. Here, we describe and model a naturally-occurring depressive state in a non-human primate species, the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis), in a realistic social ethological context and associate the depressed behavioral phenotype with significant serum metabolic perturbations. One to two subjects per stable social colony (17–22 subjects) manifested a depressive phenotype that may be attributed to psychosocial stress. In accordance with rodent and human studies, the serum metabolic phenotype of depressed and healthy subjects significantly differed, supporting the model's face validity. However, application of the fast-acting antidepressant ketamine failed to demonstrate predictive validity. This study proposes a non-human primate depression model in a realistic social ethological context that can better approximate the psychosocial stressors underlying depression. PMID:25783476

  9. Antimicrobial evaluation of selected naturally occurring oxyprenylated secondary metabolites.

    PubMed

    Di Giulio, Mara; Genovese, Salvatore; Fiorito, Serena; Epifano, Francesco; Nostro, Antonia; Cellini, Luigina

    2016-08-01

    This study tested the antimicrobial activity of eight selected naturally occurring oxyprenylated secondary metabolites against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, S. epidermidis ATCC 35984, Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027 and Candida albicans ATCC 10231. Results showed a moderate antimicrobial activity. The most active compounds were 3-(4-geranyloxyphenyl)-1-ethanol (4) and 3-(4-isopentenyloxyphenyl)-1-propanol (5) that were tested on mature and in-formation biofilms of all micro-organisms, moreover the cytotoxic activity was evaluated. Except for S. epidermidis, both compounds reduced significantly (p < 0.05) the microbial biofilm formation at 1/2 MIC and 1/4 MIC, in particular, compounds 4 and 5 at each concentration, inhibited E. coli biofilm formation to a greater extent, the biofilm formation was never more than 44% in respect to the control, moreover both compounds showed a low cytotoxic effect. Oxyprenylated derivatives may be of great interest for the development of novel antimicrobial therapeutic strategies and the synthesis of semi-synthetic analogues with anti-biofilm efficacy. PMID:27498831

  10. Naturally-occurring anti-Jka in infant twins.

    PubMed

    Rumsey, D H; Nance, S J; Rubino, M; Sandler, S G

    1999-01-01

    Anti-Jka was detected by solid-phase red cell adherence (SPRCA) antibody detection and identification tests in the plasma of a 9-month-old female infant during a routine presurgical evaluation. The patient and her nonidentical twin sister, who also had anti-Jka in her plasma, were products of an uncomplicated in vitro fertilization, full-term pregnancy, and vaginal delivery. Neither twin had been transfused, recently infected, or treated with medication. Their mother had no prior pregnancies or transfusions. Red blood cells (RBCs) from the patient and her sister typed as Jk(a-b+) by direct hemagglutination, and this phenotype was confirmed by negative adsorption and elution studies. Both infants' plasma samples were strongly reactive with 20 examples of Jk(a+) RBCs and nonreactive with 20 examples of Jk(a-) RBCs by SPRCA assays. Anti-Jka was not detected in either twins' plasma by indirect antiglobulin tests by tube method in low-ionic- strength saline solution or polyethylene glycol, or with ficin- or papain-treated RBCs. Monocyte monolayer assays using Jk(a+) RBCs sensitized by either twins' serum were nonreactive (0%). RBCs from both parents typed as Jk(a+b+). Both parents' antibody detection test results by SPRCA assay were negative. The absence of a history of exposure to allogeneic RBCs or possible passive transfer of maternal or other alloantibody classifies these antibodies as naturally-occurring anti-Jka.

  11. Leaching of technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials.

    PubMed

    Chau, Nguyen Dinh; Chruściel, Edward

    2007-08-01

    A form of waste associated with mining activities is related to the type of deposit being mined and to the procedure of exploitation and enrichment adopted. The wastes usually contain relatively large amounts of technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials (TENORM). The TENORM are often stored on the surface. Consequently, they can be leached as a result of interaction with aqueous solutions of different chemical composition. This further leads to pollution of water and soil in the vicinity of the stored wastes. The paper presents the results of laboratory investigation aimed at quantifying the leaching process of samples originating from uranium dumps and storage reservoirs associated with brine pumped from coal mines. The leaching process was investigated with respect to selected elements: uranium isotopes, radium isotopes, iron, barium and sodium. The samples were exposed to aqueous solutions of different chemical composition. The experiments revealed that TENORM in form of sulphate compounds are the most resistant against leaching. The leaching coefficient for radium isotopes varies from a few thousandth percent to a few hundredth percent. On the other hand, for TENORM occurring in sand or sludge, the leaching coefficient for uranium and radium isotopes ranged from a few hundredth percent to a few percent. PMID:17482828

  12. Role of naturally occurring gas hydrates in sediment transport

    SciTech Connect

    McIver, R.D.

    1982-06-01

    Naturally occurring gas hydrates have the potential to store enormous volumes of both gas and water in semi-solid form in ocean-bottom sediments and then to release that gas and water when the hydrate's equilibrium condition are disturbed. Therefore, hydrates provide a potential mechanism for transporting large volumes of sediments. Under the combined low bottom-water temperatures and moderate hydrostatic pressures that exist over most of the continental slopes and all of the continental rises and abyssal plains, hydrocarbon gases at or near saturation in the interstitial waters of the near-bottom sediments will form hydrates. The gas can either be autochthonous, microbially produced gas, or allochthonous, catagenic gas from deeper sediments. Equilibrium conditions that stabilize hydrated sediments may be disturbed, for example, by continued sedimentation or by lowering of sea level. In either case, some of the solid gas-water matrix decomposes. Released gas and water volume exceeds the volume occupied by the hydrate, so the internal pressure rises - drastically if large volumes of hydrate are decomposed. Part of the once rigid sediment is converted to a gas- and water-rich, relatively low density mud. When the internal pressure, due to the presence of the compressed gas or to buoyancy, is sufficiently high, the overlying sediment may be lifted and/or breached, and the less dense, gas-cut mud may break through. Such hydrate-related phenomena can cause mud diapirs, mud volcanos, mud slides, or turbidite flows, depending on sediment configuration and bottom topography. 4 figures.

  13. Antituberculosis Activity of a Naturally Occurring Flavonoid, Isorhamnetin.

    PubMed

    Jnawali, Hum Nath; Jeon, Dasom; Jeong, Min-Cheol; Lee, Eunjung; Jin, Bongwhan; Ryoo, Sungweon; Yoo, Jungheon; Jung, In Duk; Lee, Seung Jun; Park, Yeong-Min; Kim, Yangmee

    2016-04-22

    Isorhamnetin (1) is a naturally occurring flavonoid having anticancer and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study demonstrated that 1 had antimycobacterial effects on Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, multi-drug- and extensively drug-resistant clinical isolates with minimum inhibitory concentrations of 158 and 316 μM, respectively. Mycobacteria mainly affect the lungs, causing an intense local inflammatory response that is critical to the pathogenesis of tuberculosis. We investigated the effects of 1 on interferon (IFN)-γ-stimulated human lung fibroblast MRC-5 cells. Isorhamnetin suppressed the release of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-12. A nontoxic dose of 1 reduced mRNA expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12, and matrix metalloproteinase-1 in IFN-γ-stimulated cells. Isorhamnetin inhibited IFN-γ-mediated stimulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and showed high-affinity binding to these kinases (binding constants: 4.46 × 10(6) M(-1) and 7.6 × 10(6) M(-1), respectively). The 4'-hydroxy group and the 3'-methoxy group of the B-ring and the 5-hydroxy group of the A-ring of 1 play key roles in these binding interactions. A mouse in vivo study of lipopolysaccharide-induced lung inflammation revealed that a nontoxic dose of 1 reduced the levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12, and INF-γ in lung tissue. These data provide the first evidence that 1 could be developed as a potent antituberculosis drug. PMID:26974691

  14. Committed effective dose from naturally occuring radionuclides in shellfish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Wahib, Norfadira Binti; Amin, Yusoff Mohd.; Bradley, D. A.

    2013-07-01

    Recognizing their importance in the average Malaysian daily diet, the radioactivity concentrations in mollusc- and crustacean-based food have been determined for key naturally occuring radionuclides. Fresh samples collected from various maritime locations around peninsular Malaysia have been processed using standard procedures; the radionuclide concentrations being determined using an HPGe γ-ray spectrometer. For molluscs, assuming secular equilibrium, the range of activities of 238U (226Ra), 232Th (228Ra) and 40K were found to be 3.28±0.35 to 5.34±0.52, 1.20±0.21 to 2.44±0.21 and 118±6 to 281±14 Bq kg-1 dry weight, respectively. The respective values for crustaceans were 3.02±0.57 to 4.70±0.52, 1.38±0.21 to 2.40±0.35 and 216±11 to 316±15 Bq kg-1. The estimated average daily intake of radioactivity from consumption of molluscs are 0.37 Bq kg-1 for 238U (226Ra), 0.16 Bq kg-1 for 232Th (228Ra) and 18 Bq kg-1 for 40K; the respective daily intake values from crustaceans are 0.36 Bq kg-1, 0.16 Bq kg-1 and 23 Bq kg-1. Associated annual committed effective doses from molluscs are estimated to be in the range 21.3 to 34.7 μSv for 226Ra, 19.3 to 39.1 μSv for 228Ra and 17.0 to 40.4 μSv for 40K. For crustaceans, the respective dose ranges are 19.6 to 30.5 μSv, 22.0 to 38.4 μSv and 31.1 to 45.5 μSv, being some several times world average values.

  15. Manufactured Home Testing in Simulated and Naturally Occurring High Winds

    SciTech Connect

    W. D. Richins; T. K. Larson

    2006-08-01

    A typical double-wide manufactured home was tested in simulated and naturally occurring high winds to understand structural behavior and improve performance during severe windstorms. Seven (7) lateral load tests were conducted on a double-wide manufactured home at a remote field test site in Wyoming. An extensive instrumentation package monitored the overall behavior of the home and collected data vital to validating computational software for the manufactured housing industry. The tests were designed to approach the design load of the home without causing structural damage, thus allowing the behavior of the home to be accessed when the home was later exposed to high winds (to 80-mph). The data generally show near-linear initial system response with significant non-linear behavior as the applied loads increase. Load transfer across the marriage line is primarily compression. Racking, while present, is very small. Interface slip and shear displacement along the marriage line are nearly insignificant. Horizontal global displacements reached 0.6 inch. These tests were designed primarily to collect data necessary to calibrate a desktop analysis and design software tool, MHTool, under development at the Idaho National Laboratory specifically for manufactured housing. Currently available analysis tools are, for the most part, based on methods developed for “stick built” structures and are inappropriate for manufactured homes. The special materials utilized in manufactured homes, such as rigid adhesives used in the connection of the sheathing materials to the studs, significantly alter the behavior of manufactured homes under lateral loads. Previous full scale tests of laterally loaded manufactured homes confirm the contention that conventional analysis methods are not applicable. System behavior dominates the structural action of manufactured homes and its prediction requires a three dimensional analysis of the complete unit, including tiedowns. This project was

  16. Biological activity of some naturally occurring resins, gums and pigments against in vitro LDL oxidation.

    PubMed

    Andrikopoulos, Nikolaos K; Kaliora, Andriana C; Assimopoulou, Andreana N; Papapeorgiou, Vassilios P

    2003-05-01

    Naturally occurring gums and resins with beneficial pharmaceutical and nutraceutical properties were tested for their possible protective effect against copper-induced LDL oxidation in vitro. Chiosmastic gum (CMG) (Pistacia lentiscus var. Chia resin) was the most effective in protecting human LDL from oxidation. The minimum and maximum doses for the saturation phenomena of inhibition of LDL oxidation were 2.5 mg and 50 mg CMG (75.3% and 99.9%, respectively). The methanol/water extract of CMG was the most effective compared with other solvent combinations. CMG when fractionated in order to determine a structure-activity relationship showed that the total mastic essential oil, collofonium-like residue and acidic fractions of CMG exhibited a high protective activity ranging from 65.0% to 77.8%. The other natural gums and resins (CMG resin 'liquid collection', P. terebinthus var. Chia resin, dammar resin, acacia gum, tragacanth gum, storax gum) also tested as above, showed 27.0%-78.8% of the maximum LDL protection. The other naturally occurring substances, i.e. triterpenes (amyrin, oleanolic acid, ursolic acid, lupeol, 18-a-glycyrrhetinic acid) and hydroxynaphthoquinones (naphthazarin, shikonin and alkannin) showed 53.5%-78.8% and 27.0%-64.1% LDL protective activity, respectively. The combination effects (68.7%-76.2% LDL protection) of ursolic-, oleanolic- and ursodeoxycholic- acids were almost equal to the effect (75.3%) of the CMG extract in comparable doses. PMID:12748987

  17. Contribution of synthetic and naturally occurring organobromine compounds to bromine mass in marine organisms.

    PubMed

    Wan, Yi; Jones, Paul D; Wiseman, Steve; Chang, Hong; Chorney, Dave; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Zhang, Kun; Hu, Jian-Ying; Khim, Jong Seong; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Lam, Michael H W; Giesy, John P

    2010-08-15

    An extraction, separation, and purification method was developed for the identification and quantification of total bromine (TBr), extractable organobromine (EOBr), and five classes of identified EOBrs. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was utilized to quantify EOBr and TBr. The method was then applied to liver samples of tuna, albatross, and polar bear collected from remote marine locations. Polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), bromophenols (BRPs), hydroxylated (OH-) and methoxylated (MeO-) PBDEs were analyzed as identified EOBr. The majority of the bromine in these marine organisms was nonextractable or inorganic, with EOBr accounting for 10-28% of the TBr. Of the identified EOBr, in tuna and albatross, naturally occurring compounds, including MeO-PBDEs, OH-PBDEs, and BPRs, were prevalent. However, the identifiable EOBr in polar bears consisted primarily of synthetic compounds, including PBDEs and PBBs. Overall, 0.08-0.11% and 0.008-0.012% of EOBr and TBr, respectively, were identified. The proportion of EOBr that was identified in marine organisms was relatively small compared to the proportions for organofluorine and organochlorine compounds. This could be related to the great diversity of naturally occurring organobromine compounds in the environment. Naturally occurring brominated fatty acids were estimated to be the predominant compounds in the EOBr fraction. PMID:20704201

  18. Naturally occurring asbestos: a recurring public policy challenge.

    PubMed

    Lee, R J; Strohmeier, B R; Bunker, K L; Van Orden, D R

    2008-05-01

    The potential environmental hazards and associated public health issues related to exposure to respirable dusts from the vicinity of natural in-place asbestos deposits (commonly referred to as naturally occurring asbestos, NOA) have gained the regulatory and media spotlight in many areas around the United States, such as Libby, MT, Fairfax County, VA, and El Dorado Hills, CA, among others. NOA deposits may be present in a variety of geologic formations. It has been suggested that airborne asbestos may be released from NOA deposits, and absent appropriate engineering controls, may pose a potential health hazard if these rocks are crushed or exposed to natural weathering and erosion or to human activities that create dust. The issue that needs to be addressed at a policy level is the method of assessing exposures to elongated rock fragments ubiquitous in dust clouds in these same environments and the associated risk. Elongated rock fragments and single crystal minerals present in NOA have been construed by some as having attributes, including the health effects, of asbestos fibers. However, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA), and the Consumer Products Safety Commission (CPSC) found that the scientific evidence did not support this assumption. As in many environmental fields of study, the evidence is often disputed. Regulatory policy is not uniform on the subject of rock fragments, even within single agencies. The core of the issue is whether the risk parameters associated with exposures to commercial asbestos can or should be applied to rock fragments meeting an arbitrary set of particle dimensions used for counting asbestos fibers. Inappropriate inclusion of particles or fragments results in dilution of risk and needless expenditure of resources. On the other hand, inappropriate exclusion of particles or fragments may result in increased and unnecessary risk. Some of the fastest growing counties in

  19. Naturally occurring asbestos: a recurring public policy challenge.

    PubMed

    Lee, R J; Strohmeier, B R; Bunker, K L; Van Orden, D R

    2008-05-01

    The potential environmental hazards and associated public health issues related to exposure to respirable dusts from the vicinity of natural in-place asbestos deposits (commonly referred to as naturally occurring asbestos, NOA) have gained the regulatory and media spotlight in many areas around the United States, such as Libby, MT, Fairfax County, VA, and El Dorado Hills, CA, among others. NOA deposits may be present in a variety of geologic formations. It has been suggested that airborne asbestos may be released from NOA deposits, and absent appropriate engineering controls, may pose a potential health hazard if these rocks are crushed or exposed to natural weathering and erosion or to human activities that create dust. The issue that needs to be addressed at a policy level is the method of assessing exposures to elongated rock fragments ubiquitous in dust clouds in these same environments and the associated risk. Elongated rock fragments and single crystal minerals present in NOA have been construed by some as having attributes, including the health effects, of asbestos fibers. However, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA), and the Consumer Products Safety Commission (CPSC) found that the scientific evidence did not support this assumption. As in many environmental fields of study, the evidence is often disputed. Regulatory policy is not uniform on the subject of rock fragments, even within single agencies. The core of the issue is whether the risk parameters associated with exposures to commercial asbestos can or should be applied to rock fragments meeting an arbitrary set of particle dimensions used for counting asbestos fibers. Inappropriate inclusion of particles or fragments results in dilution of risk and needless expenditure of resources. On the other hand, inappropriate exclusion of particles or fragments may result in increased and unnecessary risk. Some of the fastest growing counties in

  20. Pathology of naturally occurring paratuberculosis in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Sivakumar, P; Tripathi, B N; Singh, N; Sharma, A K

    2006-07-01

    Gross and histologic lesions of paratuberculosis were studied in water buffaloes. Small intestines and associated mesenteric lymph nodes of 405 water buffaloes were examined. Of these, 20 animals having visible changes of intestinal thickening, mucosal corrugations, and enlargement of mesenteric lymph nodes exhibited histologic alteration characteristics of mild to moderate granulomatous inflammation. The histologic lesions observed in these animals were classified into 3 grades on the basis of type of cellular infiltration, granuloma formation, and presence of acid-fast bacilli. Grade-1 lesions observed in 8 animals were marked by the presence of scattered epithelioid macrophages amid large number of lymphocytes in the intestinal villi and in the paracortical regions of the associated mesenteric lymph nodes. Another 8 animals classified under grade-2 revealed microgranulomas, infiltration with a larger number of epithelioid macrophages besides lymphocytes in the intestinal villi, and granulomas in the mesenteric lymph nodes. Grade-3 lesions observed in 4 animals were characterized by the presence of epithelioid granulomas and giant cells in the intestines and the mesenteric lymph nodes. The Ziehl-Neelsen's stained tissue sections revealed acid-fast bacilli in grade-3 and -2 animals and acid-fast granular debris in grade-1 animals. Among these 20 buffaloes, 14 (70%) were positive in the IS900 specific polymerase chain reaction and 6 (30%) were positive in the bacterial culture.

  1. Naturally Occurring Variants of the Dysglycemic Peptide Pancreastatin

    PubMed Central

    Allu, Prasanna K. R.; Chirasani, Venkat R.; Ghosh, Dhiman; Mani, Anitha; Bera, Amal K.; Maji, Samir K.; Senapati, Sanjib; Mullasari, Ajit S.; Mahapatra, Nitish R.

    2014-01-01

    Pancreastatin (PST), a chromogranin A-derived peptide, is a potent physiological inhibitor of glucose-induced insulin secretion. PST also triggers glycogenolysis in liver and reduces glucose uptake in adipocytes and hepatocytes. Here, we probed for genetic variations in PST sequence and identified two variants within its functionally important carboxyl terminus domain: E287K and G297S. To understand functional implications of these amino acid substitutions, we tested the effects of wild-type (PST-WT), PST-287K, and PST-297S peptides on various cellular processes/events. The rank order of efficacy to inhibit insulin-stimulated glucose uptake was: PST-297S > PST-287K > PST-WT. The PST peptides also displayed the same order of efficacy for enhancing intracellular nitric oxide and Ca2+ levels in various cell types. In addition, PST peptides activated gluconeogenic genes in the following order: PST-297S ≈ PST-287K > PST-WT. Consistent with these in vitro results, the common PST variant allele Ser-297 was associated with significantly higher (by ∼17 mg/dl, as compared with the wild-type Gly-297 allele) plasma glucose level in our study population (n = 410). Molecular modeling and molecular dynamics simulations predicted the following rank order of α-helical content: PST-297S > PST-287K > PST-WT. Corroboratively, circular dichroism analysis of PST peptides revealed significant differences in global structures (e.g. the order of propensity to form α-helix was: PST-297S ≈ PST-287K > PST-WT). This study provides a molecular basis for enhanced potencies/efficacies of human PST variants (likely to occur in ∼300 million people worldwide) and has quantitative implications for inter-individual variations in glucose/insulin homeostasis. PMID:24338022

  2. Naturally occurring muscle pain during exercise: assessment and experimental evidence.

    PubMed

    Cook, D B; O'Connor, P J; Eubanks, S A; Smith, J C; Lee, M

    1997-08-01

    two ramped maximal cycle ergometry tests. Subjects drank a water and Kool-Aid mixture, that either was or was not (placebo) combined with a 20 mg.kg-1 dose of powdered aspirin 60 min before exercise. Paired t-tests revealed no differences between conditions for the measures of exercise intensity at pain threshold [aspirin vs placebo mean (+/- SD)]: power output: 150 (+/- 60.3 W) versus 153.5 (+/- 64.8 W); VO2: 21.3 (+/- 8.6 mL.kg-1.min-1) versus 22.1 (+/- 10.0 mL.kg-1.min-1); and RPE: 10.9 (+/- 3.1) versus 11.4 (+/- 2.9). Repeated measures ANOVA revealed no significant condition main effect or condition by trial interaction for pain responses during recovery or during exercise at 60, 70, 80, 90, and 100% of each condition's peak power output. It is concluded that the perception of leg muscle pain intensity during cycle ergometry: (i) is reliably and validly measured using the developed 10-point pain scale, (ii) covaries as a function of objective exercise stimuli such as power output, (iii) is distinct from RPE, (iv) is unrelated to performance of the type employed here, and (v) is not altered by the ingestion of 20 mg.kg-1 acetylsalicylic acid 1 h prior to the exercise bout. PMID:9268956

  3. Factors Affecting Comparative Resistance of Naturally Occurring and Subcultured Pseudomonas aeruginosa to Disinfectants

    PubMed Central

    Carson, L. A.; Favero, M. S.; Bond, W. W.; Petersen, N. J.

    1972-01-01

    A strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated in pure culture from the reservoir of a hospital mist therapy unit by an extinction-dilution technique; its natural distilled water environment was used as a growth and maintenance medium. After a single subculture on Trypticase soy agar, the strain showed a marked decrease in resistance to inactivation by acetic acid, glutaraldehyde, chlorine dioxide, and a quaternary ammonium compound when compared with naturally occurring cells grown in mist therapy unit water. The following factors were observed to affect the relative resistances of naturally occurring and subcultured cells of the P. aeruginosa strain: (i) temperature at which the cultures were incubated prior to exposure to disinfectants, (ii) growth phase of the cultures at the time of exposure to disinfectants, (iii) nature of the suspending menstruum for disinfectants, and (iv) exposure to fluorescent light during incubation of inocula prior to testing. The applied significance of these findings may alter the present concepts of disinfectant testing as well as routine control procedures in the hospital environment. PMID:4624209

  4. General and Stereocontrolled Approach to the Chemical Synthesis of Naturally Occurring Cyanogenic Glucosides.

    PubMed

    Møller, Birger L; Olsen, Carl E; Motawia, Mohammed S

    2016-04-22

    An effective method for the chemical synthesis of cyanogenic glucosides has been developed as demonstrated by the synthesis of dhurrin, taxiphyllin, prunasin, sambunigrin, heterodendrin, and epiheterodendrin. O-Trimethylsilylated cyanohydrins were prepared and subjected directly to glucosylation using a fully acetylated glucopyranosyl fluoride donor with boron trifluoride-diethyl etherate as promoter to afford a chromatographically separable epimeric mixture of the corresponding acetylated cyanogenic glucosides. The isolated epimers were deprotected using a triflic acid/MeOH/ion-exchange resin system without any epimerization of the cyanohydrin function. The method is stereocontrolled and provides an efficient approach to chemical synthesis of other naturally occurring cyanogenic glucosides including those with a more complex aglycone structure.

  5. Poly(anhydride-esters) Comprised Exclusively of Naturally Occurring Antimicrobials and EDTA: Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Carvacrol, thymol, and eugenol are naturally occurring phenolic compounds known to possess antimicrobial activity against a range of bacteria, as well as antioxidant activity. Biodegradable poly(anhydride-esters) composed of an ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) backbone and antimicrobial pendant groups (i.e., carvacrol, thymol, or eugenol) were synthesized via solution polymerization. The resulting polymers were characterized to confirm their chemical composition and understand their thermal properties and molecular weight. In vitro release studies demonstrated that polymer hydrolytic degradation was complete after 16 days, resulting in the release of free antimicrobials and EDTA. Antioxidant and antibacterial assays determined that polymer release media exhibited bioactivity similar to that of free compound, demonstrating that polymer incorporation and subsequent release had no effect on activity. These polymers completely degrade into components that are biologically relevant and have the capability to promote preservation of consumer products in the food and personal care industries via antimicrobial and antioxidant pathways. PMID:24702678

  6. Molecular- and nm-scale Investigation of the Structure and Compositional Heterogeneity of Naturally Occurring Ferrihydrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cismasu, C.; Michel, F. M.; Stebbins, J. F.; Tcaciuc, A. P.; Brown, G. E.

    2008-12-01

    Ferrihydrite is a hydrated Fe(III) nano-oxide that forms in vast quantities in contaminated acid mine drainage environments. As a result of its high surface area, ferrihydrite is an important environmental sorbent, and plays an essential role in the geochemical cycling of pollutant metal(loid)s in these settings. Despite its environmental relevance, this nanomineral remains one of the least understood environmental solids in terms of its structure (bulk and surface), compositional variations, and the factors affecting its reactivity. Under natural aqueous conditions, ferrihydrite often precipitates in the presence of several inorganic compounds such as aluminum, silica, arsenic, etc., or in the presence of organic matter. These impurities can affect the molecular-level structure of naturally occurring ferrihydrite, thus modifying fundamental properties that are directly correlated with solid-phase stability and surface reactivity. Currently there exists a significant gap in our understanding of the structure of synthetic vs. natural ferrihydrites, due to the inherent difficulties associated to the investigation of these poorly crystalline nanophases. In this study, we combined synchrotron- and laboratory-based techniques to characterize naturally occurring ferrihydrite from an acid mine drainage system situated at the New Idria mercury mine in California. We used high-energy X-ray total scattering and pair distribution function analysis to elucidate quantitative structural details of these samples. We have additionally used scanning transmission X-ray microscopy high resolution imaging (30 nm) to evaluate the spatial relationship of major elements Si, Al, and C within ferrihydrite. Al, Si and C K-edge near- edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy and 27Al nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy were used to obtain short-range structural information. By combining these techniques we attain the highest level of resolution permitted by current analytical

  7. SOS induction of selected naturally occurring substances in Escherichia coli (SOS chromotest).

    PubMed

    Kevekordes, S; Mersch-Sundermann, V; Burghaus, C M; Spielberger, J; Schmeiser, H H; Arlt, V M; Dunkelberg, H

    1999-09-15

    Naturally occurring substances were tested for genotoxicity using a modified laboratory protocol of the Escherichia coli PQ37 genotoxicity assay (SOS chromotest) in the presence and in the absence of an exogenous metabolizing system from rat liver S9-mix. Aristolochic acid I, II, the plant extract aristolochic acid and psoralene were genotoxic; cycasine, emodine, monocrotaline and retrorsine were classified as marginal genotoxic in the SOS chromotest in the absence of S9-mix. In the presence of an exogenous metabolizing system from rat liver S9-mix aristolochic acid I, the plant extract, beta-asarone, cycasin, monocrotaline, psoralen and retrorsine showed genotoxic effects; aristolochic acid II marginal genotoxic effects. Arecoline, benzyl acetate, coumarin, isatidine dihydrate, reserpine, safrole, sanguinarine chloride, senecionine, senkirkine, tannin and thiourea revealed no genotoxicity in the SOS chromotest either in the presence or in the absence of an exogenous metabolizing system from rat liver S9-mix. For 17 of 20 compounds, the results obtained in the SOS chromotest could be compared to those obtained in the Ames test. It was found that 12 (70.6%) of these compounds give similar responses in both tests (6 positive and 6 negative responses). The present investigation and those reported earlier, the SOS chromotest, using E. coli PQ37, was able to detect correctly most of the Salmonella mutagens and non-mutagens.

  8. The first naturally occurring aromatic isothiocyanates, rapalexins A and B, are cruciferous phytoalexins.

    PubMed

    Pedras, M Soledade C; Zheng, Qing-An; Gadagi, Ravi S

    2007-01-28

    The discovery of the first naturally occurring aromatic isothiocyanates, indole-3-isothiocyanates, their first synthesis, antimicrobial activity and proposed biogenetic origin in canola plants are reported.

  9. Segregation of naturally occurring mitochondrial DNA variants in a mini-pig model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Within cells and tissues, the maternally inherited mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) is present in multimeric form and can harbour naturally occurring variants. Whilst high variant load can cause mitochondrial disease, naturally occurring mtDNA variants likely persist at low levels across generations of ...

  10. Polyhydroxyester films obtained by non-catalyzed melt-polycondensation of natural occurring fatty polyhydroxyacids.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benitez, Jose; Heredia-Guerrero, José; Guzman-Puyol, Susana; Barthel, Markus; Dominguez, Eva; Heredia, Antonio

    2015-08-01

    Free-standing polyesters films from mono and polyhydroxylated fatty acids (C16 and C18) have been obtained by non-catalyzed melt-condensation polymerization in air at 150°C. Chemical characterization by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and 13C Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (13C MAS-NMR) has confirmed the formation of the corresponding esters and the occurrence of hydroxyl partial oxidation which extent depends on the type of hydroxylation of the monomer (primary or secondary). Generally, polyester films obtained are hydrophobic, insoluble in common solvents, amorphous and infusible as revealed by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). In ?-polyhydroxy acids, esterification reaction with primary hydroxyls is preferential and, therefore, the structure can be defined as linear with variable branching depending on the amount of esterified secondary hydroxyls. The occurrence side oxidative reactions like the diol cleavage are responsible for chain cross-linking. Films are thermally stable up to 200-250°C though this limit can be extended up to 300°C in the absence of ester bonds involving secondary hydroxyls. By analogy with natural occurring fatty polyesters (i.e. cutin in higher plants) these polymers are proposed as biodegradable and non-toxic barrier films or coatings to be used, for instance, in food packing

  11. Naturally occurring variability in the envelope glycoprotein of HIV-1 and development of cell entry inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Brower, Evan T; Schön, Arne; Freire, Ernesto

    2010-03-23

    Naturally occurring genetic variability across HIV-1 subtypes causes amino acid polymorphisms in encoded HIV-1 proteins including the envelope glycoproteins associated with viral entry. The effects of amino acid polymorphisms on the mechanism of HIV-1 entry into cells, a process initiated by the binding of the viral envelope glycoprotein gp120 to the cellular CD4 receptor, are largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that amino acid polymorphisms affect the structural stability and domain cooperativity of gp120 and that those differences are reflected in the binding mechanism of the viral envelope glycoprotein to the cell surface receptor and coreceptor. Moreover, subtype differences also affect the binding behavior of experimental HIV cell entry inhibitors. While gp120-A has a slightly lower denaturation temperature than gp120-B, the most notable stability difference is that for gp120-B the van't Hoff to calorimetric enthalpy ratio (DeltaH(vH)/DeltaH) is 0.95 whereas for gp120-A is 0.6, indicative of more cooperative domain/domain interactions in gp120-B, as this protein more closely approaches a two-state transition. Isothermal titration calorimetry demonstrates that CD4 and 17b (a surrogate antibody for the chemokine coreceptor) exhibit 7- and 3-fold weaker binding affinities for gp120-A. The binding of these proteins as well as that of the experimental entry inhibitor NBD-556 induces smaller conformational changes in gp120-A as evidenced by significantly smaller binding enthalpies and binding entropies. Together, these results describe the effects of gp120 polymorphisms on binding to host cell receptors and emphasize that guidelines for developing future entry inhibitors must recognize and deal with genomic differences between HIV strains.

  12. Naturally-occurring TGR5 agonists modulating glucagon-like peptide-1 biosynthesis and secretion.

    PubMed

    Jafri, Laila; Saleem, Samreen; Calderwood, Danielle; Gillespie, Anna; Mirza, Bushra; Green, Brian D

    2016-04-01

    Selective GLP-1 secretagogues represent a novel potential therapy for type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study examined the GLP-1 secretory activity of the ethnomedicinal plant, Fagonia cretica, which is postulated to possess anti-diabetic activity. After extraction and fractionation extracts and purified compounds were tested for GLP-1 and GIP secretory activity in pGIP/neo STC-1 cells. Intracellular levels of incretin hormones and their gene expression were also determined. Crude F. cretica extracts stimulated both GLP-1 and GIP secretion, increased cellular hormone content, and upregulated gene expression of proglucagon, GIP and prohormone convertase. However, ethyl acetate partitioning significantly enriched GLP-1 secretory activity and this fraction underwent bioactivity-guided fractionation. Three isolated compounds were potent and selective GLP-1 secretagogues: quinovic acid (QA) and two QA derivatives, QA-3β-O-β-D-glycopyranoside and QA-3β-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(28→1)-β-D-glucopyranosyl ester. All QA compounds activated the TGR5 receptor and increased intracellular incretin levels and gene expression. QA derivatives were more potent GLP-1 secretagogues than QA. This is the first time that QA and its naturally-occurring derivatives have been shown to activate TGR5 and stimulate GLP-1 secretion. These data provide a plausible mechanism for the ethnomedicinal use of F. cretica and may assist in the ongoing development of selective GLP-1 agonists. PMID:26820940

  13. Naturally occurring HCA1 missense mutations result in loss of function: potential impact on lipid deposition

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Jamie R.; Lane, Jacqueline M.; Beinborn, Martin; Kopin, Alan S.

    2013-01-01

    The hydroxy-carboxylic acid receptor (HCA1) is a G protein-coupled receptor that is highly expressed on adipocytes and considered a potential target for the treatment of dyslipidemia. In the current study, we investigated the pharmacological properties of naturally occurring variants in this receptor (H43Q, A110V, S172L, and D253H). After transient expression of these receptors into human embryonic kidney 293 cells, basal and ligand-induced signaling were assessed using luciferase reporter gene assays. The A110V, S172L, and D253 variants showed reduced basal activity; the S172L mutant displayed a decrease in potency to the endogenous ligand l-lactate. Both the S172L and D253H variants also showed impaired cell surface expression, which may in part explain the reduced activity of these receptors. The impact of a loss in HCA1 function on lipid accumulation was investigated in the adipocyte cell line, OP9. In these cells, endogenous HCA1 transcript levels rapidly increased and reached maximal levels 3 days after the addition of differentiation media. Knockdown of HCA1 using siRNA resulted in an increase in lipid accumulation as assessed by quantification of Nile Red staining and TLC analysis. Our data suggest that lipid homeostasis may be altered in carriers of selected HCA1 missense variants. PMID:23268337

  14. Naturally occurring dominant drug resistance mutations occur infrequently in the setting of recently acquired hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Applegate, Tanya L; Gaudieri, Silvana; Plauzolles, Anne; Chopra, Abha; Grebely, Jason; Lucas, Michaela; Hellard, Margaret; Luciani, Fabio; Dore, Gregory J; Matthews, Gail V

    2014-01-01

    Background Directly Acting Antivirals (DAAs) are predicted to transform hepatitis C (HCV) therapy, yet little is known about the prevalence of naturally occurring resistance mutations in recently acquired HCV. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and frequency of drug resistance mutations in the viral quasispecies among HIV positive and negative individuals with recent HCV. Methods The NS3 protease, NS5A and NS5B polymerase genes were amplified from fifty genotype 1a participants of the Australian Trial in Acute Hepatitis C. Amino acid variations at sites known to be associated with possible drug resistance were analysed by ultra-deep pyrosequencing. Results Twelve percent of individuals harboured dominant resistance mutations, while 36% demonstrated non dominant resistant variants below that detectable by bulk sequencing (ie < 20%) but above a threshold of 1%. Resistance variants (< 1%) were observed at most sites associated with DAA resistance from all classes, with the exception of sofosbuvir. Conclusions Dominant resistant mutations were uncommonly observed in the setting of recent HCV. However, low level mutations to all DAA classes were observed by deep sequencing at the majority of sites, and in most individuals. The significance of these variants and impact on future treatment options remains to be determined. PMID:25105742

  15. Studies of two naturally occurring compounds which effect release of acetylcholine from synaptosomes. [Leptinotarsa decemlineata

    SciTech Connect

    Koenig, M.L.

    1985-01-01

    Two naturally occurring compounds which effect the release of neurotransmitter from synaptosomes have been purified to apparent homogeneity. Iotrochotin (IOT) isolated from wound exudate of the Caribbean purple bleeder sponge promotes release in a manner that is independent of the extracellular Ca/sup 2 +/ ion concentration. Leptinotarsin (LPT-d), a protein taken from hemolymph of the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, stimulates Ca/sup 2 +/-dependent release. IOT is slightly acidic and has a molecular weight of approximately 18 kD. (/sup 3/H)acetylcholine which has been introduced into synaptosomes as (/sup 3/H)choline can be released by IOT. The toxin releasable pool of labelled neurotransmitter is not depleted by depolarization of the synaptosomes with high potassium, and therefore seems to be primarily extravesicular. LPT-d is a larger protein (molecular weight = 45 kD) than IOT, and seems to effect primarily vesicular release by opening at least one type of presynaptic Ca/sup 2 +/ channel. The facilitatory effects of the toxin on synaptosomal release can be inhibited by inorganic Ca/sup 2 +/ channel antagonists, but are not generally affected by organic antagonists.

  16. Detection of cultured and uncultured Burkholderia cepacia complex bacteria naturally occurring in the maize rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Pirone, Luisa; Chiarini, Luigi; Dalmastri, Claudia; Bevivino, Annamaria; Tabacchioni, Silvia

    2005-11-01

    The species composition of a Burkholderia cepacia complex population naturally occurring in the maize rhizosphere was investigated by using both culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. B. cepacia complex isolates were recovered from maize root slurry on the two selective media Pseudomonas cepacia azelaic acid tryptamine (PCAT) and trypan blue tetracycline (TB-T) and subjected to identification by a combination of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests of the recA gene. DNA extracted directly from root slurry was examined by means of nested PCR to amplify recA gene with species-specific B. cepacia complex primers and to obtain a library of PCR amplified recA genes. Using the culture-dependent method the species Burkholderia cepacia, Burkholderia cenocepacia, Burkholderia ambifaria and Burkholderia pyrrocinia were identified, whereas using the culture-independent method also the species Burkholderia vietnamiensis was detected. The latter method also allowed us to highlight a higher diversity within the B. cenocepacia species. In fact, by using the culture-independent method the species B. cenocepacia recA lineages IIIA and IIID besides B. cenocepacia recA lineage IIIB were detected. Moreover, higher heterogeneity of recA RFLP patterns was observed among clones assigned to the species B. cenocepacia than among B. cenocepacia isolates from selective media. PMID:16232288

  17. Long-Term Toxicity of Naturally Occurring Asbestos in Male Fischer 344 Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) fibers are found in geologic deposits that may be disturbed by mining, earthworks, or natural processes, resulting in adverse health risks to exposed individuals. The toxicities of Libby amphibole and NOA samples including Sumas Mountain chrysot...

  18. DECIPHERING NATURALLY-OCCURRING PB CONTAMINATION IMPACTING DRINKING WATER WELLS: SHAKER VILLAGE CATCHMENT, MAINE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Trace Pb concentrations in groundwater within glacial deposits across Maine fluctuate considerably. Deciphering the distribution and sources of naturally occurring Pb in groundwater with only the use of conventional anomaly identification techniques presents a challenge. In a rep...

  19. CHARACTERIZATION OF CASEINS CROSSLINKED BY A NATURALLY OCCURRING CROSSLINKING AGENT-GENIPIN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing economic and environmental pressures demand more effective utilization of natural resources. Genipin, a naturally occurring crosslinking agent obtained from the fruit of Gardenia jasminoides, has recently attracted much attention due to its low cytotoxicity compared to traditional crossli...

  20. Naturally occurring iridoids, secoiridoids and their bioactivity. An updated review, part 3.

    PubMed

    Dinda, Biswanath; Chowdhury, Debashis Roy; Mohanta, Bikas Chandra

    2009-08-01

    Naturally occurring new iridoids and secoiridoids published during 2005-2008 are reviewed with available physical and spectral data: mp, [alpha](D), UV, IR, (1)H- and (13)C-NMR and plant source. The works on biological and pharmacological activity of naturally occurring iridoids and secoiridoids reported during 2005-2008 are also reviewed. Bioactivities like antibacterial, anticancer, anticoagulant, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, antiprotozoal, hepatoprotective and neuroprotective activities are highlighted.

  1. Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM) in the Oil and Gas Industry: A Review.

    PubMed

    Doyi, Israel; Essumang, David Kofi; Dampare, Samuel; Glover, Eric Tetteh

    2016-01-01

    Radiation is part of the natural environment: it is estimated that approximately 80 % of all human exposure comes from naturally occurring or background radiation. Certain extractive industries such as mining and oil logging have the potential to increase the risk of radiation exposure to the environment and humans by concentrating the quantities of naturally occurring radiation beyond normal background levels (Azeri-Chirag-Gunashli 2004). PMID:26670035

  2. Early and delayed effects of naturally occurring asbestos on serum biomarkers of inflammation and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kodavanti, Urmila P; Andrews, Debora; Schladweiler, Mette C; Gavett, Stephen H; Dodd, Darol E; Cyphert, Jaime M

    2014-01-01

    Studies recently showed that intratracheal (IT) instillation of Libby amphibole (LA) increases circulating acute-phase proteins (APP; α-2 macroglobulin, A2M; and α-1 acid glycoprotein, AGP) and inflammatory biomarkers (osteopontin and lipocalin) in rats. In this study, objectives were to (1) compare changes in biomarkers of rats after instillation of different naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) minerals including LA, Sumas Mountain chrysotile (SM), El Dorado Hills tremolite (ED), and Ontario ferroactinolite cleavage fragments (ON), and (2) examine biomarkers after subchronic LA or amosite inhalation exposure. Rat-respirable fractions (aerodynamic diameter approximately 2.5 μm) prepared by water elutriation were delivered via a single IT instillation at doses of 0, 0.5, and 1.5 mg/rat in male F344 rats. Nose-only inhalation exposures were performed at 0, 1, 3.3, and 10 mg/m(3) for LA and at 3.3 mg /m(3) for amosite, 6h/d, 5 d/wk for 13 wk. Inflammation, metabolic syndrome, and cancer biomarkers were analyzed in the serum for up to 18 mo. IT instillation of some asbestos materials significantly increased serum AGP and A2M but to a varying degree (SM = LA > ON = ED). Numerical increases in interleukin (IL)-6 and osteopontin occurred in rats instilled with SM. SM and ED also elevated leptin and insulin at 15 mo, suggesting potential metabolic effects. LA inhalation tended to raise A2M at d 1 but not cytokines. Serum mesothelin appeared to elevate after 18 mo of LA inhalation. These results suggest that the lung injury induced by high levels of asbestos materials may be associated with systemic inflammatory changes and predisposition to insulin resistance.

  3. Effect of leachability on environmental risk assessment for naturally occurring radioactive materials in petroleum oil fields.

    PubMed

    Rajaretnam, G; Spitz, H B

    2000-02-01

    Elevated concentrations of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM), including 238U, 232Th, and their progeny found in underground geologic deposits, are often encountered during crude oil recovery. Radium, the predominant radionuclide brought to the surface with the crude oil and produced water, co-precipitates with barium in the form of complex compounds of sulfates, carbonates, and silicates found in sludge and scale. These NORM deposits are highly stable and very insoluble under ambient conditions at the earth's surface. However, the co-precipitated radium matrix is not thermodynamically stable at reducing conditions which may enable a fraction of the radium to eventually be released to the environment. Although the fate of radium in uranium mill tailings has been studied extensively, the leachability of radium from crude oil NORM deposits exposed to acid-rain and other aging processes is generally unknown. The leachability of radium from NORM contaminated soil collected at a contaminated oil field in eastern Kentucky was determined using extraction fluids having wide range of pH reflecting different extreme environmental conditions. The average 226Ra concentration in the samples of soil subjected to leachability testing was 32.56 Bq g(-1) +/- 0.34 Bq g(-1). The average leaching potential of 226Ra observed in these NORM contaminated soil samples was 1.3% +/- 0.46% and was independent of the extraction fluid. Risk assessment calculations using the family farm scenario show that the annual dose to a person living and working on this NORM contaminated soil is mainly due to external gamma exposure and radon inhalation. However, waterborne pathways make a non-negligible contribution to the dose for the actual resident families living on farmland with the type of residual NORM contamination due to crude oil recovery operations.

  4. Genotoxic activity in vivo of the naturally occurring glucoside, cycasin, in the Drosophila wing spot test.

    PubMed

    Kawai, K; Furukawa, H; Hirono, I

    1995-03-01

    Cycasin, methylazoxymethanol-beta-glucoside, is a naturally occurring carcinogenic compound. The genotoxicity of cycasin was assayed in the Drosophila wing spot test. Cycasin induced small single and large single spots on feeding at 10 mumol/g medium. The presence of these spots indicates that cycasin is genotoxic in Drosophila melanogaster. Microorganisms which showed beta-glucosidase activity for cleaving cycasin to toxic aglycon were isolated from gut flora of the Drosophila larvae. Consequently, the Drosophila wing spot test would be useful for mutagenicity screening of other naturally occurring glucosides.

  5. The Role of Naturally Occurring Stable Isotopes in Mass Spectrometry, Part II: The Instrumentation

    PubMed Central

    Bluck, Les; Volmer, Dietrich A.

    2013-01-01

    In the second instalment of this tutorial, the authors explain the instrumentation for measuring naturally occurring stable isotopes, specifically the magnetic sector mass spectrometer. This type of instrument remains unrivalled in its performance for isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) and the reader is reminded of its operation and its technical advantages for isotope measurements. PMID:23772101

  6. Concentrations of the naturally occurring radionucleides Pb-210, Po-210, and Ra-226 in aquatic fauna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holtzman, R. B.

    1969-01-01

    Study reveals naturally occurring radionuclides are ubiquitous and contribute a substantial fraction of the natural radiation dose to humans and various biota. Measurements may be useful in ecological and other biological problems such as tracing food chains of animals and study of the metabolism of these elements.

  7. Studying Compliment Responses; A Comparison of DCTs and Recordings of Naturally Occurring talk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golato, Andrea

    2003-01-01

    Examined the differences between compliment responses collected with two different data collection procedures: naturally occurring data analyzed through conversation analytic methodology, and elicited data collected via a discourse completion task (DCT). The DCT was designed to evoke the same discourse context and preceding context observed in the…

  8. The Role of Naturally Occurring Stable Isotopes in Mass Spectrometry, Part I: The Theory

    PubMed Central

    Bluck, Les; Volmer, Dietrich A.

    2013-01-01

    In this tutorial, the authors explain how naturally occurring stable isotopes are contributing to experimentally determined mass spectra and how this information can be exploited in quantitative experiments, structural elucidation studies and tracer methodologies. The first instalment of this two part series focuses on the theoretical aspects of stable isotopes and the calculation of their distribution patterns. PMID:23772100

  9. Naturally occurring vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) Whisker growth of germanium sulfide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finkelman, R.B.; Larson, R.R.; Dwornik, E.J.

    1974-01-01

    The first naturally occurring terrestrial example of vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth has been observed in condensates from gases released by burning coal in culm banks. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and energy dispersive analysis indicate that the crystals consist of elongated rods (??? 100 ??m) of germanium sulfide capped by bulbs depleted in germanium. ?? 1974.

  10. Survival of naturally occurring Campylobacter in refrigerated and frozen rinsate from a broiler carcass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine if naturally occurring Campylobacter in a broiler carcass rinsate could survive in cold or frozen storage. Ten commercial broiler carcasses were each rinsed with 500 ml of Butterfield’s buffer and all carcasses tested positive for the presence of 104-105...

  11. Survival of naturally occurring Campylobacter in refrigerated and frozen rinsate from a broiler carcass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine if naturally occurring Campylobacter in a broiler rinsate could survive in cold storage. Ten commercial broiler carcasses were each rinsed with 500 ml of Butterfield’s buffer and all carcasses tested positive for the presence of 104-105/ml naturally occu...

  12. Tasks, Teacher Feedback, and Learner Modified Output in Naturally Occurring Classroom Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurzynski-Weiss, Laura; Revesz, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Tasks and interactional feedback have received much attention in instructed second language acquisition research in recent years. However, little research exists that has investigated feedback and task factors together during naturally occurring teacher-student interaction in classroom settings. To bridge this gap, the current study explored the…

  13. Subject Reaction to Human-Caused and Naturally-Occurring Radioactive Threat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belford, Susan; Gibbs, Margaret

    While research has shown that people are adversely psychologically affected by knowledge that their communities have been toxically contaminated, it has been suggested that those who see a disaster as naturally occurring tend to be less adversely affected than those who see a disaster as caused by human acts. To examine this issue, questionnaires…

  14. Apoptosis and autophagy induction as mechanism of cancer prevention by naturally occurring dietary agents

    PubMed Central

    Mukhtar, Eiman; Adhami, Vaqar Mustafa; Khan, Naghma; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2013-01-01

    Nontoxic naturally occurring compounds, especially those from dietary sources, are receiving increasing consideration for prevention and treatment of diseases including cancer. There is a growing need for innovative anticancer therapies and therefore search for natural compounds with novel biological activities or antineoplastic potential is currently an important area in drug discovery. Support for this interest also comes from increasing concern over the efficacy and safety of many conventional therapies, especially those that run over a long course of time. Laboratory studies in different in vitro and in vivo systems have shown that many natural compounds possess the capacity to regulate response to oxidative stress and DNA damage, suppress angiogenesis, inhibit cell proliferation and induce autophagy and apoptosis. This review discusses the induction of apoptosis and autophagy as a mechanism of cancer prevention by some of the most studied naturally occurring dietary compounds. PMID:23140293

  15. Sensitivity, child regulatory processes, and naturally occurring declines in antisocial behavior across childhood.

    PubMed

    Buck, Katharine Ann

    2014-12-01

    Despite considerable research on why antisocial behavior develops and interventions that reduce it, aspects of everyday family processes that may promote naturally occurring declines in antisocial behavior or that may result from such declines in most children without intervention are poorly understood. The current study explored family processes that may enable children to replace antisocial tendencies and the effects that declines in antisocial behavior may have on parenting and child regulatory processes. Longitudinal data from 1,022 children (54 months-6th grade) from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development were examined. Findings demonstrated that naturally occurring declines in antisocial behavior both predicted and were predicted by maternal sensitivity, emotion regulation, and social skills. These declines predicted but were not predicted by declines in hostile attributions. The data revealed multiple indirect paths, which highlight the complex nature of these variables across development.

  16. Recent Advances in the Chemistry and Biology of Naturally Occurring Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jason S.; Edmonds, David J.; Estrada, Anthony A.

    2009-01-01

    Lead-in Ever since the world-shaping discovery of penicillin, nature’s molecular diversity has been extensively screened for new medications and lead compounds in drug discovery. The search for anti-infective agents intended to combat infectious diseases has been of particular interest and has enjoyed a high degree of success. Indeed, the history of antibiotics is marked with impressive discoveries and drug development stories, the overwhelming majority of which have their origins in nature. Chemistry, and in particular chemical synthesis, has played a major role in bringing naturally occurring antibiotics and their derivatives to the clinic, and no doubt these disciplines will continue to be key enabling technologies for future developments in the field. In this review article, we highlight a number of recent discoveries and advances in the chemistry, biology, and medicine of naturally occurring antibiotics, with particular emphasis on the total synthesis, analog design, and biological evaluation of molecules with novel mechanisms of action. PMID:19130444

  17. A study of the dry heat resistance of naturally occurring organisms widely dispersed on a surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garst, D. M.; Lindell, K. F.

    1971-01-01

    Although Bacillus subtilis var. niger is the standard test organism for NASA planetary quarantine sterilization studies, it was found that some naturally occurring soil organisms are more heat resistant. The separation of these organisms from soil particles is described. Experiments are discussed which were designed to show that the heat resistance is a natural characteristic of the organisms, rather than a condition induced by the clumping effect of agglomerated particles and organisms.

  18. Pyrethroid insecticides: A naturally occurring toxin. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the effects of pyrethrum and pyrethroid insecticides. Topics examine toxicity to fish, worms, flies, mosquitoes, and moths. Chemical residue on crops, the transportation of pyrethrum from soils to crops, and pyrethrum accumulation in ponds and lakes are among the topics discussed. Naturally occurring and synthetic pyrethroid insecticides are included. (Contains a minimum of 173 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  19. Characterization of Contaminant Transport Using Naturally-Occurring U-Series Disequilibria

    SciTech Connect

    TEH-LUNG KU

    2001-06-01

    Study the migration of nuclear waste contaminants in subsurface fractured systems using naturally occurring uranium and thorium-series radionuclides as tracers under in-situ physico-chemical and hydrogeologic conditions. Radioactive disequilibria among members of these decay-series nuclides can provide information on the rates of adsorption-desorption and transport of contaminants as well as on fluid transport and rock dissolution in a natural setting.

  20. Recent progress regarding the bioactivities, biosynthesis and synthesis of naturally occurring resorcinolic macrolides

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jing; Jiang, Cheng-shi; Zhang, Zai-long; Ma, Wen-quan; Guo, Yue-wei

    2014-01-01

    Macrolides, which comprise a family of lactones with different ring sizes, belong to the polyketide class of natural products. Resorcinolic macrolides, an important subgroup, possess interesting structures and exhibit a wide variety of bioactivities, such as anti-tumor, anti-bacteria, and anti-malaria activities, etc. This review summarizes progress in isolation, bioactivity studies, biosynthesis, and representative chemical syntheses of this group of macrolides in recent decades, encompassing 63 naturally occurring macrolides published in 120 articles. PMID:24464049

  1. Segregation of Naturally Occurring Mitochondrial DNA Variants in a Mini-Pig Model.

    PubMed

    Cagnone, Gael; Tsai, Te-Sha; Srirattana, Kanokwan; Rossello, Fernando; Powell, David R; Rohrer, Gary; Cree, Lynsey; Trounce, Ian A; St John, Justin C

    2016-03-01

    The maternally inherited mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) is present in multimeric form within cells and harbors sequence variants (heteroplasmy). While a single mtDNA variant at high load can cause disease, naturally occurring variants likely persist at low levels across generations of healthy populations. To determine how naturally occurring variants are segregated and transmitted, we generated a mini-pig model, which originates from the same maternal ancestor. Following next-generation sequencing, we identified a series of low-level mtDNA variants in blood samples from the female founder and her daughters. Four variants, ranging from 3% to 20%, were selected for validation by high-resolution melting analysis in 12 tissues from 31 animals across three generations. All four variants were maintained in the offspring, but variant load fluctuated significantly across the generations in several tissues, with sex-specific differences in heart and liver. Moreover, variant load was persistently reduced in high-respiratory organs (heart, brain, diaphragm, and muscle), which correlated significantly with higher mtDNA copy number. However, oocytes showed increased heterogeneity in variant load, which correlated with increased mtDNA copy number during in vitro maturation. Altogether, these outcomes show that naturally occurring mtDNA variants segregate and are maintained in a tissue-specific manner across generations. This segregation likely involves the maintenance of selective mtDNA variants during organogenesis, which can be differentially regulated in oocytes and preimplantation embryos during maturation. PMID:26819245

  2. A Naturally Occurring Domestic Cat APOBEC3 Variant Confers Resistance to Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Yoshikawa, Rokusuke; Izumi, Taisuke; Yamada, Eri; Nakano, Yusuke; Misawa, Naoko; Ren, Fengrong; Carpenter, Michael A.; Ikeda, Terumasa; Münk, Carsten; Harris, Reuben S.; Miyazawa, Takayuki; Koyanagi, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    [HIV-1] and simian immunodeficiency virus [SIV]) if its activity is not counteracted by the viral Vif protein. Here we investigate the ability of 7 naturally occurring variants of feline APOBEC3, APOBEC3Z3 (A3Z3), to inhibit FIV replication. Interestingly, one feline A3Z3 variant is dominant, restrictive, and naturally resistant to FIV Vif-mediated degradation. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the ancestral change that generated this variant could have been caused by positive Darwinian selection, presumably due to an ancestral FIV infection. The experimental-phylogenetic investigation sheds light on the evolutionary history of the domestic cat, which was likely influenced by lentiviral infection. PMID:26491161

  3. Phosphatase production and activity in Citrobacter freundii and a naturally occurring, heavy-metal-accumulating Citrobacter sp.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, D M; Dean, A C; Wiffen, P; Macaskie, L E

    1995-10-01

    The ability of a naturally occurring Citrobacter sp. to accumulate cadmium has been attributed to cellular precipitation of CdHPO4, utilizing HPO4(2-) liberated via the activity of an overproduced, Cd-resistant acid-type phosphatase. Phosphatase production and heavy metal accumulation by batch cultures of this strain (N14) and a phosphatase-deficient mutant were compared with two reference strains of Citrobacter freundii. Only strain N14 expressed a high level of acid phosphatase and accumulated lanthanum and uranyl ion enzymically. Acid phosphatase is regulated via carbon-starvation; although the C. freundii strains overexpressed phosphatase activity in carbon-limiting continuous culture, this was approximately 20-fold less than the activity of strain N14 grown similarly. Citrobacter strain N14 was originally isolated from a metal-contaminated soil environment; phosphatase overproduction and metal accumulation were postulated as a detoxification mechanism. However, application of Cd-stress, and enrichment for Cd-resistant C. freundii ('training'), reduced the phosphatase activity of this organism by about 50% as compared to Cd-unstressed cultures. The acid phosphatase of C. freundii and Citrobacter N14 had a similar pattern of resistance to some diagnostic reagents. The enzyme of the latter is similar to the PhoN acid phosphatase of Salmonella typhimurium described by other workers; the results are discussed with respect to the known phosphatases of the enterobacteria.

  4. A method for the determination of vanadium and iron oxidation states in naturally occurring oxides and silicates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wanty, R.B.; Goldhaber, M.B.

    1985-01-01

    A valence-specific analytical method for determining V3+ in ore minerals has been developed that involves two steps: dissolution of a mineral sample without disturbing the V3+/Vtot ratio, followed by determination of V3+ in the presence of V4+. The samples are dissolved in a mixture of hydrofluoric and sulphuric acids at 100?? in Teflon-lined reaction vessels. Tervalent vanadium is then determined colorimetrically by formation of a V3+-thiocyanate complex in aqueous-acetone medium. Fe3+ is measured semi-quantitatively in the same solution. The method has been tested with two naturally occurring samples containing vanadium and iron. The results obtained were supported by those obtained by other methods, including electron spin resonance spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and Mo??ssbauer spectroscopy. ?? 1985.

  5. Articular Osteochondrosis: A Comparison of Naturally-Occurring Human and Animal Disease

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Annette M; Toth, Ferenc; Dolvik, Nils I; Ekman, Stina; Ellermann, Jutta; Olstad, Kristin; Ytrehus, Bjornar; Carlson, Cathy S

    2013-01-01

    Background Osteochondrosis (OC) is a common developmental orthopedic disease affecting both humans and animals. Despite increasing recognition of this disease among children and adolescents, its pathogenesis is incompletely understood because clinical signs are often not apparent until lesions have progressed to end-stage, and examination of cadaveric early lesions is not feasible. In contrast, both naturally-occurring and surgically-induced animal models of disease have been extensively studied, most notably in horses and swine, species in which OC is recognized to have profound health and economic implications. The potential for a translational model of human OC has not been recognized in the existing human literature. Objective The purpose of this review is to highlight the similarities in signalment, predilection sites and clinical presentation of naturally-occurring OC in humans and animals and to propose a common pathogenesis for this condition across species. Study Design Review Methods The published human and veterinary literature for the various manifestations of OC was reviewed. Peer-reviewed original scientific articles and species-specific review articles accessible in PubMed (US National Library of Medicine) were eligible for inclusion. Results A broad range of similarities exists between OC affecting humans and animals, including predilection sites, clinical presentation, radiographic/MRI changes, and histological appearance of the end stage lesion, suggesting a shared pathogenesis across species. Conclusion This proposed shared pathogenesis for OC between species implies that naturally-occurring and surgically-induced models of OC in animals may be useful in determining risk factors and for testing new diagnostic and therapeutic interventions that can be used in humans. PMID:23954774

  6. IMAGE Observations of Sounder Stimulated and Naturally Occurring Fast Z mode Cavity Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonwalkar, V. S.; Taylor, C.; Reddy, A.

    2015-12-01

    We report first observations of sounder stimulated and naturally occurring fast Z mode (ZM) cavity noise detected by the Radio Plasma Imager (RPI) on the IMAGE satellite. The fast Z mode cavity noise is a banded, structure-less radio emission trapped inside fast Z mode cavities, which are characterized by a minimum (fz,min) in fast Z mode cut-off frequency (fz) along a geomagnetic field line [Gurnett et al., JGR, 1983]. Fast Z mode waves reflect at fz ~ f, where f is the wave frequency. Waves in the frequency range fz,min < f < fz,max, where fz,max is the maximum fz above fz,min altitude, are trapped within the cavity as they bounce back and forth between reflection altitudes (fz ~ f) above and below the fz,min altitude. These trapped waves will be observed by a satellite passing through the cavity. The observed cavity noise lower cutoff is at the local Z mode cut-off frequency (fz,Sat) and the upper cut-off is presumably close to fz,max. The cavity noise is observed typically inside the plasmasphere. Comparison of cavity noise as observed on the plasmagram obtained during active sounding with that observed on the dynamic spectra obtained from the interspersed passive wave measurements indicate that the cavity noise is either stimulated by transmissions from the sounder (RPI) or is of natural origin. The sounder stimulated noise is often accompanied by fast Z mode echoes. The naturally occurring cavity noise is observed on both the plasmagram and the dynamic spectra. We believe the stimulated cavity noise is generated due to scattering from small-scale irregularities of waves transmitted by RPI. One potential candidate for the source of naturally occurring Z mode cavity noise is the ring current electrons that can generate fast ZM waves via higher order cyclotron resonance [Nishimura et al., Earth Planets Space, 2007].

  7. The new IAEA reference material: IAEA-434 technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials (TENORM) in phosphogypsum.

    PubMed

    Shakhashiro, A; Sansone, U; Wershofen, H; Bollhöfer, A; Kim, C K; Kim, C S; Kis-Benedek, G; Korun, M; Moune, M; Lee, S H; Tarjan, S; Al-Masri, M S

    2011-01-01

    A reliable determination of Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials in phosphogypsum is necessary to comply with radiation protection and environmental regulations. In this respect, a new phosphogypsum reference material was produced and certified to assist in the validation of analytical methods and the quality assurance of produced analytical results. This paper presents the sample preparation methodology, material homogeneity assessment, characterization campaign results and assignment of property values, and associated uncertainties. The reference values and associated uncertainties for Pb-210, Ra-226, Th-230, U-234 and U-238 were established based on consensus values calculated from analytical results reported by three National Metrology Institutes and five expert laboratories.

  8. Ectomycorrhizal symbiosis in vitro between Tricholoma matsutake and Pinus densiflora seedlings that resembles naturally occurring 'shiro'.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Akiyoshi; Maeda, Ken; Kobayashi, Hisayasu; Murata, Hitoshi

    2006-03-01

    We established an in vitro ectomycorrhizal symbiosis between Tricholoma matsutake and Pinus densiflora. Mycorrhiza formed in a substrate of Modified Norkrans' C medium and granite-based soil had features similar to those observed previously only in naturally occurring mycorrhizal system called 'shiro,' and promoted the growth of plants with smaller root/shoot ratios. The in vitro formation of 'shiro' is essential for the development of T. matsutake system to produce mushrooms and is useful for the propagation and plantation of the mycorrhizal seedlings.

  9. Naturally occurring bioactive Cyclobutane-containing (CBC) alkaloids in fungi, fungal endophytes, and plants.

    PubMed

    Dembitsky, Valery M

    2014-10-15

    This article focuses on the occurrence and biological activities of cyclobutane-containing (CBC) alkaloids obtained from fungi, fungal endophytes, and plants. Naturally occurring CBC alkaloids are of particular interest because many of these compounds display important biological activities and possess antitumour, antibacterial, antimicrobial, antifungal, and immunosuppressive properties. Therefore, these compounds are of great interest in the fields of medicine, pharmacology, medicinal chemistry, and the pharmaceutical industry. Fermentation and production of CBC alkaloids by fungi and/or fungal endophytes is also discussed. This review presents the structures and describes the activities of 98 CBC alkaloids.

  10. Naturally occurring phenanthrene degrading bacteria associated with seeds of various plant species.

    PubMed

    Fernet, Jennifer L; Lawrence, John R; Germida, James J

    2016-01-01

    Seeds of 11 of 19 plant species tested yielded naturally occurring phenanthrene degrading bacteria when placed on phenanthrene impression plates. Seed associated phenanthrene degrading bacteria were mostly detected on caragana, Canada thistle, creeping red fescue, western wheatgrass, and tall wheat grass. Based on 16S rRNA analysis the most common bacteria isolated from these seeds were strains belonging to the genera Enterobacteria, Erwinia, Burkholderia, Pantoea, Pseudomonas, and Sphingomonas. These plants may provide an excellent source of pre-adapted bacterial-plant associations highly suitable for use in remediation of contaminated soil environments.

  11. Occupational exposure due to naturally occurring radionuclide material in granite quarry industry.

    PubMed

    Ademola, J A

    2012-02-01

    The potential occupational exposure in granite quarry industry due to the presence of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) has been investigated. The activity concentrations of (40)K, (226)Ra and (232)Th were determined using gamma-ray spectroscopy method. The annual effective dose of workers through different exposure pathways was determined by model calculations. The total annual effective dose varied from 21.48 to 33.69 μSv y(-1). Inhalation dose contributes the highest to the total effective dose. The results obtained were much lower than the intervention exemption levels (1.0 mSv y(-1)) given in the International Commission on Radiological Protection Publication 82.

  12. Existence of long-lived isomeric states in naturally-occurring neutron-deficient Th isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Marinov, A.; Kashiv, Y.; Rodushkin, I.; Halicz, L.; Segal, I.; Pape, A.; Miller, H. W.; Kolb, D.; Brandt, R.

    2007-08-15

    Four long-lived neutron-deficient Th isotopes with atomic mass numbers 211 to 218 and abundances of (1-10)x10{sup -11} relative to {sup 232}Th have been found in a study of naturally-occurring Th using inductively coupled plasma-sector field mass spectrometry. It is deduced that long-lived isomeric states exist in these isotopes. The hypothesis that they might belong to a new class of long-lived high spin super- and hyperdeformed isomeric states is discussed.

  13. Bibliography of reports, papers, and presentations on naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) in petroleum industry wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K.P.; Wilkey, M.L.; Hames, R.D.

    1997-07-01

    This bibliography was created to support projects conducted by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) addressing issues related to naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) in petroleum industry wastes. The bibliography provides citations for many of the available published reports, papers, articles, and presentations on petroleum industry NORM. In the past few years, the rapid expansion of NORM treatment and disposal technologies, the efforts to characterize NORM wastes and their associated potential risks, and the promulgation of state-level NORM regulatory programs have been well-documented in project reports and in papers presented at technical conferences and symposia. There are 221 citations.

  14. Naturally occurring phenanthrene degrading bacteria associated with seeds of various plant species.

    PubMed

    Fernet, Jennifer L; Lawrence, John R; Germida, James J

    2016-01-01

    Seeds of 11 of 19 plant species tested yielded naturally occurring phenanthrene degrading bacteria when placed on phenanthrene impression plates. Seed associated phenanthrene degrading bacteria were mostly detected on caragana, Canada thistle, creeping red fescue, western wheatgrass, and tall wheat grass. Based on 16S rRNA analysis the most common bacteria isolated from these seeds were strains belonging to the genera Enterobacteria, Erwinia, Burkholderia, Pantoea, Pseudomonas, and Sphingomonas. These plants may provide an excellent source of pre-adapted bacterial-plant associations highly suitable for use in remediation of contaminated soil environments. PMID:26515514

  15. Determination of naturally occurring radionuclides in soil samples of Ayranci, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agar, Osman; Eke, Canel; Boztosun, Ismail; Emin Korkmaz, M.

    2015-04-01

    The specific activity, radiation hazard index and the annual effective dose of the naturally occurring radioactive elements (238U, 232Th and 40K) were determined in soil samples collected from 12 different locations in Ayranci region by using a NaI(Tl) gamma-ray spectrometer. The measured activity concentrations of the natural radionuclides in studied soil samples were compared with the corresponding results of different countries and the internationally reported values. From the analysis, it is found that these materials may be safely used as construction materials and do not pose significant radiation hazards.

  16. Synthesis and anti-cancer activity of naturally occurring 2,5-diketopiperazines.

    PubMed

    Mollica, Adriano; Costante, Roberto; Fiorito, Serena; Genovese, Salvatore; Stefanucci, Azzurra; Mathieu, Veronique; Kiss, Robert; Epifano, Francesco

    2014-10-01

    Three naturally occurring oxyprenylated diketopiperazines were synthesized and preliminarily tested as growth inhibitory agents in vitro against various cancer cell lines. The compounds were tested on six human cancer cell lines with different sensitivity to proapoptotic stimuli using the MTT colorimetric assay. The data revealed that of the chemicals under study only deoxymicelianamide (11) displayed the highest activity, recording mean IC50 growth inhibitory values ranging from 2 to 23 μM. A comparative study with the non-geranylated saturated derivative of (11) revealed the importance of the presence of the geranyloxy side chain and the exocyclic 2,5-DPK double bond moiety for the observed activity.

  17. Computational Assessment of Naturally Occurring Neutron and Photon Background Radiation Produced by Extraterrestrial Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Thomas Martin; de Wet, Wouter C.; Patton, Bruce W.

    2015-10-28

    In this study, a computational assessment of the variation in terrestrial neutron and photon background from extraterrestrial sources is presented. The motivation of this assessment is to evaluate the practicality of developing a tool or database to estimate background in real time (or near–real time) during an experimental measurement or to even predict the background for future measurements. The extraterrestrial source focused on during this assessment is naturally occurring galactic cosmic rays (GCRs). The MCNP6 transport code was used to perform the computational assessment. However, the GCR source available in MCNP6 was not used. Rather, models developed and maintained by NASA were used to generate the GCR sources. The largest variation in both neutron and photon background spectra was found to be caused by changes in elevation on Earth's surface, which can be as large as an order of magnitude. All other perturbations produced background variations on the order of a factor of 3 or less. The most interesting finding was that ~80% and 50% of terrestrial background neutrons and photons, respectively, are generated by interactions in Earth's surface and other naturally occurring and man-made objects near a detector of particles from extraterrestrial sources and their progeny created in Earth's atmosphere. In conclusion, this assessment shows that it will be difficult to estimate the terrestrial background from extraterrestrial sources without a good understanding of a detector's surroundings. Therefore, estimating or predicting background during a measurement environment like a mobile random search will be difficult.

  18. AAV-Mediated Cone Rescue in a Naturally Occurring Mouse Model of CNGA3-Achromatopsia

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Xufeng; Lei, Bo; Everhart, Drew; Umino, Yumiko; Li, Jie; Zhang, Keqing; Mao, Song; Boye, Sanford L.; Liu, Li; Chiodo, Vince A.; Liu, Xuan; Shi, Wei; Tao, Ye; Chang, Bo; Hauswirth, William W.

    2012-01-01

    Achromatopsia is a rare autosomal recessive disorder which shows color blindness, severely impaired visual acuity, and extreme sensitivity to bright light. Mutations in the alpha subunits of the cone cyclic nucleotide-gated channels (CNGA3) are responsible for about 1/4 of achromatopsia in the U.S. and Europe. Here, we test whether gene replacement therapy using an AAV5 vector could restore cone-mediated function and arrest cone degeneration in the cpfl5 mouse, a naturally occurring mouse model of achromatopsia with a CNGA3 mutation. We show that gene therapy leads to significant rescue of cone-mediated ERGs, normal visual acuities and contrast sensitivities. Normal expression and outer segment localization of both M- and S-opsins were maintained in treated retinas. The therapeutic effect of treatment lasted for at least 5 months post-injection. This study is the first demonstration of substantial, relatively long-term restoration of cone-mediated light responsiveness and visual behavior in a naturally occurring mouse model of CNGA3 achromatopsia. The results provide the foundation for development of an AAV5-based gene therapy trial for human CNGA3 achromatopsia. PMID:22509403

  19. Thermal resistance of naturally occurring airborne bacterial spores. [Viking spacecraft dry heat decontamination simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Puleo, J. R.; Bergstrom, S. L.; Peeler, J. T.; Oxborrow, G. S.

    1978-01-01

    Simulation of a heat process used in the terminal dry-heat decontamination of the Viking spacecraft is reported. Naturally occurring airborne bacterial spores were collected on Teflon ribbons in selected spacecraft assembly areas and subsequently subjected to dry heat. Thermal inactivation experiments were conducted at 105, 111.7, 120, 125, 130, and 135 C with a moisture level of 1.2 mg of water per liter. Heat survivors were recovered at temperatures of 135 C when a 30-h heating cycle was employed. Survivors were recovered from all cycles studied and randomly selected for identification. The naturally occurring spore population was reduced an average of 2.2 to 4.4 log cycles from 105 to 135 C. Heating cycles of 5 and 15 h at temperature were compared with the standard 30-h cycle at 111.7, 120, and 125 C. No significant differences in inactivation (alpha = 0.05) were observed between 111.7 and 120 C. The 30-h cycle differs from the 5- and 15-h cycles at 125 C. Thus, the heating cycle can be reduced if a small fraction (about 0.001 to 0.0001) of very resistant spores can be tolerated.

  20. The role of mesoscale kinetic energy in natural occurring phytoplankton blooms and export in Drake Passage.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, A. R.; Veron, F.; Oliver, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Southern Ocean is an iron limited, high nitrate, low chlorophyll region that draws considerable attention as a potential site for carbon drawdown through iron fertilization. However, there are no prolonged in-situ observations of the mechanisms driving naturally occurring blooms in this region. Here we present results from an APEX biofloat that continuously profiled the Drake Passage from ~ 2,000 m to the surface every two days. The biofloat measured the development and export of a naturally occurring phytoplankton bloom in the Drake Passage. Our analysis indicates that low levels of mesoscale kinetic energy coincided with the observed phytoplankton bloom. We postulate that low KE level are a precondition for bloom onset in the Drake Passage, which is confirmed by satellite observations. High levels of mesoscale kinetic energy immediately followed the phytoplankton bloom and appear to have facilitated organic carbon export to the deep ocean by changing the neutral density depths of aggregated cells. Furthermore, satellite observations in Drake Passage suggest that high levels of mesoscale kinetic energy limit bloom formation. We suggest that low mesoscale kinetic energy is a precondition for bloom formation in the Drake Passage before other potentially limiting factors become significant (e.g. grazing relation, macronutrients, micronutrients). If mesoscale kinetic energy were to impose a limitation on phytoplankton concentrations across the entire Southern Ocean, there may be regions unsuitable for geoengineered draw down of atmospheric carbon dioxide through large scale iron additions.

  1. Alaska, Naturally Occurring Asbestos: Experiences, Policy and 2012 Limitation of Liability Legislation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargesheimer, J.; Perkins, R.

    2012-12-01

    Naturally Occurring Asbestos (NOA) occurs in mineral deposits in Alaska. There are many regions in Alaska that have minerals in surface rocks that may contain asbestos and asbestos has been discovered in many locations in Alaska. Gravel is constantly in demand for heavy construction projects, but some remote localities in Alaska do not have gravel sources that are NOA-free. Determining if NOA can be safely used in heavy construction materials and what can or should be done with NOA materials that are already in place are complex questions. Answers will depend on the amount and type of asbestos mineral, how it is handled in processing, and how it is maintained - all subject to regulation and control of operations. The State of Alaska recently enacted legislation (HB 258) providing, among other things, "… immunity for the state and for landowners, extractors, suppliers, transporters, and contractors for certain actions or claims arising in connection with the use of gravel or aggregate material containing naturally occurring asbestos in certain areas." Implementation of the law and interim regulations and guidance should enable use of NOA for heavy construction materials in Alaska, but as with any new law, it will take some time to understand its full scope and effect.

  2. AAV-mediated cone rescue in a naturally occurring mouse model of CNGA3-achromatopsia.

    PubMed

    Pang, Ji-jing; Deng, Wen-Tao; Dai, Xufeng; Lei, Bo; Everhart, Drew; Umino, Yumiko; Li, Jie; Zhang, Keqing; Mao, Song; Boye, Sanford L; Liu, Li; Chiodo, Vince A; Liu, Xuan; Shi, Wei; Tao, Ye; Chang, Bo; Hauswirth, William W

    2012-01-01

    Achromatopsia is a rare autosomal recessive disorder which shows color blindness, severely impaired visual acuity, and extreme sensitivity to bright light. Mutations in the alpha subunits of the cone cyclic nucleotide-gated channels (CNGA3) are responsible for about 1/4 of achromatopsia in the U.S. and Europe. Here, we test whether gene replacement therapy using an AAV5 vector could restore cone-mediated function and arrest cone degeneration in the cpfl5 mouse, a naturally occurring mouse model of achromatopsia with a CNGA3 mutation. We show that gene therapy leads to significant rescue of cone-mediated ERGs, normal visual acuities and contrast sensitivities. Normal expression and outer segment localization of both M- and S-opsins were maintained in treated retinas. The therapeutic effect of treatment lasted for at least 5 months post-injection. This study is the first demonstration of substantial, relatively long-term restoration of cone-mediated light responsiveness and visual behavior in a naturally occurring mouse model of CNGA3 achromatopsia. The results provide the foundation for development of an AAV5-based gene therapy trial for human CNGA3 achromatopsia. PMID:22509403

  3. Identification of manganese as a toxicant in a groundwater treatment system: Addressing naturally occurring toxicants

    SciTech Connect

    Goodfellow, W. Jr.; Sohn, V.; Richey, M.; Yost, J.

    1995-12-31

    Effluent from a groundwater remediation system at a bulk oil storage and distribution terminal has been chronically toxic to Ceriodaphnia dubia. The remediation system was designed in response to a hydrocarbon plume in the area of the terminal. The remediation system consists of a series of groundwater recovery wells and groundwater intercept trench systems with groundwater treatment and phased-separated hydrocarbon recovery systems. The groundwater treatment and petroleum recovery systems consist of oil/water separators, product recovery tanks, air strippers, filters, and carbon adsorption units. The characteristics of this effluent are low total suspended solids, total dissolved solids, and hardness concentrations as well as meeting stringent NPDES permit requirements for lead, copper, zinc, mercury, total petroleum hydrocarbons, and BTEX. Additional priority pollutant evaluations revealed no compounds of concern. Performance of a Toxicity identification Evaluation (TIE) indicated that manganese was the principle toxicant in the effluent. Manganese is a naturally occurring constituent in this groundwater source and is not added to the treatment system. This paper will present the results of the TIE with a discussion of treatability/control options for manganese control at this facility. Recommendations for addressing naturally occurring toxicants that are not a result of the facility`s operations will also be presented.

  4. Drosophila TRPA1 channel is required to avoid the naturally occurring insect repellent citronellal

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Young; Kim, Sang Hoon; Ronderos, David S.; Lee, Youngseok; Akitake, Bradley; Woodward, Owen M.; Guggino, William B.; Smith, Dean P.; Montell, Craig

    2010-01-01

    Summary Plants produce naturally occurring insect repellents, such as citronellal, which is the main component of citronellal oil and is among the most widely-used-naturally-occurring insect repellents. However, the molecular pathways through which insects sense botanical repellents are unknown. Here, we showed that Drosophila used two pathways for direct avoidance of citronellal. The olfactory co-receptor, Or83b, which is required for the response to the synthetic repellent DEET, contributed to citronellal repulsion, and was essential for citronellal-evoked action potentials. Mutations affecting the Ca2+-permeable cation channel, TRPA1 resulted in a comparable defect in avoiding citronellal vapor. The TRPA1-dependent aversion to citronellal relied on a G protein/phospholipase C (PLC) signaling cascade, rather than direct detection of citronellal by TRPA1. Loss of TRPA1, Gq or PLC caused an increase in the frequency of citronellal-evoked action potentials in olfactory receptor neurons. Absence of the Ca2+-activated K+ channel, Slowpoke, resulted in a similar impairment in citronellal avoidance, and an increase in the frequency of action potentials. These results suggest that TRPA1 is required for activation of a BK channel to modulate citronellal-evoked action potentials, and for aversion to citronellal. In contrast to Drosophila TRPA1, Anopheles gambiae TRPA1 was directly and potently activated by citronellal, thereby raising the possibility that mosquito TRPA1 may be a target for developing improved repellents to reduce insect-borne diseases such as malaria. PMID:20797863

  5. A Polymorphism in the Processing Body Component Ge-1 Controls Resistance to a Naturally Occurring Rhabdovirus in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Cao, Chuan; Magwire, Michael M; Bayer, Florian; Jiggins, Francis M

    2016-01-01

    Hosts encounter an ever-changing array of pathogens, so there is continual selection for novel ways to resist infection. A powerful way to understand how hosts evolve resistance is to identify the genes that cause variation in susceptibility to infection. Using high-resolution genetic mapping we have identified a naturally occurring polymorphism in a gene called Ge-1 that makes Drosophila melanogaster highly resistant to its natural pathogen Drosophila melanogaster sigma virus (DMelSV). By modifying the sequence of the gene in transgenic flies, we identified a 26 amino acid deletion in the serine-rich linker region of Ge-1 that is causing the resistance. Knocking down the expression of the susceptible allele leads to a decrease in viral titre in infected flies, indicating that Ge-1 is an existing restriction factor whose antiviral effects have been increased by the deletion. Ge-1 plays a central role in RNA degradation and the formation of processing bodies (P bodies). A key effector in antiviral immunity, the RNAi induced silencing complex (RISC), localises to P bodies, but we found that Ge-1-based resistance is not dependent on the small interfering RNA (siRNA) pathway. However, we found that Decapping protein 1 (DCP1) protects flies against sigma virus. This protein interacts with Ge-1 and commits mRNA for degradation by removing the 5' cap, suggesting that resistance may rely on this RNA degradation pathway. The serine-rich linker domain of Ge-1 has experienced strong selection during the evolution of Drosophila, suggesting that this gene may be under long-term selection by viruses. These findings demonstrate that studying naturally occurring polymorphisms that increase resistance to infections enables us to identify novel forms of antiviral defence, and support a pattern of major effect polymorphisms controlling resistance to viruses in Drosophila. PMID:26799957

  6. A Polymorphism in the Processing Body Component Ge-1 Controls Resistance to a Naturally Occurring Rhabdovirus in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Cao, Chuan; Magwire, Michael M; Bayer, Florian; Jiggins, Francis M

    2016-01-01

    Hosts encounter an ever-changing array of pathogens, so there is continual selection for novel ways to resist infection. A powerful way to understand how hosts evolve resistance is to identify the genes that cause variation in susceptibility to infection. Using high-resolution genetic mapping we have identified a naturally occurring polymorphism in a gene called Ge-1 that makes Drosophila melanogaster highly resistant to its natural pathogen Drosophila melanogaster sigma virus (DMelSV). By modifying the sequence of the gene in transgenic flies, we identified a 26 amino acid deletion in the serine-rich linker region of Ge-1 that is causing the resistance. Knocking down the expression of the susceptible allele leads to a decrease in viral titre in infected flies, indicating that Ge-1 is an existing restriction factor whose antiviral effects have been increased by the deletion. Ge-1 plays a central role in RNA degradation and the formation of processing bodies (P bodies). A key effector in antiviral immunity, the RNAi induced silencing complex (RISC), localises to P bodies, but we found that Ge-1-based resistance is not dependent on the small interfering RNA (siRNA) pathway. However, we found that Decapping protein 1 (DCP1) protects flies against sigma virus. This protein interacts with Ge-1 and commits mRNA for degradation by removing the 5' cap, suggesting that resistance may rely on this RNA degradation pathway. The serine-rich linker domain of Ge-1 has experienced strong selection during the evolution of Drosophila, suggesting that this gene may be under long-term selection by viruses. These findings demonstrate that studying naturally occurring polymorphisms that increase resistance to infections enables us to identify novel forms of antiviral defence, and support a pattern of major effect polymorphisms controlling resistance to viruses in Drosophila.

  7. A Polymorphism in the Processing Body Component Ge-1 Controls Resistance to a Naturally Occurring Rhabdovirus in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Bayer, Florian; Jiggins, Francis M.

    2016-01-01

    Hosts encounter an ever-changing array of pathogens, so there is continual selection for novel ways to resist infection. A powerful way to understand how hosts evolve resistance is to identify the genes that cause variation in susceptibility to infection. Using high-resolution genetic mapping we have identified a naturally occurring polymorphism in a gene called Ge-1 that makes Drosophila melanogaster highly resistant to its natural pathogen Drosophila melanogaster sigma virus (DMelSV). By modifying the sequence of the gene in transgenic flies, we identified a 26 amino acid deletion in the serine-rich linker region of Ge-1 that is causing the resistance. Knocking down the expression of the susceptible allele leads to a decrease in viral titre in infected flies, indicating that Ge-1 is an existing restriction factor whose antiviral effects have been increased by the deletion. Ge-1 plays a central role in RNA degradation and the formation of processing bodies (P bodies). A key effector in antiviral immunity, the RNAi induced silencing complex (RISC), localises to P bodies, but we found that Ge-1-based resistance is not dependent on the small interfering RNA (siRNA) pathway. However, we found that Decapping protein 1 (DCP1) protects flies against sigma virus. This protein interacts with Ge-1 and commits mRNA for degradation by removing the 5’ cap, suggesting that resistance may rely on this RNA degradation pathway. The serine-rich linker domain of Ge-1 has experienced strong selection during the evolution of Drosophila, suggesting that this gene may be under long-term selection by viruses. These findings demonstrate that studying naturally occurring polymorphisms that increase resistance to infections enables us to identify novel forms of antiviral defence, and support a pattern of major effect polymorphisms controlling resistance to viruses in Drosophila. PMID:26799957

  8. Elemental and Microscopic Analysis of Naturally Occurring C-O-Si Hetero-Fullerene-Like Structures.

    PubMed

    Hullavarad, Nilima V; Hullavarad, Shiva S; Fochesatto, Javier

    2015-03-01

    Carbon exhibits an ability to form a wide range of structures in nature. Under favorable conditions, carbon condenses to form hollow, spheroid fullerenes in an inert atmosphere. Using high resolution FESEM, we have concealed the existence of giant hetero-fullerene like structures in the natural form. Clear, distinct features of connected hexagons and pentagons were observed. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis depth-profile of natural fullerene structures indicates that Russian-doll-like configurations composed of C, 0, and Si rings exist in nature. The analysis is based on an outstanding molecular feature found in the size fraction of aerosols having diameters 150 nm to 1.0 µm. The fullerene like structures, which are ~ 150 nm in diameter, are observed in large numbers. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first direct detailed observation of natural fullerene-like structures. This article reports inadvertent observation of naturally occurring hetero-fullerene-like structures in the Arctic.

  9. Naturally occurring Parelaphostrongylus tenuis-associated choriomeningitis in a guinea pig with neurologic signs.

    PubMed

    Southard, T; Bender, H; Wade, S E; Grunenwald, C; Gerhold, R W

    2013-05-01

    An adult male guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) with a 1-month history of hind limb paresis, torticollis, and seizures was euthanized and submitted for necropsy. Gross examination was unremarkable, but histologic examination revealed multifocal eosinophilic and lymphoplasmacytic choriomeningitis and cross sections of nematode parasites within the leptomeninges of the midbrain and diencephalon. Morphologic features of the nematode were consistent with a metastrongyle, and the parasite was identified as Parelaphostrongylus tenuis by polymerase chain reaction testing and nucleotide sequencing. Further questioning of the owner revealed that the guinea pig was fed grass from a yard often grazed by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of a naturally occurring P. tenuis infection in a guinea pig.

  10. Systems and methods for facilitating hydrogen storage using naturally occurring nanostructure assemblies

    DOEpatents

    Fliermans; , Carl B.

    2012-08-07

    Some or all of the needs above can be addressed by embodiments of the invention. According to embodiments of the invention, systems and methods for facilitating hydrogen storage using naturally occurring nanostructure assemblies can be implemented. In one embodiment, a method for storing hydrogen can be provided. The method can include providing diatoms comprising diatomaceous earth or diatoms from a predefined culture. In addition, the method can include heating the diatoms in a sealed environment in the presence of at least one of titanium, a transition metal, or a noble metal to provide a porous hydrogen storage medium. Furthermore, the method can include exposing the porous hydrogen storage medium to hydrogen. In addition, the method can include storing at least a portion of the hydrogen in the porous hydrogen storage medium.

  11. Partitioning of naturally-occurring radionuclides (NORM) in Marcellus Shale produced fluids influenced by chemical matrix.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Andrew W; Johns, Adam J; Eitrheim, Eric S; Knight, Andrew W; Basile, Madeline; Bettis, E Arthur; Schultz, Michael K; Forbes, Tori Z

    2016-04-01

    Naturally-occurring radioactive materials (NORM) associated with unconventional drilling produced fluids from the Marcellus Shale have raised environmental concerns. However, few investigations into the fundamental chemistry of NORM in Marcellus Shale produced fluids have been performed. Thus, we performed radiochemical experiments with Marcellus Shale produced fluids to understand the partitioning behavior of major radioelements of environmental health concern (uranium (U), thorium (Th), radium (Ra), lead (Pb), and polonium (Po)). We applied a novel radiotracer, (203)Pb, to understand the behavior of trace-levels of (210)Pb in these fluids. Ultrafiltration experiments indicated U, Th, and Po are particle reactive in Marcellus Shale produced fluids and Ra and Pb are soluble. Sediment partitioning experiments revealed that >99% of Ra does not adsorb to sediments in the presence of Marcellus Shale produced fluids. Further experiments indicated that although Ra adsorption is related to ionic strength, the concentrations of heavier alkaline earth metals (Ba, Sr) are stronger predictors of Ra solubility.

  12. Partitioning of naturally-occurring radionuclides (NORM) in Marcellus Shale produced fluids influenced by chemical matrix.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Andrew W; Johns, Adam J; Eitrheim, Eric S; Knight, Andrew W; Basile, Madeline; Bettis, E Arthur; Schultz, Michael K; Forbes, Tori Z

    2016-04-01

    Naturally-occurring radioactive materials (NORM) associated with unconventional drilling produced fluids from the Marcellus Shale have raised environmental concerns. However, few investigations into the fundamental chemistry of NORM in Marcellus Shale produced fluids have been performed. Thus, we performed radiochemical experiments with Marcellus Shale produced fluids to understand the partitioning behavior of major radioelements of environmental health concern (uranium (U), thorium (Th), radium (Ra), lead (Pb), and polonium (Po)). We applied a novel radiotracer, (203)Pb, to understand the behavior of trace-levels of (210)Pb in these fluids. Ultrafiltration experiments indicated U, Th, and Po are particle reactive in Marcellus Shale produced fluids and Ra and Pb are soluble. Sediment partitioning experiments revealed that >99% of Ra does not adsorb to sediments in the presence of Marcellus Shale produced fluids. Further experiments indicated that although Ra adsorption is related to ionic strength, the concentrations of heavier alkaline earth metals (Ba, Sr) are stronger predictors of Ra solubility. PMID:26952871

  13. Naturally occurring spore particles at planar fluid interfaces and in emulsions.

    PubMed

    Binks, B P; Clint, J H; Mackenzie, G; Simcock, C; Whitby, C P

    2005-08-30

    We have investigated the potential of utilizing naturally occurring spore particles of Lycopodium clavatum as sole emulsifiers of oil and water mixtures. The preferred emulsions, prepared from either oil-borne or aqueous-borne dispersions of the monodispersed particles of diameter 30 microm, are oil-in-water. The particles act as efficient stabilizers for oils of different polarity. Droplets as large as several millimeters are stable to coalescence indefinitely, despite the low coverage of interfaces by particles observed microscopically. Consistent with the emulsion findings, we discover that particles spontaneously adsorb to bare oil-water interfaces of single drops from oil dispersions, whereas adsorption is less spontaneous and extensive from aqueous dispersions. Monolayers of the spore particles at both air-water and oil-water planar interfaces contain particles in an aggregated state forming clusters and chains. The influence of particle concentration, oil/water ratio, and additives in the aqueous phase is studied.

  14. Suppression of mouse lymphocyte proliferation in vitro by naturally-occurring biflavonoids.

    PubMed

    Lee, S J; Choi, J H; Son, K H; Chang, H W; Kang, S S; Kim, H P

    1995-01-01

    In a continuing effort to investigate biological activities of flavonoids, nine biflavonoids, isolated from three plant sources were evaluated for their suppressive effects on mouse lymphocyte proliferation. The biflavonoids tested were amentoflavone, bilobetin, ginkgetin, isoginkgetin, sciadopitysin, ochnaflavone, 4'-O-methylochnaflavone, cryptomerin B and isocryptomerin. At 10 uM, several biflavonoids such as ginkgetin, isoginkgetin, ochnaflavone, cryptomerin B and isocryptomerin showed the suppressive activity against lymphocyte proliferation induced by Con A or LPS. Apigenin (flavone) and quercetin (flavonol) were suppressive against Con A-induced lymphocyte proliferation, but not against LPS-induced lymphocyte proliferation at the same concentration range. Biflavonoids were found to be irreversible inhibitors of lymphocyte proliferation. This is the first report describing the suppressive effects of naturally-occurring biflavonoids against lymphocyte proliferation.

  15. Radon as a naturally occurring tracer for the assessment of residual NAPL contamination of aquifers.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Michael; Paschke, Albrecht; Lau, Steffen; Geyer, Wolfgang; Knöller, Kay

    2007-02-01

    The noble gas radon has a strong affinity to non-aqueous phase-liquids (NAPLs). That property makes it applicable as naturally occurring partitioning tracer for assessing residual NAPL contamination of aquifers. In a NAPL contaminated aquifer, radon dissolved in the groundwater partitions preferably into the NAPL. The magnitude of the resulting radon deficit in the groundwater depends on the NAPL-specific radon partition coefficient and on the NAPL saturation of the pore space. Hence, if the partition coefficient is known, the NAPL saturation is attainable by determination of the radon deficit. After a concise discussion of theoretical aspects regarding radon partitioning into NAPL, related experimental data and results of a field investigation are presented. Aim of the laboratory experiments was the determination of radon partition coefficients of multi-component NAPLs of environmental concern. The on-site activities were carried out in order to confirm the applicability of the "radon method" under field conditions.

  16. A Naturally Occurring Antibody Fragment Neutralizes Infectivity of Diverse Infectious Agents

    PubMed Central

    Polonelli, Luciano; Ciociola, Tecla; Elviri, Lisa; Zanello, Pier Paolo; Giovati, Laura; Arruda, Denise C.; Muñoz, Julián E.; Mortara, Renato A.; Morace, Giulia; Borghi, Elisa; Galati, Serena; Marin, Oriano; Casoli, Claudio; Pilotti, Elisabetta; Ronzi, Paola; Travassos, Luiz R.; Magliani, Walter; Conti, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    A phosphorylated peptide, named K40H, derived from the constant region of IgMs was detected in human serum by liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry. Synthetic K40H proved to exert a potent in vitro activity against fungal pathogens, and to inhibit HIV-1 replication in vitro and ex vivo. It also showed a therapeutic effect against an experimental infection by Candida albicans in the invertebrate model Galleria mellonella. K40H represents the proof of concept of the innate role that naturally occurring antibody fragments may exert against infectious agents, shedding a new light upon the posthumous role of antibodies and opening a new scenario on the multifaceted functionality of humoral immunity. PMID:27725769

  17. What should a radiation regulator do about naturally occurring radioactive material?

    PubMed

    Loy, J

    2015-06-01

    The standard regulatory framework of authorisation, review and assessment, inspection and enforcement, and regulation making is directed principally towards ensuring the regulatory control of planned exposure situations. Some mining and industrial activities involving exposures to naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM), such as uranium mining or the treatment and conditioning of NORM residues, may fit readily within this standard framework. In other cases, such as oil and gas exploration and production, the standard regulatory framework needs to be adjusted. For example, it is not sensible to require that an oil company seek a licence from the radiation regulator before drilling a well. The paper discusses other approaches that a regulator might take to assure protection and safety in such activities involving exposures to NORM, including the use of conditional exemptions from regulatory controls. It also suggests some areas where further guidance from the International Commission on Radiological Protection on application of the system of radiological protection to NORM would assist both regulators and operators.

  18. Alertness and clear thinking as characteristics of high naturally occurring autonomic nervous system arousal.

    PubMed

    Schubert, D S

    1977-10-01

    Studies of the effect of induced mood on the autonomic nervous system (ANS) suggested that naturally occurring mood might also covary with the ANS. Ss were 13 men and women aged 20 to 70. Fatigue, confusion, and depression were measured on the Profile of Mood States, while barometric pressure and the ANS indices of heart rate and body temperature were also recorded. Fatigue and confusion each showed negative relationships to both heart rate and body temperature. Barometric pressure showed a suggestively positive relationship to the mood of depression. Hypothalamic serotonin concentration was suggested as a central factor producing the covariations between the mood indices (alertness and clear thinking) and the ANS measures. PMID:21943

  19. Optimal conditions for the fruit body production of natural occurring strains of Lentinus tigrinus.

    PubMed

    Lechner, Bernardo E; Albertó, Edgardo

    2007-07-01

    Lentinus tigrinus is a species with a fleshy pileus, strong odor and agreeable taste. In order to determine the optimal conditions for the production of this species, three substrates based on Salix sp. sawdust, wheat straw and supplements were tested in 500g dry weight bags at two different fruiting temperatures. Naturally occurring strains of this species were incubated at 30 degrees C. Primordium initiation could be observed 11-16 days after induction conditions began. This species produced highest yields with biological efficiency (BE) of 62% with supplemented sawdust at 25 degrees C. When bags were reduced to 100g dry weight, spawning run time was reduced from 28 to 30 to 10 to 14 days and BE increased more than 100%. L. tigrinus is a promising species with possibilities for commercial production. PMID:17239586

  20. El Dorado Air Quality Management District's Approach to Dealing With Naturally Occurring Asbestos (NOA) Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, C.

    2012-12-01

    In 2005, Naturally Occurring Asbestos (NOA) in El Dorado County made headlines with the discovery significant amounts of tremolite/actinolite asbestos in areas where residents had built, or were in the process of building, homes and residences. The El Dorado Air Quality Management District has been involved in all aspects of dealing with NOA from the very beginning of its discovery, from overseeing the rehabilitation of school sites to expanding and rewriting fugitive dust rules at construction sites. A discussion of best management practices which have been developed will be given, as well as how the El Dorado Air Quality Management District has worked to educate members of the public, as well as workers in the field, about NOA to aid in maintaining the health and safety of the public.

  1. Leishmanicidal and cytotoxic activities of extracts and naturally-occurring compounds from two Lauraceae species.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Suárez, Jeysson; Coy-Barrera, Ericsson; Cuca, Luis Enrique; Delgado, Gabriela

    2011-02-01

    The in vitro leishmanicidal effects of ethanolic extracts and fifteen naturally-occurring compounds (five lignans, eight neolignans, a diterpene and a dihydrochalcone), obtained from Pleurothyrium cinereum and Ocotea macrophylla, were evaluated on promastigotes of Leishmania panamensis and L. braziliensis. In addition, in order to determine the selective action on Leishmania species as a safety principle, in vitro cytotoxicity on J774 cells was also evaluated for test compounds and extracts. One extract and seven compounds showed activity against Leishmania parasites at different levels. Dihydroflavokawin B (8) was found to be the most potent antileishmanial compound on both parasites, whilst (+)-otobaphenol (14), was found to be the most selective compound on L. panamensis. PMID:21425681

  2. Computational Assessment of Naturally Occurring Neutron and Photon Background Radiation Produced by Extraterrestrial Sources

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Miller, Thomas Martin; de Wet, Wouter C.; Patton, Bruce W.

    2015-10-28

    In this study, a computational assessment of the variation in terrestrial neutron and photon background from extraterrestrial sources is presented. The motivation of this assessment is to evaluate the practicality of developing a tool or database to estimate background in real time (or near–real time) during an experimental measurement or to even predict the background for future measurements. The extraterrestrial source focused on during this assessment is naturally occurring galactic cosmic rays (GCRs). The MCNP6 transport code was used to perform the computational assessment. However, the GCR source available in MCNP6 was not used. Rather, models developed and maintained bymore » NASA were used to generate the GCR sources. The largest variation in both neutron and photon background spectra was found to be caused by changes in elevation on Earth's surface, which can be as large as an order of magnitude. All other perturbations produced background variations on the order of a factor of 3 or less. The most interesting finding was that ~80% and 50% of terrestrial background neutrons and photons, respectively, are generated by interactions in Earth's surface and other naturally occurring and man-made objects near a detector of particles from extraterrestrial sources and their progeny created in Earth's atmosphere. In conclusion, this assessment shows that it will be difficult to estimate the terrestrial background from extraterrestrial sources without a good understanding of a detector's surroundings. Therefore, estimating or predicting background during a measurement environment like a mobile random search will be difficult.« less

  3. Urinary bladder cancer in dogs, a naturally occurring model for cancer biology and drug development.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Deborah W; Ramos-Vara, José A; Moore, George E; Dhawan, Deepika; Bonney, Patty L; Young, Kirsten E

    2014-01-01

    Each year more than 65,000 people are diagnosed with urinary bladder cancer, and more than 14,000 people die from the disease in the United States. Studies in relevant animal models are essential to improve the management of bladder cancer. Naturally occurring bladder cancer in dogs very closely mimics human invasive bladder cancer, specifically high-grade invasive transitional cell carcinoma (TCC; also referred to as invasive urothelial carcinoma) in cellular and molecular features; biological behavior, including sites and frequency of metastasis; and response to therapy. Canine bladder cancer complements experimentally induced rodent tumors in regard to animal models of bladder cancer. Results of cellular and molecular studies and -omics analyses in dogs are expected to lead to improved detection of TCC and preneoplastic lesions, earlier intervention, better prediction of patient outcome, and more effective TCC management overall. Studies in dogs are being used to help define heritable risks (through very strong breed-associated risk) and environment risks and to evaluate prevention and treatment approaches that benefit humans as well as dogs. Clinical treatment trials in pet dogs with TCC are considered a win-win scenario by clinician scientists and pet owners. The individual dog benefits from effective treatment, the results are expected to help other dogs, and the findings are expected to ultimately help humans with TCC. This article provides an overview of canine TCC, a summary of the similarities and differences between canine and human invasive TCC, and examples of the types of valuable translational research that can be done using dogs with naturally occurring TCC.

  4. Naturally Occurring Asbestos in the Southern Nevada Region: Potential for Human Exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buck, B. J.; Metcalf, R. V.; Berry, D.; McLaurin, B.; Kent, D.; Januch, J.; Goossens, D.

    2015-12-01

    Naturally occurring fibrous actinolite, winchite, magnesioriebeckite, richterite, magnesiohornblende, and erionite have been found in rock, soil, and dust in southern Nevada and northwestern Arizona. The areas containing naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) include urban areas (e.g. Boulder City) and rural areas where people routinely enjoy outdoor activities including horseback riding, running, hiking, bicycling, and off-road-vehicle (ORV) recreation. A recent study showing mesothelioma in young people and women suggests some form of environmental exposure. Rock, soil, dust and clothing were analyzed using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS); additional rock samples were analyzed using wavelength dispersive electron probe microanalysis (EPMA); additional soil samples were analyzed using PLM (polarizing light microscopy) and TEM (transmission electron microscopy) using the Fluidized Bed Asbestos Segregator preparation method. Winds have transported and mixed the Ca-amphiboles, which are primarily from Nevada, with the Na-amphiboles that are primarily from northwestern Arizona. Erionite, which has not previously been reported in this area, was a common soil component found in 5 of 6 samples. The erionite source has not yet been determined. Winds have transported the amphibole and erionite particles into the Nellis Dunes Recreation Area - an ORV recreation area located 35 km north of Boulder City that otherwise would not be geologically predicted to contain fibrous amphiboles. In Boulder City, wind directions are primarily bimodal N-NE and S-SW with the strongest winds in the spring coming from the S-SW. The arid climate in this part of the Mojave Desert greatly increases the potential for wind erosion and human exposures. These results suggest that the entire Las Vegas Basin has, at times, received these particles through wind transport. Because the most likely human exposure pathway is through inhalation of dust, the Las Vegas

  5. Naturally occurring radionuclides in drinking water: An exercise in risk benefit analysis.

    PubMed

    Milvy, P; Cothern, C R

    1989-06-01

    The scientific background information describing the occurrence, measurement, health effects, treatment technology, risk assessment and economic consequences of the presence of naturally occurring radionuclides in drinking water are described for 60,000 public drinking water supplies. The relevant data for the occurrence of radium, uranium and radon in drinking water supplies are discussed and analysed. Radon is of importance because it is released in the process of taking showers and baths and in washing dishes and clothes. Its progeny is then inhaled, leading to the risk of lung cancer. Radium and uranium can both cause bone cancer. The range of average occurrence of natural radioactivity in drinking water is as follows:(226)Ra, 0.3 to 0.8 pCi L(-1);(228)Ra, 0.4 to 1.0 pCi L(-1); uranium, 0.3 to 2.0 pCi L(-1) and(222)Rn, 500 to 600 pCi L(-1). The estimated lifetime risks due to the mean groundwater concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides are:(226)Ra and(228Ra), 1.0 10(-5); uranium, 2.0 × 10(-6) and radon, 4.0 × 10(-4). The cost to reduce total radium levels to 5.0 pCi L(-1) is about $9 million. An equivalent expenditure would be required to reduce radon levels to about 4,000 pCi L(-1), or uranium levels to about 100 pCi L(-1). The problem of maximizing the total mortality and the reduction per unit dollar outlay per unit dollar cost for the uranium/radon case is examined.

  6. Unravelling a 'miner's myth' that environmental contamination in mining towns is naturally occurring.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Louise Jane; Taylor, Mark Patrick

    2016-08-01

    Australia has a long history of metal mining and smelting. Extraction and processing have resulted in elevated levels of toxic metals surrounding mining operations, which have adverse health effects, particularly to children. Resource companies, government agencies and employees often construct 'myths' to down play potential exposure risks and responsibility arising from operating emissions. Typical statements include: contaminants are naturally occurring, the wind blows emissions away from residential areas, contaminants are not bioavailable, or the problem is a legacy issue and not related to current operations. Evidence from mining and smelting towns shows that such 'myths' are exactly that. In mining towns, the default and primary defence against contamination is that elevated metals in adjacent urban environments are from the erosion and weathering of the ore bodies over millennia-hence 'naturally occurring'. Not only is this a difficult argument to unravel from an evidence-based perspective, but also it causes confusion and delays remediation work, hindering efforts to reduce harmful exposures to children. An example of this situation is from Broken Hill, New South Wales, home to one of the world's largest lead-zinc-silver ore body, which has been mined continuously for over 130 years. Environmental metal concentration and lead isotopic data from soil samples collected from across Broken Hill are used to establish the nature and timing of lead contamination. We use multiple lines of evidence to unravel a 'miner's myth' by evaluating current soil metal concentrations and lead isotopic compositions, geological data, historical environmental assessments and old photographic evidence to assess the impacts from early smelting along with mining to the surface soils in the city. PMID:26919836

  7. Unravelling a 'miner's myth' that environmental contamination in mining towns is naturally occurring.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Louise Jane; Taylor, Mark Patrick

    2016-08-01

    Australia has a long history of metal mining and smelting. Extraction and processing have resulted in elevated levels of toxic metals surrounding mining operations, which have adverse health effects, particularly to children. Resource companies, government agencies and employees often construct 'myths' to down play potential exposure risks and responsibility arising from operating emissions. Typical statements include: contaminants are naturally occurring, the wind blows emissions away from residential areas, contaminants are not bioavailable, or the problem is a legacy issue and not related to current operations. Evidence from mining and smelting towns shows that such 'myths' are exactly that. In mining towns, the default and primary defence against contamination is that elevated metals in adjacent urban environments are from the erosion and weathering of the ore bodies over millennia-hence 'naturally occurring'. Not only is this a difficult argument to unravel from an evidence-based perspective, but also it causes confusion and delays remediation work, hindering efforts to reduce harmful exposures to children. An example of this situation is from Broken Hill, New South Wales, home to one of the world's largest lead-zinc-silver ore body, which has been mined continuously for over 130 years. Environmental metal concentration and lead isotopic data from soil samples collected from across Broken Hill are used to establish the nature and timing of lead contamination. We use multiple lines of evidence to unravel a 'miner's myth' by evaluating current soil metal concentrations and lead isotopic compositions, geological data, historical environmental assessments and old photographic evidence to assess the impacts from early smelting along with mining to the surface soils in the city.

  8. Differential susceptibility to colorectal cancer due to naturally occurring gut microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Ericsson, Aaron C.; Akter, Sadia; Hanson, Marina M.; Busi, Susheel B.; Parker, Taybor W.; Schehr, Rebecca J.; Hankins, Miriam A.; Ahner, Carin E.; Davis, Justin W.; Franklin, Craig L.; Amos-Landgraf, James M.; Bryda, Elizabeth C.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies investigating the human microbiome have identified particular bacterial species that correlate with the presence of colorectal cancer. To evaluate the role of qualitatively different but naturally occurring gut microbiota and the relationship with colorectal cancer development, genetically identical embryos from the Polyposis in Rat Colon (Pirc) rat model of colorectal cancer were transferred into recipients of three different genetic backgrounds (F344/NHsd, LEW/SsNHsd, and Crl:SD). Tumor development in the pups was tracked longitudinally via colonoscopy, and end-stage tumor burden was determined. To confirm vertical transmission and identify associations between the gut microbiota and disease phenotype, the fecal microbiota was characterized in recipient dams 24 hours pre-partum, and in Pirc rat offspring prior to and during disease progression. Our data show that the gut microbiota varies between rat strains, with LEW/SsNHsd having a greater relative abundance of the bacteria Prevotella copri. The mature gut microbiota of pups resembled the profile of their dams, indicating that the dam is the primary determinant of the developing microbiota. Both male and female F344-Pirc rats harboring the Lewis microbiota had decreased tumor burden relative to genetically identical rats harboring F344 or SD microbiota. Significant negative correlations were detected between tumor burden and the relative abundance of specific taxa from samples taken at weaning and shortly thereafter, prior to observable adenoma development. Notably, this naturally occurring variation in the gut microbiota is associated with a significant difference in severity of colorectal cancer, and the abundance of certain taxa is associated with decreased tumor burden. PMID:26378041

  9. Naturally-Occurring Marine Brominated Indoles are Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Ligands/Agonists

    PubMed Central

    DeGroot, Danica E.; Franks, Diana G.; Higa, Tatsuo; Tanaka, Junichi; Hahn, Mark E.; Denison, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that mediates the toxic and biological effects of structurally diverse chemicals, including the environmental contaminant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). As part of a larger effort to identify the full spectrum of chemicals that can bind to and activate the AhR, we have examined the ability of several naturally-occurring marine-derived brominated indoles and brominated (methylthio)indoles (collectively referred to as “brominated indoles”) to bind to the AhR and stimulate AhR-dependent gene expression. Incubation of mouse, rat and guinea pig recombinant cell lines containing a stably transfected AhR-responsive luciferase reporter gene with eight brominated indoles revealed that all compounds stimulated luciferase reporter gene activity, although some species-specific differences were observed. All compounds induced significantly more luciferase activity when incubated with cells for 4 h as compared to 24 h, demonstrating that these compounds are transient activators of the AhR signaling pathway. Three of the brominated indoles induced CYP1A1 mRNA in human HepG2 cells in vitro and Cyp1a mRNA in zebrafish embryos in vivo. The identification of the brominated indoles as direct ligands and activators/agonists of the AhR was confirmed by their ability to compete with [3H]TCDD for binding to the AhR and to stimulate AhR transformation and DNA binding in vitro. Taken together, these marine-derived brominated indoles are members of a new class of naturally-occurring AhR agonists. PMID:26001051

  10. Naturally occurring clay nanoparticles in Latosols of Brazil central region: detection and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominika Dybowska, Agnieszka; Luciene Maltoni, Katia; Piella, Jordi; Najorka, Jens; Puntes, Victor; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia

    2015-04-01

    Stability and reactivity of minerals change as a particle size function, which makes mineral nanoparticles (defined here as <100 nm) fundamentally distinct from the larger size materials. Naturally occurring mineral nanoparticles contribute to many biogeochemical processes, however much remains to be learnt about these materials, their size dependent behavior and environmental significance. Advances in analytical, imaging and spectroscopic techniques made it now possible to study such particles; however we still have limited knowledge of their chemical, structural and morphological identity and reactivity, in particular in soils. The aim of this research was to characterize the naturally occurring nanoparticles in three soils from Brazil central region. The samples were collected in the A horizon, treated with H2O2 to remove organic material, dispersed in ultrasonic bath and wet sieved (53 µm) to remove the sand fraction. The clay fraction was collected by siphoning the supernatant, conditioned in 1000 ml cylinder, according to the Stock's law. This fraction was further processed by re-suspension in water, sonication and repeated centrifugation, to separate the fraction smaller than 100nm. This material, called here the soil "nanofraction", was analyzed using a range of techniques: 1) nanoparticle size/morphology and crystallinity with Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM operateing in scanning (HAADF-STEM) and High Resolution (HRTEM) mode), 2) size distribution in water with Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) and surface charge estimated from electrophoretic mobility measurements 3) crystal phase and crystallite size with X-ray Diffraction (XRD) 4) Chemical composition by quantitative analysis of elements (e.g., Si, Fe, Al, Ti) and their spatial distribution with HRTEM/EDS elemental mappings. The nanofraction had an average hydrodynamic particle diameter ranging from 83 to 92nm with a low polydispersity index of 0.13-0.17 and was found highly stable in aqueous

  11. Mobilization of arsenic and other naturally occurring contaminants in groundwater of the Main Ethiopian Rift aquifers.

    PubMed

    Rango, Tewodros; Vengosh, Avner; Dwyer, Gary; Bianchini, Gianluca

    2013-10-01

    This study investigates the mechanisms of arsenic (As) and other naturally occurring contaminants (F(-), U, V, B, and Mo) mobilization from Quaternary sedimentary aquifers of the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER) and their enrichment in the local groundwater. The study is based on systematic measurements of major and trace elements as well as stable oxygen and hydrogen isotopes in groundwater, coupled with geochemical and mineralogical analyses of the aquifer rocks. The Rift Valley aquifer is composed of rhyolitic volcanics and Quaternary lacustrine sediments. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) results revealed that MER rhyolites (ash, tuff, pumice and ignimbrite) and sediments contain on average 72 wt. % and 65 wt. % SiO2, respectively. Petrographic studies of the rhyolites indicate predominance of volcanic glass, sanidine, pyroxene, Fe-oxides and plagioclase. The As content in the lacustrine sediments (mean = 6.6 mg/kg) was higher than that of the rhyolites (mean: 2.5 mg/kg). The lacustrine aquifers of the Ziway-Shala basin in the northern part of MER were identified as high As risk zones, where mean As concentration in groundwater was 22.4 ± 33.5 (range of 0.60-190 μg/L) and 54% of samples had As above the WHO drinking water guideline value of 10 μg/L. Field As speciation measurements showed that most of the groundwater samples contain predominantly (~80%) arsenate-As(V) over arsenite-As(III) species. The As speciation together with field data of redox potential (mean Eh = +73 ± 65 mV) and dissolved-O2 (6.6 ± 2.2 mg/L) suggest that the aquifer is predominantly oxidative. Water-rock interactions, including the dissolution of volcanic glass produces groundwater with near-neutral to alkaline pH (range 6.9-8.9), predominance of Na-HCO3 ions, and high concentration of SiO2 (mean: 85.8 ± 11.3 mg/L). The groundwater data show high positive correlation of As with Na, HCO3, U, B, V, and Mo (R(2) > 0.5; p < 0.001). Chemical modeling of the groundwater indicates that Fe-oxides and

  12. Mobilization of arsenic and other naturally occurring contaminants in groundwater of the Main Ethiopian Rift aquifers.

    PubMed

    Rango, Tewodros; Vengosh, Avner; Dwyer, Gary; Bianchini, Gianluca

    2013-10-01

    This study investigates the mechanisms of arsenic (As) and other naturally occurring contaminants (F(-), U, V, B, and Mo) mobilization from Quaternary sedimentary aquifers of the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER) and their enrichment in the local groundwater. The study is based on systematic measurements of major and trace elements as well as stable oxygen and hydrogen isotopes in groundwater, coupled with geochemical and mineralogical analyses of the aquifer rocks. The Rift Valley aquifer is composed of rhyolitic volcanics and Quaternary lacustrine sediments. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) results revealed that MER rhyolites (ash, tuff, pumice and ignimbrite) and sediments contain on average 72 wt. % and 65 wt. % SiO2, respectively. Petrographic studies of the rhyolites indicate predominance of volcanic glass, sanidine, pyroxene, Fe-oxides and plagioclase. The As content in the lacustrine sediments (mean = 6.6 mg/kg) was higher than that of the rhyolites (mean: 2.5 mg/kg). The lacustrine aquifers of the Ziway-Shala basin in the northern part of MER were identified as high As risk zones, where mean As concentration in groundwater was 22.4 ± 33.5 (range of 0.60-190 μg/L) and 54% of samples had As above the WHO drinking water guideline value of 10 μg/L. Field As speciation measurements showed that most of the groundwater samples contain predominantly (~80%) arsenate-As(V) over arsenite-As(III) species. The As speciation together with field data of redox potential (mean Eh = +73 ± 65 mV) and dissolved-O2 (6.6 ± 2.2 mg/L) suggest that the aquifer is predominantly oxidative. Water-rock interactions, including the dissolution of volcanic glass produces groundwater with near-neutral to alkaline pH (range 6.9-8.9), predominance of Na-HCO3 ions, and high concentration of SiO2 (mean: 85.8 ± 11.3 mg/L). The groundwater data show high positive correlation of As with Na, HCO3, U, B, V, and Mo (R(2) > 0.5; p < 0.001). Chemical modeling of the groundwater indicates that Fe-oxides and

  13. Monitoring Natural Occurring Asbestos in ophiolite sequences and derived soils: implication with human activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Punturo, Rosalda; Bloise, Andrea; Cirrincione, Rosolino

    2016-04-01

    carcinogenic lung cancer, in our opinion further research is required to investigate the variation in the asbestos content in soils with increase in distance from serpentinites outcrops, in order to assess the non-occupational lifelong exposure of population to Natural Occurring Asbestos. References Punturo R., Bloise A., Critelli T., Catalano M., Fazio E., and Apollaro C. (2015). Environmental implications related to natural asbestos occurrences in the ophiolites of the Gimigliano-Mount Reventino unit (Calabria, southern Italy). Intern. J. of Environmental Research, 9(2), 405-418. Bloise A., Punturo R., Catalano M., Miriello D., and Cirrincione R. (2016). Naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) in rock and soil and relation with human activities: the monitoring example of selected sites in Calabria (southern Italy) Ital. J. Geosci., 135, 2, (doi: 10.3301/IJG.2015.24).

  14. Molecular characterization of a naturally occurring intraspecific recombinant begomovirus with close relatives widespread in southern Arabia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Tomato leaf curl Sudan virus (ToLCSDV) is a single-stranded DNA begomovirus of tomato that causes downward leaf curl, yellowing, and stunting. Leaf curl disease results in significant yield reduction in tomato crops in the Nile Basin. ToLCSDV symptoms resemble those caused by Tomato yellow leaf curl virus, a distinct and widespread begomovirus originating in the Middle East. In this study, tomato samples exhibiting leaf curl symptoms were collected from Gezira, Sudan. The associated viral genome was molecularly characterized, analyzed phylogenetically, and an infectious clone for one isolate was constructed. Findings The complete genomes for five newly discovered variants of ToLCSDV, ranging in size from 2765 to 2767-bp, were cloned and sequenced, and subjected to pairwise and phylogenetic analyses. Pairwise analysis indicated that the five Gezira isolates shared 97-100% nucleotide identity with each other. Further, these variants of ToLCSDV shared their highest nucleotide identity at 96-98%, 91-95%, 91-92%, and 91-92% with the Shambat, Gezira, Oman and Yemen strains of ToLCSDV, respectively. Based on the high maximum nucleotide identities shared between these ToLCSDV variants from Gezira and other previously recognized members of this taxonomic group, they are considered isolates of the Shambat strain of ToLCSDV. Analysis of the complete genome sequence for these new variants revealed that they were naturally occurring recombinants between two previously reported strains of ToLCSDV. Finally, a dimeric clone constructed from one representative ToLCSV genome from Gezira was shown to be infectious following inoculation to tomato and N. benthamiana plants. Conclusion Five new, naturally occurring recombinant begomovirus variants (>96% shared nt identity) were identified in tomato plants from Gezira in Sudan, and shown to be isolates of the Shambat strain of ToLCSDV. The cloned viral genome was infectious in N. benthamiana and tomato plants, and symptoms in

  15. SUPPLEMENTARY COMPARISON Technically enhanced naturally occurring radionuclides (TENORM) in phosphogypsum: Comparison CCRI(II)-S5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakhashiro, A.; Sansone, U.; Wershofen, H.; Bollhöfer, A.; Kim, C. K.; Kim, C. S.; Korun, M.; Moune, M.; Lee, S. H.; Tarjan, S.

    2010-01-01

    Within the frame of mutual cooperation between the IAEA and the BIPM, the Consultative Committee for Ionizing Radiation Section II—Measurement of Radionuclides accepted an IAEA-organized interlaboratory comparison in 2008 on the determination of technically enhanced naturally occurring radionuclides in phosphogypsum. The study was piloted by the Chemistry Unit at the IAEA's Laboratories in Seibersdorf (Austria). This report presents the methodology applied in conducting this comparison and the results. Activity results for Pb-210, Ra-226, Th-230, U-234, U-235 and U-238 were reported by three national metrology institutes (NMI) and five other expert laboratories or designated institutes. Four different approaches were used to calculate the nominal value of the reported results and associated uncertainties, and the results from each individual participant were evaluated and compared with this nominal reference value. The reported evaluation of the measurement results demonstrated agreement amongst the participating laboratories. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI Section II, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  16. Use of naturally occurring mercury to determine the importance of cutthroat trout to Yellowstone grizzly bears

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Felicetti, L.A.; Schwartz, C.C.; Rye, R.O.; Gunther, K.A.; Crock, J.G.; Haroldson, M.A.; Waits, L.; Robbins, C.T.

    2004-01-01

    Spawning cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki (Richardson, 1836)) are a potentially important food resource for grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis Ord, 1815) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. We developed a method to estimate the amount of cutthroat trout ingested by grizzly bears living in the Yellowstone Lake area. The method utilized (i) the relatively high, naturally occurring concentration of mercury in Yellowstone Lake cutthroat trout (508 ± 93 ppb) and its virtual absence in all other bear foods (6 ppb), (ii) hair snares to remotely collect hair from bears visiting spawning cutthroat trout streams between 1997 and 2000, (iii) DNA analyses to identify the individual and sex of grizzly bears leaving a hair sample, (iv) feeding trials with captive bears to develop relationships between fish and mercury intake and hair mercury concentrations, and (v) mercury analyses of hair collected from wild bears to estimate the amount of trout consumed by each bear. Male grizzly bears consumed an average of 5 times more trout/kg bear than did female grizzly bears. Estimated cutthroat trout intake per year by the grizzly bear population was only a small fraction of that estimated by previous investigators, and males consumed 92% of all trout ingested by grizzly bears.

  17. Effect of naturally occurring ozone air pollution episodes on pulmonary oxidative stress and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Pirozzi, Cheryl; Sturrock, Anne; Weng, Hsin-Yi; Greene, Tom; Scholand, Mary Beth; Kanner, Richard; Paine, Robert

    2015-05-12

    This study aimed to determine if naturally occurring episodes of ozone air pollution in the Salt Lake Valley in Utah, USA, during the summer are associated with increased pulmonary inflammation and oxidative stress, increased respiratory symptoms, and decreased lung function in individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) compared to controls. We measured biomarkers (nitrite/nitrate (NOx), 8-isoprostane) in exhaled breath condensate (EBC), spirometry, and respiratory symptoms in 11 former smokers with moderate-to-severe COPD and nine former smokers without airflow obstruction during periods of low and high ozone air pollution. High ozone levels were associated with increased NOx in EBC in both COPD (8.7 (±8.5) vs. 28.6 (±17.6) μmol/L on clean air vs. pollution days, respectively, p < 0.01) and control participants (7.6 (±16.5) vs. 28.5 (±15.6) μmol/L on clean air vs. pollution days, respectively, p = 0.02). There was no difference in pollution effect between COPD and control groups, and no difference in EBC 8-isoprostane, pulmonary function, or respiratory symptoms between clean air and pollution days in either group. Former smokers both with and without airflow obstruction developed airway oxidative stress and inflammation in association with ozone air pollution episodes.

  18. Naturally occurring, nonregressing canine oral papillomavirus infection: host immunity, virus characterization, and experimental infection.

    PubMed

    Nicholls, P K; Klaunberg, B A; Moore, R A; Santos, E B; Parry, N R; Gough, G W; Stanley, M A

    1999-12-20

    Papillomaviruses occasionally cause severe, nonregressing or recurrent infections in their human and animal hosts. The mechanisms underlying these atypical infections are not known. Canine oral papillomavirus (COPV) typically regresses spontaneously and is an important model of mucosal human papillomavirus infections. A severe, naturally occurring, nonregressing COPV infection provided an opportunity to investigate some aspects of viral pathogenicity and host immunity. In this case, the papillomas proved refractory to surgical and medical treatments, including autogenous vaccination and vaccination with capsid (L1) virus-like particles. High levels of induced anti-L1 antibodies appeared to have no effect on the infection. The papillomas spread to oesophageal mucosa, perioral haired skin, and remote cutaneous sites. Isolation of COPV from the animal and sequencing of several regions of the viral genome showed no differences to the COPV prototype. Experimental infection of beagle dogs with this viral isolate resulted in the uncomplicated development and regression of oral warts within the usual period, indicating that the virus was not an unusual pathogenic variant. These findings support the hypothesis that the recurrent lesions seen in some human papillomavirus infections, such as recurrent laryngeal papillomatosis, are associated with specific defects in host immunity rather than variations in viral pathogenicity. PMID:10600607

  19. Repair of naturally occurring mismatches can induce mutations in flanking DNA

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jia; Miller, Brendan F; Furano, Anthony V

    2014-01-01

    ‘Normal’ genomic DNA contains hundreds of mismatches that are generated daily by the spontaneous deamination of C (U/G) and methyl-C (T/G). Thus, a mutagenic effect of their repair could constitute a serious genetic burden. We show here that while mismatches introduced into human cells on an SV40-based episome were invariably repaired, this process induced mutations in flanking DNA at a significantly higher rate than no mismatch controls. Most mutations involved the C of TpC, the substrate of some single strand-specific APOBEC cytidine deaminases, similar to the mutations that can typify the ‘mutator phenotype’ of numerous tumors. siRNA knockdowns and chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that TpC preferring APOBECs mediate the mutagenesis, and siRNA knockdowns showed that both the base excision and mismatch repair pathways are involved. That naturally occurring mispairs can be converted to mutators, represents an heretofore unsuspected source of genetic changes that could underlie disease, aging, and evolutionary change. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02001.001 PMID:24843013

  20. Repair of naturally occurring mismatches can induce mutations in flanking DNA.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jia; Miller, Brendan F; Furano, Anthony V

    2014-01-01

    'Normal' genomic DNA contains hundreds of mismatches that are generated daily by the spontaneous deamination of C (U/G) and methyl-C (T/G). Thus, a mutagenic effect of their repair could constitute a serious genetic burden. We show here that while mismatches introduced into human cells on an SV40-based episome were invariably repaired, this process induced mutations in flanking DNA at a significantly higher rate than no mismatch controls. Most mutations involved the C of TpC, the substrate of some single strand-specific APOBEC cytidine deaminases, similar to the mutations that can typify the 'mutator phenotype' of numerous tumors. siRNA knockdowns and chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that TpC preferring APOBECs mediate the mutagenesis, and siRNA knockdowns showed that both the base excision and mismatch repair pathways are involved. That naturally occurring mispairs can be converted to mutators, represents an heretofore unsuspected source of genetic changes that could underlie disease, aging, and evolutionary change.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02001.001. PMID:24843013

  1. Effect of naturally occurring apatites on growth and morphology of algae.

    PubMed

    Smith, E A; Mayfield, C I; Wong, P T; Silverberg, B A

    1977-09-01

    Crystals (30--100 micrometer) of selected naturally occurring apatite (Ca10 (PO4)6(OH, F)2) samples were added to P-free (less than 0.001 microgram/ml total P) Bristol's medium (1-1000 microgram/ml of apatite) as the sole source of ortho-PO43-. The media were inoculated with washed, non-axenic cells of three chlorophycean algal species cultivated under PO43--deficient conditions. Phase-contrast and scanning electron microscopy revealed that at low slurry densities (1-10 microgram/ml of apatite), Ankistrodesmus braunii (ATCC 2744) cells were morphologically distorted. At concentrations of 100 and 1000 microgram/ml of apatite, more than 85% of the cells had undergone autospore formation within 7--10 days of incubation at 20 degrees C. Most autospores formed failed to germinate under high nutrient conditions. Scenedesmus longus (No. 1236) formed colonies when cultivated in Bristol's medium but daughter cells displayed a Chodatella-like unicellular morphology when grown in apatite media. Test algal species (Chlamydomonas dysosmos, S. longus, A. braunii) showed a marked preference for growth on apatite crystals over non-nutritive surfaces. Unialgal and mixed-algal cultures produced an extensive matrix of extracellular fibrous material in response to growth on crystals at concentrations greater than 10 microgram/ml of apatite. PMID:907915

  2. Naturally occurring p16Ink4a-positive cells shorten healthy lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Darren J.; Childs, Bennett G.; Durik, Matej; Wijers, Melinde E.; Sieben, Cynthia J.; Zhong, Jian; Saltness, Rachel; Jeganathan, Karthik B.; Versoza, Grace C.; Pezeshki, Abdul-Mohammad; Khazaie, Khashayarsha; Miller, Jordan D.; van Deursen, Jan M.

    2016-01-01

    Cellular senescence, a stress-induced irreversible growth arrest often characterized by p16Ink4a expression and a distinctive secretory phenotype, prevents the proliferation of preneoplastic cells and has beneficial roles in tissue remodelling during embryogenesis and wound healing. Senescent cells accumulate in various tissues and organs over time and have been speculated to play a role in aging. To explore the physiological relevance and consequences of naturally occurring senescent cells, we used a previously established transgene, INK-ATTAC, to induce apoptosis in p16Ink4a-expressing cells of wild-type mice by injection of AP20187 twice a week starting at one year of age. Here we show that compared to vehicle alone, AP20187 treatment extended median lifespan in both male and female mice of two distinct genetic backgrounds. Clearance of p16Ink4a-positive cells delayed tumorigenesis and attenuated age-related deterioration of several organs without apparent side effects, including kidney, heart and fat, where clearance preserved the functionality of glomeruli, cardio-protective KATP channels, and adipocytes, respectively. Thus, p16Ink4a-positive cells that accumulate during adulthood negatively influence lifespan and promote age-dependent changes in multiple organs, and their therapeutic removal may be an attractive approach to extend healthy lifespan. PMID:26840489

  3. Contact Mechanics of Naturally Occurring Grains: Experiments and Discrete Element Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, David M.; Hopkins, Mark A.

    2009-06-01

    Application of the discrete element method to engineering problems involving naturally occurring granular materials requires knowledge of the contact mechanics of the particles and a realistic treatment of particle shapes. This paper presents results from on-going work that addresses these two fundamental issues of granular media mechanics. Grain-scale laboratory experiments are being conducted to provide the needed contact relationships. A concurrent discrete element modeling effort is under way to implement the experimentally determined contact relationships and employ realistic particle shapes. The experiments determine the stiffness and frictional behavior of normal and sliding contacts of observed for spherical specimens of gneiss. Stiffness in the normal mode is seen to range from 0.1 to 15 MN m-1 depending on force level. Shear stiffness is on the order of the normal stiffness, but only for relatively low shear force levels (or shear deformations). Frictional energy losses are observed to varying degrees under virtually all experimental conditions. The discrete element modeling effort simulates the triaxial response of the spherical grains enclosed in a membrane and implements the experimentally determined contact relationships for normal and sliding contact behavior. Inclusion of the full frictional behavior prior to macroscopic sliding is under development. Some aspects of the simulations of the triaxial deformation of spherical grains of gneiss are presented and compared with the grain-scale experimental data. The simulations are seen to capture the key features of the experimental observations.

  4. Rubemamine and Rubescenamine, Two Naturally Occurring N-Cinnamoyl Phenethylamines with Umami-Taste-Modulating Properties.

    PubMed

    Backes, Michael; Obst, Katja; Bojahr, Juliane; Thorhauer, Anika; Roudnitzky, Natacha; Paetz, Susanne; Reichelt, Katharina V; Krammer, Gerhard E; Meyerhof, Wolfgang; Ley, Jakob P

    2015-10-01

    Sensory screening of a series of naturally occurring N-cinnamoyl derivatives of substituted phenethylamines revealed that rubemamine (9, from Chenopodium album) and rubescenamine (10, from Zanthoxylum rubsecens) elicit strong intrinsic umami taste in water at 50 and 10 ppm, respectively. Sensory tests in glutamate- and nucleotide-containing bases showed that the compounds influence the whole flavor profile of savory formulations. Both rubemamine (9) and rubescenamine (10) at 10-100 ppm dose-dependently positively modulated the umami taste of MSG (0.17-0.22%) up to threefold. Among the investigated amides, only rubemamine (9) and rubescenamine (10) are able to directly activate the TAS1R1-TAS1R3 umami taste receptor. Moreover, both compounds also synergistically modulated the activation of TAS1R1-TAS1R3 by MSG. Most remarkably, rubemamine (9) was able to further positively modulate the IMP-enhanced TAS1R1-TAS1R3 response to MSG ∼ 1.8-fold. Finally, armatamide (11), zanthosinamide (13), and dioxamine (14), which lack intrinsic umami taste in vivo and direct receptor response in vitro, also positively modulated receptor activation by MSG about twofold and the IMP-enhanced MSG-induced TAS1R1-TAS1R3 responses approximately by 50%. In sensory experiments, dioxamine (14) at 25 ppm in combination with 0.17% MSG exhibited a sensory equivalent to 0.37% MSG. PMID:26375852

  5. Genetic basis of hindlimb loss in a naturally occurring vertebrate model

    PubMed Central

    Don, Emily K.; de Jong-Curtain, Tanya A.; Doggett, Karen; Hall, Thomas E.; Heng, Benjamin; Badrock, Andrew P.; Winnick, Claire; Nicholson, Garth A.; Guillemin, Gilles J.; Currie, Peter D.; Hesselson, Daniel; Heath, Joan K.; Cole, Nicholas J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Here we genetically characterise pelvic finless, a naturally occurring model of hindlimb loss in zebrafish that lacks pelvic fin structures, which are homologous to tetrapod hindlimbs, but displays no other abnormalities. Using a hybrid positional cloning and next generation sequencing approach, we identified mutations in the nuclear localisation signal (NLS) of T-box transcription factor 4 (Tbx4) that impair nuclear localisation of the protein, resulting in altered gene expression patterns during pelvic fin development and the failure of pelvic fin development. Using a TALEN-induced tbx4 knockout allele we confirm that mutations within the Tbx4 NLS (A78V; G79A) are sufficient to disrupt pelvic fin development. By combining histological, genetic, and cellular approaches we show that the hindlimb initiation gene tbx4 has an evolutionarily conserved, essential role in pelvic fin development. In addition, our novel viable model of hindlimb deficiency is likely to facilitate the elucidation of the detailed molecular mechanisms through which Tbx4 functions during pelvic fin and hindlimb development. PMID:26892237

  6. Anabolic and Antiresorptive Modulation of Bone Homeostasis by the Epigenetic Modulator Sulforaphane, a Naturally Occurring Isothiocyanate.

    PubMed

    Thaler, Roman; Maurizi, Antonio; Roschger, Paul; Sturmlechner, Ines; Khani, Farzaneh; Spitzer, Silvia; Rumpler, Monika; Zwerina, Jochen; Karlic, Heidrun; Dudakovic, Amel; Klaushofer, Klaus; Teti, Anna; Rucci, Nadia; Varga, Franz; van Wijnen, Andre J

    2016-03-25

    Bone degenerative pathologies like osteoporosis may be initiated by age-related shifts in anabolic and catabolic responses that control bone homeostasis. Here we show that sulforaphane (SFN), a naturally occurring isothiocyanate, promotes osteoblast differentiation by epigenetic mechanisms. SFN enhances active DNA demethylation viaTet1andTet2and promotes preosteoblast differentiation by enhancing extracellular matrix mineralization and the expression of osteoblastic markers (Runx2,Col1a1,Bglap2,Sp7,Atf4, andAlpl). SFN decreases the expression of the osteoclast activator receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) in osteocytes and mouse calvarial explants and preferentially induces apoptosis in preosteoclastic cells via up-regulation of theTet1/Fas/Caspase 8 and Caspase 3/7 pathway. These mechanistic effects correlate with higher bone volume (∼20%) in both normal and ovariectomized mice treated with SFN for 5 weeks compared with untreated mice as determined by microcomputed tomography. This effect is due to a higher trabecular number in these mice. Importantly, no shifts in mineral density distribution are observed upon SFN treatment as measured by quantitative backscattered electron imaging. Our data indicate that the food-derived compound SFN epigenetically stimulates osteoblast activity and diminishes osteoclast bone resorption, shifting the balance of bone homeostasis and favoring bone acquisition and/or mitigation of bone resorptionin vivo Thus, SFN is a member of a new class of epigenetic compounds that could be considered for novel strategies to counteract osteoporosis. PMID:26757819

  7. Genetic mapping of a naturally occurring hereditary renal cancer syndrome in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Jónasdóttir, Thora J.; Mellersh, Cathryn S.; Moe, Lars; Heggebø, Ragna; Gamlem, Hans; Ostrander, Elaine A.; Lingaas, Frode

    2000-01-01

    Canine hereditary multifocal renal cystadenocarcinoma and nodular dermatofibrosis (RCND) is a rare, naturally occurring inherited cancer syndrome observed in dogs. Genetic linkage analysis of an RCND-informative pedigree has identified a linkage group flanking RCND (CHP14-C05.377-C05.414-FH2383-C05.771-[RCND-CPH18]-C02608-GLUT4-TP53-ZuBeCa6-AHT141-FH2140-FH2594) thus localizing the disease to a small region of canine chromosome 5. The closest marker, C02608, is linked to RCND with a recombination fraction (θ) of 0.016, supported by a logarithm of odds score of 16.7. C02608 and the adjacent linked markers map to a region of the canine genome corresponding to portions of human chromosomes 1p and 17p. A combination of linkage analysis and direct sequencing eliminate several likely candidate genes, including tuberous sclerosis 1 and 2 genes (TSC1 and TSC2) and the tumor suppressor gene TP53. These data suggest that RCND may be caused by a previously unidentified tumor suppressor gene and highlight the potential for canine genetics in the study of human disease predisposition. PMID:10759551

  8. A naturally occurring contrast agent for OCT imaging of smokers' lung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ying; Bagnaninchi, Pierre O.; Whiteman, Suzanne C.; Gey van Pittius, Daniel; El Haj, Alicia J.; Spiteri, Monica A.; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2005-08-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) offers great potential for clinical applications in terms of its cost, safety and real-time imaging capability. Improvement of its resolution for revealing sub-layers or sub-cellular components within a tissue will further widen its application. In this study we report that carbon pigment, which is frequently present in the lungs of smokers, could be used as a contrast agent to improve the OCT imaging of lung tissue. Carbon produced an intense bright OCT image at a relatively deep location. The parallel histopathological section analysis confirmed the presence of carbon pigment in such tissues. The underlying mechanism of the OCT image formation has been discussed based on a model system in which carbon particles were dispersed in agar gel. Calculations and in-depth intensity profiles of OCT revealed that higher refractive index particles with a size close to or smaller than the wavelength would greatly increase backscattering and generate a sharp contrast, while a particle size several times larger than the wavelength would absorb or obstruct the light path. The naturally occurring contrast agent could provide a diagnostic biomarker of lung tissue in smokers. Furthermore, carbon under such circumstances, can be used as an effective exogenous contrast agent, with which specific components or tissues exhibiting early tumour formation can be optically labelled to delineate the location and boundary, providing potential for early cancer detection and its treatment.

  9. Masculinised Behaviour of XY Females in a Mammal with Naturally Occuring Sex Reversal

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Paul A.; Franco, Thomas; Sottas, Camille; Maurice, Tangui; Ganem, Guila; Veyrunes, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Most sex differences in phenotype are controlled by gonadal hormones, but recent work on laboratory strain mice that present discordant chromosomal and gonadal sex showed that sex chromosome complement can have a direct influence on the establishment of sex-specific behaviours, independently from gonads. In this study, we analyse the behaviour of a rodent with naturally occurring sex reversal: the African pygmy mouse Mus minutoides, in which all males are XY, while females are of three types: XX, XX* or X*Y (the asterisk represents an unknown X-linked mutation preventing masculinisation of X*Y embryos). X*Y females show typical female anatomy and, interestingly, have greater breeding performances. We investigate the link between sex chromosome complement, behaviour and reproductive success in females by analysing several behavioural features that could potentially influence their fitness: female attractiveness, aggressiveness and anxiety. Despite sex chromosome complement was not found to impact male mate preferences, it does influence some aspects of both aggressiveness and anxiety: X*Y females are more aggressive than the XX and XX*, and show lower anxiogenic response to novelty, like males. We discuss how these behavioural differences might impact the breeding performances of females, and how the sex chromosome complement could shape the differences observed. PMID:26964761

  10. Naturally occurring cancers in dogs: insights for translational genetics and medicine.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Carlos E

    2014-01-01

    Here, we briefly review the state of knowledge of human cancer genetics to elaborate on the need for different types of mammalian models, highlighting the strengths of the dog. Mouse models are unparalleled for their experimental tractability and rapid genetic manipulation but have some key limitations in the area of human relevance. Companion dog models are attractive, because they are genetically more similar to humans, share environmental exposures with their owners, suffer from the same diseases as humans, and receive a high level of health care. They are ideal for the study of chronic diseases, because they age five to eight times faster than humans and generally live to old age. In addition, each dog breed is on the order of 100-fold genetically simpler than the whole human or dog population. These traits make the dog ideal for the study of complex genetics of naturally occurring cancers. Here, we contrast the relative strengths of cancer genetics in humans and dogs. We propose that humans are most ideal for the study of somatic cancer genetics, whereas dogs are most ideal for germline genetics. That proposition is supported by comparison of genome-wide association studies (GWASs) in human and canine cancer. One of the advantages of dog cancer GWASs is the ability to rapidly map complex traits, conduct fine mapping and identification of causative variation, and thus be in a position to move on to functional studies. We mention how these strengths of dog models will lead to rapid advances in translational medicine.

  11. Naturally occurring neoplasms in pigeons in a research colony: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Shimonohara, Nozomi; Holland, Christine H; Lin, Tsang-Long; Wigle, William L

    2013-03-01

    This study reports the gross and microscopic pathology of naturally occurring neoplasms in adult pigeons that were presented for necropsy at the Indiana Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory from 2001 to 2011. The study population consisted of white carneau and mixed-breed pigeons used in behavioral studies in the Department of Psychological Sciences at Purdue University. Twelve types of neoplasms or proliferative disorders were identified in 28 of 83 pigeons (33.7%). Five pigeons had two or three types of neoplasms-proliferative disorders. Of the 83 pigeons, 11 (13.3%) had seminoma, five (6.0%) had thyroid adenoma, four (4.8%) had lymphoma, four (4.8%) had adenocarcinoma of female reproductive tract origin, two (2.4%) had pulmonary carcinoma, and two (2.4%) had cutaneous vascular hamartomas. Also identified were single incidences of dysgerminoma, mesothelioma, liposarcoma, cloacal papilloma, cloacal adenocarcinoma, and gizzard carcinoma. The most frequently occurring tumor was seminoma; 7/11 cases effaced both testicles and 3/11 cases had metastasis to the liver or kidney. The relatively high prevalence of neoplasms in pigeons in the present study is most likely related to the advanced ages of pigeons kept in the research colony.

  12. Naturally occurring arsenic in the groundwater at the Kansas City Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Korte, N.E.

    1990-12-01

    This report describes an investigation concerning the presence of arsenic in concentrations exceeding 0.4 mg/L in the groundwater under the Department of Energy's Kansas City Plant (KCP). The study consisted of four distinct phases: a thorough review of the technical literature, a historical survey of arsenic use at the facility, a laboratory study of existing techniques for determining arsenic speciation, and a field program including water, soil, and sediment sampling. The historical survey and literature review demonstrated that plant activities had not released significant quantities of arsenic to the environment but that similar occurrences of arsenic in alluvial groundwater are widespread in the midwestern United States. Laboratory studies showed that a chromatographic separation technique was necessary to accurately determine arsenic speciation for the KCP groundwater samples. Field studies revealed that naturally occurring reducing conditions prevalent in the subsurface are responsible for dissolving arsenic previously sorbed by iron oxides. Indeed, the data demonstrated that the bulk arsenic concentration of site subsoils and sediments is {approximately}7 mg/kg, whereas the arsenic content of iron oxide subsamples is as high as 84 mg/kg. Literature showed that similar concentrations of arsenic in sediments occur naturally and are capable of producing the levels of arsenic found in groundwater monitoring wells at the KCP. The study concludes, therefore, that the arsenic present in the KCP groundwater is the result of natural phenomena. 44 refs., 8 figs., 14 tabs.

  13. High naturally occurring radioactivity in fossil groundwater from the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Vengosh, Avner; Hirschfeld, Daniella; Vinson, David; Dwyer, Gary; Raanan, Hadas; Rimawi, Omar; Al-Zoubi, Abdallah; Akkawi, Emad; Marie, Amer; Haquin, Gustavo; Zaarur, Shikma; Ganor, Jiwchar

    2009-03-15

    High levels of naturally occurring and carcinogenic radium isotopes have been measured in low-saline and oxic groundwater from the Rum Group of the Disi sandstone aquifer in Jordan. The combined 228Ra and 226Ra activities are up to 2000% higher than international drinking water standards. Analyses of the host sandstone aquifer rocks show 228Ra and 226Ra activities and ratios that are consistent with previous reports of sandstone rocks from different parts of the world. A compilation of previous data in groundwater from worldwide sandstone aquifers shows large variations in Ra activities regardless of the groundwater salinity. On the basis of the distribution of the four Ra isotopes and the ratios of the short- to long-lived Ra isotopes, we postulate that Ra activity in groundwater is controlled by the balance of radioactive decay of parent Th isotopes on aquifer solids, decay of the dissolved radium isotopes, and adsorption of dissolved Ra on solid surfaces. The availability of surface adsorption sites, which depends on the clay content in the aquifer rocks, is therefore an important constraint for Ra activity in sandstone aquifers. These findings raise concerns about the safety of this and similar nonrenewable groundwater reservoirs, exacerbating the already severe water crisis in the Middle East.

  14. Formation of naturally occurring pigments during the production of nitrite-free dry fermented sausages.

    PubMed

    De Maere, Hannelore; Fraeye, Ilse; De Mey, Eveline; Dewulf, Lore; Michiels, Chris; Paelinck, Hubert; Chollet, Sylvie

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the potential of producing red coloured dry fermented sausages without the addition of nitrite and/or nitrate. Therefore, the formation of zinc protoporphyrin IX (Zn(II)PPIX) as naturally occurring pigment, and the interrelated protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) and heme content were evaluated during nitrite-free dry fermented sausage production at different pH conditions. Zn(II)PPIX was only able to form in dry fermented sausages at pH conditions higher than approximately 4.9. Additionally, the presence of Zn(II)PPIX increased drastically at the later phase of the production process (up to day 177), confirming that in addition to pH, time is also a crucial factor for its formation. Similarly, PPIX also accumulated in the meat products at increased pH conditions and production times. In contrast, a breakdown of heme was observed. This breakdown was more gradual and independent of pH and showed no clear relationship with the formed amounts of Zn(II)PPIX and PPIX. A statistically significant relationship between Zn(II)PPIX formation and product redness was established.

  15. What should a radiation regulator do about naturally occurring radioactive material?

    PubMed

    Loy, J

    2015-06-01

    The standard regulatory framework of authorisation, review and assessment, inspection and enforcement, and regulation making is directed principally towards ensuring the regulatory control of planned exposure situations. Some mining and industrial activities involving exposures to naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM), such as uranium mining or the treatment and conditioning of NORM residues, may fit readily within this standard framework. In other cases, such as oil and gas exploration and production, the standard regulatory framework needs to be adjusted. For example, it is not sensible to require that an oil company seek a licence from the radiation regulator before drilling a well. The paper discusses other approaches that a regulator might take to assure protection and safety in such activities involving exposures to NORM, including the use of conditional exemptions from regulatory controls. It also suggests some areas where further guidance from the International Commission on Radiological Protection on application of the system of radiological protection to NORM would assist both regulators and operators. PMID:25816273

  16. Evaluation of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in the South Western oil wells of Iran.

    PubMed

    Khodashenas, Alireza; Roayaei, Emad; Abtahi, Seyed Mojtaba; Ardalani, Elham

    2012-07-01

    An investigation was carried out to find out the concentration of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORMs) in an oil production unit, an evaporation pond, and a drilling site in the Khuzestan province, in south west Iran the 4th largest oil producing country in the world. The nuclides (232)Th and (40)K were determined in soil samples and (226)Ra was analyzed in both soil and water. The (232)Th ranged between 8.7 and 403 Bq kg(-1), while the minimum concentration for (40)K was much larger, i.e. 82 Bq kg(-1) and its maximum concentration was 815 Bq kg(-1). Soil samples indicated very low concentrations of (226)Ra, typically between 10.6 and 42.1 Bq kg(-1) with some exceptions of 282, 602, and even 1480 Bq kg(-1). Also, the range for (226)Ra in water was less from 0.1 to a maximum 30.3 Bq L(-1). Results show that on average, NORM concentrations in these areas are lower in comparison with the usual concentration levels in typical oil and gas fields, but despite this fact, necessary measures have to be taken in order to minimize the environmental impact of radioactive materials. PMID:22321893

  17. Is it necessary to raise awareness about technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials?

    PubMed

    Michalik, Bogusław

    2009-10-01

    Since radiation risks are usually considered to be related to nuclear energy, the majority of research on radiation protection has focused on artificial radionuclides in radioactive wastes, spent nuclear fuel or global fallout caused by A-bomb tests and nuclear power plant failures. Far less attention has been paid to the radiation risk caused by exposure to ionizing radiation originating from natural radioactivity enhanced due to human activity, despite the fact that technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials are common in many branches of the non-nuclear industry. They differ significantly from "classical" nuclear materials and usually look like other industrial waste. The derived radiation risk is usually associated with risk caused by other pollutants and can not be controlled by applying rules designed for pure radioactive waste. Existing data have pointed out a strong need to take into account the non-nuclear industry where materials containing enhanced natural radioactivity occur as a special case of radiation risk and enclose them in the frame of the formal control. But up to now there are no reasonable and clear regulations in this matter. As a result, the non-nuclear industries of concern are not aware of problems connected with natural radioactivity or they would expect negative consequences in the case of implementing radiation protection measures. The modification of widely comprehended environmental legislation with requirements taken from radiation protection seems to be the first step to solve this problem and raise awareness about enhanced natural radioactivity for all stakeholders of concern.

  18. Construction of a naturally occurring radioactive material project in the BeAAT hazardous waste facilities.

    PubMed

    Abuahmad, H

    2015-06-01

    This paper does not necessarily reflect the views of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is produced during exploration and production operations of subsidiaries of the Abu Dhabi National Oil Company (ADNOC) in the United Arab Emirates, and accumulates in drilling tubulars, plant equipment, and components. These NORM hazardous wastes need to be managed in such a way that they do not damage human health and the environment. The primary radionuclides of concern in the oil and gas industries are radium-226 and radium-228. These radioisotopes are the decay products of uranium and thorium isotopes that are present in subsurface formations from which hydrocarbons are produced. While uranium and thorium are largely immobile, radium is slightly more soluble and may become mobilised in the fluid phases of the formation (International Association of Oil & Gas Producers, 2008). In order to treat and dispose of NORM waste products safely, ADNOC's subsidiary 'TAKREER' is developing a new facility, on behalf of all ADNOC subsidiaries, within the existing Central Environmental Protection Facilities (BeAAT) in Ruwais city. The NORM plant is envisaged to treat, handle, and dispose of NORM waste in the forms of scale, sludge, and contaminated equipment. The NORM treatment facility will cover activities such as decontamination, volume reduction, NORM handling, and concrete immobilisation of NORM waste into packages for designated landfilling.

  19. Relationships of phytomacrofauna to surface area in naturally occurring macrophyte stands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Charles L.; Poe, Thomas P.; French, John R. P.; Schloesser, Donald W.

    1988-01-01

    Most studies of the relationships between freshwater macrophytes and phytomacrofauna, or the macroinvertebrates associated with the macrophytes, have been based on individual plant collections or samples from monotypic plant stands. We describe the phytomacrofauna assemblages within naturally occurring, taxonomically mixed stands, and consider how macrophyte surface area and plant morphology influenced phytomacrofauna diversity and abundance. Samples of submersed macrophytes and phytomacrofauna were collected April-November 1979 in Anchor Bay of Lake St. Clair. Only the portions of macrophytes within the water column and invertebrates from above the sediment were considered. Densities of phytomacrofauna were not consistently related to fluctuations in macrophyte surface area, indicating that the use of macrophyte structure by the invertebrates changed during the year. Both the abundance and species richness of the phytomacrofauna were strongly related to macrophyte species richness reflecting the response of the invertebrates to the structural heterogeneity in taxonomically mixed stands. Vertically heterogeneous stands with an understory of Chara and an overstory of vascular macrophytes, for example, were likely to contain more invertebrates than stands with only one macrophyte taxon.

  20. Radiological dose assessment related to management of naturally occurring radioactive materials generated by the petroleum industry

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K.P.; Blunt, D.L.; Williams, G.P.; Tebes, C.L.

    1996-09-01

    A preliminary radiological dose assessment of equipment decontamination, subsurface disposal, landspreading, equipment smelting, and equipment burial was conducted to address concerns regarding the presence of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in production waste streams. The assessment estimated maximum individual dose equivalents for workers and the general public. Sensitivity analyses of certain input parameters also were conducted. On the basis of this assessment, it is concluded that (1) regulations requiring workers to wear respiratory protection during equipment cleaning operations are likely to result in lower worker doses, (2) underground injection and downhole encapsulation of NORM wastes present a negligible risk to the general public, and (3) potential doses to workers and the general public related to smelting NORM-contaminated equipment can be controlled by limiting the contamination level of the initial feed. It is recommended that (1) NORM wastes be further characterized to improve studies of potential radiological doses; (2) states be encouraged to permit subsurface disposal of NORM more readily, provided further assessments support this study; results; (3) further assessment of landspreading NORM wastes be conducted; and (4) the political, economic, sociological, and nonradiological issues related to smelting NORM-contaminated equipment be studied to fully examine the feasibility of this disposal option.

  1. Construction of a naturally occurring radioactive material project in the BeAAT hazardous waste facilities.

    PubMed

    Abuahmad, H

    2015-06-01

    This paper does not necessarily reflect the views of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is produced during exploration and production operations of subsidiaries of the Abu Dhabi National Oil Company (ADNOC) in the United Arab Emirates, and accumulates in drilling tubulars, plant equipment, and components. These NORM hazardous wastes need to be managed in such a way that they do not damage human health and the environment. The primary radionuclides of concern in the oil and gas industries are radium-226 and radium-228. These radioisotopes are the decay products of uranium and thorium isotopes that are present in subsurface formations from which hydrocarbons are produced. While uranium and thorium are largely immobile, radium is slightly more soluble and may become mobilised in the fluid phases of the formation (International Association of Oil & Gas Producers, 2008). In order to treat and dispose of NORM waste products safely, ADNOC's subsidiary 'TAKREER' is developing a new facility, on behalf of all ADNOC subsidiaries, within the existing Central Environmental Protection Facilities (BeAAT) in Ruwais city. The NORM plant is envisaged to treat, handle, and dispose of NORM waste in the forms of scale, sludge, and contaminated equipment. The NORM treatment facility will cover activities such as decontamination, volume reduction, NORM handling, and concrete immobilisation of NORM waste into packages for designated landfilling. PMID:25816275

  2. Iron chelators and free radical scavengers in naturally occurring polyhydroxylated 1,4-naphthoquinones.

    PubMed

    Lebedev, Alexander V; Ivanova, Marina V; Levitsky, Dmitri O

    2008-01-01

    The cardioprotective effect of polyhydroxylated 1,4-naphthoquinones on the experimental model of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion has been demonstrated previously. In this study, using different models, such as bulk organic phase, liposomes and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) vesicles, we have shown the ability of naturally occurring polyhydroxynaphthoquinones, echinochrome (Ech), spinochromes C, D and E (SpC, SpD and SpE) to inhibit free-radical oxidation induced by heme iron (hemin) or by free iron ions (in ferrous/ascorbate system). The polyhydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinones (PHNQs) were more effective in inhibiting the phosphatidyl choline liposome peroxidation induced by ferrous/ascorbate than that induced by hemin. The iron chelating ability of PHNQs was determined spectrophotometrically. Prevention of the ferrous/ascorbate-induced leakage of calcium by Ech was demonstrated in isolated SR vesicles from rabbit skeletal muscle. The PHNQs displayed high scavenging activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radicals. We concluded that iron chelation predominates in the overall antioxidant potential of the polyhydroxynaphthoquinones. PMID:18274994

  3. A naturally occurring deletion mutant of figwort mosaic virus (caulimovirus) is generated by RNA splicing.

    PubMed

    Scholthof, H B; Wu, F C; Richins, R D; Shepherd, R J

    1991-09-01

    A naturally occurring deletion mutant is observed in plants infected with figwort mosaic virus (FMV), a caulimovirus. The encapsidated mutant genome is formed spontaneously in association with two different strains of FMV in four host plant species. The mutant also appears when cloned wild-type viral DNA is used as the inoculum. The deletion mutant alone is not infectious and it appears unable to replicate after its formation, even in the presence of wild-type virus. The gene for chloramphenicol acetyltransferase was inserted at different positions in the deletion mutant genome, and subsequent transient assays showed that gene expression of the mutant occurs despite the deletion. Sequence analyses of the mutant genome revealed a deletion of 1237-bp segment encompassing a major portion of the coat protein gene and the 5' end of the downstream reverse transcriptase gene. This deletion is associated with consensus signals for RNA splicing including the conserved 5' and 3' splice sites plus surrounding sequences, putative branch point(s) for lariat formation, and an extremely high adenosine content (41%) of the removed fragment. This suggests that splicing of the FMV full-length transcript has occurred prior to reverse transcription and this accounts for the presence and accumulation of encapsidated DNAs with the same deletion.

  4. Theoretical simulations on the antioxidant mechanism of naturally occurring flavonoid: A DFT approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Praveena, R.; Sadasivam, K.

    2016-05-01

    Synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) are found to be toxic, hence non-carcinogenic naturally occurring radical scavengers especially flavonoids have gained considerable importance in the past two decades. In the present investigation, the radical scavenging activity of C-glycosyl flavonoids is evaluated using theoretical approach which could broaden its scope in therapeutic applications. Gas and solvent phase studies of structural and molecular characteristics of C-glycosyl flavonoid, isovitexin is investigated through hydrogen atom transfer mechanism (HAT), Electron transfer-proton transfer (ET-PT) and Sequential proton loss electron transfer (SPLET) by Density functional theory (DFT) using hybrid parameters. The computed values of the adiabatic ionization potential, electron affinity, hardness, softness, electronegativity and electrophilic index indicate that isovitexin possess good radical scavenging activity. The behavior of different -OH groups in polyphenolic compounds is assessed by considering electronic effects of the neighbouring groups and the overall geometry of molecule which in turn helps in analyzing the antioxidant capacity of the polyphenolic molecule. The studies indicate that the H-atom abstraction from 4'-OH site is preferred during the radical scavenging process. From Mulliken spin density analysis and FMOs, B-ring is found to be more delocalized center and capable of electron donation. Comparison of antioxidant activity of vitexin and isovitexin leads to the conclusion that isovitexin acts as a better radical scavenger. This is an evidence for the importance of position of glucose unit in the flavonoid.

  5. Using naturally occurring polysaccharides to align molecules with nonlinear optical activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prasthofer, Thomas

    1996-01-01

    The Biophysics and Advanced Materials Branch of the Microgravity Science and Applications Division at Marshall Space Flight Center has been investigating polymers with the potential for nonlinear optical (NLO) applications for a number of years. Some of the potential applications for NLO materials include optical communications, computing, and switching. To this point the branch's research has involved polydiacetylenes, phthalocyanins, and other synthetic polymers which have inherent NLO properties. The aim of the present research is to investigate the possibility of using naturally occurring polymers such as polysaccharides or proteins to trap and align small organic molecules with useful NLO properties. Ordering molecules with NLO properties enhances 3rd order nonlinear effects and is required for 2nd order nonlinear effects. Potential advantages of such a system are the flexibility to use different small molecules with varying chemical and optical properties, the stability and cost of the polymers, and the ability to form thin, optically transparent films. Since the quality of any polymer films depends on optimizing ordering and minimizing defects, this work is particularly well suited for microgravity experiments. Polysaccharide and protein polymers form microscopic crystallites which must align to form ordered arrays. The ordered association of crystallites is disrupted by gravity effects and NASA research on protein crystal growth has demonstrated that low gravity conditions can improve crystal quality.

  6. The MTAP-CDKN2A Locus Confers Susceptibility to a Naturally Occurring Canine Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shearin, Abigail L.; Hedan, Benoit; Cadieu, Edouard; Erich, Suzanne A.; Schmidt, Emmett V.; Faden, Daniel L.; Cullen, John; Abadie, Jerome; Kwon, Erika M.; Gröne, Andrea; Devauchelle, Patrick; Rimbault, Maud; Karyadi, Danielle M.; Lynch, Mary; Galibert, Francis; Breen, Matthew; Rutteman, Gerard R.; André, Catherine; Parker, Heidi G.; Ostrander, Elaine A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Advantages offered by canine population substructure, combined with clinical presentations similar to human disorders, makes the dog an attractive system for studies of cancer genetics. Cancers that have been difficult to study in human families or populations are of particular interest. Histiocytic sarcoma is a rare and poorly understood neoplasm in humans that occurs in 15–25% of Bernese Mountain Dogs (BMD). Methods Genomic DNA was collected from affected and unaffected BMD in North America (NA) and Europe. Both independent and combined genome wide association studies (GWAS) were used to identify cancer-associated loci. Fine mapping and sequencing narrowed the primary locus to a single gene region. Results Both populations shared the same primary locus, which features a single haplotype spanning MTAP and part of CDKN2A and is present in 96% of affected BMD. The haplotype is within the region homologous to human chromosome 9p21, which has been implicated in several types of cancer. Conclusions We present the first GWAS for HS in any species. The data identify an associated haplotype in the highly cited tumor suppressor locus near CDKN2A. These data demonstrate the power of studying distinctive malignancies in highly predisposed dog breeds. Impact Here, we establish a naturally-occurring model of cancer susceptibility due to CDKN2 dysregulation, thus providing insight regarding this cancer-associated, complex, and poorly understood genomic region. PMID:22623710

  7. Nineteenth century research on naturally occurring cell death and related phenomena.

    PubMed

    Clarke, P G; Clarke, S

    1996-02-01

    Research on naturally occurring cell death is older than current opinion gives credit. More than 100 nineteenth century publications deal with it, and we review most of these. Soon after the establishment of the cell theory by Schleiden and Schwann, Carl Vogt (1842) reported cell death in the notochord and adjacent cartilage of metamorphic toads. Subsequent landmark discoveries included the massive cell death that occurs in pupating diptera (Weismann 1864), chondrocyte death during endochondral ossification (Stieda 1872), phagocytosis associated with cell death in the muscles of metamorphic toads (Metschnikoff 1883), chromatolytic (apoptotic) cell death in ovarian follicles (Flemming 1885), the reinterpretation of "Sarkoplasten" as "Sarkolyten" in metamorphic amphibia (Mayer 1886), the programmed loss of an entire population of neurons in fish embryos (Beard 1889), the death of scattered myocytes and myofibres in mammalian muscle (Felix 1889), and the death of many motor and sensory neurons in chick embryos (Collin 1906). Other lines of nineteenth century research established concepts important for understanding cell death, notably trophic interactions between neurons and their targets, and intercellular competition. PMID:8742050

  8. An overview of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in the petroleum industry

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K.P.

    1992-12-01

    Oil and gas extraction and processing operations sometimes accumulate naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) at concentrations above normal in by-product waste streams. Results from NORM surveys indicate that radionuclide concentrations can be quite variable, ranging from undetectable to extremely high levels. To date, efforts to characterize the geographic distribution of NORM have been limited by poor statistical representation. In addition, the fate of NORM in the environment has not been fully defined, and few human health risk assessment have been conducted. Both the petroleum industry and regulators are becoming increasingly concerned about the presence of NORM. At present, most existing federal environmental regulations do not address oil and gas NORM, and only a few states have developed regulatory programs. Available data suggest that the occurrence of NORM (and associated health risks) is significant enough to warrant increased regulatory control. However, before these regulations can be developed, additional research is needed to (1) better characterize the occurrence and distribution of NORM throughout the industry, (2) quantify hazards posed by NORM to industry workers and the general public, and (3) develop effective waste treatment and minimization technologies that will lower the risk associated with NORM and reduce disposal costs.

  9. Naturally Occurring Variability in the Envelope Glycoprotein of HIV-1 and the Development of Cell Entry Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Brower, Evan T.; Schön, Arne; Freire, Ernesto

    2010-01-01

    Naturally occurring genetic variability across HIV-1 subtypes causes amino acid polymorphisms in encoded HIV-1 proteins including the envelope glycoproteins associated with viral entry. The effects of amino acid polymorphisms on the mechanism of HIV-1 entry into cells, a process initiated by the binding of the viral envelope glycoprotein gp120 to the cellular CD4 receptor, are largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that amino acid polymorphisms affect the structural stability and domain cooperativity of gp120 and that those differences are reflected in the binding mechanism of the viral envelope glycoprotein to the cell surface receptor and coreceptor. Moreover, subtype differences also affect the binding behavior of experimental HIV cell entry inhibitors. While gp120-A has a slightly lower denaturation temperature than gp120-B, the most notable stability difference is that for gp120-B the van't Hoff to calorimetric enthalpy ratio (ΔHvH/ΔH) is 0.95 whereas for gp120-A is 0.6, indicative of more cooperative domain/domain interactions in gp120-B, as this protein more closely approaches a two-state transition. Isothermal titration calorimetry demonstrates that CD4 and 17b (a surrogate antibody for the chemokine coreceptor) exhibit 7 and 3-fold weaker binding affinities for gp120-A. The binding of these proteins as well as that of the experimental entry inhibitor NBD-556 induce smaller conformational changes in gp120-A as evidenced by significantly smaller binding enthalpies and binding entropies. Together, these results describe the effects of gp120 polymorphisms on binding to host cell receptors and emphasize that guidelines for developing future entry inhibitors must recognize and deal with genomic differences between HIV strains. PMID:20166763

  10. A quantitative analysis of microbially-induced calcite precipitation employing artificial and naturally-occurring sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lokier, Stephen; Krieg Dosier, Ginger

    2013-04-01

    Microbially-induced calcite precipitation is a strong candidate for the production of sustainable construction materials. The process employs the microbe Sporosarcina pasteurii as an agent to microbially mediate the precipitation of calcium carbonate to bind unconsolidated sediment. As this process can be achieved under ambient temperature conditions and can utilise a wide variety of easily-available sediments, potentially including waste materials, it is envisioned that this procedure could significantly reduce carbon-dioxide emissions in the construction industry. This study describes and quantifies the precipitation of calcite cement in a range of naturally-occurring sediments compared with a control matrix. The study establishes the optimum treatment time for effective cement precipitation in order to produce a material that meets the standards required for construction whilst keeping economic and environmental outlays at a minimum. The 'control sediment' employed industrial-grade glass beads with a grain size range of 595-1180 microns (16-30 US mesh). Sporosarcina pasteurii were mixed in a solution of urea and calcium chloride and then inoculated into the control sediment. The microbes attach to the surface of the sediment grains and employ urea as a source of energy to produce ammonia and carbon dioxide. By so doing, they increase the pH of the solution allowing calcium carbonate to precipitate at the cell walls to act as nucleation points facilitating the precipitation of cements as a grain-coating and biocementing the unconsolidated sediment. The solution treatment was repeated at eight hour intervals with samples removed for detailed analysis after each every five consecutive treatments (i.e. 40 hours). The process was repeated to produce 20 samples with treatment times between 40 and 800 hours. Cemented samples were impregnated with blue epoxy and examined petrographically to monitor cement development. Modal analysis was undertaken on each cemented

  11. RP-HPLC method for the quantitative analysis of naturally occurring flavonoids in leaves of Blumea balsamifera DC.

    PubMed

    Nessa, Fazilatun; Ismail, Zhari; Karupiah, Sundram; Mohamed, Nornisah

    2005-09-01

    A selective and sensitive reversed-phase (RP) high-performance liquid chromatographic method is developed for the quantitative analysis of five naturally occurring flavonoids of Blumea balsamifera DC, namely dihydroquercetin-7,4'-dimethyl ether (DQDE), blumeatin (BL), quercetin (QN), 5,7,3',5'-tetrahydroxyflavanone (THFE), and dihydroquercetin-4'-methyl ether (DQME). These compounds have been isolated using various chromatographic methods. The five compounds are completely separated within 35 min using an RP C18, Nucleosil column and with an isocratic methanol-0.5% phosphoric acid (50:50, v/v) mobile phase at the flow rate of 0.9 mL/min. The separation of the compounds is monitored at 285 nm using UV detection. Identifications of specific flavonoids are made by comparing their retention times with those of the standards. Reproducibility of the method is good, with coefficients of variation of 1.48% for DQME, 2.25% for THFE, 2.31% for QN, 2.23% for DQDE, and 1.51% for BL. The average recoveries of pure flavonoids upon addition to lyophilized powder and subsequent extraction are 99.8% for DQME, 99.9% for THFE, 100.0% for BL, 100.6% for DQDE, and 97.4% for QN. PMID:16212782

  12. Naturally occurring anti-band-3 antibodies and complement together mediate phagocytosis of oxidatively stressed human erythrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Lutz, H.U.; Bussolino, F.; Flepp, R.; Fasler, S.; Stammler, P.; Kazatchkine, M.D.; Arese, P.

    1987-11-01

    Treatment of erythrocytes with the thiol-specific oxidant azodicarboxylic acid bis(dimethylamide) (diamide) enhances their phagocytosis by adherent monocytes. Phagocytosis of diamide-treated erythrocytes required that the cells were opsonized with whole serum, since complement inactivation abolished phagocytosis. Opsonization with whole serum containing 20-100 times the physiological concentration of naturally occurring anti-band-3- antibodies enhanced phagocytosis of diamide-treated erythrocytes. High inputs of anti-band-3 also restored phagocytosis of erythrocytes that had been incubated with complement-inactivated serum. Elevated concentrations of anti-spectrin antibodies were ineffective in whole and complement-inactivated serum. Specific recognition of diamide-treated erythrocytes by anti-band-3 antibodies may be due to generation of anti-band-3 reactive protein oligomers on intact diamide-treated erythrocytes. Generation of such oligomers was dose-dependent with respect to diamide. Bound anti-band-3 alone was not sufficient to mediate phagocytosis. It resulted in deposition of complement component C3b on the cells through activation of the alternative complement pathway in amounts exceeding that of bound antibodies by two orders of magnitude. Thus, anti-band-3 and complement together mediate phagocytosis of oxidatively stressed erythrocytes, which simulate senescent erythrocytes with respect to bound antibody and complement.

  13. Combining metagenomics with metaproteomics and stable isotope probing reveals metabolic pathways used by a naturally occurring marine methylotroph.

    PubMed

    Grob, Carolina; Taubert, Martin; Howat, Alexandra M; Burns, Oliver J; Dixon, Joanna L; Richnow, Hans H; Jehmlich, Nico; von Bergen, Martin; Chen, Yin; Murrell, J Colin

    2015-10-01

    A variety of culture-independent techniques have been developed that can be used in conjunction with culture-dependent physiological and metabolic studies of key microbial organisms in order to better understand how the activity of natural populations influences and regulates all major biogeochemical cycles. In this study, we combined deoxyribonucleic acid-stable isotope probing (DNA-SIP) with metagenomics and metaproteomics to characterize an uncultivated marine methylotroph that actively incorporated carbon from (13) C-labeled methanol into biomass. By metagenomic sequencing of the heavy DNA, we retrieved virtually the whole genome of this bacterium and determined its metabolic potential. Through protein-stable isotope probing, the RuMP cycle was established as the main carbon assimilation pathway, and the classical methanol dehydrogenase-encoding gene mxaF, as well as three out of four identified xoxF homologues were found to be expressed. This proof-of-concept study is the first in which the culture-independent techniques of DNA-SIP and protein-SIP have been used to characterize the metabolism of a naturally occurring Methylophaga-like bacterium in the marine environment (i.e. Methylophaga thiooxydans L4) and thus provides a powerful approach to access the genome and proteome of uncultivated microbes involved in key processes in the environment.

  14. Levels of naturally occurring gamma radiation measured in British homes and their prediction in particular residences.

    PubMed

    Kendall, G M; Wakeford, R; Athanson, M; Vincent, T J; Carter, E J; McColl, N P; Little, M P

    2016-03-01

    Gamma radiation from natural sources (including directly ionising cosmic rays) is an important component of background radiation. In the present paper, indoor measurements of naturally occurring gamma rays that were undertaken as part of the UK Childhood Cancer Study are summarised, and it is shown that these are broadly compatible with an earlier UK National Survey. The distribution of indoor gamma-ray dose rates in Great Britain is approximately normal with mean 96 nGy/h and standard deviation 23 nGy/h. Directly ionising cosmic rays contribute about one-third of the total. The expanded dataset allows a more detailed description than previously of indoor gamma-ray exposures and in particular their geographical variation. Various strategies for predicting indoor natural background gamma-ray dose rates were explored. In the first of these, a geostatistical model was fitted, which assumes an underlying geologically determined spatial variation, superimposed on which is a Gaussian stochastic process with Matérn correlation structure that models the observed tendency of dose rates in neighbouring houses to correlate. In the second approach, a number of dose-rate interpolation measures were first derived, based on averages over geologically or administratively defined areas or using distance-weighted averages of measurements at nearest-neighbour points. Linear regression was then used to derive an optimal linear combination of these interpolation measures. The predictive performances of the two models were compared via cross-validation, using a randomly selected 70 % of the data to fit the models and the remaining 30 % to test them. The mean square error (MSE) of the linear-regression model was lower than that of the Gaussian-Matérn model (MSE 378 and 411, respectively). The predictive performance of the two candidate models was also evaluated via simulation; the OLS model performs significantly better than the Gaussian-Matérn model.

  15. Enrichment and particle size dependence of polonium and other naturally occurring radionuclides in coal ash.

    PubMed

    Sahu, S K; Tiwari, M; Bhangare, R C; Pandit, G G

    2014-12-01

    Coal fired thermal power contributes 70% of power in India. Coal fired power generation results in huge amounts of fly ash and bottom ash of varying properties. Coal, which contains the naturally occurring radionuclides, on burning results in enrichment of these radionuclides in the ashes. In the present study, coal, bottom ash and fly ash samples collected from six coal-fired power plants in India were measured for (210)Po using alpha spectrometry and for natural U, (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K by an HPGe γ-ray spectrometer. (210)Po in fly ash ranged from 25.7 to 70 Bq/kg with a mean value of 40.5 Bq/kg. The range and mean activities of (238)U, (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K in fly ash were 38.5-101 (78.1), 60-105.7 (79), 20-125 (61.7) and 43.6-200 (100) Bq/kg respectively. Fly ash and bottom ash contains two to five times more natural radionuclides than feed coal. The results were compared with the available data from earlier studies in other countries. The effect of particle size on enrichment factor of the nuclides in fly ash was studied. (210)Po showed the largest size dependence with its concentration favoring the smaller particle size while (232)Th showed least size dependence. (238)U and (226)Ra showed behavior intermediate to that of (210)Po and (232)Th. Also the correlation between sulfur content of the feed coal and activity of (210)Po was investigated. Increased sulfur content in feed coal enhanced enrichment of (210)Po in ash.

  16. Naturally occurring alpha-synuclein autoantibodies in Parkinson's disease: sources of (error) variance in biomarker assays.

    PubMed

    Heinzel, Sebastian; Gold, Maike; Deuschle, Christian; Bernhard, Felix; Maetzler, Walter; Berg, Daniela; Dodel, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Alpha-synuclein (α-Syn) plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD), which can partly be modulated by innate and adaptive immune functions, and vice versa. Here, naturally occurring α-Syn autoantibodies (α-Syn-nAbs) may be effective against α-Syn pathoetiology and may serve as a PD biomarker. However, serum and cerebrospinal fluid α-Syn-nAbs levels still lack consistent evidence as required for a reliable PD biomarker. Serum and cerebrospinal fluid α-Syn-nAbs levels of 66 PD patients and 69 healthy controls were assessed using a validated ELISA assay. Moreover, potential sources of error variance including unspecific ELISA background signals, free serum hemoglobin concentrations, α-Syn plate coating procedures, and differences in α-Syn-nAbs standards, were investigated. PD patients and controls did not differ in serum (p = .49) nor cerebrospinal fluid (p = .29) α-Syn-nAbs levels. Interestingly, free serum hemoglobin concentrations were negatively correlated with α-Syn-nAbs levels in controls (Spearman ρ = -.41, p<.001), but not in PD patients (ρ = .16, p = .21). ELISA α-Syn plate coating procedures impacted inter-assay variability (same day coating: 8-16%; coating on different days: 16-58%). α-Syn-nAbs standards from different purification batches differed regarding optical density measured in ELISAs suggesting differences in α-Syn affinity. While α-Syn-nAbs levels may represent a potential PD biomarker, several methodological issues have to be considered to increase reproducibility of α-Syn-nAbs findings. Further studies using standardized protocols minimizing sources of error variance may be necessary to establish a reliable PD α-Syn-nAbs biomarker.

  17. Naturally occurring secondary nutritional hyperparathyroidism in cattle egrets (Bubulcus ibis) from Central Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phalen, D.N.; Drew, M.L.; Contreras, C.; Roset, K.; Mora, M.

    2005-01-01

    Naturally occurring secondary nutritional hyperparathyroidism is described in the nestlings of two colonies of cattle egrets (Bubulcus ibis) from Central Texas (Bryan and San Antonio, Texas, USA). Nestlings from a third colony (Waco, Texas, USA) were collected in a subsequent year for comparison. Birds from the first two colonies consistently had severe osteopenia and associated curving deformities and folding fractures of their long bones. These birds also had reduced bone ash, increased osteoclasia, a marked decrease in osteoblast activity, variable lengthening and shortening of the hypertrophic zone of the epiphyseal cartilage, decreased and disorganized formation of new bone, and a marked hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the parathyroid glands as compared to birds collected from the third colony. Fibrous osteodystrophy was found in all of the birds from San Antonio and Bryan. Evidence of moderate to severe calcium deficiency was also identified in 33% of the cattle egrets collected from Waco. Gut contents of affected chicks contained predominately grasshoppers and crickets; vertebrate prey items were absent from the Bryan birds. Grasshoppers and crickets collected from fields frequented by the adult egrets in 1994 had 0.12-0.28% calcium and 0.76-0.81% phosphorus. Pooled grasshoppers and crickets collected during a subsequent wet early spring averaged 0.24% calcium and 0.65% phosphorus. Although the phosphorus content of the insect prey was adequate for growth, calcium was approximately one-third the minimum calcium requirement needed for growth for other species of birds. It was postulated that cattle egrets breeding in Central Texas have expanded their range into habitat that contains less vertebrate prey, and as a result, many nestling egrets are being fed diets that contain suboptimal calcium. Therefore, in years where vertebrate prey is scarce and forage for insect prey is reduced in calcium, nestling egrets are at risk for developing secondary nutritional

  18. Pulmonary ultrasonographic abnormalities associated with naturally occurring equine influenza virus infection in standardbred racehorses.

    PubMed

    Gross, Diane K; Morley, Paul S; Hinchcliff, Kenneth W; Reichle, Jean K; Slemons, Richard D

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine if naturally occurring acute infectious upper respiratory disease (IRD) caused by equine influenza virus is associated with ultrasonographically detectable pleural and pulmonary abnormalities in horses. Standardbred racehorses were evaluated for signs of IRD, defined as acute coughing or mucopurulent nasal discharge. For every horse with IRD (n = 16), 1 or 2 horses with no signs of IRD and the same owner or trainer (n = 30) were included. Thoracic ultrasonography was performed within 5-10 days of the onset of clinical disease in horses with IRD. Horses without IRD were examined at the same time as the horses with IRD with which they were enrolled. The rank of the ultrasound scores of horses with IRD was compared to that of horses without IRD. Equine influenza virus was identified as the primary etiologic agent associated with IRD in this study. Mild lung consolidation and peripheral pulmonary irregularities were found in 11 (69%) of 16 of the horses with IRD and 11 (37%) of 30 of control horses. Lung consolidation (median score = 1) and peripheral irregularities scores (median score = 1) were greater in horses with IRD compared to horses without IRD (median score = 0; P < .05). Pleural effusion was not observed. Equine influenza virus infection can result in abnormalities of the equine lower respiratory tract. Despite the mild nature of IRD observed in this study, lung consolidation and peripheral pulmonary irregularities were more commonly observed in horses with clinical signs of IRD. Further work is needed to determine the clinical significance of these ultrasonographic abnormalities. PMID:15515590

  19. Antioxidant effect of naturally occurring xanthines on the oxidative damage of DNA bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, A. J. S. C.; Telo, J. P.; Pereira, H. F.; Patrocínio, P. F.; Dias, R. M. B.

    1999-01-01

    The repair of the oxidised radicals of adenine and guanosine by several naturally occurring xanthines was studied. Each pair of DNA purine/xanthine was made to react with the sulphate radical and the decrease of the concentration of both compounds was measured by HPLC as a function of irradiation time. The results show that xanthine efficiently prevents the oxidation of the two DNA purines. Theophyline and paraxanthine repair the oxidised radical of adenine but not the one from guanosine. Theobromine and caffeine do not show any protecting effect. An order of the oxidation potentials of all the purines studied is proposed. La réparation des radicaux oxydés de l'adénine et de la guanosine par des xanthines naturelles a été étudiée en soumettant chaque paire base de l'ADN/xanthine à l'oxydation par le radical sulfate et en mesurant par HPLC la disparition des deux composés en fonction du temps d'irradiation. Les résultats montrent que la xanthine joue un rôle protecteur efficace contre l'oxydation des deux purines de l'ADN. La théophyline et la paraxanthine réparent le radical oxydé de l'adénine mais pas celui de la guanosine. La théobromine et la cafeíne n'ont pas d'effet protecteur. Un ordre de potentiels d'oxydation des purines étudiées est proposé.

  20. Estimated trichloroethene transformation rates due to naturally occurring biodegradation in a fractured-rock aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapelle, Francis H.; Lacombe, Pierre J.; Bradley, Paul M.

    2012-01-01

    Rates of trichloroethene (TCE) mass transformed by naturally occurring biodegradation processes in a fractured rock aquifer underlying a former Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) site in West Trenton, New Jersey, were estimated. The methodology included (1) dividing the site into eight elements of equal size and vertically integrating observed concentrations of two daughter products of TCE biodegradation–cis-dichloroethene (cis-DCE) and chloride–using water chemistry data from a network of 88 observation wells; (2) summing the molar mass of cis-DCE, the first biodegradation product of TCE, to provide a probable underestimate of reductive biodegradation of TCE, (3) summing the molar mass of chloride, the final product of chlorinated ethene degradation, to provide a probable overestimate of overall biodegradation. Finally, lower and higher estimates of aquifer porosities and groundwater residence times were used to estimate a range of overall transformation rates. The highest TCE transformation rates estimated using this procedure for the combined overburden and bedrock aquifers was 945 kg/yr, and the lowest was 37 kg/yr. However, hydrologic considerations suggest that approximately 100 to 500 kg/yr is the probable range for overall TCE transformation rates in this system. Estimated rates of TCE transformation were much higher in shallow overburden sediments (approximately 100 to 500 kg/yr) than in the deeper bedrock aquifer (approximately 20 to 0.15 kg/yr), which reflects the higher porosity and higher contaminant mass present in the overburden. By way of comparison, pump-and-treat operations at the NAWC site are estimated to have removed between 1,073 and 1,565 kg/yr of TCE between 1996 and 2009.

  1. Enrichment and particle size dependence of polonium and other naturally occurring radionuclides in coal ash.

    PubMed

    Sahu, S K; Tiwari, M; Bhangare, R C; Pandit, G G

    2014-12-01

    Coal fired thermal power contributes 70% of power in India. Coal fired power generation results in huge amounts of fly ash and bottom ash of varying properties. Coal, which contains the naturally occurring radionuclides, on burning results in enrichment of these radionuclides in the ashes. In the present study, coal, bottom ash and fly ash samples collected from six coal-fired power plants in India were measured for (210)Po using alpha spectrometry and for natural U, (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K by an HPGe γ-ray spectrometer. (210)Po in fly ash ranged from 25.7 to 70 Bq/kg with a mean value of 40.5 Bq/kg. The range and mean activities of (238)U, (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K in fly ash were 38.5-101 (78.1), 60-105.7 (79), 20-125 (61.7) and 43.6-200 (100) Bq/kg respectively. Fly ash and bottom ash contains two to five times more natural radionuclides than feed coal. The results were compared with the available data from earlier studies in other countries. The effect of particle size on enrichment factor of the nuclides in fly ash was studied. (210)Po showed the largest size dependence with its concentration favoring the smaller particle size while (232)Th showed least size dependence. (238)U and (226)Ra showed behavior intermediate to that of (210)Po and (232)Th. Also the correlation between sulfur content of the feed coal and activity of (210)Po was investigated. Increased sulfur content in feed coal enhanced enrichment of (210)Po in ash. PMID:24813148

  2. Infrared spectroscopic examination of the interaction of urea with the naturally occurring zeolite clinoptilolite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Byler, D.M.; Gerasimowicz, W.V.; Stockette, V.M.; Eberl, D.D.

    1991-01-01

    Infrared spectroscopy has shown for the first time that the naturally occurring zeolite clinoptilolite can absorb urea, (NH2)2CO, under ambient conditions from either aqueous or ethanolic solutions. The two strongest NH stretching bands at 3441 and 3344 cm-1 in pure, solid urea shift to higher frequency (about 3504 and 3401 cm-1) after absorption. Two of the four urea bands in the 1800-1300 cm-1 range (at 1683 and 1467 cm-1) undergo marked downward shifts to about 1670 and 1445 cm-1. The other two bands show little change in frequency. The strong band at 1602 cm-1, however, diminishes in intensity to little more than an ill-defined shoulder on the 1626-cm-1 peak. When clinoptilolite is heated to 450 ??C and then treated with molten urea (ca. 140 ??C) for several minutes, and finally washed twice with ethanol to remove excess unreacted urea, further changes become apparent in the spectrum of the urea-treated clinoptilolite. The two NH stretching bands broaden without significant change in frequency. Two new bands appear in the midfrequency range at 1777 (weak) and 1719 (medium strong) cm-1. Of the four original midfrequency peaks, the one at 1602 cm-1 is now absent. Two others (1627 and 1440 cm-1) exhibit little change, while the fourth has broadened and shifted down to 1663 cm-1, where it appears as a shoulder on the band at 1627 cm-1. Both treatments clearly induce interaction between urea and the zeolite which seems to result in significant modifications in the nature of the hydrogen bonding of the substrate. ?? 1991.

  3. Modeling the pulsed light inactivation of microorganisms naturally occurring on vegetable substrates.

    PubMed

    Izquier, Adriana; Gómez-López, Vicente M

    2011-09-01

    Pulsed light (PL) is a fast non-thermal method for microbial inactivation. This research studied the kinetics of PL inactivation of microorganisms naturally occurring in some vegetables. Iceberg lettuce, white cabbage and Julienne-style cut carrots were subjected to increasing PL fluences up to 12J/cm(2) in order to study its effect on aerobic mesophilic bacteria determined by plate count. Also, sample temperature increase was determined by infrared thermometry. Survivors' curves were adjusted to several models. No shoulder but tail was observed. The Weibull model showed good fitting performance of data. Results for lettuce were: goodness-of-fit parameter RMSE=0.2289, fluence for the first decimal reduction δ=0.98±0.80J/cm(2) and concavity parameter p=0.33±0.08. Results for cabbage were: RMSE=0.0725, δ=0.81±0.23J/cm(2) and p=0.30±0.02; and for carrot: RMSE=0.1235, δ=0.39±0.24J/cm(2) and p=0.23±0.03. For lettuce, a log-linear and tail model was also suitable. Validation of the Weibull model produced determination coefficients of 0.88-0.96 and slopes of 0.78-0.99. Heating was too low to contribute to inactivation. A single low-energy pulse was enough to achieve one log reduction, with an ultrafast treatment time of 0.5ms. While PL efficacy was found to be limited to high residual counts, the achievable inactivation level may be considered useful for shelf-life extension.

  4. Long-term toxicity of naturally occurring asbestos in male Fischer 344 rats.

    PubMed

    Cyphert, Jaime M; McGee, Marie A; Nyska, Abraham; Schladweiler, Mette C; Kodavanti, Urmila P; Gavett, Stephen H

    2016-01-01

    Naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) fibers are found in geologic deposits that may be disturbed by mining, earthworks, or natural processes, resulting in adverse health risks to exposed individuals. The toxicities of Libby amphibole and NOA samples including Sumas Mountain chrysotile (SM), El Dorado tremolite (ED), and Ontario ferroactinolite cleavage fragments (ON) were compared in male Fischer 344 (F344) rats 15 mo after exposure. Rat-respirable fractions of LA and SM displayed greater mean lengths and aspect ratios than ED and ON. After a single intratracheal (IT) instillation (0.5 or 1.5 mg/rat), persistent changes in ventilatory parameters and a significant increase in lung resistance at baseline and after methacholine aerosol dosing were found only in rats exposed to 1.5 mg SM. High-dose ED significantly elevated bronchoalveolar lavage lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and protein levels, while high-dose SM increased γ-glutamyl transferase and LDH activities. A moderate degree of lung interstitial fibrosis after exposure to 1.5 mg SM persisted 15 mo after exposure, unchanged from previous findings at 3 mo. LA induced mild fibrosis, while ED and ON produced minimal and no apparent fibrosis, respectively. Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma was observed 15 mo after exposure to LA or ED. Data demonstrated that SM, given by bolus IT dosing on an equivalent mass basis, induced greater pulmonary function deficits, airway hyperresponsiveness, and interstitial fibrosis than other NOA, although unlike LA and ED, no apparent evidence for carcinogenicity was found. All NOA samples except ON cleavage fragments produced some degree of long-term toxicity.

  5. Effects of Naturally Occuring Arginine 14 Deletion on Phospholamban Conformational Dynamics and Membrane Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Vostrikov, Vitaly V.; Soller, Kailey J.; Ha, Kim N.; Gopinath, T.; Veglia, Gianluigi

    2014-01-01

    Phospholamban (PLN) is a single-pass membrane protein that regulates the sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA). Phosphorylation of PLN at Ser16 reverses its inhibitory function under β-adrenergic stimulation, augmenting Ca2+ uptake in the sarcoplasmic reticulum and muscle contractility. PLN exists in two conformations; a T state, where the cytoplasmic domain is helical and absorbed on the membrane surface, and an R state, where the cytoplasmic domain is unfolded and membrane detached. Previous studies from our group have shown that the PLN conformational equilibrium is crucial to SERCA regulation. Here, we used a combination of solution and solid-state NMR techniques to compare the structural topology and conformational dynamics of monomeric PLN (PLNAFA) with that of the PLNR14del, a naturally occurring deletion mutant that is linked to the progression of dilated cardiomyopathy. We found that the behavior of the inhibitory transmembrane domain of PLNR14del is similar to that of the native sequence. In contrast, the conformational dynamics of R14del both in micelles and lipid membranes are enhanced. We conclude that the deletion of Arg14 in the cytoplasmic region weakens the interactions with the membrane and shifts the conformational equilibrium of PLN toward the disordered R state. This conformational transition is correlated with the loss-of-function character of this mutant and is corroborated by SERCA’s activity assays. These findings further support our hypothesis that SERCA function is fine-tuned by PLN conformational dynamics and begin to explain the aberrant regulation of SERCA by the R14del mutant. PMID:25251363

  6. Persistence of naturally occurring antibiotic resistance genes in the bacteria and bacteriophage fractions of wastewater.

    PubMed

    Calero-Cáceres, William; Muniesa, Maite

    2016-05-15

    The emergence and prevalence of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the environment is a serious global health concern. ARGs from bacteria can be mobilized by mobile genetic elements, and recent studies indicate that phages and phage-derived particles, among others, could play a role in the spread of ARGs through the environment. ARGs are abundant in the bacterial and bacteriophage fractions of water bodies and for successful transfer of the ARGs, their persistence in these environments is crucial. In this study, three ARGs (blaTEM, blaCTX-M and sul1) that naturally occur in the bacterial and phage fractions of raw wastewater were used to evaluate the persistence of ARGs at different temperatures (4 °C, 22 °C and 37 °C) and pH values (3, 7 and 9), as well as after various disinfection treatments (thermal treatment, chlorination and UV) and natural inactivation in a mesocosm. Gene copies (GC) were quantified by qPCR; then the logarithmic reduction and significance of the differences between their numbers were evaluated. The ARGs persisted for a long time with minimal reductions after all the treatments. In general, they showed greater persistence in the bacteriophage fraction than in the bacterial fraction. Comparisons showed that the ARGs persisted under conditions that reduced culturable Escherichia coli and infectious coliphages below the limit of detection. The prevalence of ARGs, particularly in the bacteriophage fraction, poses the threat of the spread of ARGs and their incorporation into a new bacterial background that could lead to the emergence of new resistant clones.

  7. Levels of naturally occurring gamma radiation measured in British homes and their prediction in particular residences.

    PubMed

    Kendall, G M; Wakeford, R; Athanson, M; Vincent, T J; Carter, E J; McColl, N P; Little, M P

    2016-03-01

    Gamma radiation from natural sources (including directly ionising cosmic rays) is an important component of background radiation. In the present paper, indoor measurements of naturally occurring gamma rays that were undertaken as part of the UK Childhood Cancer Study are summarised, and it is shown that these are broadly compatible with an earlier UK National Survey. The distribution of indoor gamma-ray dose rates in Great Britain is approximately normal with mean 96 nGy/h and standard deviation 23 nGy/h. Directly ionising cosmic rays contribute about one-third of the total. The expanded dataset allows a more detailed description than previously of indoor gamma-ray exposures and in particular their geographical variation. Various strategies for predicting indoor natural background gamma-ray dose rates were explored. In the first of these, a geostatistical model was fitted, which assumes an underlying geologically determined spatial variation, superimposed on which is a Gaussian stochastic process with Matérn correlation structure that models the observed tendency of dose rates in neighbouring houses to correlate. In the second approach, a number of dose-rate interpolation measures were first derived, based on averages over geologically or administratively defined areas or using distance-weighted averages of measurements at nearest-neighbour points. Linear regression was then used to derive an optimal linear combination of these interpolation measures. The predictive performances of the two models were compared via cross-validation, using a randomly selected 70 % of the data to fit the models and the remaining 30 % to test them. The mean square error (MSE) of the linear-regression model was lower than that of the Gaussian-Matérn model (MSE 378 and 411, respectively). The predictive performance of the two candidate models was also evaluated via simulation; the OLS model performs significantly better than the Gaussian-Matérn model. PMID:26880257

  8. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials in Coals and Coal Combustion Residuals in the United States.

    PubMed

    Lauer, Nancy E; Hower, James C; Hsu-Kim, Heileen; Taggart, Ross K; Vengosh, Avner

    2015-09-15

    The distribution and enrichment of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in coal combustion residuals (CCRs) from different coal source basins have not been fully characterized in the United States. Here we provide a systematic analysis of the occurrence of NORM ((232)Th, (228)Ra, (238)U, (226)Ra, and (210)Pb) in coals and associated CCRs from the Illinois, Appalachian, and Powder River Basins. Illinois CCRs had the highest total Ra ((228)Ra + (226)Ra = 297 ± 46 Bq/kg) and the lowest (228)Ra/(226)Ra activity ratio (0.31 ± 0.09), followed by Appalachian CCRs (283 ± 34 Bq/kg; 0.67 ± 0.09), and Powder River CCRs (213 ± 21 Bq/kg; 0.79 ± 0.10). Total Ra and (228)Ra/(226)Ra variations in CCRs correspond to the U and Th concentrations and ash contents of their feed coals, and we show that these relationships can be used to predict total NORM concentrations in CCRs. We observed differential NORM volatility during combustion that results in (210)Pb enrichment and (210)Pb/(226)Ra ratios greater than 1 in most fly-ash samples. Overall, total NORM activities in CCRs are 7-10- and 3-5-fold higher than NORM activities in parent coals and average U.S. soil, respectively. This study lays the groundwork for future research related to the environmental and human health implications of CCR disposal and accidental release to the environment in the context of this elevated radioactivity.

  9. A Naturally Occurring Bovine Tauopathy Is Geographically Widespread in the UK.

    PubMed

    Jeffrey, Martin; Piccardo, Pedro; Ritchie, Diane L; Ironside, James W; Green, Alison J E; McGovern, Gillian

    2015-01-01

    Many human neurodegenerative diseases are associated with hyperphosphorylation and widespread intra-neuronal and glial associated aggregation of the microtubule associated protein tau. In contrast, animal tauopathies are not reported with only senescent animals showing inconspicuous tau labelling of fine processes albeit significant tau aggregation may occur in some experimental animal disease. Since 1986, an idiopathic neurological condition of adult cattle has been recognised in the UK as a sub-set of cattle slaughtered as suspect bovine spongiform encephalopathy cases. This disorder is characterised by brainstem neuronal chromatolysis and degeneration with variable hippocampal sclerosis and spongiform change. Selected cases of idiopathic brainstem neuronal chromatolysis (IBNC) were identified from archive material and characterised using antibodies specific to several tau hyperphosphorylation sites or different isoforms of the tau microtubule binding region. Labelling was also carried out for alpha synuclein, ubiquitin, TDP43, Aβ 1-42, Aβ 1-40. Widespread tau labelling was identified in all IBNC brains examined and with each of seven tau antibodies recognising different hyperphosphorylated sites. Labelling with each antibody was associated with dendrites, neuronal perikarya and glia. Thus IBNC is a sporadic, progressive neurological disease predominantly affecting aged cattle that occurs throughout the UK and is associated with hyperphosphorylation of tau, a rare example of a naturally-occurring tauopathy in a non-primate species. Secondary accumulation of alpha synuclein and ubiquitin was also present. The neuropathology does not precisely correspond with any human tauopathy. The cause of IBNC remains undetermined but environmental factors and exposure to agrochemicals needs to be considered in future aetiological investigations. PMID:26091261

  10. A century of oil and gas exploration in Albania: assessment of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORMs).

    PubMed

    Xhixha, G; Baldoncini, M; Callegari, I; Colonna, T; Hasani, F; Mantovani, F; Shala, F; Strati, V; Xhixha Kaçeli, M

    2015-11-01

    The Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORMs) that are potentially generated from oil and gas extractions in Albania have been disposed of without regulations for many decades, and therefore, an extensive survey in one of the most productive regions (Vlora-Elbasan) was performed. A total of 52 gamma ray spectrometry measurements of soil, oil-sand, sludge, produced water and crude oil samples were performed. We discovered that relatively low activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (228)Th and (40)K, with concentrations of 23±2Bq/kg, 23±2Bq/kg, 24±3Bq/kg and 549±12Bq/kg, respectively, came from the oil-sands produced by the hydrocarbon extraction of the molasses formations. The mineralogical characterizations and the (228)Ra/(40)K and (226)Ra/(40)K ratios of these Neogene deposits confirmed the predictions of the geological and geodynamic models of a dismantling of the Mesozoic source rocks. The average activity concentrations (±standard deviations) of the radium isotopes ((226)Ra and (228)Ra) and of the (228)Th and (40)K radionuclides in soil samples were 20±5Bq/kg, 25±10Bq/kg, 25±9Bq/kg and 326±83Bq/kg, respectively. Based on the measurements in this study, the future radiological assessments of other fields in the region should be strategically planned to focus on the oil-sands from the molasses sediments. Disequilibrium in the (228)Ra decay segment was not observed in the soil, sludge or oil-sand samples within the standard uncertainties. After a detailed radiological characterization of the four primary oil fields, we concluded that the outdoor absorbed dose rate never exceeded the worldwide population weighted average absorbed dose rate in outdoor air from terrestrial gamma radiation. PMID:26037957

  11. Potential health risk in areas with high naturally-occurring cadmium background in southwestern China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yizhang; Xiao, Tangfu; Baveye, Philippe C; Zhu, Jianming; Ning, Zengping; Li, Huajun

    2015-02-01

    In various parts of the world, high cadmium (Cd) concentrations in environment are not related to anthropogenic contamination but have natural origins. Less is known about health risks that arise under these conditions. This study aimed to discuss the pollution of Cd with natural sources, and to investigate the concentration of Cd in food crops and the urine of inhabitants in an area of southwestern China. The results showed that the arable soils are moderately contaminated by Cd (I(geo)=1.51) relative to the local background, with a high ecological risk (Er=218). The chemical fractions of Cd in soils with natural sources are probably controlled by parent materials and mostly in residual phase. The average Cd concentrations were 0.68 mg kg(-1) (fresh weight) in local vegetables, 0.04 mg kg(-1) in rice, and 0.14 μg L(-1) in water. Leafy vegetable tends to accumulate more Cd than the other crops. The calculated Target Hazard Quotient (THQ) had a much higher value (4.33) for Cd, suggesting that Cd represents a significant potential risk to the local population. The urinary Cd concentrations (mean at 3.92 μg L(-1) for male and 4.85 μg L(-1) for female) of inhabitants in the study area were significantly higher (p<0.05) than those from the control area (mean at 0.8 μg L(-1) for male and 0.42 μg L(-1) for female). Male and female test subjects had similar urinary Cd levels (p>0.05), but age seemed to lead to an increase in Cd in the urine. These findings show that naturally-occurring Cd in local soils is taken up appreciably by local food crops, and that dietary exposure of Cd through vegetable ingestion is a major exposure pathway for local populations, and a potential risk to public health in the study area.

  12. Cerebrospinal Fluid Inflammatory Cytokines and Chemokines in Naturally Occurring Canine Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Amanda R.; Welsh, C. Jane; Young, Colin; Spoor, Erich; Kerwin, Sharon C.; Griffin, John F.; Levine, Gwendolyn J.; Cohen, Noah D.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Canine intervertebral disk herniation (IVDH) is a common, naturally occurring form of spinal cord injury (SCI) that is increasingly being used in pre-clinical evaluation of therapies. Although IVDH bears critical similarities to human SCI with respect to lesion morphology, imaging features, and post-SCI treatment, limited data are available concerning secondary injury mechanisms. Here, we characterized cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytokines, and chemokines in dogs with acute, surgically treated, thoracolumbar IVDH (n=39) and healthy control dogs (n=21) to investigate early inflammatory events after SCI. A bioplex system was used to measure interleukin (IL)-2, -6, -7, -8, -10, -15, and -18, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interferon gamma (IFN-γ), keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC)-like protein, IFN-γ-inducible protein-10, monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), and tumor necrosis factor alpha. Cytokine and chemokine concentrations in the CSF of healthy and SCI dogs were compared and, in SCI dogs, were correlated to the duration of SCI, behavioral measures of injury severity at the time of sampling, and neurological outcome 42 days post-SCI as determined by a validated ordinal score. IL-8 concentration was significantly higher in SCI cases than healthy controls (p=0.0013) and was negatively correlated with the duration of SCI (p=0.042). CSF MCP-1 and KC-like protein were positively correlated with CSF microprotein concentration in dogs with SCI (p<0.0001 and p=0.004). CSF MCP-1 concentration was negatively associated with 42-day postinjury outcome (p<0.0001). Taken together, these data indicate that cytokines and chemokines present after SCI in humans and rodent models are associated with SCI pathogenesis in canine IVDH. PMID:24786364

  13. Long-term toxicity of naturally occurring asbestos in male Fischer 344 rats.

    PubMed

    Cyphert, Jaime M; McGee, Marie A; Nyska, Abraham; Schladweiler, Mette C; Kodavanti, Urmila P; Gavett, Stephen H

    2016-01-01

    Naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) fibers are found in geologic deposits that may be disturbed by mining, earthworks, or natural processes, resulting in adverse health risks to exposed individuals. The toxicities of Libby amphibole and NOA samples including Sumas Mountain chrysotile (SM), El Dorado tremolite (ED), and Ontario ferroactinolite cleavage fragments (ON) were compared in male Fischer 344 (F344) rats 15 mo after exposure. Rat-respirable fractions of LA and SM displayed greater mean lengths and aspect ratios than ED and ON. After a single intratracheal (IT) instillation (0.5 or 1.5 mg/rat), persistent changes in ventilatory parameters and a significant increase in lung resistance at baseline and after methacholine aerosol dosing were found only in rats exposed to 1.5 mg SM. High-dose ED significantly elevated bronchoalveolar lavage lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and protein levels, while high-dose SM increased γ-glutamyl transferase and LDH activities. A moderate degree of lung interstitial fibrosis after exposure to 1.5 mg SM persisted 15 mo after exposure, unchanged from previous findings at 3 mo. LA induced mild fibrosis, while ED and ON produced minimal and no apparent fibrosis, respectively. Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma was observed 15 mo after exposure to LA or ED. Data demonstrated that SM, given by bolus IT dosing on an equivalent mass basis, induced greater pulmonary function deficits, airway hyperresponsiveness, and interstitial fibrosis than other NOA, although unlike LA and ED, no apparent evidence for carcinogenicity was found. All NOA samples except ON cleavage fragments produced some degree of long-term toxicity. PMID:26818398

  14. Wetland defense: naturally occurring pesticide resistance in zooplankton populations protects the stability of aquatic communities.

    PubMed

    Bendis, Randall J; Relyea, Rick A

    2016-06-01

    Anthropogenic stressors are ubiquitous and have been implicated in worldwide declines of terrestrial and aquatic species. Pesticides are one such stressor that can have profound effects on aquatic communities by directly affecting sensitive species and indirectly affecting other species via trophic cascades, which can alter ecosystem function. However, there is growing evidence that non-target species can evolve increased resistance. When such species are important drivers of the food web, then evolved resistance should help buffer communities from the effects of pesticides. To examine this possibility, we cultured four populations of the common zooplankton Daphnia pulex that we previously demonstrated were either sensitive or resistant to a common insecticide (i.e., chlorpyrifos) due to their proximity to agriculture. Using outdoor mesocosms that contained identical aquatic communities of phytoplankton, periphyton, and leopard frog tadpoles (Lithobates pipiens), we manipulated four D. pulex populations and four insecticide concentrations. As we monitored the communities for nearly 3 months, we found that the insecticide caused direct mortality of D. pulex in communities containing sensitive populations, and this led to a bloom of phytoplankton. In contrast, the insecticide caused much less direct mortality in communities containing resistant D. pulex populations, and the trophic cascade was prevented under low to moderate insecticide concentrations. Across all insecticide treatments, survivorship of leopard frogs was approximately 72 % in communities with resistant D. pulex but only 35 % in communities with sensitive D. pulex. To our knowledge, this is one of the first studies to use naturally occurring population variation in insecticide resistance to show that the evolution of pesticide resistance in zooplankton can mitigate the effects of insecticide-induced trophic cascades, and that this outcome can have far-reaching community effects.

  15. Role of rat strain in the differential sensitivity to pharmaceutical agents and naturally occurring substances.

    PubMed

    Kacew, S; Festing, M F

    1996-01-01

    The development of drugs to combat diseases, chemicals to improve food production, or compounds to enhance the quality of life necessitates, by law, the use of laboratory animals to test their safety. In order to simulate the human condition it is necessary to choose a species in which pharmacokinetic and toxicokinetic mechanisms are established and resemble those of humans. The advantages of the use of the rat in drug and chemical toxicity testing include (a) metabolic pathway similarities to humans; (b) numerous similar anatomical and physiological characteristics; (c) a large database, which is extremely important for comparative purposes; and (d) the ease of breeding and maintenance of animals at relatively low cost. However, the choice of rat can be complicated, especially when over 200 different strains of rat are known to exist. The aim of this review is to summarize genetically determined differences in the responsiveness of rat strains to drugs and naturally occurring chemicals and to show that susceptibility is dependent on the target organ sensitivities, which may also be strain dependent. It is suggested that detailed studies of strain differences may help to clarify toxic mechanisms. Such studies are usually best conducted using inbred strains in which the genetic characteristics have been fixed, rather than in outbred stocks in which individual samples of animals may differ, the phenotype is variable, and the stocks are subject to substantial genetic drift. The fact that strains may differ also needs to be taken into account in assessing the potential hazard of the chemical, particularly when a study involves only a single strain and therefore provides no assessment of likely strain variation.

  16. A century of oil and gas exploration in Albania: assessment of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORMs).

    PubMed

    Xhixha, G; Baldoncini, M; Callegari, I; Colonna, T; Hasani, F; Mantovani, F; Shala, F; Strati, V; Xhixha Kaçeli, M

    2015-11-01

    The Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORMs) that are potentially generated from oil and gas extractions in Albania have been disposed of without regulations for many decades, and therefore, an extensive survey in one of the most productive regions (Vlora-Elbasan) was performed. A total of 52 gamma ray spectrometry measurements of soil, oil-sand, sludge, produced water and crude oil samples were performed. We discovered that relatively low activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (228)Th and (40)K, with concentrations of 23±2Bq/kg, 23±2Bq/kg, 24±3Bq/kg and 549±12Bq/kg, respectively, came from the oil-sands produced by the hydrocarbon extraction of the molasses formations. The mineralogical characterizations and the (228)Ra/(40)K and (226)Ra/(40)K ratios of these Neogene deposits confirmed the predictions of the geological and geodynamic models of a dismantling of the Mesozoic source rocks. The average activity concentrations (±standard deviations) of the radium isotopes ((226)Ra and (228)Ra) and of the (228)Th and (40)K radionuclides in soil samples were 20±5Bq/kg, 25±10Bq/kg, 25±9Bq/kg and 326±83Bq/kg, respectively. Based on the measurements in this study, the future radiological assessments of other fields in the region should be strategically planned to focus on the oil-sands from the molasses sediments. Disequilibrium in the (228)Ra decay segment was not observed in the soil, sludge or oil-sand samples within the standard uncertainties. After a detailed radiological characterization of the four primary oil fields, we concluded that the outdoor absorbed dose rate never exceeded the worldwide population weighted average absorbed dose rate in outdoor air from terrestrial gamma radiation.

  17. Acute Toxicological Responses of Fischer Rats to Naturally Occurring Asbestos from theUnited States and Canada

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was designed to provide understanding of the toxicity of naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) including Libby amphibole (LA), Sumas Mountain chrysotile (SM), EI Dorado Hills tremolite (ED) and Ontario actinolite/ferroactinolite cleavage fragments (ON). Ratrespirable fra...

  18. Catalytic enantioselective synthesis of naturally occurring butenolides via hetero-allylic alkylation and ring closing metathesis.

    PubMed

    Mao, Bin; Geurts, Koen; Fañanás-Mastral, Martín; van Zijl, Anthoni W; Fletcher, Stephen P; Minnaard, Adriaan J; Feringa, Ben L

    2011-03-01

    An efficient catalytic asymmetric synthesis of chiral γ-butenolides was developed based on the hetero-allylic asymmetric alkylation (h-AAA) in combination with ring closing metathesis (RCM). The synthetic potential of the h-AAA-RCM protocol was illustrated with the facile synthesis of (-)-whiskey lactone, (-)-cognac lactone, (-)-nephrosteranic acid, and (-)-roccellaric acid.

  19. Catalytic enantioselective synthesis of naturally occurring butenolides via hetero-allylic alkylation and ring closing metathesis.

    PubMed

    Mao, Bin; Geurts, Koen; Fañanás-Mastral, Martín; van Zijl, Anthoni W; Fletcher, Stephen P; Minnaard, Adriaan J; Feringa, Ben L

    2011-03-01

    An efficient catalytic asymmetric synthesis of chiral γ-butenolides was developed based on the hetero-allylic asymmetric alkylation (h-AAA) in combination with ring closing metathesis (RCM). The synthetic potential of the h-AAA-RCM protocol was illustrated with the facile synthesis of (-)-whiskey lactone, (-)-cognac lactone, (-)-nephrosteranic acid, and (-)-roccellaric acid. PMID:21268603

  20. Evaluation of occupational exposure to naturally occurring radioactive materials in the Iranian ceramics industry.

    PubMed

    Fathabadi, N; Farahani, M V; Amani, S; Moradi, M; Haddadi, B

    2011-06-01

    Zircon contains small amounts of uranium, thorium and radium in its crystalline structure. The ceramic industry is one of the major consumers of zirconium compounds that are used as an ingredient at ∼10-20 % by weight in glaze. In this study, seven different ceramic factories have been investigated regarding the presence of radioactive elements with focus on natural radioactivity. The overall objective of this investigation is to provide information regarding the radiation exposure to workers in the ceramic industry due to naturally occurring radioactive materials. This objective is met by collecting existing radiological data specific to glaze production and generating new data from sampling activities. The sampling effort involves the whole process of glaze production. External exposures are monitored using a portable gamma-ray spectrometer and environmental thermoluminescence dosimeters, by placing them for 6 months in some workplaces. Internal routes of exposure (mainly inhalation) are studied using air sampling, and gross alpha and beta counting. Measurement of radon gas and its progeny is performed by continuous radon gas monitors that use pulse ionisation chambers. Natural radioactivity due to the presence of ²³⁸U, ²³²Th and ⁴⁰K in zirconium compounds, glazes and other samples is measured by a gamma-ray spectrometry system with a high-purity germanium detector. The average concentrations of ²³⁸U and ²³²Th observed in the zirconium compounds are >3300 and >550 Bq kg⁻¹, respectively. The specific activities of other samples are much lower than in zirconium compounds. The annual effective dose from external radiation had a mean value of ∼0.13 mSv y⁻¹. Dust sampling revealed the greatest values in the process at the powdering site and hand weighing places. In these plants, the annual average effective dose from inhalation of long-lived airborne radionuclides was 0.226 mSv. ²²²Rn gas concentrations in the glaze production plant and

  1. Pennsylvania's technologically enhanced, naturally occurring radioactive material experiences and studies of the oil and gas industry.

    PubMed

    Allard, David J

    2015-02-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania's experiences and ongoing studies related to technologically enhanced, naturally occurring radioactive material (TENORM) in the oil and gas industry. It has been known for many years that Pennsylvania's geology is unique, with several areas having relatively high levels of natural uranium and thorium. In the 1950s, a few areas of the state were evaluated for commercial uranium production. In the late 1970s, scoping studies of radon in homes prompted the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) Bureau of Radiation Protection (BRP) to begin planning for a larger state-wide radon study. The BRP and Oil and Gas Bureau also performed a TENORM study of produced water in the early 1990s for a number of conventional oil and gas wells. More recently, BRP and the Bureau of Solid Waste developed radiation monitoring regulations for all Pennsylvania solid waste disposal facilities. These were implemented in 2001, prompting another evaluation of oil and gas operations and sludge generated from the treatment of conventionally produced water and brine but mainly focused on the disposal of TENORM solid waste in the state's Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Subtitle D landfills. However, since 2008, the increase in volumes of gas well wastewater and levels of Ra observed in the unconventional shale gas well flow-back fracking water has compelled DEP to fully re-examine these oil and gas operations. Specifically, with BRP in the lead, a new TENORM study of oil and gas operations and related wastewater treatment operations has been initiated (), supported by an American National Standards Institute standard on TENORM () and a U.S. Government Accountability Office report on shale resource development and risks (). This study began in early 2013 and will examine the potential public and worker radiation exposure and environmental impact as well as re-evaluate TENORM waste disposal. This

  2. Naturally occurring heavy radioactive elements in the geothermal microcosm of the Los Azufres (Mexico) volcanic complex.

    PubMed

    Abuhani, W A; Dasgupta-Schubert, N; Villaseñor, L M; García Avila, D; Suárez, L; Johnston, C; Borjas, S E; Alexander, S A; Landsberger, S; Suárez, M C

    2015-01-01

    The Los Azufres geothermal complex of central Mexico is characterized by fumaroles and boiling hot-springs. The fumaroles form habitats for extremophilic mosses and ferns. Physico-chemical measurements of two relatively pristine fumarolic microcosms point to their resemblance with the paleo-environment of earth during the Ordovician and Devonian periods. These geothermal habitats were analysed for the distribution of elemental mass fractions in the rhizospheric soil (RS), the native volcanic substrate (VS) and the sediments (S), using the new high-sensitivity technique of polarized x-ray energy dispersive fluorescence spectrometry (PEDXRF) as well as instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) for selected elements. This work presents the results for the naturally occurring heavy radioactive elements (NOHRE) Bi, Th and U but principally the latter two. For the RS, the density was found to be the least and the total organic matter content the most. Bi was found to be negligibly present in all substrate types. The average Th and U mass fractions in the RS were higher than in the VS and about equal to their average mass fractions in the S. The VS mass fraction of Th was higher, and of U lower, than the mass fractions in the earth's crust. In fact for the fumaroles of one site, the average RS mass fractions of these elements were higher than the averaged values for S (without considering the statistical dispersion). The immobilization of the NOHRE in the RS is brought about by the bio-geochemical processes specific to these extremophiles. Its effectiveness is such that despite the small masses of these plants, it compares with, or may sometimes exceed, the immobilization of the NOHRE in the S by the abiotic and aggressive chemical action of the hot-springs. These results indicate that the fumarolic plants are able to transform the volcanic substrate to soil and to affect the NOHRE mass fractions even though these elements are not plant nutrients. Mirrored back to

  3. Contribution of Schwann Cells to Remyelination in a Naturally Occurring Canine Model of CNS Neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Kegler, Kristel; Spitzbarth, Ingo; Imbschweiler, Ilka; Wewetzer, Konstantin; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Seehusen, Frauke

    2015-01-01

    -positive cells. This study provides novel insights into the involvement of Schwann cells in CNS remyelination under natural occurring CNS inflammation. Targeting p75NTR/Sox2-expressing Schwann cells to enhance their differentiation into competent remyelinating cells appears to be a promising therapeutic approach for inflammatory/demyelinating CNS diseases. PMID:26196511

  4. Evaluation of occupational exposure to naturally occurring radioactive materials in the Iranian ceramics industry.

    PubMed

    Fathabadi, N; Farahani, M V; Amani, S; Moradi, M; Haddadi, B

    2011-06-01

    Zircon contains small amounts of uranium, thorium and radium in its crystalline structure. The ceramic industry is one of the major consumers of zirconium compounds that are used as an ingredient at ∼10-20 % by weight in glaze. In this study, seven different ceramic factories have been investigated regarding the presence of radioactive elements with focus on natural radioactivity. The overall objective of this investigation is to provide information regarding the radiation exposure to workers in the ceramic industry due to naturally occurring radioactive materials. This objective is met by collecting existing radiological data specific to glaze production and generating new data from sampling activities. The sampling effort involves the whole process of glaze production. External exposures are monitored using a portable gamma-ray spectrometer and environmental thermoluminescence dosimeters, by placing them for 6 months in some workplaces. Internal routes of exposure (mainly inhalation) are studied using air sampling, and gross alpha and beta counting. Measurement of radon gas and its progeny is performed by continuous radon gas monitors that use pulse ionisation chambers. Natural radioactivity due to the presence of ²³⁸U, ²³²Th and ⁴⁰K in zirconium compounds, glazes and other samples is measured by a gamma-ray spectrometry system with a high-purity germanium detector. The average concentrations of ²³⁸U and ²³²Th observed in the zirconium compounds are >3300 and >550 Bq kg⁻¹, respectively. The specific activities of other samples are much lower than in zirconium compounds. The annual effective dose from external radiation had a mean value of ∼0.13 mSv y⁻¹. Dust sampling revealed the greatest values in the process at the powdering site and hand weighing places. In these plants, the annual average effective dose from inhalation of long-lived airborne radionuclides was 0.226 mSv. ²²²Rn gas concentrations in the glaze production plant and

  5. Managing for Successful Control of Naturally Occurring Asbestos During Large Scale Grading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saur, R.; Harnish, D.; Cavanaugh, J.; Kendall, K.; Virdee, A.; Ludlam, D.

    2012-12-01

    Pacific Gas and Electric Company recently completed environmental remediation and civil grading of a 35-acre site in San Francisco Bay Area, and the project became recognized with local agencies as having excellent controls systems for naturally-occurring asbestos (NOA). The project began in 2010 and was completed in 2012, and involved excavating and grading over 100,000 tons of soil containing NOA. The work was subject to requirements by state, local and regional agencies, including an asbestos dust mitigation plan for the Bay Area Air Quality Management District. Effective control of NOA is attributed to management approaches combined with effective monitoring and state-of-the-art controls. Management Planning. The contract for construction specified NOA compliance management and controls, including having a NOA-control "czar" ultimately responsible for effective mitigation. An important element was daily pre-planning for excavation/grading that involved both the NOA mitigation experts and construction staff. Personnel Planning and Training. All construction personnel were trained before work regarding NOA hazards and mitigations. Daily tailboards with all construction personnel included discussions of the NOA controls integral to the daily work. Supervision. A NOA mitigation compliance leader was assigned to each excavation operation, responsible for continuously monitoring wind direction and work to ensure mitigation met requirements, and that disturbed areas were hydrosealed or covered. Adaptive Management - Daily and weekly debriefs occurred with those responsible for NOA controls to evaluate effectiveness, and identify improvements needed. If a monitoring result exceeded the project trigger level, work shut down and a root-cause analysis was performed to determine appropriate corrective actions. Deviations of results from background were researched as to cause, and any adjustments identified. Nearby non-project activities were monitored, as they occasionally

  6. Naturally Occurring Differences in CENH3 Affect Chromosome Segregation in Zygotic Mitosis of Hybrids

    PubMed Central

    Maheshwari, Shamoni; Tan, Ek Han; West, Allan; Franklin, F. Chris H.; Comai, Luca

    2015-01-01

    The point of attachment of spindle microtubules to metaphase chromosomes is known as the centromere. Plant and animal centromeres are epigenetically specified by a centromere-specific variant of Histone H3, CENH3 (a.k.a. CENP-A). Unlike canonical histones that are invariant, CENH3 proteins are accumulating substitutions at an accelerated rate. This diversification of CENH3 is a conundrum since its role as the key determinant of centromere identity remains a constant across species. Here, we ask whether naturally occurring divergence in CENH3 has functional consequences. We performed functional complementation assays on cenh3-1, a null mutation in Arabidopsis thaliana, using untagged CENH3s from increasingly distant relatives. Contrary to previous results using GFP-tagged CENH3, we find that the essential functions of CENH3 are conserved across a broad evolutionary landscape. CENH3 from a species as distant as the monocot Zea mays can functionally replace A. thaliana CENH3. Plants expressing variant CENH3s that are fertile when selfed show dramatic segregation errors when crossed to a wild-type individual. The progeny of this cross include hybrid diploids, aneuploids with novel genetic rearrangements and haploids that inherit only the genome of the wild-type parent. Importantly, it is always chromosomes from the plant expressing the divergent CENH3 that missegregate. Using chimeras, we show that it is divergence in the fast-evolving N-terminal tail of CENH3 that is causing segregation errors and genome elimination. Furthermore, we analyzed N-terminal tail sequences from plant CENH3s and discovered a modular pattern of sequence conservation. From this we hypothesize that while the essential functions of CENH3 are largely conserved, the N-terminal tail is evolving to adapt to lineage-specific centromeric constraints. Our results demonstrate that this lineage-specific evolution of CENH3 causes inviability and sterility of progeny in crosses, at the same time producing

  7. A Naturally Occurring Canine Model of Autosomal Recessive Congenital Stationary Night Blindness.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Mineo; Das, Gautami; Imai, Ryoetsu; Santana, Evelyn; Nakashita, Tomio; Imawaka, Miho; Ueda, Kosuke; Ohtsuka, Hirohiko; Sakai, Kazuhiko; Aihara, Takehiro; Kato, Kumiko; Sugimoto, Masahiko; Ueno, Shinji; Nishizawa, Yuji; Aguirre, Gustavo D; Miyadera, Keiko

    2015-01-01

    Congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB) is a non-progressive, clinically and genetically heterogeneous disease of impaired night vision. We report a naturally-occurring, stationary, autosomal recessive phenotype in beagle dogs with normal daylight vision but absent night vision. Affected dogs had normal retinas on clinical examination, but showed no detectable rod responses. They had "negative-type" mixed rod and cone responses in full-field ERGs. Their photopic long-flash ERGs had normal OFF-responses associated with severely reduced ON-responses. The phenotype is similar to the Schubert-Bornschein form of complete CSNB in humans. Homozygosity mapping ruled out most known CSNB candidates as well as CACNA2D4 and GNB3. Three remaining genes were excluded based on sequencing the open reading frame and intron-exon boundaries (RHO, NYX), causal to a different form of CSNB (RHO) or X-chromosome (NYX, CACNA1F) location. Among the genes expressed in the photoreceptors and their synaptic terminals, and mGluR6 cascade and modulators, reduced expression of GNAT1, CACNA2D4 and NYX was observed by qRT-PCR in both carrier (n = 2) and affected (n = 2) retinas whereas CACNA1F was down-regulated only in the affecteds. Retinal morphology revealed normal cellular layers and structure, and electron microscopy showed normal rod spherules and synaptic ribbons. No difference from normal was observed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) for antibodies labeling rods, cones and their presynaptic terminals. None of the retinas showed any sign of stress. Selected proteins of mGluR6 cascade and its modulators were examined by IHC and showed that PKCα weakly labeled the rod bipolar somata in the affected, but intensely labeled axonal terminals that appeared thickened and irregular. Dendritic terminals of ON-bipolar cells showed increased Goα labeling. Both PKCα and Goα labeled the more prominent bipolar dendrites that extended into the OPL in affected but not normal retinas. Interestingly

  8. A Naturally Occurring Canine Model of Autosomal Recessive Congenital Stationary Night Blindness.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Mineo; Das, Gautami; Imai, Ryoetsu; Santana, Evelyn; Nakashita, Tomio; Imawaka, Miho; Ueda, Kosuke; Ohtsuka, Hirohiko; Sakai, Kazuhiko; Aihara, Takehiro; Kato, Kumiko; Sugimoto, Masahiko; Ueno, Shinji; Nishizawa, Yuji; Aguirre, Gustavo D; Miyadera, Keiko

    2015-01-01

    Congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB) is a non-progressive, clinically and genetically heterogeneous disease of impaired night vision. We report a naturally-occurring, stationary, autosomal recessive phenotype in beagle dogs with normal daylight vision but absent night vision. Affected dogs had normal retinas on clinical examination, but showed no detectable rod responses. They had "negative-type" mixed rod and cone responses in full-field ERGs. Their photopic long-flash ERGs had normal OFF-responses associated with severely reduced ON-responses. The phenotype is similar to the Schubert-Bornschein form of complete CSNB in humans. Homozygosity mapping ruled out most known CSNB candidates as well as CACNA2D4 and GNB3. Three remaining genes were excluded based on sequencing the open reading frame and intron-exon boundaries (RHO, NYX), causal to a different form of CSNB (RHO) or X-chromosome (NYX, CACNA1F) location. Among the genes expressed in the photoreceptors and their synaptic terminals, and mGluR6 cascade and modulators, reduced expression of GNAT1, CACNA2D4 and NYX was observed by qRT-PCR in both carrier (n = 2) and affected (n = 2) retinas whereas CACNA1F was down-regulated only in the affecteds. Retinal morphology revealed normal cellular layers and structure, and electron microscopy showed normal rod spherules and synaptic ribbons. No difference from normal was observed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) for antibodies labeling rods, cones and their presynaptic terminals. None of the retinas showed any sign of stress. Selected proteins of mGluR6 cascade and its modulators were examined by IHC and showed that PKCα weakly labeled the rod bipolar somata in the affected, but intensely labeled axonal terminals that appeared thickened and irregular. Dendritic terminals of ON-bipolar cells showed increased Goα labeling. Both PKCα and Goα labeled the more prominent bipolar dendrites that extended into the OPL in affected but not normal retinas. Interestingly

  9. Manufactured Home Testing in Simulated and Naturally Occurring High Winds for WCTE Conference

    SciTech Connect

    William D. Richins; Thomas K. Larson; Jeffrey M. Lacy; Ryan G. Kobbe

    2006-08-01

    A typical double-wide manufactured home was tested in simulated and naturally occurring high winds to understand structural behavior and improve performance during severe windstorms. Seven (7) lateral load tests were conducted on a double-wide manufactured home at a remote field test site in Wyoming. An extensive instrumentation package monitored the overall behavior of the home and collected data vital to validating computational software for the manufactured housing industry. The tests were designed to approach the design load of the home without causing structural damage, thus allowing the behavior of the home to be accessed when the home was later exposed to high winds (to 80-mph). The data generally show near-linear initial system response with significant non-linear behavior as the applied loads increase. Load transfer across the marriage line is primarily compression. Racking, while present, is very small. Interface slip and shear displacement along the marriage line are nearly insignificant. Horizontal global displacements reached 0.6 inch. These tests were designed primarily to collect data necessary to calibrate a desktop analysis and design software tool, MHTool, under development at the Idaho National Laboratory specifically for manufactured housing. Currently available analysis tools are, for the most part, based on methods developed for "stick built" structures and are inappropriate for manufactured homes. The special materials utilized in manufactured homes, such as rigid adhesives used in the connection of the sheathing materials to the studs, significantly alter the behavior of manufactured homes under lateral loads. Previous full scale tests of laterally loaded manufactured homes confirm the contention that conventional analysis methods are not applicable. System behavior dominates the structural action of manufactured homes and its prediction requires a three dimensional analysis of the complete unit, including tie-downs. This project was

  10. Pennsylvania's technologically enhanced, naturally occurring radioactive material experiences and studies of the oil and gas industry.

    PubMed

    Allard, David J

    2015-02-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania's experiences and ongoing studies related to technologically enhanced, naturally occurring radioactive material (TENORM) in the oil and gas industry. It has been known for many years that Pennsylvania's geology is unique, with several areas having relatively high levels of natural uranium and thorium. In the 1950s, a few areas of the state were evaluated for commercial uranium production. In the late 1970s, scoping studies of radon in homes prompted the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) Bureau of Radiation Protection (BRP) to begin planning for a larger state-wide radon study. The BRP and Oil and Gas Bureau also performed a TENORM study of produced water in the early 1990s for a number of conventional oil and gas wells. More recently, BRP and the Bureau of Solid Waste developed radiation monitoring regulations for all Pennsylvania solid waste disposal facilities. These were implemented in 2001, prompting another evaluation of oil and gas operations and sludge generated from the treatment of conventionally produced water and brine but mainly focused on the disposal of TENORM solid waste in the state's Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Subtitle D landfills. However, since 2008, the increase in volumes of gas well wastewater and levels of Ra observed in the unconventional shale gas well flow-back fracking water has compelled DEP to fully re-examine these oil and gas operations. Specifically, with BRP in the lead, a new TENORM study of oil and gas operations and related wastewater treatment operations has been initiated (), supported by an American National Standards Institute standard on TENORM () and a U.S. Government Accountability Office report on shale resource development and risks (). This study began in early 2013 and will examine the potential public and worker radiation exposure and environmental impact as well as re-evaluate TENORM waste disposal. This

  11. A Naturally Occurring Canine Model of Autosomal Recessive Congenital Stationary Night Blindness

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Mineo; Das, Gautami; Imai, Ryoetsu; Santana, Evelyn; Nakashita, Tomio; Imawaka, Miho; Ueda, Kosuke; Ohtsuka, Hirohiko; Sakai, Kazuhiko; Aihara, Takehiro; Kato, Kumiko; Sugimoto, Masahiko; Ueno, Shinji; Nishizawa, Yuji; Aguirre, Gustavo D.; Miyadera, Keiko

    2015-01-01

    Congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB) is a non-progressive, clinically and genetically heterogeneous disease of impaired night vision. We report a naturally-occurring, stationary, autosomal recessive phenotype in beagle dogs with normal daylight vision but absent night vision. Affected dogs had normal retinas on clinical examination, but showed no detectable rod responses. They had “negative-type” mixed rod and cone responses in full-field ERGs. Their photopic long-flash ERGs had normal OFF-responses associated with severely reduced ON-responses. The phenotype is similar to the Schubert-Bornschein form of complete CSNB in humans. Homozygosity mapping ruled out most known CSNB candidates as well as CACNA2D4 and GNB3. Three remaining genes were excluded based on sequencing the open reading frame and intron-exon boundaries (RHO, NYX), causal to a different form of CSNB (RHO) or X-chromosome (NYX, CACNA1F) location. Among the genes expressed in the photoreceptors and their synaptic terminals, and mGluR6 cascade and modulators, reduced expression of GNAT1, CACNA2D4 and NYX was observed by qRT-PCR in both carrier (n = 2) and affected (n = 2) retinas whereas CACNA1F was down-regulated only in the affecteds. Retinal morphology revealed normal cellular layers and structure, and electron microscopy showed normal rod spherules and synaptic ribbons. No difference from normal was observed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) for antibodies labeling rods, cones and their presynaptic terminals. None of the retinas showed any sign of stress. Selected proteins of mGluR6 cascade and its modulators were examined by IHC and showed that PKCα weakly labeled the rod bipolar somata in the affected, but intensely labeled axonal terminals that appeared thickened and irregular. Dendritic terminals of ON-bipolar cells showed increased Goα labeling. Both PKCα and Goα labeled the more prominent bipolar dendrites that extended into the OPL in affected but not normal retinas

  12. Naturally occurring heavy radioactive elements in the geothermal microcosm of the Los Azufres (Mexico) volcanic complex.

    PubMed

    Abuhani, W A; Dasgupta-Schubert, N; Villaseñor, L M; García Avila, D; Suárez, L; Johnston, C; Borjas, S E; Alexander, S A; Landsberger, S; Suárez, M C

    2015-01-01

    The Los Azufres geothermal complex of central Mexico is characterized by fumaroles and boiling hot-springs. The fumaroles form habitats for extremophilic mosses and ferns. Physico-chemical measurements of two relatively pristine fumarolic microcosms point to their resemblance with the paleo-environment of earth during the Ordovician and Devonian periods. These geothermal habitats were analysed for the distribution of elemental mass fractions in the rhizospheric soil (RS), the native volcanic substrate (VS) and the sediments (S), using the new high-sensitivity technique of polarized x-ray energy dispersive fluorescence spectrometry (PEDXRF) as well as instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) for selected elements. This work presents the results for the naturally occurring heavy radioactive elements (NOHRE) Bi, Th and U but principally the latter two. For the RS, the density was found to be the least and the total organic matter content the most. Bi was found to be negligibly present in all substrate types. The average Th and U mass fractions in the RS were higher than in the VS and about equal to their average mass fractions in the S. The VS mass fraction of Th was higher, and of U lower, than the mass fractions in the earth's crust. In fact for the fumaroles of one site, the average RS mass fractions of these elements were higher than the averaged values for S (without considering the statistical dispersion). The immobilization of the NOHRE in the RS is brought about by the bio-geochemical processes specific to these extremophiles. Its effectiveness is such that despite the small masses of these plants, it compares with, or may sometimes exceed, the immobilization of the NOHRE in the S by the abiotic and aggressive chemical action of the hot-springs. These results indicate that the fumarolic plants are able to transform the volcanic substrate to soil and to affect the NOHRE mass fractions even though these elements are not plant nutrients. Mirrored back to

  13. Extraction and evaluation of natural occurring bioactive compounds and change in antioxidant activity during red winemaking.

    PubMed

    Ivanova-Petropulos, Violeta; Durakova, Sanja; Ricci, Arianna; Parpinello, Giuseppina P; Versari, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    Phenolic composition of red wines from Stanušina, a grape variety indigenous of the Republic of Macedonia, was compared with the regional Vranec and the international Cabernet Sauvignon. The extent of skin contact (i.e. maceration time) on levels of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of wines was evaluated. A total of 19 phenolic compounds were identified and quantified. Among these malvidin-3-glucoside and its derivatives were the major compounds, while caftaric acid was the predominant cinnamic acid derivative, followed by catechin, the main flavan-3-ol. The concentration of hydroxycinnamic acids, anthocyanins and (+)-catechin ranged from 224 to 511 mg/L, 22 to 360 mg/L and 26 20 to 375 mg/L, respectively and peaked at 3rd, 6th and 9th day of maceration, respectively. However, prolong maceration slightly decreased their concentration. Stanušina wines presented high levels of hydroxycinnamic acids and antioxidant activity. PMID:27478219

  14. Measuring and Modeling Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material: Interpreting the Relationship Between the Natural Radionuclides Present

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardo, A.J.; Mucha, A.F.

    2008-07-01

    The regulatory release of sites and facilities (property) for restricted or unrestricted use has evolved beyond prescribed levels to model-derived dose and risk based limits. Dose models for deriving corresponding soil and structure radionuclide concentration guidelines are necessarily simplified representations of complex processes. A conceptual site model is often developed to present a reasonable and somewhat conservative representation of the physical and chemical properties of the impacted material. Dose modeling software is then used to estimate resulting dose and/or radionuclide specific acceptance criteria (activity concentrations). When the source term includes any or all of the uranium, thorium or actinium natural decay series radionuclides the interpretation of the relationship between the individual radionuclides of the series is critical to a technically correct and complete assessment of risk and/or derivation of radionuclide specific acceptance criteria. Unlike man-made radionuclides, modeling and measuring naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) and technologically enhanced NORM (TENORM) source terms involves the interpretation of the relationship between the radionuclide present, e.g., secular equilibrium, enrichment, depletion or transient equilibrium. Isotopes of uranium, radium, and thorium occur in all three natural decay series. Each of the three series also produces a radon gas isotope as one of its progeny. In nature, the radionuclides in the three natural decay series are in a state that is approaching or has achieved secular equilibrium, in which the activities of all radionuclides within each series are nearly equal. However, ores containing the three natural decay series may begin in approximate secular equilibrium, but after processing, equilibrium may be broken and certain elements (and the radioactive isotopes of that element) may be concentrated or removed. Where the original ore may have contained one long chain of natural

  15. Naturally Occurring Arsenic in Ground Water, Norman, Oklahoma, 2004, and Remediation Options for Produced Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, S. Jerrod; Christenson, Scott

    2005-01-01

    can be used to bring some of Norman?s high-arsenic wells into compliance with the new arsenic standard, the EPA Office of Research and Development (ORD) initiated a three-year research project in 2003 with participation from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Oklahoma State University, and the City of Norman. The primary objectives of the project are to: (1) determine where naturally occurring arsenic is entering wells by collecting water samples at different depths, (2) investigate the utility of new methods for collecting water-quality data in a pumping well, (3) better understand the stratigraphy and composition of aquifer rocks, (4) assess 10 wells for the possibility of arsenic remediation by well modification, and (5) evaluate the effectiveness of well modification in bringing marginal wells into compliance with the new arsenic MCL. The purpose of this report is to describe the occurrence of arsenic in ground water near Norman, Oklahoma, and available options for reducing arsenic concentrations in produced ground water.

  16. Early and Delayed Effects of Naturally Occurring Asbestos on Serum Biomarkers of Inflammation and Metabolism

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies recently showed that intratracheal (IT) instillation of Libby amphibole (LA) increases circulating acute-phase proteins (APP; a-2 macroglobulin, A2M; and a-1 acid glycoprotein, AGP) and inflammatory biomarkers (osteopontin and lipocalin) in rats. In this study, objectives...

  17. Identification and Structural Characterization of Naturally-Occurring Broad-Spectrum Cyclic Antibiotics Isolated from Paenibacillus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knolhoff, Ann M.; Zheng, Jie; McFarland, Melinda A.; Luo, Yan; Callahan, John H.; Brown, Eric W.; Croley, Timothy R.

    2015-08-01

    The rise of antimicrobial resistance necessitates the discovery and/or production of novel antibiotics. Isolated strains of Paenibacillus alvei were previously shown to exhibit antimicrobial activity against a number of pathogens, such as E. coli, Salmonella, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The responsible antimicrobial compounds were isolated from these Paenibacillus strains and a combination of low and high resolution mass spectrometry with multiple-stage tandem mass spectrometry was used for identification. A group of closely related cyclic lipopeptides was identified, differing primarily by fatty acid chain length and one of two possible amino acid substitutions. Variation in the fatty acid length resulted in mass differences of 14 Da and yielded groups of related MSn spectra. Despite the inherent complexity of MS/MS spectra of cyclic compounds, straightforward analysis of these spectra was accomplished by determining differences in complementary product ion series between compounds that differ in molecular weight by 14 Da. The primary peptide sequence assignment was confirmed through genome mining; the combination of these analytical tools represents a workflow that can be used for the identification of complex antibiotics. The compounds also share amino acid sequence similarity to a previously identified broad-spectrum antibiotic isolated from Paenibacillus. The presence of such a wide distribution of related compounds produced by the same organism represents a novel class of broad-spectrum antibiotic compounds.

  18. The effect of weathering on ecopersistence, reactivity, and potential toxicity of naturally occurring asbestos and asbestiform minerals.

    PubMed

    Enrico Favero-Longo, Sergio; Turci, Francesco; Tomatis, Maura; Compagnoni, Roberto; Piervittori, Rosanna; Fubini, Bice

    2009-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying asbestos toxicity mainly rely on experiments performed on "laboratory" fibers, but little data is available on naturally occurring asbestos (NOA). Human exposure to NOA is subject to their ecopersistence and the modulation of their potential toxicity following weathering. The effect of weathering on three fibrous minerals from the Italian Western Alps, chrysotile, tremolite, and balangeroite-a Fe-rich asbestiform mineral-was investigated by mimicking more than 100 yr of physical (freezing-thawing/wetting-drying cycles in a climatic chamber) and biochemical forces (incubation with oxalic acid). Ion release, evaluated by means of inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), and variation in chemical composition, evaluated by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), indicated that weathering modified the fibers in the series: chrysotile > balangeroite > tremolite. Kinetics of ion release from the fibers (Mg, Fe, and Si) revealed different ion removal pathways. Tremolite was poorly affected. Chrysotile preferentially released cations up to a plateau, with physical and biochemical forces acting competitively. Conversely, for balangeroite, upon which weathering forces acted synergistically, the initial loss of ions facilitated further dissolution and more Si than Mg was released, suggesting an ongoing collapse of the crystal structure. Depletion of redox-reactive ions produced a significant reduction in fiber-derived *OH radicals (EPR, spin-trapping technique), but the fibrous nature was always retained. Despite weathered fibers appearing less toxic than "stored/laboratory" ones, NOA is to be considered far from safe because of fibrous nature and residual surface reactivity. Risk assessment needs to consider the effect of weathering on exposures. Both tremolite and balangeroite may contaminate, in some areas, chrysotile asbestos. However, in contrast to tremolite, balangeroite

  19. Electrosynthesis and characterization of nanostructured polyquinone for use in detection and quantification of naturally occurring dsDNA.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Loreto A; Del Valle, María A; Armijo, Francisco

    2016-05-15

    The detection of naturally occurring desoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) has become a subject of study by the projections that would generate to be able to sense the genetic material for the detection of future diseases. Bearing this in mind, to provide new measuring strategies, in the current work the preparation of a low-cost electrode, modified with poly(1-amino-9,10-anthraquinone) nanowires using a SiO2 template, is carried out; the assembly is next modified by covalently attaching ssDNA strands. It must be noted that all this is accomplished by using solely electrochemical techniques, according to methodology developed for this purpose. SEM images of the modified surface show high order and homogeneity in the distribution of modified nanowires over the electrode surface. In turn, after the hybridization with its complementary strand, the voltammetric responses enable corroborating the linear relationship between hybridization at different DNA concentrations and normalized current response, obtaining a limit of detection (LOD) 5.7·10(-12)gL(-1) and limit of quantification (LOQ) 1.9·10(-11)gL(-1). The working dynamic range is between 1.4·10(-7) and 8.5·10(-9)gL(-1) with a correlation coefficient 0.9998. The successful obtaining of the modified electrode allows concluding that the high order reached by the nanostructures, guides the subsequent single strand of DNA (ssDNA) covalent attachment, which after hybridization with its complementary strand brings about a considerable current increase. This result allows foreseeing a guaranteed breakthrough with regard to the use of the biosensor in real samples. PMID:26710345

  20. Some Nutritional Characteristics of a Naturally Occurring Alga (Microcystis sp.) in a Guatemalan Lake

    PubMed Central

    de la Fuente, Gabriel; Flores, Antonio; Molina, Mario R.; Almengor, Leticia; Bressani, Ricardo

    1977-01-01

    The nutritional characteristics of an alga (Microcystis sp.) that occurs naturally in a Guatemalan lake were determined. The sun-dried material proved to have a high protein content (55.6%) and to be a possible good source of calcium and phosphorus (1, 169.1 and 633.4 mg/100 mg, respectively). Amino acid analysis showed that total sulfur amino acids were the most deficient ones, giving a protein score of 42 to the material. The in vitro protein digestibility of the material was 69.5%. Biological trials demonstrated that when the material was offered as the only protein source, very low consumption and a high mortality rate were obtained whether or not the diet was supplemented with 0.4% dl-methionine. However, when the material supplied 25% of the total protein of a corn-algae diet, the protein quality of the cereal was significantly improved (P < 0.05). PMID:16345191

  1. Synthesis and Characterization of Arsenolipids: Naturally Occurring Arsenic Compounds in Fish and Algae

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic-containing lipids (arsenolipids) are natural products present in fish and algae. Because these compounds occur in foods, there is considerable interest in their human toxicology. We report the synthesis and characterization of seven arsenic-containing lipids, including six natural products. The compounds comprise dimethylarsinyl groups attached to saturated long-chain hydrocarbons (three compounds), saturated long-chain fatty acids (two compounds), and monounsaturated long chain fatty acids (two compounds). The arsenic group was introduced through sodium dimethylarsenide or bis(dimethylarsenic) oxide. The latter route provided higher and more reproducible yields, and consequently, this pathway was followed to synthesize six of the seven compounds. Mass spectral properties are described to assist in the identification of these compounds in natural samples. The pure synthesized arsenolipids will be used for in vitro experiments with human cells to test their uptake, biotransformation, and possible toxic effects. PMID:24683287

  2. Stratigraphic and geochemical controls on naturally occurring arsenic in groundwater, eastern Wisconsin, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiber, M. E.; Simo, J. A.; Freiberg, P. G.

    High arsenic concentrations (up to 12,000μg/L) have been measured in groundwater from a confined sandstone aquifer in eastern Wisconsin. The main arsenic source is a sulfide-bearing secondary cement horizon (SCH) that has variable thickness, morphology, and arsenic concentrations. Arsenic occurs in pyrite and marcasite as well as in iron oxyhydroxides but not as a separate arsenopyrite phase. Nearly identical sulfur isotopic signatures in pyrite and dissolved sulfate and the correlation between dissolved sulfate, iron, and arsenic concentrations suggest that sulfide oxidation is the dominant process controlling arsenic release to groundwater. However, arsenic-bearing oxyhydroxides can potentially provide another arsenic source if reducing conditions develop or if they are transported as colloids in the aquifer. Analysis of well data indicates that the intersection of the SCH with static water levels measured in residential wells is strongly correlated with high concentrations of arsenic in groundwater. Field and laboratory data suggest that the most severe arsenic contamination is caused by localized borehole interactions of air, water, and sulfides. Although arsenic contamination is caused by oxidation of naturally occurring sulfides, it is influenced by water-level fluctuations caused by municipal well pumping or climate changes, which can shift geographic areas in which contamination occurs. Résumé De fortes concentrations en arsenic, jusqu'à 12000μg/L, ont été mesurées dans l'eau souterraine d'un aquifère gréseux captif, dans l'est du Wisconsin. La principale source d'arsenic est un horizon à cimentation secondaire (SCH) comportant des sulfures, dont l'épaisseur, la morphologie et les concentrations en arsenic sont variables. L'arsenic est présent dans la pyrite et dans la marcassite, de même que dans des oxy-hydroxydes de fer, mais non pas dans une phase séparée d'arsénopyrite. Les signatures isotopiques du soufre presque identiques dans la

  3. Effect of naturally occurring antimicrobials and chemical preservatives on the growth of Aspergillus Parasiticus.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Prathesha; Ramaswamy, K

    2012-04-01

    Effect of water activity (aw, 0.99), pH (4.5) and their interaction on the growth inhibition of Aspergillus parasiticus was studied on potato dextrose agar (PDA) using various antimicrobial agents (citral, carvacrol, eugenol, cineole, thymol guaiacol, vanillin, anethol, potassium sorbate and sorbic acid). The results demonstrate that colony diameter (mm) exhibited a constant increase with time (zero order kinetics) for all antimicrobials evaluated. Eugenol and sorbic acid inhibited the test fungi at 300 and 600 ppm, respectively. Radial growth rate (RGR) of A. parasiticus was significantly (p < 0.05) different among different antimicrobials as well as the concentrations tested. However, this difference was not observed with higher concentration of citral, eugenol, vanillin and sorbic acid. Among the antimicrobials evaluated potassium sorbate, cineole, anethol and guaiacol were least effective. Thymol, eugenol and carvacrol were more effective in inhibiting A. parasiticus even with low concentration (150 ppm) as their mean RGR was zero even after 20 days of incubation (pH 4.5). PMID:23572846

  4. Dissolution kinetics of Pd and Pt from automobile catalysts by naturally occurring complexing agents.

    PubMed

    Sebek, Ondřej; Mihaljevič, Martin; Strnad, Ladislav; Ettler, Vojtěch; Ježek, Josef; Stědrý, Robin; Drahota, Petr; Ackerman, Lukáš; Adamec, Vladimír

    2011-12-30

    Powder samples prepared from gasoline (Pt, Pd, Rh, new GN/old GO) and diesel (Pt, new DN/old DO) catalysts and recycled catalyst NIST 2556 were tested using kinetic leaching experiments following 1, 12, 24, 48, 168, 360, 720 and 1440-h interactions with solutions of 20mM citric acid (CA), 20 mM Na(2)P(4)O(7) (NaPyr), 1 g L(-1) NaCl (NaCl), a fulvic acid solution (FA-DOC 50 mg L(-1)) and 20 mM CA at pH 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. The mobilisation of platinum group elements (PGEs) was fastest in solutions of CA and NaPyr. In the other interactions (NaCl, FA), the release of PGEs was probably followed by immobilisation processes, and the interactions were not found to correspond to the simple release of PGEs into solution. Because of their low concentrations, the individual complexing agents did not have any effect on the speciation of Pd and Pt in the extracts; both metals are present in solution as the complexes Me(OH)(2), Me(OH)(+). Immobilisation can take place through the adsorption of the positively charged hydroxyl complexes or flocculation of fulvic acid, complexing the PGEs on the surface of the extracted catalysts. The calculated normalised bulk released NRi values are similar to the reaction rate highest in the solutions of CA and NaPyr. PMID:22078491

  5. Microbial interactions with naturally occurring hydrophobic sediments: Influence on sediment and associated contaminant mobility.

    PubMed

    Droppo, I G; Krishnappan, B G; Lawrence, J R

    2016-04-01

    The erosion, transport and fate of sediments and associated contaminants are known to be influenced by both particle characteristics and the flow dynamics imparted onto the sediment. The influential role of bitumen containing hydrophobic sediments and the microbial community on sediment dynamics are however less understood. This study links an experimental evaluation of sediment erosion with measured sediment-associated contaminant concentrations and microbial community analysis to provide an estimate of the potential for sediment to control the erosion, transport and fate of contaminants. Specifically the paper addresses the unique behaviour of hydrophobic sediments and the role that the microbial community associated with hydrophobic sediment may play in the transport of contaminated sediment. Results demonstrate that the hydrophobic cohesive sediment demonstrates unique transport and particle characteristics (poor settling and small floc size). Biofilms were observed to increase with consolidation/biostabilization times and generated a unique microbial consortium relative to the eroded flocs. Natural oil associated with the flocs appeared to be preferentially associated with microbial derived extracellular polymeric substances. While PAHs and naphthenic acid increased with increasing shear (indicative of increasing loads), they tended to decrease with consolidation/biostabilization (CB) time at similar shears suggesting a chemical and/or biological degradation. PAH and napthenic acid degrading microbes decreased with time as well, which may suggest that there was a reduced pool of PAHs and naphthenic acids available resulting in their die off. This study emphasizes the importance that any management strategies and operational assessments for the protection of human and aquatic health incorporate the sediment (suspended and bed sediment) and biological (biofilm) compartments and the energy dynamics within the system in order to better predict contaminant

  6. Bioaccessibility and degradation of naturally occurring arsenic species from food in the human gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Capilla, Teresa; Beshai, Mona; Maher, William; Kelly, Tamsin; Foster, Simon

    2016-12-01

    Humans are exposed to organic arsenic species through their diet and therefore, are susceptible to arsenic toxicity. Investigating the transformations occurring in the gastrointestinal tract will influence which arsenic species to focus on when studying metabolism in cells. Using a physiologically based extraction test, the bioaccessibility of arsenic species was determined after the simulated gastrointestinal digestion of rice, seaweed and fish. Pure standards of the major arsenic species present in these foodstuffs (arsenic glutathione complexes, arsenosugars and short chain fatty acids) were also evaluated to assess the effect of the food matrix on bioaccessibility and transformation. Approximately 80% of arsenic is released from these foodstuffs, potentially becoming available. Hydrolysis and demethylation of arsenic glutathione complexes and arsenosugars standards was observed, but no transformations occurred to arsenosugars present in seaweed. Demethylation of MA and DMA from rice occurs increasing the amount of inorganic arsenic species available for metabolism. PMID:27374523

  7. Naturally occurring radionuclides and rare earth elements in weathered Japanese soil samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, Sarata; Hosoda, Masahiro; Prasad, Ganesh; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Tokonami, Shinji; Uchida, Shigeo

    2013-08-01

    The activity concentrations of 226Ra and 228Ac in weathered Japanese soils from two selected prefectures have been measured using a γ-ray spectroscopy system with high purity germanium detector. The uranium, thorium, and rare earth elements (REEs) concentrations were determined from the same soil samples using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). For example, granitic rocks contain higher amounts of U, Th, and light REEs compared to other igneous rocks such as basalt and andesites. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the interaction between REEs and nature of soils since soils are complex heterogeneous mixture of organic and inorganic solids, water, and gases. In this paper, we will discuss about distribution pattern of 238U and 232Th along with REEs in soil samples of weathered acid rock (granite) collected from two prefectures of Japan: Hiroshima and Miyagi.

  8. Naturally occurring structural isomers in serum IgA1 o-glycosylation.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kazuo; Smith, Archer D; Poulsen, Knud; Kilian, Mogens; Julian, Bruce A; Mestecky, Jiri; Novak, Jan; Renfrow, Matthew B

    2012-02-01

    IgA is the most abundantly produced antibody and plays an important role in the mucosal immune system. Human IgA is represented by two isotypes, IgA1 and IgA2. The major structural difference between these two subclasses is the presence of nine potential sites of O-glycosylation in the hinge region between the first and second constant region domains of the heavy chain. Thr(225), Thr(228), Ser(230), Ser(232) and Thr(236) have been identified as the predominant sites of O-glycan attachment. The range and distribution of O-glycan chains at each site within the context of adjacent sites in this clustered region create a complex heterogeneity of surface epitopes that is incompletely defined. We previously described the analysis of IgA1 O-glycan heterogeneity by use of high resolution LC-MS and electron capture dissociation tandem MS to unambiguously localize all amino acid attachment sites in IgA1 (Ale) myeloma protein. Here, we report the identification and elucidation of IgA1 O-glycopeptide structural isomers that occur based on amino acid position of the attached glycans (positional isomers) and the structure of the O-glycan chains at individual sites (glycan isomers). These isomers are present in a model IgA1 (Mce1) myeloma protein and occur naturally in normal human serum IgA1. Variable O-glycan chains attached to Ser(230), Thr(233) or Thr(236) produce the predominant positional isomers, including O-glycans composed of a single GalNAc residue. These findings represent the first definitive identification of structural isomeric IgA1 O-glycoforms, define the single-site heterogeneity for all O-glycan sites in a single sample, and have implications for defining epitopes based on clustered O-glycan variability.

  9. Food safety and risk assessment: naturally occurring potential toxicants and anti-nutritive compounds in plant foods.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Thomas A B

    2003-01-01

    The centralisation and globalisation of the world food supply presents opportunities for massive epidemics of food borne illness. Food processing generally decreases exposure to naturally occurring toxicants. A significant number of deaths are caused in both developed and developing countries from the consumption of naturally occurring toxicants and this exceeds the numbers attributable to artificial food contaminants and pollutants. The risk posed by naturally occurring toxicants is greater in developing countries where food choice and facilities for food processing are limited. The main risk in developed countries is from food important from areas where food safety controls are inadequate. Toxins derived from marine algae present a specific threat to health especially as seafood is being traded from areas where poisoning by algal toxins is known to occur. A systematic approach to food safety using HACCP methodology and identity preservation of the food are crucial in the prevention of food related illness. There is also a need for international agreed standards for tolerable levels of naturally occurring toxicants in foodstuffs but these should derived not be set unreasonably low as this would threaten food security in developing countries. The occurrence of a number of fatalities in developing countries among people consuming herbal teas and dietary supplements underscores the need to assess the safety of these products before they are placed on the market. PMID:15806954

  10. AcuteToxicological Responses of Fischer Rats to Naturally Occurring Asbestos Samples from the United States and Canada

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential public health issues related to exposure to natural asbestos deposits (commonly termed naturally occurring asbestos, NO A) has gained the regulatory and media spotlight in recent years. Arguably the most well known example is Libby, Montana, the site of the largest ...

  11. Predation and Parasitism Rates on Sentinel and Naturally Occurring Egg Masses of the Squash Bug (Hemiptera: Coreidae) in Maryland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seasonal changes in egg predation and parasitism rates on sentinel and naturally occurring (wild) egg masses of the squash bug, Anasa tristis (DeGeer), were evaluated in squash fields in Maryland from June through September in 2013 and 2014. Rates of egg predation and parasitism were significantly ...

  12. Elevated Appraisals of the Negative Impact of Naturally Occurring Life Events: A Risk Factor for Depressive and Anxiety Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espejo, Emmanuel Peter; Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    The tendency to appraise naturally occurring life events (LEs) as having high negative impact may be a predisposing factor for the development of depression and anxiety disorders. In the current study, appraisals of the negative impact of recent LEs were examined in relationship to depressive and anxiety disorders in a sample of 653 adolescents…

  13. The Case of an In-Home Recreation Program for an Older Adult in a Naturally Occurring Retirement Community (NORC).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chow, Yvette

    2002-01-01

    Describes the implementation of an in-home therapeutic recreation (TR) program with an elderly woman living in a naturally occurring retirement community (NORC) by a fourth-year TR student. The program helped meet her physical, social, and cognitive needs and re-stimulate her interests. Results suggest that in-home TR can be beneficial, and TR…

  14. The Nature, Occurring Contexts, and Psychological Implications of Weight-Related Teasing in Urban Physical Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Weidong; Rukavina, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the nature, occurring contexts, and psychological implications of weight-related teasing in urban physical education programs. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 47 participants from a large urban school district. Data were analyzed using inductive analysis and constant comparisons. Most overweight adolescents…

  15. Recruiting Older Adults into a Physical Activity Promotion Program: "Active Living Every Day" Offered in a Naturally Occurring Retirement Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildebrand, Mary; Neufeld, Peggy

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This article explores recruitment strategies based on the transtheoretical model (TTM) with older adults living in a naturally occurring retirement community (NORC) to encourage enrollment in a physical activity promotion program, "Active Living Every Day" (ALED). Reasons for participation or nonparticipation are identified. Design and…

  16. Food safety and risk assessment: naturally occurring potential toxicants and anti-nutritive compounds in plant foods.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Thomas A B

    2003-01-01

    The centralisation and globalisation of the world food supply presents opportunities for massive epidemics of food borne illness. Food processing generally decreases exposure to naturally occurring toxicants. A significant number of deaths are caused in both developed and developing countries from the consumption of naturally occurring toxicants and this exceeds the numbers attributable to artificial food contaminants and pollutants. The risk posed by naturally occurring toxicants is greater in developing countries where food choice and facilities for food processing are limited. The main risk in developed countries is from food important from areas where food safety controls are inadequate. Toxins derived from marine algae present a specific threat to health especially as seafood is being traded from areas where poisoning by algal toxins is known to occur. A systematic approach to food safety using HACCP methodology and identity preservation of the food are crucial in the prevention of food related illness. There is also a need for international agreed standards for tolerable levels of naturally occurring toxicants in foodstuffs but these should derived not be set unreasonably low as this would threaten food security in developing countries. The occurrence of a number of fatalities in developing countries among people consuming herbal teas and dietary supplements underscores the need to assess the safety of these products before they are placed on the market.

  17. A novel Arometic compound acts synergistically with a naturally occurring monoterpene to elicit strong behavioral responses in Asian citrus psyllid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inscent, Inc. has developed methodologies for rapidly screening potential ligands of chemosensory proteins (CSPs) isolated from the antennae of target insects. These novel ligands, referred to as Arometics, mimic naturally-occurring odorants and may function as super-stimuli because of their strong ...

  18. Cloning and expression of pig kidney dopa decarboxylase: comparison of the naturally occurring and recombinant enzymes.

    PubMed Central

    Moore, P S; Dominici, P; Borri Voltattorni, C

    1996-01-01

    L-Aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (dopa decarboxylase; DDC) is a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent homodimeric enzyme that catalyses the decarboxylation of L-dopa and other L-aromatic amino acids. To advance structure-function studies with the enzyme, a cDNA that codes for the protein from pig kidney has been cloned by joining a partial cDNA obtained by library screening with a synthetic portion constructed by the annealing and extension of long oligonucleotides. The hybrid cDNA was then expressed in Escherichia coli to produce recombinant protein. During characterization of the recombinant enzyme it was unexpectedly observed that it possesses certain differences from the enzyme purified from pig kidney. Whereas the later protein binds 1 molecule of PLP per dimer, the recombinant enzyme was found to bind two molecules of coenzyme per dimer. Moreover, the Vmax was twice that of the protein purified from tissue. On addition of substrate, the absorbance changes accompanying transaldimination were likewise 2-fold greater in the recombinant enzyme. Examination of the respective apoenzymes by absorbance, CD and fluorescence spectroscopy revealed distinct differences. The recombinant apoprotein has no significant absorbance at 335 nm, unlike the pig kidney apoenzyme; in the latter case this residual absorbance is associated with a positive dichroic signal. When excited at 335 nm the pig kidney apoenzyme has a pronounced emission maximum at 385 nm, in contrast with its recombinant counterpart, which shows a weak broad emission at about 400 nm. However, the holoenzyme-apoenzyme transition did not markedly alter the respective fluorescence properties of either recombinant or pig kidney DDC when excited at 335 nm. Taken together, these findings indicate that recombinant pig kidney DDC has two active-site PLP molecules and therefore displays structural characteristics typical of PLP-dependent homodimeric enzymes. The natural enzyme contains one active-site PLP molecule

  19. Antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of naturally occurring phenolic and related compounds: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Rao, Yerra Koteswara; Geethangili, Madamanchi; Fang, Shih-Hua; Tzeng, Yew-Min

    2007-09-01

    The antioxidant (DPPH radical and superoxide anion scavenging activities), and cytotoxic (in tumor, Jurkat, PC-3, Colon 205, HepG2, and normal PBMCs cells) activities of 16 plant phenolic or related compounds were evaluated in vitro. Different categories compounds corresponding to 10 flavonoids, three lignans, two phenolic acids, and a catechin showed significant mean differences in antioxidant and cytotoxic activities. Particularly, the flavonols, quercetin (3) and tiliroside (11) possess significant antioxidant activity, as well as cytotoxic activity against Jurkat; and Jurkat and HepG2 cells, respectively. In contrast, the flavanone, 5,7-dimethoxy-3',4'-methylenedioxyflavanone (7), and homoisoflavonoid, isobonducellin (10) shown to have no significant antioxidant activity, but exhibited potent cytotoxic activity in Jurkat and HepG2 cells, while moderate growth inhibition against Colon205 cells. Interestingly, none of these derivatives shown to have toxicity toward normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells, over the concentration range tested (5-200 microM). Cytotoxic activities of some natural flavonoids identified in the medicinal plants were evaluated for the first time.

  20. Effects on Liver Lipid Metabolism of the Naturally Occurring Dietary Flavone Luteolin-7-glucoside.

    PubMed

    Sá, Carla; Oliveira, Ana Rita; Machado, Cátia; Azevedo, Marisa; Pereira-Wilson, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Disruptions in whole-body lipid metabolism can lead to the onset of several pathologies such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). The present study aimed at elucidating the molecular mechanisms behind the lipid-lowering effects of the flavone luteolin-7-glucoside (L7G) which we previously showed to improve plasma lipid profile in rats. L7G is abundant in plant foods of Mediterranean diet such as aromatic plants used as herbs. Results show that dietary supplementation with L7G for one week induced the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-α) and of its target gene carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 (CPT-1) in rat liver. L7G showed a tendency to decrease the hepatic expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1), without affecting fatty acid synthase (FAS) protein levels. Although SREBP-2 and LDLr mRNA levels did not change, the expression of HMG CoA reductase (HMGCR) was significantly repressed by L7G. L7G also inhibited this enzyme's in vitro activity in a dose dependent manner, but only at high and not physiologically relevant concentrations. These results add new evidence that the flavone luteolin-7-glucoside may help in preventing metabolic diseases and clarify the mechanisms underlying the beneficial health effects of diets rich in fruits and vegetables.

  1. Effects on Liver Lipid Metabolism of the Naturally Occurring Dietary Flavone Luteolin-7-glucoside

    PubMed Central

    Sá, Carla; Oliveira, Ana Rita; Machado, Cátia; Azevedo, Marisa; Pereira-Wilson, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Disruptions in whole-body lipid metabolism can lead to the onset of several pathologies such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). The present study aimed at elucidating the molecular mechanisms behind the lipid-lowering effects of the flavone luteolin-7-glucoside (L7G) which we previously showed to improve plasma lipid profile in rats. L7G is abundant in plant foods of Mediterranean diet such as aromatic plants used as herbs. Results show that dietary supplementation with L7G for one week induced the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-α) and of its target gene carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 (CPT-1) in rat liver. L7G showed a tendency to decrease the hepatic expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1), without affecting fatty acid synthase (FAS) protein levels. Although SREBP-2 and LDLr mRNA levels did not change, the expression of HMG CoA reductase (HMGCR) was significantly repressed by L7G. L7G also inhibited this enzyme's in vitro activity in a dose dependent manner, but only at high and not physiologically relevant concentrations. These results add new evidence that the flavone luteolin-7-glucoside may help in preventing metabolic diseases and clarify the mechanisms underlying the beneficial health effects of diets rich in fruits and vegetables. PMID:26113868

  2. Neuropharmacology of the Naturally Occurring κ-Opioid Hallucinogen Salvinorin A

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Christopher W.; Rothman, Richard B.

    2011-01-01

    Salvia divinorum is a perennial sage native to Oaxaca, Mexico, that has been used traditionally in divination rituals and as a treatment for the “semimagical” disease panzón de borrego. Because of the intense “out-of-body” experiences reported after inhalation of the pyrolized smoke, S. divinorum has been gaining popularity as a recreational hallucinogen, and the United States and several other countries have regulated its use. Early studies isolated the neoclerodane diterpene salvinorin A as the principal psychoactive constituent responsible for these hallucinogenic effects. Since the finding that salvinorin A exerts its potent psychotropic actions through the activation of KOP receptors, there has been much interest in elucidating the underlying mechanisms behind its effects. These effects are particularly remarkable, because 1) salvinorin A is the first reported non-nitrogenous opioid receptor agonist, and 2) its effects are not mediated by the 5-HT2A receptor, the classic target of hallucinogens such as lysergic acid diethylamide and mescaline. Rigorous investigation into the structural features of salvinorin A responsible for opioid receptor affinity and selectivity has produced numerous receptor probes, affinity labels, and tools for evaluating the biological processes responsible for its observed psychological effects. Salvinorin A has therapeutic potential as a treatment for pain, mood and personality disorders, substance abuse, and gastrointestinal disturbances, and suggests that nonalkaloids are potential scaffolds for drug development for aminergic G-protein coupled receptors. PMID:21444610

  3. Structural investigation of naturally occurring peptides by electron capture dissociation and AMBER force field modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polfer, Nick C.; Haselmann, Kim F.; Langridge-Smith, Pat R. R.; Barran, Perdita E.

    We present a detailed analysis of the relative yields in dissociation products of doubly protonated polypeptide cations obtained via electron capture dissociation (ECD). These experimental studies are complemented by molecular dynamics force field modelling, using the AMBER force field, to correlate with putative gas-phase conformations for these peptides. It is shown that the highest gas-phase basicity amino acid residue (i.e. arginine) is included in all the charged fragments. This is of particular use in determining the primary structure tryptic digest peptides, which will ordinarily posses a high basicity C-terminal residue (i.e. arginine or lysine). Further, these results suggest that the relative ECD dissociation pattern is related to the secondary structure of the peptide. In particular, the ECD fragmentation pattern in gonadatropin releasing hormone (GnRH) variants appears to depend on whether a β-turn or an extended α-helical structure is formed. In the peptide bradykinin, modelling suggests that the C-terminal arginine engages in much more extended solvation of the backbone than the N-terminal arginine. This strongly correlates with the observed dominance of c over z fragments. This work forms the first attempt at a systematic qualitative correlation of the low-energy structures of modelled gas-phase polypeptides, and their corresponding ECD dissociation pattern.

  4. The source of naturally occurring arsenic in a coastal sand aquifer of eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    O'Shea, Bethany; Jankowski, Jerzy; Sammut, Jesmond

    2007-07-01

    The discovery of dissolved arsenic in a coastal aquifer used extensively for human consumption has led to widespread concern for its potential occurrence in other sandy coastal environments in eastern Australia. The development of an aquifer specific geomorphic model (herein) suggests that arsenic is regionally derived from erosion of arsenic-rich stibnite (Sb(2)S(3)) mineralisation present in the hinterland. Fluvial processes have transported the eroded material over time to deposit an aquifer lithology elevated in arsenic. Minor arsenic contribution to groundwater is derived from mineralised bedrock below the unconsolidated aquifer. An association with arsenic and pyrite has been observed in the aquifer in small discrete arsenian pyrite clusters rather than actual acid sulfate soil horizons. This association is likely to influence arsenic distribution in the aquifer, but is not the dominant control on arsenic occurrence. Arsenic association with marine clays is considered a function of their increased adsorptive capacity for arsenic and not solely on the influence of sea level inundation of the aquifer sediments during the Quaternary Period. These findings have implications for, but are not limited to, coastal aquifers. Rather, any aquifer containing sediments derived from mineralised provenances may be at risk of natural arsenic contamination. Groundwater resource surveys should thus incorporate a review of the aquifer source provenance when assessing the likely risk of natural arsenic occurrence in an aquifer.

  5. Effects on Liver Lipid Metabolism of the Naturally Occurring Dietary Flavone Luteolin-7-glucoside.

    PubMed

    Sá, Carla; Oliveira, Ana Rita; Machado, Cátia; Azevedo, Marisa; Pereira-Wilson, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Disruptions in whole-body lipid metabolism can lead to the onset of several pathologies such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). The present study aimed at elucidating the molecular mechanisms behind the lipid-lowering effects of the flavone luteolin-7-glucoside (L7G) which we previously showed to improve plasma lipid profile in rats. L7G is abundant in plant foods of Mediterranean diet such as aromatic plants used as herbs. Results show that dietary supplementation with L7G for one week induced the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-α) and of its target gene carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 (CPT-1) in rat liver. L7G showed a tendency to decrease the hepatic expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1), without affecting fatty acid synthase (FAS) protein levels. Although SREBP-2 and LDLr mRNA levels did not change, the expression of HMG CoA reductase (HMGCR) was significantly repressed by L7G. L7G also inhibited this enzyme's in vitro activity in a dose dependent manner, but only at high and not physiologically relevant concentrations. These results add new evidence that the flavone luteolin-7-glucoside may help in preventing metabolic diseases and clarify the mechanisms underlying the beneficial health effects of diets rich in fruits and vegetables. PMID:26113868

  6. A naturally occurring variant of the human prion protein completely prevents prion disease

    PubMed Central

    Asante, Emmanuel A.; Smidak, Michelle; Grimshaw, Andrew; Houghton, Richard; Tomlinson, Andrew; Jeelani, Asif; Jakubcova, Tatiana; Hamdan, Shyma; Richard-Londt, Angela; Linehan, Jacqueline M.; Brandner, Sebastian; Alpers, Michael; Whitfield, Jerome; Mead, Simon; Wadsworth, Jonathan D.F.; Collinge, John

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian prions, transmissible agents causing lethal neurodegenerative diseases, are composed of assemblies of misfolded cellular prion protein (PrP) 1. A novel PrP variant, G127V, was under positive evolutionary selection during the epidemic of kuru, an acquired prion disease epidemic of the Fore population in Papua New Guinea, and appeared to provide strong protection against disease in the heterozygous state2. We have now investigated the protective role of this variant and its interaction with the common worldwide M129V PrP polymorphism; V127 was seen exclusively on a M129 PRNP allele. Here we demonstrate that transgenic mice expressing both variant and wild type human PrP are completely resistant to both kuru and classical CJD prions (which are closely similar) but can be infected with variant CJD prions, a human prion strain resulting from exposure to BSE prions to which the Fore were not exposed. Remarkably however, mice expressing only PrP V127 were completely resistant to all prion strains demonstrating a different molecular mechanism to M129V, which provides its relative protection against classical CJD and kuru in the heterozygous state. Indeed this single amino acid substitution (G→V) at a residue invariant in vertebrate evolution is as protective as deletion of the protein. Further study in transgenic mice expressing different ratios of variant and wild type PrP indicates that not only is PrP V127 completely refractory to prion conversion, but acts as a potent dose-dependent inhibitor of wild type prion propagation. PMID:26061765

  7. Allelic polymorphism of GIGANTEA is responsible for naturally occurring variation in circadian period in Brassica rapa

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Qiguang; Lou, Ping; Hermand, Victor; Aman, Rashid; Park, Hee Jin; Yun, Dae-Jin; Kim, Woe Yeon; Salmela, Matti Juhani; Ewers, Brent E.; Weinig, Cynthia; Khan, Sarah L.; Schaible, D. Loring P.; McClung, C. Robertson

    2015-01-01

    GIGANTEA (GI) was originally identified by a late-flowering mutant in Arabidopsis, but subsequently has been shown to act in circadian period determination, light inhibition of hypocotyl elongation, and responses to multiple abiotic stresses, including tolerance to high salt and cold (freezing) temperature. Genetic mapping and analysis of families of heterogeneous inbred lines showed that natural variation in GI is responsible for a major quantitative trait locus in circadian period in Brassica rapa. We confirmed this conclusion by transgenic rescue of an Arabidopsis gi-201 loss of function mutant. The two B. rapa GI alleles each fully rescued the delayed flowering of Arabidopsis gi-201 but showed differential rescue of perturbations in red light inhibition of hypocotyl elongation and altered cold and salt tolerance. The B. rapa R500 GI allele, which failed to rescue the hypocotyl and abiotic stress phenotypes, disrupted circadian period determination in Arabidopsis. Analysis of chimeric B. rapa GI alleles identified the causal nucleotide polymorphism, which results in an amino acid substitution (S264A) between the two GI proteins. This polymorphism underlies variation in circadian period, cold and salt tolerance, and red light inhibition of hypocotyl elongation. Loss-of-function mutations of B. rapa GI confer delayed flowering, perturbed circadian rhythms in leaf movement, and increased freezing and increased salt tolerance, consistent with effects of similar mutations in Arabidopsis. Collectively, these data suggest that allelic variation of GI—and possibly of clock genes in general—offers an attractive target for molecular breeding for enhanced stress tolerance and potentially for improved crop yield. PMID:25775524

  8. Allelic polymorphism of GIGANTEA is responsible for naturally occurring variation in circadian period in Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qiguang; Lou, Ping; Hermand, Victor; Aman, Rashid; Park, Hee Jin; Yun, Dae-Jin; Kim, Woe Yeon; Salmela, Matti Juhani; Ewers, Brent E; Weinig, Cynthia; Khan, Sarah L; Schaible, D Loring P; McClung, C Robertson

    2015-03-24

    GIGANTEA (GI) was originally identified by a late-flowering mutant in Arabidopsis, but subsequently has been shown to act in circadian period determination, light inhibition of hypocotyl elongation, and responses to multiple abiotic stresses, including tolerance to high salt and cold (freezing) temperature. Genetic mapping and analysis of families of heterogeneous inbred lines showed that natural variation in GI is responsible for a major quantitative trait locus in circadian period in Brassica rapa. We confirmed this conclusion by transgenic rescue of an Arabidopsis gi-201 loss of function mutant. The two B. rapa GI alleles each fully rescued the delayed flowering of Arabidopsis gi-201 but showed differential rescue of perturbations in red light inhibition of hypocotyl elongation and altered cold and salt tolerance. The B. rapa R500 GI allele, which failed to rescue the hypocotyl and abiotic stress phenotypes, disrupted circadian period determination in Arabidopsis. Analysis of chimeric B. rapa GI alleles identified the causal nucleotide polymorphism, which results in an amino acid substitution (S264A) between the two GI proteins. This polymorphism underlies variation in circadian period, cold and salt tolerance, and red light inhibition of hypocotyl elongation. Loss-of-function mutations of B. rapa GI confer delayed flowering, perturbed circadian rhythms in leaf movement, and increased freezing and increased salt tolerance, consistent with effects of similar mutations in Arabidopsis. Collectively, these data suggest that allelic variation of GI-and possibly of clock genes in general-offers an attractive target for molecular breeding for enhanced stress tolerance and potentially for improved crop yield.

  9. Palmitoylethanolamide, a naturally occurring lipid, is an orally effective intestinal anti-inflammatory agent

    PubMed Central

    Borrelli, Francesca; Romano, Barbara; Petrosino, Stefania; Pagano, Ester; Capasso, Raffaele; Coppola, Diana; Battista, Giovanni; Orlando, Pierangelo; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Izzo, Angelo A

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) acts via several targets, including cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors, transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1 (TRPV1) ion channels, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR α) and orphan G protein-coupled receptor 55 (GRR55), all involved in the control of intestinal inflammation. Here, we investigated the effect of PEA in a murine model of colitis. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Colitis was induced in mice by intracolonic administration of dinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (DNBS). Inflammation was assessed by evaluating inflammatory markers/parameters and by histology; intestinal permeability by a fluorescent method; colonic cell proliferation by immunohistochemistry; PEA and endocannabinoid levels by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry; receptor and enzyme mRNA expression by quantitative RT-PCR. KEY RESULTS DNBS administration caused inflammatory damage, increased colonic levels of PEA and endocannabinoids, down-regulation of mRNA for TRPV1 and GPR55 but no changes in mRNA for CB1, CB2 and PPARα. Exogenous PEA (i.p. and/or p.o., 1 mg·kg−1) attenuated inflammation and intestinal permeability, stimulated colonic cell proliferation, and increased colonic TRPV1 and CB1 receptor expression. The anti-inflammatory effect of PEA was attenuated or abolished by CB2 receptor, GPR55 or PPARα antagonists and further increased by the TRPV1 antagonist capsazepine. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS PEA improves murine experimental colitis, the effect being mediated by CB2 receptors, GPR55 and PPARα, and modulated by TRPV1 channels. PMID:25205418

  10. A naturally occurring variant of the human prion protein completely prevents prion disease.

    PubMed

    Asante, Emmanuel A; Smidak, Michelle; Grimshaw, Andrew; Houghton, Richard; Tomlinson, Andrew; Jeelani, Asif; Jakubcova, Tatiana; Hamdan, Shyma; Richard-Londt, Angela; Linehan, Jacqueline M; Brandner, Sebastian; Alpers, Michael; Whitfield, Jerome; Mead, Simon; Wadsworth, Jonathan D F; Collinge, John

    2015-06-25

    Mammalian prions, transmissible agents causing lethal neurodegenerative diseases, are composed of assemblies of misfolded cellular prion protein (PrP). A novel PrP variant, G127V, was under positive evolutionary selection during the epidemic of kuru--an acquired prion disease epidemic of the Fore population in Papua New Guinea--and appeared to provide strong protection against disease in the heterozygous state. Here we have investigated the protective role of this variant and its interaction with the common, worldwide M129V PrP polymorphism. V127 was seen exclusively on a M129 PRNP allele. We demonstrate that transgenic mice expressing both variant and wild-type human PrP are completely resistant to both kuru and classical Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) prions (which are closely similar) but can be infected with variant CJD prions, a human prion strain resulting from exposure to bovine spongiform encephalopathy prions to which the Fore were not exposed. Notably, mice expressing only PrP V127 were completely resistant to all prion strains, demonstrating a different molecular mechanism to M129V, which provides its relative protection against classical CJD and kuru in the heterozygous state. Indeed, this single amino acid substitution (G→V) at a residue invariant in vertebrate evolution is as protective as deletion of the protein. Further study in transgenic mice expressing different ratios of variant and wild-type PrP indicates that not only is PrP V127 completely refractory to prion conversion but acts as a potent dose-dependent inhibitor of wild-type prion propagation.

  11. A naturally occurring variant of the human prion protein completely prevents prion disease.

    PubMed

    Asante, Emmanuel A; Smidak, Michelle; Grimshaw, Andrew; Houghton, Richard; Tomlinson, Andrew; Jeelani, Asif; Jakubcova, Tatiana; Hamdan, Shyma; Richard-Londt, Angela; Linehan, Jacqueline M; Brandner, Sebastian; Alpers, Michael; Whitfield, Jerome; Mead, Simon; Wadsworth, Jonathan D F; Collinge, John

    2015-06-25

    Mammalian prions, transmissible agents causing lethal neurodegenerative diseases, are composed of assemblies of misfolded cellular prion protein (PrP). A novel PrP variant, G127V, was under positive evolutionary selection during the epidemic of kuru--an acquired prion disease epidemic of the Fore population in Papua New Guinea--and appeared to provide strong protection against disease in the heterozygous state. Here we have investigated the protective role of this variant and its interaction with the common, worldwide M129V PrP polymorphism. V127 was seen exclusively on a M129 PRNP allele. We demonstrate that transgenic mice expressing both variant and wild-type human PrP are completely resistant to both kuru and classical Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) prions (which are closely similar) but can be infected with variant CJD prions, a human prion strain resulting from exposure to bovine spongiform encephalopathy prions to which the Fore were not exposed. Notably, mice expressing only PrP V127 were completely resistant to all prion strains, demonstrating a different molecular mechanism to M129V, which provides its relative protection against classical CJD and kuru in the heterozygous state. Indeed, this single amino acid substitution (G→V) at a residue invariant in vertebrate evolution is as protective as deletion of the protein. Further study in transgenic mice expressing different ratios of variant and wild-type PrP indicates that not only is PrP V127 completely refractory to prion conversion but acts as a potent dose-dependent inhibitor of wild-type prion propagation. PMID:26061765

  12. Relative Resistance of HLA-B to Downregulation by Naturally Occurring HIV-1 Nef Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Mahiti, Macdonald; Toyoda, Mako; Jia, Xiaofei; Kuang, Xiaomei T.; Mwimanzi, Francis; Mwimanzi, Philip; Walker, Bruce D.; Xiong, Yong; Brumme, Zabrina L.; Brockman, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT HIV-1 Nef binds to the cytoplasmic region of HLA-A and HLA-B and downregulates these molecules from the surface of virus-infected cells, thus evading immune detection by CD8+ T cells. Polymorphic residues within the HLA cytoplasmic region may affect Nef’s downregulation activity. However, the effects of HLA polymorphisms on recognition by primary Nef isolates remain elusive, as do the specific Nef regions responsible for downregulation of HLA-A versus HLA-B. Here, we examined 46 Nef clones isolated from chronically HIV-1 subtype B-infected subjects for their ability to downregulate various HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-C molecules on the surface of virus-infected cells. Overall, HLA-B exhibited greater resistance to Nef-mediated downregulation than HLA-A, regardless of the cell type examined. As expected, no Nef clone downregulated HLA-C. Importantly, the differential abilities of patient-derived Nef clones to downregulate HLA-A and HLA-B correlated inversely with the sensitivities of HIV-infected target cells to recognition by effector cells expressing an HIV-1 Gag-specific T cell receptor. Nef codon function analysis implicated amino acid variation at position 202 (Nef-202) in differentially affecting the ability to downregulate HLA-A and HLA-B, an observation that was subsequently confirmed by experiments using Nef mutants constructed by site-directed mutagenesis. The in silico and mutagenesis analyses further suggested that Nef-202 may interact with the C-terminal Cys-Lys-Val residues of HLA-A, which are absent in HLA-B. Taken together, the results show that natural polymorphisms within Nef modulate its interaction with natural polymorphisms in the HLA cytoplasmic tails, thereby affecting the efficiency of HLA downregulation and consequent recognition by HIV-specific T cells. These results thus extend our understanding of this complex pathway of retroviral immune evasion. PMID:26787826

  13. Thermal and photoinduced reduction of ionic Au(III) to elemental Au nanoparticles by dissolved organic matter in water: possible source of naturally occurring Au nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Yin, Yongguang; Yu, Sujuan; Liu, Jingfu; Jiang, Guibin

    2014-01-01

    Naturally occurring Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been widely observed in ore deposits, coal, soil, and environmental water. Identifying the source of these naturally occurring AuNPs could be helpful for not only the discovery of Au deposits through advanced exploration methods, but also the elucidation of the biogeochemical cycle and environmental toxicity of ionic Au and engineered AuNPs. Here, we investigated the effect of natural/simulated sunlight and heating on the reduction of ionic Au by ubiquitous dissolved organic matter (DOM) in river water. The reductive process probed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that phenolic, alcoholic, and aldehyde groups in DOM act as reductive sites. Long-time exposure with thermal and photoirradiation induced the further fusion and growth of AuNPs to branched Au nanostructure as precipitation. The formation processes and kinetics of AuNPs were further investigated using humic acid (HA) as the DOM model, with comprehensive characterizing methods. We have observed that HA can reduce ionic Au(III) complex (as chloride or hydroxyl complex) to elemental Au nanoparticles under sunlight or heating. In this process, nearly all of the Au(III) could be reduced to AuNPs, in which HA serves as not only the reductive agent, but also the coating agent to stabilize and disperse AuNPs. The size and stability of AuNPs were highly dependent on the concentration ratio of Au(III) to HA. These results imply that, besides biological processes, this thermal or photochemical reduction process is another possible source of naturally occurring AuNPs in natural environments, which possibly has critical impacts on the transport and transformation of Au and engineered AuNPs.

  14. Removal of lipid soluble process chemicals from biological materials by extraction with naturally occurring oils or synthetic substitutes thereof

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, K.R.; Orme, T.W.

    1988-12-06

    This patent describes a method of removing lipid soluble process chemicals from biological materials comprising blood plasma and fractions thereof containing the lipid soluble process chemicals. The lipid soluble process chemical is a virus attenuating solvent having a high flash point, a detergent, or a mixture thereof. It comprises bringing the biological materials containing the lipid soluble process chemicals into contact with an effective amount of a naturally occurring oil extracted from a plant or an animal or a synthetic compound of similar chemical structure. Also described is a method of removing lymphokine inducing phorbol esters from lympholkine-containing biological material. It comprises bringing the biological materials containing the phorbol esters into contact with an effective amount of a naturally occurring oil extracted from a plant or an animal or a synthetic compound of similar chemical structure so as to remove 80% or more of the phorbol esters.

  15. L-tryptophan reacts with naturally occurring and food-occurring phenolic aldehydes to give phenolic tetrahydro-beta-carboline alkaloids: activity as antioxidants and free radical scavengers.

    PubMed

    Herraiz, Tomas; Galisteo, Juan; Chamorro, Cristina

    2003-04-01

    The reaction between the essential amino acid l-tryptophan and flavoring or naturally occurring phenyl and phenolic aldehydes was studied, and the alkaloidal reaction products were characterized by NMR and HPLC-MS. Benzaldehyde, vanillin, syringaldehyde, salicylaldehyde, and anisaldehyde condensed with l-tryptophan in aqueous-acidic media affording the corresponding phenolic tetrahydro-beta-carboline-3-carboxylic acid as two diastereoisomers, 1S,3S-cis and 1R,3S-trans. With the exception of benzaldehyde, the rest of the aldehydes needed heating conditions (70 degrees C) to significantly form tetrahydro-beta-carbolines over time with the cyclization highly favored at low pH. This suggests a likely formation of these compounds under conditions that may occur in foods, food processing, or cooking. The new phenolic tetrahydro-beta-carboline alkaloids were assayed, for the first time, for their activity as free radical scavengers and antioxidants and showed good antioxidant properties with Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) values much higher than those of ascorbic acid and the water soluble vitamin E analogue, Trolox, in the 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) assay.

  16. A naturally occurring mutation within the probe-binding region compromises a molecular-based West Nile virus surveillance assay for mosquito pools (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Brault, Aaron C; Fang, Ying; Dannen, Maureen; Anishchenko, Michael; Reisen, William K

    2012-07-01

    A naturally occurring mutation was detected within the probe binding region targeting the envelope gene sequence of West Nile virus used in real-time polymerase chain reaction assays to test mosquito pools and other samples. A single C-->T transition 6nt from the 5' end of the 16mer in the envelope gene probe-binding region at genomic position 1,194 reduced assay sensitivity. The mutation first was detected in 2009 and persisted at a low prevalence into 2011. The mutation caused a 0.4% false negative error rate during 2011. These data emphasized the importance of confirmational testing and redundancy in surveillance systems relying on highly specific nucleic acid detection platforms.

  17. Distribution of the PBC-specific- (M2) and the naturally-occurring mitochondrial antigen- (NOMAg) systems in plants.

    PubMed Central

    Lang, P; Klein, R; Becker, E W; Berg, P A

    1992-01-01

    In previous studies it was demonstrated that antibodies in sera from patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and their relatives can recognize two different antigen systems in the ATPase fraction prepared from beef heart mitochondria, namely the PBC-related M2- and the naturally occurring mitochondrial antigen (NOMAg)-related epitopes. Since separation of these two antigen systems could not be achieved using mammalian mitochondria, mitochondria from a wide spectrum of plants were analysed with respect to the presence of mitochondrial antigens. Mitochondria from 29 species of plants were prepared and tested by ELISA and Western blot using marker sera from patients with PBC reacting in the Western blot with M2a,b,c,d (alpha-ketoacid-dehydrogenase complex) and NOMAg-specific sera recognizing the three major epitopes epsilon, zeta, and eta at 65, 61 and 58 kD. Naturally occurring mitochondrial antibody (NOMA)-positive marker sera reacted in the ELISA with mitochondria from all plants, and the zeta/eta positive sera gave also a positive reaction at 61/58 kD in the Western blot while the epsilon epitope could not be visualized by this method. In contrast, the M2 antigen was detected preferentially in lower plants such as algae, fungi, and ferns. Analysing these data with respect to the evolution of proteins one would have to assume that the M2 antigen was lost in most higher plants or underwent some structural alterations. Furthermore, considering the fact that the M2- and the NOMAg-related epitopes could be only partially separated, i.e. there were no plant mitochondria showing only M2 but no NOMAg, one could speculate that anti-M2 antibodies are derived from the pool of naturally occurring antibodies. Images Fig. 2 PMID:1281057

  18. Sugars and adiposity: the long‐term effects of consuming added and naturally occurring sugars in foods and in beverages

    PubMed Central

    Lee, A. K.; Chowdhury, R.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objective The aim of this study was to determine if the association with adiposity varies by the type (added vs. naturally occurring) and form (liquid vs. solid) of dietary sugars consumed. Methods Data from the 10‐year National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) Growth and Health Study (n = 2,021 girls aged 9–10 years at baseline; n = 5,156 paired observations) were used. Using mixed linear models, 1‐year changes in sugar intake, body mass index z‐score (BMIz) and waist circumference (WC) were assessed. Results The results showed mean daily added sugar (AS) intake: 10.3 tsp (41 g) liquid; 11.6 tsp (46 g) solid and naturally occurring sugar intake: 2.6 tsp (10 g) liquid; 2.2 tsp (9 g) solid. Before total energy adjustment, each additional teaspoon of liquid AS was associated with a 0.222‐mm increase in WC (p = 0.0003) and a 0.002 increase in BMIz (p = 0.003). Each teaspoon of solid AS was associated with a 0.126‐mm increase in WC (p = 0.03) and a 0.001 increase in BMIz (p = 0.03). Adjusting for total energy, this association was maintained only between liquid AS and WC among all and between solid AS and WC among those overweight/obese only. There was no significant association with naturally occurring sugar. Conclusions These findings demonstrate to suggest a positive association between AS intake (liquid and solid) and BMI that is mediated by total energy intake and an association with WC that is independent of it. PMID:27774248

  19. Prediction of rodent carcinogenic potential of naturally occurring chemicals in the human diet using high-throughput QSAR predictive modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Valerio, Luis G. . E-mail: luis.valerio@FDA.HHS.gov; Arvidson, Kirk B.; Chanderbhan, Ronald F.; Contrera, Joseph F.

    2007-07-01

    Consistent with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Critical Path Initiative, predictive toxicology software programs employing quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models are currently under evaluation for regulatory risk assessment and scientific decision support for highly sensitive endpoints such as carcinogenicity, mutagenicity and reproductive toxicity. At the FDA's Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition's Office of Food Additive Safety and the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research's Informatics and Computational Safety Analysis Staff (ICSAS), the use of computational SAR tools for both qualitative and quantitative risk assessment applications are being developed and evaluated. One tool of current interest is MDL-QSAR predictive discriminant analysis modeling of rodent carcinogenicity, which has been previously evaluated for pharmaceutical applications by the FDA ICSAS. The study described in this paper aims to evaluate the utility of this software to estimate the carcinogenic potential of small, organic, naturally occurring chemicals found in the human diet. In addition, a group of 19 known synthetic dietary constituents that were positive in rodent carcinogenicity studies served as a control group. In the test group of naturally occurring chemicals, 101 were found to be suitable for predictive modeling using this software's discriminant analysis modeling approach. Predictions performed on these compounds were compared to published experimental evidence of each compound's carcinogenic potential. Experimental evidence included relevant toxicological studies such as rodent cancer bioassays, rodent anti-carcinogenicity studies, genotoxic studies, and the presence of chemical structural alerts. Statistical indices of predictive performance were calculated to assess the utility of the predictive modeling method. Results revealed good predictive performance using this software's rodent carcinogenicity module of over 1200 chemicals

  20. Determination of naturally-occurring actinides and their progeny in fresh water using ICP-MS and batch separation

    SciTech Connect

    Crain, J.S.; Alvarado, J.A.; Kiely, J.T.

    1995-12-01

    The determination of naturally-occurring actinides (including progeny such as {sup 230}Th) in fresh water is of significance in limnology, hydrology, and environmental monitoring. In many instances, these determinations require multiple analyses and a combination of radiometric and elemental measurement techniques (e.g., alpha spectrometry and thermal ionization mass spectrometry). In this work, we will describe the use of a single technique, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), for these determinations. We will also describe the batch separation chemistry used to facilitate these determinations in ground and surface water, where natural analyte concentrations run between 1 {mu}g/L and 1 {mu}g/L.

  1. Computed Tomography Imaging of Solid Tumors Using a Liposomal-Iodine Contrast Agent in Companion Dogs with Naturally Occurring Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ghaghada, Ketan B.; Sato, Amy F.; Starosolski, Zbigniew A.; Berg, John; Vail, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Companion dogs with naturally occurring cancer serve as an important large animal model in translational research because they share strong similarities with human cancers. In this study, we investigated a long circulating liposomal-iodine contrast agent (Liposomal-I) for computed tomography (CT) imaging of solid tumors in companion dogs with naturally occurring cancer. Materials and Methods The institutional animal ethics committees approved the study and written informed consent was obtained from all owners. Thirteen dogs (mean age 10.1 years) with a variety of masses including primary and metastatic liver tumors, sarcomas, mammary carcinoma and lung tumors, were enrolled in the study. CT imaging was performed pre-contrast and at 15 minutes and 24 hours after intravenous administration of Liposomal-I (275 mg/kg iodine dose). Conventional contrast-enhanced CT imaging was performed in a subset of dogs, 90 minutes prior to administration of Liposomal-I. Histologic or cytologic diagnosis was obtained for each dog prior to admission into the study. Results Liposomal-I resulted in significant (p < 0.05) enhancement and uniform opacification of the vascular compartment. Non-renal, reticulo-endothelial systemic clearance of the contrast agent was demonstrated. Liposomal-I enabled visualization of primary and metastatic liver tumors. Sub-cm sized liver lesions grossly appeared as hypo-enhanced compared to the surrounding normal parenchyma with improved lesion conspicuity in the post-24 hour scan. Large liver tumors (> 1 cm) demonstrated a heterogeneous pattern of intra-tumoral signal with visibly higher signal enhancement at the post-24 hour time point. Extra-hepatic, extra-splenic tumors, including histiocytic sarcoma, anaplastic sarcoma, mammary carcinoma and lung tumors, were visualized with a heterogeneous enhancement pattern in the post-24 hour scan. Conclusions The long circulating liposomal-iodine contrast agent enabled prolonged visualization of small

  2. The nature, occurring contexts, and psychological implications of weight-related teasing in urban physical education programs.

    PubMed

    Li, Weidong; Rukavina, Paul

    2012-06-01

    This study examined the nature, occurring contexts, and psychological implications of weight-related teasing in urban physical education programs. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 47 participants from a large urban school district. Data were analyzed using inductive analysis and constant comparisons. Most overweight adolescents experienced many different types of teasing in physical education. Victims of teasing felt hurt and experienced uncomfortable feelings due to social comparisons. Overweight students who were not teased reported a variety of reasons. Teachers lacked awareness of and strategies to handle teasing of overweight students. There is a need to implement preventive policies and rules to eliminate weight-related teasing and create inclusive physical education environments.

  3. Use of naturally occurring radon progeny for in-place testing of high-efficiency particulate air filters

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, G.J.; Hoover, M.D.; Yeh, Hsu-Chi

    1997-12-01

    High-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters are routinely used to control emissions of radioactive particles from nuclear facilities. Because HEPA filters play a critical role in protecting members of the public and the environment, there are stringent requirements for verifying the efficiency of HEPA filters prior to their installation and during their use. Traditional methods for the performance tests involve introducing a challenge aerosol before the filter and comparing the concentration of particles before and after the filter. We describe a proof-of-principle test for evaluating use of naturally occurring radon progeny for testing HEPA filters.

  4. Distribution of injected technetium(99m)-labeled mesenchymal stem cells in horses with naturally occurring tendinopathy.

    PubMed

    Becerra, Patricia; Valdés Vázquez, Miguel A; Dudhia, Jayesh; Fiske-Jackson, Andrew R; Neves, Francisco; Hartman, Neil G; Smith, Roger K W

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate immediate cell survival and distribution following different administration routes of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into naturally occurring tendon injuries. Ten million MSCs, labeled with technetium-99m hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime, were implanted into 13 horses with naturally occurring tendon or ligament injuries intra-lesionally, intravenously and by regional perfusion, and traced for up to 48 h using planar gamma scintigraphy. Labeling efficiencies varied between 1.8% and 18.5% (mean 9.3%). Cells were retained in the damaged area after intra-lesional administration but only 24% of cells were still present within the tendon after 24 h. After intravenous injection, cells largely distributed to the lung fields, with no detectable cells in the tendon lesions. Significant labeling of the tendon lesions was observed in 11/12 horses following regional perfusion but at a lower level to intra-lesional injection. The highest cell numbers were retained after intra-lesional injection, although with considerable cell loss, while regional perfusion may be a viable alternative for MSC delivery. Cells did not "home" to damaged tendon in large numbers after intravenous administration. Cells were detected in the lungs most frequently after intravascular administration, although with no adverse effects. Low cell retention has important implications for designing effective clinical therapies for human clinical use.

  5. Naturally occurring antimicrobial peptide OH-CATH30 selectively regulates the innate immune response to protect against sepsis.

    PubMed

    Li, Sheng-An; Xiang, Yang; Wang, Yan-Jie; Liu, Jie; Lee, Wen-Hui; Zhang, Yun

    2013-11-27

    Sepsis, which is a systemic inflammatory response that follows a bacterial infection, has a high mortality rate and limited therapeutic options. Here we show that the antimicrobial peptide OH-CATH30, which naturally occurs in snake, selectively regulates the innate immune response to protect mice from lethal sepsis. The administration of OH-CATH30 significantly improves the survival rate of mice infected by antibiotic-susceptible and -resistant pathogens, including Escherichia coli , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , and Staphylococcus aureus . OH-CATH30 selectively up-regulates the production of chemokines and cytokines without harmful immune response. Recruitment of monocytes, macrophages, and neutrophils to the infection site is pivotal to the protective capacity of OH-CATH30. Furthermore, the alternative activation of the innate immune response by OH-CATH30 depends on p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. Taken together, our study demonstrates that OH-CATH30, a naturally occurring antimicrobial peptide, selectively stimulates the innate immune response to protect against sepsis.

  6. Association of naturally occurring radionuclides in sludges from Drinking Water Treatment Plants previously optimized for their removal.

    PubMed

    Baeza, A; Salas, A; Guillén, J; Muñoz-Serrano, A

    2014-02-01

    The raw water used in Drinking Water Treatment Plants (DWTPs) can present high values of naturally occurring radionuclides. In order to reduce this content, the routine working conditions of DWTPs were successfully modified. This meant that those radionuclides were accumulated in the sludges generated, whose radioactive content was frequently above the exemption levels. It therefore becomes necessary to assess the association of naturally occurring radionuclides in the sludges for their potential use as agricultural fertilizers. Two approaches were studied: (a) the effect of different sequential extraction methods applied to a selected sludge; and (b) the effect of the different contents of inorganic complexes dissolved in the input water on the composition of the sludges generated by two DWTPs with different origins of their input water. Uranium and radium were mainly associated with the carbonated and reducible fractions, while (210)Po and (228)Th were associated with the residual fraction. There were differences between the two speciation methods, but the order of bioavailable radionuclides was roughly the same: (226)Ra≈(234,238)U>(228)Th>(210)Po. The major inorganic complexes content, mainly carbonate, in the raw water affected the radionuclide association. The greater the carbonate content in the raw water, the greater was the association of uranium and radium with the carbonated and easily reducible fractions.

  7. Naturally occurring NS3 resistance-associated variants in hepatitis C virus genotype 1: Their relevance for developing countries.

    PubMed

    Echeverría, Natalia; Betancour, Gabriela; Gámbaro, Fabiana; Hernández, Nelia; López, Pablo; Chiodi, Daniela; Sánchez, Adriana; Boschi, Susana; Fajardo, Alvaro; Sóñora, Martín; Moratorio, Gonzalo; Cristina, Juan; Moreno, Pilar

    2016-09-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of global morbidity and mortality, with an estimated 130-150 million infected individuals worldwide. HCV is a leading cause of chronic liver diseases including cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Current treatment options in developing countries involve pegylated interferon-α and ribavirin as dual therapy or in combination with one or more direct-acting antiviral agents (DAA). The emergence of resistance-associated variants (RAVs) after treatment reveals the great variability of this virus leading to a great difficulty in developing effective antiviral strategies. Baseline RAVs detected in DAA treatment-naïve HCV-infected patients could be of great importance for clinical management and outcome prediction. Although the frequency of naturally occurring HCV NS3 protease inhibitor mutations has been addressed in many countries, there are only a few reports on their prevalence in South America. In this study, we investigated the presence of RAVs in the HCV NS3 serine protease region by analysing a cohort of Uruguayan patients with chronic hepatitis C who had not been treated with any DAAs and compare them with the results found for other South American countries. The results of these studies revealed that naturally occurring mutations conferring resistance to NS3 inhibitors exist in a substantial proportion of Uruguayan treatment-naïve patients infected with HCV genotype 1 enrolled in these studies. The identification of these baseline RAVs could be of great importance for patients' management and outcome prediction in developing countries.

  8. Interactions between natural-occurring landscape conditions and land use influencing the abundance of riverine smallmouth bass, micropterus dolomieu

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brewer, S.K.; Rabeni, C.F.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined how interactions between natural landscape features and land use influenced the abundance of smallmouth bass, Micropterus dolomieu, in Missouri, USA, streams. Stream segments were placed into one of four groups based on natural-occurring watershed characteristics (soil texture and soil permeability) predicted to relate to smallmouth bass abundance. Within each group, stream segments were assigned forest (n = 3), pasture (n = 3), or urban (n = 3) designations based on the percentages of land use within each watershed. Analyses of variance indicated smallmouth bass densities differed between land use and natural conditions. Decision tree models indicated abundance was highest in forested stream segments and lowest in urban stream segments, regardless of group designation. Land use explained the most variation in decision tree models, but in-channel features of temperature, flow, and sediment also contributed significantly. These results are unique and indicate the importance of natural-occurring watershed conditions in defining the potential of populations and how finer-scale filters interact with land use to further alter population potential. Smallmouth bass has differing vulnerabilities to land-use attributes, and the better the natural watershed conditions are for population success, the more resilient these populations will be when land conversion occurs.

  9. Molecular Imprint of Exposure to Naturally Occurring Genetic Variants of Human Cytomegalovirus on the T cell Repertoire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Corey; Gras, Stephanie; Brennan, Rebekah M.; Bird, Nicola L.; Valkenburg, Sophie A.; Twist, Kelly-Anne; Burrows, Jacqueline M.; Miles, John J.; Chambers, Daniel; Bell, Scott; Campbell, Scott; Kedzierska, Katherine; Burrows, Scott R.; Rossjohn, Jamie; Khanna, Rajiv

    2014-02-01

    Exposure to naturally occurring variants of herpesviruses in clinical settings can have a dramatic impact on anti-viral immunity. Here we have evaluated the molecular imprint of variant peptide-MHC complexes on the T-cell repertoire during human cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and demonstrate that primary co-infection with genetic variants of CMV was coincident with development of strain-specific T-cell immunity followed by emergence of cross-reactive virus-specific T-cells. Cross-reactive CMV-specific T cells exhibited a highly conserved public T cell repertoire, while T cells directed towards specific genetic variants displayed oligoclonal repertoires, unique to each individual. T cell recognition foot-print and pMHC-I structural analyses revealed that the cross-reactive T cells accommodate alterations in the pMHC complex with a broader foot-print focussing on the core of the peptide epitope. These findings provide novel molecular insight into how infection with naturally occurring genetic variants of persistent human herpesviruses imprints on the evolution of the anti-viral T-cell repertoire.

  10. A Novel Naturally Occurring Class I 5-Enolpyruvylshikimate-3-Phosphate Synthase from Janibacter sp. Confers High Glyphosate Tolerance to Rice

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Shu-yuan; Cui, Ying; Zhao, Yan; Liu, Zi-duo; Lin, Yong-jun; Zhou, Fei

    2016-01-01

    As glyphosate is a broad spectrum herbicide extensively used in agriculture worldwide, identification of new aroA genes with high level of glyphosate tolerance is essential for the development and breeding of transgenic glyphosate-tolerant crops. In this study, an aroA gene was cloned from a Janibacter sp. strain isolated from marine sediment (designated as aroAJ. sp). The purified aroAJ. sp enzyme has a Km value of 30 μM for PEP and 83 μM for S3P, and a significantly higher Ki value for glyphosate (373 μM) than aroAE. coli. AroAJ. sp is characterized as a novel and naturally occurring class I aroA enzyme with glyphosate tolerance. Furthermore, we show that aroAJ. sp can be used as an effective selectable marker in both japonica and indica rice cultivar. Transgenic rice lines were tested by herbicide bioassay and it was confirmed that they could tolerate up to 3360 g/ha glyphosate, a dosage four-fold that of the recommended agricultural application level. To our knowledge, it is the first report of a naturally occurring novel class I aroA gene which can be efficiently utilized to study and develop transgenic glyphosate-tolerant crops, and can facilitate a more economical and simplified weed control system. PMID:26754957

  11. Naturally-occurring tetrahydro-β-carboline alkaloids derived from tryptophan are oxidized to bioactive β-carboline alkaloids by heme peroxidases.

    PubMed

    Herraiz, Tomás; Galisteo, Juan

    2014-08-15

    β-Carbolines are indole alkaloids that occur in plants, foods, and endogenously in mammals and humans, and which exhibit potent biological, psychopharmacological and toxicological activities. They form from naturally-occurring tetrahydro-β-carboline alkaloids arising from tryptophan by still unknown way and mechanism. Results in this research show that heme peroxidases catalyzed the oxidation of tetrahydro-β-carbolines (i.e. 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-β-carboline-3-carboxylic acid and 1-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-β-carboline-3-carboxylic acid) into aromatic β-carbolines (i.e. norharman and harman, respectively). This oxidation followed a typical catalytic cycle of peroxidases through redox intermediates I, II, and ferric enzyme. Both, plant peroxidases (horseradish peroxidase, HRP) and mammalian peroxidases (myeloperoxidase, MPO and lactoperoxidase, LPO) catalyzed the oxidation in an efficient manner as determined by kinetic parameters (VMAX and KM). Oxidation of tetrahydro-β-carbolines was inhibited by peroxidase inhibitors such as sodium azide, ascorbic acid, hydroxylamine and excess of H2O2. The formation of aromatic β-carbolines by heme peroxidases can help to explain the presence and activity of these compounds in biological systems.

  12. Naturally-occurring altered peptide ligands control Salmonella-specific CD4+ T cell proliferation, IFN-γ production, and protective potency

    PubMed Central

    Johanns, Tanner M.; Ertelt, James M.; Lai, Joseph C.; Rowe, Jared H.; Avant, Ross A.; Way, Sing Sing

    2010-01-01

    T cell activation required for host defense against infection is an intricately regulated and precisely controlled process. Although in vitro studies indicate three distinct stimulatory signals are required for T cell activation, the precise contribution of each signal in regulating T cell proliferation and differentiation after in vivo infection is unknown. In this study, altered peptide ligands (APLs) derived from the protective Salmonella-specific FliC antigen and CD4+ T cells specific for the immune-dominant FliC431–439 peptide within this antigen were used to determine how changes in TCR stimulation impact CD4+ T cell proliferation, differentiation, and protective potency. To explore the prevalence and potential use of altered TCR stimulation by bacterial pathogens, naturally-occurring APLs containing single amino acid substitutions in putative TCR contact residues within the FliC431–439 peptide were identified and used for stimulation under both non-infection and infection conditions. Based on this analysis, naturally-occurring APLs that prime proliferation of FliC-specific CD4+ T cells either more potently or less potently compared with the wild-type FliC431–439 peptide were identified. Remarkably, despite these differences in proliferation, all APLs primed reduced IFN-γ production by FliC431–439-specific CD4+ T cells after stimulation in vivo. Moreover, after expression of the parental FliC431–439 peptide or each APL in recombinant Listeria monocytogenes, only CD4+ T cells stimulated with the wild-type FliC431–439 peptide conferred significant protection against challenge with virulent Salmonella. These results reveal important and unanticipated roles for TCR stimulation in controlling pathogen-specific CD4+ T cell proliferation, differentiation, and protective potency. PMID:20026741

  13. Polarization dependent two-photon absorption spectroscopy on a naturally occurring biomarker (curcumin) in solution: A theoretical-experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiburcio-Moreno, Jose A.; Alvarado-Gil, J. J.; Diaz, Carlos; Echevarria, Lorenzo; Hernández, Florencio E.

    2013-09-01

    We report on the theoretical-experimental analysis of the two-photon absorption (TPA) and two-photon circular-linear dichroism (TPCLD) spectra of (1E,6E)-1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione (curcumin) in Tetrahydrofuran (THF) solution. The measurement of the full TPA spectrum of this molecule reveals a maximum TPA cross-section at 740 nm, i.e. more than 10 times larger than the maximum reported in the literature at 800 nm for the application of curcumin in bioimaging. The TPCLD spectrum exposes the symmetry of the main excited-states involved in the two-photon excitation process. TD-DFT calculations support the experimental results. These outcomes are expected to expand the application of natural-occurring dyes in bioimaging.

  14. First detection of the presence of naturally occurring grapevine downy mildew in the field by a fluorescence-based method.

    PubMed

    Latouche, Gwendal; Debord, Christian; Raynal, Marc; Milhade, Charlotte; Cerovic, Zoran G

    2015-10-01

    Early detection of fungal pathogen presence in the field would help to better time or avoid some of the fungicide treatments used to prevent crop production losses. We recently introduced a new phytoalexin-based method for a non-invasive detection of crop diseases using their fluorescence. The causal agent of grapevine downy mildew, Plasmopara viticola, induces the synthesis of stilbenoid phytoalexins by the host, Vitis vinifera, early upon infection. These stilbenoids emit violet-blue fluorescence under UV light. A hand-held solid-state UV-LED-based field fluorimeter, named Multiplex 330, was used to measure stilbenoid phytoalexins in a vineyard. It allowed us to non-destructively detect and monitor the naturally occurring downy mildew infections on leaves in the field. PMID:26293623

  15. Using ²²²Rn as a naturally occurring tracer to estimate NAPL contamination in an aquifer.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Yoon Yeol; Koh, Dong Chan; Lee, Kil Yong; Cho, Soo Young; Yang, Jae Ha; Lee, Kang Kun

    2013-11-01

    The naturally occurring radioisotope (222)Rn was used as a partitioning tracer to evaluate the presence and amount of a non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) in an aquifer. The batch experiment results of a diesel contaminated soil showed that the emanation rate of (222)Rn decreased to 31%, relative to a background rate. Batch experiment results of water contaminated by gasoline, diesel, PCE and TCE were similar. A field study to examine TCE contamination was conducted using 54 groundwater samples in Wonju city, Republic of Korea. Estimates of TCE contamination ranged from <0.001 mg/L to 14.3mg/L, and (222)Rn concentrations ranged from 1.89 Bq/L to 444. Results of (222)Rn analysis showed that TCE contamination was mainly restricted to an asphalt laboratory area and that the (222)Rn values of a NAPL-contaminated aquifer were correlated with TCE analytical results.

  16. Vincristine modulates the expression of Ki67 and apoptosis in naturally occurring canine transmissible venereal tumor (TVT).

    PubMed

    Özalp, G R; Zik, B; Bastan, A; Peker, S; Özdemir-Salci, E S; Bastan, I; Darbaz, I; Salar, S; Karakas, K

    2012-07-01

    We investigated eight adult dogs that were brought to veterinary clinics with a history of transmissible venereal tumors (TVT). Our goal was to demonstrate the occurrence of apoptosis and the cessation of cell proliferation at every phase of scheduled chemotherapy for naturally occurring TVT. Tissue samples were collected immediately after weekly treatments with vincristine sulfate and processed for histological purposes. Sections 5 μm thick were stained by the TUNEL reaction for apoptosis and immunostained for Ki67 as a proliferation marker. We observed that after vincristine applications, tumor cell proliferation ceased and apoptosis increased. Ki67 HSCORE values were significantly lowered after the first and second treatments with the chemotherapeutic agent compared to controls, whereas TUNEL HSCORE values were significantly higher after two applications of vincristine compared to controls. Our results suggest that scheduled vincristine sulfate applications stabilize the induction of tumor regression by inducing apoptosis and preventing cell proliferation.

  17. Using ²²²Rn as a naturally occurring tracer to estimate NAPL contamination in an aquifer.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Yoon Yeol; Koh, Dong Chan; Lee, Kil Yong; Cho, Soo Young; Yang, Jae Ha; Lee, Kang Kun

    2013-11-01

    The naturally occurring radioisotope (222)Rn was used as a partitioning tracer to evaluate the presence and amount of a non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) in an aquifer. The batch experiment results of a diesel contaminated soil showed that the emanation rate of (222)Rn decreased to 31%, relative to a background rate. Batch experiment results of water contaminated by gasoline, diesel, PCE and TCE were similar. A field study to examine TCE contamination was conducted using 54 groundwater samples in Wonju city, Republic of Korea. Estimates of TCE contamination ranged from <0.001 mg/L to 14.3mg/L, and (222)Rn concentrations ranged from 1.89 Bq/L to 444. Results of (222)Rn analysis showed that TCE contamination was mainly restricted to an asphalt laboratory area and that the (222)Rn values of a NAPL-contaminated aquifer were correlated with TCE analytical results. PMID:23602707

  18. Geospatial analysis of naturally occurring boundaries in road-transport emissions and children's respiratory health across a demographically diverse cityscape.

    PubMed

    Jephcote, Calvin; Chen, Haibo

    2013-04-01

    The motor-vehicle is accountable for emitting a substantial concoction of air quality objective pollutants and carcinogenic hydrocarbons within close proximity to urbanised residential districts. The spatial extent of health impacts associated with road-transport pollutants have traditionally been explored through the examination of artificially created buffers, defined by subjective distances from specified major road links. Within this paper an alternative approach is presented using boundary statistics, which describe naturally occurring shifts of magnitude in socio-environmental and health outcomes across the wider urban area. In contrast, previous distance-threshold investigations have used arbitrarily sized buffers placed upon predetermined locations in response to environmental attributes, without considering the combined influence of additional social burdens. The demographically diverse City of Leicester, situated within the heart of the United Kingdom's major road-transport network, was selected to showcase such methods. Descriptive multilevel modelling strategies accommodating for generalised spatial structures across Leicester, globally associated issues of deprivation, road-transport emissions and ethnic minorities with increased respiratory risks. Getis-Ord Gi* spatial pattern recognition statistics identified the existence of localised variations, with inner city neighbourhoods tending to house children of ethnic minority groups whom experience disproportionately large environmental and respiratory health burdens. Crisp polygon wombling boundary detection across Leicester appeared to broadly complement the Gi* statistics, identifying naturally occurring boundaries in road-transport emissions to result in elevated children's respiratory admissions within a distance of 283 m (P < 0.05). The designated threshold was identified to reduce in relation to certain ethnic groups, thus suggesting environmental injustices likely prevail within the model

  19. Laccase‐catalysed oxidations of naturally occurring phenols: from in vivo biosynthetic pathways to green synthetic applications

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Jong‐Rok; Baldrian, Petr; Murugesan, Kumarasamy; Chang, Yoon‐Seok

    2012-01-01

    Summary Laccases are oxidases that contain several copper atoms, and catalyse single‐electron oxidations of phenolic compounds with concomitant reduction of oxygen to water. The enzymes are particularly widespread in ligninolytic basidiomycetes, but also occur in certain prokaryotes, insects and plants. Depending on the species, laccases are involved in various biosynthetic processes contributing to carbon recycling in land ecosystems and the morphogenesis of biomatrices, wherein low‐molecular‐weight naturally occurring phenols serve as key enzyme substrates. Studies of these in vivo synthetic pathways have afforded new insights into fungal laccase applicability in green synthetic chemistry. Thus, we here review fungal laccase‐catalysed oxidations of naturally occurring phenols that are particularly relevant to the synthesis of fine organic chemicals, and we discuss how the discovered synthetic strategies mimic laccase‐involved in vivo pathways, thus enhancing the green nature of such reactions. Laccase‐catalysed in vivo processes yield several types of biopolymers, including those of cuticles, lignin, polyflavonoids, humus and the melanin pigments, using natural mono‐ or poly‐phenols as building blocks. The in vivo synthetic pathways involve either phenoxyl radical‐mediated coupling or cross‐linking reactions, and can be adapted to the design of in vitro oxidative processes involving fungal laccases in organic synthesis; the laccase substrates and the synthetic mechanisms reflect in vivo processes. Notably, such in vitro synthetic pathways can also reproduce physicochemical properties (e.g. those of chromophores, and radical‐scavenging, hydration and antimicrobial activities) found in natural biomaterials. Careful study of laccase‐associated in vivo metabolic pathways has been rewarded by the discovery of novel green applications for fungal laccases. This review comprehensively summarizes the available data on laccase

  20. Probing the Kinetic Parameters of Plutonium-Naturally Occurring Organic Matter Interactions in Freshwaters Using the Diffusive Gradients in Thin Films Technique.

    PubMed

    Cusnir, Ruslan; Jaccard, Maud; Bailat, Claude; Christl, Marcus; Steinmann, Philipp; Haldimann, Max; Bochud, François; Froidevaux, Pascal

    2016-05-17

    The interaction of trace metals with naturally occurring organic matter (NOM) is a key process of the speciation of trace elements in aquatic environments. The rate of dissociation of metal-NOM complexes will impact the amount of free metal available for biouptake. Assessing the bioavailability of plutonium (Pu) helps to predict its toxic effects on aquatic biota. However, the rate of dissociation of Pu-NOM complexes in natural freshwaters is currently unknown. Here, we used the technique of diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) with several diffusive layer thicknesses to provide new insights into the dissociation kinetics of Pu-NOM complexes. Results show that Pu complexes with NOM (mainly fulvic acid) are somewhat labile (0.2 ≤ ξ ≤ 0.4), with kd = 7.5 × 10(-3) s(-1). DGT measurements of environmental Pu in organic-rich natural water confirm these findings. In addition, we determined the effective diffusion coefficients of Pu(V) in polyacrylamide (PAM) gel in the presence of humic acid using a diffusion cell (D = 1.70 ± 0.25 × 10(-6) cm(2) s(-1)). These results show that Pu(V) is a more mobile species than Pu(IV). PMID:27064997

  1. Evaluation of the varying Naturally Occurring Asbestos mitigation measures at School and Commercial construction projects in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalika, S.

    2012-12-01

    In commercial development or K-12 school construction, project sites are often purchased and much of the planning process completed prior to an assessment of the soils proposed for excavation or potential offhaul. Geologic maps, while initially helpful for identifying potential hazards such as landslides and earthquake faults, are less helpful in the identification of naturally occurring hazardous minerals, such as the seven regulated minerals currently classified as asbestos. Geologic maps identify mafic and ultramafic bedrock zones; however, a skilled geologist with knowledge of asbestos hazards will further visualize the earth-shaping processes that may have resulted in the deposition of naturally occurring asbestos in locations outside mapped ultramafic zones including the base of an alluvial fan or within streambed channels. When sampled as an afterthought prior to disposal, property owners are surprised by the budget-crippling costs of waste handling and disposal of NOA, as well as mitigations required to protect the health of construction workers, the public, and future site occupants. The California Air Resources Board (CARB) continues to lead the way in evaluation and regulation of NOA, through development of the CARB 435 preparation and laboratory analytical method, local enforcement of the Asbestos Airborne Toxic Control Measure for Construction, Grading, Quarrying, and Surface Mining Operations (ATCM), and implementation of dust control measures to protect public health. A thorough site evaluation and construction design includes utilization of the sampling methods developed by the California Geological Survey, laboratory analytical methods within CARB 435, and mitigation measures required by CARB, DTSC, and OSHA for the protection of worker and public health after NOA is discovered. The site evaluation should additionally include an assessment of the future site usage, as regulations differ based on potential health affects to future occupants

  2. A systematic review of the efficacy of prophylactic control measures for naturally-occurring canine leishmaniosis, part I: vaccinations.

    PubMed

    Wylie, C E; Carbonell-Antoñanzas, M; Aiassa, E; Dhollander, S; Zagmutt, F J; Brodbelt, D C; Solano-Gallego, L

    2014-11-01

    Canine leishmaniosis (CanL) is an important zoonotic disease; however, the efficacy of available vaccines for the prevention of naturally-occurring Leishmania infantum (L. infantum) infection in dogs remains unclear. The objective of this review was to determine the efficacy of currently available vaccines to prevent naturally-occurring L. infantum infection in dogs. Four bibliographic databases (CAB Direct 2011, Web of Science 2011, U.S. National Library of Medicine 2011 and Literatura Latino Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde) were searched along with eight sets of conference proceedings and the International Veterinary Information Service (IVIS) database, from 1980 to November 2012. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), non-randomised clinical trials (NRCTs), cohort studies and case-control studies that investigated vaccine efficacy for natural L. infantum infection in dogs were eligible for inclusion. Two review authors independently assessed each study against the inclusion criteria, independently extracted relevant data from all included studies and assessed the risk of methodological shortcomings in each individual study. The odds ratio (OR) and absolute risk reduction (ARR) for dichotomous outcomes and mean difference for continuous outcomes were calculated. Meta-analysis was not performed due to heterogeneity of the studies identified. The search was conducted for all mitigations for CanL and yielded the title and abstract of 937 articles, from which 84 articles were screened based on full text. Twelve studies on vaccinations (five RCTs, seven NRCTs) were identified. Ten studies were at a high risk of methodological shortcomings, whilst two were at an unclear risk. The use of 200 μg ALM protein, Leishmune(®), CaniLeish(®), LiESAp with MDP, and ALM with BCG tended to significantly reduce the proportion of dogs infected with L. infantum based on either parasitological or serological evidence. The use of lyophilized protein vaccine significantly

  3. Control of hypoglossal motoneurones during naturally occurring sleep and wakefulness in the intact, unanaesthetized cat: a field potential study.

    PubMed

    Fung, Simon J; Chase, Michael H

    2014-08-01

    The present electrophysiological study was designed to determine the discharge threshold of hypoglossal motoneurones during naturally occurring states of sleep and wakefulness in the intact, unanaesthetized cat. The antidromic field potential, which reflects the net level of membrane excitability of motoneurones and therefore their discharge threshold, was recorded in the hypoglossal nucleus following stimulation of the hypoglossal nerve. The amplitude of the antidromic field potential was larger during wakefulness and non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep compared with REM sleep. There was no significant difference in the amplitude of the field potential when wakefulness was compared with NREM sleep (P = 0.103, df = 3, t = 2.324). However, there was a 46% reduction in amplitude during REM sleep compared with NREM sleep (P < 0.001, df = 10, t = 6.421) or wakefulness (P < 0.01, df = 4, t = -4.598). These findings indicate that whereas the excitability of motoneurones that comprise the hypoglossal motor pool is relatively constant during wakefulness and NREM sleep, their excitability is significantly reduced during REM sleep. This state-dependent pattern of control of hypoglossal motoneurones during REM sleep is similar to that reported for motoneurones in other motor nuclei at all levels of the neuraxis. The decrease in the evoked response of hypoglossal motoneurones, which reflects a significant increase in the discharge threshold of individual motoneurones, results in atonia of the lingual and related muscles during REM sleep. PMID:24605864

  4. Naturally occurring proteinaceous nanoparticles in Coptidis Rhizoma extract act as concentration-dependent carriers that facilitate berberine absorption

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Bing-Liang; Yin, Chun; Zhang, Bo-Kai; Dai, Yan; Jia, Yi-Qun; Yang, Yan; Li, Qiao; Shi, Rong; Wang, Tian-Ming; Wu, Jia-Sheng; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Lin, Ge; Ma, Yue-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacological activities of some natural products diminish and even disappear after purification. In this study, we explored the mechanisms underlying the decrease of acute oral toxicity of Coptidis Rhizoma extract after purification. The water solubility, in vitro absorption, and plasma exposure of berberine (the major active compound) in the Coptidis Rhizoma extract were much better than those of pure berberine. Scanning electron microscopy, laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), and dynamic light scattering experiments confirmed that nanoparticles attached to very fine precipitates existed in the aqueous extract solution. The LSCM experiment showed that the precipitates were absorbed with the particles by the mouse intestine. High-speed centrifugation of the extract could not remove the nanoparticles and did not influence plasma exposure or acute oral toxicity. However, after extract dilution, the attached precipitates vanished, although the nanoparticles were preserved, and there were no differences in the acute oral toxicity and plasma exposure between the extract and pure berberine. The nanoparticles were then purified and identified as proteinaceous. Furthermore, they could absorb co-dissolved berberine. Our results indicate that naturally occurring proteinaceous nanoparticles in Coptidis Rhizoma extract act as concentration-dependent carriers that facilitate berberine absorption. These findings should inspire related studies in other natural products. PMID:26822920

  5. A naturally occurring splicing site mutation in the Brassica rapa FLC1 gene is associated with variation in flowering time.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yu-Xiang; Wu, Jian; Sun, Ri-Fei; Zhang, Xiao-Wei; Xu, Dong-Hui; Bonnema, Guusje; Wang, Xiao-Wu

    2009-01-01

    FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC), encoding a MADS-domain transcription factor in Arabidopsis, is a repressor of flowering involved in the vernalization pathway. This provides a good reference for Brassica species. Genomes of Brassica species contain several FLC homologues and several of these colocalize with flowering-time QTL. Here the analysis of sequence variation of BrFLC1 in Brassica rapa and its association with the flowering-time phenotype is reported. The analysis revealed that a G-->A polymorphism at the 5' splice site in intron 6 of BrFLC1 is associated with flowering phenotype. Three BrFLC1 alleles with alternative splicing patterns, including two with different parts of intron 6 retained and one with the entire exon 6 excluded from the transcript, were identified in addition to alleles with normal splicing. It was inferred that aberrant splicing of the pre-mRNA leads to loss-of-function of BrFLC1. A CAPS marker was developed for this locus to distinguish Pi6+1(G) and Pi6+1(A). The polymorphism detected with this marker was significantly associated with flowering time in a collection of 121 B. rapa accessions and in a segregating Chinese cabbage doubled-haploid population. These findings suggest that a naturally occurring splicing mutation in the BrFLC1 gene contributes greatly to flowering-time variation in B. rapa.

  6. Intraear Compensation of Field Corn, Zea mays, from Simulated and Naturally Occurring Injury by Ear-Feeding Larvae.

    PubMed

    Steckel, S; Stewart, S D

    2015-06-01

    Ear-feeding larvae, such as corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea Boddie (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), can be important insect pests of field corn, Zea mays L., by feeding on kernels. Recently introduced, stacked Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) traits provide improved protection from ear-feeding larvae. Thus, our objective was to evaluate how injury to kernels in the ear tip might affect yield when this injury was inflicted at the blister and milk stages. In 2010, simulated corn earworm injury reduced total kernel weight (i.e., yield) at both the blister and milk stage. In 2011, injury to ear tips at the milk stage affected total kernel weight. No differences in total kernel weight were found in 2013, regardless of when or how much injury was inflicted. Our data suggested that kernels within the same ear could compensate for injury to ear tips by increasing in size, but this increase was not always statistically significant or sufficient to overcome high levels of kernel injury. For naturally occurring injury observed on multiple corn hybrids during 2011 and 2012, our analyses showed either no or a minimal relationship between number of kernels injured by ear-feeding larvae and the total number of kernels per ear, total kernel weight, or the size of individual kernels. The results indicate that intraear compensation for kernel injury to ear tips can occur under at least some conditions.

  7. A computer aided thermodynamic approach for predicting the formation of Z-DNA in naturally occurring sequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, P. S.; Ellison, M. J.; Quigley, G. J.; Rich, A.

    1986-01-01

    The ease with which a particular DNA segment adopts the left-handed Z-conformation depends largely on the sequence and on the degree of negative supercoiling to which it is subjected. We describe a computer program (Z-hunt) that is designed to search long sequences of naturally occurring DNA and retrieve those nucleotide combinations of up to 24 bp in length which show a strong propensity for Z-DNA formation. Incorporated into Z-hunt is a statistical mechanical model based on empirically determined energetic parameters for the B to Z transition accumulated to date. The Z-forming potential of a sequence is assessed by ranking its behavior as a function of negative superhelicity relative to the behavior of similar sized randomly generated nucleotide sequences assembled from over 80,000 combinations. The program makes it possible to compare directly the Z-forming potential of sequences with different base compositions and different sequence lengths. Using Z-hunt, we have analyzed the DNA sequences of the bacteriophage phi X174, plasmid pBR322, the animal virus SV40 and the replicative form of the eukaryotic adenovirus-2. The results are compared with those previously obtained by others from experiments designed to locate Z-DNA forming regions in these sequences using probes which show specificity for the left-handed DNA conformation.

  8. Ecological physiology of Synechococcus sp. strain SH-94-5, a naturally occurring cyanobacterium deficient in nitrate assimilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, S. R.; Castenholz, R. W.

    2001-01-01

    Synechococcus sp. strain SH-94-5 is a nitrate assimilation-deficient cyanobacterium which was isolated from an ammonium-replete hot spring in central Oregon. While this clone could grow on ammonium and some forms of organic nitrogen as sole nitrogen sources, it could not grow on either nitrate or nitrite, even under conditions favoring passive diffusion. It was determined that this clone does not express functional nitrate reductase or nitrite reductase and that the lack of activity of either enzyme is not due to inactivation of the cyanobacterial nitrogen control protein NtcA. A few other naturally occurring cyanobacterial strains are also nitrate assimilation deficient, and phylogenetic analyses indicated that the ability to utilize nitrate has been independently lost at least four times during the evolutionary history of the cyanobacteria. This phenotype is associated with the presence of environmental ammonium, a negative regulator of nitrate assimilation gene expression, which may indicate that natural selection to maintain functional copies of nitrate assimilation genes has been relaxed in these habitats. These results suggest how the evolutionary fates of conditionally expressed genes might differ between environments and thereby effect ecological divergence and biogeographical structure in the microbial world.

  9. Impacts of land use on spatial distribution of mortality rates of cancers caused by naturally occurring asbestos.

    PubMed

    Wei, Binggan; Jia, Xianjie; Ye, Bixiong; Yu, Jiangping; Zhang, Biao; Zhang, Xiuwu; Lu, Rongan; Dong, Tingrong; Yang, Linsheng

    2012-09-01

    This study investigated the spatial distributions of mortality rates of six cancers: mesothelioma, lung cancer, intestinal cancer, nasopharyngeal and laryngeal cancer, liver cancer, and stomach cancer in Dayao using Geographic Information Systems. Relationships between the mortality rates of the six cancers and land use patterns were investigated by Pearson Correlation Coefficients. The results indicated that the mortality rates of nasopharyngeal and laryngeal cancer, lung cancer, intestinal cancer, and mesothelioma were significantly associated with outcropped asbestos. Both the proportions of farmland and urban area were positively related to the mortality rates of nasopharyngeal and laryngeal cancer, lung cancer, intestinal cancer, and mesothelioma, and significant negative correlations were found between the proportion of forestland and nasopharyngeal and laryngeal cancer and intestinal cancer. It can be concluded that naturally occurring asbestos may significantly elevate the mortality rates of nasopharyngeal and laryngeal cancer, intestinal cancer, lung cancer, and mesothelioma. Moreover, higher proportions of farmland, urban area, and lower proportions of forested land may elevate the mortality rate of the four cancers.

  10. Transgenic potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers synthesize the full spectrum of inulin molecules naturally occurring in globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus) roots.

    PubMed

    Hellwege, E M; Czapla, S; Jahnke, A; Willmitzer, L; Heyer, A G

    2000-07-18

    The ability to synthesize high molecular weight inulin was transferred to potato plants via constitutive expression of the 1-SST (sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase) and the 1-FFT (fructan: fructan 1-fructosyltransferase) genes of globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus). The fructan pattern of tubers from transgenic potato plants represents the full spectrum of inulin molecules present in artichoke roots as shown by high-performance anion exchange chromatography, as well as size exclusion chromatography. These results demonstrate in planta that the enzymes sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase and fructan:fructan 1-fructosyltransferase are sufficient to synthesize inulin molecules of all chain lengths naturally occurring in a given plant species. Inulin made up 5% of the dry weight of transgenic tubers, and a low level of fructan production also was observed in fully expanded leaves. Although inulin accumulation did not influence the sucrose concentration in leaves or tubers, a reduction in starch content occurred in transgenic tubers, indicating that inulin synthesis did not increase the storage capacity of the tubers.

  11. Influence of naturally occurring dissolved organic matter, colloids, and cations on nanofiltration of pharmaceutically active and endocrine disrupting compounds.

    PubMed

    Sadmani, A H M Anwar; Andrews, Robert C; Bagley, David M

    2014-12-01

    This study examined the rejection of selected pharmaceutically active (PhAC) and endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) when using nanofiltration as a function of naturally occurring dissolved organic matter (DOM), colloidal particles, cations and their interactions. Lake Ontario water served as a source of natural DOM and colloidal particles. PhAC/EDC rejection experiments were conducted using raw Lake Ontario water and Lake Ontario water that was pre-treated with either ultrafiltration to remove colloidal particles, or fluidized ion exchange resins to remove DOM. Additionally, the concentration of cations (Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and Na(+)) in the raw and pre-treated water matrices was varied. While ionic PhACs and EDCs exhibited high rejections from all the water matrices examined, neutral compounds were most effectively rejected in water containing DOM and no colloids, and least effectively rejected from colloid-containing water with increased cations but no DOM. The presence of DOM significantly improved compound rejection and the increase in cation concentration significantly decreased rejection. The presence of colloids had comparatively little effect except to mitigate the impact of increased cation concentration, apparently providing some cation-buffering capacity. The sequence in which constituents are removed from waters during treatment may significantly impact PhAC and EDC removal, especially of neutral compounds.

  12. Functional Comparison of 45 Naturally Occurring Isoforms of the Plasmodium falciparum Chloroquine Resistance Transporter (PfCRT).

    PubMed

    Callaghan, Paul S; Hassett, Matthew R; Roepe, Paul D

    2015-08-18

    At least 53 distinct isoforms of Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (PfCRT) protein are expressed in strains or isolates of P. falciparum malarial parasites from around the globe. These parasites exhibit a range of sensitivities to chloroquine (CQ) and other drugs. Mutant PfCRT is believed to confer cytostatic CQ resistance (CQR(CS)) by transporting CQ away from its DV target (free heme released upon hemoglobin digestion). One theory is that variable CQ transport catalyzed by these different PfCRT isoforms is responsible for the range of CQ sensitivities now found for P. falciparum. Alternatively, additional mutations in drug-selected parasites, or additional functions of PfCRT, might complement PfCRT-mediated CQ transport in conferring the range of observed resistance phenotypes. To distinguish between these possibilities, we recently optimized a convenient method for measuring PfCRT-mediated CQ transport, involving heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we use this method to quantify drug transport activity for 45 of 53 of the naturally occurring PfCRT isoforms. Data show that variable levels of CQR likely depend upon either additional PfCRT functions or additional genetic events, including perhaps changes that influence DV membrane potential. The data also suggest that the common K76T PfCRT mutation that is often used to distinguish a P. falciparum CQR phenotype is not, in and of itself, a fully reliable indicator of CQR status.

  13. Diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging for meniscal tears in dogs affected with naturally occuring cranial cruciate ligament rupture.

    PubMed

    Blond, Laurent; Thrall, Donald E; Roe, Simon C; Chailleux, Nadege; Robertson, Ian D

    2008-01-01

    A stifle magnetic resonance (MR) imaging protocol was developed based on the appearance of the cruciate ligaments and menisci in normal dogs. Proton density images were subjectively considered to have the highest likelihood of detecting a meniscal lesion. Following this initial evaluation, the accuracy of high-field MR imaging to detect meniscal tears in dogs was evaluated in 11 dogs suffering from naturally occurring cranial cruciate ligament rupture. Dogs underwent MR imaging of the affected stifle before surgery. MR imaging and surgical findings were assessed independently, and then compared. Five tears of the medial meniscus were correctly diagnosed with MR imaging and 19 normal menisci were accurately characterized as such, based on MR images. In one medial meniscus, changes consistent with meniscal degeneration were seen on MR images but this was not seen at surgery. With regard to the lateral meniscus, one false positive diagnosis of a tear was made and this likely represented a normal variation. One other lateral meniscus had changes consistent with meniscal degeneration but, as with the similar lesion seen in the medial meniscus, this was not confirmed surgically. The global sensitivity of MR imaging for the diagnosis of a meniscal tear was 100% and the specificity was 94%. High-field MR imaging is a reliable method to diagnose meniscal tears preoperatively and this may be useful in selecting the surgical approach to clinically abnormal joints and may decrease the need for arthrotomy.

  14. Thermoluminescence (TL) Analysis and Fading Studies of Naturally Occurring Salt Irradiated by 500 mGy Gamma Rays

    SciTech Connect

    Tiwari, Ramesh Chandra; Pau, Kham Suan

    2011-10-20

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of the naturally occurring salt for the dosimetry purposes, using TL. The fine powder samples (20 mg) were irradiated by {gamma}- rays from 500 mGy to 2500 mGy by using Theratron-780C Cobalt-60 source, however, this paper discusses about 500 mGy only. The TL glow curve peak parameters were studied by using Chen's peak shape equation. TL glow curves were compared with fitted curves using glow curve deconvolution (GCD) method by using Kitis expression. The kinetic parameter values (E, b and s) so calculated, are in good agreement with those available in literature. The calculated energy values were also verified by using various heating rate (VHR) method. {chi}{sup 2} test and figure of merit (FOM) calculation was done to accept the goodness of fit between the curves. Fading studies of the sample showed a good fitting between the curves. The analysis suggests that natural salt should be considered for dosimetry purposes.

  15. Naturally occurring proteinaceous nanoparticles in Coptidis Rhizoma extract act as concentration-dependent carriers that facilitate berberine absorption.

    PubMed

    Ma, Bing-Liang; Yin, Chun; Zhang, Bo-Kai; Dai, Yan; Jia, Yi-Qun; Yang, Yan; Li, Qiao; Shi, Rong; Wang, Tian-Ming; Wu, Jia-Sheng; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Lin, Ge; Ma, Yue-Ming

    2016-01-29

    Pharmacological activities of some natural products diminish and even disappear after purification. In this study, we explored the mechanisms underlying the decrease of acute oral toxicity of Coptidis Rhizoma extract after purification. The water solubility, in vitro absorption, and plasma exposure of berberine (the major active compound) in the Coptidis Rhizoma extract were much better than those of pure berberine. Scanning electron microscopy, laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), and dynamic light scattering experiments confirmed that nanoparticles attached to very fine precipitates existed in the aqueous extract solution. The LSCM experiment showed that the precipitates were absorbed with the particles by the mouse intestine. High-speed centrifugation of the extract could not remove the nanoparticles and did not influence plasma exposure or acute oral toxicity. However, after extract dilution, the attached precipitates vanished, although the nanoparticles were preserved, and there were no differences in the acute oral toxicity and plasma exposure between the extract and pure berberine. The nanoparticles were then purified and identified as proteinaceous. Furthermore, they could absorb co-dissolved berberine. Our results indicate that naturally occurring proteinaceous nanoparticles in Coptidis Rhizoma extract act as concentration-dependent carriers that facilitate berberine absorption. These findings should inspire related studies in other natural products.

  16. Elevated Appraisals of the Negative Impact of Naturally Occurring Life Events: A Risk Factor for Depressive and Anxiety Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Espejo, Emmanuel P.; Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    The tendency to appraise naturally occurring life events (LEs) as having high negative impact may be a predisposing factor for the development of depression and anxiety disorders. In the current study, appraisals of the negative impact of recent LEs were examined in relationship to depressive and anxiety disorders in a sample of 653 adolescents who were administered diagnostic and life stress interviews at ages 15 and 20. Participants’ appraisals of the negative impact of LEs reported at age 15 were statistically adjusted using investigator-based ratings to control for objective differences across LEs. Higher appraisals of the negative impact of LEs were associated with both past and current depressive and anxiety disorders at age 15 and predicted subsequent first onsets of depressive and anxiety disorders occurring between ages 15 and 20. In addition, appraisals of the negative impact of LEs were particularly elevated among those experiencing both a depressive and anxiety disorder over the course of the study. The findings suggest that systematically elevated appraisals of the negative impact of LEs is a predisposing factor for depression and anxiety disorders and may represent a specific risk factor for co-morbid depression and anxiety in mid-adolescence and early adulthood. Keywords: depression; anxiety; stress appraisals; prospective study; PMID:21845380

  17. Thermoluminescence (TL) Analysis and Fading Studies of Naturally Occurring Salt Irradiated by 500 mGy Gamma Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Ramesh Chandra; Pau, Kham Suan

    2011-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of the naturally occurring salt for the dosimetry purposes, using TL. The fine powder samples (20 mg) were irradiated by γ- rays from 500 mGy to 2500 mGy by using Theratron-780C Cobalt-60 source, however, this paper discusses about 500 mGy only. The TL glow curve peak parameters were studied by using Chen's peak shape equation. TL glow curves were compared with fitted curves using glow curve deconvolution (GCD) method by using Kitis expression. The kinetic parameter values (E, b and s) so calculated, are in good agreement with those available in literature. The calculated energy values were also verified by using various heating rate (VHR) method. χ2 test and figure of merit (FOM) calculation was done to accept the goodness of fit between the curves. Fading studies of the sample showed a good fitting between the curves. The analysis suggests that natural salt should be considered for dosimetry purposes.

  18. Nanoparticles based on naturally-occurring biopolymers as versatile delivery platforms for delicate bioactive molecules: an application for ocular gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Parraga, Jenny E; Zorzi, Giovanni K; Diebold, Yolanda; Seijo, Begoña; Sanchez, Alejandro

    2014-12-30

    Nanoparticles based on naturally-occurring biopolymers, most of them endogenous macromolecules, were designed as a versatile generation of delivery platforms for delicate bioactive molecules. The design of these nanosystems was specifically based on our recent finding about the ability of endogenous polyamine spermine (SPM) to interact with anionic biopolymers (ABs) generating ionically cross-linked nanosystems. The initial first generation of these delivery platforms, based on glycosaminoglycans and other polysaccharides, showed a very high association capacity for some delicate bioactive proteins such as growth factors, but a limited capacity to associate negatively charged molecules, such as pDNA and siRNA. However, the versatility of these nanosystems in terms of composition allowed us to customise the association of active ingredients and their physicochemical characteristics. Concretely, we prepared and incorporated gelatine cationized with spermine (CGsp) to their composition. The resulting modified formulations were characterised by a nanometric size (150-340 nm) and offer the possibility to modulate their zeta potential (from -35 to 28 mV), providing an efficient association of nucleic acids. The biological evaluation of these optimised nanosystems revealed that they are able to be internalised in vivo into corneal and conjunctival tissues and also to provide a significant siRNA gene silencing effect.

  19. Phase I-II clinical trial of hyaluronan-cisplatin nanoconjugate in dogs with naturally occurring malignant tumors.

    PubMed

    Cai, Shuang; Zhang, Ti; Forrest, W C; Yang, Qiuhong; Groer, Chad; Mohr, Eva; Aires, Daniel J; Axiak-Bechtel, Sandra M; Flesner, Brian K; Henry, Carolyn J; Selting, Kimberly A; Tate, Deborah; Swarz, Jeffrey A; Bryan, Jeffrey N; Forrest, M Laird

    2016-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To conduct a phase I-II clinical trial of hyaluronan-cisplatin nanoconjugate (HA-Pt) in dogs with naturally occurring malignant tumors. ANIMALS 18 healthy rats, 9 healthy mice, and 16 dogs with cancer. PROCEDURES HA-Pt was prepared and tested by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry; DNA-platinum adduct formation and antiproliferation effects of cisplatin and HA-Pt were compared in vitro. Effects of cisplatin (IV) and HA-Pt (SC) in rodents were tested by clinicopathologic assays. In the clinical trial, dogs with cancer received 1 to 4 injections of HA-Pt (10 to 30 mg/m(2), intratumoral or peritumoral, q 3 wk). Blood samples were collected for pharmacokinetic analysis; CBC, serum BUN and creatinine concentration measurement, and urinalysis were conducted before and 1 week after each treatment. Some dogs underwent hepatic enzyme testing. Tumors were measured before the first treatment and 3 weeks after each treatment to assess response. RESULTS No adverse drug effects were detected in pretrial assessments in rodents. Seven of 16 dogs completed the study; 3 had complete tumor responses, 3 had stable disease, and 1 had progressive disease. Three of 7 dogs with oral and nasal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) that completed the study had complete responses. Myelosuppression and cardiotoxicosis were identified in 6 and 2 dogs, respectively; none had nephrotoxicosis. Four of 5 dogs with hepatic enzymes assessed had increased ALT activities, attributed to diaquated cisplatin products in the HA-Pt. Pharmacokinetic data fit a 3-compartment model. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE HA-Pt treatment resulted in positive tumor responses in some dogs, primarily those with SCC. The adverse effect rate was high. IMPACT FOR HUMAN MEDICINE Oral SCC in dogs has characteristics similar to human head and neck SCC; these results could be useful in developing human treatments. PMID:27580113

  20. Evaluation of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) in inorganic and organic oilfield scales from the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Bassioni, Ghada; Abdulla, Fareed; Morsy, Zeinab; El-Faramawy, Nabil

    2012-04-01

    The distribution of natural nuclide gamma-ray activities and their respective annual effective dose rates, produced by potassium-40 (⁴⁰K), uranium-238 (²³⁸U), thorium-232 (²³²Th), and radium-226 (²²⁶Ra), were determined for 14 oilfield scale samples from the Middle East. Accumulated radioactive materials concentrate in tubing and surface equipment, and workers at equipment-cleaning facilities and naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) disposal facilities are the population most at risk for exposure to NORM radiation. Gamma-spectra analysis indicated that photo-gamma lines represent the parents of 10 radioactive nuclides: ²³⁴Th, plutonium-239, actinium-228, ²²⁶Ra, lead-212 (²¹²Pb), ²¹⁴Pb, thallium-238 (²⁰⁸Tl), bismuth-212 (²¹²Bi), ²¹⁴Bi, and ⁴⁰K. These nuclides represent the daughters of the natural radioactive series ²³⁸U and ²³²Th with ⁴⁰K as well. The mean activity concentration of ²³⁸U, ²³²Th, and ⁴⁰K were found to be 25.8 ± 11.6, 18.3 ± 8.1, and 4487.2 ± 2.5% Bq kg⁻¹ (average values for 14 samples), respectively. The annual effective dose rates and the absorbed doses in air, both indoor and outdoor, for the samples were obtained as well. The results can be used to assess the respective hazard on workers in the field and represent a basis for revisiting current engineering practices.

  1. Radiological Impact Associated to Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM) from Coal-Fired Power Plants Emissions - 13436

    SciTech Connect

    Dinis, Maria de Lurdes; Fiuza, Antonio; Soeiro de Carvalho, Jose; Gois, Joaquim; Meira Castro, Ana Cristina

    2013-07-01

    Certain materials used and produced in a wide range of non-nuclear industries contain enhanced activity concentrations of natural radionuclides. In particular, electricity production from coal is one of the major sources of increased human exposure to naturally occurring radioactive materials. A methodology was developed to assess the radiological impact due to natural radiation background. The developed research was applied to a specific case study, the Sines coal-fired power plant, located in the southwest coastline of Portugal. Gamma radiation measurements were carried out with two different instruments: a sodium iodide scintillation detector counter (SPP2 NF, Saphymo) and a gamma ray spectrometer with energy discrimination (Falcon 5000, Canberra). Two circular survey areas were defined within 20 km of the power plant. Forty relevant measurements points were established within the sampling area: 15 urban and 25 suburban locations. Additionally, ten more measurements points were defined, mostly at the 20-km area. The registered gamma radiation varies from 20 to 98.33 counts per seconds (c.p.s.) corresponding to an external gamma exposure rate variable between 87.70 and 431.19 nGy/h. The highest values were measured at locations near the power plant and those located in an area within the 6 and 20 km from the stacks. In situ gamma radiation measurements with energy discrimination identified natural emitting nuclides as well as their decay products (Pb-212, Pb-2142, Ra-226, Th-232, Ac-228, Th-234, Pa-234, U- 235, etc.). According to the results, an influence from the stacks emissions has been identified both qualitatively and quantitatively. The developed methodology accomplished the lack of data in what concerns to radiation rate in the vicinity of Sines coal-fired power plant and consequently the resulting exposure to the nearby population. (authors)

  2. Characterization of naturally occurring radioactive materials in Libyan oil pipe scale using a germanium detector and Monte Carlo simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habib, A. S.; Shutt, A. L.; Regan, P. H.; Matthews, M. C.; Alsulaiti, H.; Bradley, D. A.

    2014-02-01

    Radioactive scale formation in various oil production facilities is acknowledged to pose a potential significant health and environmental issue. The presence of such an issue in Libyan oil fields was recognized as early as 1998. The naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) involved in this matter are radium isotopes (226Ra and 228Ra) and their decay products, precipitating into scales formed on the surfaces of production equipment. A field trip to a number of onshore Libyan oil fields has indicated the existence of elevated levels of specific activity in a number of locations in some of the more mature oil fields. In this study, oil scale samples collected from different parts of Libya have been characterized using gamma spectroscopy through use of a well shielded HPGe spectrometer. To avoid potential alpha-bearing dust inhalation and in accord with safe working practices at this University, the samples, contained in plastic bags and existing in different geometries, are not permitted to be opened. MCNP, a Monte Carlo simulation code, is being used to simulate the spectrometer and the scale samples in order to obtain the system absolute efficiency and then to calculate sample specific activities. The samples are assumed to have uniform densities and homogeneously distributed activity. Present results are compared to two extreme situations that were assumed in a previous study: (i) with the entire activity concentrated at a point on the sample surface proximal to the detector, simulating the sample lowest activity, and; (ii) with the entire activity concentrated at a point on the sample surface distal to the detector, simulating the sample highest activity.

  3. Naturally Occurring Peer Support through Social Media: The Experiences of Individuals with Severe Mental Illness Using YouTube

    PubMed Central

    Naslund, John A.; Grande, Stuart W.; Aschbrenner, Kelly A.; Elwyn, Glyn

    2014-01-01

    Increasingly, people with diverse health conditions turn to social media to share their illness experiences or seek advice from others with similar health concerns. This unstructured medium may represent a platform on which individuals with severe mental illness naturally provide and receive peer support. Peer support includes a system of mutual giving and receiving where individuals with severe mental illness can offer hope, companionship, and encouragement to others facing similar challenges. In this study we explore the phenomenon of individuals with severe mental illness uploading videos to YouTube, and posting and responding to comments as a form of naturally occurring peer support. We also consider the potential risks and benefits of self-disclosure and interacting with others on YouTube. To address these questions, we used qualitative inquiry informed by emerging techniques in online ethnography. We analyzed n = 3,044 comments posted to 19 videos uploaded by individuals who self-identified as having schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or bipolar disorder. We found peer support across four themes: minimizing a sense of isolation and providing hope; finding support through peer exchange and reciprocity; sharing strategies for coping with day-to-day challenges of severe mental illness; and learning from shared experiences of medication use and seeking mental health care. These broad themes are consistent with accepted notions of peer support in severe mental illness as a voluntary process aimed at inclusion and mutual advancement through shared experience and developing a sense of community. Our data suggest that the lack of anonymity and associated risks of being identified as an individual with severe mental illness on YouTube seem to be overlooked by those who posted comments or uploaded videos. Whether or not this platform can provide benefits for a wider community of individuals with severe mental illness remains uncertain. PMID:25333470

  4. The naturally occurring luteinizing hormone surge is diminished in mice lacking estrogen receptor Beta in the ovary.

    PubMed

    Jayes, Friederike L; Burns, Katherine A; Rodriguez, Karina F; Kissling, Grace E; Korach, Kenneth S

    2014-02-01

    Female ESR2-null mice (betaERKO) display defects in ovarian function and are subfertile. Follicular maturation is impaired and explains smaller litters, but betaERKO also produce fewer litters, which may be partially due to inadequate ovulatory signals. To test this, the amplitude and timing of the naturally occurring luteinizing hormone (LH) surge was measured in individual intact betaERKO and wild-type (WT) mice. Vaginal cytology was evaluated daily, and blood samples were taken from mice in proestrus. The amplitude of the LH surge was severely blunted in betaERKO mice compared to WT, but pituitary LH levels revealed no differences. The betaERKO mice did not produce a preovulatory estradiol surge. To determine if the smaller LH surges and the reduced number of litters in betaERKO were due to the lack of ESR2 in the hypothalamic-pituitary axis or due to the absence of ESR2 in the ovary, ovaries were transplanted from WT into betaERKO mice and vice versa. The size of the LH surge was reduced only in mice lacking ESR2 within the ovary, and these mice had fewer litters. Fertility and size of the LH surge were rescued in betaERKO mice receiving a WT ovary. These data provide the first experimental evidence that the LH surge is impaired in betaERKO females and may contribute to their reduced fertility. ESR2 is not necessary within the pituitary and hypothalamus for the generation of a normal LH surge and for normal fertility, but ESR2 is essential within the ovary to provide proper signals.

  5. Studies of Mg2+/Ca2+ complexes of naturally occurring dinucleotides: potentiometric titrations, NMR, and molecular dynamics.

    PubMed

    Stern, Noa; Major, Dan Thomas; Gottlieb, Hugo Emilio; Weizman, Daniel; Sayer, Alon Haim; Blum, Eliav; Fischer, Bilha

    2012-08-01

    Dinucleotides (Np(n)N'; N and N' are A, U, G, or C, n = 2-7) are naturally occurring physiologically active compounds. Despite the interest in dinucleotides, the composition of their complexes with metal ions as well as their conformations and species distribution in living systems are understudied. Therefore, we investigated a series of Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) complexes of Np(n)N's. Potentiometric titrations indicated that a longer dinucleotide polyphosphate (N is A or G, n = 3-5) linker yields more stable complexes (e.g., log K of 2.70, 3.27, and 3.73 for Ap(n)A-Mg(2+), n = 3, 4, 5, respectively). The base (A or G) or ion (Mg(2+) or Ca(2+)) has a minor effect on K(M)(ML) values. In a physiological medium, the longer Ap(n)As (n = 4, 5) are predicted to occur mostly as the Mg(2+)/Ca(2+) complexes. (31)P NMR monitored titrations of Np(n)N's with Mg(2+)/Ca(2+) ions showed that the middle phosphates of the dinucleotides coordinate with Mg(2+)/Ca(2+). Multidimensional potential of mean force (PMF) molecular dynamics (MD) simulations suggest that Ap(2)A and Ap(4)A coordinate Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) ions in both inner-sphere and outer-sphere modes. The PMF MD simulations additionally provide a detailed picture of the possible coordination sites, as well as the cation binding process. Moreover, both NMR and MD simulations showed that the conformation of the nucleoside moieties in Np(n)N'-Mg(2+)/Ca(2+) complexes remains the same as that of free mononucleotides.

  6. Naturally Occurring Incompatibilities between Different Culex pipiens pallens Populations as the Basis of Potential Mosquito Control Measures

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lin; Zhu, Changliang; Zhang, Donghui

    2013-01-01

    Background Vector-borne diseases remain a threat to public health, especially in tropical countries. The incompatible insect technique has been explored as a potential control strategy for several important insect vectors. However, this strategy has not been tested in Culex pipiens pallens, the most prevalent mosquito species in China. Previous works used introgression to generate new strains that matched the genetic backgrounds of target populations while harboring a new Wolbachia endosymbiont, resulting in mating competitiveness and cytoplasmic incompatibility. The generation of these incompatible insects is often time-consuming, and the long-term stability of the newly created insect-Wolbachia symbiosis is uncertain. Considering the wide distribution of Cx. pipiens pallens and hence possible isolation of different populations, we sought to test for incompatibilities between natural populations and the possibility of exploiting these incompatibilities as a control strategy. Methodology/Principal Findings Three field populations were collected from three geographic locations in eastern China. Reciprocal cross results showed that bi-directional patterns of incompatibility existed between some populations. Mating competition experiments indicated that incompatible males could compete with cognate males in mating with females, leading to reduced overall fecundity. F1 offspring from incompatible crosses maintained their maternal crossing types. All three populations tested positive for Wolbachia. Removal of Wolbachia by tetracycline rendered matings between these populations fully compatible. Conclusions/Significance Our findings indicate that naturally occurring patterns of cytoplasmic incompatibility between Cx. pipiens pallens populations can be the basis of a control strategy for this important vector species. The observed incompatibilities are caused by Wolbachia. More tests including field trials are warranted to evaluate the feasibility of this strategy as a

  7. Modeling the effects of naturally occurring organic carbon on chlorinated ethene transport to a public supply well

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapelle, Francis H.; Kauffman, Leon J.; Widdowson, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    The vulnerability of public supply wells to chlorinated ethene (CE) contamination in part depends on the availability of naturally occurring organic carbon to consume dissolved oxygen (DO) and initiate reductive dechlorination. This was quantified by building a mass balance model of the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer, which is widely used for public water supply in New Jersey. This model was built by telescoping a calibrated regional three-dimensional (3D) MODFLOW model to the approximate capture zone of a single public supply well that has a history of CE contamination. This local model was then used to compute a mass balance between dissolved organic carbon (DOC), particulate organic carbon (POC), and adsorbed organic carbon (AOC) that act as electron donors and DO, CEs, ferric iron, and sulfate that act as electron acceptors (EAs) using the Sequential Electron Acceptor Model in three dimensions (SEAM3D) code. SEAM3D was constrained by varying concentrations of DO and DOC entering the aquifer via recharge, varying the bioavailable fraction of POC in aquifer sediments, and comparing observed and simulated vertical concentration profiles of DO and DOC. This procedure suggests that approximately 15% of the POC present in aquifer materials is readily bioavailable. Model simulations indicate that transport of perchloroethene (PCE) and its daughter products trichloroethene (TCE), cis-dichloroethene (cis-DCE), and vinyl chloride (VC) to the public supply well is highly sensitive to the assumed bioavailable fraction of POC, concentrations of DO entering the aquifer with recharge, and the position of simulated PCE source areas in the flow field. The results are less sensitive to assumed concentrations of DOC in aquifer recharge. The mass balance approach used in this study also indicates that hydrodynamic processes such as advective mixing, dispersion, and sorption account for a significant amount of the observed natural attenuation in this system.

  8. Naturally Occurring Deletion Mutants of the Pig-Specific, Intestinal Crypt Epithelial Cell Protein CLCA4b without Apparent Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Plog, Stephanie; Klymiuk, Nikolai; Binder, Stefanie; Van Hook, Matthew J.; Thoreson, Wallace B.; Gruber, Achim D.; Mundhenk, Lars

    2015-01-01

    The human CLCA4 (chloride channel regulator, calcium-activated) modulates the intestinal phenotype of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients via an as yet unknown pathway. With the generation of new porcine CF models, species-specific differences between human modifiers of CF and their porcine orthologs are considered critical for the translation of experimental data. Specifically, the porcine ortholog to the human CF modulator gene CLCA4 has recently been shown to be duplicated into two separate genes, CLCA4a and CLCA4b. Here, we characterize the duplication product, CLCA4b, in terms of its genomic structure, tissue and cellular expression patterns as well as its in vitro electrophysiological properties. The CLCA4b gene is a pig-specific duplication product of the CLCA4 ancestor and its protein is exclusively expressed in small and large intestinal crypt epithelial cells, a niche specifically occupied by no other porcine CLCA family member. Surprisingly, a unique deleterious mutation of the CLCA4b gene is spread among modern and ancient breeds in the pig population, but this mutation did not result in an apparent phenotype in homozygously affected animals. Electrophysiologically, neither the products of the wild type nor of the mutated CLCA4b genes were able to evoke a calcium-activated anion conductance, a consensus feature of other CLCA proteins. The apparently pig-specific duplication of the CLCA4 gene with unique expression of the CLCA4b protein variant in intestinal crypt epithelial cells where the porcine CFTR is also present raises the question of whether it may modulate the porcine CF phenotype. Moreover, the naturally occurring null variant of CLCA4b will be valuable for the understanding of CLCA protein function and their relevance in modulating the CF phenotype. PMID:26474299

  9. Intraplacental gene therapy with Ad-IGF-1 corrects naturally occurring rabbit model of intrauterine growth restriction.

    PubMed

    Keswani, Sundeep G; Balaji, Swathi; Katz, Anna B; King, Alice; Omar, Khaled; Habli, Mounira; Klanke, Charles; Crombleholme, Timothy M

    2015-03-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) due to placental insufficiency is a leading cause of perinatal complications for which there is no effective prenatal therapy. We have previously demonstrated that intraplacental injection of adenovirus-mediated insulin-like growth factor-1 (Ad-IGF-1) corrects fetal weight in a murine IUGR model induced by mesenteric uterine artery branch ligation. This study investigated the effect of intraplacental Ad-IGF-1 gene therapy in a rabbit model of naturally occurring IUGR (runt) due to placental insufficiency, which is similar to the human IUGR condition with onset in the early third trimester, brain sparing, and a reduction in liver weight. Laparotomy was performed on New Zealand White rabbits on day 21 of 30 days of gestation and litters were divided into five groups: Control (first position)+phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), control+Ad-IGF-1, runt (third position)+PBS, runt+Ad-IGF-1, and runt+Ad-LacZ. The effect of IGF-1 gene therapy on fetal, placental, liver, heart, lung, and musculoskeletal weights of the growth-restricted pups was examined. Protein expression after gene transfer was seen along the maternal-fetal placenta interface (n=12) 48 hr after gene therapy. There was minimal gene transfer detected in the pups or maternal organs. At term, compared with the normally grown first-position control, the runted third-position pups demonstrated significantly lower fetal, placental, liver, lung, and musculoskeletal weights. The fetal, liver, and musculoskeletal weights were restored to normal by intraplacental Ad-IGF-1 gene therapy (p<0.01), with no change in the placental weight. Intraplacental gene therapy is a novel strategy for the treatment of IUGR caused by placental insufficiency that takes advantage of an organ that will be discarded at birth. Development of nonviral IGF-1 gene delivery using placenta-specific promoters can potentially minimize toxicity to the mother and fetus and facilitate clinical translation of

  10. Exposure to Low Dose of Cinnabar (a Naturally Occurring Mercuric Sulfide (HgS)) Caused Neurotoxicological Effects in Offspring Mice

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chun-Fa; Hsu, Chuan-Jen; Liu, Shing-Hwa; Lin-Shiau, Shoei-Yn

    2012-01-01

    Cinnabar, a naturally occurring mercuric sulfide (HgS), has long been used in Chinese mineral medicine for more than 2000 years. Although mercury is well-known for its toxicity, whether cinnabar induces neurotoxicity, especially in infants and children, is unknown. The purpose of this study was to explore the neurotoxic effects of low-dose of cinnabar (10 mg/kg/day) on developing mice. The results revealed neurobehavioral defects in F1-C-Cin group, which were associated with Hg accumulation, increased NOx levels in whole blood, and Na+/K+-ATPase activities in brain tissues. F1- and F2-Cin-V groups were found to increase brain Hg contents and prominent neurobehavioral defects compared with F1-C-V group, suggesting that the fetal brain was more susceptible to irreversible effects for cinnabar-induced damage. Moreover, F1- and F2-Cin-Cin groups had severely neurobehavioral dysfunctions, closely correlated with the further alteration of NOx levels and Na+/K+-ATPase activities than F1- and F2-C-Cin groups. Effects in F2-Cin-Cin group were more significant than those in F1-Cin-Cin group. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that exposure to low-dose of cinnabar during the perinatal and developmental stages results in irreversible and severe injuries of the neurotoxicity in offspring, and NOx and Na+/K+-ATPase activities may exist potential and useful biomarkers for neurotoxicity-induced by low-doses of mercuric compounds. PMID:22888198

  11. Evaluation of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) in inorganic and organic oilfield scales from the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Bassioni, Ghada; Abdulla, Fareed; Morsy, Zeinab; El-Faramawy, Nabil

    2012-04-01

    The distribution of natural nuclide gamma-ray activities and their respective annual effective dose rates, produced by potassium-40 (⁴⁰K), uranium-238 (²³⁸U), thorium-232 (²³²Th), and radium-226 (²²⁶Ra), were determined for 14 oilfield scale samples from the Middle East. Accumulated radioactive materials concentrate in tubing and surface equipment, and workers at equipment-cleaning facilities and naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) disposal facilities are the population most at risk for exposure to NORM radiation. Gamma-spectra analysis indicated that photo-gamma lines represent the parents of 10 radioactive nuclides: ²³⁴Th, plutonium-239, actinium-228, ²²⁶Ra, lead-212 (²¹²Pb), ²¹⁴Pb, thallium-238 (²⁰⁸Tl), bismuth-212 (²¹²Bi), ²¹⁴Bi, and ⁴⁰K. These nuclides represent the daughters of the natural radioactive series ²³⁸U and ²³²Th with ⁴⁰K as well. The mean activity concentration of ²³⁸U, ²³²Th, and ⁴⁰K were found to be 25.8 ± 11.6, 18.3 ± 8.1, and 4487.2 ± 2.5% Bq kg⁻¹ (average values for 14 samples), respectively. The annual effective dose rates and the absorbed doses in air, both indoor and outdoor, for the samples were obtained as well. The results can be used to assess the respective hazard on workers in the field and represent a basis for revisiting current engineering practices. PMID:21892762

  12. Naturally occurring peer support through social media: the experiences of individuals with severe mental illness using YouTube.

    PubMed

    Naslund, John A; Grande, Stuart W; Aschbrenner, Kelly A; Elwyn, Glyn

    2014-01-01

    Increasingly, people with diverse health conditions turn to social media to share their illness experiences or seek advice from others with similar health concerns. This unstructured medium may represent a platform on which individuals with severe mental illness naturally provide and receive peer support. Peer support includes a system of mutual giving and receiving where individuals with severe mental illness can offer hope, companionship, and encouragement to others facing similar challenges. In this study we explore the phenomenon of individuals with severe mental illness uploading videos to YouTube, and posting and responding to comments as a form of naturally occurring peer support. We also consider the potential risks and benefits of self-disclosure and interacting with others on YouTube. To address these questions, we used qualitative inquiry informed by emerging techniques in online ethnography. We analyzed n = 3,044 comments posted to 19 videos uploaded by individuals who self-identified as having schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or bipolar disorder. We found peer support across four themes: minimizing a sense of isolation and providing hope; finding support through peer exchange and reciprocity; sharing strategies for coping with day-to-day challenges of severe mental illness; and learning from shared experiences of medication use and seeking mental health care. These broad themes are consistent with accepted notions of peer support in severe mental illness as a voluntary process aimed at inclusion and mutual advancement through shared experience and developing a sense of community. Our data suggest that the lack of anonymity and associated risks of being identified as an individual with severe mental illness on YouTube seem to be overlooked by those who posted comments or uploaded videos. Whether or not this platform can provide benefits for a wider community of individuals with severe mental illness remains uncertain. PMID:25333470

  13. Staphylococcal Phenotypes Induced by Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Membrane-Interactive Polyphenolic β-Lactam Resistance Modifiers

    PubMed Central

    Palacios, Lucia; Rosado, Helena; Micol, Vicente; Rosato, Adriana E.; Bernal, Patricia; Arroyo, Raquel; Grounds, Helen; Anderson, James C.; Stabler, Richard A.; Taylor, Peter W.

    2014-01-01

    Galloyl catechins, in particular (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECg), have the capacity to abrogate β-lactam resistance in methicillin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA); they also prevent biofilm formation, reduce the secretion of a large proportion of the exoproteome and induce profound changes to cell morphology. Current evidence suggests that these reversible phenotypic traits result from their intercalation into the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane. We have endeavoured to potentiate the capacity of ECg to modify the MRSA phenotype by stepwise removal of hydroxyl groups from the B-ring pharmacophore and the A:C fused ring system of the naturally occurring molecule. ECg binds rapidly to the membrane, inducing up-regulation of genes responsible for protection against cell wall stress and maintenance of membrane integrity and function. Studies with artificial membranes modelled on the lipid composition of the staphylococcal bilayer indicated that ECg adopts a position deep within the lipid palisade, eliciting major alterations in the thermotropic behaviour of the bilayer. The non-galloylated homolog (-)-epicatechin enhanced ECg-mediated effects by facilitating entry of ECg molecules into the membrane. ECg analogs with unnatural B-ring hydroxylation patterns induced higher levels of gene expression and more profound changes to MRSA membrane fluidity than ECg but adopted a more superficial location within the bilayer. ECg possessed a high affinity for the positively charged staphylococcal membrane and induced changes to the biophysical properties of the bilayer that are likely to account for its capacity to disperse the cell wall biosynthetic machinery responsible for β-lactam resistance. The ability to enhance these properties by chemical modification of ECg raises the possibility that more potent analogs could be developed for clinical evaluation. PMID:24699700

  14. Naturally occurring radioactive material from the aluminium industry--a case study: the Egyptian Aluminium Company, Nag Hammady, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Abbady, Adel G E; El-Arabi, A M

    2006-12-01

    The activity concentrations and the gamma-absorbed dose rates of the terrestrial naturally occurring radionuclides (226)Ra and (232)Th were determined in samples of bauxite, alumina and aluminium dross tailings industrial waste (used to produce two types of alums) using high purity germanium (HPGe) gamma ray spectrometry. The bauxite and alumina are imported by Egyptalum (The Egyptian Aluminium Company, Nag Hammady, Egypt) from Guinea and India. The activity concentrations in the bauxite range from 29 +/- 1 to 112 +/- 6 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, and 151 +/- 8 to 525 +/- 12 Bq kg(-1) for (232)Th, with mean values of 62 +/- 8 and 378 +/- 50 Bq kg(-1), respectively. With respect to alumina and tail, the mean values are 5.7 +/- 1.1 and 8.4 +/- 0.8 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra and 7.2 +/- 1.6 and 10.7 +/- 1.2 Bq kg(-1) for (232)Th. Potassium-40 was not detected in any of the studied samples. The measured activity concentrations of (226)Ra and (232)Th in bauxite are higher than the world average while in alumina and tail they are lower. As a measure of radiation hazard to the occupational workers and members of the public, the Ra equivalent activities and external gamma dose rates due to natural radionuclides at 1 m above the ground surface were calculated. The external gamma-radiation doses received by the Egyptalum workers are 97, 409, 8.5 and 12.7 microSv y(-1) for the Guinean and Indian bauxite, the alumina and tail, respectively, which is well below the recommended allowed dose of 1 mSv y(-1) for non-exposed workers.

  15. Naturally occurring peer support through social media: the experiences of individuals with severe mental illness using YouTube.

    PubMed

    Naslund, John A; Grande, Stuart W; Aschbrenner, Kelly A; Elwyn, Glyn

    2014-01-01

    Increasingly, people with diverse health conditions turn to social media to share their illness experiences or seek advice from others with similar health concerns. This unstructured medium may represent a platform on which individuals with severe mental illness naturally provide and receive peer support. Peer support includes a system of mutual giving and receiving where individuals with severe mental illness can offer hope, companionship, and encouragement to others facing similar challenges. In this study we explore the phenomenon of individuals with severe mental illness uploading videos to YouTube, and posting and responding to comments as a form of naturally occurring peer support. We also consider the potential risks and benefits of self-disclosure and interacting with others on YouTube. To address these questions, we used qualitative inquiry informed by emerging techniques in online ethnography. We analyzed n = 3,044 comments posted to 19 videos uploaded by individuals who self-identified as having schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or bipolar disorder. We found peer support across four themes: minimizing a sense of isolation and providing hope; finding support through peer exchange and reciprocity; sharing strategies for coping with day-to-day challenges of severe mental illness; and learning from shared experiences of medication use and seeking mental health care. These broad themes are consistent with accepted notions of peer support in severe mental illness as a voluntary process aimed at inclusion and mutual advancement through shared experience and developing a sense of community. Our data suggest that the lack of anonymity and associated risks of being identified as an individual with severe mental illness on YouTube seem to be overlooked by those who posted comments or uploaded videos. Whether or not this platform can provide benefits for a wider community of individuals with severe mental illness remains uncertain.

  16. Influence of Asellus aquaticus on Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Campylobacter jejuni and naturally occurring heterotrophic bacteria in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Sarah C B; Nissen, Erling; Arvin, Erik; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2012-10-15

    Water lice, Asellus aquaticus (isopoda), frequently occur in drinking water distribution systems where they are a nuisance to consumers and water utilities. Whether they are solely an aesthetic problem or also affect the microbial water quality is a matter of interest. We studied the influence of A. aquaticus on microbial water quality in non-chlorinated drinking water in controlled laboratory experiments. Pure cultures of the indicator organisms Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae and the pathogen Campylobacter jejuni as well as naturally occurring heterotrophic drinking water bacteria (measured as heterotrophic plate counts, HPC) were investigated in microcosms at 7 °C, containing non-sterilised drinking water, drinking water sediment and A. aquaticus collected from a non-chlorinated ground water based drinking water supply system. Concentrations of E. coli, K. pneumoniae and C. jejuni decreased over time, following a first order decay with half lives of 5.3, 18.4 and 1.3 days, respectively. A. aquaticus did not affect survival of indicators and pathogens substantially whereas HPC were influenced by presence of dead A. aquaticus. Growth rates increased with an average of 48% for bacteria grown on R-2A agar and an average of 83% for bacteria grown on yeast extract agar when dead A. aquaticus were present compared to no and living A. aquaticus present. A. aquaticus associated E. coli, K. pneumoniae and C. jejuni were measured (up to 25 per living and 500 per dead A. aquaticus) and so were A. aquaticus associated heterotrophic bacteria (>1.8*10(4) CFU per living and >6*10(4) CFU per dead A. aquaticus). A. aquaticus did not serve as an optimised habitat that increased survival of indicators and pathogens, since A. aquaticus associated E. coli, K. pneumoniae and C. jejuni were only measured as long as the bacteria were also present in the water and sediment.

  17. Multiple forms of metallothionein from the digestive gland of naturally occurring and cadmium-exposed mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanković, Dušica; Pavičić, Jasenka; Kozar, Sonja; Raspor, Biserka

    2002-06-01

    Polymorphism of metallothioneins in the digestive gland of naturally occurring (control) and experimentally Cd-exposed mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis (200 µg Cd l-1; 14 days) was studied by applying the conventional methods of Sephadex column liquid chromatography (G-75 and DEAE A-25), and by an electrochemical method (DPASV) for determination of Cd, Zn and Cu concentrations in chromatographic fractions. In both control and Cd-exposed mussels, two distinct molecular mass components of the metallothioneins, monomeric (MT-10) and dimeric (MT-20), were resolved by Sephadex G-75 gel filtration chromatography. In control mussels, the MT-10 component was predominantly expressed as containing markedly higher constitutive levels of Zn (100×) and Cu (10×) than of Cd. Each of these two molecular mass components was further resolved into seven metal-rich peaks by anion-exchange chromatography. In Cd-exposed mussels the larger proportion of Cd was bound to the MT-20 than to the MT-10 component, suggesting that the dimeric component may be considered as a primarily inducible metallothionein. The elution positions of metal-binding maxima of Cd-exposed and control mussels on the respective DEAE chromatographic profiles were comparable. A great similarity in elution positions of Cd maxima between the composite and single-specimen samples was also observed. Our study confirms a high multiplicity of MT forms in mussels from the Mytilus genus not only under the laboratory high-level metal exposure conditions, but also at a natural seawater metal exposure level. The ecotoxicological significance of dimeric and monomeric MT forms, as well as their possible application in the biomonitoring of seawater for trace metals, has been considered.

  18. Gait Changes Vary among Horses with Naturally Occurring Osteoarthritis Following Intra-articular Administration of Autologous Platelet-Rich Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Mirza, Mustajab H.; Bommala, Prakash; Richbourg, Heather A.; Rademacher, Nathalie; Kearney, Michael T.; Lopez, Mandi J.

    2016-01-01

    Mechanisms to reduce lameness associated with osteoarthritis (OA) are vital to equine health and performance. This study was designed to quantify response to autologous, intra-articular platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in horses with OA. Kinetic gait analysis was performed on 12 horses with unilateral forelimb lameness and OA in the same limb before and after intra-articular anesthesia (IAA). Radiographs and kinetic data were obtained before and 6 and 16 weeks after PRP administration to same joint, 4 weeks after IAA. Statistical evaluations included filtration effect on platelet concentration, relationship between kinetic variable changes after IAA versus PRP in the affected limb, and associations between response to PRP and response to IAA, platelet concentration, and radiographic OA. A positive response to IAA or PRP was defined as ≥5% improvement in peak vertical force, vertical impulse, or breaking impulse of the affected limb. Out of 10 horses that responded to IAA, 3 responded to PRP at both time points and 4 responded at one. Of the two horses that did not respond to IAA, one responded to PRP at both time points. Filtration increased platelet concentration significantly. The relationship between kinetic variable alterations of the affected limb after IAA and PRP was not significant, and response to PRP was not associated with response to IAA, platelet concentration, or radiographic OA. Changes in kinetic variables following IAA in joints with naturally occurring OA provide a custom standard to assess intra-articular therapy. Kinetic gait changes after intra-articular PRP are variable in horses with moderate to severe forelimb OA. PMID:27148544

  19. 1H-n.m.r. investigation of naturally occurring and chemically oversulphated dermatan sulphates. Identification of minor monosaccharide residues.

    PubMed Central

    Bossennec, V; Petitou, M; Perly, B

    1990-01-01

    The 1H-n.m.r. spectra of various dermatan sulphate preparations present, besides the major signals of the basic disaccharide unit, several other minor signals. We have assigned most of them by n.m.r., using two-dimensional proton-proton double-quantum-correlation and nuclear-Overhauser-effect spectroscopy experiments. This allowed us to identify 2-O-sulphated L-iduronic acid and D-glucuronic acid residues as well as 6-sulphated N-acetylgalactosamine (presumably 4-O-sulphated as well). 2-O-Sulphated iduronic acid was present to similar extents (6-10% of total uronic acids) in pig skin dermatan sulphate and pig intestine dermatan sulphate, whereas glucuronic acid represented 17% of the uronic acid of pig skin dermatan sulphate and was virtually absent (1%) from the other preparation. 6-O-Sulphated N-acetylgalactosamine was present in minor amounts in pig intestine dermatan sulphate only. The influence of sulphation of iduronic acid units on their conformation was assessed by using chemically oversulphated pig intestine dermatan sulphate. Introduction of sulphate groups in this unit in dermatan sulphate tends to shift the conformational equilibrium towards the 1C4 conformer. PMID:2339978

  20. In-Situ Sampling and Characterization of Naturally Occurring Marine Methane Hydrate Using the D/V JOIDES Resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Frank R. Rack

    2006-09-20

    Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41329 between Joint Oceanographic Institutions and DOE-NETL was divided into two phases based on successive proposals and negotiated statements of work pertaining to activities to sample and characterize methane hydrates on ODP Leg 204 (Phase 1) and on IODP Expedition 311 (Phase 2). The Phase 1 Final Report was submitted to DOE-NETL in April 2004. This report is the Phase 2 Final Report to DOE-NETL. The primary objectives of Phase 2 were to sample and characterize methane hydrates using the systems and capabilities of the D/V JOIDES Resolution during IODP Expedition 311, to enable scientists the opportunity to establish the mass and distribution of naturally occurring gas and gas hydrate at all relevant spatial and temporal scales, and to contribute to the DOE methane hydrate research and development effort. The goal of the work was to provide expanded measurement capabilities on the JOIDES Resolution for a dedicated hydrate cruise to the Cascadia continental margin off Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada (IODP Expedition 311) so that hydrate deposits in this region would be well characterized and technology development continued for hydrate research. IODP Expedition 311 shipboard activities on the JOIDES Resolution began on August 28 and were concluded on October 28, 2005. The statement of work for this project included three primary tasks: (1) research management oversight, provided by JOI; (2) mobilization, deployment and demobilization of pressure coring and core logging systems, through a subcontract with Geotek Ltd.; and, (3) mobilization, deployment and demobilization of a refrigerated container van that will be used for degassing of the Pressure Core Sampler and density logging of these pressure cores, through a subcontract with the Texas A&M Research Foundation (TAMRF). Additional small tasks that arose during the course of the research were included under these three primary tasks in consultation with the DOE

  1. Thoracic and Lumbar Vertebral Bone Mineral Density Changes in a Natural Occurring Dog Model of Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis

    PubMed Central

    De Decker, Steven; Lam, Richard; Packer, Rowena M. A.; Gielen, Ingrid M. V. L.; Volk, Holger A.

    2015-01-01

    Ankylosing spinal disorders can be associated with alterations in vertebral bone mineral density (BMD). There is however controversy about vertebral BMD in patients wuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH). DISH in Boxer dogs has been considered a natural occurring disease model for DISH in people. The purpose of this study was to compare vertebral BMD between Boxers with and without DISH. Fifty-nine Boxers with (n=30) or without (n=29) DISH that underwent computed tomography were included. Vertebral BMD was calculated for each thoracic and lumbar vertebra by using an earlier reported and validated protocol. For each vertebral body, a region of interest was drawn on the axial computed tomographic images at three separate locations: immediately inferior to the superior end plate, in the middle of the vertebral body, and superior to the inferior end plate. Values from the three axial slices were averaged to give a mean Hounsfield Unit value for each vertebral body. Univariate statistical analysis was performed to identify factors to be included in a multivariate model. The multivariate model including all dogs demonstrated that vertebral DISH status (Coefficient 24.63; 95% CI 16.07 to 33.19; p <0.001), lumbar vertebrae (Coefficient -17.25; 95% CI -23.42 to -11.09; p < 0.01), and to a lesser extent higher age (Coefficient -0.56; 95% CI -1.07 to -0.05; p = 0.03) were significant predictors for vertebral BMD. When the multivariate model was repeated using only dogs with DISH, vertebral DISH status (Coefficient 20.67; 95% CI, 10.98 to 30.37; p < 0.001) and lumbar anatomical region (Coefficient -38.24; 95% CI, -47.75 to -28.73; p < 0.001) were again predictors for vertebral BMD but age was not. The results of this study indicate that DISH can be associated with decreased vertebral BMD. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the clinical importance and pathophysiology of this finding. PMID:25898128

  2. Intraplacental Gene Therapy with Ad-IGF-1 Corrects Naturally Occurring Rabbit Model of Intrauterine Growth Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Keswani, Sundeep G.; Balaji, Swathi; Katz, Anna B.; King, Alice; Omar, Khaled; Habli, Mounira; Klanke, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) due to placental insufficiency is a leading cause of perinatal complications for which there is no effective prenatal therapy. We have previously demonstrated that intraplacental injection of adenovirus-mediated insulin-like growth factor-1 (Ad-IGF-1) corrects fetal weight in a murine IUGR model induced by mesenteric uterine artery branch ligation. This study investigated the effect of intraplacental Ad-IGF-1 gene therapy in a rabbit model of naturally occurring IUGR (runt) due to placental insufficiency, which is similar to the human IUGR condition with onset in the early third trimester, brain sparing, and a reduction in liver weight. Laparotomy was performed on New Zealand White rabbits on day 21 of 30 days of gestation and litters were divided into five groups: Control (first position)+phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), control+Ad-IGF-1, runt (third position)+PBS, runt+Ad-IGF-1, and runt+Ad-LacZ. The effect of IGF-1 gene therapy on fetal, placental, liver, heart, lung, and musculoskeletal weights of the growth-restricted pups was examined. Protein expression after gene transfer was seen along the maternal–fetal placenta interface (n=12) 48 hr after gene therapy. There was minimal gene transfer detected in the pups or maternal organs. At term, compared with the normally grown first-position control, the runted third-position pups demonstrated significantly lower fetal, placental, liver, lung, and musculoskeletal weights. The fetal, liver, and musculoskeletal weights were restored to normal by intraplacental Ad-IGF-1 gene therapy (p<0.01), with no change in the placental weight. Intraplacental gene therapy is a novel strategy for the treatment of IUGR caused by placental insufficiency that takes advantage of an organ that will be discarded at birth. Development of nonviral IGF-1 gene delivery using placenta-specific promoters can potentially minimize toxicity to the mother and fetus and facilitate clinical

  3. A role for naturally occurring variation of the murine coronavirus spike protein in stabilizing association with the cellular receptor.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, T M

    1997-04-01

    Murine hepatitis virus (MHV), a coronavirus, initiates infection by binding to its cellular receptor (MHVR) via spike (S) proteins projecting from the virion membrane. The structures of these S proteins vary considerably among MHV strains, and this variation is generally considered to be important in determining the strain-specific pathologies of MHV infection, perhaps by affecting the interaction between MHV and the MHVR. To address the relationships between S variation and receptor binding, assays capable of measuring interactions between MHV and MHVR were developed. The assays made use of a novel soluble form of the MHVR, sMHVR-Ig, which comprised the virus-binding immunoglobulin-like domain of MHVR fused to the Fc portion of human immunoglobulin G1. sMHVR-Ig was stably expressed as a disulfide-linked dimer in human 293 EBNA cells and was immobilized to Sepharose-protein G via the Fc domain. The resulting Sepharose beads were used to adsorb radiolabelled MHV particles. At 4 degrees C, the beads specifically adsorbed two prototype MHV strains, MHV JHM (strain 4) and a tissue culture-adapted mutant of MHV JHM, the JHMX strain. A shift to 37 degrees C resulted in elution of JHM but not JHMX. This in vitro observation of JHM (but not JHMX) elution from its receptor at 37 degrees C was paralleled by a corresponding 37 degrees C elution of receptor-associated JHM (but not JHMX) from tissue culture cells. The basis for this difference in maintenance of receptor association was correlated with a large deletion mutation present within the JHMX S protein, as sMHVR-Ig exhibited relatively thermostable binding to vaccinia virus-expressed S proteins containing the deletion. These results indicate that naturally occurring mutations in the coronavirus S protein affect the stability of the initial interaction with the host cell and thus contribute to the likelihood of successful infection by incoming virions. These changes in virus entry features may result in coronaviruses

  4. Characterization of the National Petroleum Reserve No. 3 (NPR-3) Site for Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material(NORM)

    SciTech Connect

    White, G.J; Rood, A.S.

    1999-01-21

    The National Petroleum Reserve No. 3 site (NPR-3) near Casper, Wyoming is being prepared for transfer to private industry. Remediation of the NPR-3 site has already begun in anticipation of this transfer. This document describes the characterization of the NPR-3 site for Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM). Data generated on radionuclide concentrations and radon emanation may be used to determine disposal options and the need for remediation at this site. A preliminary gamma survey of the NPR-3 site was conducted to identify areas of potential NORM contamination. Based on these gamma surveys, two general areas of NORM contamination were found: the North Water Flood area and the BTP-10 produced water discharge steam. A maximum surface exposure rate of 120 {micro}R h{sup -1} was observed in the North Water Flood area, with the highest readings found along the drainage channel from the area. Exposure rates dropped to background quickly with increasing distance from the center of the drainage. The maximum observed exposure rate in the BTP-10 produced water drainage was 40 {micro}R h{sup -1}. Soil and sediment sampling were concentrated in these two areas. All samples were analyzed for concentration of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, and {sup 40}K. Maximum {sup 226}Ra concentrations observed in the samples collected were 46 pCi g{sup -1} for soil and 78 pCi g{sup -1} for sediment. Concentrations in most samples were considerably lower than these values. Radon emanation fraction was also measured for a randomly selected fraction of the samples. The mean Rn emanation fraction measured was 0.10, indicating that on average only 10 percent of the Rn produced is released from the medium. Based on the results of these analyses, NORM contamination at the NPR-3 site is minimal, and appears to be restricted to the two general areas sampled. Concentrations of NORM radionuclides found soils and sediments in these two locations do not justify remedial actions at present

  5. Naturally occurring IgG antibody levels to the Staphylococcus aureus protein IsdB in humans.

    PubMed

    Zorman, Julie K; Esser, Mark; Raedler, Michael; Kreiswirth, Barry N; Ala'Aldeen, Dlawer A A; Kartsonis, Nicholas; Smugar, Steven S; Anderson, Annaliesa S; McNeely, Tessie; Arduino, Jean Marie

    2013-09-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a well-recognized, clinically important cause of nosocomial infections, and as such, a vaccine to prevent S. aureus infections would be an important achievement. A Phase IIB/III study of V710, a vaccine containing iron-regulated surface determinant B (IsdB), demonstrated significant sero-conversion rates in cardiovascular surgery patients following a single pre-surgery immunization. However, the vaccine was not efficacious in preventing bacteremia or deep sternal wound infection post-surgery, thus raising the possibility that IsdB might not be available for immune recognition during infection. The purpose of the work described herein was to evaluate and quantify the naturally occurring anti-IsdB levels at baseline and over time during infection, to understand whether IsdB is expressed during a S. aureus infection in hospitalized non-vaccinated patients. We evaluated baseline and follow-up titers in 3 populations: (1) healthy subjects, (2) hospitalized patients with non-S. aureus infections, and (3) hospitalized patients with S. aureus infections. Baseline anti-IsdB levels generally overlapped between the 3 groups, but were highly variable within each group. In healthy subjects, baseline and follow-up levels were highly correlated (Spearman's rho = 0.93), and the geometric mean fold-rise (GMFR) in anti-IsdB levels between study entry and last value was 0.9-fold (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.8 to 1.0 ; p = 0.09), showing no trend over time. The convalescent GMFR in anti-IsdB levels from baseline was 1.7-fold (95% CI: 1.3 to 2.2, p = 0.0008) during S. aureus infection, significantly different from the 1.0-fold GMFR (95% CI: 0.9-1.2, p = 0.60) in non-S. aureus infection, p = 0.005. Additionally, S. aureus isolates (51) obtained from the hospitalized patient group expressed the IsdB protein in vitro. Collectively, these data suggest that IsdB expression levels rise substantially following infection with S. aureus, but not with other pathogens

  6. Thoracic and lumbar vertebral bone mineral density changes in a natural occurring dog model of diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis.

    PubMed

    De Decker, Steven; Lam, Richard; Packer, Rowena M A; Gielen, Ingrid M V L; Volk, Holger A

    2015-01-01

    Ankylosing spinal disorders can be associated with alterations in vertebral bone mineral density (BMD). There is however controversy about vertebral BMD in patients wuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH). DISH in Boxer dogs has been considered a natural occurring disease model for DISH in people. The purpose of this study was to compare vertebral BMD between Boxers with and without DISH. Fifty-nine Boxers with (n=30) or without (n=29) DISH that underwent computed tomography were included. Vertebral BMD was calculated for each thoracic and lumbar vertebra by using an earlier reported and validated protocol. For each vertebral body, a region of interest was drawn on the axial computed tomographic images at three separate locations: immediately inferior to the superior end plate, in the middle of the vertebral body, and superior to the inferior end plate. Values from the three axial slices were averaged to give a mean Hounsfield Unit value for each vertebral body. Univariate statistical analysis was performed to identify factors to be included in a multivariate model. The multivariate model including all dogs demonstrated that vertebral DISH status (Coefficient 24.63; 95% CI 16.07 to 33.19; p <0.001), lumbar vertebrae (Coefficient -17.25; 95% CI -23.42 to -11.09; p < 0.01), and to a lesser extent higher age (Coefficient -0.56; 95% CI -1.07 to -0.05; p = 0.03) were significant predictors for vertebral BMD. When the multivariate model was repeated using only dogs with DISH, vertebral DISH status (Coefficient 20.67; 95% CI, 10.98 to 30.37; p < 0.001) and lumbar anatomical region (Coefficient -38.24; 95% CI, -47.75 to -28.73; p < 0.001) were again predictors for vertebral BMD but age was not. The results of this study indicate that DISH can be associated with decreased vertebral BMD. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the clinical importance and pathophysiology of this finding. PMID:25898128

  7. Protection and sensitization of normal and malignant cells by a naturally occurring compound in a model of photochemical damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yuan-Hao; Kumar, Neeru; Glickman, Randolph D.

    2012-03-01

    Certain phytonutrients are known to confer protection and immunosuppression against radiation insults. Radiation-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) can either lead to the destruction of normal tissue cells, or induce tumor radioresistance by activating ROS scavenging proteins. To identify whether the triterpene phytonutrient, ursolic acid, reduces radiation-induced damage in normal cells and promotes the apoptosis of malignant cells, we investigated the biologic mechanisms and effect of radiation-cell interaction with or without treatment with ursolic acid in human skin melanoma cells (ATCC CRL-11147TM) and transformed human retinal pigment epithelial (hTERT-RPE) cells. UV-VIS light was employed to investigate the efficacy of ursolic acid in altering cellular viability by modulations of p53 and NF-κB p65 signaling. Cell response was investigated by changes in proliferative activity and free radical generation assessed by 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin liquid chromatography. Ursolic acid pretreatment strongly increased the level of p53 and decreased the level of phosphorylated p65 leading to enhanced cell death of skin melanoma cells in response to UV-VIS exposure. In contrast, ursolic acid appeared to downregulate p53 levels without disturbing NF-κB activation along with an increase of oxidative stress in hTERT-RPE cells. These findings indicate that ursolic acid may beneficially increase the radiosensitivity of tumor cells while potentiating a photoprotective effect on benign cells through differential effects on the NF-κB and p53 signaling pathways.

  8. IN-SITU SAMPLING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NATURALLY OCCURRING MARINE METHANE HYDRATE USING THE D/V JOIDES RESOLUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Rack, Frank R.; Dickens, Gerald; Ford, Kathryn; Schroeder, Derryl; Storms, Michael

    2002-08-01

    report. An infrared-thermal imaging system (IR-TIS) was deployed for the first time on ODP Leg 201. This system was used to identify methane hydrate intervals in the recovered cores. Initial discussions of these experiments are provided in this report. This report is an overview of the field measurements made on recovered sediment cores and the downhole measurements made during ODP Leg 201. These results are currently being used to incorporate the ''lessons learned'' from these deployments to prepare for a dedicated ODP leg to study the characteristics of naturally-occurring hydrates in the subsurface environment of Hydrate Ridge, offshore Oregon during ODP Leg 204, which will take place from July through September, 2002.

  9. Compilation of minimum and maximum isotope ratios of selected elements in naturally occurring terrestrial materials and reagents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coplen, T.B.; Hopple, J.A.; Böhlke, J.K.; Peiser, H.S.; Rieder, S.E.; Krouse, H.R.; Rosman, K.J.R.; Ding, T.; Vocke, R.D.; Revesz, K.M.; Lamberty, A.; Taylor, P.; De Bievre, P.

    2002-01-01

    laboratories comparable. The minimum and maximum concentrations of a selected isotope in naturally occurring terrestrial materials for selected chemical elements reviewed in this report are given below: Isotope Minimum mole fraction Maximum mole fraction -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2H 0 .000 0255 0 .000 1838 7Li 0 .9227 0 .9278 11B 0 .7961 0 .8107 13C 0 .009 629 0 .011 466 15N 0 .003 462 0 .004 210 18O 0 .001 875 0 .002 218 26Mg 0 .1099 0 .1103 30Si 0 .030 816 0 .031 023 34S 0 .0398 0 .0473 37Cl 0 .240 77 0 .243 56 44Ca 0 .020 82 0 .020 92 53Cr 0 .095 01 0 .095 53 56Fe 0 .917 42 0 .917 60 65Cu 0 .3066 0 .3102 205Tl 0 .704 72 0 .705 06 The numerical values above have uncertainties that depend upon the uncertainties of the determinations of the absolute isotope-abundance variations of reference materials of the elements. Because reference materials used for absolute isotope-abundance measurements have not been included in relative isotope abundance investigations of zinc, selenium, molybdenum, palladium, and tellurium, ranges in isotopic composition are not listed for these elements, although such ranges may be measurable with state-of-the-art mass spectrometry. This report is available at the url: http://pubs.water.usgs.gov/wri014222.

  10. A Naturally Occurring Hypoallergenic Variant of Vespid Antigen 5 from Polybia scutellaris Venom as a Candidate for Allergen-Specific Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Vinzón, Sabrina E.; Marino-Buslje, Cristina; Rivera, Elena; Biscoglio de Jiménez Bonino, Mirtha

    2012-01-01

    Stings by insects from the Hymenoptera order are known to cause life-threatening allergic reactions and impair life quality. Despite the effectiveness of conventional vespid venom immunotherapy, more standardized and safer allergy vaccines are required and recombinant hypoallergenic variants are important clinical tools. Antigen 5 is a major allergen of vespid venoms and it was previously reported that Antigen 5 from Polybia scutellaris (Poly s 5) could be a hypoallergenic variant. In this work we assess the immunological behavior and allergenic activity of Poly s 5 in order to explore its suitability for specific immunotherapy. With this aim, recombinant Poly s 5 was expressed in Pichia pastoris and the presence of cross-reactive epitopes with Pol a 5, a known allergenic Antigen 5, was investigated both at the IgG and IgE levels, by ELISA assays and a basophil-mediator release assay respectively. A molecular model was also built to better understand the relationship between immunological and structural aspects. In mice, Poly s 5 induced IgG antibodies which cross-reacted with Pol a 5. However, Poly s 5 induced only minimal amounts of IgE and was a poor inducer of basophil-mediator release, even when the cells were sensitized with Pol a 5-specific IgE. Moreover, Poly s 5-specific serum showed a specific protective activity and was able to inhibit the Pol a 5-induced basophil degranulation. Structural analysis from the molecular model revealed that a few amino acid substitutions in the N-terminal region of Poly s 5 should lead to an alteration of the surface topography and electrostatic potential of the epitopes which could be responsible for its hypoallergenic behavior. These findings, taken as a whole, show that Poly s 5 is likely a naturally occurring hypoallergenic Antigen 5 variant. PMID:22844463

  11. Biosensor studies of collagen and laminin binding with immobilized Escherichia coli O157:H7 and inhibition with naturally occurring food additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina, Marjorie B.

    1999-01-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreaks were mostly due to consumption of undercooked contaminated beef which resulted in severe illness and several fatalities. Recalls of contaminated meat are costly for the meat industry. Our research attempts to understand the mechanisms of bacterial adhesion on animal carcass in order to eliminate or reduce pathogens in foods. We have reported the interactions of immobilized E. coli O157:H7 cells with extracellular matrix (ECM) components using a surface plasmon resonance biosensor (BIAcore). These studies showed that immobilized bacterial cells allowed the study of real-time binding interactions of bacterial surface with the ECM compounds, collagen I, laminin and fibronectin. Collagen I and laminin bound to the E. coli sensor surface with dissociation and association rates ranging from 106 to 109. Binding of collagen I and laminin mixture resulted in synergistic binding signals. An inhibition model was derived using collagen-laminin as the ligand which binds with E. coli sensor. A select group of naturally occurring food additives was evaluated by determining their effectivity in inhibiting the collagen-laminin binding to the bacterial sensor. Bound collagen-laminin was detached from the E. coli sensor surface with the aid of an organic acid. The biosensor results were verified with cell aggregation assays which were observed with optical and electron microscopes. These biosensor studies provided understanding of bacterial adhesion to connective tissue macromolecules. It also provided a model system for the rapid assessment of potential inhibitors that can be used in carcass treatment to inhibit or reduce bacterial contamination.

  12. Naturally Occurring Swine Influenza A Virus PB1-F2 Phenotypes That Contribute to Superinfection with Gram-Positive Respiratory Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Weeks-Gorospe, Jenni N.; Hurtig, Heather R.; Iverson, Amy R.; Schuneman, Margaret J.; Webby, Richard J.; McCullers, Jonathan A.

    2012-01-01

    A combination of viral, bacterial, and host factors contributes to the severity and overall mortality associated with influenza virus-bacterium superinfections. To date, the virulence associated with the recently identified influenza virus protein PB1-F2 has been largely defined using models of primary influenza virus infection, with only limited assessment in models of Streptococcus pneumoniae superinfection. Specifically, these studies have incorporated isogenic viruses that differ in the PB1-F2 expressed, but there is still knowledge to be gained from evaluation of natural variants derived from a nonhuman host species (swine). Using this rationale, we developed the hypothesis that naturally occurring viruses expressing variants of genes, like the PB1-F2 gene, can be associated with the severity of secondary bacterial infections. To test this hypothesis, we selected viruses expressing variants in PB1-F2 and evaluated outcomes from superinfection with three distinct Gram-positive respiratory pathogens: Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pyogenes. Our results demonstrate that the amino acid residues 62L, 66S, 75R, 79R, and 82L, previously proposed as molecular signatures of PB1-F2 virulence for influenza viruses in the setting of bacterial superinfection, are broadly associated with enhanced pathogenicity in swine in a bacterium-specific manner. Furthermore, truncated PB1-F2 proteins can preferentially increase mortality when associated with Streptococcus pyogenes superinfection. These findings support efforts to increase influenza virus surveillance to consider viral genotypes that could be used to predict increased severity of superinfections with specific Gram-positive respiratory pathogens. PMID:22674997

  13. A naturally occurring hypoallergenic variant of vespid Antigen 5 from Polybia scutellaris venom as a candidate for allergen-specific immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Vinzón, Sabrina E; Marino-Buslje, Cristina; Rivera, Elena; Biscoglio de Jiménez Bonino, Mirtha

    2012-01-01

    Stings by insects from the Hymenoptera order are known to cause life-threatening allergic reactions and impair life quality. Despite the effectiveness of conventional vespid venom immunotherapy, more standardized and safer allergy vaccines are required and recombinant hypoallergenic variants are important clinical tools. Antigen 5 is a major allergen of vespid venoms and it was previously reported that Antigen 5 from Polybia scutellaris (Poly s 5) could be a hypoallergenic variant. In this work we assess the immunological behavior and allergenic activity of Poly s 5 in order to explore its suitability for specific immunotherapy. With this aim, recombinant Poly s 5 was expressed in Pichia pastoris and the presence of cross-reactive epitopes with Pol a 5, a known allergenic Antigen 5, was investigated both at the IgG and IgE levels, by ELISA assays and a basophil-mediator release assay respectively. A molecular model was also built to better understand the relationship between immunological and structural aspects. In mice, Poly s 5 induced IgG antibodies which cross-reacted with Pol a 5. However, Poly s 5 induced only minimal amounts of IgE and was a poor inducer of basophil-mediator release, even when the cells were sensitized with Pol a 5-specific IgE. Moreover, Poly s 5-specific serum showed a specific protective activity and was able to inhibit the Pol a 5-induced basophil degranulation. Structural analysis from the molecular model revealed that a few amino acid substitutions in the N-terminal region of Poly s 5 should lead to an alteration of the surface topography and electrostatic potential of the epitopes which could be responsible for its hypoallergenic behavior. These findings, taken as a whole, show that Poly s 5 is likely a naturally occurring hypoallergenic Antigen 5 variant. PMID:22844463

  14. A naturally occurring hypoallergenic variant of vespid Antigen 5 from Polybia scutellaris venom as a candidate for allergen-specific immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Vinzón, Sabrina E; Marino-Buslje, Cristina; Rivera, Elena; Biscoglio de Jiménez Bonino, Mirtha

    2012-01-01

    Stings by insects from the Hymenoptera order are known to cause life-threatening allergic reactions and impair life quality. Despite the effectiveness of conventional vespid venom immunotherapy, more standardized and safer allergy vaccines are required and recombinant hypoallergenic variants are important clinical tools. Antigen 5 is a major allergen of vespid venoms and it was previously reported that Antigen 5 from Polybia scutellaris (Poly s 5) could be a hypoallergenic variant. In this work we assess the immunological behavior and allergenic activity of Poly s 5 in order to explore its suitability for specific immunotherapy. With this aim, recombinant Poly s 5 was expressed in Pichia pastoris and the presence of cross-reactive epitopes with Pol a 5, a known allergenic Antigen 5, was investigated both at the IgG and IgE levels, by ELISA assays and a basophil-mediator release assay respectively. A molecular model was also built to better understand the relationship between immunological and structural aspects. In mice, Poly s 5 induced IgG antibodies which cross-reacted with Pol a 5. However, Poly s 5 induced only minimal amounts of IgE and was a poor inducer of basophil-mediator release, even when the cells were sensitized with Pol a 5-specific IgE. Moreover, Poly s 5-specific serum showed a specific protective activity and was able to inhibit the Pol a 5-induced basophil degranulation. Structural analysis from the molecular model revealed that a few amino acid substitutions in the N-terminal region of Poly s 5 should lead to an alteration of the surface topography and electrostatic potential of the epitopes which could be responsible for its hypoallergenic behavior. These findings, taken as a whole, show that Poly s 5 is likely a naturally occurring hypoallergenic Antigen 5 variant.

  15. Purification and characterization of naturally occurring HIV-1 (South African subtype C) protease mutants from inclusion bodies.

    PubMed

    Maseko, Sibusiso B; Natarajan, Satheesh; Sharma, Vikas; Bhattacharyya, Neelakshi; Govender, Thavendran; Sayed, Yasien; Maguire, Glenn E M; Lin, Johnson; Kruger, Hendrik G

    2016-06-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections in sub-Saharan Africa represent about 56% of global infections. Many studies have targeted HIV-1 protease for the development of drugs against AIDS. Recombinant HIV-1 protease is used to screen new drugs from synthetic compounds or natural substances. Along with the wild type (C-SA) we also over-expressed and characterized two mutant forms from patients that had shown resistance to protease inhibitors. Using recombinant DNA technology, we constructed three recombinant plasmids in pGEX-6P-1 and expressed them containing a sequence encoding wild type HIV protease and two mutants (I36T↑T contains 100 amino acids and L38L↑N↑L contains 101 amino acids). These recombinant proteins were isolated from inclusion bodies by using QFF anion exchange and GST trap columns. In SDS-PAGE, we obtained these HIV proteases as single bands of approximately 11.5, 11.6 and 11.7 kDa for the wild type, I36T↑Tand L38L↑N↑L mutants, respectively. The enzyme was recovered efficiently (0.25 mg protein/L of Escherichia coli culture) and had high specific activity of 2.02, 2.20 and 1.33 μmol min(-1) mg(-1) at an optimal pH of 5 and temperature of 37 °C for the wild type, I36T↑T and L38L↑N↑L, respectively. The method employed here provides an easy and rapid purification of the HIV-1(C-SA) protease from the inclusion bodies, with high yield and high specific activities.

  16. Naturally occurring Ehrlichia chaffeensis infection in two prosimian primate species: ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) and ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata).

    PubMed

    Williams, Cathy V; Van Steenhouse, Jan L; Bradley, Julie M; Hancock, Susan I; Hegarty, Barbara C; Breitschwerdt, Edward B

    2002-12-01

    A naturally occurring infection of Ehrlichia chaffeensis in lemurs is described. DNA of Ehrlichia chaffeensis was identified by polymerase chain reaction in peripheral blood from six of eight clinically ill lemurs. Organisms were cultured from the blood of one lemur exhibiting clinical and hematologic abnormalities similar to those of humans infected with E. chaffeensis. PMID:12498671

  17. Comparison of two commercially available rapid detection methods and a conventional culture method to detect naturally occurring salmonellae on broiler carcasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many different screening devices and sampling methods have been used to detect the presence of naturally occurring Salmonella on commercially processed broiler carcasses. The objective of this study was to compare two commercial screening systems (BAX® and Roka®) to a standard cultural procedure use...

  18. Modeling of the initiation and evolution of a laser-ionized column in the lower atmosphere - 314.5 nm wavelength resonant multiphoton ionization of naturally occurring argon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fetzer, G. J.; Stockley, J. E.

    1992-01-01

    A 3+1 resonant multiphoton ionization process in naturally occurring argon is studied at 314.5 nm as a candidate for providing a long ionized channel through the atmosphere. Results are presented which indicate peak electron densities up to 10 exp 8/cu cm can be created using laser intensities on the order of 10 exp 8 W/sq cm.

  19. Aspergillus fumigatus Intrinsic Fluconazole Resistance Is Due to the Naturally Occurring T301I Substitution in Cyp51Ap.

    PubMed

    Leonardelli, Florencia; Macedo, Daiana; Dudiuk, Catiana; Cabeza, Matias S; Gamarra, Soledad; Garcia-Effron, Guillermo

    2016-09-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus intrinsic fluconazole resistance has been demonstrated to be linked to the CYP51A gene, although the precise molecular mechanism has not been elucidated yet. Comparisons between A. fumigatus Cyp51Ap and Candida albicans Erg11p sequences showed differences in amino acid residues already associated with fluconazole resistance in C. albicans The aim of this study was to analyze the role of the natural polymorphism I301 in Aspergillus fumigatus Cyp51Ap in the intrinsic fluconazole resistance phenotype of this pathogen. The I301 residue in A. fumigatus Cyp51Ap was replaced with a threonine (analogue to T315 at Candida albicans fluconazole-susceptible Erg11p) by changing one single nucleotide in the CYP51A gene. Also, a CYP51A knockout strain was obtained using the same parental strain. Both mutants' antifungal susceptibilities were tested. The I301T mutant exhibited a lower level of resistance to fluconazole (MIC, 20 μg/ml) than the parental strain (MIC, 640 μg/ml), while no changes in MIC were observed for other azole- and non-azole-based drugs. These data strongly implicate the A. fumigatus Cyp51Ap I301 residue in the intrinsic resistance to fluconazole.

  20. High-frequency transfer of a naturally occurring chromosomal tetracycline resistance element in the ruminal anaerobe Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens.

    PubMed Central

    Scott, K P; Barbosa, T M; Forbes, K J; Flint, H J

    1997-01-01

    Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens strains resistant to tetracycline were isolated from the bovine rumen. Two of three Tcr B. fibrisolvens tested were able to donate tetracycline resistance at frequencies ranging from 10(-7) to 10(-1) per donor cell in anaerobic filter matings to a rifampin-resistant mutant of the type strain of B.fibrisolvens, 2221R. The recipient strain 2221R exhibited rapid autoaggregation, which might be a factor in the high transfer rates observed. Tcr transconjugants of B. fibrisolvens 2221R were also capable of further transferring tetracycline resistance to a fusidic acid-resistant mutant, 2221F. Comparison of genomic DNAs by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis demonstrated altered band profiles in transconjugants, consistent with the acquisition of a large mobile chromosomal element. The transferable elements from the two B. fibrisolvens donors 1.23 and 1.230 (TnB123 and TnB1230, respectively) showed the same preferred insertion site in the B. fibrisolvens 2221R chromosome and are likely to be similar, or identical, elements. Hybridization experiments showed no close relationship between TnB1230 and int-xis regions from Tn916 or Tn5253. Although DNA from the B. fibrisolvens donor strains hybridized with probes carrying tet(M) or tet(O) sequences, transconjugants were found to have acquired a distinct band that hybridized only weakly with these probes, suggesting that a second, distantly related Tcr determinant had been transferred. PMID:9292992

  1. Do naturally occurring autoantibodies participate in the constitution of the pathological B-cell repertoire in systemic lupus erythematosus?

    PubMed

    Gilbert, D; Brard, F; Jovelin, F; Tron, F

    1996-04-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is the prototype of systemic autoimmune diseases. In both human and mouse SLE diseases, the autoimmune response targets a restricted set of autoantigens. Many of them are nucleic acids and proteins involved in the synthesis and processing of DNA or RNA, a characteristic which should be taken into consideration to elucidate the origins of non organ-specific autoantibodies. Several observations, in particular those obtained from experimental models of SLE induced in normal mice, suggest that the breakdown of B-cell tolerance occurs in the periphery. Herewith, we present data further supporting the proposition that SLE-associated autoantibodies originate from natural autoantibody-secreting B cells activated in the internal environment of lupus mice. Thus, one may hypothesize that certain clones of the expanded primary B-cell repertoire are selected to differentiate into harmful IgG autoantibody-secreting clones, thereby raising the question of the nature of immunogenic structures involved in SLE. Our analysis of the immunochemical and structural properties of anti-nucleosome and anti-myeoloperoxidase monoclonal antibodies derived from (NZB x NZW)F1 mice leads us to propose that complexes formed by the association of DNA and DNA-binding proteins and, more generally, by anionic molecules associated with proteins, possess a selective advantage over other autoantigens to induce the differentiation of certain B-cell clones and the very special profile of the SLE-autoimmune response. These DNA/DNA-protein complexes could also play a role in the activation of the T-cell compartment in SLE.

  2. A soluble class II cytokine receptor, IL-22RA2, is a naturally occurring IL-22 antagonist

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wenfeng; Presnell, Scott R.; Parrish-Novak, Julia; Kindsvogel, Wayne; Jaspers, Steve; Chen, Zhi; Dillon, Stacey R.; Gao, Zeren; Gilbert, Teresa; Madden, Karen; Schlutsmeyer, Stacy; Yao, Lena; Whitmore, Theodore E.; Chandrasekher, Yasmin; Grant, Francis J.; Maurer, Mark; Jelinek, Laura; Storey, Harold; Brender, Ty; Hammond, Angie; Topouzis, Stavros; Clegg, Christopher H.; Foster, Donald C.

    2001-01-01

    IL-22 is an IL-10 homologue that binds to and signals through the class II cytokine receptor heterodimer IL-22RA1/CRF2–4. IL-22 is produced by T cells and induces the production of acute-phase reactants in vitro and in vivo, suggesting its involvement in inflammation. Here we report the identification of a class II cytokine receptor designated IL-22RA2 (IL-22 receptor-α 2) that appears to be a naturally expressed soluble receptor. IL-22RA2 shares amino acid sequence homology with IL-22RA1 (also known as IL-22R, zcytor11, and CRF2–9) and is physically adjacent to IL-20Rα and IFN-γR1 on chromosome 6q23.3–24.2. We demonstrate that IL-22RA2 binds specifically to IL-22 and neutralizes IL-22-induced proliferation of BaF3 cells expressing IL-22 receptor subunits. IL-22RA2 mRNA is highly expressed in placenta and spleen by Northern blotting. PCR analysis using RNA from various tissues and cell lines showed that IL-22RA2 was expressed in a range of tissues, including those in the digestive, female reproductive, and immune systems. In situ hybridization revealed the dominant cell types expressing IL-22RA2 were mononuclear cells and epithelium. Because IL-22 induces the expression of acute phase reactants, IL-22RA2 may play an important role as an IL-22 antagonist in the regulation of inflammatory responses. PMID:11481447

  3. Selective phthalate activation of naturally occurring human constitutive androstane receptor splice variants and the pregnane X receptor.

    PubMed

    DeKeyser, Joshua G; Laurenzana, Elizabeth M; Peterson, Eric C; Chen, Tao; Omiecinski, Curtis J

    2011-04-01

    Phthalates and other endocrine-disruptive chemicals are manufactured in large quantities for use as plasticizers and other commercial applications, resulting in ubiquitous human exposure and thus, concern regarding their toxicity. Innate defense against small molecule exposures is controlled in large part by the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and the pregnane X receptor (PXR). The human CAR gene undergoes multiple alternative splicing events resulting in the CAR2 and CAR3 variant receptors. Recent studies from our laboratory show that CAR2 is potently and specifically activated by di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). We hypothesized that alternative splicing is a mechanism for increasing CAR's functional diversity, broadening the human receptors' repertoire of response to environmental xenobiotics. In these studies, we examine the interaction of alternatively spliced CARs and PXR with a range of suspected endocrine disruptors, including phthalates, bisphenol A (BPA), and 4-N-nonylphenol (NP). Transactivation and two-hybrid studies in COS-1 cells revealed differential selectivity of endocrine-disrupting chemicals for the variant CAR and PXR. Ex vivo studies showed DEHP and di-isononyl phthalate potently induced CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 expression in human hepatocytes. Mutation analysis of CAR2, in silico modeling, and ligand docking studies suggested that the SPTV amino acid insertion of CAR2 creates a unique ligand-binding pocket. Alternative gene splicing results in variant CAR receptors that selectively recognize phthalates and BPA. The interaction of phthalates with CAR and PXR suggests a xenobiotic response that is complex and biologically redundant.

  4. Deposition and disinfection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on naturally occurring photoactive materials in a parallel plate chamber.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Alicia A; Chowdhury, Indranil; Gong, Amy S; Cwiertny, David M; Walker, Sharon L

    2014-02-01

    Dissolved organic matter in combination with iron oxides has been shown to facilitate photochemical disinfection through the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) under UV and visible light. However, due to the extremely short lifetime of these radicals, the disinfection efficiency is limited by the successful transport of ROS to bacterial surfaces. This study was designed to quantitatively investigate three collector surfaces with various potentials to produce ROS [bare quartz, hematite (α-Fe2O3) coated quartz, and Suwannee River humic acid (SRHA)] and the effects of extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) (full or partial coating) and solution chemistry (ionic strength, IS) on the interactions between bacteria and the ROS-producing substrates. With few exceptions, bacterial deposition studies in a parallel plate (PP) flow chamber have revealed increasing cell adhesion with IS. Furthermore, interactions between collector surfaces and cells can be explained by electrostatic forces, with negatively charged SRHA reducing and positively charged α-Fe2O3 enhancing bacterial deposition significantly. Increased deposition was also observed with full EPS content, indicating the ability of EPS to facilitate interaction between cells and surfaces in the aquatic environment. In complementary disinfection studies conducted with simulated light, viability loss was observed for cells fully coated with EPS when attached to α-Fe2O3 under all IS conditions. Based upon our prior study in which EPS was found to not inhibit hydroxyl radical activity toward bacteria, we proposed that EPS might therefore promote disinfection by facilitating cell attachment to ROS-producing surfaces where higher concentrations of ROS are expected at closer proximities to reactive substrates (e.g., SRHA and α-Fe2O3). Our findings on the mechanism and controlling factors of cell interactions with photoactive substrates provide insight as to the role of ionic strength in photochemical disinfection

  5. Deposition and disinfection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on naturally occurring photoactive materials in a parallel plate chamber†

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Alicia A.; Chowdhury, Indranil; Gong, Amy S.; Cwiertny, David M.; Walker, Sharon L.

    2014-01-01

    Dissolved organic matter in combination with iron oxides has been shown to facilitate photochemical disinfection through the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) under UV and visible light. However, due to the extremely short lifetime of these radicals, the disinfection effciency is limited by the successful transport of ROS to bacterial surfaces. This study was designed to quantitatively investigate three collector surfaces with various potentials to produce ROS [bare quartz, hematite (α-Fe2O3) coated quartz, and Suwannee River humic acid (SRHA)] and the effects of extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) (full or partial coating) and solution chemistry (ionic strength, IS) on the interactions between bacteria and the ROS-producing substrates. With few exceptions, bacterial deposition studies in a parallel plate (PP) flow chamber have revealed increasing cell adhesion with IS. Furthermore, interactions between collector surfaces and cells can be explained by electrostatic forces, with negatively charged SRHA reducing and positively charged α-Fe2O3 enhancing bacterial deposition significantly. Increased deposition was also observed with full EPS content, indicating the ability of EPS to facilitate interaction between cells and surfaces in the aquatic environment. In complementary disinfection studies conducted with simulated light, viability loss was observed for cells fully coated with EPS when attached to α-Fe2O3 under all IS conditions. Based upon our prior study in which EPS was found to not inhibit hydroxyl radical activity toward bacteria, we proposed that EPS might therefore promote disinfection by facilitating cell attachment to ROS-producing surfaces where higher concentrations of ROS are expected at closer proximities to reactive substrates (e.g., SRHA and α-Fe2O3). Our findings on the mechanism and controlling factors of cell interactions with photoactive substrates provide insight as to the role of ionic strength in photochemical disinfection

  6. The Use of Naturally Occurring Cancer in Domestic Animals for Research into Human Cancer: General Considerations and a Review of Canine Skeletal Osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Brodey, Robert S.

    1979-01-01

    For many years, research into human cancer has concentrated on human patients and on artificially induced neoplasms in inbred murine hosts. Cancer, however, affects a great variety of mammals, particularly those that have been domesticated. Suchf naturally occurring neoplasms are common in dogs, cats, cattle, horses, etc., and offer fertile ground for studies relating to epidemiologyf, etiology, immunobiology, and therapy. Canine osteosarcoma is described in detail. The clinicopathologic features of this canine tumor closely approximate that of human osteosarcoma and thus make canine osteosarcoma an invaluable comparative model. Canine osteosarcoma and other naturally occurring tumors lie intermediate between the mouse models and human cancer. The use of these veterinary models in the future fabric of cancer research will broaden its base and will influence our conceptual approach to research and clinical options. ImagesFIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6 PMID:115162

  7. Evaluation of cytogenetic effects of a naturally occurring non-ice-nucleation Pseudomonas fluorescens strain in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells.

    PubMed

    Caruso, P; Andreozzi, L; Motta, S; Mosesso, P

    1995-01-01

    One of the main methods for eliminating ice-nucleation-active (INA+) bacteria the micro-organisms responsible for frost injuries to plants at mild freezing temperatures, is the use, as competitors, of other naturally occurring non-nucleating strains (non-INA). In the present article we investigated the cytogenetic effects of a naturally occurring non-INA strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens (MS 1640 R3), evaluating the induction of chromosomal aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells in the absence and presence of rat S9 metabolism. The results obtained did not show any increase in either chromosomal aberrations or SCEs, both in the absence and presence of rat S9 metabolism when used as i) intact bacteria cells, ii) sonicated bacteria (i.e., potential endotoxins), or iii) metabolic bacterial products (i.e., potential exotoxins) released in the growth medium. PMID:8584981

  8. Phenotypic characterization of two naturally occurring human Cytomegalovirus sequence polymorphisms located in a distinct region of ORF UL56 known to be involved in in vitro resistance to letermovir.

    PubMed

    Goldner, Thomas; Zimmermann, Holger; Lischka, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Letermovir is a new drug in Phase 3 clinical development for the prevention of human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infections in hematopoietic-stem-cell transplant recipients (HSCT). In contrast to marketed anti-HCMV drugs which all target the viral DNA polymerase, letermovir's novel mode of action targets the UL56 subunit of the viral terminase complex. Consistently letermovir resistance has mapped in vitro to a distinct region within ORF UL56 (amino acid 230-370). Here we used marker transfer to demonstrate that two naturally occurring UL56 sequence variants within this region, located directly adjacent to sites known to mediate letermovir resistance in vitro (D242G and A327V) represent normal interstrain polymorphisms unrelated to drug-resistance.

  9. Effects of human-induced alteration of groundwater flow on concentrations of naturally-occurring trace elements at water-supply wells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ayotte, J.D.; Szabo, Z.; Focazio, M.J.; Eberts, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of human-induced alteration of groundwater flow patterns on concentrations of naturally-occurring trace elements were examined in five hydrologically distinct aquifer systems in the USA. Although naturally occurring, these trace elements can exceed concentrations that are considered harmful to human health. The results show that pumping-induced hydraulic gradient changes and artificial connection of aquifers by well screens can mix chemically distinct groundwater. Chemical reactions between these mixed groundwaters and solid aquifer materials can result in the mobilization of trace elements such as U, As and Ra, with subsequent transport to water-supply wells. For example, in the High Plains aquifer near York, Nebraska, mixing of shallow, oxygenated, lower-pH water from an unconfined aquifer with deeper, confined, anoxic, higher-pH water is facilitated by wells screened across both aquifers. The resulting higher-O2, lower-pH mixed groundwater facilitated the mobilization of U from solid aquifer materials, and dissolved U concentrations were observed to increase significantly in nearby supply wells. Similar instances of trace element mobilization due to human-induced mixing of groundwaters were documented in: (1) the Floridan aquifer system near Tampa, Florida (As and U), (2) Paleozoic sedimentary aquifers in eastern Wisconsin (As), (3) the basin-fill aquifer underlying the California Central Valley near Modesto (U), and (4) Coastal Plain aquifers of New Jersey (Ra). Adverse water-quality impacts attributed to human activities are commonly assumed to be related solely to the release of the various anthropogenic contaminants to the environment. The results show that human activities including various land uses, well drilling, and pumping rates and volumes can adversely impact the quality of water in supply wells, when associated with naturally-occurring trace elements in aquifer materials. This occurs by causing subtle but significant changes in

  10. Metabolic adaptation and in situ attenuation of chlorinated ethenes by naturally occurring microorganisms in a fractured dolomite aquifer near Niagara Falls, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yager, R.M.; Bilotta, S.E.; Mann, C.L.; Madsen, E.L.

    1997-01-01

    A combination of hydrogeological, geochemical, and microbiological methods was used to document the biotransformation of trichloroethene (TCE) to ethene, a completely dechlorinated and environmentally benign compound, by naturally occurring microorganisms within a fractured dolomite aquifer. Analyses of groundwater samples showed that three microbially produced TCE breakdown products (cis-1,2-dichloroethene, vinyl chloride, and ethene) were present in the contaminant plume. Hydrogen (H2) concentrations in groundwater indicated that iron reduction was the predominant terminal electron-accepting process in the most contaminated geologic zone of the site. Laboratory microcosms prepared with groundwater demonstrated complete sequential dechlorination of TCE to ethene. Microcosm assays also revealed that reductive dechlorination activity was present in waters from the center but not from the periphery of the contaminant plume. This dechlorination activity indicated that naturally occurring microorganisms have adapted to utilize chlorinated ethenes and suggested that dehalorespiring rather than cometabolic, microbial processes were the cause of the dechlorination. The addition of pulverized dolomite to microcosms enhanced the rate of reductive dechlorination, suggesting that hydrocarbons in the dolomite aquifer may serve as electron donors to drive microbially mediated reductive dechlorination reactions. Biodegradation of the chlorinated ethenes appears to contribute significantly to decontamination of the site.A combination of hydrogeological, geochemical, and microbiological methods was used to document the biotransformation of trichloroethene (TCE) to ethene, a completely dechlorinated and environmentally benign compound, by naturally occurring microorganisms within a fractured dolomite aquifer. Analyses of groundwater samples showed that three microbially produced TCE breakdown products (cis-1,2-dichloroethene, vinyl chloride, and ethene) were present in the

  11. Brachystemma calycinum D. Don Effectively Reduces the Locomotor Disability in Dogs with Naturally Occurring Osteoarthritis: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Moreau, Maxim; Lussier, Bertrand; Pelletier, Jean-Pierre; Martel-Pelletier, Johanne; Bédard, Christian; Gauvin, Dominique; Troncy, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this randomized placebo-controlled trial was to evaluate the beneficial effect of a whole plant extract of Brachystemma calycinum D. Don (BCD) in naturally occurring osteoarthritis (OA) in dogs. Methods. Dogs had stifle/hip OA and poor limb loading based on the peak of the vertically oriented ground reaction force (PVF) measured using a force platform. At baseline, PVF and case-specific outcome measure of disability (CSOM) were recorded. Dogs (16 per group) were then assigned to receive BCD (200 mg/kg/day) or a placebo. The PVF was measured at week (W) 3 and W6. Locomotor activity was recorded throughout the study duration using collar-mounted accelerometer, and CSOM was assessed biweekly by the owner. Results. BCD-treated dogs had higher PVF at W3 and W6 when compared to Baseline (P < 0.001) and at W6 when compared to placebo-treated dogs (P = 0.040). Higher daily duration (P = 0.024) and intensity (P = 0.012) of locomotor activity were observed in BCD-treated dogs compared to baseline. No significant change was observed in either group for CSOM. Conclusions. Treatment with BCD improved the limb impairment and enhanced the locomotor activity in dogs afflicted by naturally-occurring OA. Those preclinical findings provide interesting and new information about the potential of BCD as an OA therapeutic. PMID:22844335

  12. Effects of repetition within trials and frequency of trial sessions on quantitative parameters of vertical force peak in horses with naturally occurring lameness.

    PubMed

    Kaido, Mari; Kilborne, Allison H; Sizemore, Joy L; Reisbig, Nathalie A; Aarnes, Turi K; Bertone, Alicia L

    2016-07-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the effects of vertical force peak (VFP) of repition within trials and between trial sessions in horses with naturally occurring appendicular lameness. ANIMALS 20 lame horses acclimated to trotting over a force plate. PROCEDURES Kinetic gait data were collected by use of a force plate regarding affected and contralateral limbs of lame horses that completed 5 valid repetitions in each of 5 sessions performed at 0, 3, 6, 12, and 24 hours, constituting 1 trial/horse. Data were compared within and among repetitions and sessions, and factors influencing VFP values were identified. RESULTS VFP values differed for lame limbs after 3 valid repetitions were performed within a session and when the interval between sessions was 3 hours. Direction of change reflected less lameness (greater VFP). Lamer horses (≥ grade 4/5) had this finding to a greater degree than did less lame horses. Results were similar for contralateral limbs regarding valid repetitions within a session; however, VFP decreased when the interval between sessions exceeded 6 hours. The coefficient of variation for VFP was ≤ 8% within sessions and ≤ 6% between sessions. The asymmetry index for VFP did not change throughout the study. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Lameness profiles obtained through kinetic gait analysis of horses with naturally occurring lameness were most accurate when valid repetitions were limited to 3 and the interval between sessions within a trial was > 3 hours. Findings suggested that natural lameness may be as suitable as experimentally induced lameness for lameness research involving horses. PMID:27347829

  13. Comparison of long-term stability of containment systems for residues and wastes contaminated with naturally occurring radionuclides at an arid site and two humid sites

    SciTech Connect

    Winters, M.; Merry-Libby, P.; Hinchman, R.

    1985-01-01

    The long-term stability of near-surface containment systems designed for the management of radioactive wastes and residues contaminated with naturally occurring radionuclides are compared at the three different sites. The containment designs are: (1) a diked 8.9-m high mound, including a 3.2-m layered cap at a site (humid) near Lewiston, New York, (2) a 6.8-m-high mound, including a similar 3.2-m cap at a site (humid) near Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and (3) 4.8-m deep trenches with 3.0-m backfilled caps at a site (arid) near Hanford, Washington. Geological, hydrological, and biological factors affecting the long-term (1000-year) integrity of the containment systems at each site are examined, including: erosion, flooding, drought, wildfire, slope and cover failure, plant root penetration, burrowing animals, other soil-forming processes, and land-use changes. For the containment designs evaluated, releases of radon-222 at the arid site are predicted to be several orders of magnitude higher than at the two humid sites - upon initial burial and at 1000 years (after severe erosion). Transfer of wastes containing naturally occurring radionuclides from a humid to an arid environment offers little or no advantage relative to long-term stability of the containment system and has a definite disadvantage in terms of gaseous radioactive releases. 26 references, 3 figures, 4 tables.

  14. Studies on pathology, cytokine gene expression and molecular typing of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis of naturally occurring Johne's disease in bullocks.

    PubMed

    Narnaware, S D; Periasamy, S; Tripathi, B N

    2016-06-01

    Pathology of Johne's disease (JD) in bullocks (castrated, adult male cattle) is rarely studied. Here, we report the pathology and cytokine gene expression of naturally occurring JD in bullocks. The small intestine and mesenteric lymph nodes collected from 404 bullocks, aged between 5 and 10years, were examined for JD lesions and detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map). A total of 8.7% bullocks exhibited JD lesions, which were classified into multibacillary-diffuse granulomatous (n=2), paucibacillary-focal granulomatous (n=18) and paucibacillary-diffuse lymphocytic (n=15) lesions. The tissue cytokine gene expression profiles in all three forms of lesions corroborated with different immuno-pathological processes of JD in bullocks. The molecular typing and gene sequencing identified Map isolates from bullocks as bison type. PMID:27234539

  15. Airborne simultaneous spectroscopic detection of laser-induced water Raman backscatter and fluorescence from chlorophyll a and other naturally occurring pigments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoge, F. E.; Swift, R. N.

    1981-01-01

    The airborne laser-induced spectral emission bands obtained simultaneously from water Raman backscatter and the fluorescence of chlorophyll and other naturally occurring waterborne pigments are reported here for the first time. The importance of this type data lies not only in its single-shot multispectral character but also in the application of the Raman line for correction or calibration of the spatial variation of the laser penetration depth without the need for in situ water attenuation measurements. The entire laser-induced fluorescence and Raman scatter emissions resulting from each separate 532-nm 10-nsec laser pulse are collected and spectrally dispersed in a diffraction grating spectrometer having forty photomultiplier tube detectors. Results from field experiments conducted in the North Sea and the Chesapeake Bay/Potomac River are presented. Difficulties involving the multispectral resolution of the induced emissions are addressed, and feasible solutions are suggested together with new instrument configurations and future research directions.

  16. A single naturally occurring 2'-O-methylation converts a TLR7- and TLR8-activating RNA into a TLR8-specific ligand.

    PubMed

    Jung, Stephanie; von Thülen, Tina; Laukemper, Viktoria; Pigisch, Stephanie; Hangel, Doris; Wagner, Hermann; Kaufmann, Andreas; Bauer, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    TLR7 and TLR8 recognize RNA from pathogens and lead to subsequent immune stimulation. Here we demonstrate that a single naturally occurring 2'-O-methylation within a synthetic 18s rRNA derived RNA sequence prevents IFN-α production, however secretion of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 is not impaired. By analysing TLR-deficient plasmacytoid dendritic cells and performing HEK293 genetic complementation assays we could demonstrate that the single 2'-O-methylation containing RNA still activated TLR8 but not TLR7. Therefore this specific 2'-O-ribose methylation in rRNA converts a TLR7/TLR8 ligand to an exclusively TLR8-specific ligand. Interestingly, other modifications at this position such as 2'-O-deoxy or 2'-fluoro had no strong modulating effect on TLR7 or TLR8 activation suggesting an important role of 2'-O-methylation for shaping differential TLR7 or TLR8 activation. PMID:25785446

  17. Zephycandidine A, the First Naturally Occurring Imidazo[1,2-f]phenanthridine Alkaloid from Zephyranthes candida, Exhibits Significant Anti-tumor and Anti-acetylcholinesterase Activities

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Guanqun; Qu, Xiaolan; Liu, Junjun; Tong, Qingyi; Zhou, Junfei; Sun, Bin; Yao, Guangmin

    2016-01-01

    Zephycandidine A (1), the first naturally occurring imidazo[1,2-f]phenanthridine alkaloid, was isolated from Zephyranthes candida (Amaryllidaceae). The structure of 1 was elucidated by spectroscopic analyses and NMR calculation, and a plausible biogenetic pathway for zephycandidine A (1) was proposed. Zephycandidine A (1) exhibited significant cytotoxicity against five cancer cell lines with IC50 values ranging from 1.98 to 7.03 μM with selectivity indices as high as 10 when compared to the normal Beas-2B cell. Further studies suggested that zephycandidine A (1) induces apoptosis in leukemia cells by the activation of caspase-3, upregulation of Bax, downregulation of Bcl-2, and degradation of PARP expression. In addition, zephycandidine A (1) showed acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity, and the docking studies of zephycandidine A (1) and galanthamine (2) with AChE revealed that interactions with W286 and Y337 are necessary. PMID:27658482

  18. Analysis of reserve pit sludge from unconventional natural gas hydraulic fracturing and drilling operations for the presence of technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material (TENORM).

    PubMed

    Rich, Alisa L; Crosby, Ernest C

    2013-01-01

    Soil and water (sludge) obtained from reserve pits used in unconventional natural gas mining was analyzed for the presence of technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material (TENORM). Samples were analyzed for total gamma, alpha, and beta radiation, and specific radionuclides: beryllium, potassium, scandium, cobalt, cesium, thallium, lead-210 and -214, bismuth-212 and -214, radium-226 and -228, thorium, uranium, and strontium-89 and -90. Laboratory analysis confirmed elevated beta readings recorded at 1329 ± 311 pCi/g. Specific radionuclides present in an active reserve pit and the soil of a leveled, vacated reserve pit included 232Thorium decay series (228Ra, 228Th, 208Tl), and 226Radium decay series (214Pb, 214Bi, 210Pb) radionuclides. The potential for impact of TENORM to the environment, occupational workers, and the general public is presented with potential health effects of individual radionuclides. Current oversight, exemption of TENORM in federal and state regulations, and complexity in reporting are discussed.

  19. Zephycandidine A, the First Naturally Occurring Imidazo[1,2-f]phenanthridine Alkaloid from Zephyranthes candida, Exhibits Significant Anti-tumor and Anti-acetylcholinesterase Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Guanqun; Qu, Xiaolan; Liu, Junjun; Tong, Qingyi; Zhou, Junfei; Sun, Bin; Yao, Guangmin

    2016-09-01

    Zephycandidine A (1), the first naturally occurring imidazo[1,2-f]phenanthridine alkaloid, was isolated from Zephyranthes candida (Amaryllidaceae). The structure of 1 was elucidated by spectroscopic analyses and NMR calculation, and a plausible biogenetic pathway for zephycandidine A (1) was proposed. Zephycandidine A (1) exhibited significant cytotoxicity against five cancer cell lines with IC50 values ranging from 1.98 to 7.03 μM with selectivity indices as high as 10 when compared to the normal Beas-2B cell. Further studies suggested that zephycandidine A (1) induces apoptosis in leukemia cells by the activation of caspase-3, upregulation of Bax, downregulation of Bcl-2, and degradation of PARP expression. In addition, zephycandidine A (1) showed acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity, and the docking studies of zephycandidine A (1) and galanthamine (2) with AChE revealed that interactions with W286 and Y337 are necessary.

  20. Understanding the Radioactive Ingrowth and Decay of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials in the Environment: An Analysis of Produced Fluids from the Marcellus Shale

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Andrew W.; Eitrheim, Eric S.; Knight, Andrew W.; May, Dustin; Mehrhoff, Marinea A.; Shannon, Robert; Litman, Robert; Burnett, William C.; Forbes, Tori Z.

    2015-01-01

    Background The economic value of unconventional natural gas resources has stimulated rapid globalization of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing. However, natural radioactivity found in the large volumes of “produced fluids” generated by these technologies is emerging as an international environmental health concern. Current assessments of the radioactivity concentration in liquid wastes focus on a single element—radium. However, the use of radium alone to predict radioactivity concentrations can greatly underestimate total levels. Objective We investigated the contribution to radioactivity concentrations from naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM), including uranium, thorium, actinium, radium, lead, bismuth, and polonium isotopes, to the total radioactivity of hydraulic fracturing wastes. Methods For this study we used established methods and developed new methods designed to quantitate NORM of public health concern that may be enriched in complex brines from hydraulic fracturing wastes. Specifically, we examined the use of high-purity germanium gamma spectrometry and isotope dilution alpha spectrometry to quantitate NORM. Results We observed that radium decay products were initially absent from produced fluids due to differences in solubility. However, in systems closed to the release of gaseous radon, our model predicted that decay products will begin to ingrow immediately and (under these closed-system conditions) can contribute to an increase in the total radioactivity for more than 100 years. Conclusions Accurate predictions of radioactivity concentrations are critical for estimating doses to potentially exposed individuals and the surrounding environment. These predictions must include an understanding of the geochemistry, decay properties, and ingrowth kinetics of radium and its decay product radionuclides. Citation Nelson AW, Eitrheim ES, Knight AW, May D, Mehrhoff MA, Shannon R, Litman R, Burnett WC, Forbes TZ, Schultz MK. 2015

  1. Efficacy of a novel brush head in the comparison of two power toothbrushes on removal of plaque and naturally occurring extrinsic stain.

    PubMed

    Goyal, C R; Sharma, N C; Qaqish, J G; Cugini, M A; Thompson, M C; Warren, P R

    2005-06-01

    OBJECTIVES.: To compare the safety and efficacy of an oscillating/pulsating power toothbrush (Oral-B ProfessionalCaretrade mark 7000; PC 7000) fitted with either the standard FlexiSoft (PC 7000/EB17) brush head or the novel Pro Polisher (PC 7000/EB-Prophy) and a high-frequency toothbrush (Philips Sonicare(R) Elite(R); SE), in their relative ability to remove plaque and naturally occurring extrinsic dental stain over a six-week period. METHODS.: This randomised, examiner-blind, parallel group study involved 90 healthy subjects from a general population. All subjects received a baseline plaque (Turesky et al. modified Quigley-Hein Plaque Index), stain (Lobene Stain Index) and tooth shade (VITAPAN(R) Shade Guide) [Vita] assessment and an oral tissue examination. After training in the use of their randomly assigned device, subjects were instructed to brush twice daily for 2 min and returned after 3, 4 and 6 weeks of product use for a repeat of each clinical assessment. RESULTS.: Reductions from baseline in mean plaque and extrinsic dental stain scores were significant at Weeks 3, 4 and 6 in all three treatment groups. By Week 6, mean reductions from baseline in whole mouth plaque scores were 32%, 27% and 14% in the PC 7000/EB-Prophy, PC 7000/EB17 and SE groups, respectively. For the body of the tooth, mean reductions from baseline at Week 6 in total stain were 89%, 89% and 80%, respectively. Between treatment group comparisons consistently revealed that the PC 7000 toothbrush plus the EB-Prophy or EB17 brush head removed significantly more plaque and extrinsic stain (total stain, stain area and stain intensity) than the SE toothbrush at 3, 4 and 6 weeks. The EB-Prophy group had a greater proportion of subjects showing a 2-3+ change in Vita shade scores at each time point compared to the other two brushes; at Week 6 the proportions were 67% in the PC 7000/EB-Prophy group, 30% in the PC 7000/EB17 group, and 7% in the SE group. The PC 7000/EB17, PC 7000/EB-Prophy and the

  2. Development and validation of UHPLC-MS/MS method for determination of eight naturally occurring catechin derivatives in various tea samples and the role of matrix effects.

    PubMed

    Svoboda, Pavel; Vlčková, Hana; Nováková, Lucie

    2015-10-10

    A complete analytical procedure combining optimized tea infusion preparation and validated UHPLC-MS/MS method was developed for routine quantification of eight naturally occurring catechin derivatives in various tea samples. The preparation of tea infusions was optimized in terms of temperature, time and water-to-tea ratio in green, white and black teas. The catechins were analyzed using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry in a run of only 4 min including equilibration of the system. The UHPLC-MS/MS method was fully validated in terms of inter/intra-day precision, accuracy, linearity (r(2)>0.9991), range (50-5000 ng/ml), LOD (1.5-7.5 ng/ml) and LOQ (5-25 ng/ml). Validation of the method included also the determination of the matrix effects that were evaluated in both flavored and unflavored green, white and black teas. Dilution of the resulting tea infusions appeared to be crucial for the matrix effects and also for subsequent catechin quantification in real tea samples in order to fit into the linear range of the UHPLC-MS/MS method. This complete procedure for catechin quantification was finally applied to real sample analysis represented by 70 commercial tea samples.

  3. A Naturally Occurring Mutation of the Opsin Gene (T4R) in Dogs Affects Glycosylation and Stability of the G Protein-coupled Receptor*

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Li; Jang, Geeng-Fu; Jastrzebska, Beata; Filipek, Sławomir; Pearce-Kelling, Susan E.; Aguirre, Gustavo D.; Stenkamp, Ronald E.; Acland, Gregory M.; Palczewski, Krzysztof

    2005-01-01

    Rho (rhodopsin; opsin plus 11-cis-retinal) is a prototypical G protein-coupled receptor responsible for the capture of a photon in retinal photoreceptor cells. A large number of mutations in the opsin gene associated with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa have been identified. The naturally occurring T4R opsin mutation in the English mastiff dog leads to a progressive retinal degeneration that closely resembles human retinitis pigmentosa caused by the T4K mutation in the opsin gene. Using genetic approaches and biochemical assays, we explored the properties of the T4R mutant protein. Employing immunoaffinity-purified Rho from affected RHOT4R/T4R dog retina, we found that the mutation abolished glycosylation at Asn2, whereas glycosylation at Asn15 was unaffected, and the mutant opsin localized normally to the rod outer segments. Moreover, we found that T4R Rho* lost its chromophore faster as measured by the decay of meta-rhodopsin II and that it was less resistant to heat denaturation. Detergent-solubilized T4R opsin regenerated poorly and interacted abnormally with the G protein transducin (Gt). Structurally, the mutation affected mainly the “plug” at the intradiscal (extracellular) side of Rho, which is possibly responsible for protecting the chromophore from the access of bulk water. The T4R mutation may represent a novel molecular mechanism of degeneration where the unliganded form of the mutant opsin exerts a detrimental effect by losing its structural integrity. PMID:15459196

  4. Naturally occurring hepatitis B virus (HBV) variants with primary resistance to antiviral therapy and S-mutants with potential primary resistance to adefovir in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Cuestas, María L; Rivero, Cintia W; Minassian, María L; Castillo, Amalia I; Gentile, Emiliano A; Trinks, Julieta; León, Liliana; Daleoso, Graciela; Frider, Bernardo; Lezama, Carol; Galoppo, Marcela; Giacove, Gisela; Mathet, Verónica L; Oubiña, José R

    2010-07-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) variants may either emerge in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) as a result of positive selection pressure exerted by their own immune response, or during therapy with nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs). Naturally occurring HBV variants with primary antiviral resistance are rarely observed. The aim of this study was to retrospectively analyze the (eventual) circulation of HBV variants with natural resistance to NAs currently used as therapy for CHB in Argentina. This study reports 13 cases of CHB-infected patients with natural antiviral resistance to at least one NA. Five of them were also carriers of S-variants that might escape the humoral immune system recognition with potential resistance to adefovir. In addition to the already reported A2 HBV subgenotype association to NAs natural resistance, E and F genotypes association to such resistance is described for the first time. These findings suggest that sequence analysis of the HBV reverse transcriptase might be an essential tool before starting antiviral therapy, in order to choose the proper NAs for optimizing the therapeutic management of chronically infected patients. Moreover, the circulation and transmission of S-mutants with resistance to such antiviral drugs should be of public health concern as they may represent an additional risk for the community.

  5. Productive Infection of Bovine Papillomavirus Type 2 in the Urothelial Cells of Naturally Occurring Urinary Bladder Tumors in Cattle and Water Buffaloes

    PubMed Central

    Roperto, Sante; Russo, Valeria; Ozkul, Ayhan; Corteggio, Annunziata; Sepici-Dincel, Aylin; Catoi, Cornel; Esposito, Iolanda; Riccardi, Marita G.; Urraro, Chiara; Lucà, Roberta; Ceccarelli, Dora M.; Longo, Michele; Roperto, Franco

    2013-01-01

    Background Papillomaviruses (PVs) are highly epitheliotropic as they usually establish productive infections within squamous epithelia of the skin, the anogenital tract and the oral cavity. In this study, early (E) and late (L) protein expression of bovine papillomavirus type 2 (BPV-2) in the urothelium of the urinary bladder is described in cows and water buffaloes suffering from naturally occurring papillomavirus-associated urothelial bladder tumors. Methods and Findings E5 protein, the major oncoprotein of the BPV-2, was detected in all tumors. L1 DNA was amplified by PCR, cloned and sequenced and confirmed to be L1 DNA. The major capsid protein, L1, believed to be only expressed in productive papillomavirus infection was detected by Western blot analysis. Immunohistochemical investigations confirmed the presence of L1 protein both in the cytoplasm and nuclei of cells of the neoplastic urothelium. Finally, the early protein E2, required for viral DNA replication and known to be a pivotal factor for both productive and persistent infection, was detected by Western blot and immunohistochemically. Electron microscopic investigations detected electron dense particles, the shape and size of which are consistent with submicroscopic features of viral particles, in nuclei of neoplastic urothelium. Conclusion This study shows that both active and productive infections by BPV-2 in the urothelium of the bovine and bubaline urinary bladder can occur in vivo. PMID:23667460

  6. A naturally occurring α(s1)-casein-derived peptide in bovine milk inhibits apoptosis of granulosa cells induced by serum-free conditions.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, T; Ganzorig, K; Miyamoto, A; Ishii, T; Urashima, T; Fukuda, K

    2014-03-01

    Several naturally occurring peptides in bovine milk were characterized by tandem mass spectrometry and Edman degradation. Chromatograms of peptide fractions (passed through an ultra-filtration membrane, nominal molecular weight limit 3000) prepared from colostrum (collected immediately after parturition) and transitional milk (collected 5 days postpartum) showed that they were almost identical. In total, six peptides, α(s1)-CN (f16-23) (RPKHPIKH), α(s1)-CN (f16-24) (RPKHPIKHQ), α(s1)-CN (f17-25) (PKHPIKHQG), α(s1)-CN (f46-52) (VFGKEKV), α(s1)-CN (f94-105) (HIQKEDVPSER), and β-CN (f121-128) (HKEMPFPK), were identified. One of the major peptides, the N-terminal fragment of αs1 -casein, varied structurally during early lactation: α(s1)-CN (f17-25) (PKHPIKHQG) and α(s1)-CN (f16-23) (RPKHPIKH)/α(s1)-CN (f16-24) (RPKHPIKHQ) were found in colostrum and transitional milk, respectively. A chemically synthesized peptide, α(s1)-CN (f16-23) (RPKHPIKH), inhibited apoptosis of bovine granulosa cells induced by serum-free conditions in a dose-dependent manner, in consequence of caspase-3 and caspase-9 suppressions. The physiological function of the peptide remains unclear, but it may have potential use as pharmaceutical agent and as an anti-apoptotic agent in cell culture medium. PMID:24399684

  7. Naturally occurring hepatitis B virus (HBV) variants with primary resistance to antiviral therapy and S-mutants with potential primary resistance to adefovir in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Cuestas, María L; Rivero, Cintia W; Minassian, María L; Castillo, Amalia I; Gentile, Emiliano A; Trinks, Julieta; León, Liliana; Daleoso, Graciela; Frider, Bernardo; Lezama, Carol; Galoppo, Marcela; Giacove, Gisela; Mathet, Verónica L; Oubiña, José R

    2010-07-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) variants may either emerge in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) as a result of positive selection pressure exerted by their own immune response, or during therapy with nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs). Naturally occurring HBV variants with primary antiviral resistance are rarely observed. The aim of this study was to retrospectively analyze the (eventual) circulation of HBV variants with natural resistance to NAs currently used as therapy for CHB in Argentina. This study reports 13 cases of CHB-infected patients with natural antiviral resistance to at least one NA. Five of them were also carriers of S-variants that might escape the humoral immune system recognition with potential resistance to adefovir. In addition to the already reported A2 HBV subgenotype association to NAs natural resistance, E and F genotypes association to such resistance is described for the first time. These findings suggest that sequence analysis of the HBV reverse transcriptase might be an essential tool before starting antiviral therapy, in order to choose the proper NAs for optimizing the therapeutic management of chronically infected patients. Moreover, the circulation and transmission of S-mutants with resistance to such antiviral drugs should be of public health concern as they may represent an additional risk for the community. PMID:20403388

  8. Distribution of naturally occurring radioactivity and ¹³⁷Cs in the marine sediment of Farasan Island, southern Red Sea, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Zahrany, A A; Farouk, M A; Al-Yousef, A A

    2012-11-01

    The present work is a part of a project dedicated to measure the marine radioactivity near the Saudi Arabian coasts of the Red Sea and Arabian Gulf for establishing a marine radioactivity database, which includes necessary information on the background levels of both naturally occurring and man-made radionuclides in the marine environment. Farasan Islands is a group of 84 islands (archipelago), under the administration of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, in the Red Sea with its main island of Farasan, which is 50 km off the coast of Jazan City. The levels of natural radioactivity of (238)U, (235)U, (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K and man-made radionuclides such as (137)Cs in the grab sediment and water samples around Farasan Island have been measured using gamma-ray spectroscopy. The average activity concentrations of (238)U, (235)U, (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K and (137)Cs in the sediment samples were found to be 35.46, 1.75, 3.31, 0.92, 34.34 and 0.14 Bq kg(-1), respectively.

  9. A complementary diagnosis of naturally occurring tuberculosis in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in Rio de Janeiro using a MPB70-ELISA, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Zarden, Carlos F O; Marassi, Carla D; Oelemann, Walter; Lilienbaum, Walter

    2013-06-01

    As tuberculosis is still a worldwide infection and buffalo breeding represents an important economic activity in various countries, the purpose of this study was to employ an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using MPB70 as a capture antigen for the diagnosis of naturally occurring tuberculosis in water buffaloes in Brazil. After the introduction of newly acquired cattle onto a tuberculosis (TB) free farm, an outbreak of TB was recorded in a mixed herd comprising water buffaloes (21) and cattle (46). The entire herd was tested by intradermal tuberculin injection (ITT) and positive animals were slaughtered and tested by culture, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and ELISA. From the 21 buffaloes sampled, three were reactive by ITT. All the three had positive culture and ELISA, while PCR was positive in two of them. Besides that, one ITT-negative buffalo was slaughtered and presented positive results by both culture and ELISA, and was considered as anergic. Although there were only few animals, those findings demonstrate the diagnostic usefulness of an MPB70-ELISA to correctly detect Mycobacterium bovis tuberculosis in water buffaloes.

  10. Distribution, enrichment and principal component analysis for possible sources of naturally occurring and anthropogenic radionuclides in the agricultural soil of Punjab state, India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ajay; Joshi, Vikram M; Mishra, Manish K; Karpe, Rupali; Rout, Sabyasachi; Narayanan, Usha; Tripathi, Raj M; Singh, Jaspal; Kumar, Sanjeev; Hegde, Ashok G; Kushwaha, Hari S

    2012-06-01

    Enrichment factor (EF) of elements including geo-accumulation indices for soil quality and principal component analysis (PCA) were used to identify the contributions of the origin of sources in the studied area. Results of (40)K, (137)Cs, (238)U and (232)Th including their decay series isotopes in the agricultural soil of Mansa and Bathinda districts in the state of Punjab were presented and discussed. The measured mean radioactivity concentrations for (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K in the agricultural soil of the studied area differed from nationwide average crustal abundances by 51, 17 and 43 %, respectively. The sequence of the EFs of radionuclides in soil from the greatest to the least was found to be (238)U > (40)K > (226)Ra > (137)Cs > (232)Th > (228)Ra. Even though the enrichment of naturally occurring radionuclides was found to be higher, they remained to be in I(geo) class of '0', indicating that the soil is uncontaminated with respect to these radionuclides. Among non-metals, N showed the highest EF and belonged to I(geo) class of '2', indicating that soil is moderately contaminated due to intrusion of fertiliser. The resulting data set of elemental contents in soil was also interpreted by PCA, which facilitates identification of the different groups of correlated elements. The levels of the (40)K, (238)U and (232)Th radionuclides showed a significant positive correlation with each other, suggesting a similar origin of their geochemical sources and identical behaviour during transport in the soil system.

  11. Antibacterial Properties of Tough and Strong Electrospun PMMA/PEO Fiber Mats Filled with Lanasol—A Naturally Occurring Brominated Substance

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Richard L.; Martínez-Abad, Antonio; Lagaron, José M.; Gedde, Ulf W.; Mallon, Peter E.; Olsson, Richard T.; Hedenqvist, Mikael S.

    2014-01-01

    A new type of antimicrobial, biocompatible and toughness enhanced ultra-thin fiber mats for biomedical applications is presented. The tough and porous fiber mats were obtained by electrospinning solution-blended poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and polyethylene oxide (PEO), filled with up to 25 wt % of Lanasol—a naturally occurring brominated cyclic compound that can be extracted from red sea algae. Antibacterial effectiveness was tested following the industrial Standard JIS L 1902 and under agitated medium (ASTM E2149). Even at the lowest concentrations of Lanasol, 4 wt %, a significant bactericidal effect was seen with a 4-log (99.99%) reduction in bacterial viability against S. aureus, which is one of the leading causes of hospital-acquired (nosocomial) infections in the world. The mechanical fiber toughness was insignificantly altered up to the maximum Lanasol concentration tested, and was for all fiber mats orders of magnitudes higher than electrospun fibers based on solely PMMA. This antimicrobial fiber system, relying on a dissolved antimicrobial agent (demonstrated by X-ray diffraction and Infrared (IR)-spectroscopy) rather than a dispersed and “mixed-in” solid antibacterial particle phase, presents a new concept which opens the door to tougher, stronger and more ductile antimicrobial fibers. PMID:25207601

  12. Evidence of systematic bias in sexual over- and underperception of naturally occurring events: a direct replication of Haselton (2003) in a more gender-equal culture.

    PubMed

    Bendixen, Mons

    2014-11-17

    Error Management Theory (Haselton and Buss, 2000; Haselton and Nettle, 2006) maintains that natural selection has engineered adaptations for judgment under uncertainty to minimize the overall cost of making errors, leading to universal biases in judgments of sexual interest in men and women. This study, using a sample of het erosexual Norwegian students (n = 308), was carried out as a direct replication of Haselton's (2003) original study of naturally occurring events of sexual misperception. The results strongly supported the main hypotheses in the original study, showing that women reported being subject to opposite-sex sexual overperception far more often relative to underperception, and that this difference was small for men. In support of Error Management Theory, and in contrast to Social Role / Structure Theory expectations, the pattern of misperception for women and men was largely invariant across studies and across demographic groups within a culture. The findings suggest that cross-national differences in the level of gender inequality do not influence reports of sexual over- and underperception in women and men. Beyond sex, factors associated with more sexual overperception relative to underperception were being single, young, and having attitudes condoning casual sex.

  13. A Naturally Occurring Null Variant of the NMDA Type Glutamate Receptor NR3B Subunit Is a Risk Factor of Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Ryota; Yamamori, Hidenaga; Yasuda, Yuka; Fujimoto, Michiko; Yano-Umeda, Satomi; Saneyoshi, Takeo; Takeda, Masatoshi; Hayashi, Yasunori

    2015-01-01

    Hypofunction of the N-methyl-D-aspartate type glutamate receptor (NMDAR) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Here, we investigated the significance of a common human genetic variation of the NMDAR NR3B subunit that inserts 4 bases within the coding region (insCGTT) in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. The cDNA carrying this polymorphism generates a truncated protein, which is electrophysiologically non-functional in heterologous expression systems. Among 586 schizophrenia patients and 754 healthy controls, insCGTT was significantly overrepresented in patients compared to controls (odds ratio = 1.37, p = 0.035). Among 121 schizophrenia patients and 372 healthy controls, genetic analyses of normal individuals revealed that those carrying insCGTT have a predisposition to schizotypal personality traits (F1,356 = 4.69, p = 0.031). Furthermore, pre-pulse inhibition, a neurobiological trait disturbed in patients with schizophrenia, was significantly impaired in patients carrying insCGTT compared with those with the major allele (F1,116 = 5.72, p = 0.018, F1,238 = 4.46, p = 0.036, respectively). These results indicate that a naturally occurring null variant in NR3B could be a risk factor of schizophrenia. PMID:25768306

  14. Naturally Occurring Bacteria Similar to the Methyl tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE)-Degrading Strain PM1 Are Present in MTBE-Contaminated Groundwater

    PubMed Central

    Hristova, Krassimira; Gebreyesus, Binyam; Mackay, Douglas; Scow, Kate M.

    2003-01-01

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a widespread groundwater contaminant that does not respond well to conventional treatment technologies. Growing evidence indicates that microbial communities indigenous to groundwater can degrade MTBE under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Although pure cultures of microorganisms able to degrade or cometabolize MTBE have been reported, to date the specific organisms responsible for MTBE degradation in various field studies have not be identified. We report that DNA sequences almost identical (99% homology) to those of strain PM1, originally isolated from a biofilter in southern California, are naturally occurring in an MTBE-polluted aquifer in Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB), Lompoc, California. Cell densities of native PM1 (measured by TaqMan quantitative PCR) in VAFB groundwater samples ranged from below the detection limit (in anaerobic sites) to 103 to 104 cells/ml (in oxygen-amended sites). In groundwater from anaerobic or aerobic sites incubated in microcosms spiked with 10 μg of MTBE/liter, densities of native PM1 increased to approximately 105 cells/ml. Native PM1 densities also increased during incubation of VAFB sediments during MTBE degradation. In controlled field plots amended with oxygen, artificially increasing the MTBE concentration was followed by an increase in the in situ native PM1 cell density. This is the first reported relationship between in situ MTBE biodegradation and densities of MTBE-degrading bacteria by quantitative molecular methods. PMID:12732529

  15. Specific Detection of Naturally Occurring Hepatitis C Virus Mutants with Resistance to Telaprevir and Boceprevir (Protease Inhibitors) among Treatment-Naïve Infected Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca-Coronado, Salvador; Escobar-Gutiérrez, Alejandro; Ruiz-Tovar, Karina; Cruz-Rivera, Mayra Yolanda; Rivera-Osorio, Pilar; Vazquez-Pichardo, Mauricio; Carpio-Pedroza, Juan Carlos; Ruíz-Pacheco, Juan Alberto; Cazares, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    The use of telaprevir and boceprevir, both protease inhibitors (PI), as part of the specifically targeted antiviral therapy for hepatitis C (STAT-C) has significantly improved sustained virologic response (SVR) rates. However, different clinical studies have also identified several mutations associated with viral resistance to both PIs. In the absence of selective pressure, drug-resistant hepatitis C virus (HCV) mutants are generally present at low frequency, making mutation detection challenging. Here, we describe a mismatch amplification mutation assay (MAMA) PCR method for the specific detection of naturally occurring drug-resistant HCV mutants. MAMA PCR successfully identified the corresponding HCV variants, while conventional methods such as direct sequencing, endpoint limiting dilution (EPLD), and bacterial cloning were not sensitive enough to detect circulating drug-resistant mutants in clinical specimens. Ultradeep pyrosequencing was used to confirm the presence of the corresponding HCV mutants. In treatment-naïve patients, the frequency of all resistant variants was below 1%. Deep amplicon sequencing allowed a detailed analysis of the structure of the viral population among these patients, showing that the evolution of the NS3 is limited to a rather small sequence space. Monitoring of HCV drug resistance before and during treatment is likely to provide important information for management of patients undergoing anti-HCV therapy. PMID:22116161

  16. A single acute dose of pinitol from a naturally-occurring food ingredient decreases hyperglycaemia and circulating insulin levels in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Mijares, Antonio; Bañuls, Celia; Peris, Jose E; Monzó, Nuria; Jover, Ana; Bellod, Lorena; Victor, Victor M; Rocha, Milagros

    2013-11-15

    A limited amount of research suggests that oral ingestion of pinitol (3-O-methyl-d-chiro-inositol) positively influences glucose tolerance in humans. This study assessed the effects of different doses of pinitol supplementation on glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity and plasma pinitol concentrations. Thirty healthy subjects underwent two one-day trials in which they consumed a nutritive beverage (Fruit Up®) containing 2.5, 4.0 or 6.0g of pinitol and a corresponding placebo equivalent in both energy and carbohydrates. Blood samples were collected frequently over the 240-min test period. The pinitol-enriched beverage reduced serum glucose and insulin at 45 and 60min, but only at a dose of 6.0g. Plasma pinitol concentrations, maximum concentration and AUC increased according to the dose administered. The results show that a single dose of pinitol from a naturally-occurring food ingredient at the highest dose administered acutely influences indices of whole-body glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in healthy subjects.

  17. Groundwater and Associated Solute Contribution to a Pristine Semi-Arid Estuary Using Resistivity Imaging, Naturally Occurring Radioactive Tracers, and Geochemical Methods.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spalt, N.; Murgulet, D.; Douglas, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    Geophysical, geochemical, and Naturally Occurring Radioactive Tracers (NORTs) were used in a semi-arid National Estuarine Research Reserve to estimate Submarine Groundwater Discharge (SGD) rates and nutrient fluxes. SGD has been identified as an important source of limiting nutrients to coastal ecosystems, and is conceivably even more critical in a dry climate. Groundwater inflows are rarely considered in estuary mass budgets, therefore sampling stations were chosen over the entire bay system to identify spatial differences in SGD and to estimate direct groundwater contributions. This interdisciplinary approach proved necessary to differentiate between the bay recirculation and terrestrial components of SGD. Resistivity measurements using a towed electrode array were used to identify sampling stations at areas favorable to SGD. While NORTs may provide an estimate of basin-wide groundwater input, these sampling stations ascertain the favorable geologic environment for hydraulic interconnectivity between surface water and groundwater in the system. A sampling suite (including metals and nutrients) of surface, bottom, and pore waters during winter and summer months display spatio-temporal changes in nutrient fluxes. This study reinforces the understanding of the necessity to use multiple methods to accurately quantify SGD and associated solute fluxes and advances the knowledge of coastal groundwater interaction in semi-arid environments.

  18. Variability of tropism and replicative capacity of two naturally occurring influenza A H9N2 viruses in cell cultures from different tissues.

    PubMed

    Tombari, Wafa; ElBehi, Imen; Amouna, Faten; Ghram, Abdeljelil

    2016-01-01

    Studies carried out on cell permissivity are of great interest to understand virus replication and pathogenicity. We described the results of a comparative analysis of replication efficiency of two naturally occurring influenza A H9N2 variants isolated from poultry and wild birds, differing by only two substitutions Q226L and T384N, in the receptor-binding site of haemagglutinin and the 380 loop region of NA proteins, respectively. Considering the overall growth of both viruses, lung cultures ensured the most efficient growth of TUN12L226N384 strain with titres up to 10(9) TCID50/ml whereas small intestine culture was highly susceptible to the TUN51Q226T384 virus reaching a titre of 10(6) TCID50/ml. The lowest replication was shown in liver cells. The addition of trypsin was essential for the replication of either virus in primary fibroblasts, but it had a marginal positive effect on virus replication in the four other culture types with maximum titres of 10(8) TCID50/ml. This means that in chicken, the proteolytic activation of the H9N2 viruses with the cleavage motif RSSR may be mediated by other endoproteases than trypsin. Further investigations should concentrate on the production of the appropriate set of viruses by a reverse genetics approach and the examination of cellular protease expression in chicken tissues. This would lead to a more complete understanding of the tropism of low-pathogenic Influenza A viruses. PMID:26813086

  19. Development and validation of UHPLC-MS/MS method for determination of eight naturally occurring catechin derivatives in various tea samples and the role of matrix effects.

    PubMed

    Svoboda, Pavel; Vlčková, Hana; Nováková, Lucie

    2015-10-10

    A complete analytical procedure combining optimized tea infusion preparation and validated UHPLC-MS/MS method was developed for routine quantification of eight naturally occurring catechin derivatives in various tea samples. The preparation of tea infusions was optimized in terms of temperature, time and water-to-tea ratio in green, white and black teas. The catechins were analyzed using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry in a run of only 4 min including equilibration of the system. The UHPLC-MS/MS method was fully validated in terms of inter/intra-day precision, accuracy, linearity (r(2)>0.9991), range (50-5000 ng/ml), LOD (1.5-7.5 ng/ml) and LOQ (5-25 ng/ml). Validation of the method included also the determination of the matrix effects that were evaluated in both flavored and unflavored green, white and black teas. Dilution of the resulting tea infusions appeared to be crucial for the matrix effects and also for subsequent catechin quantification in real tea samples in order to fit into the linear range of the UHPLC-MS/MS method. This complete procedure for catechin quantification was finally applied to real sample analysis represented by 70 commercial tea samples. PMID:26025813

  20. Naturally occurring contaminants in the Piedmont and Blue Ridge crystalline-rock aquifers and Piedmont Early Mesozoic basin siliciclastic-rock aquifers, eastern United States, 1994–2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapman, Melinda J.; Cravotta, Charles A.; Szabo, Zoltan; Lindsay, Bruce D.

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater quality and aquifer lithologies in the Piedmont and Blue Ridge Physiographic Provinces in the eastern United States vary widely as a result of complex geologic history. Bedrock composition (mineralogy) and geochemical conditions in the aquifer directly affect the occurrence (presence in rock and groundwater) and distribution (concentration and mobility) of potential naturally occurring contaminants, such as arsenic and radionuclides, in drinking water. To evaluate potential relations between aquifer lithology and the spatial distribution of naturally occurring contaminants, the crystalline-rock aquifers of the Piedmont and Blue Ridge Physiographic Provinces and the siliciclastic-rock aquifers of the Early Mesozoic basin of the Piedmont Physiographic Province were divided into 14 lithologic groups, each having from 1 to 16 lithochemical subgroups, based on primary rock type, mineralogy, and weathering potential. Groundwater-quality data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program from 1994 through 2008 from 346 wells and springs in various hydrogeologic and land-use settings from Georgia through New Jersey were compiled and analyzed for this study. Analyses for most constituents were for filtered samples, and, thus, the compiled data consist largely of dissolved concentrations. Concentrations were compared to criteria for protection of human health, such as U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) drinking water maximum contaminant levels and secondary maximum contaminant levels or health-based screening levels developed by the USGS NAWQA Program in cooperation with the USEPA, the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, and Oregon Health & Science University. Correlations among constituent concentrations, pH, and oxidation-reduction (redox) conditions were used to infer geochemical controls on constituent mobility within the aquifers. Of the 23 trace-element constituents evaluated

  1. Comparison of the nucleotide sequences of 16S rRNA, 444 Ep-ank, and groESL heat shock operon genes in naturally occurring Ehrlichia equi and human granulocytic ehrlichiosis agent isolates from Northern California.

    PubMed

    Chae, J S; Foley, J E; Dumler, J S; Madigan, J E

    2000-04-01

    We examined 11 naturally occurring isolates of Ehrlichia equi in horses and two human granulocytic ehrlichiosis agent isolates in California for sequence diversity in three genes. Ehrlichia equi isolates were from Sierra (n = 6), Mendocino (n = 3), Sonoma (n = 1), and Marin (n = 1) counties, and human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) agent isolates were obtained from Humboldt county. PCR with specific primers for 16S rRNA, 444 Ep-ank and groESL heat shock operon genes successfully produced amplicons for all 13 clinical samples. The 444 Ep-ank gene of the HGE agent and E. equi isolates from northern California is different from the eastern U.S. isolates BDS and USG3. The translated amino acid sequence of the groESL heat shock operon gene fragment is identical among E. equi, the HGE agent, and E. phagocytophila, with the exception of the northern Californian equine CASOLJ isolate. Microheterogeneity was observed in the 16S rRNA gene sequences of HGE agent and E. equi isolates from northern California. These results suggest that E. equi and the HGE agent found in California are similar or identical but may differ from the isolates of equine and human origin found in the eastern United States. PMID:10747108

  2. Solution-phase parallel synthesis of a pharmacophore library of HUN-7293 analogues: a general chemical mutagenesis approach to defining structure-function properties of naturally occurring cyclic (depsi)peptides.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan; Bilban, Melitta; Foster, Carolyn A; Boger, Dale L

    2002-05-15

    HUN-7293 (1), a naturally occurring cyclic heptadepsipeptide, is a potent inhibitor of cell adhesion molecule expression (VCAM-1, ICAM-1, E-selectin), the overexpression of which is characteristic of chronic inflammatory diseases. Representative of a general approach to defining structure-function relationships of such cyclic (depsi)peptides, the parallel synthesis and evaluation of a complete library of key HUN-7293 analogues are detailed enlisting solution-phase techniques and simple acid-base liquid-liquid extractions for isolation and purification of intermediates and final products. Significant to the design of the studies and unique to solution-phase techniques, the library was assembled superimposing a divergent synthetic strategy onto a convergent total synthesis. An alanine scan and N-methyl deletion of each residue of the cyclic heptadepsipeptide identified key sites responsible for or contributing to the biological properties. The simultaneous preparation of a complete set of individual residue analogues further simplifying the structure allowed an assessment of each structural feature of 1, providing a detailed account of the structure-function relationships in a single study. Within this pharmacophore library prepared by systematic chemical mutagenesis of the natural product structure, simplified analogues possessing comparable potency and, in some instances, improved selectivity were identified. One potent member of this library proved to be an additional natural product in its own right, which we have come to refer to as HUN-7293B (8), being isolated from the microbial strain F/94-499709.

  3. Identification of complex, naturally occurring flavonoid glycosides in kale (Brassica oleracea var. sabellica) by high-performance liquid chromatography diode-array detection/electrospray ionization multi-stage mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Susanne; Zietz, Michaela; Schreiner, Monika; Rohn, Sascha; Kroh, Lothar W; Krumbein, Angelika

    2010-07-30

    Kale is a member of the Brassicaceae family and has a complex profile of flavonoid glycosides. Therefore, kale is a suitable matrix to discuss in a comprehensive study the different fragmentation patterns of flavonoid glycosides. The wide variety of glycosylation and acylation patterns determines the health-promoting effects of these glycosides. The aim of this study is to investigate the naturally occurring flavonoids in kale. A total of 71 flavonoid glycosides of quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin were identified using a high-performance liquid chromatography diode-array detection/electrospray ionization multi-stage mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS(n)) method. Of these 71 flavonol glycosides, 27 were non-acylated, 30 were monoacylated and 14 were diacylated. Non-acylated flavonol glycosides were present as mono-, di-, tri- and tetraglycosides. This is the first time that the occurrence of four different fragmentation patterns of non-acylated flavonol triglycosides has been reported in one matrix simultaneously. In addition, 44 flavonol glycosides were acylated with p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic, hydroxyferulic or sinapic acid. While monoacylated glycosides existed as di-, tri- and tetraglycosides, diacylated glycosides occurred as tetra- and pentaglycosides. To the best of our knowledge, 28 compounds in kale are reported here for the first time. These include three acylated isorhamnetin glycosides (isorhamnetin-3-O-sinapoyl-sophoroside-7-O-D-glucoside, isorhamnetin-3-O-feruloyl-sophoroside-7-O-diglucoside and isorhamnetin-3-O-disinapoyl-triglucoside-7-O-diglucoside) and seven non-acylated isorhamnetin glycosides.

  4. Plasmid pEC156, a Naturally Occurring Escherichia coli Genetic Element That Carries Genes of the EcoVIII Restriction-Modification System, Is Mobilizable among Enterobacteria.

    PubMed

    Werbowy, Olesia; Kaczorowski, Tadeusz

    2016-01-01

    Type II restriction-modification systems are ubiquitous in prokaryotes. Some of them are present in naturally occurring plasmids, which may facilitate the spread of these systems in bacterial populations by horizontal gene transfer. However, little is known about the routes of their dissemination. As a model to study this, we have chosen an Escherichia coli natural plasmid pEC156 that carries the EcoVIII restriction modification system. The presence of this system as well as the cis-acting cer site involved in resolution of plasmid multimers determines the stable maintenance of pEC156 not only in Escherichia coli but also in other enterobacteria. We have shown that due to the presence of oriT-type F and oriT-type R64 loci it is possible to mobilize pEC156 by conjugative plasmids (F and R64, respectively). The highest mobilization frequency was observed when pEC156-derivatives were transferred between Escherichia coli strains, Enterobacter cloacae and Citrobacter freundii representing coliform bacteria. We found that a pEC156-derivative with a functional EcoVIII restriction-modification system was mobilized in enterobacteria at a frequency lower than a plasmid lacking this system. In addition, we found that bacteria that possess the EcoVIII restriction-modification system can efficiently release plasmid content to the environment. We have shown that E. coli cells can be naturally transformed with pEC156-derivatives, however, with low efficiency. The transformation protocol employed neither involved chemical agents (e.g. CaCl2) nor temperature shift which could induce plasmid DNA uptake.

  5. IgA1 desialylated by microbial neuraminidase forms immune complex with naturally occurring anti-T antibody in human serum.

    PubMed

    Anuradha; Jayakumari, N; Appukuttan, P S

    2008-01-29

    IgA1 was identified as the most prominent O-glycosylated protein of human serum. Desialylation by bacterial (Clostridium perfringens) neuraminidase rendered dot-blotted IgA1 recognizable by the naturally occurring serum antibody (anti-T) directed against Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen, Galbeta1-->3GalNAc-alpha-. On Western blot of serum O-glycosylated proteins anti-T recognized nearly all the bands including IgA1 as did the T antigen-specific animal lectin galectin-1 but only after their desialylation. Agglutination of desialylated human erythrocytes by anti-T was effectively inhibited by desialylated IgA1, but not by native IgA1 or other immunoglobulins. Desialylation of serum by neuraminidase led to significantly increased formation of immune complexes containing IgM, the major immunoglobulin type in anti-T on one hand and O-glycosylated proteins/IgA1 on the other. In further evidence for anti-T-desialylated IgA1 immune complex formation, purified anti-T added to desialylated, but not native serum led to formation of additional IgA-IgM immune complexes. Also neuraminidase treatment significantly reduced the titre of free (non-immune complexed) anti-T in serum, while selective removal of anti-T by affinity absorption resulted in considerable decrease in the amount of IgA1 that got converted to immune complexes following enzymatic desialylation of serum. Formation of immune complex between anti-T and neuraminidase-treated IgA1 in serum may be significant since many disease pathogens release neuraminidase and since IgA1 is a powerful ligand for tissue galectin-1 more so after desialylation. Diabetes also raises serum IgA and neuraminidase levels.

  6. CO{sub 2} capture from simulated syngas via cyclic carbonation/calcination for a naturally occurring limestone: pilot-plant testing

    SciTech Connect

    Symonds, R.T.; Lu, D.Y.; Hughes, R.W.; Anthony, E.J.; Macchi, A.

    2009-09-15

    Experiments were performed using a dual fluidized bed reactor system, operated in a batch mode, in order to investigate the effects of steam and simulated syngas on CO{sub 2} capture and sorbent conversion efficiency for a naturally occurring Polish calcitic limestone. In addition, the effect of high partial pressures of CO{sub 2} on the calcination process was examined using either oxygen-enriched air or oxy-fuel combustion in the calciner. As expected, calcination under oxy-fuel conditions resulted in decreased carbonation conversion due primarily to particle sintering and pore pluggage. On average there was a decrease in carbonation conversion of approximately 36.5 and 33.4% for carbonation with steam and steam/simulated syngas, respectively, compared to similar experiments using oxygen-enriched air. However, during the carbonation of the limestone with steam present in the feed gas, it was observed that the high CO{sub 2} capture efficiency period was significantly extended compared to carbonation with only CO{sub 2} present. This resulted in increased CaO conversion from approximately 16.1 to 29.7% for the initial carbonation cycle. A further increase in carbonation conversion from 29.7 to 46.9%, was also observed when simulated syngas conditions (CO, H{sub 2}) were used in the carbonator. Analysis of the outlet gases also confirmed that the calcined limestone catalyzes the water gas shift reaction, which we believe results in enhanced CO{sub 2} concentration levels at the grain surfaces of the sorbent.

  7. Prevalence of naturally occurring antibodies against dog erythrocyte antigen 7 in a population of dog erythrocyte antigen 7-negative dogs from Spain and Italy.

    PubMed

    Spada, Eva; Proverbio, Daniela; Viñals Flórez, Luis Miguel; Del Rosario Perlado Chamizo, Maria; Serra Y Gómez de la Serna, Blanca; Perego, Roberta; Baggiani, Luciana

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of naturally occurring anti-dog erythrocyte antigen (DEA) 7 antibodies in DEA 7-negative dogs from Spain and Italy. ANIMALS 252 DEA 7-negative dogs from a population of 312 dogs that were previously tested for DEA 1, DEA 4, and DEA 7. PROCEDURES A plasma sample was obtained from each dog and evaluated for anti-DEA 7 antibodies by the use of gel column agglutination. Each plasma sample underwent major crossmatching with RBCs from DEA 7-positive dogs. Samples that resulted in agglutination were then crossmatched with RBCs from DEA 1-negative, DEA 4-positive, and DEA 7-negative dogs to confirm the presence of anti-DEA 7 antibodies. Results were then used to calculate the risk for a delayed transfusion reaction in a DEA 7-negative dog with anti-DEA 7 antibodies after a transfusion with blood that was not crossmatched or typed for DEA 7. RESULTS 96 of 252 (38.1%) plasma samples contained anti-DEA 7 antibodies. A DEA 7-negative dog with anti-DEA 7 antibodies had a 5.9% chance of developing a delayed hemolytic reaction after transfusion with blood not crossmatched or typed for DEA 7. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that canine blood used for transfusion should be crossmatched with the blood or plasma of the intended recipient prior to transfusion to minimize the likelihood that the recipient will develop a hemolytic reaction associated with anti-DEA 7 antibodies. Ideal canine blood donors should be negative for both DEA 1 and DEA 7.

  8. Evaluation of total effective dose due to certain environmentally placed naturally occurring radioactive materials using a procedural adaptation of RESRAD code.

    PubMed

    Beauvais, Z S; Thompson, K H; Kearfott, K J

    2009-07-01

    Due to a recent upward trend in the price of uranium and subsequent increased interest in uranium mining, accurate modeling of baseline dose from environmental sources of radioactivity is of increasing interest. Residual radioactivity model and code (RESRAD) is a program used to model environmental movement and calculate the dose due to the inhalation, ingestion, and exposure to radioactive materials following a placement. This paper presents a novel use of RESRAD for the calculation of dose from non-enhanced, or ancient, naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). In order to use RESRAD to calculate the total effective dose (TED) due to ancient NORM, a procedural adaptation was developed to negate the effects of time progressive distribution of radioactive materials. A dose due to United States' average concentrations of uranium, actinium, and thorium series radionuclides was then calculated. For adults exposed in a residential setting and assumed to eat significant amounts of food grown in NORM concentrated areas, the annual dose due to national average NORM concentrations was 0.935 mSv y(-1). A set of environmental dose factors were calculated for simple estimation of dose from uranium, thorium, and actinium series radionuclides for various age groups and exposure scenarios as a function of elemental uranium and thorium activity concentrations in groundwater and soil. The values of these factors for uranium were lowest for an adult exposed in an industrial setting: 0.00476 microSv kg Bq(-1) y(-1) for soil and 0.00596 microSv m(3) Bq(-1) y(-1) for water (assuming a 1:1 234U:238U activity ratio in water). The uranium factors were highest for infants exposed in a residential setting and assumed to ingest food grown onsite: 34.8 microSv kg Bq(-1) y(-1) in soil and 13.0 microSv m(3) Bq(-1) y(-1) in water. PMID:19509509

  9. Suppression of CD4+ Effector Responses by Naturally Occurring CD4+ CD25+ Foxp3+ Regulatory T Cells Contributes to Experimental Cerebral Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Blanc, Anne-Laurence; Keswani, Tarun; Gorgette, Olivier; Bandeira, Antonio; Malissen, Bernard; Cazenave, Pierre-André

    2015-01-01

    The role of naturally occurring CD4+ CD25+ Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (nTreg) in the pathogenesis of cerebral malaria (CM), which involves both pathogenic T cell responses and parasite sequestration in the brain, is still unclear. To assess the contribution and dynamics of nTreg during the neuropathogenesis, we unbalanced the ratio between nTreg and naive CD4+ T cells in an attenuated model of Plasmodium berghei ANKA-induced experimental CM (ECM) by using a selective cell enrichment strategy. We found that nTreg adoptive transfer accelerated the onset and increased the severity of CM in syngeneic C57BL/6 (B6) P. berghei ANKA-infected mice without affecting the level of parasitemia. In contrast, naive CD4+ T cell enrichment prevented CM and promoted parasite clearance. Furthermore, early during the infection nTreg expanded in the spleen but did not efficiently migrate to the site of neuroinflammation, suggesting that nTreg exert their pathogenic action early in the spleen by suppressing the protective naive CD4+ T cell response to P. berghei ANKA infection in vivo in both CM-susceptible (B6) and CM-resistant (B6-CD4−/−) mice. However, their sole transfer was not sufficient to restore CM susceptibility in two CM-resistant congenic strains tested. Altogether, these results demonstrate that nTreg are activated and functional during P. berghei ANKA infection and that they contribute to the pathogenesis of CM. They further suggest that nTreg may represent an early target for the modulation of the immune response to malaria. PMID:26553468

  10. Contributions of the GABAA Receptor α6 Subunit to Phasic and Tonic Inhibition Revealed by a Naturally Occurring Polymorphism in the α6 Gene

    PubMed Central

    Santhakumar, Vijayalakshmi; Hanchar, H. Jacob; Wallner, Martin; Olsen, Richard W.; Otis, Thomas S.

    2007-01-01

    GABAA receptors (GABARs) are heteromultimeric proteins composed of five subunits. The specific subunit composition determines critical properties of a GABAR such as pharmacological sensitivities and whether the receptor contributes to synaptic or extrasynaptic forms of inhibition. Classically, synaptic but not extrasynaptic GABARs are thought to respond to benzodiazepines, whereas the reverse has been suggested for ethanol. To examine the effects of subunit composition on GABAR function in situ, we took advantage of two naturally occurring alleles of the rat gene for GABAR subunit α6 (Gabra6100R and Gabra6100Q). Depending on their subunit partners, these two variants of α6 can lead to differential sensitivities to benzodiazepines and ethanol. An examination of synaptic and extrasynaptic GABA-mediated currents in cerebellar granule cells from Gabra6100R/100R and Gabra6100Q/100Q rats uncovered marked allele-dependent differences in benzodiazepine sensitivity. Unexpectedly, we found that the benzodiazepines flunitrazepam and diazepam enhanced extrasynaptic inhibition mediated by δ subunit-containing GABARs in Gabra6100Q/100Q rats. Complementary experiments on recombinant GABARs confirmed that, at subsaturating [GABA], flunitrazepam potentiates α6/δ subunit-containing GABARs. Based on data and a simple theoretical analysis, we estimate that the average extrasynaptic [GABA] is ∼160 nm in perfused slices. These results (1) demonstrate contributions of α6 subunits to both synaptic and extrasynaptic GABA responses, (2) establish that δ subunit-containing GABARs are benzodiazepine sensitive at subsaturating [GABA] and, (3) provide an empirical estimate of extrasynaptic [GABA] in slices. PMID:16554486

  11. Differential Effects of Oral Exposure to Naturally-Occurring and Synthetic Deoxynivalenol Congeners on Proinflammatory Cytokine and Chemokine mRNA Expression in the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wenda; He, Kaiyu; Zhou, Hui-Ren; Berthiller, Franz; Adam, Gerhard; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko; Watanabe, Maiko; Krantis, Anthony; Durst, Tony; Zhang, Haibin; Pestka, James J.

    2014-01-01

    The foodborne mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) induces a ribotoxic stress response in mononuclear phagocytes that mediate aberrant multi-organ upregulation of TNF-α, interleukins and chemokines in experimental animals. While other DON congeners also exist as food contaminants or pharmacologically-active derivatives, it is not known how these compounds affect expression of these cytokine genes in vivo. To address this gap, we compared in mice the acute effects of oral DON exposure to that of seven relevant congeners on splenic expression of representative cytokine mRNAs after 2 and 6 h. Congeners included the 8-ketotrichothecenes 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON), 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON), fusarenon X (FX), nivalenol (NIV), the plant metabolite DON-3-glucoside (D3G) and two synthetic DON derivatives with novel satiety-inducing properties (EN139528 and EN139544). DON markedly induced transient upregulation of TNF-α IL-1β, IL-6, CXCL-2, CCL-2 and CCL-7 mRNA expression. The two ADONs also evoked mRNA expression of these genes but to a relatively lesser extent. FX induced more persistent responses than the other DON congeners and, compared to DON, was: 1) more potent in inducing IL-1β mRNA, 2) approximately equipotent in the induction of TNF-α and CCL-2 mRNAs, and 3) less potent at upregulating IL-6, CXCL-2, and CCL-2 mRNAs. EN139528’s effects were similar to NIV, the least potent 8-ketotrichothecene, while D3G and EN139544 were largely incapable of eliciting cytokine or chemokine mRNA responses. Taken together, the results presented herein provide important new insights into the potential of naturally-occurring and synthetic DON congeners to elicit aberrant mRNA upregulation of cytokines associated with acute and chronic trichothecene toxicity. PMID:24793808

  12. Rd9 is a naturally occurring mouse model of a common form of retinitis pigmentosa caused by mutations in RPGR-ORF15.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Debra A; Khan, Naheed W; Othman, Mohammad I; Chang, Bo; Jia, Lin; Grahek, Garrett; Wu, Zhijian; Hiriyanna, Suja; Nellissery, Jacob; Li, Tiansen; Khanna, Hemant; Colosi, Peter; Swaroop, Anand; Heckenlively, John R

    2012-01-01

    Animal models of human disease are an invaluable component of studies aimed at understanding disease pathogenesis and therapeutic possibilities. Mutations in the gene encoding retinitis pigmentosa GTPase regulator (RPGR) are the most common cause of X-linked retinitis pigmentosa (XLRP) and are estimated to cause 20% of all retinal dystrophy cases. A majority of RPGR mutations are present in ORF15, the purine-rich terminal exon of the predominant splice-variant expressed in retina. Here we describe the genetic and phenotypic characterization of the retinal degeneration 9 (Rd9) strain of mice, a naturally occurring animal model of XLRP. Rd9 mice were found to carry a 32-base-pair duplication within ORF15 that causes a shift in the reading frame that introduces a premature-stop codon. Rpgr ORF15 transcripts, but not protein, were detected in retinas from Rd9/Y male mice that exhibited retinal pathology, including pigment loss and slowly progressing decrease in outer nuclear layer thickness. The levels of rhodopsin and transducin in rod outer segments were also decreased, and M-cone opsin appeared mislocalized within cone photoreceptors. In addition, electroretinogram (ERG) a- and b-wave amplitudes of both Rd9/Y male and Rd9/Rd9 female mice showed moderate gradual reduction that continued to 24 months of age. The presence of multiple retinal features that correlate with findings in individuals with XLRP identifies Rd9 as a valuable model for use in gaining insight into ORF15-associated disease progression and pathogenesis, as well as accelerating the development and testing of therapeutic strategies for this common form of retinal dystrophy.

  13. Plasmid pEC156, a Naturally Occurring Escherichia coli Genetic Element That Carries Genes of the EcoVIII Restriction-Modification System, Is Mobilizable among Enterobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Werbowy, Olesia; Kaczorowski, Tadeusz

    2016-01-01

    Type II restriction-modification systems are ubiquitous in prokaryotes. Some of them are present in naturally occurring plasmids, which may facilitate the spread of these systems in bacterial populations by horizontal gene transfer. However, little is known about the routes of their dissemination. As a model to study this, we have chosen an Escherichia coli natural plasmid pEC156 that carries the EcoVIII restriction modification system. The presence of this system as well as the cis-acting cer site involved in resolution of plasmid multimers determines the stable maintenance of pEC156 not only in Escherichia coli but also in other enterobacteria. We have shown that due to the presence of oriT-type F and oriT-type R64 loci it is possible to mobilize pEC156 by conjugative plasmids (F and R64, respectively). The highest mobilization frequency was observed when pEC156-derivatives were transferred between Escherichia coli strains, Enterobacter cloacae and Citrobacter freundii representing coliform bacteria. We found that a pEC156-derivative with a functional EcoVIII restriction-modification system was mobilized in enterobacteria at a frequency lower than a plasmid lacking this system. In addition, we found that bacteria that possess the EcoVIII restriction-modification system can efficiently release plasmid content to the environment. We have shown that E. coli cells can be naturally transformed with pEC156-derivatives, however, with low efficiency. The transformation protocol employed neither involved chemical agents (e.g. CaCl2) nor temperature shift which could induce plasmid DNA uptake. PMID:26848973

  14. Radiological hazards due to naturally occurring radionuclides in the selected building materials used for the construction of dwellings in four districts of the Punjab Province, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Rahman, S U; Rafique, M; Jabbar, A; Matiullah

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents the finding of a study undertaken to determine the naturally occurring radionuclides present in commonly used building materials for dwellings and workplaces in four districts of the Punjab Province, Pakistan. The concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K were measured by using gamma-ray spectroscopy. A total of 80 samples of building materials were collected from various manufacturers and suppliers of the studied area. The specific activities of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K were measured in building samples, and results ranged from minimum values of 9 ± 1, 9 ± 2 and 27 ± 8 Bq kg(-1) to maximum values of 106 ± 5, 133 ± 5 and 914 ± 21 Bq kg(-1) with mean values of 42 ± 3, 48 ± 3 and 376 ± 16 Bq kg(-1), respectively. From the measured activity concentrations, equivalent radium (Ra(eq)), terrestrial absorbed dose rate, annual effective dose as well as external and internal hazard indices were calculated and found to range from 52 ± 7 to 274 ± 15 Bq kg(-1), 23 ± 3 to 130 6 nGy h(-1), 0.15 ± 0.02 to 0.80 ± 0.03 mSv, 0.14 ± 0.02 to 0.75 ± 0.04 and 0.2 ± 0.02 to 0.98 ± 0.05, respectively. These results were comparable to the results of similar studies undertaken locally and in other countries. The samples considered were safe for use in construction of dwellings in the study area and do not pose any significant source of radiation hazard.

  15. Essential Components of a Perimeter Air Monitoring Plan and Worker Protection Program at Sites Involving the Excavation of Naturally Occurring Asbestos (NOA) in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zdeb, T. F.

    2012-12-01

    Preparing a Perimeter Air Monitoring Plan that provides the essential information and methods of evaluation needed to assure that the health of the surrounding community is adequately protected and adapting currently existing Cal/OSHA regulations to be relevant to the protection of workers at sites involving the excavation of Naturally Occurring Asbestos (NOA) is oftentimes challenging in California. Current guidelines regarding what constitutes an effective air monitoring program are often lacking in details regarding what should be sampled and analyzed to characterize a site and what evaluation techniques should be applied to process the results of monitoring, and the current Cal/OSHA asbestos related regulations regarding worker protection are for the most part largely pertinent to the abatement of asbestos in buildings. An overview of the essential components of an effective Baseline and Perimeter Air Monitoring Plan will be presented that includes a brief discussion of the various asbestos types and fiber sizes that may need to be considered, possible approachs for evaluating temporal and spatial variability, review of selected site boundary target concentrations, and consideration of the potential for airborne dust and soil containing asbestos (and other contaminants) to migrate and accumulate offsite eventually contributing to "background creep" --the incremental increase of overall airborne asbestos concentrations in the areas surrounding the site due to the re-entrainment of asbestos from the settled dust and/or transported soil. In addition to the above, the current Cal/OSHA asbestos regulations related to worker protection will be briefly discussed with respect to their relevancy at NOA sites with an overview of the adaptations to the regulations that were developed as a result of some fairly lengthy discussions with representatives of Cal/OSHA. These adaptations include, among other things, defining how regulated areas (asbestos concentrations over 1

  16. Fate of naturally occurring Escherichia coli O157:H7 and other zoonotic pathogens during minimally managed bovine feedlot manure composting processes.

    PubMed

    Berry, Elaine D; Millner, Patricia D; Wells, James E; Kalchayanand, Norasak; Guerini, Michael N

    2013-08-01

    Reducing Escherichia coli O157:H7 in livestock manures before application to cropland is critical for reducing the risk of foodborne illness associated with produce. Our objective was to determine the fate of naturally occurring E. coli O157:H7 and other pathogens during minimally managed on-farm bovine manure composting processes. Feedlot pen samples were screened to identify E. coli O157:H7-positive manure. Using this manure, four piles of each of three different composting formats were constructed in each of two replicate trials. Composting formats were (i) turned piles of manure plus hay and straw, (ii) static stockpiles of manure, and (iii) static piles of covered manure plus hay and straw. Temperatures in the tops, toes, and centers of the conical piles (ca. 6.0 m(3) each) were monitored. Compost piles that were turned every 2 weeks achieved higher temperatures for longer periods in the tops and centers than did piles that were left static. E. coli O157:H7 was not recovered from top samples of turned piles of manure plus hay and straw at day 28 and beyond, but top samples from static piles were positive for the pathogen up to day 42 (static manure stockpiles) and day 56 (static covered piles of manure plus hay and straw). Salmonella, Campylobacter spp., and Listeria monocytogenes were not found in top or toe samples at the end of the composting period, but E. coli O157:H7 and Listeria spp. were recovered from toe samples at day 84. Our findings indicate that some minimally managed composting processes can reduce E. coli O157:H7 and other pathogens in bovine manure but may be affected by season and/or initial levels of indigenous thermophilic bacteria. Our results also highlight the importance of adequate C:N formulation of initial mixtures for the production of high temperatures and rapid composting, and the need for periodic turning of the piles to increase the likelihood that all parts of the mass are subjected to high temperatures.

  17. Multiple Introduction and Naturally Occuring Drug Resistance of HCV among HIV-Infected Intravenous Drug Users in Yunnan: An Origin of China’s HIV/HCV Epidemics

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Min; Ma, Yanling; Chen, Huichao; Luo, Hongbing; Dai, Jie; Song, Lijun; Yang, Chaojun; Mei, Jingyuan; Yang, Li; Dong, Lijuan; Jia, Manhong; Lu, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Background The human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) epidemic in China historically stemmed from intravenous drug users (IDUs) in Yunnan. Due to a shared transmission route, hepatitis C virus (HCV)/HIV-1 co-infection is common. Here, we investigated HCV genetic characteristics and baseline drug resistance among HIV-infected IDUs in Yunnan. Methods Blood samples of 432 HIV-1/HCV co-infected IDUs were collected from January to June 2014 in six prefectures of Yunnan Province. Partial E1E2 and NS5B genes were sequenced. Phylogenetic, evolutionary and genotypic drug resistance analyses were performed. Results Among the 293 specimens successfully genotyped, seven subtypes were identified, including subtypes 3b (37.9%, 111/293), 3a (21.8%, 64/293), 6n (14.0%, 41/293), 1b (10.6%, 31/293), 1a (8.2%, 24/293), 6a (5.1%, 15/293) and 6u (2.4%, 7/293). The distribution of HCV subtypes was mostly related to geographic location. Subtypes 3b, 3a, and 6n were detected in all six prefectures, however, the other four subtypes were detected only in parts of the six prefectures. Phylogeographic analyses indicated that 6n, 1a and 6u originated in the western prefecture (Dehong) and spread eastward and showed genetic relatedness with those detected in Burmese. However, 6a originated in the southeast prefectures (Honghe and Wenshan) bordering Vietnam and was transmitted westward. These subtypes exhibited different evolutionary rates (between 4.35×10−4 and 2.38×10−3 substitutions site-1 year-1) and times of most recent common ancestor (tMRCA, between 1790.3 and 1994.6), suggesting that HCV was multiply introduced into Yunnan. Naturally occurring resistance-associated mutations (C316N, A421V, C445F, I482L, V494A, and V499A) to NS5B polymerase inhibitors were detected in direct-acting antivirals (DAAs)-naïve IDUs. Conclusion This work reveals the temporal-spatial distribution of HCV subtypes and baseline HCV drug resistance among HIV-infected IDUs in Yunnan. The findings enhance our

  18. Effects of oral exposure to naturally-occurring and synthetic deoxynivalenol congeners on proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine mRNA expression in the mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Wenda; He, Kaiyu; Zhou, Hui-Ren; Berthiller, Franz; Adam, Gerhard; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko; Watanabe, Maiko; Krantis, Anthony; Durst, Tony; Zhang, Haibin; Pestka, James J.

    2014-07-15

    The foodborne mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) induces a ribotoxic stress response in mononuclear phagocytes that mediate aberrant multi-organ upregulation of TNF-α, interleukins and chemokines in experimental animals. While other DON congeners also exist as food contaminants or pharmacologically-active derivatives, it is not known how these compounds affect expression of these cytokine genes in vivo. To address this gap, we compared in mice the acute effects of oral DON exposure to that of seven relevant congeners on splenic expression of representative cytokine mRNAs after 2 and 6 h. Congeners included the 8-ketotrichothecenes 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON), 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON), fusarenon X (FX), nivalenol (NIV), the plant metabolite DON-3-glucoside (D3G) and two synthetic DON derivatives with novel satiety-inducing properties (EN139528 and EN139544). DON markedly induced transient upregulation of TNF-α IL-1β, IL-6, CXCL-2, CCL-2 and CCL-7 mRNA expressions. The two ADONs also evoked mRNA expression of these genes but to a relatively lesser extent. FX induced more persistent responses than the other DON congeners and, compared to DON, was: 1) more potent in inducing IL-1β mRNA, 2) approximately equipotent in the induction of TNF-α and CCL-2 mRNAs, and 3) less potent at upregulating IL-6, CXCL-2, and CCL-2 mRNAs. EN139528's effects were similar to NIV, the least potent 8-ketotrichothecene, while D3G and EN139544 were largely incapable of eliciting cytokine or chemokine mRNA responses. Taken together, the results presented herein provide important new insights into the potential of naturally-occurring and synthetic DON congeners to elicit aberrant mRNA upregulation of cytokines associated with acute and chronic trichothecene toxicity. - Highlights: • We compared effects of DON congeners on biomarker proinflammatory genes in mice. • Oral DON induced splenic IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α,CXCL-2, CCL-2 and CCL-7 mRNAs. • 8-Ketotrichothecene ranking for

  19. A new naturally-occurring nanoporous copper sheet-silicate with 6482 cages related to synthetic “CuSH” phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, Mark D.; Rumsey, Michael S.

    2013-07-01

    The structure of a new naturally-occurring nanoporous copper silicate of formula Na2CaCu2Si8O20·H2O (disodium calcium dicopper octasilicate monohydrate) is reported and its relations to synthetic nanoporous “CuSH” compounds are discussed. The new phase is monoclinic C2/m with unit cell parameters a=12.2439(6) Å, b=15.7514(4) Å, c=10.6008(3) Å, β=125.623(2)°, and V=1661.87(10) Å3 (Z=4). The structure has been refined to R1(all)=0.033, wR2(all)=0.071, and GoF=1.090. In the double-sheet of SiO4 tetrahedra, 6482 cages connect to form a chequer-board motif within which Na atoms and H2O groups occupy channels. Each cage is occupied by 7-coordinated Na atom lying in a mirror plane. An intra-sheet corridor between the 6482 cages is occupied by Na in 8-fold cuboidal coordination. The silicate skeleton is highly porous, with obvious channels and pathways for ion migration. The interlayer between double-sheets is occupied by CaO8, CuO5 and NaO5(H2O) polyhedra. CuO5 polyhedra occur as rows of edge-sharing Cu2O9 pairs connected by NaO5(H2O) octahedra and CaO8 square antiprisms. Both CuO5 and NaO5(H2O) polyhedra are features shared with closely-related synthetic “CuSH” phases of interest to the solid-state chemistry community as potential nanoporous catalysts. However, Na2CaCu2Si8O20·H2O is the only natural representative of this group of structures, and the only one to contain essential Ca. The discovery of Na2CaCu2Si8O20·H2O points to a new group of CuSH-type phases containing alkaline-earth elements. Its close natural association and structural affinity with wesselsite SrCuSi4O10 suggest the possibility of transformation between CuSH and gillespite-type phases, and thereby a route to synthesising alkaline-earth CuSH derivatives, so widening their potential as nanoporous catalysts.

  20. Naturally occurring contaminants in the Piedmont and Blue Ridge crystalline-rock aquifers and Piedmont Early Mesozoic basin siliciclastic-rock aquifers, eastern United States, 1994–2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapman, Melinda J.; Cravotta, Charles A.; Szabo, Zoltan; Lindsay, Bruce D.

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater quality and aquifer lithologies in the Piedmont and Blue Ridge Physiographic Provinces in the eastern United States vary widely as a result of complex geologic history. Bedrock composition (mineralogy) and geochemical conditions in the aquifer directly affect the occurrence (presence in rock and groundwater) and distribution (concentration and mobility) of potential naturally occurring contaminants, such as arsenic and radionuclides, in drinking water. To evaluate potential relations between aquifer lithology and the spatial distribution of naturally occurring contaminants, the crystalline-rock aquifers of the Piedmont and Blue Ridge Physiographic Provinces and the siliciclastic-rock aquifers of the Early Mesozoic basin of the Piedmont Physiographic Province were divided into 14 lithologic groups, each having from 1 to 16 lithochemical subgroups, based on primary rock type, mineralogy, and weathering potential. Groundwater-quality data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program from 1994 through 2008 from 346 wells and springs in various hydrogeologic and land-use settings from Georgia through New Jersey were compiled and analyzed for this study. Analyses for most constituents were for filtered samples, and, thus, the compiled data consist largely of dissolved concentrations. Concentrations were compared to criteria for protection of human health, such as U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) drinking water maximum contaminant levels and secondary maximum contaminant levels or health-based screening levels developed by the USGS NAWQA Program in cooperation with the USEPA, the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, and Oregon Health & Science University. Correlations among constituent concentrations, pH, and oxidation-reduction (redox) conditions were used to infer geochemical controls on constituent mobility within the aquifers. Of the 23 trace-element constituents evaluated

  1. Combined steam and ultrasound treatment of broilers at slaughter: a promising intervention to significantly reduce numbers of naturally occurring campylobacters on carcasses.

    PubMed

    Musavian, Hanieh S; Krebs, Niels H; Nonboe, Ulf; Corry, Janet E L; Purnell, Graham

    2014-04-17

    Steam or hot water decontamination treatment of broiler carcasses is hampered by process limitations due to prolonged treatment times and adverse changes to the epidermis. In this study, a combination of steam with ultrasound (SonoSteam®) was investigated on naturally contaminated broilers that were processed at conventional slaughter speeds of 8,500 birds per hour in a Danish broiler plant. Industrial-scale SonoSteam equipment was installed in the evisceration room, before the inside/outside carcass washer. The SonoSteam treatment was evaluated in two separate trials performed on two different dates. Numbers of naturally occurring Campylobacter spp. and TVC were determined from paired samples of skin excised from opposite sides of the breast of the same carcass, before and after treatments. Sampling was performed at two different points on the line: i) before and after the SonoSteam treatment and ii) before the SonoSteam treatment and after 80 min of air chilling. A total of 44 carcasses were examined in the two trials. Results from the first trial showed that the mean initial Campylobacter contamination level of 2.35 log₁₀ CFU was significantly reduced (n=12, p<0.001) to 1.40 log₁₀ CFU after treatment. A significant reduction (n=11, p<0.001) was also observed with samples analyzed before SonoSteam treatment (2.64 log₁₀ CFU) and after air chilling (1.44 log₁₀ CFU). In the second trial, significant reductions (n=10, p<0.05) were obtained for carcasses analyzed before (mean level of 2.23 log₁₀ CFU) and after the treatment (mean level of 1.36 log₁₀ CFU). Significant reductions (n=11, p<0.01) were also found for Campylobacter numbers analyzed before the SonoSteam treatment (2.02 log₁₀ CFU) and after the air chilling treatment (1.37 log₁₀ CFU). The effect of air chilling without SonoSteam treatment was determined using 12 carcasses pre- and postchill. Results showed insignificant reductions of 0.09 log₁₀ from a mean initial level of

  2. Characterization, quantification, and yearly variation of the naturally occurring polyphenols in a common red variety of curly kale ( Brassica oleracea L. convar. acephala var. sabellica cv. 'Redbor').

    PubMed

    Olsen, Helle; Aaby, Kjersti; Borge, Grethe Iren A

    2010-11-10

    This study focuses on the characterization and quantification of polyphenols in the edible leaves of red curly kale ( Brassica oleracea L. convar. acephala (DC.) Alef. var. sabellica L.), variety 'Redbor F1 hybrid'. The kale was grown at an experimental field (59° 40' N) in the years 2007-2009. The analysis of kale extract by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS has allowed the determination of 47 different acylated and nonacylated flavonoid glycosides and complex hydroxycinnamic acids. Those compounds included mono- to tetraglycosides of quercetin, kaempferol, and cyanidin and derivatives of p-coumaric, ferulic, sinapic, and caffeic acid. Among the compounds characterized, four flavonols, three anthocyanins, and three phenolic acids were identified in the Brassica family for the first time. Aglycones and conjugated polyphenols were quantified by HPLC-DAD using commercially available standards. The main flavonol, anthocyanin, and phenolic acid were kaempferol-3-sinapoyl-diglucoside-7-diglucoside, cyanidin-3-sinapoyl-feruloyl-diglucoside-5-glucoside, and disinapoyl-diglucoside, respectively, each representing 9.8, 10.3, and 4.9% of the total amount of 872 mg polyphenol equivalents per 100 g of fresh kale. Variations between individual plants and growing seasons were of the same order of magnitude for total phenolics and total monomeric anthocyanins.

  3. The U.S.G.S. phosphate-fluoride-iodate method for the determination of very small amounts of thorium in naturally occurring materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crimaldi, F.S.; Fairchild, J.G.

    1949-01-01

    Detailed procedures are presented for the determination of very small percentages of thorium. The methods are designed to determine 0.001% of thorium oxide as the lower limit and are applicable to nearly all types of rocks. For quantities below a milligram of ThO2, the thorium is determined nephelometrically as the iodate or photemetrically with p-dimethylamineasephenylarsonic acid. For quantities of thorium above one milligram of ThO2, the thorium is determined gravimetrically. A discussion of the important feature of the methods and a summary of the more important experimental work that lead to the adoption of the procedures.

  4. Unusual Naturally Occurring Humoral and Cellular Mutated Epitopes of Hepatitis B Virus in a Chronically Infected Argentine Patient with Anti-HBs Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Cuestas, María L.; Mathet, Verónica L.; Ruiz, Vanesa; Minassian, María L.; Rivero, Cintia; Sala, Andrea; Corach, Daniel; Alessio, Analía; Pozzati, Marcia; Frider, Bernardo; Oubiña, José R.

    2006-01-01

    Serum hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA was extracted from a chronically infected patient with cocirculation of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti-HBs antibodies. Direct PCR and clone-derived sequences of the S and overlapped P genes were obtained. DNA sequences and phylogenetic analysis ascribed this isolate to genotype A (serotype adw2). Five of six HBV DNA clones exhibited point mutations inside and outside the major hydrophilic region, while the sixth clone exhibited a genotype A “wild-type” amino acid sequence. Observed replacements included both humoral and/or cellular (major histocompatibility complex class I [MHC-I] and MHC-II) HBV mutated epitopes, such as S45A, P46H, L49H, C107R, T125A, M133K, I152F, P153T, T161S, G185E, A194T, G202R, and I213L. None of these mutants were individually present within a given clone. The I213L replacement was the only one observed in the five clones carrying nonsynonymous mutations in the S gene. Some of the amino acid substitutions are reportedly known to be responsible for the emergence of immune escape mutants. C107R replacement prevents disulfide bonding, thus disrupting the first loop of the HBsAg. Circulation of some of these mutants may represent a potential risk for the community, since neither current hepatitis B vaccines nor hyperimmune hepatitis B immune globulin are effectively prevent the liver disease thereto associated. Moreover, some of the recorded HBsAg variants may influence the accuracy of the results obtained with currently used diagnostic tests. PMID:16757620

  5. Unusual naturally occurring humoral and cellular mutated epitopes of hepatitis B virus in a chronically infected argentine patient with anti-HBs antibodies.

    PubMed

    Cuestas, María L; Mathet, Verónica L; Ruiz, Vanesa; Minassian, María L; Rivero, Cintia; Sala, Andrea; Corach, Daniel; Alessio, Analía; Pozzati, Marcia; Frider, Bernardo; Oubiña, José R

    2006-06-01

    Serum hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA was extracted from a chronically infected patient with cocirculation of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti-HBs antibodies. Direct PCR and clone-derived sequences of the S and overlapped P genes were obtained. DNA sequences and phylogenetic analysis ascribed this isolate to genotype A (serotype adw2). Five of six HBV DNA clones exhibited point mutations inside and outside the major hydrophilic region, while the sixth clone exhibited a genotype A "wild-type" amino acid sequence. Observed replacements included both humoral and/or cellular (major histocompatibility complex class I [MHC-I] and MHC-II) HBV mutated epitopes, such as S45A, P46H, L49H, C107R, T125A, M133K, I152F, P153T, T161S, G185E, A194T, G202R, and I213L. None of these mutants were individually present within a given clone. The I213L replacement was the only one observed in the five clones carrying nonsynonymous mutations in the S gene. Some of the amino acid substitutions are reportedly known to be responsible for the emergence of immune escape mutants. C107R replacement prevents disulfide bonding, thus disrupting the first loop of the HBsAg. Circulation of some of these mutants may represent a potential risk for the community, since neither current hepatitis B vaccines nor hyperimmune hepatitis B immune globulin are effectively prevent the liver disease thereto associated. Moreover, some of the recorded HBsAg variants may influence the accuracy of the results obtained with currently used diagnostic tests.

  6. Cysteine S-conjugate β-lyases: important roles in the metabolism of naturally occurring sulfur and selenium-containing compounds, xenobiotics and anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Arthur J L; Krasnikov, Boris F; Niatsetskaya, Zoya V; Pinto, John T; Callery, Patrick S; Villar, Maria T; Artigues, Antonio; Bruschi, Sam A

    2011-06-01

    Cysteine S-conjugate β-lyases are pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-containing enzymes that catalyze β-elimination reactions with cysteine S-conjugates that possess a good leaving group in the β-position. The end products are aminoacrylate and a sulfur-containing fragment. The aminoacrylate tautomerizes and hydrolyzes to pyruvate and ammonia. The mammalian cysteine S-conjugate β-lyases thus far identified are enzymes involved in amino acid metabolism that catalyze β-lyase reactions as non-physiological side reactions. Most are aminotransferases. In some cases the lyase is inactivated by reaction products. The cysteine S-conjugate β-lyases are of much interest to toxicologists because they play an important key role in the bioactivation (toxication) of halogenated alkenes, some of which are produced on an industrial scale and are environmental contaminants. The cysteine S-conjugate β-lyases have been reviewed in this journal previously (Cooper and Pinto in Amino Acids 30:1-15, 2006). Here, we focus on more recent findings regarding: (1) the identification of enzymes associated with high-M(r) cysteine S-conjugate β-lyases in the cytosolic and mitochondrial fractions of rat liver and kidney; (2) the mechanism of syncatalytic inactivation of rat liver mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase by the nephrotoxic β-lyase substrate S-(1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethyl)-L-cysteine (the cysteine S-conjugate of tetrafluoroethylene); (3) toxicant channeling of reactive fragments from the active site of mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase to susceptible proteins in the mitochondria; (4) the involvement of cysteine S-conjugate β-lyases in the metabolism/bioactivation of drugs and natural products; and (5) the role of cysteine S-conjugate β-lyases in the metabolism of selenocysteine Se-conjugates. This review emphasizes the fact that the cysteine S-conjugate β-lyases are biologically more important than hitherto appreciated.

  7. Confirmation of warfarin resistance of naturally occurring VKORC1 variants by coexpression with coagulation factor IX and in silico protein modelling

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background VKORC1 has been identified some years ago as the gene encoding vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR) – the target protein for coumarin derivates like warfarin or phenprocoumon. Resistance against warfarin and other coumarin-type anticoagulants has been frequently reported over the last 50 years in rodents due to problems in pest control as well as in thrombophilic patients showing variable response to anticoagulant treatment. Many different mutations have already been detected in the VKORC1 gene leading to warfarin resistance in rats, mice and in humans. Since the conventional in vitro dithiothreitol (DTT)-driven VKOR enzymatic assay often did not reflect the in vivo status concerning warfarin resistance, we recently developed a cell culture-based method for coexpression of VKORC1 with coagulation factor IX and subsequent measurement of secreted FIX in order to test warfarin inhibition in wild-type and mutated VKORC1. Results In the present study, we coexpressed wild-type factor IX with 12 different VKORC1 variants which were previously detected in warfarin resistant rats and mice. The results show that amino acid substitutions in VKORC1 maintain VKOR activity and are associated with warfarin resistance. When we projected in silico the amino acid substitutions onto the published three-dimensional model of the bacterial VKOR enzyme, the predicted effects matched well the catalytic mechanism proposed for the bacterial enzyme. Conclusions The established cell-based system for coexpression of VKORC1 and factor IX uses FIX activity as an indicator of carboxylation efficiency. This system reflects the warfarin resistance status of VKORC1 mutations from anticoagulant resistant rodents more closely than the traditional DTT-driven enzyme assay. All mutations studied were also predicted to be involved in the reaction mechanism. PMID:24491178

  8. Persistent increases in inflammatory cytokines, Akt, and MAPK/ERK pathways after inhalation exposure of rats to Libby amphibole (LA) or amosite: comparison to effects after intratracheal exposure to LA or naturally occurring asbestos.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human exposure to LA and other mined or processed asbestos increases risk of lung inflammation, fibrosis, and cancer. Health risks from exposure to naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) are not as well-understood. Mechanisms of long-term toxicity were compared in male F344 rats expo...

  9. The low fertility of Chinese white poplar: dynamic changes in anatomical structure, endogenous hormone concentrations, and key gene expression in the reproduction of a naturally occurring hybrid.

    PubMed

    Ma, Kaifeng; Song, Yuepeng; Huang, Zhen; Lin, Liyuan; Zhang, Zhiyi; Zhang, Deqiang

    2013-03-01

    KEY MESSAGE : We report that low fertility during intraspecific hybridization in Chinese white poplar was caused by prefertilization barriers, reduced ovules, and embryonic abortion. Hormone concentrations and gene expression patterns were also evaluated during the fertilization process. Hybrid vigor holds tremendous potential for yield increases and trait improvement; however, some hybridization combinations within Populus show very low fertility. To explore the causes of this low fertility in intraspecific hybridization of Chinese white poplar, we examined anatomical structure, hormone levels and expression of key genes in two unique crossing combinations of Populus × tomentosa "Pt02" × P. × tomentosa "LM50", and (P. × tomentosa × P. alba cv. bolleana "Ptb") × P. × tomentosa "LM50". The seed set potential in the intraspecific hybridization P. × tomentosa "Pt02" × P. × tomentosa "LM50" was quite low, which was likely caused by prefertilization barriers, reduced ovule numbers, and embryonic abortion in ovaries. During intraspecific hybridization, we found reduced indoleacetic acid (IAA) in pistils, which may cause pollen tube deformations and increased IAA in heart-stage embryos, which may affect embryo development. Gibberellin A3 (GA3) decreased from the zygote dormancy stage to globular-stage embryos, which may be caused by failure of fertilization in specific embryos. The maximum zeatin (Z) concentration was found in heart-stage embryos, but Z concentrations quickly decreased, which may affect endosperm development. Increasing concentrations of abscisic acid (ABA) during zygote dormancy and eight-cell proembryo stages likely induced abscission of the infructescence. High ABA concentrations also regulated embryo maturity. Measurement of genes expression showed that high expression of SRK and/or SLG may result in rejection of pollen by stigmatic papillae through a mechanism, reminiscent of self-incompatibility. Also, low expression of

  10. Bioactives and nutraceutical phytochemicals naturally occurring in virgin olive oil. The case study of the Nocellara del Belice Italian olive cultivar.

    PubMed

    Ranalli, F; Ranalli, A; Contento, S; Casanovas, M; Antonucci, M; Simone, G Di

    2013-01-01

    This work reports on the composition and bionutritional value of organic virgin olive oil from the Nocellara del Belice variety, one cultivated in the olive areas of the Sicily region, Italy. Destoned oils obtained by processing olives with a destoning-based procedure were compared with conventional oils. This innovative technique, consisting in removing the stone from fruits prior to processing, strongly enhanced the already high-quality level of the conventional product. An in-depth analytical investigation from 2008 to 2010 showed how this innovative olive extraction process led to an excellent peculiar final product, mainly attributable to the improved biophenol and volatile composition, as well as higher concentrations of the lipophilic and vitamin antioxidants (tocopherols and tocotrienols). It had higher levels of oleocanthal (p-HPEA-EDA), a nutraceutical compound exerting actions against COX1 and COX2 (cycloxygenases). Its head-space aroma displayed new volatile phytomolecules and also had higher levels of green volatiles from the lipoxygenase (LOX)-pathway (one having as precursors the polyunsaturated fatty acids containing a cis-cis-1,4-pentadiene system). Among the other bioactives, we highlight its significant levels of trans-β-carotene and xanthophylls (lutein, violaxanthin, neoxanthin and other carotenoids). Its enhanced nutritional value was also attributable to the increased intensity of valuable tasting notes. PMID:23356880

  11. Simultaneous Determination of Naturally Occurring Estrogens and Mycoestrogens in Milk by Ultrahigh-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Analysis.

    PubMed

    Capriotti, Anna Laura; Cavaliere, Chiara; Piovesana, Susy; Stampachiacchiere, Serena; Samperi, Roberto; Ventura, Salvatore; Laganà, Aldo

    2015-10-14

    A simple, fast, and reproducible method for the simultaneous determination of natural estrogens and mycoestrogens (resorcylic acid lactones) in milk by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography combined with electrospray ionization triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC/ESI-MS/MS) is described. The extraction was carried out by solid-phase extraction (SPE) using graphitized carbon black as solid sorbent. The use of carbon black allowed us to avoid any type of sample pretreatment, and the extraction was performed simply by diluting milk samples in water. Correlation coefficient values were obtained in the range between 0.9991 and 1, with good recoveries (67-107% at the lowest spiked level), repeatability (4.8-16.8%), and reproducibility (3.2-16.3%). Moreover, a very low matrix effect was observed for both estrogens and mycoestrogens. With respect to a previous method based on SPE with Oasis MAX cartridges, the one here described allowed us to detect all the analytes under investigation, at the lowest tested concentration level, including free estrogens (in particular estriol). Finally, the developed UHPLC/ESI-MS/MS method was applied to the analysis of some whole milk samples from different lactating animals (cow, goat, and donkey) as well as ultrahigh-temperature-treated cow milk and powder milk samples.

  12. Naturally occurring 2-substituted (1,3)-beta-D-glucan producing Lactobacillus suebicus and Pediococcus parvulus strains with potential utility in the production of functional foods.

    PubMed

    Garai-Ibabe, Gaizka; Dueñas, María Teresa; Irastorza, Ana; Sierra-Filardi, Elena; Werning, María Laura; López, Paloma; Corbí, Angel Luis; Fernández de Palencia, Pilar

    2010-12-01

    We have isolated three lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus suebicus CUPV221, Pediococcus parvulus CUPV1 and P. parvulus CUPV22) that produced high levels of 2-substituted (1,3)-beta-D-glucans which increased the viscosity of the growth media. The (1,3)-beta-D-glucan consisted of two main molecular species, with masses of approximately 10(7) and 10(4) Da, whose proportions varied among the strains. The three strains survived exposure to saliva and simulated gastric conditions at pH 5, with P. parvulus CUPV22 surviving at pH 3.1, and L. suebicus CUPV221 surviving at pH 1.8. All strains were resistant to pancreatin and bile salts. P. parvulus CUPV22 exhibited the highest adhesion (10.5%) to Caco-2 cells, which decreased to 1.2% after washing the cells. Finally, P. parvulus CUPV22 and L. suebicus CUPV221 induced the production of inflammation-related cytokines by polarized macrophages, and interestingly, L. suebicus stimulated the production of cytokine IL-10. These results indicate that the three strains have potential utility for the production of functional foods. PMID:20691585

  13. Regulation of naturally occurring autoantibody-producing cells: detection of a suppressive substance which inhibits the secretion of antibodies directed against enzyme-treated isologous erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Moticka, E J

    1983-10-01

    Normal mice possess spleen cells capable of forming hemolytic plaques against bromelain-treated autologous red cells (Br MRBC). There is present in the serum of these same mice a substance which can inhibit the formation of these plaques. This substance is inhibitory to the secretion of these antibodies following incubation of spleen cells in 20% serum at 4 degrees C for 5 min. This substance is not inhibitory to the formation of anti-sheep erythrocyte plaques from mice either immunized or nonimmunized with sheep erythrocytes. Characterization of the substance indicates that it is neither soluble antigen nor specific antibody. However, inclusion of nanogram amounts of soluble antigen from bromelain-treated red cells in the assay mixture effectively neutralized the suppression. In addition, passage of serum through a mouse anti-Br MRBC antibody immunoadsorbent effectively removed the suppressive activity of the serum while suppression could be recovered in the acid eluate from such a column. This suggests that the mechanism of suppression brought about by incubation in serum is due to the action of a molecule possessing anti-idiotypic activity directed against the cell surface receptors of anti-Br MRBC B cells. Attempts to isolate the molecule based on the postulate that it is immunoglobulin in nature have been unsuccessful.

  14. Cysteine S-conjugate β-lyases: Important roles in the metabolism of naturally occurring sulfur and selenium-containing compounds, xenobiotics and anticancer agents

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Arthur J. L.; Krasnikov, Boris F.; Niatsetskaya, Zoya V.; Pinto, John T.; Callery, Patrick S.; Villar, Maria T.; Artigues, Antonio; Bruschi, Sam A.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Cysteine S-conjugate β-lyases are pyridoxal 5′-phosphate-containing enzymes that catalyze β-elimination reactions with cysteine S-conjugates that possess a good leaving group in the β-position. The end products are aminoacrylate and a sulfur-containing fragment. The aminoacrylate tautomerizes and hydrolyzes to pyruvate and ammonia. The mammalian cysteine S-conjugate β-lyases thus far identified are enzymes involved in amino acid metabolism that catalyze β-lyase reactions as non-physiological side reactions. Most are aminotransferases. In some cases the lyase is inactivated by reaction products. The cysteine S-conjugate β-lyases are of much interest to toxicologists because they play an important key role in the bioactivation (toxication) of halogenated alkenes, some of which are produced on an industrial scale and are environmental contaminants. The cysteine S-conjugate β-lyases have been reviewed in this journal previously [Cooper and Pinto, 2006]. Here we focus on more recent findings regarding: 1) the identification of enzymes associated with high-Mr cysteine S-conjugate β-lyases in the cytosolic and mitochondrial fractions of rat liver and kidney; 2) the mechanism of syncatalytic inactivation of rat liver mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase by the nephrotoxic β-lyase substrate S-(1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethyl)-L-cysteine (the cysteine S-conjugate of tetrafluoroethylene); 3) toxicant channeling of reactive fragments from the active site of mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase to susceptible proteins in the mitochondria; 4) the involvement of cysteine S-conjugate β-lyases in the metabolism/bioactivation of drugs and natural products; and 5) the role of cysteine S-conjugate β-lyases in the metabolism of selenocysteine Se-conjugates. This review emphasizes the fact that the cysteine S-conjugate β-lyases are biologically more important than hitherto appreciated. PMID:20306345

  15. Oral administration of naturally occurring chitosan-based nanoformulated green tea polyphenol EGCG effectively inhibits prostate cancer cell growth in a xenograft model

    PubMed Central

    Mukhtar, Hasan

    2014-01-01

    In preclinical animal models, several phytochemicals have shown excellent potential to be used as effective agents in preventing and treating many cancers. However, the limited bioavailability of active agents could be one reason for their restricted usefulness for human consumption. To overcome this limitation, we recently introduced the concept of nanochemoprevention by encapsulating useful bioactive food components for their slow and sustained release. Here, we report the synthesis, characterization and efficacy assessment of a nanotechnology-based oral formulation of chitosan nanoparticles encapsulating epigallocatechin-3-gallate (Chit-nanoEGCG) for the treatment of prostate cancer (PCa) in a preclinical setting. Chit-nanoEGCG with a size of <200nm diameter and encapsulating EGCG as determined by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscope showed slow release of EGCG in simulated gastric juice acidic pH and faster release in simulated intestinal fluid. The antitumor efficacy of Chit-nanoEGCG was assessed in subcutaneously implanted 22Rν1 tumor xenografts in athymic nude mice. Treatment with Chit-nanoEGCG resulted in significant inhibition of tumor growth and secreted prostate-specific antigen levels compared with EGCG and control groups. In tumor tissues of mice treated with Chit-nanoEGCG, compared with groups treated with EGCG and controls, there was significant (i) induction of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerases cleavage, (ii) increase in the protein expression of Bax with concomitant decrease in Bcl-2, (iii) activation of caspases and (iv) reduction in Ki-67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Through this study, we propose a novel preventive and therapeutic modality for PCa using EGCG that addresses issues related to bioavailability. PMID:24072771

  16. Evolution of naturally occurring 5'non-coding region variants of Hepatitis C virus in human populations of the South American region

    PubMed Central

    Moratorio, Gonzalo; Martínez, Mariela; Gutiérrez, María F; González, Katiuska; Colina, Rodney; López-Tort, Fernando; López, Lilia; Recarey, Ricardo; Schijman, Alejandro G; Moreno, María P; García-Aguirre, Laura; Manascero, Aura R; Cristina, Juan

    2007-01-01

    Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been the subject of intense research and clinical investigation as its major role in human disease has emerged. Previous and recent studies have suggested a diversification of type 1 HCV in the South American region. The degree of genetic variation among HCV strains circulating in Bolivia and Colombia is currently unknown. In order to get insight into these matters, we performed a phylogenetic analysis of HCV 5' non-coding region (5'NCR) sequences from strains isolated in Bolivia, Colombia and Uruguay, as well as available comparable sequences of HCV strains isolated in South America. Methods Phylogenetic tree analysis was performed using the neighbor-joining method under a matrix of genetic distances established under the Kimura-two parameter model. Signature pattern analysis, which identifies particular sites in nucleic acid alignments of variable sequences that are distinctly representative relative to a background set, was performed using the method of Korber & Myers, as implemented in the VESPA program. Prediction of RNA secondary structures was done by the method of Zuker & Turner, as implemented in the mfold program. Results Phylogenetic tree analysis of HCV strains isolated in the South American region revealed the presence of a distinct genetic lineage inside genotype 1. Signature pattern analysis revealed that the presence of this lineage is consistent with the presence of a sequence signature in the 5'NCR of HCV strains isolated in South America. Comparisons of these results with the ones found for Europe or North America revealed that this sequence signature is characteristic of the South American region. Conclusion Phylogentic analysis revealed the presence of a sequence signature in the 5'NCR of type 1 HCV strains isolated in South America. This signature is frequent enough in type 1 HCV populations circulating South America to be detected in a phylogenetic tree analysis as a distinct type 1 sub-population. The

  17. Naturally occurring toxic substances in foods.

    PubMed

    Gross, R L; Newberne, P M

    1977-11-01

    Numerous chemical toxins, including normal components of natural foods, e.g., mycotoxins, and toxic chemicals as contaminants such as pesticides, fertilizers, food additives, and preservatives, which are potentially toxic to humans, are discussed. Potential toxicity, the hazard to man represented by most of these chemicals, may be low because the concentration in food may be low. The gap in our knowledge of long-term effects makes rational decisions as to allowable levels of these substances a major problem. On the other hand, nitrosamines and aflatoxins are toxins for which there exists a voluminous literature documentaing extreme biologic activity in experimental animals and indirect evidence for activity in man. Epidemiologic evidence has linked them to human cancers, and because of increasing evidence of long-term human exposure to these toxins either as inadvertent contaminants during food preparation or as the metabolites of mycotic infestation this possible hazard demands intensive investigation. An exhaustive review of data from epidemiologic surveys in various parts of the world, as well as from long-term laboratory studies, represents an impressive start in this direction.

  18. Estrogenic activity of naturally occurring anthocyanidins.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, E; Stopper, H

    2001-01-01

    Anthocyanins, which are natural plant pigments from the flavonoid family, represent substantial constituents of the human diet. Because some other bioflavonoids are known to have estrogenic activity, the aim of this study was to determine the estrogenic activity of the anthocyanine aglycones. Binding affinity to the estrogen receptor-alpha was 10,000- to 20,000-fold lower than that of the endogenous estrogen estradiol. In the estrogen receptor-positive cell line MCF-7, the anthocyanidins induced expression of a reporter gene. The tested anthocyanidins showed estrogen-inducible cell proliferation in two cell lines (MCF-7 and BG-1), but not in the receptor-negative human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. The phytoestrogen-induced cell proliferation could be blocked by addition of the receptor antagonist 4-hydroxytamoxifen. Combination treatments with the endogenous estrogen estradiol resulted in a reduction of estradiol-induced cell proliferation. Overall, the tested anthocyanidins exert estrogenic activity, which might play a role in altering the development of hormone-dependent adverse effects.

  19. Naturally occurring anti-Salmonella agents.

    PubMed

    Kubo, I; Fujita, K

    2001-12-01

    Polygodial and (2E)-hexenal were found to possess antibacterial activity against Salmonella cholerae