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Sample records for nature neuroscience advance

  1. NEUROSCIENCE. Natural light-gated anion channels: A family of microbial rhodopsins for advanced optogenetics.

    PubMed

    Govorunova, Elena G; Sineshchekov, Oleg A; Janz, Roger; Liu, Xiaoqin; Spudich, John L

    2015-08-01

    Light-gated rhodopsin cation channels from chlorophyte algae have transformed neuroscience research through their use as membrane-depolarizing optogenetic tools for targeted photoactivation of neuron firing. Photosuppression of neuronal action potentials has been limited by the lack of equally efficient tools for membrane hyperpolarization. We describe anion channel rhodopsins (ACRs), a family of light-gated anion channels from cryptophyte algae that provide highly sensitive and efficient membrane hyperpolarization and neuronal silencing through light-gated chloride conduction. ACRs strictly conducted anions, completely excluding protons and larger cations, and hyperpolarized the membrane of cultured animal cells with much faster kinetics at less than one-thousandth of the light intensity required by the most efficient currently available optogenetic proteins. Natural ACRs provide optogenetic inhibition tools with unprecedented light sensitivity and temporal precision.

  2. How neuroscience might advance the law.

    PubMed Central

    O'Hara, Erin Ann

    2004-01-01

    This essay discusses the strengths and limitations of the new, growing field of law and biology and suggests that advancements in neuroscience can help to bolster that field. It also briefly discusses some ways that neuroscience can help to improve the workings of law more generally. PMID:15590609

  3. [Social impact of recent advances in neuroscience].

    PubMed

    Mima, Tatsuya

    2009-01-01

    Recent advances in neuroscience opened up new technical possibilities, such as enabling possible human mindreading, neuroenhancement, and application of brain-machine-interface into everyday life, as well as the advent of new powerful psychotropic drugs. In addition to the conventional problems in bioethics, such as obtaining informed consent, neuroscience technology has generated new array of ethical questions. The social impact of advanced brain science or neuroscience and its technological applications is a major topic in bioethics, which is frequently termed as "Neuroethics." Here, we summarize the ethical, legal, and social issues of cutting-edge brain science by analyzing a classic science fiction novel entitled "Flowers for Algernon" authored by Daniel Keyes (1966). Three aspects of social problems faced by brain science are apparent: biomedical risk assessment, issues related to human subjectivity and identity, and socio-cultural value of brain science technology. To understand this last aspect, enhancement-achievement and/or enhancement-treatment dichotomy can prove useful. In addition, we introduced the first national poll results in Japan (n=2,500) on the social impact of brain science. Although half the respondents believed that the advancement of brain science can aid individuals in the future, 56% of respondents suggested the necessity for guidelines or regulation policies mediating brain science. Technological application of brain science in treatment is generally accepted; however, not just for the personal purpose or enhancement of the normal function. In this regard, it is important to hold further discussions including the general public.

  4. Advances in microfluidics-based experimental methods for neuroscience research.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae Woo; Kim, Hyung Joon; Kang, Myeong Woo; Jeon, Noo Li

    2013-02-21

    The application of microfluidics to neuroscience applications has always appealed to neuroscientists because of the capability to control the cellular microenvironment in both a spatial and temporal manner. Recently, there has been rapid development of biological micro-electro-mechanical systems (BioMEMS) for both fundamental and applied neuroscience research. In this review, we will discuss the applications of BioMEMS to various topics in the field of neuroscience. The purpose of this review is to summarise recent advances in the components and design of the BioMEMS devices, in vitro disease models, electrophysiology and neural stem cell research. We envision that microfluidics will play a key role in future neuroscience research, both fundamental and applied research.

  5. Advances in neuroscience and the biological and toxin weapons convention.

    PubMed

    Dando, Malcolm

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the potential threat to the prohibition of the hostile misuse of the life sciences embodied in the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention from the rapid advances in the field of neuroscience. The paper describes how the implications of advances in science and technology are considered at the Five Year Review Conferences of the Convention and how State Parties have developed their appreciations since the First Review Conference in 1980. The ongoing advances in neurosciences are then assessed and their implications for the Convention examined. It is concluded that State Parties should consider a much more regular and systematic review system for such relevant advances in science and technology when they meet at the Seventh Review Conference in late 2011, and that neuroscientists should be much more informed and engaged in these processes of protecting their work from malign misuse.

  6. Advances in Neuroscience and the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention

    PubMed Central

    Dando, Malcolm

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the potential threat to the prohibition of the hostile misuse of the life sciences embodied in the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention from the rapid advances in the field of neuroscience. The paper describes how the implications of advances in science and technology are considered at the Five Year Review Conferences of the Convention and how State Parties have developed their appreciations since the First Review Conference in 1980. The ongoing advances in neurosciences are then assessed and their implications for the Convention examined. It is concluded that State Parties should consider a much more regular and systematic review system for such relevant advances in science and technology when they meet at the Seventh Review Conference in late 2011, and that neuroscientists should be much more informed and engaged in these processes of protecting their work from malign misuse. PMID:21350673

  7. Advances in neuroscience and the biological and toxin weapons convention.

    PubMed

    Dando, Malcolm

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the potential threat to the prohibition of the hostile misuse of the life sciences embodied in the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention from the rapid advances in the field of neuroscience. The paper describes how the implications of advances in science and technology are considered at the Five Year Review Conferences of the Convention and how State Parties have developed their appreciations since the First Review Conference in 1980. The ongoing advances in neurosciences are then assessed and their implications for the Convention examined. It is concluded that State Parties should consider a much more regular and systematic review system for such relevant advances in science and technology when they meet at the Seventh Review Conference in late 2011, and that neuroscientists should be much more informed and engaged in these processes of protecting their work from malign misuse. PMID:21350673

  8. Advances in Light Microscopy for Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Wilt, Brian A.; Burns, Laurie D.; Ho, Eric Tatt Wei; Ghosh, Kunal K.; Mukamel, Eran A.

    2010-01-01

    Since the work of Golgi and Cajal, light microscopy has remained a key tool for neuroscientists to observe cellular properties. Ongoing advances have enabled new experimental capabilities using light to inspect the nervous system across multiple spatial scales, including ultrastructural scales finer than the optical diffraction limit. Other progress permits functional imaging at faster speeds, at greater depths in brain tissue, and over larger tissue volumes than previously possible. Portable, miniaturized fluorescence microscopes now allow brain imaging in freely behaving mice. Complementary progress on animal preparations has enabled imaging in head-restrained behaving animals, as well as time-lapse microscopy studies in the brains of live subjects. Mouse genetic approaches permit mosaic and inducible fluorescence-labeling strategies, whereas intrinsic contrast mechanisms allow in vivo imaging of animals and humans without use of exogenous markers. This review surveys such advances and highlights emerging capabilities of particular interest to neuroscientists. PMID:19555292

  9. Building a functional multiple intelligences theory to advance educational neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Cerruti, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    A key goal of educational neuroscience is to conduct constrained experimental research that is theory-driven and yet also clearly related to educators’ complex set of questions and concerns. However, the fields of education, cognitive psychology, and neuroscience use different levels of description to characterize human ability. An important advance in research in educational neuroscience would be the identification of a cognitive and neurocognitive framework at a level of description relatively intuitive to educators. I argue that the theory of multiple intelligences (MI; Gardner, 1983), a conception of the mind that motivated a past generation of teachers, may provide such an opportunity. I criticize MI for doing little to clarify for teachers a core misunderstanding, specifically that MI was only an anatomical map of the mind but not a functional theory that detailed how the mind actually processes information. In an attempt to build a “functional MI” theory, I integrate into MI basic principles of cognitive and neural functioning, namely interregional neural facilitation and inhibition. In so doing I hope to forge a path toward constrained experimental research that bears upon teachers’ concerns about teaching and learning. PMID:24391613

  10. Building a functional multiple intelligences theory to advance educational neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Cerruti, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    A key goal of educational neuroscience is to conduct constrained experimental research that is theory-driven and yet also clearly related to educators' complex set of questions and concerns. However, the fields of education, cognitive psychology, and neuroscience use different levels of description to characterize human ability. An important advance in research in educational neuroscience would be the identification of a cognitive and neurocognitive framework at a level of description relatively intuitive to educators. I argue that the theory of multiple intelligences (MI; Gardner, 1983), a conception of the mind that motivated a past generation of teachers, may provide such an opportunity. I criticize MI for doing little to clarify for teachers a core misunderstanding, specifically that MI was only an anatomical map of the mind but not a functional theory that detailed how the mind actually processes information. In an attempt to build a "functional MI" theory, I integrate into MI basic principles of cognitive and neural functioning, namely interregional neural facilitation and inhibition. In so doing I hope to forge a path toward constrained experimental research that bears upon teachers' concerns about teaching and learning.

  11. Building a functional multiple intelligences theory to advance educational neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Cerruti, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    A key goal of educational neuroscience is to conduct constrained experimental research that is theory-driven and yet also clearly related to educators' complex set of questions and concerns. However, the fields of education, cognitive psychology, and neuroscience use different levels of description to characterize human ability. An important advance in research in educational neuroscience would be the identification of a cognitive and neurocognitive framework at a level of description relatively intuitive to educators. I argue that the theory of multiple intelligences (MI; Gardner, 1983), a conception of the mind that motivated a past generation of teachers, may provide such an opportunity. I criticize MI for doing little to clarify for teachers a core misunderstanding, specifically that MI was only an anatomical map of the mind but not a functional theory that detailed how the mind actually processes information. In an attempt to build a "functional MI" theory, I integrate into MI basic principles of cognitive and neural functioning, namely interregional neural facilitation and inhibition. In so doing I hope to forge a path toward constrained experimental research that bears upon teachers' concerns about teaching and learning. PMID:24391613

  12. Ten years of Nature Reviews Neuroscience: insights from the highly cited

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Liqun; Rodriguez, Eugenio; Jerbi, Karim; Lachaux, Jean-Philippe; Martinerie, Jacques; Corbetta, Maurizio; Shulman, Gordon L.; Piomelli, Daniele; Turrigiano, Gina G.; Nelson, Sacha B.; Joëls, Marian; de Kloet, E. Ronald; Holsboer, Florian; Amodio, David M.; Frith, Chris D.; Block, Michelle L.; Zecca, Luigi; Hong, Jau-Shyong; Dantzer, Robert; Kelley, Keith W.; Craig, A. D. (Bud)

    2012-01-01

    To celebrate the first 10 years of Nature Reviews Neuroscience, we invited the authors of the most cited article of each year to look back on the state of their field of research at the time of publication and the impact their article has had, and to discuss the questions that might be answered in the next 10 years. This selection of highly cited articles provides interesting snapshots of the progress that has been made in diverse areas of neuroscience. They show the enormous influence of neuroimaging techniques and highlight concepts that have generated substantial interest in the past decade, such as neuroimmunology, social neuroscience and the `network approach' to brain function. These advancements will pave the way for further exciting discoveries that lie ahead. PMID:20852655

  13. Intracortical Brain-Machine Interfaces Advance Sensorimotor Neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Karen E; Chestek, Cynthia A

    2016-01-01

    Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) decode brain activity to control external devices. Over the past two decades, the BMI community has grown tremendously and reached some impressive milestones, including the first human clinical trials using chronically implanted intracortical electrodes. It has also contributed experimental paradigms and important findings to basic neuroscience. In this review, we discuss neuroscience achievements stemming from BMI research, specifically that based upon upper limb prosthetic control with intracortical microelectrodes. We will focus on three main areas: first, we discuss progress in neural coding of reaches in motor cortex, describing recent results linking high dimensional representations of cortical activity to muscle activation. Next, we describe recent findings on learning and plasticity in motor cortex on various time scales. Finally, we discuss how bidirectional BMIs have led to better understanding of somatosensation in and related to motor cortex. PMID:27445663

  14. Intracortical Brain-Machine Interfaces Advance Sensorimotor Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, Karen E.; Chestek, Cynthia A.

    2016-01-01

    Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) decode brain activity to control external devices. Over the past two decades, the BMI community has grown tremendously and reached some impressive milestones, including the first human clinical trials using chronically implanted intracortical electrodes. It has also contributed experimental paradigms and important findings to basic neuroscience. In this review, we discuss neuroscience achievements stemming from BMI research, specifically that based upon upper limb prosthetic control with intracortical microelectrodes. We will focus on three main areas: first, we discuss progress in neural coding of reaches in motor cortex, describing recent results linking high dimensional representations of cortical activity to muscle activation. Next, we describe recent findings on learning and plasticity in motor cortex on various time scales. Finally, we discuss how bidirectional BMIs have led to better understanding of somatosensation in and related to motor cortex. PMID:27445663

  15. [Recent advances in social neuroscience research using macaques].

    PubMed

    Isoda, Masaki

    2013-06-01

    The last decade has seen a surge of interest in the study of social brain functions. Research in this field, called social neuroscience, has been mostly carried out on human subjects by using a functional neuroimaging technique. This is largely because of the fact that humans have sophisticated social abilities and are capable of performing various demanding tasks in a scanner. However, given the limited spatiotemporal resolution inherent in the methodology, a systems neuroscience approach using macaque monkeys may provide a useful platform that promotes the understanding of social brain functions at the cellular level, thereby complementing neuroimaging techniques. Recently, it has been demonstrated to be technically feasible to train macaque monkeys to perform socially oriented behavioral tasks and directly examine cellular activity in their brains. In this paper, we review the literature on this new branch of social neuroscience. Emerging evidence now suggests that diverse aspects of social cognition, such as social valuation, gaze following, joint attention, monitoring of other's behavior, and social comparison are implemented by distributed neuronal networks, including the orbital, lateral, and medial sectors of the prefrontal cortex, premotor cortex, posterior parietal cortex, amygdala, and superior temporal sulcus. Continuing efforts in this research direction could uncover the neural basis whereby primates have become such successful social beings in the animal kingdom.

  16. Nature, Nurture and Neuroscience: Some Future Directions for Historians of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldrich, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Following a short introduction this article is divided into three main sections. The first provides definitions and brief histories of the nature-nurture debate and of neuroscience. The second section shows how in recent decades neuroscientific research has impacted on the debate with particular reference to our understanding of human intelligence…

  17. Cultural Neuroscience: Progress and Promise

    PubMed Central

    Chiao, Joan Y.; Cheon, Bobby K.; Pornpattanangkul, Narun; Mrazek, Alissa J.; Blizinsky, Katherine D.

    2013-01-01

    The nature and origin of human diversity has been a source of intellectual curiosity since the beginning of human history. Contemporary advances in cultural and biological sciences provide unique opportunities for the emerging field of cultural neuroscience. Research in cultural neuroscience examines how cultural and genetic diversity shape the human mind, brain and behavior across multiple time scales: situation, ontogeny and phylogeny. Recent progress in cultural neuroscience provides novel theoretical frameworks for understanding the complex interaction of environmental, cultural and genetic factors in the production of adaptive human behavior. Here, we provide a brief history of cultural neuroscience, theoretical and methodological advances, as well as empirical evidence of the promise of and progress in the field. Implications of this research for population health disparities and public policy are discussed. PMID:23914126

  18. Integrating social neuroscience and social work: innovations for advancing practice-based research.

    PubMed

    Matto, Holly C; Strolin-Goltzman, Jessica

    2010-04-01

    Throughout the social work profession, there is ongoing interest in building a social science agenda that can address the complex practice-based questions faced by social work professionals today. Methodological innovations and unique funding opportunities have already significantly advanced research on social work practice. Still, there is enthusiastic discussion of how to ensure that such capacity development helps the profession move forward in ways that make use of the biological sciences and that facilitate social work-specific contributions to the larger interdisciplinary scientific community. This article describes how the social work profession can make use of biomedical knowledge and technological advances from social neuroscience to inform psychosocial treatment development, and it illustrates an application to social work practice by giving an example of a substance abuse treatment development process built on social neuroscientific research.

  19. Advancing Research on Developmental Plasticity: Integrating the Behavioral Science and Neuroscience of Mental Health. Proceedings (Chantilly, Virginia, May 12-15, 1996).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hann, Della M., Ed.; Huffman, Lynne C., Ed.; Lederhendler, Israel I., Ed.; Meinecke, Douglas, Ed.

    This book represents the proceedings of the Conference on Advancing Research on Developmental Plasticity: Integrating Behavioral Science and the Neuroscience of Mental Health. The conference featured scientific presentations from many leading scientists in behavioral sciences, neuroscience and psychiatry, as well as a poster session for newer…

  20. Great nature's second course: Introduction to the special issue on the behavioral neuroscience of sleep.

    PubMed

    Cronin-Golomb, Alice

    2016-06-01

    Sleep is necessary for normal psychological functioning, and psychological function in turn affects sleep integrity. Recent investigations delineate the relation of sleep to a broad array of processes ranging from learning and memory to emotional reactivity and mood, and use a variety of methodological approaches (imaging, electrophysiological, behavioral) to reveal the complex relations between sleep and the functioning of the awake brain. The articles in this issue advance our fundamental knowledge of the relation of sleep to psychological function. In addition, several of the articles discuss how sleep is affected by or affects human clinical conditions, including insomnia, epilepsy, mild cognitive impairment, bipolar disorder, and cancer. Together, the articles of this special issue highlight recent progress in understanding the behavioral neuroscience of sleep and identify promising areas for future research, including the possibility of sleep-based interventions to improve psychological health. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27214499

  1. Great nature's second course: Introduction to the special issue on the behavioral neuroscience of sleep.

    PubMed

    Cronin-Golomb, Alice

    2016-06-01

    Sleep is necessary for normal psychological functioning, and psychological function in turn affects sleep integrity. Recent investigations delineate the relation of sleep to a broad array of processes ranging from learning and memory to emotional reactivity and mood, and use a variety of methodological approaches (imaging, electrophysiological, behavioral) to reveal the complex relations between sleep and the functioning of the awake brain. The articles in this issue advance our fundamental knowledge of the relation of sleep to psychological function. In addition, several of the articles discuss how sleep is affected by or affects human clinical conditions, including insomnia, epilepsy, mild cognitive impairment, bipolar disorder, and cancer. Together, the articles of this special issue highlight recent progress in understanding the behavioral neuroscience of sleep and identify promising areas for future research, including the possibility of sleep-based interventions to improve psychological health. (PsycINFO Database Record

  2. Advances in the Use of Neuroscience Methods in Research on Learning and Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Smedt, Bert

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive neuroscience offers a series of tools and methodologies that allow researchers in the field of learning and instruction to complement and extend the knowledge they have accumulated through decades of behavioral research. The appropriateness of these methods depends on the research question at hand. Cognitive neuroscience methods allow…

  3. [Neuroethics: ethical issues in neurosciences].

    PubMed

    Crozier, Sophie

    2013-05-01

    Neuroethics is a field of bioethics on the ethical challenges of advances in neuroscience. Born in the early 2000s, neuroethics is considering a number of issues raised by the opportunities created by advances in knowledge and techniques in the field of neurology and psychiatry. In fact, what we learn about brain functions allows us to potentially influence our behavior and our actions, and questions human nature, freedom and individual responsibility, and even the place of morality in our society.

  4. Neuroscience in recession?

    PubMed

    Amara, Susan G; Grillner, Sten; Insel, Tom; Nutt, David; Tsumoto, Tadaharu

    2011-05-01

    As the global financial downturn continues, its impact on neuroscientists - both on an individual level and at the level of their research institute - becomes increasingly apparent. How is the economic crisis affecting neuroscience funding, career prospects, international collaborations and scientists' morale in different parts of the world? Nature Reviews Neuroscience gauged the opinions of a number of leading neuroscientists: the President of the Society for Neuroscience, the President Elect of the British Neuroscience Association, the former President of the Japan Neuroscience Society, the President of the Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and the Director of the US National Institute of Mental Health. Their responses provide interesting and important insights into the regional impact of the global financial downturn, with some causes for optimism for the future of neuroscience research.

  5. Neuroscience in recession?

    PubMed

    Amara, Susan G; Grillner, Sten; Insel, Tom; Nutt, David; Tsumoto, Tadaharu

    2011-05-01

    As the global financial downturn continues, its impact on neuroscientists - both on an individual level and at the level of their research institute - becomes increasingly apparent. How is the economic crisis affecting neuroscience funding, career prospects, international collaborations and scientists' morale in different parts of the world? Nature Reviews Neuroscience gauged the opinions of a number of leading neuroscientists: the President of the Society for Neuroscience, the President Elect of the British Neuroscience Association, the former President of the Japan Neuroscience Society, the President of the Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and the Director of the US National Institute of Mental Health. Their responses provide interesting and important insights into the regional impact of the global financial downturn, with some causes for optimism for the future of neuroscience research. PMID:21505517

  6. A survey of the neuroscience resource landscape: perspectives from the neuroscience information framework.

    PubMed

    Cachat, Jonathan; Bandrowski, Anita; Grethe, Jeffery S; Gupta, Amarnath; Astakhov, Vadim; Imam, Fahim; Larson, Stephen D; Martone, Maryann E

    2012-01-01

    The number of available neuroscience resources (databases, tools, materials, and networks) available via the Web continues to expand, particularly in light of newly implemented data sharing policies required by funding agencies and journals. However, the nature of dense, multifaceted neuroscience data and the design of classic search engine systems make efficient, reliable, and relevant discovery of such resources a significant challenge. This challenge is especially pertinent for online databases, whose dynamic content is largely opaque to contemporary search engines. The Neuroscience Information Framework was initiated to address this problem of finding and utilizing neuroscience-relevant resources. Since its first production release in 2008, NIF has been surveying the resource landscape for the neurosciences, identifying relevant resources and working to make them easily discoverable by the neuroscience community. In this chapter, we provide a survey of the resource landscape for neuroscience: what types of resources are available, how many there are, what they contain, and most importantly, ways in which these resources can be utilized by the research community to advance neuroscience research.

  7. Advances in natural language processing.

    PubMed

    Hirschberg, Julia; Manning, Christopher D

    2015-07-17

    Natural language processing employs computational techniques for the purpose of learning, understanding, and producing human language content. Early computational approaches to language research focused on automating the analysis of the linguistic structure of language and developing basic technologies such as machine translation, speech recognition, and speech synthesis. Today's researchers refine and make use of such tools in real-world applications, creating spoken dialogue systems and speech-to-speech translation engines, mining social media for information about health or finance, and identifying sentiment and emotion toward products and services. We describe successes and challenges in this rapidly advancing area.

  8. Advances in the Natural transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belgacem, F. B. M.; Silambarasan, R.

    2012-11-01

    The literature review of the Natural transform and the existing definitions and connections to the Laplace and Sumudu transforms are discussed in this communication. Along with the complex inverse Natural transform and Heaviside's expansion formula, the relation of Bessel's function to Natural transform (and hence Laplace and Sumudu transforms) are defined.

  9. Interactionist Neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Badre, David; Frank, Michael J; Moore, Christopher I

    2015-12-01

    We argue that bidirectional interaction between animal and human studies is essential for understanding the human brain. The revolution in meso-scale study of circuits in non-human species provides a historical opportunity. However, to fully realize its potential requires integration with human neuroscience. We describe three strategies for successful interactionist neuroscience.

  10. Integrating Social Neuroscience and Social Work: Innovations for Advancing Practice-Based Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matto, Holly C.; Strolin-Goltzman, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    Throughout the social work profession, there is ongoing interest in building a social science agenda that can address the complex practice-based questions faced by social work professionals today. Methodological innovations and unique funding opportunities have already significantly advanced research on social work practice. Still, there is…

  11. Development and design of advanced two-photon microscope used in neuroscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doronin, M. S.; Popov, A. V.

    2016-08-01

    This work represents the real steps to development and design advanced two-photon microscope by efforts of laboratory staff. Self-developed microscopy system provides possibility to service it and modify the structure of microscope depending on highly specialized experimental design and scientific goals. We are presenting here module-based microscopy system which provides an opportunity to looking for new applications of this setup depending on laboratories needs using with galvo and resonant scanners.

  12. Sparse spike coding : applications of neuroscience to the processing of natural images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrinet, Laurent U.

    2008-04-01

    If modern computers are sometimes superior to cognition in some specialized tasks such as playing chess or browsing a large database, they can't beat the efficiency of biological vision for such simple tasks as recognizing a relative or following an object in a complex background. We present in this paper our attempt at outlining the dynamical, parallel and event-based representation for vision in the architecture of the central nervous system. We will illustrate this by showing that in a signal matching framework, a L/LN (linear/non-linear) cascade may efficiently transform a sensory signal into a neural spiking signal and we apply this framework to a model retina. However, this code gets redundant when using an over-complete basis as is necessary for modeling the primary visual cortex: we therefore optimize the efficiency cost by increasing the sparseness of the code. This is implemented by propagating and canceling redundant information using lateral interactions. We compare the eciency of this representation in terms of compression as the reconstruction quality as a function of the coding length. This will correspond to a modification of the Matching Pursuit algorithm where the ArgMax function is optimized for competition, or Competition Optimized Matching Pursuit (COMP). We will particularly focus on bridging neuroscience and image processing and on the advantages of such an interdisciplinary approach.

  13. Promises, promises for neuroscience and law.

    PubMed

    Buckholtz, Joshua W; Faigman, David L

    2014-09-22

    Stunning technical advances in the ability to image the human brain have provoked excited speculation about the application of neuroscience to other fields. The 'promise' of neuroscience for law has been touted with particular enthusiasm. Here, we contend that this promise elides fundamental conceptual issues that limit the usefulness of neuroscience for law. Recommendations for overcoming these challenges are offered.

  14. Introduction to Natural Resources: Advanced Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crummett, Dan

    This guide, which is designed for use with student and teacher guides to a 10-unit secondary-level course in natural resources, contains a series of student supplements and advanced assignment and job sheets that provide students with additional opportunities to explore the following areas of natural resources and conservation education: outdoor…

  15. A physiological perspective on the neuroscience of eating.

    PubMed

    Geary, Nori

    2014-09-01

    I present the thesis that 'being physiological,' i.e., analyzing eating under conditions that do not perturb, or minimally perturb, the organism's endogenous processes, should be a central goal of the neuroscience of eating. I describe my understanding of 'being physiological' based on [i] the central neural-network heuristic of CNS function that traces back to Cajal and Sherrington, [ii] research on one of the simpler problems in the neuroscience of eating, identification of endocrine signals that control eating. In this context I consider natural meals, physiological doses and ranges, and antagonist studies. Several examples involve CCK. Next I describe my view of the cutting edge in the molecular neuroscience of eating as it has evolved from the discovery of leptin signaling through the application of optogenetic and pharmacogenetic methods. Finally I describe some novel approaches that may advance the neuroscience of eating in the foreseeable future. I conclude that [i] the neuroscience of eating may soon be able to discern 'physiological' function in the operation of CNS networks mediating eating, [ii] the neuroscience of eating should capitalize on methods developed in other areas of neuroscience, e.g., improved methods to record and manipulate CNS function in behaving animals, identification of canonical regional circuits, use of population electrophysiology, etc., and [iii] subjective aspects of eating are crucial aspects of eating science, but remain beyond mechanistic understanding.

  16. Neuroscience in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schachter, Ron

    2012-01-01

    For generations, teachers in the early elementary years have urged their young pupils to use their brains. They're still offering the same encouragement, but nowadays they can know even more about what they're talking about. Recent advances in neuroscience--from detailed scans of the brain to ongoing research on teaching methods that increase…

  17. Getting to the Heart of the Brain: Using Cognitive Neuroscience to Explore the Nature of Human Ability and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalbfleisch, M. Layne

    2008-01-01

    This article serves as a primer to make the neuroimaging literature more accessible to the lay reader and to increase the evaluative capability of the educated consumer of cognitive neuroscience. This special issue gives gifted education practitioners and researchers a primary source view of current neuroscience relevant to modern definitions and…

  18. Natural advances in eczema care.

    PubMed

    Eichenfield, Lawrence F; Fowler, Joseph F; Rigel, Darrell S; Taylor, Susan C

    2007-12-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic relapsing dermatitis characterized by increased transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and subjective symptoms of pruritus, inflammation, skin sensitivity, and dryness. AD is a frequent issue for individuals of color, though it may be underrecognized. Therapy for AD is based on reducing pruritus and inflammation, and normalizing skin surface lipids, particularly ceramides. Topical corticosteroids are the gold-standard treatment for controlling disease flares, but a variety of active natural ingredients can be used adjunctively to help control itch, inflammation, and dryness. Oatmeal, particularly avenanthramides, a newly discovered oat fraction, may be of particular value in restoring the cutaneous barrier and reducing symptoms of AD. Feverfew, licorice, and dexpanthenol also have been shown to be effective in the management of inflammation. Licorice, which has some skin-lightening activity, may be helpful in patients with postinflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH). The compromised skin barrier in AD is especially vulnerable to UV radiation exposure. Several new long-lasting photostable sunscreen ingredients provide longer durations of protection with improved cosmetic attributes. PMID:18277662

  19. The unsolved problems of neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Adolphs, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    Some problems in neuroscience are nearly solved. For others, solutions are decades away. The current pace of advances in methods forces us to take stock, to ask where we are going, and what we should research next. PMID:25703689

  20. Recent Advances in Natural Product Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yunzi; Cobb, Ryan E.; Zhao, Huimin

    2014-01-01

    Natural products have been and continue to be the source and inspiration for a substantial fraction of human therapeutics. Although the pharmaceutical industry has largely turned its back on natural product discovery efforts, such efforts continue to flourish in academia with promising results. Natural products have traditionally been identified from a top-down perspective, but more recently genomics- and bioinformatics-guided bottom-up approaches have provided powerful alternative strategies. Here we review recent advances in natural product discovery from both angles, including diverse sampling and innovative culturing and screening approaches, as well as genomics-driven discovery and genetic manipulation techniques for both native and heterologous expression. PMID:25260043

  1. Toward an organizational cognitive neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Butler, Michael J R; Senior, Carl

    2007-11-01

    The research strategy adopted in this article is to connect two different discourses and the ideas, methods, and outputs they contain-these being cognitive neuroscience and organization theory. The main contribution of the article is to present an agenda for the field of organizational cognitive neuroscience. We define what is meant by the term, outline its background, identify why it is important as a new research direction, and then conclude by drawing on Damasio's levels of life regulation as a framework to bind together existing organizational cognitive neuroscience. The article begins by setting the wider debate behind the emergence of organizational cognitive neuroscience by revisiting the nature-nurture debate and uses Pinker to demonstrate that the connection between mind and matter has not been resolved, that new directions are opening up to better understand human nature, and that organizational cognitive neuroscience is one fruitful path forward.

  2. Toward an organizational cognitive neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Butler, Michael J R; Senior, Carl

    2007-11-01

    The research strategy adopted in this article is to connect two different discourses and the ideas, methods, and outputs they contain-these being cognitive neuroscience and organization theory. The main contribution of the article is to present an agenda for the field of organizational cognitive neuroscience. We define what is meant by the term, outline its background, identify why it is important as a new research direction, and then conclude by drawing on Damasio's levels of life regulation as a framework to bind together existing organizational cognitive neuroscience. The article begins by setting the wider debate behind the emergence of organizational cognitive neuroscience by revisiting the nature-nurture debate and uses Pinker to demonstrate that the connection between mind and matter has not been resolved, that new directions are opening up to better understand human nature, and that organizational cognitive neuroscience is one fruitful path forward. PMID:17717101

  3. Population neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Paus, T

    2016-01-01

    Population neuroscience endeavors to identify influences shaping the human brain from conception onwards, thus generating knowledge relevant for building and maintaining brain health throughout the life span. This can be achieved by studying large samples of participants drawn from the general population and evaluated with state-of-the-art tools for assessing (a) genes and their regulation; (b) external and internal environments; and (c) brain properties. This chapter reviews the three elements of population neuroscience (principles, tools, innovations, limitations), and discusses future directions in this field. PMID:27637950

  4. Natural variation in learning rate and memory dynamics in parasitoid wasps: opportunities for converging ecology and neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Hoedjes, Katja M.; Kruidhof, H. Marjolein; Huigens, Martinus E.; Dicke, Marcel; Vet, Louise E. M.; Smid, Hans M.

    2011-01-01

    Although the neural and genetic pathways underlying learning and memory formation seem strikingly similar among species of distant animal phyla, several more subtle inter- and intraspecific differences become evident from studies on model organisms. The true significance of such variation can only be understood when integrating this with information on the ecological relevance. Here, we argue that parasitoid wasps provide an excellent opportunity for multi-disciplinary studies that integrate ultimate and proximate approaches. These insects display interspecific variation in learning rate and memory dynamics that reflects natural variation in a daunting foraging task that largely determines their fitness: finding the inconspicuous hosts to which they will assign their offspring to develop. We review bioassays used for oviposition learning, the ecological factors that are considered to underlie the observed differences in learning rate and memory dynamics, and the opportunities for convergence of ecology and neuroscience that are offered by using parasitoid wasps as model species. We advocate that variation in learning and memory traits has evolved to suit an insect's lifestyle within its ecological niche. PMID:21106587

  5. Optogenetics enlightens neuroscience drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Song, Chenchen; Knöpfel, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    Optogenetics - the use of light and genetics to manipulate and monitor the activities of defined cell populations - has already had a transformative impact on basic neuroscience research. Now, the conceptual and methodological advances associated with optogenetic approaches are providing fresh momentum to neuroscience drug discovery, particularly in areas that are stalled on the concept of 'fixing the brain chemistry'. Optogenetics is beginning to translate and transit into drug discovery in several key domains, including target discovery, high-throughput screening and novel therapeutic approaches to disease states. Here, we discuss the exciting potential of optogenetic technologies to transform neuroscience drug discovery.

  6. The scientist-practitioner model: how do advances in clinical and cognitive neuroscience affect neuropsychology in the courtroom?

    PubMed

    Wood, Rodger Ll

    2009-01-01

    One of the core tenets of the scientist-practitioner model, slightly modified to make it applicable to modern neuropsychology, is that assessment procedures should be developed, applied, and interpreted in a relevant scientific framework. However, over the last 30 years, the general structure of a neuropsychological assessment has changed little, if at all. It has continued to focus mainly on the assessment of cognitive constructs such as intelligence, memory, attention, and perception. During the same time period, cognitive neuroscience has focused on integrative systems, largely controlled by frontal mechanisms, that allow individuals to utilize cognitive functions in an adaptive way, especially in the context of novel situations or when social stimuli are ambiguous. Consequently, the gulf between cognitive neuroscience and the practice of clinical neuropsychology has grown uncomfortably large. This article attempts to review some of the developments in cognitive and affective neuroscience that are relevant to an evaluation of neuropsychological abilities, especially in a medicolegal context, to determine whether conventional neuropsychological methods can be considered fit for purpose.

  7. Integrative neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Evian

    2003-07-01

    A fundamental impediment to an "Integrative Neuroscience" is the sense that scientists building models at one particular scale often see that scale as the epicentre of all brain function. This fragmentation has begun to change in a very distinctive way. Multidisciplinary efforts have provided the impetus to break down the boundaries and encourage a freer exchange of information across disciplines and scales. Despite huge deficits of knowledge, sufficient facts about the brain already exist, for an Integrative Neuroscience to begin to lift us clear of the jungle of detail, and shed light upon the workings of the brain as a system. Integrations of brain theory can be tested using judicious paradigm designs and measurement of temporospatial activity reflected in brain imaging technologies. However, to test realistically these new hypotheses requires consistent findings of the normative variability in very large numbers of control subjects, coupled with high sensitivity and specificity of findings in psychiatric disorders. Most importantly, these findings need to be analyzed and modeled with respect to the fundamental mechanisms underlying these measures. Without this convergence of theory, databases, and methodology (including across scale physiologically realistic numerical models), the clinical utility of brain imaging technologies in psychiatry will be significantly impeded. The examples provided in this paper of integration of theory, temporospatial integration of neuroimaging technologies, and a numerical simulation of brain function, bear testimony to the ongoing conversion of an Integrative Neuroscience from an exemplar status into reality.

  8. Nutritional Cognitive Neuroscience: Innovations for Healthy Brain Aging

    PubMed Central

    Zamroziewicz, Marta K.; Barbey, Aron K.

    2016-01-01

    Nutritional cognitive neuroscience is an emerging interdisciplinary field of research that seeks to understand nutrition's impact on cognition and brain health across the life span. Research in this burgeoning field demonstrates that many aspects of nutrition—from entire diets to specific nutrients—affect brain structure and function, and therefore have profound implications for understanding the nature of healthy brain aging. The aim of this Focused Review is to examine recent advances in nutritional cognitive neuroscience, with an emphasis on methods that enable discovery of nutrient biomarkers that predict healthy brain aging. We propose an integrative framework that calls for the synthesis of research in nutritional epidemiology and cognitive neuroscience, incorporating: (i) methods for the precise characterization of nutritional health based on the analysis of nutrient biomarker patterns (NBPs), along with (ii) modern indices of brain health derived from high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). By integrating cutting-edge techniques from nutritional epidemiology and cognitive neuroscience, nutritional cognitive neuroscience will continue to advance our understanding of the beneficial effects of nutrition on the aging brain and establish effective nutritional interventions to promote healthy brain aging. PMID:27375409

  9. What The Cognitive Neurosciences Mean To Me

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Alfredo

    2007-01-01

    Cognitive Neuroscience is an interdisciplinary area of research that combines measurement of brain activity (mostly by means of neuroimaging) with a simultaneous performance of cognitive tasks by human subjects. These investigations have been successful in the task of connecting the sciences of the brain (Neurosciences) and the sciences of the mind (Cognitive Sciences). Advances on this kind of research provide a map of localization of cognitive functions in the human brain. Do these results help us to understand how mind relates to the brain? In my view, the results obtained by the Cognitive Neurosciences lead to new investigations in the domain of Molecular Neurobiology, aimed at discovering biophysical mechanisms that generate the activity measured by neuroimaging instruments. In this context, I argue that the understanding of how ionic/molecular processes support cognition and consciousness cannot be made by means of the standard reductionist explanations. Knowledge of ionic/molecular mechanisms can contribute to our understanding of the human mind as long as we assume an alternative form of explanation, based on psycho-physical similarities, together with an ontological view of mentality and spirituality as embedded in physical nature (and not outside nature, as frequently assumed in western culture). PMID:22058629

  10. Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engine(s)

    SciTech Connect

    Pike, Edward

    2014-03-31

    The objective of the Cummins ARES program, in partnership with the US Department of Energy (DOE), is to develop advanced natural gas engine technologies that increase engine system efficiency at lower emissions levels while attaining lower cost of ownership. The goals of the project are to demonstrate engine system achieving 50% Brake Thermal Efficiency (BTE) in three phases, 44%, 47% and 50% (starting baseline efficiency at 36% BTE) and 0.1 g/bhp-hr NOx system out emissions (starting baseline NOx emissions at 2 – 4 g/bhp-hr NOx). Primary path towards above goals include high Brake Mean Effective Pressure (BMEP), improved closed cycle efficiency, increased air handling efficiency and optimized engine subsystems. Cummins has successfully demonstrated each of the phases of this program. All targets have been achieved through application of a combined set of advanced base engine technologies and Waste Heat Recovery from Charge Air and Exhaust streams, optimized and validated on the demonstration engine and other large engines. The following architectures were selected for each Phase: Phase 1: Lean Burn Spark Ignited (SI) Key Technologies: High Efficiency Turbocharging, Higher Efficiency Combustion System. In production on the 60/91L engines. Over 500MW of ARES Phase 1 technology has been sold. Phase 2: Lean Burn Technology with Exhaust Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) System Key Technologies: Advanced Ignition System, Combustion Improvement, Integrated Waste Heat Recovery System. Base engine technologies intended for production within 2 to 3 years Phase 3: Lean Burn Technology with Exhaust and Charge Air Waste Heat Recovery System Key Technologies: Lower Friction, New Cylinder Head Designs, Improved Integrated Waste Heat Recovery System. Intended for production within 5 to 6 years Cummins is committed to the launch of next generation of large advanced NG engines based on ARES technology to be commercialized worldwide.

  11. Facilities Planning for the Neuroscience Curriculum at a Primarily Undergraduate Institution: St. Olaf College’s Regents Hall of Natural and Mathematical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Muir, Gary M.; Van Wylen, David G.L.

    2009-01-01

    Planning for new science facilities at your institution is an exciting, challenging, and rewarding endeavor. Perhaps most significantly, it also embodies a rare opportunity to provide new infrastructure to support a programmatic vision for the future. Here, we describe St. Olaf’s new Regents Hall of Natural and Mathematical Sciences, beginning with an outline of the planning/design process, then an overview of the features of the building - with particular regard to the Neuroscience Program facilities - and finally a discussion of lessons learned. We hope our experiences may benefit those engaged in the facilities planning process at their own institutions. PMID:23493647

  12. Seven challenges for neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Markram, Henry

    Summary Although twenty-first century neuroscience is a major scientific enterprise, advances in basic research have not yet translated into benefits for society. In this paper, I outline seven fundamental challenges that need to be overcome. First, neuro-science has to become “big science” – we need big teams with the resources and competences to tackle the big problems. Second, we need to create interlinked sets of data providing a complete picture of single areas of the brain at their different levels of organization with “rungs” linking the descriptions for humans and other species. Such “data ladders” will help us to meet the third challenge – the development of efficient predictive tools, enabling us to drastically increase the information we can extract from expensive experiments. The fourth challenge goes one step further: we have to develop novel hardware and software sufficiently powerful to simulate the brain. In the future, supercomputer-based brain simulation will enable us to make in silico manipulations and recordings, which are currently completely impossible in the lab. The fifth and sixth challenges are translational. On the one hand we need to develop new ways of classifying and simulating brain disease, leading to better diagnosis and more effective drug discovery. On the other, we have to exploit our knowledge to build new brain-inspired technologies, with potentially huge benefits for industry and for society. This leads to the seventh challenge. Neuroscience can indeed deliver huge benefits but we have to be aware of widespread social concern about our work. We need to recognize the fears that exist, lay them to rest, and actively build public support for neuroscience research. We have to set goals for ourselves that the public can recognize and share. And then we have to deliver on our promises. Only in this way, will we receive the support and funding we need. PMID:24139651

  13. Natural language processing and advanced information management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoard, James E.

    1989-01-01

    Integrating diverse information sources and application software in a principled and general manner will require a very capable advanced information management (AIM) system. In particular, such a system will need a comprehensive addressing scheme to locate the material in its docuverse. It will also need a natural language processing (NLP) system of great sophistication. It seems that the NLP system must serve three functions. First, it provides an natural language interface (NLI) for the users. Second, it serves as the core component that understands and makes use of the real-world interpretations (RWIs) contained in the docuverse. Third, it enables the reasoning specialists (RSs) to arrive at conclusions that can be transformed into procedures that will satisfy the users' requests. The best candidate for an intelligent agent that can satisfactorily make use of RSs and transform documents (TDs) appears to be an object oriented data base (OODB). OODBs have, apparently, an inherent capacity to use the large numbers of RSs and TDs that will be required by an AIM system and an inherent capacity to use them in an effective way.

  14. Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engine(s)

    SciTech Connect

    Kwok, Doris; Boucher, Cheryl

    2009-09-30

    Energy independence and fuel savings are hallmarks of the nation’s energy strategy. The advancement of natural gas reciprocating engine power generation technology is critical to the nation’s future. A new engine platform that meets the efficiency, emissions, fuel flexibility, cost and reliability/maintainability targets will enable American manufacturers to have highly competitive products that provide substantial environmental and economic benefits in the US and in international markets. Along with Cummins and Waukesha, Caterpillar participated in a multiyear cooperative agreement with the Department of Energy to create a 50% efficiency natural gas powered reciprocating engine system with a 95% reduction in NOx emissions by the year 2013. This platform developed under this agreement will be a significant contributor to the US energy strategy and will enable gas engine technology to remain a highly competitive choice, meeting customer cost of electricity targets, and regulatory environmental standard. Engine development under the Advanced Reciprocating Engine System (ARES) program was divided into phases, with the ultimate goal being approached in a series of incremental steps. This incremental approach would promote the commercialization of ARES technologies as soon as they emerged from development and would provide a technical and commercial foundation of later-developing technologies. Demonstrations of the Phase I and Phase II technology were completed in 2004 and 2008, respectively. Program tasks in Phase III included component and system development and testing from 2009-2012. Two advanced ignition technology evaluations were investigated under the ARES program: laser ignition and distributed ignition (DIGN). In collaboration with Colorado State University (CSU), a laser ignition system was developed to provide ignition at lean burn and high boost conditions. Much work has been performed in Caterpillar’s DIGN program under the ARES program. This work

  15. The metaphysical lessons of synthetic biology and neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Baertschi, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, I examine some important metaphysical lessons that are often presented as derived from two new scientific disciplines: synthetic biology and neuroscience. I analyse four of them: the nature of life, the existence of a soul (the mind-body problem), personhood, and free will. Many caveats are in order, and each 'advance' or each case should be assessed for itself. I conclude that a main lesson can nevertheless be learned: in conjunction with modern science, neuroscience and synthetic biology allow us to enrich old metaphysical debates, to deepen and even renew them. In particular, it becomes less and less plausible to consider life, mind, person, and agency as non-natural or non-physical entities.

  16. Behaviorism and Neuroscience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Richard F.

    1994-01-01

    The influence of behaviorism's methods and theories on theory and research in the neurosciences is examined, partly in light of John B. Watson's 1913 essay. An attempt is made to reconcile classical behaviorism and modern cognitive psychology and neuroscience. (SLD)

  17. Advanced Liquid Natural Gas Onboard Storage System

    SciTech Connect

    Greg Harper; Charles Powars

    2003-10-31

    Cummins Westport Incorporated (CWI) has designed and developed a liquefied natural gas (LNG) vehicle fuel system that includes a reciprocating pump with the cold end submerged in LNG contained in a vacuum-jacketed tank. This system was tested and analyzed under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced LNG Onboard Storage System (ALOSS) program. The pumped LNG fuel system developed by CWI and tested under the ALOSS program is a high-pressure system designed for application on Class 8 trucks powered by CWI's ISX G engine, which employs high-pressure direct injection (HPDI) technology. A general ALOSS program objective was to demonstrate the feasibility and advantages of a pumped LNG fuel system relative to on-vehicle fuel systems that require the LNG to be ''conditioned'' to saturation pressures that exceeds the engine fuel pressure requirements. These advantages include the capability to store more fuel mass in given-size vehicle and station tanks, and simpler lower-cost LNG refueling stations that do not require conditioning equipment. Pumped LNG vehicle fuel systems are an alternative to conditioned LNG systems for spark-ignition natural gas and port-injection dual-fuel engines (which typically require about 100 psi), and they are required for HPDI engines (which require over 3,000 psi). The ALOSS program demonstrated the feasibility of a pumped LNG vehicle fuel system and the advantages of this design relative to systems that require conditioning the LNG to a saturation pressure exceeding the engine fuel pressure requirement. LNG tanks mounted on test carts and the CWI engineering truck were repeatedly filled with LNG saturated at 20 to 30 psig. More fuel mass was stored in the vehicle tanks as well as the station tank, and no conditioning equipment was required at the fueling station. The ALOSS program also demonstrated the general viability and specific performance of the CWI pumped LNG fuel system design. The system tested as part of this program is

  18. Text Mining for Neuroscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tirupattur, Naveen; Lapish, Christopher C.; Mukhopadhyay, Snehasis

    2011-06-01

    Text mining, sometimes alternately referred to as text analytics, refers to the process of extracting high-quality knowledge from the analysis of textual data. Text mining has wide variety of applications in areas such as biomedical science, news analysis, and homeland security. In this paper, we describe an approach and some relatively small-scale experiments which apply text mining to neuroscience research literature to find novel associations among a diverse set of entities. Neuroscience is a discipline which encompasses an exceptionally wide range of experimental approaches and rapidly growing interest. This combination results in an overwhelmingly large and often diffuse literature which makes a comprehensive synthesis difficult. Understanding the relations or associations among the entities appearing in the literature not only improves the researchers current understanding of recent advances in their field, but also provides an important computational tool to formulate novel hypotheses and thereby assist in scientific discoveries. We describe a methodology to automatically mine the literature and form novel associations through direct analysis of published texts. The method first retrieves a set of documents from databases such as PubMed using a set of relevant domain terms. In the current study these terms yielded a set of documents ranging from 160,909 to 367,214 documents. Each document is then represented in a numerical vector form from which an Association Graph is computed which represents relationships between all pairs of domain terms, based on co-occurrence. Association graphs can then be subjected to various graph theoretic algorithms such as transitive closure and cycle (circuit) detection to derive additional information, and can also be visually presented to a human researcher for understanding. In this paper, we present three relatively small-scale problem-specific case studies to demonstrate that such an approach is very successful in

  19. Neuroscience in the residency curriculum: the psychoanalytic psychotherapy perspective.

    PubMed

    Watson, Brendon O; Michels, Robert

    2014-04-01

    Educators of future psychiatrists tend to teach an array of approaches to the mind and brain, including among them the neurobiologic perspective and the psychoanalytic perspective. These may be considered at opposite ends of many spectra, including the fact that psychoanalysis takes a large-scale and treatment-oriented perspective and has helped countless patients over the years, while neuroscience has tended to be reductionistic, focused on understanding, and has helped very few people. A tension, therefore, exists for the educator in teaching neuroscience: is it wise to spend valuable time and energy teaching this interesting but, thus far, impractical field to future practitioners? Here, we argue that neuroscience is re-orienting itself towards more psychoanalytically relevant questions and is likely, in future years, to give new insights into the nature of basic drives and social relations. We additionally argue for balance on the part of providers in both acknowledging biologic underpinnings for clinical phenomena and yet continuing to take a stance oriented towards appropriate change. Given the burgeoning new focus within neuroscience on topics directly relating to the human internal experience and the novel challenges in both understanding those advances and appropriately using them, we encourage educators to continue to give future psychiatrists the educational foundation they need to follow neuroscientific discoveries into the future.

  20. Recent Advancement in Natural Hyaluronidase Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Scotti, Luciana; Singla, Rajeev Kumar; Ishiki, Hamilton Mitsugu; Mendonca, Francisco Jaime B; da Silva, Marcelo Sobral; Barbosa Filho, José Maria; Scotti, Marcus Tullius

    2016-01-01

    The use of natural products for the treatment of disease is one of the oldest cultures exists. Currently, the research of new drugs using natural products shows a poorly explored biodiversity and a great interest of marketing. The enzymatic inhibition by some natural products is investigated among these is the inhibition of hyaluronidase and the consequent reduction of the degradation of hyaluronic acid. So there is a reduction of inflammation and angiogenesis. This study reports the main natural species studied in inhibiting human hyaluronidase that can be the subject of future research for new drugs. PMID:27086786

  1. The cognitive neuroscience of creativity.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Arne

    2004-12-01

    This article outlines a framework of creativity based on functional neuroanatomy. Recent advances in the field of cognitive neuroscience have identified distinct brain circuits that are involved in specific higher brain functions. To date, these findings have not been applied to research on creativity. It is proposed that there are four basic types of creative insights, each mediated by a distinctive neural circuit. By definition, creative insights occur in consciousness. Given the view that the working memory buffer of the prefrontal cortex holds the content of consciousness, each of the four distinctive neural loops terminates there. When creativity is the result of deliberate control, as opposed to spontaneous generation, the prefrontal cortex also instigates the creative process. Both processing modes, deliberate and spontaneous, can guide neural computation in structures that contribute emotional content and in structures that provide cognitive analysis, yielding the four basic types of creativity. Supportive evidence from psychological, cognitive, and neuroscientific studies is presented and integrated in this article. The new theoretical framework systematizes the interaction between knowledge and creative thinking, and how the nature of this relationship changes as a function of domain and age. Implications for the arts and sciences are briefly discussed.

  2. Neuroethics: a modern context for ethics in neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Illes, Judy; Bird, Stephanie J.

    2006-01-01

    Neuroethics, a recently modernized field at the intersection of bioethics and neuroscience, is founded on centuries of discussion of the ethical issues associated with mind and behavior. Broadly defined, neuroethics is concerned with ethical, legal and social policy implications of neuroscience, and with aspects of neuroscience research itself. Advances in neuroscience increasingly challenge long-held views of the self and the individual's relationship to society. Neuroscience also has led to innovations in clinical medicine that have not only therapeutic but also non-therapeutic dimensions that extend well beyond previously charted boundaries. The exponential increase in cross-disciplinary research, the commercialization of cognitive neuroscience, the impetus for training in ethics, and the increased attention being paid to public understanding of science all illuminate the important role of neuroethics in neuroscience. PMID:16859760

  3. Undergraduate Neuroscience Education: Blueprints for the 21(st) Century.

    PubMed

    Wiertelak, Eric P; Ramirez, Julio J

    2008-01-01

    Paralleling the explosive growth of neuroscientific knowledge over the last two decades, numerous institutions from liberal arts colleges to research universities have either implemented or begun exploring the possibility of implementing undergraduate programs in neuroscience. In 1995, Faculty for Undergraduate Neuroscience (FUN) partnered with Project Kaleidoscope (PKAL) to offer a workshop exploring how undergraduate neuroscience education should proceed. Four blueprints were created to provide direction to the burgeoning interest in developing programs in undergraduate neuroscience education: 1) Neuroscience nested in psychology; 2) Neuroscience nested in biology; 3) Neuroscience as a minor; and 4) Neuroscience as a major. In 2005, FUN again partnered with PKAL to revisit the blueprints in order to align the blueprints with modern pedagogical philosophy and technology. The original four blueprints were modified and updated. One particularly exciting outgrowth of the 2005 workshop was the introduction of a fifth curricular blueprint that strongly emphasizes the integration of the humanities and social sciences into neuroscience: Neuroscience Studies. Because of the interdisciplinary nature of neuroscience, an education in neuroscience will prepare the next generation of students to think critically, synthetically, and creatively as they confront the problems facing humanity in the 21(st) century.

  4. Neurosciences - A neurosurgeon's perspective.

    PubMed

    Abraham, J

    1999-03-01

    The advancements in the field of science in the past fifty years have highlighted the need to integrate all fields of human endeavours and have emphasised interdependency of various disciplines. The separation of humanities, therefore, from neurosciences is a preposterous practical joke on all thinking men. With the human genome project on the anvil, biotechnology is making significant headway holding out promise for organ regeneration. Macro evolution is over, but micro-evolution continues in the brain. Neural Darwinism thus, continues to evolve as long as individual remains conscious and has memory. In the milieu of widely varying internal physiological mechanisms and external stimuli, an alternative theory to preprogrammed directionalism is proposed by three mechanisms namely developmental variation and selection, experiential selections and reentrant signalling. Reentrant signalling reorients and correlates the external inputs leading to psychic development preceding the development of consciousness. The cholinergic and aminergic neuro-modelling systems are well suited to serve as value systems. The main achievement of consciousness is to bring together the many categorizations involved in perceptions into a SCENE. Another part of evolution involved capacity of reentrant signalling to be guided by a value system where it is provided with a lot of choices. With 10(13) neurons and 10(16) connections, freedom of choice may manifest into a 'Buddha' or a 'Hitler'. As part of the evolutionary process, it was interesting how capacity to categorize the need to worship by referring to environment outside evolved into a search within our minds. As the next stage of evolution, neuroscience may, thus, serve as the next gateway to understanding the mind and soul. PMID:10339700

  5. Bio-inspired nano tools for neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Das, Suradip; Carnicer-Lombarte, Alejandro; Fawcett, James W; Bora, Utpal

    2016-07-01

    Research and treatment in the nervous system is challenged by many physiological barriers posing a major hurdle for neurologists. The CNS is protected by a formidable blood brain barrier (BBB) which limits surgical, therapeutic and diagnostic interventions. The hostile environment created by reactive astrocytes in the CNS along with the limited regeneration capacity of the PNS makes functional recovery after tissue damage difficult and inefficient. Nanomaterials have the unique ability to interface with neural tissue in the nano-scale and are capable of influencing the function of a single neuron. The ability of nanoparticles to transcend the BBB through surface modifications has been exploited in various neuro-imaging techniques and for targeted drug delivery. The tunable topography of nanofibers provides accurate spatio-temporal guidance to regenerating axons. This review is an attempt to comprehend the progress in understanding the obstacles posed by the complex physiology of the nervous system and the innovations in design and fabrication of advanced nanomaterials drawing inspiration from natural phenomenon. We also discuss the development of nanomaterials for use in Neuro-diagnostics, Neuro-therapy and the fabrication of advanced nano-devices for use in opto-electronic and ultrasensitive electrophysiological applications. The energy efficient and parallel computing ability of the human brain has inspired the design of advanced nanotechnology based computational systems. However, extensive use of nanomaterials in neuroscience also raises serious toxicity issues as well as ethical concerns regarding nano implants in the brain. In conclusion we summarize these challenges and provide an insight into the huge potential of nanotechnology platforms in neuroscience.

  6. Implementation of an Integrated Neuroscience Unit.

    PubMed

    Breslin, Rory P; Franker, Lauren; Sterchi, Suzanne; Sani, Sepehr

    2016-02-01

    Many challenges exist in today's health care delivery system, and much focus and research are invested into ways to improve care with cost-effective measures. Specialty-specific dedicated care units are one solution for inpatient hospital care because they improve outcomes and decrease mortality. The neuroscience population encompasses a wide variety of diagnoses of spinal to cranial issues with a wide spectrum of needs varying from one patient to the next. Neuroscience care must be patient-specific during the course of frequent acuity changes, and one way to achieve this is through a neuroscience-focused unit. Few resources are available on how to implement this type of unit. Advanced practice nurses are committed to providing high-quality, safe, and cost-effective care and are instrumental in the success of instituting a unit dedicated to the care of neuroscience patients. PMID:26909452

  7. A neuroscience agenda for counseling psychology research.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Oscar F; Perrone-McGovern, Kristin M

    2014-10-01

    Recent advances in the field of neuroscience have dramatically changed our understanding of brain-behavior relationships. In this article, we illustrate how neuroscience can provide a conceptual and methodological framework to understand our clients within a transdiagnostic developmental perspective. We provide directions for integrating neuroscience into future process and outcome research. We present examples on how neuroscience can be integrated into researching the effects of contextual counseling interventions. We posit that interpersonal and environmental factors, such as neurotoxic factors (e.g., emotional neglect, stress), positive neurodevelopmental factors (e.g., nurturing and caring, environmental enrichment), and therapeutic interventions influence psychological processes (executive control, behavioral flexibility, reinforcement learning and approach motivation, emotional expression and regulation, self-representation and theory of mind). These psychological processes influence brain networks (attention, motivational, emotional regulation, social cognition), which influence cognitive, social, emotional, identity, and vocational development. PMID:25285708

  8. A neuroscience agenda for counseling psychology research.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Oscar F; Perrone-McGovern, Kristin M

    2014-10-01

    Recent advances in the field of neuroscience have dramatically changed our understanding of brain-behavior relationships. In this article, we illustrate how neuroscience can provide a conceptual and methodological framework to understand our clients within a transdiagnostic developmental perspective. We provide directions for integrating neuroscience into future process and outcome research. We present examples on how neuroscience can be integrated into researching the effects of contextual counseling interventions. We posit that interpersonal and environmental factors, such as neurotoxic factors (e.g., emotional neglect, stress), positive neurodevelopmental factors (e.g., nurturing and caring, environmental enrichment), and therapeutic interventions influence psychological processes (executive control, behavioral flexibility, reinforcement learning and approach motivation, emotional expression and regulation, self-representation and theory of mind). These psychological processes influence brain networks (attention, motivational, emotional regulation, social cognition), which influence cognitive, social, emotional, identity, and vocational development.

  9. The Neuroscience of Consumer Choice

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Ming; Yoon, Carolyn

    2015-01-01

    We review progress and challenges relating to scientific and applied goals of the nascent field of consumer neuroscience. Scientifically, substantial progress has been made in understanding the neurobiology of choice processes. Further advances, however, require researchers to begin clarifying the set of developmental and cognitive processes that shape and constrain choices. First, despite the centrality of preferences in theories of consumer choice, we still know little about where preferences come from and the underlying developmental processes. Second, the role of attention and memory processes in consumer choice remains poorly understood, despite importance ascribed to them in interpreting data from the field. The applied goal of consumer neuroscience concerns our ability to translate this understanding to augment prediction at the population level. Although the use of neuroscientific data for market-level predictions remains speculative, there is growing evidence of superiority in specific cases over existing market research techniques. PMID:26665152

  10. Neuroscience of meditation.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Vinod D

    2006-11-16

    Dhyana-Yoga is a Sanskrit word for the ancient discipline of meditation, as a means to Samadhi or enlightenment. Samadhi is a self-absorptive, adaptive state with realization of one's being in harmony with reality. It is unitive, undifferentiated, reality-consciousness, an essential being, which can only be experienced by spontaneous intuition and self-understanding. Modern neuroscience can help us to better understand Dhyana-Yoga. This article discusses topics including brain-mind-reality, consciousness, attention, emotional intelligence, sense of self, meditative mind, and meditative brain. A new hypothesis is proposed for a better understanding of the meditative mind. Meditation is an art of being serene and alert in the present moment, instead of constantly struggling to change or to become. It is an art of efficient management of attentional energy with total engagement (poornata, presence, mindfulness) or disengagement (shunyata, silence, emptiness). In both states, there is an experience of spontaneous unity with no sense of situational interactive self or personal time. It is a simultaneous, participatory consciousness rather than a dualistic, sequential attentiveness. There is a natural sense of well being with self-understanding, spontaneous joy, serenity, freedom, and self-fulfillment. It is where the ultimate pursuit of happiness and the search for meaning of life resolve. One realizes the truth of one's harmonious being in nature and nature in oneself. It is being alive at its fullest, when each conscious moment becomes a dynamic process of discovery and continuous learning of the ever-new unfolding reality.

  11. Educational Neuroscience: Neuroethical Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lalancette, Helene; Campbell, Stephen R.

    2012-01-01

    Research design and methods in educational neuroscience involve using neuroscientific tools such as brain image technologies to investigate cognitive functions and inform educational practices. The ethical challenges raised by research in social neuroscience have become the focus of neuroethics, a sub-discipline of bioethics. More specifically…

  12. Addressing Literacy through Neuroscience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Steve; Tallal, Paula A.

    2006-01-01

    Brain is the source of all human thoughts, feelings and emotions. Now the mysteries of the human brain are rapidly being elucidated by neuroscience research. For more than 150 years, neuroscience has held that most of the brain's functionality develops during critical periods in early childhood and that once past these critical periods, the window…

  13. Applying neuroscience to architecture.

    PubMed

    Eberhard, John P

    2009-06-25

    Architectural practice and neuroscience research use our brains and minds in much the same way. However, the link between neuroscience knowledge and architectural design--with rare exceptions--has yet to be made. The concept of linking these two fields is a challenge worth considering.

  14. The role of neuroscience within psychology: A call for inclusiveness over exclusiveness.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Seth J; Lilienfeld, Scott O; Meca, Alan; Sauvigné, Katheryn C

    2016-01-01

    In the present article, we appraise the increasingly prominent role of neuroscience within psychology and offer cautions and recommendations regarding the future of psychology as a field. We contend that the conflict between eliminative reductionism (the belief that the neural level of analysis will eventually render the psychological level of analysis superfluous) and emergent properties (the assumption that higher-order mental functions are not directly reducible to neural processes) is critical if we are to identify the optimal role for neuroscience within psychology. We argue for an interdisciplinary future for psychology in which the considerable strengths of neuroscience complement and extend the strengths of other subfields of psychology. For this goal to be achieved, a balance must be struck between an increasing focus on neuroscience and the continued importance of other areas of psychology. We discuss the implications of the growing prominence of neuroscience for the broader profession of psychology, especially with respect to funding agency priorities, hiring practices in psychology departments, methodological rigor, and the training of future generations of students. We conclude with recommendations for advancing psychology as both a social science and a natural science. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26766765

  15. A Model for Bridging the Gap between Neuroscience and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tommerdahl, Jodi

    2010-01-01

    As the brain sciences make advances in our understanding of how the human brain functions, many educators are looking to findings from the neurosciences to inform classroom teaching methodologies. This paper takes the view that the neurosciences are an excellent source of knowledge regarding learning processes, but also provides a warning…

  16. Implications of Affective and Social Neuroscience for Educational Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Immordino-Yang, Mary Helen

    2011-01-01

    The past decade has seen major advances in cognitive, affective and social neuroscience that have the potential to revolutionize educational theories about learning. The importance of emotion and social learning has long been recognized in education, but due to technological limitations in neuroscience research techniques, treatment of these…

  17. Towards an Understanding of Neuroscience for Science Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Advances in neuroscience have brought new insights to the development of cognitive functions. These data are of considerable interest to educators concerned with how students learn. This review documents some of the recent findings in neuroscience, which is richer in describing cognitive functions than affective aspects of learning. A brief…

  18. Cognitive neuroscience: the troubled marriage of cognitive science and neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Richard P; Shallice, Tim

    2010-07-01

    We discuss the development of cognitive neuroscience in terms of the tension between the greater sophistication in cognitive concepts and methods of the cognitive sciences and the increasing power of more standard biological approaches to understanding brain structure and function. There have been major technological developments in brain imaging and advances in simulation, but there have also been shifts in emphasis, with topics such as thinking, consciousness, and social cognition becoming fashionable within the brain sciences. The discipline has great promise in terms of applications to mental health and education, provided it does not abandon the cognitive perspective and succumb to reductionism. PMID:25163868

  19. Current emotion research in cultural neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Chiao, Joan Y.

    2013-01-01

    Classical theories of emotion have long debated the extent to which human emotion is a universal or culturally-constructed experience. Recent advances in emotion research in cultural neuroscience highlight several aspects of emotional generation and experience that are both phylogenetically conserved as well as constructed within human cultural contexts. This review highlights theories and methods from cultural neuroscience that examine how cultural and biological processes shape emotional generation, experience and regulation across multiple time scales. Recent advances in the neurobiological basis of culture-bound syndromes, such as Hwa-Byung (fire illness), provide further novel insights into emotion and mental health across cultures. Implications of emotion research in cultural neuroscience for population health disparities in psychopathology and global mental health will be discussed. PMID:26346827

  20. Text mining neuroscience journal articles to populate neuroscience databases.

    PubMed

    Crasto, Chiquito J; Marenco, Luis N; Migliore, Michele; Mao, Buqing; Nadkarni, Prakash M; Miller, Perry; Shepherd, Gordon M

    2003-01-01

    We have developed a program NeuroText to populate the neuroscience databases in SenseLab (http://senselab.med.yale.edu/senselab) by mining the natural language text of neuroscience articles. NeuroText uses a two-step approach to identify relevant articles. The first step (pre-processing), aimed at 100% sensitivity, identifies abstracts containing database keywords. In the second step, potentially relevant abstracts identified in the first step are processed for specificity dictated by database architecture, and neuroscience, lexical and semantic contexts. NeuroText results were presented to the experts for validation using a dynamically generated interface that also allows expert-validated articles to be automatically deposited into the databases. Of the test set of 912 articles, 735 were rejected at the pre-processing step. For the remaining articles, the accuracy of predicting database-relevant articles was 85%. Twenty-two articles were erroneously identified. NeuroText deferred decisions on 29 articles to the expert. A comparison of NeuroText results versus the experts' analyses revealed that the program failed to correctly identify articles' relevance due to concepts that did not yet exist in the knowledgebase or due to vaguely presented information in the abstracts. NeuroText uses two "evolution" techniques (supervised and unsupervised) that play an important role in the continual improvement of the retrieval results. Software that uses the NeuroText approach can facilitate the creation of curated, special-interest, bibliography databases.

  1. All the Vice Chancellor’s Neuroscientists: Unity to Achieve Success in Solving Malaysia’s Diseases via Upgrading Clinical Services and Neuroscience Research

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Jafri Malin

    2013-01-01

    President Obama of the United States of America announced this April the Brain Research Through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN for short) investment, while Professor Henry Markram’s team based in the European Union will spend over a billion euros on the Human Brain Project, breaking through the unknowns in the fifth science of the decade: Neuroscience. Malaysia's growth in the same field needs to be augmented, and thus the Universiti Sains Malaysia’s vision is to excel in the field of clinical brain sciences, mind sciences and neurosciences. This will naturally bring up the level of research in the country simultaneously. Thus, a center was recently established to coordinate this venture. The four-year Integrated Neuroscience Program established recently will be a sustainable source of neuroscientists for the country. We hope to establish ourselves by 2020 as a global university with neurosciences research as an important flagship. PMID:23966818

  2. Philosophy, Neuroscience and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, John

    2015-01-01

    This short note takes two quotations from Snooks' recent editorial on neuroeducation and teases out some further details on the philosophy of neuroscience and neurophilosophy along with consideration of the implications of both for philosophy of education.

  3. Opera and neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Lorusso, Lorenzo; Franchini, Antonia Francesca; Porro, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Opera is the most complete form of theatrical representation, characterized by musical accompaniment, both instrumental and vocal. It has played an important role in sociocultural spheres, affecting the various social strata and reflecting customs and ideas in different centuries. Composers have created pieces that have also shown the development of medicine. Since the birth of opera in seventeenth century in Italy, neuroscience has played an important role in influencing the representation of madness and neurological aspects. From the Folly of the Renaissance, a path toward a representation of madness was developed, initially linked to the myths of classical antiquity. In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, madness was represented as comical or funny, of a loving nature and influenced by the spread of the Commedia dell'Arte (Comedy of Art). In the nineteenth century, with the rise of the first scientific theories of the mind, insanity took more precise connotations and was separated from other psychiatric and neurological diseases. The operas of the twentieth century depicted psychiatric and neurological diseases, taking into account newer medical and scientific discoveries.

  4. Opera and neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Lorusso, Lorenzo; Franchini, Antonia Francesca; Porro, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Opera is the most complete form of theatrical representation, characterized by musical accompaniment, both instrumental and vocal. It has played an important role in sociocultural spheres, affecting the various social strata and reflecting customs and ideas in different centuries. Composers have created pieces that have also shown the development of medicine. Since the birth of opera in seventeenth century in Italy, neuroscience has played an important role in influencing the representation of madness and neurological aspects. From the Folly of the Renaissance, a path toward a representation of madness was developed, initially linked to the myths of classical antiquity. In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, madness was represented as comical or funny, of a loving nature and influenced by the spread of the Commedia dell'Arte (Comedy of Art). In the nineteenth century, with the rise of the first scientific theories of the mind, insanity took more precise connotations and was separated from other psychiatric and neurological diseases. The operas of the twentieth century depicted psychiatric and neurological diseases, taking into account newer medical and scientific discoveries. PMID:25684301

  5. Telemedicine in neurosciences.

    PubMed

    Ganapathy, K; Ravindra, Aditi

    2008-01-01

    It is well known that in most countries, there is a perennial shortage of specialists in neurosciences. Even the few available neurologists and neurosurgeons are clustered in the metros and urban areas. Those living in suburban and rural areas have limited or no access to neurological care. At the same time there has been an unprecedented growth in ICT (Information and Communication Technology). In this article, the authors review the increasing use of telemedicine in neurosciences.

  6. Natural product-based nanomedicine: recent advances and issues

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, Rebekah; Wu, Ling; Zhang, Chenming; Davis, Richey M; Xu, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Natural products have been used in medicine for many years. Many top-selling pharmaceuticals are natural compounds or their derivatives. These plant- or microorganism-derived compounds have shown potential as therapeutic agents against cancer, microbial infection, inflammation, and other disease conditions. However, their success in clinical trials has been less impressive, partly due to the compounds’ low bioavailability. The incorporation of nanoparticles into a delivery system for natural products would be a major advance in the efforts to increase their therapeutic effects. Recently, advances have been made showing that nanoparticles can significantly increase the bioavailability of natural products both in vitro and in vivo. Nanotechnology has demonstrated its capability to manipulate particles in order to target specific areas of the body and control the release of drugs. Although there are many benefits to applying nanotechnology for better delivery of natural products, it is not without issues. Drug targeting remains a challenge and potential nanoparticle toxicity needs to be further investigated, especially if these systems are to be used to treat chronic human diseases. This review aims to summarize recent progress in several key areas relevant to natural products in nanoparticle delivery systems for biomedical applications. PMID:26451111

  7. Supramolecular polymer adhesives: advanced materials inspired by nature.

    PubMed

    Heinzmann, Christian; Weder, Christoph; de Espinosa, Lucas Montero

    2016-01-21

    Due to their dynamic, stimuli-responsive nature, non-covalent interactions represent versatile design elements that can be found in nature in many molecular processes or materials, where adaptive behavior or reversible connectivity is required. Examples include molecular recognition processes, which trigger biological responses or cell-adhesion to surfaces, and a broad range of animal secreted adhesives with environment-dependent properties. Such advanced functionalities have inspired researchers to employ similar design approaches for the development of synthetic polymers with stimuli-responsive properties. The utilization of non-covalent interactions for the design of adhesives with advanced functionalities such as stimuli responsiveness, bonding and debonding on demand capability, surface selectivity or recyclability is a rapidly emerging subset of this field, which is summarized in this review. PMID:26203784

  8. Principles of Learning, Implications for Teaching: A Cognitive Neuroscience Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goswami, Usha

    2008-01-01

    Cognitive neuroscience aims to improve our understanding of aspects of human learning and performance by combining data acquired with the new brain imaging technologies with data acquired in cognitive psychology paradigms. Both neuroscience and psychology use the philosophical assumptions underpinning the natural sciences, namely the scientific…

  9. The nature of advanced reasoning and science instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Anton E.

    Although the development of reasoning is recognized as an important goal of science instruction, its nature remains somewhat of a mystery. This article discusses two key questions: Does formal thought constitute a structured whole? And what role does propositional logic play in advanced reasoning? Aspects of a model of advanced reasoning are presented in which hypothesis generation and testing are viewed as central processes in intellectual development. It is argued that a number of important advanced reasoning schemata are linked by these processes and should be made a part of science instruction designed to improve students' reasoning abilities.Concerning students' development and use of formal reasoning, Linn (1982) calls for research into practical issues such as the roles of task-specific knowledge and individual differences in performance, roles not emphasized by Piaget in his theory and research. From a science teacher's point of view, this is good advice. Accordingly, this article will expand upon some of the issues raised by Linn in a discussion of the nature of advanced reasoning which attempts to reconcile the apparent contradiction between students' differential use of advanced reasoning schemata in varying contexts with the notion of a general stage of formal thought. Two key questions will be discussed: Does formal thought constitute a structured whole? And what role does propositional logic play in advanced reasoning? The underlying assumption of the present discussion is that, among other things, science instruction should concern itself with the improvement of students' reasoning abilities (cf. Arons, 1976; Arons & Karplus, 1976; Bady, 1979; Bauman, 1976; Educational Policies Commission, 1966; Herron, 1978; Karplus, 1979; Kohlberg & Mayer, 1972; Moshman & Thompson, 1981; Lawson, 1979; Levine & linn, 1977; Pallrand, 1977; Renner & Lawson, 1973; Sayre & Ball, 1975; Schneider & Renner, 1980; Wollman, 1978). The questions are of interest because to

  10. Translating Developmental Neuroscience to Substance Use Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Riggs, Nathaniel R.

    2015-01-01

    Several preventive interventions have demonstrated efficacy in reducing substance use. However, opportunities exist to further improve prevention approaches. The application of recent advances in developmental neuroscience can inform the design, implementation, and evaluation of substance use prevention programs. This paper first briefly describes the developmental integration of the prefrontal cortex with emotion and motivation centers of the brain, and the implications of this process for substance use vulnerability. Discussed next are specific examples of how developmental neuroscience can inform prevention timing, development, and evaluation. Contextual considerations are then suggested including a critical role for schools in substance misuse prevention. Finally, current theoretical and methodological challenges to the translation of developmental neuroscience to substance use prevention are discussed. PMID:26236576

  11. Mapping the semantic structure of cognitive neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Beam, Elizabeth; Appelbaum, L Gregory; Jack, Jordynn; Moody, James; Huettel, Scott A

    2014-09-01

    Cognitive neuroscience, as a discipline, links the biological systems studied by neuroscience to the processing constructs studied by psychology. By mapping these relations throughout the literature of cognitive neuroscience, we visualize the semantic structure of the discipline and point to directions for future research that will advance its integrative goal. For this purpose, network text analyses were applied to an exhaustive corpus of abstracts collected from five major journals over a 30-month period, including every study that used fMRI to investigate psychological processes. From this, we generate network maps that illustrate the relationships among psychological and anatomical terms, along with centrality statistics that guide inferences about network structure. Three terms--prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and anterior cingulate cortex--dominate the network structure with their high frequency in the literature and the density of their connections with other neuroanatomical terms. From network statistics, we identify terms that are understudied compared with their importance in the network (e.g., insula and thalamus), are underspecified in the language of the discipline (e.g., terms associated with executive function), or are imperfectly integrated with other concepts (e.g., subdisciplines like decision neuroscience that are disconnected from the main network). Taking these results as the basis for prescriptive recommendations, we conclude that semantic analyses provide useful guidance for cognitive neuroscience as a discipline, both by illustrating systematic biases in the conduct and presentation of research and by identifying directions that may be most productive for future research.

  12. Teaching Neuroscience at a Religious Institution: Pedagogical Models for Handling Neuroscience and Theology

    PubMed Central

    Struthers, William M.

    2003-01-01

    The interdisciplinary nature of neuroscience makes it one of the most fascinating and complex subjects to address in the classroom. This can be compounded, however, by the addition of theology or a faith-related context at a religious institution (RI). The addition of theology and faith can enrich student appreciation and understanding of neuroscience and stimulate discussion in the classroom. This provides a practical way to make the course content relevant to students who may see neuroscience as antagonistic towards their faith. Over the past century questions of human experience and personhood that were long held to be under the authority of religion now can be addressed from findings in neuroscience. While there has been debate on a variety of topics which range from positions on origins to ethical questions about the nature of research (i.e. stem cells, cloning), it is important that teaching faculty at RIs be prepared to deal with the hard questions faced by students of faith. Recommendations for faculty are given including: self assessment of personal position on matters of faith and science, framing a number of models for the integration of neuroscience and theology, ‘Worldviews’, and mentoring students who are struggling with reconciling their faith with neuroscience. While this paper is designed for teachers at RIs, it may also aid teaching faculty at other institutions who may benefit from an awareness of this framework and aid in teaching students of faith in a secular setting. PMID:23741199

  13. [Neurosciences in Bordeaux].

    PubMed

    Le Moal, Michel; Battin, Jacques; Bioulac, Bernard; Bourgeois, Marc Louis; Henry, Patrick; Vital, Claude; Vincent, Jean-Didier

    2008-04-01

    The Bordeaux Neuroscience Institute brings together all the disciplines that constitute the clinical and experimental neurosciences. Outside of the Paris region, the Institute represents the largest community of researchers working on the nervous system. The aim of this brief historical piece is to describe how neuroscientists in Bordeaux are the heirs to a long neuropsychiatric tradition established by pioneers of national and international renown. This tradition has been maintained, without interruption, through many generations. The careers and scientific work of these great neurologists and psychiatrists are briefly evoked, and particularly those of A. Pitres, E. Régis and E. Azam in the 19th century; and, in the 20th century, J. Abadie, H. Verger and R. Cruchet. The determining influence of P Delmas-Marsalet (1898-1977), Professor of Neuropsychiatry, on the development of modern neurosciences in Bordeaux is recalled through his work, his teachings, and his numerous students.

  14. Robotics and neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Floreano, Dario; Ijspeert, Auke Jan; Schaal, Stefan

    2014-09-22

    In the attempt to build adaptive and intelligent machines, roboticists have looked at neuroscience for more than half a century as a source of inspiration for perception and control. More recently, neuroscientists have resorted to robots for testing hypotheses and validating models of biological nervous systems. Here, we give an overview of the work at the intersection of robotics and neuroscience and highlight the most promising approaches and areas where interactions between the two fields have generated significant new insights. We articulate the work in three sections, invertebrate, vertebrate and primate neuroscience. We argue that robots generate valuable insight into the function of nervous systems, which is intimately linked to behaviour and embodiment, and that brain-inspired algorithms and devices give robots life-like capabilities.

  15. Neuromarketing and consumer neuroscience: contributions to neurology

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background ‘Neuromarketing’ is a term that has often been used in the media in recent years. These public discussions have generally centered around potential ethical aspects and the public fear of negative consequences for society in general, and consumers in particular. However, positive contributions to the scientific discourse from developing a biological model that tries to explain context-situated human behavior such as consumption have often been neglected. We argue for a differentiated terminology, naming commercial applications of neuroscientific methods ‘neuromarketing’ and scientific ones ‘consumer neuroscience’. While marketing scholars have eagerly integrated neuroscientific evidence into their theoretical framework, neurology has only recently started to draw its attention to the results of consumer neuroscience. Discussion In this paper we address key research topics of consumer neuroscience that we think are of interest for neurologists; namely the reward system, trust and ethical issues. We argue that there are overlapping research topics in neurology and consumer neuroscience where both sides can profit from collaboration. Further, neurologists joining the public discussion of ethical issues surrounding neuromarketing and consumer neuroscience could contribute standards and experience gained in clinical research. Summary We identify the following areas where consumer neuroscience could contribute to the field of neurology: First, studies using game paradigms could help to gain further insights into the underlying pathophysiology of pathological gambling in Parkinson’s disease, frontotemporal dementia, epilepsy, and Huntington’s disease. Second, we identify compulsive buying as a common interest in neurology and consumer neuroscience. Paradigms commonly used in consumer neuroscience could be applied to patients suffering from Parkinson’s disease and frontotemporal dementia to advance knowledge of this important behavioral symptom

  16. Magic and cognitive neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Quiroga, Rodrigo Quian

    2016-05-23

    In recent years, neuroscientists have shown an increasing interest in magic. One reason for this is the parallels that can be drawn between concepts that have long been discussed in magic theory, particularly misdirection, and those that are routinely studied in cognitive neuroscience, such as attention and, as argued in this essay, different forms of memory. A second and perhaps more attractive justification for this growing interest is that magic tricks offer novel experimental approaches to cognitive neuroscience. In fact, magicians continuously demonstrate in very engaging ways one of the most basic principles of brain function - how the brain constructs a subjective reality using assumptions based on relatively little and ambiguous information.

  17. Interoperability of Neuroscience Modeling Software

    PubMed Central

    Cannon, Robert C.; Gewaltig, Marc-Oliver; Gleeson, Padraig; Bhalla, Upinder S.; Cornelis, Hugo; Hines, Michael L.; Howell, Fredrick W.; Muller, Eilif; Stiles, Joel R.; Wils, Stefan; De Schutter, Erik

    2009-01-01

    Neuroscience increasingly uses computational models to assist in the exploration and interpretation of complex phenomena. As a result, considerable effort is invested in the development of software tools and technologies for numerical simulations and for the creation and publication of models. The diversity of related tools leads to the duplication of effort and hinders model reuse. Development practices and technologies that support interoperability between software systems therefore play an important role in making the modeling process more efficient and in ensuring that published models can be reliably and easily reused. Various forms of interoperability are possible including the development of portable model description standards, the adoption of common simulation languages or the use of standardized middleware. Each of these approaches finds applications within the broad range of current modeling activity. However more effort is required in many areas to enable new scientific questions to be addressed. Here we present the conclusions of the “Neuro-IT Interoperability of Simulators” workshop, held at the 11th computational neuroscience meeting in Edinburgh (July 19-20 2006; http://www.cnsorg.org). We assess the current state of interoperability of neural simulation software and explore the future directions that will enable the field to advance. PMID:17873374

  18. Natural polyphenols based new therapeutic avenues for advanced biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Megha

    2015-01-01

    Polyphenols are naturally occurring, synthetic or semisynthetic organic compounds that offer a vast array of advanced biomedical applications. The mostly researched polyphenolic compounds are resveratrol and flavanols, notably (-)-epicatechin. The ongoing research on clinically important resveratrol and flavanols has revealed their potentials as extremely efficient drug agents that can be leveraged for new therapeutic designs for combating stroke related injuries, cancer and renal failures. Here, we have highlighted recent developments in this area with an emphasis on the biomedical applications of polyphenols. Also, a perspective on the future research directions has been discussed. We believe that this review would facilitate further research and development of polyphenols as a therapeutic avenue in medical science.

  19. From Cognitive to Educational Neuroscience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dündar, Sefa; Ayvaz, Ülkü

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, several theoretical discussions as to the relationship between neuroscience and education have been held. Researchers have started to have cooperation over neuroscience and the interdisciplinary researches in which education is included. It was found that there were interactions between cognitive neuroscience and educational…

  20. Linking Neuroscience and Psychoanalysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habicht, Manuela H.

    This review discusses the relationship between neuroscience and psychoanalysis and introduces a new scientific method called neuro-psychoanalysis, a combination of the two phenomena. A significant difference between the two is that psychoanalysis has not evolved scientifically since it has not developed objective methods for testing ideas that it…

  1. Neuroscience, Magic, and Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Echterling, Lennis G.; Presbury, Jack; Cowan, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Recent findings in neuroscience have identified principles, such as attention management and change blindness, which stage magicians exploit to create illusions. Neuroscientists have also revealed how mirror neurons and oxytocin enhance the impact of magic. In other words, magicians are just as much practitioners of sleight of mind as they are of…

  2. Neuroscience and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goswami, U.

    2004-01-01

    Neuroscience is a relatively new discipline encompassing neurology, psychology and biology. It has made great strides in the last 100 years, during which many aspects of the physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology and structure of the vertebrate brain have been understood. Understanding of some of the basic perceptual, cognitive, attentional,…

  3. Decision Neuroscience: Neuroeconomics

    PubMed Central

    Smith, David V.; Huettel, Scott A.

    2012-01-01

    Few aspects of human cognition are more personal than the choices we make. Our decisions – from the mundane to the impossibly complex – continually shape the courses of our lives. In recent years, researchers have applied the tools of neuroscience to understand the mechanisms that underlie decision making, as part of the new discipline of decision neuroscience. A primary goal of this emerging field has been to identify the processes that underlie specific decision variables, including the value of rewards, the uncertainty associated with particular outcomes, and the consequences of social interactions. Recent work suggests potential neural substrates that integrate these variables, potentially reflecting a common neural currency for value, to facilitate value comparisons. Despite the successes of decision neuroscience research for elucidating brain mechanisms, significant challenges remain. These include building new conceptual frameworks for decision making, integrating research findings across disparate techniques and species, and extending results from neuroscience to shape economic theory. To overcome these challenges, future research will likely focus on interpersonal variability in decision making, with the eventual goal of creating biologically plausible models for individual choice. PMID:22754602

  4. Cognitive Network Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Medaglia, John D.; Lynall, Mary-Ellen; Bassett, Danielle S.

    2016-01-01

    Network science provides theoretical, computational, and empirical tools that can be used to understand the structure and function of the human brain in novel ways using simple concepts and mathematical representations. Network neuroscience is a rapidly growing field that is providing considerable insight into human structural connectivity, functional connectivity while at rest, changes in functional networks over time (dynamics), and how these properties differ in clinical populations. In addition, a number of studies have begun to quantify network characteristics in a variety of cognitive processes and provide a context for understanding cognition from a network perspective. In this review, we outline the contributions of network science to cognitive neuroscience. We describe the methodology of network science as applied to the particular case of neuroimaging data and review its uses in investigating a range of cognitive functions including sensory processing, language, emotion, attention, cognitive control, learning, and memory. In conclusion, we discuss current frontiers and the specific challenges that must be overcome to integrate these complementary disciplines of network science and cognitive neuroscience. Increased communication between cognitive neuroscientists and network scientists could lead to significant discoveries under an emerging scientific intersection known as cognitive network neuroscience. PMID:25803596

  5. Natural Gas for Advanced Dual-Fuel Combustion Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Nicholas Ryan

    Natural gas fuels represent the next evolution of low-carbon energy feedstocks powering human activity worldwide. The internal combustion engine, the energy conversion device widely used by society for more than one century, is capable of utilizing advanced combustion strategies in pursuit of ultra-high efficiency and ultra-low emissions. Yet many emerging advanced combustion strategies depend upon traditional petroleum-based fuels for their operation. In this research the use of natural gas, namely methane, is applied to both conventional and advanced dual-fuel combustion strategies. In the first part of this work both computational and experimental studies are undertaken to examine the viability of utilizing methane as the premixed low reactivity fuel in reactivity controlled compression ignition, a leading advanced dual-fuel combustion strategy. As a result, methane is shown to be capable of significantly extending the load limits for dual-fuel reactivity controlled compression ignition in both light- and heavy-duty engines. In the second part of this work heavy-duty single-cylinder engine experiments are performed to research the performance of both conventional dual-fuel (diesel pilot ignition) and advanced dual-fuel (reactivity controlled compression ignition) combustion strategies using methane as the premixed low reactivity fuel. Both strategies are strongly influenced by equivalence ratio; diesel pilot ignition offers best performance at higher equivalence ratios and higher premixed methane ratios, whereas reactivity controlled compression ignition offers superior performance at lower equivalence ratios and lower premixed methane ratios. In the third part of this work experiments are performed in order to determine the dominant mode of heat release for both dual-fuel combustion strategies. By studying the dual-fuel homogeneous charge compression ignition and single-fuel spark ignition, strategies representative of autoignition and flame propagation

  6. How cognitive theory guides neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Frank, Michael J; Badre, David

    2015-02-01

    The field of cognitive science studies latent, unobservable cognitive processes that generate observable behaviors. Similarly, cognitive neuroscience attempts to link latent cognitive processes with the neural mechanisms that generate them. Although neural processes are partially observable (with imaging and electrophysiology), it would be a mistake to 'skip' the cognitive level and pursue a purely neuroscientific enterprise to studying behavior. In fact, virtually all of the major advances in understanding the neural basis of behavior over the last century have relied fundamentally on principles of cognition for guiding the appropriate measurements, manipulations, tasks, and interpretations. We provide several examples from the domains of episodic memory, working memory and cognitive control, and decision making in which cognitive theorizing and prior experimentation has been essential in guiding neuroscientific investigations and discoveries.

  7. The relations between neuroscience and human behavioral science.

    PubMed Central

    Strumwasser, F

    1994-01-01

    Neuroscience seeks to understand how the human brain, perhaps the most complex electrochemical machine in the universe, works, in terms of molecules, membranes, cells and cell assemblies, development, plasticity, learning, memory, cognition, and behavior. The human behavioral sciences, in particular psychiatry and clinical psychology, deal with disorders of human behavior and mentation. The gap between neuroscience and the human behavioral sciences is still large. However, some major advances in neuroscience over the last two decades have diminished the span. This article reviews the major advances of neuroscience in six areas with relevance to the behavioral sciences: (a) evolution of the nervous system; (b) visualizing activity in the human brain; (c) plasticity of the cerebral cortex; (d) receptors, ion channels, and second/third messengers; (e) molecular genetic approaches; and (f) understanding integrative systems with networks and circadian clocks as examples. PMID:7513347

  8. Global mental health and neuroscience: potential synergies.

    PubMed

    Stein, Dan J; He, Yanling; Phillips, Anthony; Sahakian, Barbara J; Williams, John; Patel, Vikram

    2015-02-01

    Global mental health has emerged as an important specialty. It has drawn attention to the burden of mental illness and to the relative gap in mental health research and services around the world. Global mental health has raised the question of whether this gap is a developmental issue, a health issue, a human rights issue, or a combination of these issues-and it has raised awareness of the need to develop new approaches for building capacity, mobilising resources, and closing the research and treatment gap. Translational neuroscience has also advanced. It comprises an important conceptual approach to understanding the neurocircuitry and molecular basis of mental disorders, to rethinking how best to undertake research on the aetiology, assessment, and treatment of these disorders, with the ultimate aim to develop entirely new approaches to prevention and intervention. Some apparent contrasts exist between these fields; global mental health emphasises knowledge translation, moving away from the bedside to a focus on health systems, whereas translational neuroscience emphasises molecular neuroscience, focusing on transitions between the bench and bedside. Meanwhile, important opportunities exist for synergy between the two paradigms, to ensure that present opportunities in mental health research and services are maximised. Here, we review the approaches of global mental health and clinical neuroscience to diagnosis, pathogenesis, and intervention, and make recommendations for facilitating an integration of these two perspectives. PMID:26359754

  9. Alzheimer's disease drug development: translational neuroscience strategies.

    PubMed

    Cummings, Jeffrey L; Banks, Sarah J; Gary, Ronald K; Kinney, Jefferson W; Lombardo, Joseph M; Walsh, Ryan R; Zhong, Kate

    2013-06-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an urgent public health challenge that is rapidly approaching epidemic proportions. New therapies that defer or prevent the onset, delay the decline, or improve the symptoms are urgently needed. All phase 3 drug development programs for disease-modifying agents have failed thus far. New approaches to drug development are needed. Translational neuroscience focuses on the linkages between basic neuroscience and the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic products that will improve the lives of patients or prevent the occurrence of brain disorders. Translational neuroscience includes new preclinical models that may better predict human efficacy and safety, improved clinical trial designs and outcomes that will accelerate drug development, and the use of biomarkers to more rapidly provide information regarding the effects of drugs on the underlying disease biology. Early translational research is complemented by later stage translational approaches regarding how best to use evidence to impact clinical practice and to assess the influence of new treatments on the public health. Funding of translational research is evolving with an increased emphasis on academic and NIH involvement in drug development. Translational neuroscience provides a framework for advancing development of new therapies for AD patients.

  10. Neuroscience and Global Learning.

    PubMed

    Ruscio, Michael G; Korey, Chris; Birck, Anette

    2015-01-01

    Traditional study abroad experiences take a variety of forms with most incorporating extensive cultural emersion and a focus on global learning skills. Here we ask the question: Can this type of experience co-exist with a quality scientific experience and continued progression through a typically rigorous undergraduate neuroscience curriculum? What are the potential costs and benefits of this approach? How do we increase student awareness of study abroad opportunities and inspire them to participate? We outline programs that have done this with some success and point out ways to cultivate this approach for future programs. These programs represent a variety of approaches in both their duration and role in a given curriculum. We discuss a one-week first year seminar program in Berlin, a summer study abroad course in Munich and Berlin, semester experiences and other options offered through the Danish Institute for Study Abroad in Copenhagen. Each of these experiences offers opportunities for interfacing global learning with neuroscience. PMID:26240528

  11. Neuroscience and Global Learning

    PubMed Central

    Ruscio, Michael G.; Korey, Chris; Birck, Anette

    2015-01-01

    Traditional study abroad experiences take a variety of forms with most incorporating extensive cultural emersion and a focus on global learning skills. Here we ask the question: Can this type of experience co-exist with a quality scientific experience and continued progression through a typically rigorous undergraduate neuroscience curriculum? What are the potential costs and benefits of this approach? How do we increase student awareness of study abroad opportunities and inspire them to participate? We outline programs that have done this with some success and point out ways to cultivate this approach for future programs. These programs represent a variety of approaches in both their duration and role in a given curriculum. We discuss a one-week first year seminar program in Berlin, a summer study abroad course in Munich and Berlin, semester experiences and other options offered through the Danish Institute for Study Abroad in Copenhagen. Each of these experiences offers opportunities for interfacing global learning with neuroscience. PMID:26240528

  12. Neuroscience and Psychoanalysis

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    There exists an enormous amount of biological and scientific data in the field of neuroscience, which are daunting and laborious to those who are not directly engaged in these specialized areas. The intricacies and complexities of the role of the central nervous system (CNS) in psychiatric disorders and human behavior are, of course, acknowledged. In this article, observations and speculations of some prominent workers in the field of neuroscience are described with focus on their conclusions, rather than specific findings as they pertain to the mind-body relationship. The mind-brain/body issue has not been resolved insofar as clarifying the connections between CNS activity and thinking is concerned. Currently, it is useful to accept the concept of parallelism between CNS activity and thought. An argument will be made for the inclusion of the psychoanalytic method as an essential component of the scientific effort to elucidate consciousness and thinking. PMID:20711329

  13. «Interventional Neuroradiology: a Neuroscience sub-specialty?»

    PubMed Central

    Rodesch, Georges; Picard, Luc; Berenstein, Alex; Biondi, Alessandra; Bracard, Serge; Choi, In Sup; Feng, Ling; Hyogo, Toshio; LeFeuvre, David; Leonardi, Marco; Mayer, Thomas; Miyashi, Shigeru; Muto, Mario; Piske, Ronie; Pongpech, Sirintara; Reul, Jurgen; Soderman, Michael; Chuh, Dae Sul; Tampieri, Donatella; Taylor, Allan; Terbrugge, Karel; Valavanis, Anton; van den Berg, René

    2013-01-01

    Summary Interventional Neuroradiology (INR) is not bound by the classical limits of a speciality, and is not restricted by standard formats of teaching and education. Open and naturally linked towards neurosciences, INR has become a unique source of novel ideas for research, development and progress allowing new and improved approaches to challenging pathologies resulting in better anatomo-clinical results. Opening INR to Neurosciences is the best way to keep it alive and growing. Anchored in Neuroradiology, at the crossroad of neurosciences, INR will further participate to progress and innovation as it has often been in the past. PMID:24070073

  14. «Interventional Neuroradiology: a Neuroscience sub-specialty?»

    PubMed Central

    Rodesch, Georges; Picard, Luc; Berenstein, Alex; Biondi, Alessandra; Bracard, Serge; Choi, In Sup; Feng, Ling; Hyogo, Toshio; LeFeuvre, David; Leonardi, Marco; Mayer, Thomas; Miyashi, Shigeru; Muto, Mario; Piske, Ronie; Pongpech, Sirintara; Reul, Jurgen; Söderman, Michael; Suh, Dae Chul; Tampieri, Donatella; Taylor, Allan; Terbrugge, Karel; Valavanis, Anton; van den Berg, René

    2013-01-01

    Summary Interventional Neuroradiology (INR) is not bound by the classical limits of a speciality, and is not restricted by standard formats of teaching and education. Open and naturally linked towards neurosciences, INR has become a unique source of novel ideas for research, development and progress allowing new and improved approaches to challenging pathologies resulting in better anatomo-clinical results. Opening INR to Neurosciences is the best way to keep it alive and growing. Anchored in Neuroradiology, at the crossroad of neurosciences, INR will further participate to progress and innovation as it has often been in the past.

  15. «Interventional Neuroradiology: a Neuroscience sub-specialty?»

    PubMed Central

    Rodesch, Georges; Picard, Luc; Berenstein, Alex; Biondi, Alessandra; Bracard, Serge; Choi, In Sup; Feng, Ling; Hyogo, Toshio; LeFeuvre, David; Leonardi, Marco; Mayer, Thomas; Miyashi, Shigeru; Muto, Mario; Piske, Ronie; Pongpech, Sirintara; Reul, Jurgen; Söderman, Michael; Suh, Dae Chul; Tampieri, Donatella; Taylor, Allan; Terbrugge, Karel; Valavanis, Anton; van den Berg, René

    2013-01-01

    Summary Interventional Neuroradiology (INR) is not bound by the classical limits of a speciality, and is not restricted by standard formats of teaching and education. Open and naturally linked towards neurosciences, INR has become a unique source of novel ideas for research, development and progress allowing new and improved approaches to challenging pathologies resulting in better anatomo-clinical results. Opening INR to Neurosciences is the best way to keep it alive and growing. Anchored in Neuroradiology, at the crossroad of neurosciences, INR will further participate to progress and innovation as it has often been in the past. PMID:24355160

  16. «Interventional Neuroradiology: a neuroscience sub-specialty?».

    PubMed

    Rodesch, Georges; Picard, Luc; Berenstein, Alex; Biondi, Alessandra; Bracard, Serge; Choi, In Sup; Feng, Ling; Hyogo, Toshio; Lefeuvre, David; Leonardi, Marco; Mayer, Thomas; Miyashi, Shigeru; Muto, Mario; Piske, Ronie; Pongpech, Sirintara; Reul, Jurgen; Soderman, Michael; Chuh, Dae Sul; Tampieri, Donatella; Taylor, Allan; Terbrugge, Karel; Valavanis, Anton; van den Berg, René

    2013-09-01

    Interventional Neuroradiology (INR) is not bound by the classical limits of a specialty, and is not restricted by standard formats of teaching and education. Open and naturally linked towards neurosciences, INR has become a unique source of novel ideas for research, development and progress allowing new and improved approaches to challenging pathologies resulting in better anatomo-clinical results. Opening INR to Neurosciences is the best way to keep it alive and growing. Anchored in Neuroradiology, at the crossroad of neurosciences, INR will further participate to progress and innovation as it has often been in the past.

  17. Neuroscience research on aging and implications for counseling psychology.

    PubMed

    Wright, Stephen L; Díaz, Fernando

    2014-10-01

    The advances in neuroscience have led to an increase in scientific understanding of the aging process, and counseling psychologists can benefit from familiarity with the research on the neuroscience of aging. In this article, we have focused on the cognitive neuroscience of aging, and we describe the progression of healthy aging to Alzheimer's disease, given its high prevalence rate among older adults (Alzheimer's Association, 2013). Common techniques used to study the cognitive neuroscience of aging are explained in regards to measuring age-related changes in the brain and the role of biomarkers in identifying cognitive decline related to Alzheimer's disease. Using this information and in collaboration with cognitive neuroscientists, it is our hope that counseling psychologists may further pursue research areas on aging as well as design appropriate interventions for older individuals who may be experiencing cognitive impairment.

  18. Interactive social neuroscience to study autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Rolison, Max J; Naples, Adam J; McPartland, James C

    2015-03-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) demonstrate difficulty with social interactions and relationships, but the neural mechanisms underlying these difficulties remain largely unknown. While social difficulties in ASD are most apparent in the context of interactions with other people, most neuroscience research investigating ASD have provided limited insight into the complex dynamics of these interactions. The development of novel, innovative "interactive social neuroscience" methods to study the brain in contexts with two interacting humans is a necessary advance for ASD research. Studies applying an interactive neuroscience approach to study two brains engaging with one another have revealed significant differences in neural processes during interaction compared to observation in brain regions that are implicated in the neuropathology of ASD. Interactive social neuroscience methods are crucial in clarifying the mechanisms underlying the social and communication deficits that characterize ASD.

  19. Neuroscience discipline science plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Over the past two decades, NASA's efforts in the neurosciences have developed into a program of research directed at understanding the acute changes that occur in the neurovestibular and sensorimotor systems during short-duration space missions. However, the proposed extended-duration flights of up to 28 days on the Shuttle orbiter and 6 months on Space Station Freedom, a lunar outpost, and Mars missions of perhaps 1-3 years in space, make it imperative that NASA's Life Sciences Division begin to concentrate research in the neurosciences on the chronic effects of exposure to microgravity on the nervous system. Major areas of research will be directed at understanding (1) central processing, (2) motor systems, (3) cognitive/spatial orientation, and (4) sensory receptors. The purpose of the Discipline Science Plan is to provide a conceptual strategy for NASA's Life Sciences Division research and development activities in the comprehensive area of neurosciences. It covers the significant research areas critical to NASA's programmatic requirements for the Extended-Duration Orbiter, Space Station Freedom, and exploration mission science activities. These science activities include ground-based and flight; basic, applied, and operational; and animal and human research and development. This document summarizes the current status of the program, outlines available knowledge, establishes goals and objectives, identifies science priorities, and defines critical questions in the subdiscipline areas of nervous system function. It contains a general plan that will be used by NASA Headquarters Program Offices and the field centers to review and plan basic, applied, and operational intramural and extramural research and development activities in this area.

  20. Neuroscience, moral reasoning, and the law.

    PubMed

    Knabb, Joshua J; Welsh, Robert K; Ziebell, Joseph G; Reimer, Kevin S

    2009-01-01

    Modern advancements in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technology have given neuroscientists the opportunity to more fully appreciate the brain's contribution to human behavior and decision making. Morality and moral reasoning are relative newcomers to the growing literature on decision neuroscience. With recent attention given to the salience of moral factors (e.g. moral emotions, moral reasoning) in the process of decision making, neuroscientists have begun to offer helpful frameworks for understanding the interplay between the brain, morality, and human decision making. These frameworks are relatively unfamiliar to the community of forensic psychologists, despite the fact that they offer an improved understanding of judicial decision making from a biological perspective. This article presents a framework reviewing how event-feature-emotion complexes (EFEC) are relevant to jurors and understanding complex criminal behavior. Future directions regarding converging fields of neuroscience and legal decision making are considered. PMID:19241396

  1. Neuroscience, moral reasoning, and the law.

    PubMed

    Knabb, Joshua J; Welsh, Robert K; Ziebell, Joseph G; Reimer, Kevin S

    2009-01-01

    Modern advancements in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technology have given neuroscientists the opportunity to more fully appreciate the brain's contribution to human behavior and decision making. Morality and moral reasoning are relative newcomers to the growing literature on decision neuroscience. With recent attention given to the salience of moral factors (e.g. moral emotions, moral reasoning) in the process of decision making, neuroscientists have begun to offer helpful frameworks for understanding the interplay between the brain, morality, and human decision making. These frameworks are relatively unfamiliar to the community of forensic psychologists, despite the fact that they offer an improved understanding of judicial decision making from a biological perspective. This article presents a framework reviewing how event-feature-emotion complexes (EFEC) are relevant to jurors and understanding complex criminal behavior. Future directions regarding converging fields of neuroscience and legal decision making are considered.

  2. Cognitive Neuroscience Meets Mathematics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Smedt, Bert; Ansari, Daniel; Grabner, Roland H.; Hannula, Minna M.; Schneider, Michael; Verschaffel, Lieven

    2010-01-01

    While there has been much theoretical debate concerning the relationship between neuroscience and education, researchers have started to collaborate across both disciplines, giving rise to the interdisciplinary research field of neuroscience and education. The present contribution tries to reflect on the challenges of this new field of empirical…

  3. Ten Challenges for Decision Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Huettel, Scott A.

    2010-01-01

    Decision neuroscience research, as currently practiced, employs the methods of neuroscience to investigate concepts drawn from the social sciences. A typical study selects one or more variables from psychological or economic models, manipulates or measures choices within a simplified choice task, and then identifies neural correlates. Using this “neuroeconomic” approach, researchers have described brain systems whose functioning shapes key economic variables, most notably aspects of subjective value. Yet, the standard approach has fundamental limitations. Important aspects of the mechanisms of decision making – from the sources of variability in decision making to the very computations supported by decision-related regions – remain incompletely understood. Here, I outline 10 outstanding challenges for future research in decision neuroscience. While some will be readily addressed using current methods, others will require new conceptual frameworks. Accordingly, a new strain of decision neuroscience will marry methods from economics and cognitive science to concepts from neurobiology and cognitive neuroscience. PMID:20922059

  4. Service learning in neuroscience courses.

    PubMed

    Mead, Kristina S; Kennedy, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Incorporating service learning (SL) components can be a very powerful way to engage students, add relevance, and develop community-building skills. SL experiences can play important roles in neuroscience classes, although the roles can be different depending on the needs of the classes. In this paper, we will present two models of incorporating service learning into neuroscience courses. The first model gives an example of using SL in a non-majors course, and the second model gives an example of using SL in a neuroscience class for neuroscience concentrators. After describing the two sets of experiences, we summarize the positive aspects and the challenges involved in creating SL components in neuroscience courses, develop some keys to success, and then provide a list of additional resources.

  5. Service Learning in Neuroscience Courses

    PubMed Central

    Mead, Kristina S.; Kennedy, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Incorporating service learning (SL) components can be a very powerful way to engage students, add relevance, and develop community-building skills. SL experiences can play important roles in neuroscience classes, although the roles can be different depending on the needs of the classes. In this paper, we will present two models of incorporating service learning into neuroscience courses. The first model gives an example of using SL in a non-majors course, and the second model gives an example of using SL in a neuroscience class for neuroscience concentrators. After describing the two sets of experiences, we summarize the positive aspects and the challenges involved in creating SL components in neuroscience courses, develop some keys to success, and then provide a list of additional resources. PMID:23493330

  6. Textpresso for Neuroscience: Searching the Full Text of Thousands of Neuroscience Research Papers

    PubMed Central

    Rangarajan, Arun; Teal, Tracy K.; Sternberg, Paul W.

    2009-01-01

    Textpresso is a text-mining system for scientific literature. Its two major features are access to the full text of research papers and the development and use of categories of biological concepts as well as categories that describe or relate objects. A search engine enables the user to search for one or a combination of these categories and/or keywords within an entire literature. Here we describe Textpresso for Neuroscience, part of the core Neuroscience Information Framework (NIF). The Textpresso site currently consists of 67,500 full text papers and 131,300 abstracts. We show that using categories in literature can make a pure keyword query more refined and meaningful. We also show how semantic queries can be formulated with categories only. We explain the build and content of the database and describe the main features of the web pages and the advanced search options. We also give detailed illustrations of the web service developed to provide programmatic access to Textpresso. This web service is used by the NIF interface to access Textpresso. The standalone website of Textpresso for Neuroscience can be accessed at http://www.textpresso.org/neuroscience/. PMID:18949581

  7. DREADDS: Use and application in behavioral neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kyle S; Bucci, David J; Luikart, Bryan W; Mahler, Stephen V

    2016-04-01

    Technological advances over the last decade are changing the face of behavioral neuroscience research. Here we review recent work on the use of one such transformative tool in behavioral neuroscience research, chemogenetics (or Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs, DREADDS). As transformative technologies such as DREADDs are introduced, applied, and refined, their utility in addressing complex questions about behavior and cognition becomes clear and exciting. In the behavioral neuroscience field, remarkable new findings now regularly appear as a result of the ability to monitor and intervene in neural processes with high anatomical precision as animals behave in complex task environments. As these new tools are applied to behavioral questions, individualized procedures for their use find their way into diverse labs. Thus, "tips of the trade" become important for wide dissemination not only for laboratories that are using the tools but also for those who are interested in incorporating them into their own work. Our aim is to provide an up-to-date perspective on how the DREADD technique is being used for research on learning and memory, decision making, and goal-directed behavior, as well as to provide suggestions and considerations for current and future users based on our collective experience. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26913540

  8. DREADDS: Use and application in behavioral neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kyle S; Bucci, David J; Luikart, Bryan W; Mahler, Stephen V

    2016-04-01

    Technological advances over the last decade are changing the face of behavioral neuroscience research. Here we review recent work on the use of one such transformative tool in behavioral neuroscience research, chemogenetics (or Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs, DREADDS). As transformative technologies such as DREADDs are introduced, applied, and refined, their utility in addressing complex questions about behavior and cognition becomes clear and exciting. In the behavioral neuroscience field, remarkable new findings now regularly appear as a result of the ability to monitor and intervene in neural processes with high anatomical precision as animals behave in complex task environments. As these new tools are applied to behavioral questions, individualized procedures for their use find their way into diverse labs. Thus, "tips of the trade" become important for wide dissemination not only for laboratories that are using the tools but also for those who are interested in incorporating them into their own work. Our aim is to provide an up-to-date perspective on how the DREADD technique is being used for research on learning and memory, decision making, and goal-directed behavior, as well as to provide suggestions and considerations for current and future users based on our collective experience. (PsycINFO Database Record

  9. Dynamical principles in neuroscience

    SciTech Connect

    Rabinovich, Mikhail I.; Varona, Pablo; Selverston, Allen I.; Abarbanel, Henry D. I.

    2006-10-15

    Dynamical modeling of neural systems and brain functions has a history of success over the last half century. This includes, for example, the explanation and prediction of some features of neural rhythmic behaviors. Many interesting dynamical models of learning and memory based on physiological experiments have been suggested over the last two decades. Dynamical models even of consciousness now exist. Usually these models and results are based on traditional approaches and paradigms of nonlinear dynamics including dynamical chaos. Neural systems are, however, an unusual subject for nonlinear dynamics for several reasons: (i) Even the simplest neural network, with only a few neurons and synaptic connections, has an enormous number of variables and control parameters. These make neural systems adaptive and flexible, and are critical to their biological function. (ii) In contrast to traditional physical systems described by well-known basic principles, first principles governing the dynamics of neural systems are unknown. (iii) Many different neural systems exhibit similar dynamics despite having different architectures and different levels of complexity. (iv) The network architecture and connection strengths are usually not known in detail and therefore the dynamical analysis must, in some sense, be probabilistic. (v) Since nervous systems are able to organize behavior based on sensory inputs, the dynamical modeling of these systems has to explain the transformation of temporal information into combinatorial or combinatorial-temporal codes, and vice versa, for memory and recognition. In this review these problems are discussed in the context of addressing the stimulating questions: What can neuroscience learn from nonlinear dynamics, and what can nonlinear dynamics learn from neuroscience?.

  10. Cognitive neuroscience and the law.

    PubMed

    Garland, Brent; Glimcher, Paul W

    2006-04-01

    Advances in cognitive neuroscience now allow us to use physiological techniques to measure and assess mental states under a growing set of circumstances. The implication of this growing ability has not been lost on the western legal community. If biologists can accurately measure mental state, then legal conflicts that turn on the true mental states of individuals might well be resolvable with techniques ranging from electroencephalography to functional magnetic resonance imaging. Therefore, legal practitioners have increasingly sought to employ cognitive neuroscientific methods and data as evidence to influence legal proceedings. This poses a risk, because these scientific methodologies have largely been designed and validated for experimental use only. Their subsequent use in legal proceedings is an application for which they were not intended, and for which those methods are inadequately tested. We propose that neurobiologists, who might inadvertently contribute to this situation, should be aware of how their papers will be read by the legal community and should play a more active role in educating and engaging with that community.

  11. Bridges over troubled waters: education and cognitive neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Daniel; Coch, Donna

    2006-04-01

    Recently there has been growing interest in and debate about the relation between cognitive neuroscience and education. Our goal is to advance the debate beyond both recitation of potentially education-related cognitive neuroscience findings and the claim that a bridge between fields is chimerical. In an attempt to begin a dialogue about mechanisms among students, educators, researchers and practitioner-scientists, we propose that multiple bridges can be built to make connections between education and cognitive neuroscience, including teacher training, researcher training and collaboration. These bridges--concrete mechanisms that can advance the study of mind, brain and education--will benefit both educators and cognitive neuroscientists, who will gain new perspectives for posing and answering crucial questions about the learning brain.

  12. Contemporary neuroscience in the media.

    PubMed

    Racine, Eric; Waldman, Sarah; Rosenberg, Jarett; Illes, Judy

    2010-08-01

    Technological innovations in neuroscience have opened new windows to the understanding of brain function and the neuronal underpinnings of brain activity in neuropsychiatric disorders and social behavior. Public interest and support for neuroscience research through initiatives like the Decade of the Brain project and increasingly diverse brain-related initiatives have created new interfaces between neuroscience and society. Against this backdrop of dynamic innovation, we set out to examine how different features of neuroscience are depicted in print media. We used the 'guided news' function of the LexisNexis Academic database with keyword searches to find news articles published between 1995 and 2004 in major U.S. and U.K. English-language news sources. We performed searches on headlines, lead paragraphs, and body terms to maximize search yields. All articles were coded for overall tone of coverage, details on reported studies, presence of ethical, legal, and social discussion as well as the emerging interpretations of neuroscience - in the form of neuro-essentialism, neuro-realism, and neuro-policy. We found that print media coverage of the use of neurotechnology for diagnosis or therapy in neuropsychiatric disorders was generally optimistic. We also found that, even within articles that were identified as research reports, many did not provide details about research studies. We also gained additional insights into the previously identified phenomena of neuro-essentialism, neuro-realism, and neuro-policy showing some profound impacts of neuroscience on personal identity and policy-making. Our results highlight the implications of transfer of neuroscience knowledge to society given the substantial and authoritative weight ascribed to neuroscience knowledge in defining who we are. We also discuss the impact of these findings on neuroscience and on the respective contributions of the social sciences and the biological sciences in contemporary psychiatry and mental

  13. An undergraduate neuroscience seminar based on the annual meeting of the society for neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Bucci, David J; Falls, William A

    2007-01-01

    We have recently planned and taught an advanced undergraduate seminar at our respective institutions that uses a unique mechanism to explore topics that are on the cutting edge of neuroscience. The course material is centered on the topics of presentations scheduled for the Annual Meeting of the Society for Neuroscience held each fall. The instructor and students (∼15) select several topics that are the subject of special lectures, panels, and keynote addresses included in the Program for the Annual Meeting. Each week the class reads and discusses several articles on the topic of one of the lectures, panels or addresses. By the time the Annual Meeting is held, the class is intimately familiar with the content of the planned presentations. The class then travels to the Annual Meeting and attends these presentations along with events of personal interest and keeps a journal of what they learn. Upon returning from the Annual Meeting, the students discuss the assigned presentations and also prepare and deliver their own presentation on a neuroscience topic of personal interest using information obtained at the meeting. Students also prepare an in-depth final paper on their presentation topic in the form of a Current Opinions in Neurobiology review article. The outcomes for the students are many fold: Students explore topics on the cutting edge of neuroscience through the review of primary literature and experience a major scientific conference first hand, which is attended by over 30,000 neuroscientists from around the world. This experience helps neuroscience "come alive" for the students and provides them with valuable opportunities to meet world-renowned researchers, prospective graduate mentors, and possibly future employers. Students also have the chance to develop important professional skills through critical evaluation of research, exposure to different presentation styles, and preparation of an in-depth research paper and oral presentation.

  14. What Can Neuroscience Bring to Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrari, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Educational neuroscience promises to incorporate emerging insights from neuroscience into education, and is an exiting renovation of cognitive science in education. But unlike cognitive neuroscience--which aims to explain how the mind is embodied--educational neuroscience necessarily incorporates values that reflect the kind of citizen and the…

  15. Dyscalculia: neuroscience and education.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Liane

    2008-06-01

    BACKGROUND: Developmental dyscalculia is a heterogeneous disorder with largely dissociable performance profiles. Though our current understanding of the neurofunctional foundations of (adult) numerical cognition has increased considerably during the past two decades, there are still many unanswered questions regarding the developmental pathways of numerical cognition. Most studies on developmental dyscalculia are based upon adult calculation models which may not provide an adequate theoretical framework for understanding and investigating developing calculation systems. Furthermore, the applicability of neuroscience research to pedagogy has, so far, been limited. PURPOSE: After providing an overview of current conceptualisations of numerical cognition and developmental dyscalculia, the present paper (1) reviews recent research findings that are suggestive of a neurofunctional link between fingers (finger gnosis, finger-based counting and calculation) and number processing, and (2) takes the latter findings as an example to discuss how neuroscience findings may impact on educational understanding and classroom interventions. SOURCES OF EVIDENCE: Finger-based number representations and finger-based calculation have deep roots in human ontology and phylogeny. Recently, accumulating empirical evidence supporting the hypothesis of a neurofunctional link between fingers and numbers has emerged from both behavioural and brain imaging studies. MAIN ARGUMENT: Preliminary but converging research supports the notion that finger gnosis and finger use seem to be related to calculation proficiency in elementary school children. Finger-based counting and calculation may facilitate the establishment of mental number representations (possibly by fostering the mapping from concrete non-symbolic to abstract symbolic number magnitudes), which in turn seem to be the foundations for successful arithmetic achievement. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the findings illustrated here, it is plausible

  16. Enhanced decision making through neuroscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szu, Harold; Jung, TP; Makeig, Scott

    2012-06-01

    We propose to enhance the decision making of pilot, co-pilot teams, over a range of vehicle platforms, with the aid of neuroscience. The goal is to optimize this collaborative decision making interplay in time-critical, stressful situations. We will research and measure human facial expressions, personality typing, and brainwave measurements to help answer questions related to optimum decision-making in group situations. Further, we propose to examine the nature of intuition in this decision making process. The brainwave measurements will be facilitated by a University of California, San Diego (UCSD) developed wireless Electroencephalography (EEG) sensing cap. We propose to measure brainwaves covering the whole head area with an electrode density of N=256, and yet keep within the limiting wireless bandwidth capability of m=32 readouts. This is possible because solving Independent Component Analysis (ICA) and finding the hidden brainwave sources allow us to concentrate selective measurements with an organized sparse source -->s sensing matrix [Φs], rather than the traditional purely random compressive sensing (CS) matrix[Φ].

  17. The ethics of neuroscience and the neuroscience of ethics: a phenomenological-existential approach.

    PubMed

    Frost, Christopher J; Lumia, Augustus R

    2012-09-01

    Advances in the neurosciences have many implications for a collective understanding of what it means to be human, in particular, notions of the self, the concept of volition or agency, questions of individual responsibility, and the phenomenology of consciousness. As the ability to peer directly into the brain is scientifically honed, and conscious states can be correlated with patterns of neural processing, an easy--but premature--leap is to postulate a one-way, brain-based determinism. That leap is problematic, however, and emerging findings in neuroscience can even be seen as compatible with some of the basic tenets of existentialism. Given the compelling authority of modern "science," it is especially important to question how the findings of neuroscience are framed, and how the articulation of research results challenge or change individuals' perceptions of themselves. Context plays an essential role in the emergence of human identity and in the sculpting of the human brain; for example, even a lack of stimuli ("nothing") can lead to substantial consequences for brain, behavior, and experience. Conversely, advances in understanding the brain might contribute to more precise definitions of what it means to be human, including definitions of appropriate social and moral behavior. Put another way, the issue is not simply the ethics involved in framing neurotechnology, but also the incorporation of neuroscientific findings into a richer understanding of human ethical (and existential) functioning.

  18. A Role for Neuroscience in Shaping Contemporary Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Rebecca; Bryant, Joel

    2011-01-01

    Advanced technologies have made it possible for neuroscientists to make remarkable discoveries regarding how our brains learn. This research should provide new insights into the designs of learning environments. This essay is an attempt to suggest how the possibilities of neuroscience might be employed to meet contemporary educational demands,…

  19. Recent advances in the synthesis of natural multifunctionalized decalins.

    PubMed

    Dhambri, S; Mohammad, S; Van Buu, O Nguyen; Galvani, G; Meyer, Y; Lannou, M-I; Sorin, G; Ardisson, J

    2015-06-01

    This review highlights recent innovative synthetic strategies developed for the stereoselective construction of natural complex decalin systems. It offers an insight into various synthetic targets and approaches and provides information for developments within the area of natural products as well as synthetic methodology.

  20. Nanotechnology, nanotoxicology, and neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Won Hyuk; Suslick, Kenneth S.; Stucky, Galen D.; Suh, Yoo-Hun

    2009-01-01

    Nanotechnology, which deals with features as small as a 1 billionth of a meter, began to enter into mainstream physical sciences and engineering some 20 years ago. Recent applications of nanoscience include the use of nanoscale materials in electronics, catalysis, and biomedical research. Among these applications, strong interest has been shown to biological processes such as blood coagulation control and multimodal bioimaging, which has brought about a new and exciting research field called nanobiotechnology. Biotechnology, which itself also dates back ∼30 years, involves the manipulation of macroscopic biological systems such as cells and mice in order to understand why and how molecular level mechanisms affect specific biological functions, e.g., the role of APP (amyloid precursor protein) in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). This review aims (1) to introduce key concepts and materials from nanotechnology to a non-physical sciences community; (2) to introduce several state-of-the-art examples of current nanotechnology that were either constructed for use in biological systems or that can, in time, be utilized for biomedical research; (3) to provide recent excerpts in nanotoxicology and multifunctional nanoparticle systems (MFNPSs); and (4) to propose areas in neuroscience that may benefit from research at the interface of neurobiologically important systems and nanostructured materials. PMID:18926873

  1. 10 CFR 40.66 - Requirements for advance notice of export shipments of natural uranium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Requirements for advance notice of export shipments of natural uranium. 40.66 Section 40.66 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SOURCE... natural uranium. (a) Each licensee authorized to export natural uranium, other than in the form of ore...

  2. 10 CFR 40.66 - Requirements for advance notice of export shipments of natural uranium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Requirements for advance notice of export shipments of natural uranium. 40.66 Section 40.66 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SOURCE... natural uranium. (a) Each licensee authorized to export natural uranium, other than in the form of ore...

  3. 10 CFR 40.66 - Requirements for advance notice of export shipments of natural uranium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Requirements for advance notice of export shipments of natural uranium. 40.66 Section 40.66 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SOURCE... natural uranium. (a) Each licensee authorized to export natural uranium, other than in the form of ore...

  4. 10 CFR 40.66 - Requirements for advance notice of export shipments of natural uranium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Requirements for advance notice of export shipments of natural uranium. 40.66 Section 40.66 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SOURCE... natural uranium. (a) Each licensee authorized to export natural uranium, other than in the form of ore...

  5. 10 CFR 40.66 - Requirements for advance notice of export shipments of natural uranium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for advance notice of export shipments of natural uranium. 40.66 Section 40.66 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SOURCE... natural uranium. (a) Each licensee authorized to export natural uranium, other than in the form of ore...

  6. Advanced Science Students' Understandings on Nature of Science in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sormunen, Kari; Köksal, Mustafa Serdar

    2014-01-01

    Majority of NOS studies comprise of determination or assessment studies conducted with ordinary students. In order to gain further understanding on variation in NOS understandings among the students, there should be different research attempts focusing on unconventional students such as academically advanced students. The purpose of this study is…

  7. With love, from me to you: Embedding social interactions in affective neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Gilam, Gadi; Hendler, Talma

    2016-09-01

    Human emotional experiences naturally occur while interacting in a spontaneous, dynamic and response contingent fashion with other humans. This resonates with both theoretical considerations as well as neuroimaging findings that illustrate the nexus between the "social" and "emotional" brain suggesting a domain-general organization of the brain. Nevertheless, most knowledge in affective neuroscience stems from studying the brain in isolation from its natural social environment. Whether social interactions are constitutive or not to the understanding of other people's intentions, incorporating such interactions is clearly required for ecological validity. Moreover, since interpersonal interactions may influence emotional experiences and expressions, interactive paradigms may advance the theoretical understanding of what emotions are and what about them is social, and will correspondingly characterize their underlying neural substrates. We highlight the recent conceptual and experimental advances of bringing realistic social interactions into the neuroimaging lab; review emotion-induction paradigms and consider their congruency with features of social interactions; and emphasize the importance of embedding such spontaneous and dynamic interactive paradigms in the field of affective neuroscience. PMID:27339690

  8. [Neuroscience and criminal law: new perspectives for old problems].

    PubMed

    Mercurio, Ezequiel N

    2009-01-01

    The advance of neuroscience has begun to affect different disciplines, one of the most influenced is the criminal law. The new researches add light on what region are in charge of the control and value of our behaviour and which might be the consequences of the dysfunction in these regions. Therefore, the criminal law begin to ask about criminal responsibility in subjects with brain injuries or dysfunction. The aim of this paper is to analyze the impact of the current neuroscience in criminal responsibility.

  9. The Development and Analysis of Integrated Neuroscience Data

    PubMed Central

    Glaser, Joshua I.; Kording, Konrad P.

    2016-01-01

    There is a strong emphasis on developing novel neuroscience technologies, in particular on recording from more neurons. There has thus been increasing discussion about how to analyze the resulting big datasets. What has received less attention is that over the last 30 years, papers in neuroscience have progressively integrated more approaches, such as electrophysiology, anatomy, and genetics. As such, there has been little discussion on how to combine and analyze this multimodal data. Here, we describe the growth of multimodal approaches, and discuss the needed analysis advancements to make sense of this data. PMID:26903852

  10. Forensic psychiatry, neuroscience, and the law.

    PubMed

    Silva, J Arturo

    2009-01-01

    The rise of modern neuroscience is transforming psychiatry and other behavioral sciences. Neuroscientific progress also has had major impact in forensic neuropsychiatric practice, resulting in the increased use of neuroscientific technologies in cases of a psychiatric-legal nature. This article is focused on the impact of neuroscientific progress in forensic psychiatry in relation to criminal law. Also addressed are some emerging questions involving the practice of forensic neuropsychiatry. These questions will be reframed by providing alternative perspectives consistent with the objectives of forensic neuropsychiatric practice. The last part of the article is a discussion of potential developments that may facilitate the integration of neuroscientific knowledge in forensic neuropsychiatric practice.

  11. Cognitive neuroscience in space.

    PubMed

    De la Torre, Gabriel G

    2014-01-01

    Humans are the most adaptable species on this planet, able to live in vastly different environments on Earth. Space represents the ultimate frontier and a true challenge to human adaptive capabilities. As a group, astronauts and cosmonauts are selected for their ability to work in the highly perilous environment of space, giving their best. Terrestrial research has shown that human cognitive and perceptual motor performances deteriorate under stress. We would expect to observe these effects in space, which currently represents an exceptionally stressful environment for humans. Understanding the neurocognitive and neuropsychological parameters influencing space flight is of high relevance to neuroscientists, as well as psychologists. Many of the environmental characteristics specific to space missions, some of which are also present in space flight simulations, may affect neurocognitive performance. Previous work in space has shown that various psychomotor functions degrade during space flight, including central postural functions, the speed and accuracy of aimed movements, internal timekeeping, attentional processes, sensing of limb position and the central management of concurrent tasks. Other factors that might affect neurocognitive performance in space are illness, injury, toxic exposure, decompression accidents, medication side effects and excessive exposure to radiation. Different tools have been developed to assess and counteract these deficits and problems, including computerized tests and physical exercise devices. It is yet unknown how the brain will adapt to long-term space travel to the asteroids, Mars and beyond. This work represents a comprehensive review of the current knowledge and future challenges of cognitive neuroscience in space from simulations and analog missions to low Earth orbit and beyond. PMID:25370373

  12. Cognitive neuroscience in space.

    PubMed

    De la Torre, Gabriel G

    2014-07-03

    Humans are the most adaptable species on this planet, able to live in vastly different environments on Earth. Space represents the ultimate frontier and a true challenge to human adaptive capabilities. As a group, astronauts and cosmonauts are selected for their ability to work in the highly perilous environment of space, giving their best. Terrestrial research has shown that human cognitive and perceptual motor performances deteriorate under stress. We would expect to observe these effects in space, which currently represents an exceptionally stressful environment for humans. Understanding the neurocognitive and neuropsychological parameters influencing space flight is of high relevance to neuroscientists, as well as psychologists. Many of the environmental characteristics specific to space missions, some of which are also present in space flight simulations, may affect neurocognitive performance. Previous work in space has shown that various psychomotor functions degrade during space flight, including central postural functions, the speed and accuracy of aimed movements, internal timekeeping, attentional processes, sensing of limb position and the central management of concurrent tasks. Other factors that might affect neurocognitive performance in space are illness, injury, toxic exposure, decompression accidents, medication side effects and excessive exposure to radiation. Different tools have been developed to assess and counteract these deficits and problems, including computerized tests and physical exercise devices. It is yet unknown how the brain will adapt to long-term space travel to the asteroids, Mars and beyond. This work represents a comprehensive review of the current knowledge and future challenges of cognitive neuroscience in space from simulations and analog missions to low Earth orbit and beyond.

  13. Cognitive Neuroscience in Space

    PubMed Central

    De la Torre, Gabriel G.

    2014-01-01

    Humans are the most adaptable species on this planet, able to live in vastly different environments on Earth. Space represents the ultimate frontier and a true challenge to human adaptive capabilities. As a group, astronauts and cosmonauts are selected for their ability to work in the highly perilous environment of space, giving their best. Terrestrial research has shown that human cognitive and perceptual motor performances deteriorate under stress. We would expect to observe these effects in space, which currently represents an exceptionally stressful environment for humans. Understanding the neurocognitive and neuropsychological parameters influencing space flight is of high relevance to neuroscientists, as well as psychologists. Many of the environmental characteristics specific to space missions, some of which are also present in space flight simulations, may affect neurocognitive performance. Previous work in space has shown that various psychomotor functions degrade during space flight, including central postural functions, the speed and accuracy of aimed movements, internal timekeeping, attentional processes, sensing of limb position and the central management of concurrent tasks. Other factors that might affect neurocognitive performance in space are illness, injury, toxic exposure, decompression accidents, medication side effects and excessive exposure to radiation. Different tools have been developed to assess and counteract these deficits and problems, including computerized tests and physical exercise devices. It is yet unknown how the brain will adapt to long-term space travel to the asteroids, Mars and beyond. This work represents a comprehensive review of the current knowledge and future challenges of cognitive neuroscience in space from simulations and analog missions to low Earth orbit and beyond. PMID:25370373

  14. Interactive Social Neuroscience to Study Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Rolison, Max J.; Naples, Adam J.; McPartland, James C.

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) demonstrate difficulty with social interactions and relationships, but the neural mechanisms underlying these difficulties remain largely unknown. While social difficulties in ASD are most apparent in the context of interactions with other people, most neuroscience research investigating ASD have provided limited insight into the complex dynamics of these interactions. The development of novel, innovative “interactive social neuroscience” methods to study the brain in contexts with two interacting humans is a necessary advance for ASD research. Studies applying an interactive neuroscience approach to study two brains engaging with one another have revealed significant differences in neural processes during interaction compared to observation in brain regions that are implicated in the neuropathology of ASD. Interactive social neuroscience methods are crucial in clarifying the mechanisms underlying the social and communication deficits that characterize ASD. PMID:25745371

  15. Neuroscience Investigations: An Overview of Studies Conducted

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reschke, Millard F.

    1999-01-01

    The neural processes that mediate human spatial orientation and adaptive changes occurring in response to the sensory rearrangement encountered during orbital flight are primarily studied through second and third order responses. In the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP) neuroscience investigations, the following were measured: (1) eye movements during acquisition of either static or moving visual targets, (2) postural and locomotor responses provoked by unexpected movement of the support surface, changes in the interaction of visual, proprioceptive, and vestibular information, changes in the major postural muscles via descending pathways, or changes in locomotor pathways, and (3) verbal reports of perceived self-orientation and self-motion which enhance and complement conclusions drawn from the analysis of oculomotor, postural, and locomotor responses. In spaceflight operations, spatial orientation can be defined as situational awareness, where crew member perception of attitude, position, or motion of the spacecraft or other objects in three-dimensional space, including orientation of one's own body, is congruent with actual physical events. Perception of spatial orientation is determined by integrating information from several sensory modalities. This involves higher levels of processing within the central nervous system that control eye movements, locomotion, and stable posture. Spaceflight operational problems occur when responses to the incorrectly perceived spatial orientation are compensatory in nature. Neuroscience investigations were conducted in conjunction with U. S. Space Shuttle flights to evaluate possible changes in the ability of an astronaut to land the Shuttle or effectively perform an emergency post-landing egress following microgravity adaptation during space flights of variable length. While the results of various sensory motor and spatial orientation tests could have an impact on future space flights, our knowledge of

  16. Rainbows in nature: recent advances in observation and theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haußmann, Alexander

    2016-11-01

    This topical review presents an overview of the common and less common observations of rainbows in natural rainfall, and the theoretical concepts that have been developed for their explanation. Mainly throughout the last 20 years, many new and intriguing effects have been photographed or documented for the first time, such as higher-order (tertiary, quaternary, etc) and twinned rainbows, as well as rainbows generated by nearby artificial light sources. In order to provide a sound explanation, the inclusion of natural non-spherical (i.e. oblate) raindrop shapes as well as natural broad polydisperse raindrop distributions into the classical rainbow theory (Lorenz-Mie and Debye scattering) is outlined. Thus, the article provides a condensed up-to-date synopsis complementing classical textbooks and earlier reviews on the physics of rainbows. It is intended to serve both active sky observers as well as physics teachers who want to keep up with current developments in the field.

  17. Recent advances in deep-sea natural products.

    PubMed

    Skropeta, Danielle; Wei, Liangqian

    2014-08-01

    Covering: 2009 to 2013. This review covers the 188 novel marine natural products described since 2008, from deep-water (50->5000 m) marine fauna including bryozoa, chordata, cnidaria, echinodermata, microorganisms, mollusca and porifera. The structures of the new compounds and details of the source organism, depth of collection and country of origin are presented, along with any relevant biological activities of the metabolites. Where reported, synthetic studies on the deep-sea natural products have also been included. Most strikingly, 75% of the compounds were reported to possess bioactivity, with almost half exhibiting low micromolar cytotoxicity towards a range of human cancer cell lines, along with a significant increase in the number of microbial deep-sea natural products reported.

  18. Recent advances in deep-sea natural products.

    PubMed

    Skropeta, Danielle; Wei, Liangqian

    2014-08-01

    Covering: 2009 to 2013. This review covers the 188 novel marine natural products described since 2008, from deep-water (50->5000 m) marine fauna including bryozoa, chordata, cnidaria, echinodermata, microorganisms, mollusca and porifera. The structures of the new compounds and details of the source organism, depth of collection and country of origin are presented, along with any relevant biological activities of the metabolites. Where reported, synthetic studies on the deep-sea natural products have also been included. Most strikingly, 75% of the compounds were reported to possess bioactivity, with almost half exhibiting low micromolar cytotoxicity towards a range of human cancer cell lines, along with a significant increase in the number of microbial deep-sea natural products reported. PMID:24871201

  19. Fractals in the Neurosciences, Part I: General Principles and Basic Neurosciences.

    PubMed

    Di Ieva, Antonio; Grizzi, Fabio; Jelinek, Herbert; Pellionisz, Andras J; Losa, Gabriele Angelo

    2013-12-20

    The natural complexity of the brain, its hierarchical structure, and the sophisticated topological architecture of the neurons organized in micronetworks and macronetworks are all factors contributing to the limits of the application of Euclidean geometry and linear dynamics to the neurosciences. The introduction of fractal geometry for the quantitative analysis and description of the geometric complexity of natural systems has been a major paradigm shift in the last decades. Nowadays, modern neurosciences admit the prevalence of fractal properties such as self-similarity in the brain at various levels of observation, from the microscale to the macroscale, in molecular, anatomic, functional, and pathological perspectives. Fractal geometry is a mathematical model that offers a universal language for the quantitative description of neurons and glial cells as well as the brain as a whole, with its complex three-dimensional structure, in all its physiopathological spectrums. For a holistic view of fractal geometry of the brain, we review here the basic concepts of fractal analysis and its main applications to the basic neurosciences.

  20. Critical neuroscience meets medical humanities.

    PubMed

    Slaby, Jan

    2015-06-01

    This programmatic theory paper sketches a conceptual framework that might inspire work in critical Medical Humanities. For this purpose, Kaushik Sunder Rajan's account of biocapital is revisited and discussed in relation to the perspective of a critical neuroscience. Critical neuroscience is an encompassing positioning towards the recent public prominence of the brain and brain-related practices, tools and discourses. The proposed analytical scheme has five focal nodes: capital, life, technoscience, (neoliberal) politics and subjectivity. A special emphasis will be placed on contemporary framings of subjectivity, as it is here where deep-reaching entanglements of personhood with scientific practice and discourse, medical and informational technologies, and economic formations are most evident. Notably, the emerging subject position of the 'prospective health consumer' will be discussed as it figures prominently in the terrain between neuroscience and other medico-scientific disciplines.

  1. Imaging Mass Spectrometry in Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Imaging mass spectrometry is an emerging technique of great potential for investigating the chemical architecture in biological matrices. Although the potential for studying neurobiological systems is evident, the relevance of the technique for application in neuroscience is still in its infancy. In the present Review, a principal overview of the different approaches, including matrix assisted laser desorption ionization and secondary ion mass spectrometry, is provided with particular focus on their strengths and limitations for studying different neurochemical species in situ and in vitro. The potential of the various approaches is discussed based on both fundamental and biomedical neuroscience research. This Review aims to serve as a general guide to familiarize the neuroscience community and other biomedical researchers with the technique, highlighting its great potential and suitability for comprehensive and specific chemical imaging. PMID:23530951

  2. Theory and simulation in neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Gerstner, Wulfram; Sprekeler, Henning; Deco, Gustavo

    2012-10-01

    Modeling work in neuroscience can be classified using two different criteria. The first one is the complexity of the model, ranging from simplified conceptual models that are amenable to mathematical analysis to detailed models that require simulations in order to understand their properties. The second criterion is that of direction of workflow, which can be from microscopic to macroscopic scales (bottom-up) or from behavioral target functions to properties of components (top-down). We review the interaction of theory and simulation using examples of top-down and bottom-up studies and point to some current developments in the fields of computational and theoretical neuroscience.

  3. From baconian to popperian neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The development of neuroscience over the past 50 years has some similarities with the development of physics in the 17th century. Towards the beginning of that century, Bacon promoted the systematic gathering of experimental data and the induction of scientific truth; towards the end, Newton expressed his principles of gravitation and motion in a concise set of mathematical equations that made precise falsifiable predictions. This paper expresses the opinion that as neuroscience comes of age, it needs to move away from amassing large quantities of data about the brain, and adopt a popperian model in which theories are developed that can make strong falsifiable predictions and guide future experimental work. PMID:22330680

  4. Brain-Based Learning and Educational Neuroscience: Boundary Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edelenbosch, Rosanne; Kupper, Frank; Krabbendam, Lydia; Broerse, Jacqueline E. W.

    2015-01-01

    Much attention has been given to "bridging the gap" between neuroscience and educational practice. In order to gain better understanding of the nature of this gap and of possibilities to enable the linking process, we have taken a boundary perspective on these two fields and the brain-based learning approach, focusing on…

  5. Final report for the Advanced Natural Gas Vehicle Project

    SciTech Connect

    John Wozniak

    1999-02-16

    The project objective was to develop the technologies necessary to prototype a dedicated compressed natural gas (CNG) powered, mid-size automobile with operational capabilities comparable to gasoline automobiles. A system approach was used to design and develop the engine, gas storage system and vehicle packaging. The 2.4-liter DOHC engine was optimized for natural gas operation with high-compression pistons, hardened exhaust valves, a methane-specific catalytic converter and multi-point gaseous injection. The chassis was repackaging to increase space for fuel storage with a custom-designed, cast-aluminum, semi-trailing arm rear suspension system, a revised flat trunk sheet-metal floorpan and by equipping the car with run-flat tires. An Integrated Storage system (ISS) was developed using all-composite, small-diameter cylinders encapsulated within a high-strength fiberglass shell with impact-absorbing foam. The prototypes achieved the target goals of a city/highway driving range of 300 miles, ample trunk capacity, gasoline vehicle performance and ultra low exhaust emissions.

  6. Advances in Studies on Natural Preservativesfor Fruits and Vegetables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Haisheng; Shi, Pengbao; Zhao, Yuhua

    The author introduced g eneral research and application situations of natural preservatives for fruits and vegetables all over the world these years, and summarized application of vegetation of Murraya in Rutaceae, Cinnamomum in Lauraceae, Artemisia in Compositae and other families and genera on fruits and vegetables preservation and fresh-keeping. Decoction or extraction of Chinese traditional medicine, such as Alpinia Officinarum, Amarphalus Konjac K., stemona etc, could be used in fresh-keeping for orange, apple, strawberry, edible fungi and so on. Garlic could be used in fresh-keeping for orange. Phytic acid and fresh-keeping agents compounded with Phytic acid could extend storage periods of easily rotting fruits and vegetables, such as strawberry, banana, cantaloup, edible fungi and so on, and better keep original fresh condition. Extraction of Snow Fresh, Semper Fresh, Arthropod shell extraction, and halite also had better effect on preservation and fresh-keeping for fruits and vegetables. Main problems exsited in the application of natural preservatives for fruits and vegetables were showed in this article and the applying prospect were discussed too.

  7. Developing a Team-taught Capstone Course in Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Susan; Hassebrock, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Capstone courses are becoming increasingly visible on college and university campuses. In this paper, we describe a capstone experience for undergraduate students pursuing our neuroscience concentration. The course is intended to provide an in-depth and interdisciplinary examination of contemporary topics in the field of neuroscience, and is designed for students who have completed the majority of requirements for the concentration. We describe the evolution of such a course, the goals and objectives of the course, and offer a workable model for similar courses in the context of a liberal arts institution. We summarize the positive aspects of such a course, describe the challenges involved in creating a course of this nature, and offer suggestions for successful similar capstone courses in Neuroscience. PMID:23493882

  8. Sharing and reusing gene expression profiling data in neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Xiang; Pavlidis, Paul

    2010-01-01

    As public availability of gene expression profiling data increases, it is natural to ask how these data can be used by neuroscientists. Here we review the public availability of high-throughput expression data in neuroscience and how it has been re-used, and tools that have been developed to facilitate re-use. There is increasing interest in making expression data re-use a routine part of the neuroscience tool-kit, but there are a number of challenges. Data must become more readily available in public databases; efforts to encourage investigators to make data available are important, as is education on the benefits of public data release. Once released, data must be better-annotated. Techniques and tools for data re-use are also in need of improvement. Integration of expression profiling data with neuroscience-specific resources such as anatomical atlases will further increase the value of expression data. PMID:17917127

  9. Interpreting BOLD: towards a dialogue between cognitive and cellular neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Hall, Catherine N; Howarth, Clare; Kurth-Nelson, Zebulun; Mishra, Anusha

    2016-10-01

    Cognitive neuroscience depends on the use of blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to probe brain function. Although commonly used as a surrogate measure of neuronal activity, BOLD signals actually reflect changes in brain blood oxygenation. Understanding the mechanisms linking neuronal activity to vascular perfusion is, therefore, critical in interpreting BOLD. Advances in cellular neuroscience demonstrating differences in this neurovascular relationship in different brain regions, conditions or pathologies are often not accounted for when interpreting BOLD. Meanwhile, within cognitive neuroscience, the increasing use of high magnetic field strengths and the development of model-based tasks and analyses have broadened the capability of BOLD signals to inform us about the underlying neuronal activity, but these methods are less well understood by cellular neuroscientists. In 2016, a Royal Society Theo Murphy Meeting brought scientists from the two communities together to discuss these issues. Here, we consolidate the main conclusions arising from that meeting. We discuss areas of consensus about what BOLD fMRI can tell us about underlying neuronal activity, and how advanced modelling techniques have improved our ability to use and interpret BOLD. We also highlight areas of controversy in understanding BOLD and suggest research directions required to resolve these issues.This article is part of the themed issue 'Interpreting BOLD: a dialogue between cognitive and cellular neuroscience'.

  10. Interpreting BOLD: towards a dialogue between cognitive and cellular neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Hall, Catherine N; Howarth, Clare; Kurth-Nelson, Zebulun; Mishra, Anusha

    2016-10-01

    Cognitive neuroscience depends on the use of blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to probe brain function. Although commonly used as a surrogate measure of neuronal activity, BOLD signals actually reflect changes in brain blood oxygenation. Understanding the mechanisms linking neuronal activity to vascular perfusion is, therefore, critical in interpreting BOLD. Advances in cellular neuroscience demonstrating differences in this neurovascular relationship in different brain regions, conditions or pathologies are often not accounted for when interpreting BOLD. Meanwhile, within cognitive neuroscience, the increasing use of high magnetic field strengths and the development of model-based tasks and analyses have broadened the capability of BOLD signals to inform us about the underlying neuronal activity, but these methods are less well understood by cellular neuroscientists. In 2016, a Royal Society Theo Murphy Meeting brought scientists from the two communities together to discuss these issues. Here, we consolidate the main conclusions arising from that meeting. We discuss areas of consensus about what BOLD fMRI can tell us about underlying neuronal activity, and how advanced modelling techniques have improved our ability to use and interpret BOLD. We also highlight areas of controversy in understanding BOLD and suggest research directions required to resolve these issues.This article is part of the themed issue 'Interpreting BOLD: a dialogue between cognitive and cellular neuroscience'. PMID:27574302

  11. Can Neuroscience Construct a Literate Gendered Culture?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, David

    2011-01-01

    The construction of boys as a gendered culture is not usually associated with neuroscience. Exceptions are publications and presentations by consultants on boys' education who adopt a "brain-based" perspective. From a neuroscience perspective, my analysis indicates the selective use of primary neuroscience research to construct and perpetuate…

  12. Recent advances in the elucidation of enzymatic function in natural product biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Tan, Gao-Yi; Deng, Zixin; Liu, Tiangang

    2015-01-01

    With the successful production of artemisinic acid in yeast, the promising potential of synthetic biology for natural product biosynthesis is now being realized. The recent total biosynthesis of opioids in microbes is considered to be another landmark in this field. The importance and significance of enzymes in natural product biosynthetic pathways have been re-emphasized by these advancements. Therefore, the characterization and elucidation of enzymatic function in natural product biosynthesis are undoubtedly fundamental for the development of new drugs and the heterologous biosynthesis of active natural products. Here, discoveries regarding enzymatic function in natural product biosynthesis over the past year are briefly reviewed.

  13. Recent advances in the elucidation of enzymatic function in natural product biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Gao-Yi; Deng, Zixin; Liu, Tiangang

    2016-01-01

    With the successful production of artemisinic acid in yeast, the promising potential of synthetic biology for natural product biosynthesis is now being realized. The recent total biosynthesis of opioids in microbes is considered to be another landmark in this field. The importance and significance of enzymes in natural product biosynthetic pathways have been re-emphasized by these advancements. Therefore, the characterization and elucidation of enzymatic function in natural product biosynthesis are undoubtedly fundamental for the development of new drugs and the heterologous biosynthesis of active natural products. Here, discoveries regarding enzymatic function in natural product biosynthesis over the past year are briefly reviewed. PMID:26989472

  14. What is a representative brain? Neuroscience meets population science.

    PubMed

    Falk, Emily B; Hyde, Luke W; Mitchell, Colter; Faul, Jessica; Gonzalez, Richard; Heitzeg, Mary M; Keating, Daniel P; Langa, Kenneth M; Martz, Meghan E; Maslowsky, Julie; Morrison, Frederick J; Noll, Douglas C; Patrick, Megan E; Pfeffer, Fabian T; Reuter-Lorenz, Patricia A; Thomason, Moriah E; Davis-Kean, Pamela; Monk, Christopher S; Schulenberg, John

    2013-10-29

    The last decades of neuroscience research have produced immense progress in the methods available to understand brain structure and function. Social, cognitive, clinical, affective, economic, communication, and developmental neurosciences have begun to map the relationships between neuro-psychological processes and behavioral outcomes, yielding a new understanding of human behavior and promising interventions. However, a limitation of this fast moving research is that most findings are based on small samples of convenience. Furthermore, our understanding of individual differences may be distorted by unrepresentative samples, undermining findings regarding brain-behavior mechanisms. These limitations are issues that social demographers, epidemiologists, and other population scientists have tackled, with solutions that can be applied to neuroscience. By contrast, nearly all social science disciplines, including social demography, sociology, political science, economics, communication science, and psychology, make assumptions about processes that involve the brain, but have incorporated neural measures to differing, and often limited, degrees; many still treat the brain as a black box. In this article, we describe and promote a perspective--population neuroscience--that leverages interdisciplinary expertise to (i) emphasize the importance of sampling to more clearly define the relevant populations and sampling strategies needed when using neuroscience methods to address such questions; and (ii) deepen understanding of mechanisms within population science by providing insight regarding underlying neural mechanisms. Doing so will increase our confidence in the generalizability of the findings. We provide examples to illustrate the population neuroscience approach for specific types of research questions and discuss the potential for theoretical and applied advances from this approach across areas.

  15. Does Neuroscience Matter for Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrag, Francis

    2011-01-01

    In this review essay, Francis Schrag focuses on two recent anthologies dealing completely or in part with the role of neuroscience in learning and education: The "Jossey-Bass Reader on the Brain and Learning", edited by Jossey-Bass Publishers, and "New Philosophies of Learning", edited by Ruth Cigman and Andrew Davis. Schrag argues that…

  16. A Neuroscience Perspective on Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Dendy; Norrgran, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    We briefly discuss memory types and three modern principles of neuroscience: 1) Protein growth at the synapse, 2) the three-brain theory, and 3) the interplay of the hippocampus, the neocortex, and the prefrontal cortex. To illustrate the potential of this perspective, four applications of these principles are provided.

  17. Teaching Ethics Informed by Neuroscience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayre, Molly Malany

    2016-01-01

    New findings about the brain are explicating how we make moral and ethical decisions. The neuroscience of morality is relevant to ethical decision making in social work because of a shared biopsychosocial perspective and the field's explanatory power to understand possible origins of universally accepted morals and personal attitudes at play in…

  18. Brain Matters: Neuroscience and Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blevins, Dean G.

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces a relationship between neuroscience and creativity for the sake of religious education. Citing creativity as a process that involves both originality and value, the writing articulates Howard Gardner's interplay between the talent of the person, the internal demands of a discipline, and the quality judgment of the field.…

  19. Neuroscience, Education and Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goswami, Usha

    2004-01-01

    The discipline of neuroscience draws from the fields of neurology, psychology, physiology and biology, but is best understood in the wider world as brain science. Of particular interest for education is the development of techniques for imaging the brain as it performs different cognitive functions. Cognitive neuroimaging has already led to…

  20. Dyslexia, Learning, and Pedagogical Neuroscience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fawcett, Angela J; Nicolson, Roderick I

    2007-01-01

    The explosion in neuroscientific knowledge has profound implications for education, and we advocate the establishment of the new discipline of "pedagogical neuroscience" designed to combine psychological, medical, and educational perspectives. We propose that specific learning disabilities provide the crucible in which the discipline may be…

  1. Revolutions in Neuroscience: Tool Development.

    PubMed

    Bickle, John

    2016-01-01

    Thomas Kuhn's famous model of the components and dynamics of scientific revolutions is still dominant to this day across science, philosophy, and history. The guiding philosophical theme of this article is that, concerning actual revolutions in neuroscience over the past 60 years, Kuhn's account is wrong. There have been revolutions, and new ones are brewing, but they do not turn on competing paradigms, anomalies, or the like. Instead, they turn exclusively on the development of new experimental tools. I adopt a metascientific approach and examine in detail the development of two recent neuroscience revolutions: the impact of engineered genetically mutated mammals in the search for causal mechanisms of "higher" cognitive functions; and the more recent impact of optogenetics and designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADDs). The two key metascientific concepts, I derive from these case studies are a revolutionary new tool's motivating problem, and its initial and second-phase hook experiments. These concepts hardly exhaust a detailed metascience of tool development experiments in neuroscience, but they get that project off to a useful start and distinguish the subsequent account of neuroscience revolutions clearly from Kuhn's famous model. I close with a brief remark about the general importance of molecular biology for a current philosophical understanding of science, as comparable to the place physics occupied when Kuhn formulated his famous theory of scientific revolutions. PMID:27013992

  2. Neuroscience Laboratory and Classroom Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellamy, Mary Louise Ed.; Frame, Kathy Ed.

    This publication is part of a larger project involving partnerships between high school biology teachers and neuroscientists. It contains neuroscience laboratories and classroom activities, most of which provide opportunities for students to design and conduct their own experiments. Each lab contains directions for both teachers and students and…

  3. Revolutions in Neuroscience: Tool Development

    PubMed Central

    Bickle, John

    2016-01-01

    Thomas Kuhn’s famous model of the components and dynamics of scientific revolutions is still dominant to this day across science, philosophy, and history. The guiding philosophical theme of this article is that, concerning actual revolutions in neuroscience over the past 60 years, Kuhn’s account is wrong. There have been revolutions, and new ones are brewing, but they do not turn on competing paradigms, anomalies, or the like. Instead, they turn exclusively on the development of new experimental tools. I adopt a metascientific approach and examine in detail the development of two recent neuroscience revolutions: the impact of engineered genetically mutated mammals in the search for causal mechanisms of “higher” cognitive functions; and the more recent impact of optogenetics and designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADDs). The two key metascientific concepts, I derive from these case studies are a revolutionary new tool’s motivating problem, and its initial and second-phase hook experiments. These concepts hardly exhaust a detailed metascience of tool development experiments in neuroscience, but they get that project off to a useful start and distinguish the subsequent account of neuroscience revolutions clearly from Kuhn’s famous model. I close with a brief remark about the general importance of molecular biology for a current philosophical understanding of science, as comparable to the place physics occupied when Kuhn formulated his famous theory of scientific revolutions. PMID:27013992

  4. Neuroscience, Play, and Child Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, Joe L.

    This paper presents a brief overview of the array of neuroscience research as it applies to play and child development. The paper discusses research showing the importance of play for brain growth and child development, and recommends that families, schools and other social and corporate institutions rearrange their attitudes and priorities about…

  5. The Future of Educational Neuroscience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Kurt W.; Goswami, Usha; Geake, John

    2010-01-01

    The primary goal of the emerging field of educational neuroscience and the broader movement called Mind, Brain, and Education is to join biology with cognitive science, development, and education so that education can be grounded more solidly in research on learning and teaching. To avoid misdirection, the growing worldwide movement needs to avoid…

  6. Bridging the Gap: establishing the necessary infrastructure and knowledge for teaching and research in neuroscience in Africa.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, Sadiq; Baden, Tom; Prieto-Godino, Lucia L

    2014-06-01

    Advances in neuroscience research over the last few decades have increased our understanding of how individual neurons acquire their specific properties and assemble into complex circuits, and how these circuits are affected in disease. One of the important motives driving neuroscience research is the development of new scientific techniques and interdisciplinary cooperation. Compared to developed countries, many countries on the African continent are confronted with poor facilities, lack of funding or career development programs for neuroscientists, all of which deter young scientists from taking up neuroscience as a career choice. This article highlights some steps that are being taken to promote neuroscience education and research in Africa.

  7. Genome Engineering with TALE and CRISPR Systems in Neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Lee, Han B; Sundberg, Brynn N; Sigafoos, Ashley N; Clark, Karl J

    2016-01-01

    Recent advancement in genome engineering technology is changing the landscape of biological research and providing neuroscientists with an opportunity to develop new methodologies to ask critical research questions. This advancement is highlighted by the increased use of programmable DNA-binding agents (PDBAs) such as transcription activator-like effector (TALE) and RNA-guided clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR associated (Cas) systems. These PDBAs fused or co-expressed with various effector domains allow precise modification of genomic sequences and gene expression levels. These technologies mirror and extend beyond classic gene targeting methods contributing to the development of novel tools for basic and clinical neuroscience. In this Review, we discuss the recent development in genome engineering and potential applications of this technology in the field of neuroscience.

  8. Genome Engineering with TALE and CRISPR Systems in Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Han B.; Sundberg, Brynn N.; Sigafoos, Ashley N.; Clark, Karl J.

    2016-01-01

    Recent advancement in genome engineering technology is changing the landscape of biological research and providing neuroscientists with an opportunity to develop new methodologies to ask critical research questions. This advancement is highlighted by the increased use of programmable DNA-binding agents (PDBAs) such as transcription activator-like effector (TALE) and RNA-guided clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR associated (Cas) systems. These PDBAs fused or co-expressed with various effector domains allow precise modification of genomic sequences and gene expression levels. These technologies mirror and extend beyond classic gene targeting methods contributing to the development of novel tools for basic and clinical neuroscience. In this Review, we discuss the recent development in genome engineering and potential applications of this technology in the field of neuroscience. PMID:27092173

  9. Beyond celery and starter culture: advances in natural/organic curing processes in the United States.

    PubMed

    Sebranek, J G; Jackson-Davis, A L; Myers, K L; Lavieri, N A

    2012-11-01

    Over the past 10years there has been ongoing development of curing processes with natural ingredients designed to meet consumer demand and regulatory requirements for natural and organic processed meats. Initially, these processes utilized celery concentrates with a high nitrate content combined with a nitrate-reducing starter culture. Subsequent advances included celery concentrates with the nitrate converted to nitrite by suppliers. Further, as questions developed concerning reduced concentration of preservatives and the microbiological safety of these processed meats, additional advances have resulted in a wide variety of ingredients and processes designed to provide supplementary antimicrobial effects for improved product safety.

  10. Neuroscience of aesthetics.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Anjan; Vartanian, Oshin

    2016-04-01

    Aesthetic evaluations are appraisals that influence choices in important domains of human activity, including mate selection, consumer behavior, art appreciation, and possibly even moral judgment. The nascent field of neuroaesthetics is advancing our understanding of the role of aesthetic evaluations by examining their biological bases. Here, we conduct a selective review of the literature on neuroaesthetics to demonstrate that aesthetic experiences likely emerge from the interaction between emotion-valuation, sensory-motor, and meaning-knowledge neural systems. This tripartite model can in turn be evoked to explain phenomena central to aesthetics, such as context effects on preferences. Indeed, context-dependent appraisals that focus on objects rather than on outcomes could be an important factor distinguishing aesthetic experiences from other kinds of evaluations.

  11. Neuroscience of aesthetics.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Anjan; Vartanian, Oshin

    2016-04-01

    Aesthetic evaluations are appraisals that influence choices in important domains of human activity, including mate selection, consumer behavior, art appreciation, and possibly even moral judgment. The nascent field of neuroaesthetics is advancing our understanding of the role of aesthetic evaluations by examining their biological bases. Here, we conduct a selective review of the literature on neuroaesthetics to demonstrate that aesthetic experiences likely emerge from the interaction between emotion-valuation, sensory-motor, and meaning-knowledge neural systems. This tripartite model can in turn be evoked to explain phenomena central to aesthetics, such as context effects on preferences. Indeed, context-dependent appraisals that focus on objects rather than on outcomes could be an important factor distinguishing aesthetic experiences from other kinds of evaluations. PMID:27037898

  12. Neural networks and neuroscience-inspired computer vision.

    PubMed

    Cox, David Daniel; Dean, Thomas

    2014-09-22

    Brains are, at a fundamental level, biological computing machines. They transform a torrent of complex and ambiguous sensory information into coherent thought and action, allowing an organism to perceive and model its environment, synthesize and make decisions from disparate streams of information, and adapt to a changing environment. Against this backdrop, it is perhaps not surprising that computer science, the science of building artificial computational systems, has long looked to biology for inspiration. However, while the opportunities for cross-pollination between neuroscience and computer science are great, the road to achieving brain-like algorithms has been long and rocky. Here, we review the historical connections between neuroscience and computer science, and we look forward to a new era of potential collaboration, enabled by recent rapid advances in both biologically-inspired computer vision and in experimental neuroscience methods. In particular, we explore where neuroscience-inspired algorithms have succeeded, where they still fail, and we identify areas where deeper connections are likely to be fruitful.

  13. NEURO.TV: Neuroscience Education on the Internet

    PubMed Central

    L, Xie Diana; L, Miller Steven; LEANNE, Boucher; L, Kubie John; FRANCOIS, Gariépy Jean-

    2014-01-01

    NEURO.tv is a new educational project that seeks to bring advanced concepts in neuroscience to the general public. We film one-hour discussions with leading neuroscientists, philosophers, and psychologists who have had significant impact on our current understanding of brain function, and we publish these discussions on YouTube, iTunes, and other social media outlets. Here, we explain the motivations behind this new program. PMID:25246839

  14. The warrior in the machine: neuroscience goes to war.

    PubMed

    Tracey, Irene; Flower, Rod

    2014-12-01

    Ever since Stone Age men discovered that knapping flint produced sharp stone edges that could be used in combat as well as for cooking and hunting, technological advances of all kinds have been adapted and adopted by the military.The opportunities provided by modern neuroscience are proving no exception, but their application in a military context is accompanied by complex practical and ethical considerations.

  15. Neuroscience and approach/avoidance personality traits: a two stage (valuation-motivation) approach.

    PubMed

    Corr, Philip J; McNaughton, Neil

    2012-11-01

    Many personality theories link specific traits to the sensitivities of the neural systems that control approach and avoidance. But there is no consensus on the nature of these systems. Here we combine recent advances in economics and neuroscience to provide a more solid foundation for a neuroscience of approach/avoidance personality. We propose a two-stage integration of valuation (loss/gain) sensitivities with motivational (approach/avoidance/conflict) sensitivities. Our key conclusions are: (1) that valuation of appetitive and aversive events (e.g. gain and loss as studied by behavioural economists) is an independent perceptual input stage--with the economic phenomenon of loss aversion resulting from greater negative valuation sensitivity compared to positive valuation sensitivity; (2) that valuation of an appetitive stimulus then interacts with a contingency of presentation or omission to generate a motivational 'attractor' or 'repulsor', respectively (vice versa for an aversive stimulus); (3) the resultant behavioural tendencies to approach or avoid have distinct sensitivities to those of the valuation systems; (4) while attractors and repulsors can reinforce new responses they also, more usually, elicit innate or previously conditioned responses and so the perception/valuation-motivation/action complex is best characterised as acting as a 'reinforcer' not a 'reinforcement'; and (5) approach-avoidance conflict must be viewed as activating a third motivation system that is distinct from the basic approach and avoidance systems. We provide examples of methods of assessing each of the constructs within approach-avoidance theories and of linking these constructs to personality measures. We sketch a preliminary five-element reinforcer sensitivity theory (RST-5) as a first step in the integration of existing specific approach-avoidance theories into a coherent neuroscience of personality. PMID:23041073

  16. Neuroscience and approach/avoidance personality traits: a two stage (valuation-motivation) approach.

    PubMed

    Corr, Philip J; McNaughton, Neil

    2012-11-01

    Many personality theories link specific traits to the sensitivities of the neural systems that control approach and avoidance. But there is no consensus on the nature of these systems. Here we combine recent advances in economics and neuroscience to provide a more solid foundation for a neuroscience of approach/avoidance personality. We propose a two-stage integration of valuation (loss/gain) sensitivities with motivational (approach/avoidance/conflict) sensitivities. Our key conclusions are: (1) that valuation of appetitive and aversive events (e.g. gain and loss as studied by behavioural economists) is an independent perceptual input stage--with the economic phenomenon of loss aversion resulting from greater negative valuation sensitivity compared to positive valuation sensitivity; (2) that valuation of an appetitive stimulus then interacts with a contingency of presentation or omission to generate a motivational 'attractor' or 'repulsor', respectively (vice versa for an aversive stimulus); (3) the resultant behavioural tendencies to approach or avoid have distinct sensitivities to those of the valuation systems; (4) while attractors and repulsors can reinforce new responses they also, more usually, elicit innate or previously conditioned responses and so the perception/valuation-motivation/action complex is best characterised as acting as a 'reinforcer' not a 'reinforcement'; and (5) approach-avoidance conflict must be viewed as activating a third motivation system that is distinct from the basic approach and avoidance systems. We provide examples of methods of assessing each of the constructs within approach-avoidance theories and of linking these constructs to personality measures. We sketch a preliminary five-element reinforcer sensitivity theory (RST-5) as a first step in the integration of existing specific approach-avoidance theories into a coherent neuroscience of personality.

  17. Neuroscience: viable applications in education?

    PubMed

    Devonshire, Ian M; Dommett, Eleanor J

    2010-08-01

    As a relatively young science, neuroscience is still finding its feet in potential collaborations with other disciplines. One such discipline is education, with the field of neuroeducation being on the horizon since the 1960s. However, although its achievements are now growing, the partnership has not been as successful as first hopes suggested it should be. Here the authors discuss the theoretical barriers and potential solutions to this, which have been suggested previously, with particular focus on levels of research in neuroscience and their applicability to education. Moreover, they propose that these theoretical barriers are driven and maintained by practical barriers surrounding common language and research literacy. They propose that by overcoming these practical barriers through appropriate training and shared experience, neuroeducation can reach its full potential.

  18. Benjamin Franklin and the neurosciences.

    PubMed

    Finger, Stanley

    2006-01-01

    Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790), who is better known in other fields, especially colonial politics and international diplomacy, was an early, major contributor to the neurosciences from the New World. Among his accomplishments are: experiments on medical electricity as a possible cure for the palsies and hysteria; the first descriptions of how electricity affecting the brain can cause a specific type of amnesia; supporting the idea that cranial shocks might provide a cure for melancholia; showing that the cures performed by the Mesmerists to remove obstructions, including nerve blockages, rest on gullibility and suggestion, and recognizing the dangers, including those to the nerves, posed by exposure to lead. Franklin?s neuroscience was firmly based on experiments, careful observations, and hard data ? and finding clinical relevance for new discoveries was always on his mind.

  19. The neuroscience of learning.

    PubMed

    Collins, John W

    2007-10-01

    Significant advances have been made in understanding the neurophysiological basis of learning, including the discovery of mirror neurons and the role of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) responsive element binding (CREB) protein in learning. Mirror neurons help us visually compare an observed activity with a remembered action in our memory, an ability that helps us imitate and learn through watching. Long-term potentiation, the Hebb rule, and CREB protein are associated with the formation of long-term memories. Conversely, protein phosphatase 1 and glucocorticoids are neurophysiological phenomena that limit what can be learned and cause forgetfulness. Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences contends that different areas of the brain are responsible for different competencies that we all possess to varying degrees. These multiple intelligences can be used as strategies for improved learning. Repeating material, using mnemonics, and avoiding overwhelming stress are other strategies for improving learning. Imaging studies have shown that practice with resultant learning results in significantly less use of brain areas, indicating that the brain becomes more efficient. Experts have advantages over novices, including increased cognitive processing efficiency. Nurses are in a unique position to use their understanding of neurophysiological principles to implement better educational strategies to provide quality education to patients and others.

  20. The neuroscience of learning.

    PubMed

    Collins, John W

    2007-10-01

    Significant advances have been made in understanding the neurophysiological basis of learning, including the discovery of mirror neurons and the role of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) responsive element binding (CREB) protein in learning. Mirror neurons help us visually compare an observed activity with a remembered action in our memory, an ability that helps us imitate and learn through watching. Long-term potentiation, the Hebb rule, and CREB protein are associated with the formation of long-term memories. Conversely, protein phosphatase 1 and glucocorticoids are neurophysiological phenomena that limit what can be learned and cause forgetfulness. Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences contends that different areas of the brain are responsible for different competencies that we all possess to varying degrees. These multiple intelligences can be used as strategies for improved learning. Repeating material, using mnemonics, and avoiding overwhelming stress are other strategies for improving learning. Imaging studies have shown that practice with resultant learning results in significantly less use of brain areas, indicating that the brain becomes more efficient. Experts have advantages over novices, including increased cognitive processing efficiency. Nurses are in a unique position to use their understanding of neurophysiological principles to implement better educational strategies to provide quality education to patients and others. PMID:17966298

  1. The neuroscience of psychological treatments.

    PubMed

    Barlow, David H

    2014-11-01

    The series of articles in this issue of Behavior Research and Therapy presages a new field of translational research that could be called "the neuroscience of psychological treatments". After a brief retrospective on the origins and promise of this focus of study several cautions are adumbrated. As in any new field of scientific endeavor, close collaboration among stakeholders with interest in this field and the integration of a healthy scientific skepticism will best ensure the continued development of ever more powerful psychological treatments.

  2. NSDF: Neuroscience Simulation Data Format.

    PubMed

    Ray, Subhasis; Chintaluri, Chaitanya; Bhalla, Upinder S; Wójcik, Daniel K

    2016-04-01

    Data interchange is emerging as an essential aspect of modern neuroscience. In the areas of computational neuroscience and systems biology there are multiple model definition formats, which have contributed strongly to the development of an ecosystem of simulation and analysis tools. Here we report the development of the Neuroscience Simulation Data Format (NSDF) which extends this ecosystem to the data generated in simulations. NSDF is designed to store simulator output across scales: from multiscale chemical and electrical signaling models, to detailed single-neuron and network models, to abstract neural nets. It is self-documenting, efficient, modular, and scalable, both in terms of novel data types and in terms of data volume. NSDF is simulator-independent, and can be used by a range of standalone analysis and visualization tools. It may also be used to store variety of experimental data. NSDF is based on the widely used HDF5 (Hierarchical Data Format 5) specification and is open, platform-independent, and portable.

  3. NSDF: Neuroscience Simulation Data Format.

    PubMed

    Ray, Subhasis; Chintaluri, Chaitanya; Bhalla, Upinder S; Wójcik, Daniel K

    2016-04-01

    Data interchange is emerging as an essential aspect of modern neuroscience. In the areas of computational neuroscience and systems biology there are multiple model definition formats, which have contributed strongly to the development of an ecosystem of simulation and analysis tools. Here we report the development of the Neuroscience Simulation Data Format (NSDF) which extends this ecosystem to the data generated in simulations. NSDF is designed to store simulator output across scales: from multiscale chemical and electrical signaling models, to detailed single-neuron and network models, to abstract neural nets. It is self-documenting, efficient, modular, and scalable, both in terms of novel data types and in terms of data volume. NSDF is simulator-independent, and can be used by a range of standalone analysis and visualization tools. It may also be used to store variety of experimental data. NSDF is based on the widely used HDF5 (Hierarchical Data Format 5) specification and is open, platform-independent, and portable. PMID:26585711

  4. Concerns about cultural neurosciences: a critical analysis.

    PubMed

    Martínez Mateo, Marina; Cabanis, Maurice; Cruz de Echeverría Loebell, Nicole; Krach, Sören

    2012-01-01

    Ten years ago, neuroscientists began to study cultural phenomena by using functional MRI. Since then the number of publications in this field, termed cultural neuroscience (CN), has tremendously increased. In these studies, particular concepts of culture are implied, but rarely explicitly discussed. We argue that it is necessary to make these concepts a topic of debate in order to unravel the foundations of CN. From 40 fMRI studies we extracted two strands of reasoning: models investigating universal mechanisms for the formation of cultural groups and habits and, models assessing differences in characteristics among cultural groups. Both strands simplify culture as an inflexible set of traits and specificities. We question this rigid understanding of culture and highlight its hidden evaluative nature.

  5. Editorial: «Interventional Neuroradiology: a Neuroscience sub-specialty?».

    PubMed

    Rodesch, Georges; Picard, Luc; Berenstein, Alex; Biondi, Alessandra; Bracard, Serge; Choi, In Sup; Feng, Ling; Hyogo, Toshio; Lefeuvre, David; Leonardi, Marco; Mayer, Thomas; Miyashi, Shigeru; Muto, Mario; Piske, Ronie; Pongpech, Sirintara; Reul, Jurgen; Söderman, Michael; Sul, Dae Chuh; Tampieri, Donatella; Taylor, Allan; Terbrugge, Karel; Valavanis, Anton; van den Berg, René

    2013-12-01

    Interventional Neuroradiology (INR) is not bound by the classical limits of a speciality, and is not restricted by standard formats of teaching and education. Open and naturally linked towards neurosciences, INR has become a unique source of novel ideas for research, development and progress allowing new and improved approaches to challenging pathologies resulting in better anatomo-clinical results. Opening INR to Neurosciences is the best way to keep it alive and growing. Anchored in Neuroradiology, at the crossroad of neurosciences, INR will further participate to progress and innovation as it has often been in the past.

  6. What is a representative brain? Neuroscience meets population science

    PubMed Central

    Falk, Emily B.; Hyde, Luke W.; Mitchell, Colter; Faul, Jessica; Gonzalez, Richard; Heitzeg, Mary M.; Keating, Daniel P.; Langa, Kenneth M.; Martz, Meghan E.; Maslowsky, Julie; Morrison, Frederick J.; Noll, Douglas C.; Patrick, Megan E.; Pfeffer, Fabian T.; Reuter-Lorenz, Patricia A.; Thomason, Moriah E.; Davis-Kean, Pamela; Monk, Christopher S.; Schulenberg, John

    2013-01-01

    The last decades of neuroscience research have produced immense progress in the methods available to understand brain structure and function. Social, cognitive, clinical, affective, economic, communication, and developmental neurosciences have begun to map the relationships between neuro-psychological processes and behavioral outcomes, yielding a new understanding of human behavior and promising interventions. However, a limitation of this fast moving research is that most findings are based on small samples of convenience. Furthermore, our understanding of individual differences may be distorted by unrepresentative samples, undermining findings regarding brain–behavior mechanisms. These limitations are issues that social demographers, epidemiologists, and other population scientists have tackled, with solutions that can be applied to neuroscience. By contrast, nearly all social science disciplines, including social demography, sociology, political science, economics, communication science, and psychology, make assumptions about processes that involve the brain, but have incorporated neural measures to differing, and often limited, degrees; many still treat the brain as a black box. In this article, we describe and promote a perspective—population neuroscience—that leverages interdisciplinary expertise to (i) emphasize the importance of sampling to more clearly define the relevant populations and sampling strategies needed when using neuroscience methods to address such questions; and (ii) deepen understanding of mechanisms within population science by providing insight regarding underlying neural mechanisms. Doing so will increase our confidence in the generalizability of the findings. We provide examples to illustrate the population neuroscience approach for specific types of research questions and discuss the potential for theoretical and applied advances from this approach across areas. PMID:24151336

  7. How neuroscience can inform consumer research.

    PubMed

    Kenning, Peter H; Plassmann, Hilke

    2008-12-01

    Recently, a rapidly growing approach within consumer research has developed under the label of "consumer neuroscience." Its goal is to use insights and methods from neuroscience to enhance the understanding of consumer behavior. In this paper we aim to provide an overview of questions of interest to consumer researchers, to present initial research findings, and to outline potential implications for consumer research. In order to do so, we first discuss the term "consumer neuroscience" and give a brief description of recently discussed issues in consumer research. We then provide a review and short description of initial empirical evidence from past studies in consumer neuroscience. Next, we present an example of how consumer research or, more specifically, customer loyalty research, may benefit from the consumer neuroscience approach. The paper concludes with a discussion of potential implications and suggestions for future research in the nascent field of consumer neuroscience. PMID:19144585

  8. Educating psychiatry residents in neuropsychiatry and neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, Sheldon

    2013-06-01

    Neuropsychiatry and psychiatric neuroscience should be part of the general psychiatry curriculum so that graduate psychiatrists will be able to allow their patients the benefit of neuroscientifically informed diagnosis and treatment. Current neurology and neuroscience educational requirements for US psychiatry training are reviewed. The draft milestone requirements for clinical neuroscience training as part of the US Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education's Next Accreditation System are also provided. Suggestions for the neuropsychiatric and neuroscience content of psychiatry residency training are made, along with a description of pedagogic methods and resources. Survey data are reviewed indicating agreement by programme directors with the importance of neuroscience training and an increase in the amount of time devoted to this area. Faculty staff development in neuropsychiatry and neuroscience literacy will be needed to provide high quality training in these areas.

  9. Reliability and Validity for Neuroscience Nurses.

    PubMed

    Buelow, Janice M; Hinkle, Janice L; McNett, Molly

    2016-10-01

    The concepts of reliability and validity are important for neuroscience nurses to understand, particularly because they evaluate existing literature and integrate common scales or tools into their practice. Nurses must ensure instruments measuring specified concepts are both reliable and valid. This article will review types of reliability and validity-sometimes referred to collectively as a psychometric testing-of an instrument. Relevant examples in neuroscience are included to illustrate the importance of reliability and validity to neuroscience nurses. PMID:27579956

  10. Building sustainable neuroscience capacity in Africa: the role of non-profit organisations.

    PubMed

    Karikari, Thomas K; Cobham, Ansa E; Ndams, Iliya S

    2016-02-01

    While advances in neuroscience are helping to improve many aspects of human life, inequalities exist in this field between Africa and more scientifically-advanced continents. Many African countries lack the infrastructure and appropriately-trained scientists for neuroscience education and research. Addressing these challenges would require the development of innovative approaches to help improve scientific competence for neuroscience across the continent. In recent years, science-based non-profit organisations (NPOs) have been supporting the African neuroscience community to build state-of-the-art scientific capacity for sustainable education and research. Some of these contributions have included: the establishment of training courses and workshops to introduce African scientists to powerful-yet-cost-effective experimental model systems; research infrastructural support and assistance to establish research institutes. Other contributions have come in the form of the promotion of scientific networking, public engagement and advocacy for improved neuroscience funding. Here, we discuss the contributions of NPOs to the development of neuroscience in Africa.

  11. Computational Neuroscience: Modeling the Systems Biology of Synaptic Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Kotaleski, Jeanette Hellgren; Blackwell, Kim T.

    2016-01-01

    Preface Synaptic plasticity is a mechanism proposed to underlie learning and memory. The complexity of the interactions between ion channels, enzymes, and genes involved in synaptic plasticity impedes a deep understanding of this phenomenon. Computer modeling is an approach to investigate the information processing that is performed by signaling pathways underlying synaptic plasticity. In the past few years, new software developments that blend computational neuroscience techniques with systems biology techniques have allowed large-scale, quantitative modeling of synaptic plasticity in neurons. We highlight significant advancements produced by these modeling efforts and introduce promising approaches that utilize advancements in live cell imaging. PMID:20300102

  12. Interpreting BOLD: towards a dialogue between cognitive and cellular neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Howarth, Clare; Kurth-Nelson, Zebulun; Mishra, Anusha

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive neuroscience depends on the use of blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to probe brain function. Although commonly used as a surrogate measure of neuronal activity, BOLD signals actually reflect changes in brain blood oxygenation. Understanding the mechanisms linking neuronal activity to vascular perfusion is, therefore, critical in interpreting BOLD. Advances in cellular neuroscience demonstrating differences in this neurovascular relationship in different brain regions, conditions or pathologies are often not accounted for when interpreting BOLD. Meanwhile, within cognitive neuroscience, the increasing use of high magnetic field strengths and the development of model-based tasks and analyses have broadened the capability of BOLD signals to inform us about the underlying neuronal activity, but these methods are less well understood by cellular neuroscientists. In 2016, a Royal Society Theo Murphy Meeting brought scientists from the two communities together to discuss these issues. Here, we consolidate the main conclusions arising from that meeting. We discuss areas of consensus about what BOLD fMRI can tell us about underlying neuronal activity, and how advanced modelling techniques have improved our ability to use and interpret BOLD. We also highlight areas of controversy in understanding BOLD and suggest research directions required to resolve these issues. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Interpreting BOLD: a dialogue between cognitive and cellular neuroscience’. PMID:27574302

  13. Social neuroscience in psychiatry: unravelling the neural mechanisms of social dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Fett, A K J; Shergill, S S; Krabbendam, L

    2015-04-01

    Social neuroscience is a flourishing, interdisciplinary field that investigates the underlying biological processes of social cognition and behaviour. The recent application of social neuroscience to psychiatric research advances our understanding of various psychiatric illnesses that are characterized by impairments in social cognition and social functioning. In addition, the upcoming line of social neuroscience research provides new techniques to design and evaluate treatment interventions that are aimed at improving patients' social lives. This review provides a contemporary overview of social neuroscience in psychiatry. We draw together the major findings about the neural mechanisms of social cognitive processes directed at understanding others and social interactions in psychiatric illnesses and discuss their implications for future research and clinical practice.

  14. Advances in identification and validation of protein targets of natural products without chemical modification.

    PubMed

    Chang, J; Kim, Y; Kwon, H J

    2016-05-01

    Covering: up to February 2016Identification of the target proteins of natural products is pivotal to understanding the mechanisms of action to develop natural products for use as molecular probes and potential therapeutic drugs. Affinity chromatography of immobilized natural products has been conventionally used to identify target proteins, and has yielded good results. However, this method has limitations, in that labeling or tagging for immobilization and affinity purification often result in reduced or altered activity of the natural product. New strategies have recently been developed and applied to identify the target proteins of natural products and synthetic small molecules without chemical modification of the natural product. These direct and indirect methods for target identification of label-free natural products include drug affinity responsive target stability (DARTS), stability of proteins from rates of oxidation (SPROX), cellular thermal shift assay (CETSA), thermal proteome profiling (TPP), and bioinformatics-based analysis of connectivity. This review focuses on and reports case studies of the latest advances in target protein identification methods for label-free natural products. The integration of newly developed technologies will provide new insights and highlight the value of natural products for use as biological probes and new drug candidates.

  15. Advances in identification and validation of protein targets of natural products without chemical modification.

    PubMed

    Chang, J; Kim, Y; Kwon, H J

    2016-05-01

    Covering: up to February 2016Identification of the target proteins of natural products is pivotal to understanding the mechanisms of action to develop natural products for use as molecular probes and potential therapeutic drugs. Affinity chromatography of immobilized natural products has been conventionally used to identify target proteins, and has yielded good results. However, this method has limitations, in that labeling or tagging for immobilization and affinity purification often result in reduced or altered activity of the natural product. New strategies have recently been developed and applied to identify the target proteins of natural products and synthetic small molecules without chemical modification of the natural product. These direct and indirect methods for target identification of label-free natural products include drug affinity responsive target stability (DARTS), stability of proteins from rates of oxidation (SPROX), cellular thermal shift assay (CETSA), thermal proteome profiling (TPP), and bioinformatics-based analysis of connectivity. This review focuses on and reports case studies of the latest advances in target protein identification methods for label-free natural products. The integration of newly developed technologies will provide new insights and highlight the value of natural products for use as biological probes and new drug candidates. PMID:26964663

  16. Primate comparative neuroscience using magnetic resonance imaging: promises and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Mars, Rogier B.; Neubert, Franz-Xaver; Verhagen, Lennart; Sallet, Jérôme; Miller, Karla L.; Dunbar, Robin I. M.; Barton, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Primate comparative anatomy is an established field that has made rich and substantial contributions to neuroscience. However, the labor-intensive techniques employed mean that most comparisons are often based on a small number of species, which limits the conclusions that can be drawn. In this review we explore how new developments in magnetic resonance imaging have the potential to apply comparative neuroscience to a much wider range of species, allowing it to realize an even greater potential. We discuss (1) new advances in the types of data that can be acquired, (2) novel methods for extracting meaningful measures from such data that can be compared between species, and (3) methods to analyse these measures within a phylogenetic framework. Together these developments will allow researchers to characterize the relationship between different brains, the ecological niche they occupy, and the behavior they produce in more detail than ever before. PMID:25339857

  17. Primate comparative neuroscience using magnetic resonance imaging: promises and challenges.

    PubMed

    Mars, Rogier B; Neubert, Franz-Xaver; Verhagen, Lennart; Sallet, Jérôme; Miller, Karla L; Dunbar, Robin I M; Barton, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    Primate comparative anatomy is an established field that has made rich and substantial contributions to neuroscience. However, the labor-intensive techniques employed mean that most comparisons are often based on a small number of species, which limits the conclusions that can be drawn. In this review we explore how new developments in magnetic resonance imaging have the potential to apply comparative neuroscience to a much wider range of species, allowing it to realize an even greater potential. We discuss (1) new advances in the types of data that can be acquired, (2) novel methods for extracting meaningful measures from such data that can be compared between species, and (3) methods to analyse these measures within a phylogenetic framework. Together these developments will allow researchers to characterize the relationship between different brains, the ecological niche they occupy, and the behavior they produce in more detail than ever before.

  18. Laughter as a scientific problem: An adventure in sidewalk neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Provine, Robert R

    2016-06-01

    Laughter is a stereotyped, innate, human play vocalization that provides an ideal simple system for neurobehavioral analyses of the sort usually associated with such animal models as walking, wing-flapping, and bird song. Laughter research is in its early stages, where the frontiers are near and accessible to simple observational procedures termed "sidewalk neuroscience." The basic, nontechnical approach of describing the act of laughter and when humans do it has revealed a variety of phenomena of social and neurological significance. Findings include the acoustic structure of laughter, the minimal voluntary control of laughter, contagiousness, the "punctuation effect" that describes the placement of laughter in conversation, the dominance of speech over laughter, the role of breath control in the evolution of speech, the evolutionary trajectory of laughter in primates, and the role of laughter in human matching and mating. If one knows where to look and how to see, advances in neuroscience are accessible to anyone and require minimal resources.

  19. The BRAIN Initiative: developing technology to catalyse neuroscience discovery

    PubMed Central

    Jorgenson, Lyric A.; Newsome, William T.; Anderson, David J.; Bargmann, Cornelia I.; Brown, Emery N.; Deisseroth, Karl; Donoghue, John P.; Hudson, Kathy L.; Ling, Geoffrey S. F.; MacLeish, Peter R.; Marder, Eve; Normann, Richard A.; Sanes, Joshua R.; Schnitzer, Mark J.; Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Tank, David W.; Tsien, Roger Y.; Ugurbil, Kamil; Wingfield, John C.

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of the field of neuroscience has been propelled by the advent of novel technological capabilities, and the pace at which these capabilities are being developed has accelerated dramatically in the past decade. Capitalizing on this momentum, the United States launched the Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN) Initiative to develop and apply new tools and technologies for revolutionizing our understanding of the brain. In this article, we review the scientific vision for this initiative set forth by the National Institutes of Health and discuss its implications for the future of neuroscience research. Particular emphasis is given to its potential impact on the mapping and study of neural circuits, and how this knowledge will transform our understanding of the complexity of the human brain and its diverse array of behaviours, perceptions, thoughts and emotions. PMID:25823863

  20. The BRAIN Initiative: developing technology to catalyse neuroscience discovery.

    PubMed

    Jorgenson, Lyric A; Newsome, William T; Anderson, David J; Bargmann, Cornelia I; Brown, Emery N; Deisseroth, Karl; Donoghue, John P; Hudson, Kathy L; Ling, Geoffrey S F; MacLeish, Peter R; Marder, Eve; Normann, Richard A; Sanes, Joshua R; Schnitzer, Mark J; Sejnowski, Terrence J; Tank, David W; Tsien, Roger Y; Ugurbil, Kamil; Wingfield, John C

    2015-05-19

    The evolution of the field of neuroscience has been propelled by the advent of novel technological capabilities, and the pace at which these capabilities are being developed has accelerated dramatically in the past decade. Capitalizing on this momentum, the United States launched the Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN) Initiative to develop and apply new tools and technologies for revolutionizing our understanding of the brain. In this article, we review the scientific vision for this initiative set forth by the National Institutes of Health and discuss its implications for the future of neuroscience research. Particular emphasis is given to its potential impact on the mapping and study of neural circuits, and how this knowledge will transform our understanding of the complexity of the human brain and its diverse array of behaviours, perceptions, thoughts and emotions. PMID:25823863

  1. The BRAIN Initiative: developing technology to catalyse neuroscience discovery.

    PubMed

    Jorgenson, Lyric A; Newsome, William T; Anderson, David J; Bargmann, Cornelia I; Brown, Emery N; Deisseroth, Karl; Donoghue, John P; Hudson, Kathy L; Ling, Geoffrey S F; MacLeish, Peter R; Marder, Eve; Normann, Richard A; Sanes, Joshua R; Schnitzer, Mark J; Sejnowski, Terrence J; Tank, David W; Tsien, Roger Y; Ugurbil, Kamil; Wingfield, John C

    2015-05-19

    The evolution of the field of neuroscience has been propelled by the advent of novel technological capabilities, and the pace at which these capabilities are being developed has accelerated dramatically in the past decade. Capitalizing on this momentum, the United States launched the Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN) Initiative to develop and apply new tools and technologies for revolutionizing our understanding of the brain. In this article, we review the scientific vision for this initiative set forth by the National Institutes of Health and discuss its implications for the future of neuroscience research. Particular emphasis is given to its potential impact on the mapping and study of neural circuits, and how this knowledge will transform our understanding of the complexity of the human brain and its diverse array of behaviours, perceptions, thoughts and emotions.

  2. Pathological Choice: The Neuroscience of Gambling and Gambling Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Averbeck, Bruno; Payer, Doris; Sescousse, Guillaume; Winstanley, Catharine A.; Xue, Gui

    2013-01-01

    Gambling is pertinent to neuroscience research for at least two reasons. First, gambling is a naturalistic and pervasive example of risky decision making, and thus gambling games can provide a paradigm for the investigation of human choice behavior and “irrationality.” Second, excessive gambling involvement (i.e., pathological gambling) is currently conceptualized as a behavioral addiction, and research on this condition may provide insights into addictive mechanisms in the absence of exogenous drug effects. This article is a summary of topics covered in a Society for Neuroscience minisymposium, focusing on recent advances in understanding the neural basis of gambling behavior, including translational findings in rodents and nonhuman primates, which have begun to delineate neural circuitry and neurochemistry involved. PMID:24198353

  3. Neurosciences

    MedlinePlus

    ... RB, Jankovic J, Mazziotta JC, Pomeroy SK, eds. Bradley's Neurology in Clinical Practice. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ... RB, Jankovic J, Mazziotta JC, Pomeroy SK, eds. Bradley's Neurology in Clinical Practice. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  4. Educational Neuroscience: Its Position, Aims and Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Meulen, Anna; Krabbendam, Lydia; de Ruyter, Doret

    2015-01-01

    An important issue in the discussion on educational neuroscience is the transfer of thought and findings between neuroscience and education. In addition to factual confusions in this transfer in the form of neuromyths, logical confusions, or neuro-misconceptions, can be identified. We consider these transfer difficulties in light of the way…

  5. Three Requirements for Justifying an Educational Neuroscience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hruby, George G.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Over the past quarter century, efforts to bridge between research in the neurosciences and research, theory, and practice in education have grown from a mere hope to noteworthy scholarly sophistication. Many dedicated educational researchers have developed the secondary expertise in the necessary neurosciences and related fields to…

  6. Teachers' Beliefs about Neuroscience and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zambo, Debby; Zambo, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Information from neuroscience is readily available to educators, yet instructors of educational psychology and related fields have not investigated teachers' beliefs regarding this information. The purpose of this survey study was to uncover the beliefs 62 teachers held about neuroscience and education. Results indicate there were three types of…

  7. Neuroscience and Special Education. inForum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Eve

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide a brief overview of how links are being developed between the rapidly expanding field of neuroscience and the practice of special education. The first part of the document introduces definitions and terminology, provides an overview of how findings from neuroscience are being applied to the field of…

  8. Progressive Education Standards: A Neuroscience Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Grady, Patty

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a coherent and unique set of 12 standards, adopting a neuroscience framework for biologically based on school reform. This model of educational principles and practices aligns with the long-standing principles and practices of the Progressive Education Movement in the United States and the emerging principles of neuroscience.…

  9. Cognitive Neuroscience Discoveries and Educational Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sylwester, Robert

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author describes seven movement-related areas of cognitive neuroscience research that will play key roles in shifting the current behavioral orientation of teaching and learning to an orientation that also incorporates cognitive neuroscience discoveries. These areas of brain research include: (1) mirroring system; (2) plastic…

  10. Teaching undergraduate neuroscience in the digital age.

    PubMed

    Korey, Christopher A

    2009-01-01

    The Internet is enhancing and challenging traditional approaches to teaching undergraduate neuroscience. In addition to the new FUN-supported development of a Society for Neuroscience Portal for higher education, there is a wealth of available teaching resources currently housed on the web. This article discusses the current state of digital libraries and introduces a series of exemplary web-based classroom resources.

  11. Advanced nursing roles in critical care--a natural or forced evolution?

    PubMed

    Coombs, Maureen; Chaboyer, Wendy; Sole, Mary Lou

    2007-01-01

    Meeting the expectation of delivering safe, effective, and timely health care services within current financial and workforce envelopes requires all health care clinicians to refine and adapt to their clinical roles. The arena of critical care is currently receiving increasing scrutiny regarding developing dedicated advanced practice roles. This is challenging to critical care nurses who historically neither have been exposed to nor have chosen to engage in such specific role developments. The critical care nursing community has, on the whole, embraced previous role expansions within the limits of existing group practices rather than an evolution of new subspecialties. International comparisons demonstrate that critical care nurses in the United States, the United Kingdom, and Australia are all facing common health policy drivers. Although there are some similarities in addressing these challenges, the solutions remain at various stages of development. The natural history framework of Bucher [Work and Occupations 1988;15:131-147] provides a useful and supportive tool to understand how it is necessary and natural for specialties within occupational groups to emerge to meet changing health care needs. A shared concern providing challenges at national and international levels involves the coordination of educational standards as well as competencies and clear articulation of the leadership component of advanced practice roles. These areas must be addressed to enable the international critical care community to naturally transform and evolve into fully established and legitimate advanced practitioners. PMID:17383600

  12. Theory and methods in cultural neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Hariri, Ahmad R.; Harada, Tokiko; Mano, Yoko; Sadato, Norihiro; Parrish, Todd B.; Iidaka, Tetsuya

    2010-01-01

    Cultural neuroscience is an emerging research discipline that investigates cultural variation in psychological, neural and genomic processes as a means of articulating the bidirectional relationship of these processes and their emergent properties. Research in cultural neuroscience integrates theory and methods from anthropology, cultural psychology, neuroscience and neurogenetics. Here, we review a set of core theoretical and methodological challenges facing researchers when planning and conducting cultural neuroscience studies, and provide suggestions for overcoming these challenges. In particular, we focus on the problems of defining culture and culturally appropriate experimental tasks, comparing neuroimaging data acquired from different populations and scanner sites and identifying functional genetic polymorphisms relevant to culture. Implications of cultural neuroscience research for addressing current issues in population health disparities are discussed. PMID:20592044

  13. Neurosciences and adult health behaviors: recent findings and implications for counseling psychology.

    PubMed

    Simon-Dack, Stephanie L; Marmarosh, Cheri L

    2014-10-01

    The current review comprehensively examines recent advances in 2 innovative areas of neuroscience research on healthy adults regarding neuropsychosocial interactions on human cognition and behavior, as well as implications for counseling psychologists conducting research and in practice. Advances in how oxytocin influences prosocial behavior and the mitigation of social stress, and the influence of environmentally mediated gene expressions on the development of attachment disorders are surveyed and discussed in terms of how counseling psychologists might best integrate recent neuroscience research into a framework for therapeutic intervention.

  14. The principles and practices of educational neuroscience: Comment on Bowers (2016).

    PubMed

    Howard-Jones, Paul A; Varma, Sashank; Ansari, Daniel; Butterworth, Brian; De Smedt, Bert; Goswami, Usha; Laurillard, Diana; Thomas, Michael S C

    2016-10-01

    In his recent critique of Educational Neuroscience, Bowers argues that neuroscience has no role to play in informing education, which he equates with classroom teaching. Neuroscience, he suggests, adds nothing to what we can learn from psychology. In this commentary, we argue that Bowers' assertions misrepresent the nature and aims of the work in this new field. We suggest that, by contrast, psychological and neural levels of explanation complement rather than compete with each other. Bowers' analysis also fails to include a role for educational expertise-a guiding principle of our new field. On this basis, we conclude that his critique is potentially misleading. We set out the well-documented goals of research in Educational Neuroscience, and show how, in collaboration with educators, significant progress has already been achieved, with the prospect of even greater progress in the future. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27657441

  15. The modern search for the Holy Grail: is neuroscience a solution?

    PubMed

    Naor, Navot; Ben-Ze'ev, Aaron; Okon-Singer, Hadas

    2014-01-01

    Neuroscience has become prevalent in recent years; nevertheless, its value in the examination of psychological and philosophical phenomena is still a matter of debate. The examples reviewed here suggest that neuroscientific tools can be significant in the investigation of such complex phenomena. In this article, we argue that it is important to study concepts that do not have a clear characterization and emphasize the role of neuroscience in this quest for knowledge. The data reviewed here suggest that neuroscience may (1) enrich our knowledge; (2) outline the nature of an explanation; and (3) lead to substantial empirical and theoretical discoveries. To that end, we review work on hedonia and eudaimonia in the fields of neuroscience, psychology, and philosophy. These studies demonstrate the importance of neuroscientific tools in the investigation of phenomena that are difficult to define using other methods.

  16. The modern search for the Holy Grail: is neuroscience a solution?

    PubMed Central

    Naor, Navot; Ben-Ze'ev, Aaron; Okon-Singer, Hadas

    2014-01-01

    Neuroscience has become prevalent in recent years; nevertheless, its value in the examination of psychological and philosophical phenomena is still a matter of debate. The examples reviewed here suggest that neuroscientific tools can be significant in the investigation of such complex phenomena. In this article, we argue that it is important to study concepts that do not have a clear characterization and emphasize the role of neuroscience in this quest for knowledge. The data reviewed here suggest that neuroscience may (1) enrich our knowledge; (2) outline the nature of an explanation; and (3) lead to substantial empirical and theoretical discoveries. To that end, we review work on hedonia and eudaimonia in the fields of neuroscience, psychology, and philosophy. These studies demonstrate the importance of neuroscientific tools in the investigation of phenomena that are difficult to define using other methods. PMID:24926246

  17. Interacting and paradoxical forces in neuroscience and society

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Jennifer; Hallmayer, Joachim; Illes, Judy

    2007-01-01

    Discoveries in the field of neuroscience are a natural source of discourse among scientists and have long been disseminated to the public. Historically, as news of findings has travelled between communities, it has elicited both expected and unusual reactions. What scientific landmarks promote discourse within the professional community? Do the same findings achieve a place in the public eye? How does the media choose what is newsworthy, and why does the public react the way it does? Drawing on examples of past challenges at the crossroads of neuroscience and society and on a case study of trends in one neurogenetic disease, autism, we explore the dialectical forces interacting in scientific and public discourse. PMID:17237806

  18. Modern plant metabolomics: Advanced natural product gene discoveries, improved technologies, and future prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Sumner, Lloyd W.; Lei, Zhentian; Nikolau, Basil J.; Saito, Kazuki

    2014-10-24

    Plant metabolomics has matured and modern plant metabolomics has accelerated gene discoveries and the elucidation of a variety of plant natural product biosynthetic pathways. This study highlights specific examples of the discovery and characterization of novel genes and enzymes associated with the biosynthesis of natural products such as flavonoids, glucosinolates, terpenoids, and alkaloids. Additional examples of the integration of metabolomics with genome-based functional characterizations of plant natural products that are important to modern pharmaceutical technology are also reviewed. This article also provides a substantial review of recent technical advances in mass spectrometry imaging, nuclear magnetic resonance imaging, integrated LC-MS-SPE-NMR for metabolite identifications, and x-ray crystallography of microgram quantities for structural determinations. The review closes with a discussion on the future prospects of metabolomics related to crop species and herbal medicine.

  19. Modern plant metabolomics: advanced natural product gene discoveries, improved technologies, and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Sumner, Lloyd W; Lei, Zhentian; Nikolau, Basil J; Saito, Kazuki

    2015-02-01

    Plant metabolomics has matured and modern plant metabolomics has accelerated gene discoveries and the elucidation of a variety of plant natural product biosynthetic pathways. This review covers the approximate period of 2000 to 2014, and highlights specific examples of the discovery and characterization of novel genes and enzymes associated with the biosynthesis of natural products such as flavonoids, glucosinolates, terpenoids, and alkaloids. Additional examples of the integration of metabolomics with genome-based functional characterizations of plant natural products that are important to modern pharmaceutical technology are also reviewed. This article also provides a substantial review of recent technical advances in mass spectrometry imaging, nuclear magnetic resonance imaging, integrated LC-MS-SPE-NMR for metabolite identifications, and X-ray crystallography of microgram quantities for structural determinations. The review closes with a discussion on the future prospects of metabolomics related to crop species and herbal medicine.

  20. Recent Advances in the Chemistry and Biology of Naturally Occurring Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jason S.; Edmonds, David J.; Estrada, Anthony A.

    2009-01-01

    Lead-in Ever since the world-shaping discovery of penicillin, nature’s molecular diversity has been extensively screened for new medications and lead compounds in drug discovery. The search for anti-infective agents intended to combat infectious diseases has been of particular interest and has enjoyed a high degree of success. Indeed, the history of antibiotics is marked with impressive discoveries and drug development stories, the overwhelming majority of which have their origins in nature. Chemistry, and in particular chemical synthesis, has played a major role in bringing naturally occurring antibiotics and their derivatives to the clinic, and no doubt these disciplines will continue to be key enabling technologies for future developments in the field. In this review article, we highlight a number of recent discoveries and advances in the chemistry, biology, and medicine of naturally occurring antibiotics, with particular emphasis on the total synthesis, analog design, and biological evaluation of molecules with novel mechanisms of action. PMID:19130444

  1. Modern plant metabolomics: Advanced natural product gene discoveries, improved technologies, and future prospects

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sumner, Lloyd W.; Lei, Zhentian; Nikolau, Basil J.; Saito, Kazuki

    2014-10-24

    Plant metabolomics has matured and modern plant metabolomics has accelerated gene discoveries and the elucidation of a variety of plant natural product biosynthetic pathways. This study highlights specific examples of the discovery and characterization of novel genes and enzymes associated with the biosynthesis of natural products such as flavonoids, glucosinolates, terpenoids, and alkaloids. Additional examples of the integration of metabolomics with genome-based functional characterizations of plant natural products that are important to modern pharmaceutical technology are also reviewed. This article also provides a substantial review of recent technical advances in mass spectrometry imaging, nuclear magnetic resonance imaging, integrated LC-MS-SPE-NMR formore » metabolite identifications, and x-ray crystallography of microgram quantities for structural determinations. The review closes with a discussion on the future prospects of metabolomics related to crop species and herbal medicine.« less

  2. Molecular approaches to understanding neural network plasticity and memory: the Kavli Prize Inaugural Symposium on Neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Sander, M; Bergersen, L H; Storm-Mathisen, J

    2009-11-10

    The Kavli Prizes were awarded for the first time in Oslo, Norway on September 9, 2008 to seven of the world's most prominent scientists in astrophysics, nanoscience and neuroscience. The astrophysics prize was awarded jointly to Maarten Schmidt, of the California Institute of Technology, USA, and Donald Lynden-Bell, of Cambridge University, UK; the nanoscience prize was awarded jointly to Louis E. Brus, of Columbia University, USA, and Sumio Iijima, of Meijo University, Japan; and the neuroscience prize was awarded jointly to Pasko Rakic, of the Yale University School of Medicine, USA, Thomas Jessell, of Columbia University, USA, and Sten Grillner, of the Karolinska Institute, Sweden. The Kavli Prize is a joint venture of the Kavli Foundation, the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters, and the Norwegian Ministry of Education and Research. The Kavli Prize Inaugural Symposium on Neuroscience was held at the University of Oslo on 8 September, 2008, organized by L.H. Bergersen, E. Moser M.-B. Moser, and J. Storm-Mathisen. At this Symposium, seven leading neuroscientists described their groundbreaking work, which encompasses some of the most important recent advances in the field of neuroscience, from molecule to synapse to network to behavior. The Symposium was a fitting tribute to Fred Kavli's vision of neuroscience as an outstanding area of progress, and to the achievements of the winners of the first Kavli Prize in Neuroscience. The main points of the Symposium presentations are summarized below.

  3. Neuroscience and Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Palmblad, M N; Buchholz, B A; Hillegonds, D J; Vogel, J S

    2004-08-02

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is a mass spectrometric method for quantifying rare isotopes. It has had great impact in geochronology and archaeology and is now being applied in biomedicine. AMS measures radioisotopes such as {sup 3}H, {sup 14}C, {sup 26}Al, {sup 36}Cl and {sup 41}Ca, with zepto- or attomole sensitivity and high precision and throughput, enabling safe human pharmacokinetic studies involving: microgram doses, agents having low bioavailability, or toxicology studies where administered doses must be kept low (<1 {micro}g/kg). It is used to study long-term pharmacokinetics, to identify biomolecular interactions, to determine chronic and low-dose effects or molecular targets of neurotoxic substances, to quantify transport across the blood-brain barrier and to resolve molecular turnover rates in the human brain on the timescale of decades. We will here review how AMS is applied in neurotoxicology and neuroscience.

  4. Classics in Chemical Neuroscience: Methylphenidate.

    PubMed

    Wenthur, Cody J

    2016-08-17

    As the first drug to see widespread use for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), methylphenidate was the forerunner and catalyst to the modern era of rapidly increasing diagnosis, treatment, and medication development for this condition. During its often controversial history, it has variously elucidated the importance of dopamine signaling in memory and attention, provoked concerns about pharmaceutical cognitive enhancement, driven innovation in controlled-release technologies and enantiospecific therapeutics, and stimulated debate about the impact of pharmaceutical sales techniques on the practice of medicine. In this Review, we will illustrate the history and importance of methylphenidate to ADHD treatment and neuroscience in general, as well as provide key information about its synthesis, structure-activity relationship, pharmacological activity, metabolism, manufacturing, FDA-approved indications, and adverse effects. PMID:27409720

  5. Coordination Dynamics in Cognitive Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Bressler, Steven L.; Kelso, J. A. Scott

    2016-01-01

    Many researchers and clinicians in cognitive neuroscience hold to a modular view of cognitive function in which the cerebral cortex operates by the activation of areas with circumscribed elementary cognitive functions. Yet an ongoing paradigm shift to a dynamic network perspective is underway. This new viewpoint treats cortical function as arising from the coordination dynamics within and between cortical regions. Cortical coordination dynamics arises due to the unidirectional influences imposed on a cortical area by inputs from other areas that project to it, combined with the projection reciprocity that characterizes cortical connectivity and gives rise to reentrant processing. As a result, cortical dynamics exhibits both segregative and integrative tendencies and gives rise to both cooperative and competitive relations within and between cortical areas that are hypothesized to underlie the emergence of cognition in brains.

  6. Coordination Dynamics in Cognitive Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Bressler, Steven L.; Kelso, J. A. Scott

    2016-01-01

    Many researchers and clinicians in cognitive neuroscience hold to a modular view of cognitive function in which the cerebral cortex operates by the activation of areas with circumscribed elementary cognitive functions. Yet an ongoing paradigm shift to a dynamic network perspective is underway. This new viewpoint treats cortical function as arising from the coordination dynamics within and between cortical regions. Cortical coordination dynamics arises due to the unidirectional influences imposed on a cortical area by inputs from other areas that project to it, combined with the projection reciprocity that characterizes cortical connectivity and gives rise to reentrant processing. As a result, cortical dynamics exhibits both segregative and integrative tendencies and gives rise to both cooperative and competitive relations within and between cortical areas that are hypothesized to underlie the emergence of cognition in brains. PMID:27695395

  7. Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy in Neuroscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte, Albert; Nebel, Michaela; Schuhmann, Wolfgang

    2010-07-01

    This article reviews recent work involving the application of scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) to the study of individual cultured living cells, with an emphasis on topographical and functional imaging of neuronal and secretory cells of the nervous and endocrine system. The basic principles of biological SECM and associated negative amperometric-feedback and generator/collector-mode SECM imaging are discussed, and successful use of the methodology for screening soft and fragile membranous objects is outlined. The drawbacks of the constant-height mode of probe movement and the benefits of the constant-distance mode of SECM operation are described. Finally, representative examples of constant-height and constant-distance mode SECM on a variety of live cells are highlighted to demonstrate the current status of single-cell SECM in general and of SECM in neuroscience in particular.

  8. The neurosciences in Averroes principles of medicine.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    One of the fundamental advances of the transition of the Middle Ages to the Renaissance was the rediscovery of the Greek philosophers. Among the greatest representatives of this epoch we find the Cordovan doctor and philosopher Averroes (Ibn Rushd) who, with his commentaries on the works of Aristotle, brought a new philosophical vision to Western Europe. His contribution to medicine has been overshadowed to some extent by this great work of philosophy. Our intention is to evaluate, in the context of the neurosciences, the vision of health and sickness that he left us in his book "The Book of the Principles of Medicine. The organisation of the Kulliyat is based on Aristotelian concepts. Averroes regarded the nervous system not as single entity but rather as a complex of various elements. The anatomy of the nervous system is studied in two parts: the encephalus and the periphery. Both the encephalic nervous system and the sensory organs are regarded as heterogeneous organs. Averroes structures the anatomical order without taking into account the local movements of the living body. The mission of the senses is to maintain contact between external reality and the structure of the organism. This requires an external process, a point of union and an internal process. The ultimate goal is the preservation of health in a balanced disposition and the cure of disease in the organism in disequilibrium.

  9. An online multimedia resource in behavioral neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Lane, David M; Tang, Zhihua

    2003-01-01

    The advance of web-based technology has stimulated innovation in education. This paper discusses the development and evaluation of an online multimedia resource for undergraduate-level behavioral neuroscience education. This resource surveys four major subject areas: language, attention and perception, thinking, and autism. It employs audio and video streaming, online demonstration experiments, computer simulation, and internet links. This online resource has two distinct advantages over a paper textbook. First, a considerable proportion of the content is conveyed using multimedia, thus making the learning experience more vivid and dynamic. Second, its interactive components provide opportunities for students to participate in the various experimental tasks introduced in the text and to compare their own performance with those of others. This hands-on experience not only enables students to gain in-depth procedural knowledge of the tasks but also has positive effects on their motivation. Feedback from three undergraduate classes that used this resource as supplementary material showed that students were highly positive about its pedagogical values. This free resource is available on the web at http://psych.rice.edu/mmtbn/. PMID:23493962

  10. The neurosciences in Averroes principles of medicine.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    One of the fundamental advances of the transition of the Middle Ages to the Renaissance was the rediscovery of the Greek philosophers. Among the greatest representatives of this epoch we find the Cordovan doctor and philosopher Averroes (Ibn Rushd) who, with his commentaries on the works of Aristotle, brought a new philosophical vision to Western Europe. His contribution to medicine has been overshadowed to some extent by this great work of philosophy. Our intention is to evaluate, in the context of the neurosciences, the vision of health and sickness that he left us in his book "The Book of the Principles of Medicine. The organisation of the Kulliyat is based on Aristotelian concepts. Averroes regarded the nervous system not as single entity but rather as a complex of various elements. The anatomy of the nervous system is studied in two parts: the encephalus and the periphery. Both the encephalic nervous system and the sensory organs are regarded as heterogeneous organs. Averroes structures the anatomical order without taking into account the local movements of the living body. The mission of the senses is to maintain contact between external reality and the structure of the organism. This requires an external process, a point of union and an internal process. The ultimate goal is the preservation of health in a balanced disposition and the cure of disease in the organism in disequilibrium. PMID:22588454

  11. ADVANCING THE SCIENCE OF NATURAL AND ENHANCED ATTENUATION FOR CHLORINATED SOLVENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Looney, B; TOM O. EARLY, T; TYLER GILMORE, T; FRANCIS H. CHAPELLE, F; NORMAN H. CUTSHALL, N; JEFF ROSS, J; MARK ANKENY, M; Michael Heitkamp, M; DAVID MAJOR, D; CHARLES J. NEWELL, C; W. JODY WAUGH, W; GARY WEIN, G; Karen Vangelas, K; Karen-M Adams, K; CLAIRE H. SINK, C

    2006-12-27

    This report summarizes the results of a three-year program that addressed key scientific and technical aspects related to natural and enhanced attenuation of chlorinated organics. The results from this coordinated three-year program support a variety of technical and regulatory advancements. Scientists, regulators, engineers, end-users and stakeholders participated in the program, which was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council (ITRC). The overarching objective of the effort was to examine environmental remedies that are based on natural processes--remedies such as Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) or Enhanced Attenuation (EA). A key result of the recent effort was the general affirmation of the approaches and guidance in the original U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) chlorinated solvent MNA protocols and directives from 1998 and 1999, respectively. The research program did identify several specific opportunities for advances based on: (1) mass balance as the central framework for attenuation based remedies, (2) scientific advancements and achievements during the past ten years, (3) regulatory and policy development and real-world experience using MNA, and (4) exploration of various ideas for integrating attenuation remedies into a systematic set of ''combined remedies'' for contaminated sites. These opportunities are summarized herein and are addressed in more detail in referenced project documents and journal articles, as well as in the technical and regulatory documents being developed within the ITRC. Natural attenuation processes occur in all soil and groundwater systems and act, to varying degrees, on all contaminants. Thus, a decision to rely on natural attenuation processes as part of a site-remediation strategy does not depend on the occurrence of natural attenuation, but on its effectiveness in meeting site-specific remediation goals. Meeting these goals typically requires low risk

  12. Perspectives on the neuroscience of alcohol from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Matthew T; Noronha, Antonio; Warren, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Mounting evidence over the last 40 years clearly indicates that alcoholism (alcohol dependence) is a disorder of the brain. The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) has taken significant steps to advance research into the neuroscience of alcohol. The Division of Neuroscience and Behavior (DNB) was formed within NIAAA in 2002 to oversee, fund, and direct all research areas that examine the effects of alcohol on the brain, the genetic underpinnings of alcohol dependence, the neuroadaptations resulting from excessive alcohol consumption, advanced behavioral models of the various stages of the addiction cycle, and preclinical medications development. This research portfolio has produced important discoveries in the etiology, treatment, and prevention of alcohol abuse and dependence. Several of these salient discoveries are highlighted and future areas of neuroscience research on alcohol are presented.

  13. Advanced materials from natural materials: synthesis of aligned carbon nanotubes on wollastonites.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Meng-Qiang; Zhang, Qiang; Huang, Jia-Qi; Nie, Jing-Qi; Wei, Fei

    2010-04-26

    The growth of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on natural materials is a low-cost, environmentally benign, and materials-saving method for the large-scale production of CNTs. Directly building 3D CNT architectures on natural materials is a key issue for obtaining advanced materials with high added value. We report the fabrication of aligned CNT arrays on fibrous natural wollastonite. Strongly dispersed iron particles with small sizes were produced on a planar surface of soaked fibrous wollastonite by a reduction process. These particles then catalyzed the decomposition of ethylene, leading to the synchronous growth of CNTs to form leaf- and brush-like wollastonite/CNT hybrids. The as-obtained hybrids could be further transformed into porous SiO(2)/CNT hybrids by reaction with hydrochloric acid. Further treatment with hydrofluoric acid resulted in aligned CNT arrays, with purities as high as 98.7 %. The presented work is very promising for the fabrication of advanced materials with unique structures and properties that can be used as fillers, catalyst supports, or energy-absorbing materials. PMID:20183856

  14. Advanced materials from natural materials: synthesis of aligned carbon nanotubes on wollastonites.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Meng-Qiang; Zhang, Qiang; Huang, Jia-Qi; Nie, Jing-Qi; Wei, Fei

    2010-04-26

    The growth of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on natural materials is a low-cost, environmentally benign, and materials-saving method for the large-scale production of CNTs. Directly building 3D CNT architectures on natural materials is a key issue for obtaining advanced materials with high added value. We report the fabrication of aligned CNT arrays on fibrous natural wollastonite. Strongly dispersed iron particles with small sizes were produced on a planar surface of soaked fibrous wollastonite by a reduction process. These particles then catalyzed the decomposition of ethylene, leading to the synchronous growth of CNTs to form leaf- and brush-like wollastonite/CNT hybrids. The as-obtained hybrids could be further transformed into porous SiO(2)/CNT hybrids by reaction with hydrochloric acid. Further treatment with hydrofluoric acid resulted in aligned CNT arrays, with purities as high as 98.7 %. The presented work is very promising for the fabrication of advanced materials with unique structures and properties that can be used as fillers, catalyst supports, or energy-absorbing materials.

  15. Infusing Neuroscience into Teacher Professional Development

    PubMed Central

    Dubinsky, Janet M; Roehrig, Gillian; Varma, Sashank

    2015-01-01

    Bruer (1997) advocated connecting neuroscience and education indirectly through the intermediate discipline of psychology. We argue for a parallel route: the neurobiology of learning, and in particular the core concept of plasticity, have the potential to directly transform teacher preparation and professional development, and ultimately to affect how students think about their own learning. We present a case study of how the core concepts of neuroscience can be brought to in-service teachers – the BrainU workshops. We then discuss how neuroscience can be meaningfully integrated into pre-service teacher preparation, focusing on institutional and cultural barriers. PMID:26139861

  16. Challenges and opportunities in social neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Cacioppo, John T.; Decety, Jean

    2010-01-01

    Social species are so characterized because they form organizations that extend beyond the individual. The goal of social neuroscience is to investigate the biological mechanisms that underlie these social structures, processes, and behavior and the influences between social and neural structures and processes. Such an endeavor is challenging because it necessitates the integration of multiple levels. Mapping across systems and levels (from genome to social groups and cultures) requires interdisciplinary expertise, comparative studies, innovative methods, and integrative conceptual analysis. Examples of how social neuroscience is contributing to our understanding of the functions of the brain and nervous system are described, and societal implications of social neuroscience are considered. PMID:21251011

  17. John Hughlings Jackson and the conceptual foundations of the neurosciences.

    PubMed

    Greenblatt, S H

    1999-01-01

    Cerebral localization, including hierarchical organization of the nervous system, was the critical conceptual advance that made possible the development of modern neuroscience in the nineteenth century. Some of our most basic ideas about neural organization were contributed by Hughlings Jackson. In the early twentieth century, Charles Sherrington combined localization with the neurone theory to create the paradigm of neurophysiological integration. Because Sherrington was educated in the Jacksonian tradition of British neurology, Sherringtonian integration contains ideas that are derived from Jackson and from Herbert Spencer. PMID:11640240

  18. John Hughlings Jackson and the conceptual foundations of the neurosciences.

    PubMed

    Greenblatt, S H

    1999-01-01

    Cerebral localization, including hierarchical organization of the nervous system, was the critical conceptual advance that made possible the development of modern neuroscience in the nineteenth century. Some of our most basic ideas about neural organization were contributed by Hughlings Jackson. In the early twentieth century, Charles Sherrington combined localization with the neurone theory to create the paradigm of neurophysiological integration. Because Sherrington was educated in the Jacksonian tradition of British neurology, Sherringtonian integration contains ideas that are derived from Jackson and from Herbert Spencer.

  19. Applications of CRISPR-Cas systems in neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Heidenreich, Matthias; Zhang, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Genome-editing tools, and in particular those based on CRISPR-Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated protein) systems, are accelerating the pace of biological research and enabling targeted genetic interrogation in almost any organism and cell type. These tools have opened the door to the development of new model systems for studying the complexity of the nervous system, including animal models and stem cell-derived in vitro models. Precise and efficient gene editing using CRISPR-Cas systems has the potential to advance both basic and translational neuroscience research.

  20. The neurosciences research program at MIT and the beginning of the modern field of neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Adelman, George

    2010-01-15

    The interdisciplinary field, "neuroscience," began at MIT in 1962 with the founding of the Neurosciences Research Program (NRP) by Francis O. Schmitt and a group of US and international scientists - physical, biological, medical, and behavioral - interested in understanding the brain basis of behavior and mind. They organized and held specialist meetings of basic topics in neuroscience, and the journal and book publications over the next 20 years, based on these meetings, helped establish the new field.

  1. Neuroscience Applications in Marital and Family Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tootle, A. Eugene

    2003-01-01

    Addresses the importance of a basic understanding of neuroscience in marital, couple, and family therapy training and practice. Examines the biological and physiological processes underlying emotions, memory, and neurochemistry, and emphasizes their impact on behavior. (Contains 20 references.) (GCP)

  2. Culture in social neuroscience: a review.

    PubMed

    Rule, Nicholas O; Freeman, Jonathan B; Ambady, Nalini

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this review is to highlight an emerging field: the neuroscience of culture. This new field links cross-cultural psychology with cognitive neuroscience across fundamental domains of cognitive and social psychology. We present a summary of studies on emotion, perspective-taking, memory, object perception, attention, language, and the self, showing cultural differences in behavior as well as in neural activation. Although it is still nascent, the broad impact of merging the study of culture with cognitive neuroscience holds mutual distributed benefits for multiple related fields. Thus, cultural neuroscience may be uniquely poised to provide insights and breakthroughs for longstanding questions and problems in the study of behavior and thought, and its capacity for integration across multiple levels of analysis is especially high. These findings attest to the plasticity of the brain and its adaptation to cultural contexts.

  3. [Felice Fontana precursor of neurosciences (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Disertori, B; Piazza, M

    1981-01-01

    The A.A. insert the life and work of the naturalist and chemist Felice Fontana, born in Pomarolo (Trentino), in the frame of 18th century sciences, beside other great names of that century like Carolus Linnaeus, Réaumur, von Haller, Spallanzani, Morgagni, Priestley and Lavoisier. In the field of general biology, the discovery of nucleus and nucleolus and consequently the discovery of the eukaryotic cell, as we say in our days, in his, as well as the one of anabiosis. The A.A. enucleate and analyse the contributions of Fontana to the neurosciences; he has discovered the axon and the myelinic sheath half century before Remak and Purknije; he found out that the white matter of the brain is made of fibres alike those of nerves and the grey matter is made of globules (i.e. cells) mixed up with fibres; he discovered in the retina a part of coming out from the brain; he described the transversal bands of fibres of the skeletal muscles; he was the first to introduce into physiology the law of "all and nothing"; he attributed the irritability to the whole animal life; he identified the pupillar reflexes to the light, the reflex of accommodation, the consensual reflex, the psycho-emotive mydriasis and at last the myosis of sleep. He made experimental searches about nerves and recognised their regeneration, he enumerated various pathological intracranial masses, he made an important anatomopathological research about hydatid cyst in the brain of the sheep affected by "capostorno" and madness, he demonstrated their parasitical nature (he said that the hydated cysts were covered inside by small animals), he come out to formulate the hypothesis that some neuropsychiatric diseases of man can depend from similar aetiology. He declared that passions may have pathological effects (psyco-somatic aetiology), but he has also drawned the attention against the danager of aprioristical generalisation of neurogenical causes in all diseases. The A.A. give to Fontana the palm of precursor

  4. [Felice Fontana precursor of neurosciences (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Disertori, B; Piazza, M

    1981-01-01

    The A.A. insert the life and work of the naturalist and chemist Felice Fontana, born in Pomarolo (Trentino), in the frame of 18th century sciences, beside other great names of that century like Carolus Linnaeus, Réaumur, von Haller, Spallanzani, Morgagni, Priestley and Lavoisier. In the field of general biology, the discovery of nucleus and nucleolus and consequently the discovery of the eukaryotic cell, as we say in our days, in his, as well as the one of anabiosis. The A.A. enucleate and analyse the contributions of Fontana to the neurosciences; he has discovered the axon and the myelinic sheath half century before Remak and Purknije; he found out that the white matter of the brain is made of fibres alike those of nerves and the grey matter is made of globules (i.e. cells) mixed up with fibres; he discovered in the retina a part of coming out from the brain; he described the transversal bands of fibres of the skeletal muscles; he was the first to introduce into physiology the law of "all and nothing"; he attributed the irritability to the whole animal life; he identified the pupillar reflexes to the light, the reflex of accommodation, the consensual reflex, the psycho-emotive mydriasis and at last the myosis of sleep. He made experimental searches about nerves and recognised their regeneration, he enumerated various pathological intracranial masses, he made an important anatomopathological research about hydatid cyst in the brain of the sheep affected by "capostorno" and madness, he demonstrated their parasitical nature (he said that the hydated cysts were covered inside by small animals), he come out to formulate the hypothesis that some neuropsychiatric diseases of man can depend from similar aetiology. He declared that passions may have pathological effects (psyco-somatic aetiology), but he has also drawned the attention against the danager of aprioristical generalisation of neurogenical causes in all diseases. The A.A. give to Fontana the palm of precursor

  5. Advances in the Research and Development of Natural Health Products as Main Stream Cancer Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Ovadje, Pamela; Roma, Alessia; Steckle, Matthew; Nicoletti, Leah; Arnason, John Thor; Pandey, Siyaram

    2015-01-01

    Natural health products (NHPs) are defined as natural extracts containing polychemical mixtures; they play a leading role in the discovery and development of drugs, for disease treatment. More than 50% of current cancer therapeutics are derived from natural sources. However, the efficacy of natural extracts in treating cancer has not been explored extensively. Scientific research into the validity and mechanism of action of these products is needed to develop NHPs as main stream cancer therapy. The preclinical and clinical validation of NHPs would be essential for this development. This review summarizes some of the recent advancements in the area of NHPs with anticancer effects. This review also focuses on various NHPs that have been studied to scientifically validate their claims as anticancer agents. Furthermore, this review emphasizes the efficacy of these NHPs in targeting the multiple vulnerabilities of cancer cells for a more selective efficacious treatment. The studies reviewed here have paved the way for the introduction of more NHPs from traditional medicine to the forefront of modern medicine, in order to provide alternative, safer, and cheaper complementary treatments for cancer therapy and possibly improve the quality of life of cancer patients. PMID:25883673

  6. Restoration in Its Natural Context: How Ecological Momentary Assessment Can Advance Restoration Research.

    PubMed

    Beute, Femke; de Kort, Yvonne; IJsselsteijn, Wijnand

    2016-04-01

    More and more people use self-tracking technologies to track their psychological states, physiology, and behaviors to gain a better understanding of themselves or to achieve a certain goal. Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) also offers an excellent opportunity for restorative environments research, which examines how our physical environment (especially nature) can positively influence health and wellbeing. It enables investigating restorative health effects in everyday life, providing not only high ecological validity but also opportunities to study in more detail the dynamic processes playing out over time on recovery, thereby bridging the gap between laboratory (i.e., short-term effects) and epidemiological (long-term effects) research. We have identified four main areas in which self-tracking could help advance restoration research: (1) capturing a rich set of environment types and restorative characteristics; (2) distinguishing intra-individual from inter-individual effects; (3) bridging the gap between laboratory and epidemiological research; and (4) advancing theoretical insights by measuring a more broad range of effects in everyday life. This paper briefly introduces restorative environments research, then reviews the state of the art of self-tracking technologies and methodologies, discusses how these can be implemented to advance restoration research, and presents some examples of pioneering work in this area. PMID:27089352

  7. Restoration in Its Natural Context: How Ecological Momentary Assessment Can Advance Restoration Research

    PubMed Central

    Beute, Femke; de Kort, Yvonne; IJsselsteijn, Wijnand

    2016-01-01

    More and more people use self-tracking technologies to track their psychological states, physiology, and behaviors to gain a better understanding of themselves or to achieve a certain goal. Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) also offers an excellent opportunity for restorative environments research, which examines how our physical environment (especially nature) can positively influence health and wellbeing. It enables investigating restorative health effects in everyday life, providing not only high ecological validity but also opportunities to study in more detail the dynamic processes playing out over time on recovery, thereby bridging the gap between laboratory (i.e., short-term effects) and epidemiological (long-term effects) research. We have identified four main areas in which self-tracking could help advance restoration research: (1) capturing a rich set of environment types and restorative characteristics; (2) distinguishing intra-individual from inter-individual effects; (3) bridging the gap between laboratory and epidemiological research; and (4) advancing theoretical insights by measuring a more broad range of effects in everyday life. This paper briefly introduces restorative environments research, then reviews the state of the art of self-tracking technologies and methodologies, discusses how these can be implemented to advance restoration research, and presents some examples of pioneering work in this area. PMID:27089352

  8. We Feel, Therefore We Learn: The Relevance of Affective and Social Neuroscience to Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Immordino-Yang, Mary Helen; Damasio, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    Recent advances in neuroscience are highlighting connections between emotion, social functioning, and decision making that have the potential to revolutionize our understanding of the role of affect in education. In particular, the neurobiological evidence suggests that the aspects of cognition that we recruit most heavily in schools, namely…

  9. Preservice Teachers' Perceptions of Neuroscience, Medicine, and Students with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zambo, Debby; Zambo, Ron; Sidlik, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    Neuroscience is revealing how the brains of individuals with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) function, and advances in medicine are leading to treatments. This study investigated preservice teachers' knowledge and beliefs about students with ADHD. The majority of preservice teachers knew someone with ADHD, which, along with…

  10. Advanced onboard storage concepts for natural gas-fueled automotive vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remick, R. J.; Elkins, R. H.; Camara, E. H.; Bulicz, T.

    1984-01-01

    The evaluation of several advanced concepts for storing natural gas at reduced pressure is presented. The advanced concepts include adsorption on high surface area carbon, adsorption in high porosity zeolite, storage in clathration compounds, and storage by dissolution in liquid solvents. High surface area carbons with high packing density are the best low pressure storage mediums. A simple mathematical model is used to compare adsorption storage on a state of the art carbon with compression storage. The model indicates that a vehicle using adsorption storage of natural gas at 3.6 MPa will have 36 percent of the range, on the EPA city cycle, of a vehicle operating on a compression storage system having the same physical size and a peak storage pressure of 21 MPa. Preliminary experiments and current literature suggest that the storage capacity of state of the art carbons could be improved by as much as 50 percent, and that adsorption systems having a capacity equal to compression storage at 14 MPa are possible without exceeding a maximum pressure of 3.6 MPa.

  11. Can neurological evidence help courts assess criminal responsibility? Lessons from law and neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Aharoni, Eyal; Funk, Chadd; Sinnott-Armstrong, Walter; Gazzaniga, Michael

    2008-03-01

    Can neurological evidence help courts assess criminal responsibility? To answer this question, we must first specify legal criteria for criminal responsibility and then ask how neurological findings can be used to determine whether particular defendants meet those criteria. Cognitive neuroscience may speak to at least two familiar conditions of criminal responsibility: intention and sanity. Functional neuroimaging studies in motor planning, awareness of actions, agency, social contract reasoning, and theory of mind, among others, have recently targeted a small assortment of brain networks thought to be instrumental in such determinations. Advances in each of these areas bring specificity to the problems underlying the application of neuroscience to criminal law.

  12. Understanding and accounting for relational context is critical for social neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Clark-Polner, Elizabeth; Clark, Margaret S.

    2014-01-01

    Scientists have increasingly turned to the brain and to neuroscience more generally to further an understanding of social and emotional judgments and behavior. Yet, many neuroscientists (certainly not all) do not consider the role of relational context. Moreover, most have not examined the impact of relational context in a manner that takes advantage of conceptual and empirical advances in relationship science. Here we emphasize that: (1) all social behavior takes place, by definition, within the context of a relationship (even if that relationship is a new one with a stranger), and (2) relational context shapes not only social thoughts, feelings, and behaviors, but also some seemingly non-social thoughts, feelings, and behaviors in profound ways. We define relational context and suggest that accounting for it in the design and interpretation of neuroscience research is essential to the development of a coherent, generalizable neuroscience of social behavior. We make our case in two ways: (a) we describe some existing neuroscience research in three substantive areas (perceiving and reacting to others’ emotions, providing help, and receiving help) that already has documented the powerful impact of relational context. (b) We describe some other neuroscience research from these same areas that has not taken relational context into account. Then, using findings from social and personality psychology, we make a case that different results almost certainly would have been found had the research been conducted in a different relational context. We neither attempt to review all evidence that relational context shapes neuroscience findings nor to put forward a theoretical analysis of all the ways relational context ought to shape neuroscience findings. Our goal is simply to urge greater and more systematic consideration of relational context in neuroscientific research. PMID:24723868

  13. Understanding and accounting for relational context is critical for social neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Clark-Polner, Elizabeth; Clark, Margaret S

    2014-01-01

    Scientists have increasingly turned to the brain and to neuroscience more generally to further an understanding of social and emotional judgments and behavior. Yet, many neuroscientists (certainly not all) do not consider the role of relational context. Moreover, most have not examined the impact of relational context in a manner that takes advantage of conceptual and empirical advances in relationship science. Here we emphasize that: (1) all social behavior takes place, by definition, within the context of a relationship (even if that relationship is a new one with a stranger), and (2) relational context shapes not only social thoughts, feelings, and behaviors, but also some seemingly non-social thoughts, feelings, and behaviors in profound ways. We define relational context and suggest that accounting for it in the design and interpretation of neuroscience research is essential to the development of a coherent, generalizable neuroscience of social behavior. We make our case in two ways: (a) we describe some existing neuroscience research in three substantive areas (perceiving and reacting to others' emotions, providing help, and receiving help) that already has documented the powerful impact of relational context. (b) We describe some other neuroscience research from these same areas that has not taken relational context into account. Then, using findings from social and personality psychology, we make a case that different results almost certainly would have been found had the research been conducted in a different relational context. We neither attempt to review all evidence that relational context shapes neuroscience findings nor to put forward a theoretical analysis of all the ways relational context ought to shape neuroscience findings. Our goal is simply to urge greater and more systematic consideration of relational context in neuroscientific research. PMID:24723868

  14. Recent Advances in Developing Insect Natural Products as Potential Modern Day Medicines

    PubMed Central

    Ratcliffe, Norman; Azambuja, Patricia; Mello, Cicero Brasileiro

    2014-01-01

    Except for honey as food, and silk for clothing and pollination of plants, people give little thought to the benefits of insects in their lives. This overview briefly describes significant recent advances in developing insect natural products as potential new medicinal drugs. This is an exciting and rapidly expanding new field since insects are hugely variable and have utilised an enormous range of natural products to survive environmental perturbations for 100s of millions of years. There is thus a treasure chest of untapped resources waiting to be discovered. Insects products, such as silk and honey, have already been utilised for thousands of years, and extracts of insects have been produced for use in Folk Medicine around the world, but only with the development of modern molecular and biochemical techniques has it become feasible to manipulate and bioengineer insect natural products into modern medicines. Utilising knowledge gleaned from Insect Folk Medicines, this review describes modern research into bioengineering honey and venom from bees, silk, cantharidin, antimicrobial peptides, and maggot secretions and anticoagulants from blood-sucking insects into medicines. Problems and solutions encountered in these endeavours are described and indicate that the future is bright for new insect derived pharmaceuticals treatments and medicines. PMID:24883072

  15. Nature as capital: Advancing and incorporating ecosystem services in United States federal policies and programs.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Mark; Goldman, Erica; Bartuska, Ann M; Sutton-Grier, Ariana; Lubchenco, Jane

    2015-06-16

    The concept of nature as capital is gaining visibility in policies and practices in both the public and private sectors. This change is due to an improved ability to assess and value ecosystem services, as well as to a growing recognition of the potential of an ecosystem services approach to make tradeoffs in decision making more transparent, inform efficient use of resources, enhance resilience and sustainability, and avoid unintended negative consequences of policy actions. Globally, governments, financial institutions, and corporations have begun to incorporate natural capital accounting in their policies and practices. In the United States, universities, nongovernmental organizations, and federal agencies are actively collaborating to develop and apply ecosystem services concepts to further national environmental and economic objectives. Numerous federal agencies have begun incorporating these concepts into land use planning, water resources management, and preparations for, and responses to, climate change. Going forward, well-defined policy direction will be necessary to institutionalize ecosystem services approaches in federal agencies, as well as to guide intersector and interdisciplinary collaborative research and development efforts. In addition, a new generation of decision support tools are needed to further the practical application of ecosystem services principles in policymaking and commercial activities. Improved performance metrics are needed, as are mechanisms to monitor the status of ecosystem services and assess the environmental and economic impacts of policies and programs. A greater national and international financial commitment to advancing ecosystem services and natural capital accounting would likely have broad, long-term economic and environmental benefits. PMID:26082544

  16. Nature as capital: Advancing and incorporating ecosystem services in United States federal policies and programs.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Mark; Goldman, Erica; Bartuska, Ann M; Sutton-Grier, Ariana; Lubchenco, Jane

    2015-06-16

    The concept of nature as capital is gaining visibility in policies and practices in both the public and private sectors. This change is due to an improved ability to assess and value ecosystem services, as well as to a growing recognition of the potential of an ecosystem services approach to make tradeoffs in decision making more transparent, inform efficient use of resources, enhance resilience and sustainability, and avoid unintended negative consequences of policy actions. Globally, governments, financial institutions, and corporations have begun to incorporate natural capital accounting in their policies and practices. In the United States, universities, nongovernmental organizations, and federal agencies are actively collaborating to develop and apply ecosystem services concepts to further national environmental and economic objectives. Numerous federal agencies have begun incorporating these concepts into land use planning, water resources management, and preparations for, and responses to, climate change. Going forward, well-defined policy direction will be necessary to institutionalize ecosystem services approaches in federal agencies, as well as to guide intersector and interdisciplinary collaborative research and development efforts. In addition, a new generation of decision support tools are needed to further the practical application of ecosystem services principles in policymaking and commercial activities. Improved performance metrics are needed, as are mechanisms to monitor the status of ecosystem services and assess the environmental and economic impacts of policies and programs. A greater national and international financial commitment to advancing ecosystem services and natural capital accounting would likely have broad, long-term economic and environmental benefits.

  17. Nature as capital: Advancing and incorporating ecosystem services in United States federal policies and programs

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Mark; Goldman, Erica; Bartuska, Ann M.; Sutton-Grier, Ariana; Lubchenco, Jane

    2015-01-01

    The concept of nature as capital is gaining visibility in policies and practices in both the public and private sectors. This change is due to an improved ability to assess and value ecosystem services, as well as to a growing recognition of the potential of an ecosystem services approach to make tradeoffs in decision making more transparent, inform efficient use of resources, enhance resilience and sustainability, and avoid unintended negative consequences of policy actions. Globally, governments, financial institutions, and corporations have begun to incorporate natural capital accounting in their policies and practices. In the United States, universities, nongovernmental organizations, and federal agencies are actively collaborating to develop and apply ecosystem services concepts to further national environmental and economic objectives. Numerous federal agencies have begun incorporating these concepts into land use planning, water resources management, and preparations for, and responses to, climate change. Going forward, well-defined policy direction will be necessary to institutionalize ecosystem services approaches in federal agencies, as well as to guide intersector and interdisciplinary collaborative research and development efforts. In addition, a new generation of decision support tools are needed to further the practical application of ecosystem services principles in policymaking and commercial activities. Improved performance metrics are needed, as are mechanisms to monitor the status of ecosystem services and assess the environmental and economic impacts of policies and programs. A greater national and international financial commitment to advancing ecosystem services and natural capital accounting would likely have broad, long-term economic and environmental benefits. PMID:26082544

  18. Natural Convection Cooling of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Engineering Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Edward J.; Hill, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    After fueling and prior to launch, the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) will be stored for a period of time then moved to the launch pad for integration with the space probe and mounting on the launch vehicle. During this time, which could be as long as 3 years, the ASRG will operate continuously with heat rejected from the housing and fins. Typically, the generator will be cooled by forced convection using fans. During some of the ground operations, maintaining forced convection may add significant complexity, so allowing natural convection may simplify operations. A test was conducted on the ASRG Engineering Unit (EU) to quantify temperatures and operating parameters with natural convection only and determine if the EU could be safely operated in such an environment. The results show that with natural convection cooling the ASRG EU Stirling convertor pressure vessel temperatures and other parameters had significant margins while the EU was operated for several days in this configuration. Additionally, an update is provided on ASRG EU testing at NASA Glenn Research Center, where the ASRG EU has operated for over 16,000 hr and underwent extensive testing.

  19. The Muscle Sensor for on-site neuroscience lectures to pave the way for a better understanding of brain-machine-interface research.

    PubMed

    Koizumi, Amane; Nagata, Osamu; Togawa, Morio; Sazi, Toshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    Neuroscience is an expanding field of science to investigate enigmas of brain and human body function. However, the majority of the public have never had the chance to learn the basics of neuroscience and new knowledge from advanced neuroscience research through hands-on experience. Here, we report that we produced the Muscle Sensor, a simplified electromyography, to promote educational understanding in neuroscience. The Muscle Sensor can detect myoelectric potentials which are filtered and processed as 3-V pulse signals to shine a light bulb and emit beep sounds. With this educational tool, we delivered "On-Site Neuroscience Lectures" in Japanese junior-high schools to facilitate hands-on experience of neuroscientific electrophysiology and to connect their text-book knowledge to advanced neuroscience researches. On-site neuroscience lectures with the Muscle Sensor pave the way for a better understanding of the basics of neuroscience and the latest topics such as how brain-machine-interface technology could help patients with disabilities such as spinal cord injuries.

  20. Soul, mind, brain: Greek philosophy and the birth of neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Crivellato, Enrico; Ribatti, Domenico

    2007-01-01

    The nature of "soul" and the source of "psychic life", the anatomical seat of cognitive, motor and sensory functions, and the origin of neural diseases were broadly debated by ancient Greek scientists since the earliest times. Within the space of few centuries, speculation of philosophers and medical thinkers laid the foundations of modern experimental and clinical neuroscience. This review provides a brief history of the leading doctrines on the essence of soul and the properties of mind professed by Greek philosophers and physicians as well as the early attempts to localize brain faculties and to explain neural disorders.

  1. Time scales in cognitive neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Papo, David

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive neuroscience boils down to describing the ways in which cognitive function results from brain activity. In turn, brain activity shows complex fluctuations, with structure at many spatio-temporal scales. Exactly how cognitive function inherits the physical dimensions of neural activity, though, is highly non-trivial, and so are generally the corresponding dimensions of cognitive phenomena. As for any physical phenomenon, when studying cognitive function, the first conceptual step should be that of establishing its dimensions. Here, we provide a systematic presentation of the temporal aspects of task-related brain activity, from the smallest scale of the brain imaging technique's resolution, to the observation time of a given experiment, through the characteristic time scales of the process under study. We first review some standard assumptions on the temporal scales of cognitive function. In spite of their general use, these assumptions hold true to a high degree of approximation for many cognitive (viz. fast perceptual) processes, but have their limitations for other ones (e.g., thinking or reasoning). We define in a rigorous way the temporal quantifiers of cognition at all scales, and illustrate how they qualitatively vary as a function of the properties of the cognitive process under study. We propose that each phenomenon should be approached with its own set of theoretical, methodological and analytical tools. In particular, we show that when treating cognitive processes such as thinking or reasoning, complex properties of ongoing brain activity, which can be drastically simplified when considering fast (e.g., perceptual) processes, start playing a major role, and not only characterize the temporal properties of task-related brain activity, but also determine the conditions for proper observation of the phenomena. Finally, some implications on the design of experiments, data analyses, and the choice of recording parameters are discussed. PMID:23626578

  2. Closed-Loop Neuroscience and Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation: A Tale of Two Loops

    PubMed Central

    Zrenner, Christoph; Belardinelli, Paolo; Müller-Dahlhaus, Florian; Ziemann, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    Closed-loop neuroscience is receiving increasing attention with recent technological advances that enable complex feedback loops to be implemented with millisecond resolution on commodity hardware. We summarize emerging conceptual and methodological frameworks that are available to experimenters investigating a “brain in the loop” using non-invasive brain stimulation and briefly review the experimental and therapeutic implications. We take the view that closed-loop neuroscience in fact deals with two conceptually quite different loops: a “brain-state dynamics” loop, used to couple with and modulate the trajectory of neuronal activity patterns, and a “task dynamics” loop, that is the bidirectional motor-sensory interaction between brain and (simulated) environment, and which enables goal-directed behavioral tasks to be incorporated. Both loops need to be considered and combined to realize the full experimental and therapeutic potential of closed-loop neuroscience. PMID:27092055

  3. Closed-Loop Neuroscience and Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation: A Tale of Two Loops.

    PubMed

    Zrenner, Christoph; Belardinelli, Paolo; Müller-Dahlhaus, Florian; Ziemann, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    Closed-loop neuroscience is receiving increasing attention with recent technological advances that enable complex feedback loops to be implemented with millisecond resolution on commodity hardware. We summarize emerging conceptual and methodological frameworks that are available to experimenters investigating a "brain in the loop" using non-invasive brain stimulation and briefly review the experimental and therapeutic implications. We take the view that closed-loop neuroscience in fact deals with two conceptually quite different loops: a "brain-state dynamics" loop, used to couple with and modulate the trajectory of neuronal activity patterns, and a "task dynamics" loop, that is the bidirectional motor-sensory interaction between brain and (simulated) environment, and which enables goal-directed behavioral tasks to be incorporated. Both loops need to be considered and combined to realize the full experimental and therapeutic potential of closed-loop neuroscience. PMID:27092055

  4. Affective neuroscience of the emotional BrainMind: evolutionary perspectives and implications for understanding depression.

    PubMed

    Panksepp, Jaak

    2010-01-01

    Cross-species affective neuroscience studies confirm that primary-process emotional feelings are organized within primitive subcortical regions of the brain that are anatomically, neurochemically, and functionally homologous in all mammals that have been studied. Emotional feelings (affects) are intrinsic values that inform animals how they are faring in the quest to survive. The various positive affects indicate that animals are returning to "comfort zones" that support survival, and negative affects reflect "discomfort zones" that indicate that animals are in situations that may impair survival. They are ancestral tools for living--evolutionary memories of such importance that they were coded into the genome in rough form (as primary brain processes), which are refined by basic learning mechanisms (secondary processes) as well as by higher-order cognitions/thoughts (tertiary processes). To understand why depression feels horrible, we must fathom the affective infrastructure of the mammalian brain. Advances in our understanding of the nature of primary-process emotional affects can promote the development of better preclinical models of psychiatric disorders and thereby also allow clinicians new and useful ways to understand the foundational aspects of their clients' problems. These networks are of clear importance for understanding psychiatric disorders and advancing psychiatric practice.

  5. Affective neuroscience of the emotional BrainMind: evolutionary perspectives and implications for understanding depression

    PubMed Central

    Panksepp, Jaak

    2010-01-01

    Cross-species affective neuroscience studies confirm that primary-process emotional feelings are organized within primitive subcortical regions of the brain that are anatomically, neurochemically, and functionally homologous in all mammals that have been studied. Emotional feelings (affects) are intrinsic values that inform animals how they are faring in the quest to survive. The various positive affects indicate that animals are returning to “comfort zones” that support survival, and negative affects reflect “discomfort zones” that indicate that animals are in situations that may impair survival. They are ancestral tools for living - evolutionary memories of such importance that they were coded into the genome in rough form (as primary brain processes), which are refined by basic learning mechanisms (secondary processes) as well as by higher-order cognitions/thoughts (tertiary processes). To understand why depression feels horrible, we must fathom the affective infrastructure of the mammalian brain. Advances in our understanding of the nature of primary-process emotional affects can promote the development of better preclinical models of psychiatric disorders and thereby also allow clinicians new and useful ways to understand the foundational aspects of their clients' problems. These networks are of clear importance for understanding psychiatric disorders and advancing psychiatric practice. PMID:21319497

  6. Affective neuroscience of the emotional BrainMind: evolutionary perspectives and implications for understanding depression.

    PubMed

    Panksepp, Jaak

    2010-01-01

    Cross-species affective neuroscience studies confirm that primary-process emotional feelings are organized within primitive subcortical regions of the brain that are anatomically, neurochemically, and functionally homologous in all mammals that have been studied. Emotional feelings (affects) are intrinsic values that inform animals how they are faring in the quest to survive. The various positive affects indicate that animals are returning to "comfort zones" that support survival, and negative affects reflect "discomfort zones" that indicate that animals are in situations that may impair survival. They are ancestral tools for living--evolutionary memories of such importance that they were coded into the genome in rough form (as primary brain processes), which are refined by basic learning mechanisms (secondary processes) as well as by higher-order cognitions/thoughts (tertiary processes). To understand why depression feels horrible, we must fathom the affective infrastructure of the mammalian brain. Advances in our understanding of the nature of primary-process emotional affects can promote the development of better preclinical models of psychiatric disorders and thereby also allow clinicians new and useful ways to understand the foundational aspects of their clients' problems. These networks are of clear importance for understanding psychiatric disorders and advancing psychiatric practice. PMID:21319497

  7. Neuroimaging and psychophysiological measurement in organizational research: an agenda for research in organizational cognitive neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Lee, Nick; Chamberlain, Laura

    2007-11-01

    Although organizational research has made tremendous strides in the last century, recent advances in neuroscience and the imaging of functional brain activity remain underused. In fact, even the use of well-established psychophysiological measurement tools is comparatively rare. Following the lead of social cognitive neuroscience, in this review, we conceptualize organizational cognitive neuroscience as a field dedicated to exploring the processes within the brain that underlie or influence human decisions, behaviors, and interactions either (a) within organizations or (b) in response to organizational manifestations or institutions. We discuss organizational cognitive neuroscience, bringing together work that may previously have been characterized rather atomistically, and provide a brief overview of individual methods that may be of use. Subsequently, we discuss the possible convergence and integration of the different neuroimaging and psychophysiological measurement modalities. A brief review of prior work in the field shows a significant need for a more coherent and theory-driven approach to organizational cognitive neuroscience. In response, we discuss a recent example of such work, along with three hypothetical case studies that exemplify the link between organizational and psychological theory and neuroscientific methods. PMID:17717097

  8. Linking neuroscience and psychoanalysis from a developmental perspective: why and how?

    PubMed

    Ouss-Ryngaert, Lisa; Golse, Bernard

    2010-12-01

    This paper aims to develop the rational to support why and how we should link neuroscience and psychoanalysis. Many of these points are derived from child development and child psychiatry. Neuroscience investigates developmental questions in a different way than psychoanalysis, while psychoanalysis itself has shifted towards new developmental paradigms. The rapprochement between neuroscience and psychoanalysis allows a new understanding of some concepts, including embodiment of mind, consciousness and attachment. The "double reading" paradigm allows a better understanding of symptomatic configurations. Linking neuroscience and psychoanalysis may improve treatments and result in new experimental neuroscientific paradigms involving changing the research object, changing the state of the research object, and investigating the structural changes in the brain following psychotherapy. The last aim is to create an epistemology of the articulation between the theoretical frameworks through phenomenology, "complementarism" and neuropsychoanalysis. We argue that it is necessary for clinicians to be aware of the advancements in each field. This is not only an epistemological question; we assume that new findings in neuroscience will change the way psychoanalysts think and approach treatment of their patients. We hope the present research will contribute to change the way that neuroscientists think and will provide new options to their set of experimental paradigms.

  9. Development and use of Ontologies Inside the Neuroscience Information Framework: A Practical Approach.

    PubMed

    Imam, Fahim T; Larson, Stephen D; Bandrowski, Anita; Grethe, Jeffery S; Gupta, Amarnath; Martone, Maryann E

    2012-01-01

    An initiative of the NIH Blueprint for neuroscience research, the Neuroscience Information Framework (NIF) project advances neuroscience by enabling discovery and access to public research data and tools worldwide through an open source, semantically enhanced search portal. One of the critical components for the overall NIF system, the NIF Standardized Ontologies (NIFSTD), provides an extensive collection of standard neuroscience concepts along with their synonyms and relationships. The knowledge models defined in the NIFSTD ontologies enable an effective concept-based search over heterogeneous types of web-accessible information entities in NIF's production system. NIFSTD covers major domains in neuroscience, including diseases, brain anatomy, cell types, sub-cellular anatomy, small molecules, techniques, and resource descriptors. Since the first production release in 2008, NIF has grown significantly in content and functionality, particularly with respect to the ontologies and ontology-based services that drive the NIF system. We present here on the structure, design principles, community engagement, and the current state of NIFSTD ontologies.

  10. Advanced mutasynthesis studies on the natural α-pyrone antibiotic myxopyronin from Myxococcus fulvus.

    PubMed

    Sahner, J Henning; Sucipto, Hilda; Wenzel, Silke C; Groh, Matthias; Hartmann, Rolf W; Müller, Rolf

    2015-04-13

    Myxopyronin is a natural α-pyrone antibiotic from the soil bacterium Myxococcus fulvus Mx f50. Myxopyronin inhibits bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP) by binding to a part of the enzyme not targeted by the clinically used rifamycins. This mode of action makes myxopyronins promising molecules for the development of novel broad-spectrum antibacterials. We describe the derivatization of myxopyronins by an advanced mutasynthesis approach as a first step towards this goal. Site-directed mutagenesis of the biosynthetic machinery was used to block myxopyronin biosynthesis at different stages. The resulting mutants were fed with diverse precursors that mimic the biosynthetic intermediates to restore production. Mutasynthon incorporation and production of novel myxopyronin derivatives were analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS. This work sets the stage for accessing numerous myxopyronin derivatives, thus significantly expanding the chemical space of f α-pyrone antibiotics. PMID:25757034

  11. Recent Advances in Clinical Natural Language Processing in Support of Semantic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mowery, D.; South, B. R.; Kvist, M.; Dalianis, H.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objectives We present a review of recent advances in clinical Natural Language Processing (NLP), with a focus on semantic analysis and key subtasks that support such analysis. Methods We conducted a literature review of clinical NLP research from 2008 to 2014, emphasizing recent publications (2012-2014), based on PubMed and ACL proceedings as well as relevant referenced publications from the included papers. Results Significant articles published within this time-span were included and are discussed from the perspective of semantic analysis. Three key clinical NLP subtasks that enable such analysis were identified: 1) developing more efficient methods for corpus creation (annotation and de-identification), 2) generating building blocks for extracting meaning (morphological, syntactic, and semantic subtasks), and 3) leveraging NLP for clinical utility (NLP applications and infrastructure for clinical use cases). Finally, we provide a reflection upon most recent developments and potential areas of future NLP development and applications. Conclusions There has been an increase of advances within key NLP subtasks that support semantic analysis. Performance of NLP semantic analysis is, in many cases, close to that of agreement between humans. The creation and release of corpora annotated with complex semantic information models has greatly supported the development of new tools and approaches. Research on non-English languages is continuously growing. NLP methods have sometimes been successfully employed in real-world clinical tasks. However, there is still a gap between the development of advanced resources and their utilization in clinical settings. A plethora of new clinical use cases are emerging due to established health care initiatives and additional patient-generated sources through the extensive use of social media and other devices. PMID:26293867

  12. Sex and Violence in Neuroscience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Deborah M.

    1988-01-01

    Describes advances made in the understanding of how sex hormones may modify various cognitive skills, how normal brain signaling mechanisms may cause nerve cell death, and how many cells appear to hold genetic agents which determine their own destruction. (RT)

  13. Computational psychiatry as a bridge from neuroscience to clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Huys, Quentin J M; Maia, Tiago V; Frank, Michael J

    2016-03-01

    Translating advances in neuroscience into benefits for patients with mental illness presents enormous challenges because it involves both the most complex organ, the brain, and its interaction with a similarly complex environment. Dealing with such complexities demands powerful techniques. Computational psychiatry combines multiple levels and types of computation with multiple types of data in an effort to improve understanding, prediction and treatment of mental illness. Computational psychiatry, broadly defined, encompasses two complementary approaches: data driven and theory driven. Data-driven approaches apply machine-learning methods to high-dimensional data to improve classification of disease, predict treatment outcomes or improve treatment selection. These approaches are generally agnostic as to the underlying mechanisms. Theory-driven approaches, in contrast, use models that instantiate prior knowledge of, or explicit hypotheses about, such mechanisms, possibly at multiple levels of analysis and abstraction. We review recent advances in both approaches, with an emphasis on clinical applications, and highlight the utility of combining them.

  14. Computational psychiatry as a bridge from neuroscience to clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Huys, Quentin J M; Maia, Tiago V; Frank, Michael J

    2016-03-01

    Translating advances in neuroscience into benefits for patients with mental illness presents enormous challenges because it involves both the most complex organ, the brain, and its interaction with a similarly complex environment. Dealing with such complexities demands powerful techniques. Computational psychiatry combines multiple levels and types of computation with multiple types of data in an effort to improve understanding, prediction and treatment of mental illness. Computational psychiatry, broadly defined, encompasses two complementary approaches: data driven and theory driven. Data-driven approaches apply machine-learning methods to high-dimensional data to improve classification of disease, predict treatment outcomes or improve treatment selection. These approaches are generally agnostic as to the underlying mechanisms. Theory-driven approaches, in contrast, use models that instantiate prior knowledge of, or explicit hypotheses about, such mechanisms, possibly at multiple levels of analysis and abstraction. We review recent advances in both approaches, with an emphasis on clinical applications, and highlight the utility of combining them. PMID:26906507

  15. Security implications and governance of cognitive neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Kosal, Margaret E; Huang, Jonathan Y

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, significant efforts have been made toward elucidating the potential of the human brain. Spanning fields as disparate as psychology, biomedicine, computer science, mathematics, electrical engineering, and chemistry, research venturing into the growing domains of cognitive neuroscience and brain research has become fundamentally interdisciplinary. Among the most interesting and consequential applications to international security are the military and defense community's interests in the potential of cognitive neuroscience findings and technologies. In the United States, multiple governmental agencies are actively pursuing such endeavors, including the Department of Defense, which has invested over $3 billion in the last decade to conduct research on defense-related innovations. This study explores governance and security issues surrounding cognitive neuroscience research with regard to potential security-related applications and reports scientists' views on the role of researchers in these areas through a survey of over 200 active cognitive neuroscientists. PMID:26399948

  16. Conceptual Challenges and Directions for Social Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Adolphs, Ralph

    2010-01-01

    Social neuroscience has been enormously successful and is making major contributions to fields ranging from psychiatry to economics. Yet deep and interesting conceptual challenges abound. Is social information processing domain specific? Is it universal or susceptible to individual differences and effects of culture? Are there uniquely human social cognitive abilities? What is the “social brain,” and how do we map social psychological processes onto it? Animal models together with fMRI and other cognitive neuroscience approaches in humans are providing an unprecedented level of detail and many surprising results. It may well be that social neuroscience in the near future will give us an entirely new view of who we are, how we evolved, and what might be in store for the future of our species. PMID:20346753

  17. Neuroscience and the fallacies of functionalism.

    PubMed

    Reddy, William M

    2010-01-01

    Smail's "On Deep History and the Brain" is rightly critical of the functionalist fallacies that have plagued evolutionary theory, sociobiology, and evolutionary psychology. However, his attempt to improve on these efforts relies on functional explanations that themselves oversimplify the lessons of neuroscience. In addition, like explanations in evolutionary psychology, they are highly speculative and cannot be confirmed or disproved by evidence. Neuroscience research is too diverse to yield a single picture of brain functioning. Some recent developments in neuroscience research, however, do suggest that cognitive processing provides a kind of “operating system” that can support a great diversity of cultural material. These developments include evidence of “top-down” processing in motor control, in visual processing, in speech recognition, and in “emotion regulation.” The constraints that such a system may place on cultural learning and transmission are worth investigating. At the same time, historians are well advised to remain wary of the pitfalls of functionalism.

  18. Neuroaesthetics: The Cognitive Neuroscience of Aesthetic Experience.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Marcus T; Zaidel, Dahlia W; Vartanian, Oshin; Skov, Martin; Leder, Helmut; Chatterjee, Anjan; Nadal, Marcos

    2016-03-01

    The field of neuroaesthetics has gained in popularity in recent years but also attracted criticism from the perspectives both of the humanities and the sciences. In an effort to consolidate research in the field, we characterize neuroaesthetics as the cognitive neuroscience of aesthetic experience, drawing on long traditions of research in empirical aesthetics on the one hand and cognitive neuroscience on the other. We clarify the aims and scope of the field, identifying relations among neuroscientific investigations of aesthetics, beauty, and art. The approach we advocate takes as its object of study a wide spectrum of aesthetic experiences, resulting from interactions of individuals, sensory stimuli, and context. Drawing on its parent fields, a cognitive neuroscience of aesthetics would investigate the complex cognitive processes and functional networks of brain regions involved in those experiences without placing a value on them. Thus, the cognitive neuroscientific approach may develop in a way that is mutually complementary to approaches in the humanities. PMID:26993278

  19. Security implications and governance of cognitive neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Kosal, Margaret E; Huang, Jonathan Y

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, significant efforts have been made toward elucidating the potential of the human brain. Spanning fields as disparate as psychology, biomedicine, computer science, mathematics, electrical engineering, and chemistry, research venturing into the growing domains of cognitive neuroscience and brain research has become fundamentally interdisciplinary. Among the most interesting and consequential applications to international security are the military and defense community's interests in the potential of cognitive neuroscience findings and technologies. In the United States, multiple governmental agencies are actively pursuing such endeavors, including the Department of Defense, which has invested over $3 billion in the last decade to conduct research on defense-related innovations. This study explores governance and security issues surrounding cognitive neuroscience research with regard to potential security-related applications and reports scientists' views on the role of researchers in these areas through a survey of over 200 active cognitive neuroscientists.

  20. Exploring Sensory Neuroscience Through Experience and Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Wyttenbach, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    Many phenomena that we take for granted are illusions — color and motion on a TV or computer monitor, for example, or the impression of space in a stereo music recording. Even the stable image that we perceive when looking directly at the real world is illusory. One of the important lessons from sensory neuroscience is that our perception of the world is constructed rather than received. Sensory illusions effectively capture student interest, but how do you then move on to substantive discussion of neuroscience? This article illustrates several illusions, attempts to connect them to neuroscience, and shows how students can explore and experiment with them. Even when (as is often the case) there is no agreed-upon mechanistic explanation for an illusion, students can form hypotheses and test them by manipulating stimuli and measuring their effects. In effect, students can experiment with illusions using themselves as subjects. PMID:23493966

  1. Neuroscience and legal determination of criminal responsibility.

    PubMed

    Eastman, Nigel; Campbell, Colin

    2006-04-01

    Neuroscience is increasingly identifying associations between biology and violence that appear to offer courts evidence relevant to criminal responsibility. In addition, in a policy era of 'zero tolerance of risk', evidence of biological abnormality in some of those who are violent, or biological markers of violence, may be seized on as a possible basis for preventive detention in the interest of public safety. However, there is a mismatch between questions that the courts and society wish answered and those that neuroscience is capable of answering. This poses a risk to the proper exercise of justice and to civil liberties.

  2. Photographer: Digital Telepresence: Dr Murial Ross's Virtual Reality Application for Neuroscience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Photographer: Digital Telepresence: Dr Murial Ross's Virtual Reality Application for Neuroscience Research Biocomputation. To study human disorders of balance and space motion sickness. Shown here is a 3D reconstruction of a nerve ending in inner ear, nature's wiring of balance organs.

  3. Microsurgical varicocelectomy for infertile couples with advanced female age: natural history in the era of ART.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Jeanne H; Bowles, Ben; Kamal, Khaled M; Jarvi, Keith; Zini, Armand

    2004-01-01

    Varicocele represents the most common cause of male infertility, and most reports indicate that varicocelectomy has a beneficial effect on male fertility and pregnancy outcome. Assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) are an alternative to varicocelectomy for the management of couples with a varicocele. The age of the female partner is important in the decision-making process; however, the true influence of female age on pregnancy outcome following varicocelectomy or ART in these couples is unknown. We evaluated the outcomes of 2 cohorts of infertile men with a varicocele and a female partner 35 years of age or older; one group selected varicocelectomy and the other a nonsurgical approach. We reviewed a group of consecutive infertile men who underwent microsurgical varicocelectomy and whose partners are 35 years of age or older (n = 110). We also reviewed a consecutive group of men with varicoceles who elected not to have surgery and whose partners are 35 years of age or older (n = 94). The outcome measures included changes in semen parameters, pregnancy rates (assisted and unassisted), and use of ART. The surgical and nonsurgical groups had comparable semen parameters and female ages. Mean sperm concentration and motility increased significantly after varicocelectomy (P < .05). At a mean of 30 months follow-up, 35% of couples in the surgical group achieved a spontaneous pregnancy and an additional 6% achieved a pregnancy via ART (20% of this group attempted ART). In the nonsurgical group, 25% achieved a spontaneous pregnancy and an additional 16% achieved a pregnancy with ART (40% of this group attempted ART). This study on the natural history of infertile men with varicocele and advanced female age suggests that the surgical and nonsurgical approaches offer comparable pregnancy outcome (combined assisted and unassisted pregnancy rates are about 40%). Overall, these data suggest that varicocelectomy is an acceptable option for couples with advanced female age

  4. Indestructible plastic: the neuroscience of the new aging brain

    PubMed Central

    Holman, Constance; de Villers-Sidani, Etienne

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, research on experience-dependent plasticity has provided valuable insight on adaptation to environmental input across the lifespan, and advances in understanding the minute cellular changes underlying the brain’s capacity for self-reorganization have opened exciting new possibilities for treating illness and injury. Ongoing work in this line of inquiry has also come to deeply influence another field: cognitive neuroscience of the normal aging. This complex process, once considered inevitable or beyond the reach of treatment, has been transformed into an arena of intense investigation and strategic intervention. However, important questions remain about this characterization of the aging brain, and the assumptions it makes about the social, cultural, and biological space occupied by cognition in the older individual and body. The following paper will provide a critical examination of the move from basic experiments on the neurophysiology of experience-dependent plasticity to the growing market for (and public conception of) cognitive aging as a medicalized space for intervention by neuroscience-backed technologies. Entangled with changing concepts of normality, pathology, and self-preservation, we will argue that this new understanding, led by personalized cognitive training strategies, is approaching a point where interdisciplinary research is crucial to provide a holistic and nuanced understanding of the aging process. This new outlook will allow us to move forward in a space where our knowledge, like our new conception of the brain, is never static. PMID:24782746

  5. Contributions of neuroscience to the study of socioeconomic health disparities

    PubMed Central

    Gianaros, Peter J.; Hackman, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Socioeconomic disadvantage confers risk for ill health. Historically, the pathways by which socioeconomic disadvantage may affect health have been viewed from epidemiological perspectives emphasizing environmental, behavioral, and biopsychosocial risk factors. Such perspectives, however, have yet to integrate findings from emerging neuroscience studies demonstrating that indicators of socioeconomic disadvantage relate to patterns of brain morphology and functionality that have been associated with aspects of mental, physical, and cognitive health over the lifecourse. This commentary considers findings from one such study appearing in the current issue of Psychosomatic Medicine. It reports that an area-level indicator of socioeconomic disadvantage relates to cortical morphology in brain regions important for language, executive control, and other cognitive and behavioral functions—possibly via a systemic inflammatory pathway. These findings are put into context by discussing broader questions and challenges that need to be addressed in order for neuroscience approaches to (i) become better integrated with existing epidemiological perspectives and (ii) more fully advance our understanding of the pathways by which socioeconomic disadvantage becomes embodied by the brain in relation to health. PMID:23975944

  6. Dispatches from the International Behavioral Neuroscience Society meeting 2014. Introduction.

    PubMed

    Brigman, Jonathan L; Young, Jared W; Pletnikov, Mikhail; Kent, Stephen

    2015-12-15

    The International Behavioral Neuroscience Society (IBNS) was founded in 1992 to fill the need for a focused meeting of the international research community to discuss issues important for the development and progress of this scientific discipline. In the 20 plus years since its founding, IBNS has become a hub for the dissemination of new research, development of important research collaborations, support and networking for young investigators, and for outreach and education to the community. This work is covered in part by offering special sessions during the meeting for late-breaking scientific discoveries from a range of disciplines as well as background and seniority level of the presenters. This special issue is a culmination of the late-breaking research presented at the IBNS 2014 meeting. The manuscripts of this Special Issue cover a variety of themes, including, stress, depression, the intersection of monoamine systems and behavior, substance use disorders, attentional processes, and awareness and acceptance of brain training. This wide range of topics and interest as well as range in seniority of presenters demonstrate the driving interest of IBNS in advancing knowledge in behavioral neuroscience as well as supporting scientists at every level.

  7. Approaches for targeted proteomics and its potential applications in neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Sumit; Chourasia, Dipti; Parhar, Ishwar S

    2015-09-01

    An extensive guide on practicable and significant quantitative proteomic approaches in neuroscience research is important not only because of the existing overwhelming limitations but also for gaining valuable understanding into brain function and deciphering proteomics from the workbench to the bedside. Early methodologies to understand the functioning of biological systems are now improving with high-throughput technologies, which allow analysis of various samples concurrently, or of thousand of analytes in a particular sample. Quantitative proteomic approaches include both gel-based and non-gel-based methods that can be further divided into different labelling approaches. This review will emphasize the role of existing technologies, their advantages and disadvantages, as well as their applications in neuroscience. This review will also discuss advanced approaches for targeted proteomics using isotope-coded affinity tag (ICAT) coupled with laser capture microdissection (LCM) followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) analysis. This technology can further be extended to single cell proteomics in other areas of biological sciences and can be combined with other 'omics' approaches to reveal the mechanism of a cellular alterations. This approach may lead to further investigation in basic biology, disease analysis and surveillance, as well as drug discovery. Although numerous challenges still exist, we are confident that this approach will increase the understanding of pathological mechanisms involved in neuroendocrinology, neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders by delivering protein biomarker signatures for brain dysfunction. PMID:26333406

  8. Scientific and Pragmatic Challenges for Bridging Education and Neuroscience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varma, Sashank; McCandliss, Bruce D.; Schwartz, Daniel L.

    2008-01-01

    Educational neuroscience is an emerging effort to integrate neuroscience methods, particularly functional neuroimaging, with behavioral methods to address issues of learning and instruction. This article consolidates common concerns about connecting education and neuroscience. One set of concerns is scientific: in-principle differences in methods,…

  9. Natural environment design criteria for the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF) definition and preliminary design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, W. M.; Vaughan, W. W.

    1984-01-01

    This document provides the natural environment design criteria requirements for use in the Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF) definition and preliminary design studies. The atmospheric dynamic and thermodynamic environments, meteoroids, radiation, magnetic fields, and physical constants are all addressed. This information will enable all groups involved in the definition and preliminary design studies to proceed with a common and consistent set of natural environment criteria requirements.

  10. LOW-ENGINE-FRICTION TECHNOLOGY FOR ADVANCED NATURAL-GAS RECIPROCATING ENGINES

    SciTech Connect

    Victor W. Wong; Tian Tian; Grant Smedley; Jeffrey Jocsak

    2004-09-30

    This program aims at improving the efficiency of advanced natural-gas reciprocating engines (ANGRE) by reducing piston/ring assembly friction without major adverse effects on engine performance, such as increased oil consumption and emissions. An iterative process of simulation, experimentation and analysis, are being followed towards achieving the goal of demonstrating a complete optimized low-friction engine system. To date, a detailed set of piston/ring dynamic and friction models have been developed and applied that illustrated the fundamental relationships between design parameters and friction losses. Various low-friction strategies and ring-design concepts have been explored, and engine experiments have been done on a full-scale Waukesha VGF F18 in-line 6 cylinder power generation engine rated at 370 kW at 1800 rpm. Current accomplishments include designing and testing ring-packs using a subtle top-compression-ring profile (skewed barrel design), lowering the tension of the oil-control ring, employing a negative twist to the scraper ring to control oil consumption. Initial test data indicate that piston ring-pack friction was reduced by 35% by lowering the oil-control ring tension alone, which corresponds to a 1.5% improvement in fuel efficiency. Although small in magnitude, this improvement represents a first step towards anticipated aggregate improvements from other strategies. Other ring-pack design strategies to lower friction have been identified, including reduced axial distance between the top two rings, tilted top-ring groove. Some of these configurations have been tested and some await further evaluation. Colorado State University performed the tests and Waukesha Engine Dresser, Inc. provided technical support. Key elements of the continuing work include optimizing the engine piston design, application of surface and material developments in conjunction with improved lubricant properties, system modeling and analysis, and continued technology

  11. Invertebrate neuroscience and CephsInAction at the Mediterranean Society for Neuroscience Meeting Cagliari 2015.

    PubMed

    Holden-Dye, Lindy; Fiorito, Graziano; Ponte, Giovanna

    2015-12-01

    Invertebrate neuroscience, and in particular cephalopod research, is well represented in the Mediterranean region. Therefore, the recent meeting of the Mediterranean Society for Neuroscience in Santa Margherita di Pula, Sardinia (12-15 June 2015) provided an excellent opportunity for invertebrate contributions. Furthermore, the Chair of an EU COST Action for cephalopod research (FA1301; www.cephsinaction.org ), Giovanna Ponte, together with Graziano Fiorito from the Stazione Zoologica, Naples, aligned a meeting of research groups working in the field of cephalopod neurophysiology from across Europe to coincide with the neuroscience meeting. This provided an exciting forum for exchange of ideas. Here we provide brief highlights of both events and an explanation of the activities of the COST Action for the broader invertebrate neuroscience community.

  12. Large scale digital atlases in neuroscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawrylycz, M.; Feng, D.; Lau, C.; Kuan, C.; Miller, J.; Dang, C.; Ng, L.

    2014-03-01

    Imaging in neuroscience has revolutionized our current understanding of brain structure, architecture and increasingly its function. Many characteristics of morphology, cell type, and neuronal circuitry have been elucidated through methods of neuroimaging. Combining this data in a meaningful, standardized, and accessible manner is the scope and goal of the digital brain atlas. Digital brain atlases are used today in neuroscience to characterize the spatial organization of neuronal structures, for planning and guidance during neurosurgery, and as a reference for interpreting other data modalities such as gene expression and connectivity data. The field of digital atlases is extensive and in addition to atlases of the human includes high quality brain atlases of the mouse, rat, rhesus macaque, and other model organisms. Using techniques based on histology, structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging as well as gene expression data, modern digital atlases use probabilistic and multimodal techniques, as well as sophisticated visualization software to form an integrated product. Toward this goal, brain atlases form a common coordinate framework for summarizing, accessing, and organizing this knowledge and will undoubtedly remain a key technology in neuroscience in the future. Since the development of its flagship project of a genome wide image-based atlas of the mouse brain, the Allen Institute for Brain Science has used imaging as a primary data modality for many of its large scale atlas projects. We present an overview of Allen Institute digital atlases in neuroscience, with a focus on the challenges and opportunities for image processing and computation.

  13. Cognitive Neuroscience and Education: Unravelling the Confusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdy, Noel; Morrison, Hugh

    2009-01-01

    This paper critically examines the application of research into cognitive neuroscience to educational contexts. It first considers recent warnings from within the neuroscientific community itself about the limitations of current neuroscientific knowledge and the urgent need to dispel popular "neuromyths" which have become accepted in many…

  14. Educational Neuroscience: What Can We Learn?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Derek

    2014-01-01

    There has been a marked increase in interest, research, and publications exploring ways in which educational practices might be influenced by neuroscience. The idea that a greater understanding of how the brain works can improve teaching and learning is very seductive, but what can teachers and other professionals working in education learn from…

  15. Infusing Neuroscience into Teacher Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubinsky, Janet M.; Roehrig, Gillian; Varma, Sashank

    2013-01-01

    Bruer advocated connecting neuroscience and education indirectly through the intermediate discipline of psychology. We argue for a parallel route: The neurobiology of learning, and in particular the core concept of "plasticity," have the potential to directly transform teacher preparation and professional development, and ultimately to…

  16. Foundationalism and Neuroscience; Silence and Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keestra, Machiel; Cowley, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    Neuroscience offers more than new empirical evidence about the details of cognitive functions such as language, perception and action. Since it also shows many functions to be highly distributed, interconnected and dependent on mechanisms at different levels of processing, it challenges concepts that are traditionally used to describe these…

  17. Social Neuroscience of Child and Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Anita

    2007-01-01

    The social neuroscience of child and adolescent depression is inherently multidisciplinary. Depressive disorders beginning early in life can have serious developmental and functional consequences. Psychopathology research has described depression's defining clinical and contextual features, and intervention research has characterized its response…

  18. When and How Neuroscience Applies to Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willingham, Dan

    2008-01-01

    In this reply, the author agrees with Eric Jensen on several important points, among them: that neuroscientific data are relevant to educational research, that these data have already proved useful, and that neuroscience alone should not be expected to generate classroom-ready prescriptions. He sharply disagrees with him, however, on the prospects…

  19. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience: Origins, Issues, and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, Bruce F.; Snyder, Kelly A.; Roberts, Ralph J., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    This commentary explains how the field of developmental cognitive neuroscience (DCN) holds the promise of a much wider interdisciplinary integration across sciences concerned with development: psychology, molecular genetics, neurobiology, and evolutionary developmental biology. First we present a brief history of DCN, including the key theoretical…

  20. The Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience of Functional Connectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Michael C.

    2009-01-01

    Developmental cognitive neuroscience is a rapidly growing field that examines the relationships between biological development and cognitive ability. In the past decade, there has been ongoing refinement of concepts and methodology related to the study of "functional connectivity" among distributed brain regions believed to underlie cognition and…

  1. Removal of natural organic matter from drinking water by advanced oxidation processes.

    PubMed

    Matilainen, Anu; Sillanpää, Mika

    2010-06-01

    Over the past 10-20years the amount of the natural organic matter (NOM) has been increased in raw water supplies on several areas. The presence of NOM causes many problems in drinking water treatment processes, including: (i) negative effect on water quality by colour, taste and odor problems, (ii) increased coagulant and disinfectant dose requirements (which in turn results increased sludge and potential harmful disinfection by-product formation), (iii) promoted biological growth in distribution system, and (iv) increased levels of complexed heavy metals and adsorbed organic pollutants. Thus, more efficient methods for the removal of NOM have emerged. Among these are advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). These include O(3)/H(2)O(2), O(3)/UV, UV/H(2)O(2), TiO(2)/UV, H(2)O(2)/catalyst, Fenton and photo-Fenton prosesses as well as ultrasound. In the present work, an overview of the recent research studies dealing with AOP methods for the removal of NOM and related compounds from drinking water is presented.

  2. LOW-ENGINE-FRICTION TECHNOLOGY FOR ADVANCED NATURAL-GAS RECIPROCATING ENGINES

    SciTech Connect

    Victor W. Wong; Tian Tian; Grant Smedley

    2003-08-28

    This program aims at improving the efficiency of advanced natural-gas reciprocating engines (ANGRE) by reducing piston/ring assembly friction without major adverse effects on engine performance, such as increased oil consumption and emissions. A detailed set of piston/ring dynamic and friction models have been developed and applied that illustrated the fundamental relationships between design parameters and friction losses. Various low-friction strategies and concepts have been explored, and engine experiments will validate these concepts. An iterative process of experimentation, simulation and analysis, will be followed with the goal of demonstrating a complete optimized low-friction engine system. As planned, MIT has developed guidelines for an initial set of low-friction piston-ring-pack designs. Current recommendations focus on subtle top-piston-ring and oil-control-ring characteristics. A full-scale Waukesha F18 engine has been installed at Colorado State University and testing of the baseline configuration is in progress. Components for the first design iteration are being procured. Subsequent work includes examining the friction and engine performance data and extending the analyses to other areas to evaluate opportunities for further friction improvement and the impact on oil consumption/emission and wear, towards demonstrating an optimized reduced-friction engine system.

  3. Impacts of natural organic matter on perchlorate removal by an advanced reduction process.

    PubMed

    Duan, Yuhang; Batchelor, Bill

    2014-01-01

    Perchlorate can be destroyed by Advanced Reduction Processes (ARPs) that combine chemical reductants (e.g., sulfite) with activating methods (e.g., UV light) in order to produce highly reactive reducing free radicals that are capable of rapid and effective perchlorate reduction. However, natural organic matter (NOM) exists widely in the environment and has the potential to influence perchlorate reduction by ARPs that use UV light as the activating method. Batch experiments were conducted to obtain data on the impacts of NOM and wavelength of light on destruction of perchlorate by the ARPs that use sulfite activated by UV light produced by low-pressure mercury lamps (UV-L) or by KrCl excimer lamps (UV-KrCl). The results indicate that NOM strongly inhibits perchlorate removal by both ARP, because it competes with sulfite for UV light. Even though the absorbance of sulfite is much higher at 222 nm than that at 254 nm, the results indicate that a smaller amount of perchlorate was removed with the UV-KrCl lamp (222 nm) than with the UV-L lamp (254 nm). The results of this study will help to develop the proper way to apply the ARPs as practical water treatment processes. PMID:24521418

  4. Explaining the alluring influence of neuroscience information on scientific reasoning.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Rebecca E; Rodriguez, Fernando; Shah, Priti

    2014-09-01

    Previous studies have investigated the influence of neuroscience information or images on ratings of scientific evidence quality but have yielded mixed results. We examined the influence of neuroscience information on evaluations of flawed scientific studies after taking into account individual differences in scientific reasoning skills, thinking dispositions, and prior beliefs about a claim. We found that neuroscience information, even though irrelevant, made people believe they had a better understanding of the mechanism underlying a behavioral phenomenon. Neuroscience information had a smaller effect on ratings of article quality and scientist quality. Our study suggests that neuroscience information may provide an illusion of explanatory depth.

  5. Recent Advances in Substrate-Controlled Asymmetric Induction Derived from Chiral Pool α-Amino Acids for Natural Product Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Paek, Seung-Mann; Jeong, Myeonggyo; Jo, Jeyun; Heo, Yu Mi; Han, Young Taek; Yun, Hwayoung

    2016-07-21

    Chiral pool α-amino acids have been used as powerful tools for the total synthesis of structurally diverse natural products. Some common naturally occurring α-amino acids are readily available in both enantiomerically pure forms. The applications of the chiral pool in asymmetric synthesis can be categorized prudently as chiral sources, devices, and inducers. This review specifically examines recent advances in substrate-controlled asymmetric reactions induced by the chirality of α-amino acid templates in natural product synthesis research and related areas.

  6. Emerging perspectives in social neuroscience and neuroeconomics of aging

    PubMed Central

    Mather, Mara

    2011-01-01

    This article introduces the special issue of ‘Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience’ on Aging Research, and offers a broad conceptual and methodological framework for considering advances in life course research in social neuroscience and neuroeconomics. The authors highlight key areas of inquiry where aging research is raising new insights about how to conceptualize and examine critical questions about the links between cognition, emotion and motivation in social and economic behavior, as well as challenges that need to be addressed when taking a life course perspective in these fields. They also point to several emerging approaches that hold the potential for addressing these challenges, through bridging approaches from laboratory and population-based science, bridging inquiry across life stages and expanding measurement of core psychological phenotypes. PMID:21482573

  7. Building bridges between neuroscience, cognition and education with predictive modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Stringer, Steve; Tommerdahl, Jodi

    2015-05-06

    As the field of Mind, Brain, and Education seeks new ways to credibly bridge the gap between neuroscience, the cognitive sciences, and education, various connections are being developed and tested. In this article, we present a framework and offers examples of one approach, predictive modeling within a virtual educational system that can include representations from the neural level to the policy level. Researchers could calibrate, test, and question the model, potentially providing quicker, more efficient, and more responsible ways of making advances in the developing educational field. Likewise, virtual investigations using models with this sort of capability can supplement the valuable information derived from carrying out policy and instructional experiments in real educational contexts.

  8. Building bridges between neuroscience, cognition and education with predictive modeling

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Stringer, Steve; Tommerdahl, Jodi

    2015-05-06

    As the field of Mind, Brain, and Education seeks new ways to credibly bridge the gap between neuroscience, the cognitive sciences, and education, various connections are being developed and tested. In this article, we present a framework and offers examples of one approach, predictive modeling within a virtual educational system that can include representations from the neural level to the policy level. Researchers could calibrate, test, and question the model, potentially providing quicker, more efficient, and more responsible ways of making advances in the developing educational field. Likewise, virtual investigations using models with this sort of capability can supplement themore » valuable information derived from carrying out policy and instructional experiments in real educational contexts.« less

  9. Working with your Administration to Garner Support for Neuroscience Programs.

    PubMed

    Reiness, C Gary

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I discuss the ways that faculty can work with academic administrators to advance neuroscience programs. To be successful in making the case for resources, you should identify the institutional and administrative priorities, and be sure that your proposal aligns well with those. You should demonstrate the need and expected benefits that the additional resources will provide for the students and institution, and you should muster a group of like-minded colleagues who support your proposal. Expect that the process may extend over several years, as resource constraints and proposals from other programs will compete with yours and possibly delay your obtaining the resources you seek. Patience, persistence, and politeness will all come in handy during these potentially prolonged negotiations.

  10. The Use of Case Studies in Teaching Undergraduate Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Meil, William M.

    2007-01-01

    Case studies have been the cornerstone of many discoveries in neurology and continue to be an indispensable source of knowledge. Attaching a name, face, and story to the study of neurological disorders makes them more “real” and memorable. This article describes the value of the case study methodology and its advantages as a pedagogical approach. It also illustrates how the seminal case of H.M. can be used to highlight the advantages and disadvantages of the case study methodology. Three exercises are described for incorporating case studies into neuroscience courses. The first exercise requires students to conduct a literature review regarding their assigned case and then design an experiment to address a lingering question regarding that neurological disorder. Survey results of 90 students provide quantitative and qualitative support for this approach. The vast majority of students indicated this exercise was a valuable learning experience; sparked interest in the topic and in biopsychology; increased their knowledge and stimulated critical thinking. The second exercise discusses how students might conduct their own case studies. The third exercise emphasizes the use of case studies as a platform to examine competing hypotheses regarding neurological conditions and their treatment. A table listing case studies appropriate for undergraduate neuroscience courses is included. Cases are categorized by the type of neurological disorder and notes regarding the nature of and content of each case are provided. PMID:23493154

  11. The marmoset monkey as a model for visual neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Jude F.; Leopold, David A.

    2015-01-01

    The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) has been valuable as a primate model in biomedical research. Interest in this species has grown recently, in part due to the successful demonstration of transgenic marmosets. Here we examine the prospects of the marmoset model for visual neuroscience research, adopting a comparative framework to place the marmoset within a broader evolutionary context. The marmoset’s small brain bears most of the organizational features of other primates, and its smooth surface offers practical advantages over the macaque for areal mapping, laminar electrode penetration, and two-photon and optical imaging. Behaviorally, marmosets are more limited at performing regimented psychophysical tasks, but do readily accept the head restraint that is necessary for accurate eye tracking and neurophysiology, and can perform simple discriminations. Their natural gaze behavior closely resembles that of other primates, with a tendency to focus on objects of social interest including faces. Their immaturity at birth and routine twinning also makes them ideal for the study of postnatal visual development. These experimental factors, together with the theoretical advantages inherent in comparing anatomy, physiology, and behavior across related species, make the marmoset an excellent model for visual neuroscience. PMID:25683292

  12. The marmoset monkey as a model for visual neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Jude F; Leopold, David A

    2015-04-01

    The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) has been valuable as a primate model in biomedical research. Interest in this species has grown recently, in part due to the successful demonstration of transgenic marmosets. Here we examine the prospects of the marmoset model for visual neuroscience research, adopting a comparative framework to place the marmoset within a broader evolutionary context. The marmoset's small brain bears most of the organizational features of other primates, and its smooth surface offers practical advantages over the macaque for areal mapping, laminar electrode penetration, and two-photon and optical imaging. Behaviorally, marmosets are more limited at performing regimented psychophysical tasks, but do readily accept the head restraint that is necessary for accurate eye tracking and neurophysiology, and can perform simple discriminations. Their natural gaze behavior closely resembles that of other primates, with a tendency to focus on objects of social interest including faces. Their immaturity at birth and routine twinning also makes them ideal for the study of postnatal visual development. These experimental factors, together with the theoretical advantages inherent in comparing anatomy, physiology, and behavior across related species, make the marmoset an excellent model for visual neuroscience.

  13. Hardware-accelerated interactive data visualization for neuroscience in Python.

    PubMed

    Rossant, Cyrille; Harris, Kenneth D

    2013-01-01

    Large datasets are becoming more and more common in science, particularly in neuroscience where experimental techniques are rapidly evolving. Obtaining interpretable results from raw data can sometimes be done automatically; however, there are numerous situations where there is a need, at all processing stages, to visualize the data in an interactive way. This enables the scientist to gain intuition, discover unexpected patterns, and find guidance about subsequent analysis steps. Existing visualization tools mostly focus on static publication-quality figures and do not support interactive visualization of large datasets. While working on Python software for visualization of neurophysiological data, we developed techniques to leverage the computational power of modern graphics cards for high-performance interactive data visualization. We were able to achieve very high performance despite the interpreted and dynamic nature of Python, by using state-of-the-art, fast libraries such as NumPy, PyOpenGL, and PyTables. We present applications of these methods to visualization of neurophysiological data. We believe our tools will be useful in a broad range of domains, in neuroscience and beyond, where there is an increasing need for scalable and fast interactive visualization.

  14. Hardware-accelerated interactive data visualization for neuroscience in Python

    PubMed Central

    Rossant, Cyrille; Harris, Kenneth D.

    2013-01-01

    Large datasets are becoming more and more common in science, particularly in neuroscience where experimental techniques are rapidly evolving. Obtaining interpretable results from raw data can sometimes be done automatically; however, there are numerous situations where there is a need, at all processing stages, to visualize the data in an interactive way. This enables the scientist to gain intuition, discover unexpected patterns, and find guidance about subsequent analysis steps. Existing visualization tools mostly focus on static publication-quality figures and do not support interactive visualization of large datasets. While working on Python software for visualization of neurophysiological data, we developed techniques to leverage the computational power of modern graphics cards for high-performance interactive data visualization. We were able to achieve very high performance despite the interpreted and dynamic nature of Python, by using state-of-the-art, fast libraries such as NumPy, PyOpenGL, and PyTables. We present applications of these methods to visualization of neurophysiological data. We believe our tools will be useful in a broad range of domains, in neuroscience and beyond, where there is an increasing need for scalable and fast interactive visualization. PMID:24391582

  15. Applications of neuroscience in criminal law: legal and methodological issues.

    PubMed

    Meixner, John B

    2015-01-01

    The use of neuroscience in criminal law applications is an increasingly discussed topic among legal and psychological scholars. Over the past 5 years, several prominent federal criminal cases have referenced neuroscience studies and made admissibility determinations regarding neuroscience evidence. Despite this growth, the field is exceptionally young, and no one knows for sure how significant of a contribution neuroscience will make to criminal law. This article focuses on three major subfields: (1) neuroscience-based credibility assessment, which seeks to detect lies or knowledge associated with a crime; (2) application of neuroscience to aid in assessments of brain capacity for culpability, especially among adolescents; and (3) neuroscience-based prediction of future recidivism. The article briefly reviews these fields as applied to criminal law and makes recommendations for future research, calling for the increased use of individual-level data and increased realism in laboratory studies.

  16. Neuroscience and the soul: competing explanations for the human experience.

    PubMed

    Preston, Jesse Lee; Ritter, Ryan S; Hepler, Justin

    2013-04-01

    The development of fMRI techniques has generated a boom of neuroscience research across the psychological sciences, and revealed neural correlates for many psychological phenomena seen as central to the human experience (e.g., morality, agency). Meanwhile, the rise of neuroscience has reignited old debates over mind-body dualism and the soul. While some scientists use neuroscience to bolster a material account of consciousness, others point to unexplained neural phenomena to defend dualism and a spiritual perspective on the mind. In two experiments we examine how exposure to neuroscience research impacts belief in the soul. We find that belief in soul decreases when neuroscience provides strong mechanistic explanations for mind. But when explanatory gaps in neuroscience research are emphasized, belief in soul is enhanced, suggesting that physical and metaphysical explanations may be used reflexively as alternative theories for mind. Implications for the future of belief in soul and neuroscience research are discussed.

  17. Games people play—toward an enactive view of cooperation in social neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Engemann, Denis A.; Bzdok, Danilo; Eickhoff, Simon B.; Vogeley, Kai; Schilbach, Leonhard

    2012-01-01

    The field of social neuroscience has made considerable progress in unraveling the neural correlates of human cooperation by making use of brain imaging methods. Within this field, neuroeconomic research has drawn on paradigms from experimental economics, such as the Prisoner's Dilemma (PD) and the Trust Game. These paradigms capture the topic of conflict in cooperation, while focusing strongly on outcome-related decision processes. Cooperation, however, does not equate with that perspective, but relies on additional psychological processes and events, including shared intentions and mutually coordinated joint action. These additional facets of cooperation have been successfully addressed by research in developmental psychology, cognitive science, and social philosophy. Corresponding neuroimaging data, however, is still sparse. Therefore, in this paper, we present a juxtaposition of these mutually related but mostly independent trends in cooperation research. We propose that the neuroscientific study of cooperation could benefit from paradigms and concepts employed in developmental psychology and social philosophy. Bringing both to a neuroimaging environment might allow studying the neural correlates of cooperation by using formal models of decision-making as well as capturing the neural responses that underlie joint action scenarios, thus, promising to advance our understanding of the nature of human cooperation. PMID:22675293

  18. Dark Adaptation and Purkinje Shift: A Laboratory Exercise in Perceptual Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, Uta; Ali, Nasim

    2015-01-01

    The systematic measurement of luminance thresholds during dark adaptation usually requires advanced optical equipment not available in most undergraduate classes. Here we describe an easy, inexpensive alternative that uses a printed grayscale to measure visual thresholds. Adaptation curves found with this method are comparable to those found with the technologically advanced tools in the standard literature and even show the shift from cone to rod vision at around 4–8 minutes. The exercise can furthermore be easily combined with a demonstration of the Purkinje shift (the different spectral sensitivity of the rod and cone systems) and of multi-sensory integration across vision, touch and proprioception. The lab allows students to collect, graph and analyze both qualitative and quantitative data. Student ratings of the activity are highly positive, even when compared to other visual neuroscience labs. The activity provides an effective and accessible tool for teaching several important neuroscience concepts, including retinal circuitry, spectral sensitivity, and multi-sensory integration. PMID:25838803

  19. Dark adaptation and purkinje shift: a laboratory exercise in perceptual neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Uta; Ali, Nasim

    2015-01-01

    The systematic measurement of luminance thresholds during dark adaptation usually requires advanced optical equipment not available in most undergraduate classes. Here we describe an easy, inexpensive alternative that uses a printed grayscale to measure visual thresholds. Adaptation curves found with this method are comparable to those found with the technologically advanced tools in the standard literature and even show the shift from cone to rod vision at around 4-8 minutes. The exercise can furthermore be easily combined with a demonstration of the Purkinje shift (the different spectral sensitivity of the rod and cone systems) and of multi-sensory integration across vision, touch and proprioception. The lab allows students to collect, graph and analyze both qualitative and quantitative data. Student ratings of the activity are highly positive, even when compared to other visual neuroscience labs. The activity provides an effective and accessible tool for teaching several important neuroscience concepts, including retinal circuitry, spectral sensitivity, and multi-sensory integration.

  20. The contributions of cognitive neuroscience and neuroimaging to understanding mechanisms of behavior change in addiction.

    PubMed

    Morgenstern, Jon; Naqvi, Nasir H; Debellis, Robert; Breiter, Hans C

    2013-06-01

    In the last decade, there has been an upsurge of interest in understanding the mechanisms of behavior change (MOBC) and effective behavioral interventions as a strategy to improve addiction-treatment efficacy. However, there remains considerable uncertainty about how treatment research should proceed to address the MOBC issue. In this article, we argue that limitations in the underlying models of addiction that inform behavioral treatment pose an obstacle to elucidating MOBC. We consider how advances in the cognitive neuroscience of addiction offer an alternative conceptual and methodological approach to studying the psychological processes that characterize addiction, and how such advances could inform treatment process research. In addition, we review neuroimaging studies that have tested aspects of neurocognitive theories as a strategy to inform addiction therapies and discuss future directions for transdisciplinary collaborations across cognitive neuroscience and MOBC research.

  1. LOW-ENGINE-FRICTION TECHNOLOGY FOR ADVANCED NATURAL-GAS RECIPROCATING ENGINES

    SciTech Connect

    Victor Wong; Tian Tian; Luke Moughon; Rosalind Takata; Jeffrey Jocsak

    2005-09-30

    This program aims at improving the efficiency of advanced natural-gas reciprocating engines (ANGRE) by reducing piston and piston ring assembly friction without major adverse effects on engine performance, such as increased oil consumption and wear. An iterative process of simulation, experimentation and analysis is being followed towards achieving the goal of demonstrating a complete optimized low-friction engine system. To date, a detailed set of piston and piston-ring dynamic and friction models have been developed and applied that illustrate the fundamental relationships between design parameters and friction losses. Low friction ring designs have already been recommended in a previous phase, with full-scale engine validation partially completed. Current accomplishments include the addition of several additional power cylinder design areas to the overall system analysis. These include analyses of lubricant and cylinder surface finish and a parametric study of piston design. The Waukesha engine was found to be already well optimized in the areas of lubricant, surface skewness and honing cross-hatch angle, where friction reductions of 12% for lubricant, and 5% for surface characteristics, are projected. For the piston, a friction reduction of up to 50% may be possible by controlling waviness alone, while additional friction reductions are expected when other parameters are optimized. A total power cylinder friction reduction of 30-50% is expected, translating to an engine efficiency increase of two percentage points from its current baseline towards the goal of 50% efficiency. Key elements of the continuing work include further analysis and optimization of the engine piston design, in-engine testing of recommended lubricant and surface designs, design iteration and optimization of previously recommended technologies, and full-engine testing of a complete, optimized, low-friction power cylinder system.

  2. Advanced Turbine Systems Program conceptual design and product development. Task 3.0, Selection of natural gas-fired Advanced Turbine System

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    This report presents results of Task 3 of the Westinghouse ATS Phase II program. Objective of Task 3 was to analyze and evaluate different cycles for the natural gas-fired Advanced Turbine Systems in order to select one that would achieve all ATS program goals. About 50 cycles (5 main types) were evaluated on basis of plant efficiency, emissions, cost of electricity, reliability-availability-maintainability (RAM), and program schedule requirements. The advanced combined cycle was selected for the ATS plant; it will incorporate an advanced gas turbine engine as well as improvements in the bottoming cycle and generator. Cost and RAM analyses were carried out on 6 selected cycle configurations and compared to the baseline plant. Issues critical to the Advanced Combined Cycle are discussed; achievement of plant efficiency and cost of electricity goals will require higher firing temperatures and minimized cooling of hot end components, necessitating new aloys/materials/coatings. Studies will be required in combustion, aerodynamic design, cooling design, leakage control, etc.

  3. An analysis of the abstracts presented at the annual meetings of the Society for Neuroscience from 2001 to 2006.

    PubMed

    Lin, John M; Bohland, Jason W; Andrews, Peter; Burns, Gully A P C; Allen, Cara B; Mitra, Partha P

    2008-01-01

    Annual meeting abstracts published by scientific societies often contain rich arrays of information that can be computationally mined and distilled to elucidate the state and dynamics of the subject field. We extracted and processed abstract data from the Society for Neuroscience (SFN) annual meeting abstracts during the period 2001-2006 in order to gain an objective view of contemporary neuroscience. An important first step in the process was the application of data cleaning and disambiguation methods to construct a unified database, since the data were too noisy to be of full utility in the raw form initially available. Using natural language processing, text mining, and other data analysis techniques, we then examined the demographics and structure of the scientific collaboration network, the dynamics of the field over time, major research trends, and the structure of the sources of research funding. Some interesting findings include a high geographical concentration of neuroscience research in the north eastern United States, a surprisingly large transient population (66% of the authors appear in only one out of the six studied years), the central role played by the study of neurodegenerative disorders in the neuroscience community, and an apparent growth of behavioral/systems neuroscience with a corresponding shrinkage of cellular/molecular neuroscience over the six year period. The results from this work will prove useful for scientists, policy makers, and funding agencies seeking to gain a complete and unbiased picture of the community structure and body of knowledge encapsulated by a specific scientific domain. PMID:18446237

  4. Introduction to the special issue from the 2014 meeting of the International Behavioral Neuroscience Society.

    PubMed

    Young, Jared W; Hall, F Scott; Pletnikov, Mikhail; Kent, Stephen

    2015-11-01

    In 2013, President Obama launched what has been optimistically described as the "decade of the brain". The launch of this effort comes on the back of widespread acknowledgement that more is required to aid those suffering from mental health disorders. Specifically, a greater understanding of the neural circuitry related to behaviors specific to mental health disorders is needed. The field of research that relates the circuitry of the brain to specific aspects of behavior is referred to as behavioral neuroscience. The International Behavioral Neuroscience Society (IBNS) was founded in 1992 specifically to meet on an annual basis and present the latest research findings in this field, and to gather together the international research community to discuss issues important for the development and progress of this scientific discipline. This special issue includes reviews of topics of emerging interest and advancing knowledge in behavioral neuroscience, based on symposia presented at the 2014 IBNS meeting. Topics discussed at the annual IBNS meeting ranged from investigations of the neural mechanisms underlying bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, depression, traumatic brain injury, and risk-taking behavior, to behavioral consequences of obesity and immune dysfunction. Novel treatment areas are covered such as the use of deep brain stimulation, as well as investigation of the behavioral impacts of nicotine withdrawal and how this research will influence the development of nicotine cessation treatments. Hence, this special issue covers a wide-range of topics in behavioral neuroscience offering an insight into the challenges faced by researchers in this decade of the brain.

  5. The case for neuropsychoanalysis: Why a dialogue with neuroscience is necessary but not sufficient for psychoanalysis.

    PubMed

    Yovell, Yoram; Solms, Mark; Fotopoulou, Aikaterini

    2015-12-01

    Recent advances in the cognitive, affective and social neurosciences have enabled these fields to study aspects of the mind that are central to psychoanalysis. These developments raise a number of possibilities for psychoanalysis. Can it engage the neurosciences in a productive and mutually enriching dialogue without compromising its own integrity and unique perspective? While many analysts welcome interdisciplinary exchanges with the neurosciences, termed neuropsychoanalysis, some have voiced concerns about their potentially deleterious effects on psychoanalytic theory and practice. In this paper we outline the development and aims of neuropsychoanalysis, and consider its reception in psychoanalysis and in the neurosciences. We then discuss some of the concerns raised within psychoanalysis, with particular emphasis on the epistemological foundations of neuropsychoanalysis. While this paper does not attempt to fully address the clinical applications of neuropsychoanalysis, we offer and discuss a brief case illustration in order to demonstrate that neuroscientific research findings can be used to enrich our models of the mind in ways that, in turn, may influence how analysts work with their patients. We will conclude that neuropsychoanalysis is grounded in the history of psychoanalysis, that it is part of the psychoanalytic worldview, and that it is necessary, albeit not sufficient, for the future viability of psychoanalysis.

  6. Introduction to the special issue from the 2014 meeting of the International Behavioral Neuroscience Society.

    PubMed

    Young, Jared W; Hall, F Scott; Pletnikov, Mikhail; Kent, Stephen

    2015-11-01

    In 2013, President Obama launched what has been optimistically described as the "decade of the brain". The launch of this effort comes on the back of widespread acknowledgement that more is required to aid those suffering from mental health disorders. Specifically, a greater understanding of the neural circuitry related to behaviors specific to mental health disorders is needed. The field of research that relates the circuitry of the brain to specific aspects of behavior is referred to as behavioral neuroscience. The International Behavioral Neuroscience Society (IBNS) was founded in 1992 specifically to meet on an annual basis and present the latest research findings in this field, and to gather together the international research community to discuss issues important for the development and progress of this scientific discipline. This special issue includes reviews of topics of emerging interest and advancing knowledge in behavioral neuroscience, based on symposia presented at the 2014 IBNS meeting. Topics discussed at the annual IBNS meeting ranged from investigations of the neural mechanisms underlying bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, depression, traumatic brain injury, and risk-taking behavior, to behavioral consequences of obesity and immune dysfunction. Novel treatment areas are covered such as the use of deep brain stimulation, as well as investigation of the behavioral impacts of nicotine withdrawal and how this research will influence the development of nicotine cessation treatments. Hence, this special issue covers a wide-range of topics in behavioral neuroscience offering an insight into the challenges faced by researchers in this decade of the brain. PMID:26672720

  7. Cognitive neuroscience of self-regulation failure.

    PubMed

    Heatherton, Todd F; Wagner, Dylan D

    2011-03-01

    Self-regulatory failure is a core feature of many social and mental health problems. Self-regulation can be undermined by failures to transcend overwhelming temptations, negative moods and resource depletion, and when minor lapses in self-control snowball into self-regulatory collapse. Cognitive neuroscience research suggests that successful self-regulation is dependent on top-down control from the prefrontal cortex over subcortical regions involved in reward and emotion. We highlight recent neuroimaging research on self-regulatory failure, the findings of which support a balance model of self-regulation whereby self-regulatory failure occurs whenever the balance is tipped in favor of subcortical areas, either due to particularly strong impulses or when prefrontal function itself is impaired. Such a model is consistent with recent findings in the cognitive neuroscience of addictive behavior, emotion regulation and decision-making.

  8. Forgetting the madeleine: Proust and the neurosciences.

    PubMed

    Bray, Patrick M

    2013-01-01

    Marcel Proust's famous madeleine experience, in which a man recalls his past through intense concentration after he tastes a cake dipped in tea, has been dubbed the "Proust Phenomenon" by researchers in the neurosciences. The passage in Proust's novel, however, has been systematically misread in the scientific literature due to the complexity and the ambiguity built into the text. A review of work by neuroscientists, popular science writers, and literature scholars suggests that the most productive interdisciplinary research occurs not where two disciplines converge (the madeleine as olfactory memory cue), but rather where they diverge (phenomenal description over quantitative analysis). This chapter argues that researchers in neuroscience and neuroaesthetics should forget the madeleine in Proust to investigate not only the other cognitive insights offered by Proust's vast novel, In Search of Lost Time, but also the ways in which Proust's novel seeks to bridge the distance between autobiographical experience and critical analysis.

  9. Cognitive Neuroscience of Self-Regulation Failure

    PubMed Central

    Heatherton, Todd F.; Wagner, Dylan D.

    2011-01-01

    Self-regulatory failure is a core feature of many social and mental health problems. Self-regulation can by undermined by failures to transcend overwhelming temptations, negative moods, resource depletion, and when minor lapses in self-control snowball into self-regulatory collapse. Cognitive neuroscience research suggests that successful self-regulation is dependent on top-down control from the prefrontal cortex over subcortical regions involved in reward and emotion. We highlight recent neuroimaging research on self-regulatory failure, the findings of which support a balance model of self-regulation whereby self-regulatory failure occurs whenever the balance is tipped in favor of subcortical areas, either due to particularly strong impulses, or when prefrontal function itself is impaired. Such a model is consistent with recent findings in the cognitive neuroscience of addictive behavior, emotion regulation, and decision making. PMID:21273114

  10. Forgetting the madeleine: Proust and the neurosciences.

    PubMed

    Bray, Patrick M

    2013-01-01

    Marcel Proust's famous madeleine experience, in which a man recalls his past through intense concentration after he tastes a cake dipped in tea, has been dubbed the "Proust Phenomenon" by researchers in the neurosciences. The passage in Proust's novel, however, has been systematically misread in the scientific literature due to the complexity and the ambiguity built into the text. A review of work by neuroscientists, popular science writers, and literature scholars suggests that the most productive interdisciplinary research occurs not where two disciplines converge (the madeleine as olfactory memory cue), but rather where they diverge (phenomenal description over quantitative analysis). This chapter argues that researchers in neuroscience and neuroaesthetics should forget the madeleine in Proust to investigate not only the other cognitive insights offered by Proust's vast novel, In Search of Lost Time, but also the ways in which Proust's novel seeks to bridge the distance between autobiographical experience and critical analysis. PMID:24290259

  11. [Principles and applications of optogenetics in neuroscience].

    PubMed

    Dugué, Guillaume P; Tricoire, Ludovic

    2015-03-01

    Numerous achievements in biology have resulted from the evolution of biophotonics, a general term describing the use of light in the study of living systems. Over the last fifteen years, biophotonics has progressively blended with molecular genetics to give rise to optogenetics, a set of techniques enabling the functional study of genetically-defined cellular populations, compartments or processes with optical methods. In neuroscience, optogenetics allows real-time monitoring and control of the activity of specific neuronal populations in a wide range of animal models. This technical breakthrough provides a new level of sophistication in experimental approaches in the field of fundamental neuroscience, significantly enhancing our ability to understand the complexity of neuronal circuits.

  12. School-Based Sex Education and Neuroscience: What We Know about Sex, Romance, Marriage, and Adolescent Brain Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballonoff Suleiman, Ahna; Johnson, Megan; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A.; Galván, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    Background: Many school-based abstinence-only sex education curricula state that sexual activity outside of marriage is likely to have harmful psychological effects. Recent advances in neuroscience have expanded our understanding of the neural underpinnings of romantic love, marriage, sexual desire, and sexual behavior and improved our…

  13. Cyber-Workstation for Computational Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    DiGiovanna, Jack; Rattanatamrong, Prapaporn; Zhao, Ming; Mahmoudi, Babak; Hermer, Linda; Figueiredo, Renato; Principe, Jose C.; Fortes, Jose; Sanchez, Justin C.

    2009-01-01

    A Cyber-Workstation (CW) to study in vivo, real-time interactions between computational models and large-scale brain subsystems during behavioral experiments has been designed and implemented. The design philosophy seeks to directly link the in vivo neurophysiology laboratory with scalable computing resources to enable more sophisticated computational neuroscience investigation. The architecture designed here allows scientists to develop new models and integrate them with existing models (e.g. recursive least-squares regressor) by specifying appropriate connections in a block-diagram. Then, adaptive middleware transparently implements these user specifications using the full power of remote grid-computing hardware. In effect, the middleware deploys an on-demand and flexible neuroscience research test-bed to provide the neurophysiology laboratory extensive computational power from an outside source. The CW consolidates distributed software and hardware resources to support time-critical and/or resource-demanding computing during data collection from behaving animals. This power and flexibility is important as experimental and theoretical neuroscience evolves based on insights gained from data-intensive experiments, new technologies and engineering methodologies. This paper describes briefly the computational infrastructure and its most relevant components. Each component is discussed within a systematic process of setting up an in vivo, neuroscience experiment. Furthermore, a co-adaptive brain machine interface is implemented on the CW to illustrate how this integrated computational and experimental platform can be used to study systems neurophysiology and learning in a behavior task. We believe this implementation is also the first remote execution and adaptation of a brain-machine interface. PMID:20126436

  14. Optogenetics and the future of neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Boyden, Edward S

    2015-09-01

    Over the last 10 years, optogenetics has become widespread in neuroscience for the study of how specific cell types contribute to brain functions and brain disorder states. The full impact of optogenetics will emerge only when other toolsets mature, including neural connectivity and cell phenotyping tools and neural recording and imaging tools. The latter tools are rapidly improving, in part because optogenetics has helped galvanize broad interest in neurotechnology development.

  15. Advances in Remote Sensing Approaches for Hazard Mitigation and Natural Resource Protection in Pacific Latin America: A Workshop for Advanced Graduate Students, Post- Doctoral Researchers, and Junior Faculty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gierke, J. S.; Rose, W. I.; Waite, G. P.; Palma, J. L.; Gross, E. L.

    2008-12-01

    Though much of the developing world has the potential to gain significantly from remote sensing techniques in terms of public health and safety, they often lack resources for advancing the development and practice of remote sensing. All countries share a mutual interest in furthering remote sensing capabilities for natural hazard mitigation and resource development. With National Science Foundation support from the Partnerships in International Research and Education program, we are developing a new educational system of applied research and engineering for advancing collaborative linkages among agencies and institutions in Pacific Latin American countries (to date: Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, and Ecuador) in the development of remote sensing tools for hazard mitigation and water resources management. The project aims to prepare students for careers in science and engineering through their efforts to solve suites of problems needing creative solutions: collaboration with foreign agencies; living abroad immersed in different cultures; and adapting their academic training to contend with potentially difficult field conditions and limited resources. The ultimate goal of integrating research with education is to encourage cross-disciplinary, creative, and critical thinking in problem solving and foster the ability to deal with uncertainty in analyzing problems and designing appropriate solutions. In addition to traditional approaches for graduate and undergraduate research, we have built new educational systems of applied research and engineering: (1) the Peace Corp/Master's International program in Natural Hazards which features a 2-year field assignment during service in the U.S. Peace Corps, (2) the Michigan Tech Enterprise program for undergraduates, which gives teams of students from different disciplines the opportunity to work for three years in a business-like setting to solve real-world problems, and (3) a unique university exchange

  16. Operational neuroscience: neurophysiological measures in applied environments.

    PubMed

    Kruse, Amy A

    2007-05-01

    There is, without question, an interest within the military services to understand, account for, and adapt to the cognitive state of the individual warfighter. As the field of neuroscience has matured through investments from numerous government agencies, we are on the cusp of being able to move confidently from the lab into the field--and deepen our understanding of the cognitive issues embedded in the warfighting environment. However, as we edge closer to this integration--it is critical for researchers in this arena to understand the landscape they are entering-reflected not only in the challenges of each task or operational environment but also in the individual differences intrinsic to each warfighter. The research papers in this section cover this spectrum, including individual differences and their prediction of adaptability to high-stress environments, the influence of sleep-deprivation on neurophysiological measures of stimulus categorization, neurophysiological measures of stress in the training environment and, finally, real-time neural measures of task engagement, mental workload and vigilance. It is clear from this research, and other work detailed in this supplement, that the judicious use of neuroscience, cognitive psychology, and physiology in the applied environment is desirable for both researchers and operators. In fact, we suggest that these investigations merit a field designation unto their own: Operational Neuroscience. It is our hope that the discussion of this new field of study will galvanize others to increase the confidence and utility of this research through their own investigations.

  17. Neuroscience, power and culture: an introduction.

    PubMed

    Vrecko, Scott

    2010-01-01

    In line with their vast expansion over the last few decades, the brain sciences -- including neurobiology, psychopharmacology, biological psychiatry, and brain imaging -- are becoming increasingly prominent in a variety of cultural formations, from self-help guides and the arts to advertising and public health programmes. This article, which introduces the special issue of "History of the Human Science" on "Neuroscience, Power and Culture," considers the ways that social and historical research can, through empirical investigations grounded in the observation of what is actually happening and has already happened in the sciences of mind and brain, complement speculative discussions of the possible social implications of neuroscience that now appear regularly in the media and in philosophical bioethics. It suggests that the neurosciences are best understood in terms of their lineage within the "psy"-disciplines, and that, accordingly, our analyses of them will be strengthened by drawing on existing literatures on the history and politics of psychology -- particularly those that analyze formations of knowledge, power and subjectivity associated with the discipline and its practical applications. Additionally, it argues against taking today's neuroscientific facts and brain-targetting technologies as starting points for analysis, and for greater recognition of the ways that these are shaped by historical, cultural and political-economic forces. PMID:20514752

  18. Contributions of Philip Teitelbaum to affective neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Berridge, Kent C.

    2011-01-01

    As part of a festschrift issue for Philip Teitelbaum, I offer here the thesis that Teitelbaum deserves to be viewed as an important forefather to the contemporary field of affective neuroscience (which studies motivation, emotion and affect in the brain). Teitelbaum’s groundbreaking analyses of motivation deficits induced by lateral hypothalamic damage, of roles of food palatability in revealing residual function, and of recovery of ‘lost’ functions helped shape modern understanding of how motivation circuits operate within the brain. His redefinition of the minimum requirement for identifying motivation raised the conceptual bar for thinking about the topic among behavioral neuroscientists. His meticulous analyses of patterned stages induced by brain manipulations, life development and clinical disorders added new dimensions to our appreciation of how brain systems work. His steadfast highlighting of integrative functions and behavioral complexity helped provide a healthy functionalist counterbalance to reductionist trends in science of the late 20th century. In short, Philip Teitelbaum can be seen to have made remarkable contributions to several domains of psychology and neuroscience, including affective neuroscience. PMID:22051942

  19. Revolutionary Impact of Nanodrug Delivery on Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Khanbabaie, Reza; Jahanshahi, Mohsen

    2012-01-01

    Brain research is the most expanding interdisciplinary research that is using the state of the art techniques to overcome limitations in order to conduct more accurate and effective experiments. Drug delivery to the target site in the central nervous system (CNS) is one of the most difficult steps in neuroscience researches and therapies. Taking advantage of the nanoscale structure of neural cells (both neurons and glia); nanodrug delivery (second generation of biotechnological products) has a potential revolutionary impact into the basic understanding, visualization and therapeutic applications of neuroscience. Current review article firstly provides an overview of preparation and characterization, purification and separation, loading and delivering of nanodrugs. Different types of nanoparticle bioproducts and a number of methods for their fabrication and delivery systems including (carbon) nanotubes are explained. In the second part, neuroscience and nervous system drugs are deeply investigated. Different mechanisms in which nanoparticles enhance the uptake and clearance of molecules form cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are discussed. The focus is on nanodrugs that are being used or have potential to improve neural researches, diagnosis and therapy of neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:23730260

  20. LOW-ENGINE-FRICTION TECHNOLOGY FOR ADVANCED NATURAL-GAS RECIPROCATING ENGINES

    SciTech Connect

    Victor Wong; Tian Tian; Luke Moughon; Rosalind Takata; Jeffrey Jocsak

    2006-03-31

    This program aims at improving the efficiency of advanced natural-gas reciprocating engines (ANGRE) by reducing piston and piston ring assembly friction without major adverse effects on engine performance, such as increased oil consumption and wear. An iterative process of simulation, experimentation and analysis is being followed towards achieving the goal of demonstrating a complete optimized low-friction engine system. To date, a detailed set of piston and piston-ring dynamic and friction models have been developed and applied that illustrate the fundamental relationships among mechanical, surface/material and lubricant design parameters and friction losses. Demonstration of low-friction ring-pack designs in the Waukesha VGF 18GL engine confirmed total engine FEMP (friction mean effective pressure) reduction of 7-10% from the baseline configuration without significantly increasing oil consumption or blow-by flow. This represents a substantial (30-40%) reduction of the ringpack friction alone. The measured FMEP reductions were in good agreement with the model predictions. Further improvements via piston, lubricant, and surface designs offer additional opportunities. Tests of low-friction lubricants are in progress and preliminary results are very promising. The combined analysis of lubricant and surface design indicates that low-viscosity lubricants can be very effective in reducing friction, subject to component wear for extremely thin oils, which can be mitigated with further lubricant formulation and/or engineered surfaces. Hence a combined approach of lubricant design and appropriate wear reduction offers improved potential for minimum engine friction loss. Piston friction studies indicate that a flatter piston with a more flexible skirt, together with optimizing the waviness and film thickness on the piston skirt offer significant friction reduction. Combined with low-friction ring-pack, material and lubricant parameters, a total power cylinder friction

  1. The Year in Cognitive Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Fitch, W Tecumseh; Martins, Mauricio D

    2014-01-01

    Sixty years ago, Karl Lashley suggested that complex action sequences, from simple motor acts to language and music, are a fundamental but neglected aspect of neural function. Lashley demonstrated the inadequacy of then-standard models of associative chaining, positing a more flexible and generalized “syntax of action” necessary to encompass key aspects of language and music. He suggested that hierarchy in language and music builds upon a more basic sequential action system, and provided several concrete hypotheses about the nature of this system. Here, we review a diverse set of modern data concerning musical, linguistic, and other action processing, finding them largely consistent with an updated neuroanatomical version of Lashley's hypotheses. In particular, the lateral premotor cortex, including Broca's area, plays important roles in hierarchical processing in language, music, and at least some action sequences. Although the precise computational function of the lateral prefrontal regions in action syntax remains debated, Lashley's notion—that this cortical region implements a working-memory buffer or stack scannable by posterior and subcortical brain regions—is consistent with considerable experimental data. PMID:24697242

  2. Effect of mandibular advancement on the natural position of the head: a preliminary study of 3-dimensional cephalometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiaozhen; Liu, Yanpu; Edwards, Sean P

    2013-10-01

    Our aim was to investigate the potential effect of advancement by bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO) on the natural position of the head by using 3-dimensional cephalomentric analysis. Seven consecutive patients who had had only BSSO advancement, and had had preoperative and 6-week postoperative cone beam computed tomography (CT) scans, were recruited to this retrospective study. Two variables, SNB and SNC2, were used to indicate the craniomandibular alignment and craniocervical inclination, respectively, in the midsagittal plane. Using 3-dimensional cephalometric analysis software, the SNB and the SNC2 were recorded in volume and measured in the midsagittal plane at 3 independent time-points. The reliability was measured and a paired t test used to assess the significance of differences between the means of SNB and SNC2 before and after operation. The 3-dimensional cephalometric measurement showed good reliability. The SNB was increased as planned in all the mandibles that were advanced, the cervical vertebrae were brought forward after BSSO, and the SNC2 was significantly increased in 6 of the 7 patients. Three-dimensional cephalometric analysis may provide an alternative way of assessing cephalometrics. After BSSO advancement, the natural position of the head changed by increasing the craniocervical inclination in an anteroposterior direction.

  3. Time and its representations: at the crossroads between psychoanalysis and neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Tordjman, Sylvie

    2011-12-01

    Representations of time and time measurements depend on subjective constructs that vary according to changes in our concepts, beliefs and technological advances. Similarly, the past, the future and also the present are subjective representations that depend on each individual's psychic time and biological time. Nonetheless, the construction of these representations is influenced by objective factors (cognitive, physiological and physical) related to neuroscience. Thus, studying representation of time lies at the crossroads between neuroscience and psychoanalysis. Furthermore, these objective factors are supposed to meet criteria of scientific validity, such as reproducibility. However, reproducibility depends on the individual's state that will not be exactly the same later, due precisely to the passage of time. The criteria of scientific validity are therefore only applicable if we place ourselves at time "t". This does not take into account lifespan biological changes. In fact, it is not neuroscience that is opposed to psychoanalysis based on this notion of subjectivity, illustrated by the concept of temporality, but rather the use and interpretation of neuroscience centered on taking snapshots. We can assume that focusing on present time, in particular instantaneity rather than infinity, prevents us from facing our own finitude. Individuals with autism provide us a good illustration of this idea. Through their autistic behaviors, they are totally focused on the present moment and create repeated discontinuity out of continuity. The hypothesis stated here is that children with autism need to create stereotyped discontinuity because discontinuity repeated at regular intervals might have been fundamentally lacking in their physiological development, due to circadian rhythm alterations. In conclusion, the question is raised that both the current use of neuroscience and the current representation of time might be a means of managing our fear of death, giving us the

  4. Fractals in the neurosciences, Part II: clinical applications and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Di Ieva, Antonio; Esteban, Francisco J; Grizzi, Fabio; Klonowski, Wlodzimierz; Martín-Landrove, Miguel

    2015-02-01

    It has been ascertained that the human brain is a complex system studied at multiple scales, from neurons and microcircuits to macronetworks. The brain is characterized by a hierarchical organization that gives rise to its highly topological and functional complexity. Over the last decades, fractal geometry has been shown as a universal tool for the analysis and quantification of the geometric complexity of natural objects, including the brain. The fractal dimension has been identified as a quantitative parameter for the evaluation of the roughness of neural structures, the estimation of time series, and the description of patterns, thus able to discriminate different states of the brain in its entire physiopathological spectrum. Fractal-based computational analyses have been applied to the neurosciences, particularly in the field of clinical neurosciences including neuroimaging and neuroradiology, neurology and neurosurgery, psychiatry and psychology, and neuro-oncology and neuropathology. After a review of the basic concepts of fractal analysis and its main applications to the basic neurosciences in part I of this series, here, we review the main applications of fractals to the clinical neurosciences for a holistic approach towards a fractal geometry model of the brain.

  5. Neuroscience from a mathematical perspective: key concepts, scales and scaling hypothesis, universality.

    PubMed

    van Hemmen, J Leo

    2014-10-01

    This article analyzes the question of whether neuroscience allows for mathematical descriptions and whether an interaction between experimental and theoretical neuroscience can be expected to benefit both of them. It is argued that a mathematization of natural phenomena never happens by itself. First, appropriate key concepts must be found that are intimately connected with the phenomena one wishes to describe and explain mathematically. Second, the scale on, and not beyond, which a specific description can hold must be specified. Different scales allow for different conceptual and mathematical descriptions. This is the scaling hypothesis. Third, can a mathematical description be universally valid and, if so, how? Here we put forth the argument that universals also exist in theoretical neuroscience, that evolution proves the rule, and that theoretical neuroscience is a domain with still lots of space for new developments initiated by an intensive interaction with experiment. Finally, major insight is provided by a careful analysis of the way in which particular brain structures respond to perceptual input and in so doing induce action in an animal's surroundings.

  6. "Thinking like a Neuroscientist": Using Scaffolded Grant Proposals to Foster Scientific Thinking in a Freshman Neuroscience Course.

    PubMed

    Köver, Hania; Wirt, Stacey E; Owens, Melinda T; Dosmann, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    Learning and practicing scientific inquiry is an essential component of a STEM education, but it is often difficult to teach to novices or those outside of a laboratory setting. To promote scientific thinking in a freshmen introductory neuroscience course without a lab component, we developed a series of learning activities and assignments designed to foster scientific thinking through the use of scientific grant proposals. Students wrote three short grant proposals on topics ranging from molecular to cognitive neuroscience during a 10-week class (one quarter). We made this challenging and advanced task feasible for novice learners through extensive instructional scaffolding, opportunity for practice, and frequent peer and instructor feedback. Student and instructor reports indicate that the assignments were highly intellectually engaging and that they promoted critical thinking, a deeper understanding of neuroscience material, and effective written communication skills. Here we outline the mechanics of the assignment, student and instructor impressions of learning outcomes, and the advantages and disadvantages of implementing this approach.

  7. Low-Engine-Friction Technology for Advanced Natural-Gas Reciprocating Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Victor Wong; Tian Tian; G. Smedley; L. Moughon; Rosalind Takata; J. Jocsak

    2006-11-30

    This program aims at improving the efficiency of advanced natural-gas reciprocating engines (ANGRE) by reducing piston and piston ring assembly friction without major adverse effects on engine performance, such as increased oil consumption and wear. An iterative process of simulation, experimentation and analysis has been followed towards achieving the goal of demonstrating a complete optimized low-friction engine system. In this program, a detailed set of piston and piston-ring dynamic and friction models have been adapted and applied that illustrate the fundamental relationships among mechanical, surface/material and lubricant design parameters and friction losses. Demonstration of low-friction ring-pack designs in the Waukesha VGF 18GL engine confirmed ring-pack friction reduction of 30-40%, which translates to total engine FEMP (friction mean effective pressure) reduction of 7-10% from the baseline configuration without significantly increasing oil consumption or blow-by flow. The study on surface textures, including roughness characteristics, cross hatch patterns, dimples and grooves have shown that even relatively small-scale changes can have a large effect on ring/liner friction, in some cases reducing FMEP by as much as 30% from a smooth surface case. The measured FMEP reductions were in good agreement with the model predictions. The combined analysis of lubricant and surface design indicates that low-viscosity lubricants can be very effective in reducing friction, subject to component wear for extremely thin oils, which can be mitigated with further lubricant formulation and/or engineered surfaces. Hence a combined approach of lubricant design and appropriate wear reduction offers improved potential for minimum engine friction loss. Testing of low-friction lubricants showed that total engine FMEP reduced by up to {approx}16.5% from the commercial reference oil without significantly increasing oil consumption or blow-by flow. Piston friction studies

  8. [Philosophy within the context of neurosciences].

    PubMed

    Estany, Anna

    2013-03-16

    Based on the interrelation between science and philosophy, this article addresses the impact of neurosciences on the philosophical issues posed by today's society, especially those related with epistemology and the philosophy of science. To do so, the different approaches in the cognitive sciences are taken into account, with special attention paid to those that have to do with social, embodied and situated cognition versus a more individual, rational and abstract cognition. This initial framework is taken as the starting point with which to analyse the ways of representing knowledge and the characteristics of the cognoscente agent.

  9. Trends in programming languages for neuroscience simulations.

    PubMed

    Davison, Andrew P; Hines, Michael L; Muller, Eilif

    2009-01-01

    Neuroscience simulators allow scientists to express models in terms of biological concepts, without having to concern themselves with low-level computational details of their implementation. The expressiveness, power and ease-of-use of the simulator interface is critical in efficiently and accurately translating ideas into a working simulation. We review long-term trends in the development of programmable simulator interfaces, and examine the benefits of moving from proprietary, domain-specific languages to modern dynamic general-purpose languages, in particular Python, which provide neuroscientists with an interactive and expressive simulation development environment and easy access to state-of-the-art general-purpose tools for scientific computing.

  10. The advancing timberline on Mt. Fuji: natural recovery or climate change?

    PubMed

    Sakio, Hitoshi; Masuzawa, Takehiro

    2012-07-01

    The alpine timberline on Mt. Fuji (central Japan) is at 2,400-2,500 m above sea level. Over a 21-year period (1978-1999), we tracked changes in this vegetation boundary on a transect at a site impacted by the 1707 volcanic eruption. The timberline advanced rapidly upwards during this time period. Dominant tree species at the timberline (Alnus maximowiczii, Salix reinii, and Larix kaempferi) colonized sites that were initially largely free of vegetation at higher altitudes. Seedlings of L. kaempferi were particularly abundant at the border of advancing vegetation. According to tree age, we found that this was the first canopy species in the colonized areas. L. kaempferi is drought resistant, and this probably contributes to its establishment capability in the high-altitude climate. Most seedlings of Abies veitchii invaded patches of herbs and shrubs. These vegetation patches in the upper kampfzone provide important shelter for seedlings of invading tree species. We predict that the upward advance of the alpine timberline is a recovery process following the volcanic eruption, and that climate change may accelerate this advance.

  11. Functional inclusion bodies produced in bacteria as naturally occurring nanopills for advanced cell therapies.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, Esther; Corchero, José L; Burgueño, Joan F; Seras-Franzoso, Joaquin; Kosoy, Ana; Bosser, Ramon; Mendoza, Rosa; Martínez-Láinez, Joan Marc; Rinas, Ursula; Fernández, Ester; Ruiz-Avila, Luis; García-Fruitós, Elena; Villaverde, Antonio

    2012-04-01

    Inclusion bodies (50-500 nm in diameter) produced in recombinant bacteria can be engineered to contain functional proteins with therapeutic potential. Upon exposure, these protein particles are efficiently internalized by mammalian cells and promote recovery from diverse stresses. Being fully biocompatible, inclusion bodies are a novel platform, as tailored nanopills, for sustained drug release in advanced cell therapies.

  12. Fluorine-18 labeled tracers for PET studies in the neurosciences

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Yu-Shin; Fowler, J.S.

    1995-12-31

    This chapter focuses on fluorine-18, the positron emitter with the longest half-life, the lowest positron energy and probably, the most challenging chemistry. The incorporation of F-18 into organic compounds presents many challenges, including: the need to synthesize and purify the compound within a 2--3 hour time frame; the limited number of labeled precursor molecules; the need to work on a microscale; and the need to produce radiotracers which are chemically and radiochemically pure, sterile and pyrogen-free, and suitable for intravenous injection. The PET method and F-18 labeling of organic molecules are described followed by highlights of the applications of F-18 labeled compounds in the neurosciences and neuropharmacology. It is important to emphasize the essential and pivotal role that organic synthesis has played in the progression of the PET field over the past twenty years from one in which only a handful of institutions possessed the instrumentation and staff to carry out research to the present-day situation where there are more than 200 PET centers worldwide. During this period PET has become an important scientific tool in the neurosciences, cardiology and oncology. It is important to point out that PET is by no means a mature field. The fact that a hundreds of different F-18 labeled compounds have been developed but only a few possess the necessary selectivity and sensitivity in vivo to track a specific biochemical process illustrates this and underscores a major difficulty in radiotracer development, namely the selection of priority structures for synthesis and the complexities of the interactions between chemical compounds and living systems. New developments in rapid organic synthesis are needed in order to investigate new molecular targets and to improve the quantitative nature of PET experiments.

  13. Vision and Art: An Interdisciplinary Approach to Neuroscience Education

    PubMed Central

    Lafer-Sousa, Rosa; Conway, Bevil R.

    2009-01-01

    Undergraduate institutions are increasingly adopting neuroscience within their curricula, although it is unclear how best to implement this material given the interdisciplinary nature of the field, which requires knowledge of basic physics, chemistry, biology and psychology. This difficulty is compounded by declines over recent decades in the amount of physics education that students receive in high school, which hinders students’ ability to grasp basic principles of neuroscience. Here we discuss our experiences as teacher (BRC) and student (RLS) with an undergraduate course in Vision and Art. The course capitalizes on students’ prior interest in visual art to motivate an understanding of the physiological and computational neural processes that underlie vision; our aim is that the learning strategies that students acquire as a result of the format and interdisciplinary approach of the course will increase students’ critical thinking skills and benefit them as they pursue other domains of inquiry. The course includes both expert lectures on central themes of vision along with a problem-based learning (PBL) laboratory component that directly engages the students as empirical scientists. We outline the syllabus, the motivation for using PBL, and describe a number of hands-on laboratory exercises, many of which require only inexpensive and readily available equipment. We have developed a website that we hope will facilitate student-driven inquiry beyond the classroom and foster inter-institutional collaboration in this endeavor. We conclude the paper with a discussion of the potential limitations of the course and how to evaluate the success of the course and the website. PMID:23493842

  14. Vision and art: an interdisciplinary approach to neuroscience education.

    PubMed

    Lafer-Sousa, Rosa; Conway, Bevil R

    2009-01-01

    Undergraduate institutions are increasingly adopting neuroscience within their curricula, although it is unclear how best to implement this material given the interdisciplinary nature of the field, which requires knowledge of basic physics, chemistry, biology and psychology. This difficulty is compounded by declines over recent decades in the amount of physics education that students receive in high school, which hinders students' ability to grasp basic principles of neuroscience. Here we discuss our experiences as teacher (BRC) and student (RLS) with an undergraduate course in Vision and Art. The course capitalizes on students' prior interest in visual art to motivate an understanding of the physiological and computational neural processes that underlie vision; our aim is that the learning strategies that students acquire as a result of the format and interdisciplinary approach of the course will increase students' critical thinking skills and benefit them as they pursue other domains of inquiry. The course includes both expert lectures on central themes of vision along with a problem-based learning (PBL) laboratory component that directly engages the students as empirical scientists. We outline the syllabus, the motivation for using PBL, and describe a number of hands-on laboratory exercises, many of which require only inexpensive and readily available equipment. We have developed a website that we hope will facilitate student-driven inquiry beyond the classroom and foster inter-institutional collaboration in this endeavor. We conclude the paper with a discussion of the potential limitations of the course and how to evaluate the success of the course and the website.

  15. How neuroscience will change our view on consciousness.

    PubMed

    Lamme, Victor A F

    2010-09-01

    Is there consciousness in machines? Or in animals? What happens to consciousness when we are asleep, or in vegetative state? These are just a few examples of the many questions about consciousness that are troubling scientists and laypersons alike. Moreover, these questions share a striking feature: They seem to have been around forever, yet neither science nor philosophy has been able to provide an answer. Why is that? In my view, the main reason is that the study of consciousness is dominated by what we know from introspection and behavior. This has fooled us into thinking that we know what we are conscious of. The scientific equivalent of this is Global Workspace theory. But in fact we don't know what we are conscious of, as I will explain from a simple experiment in visual perception. Once we acknowledge that, it is clear that we need other evidence about the presence or absence of a conscious sensation than introspection or behavior. Assuming the brain has something to do with it, I will demonstrate how arguments from neuroscience, together with theoretical and ontological arguments, can help us resolve what the exact nature of our conscious sensation is. It turns out that we see much more than we think, and that Global Workspace theory is all about access but not about seeing. The exercise is an example of how neuroscience will move us away from psychological intuitions about consciousness, and hence depict a notion of consciousness that may go against our deepest conviction: "My consciousness is mine, and mine alone." It's not. PMID:24168336

  16. Recent Advances and Applications of Experimental Technologies in Marine Natural Product Research

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ke; Chung-Davidson, Yu-Wen; Bussy, Ugo; Li, Weiming

    2015-01-01

    Marine natural products are a rich source of novel and biologically active compounds. The number of identified marine natural compounds has grown 20% over the last five years from 2009 to 2013. Several challenges, including sample collection and structure elucidation, have limited the development of this research field. Nonetheless, new approaches, such as sampling strategies for organisms from extreme ocean environments, nanoscale NMR and computational chemistry for structural determination, are now available to overcome the barriers. In this review, we highlight the experimental technology innovations in the field of marine natural products, which in our view will lead to the development of many new drugs in the future. PMID:25939037

  17. Stimulation of natural killer cells by homoeopathic complexes: an in vitro and in vivo pilot study in advanced cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Toliopoulos, Ioannis K; Simos, Yannis; Bougiouklis, Dimitrios; Oikonomidis, Stergios

    2013-12-01

    The present study was designed in order to evaluate the effects of five homoeopathic complex preparations on functional activity natural killer cells (NKCs) in advanced cancer patients. We examined the effects of Coenzyme Compositum®, Ubichinon Compositum®, Glyoxal Compositum®, Katalysatoren® and Traumeel® on the functional activity of NKCs. Experimental procedures included in vitro and in vivo trials. The in vitro trials were performed in NKCs isolated from 12 healthy volunteers (aged 44 ± 4 years) and incubated with the five homoeopathic complex preparations. The in vivo trials were performed in 15 advanced cancer patients (aged 55 ± 12 years) supplemented for 3 months with the homoeopathic preparations. All five homoeopathic preparations significantly increased the cytotoxic activity of the NKCs at the lowest NKCs/target cell ratio 12:1 (p < 0·05). The order of activity was: Ubichinon Compositum® > Glyoxal Compositum® > Katalysatoren® > Traumeel® > Coenzyme Compositum®. In the advanced cancer patients, the homoeopathic preparation significantly increased NKCs cytotoxic activity (p < 0·05). The homoeopathic complex preparations tested in this study can be used as an adjuvant immunotherapy in advanced cancer patients.

  18. Hybridization of natural systems with advanced treatment processes for organic micropollutant removals: new concepts in multi-barrier treatment.

    PubMed

    Sudhakaran, Sairam; Maeng, Sung Kyu; Amy, Gary

    2013-07-01

    Organic micropollutants (OMPs) represent a major constraint in drinking water supply. In the past, emphasis has been on individual treatment processes comprising conventional treatment (coagulation, sedimentation, and filtration) followed by advanced treatment processes (adsorption, ion-exchange, oxidation, and membrane separation). With the depletion of water resources and high demand for power and chemical usage, efforts need to be made to judiciously use advanced treatment processes. There is a new interest in multiple barriers with synergies in which two coupled processes can function as a hybrid process. Within the context of this paper, the hybrid processes include a natural treatment process coupled with an advanced process. Pilot/full-scale studies have shown efficient removal of OMPs by these hybrid processes. With this hybridization, the usage of resources such as power and chemicals can be reduced. In this study, coupling/hybridization of aquifer recharge and recovery (ARR) with oxidation (O3), advanced oxidation process which involves OH radicals (AOP), nanofiltration (NF), reverse osmosis (RO) and granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption for OMP removal was studied. O3 or AOP as a pre-treatment and GAC, NF, RO, or UV/chlorination as a post-treatment to ARR was studied. NF can be replaced by RO for removal of OMPs since studies have shown similar performance of NF to RO for removal of many OMPs, thereby reducing costs and providing a more sustainable approach. PMID:23664475

  19. Hybridization of natural systems with advanced treatment processes for organic micropollutant removals: new concepts in multi-barrier treatment.

    PubMed

    Sudhakaran, Sairam; Maeng, Sung Kyu; Amy, Gary

    2013-07-01

    Organic micropollutants (OMPs) represent a major constraint in drinking water supply. In the past, emphasis has been on individual treatment processes comprising conventional treatment (coagulation, sedimentation, and filtration) followed by advanced treatment processes (adsorption, ion-exchange, oxidation, and membrane separation). With the depletion of water resources and high demand for power and chemical usage, efforts need to be made to judiciously use advanced treatment processes. There is a new interest in multiple barriers with synergies in which two coupled processes can function as a hybrid process. Within the context of this paper, the hybrid processes include a natural treatment process coupled with an advanced process. Pilot/full-scale studies have shown efficient removal of OMPs by these hybrid processes. With this hybridization, the usage of resources such as power and chemicals can be reduced. In this study, coupling/hybridization of aquifer recharge and recovery (ARR) with oxidation (O3), advanced oxidation process which involves OH radicals (AOP), nanofiltration (NF), reverse osmosis (RO) and granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption for OMP removal was studied. O3 or AOP as a pre-treatment and GAC, NF, RO, or UV/chlorination as a post-treatment to ARR was studied. NF can be replaced by RO for removal of OMPs since studies have shown similar performance of NF to RO for removal of many OMPs, thereby reducing costs and providing a more sustainable approach.

  20. Recent advances in natural products from plants for treatment of liver diseases.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Aihua; Sun, Hui; Wang, Xijun

    2013-05-01

    Liver disease is any condition that may cause liver inflammation or tissue damage and affects liver function. Natural products that are found in vegetables, fruits, plant extracts, herbs, insects, and animals, have been traditionally used for treating liver diseases. They are chemical compounds that usually have biological activities for use in drug discovery and design. Many natural products have been clinically available as potent hepatoprotective agents against commonly occurring liver diseases. This review summarizes the current progress in the basic, clinical, and translational research on natural products in treatment of various liver diseases. Furthermore, we will focus on the discovery and biological evaluation of the natural products, which shows potential as a new therapeutic agent of liver diseases.

  1. "Scientific roots" of dualism in neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Arshavsky, Yuri I

    2006-07-01

    Although the dualistic concept is unpopular among neuroscientists involved in experimental studies of the brain, neurophysiological literature is full of covert dualistic statements on the possibility of understanding neural mechanisms of human consciousness. Particularly, the covert dualistic attitude is exhibited in the unwillingness to discuss neural mechanisms of consciousness, leaving the problem of consciousness to psychologists and philosophers. This covert dualism seems to be rooted in the main paradigm of neuroscience that suggests that cognitive functions, such as language production and comprehension, face recognition, declarative memory, emotions, etc., are performed by neural networks consisting of simple elements. I argue that neural networks of any complexity consisting of neurons whose function is limited to the generation of electrical potentials and the transmission of signals to other neurons are hardly capable of producing human mental activity, including consciousness. Based on results obtained in physiological, morphological, clinical, and genetic studies of cognitive functions (mainly linguistic ones), I advocate the hypothesis that the performance of cognitive functions is based on complex cooperative activity of "complex" neurons that are carriers of "elementary cognition." The uniqueness of human cognitive functions, which has a genetic basis, is determined by the specificity of genes expressed by these "complex" neurons. The main goal of the review is to show that the identification of the genes implicated in cognitive functions and the understanding of a functional role of their products is a possible way to overcome covert dualism in neuroscience. PMID:16935408

  2. Bayesian networks in neuroscience: a survey.

    PubMed

    Bielza, Concha; Larrañaga, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Bayesian networks are a type of probabilistic graphical models lie at the intersection between statistics and machine learning. They have been shown to be powerful tools to encode dependence relationships among the variables of a domain under uncertainty. Thanks to their generality, Bayesian networks can accommodate continuous and discrete variables, as well as temporal processes. In this paper we review Bayesian networks and how they can be learned automatically from data by means of structure learning algorithms. Also, we examine how a user can take advantage of these networks for reasoning by exact or approximate inference algorithms that propagate the given evidence through the graphical structure. Despite their applicability in many fields, they have been little used in neuroscience, where they have focused on specific problems, like functional connectivity analysis from neuroimaging data. Here we survey key research in neuroscience where Bayesian networks have been used with different aims: discover associations between variables, perform probabilistic reasoning over the model, and classify new observations with and without supervision. The networks are learned from data of any kind-morphological, electrophysiological, -omics and neuroimaging-, thereby broadening the scope-molecular, cellular, structural, functional, cognitive and medical- of the brain aspects to be studied.

  3. Bayesian networks in neuroscience: a survey.

    PubMed

    Bielza, Concha; Larrañaga, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Bayesian networks are a type of probabilistic graphical models lie at the intersection between statistics and machine learning. They have been shown to be powerful tools to encode dependence relationships among the variables of a domain under uncertainty. Thanks to their generality, Bayesian networks can accommodate continuous and discrete variables, as well as temporal processes. In this paper we review Bayesian networks and how they can be learned automatically from data by means of structure learning algorithms. Also, we examine how a user can take advantage of these networks for reasoning by exact or approximate inference algorithms that propagate the given evidence through the graphical structure. Despite their applicability in many fields, they have been little used in neuroscience, where they have focused on specific problems, like functional connectivity analysis from neuroimaging data. Here we survey key research in neuroscience where Bayesian networks have been used with different aims: discover associations between variables, perform probabilistic reasoning over the model, and classify new observations with and without supervision. The networks are learned from data of any kind-morphological, electrophysiological, -omics and neuroimaging-, thereby broadening the scope-molecular, cellular, structural, functional, cognitive and medical- of the brain aspects to be studied. PMID:25360109

  4. Bayesian networks in neuroscience: a survey

    PubMed Central

    Bielza, Concha; Larrañaga, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Bayesian networks are a type of probabilistic graphical models lie at the intersection between statistics and machine learning. They have been shown to be powerful tools to encode dependence relationships among the variables of a domain under uncertainty. Thanks to their generality, Bayesian networks can accommodate continuous and discrete variables, as well as temporal processes. In this paper we review Bayesian networks and how they can be learned automatically from data by means of structure learning algorithms. Also, we examine how a user can take advantage of these networks for reasoning by exact or approximate inference algorithms that propagate the given evidence through the graphical structure. Despite their applicability in many fields, they have been little used in neuroscience, where they have focused on specific problems, like functional connectivity analysis from neuroimaging data. Here we survey key research in neuroscience where Bayesian networks have been used with different aims: discover associations between variables, perform probabilistic reasoning over the model, and classify new observations with and without supervision. The networks are learned from data of any kind–morphological, electrophysiological, -omics and neuroimaging–, thereby broadening the scope–molecular, cellular, structural, functional, cognitive and medical– of the brain aspects to be studied. PMID:25360109

  5. A case for human systems neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Gardner, J L

    2015-06-18

    Can the human brain itself serve as a model for a systems neuroscience approach to understanding the human brain? After all, how the brain is able to create the richness and complexity of human behavior is still largely mysterious. What better choice to study that complexity than to study it in humans? However, measurements of brain activity typically need to be made non-invasively which puts severe constraints on what can be learned about the internal workings of the brain. Our approach has been to use a combination of psychophysics in which we can use human behavioral flexibility to make quantitative measurements of behavior and link those through computational models to measurements of cortical activity through magnetic resonance imaging. In particular, we have tested various computational hypotheses about what neural mechanisms could account for behavioral enhancement with spatial attention (Pestilli et al., 2011). Resting both on quantitative measurements and considerations of what is known through animal models, we concluded that weighting of sensory signals by the magnitude of their response is a neural mechanism for efficient selection of sensory signals and consequent improvements in behavioral performance with attention. While animal models have many technical advantages over studying the brain in humans, we believe that human systems neuroscience should endeavor to validate, replicate and extend basic knowledge learned from animal model systems and thus form a bridge to understanding how the brain creates the complex and rich cognitive capacities of humans.

  6. Nanotools for Neuroscience and Brain Activity Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Andrews, Anne M.; Boyden, Edward S.; Chun, Miyoung; Church, George M.; Deisseroth, Karl; Donoghue, John P.; Fraser, Scott E.; Lippincott-Schwartz, Jennifer; Looger, Loren L.; Masmanidis, Sotiris; McEuen, Paul L.; Nurmikko, Arto V.; Park, Hongkun; Peterka, Darcy S.; Reid, Clay; Roukes, Michael L.; Scherer, Axel; Schnitzer, Mark; Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Shepard, Kenneth L.; Tsao, Doris; Turrigiano, Gina; Weiss, Paul S.; Xu, Chris; Yuste, Rafael; Zhuang, Xiaowei

    2013-01-01

    Neuroscience is at a crossroads. Great effort is being invested into deciphering specific neural interactions and circuits. At the same time, there exist few general theories or principles that explain brain function. We attribute this disparity, in part, to limitations in current methodologies. Traditional neurophysiological approaches record the activities of one neuron or a few neurons at a time. Neurochemical approaches focus on single neurotransmitters. Yet, there is an increasing realization that neural circuits operate at emergent levels, where the interactions between hundreds or thousands of neurons, utilizing multiple chemical transmitters, generate functional states. Brains function at the nanoscale, so tools to study brains must ultimately operate at this scale, as well. Nanoscience and nanotechnology are poised to provide a rich toolkit of novel methods to explore brain function by enabling simultaneous measurement and manipulation of activity of thousands or even millions of neurons. We and others refer to this goal as the Brain Activity Mapping Project. In this Nano Focus, we discuss how recent developments in nanoscale analysis tools and in the design and synthesis of nanomaterials have generated optical, electrical, and chemical methods that can readily be adapted for use in neuroscience. These approaches represent exciting areas of technical development and research. Moreover, unique opportunities exist for nanoscientists, nanotechnologists, and other physical scientists and engineers to contribute to tackling the challenging problems involved in understanding the fundamentals of brain function. PMID:23514423

  7. Neuroscience and the Soul: Competing Explanations for the Human Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, Jesse Lee; Ritter, Ryan S.; Hepler, Justin

    2013-01-01

    The development of fMRI techniques has generated a boom of neuroscience research across the psychological sciences, and revealed neural correlates for many psychological phenomena seen as central to the human experience (e.g., morality, agency). Meanwhile, the rise of neuroscience has reignited old debates over mind-body dualism and the soul.…

  8. Explaining the Alluring Influence of Neuroscience Information on Scientific Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Rebecca E.; Rodriguez, Fernando; Shah, Priti

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have investigated the influence of neuroscience information or images on ratings of scientific evidence quality but have yielded mixed results. We examined the influence of neuroscience information on evaluations of flawed scientific studies after taking into account individual differences in scientific reasoning skills, thinking…

  9. Brain Matters: A Journey with Neuroscience and Religious Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blevins, Dean G.

    2011-01-01

    Neuroscience continues to enjoy a renaissance of study and a range of responses, both in explorations of religious experience and in educational practice. Neuroscience, as an interdisciplinary field, attained a new ascendancy at the end of the 20th century, known as the decade of the brain. New insights continue to influence education and public…

  10. No Brain Left Behind: Consequences of Neuroscience Discourse for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busso, Daniel S.; Pollack, Courtney

    2015-01-01

    Educational neuroscience represents a concerted interdisciplinary effort to bring the fields of cognitive science, neuroscience and education to bear on classroom practice. This article draws attention to the current and potential implications of importing biological ideas, language and imagery into education. By analysing examples of brain-based…

  11. Can Cognitive Neuroscience Ground a Science of Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Anthony E.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, I review recent findings in cognitive neuroscience in learning, particularly in the learning of mathematics and of reading. I argue that while cognitive neuroscience is in its infancy as a field, theories of learning will need to incorporate and account for this growing body of empirical data.

  12. Reciprocity between second-person neuroscience and cognitive robotics.

    PubMed

    Dominey, Peter Ford

    2013-08-01

    As there is "dark matter" in the neuroscience of individuals engaged in dynamic interactions, similar dark matter is present in the domain of interaction between humans and cognitive robots. Progress in second-person neuroscience will contribute to the development of robotic cognitive systems, and such developed robotic systems will be used to test the validity of the underlying theories.

  13. Applying the neuroscience of creativity to creativity training.

    PubMed

    Onarheim, Balder; Friis-Olivarius, Morten

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates how neuroscience in general, and neuroscience of creativity in particular, can be used in teaching "applied creativity" and the usefulness of this approach to creativity training. The article is based on empirical data and our experiences from the Applied NeuroCreativity (ANC) program, taught at business schools in Denmark and Canada. In line with previous studies of successful creativity training programs the ANC participants are first introduced to cognitive concepts of creativity, before applying these concepts to a relevant real world creative problem. The novelty in the ANC program is that the conceptualization of creativity is built on neuroscience, and a crucial aspect of the course is giving the students a thorough understanding of the neuroscience of creativity. Previous studies have reported that the conceptualization of creativity used in such training is of major importance for the success of the training, and we believe that the neuroscience of creativity offers a novel conceptualization for creativity training. Here we present pre/post-training tests showing that ANC students gained more fluency in divergent thinking (a traditional measure of trait creativity) than those in highly similar courses without the neuroscience component, suggesting that principles from neuroscience can contribute effectively to creativity training and produce measurable results on creativity tests. The evidence presented indicates that the inclusion of neuroscience principles in a creativity course can in 8 weeks increase divergent thinking skills with an individual relative average of 28.5%. PMID:24137120

  14. Applying the neuroscience of creativity to creativity training

    PubMed Central

    Onarheim, Balder; Friis-Olivarius, Morten

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates how neuroscience in general, and neuroscience of creativity in particular, can be used in teaching “applied creativity” and the usefulness of this approach to creativity training. The article is based on empirical data and our experiences from the Applied NeuroCreativity (ANC) program, taught at business schools in Denmark and Canada. In line with previous studies of successful creativity training programs the ANC participants are first introduced to cognitive concepts of creativity, before applying these concepts to a relevant real world creative problem. The novelty in the ANC program is that the conceptualization of creativity is built on neuroscience, and a crucial aspect of the course is giving the students a thorough understanding of the neuroscience of creativity. Previous studies have reported that the conceptualization of creativity used in such training is of major importance for the success of the training, and we believe that the neuroscience of creativity offers a novel conceptualization for creativity training. Here we present pre/post-training tests showing that ANC students gained more fluency in divergent thinking (a traditional measure of trait creativity) than those in highly similar courses without the neuroscience component, suggesting that principles from neuroscience can contribute effectively to creativity training and produce measurable results on creativity tests. The evidence presented indicates that the inclusion of neuroscience principles in a creativity course can in 8 weeks increase divergent thinking skills with an individual relative average of 28.5%. PMID:24137120

  15. Visualizing Neuroscience: Learning about the Brain through Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chudler, Eric H.; Konrady, Paula

    2006-01-01

    Neuroscience is a subject that can motivate, excite, and stimulate the curiosity of everyone However, the study of the brain is made difficult by an abundance of new vocabulary words and abstract concepts. Although neuroscience has the potential to inspire students, many teachers find it difficult to include a study of the brain in their…

  16. A restatement of recent advances in the natural science evidence base concerning neonicotinoid insecticides and insect pollinators

    PubMed Central

    Godfray, H. Charles J.; Blacquière, Tjeerd; Field, Linda M.; Hails, Rosemary S.; Potts, Simon G.; Raine, Nigel E.; Vanbergen, Adam J.; McLean, Angela R.

    2015-01-01

    A summary is provided of recent advances in the natural science evidence base concerning the effects of neonicotinoid insecticides on insect pollinators in a format (a ‘restatement') intended to be accessible to informed but not expert policymakers and stakeholders. Important new studies have been published since our recent review of this field (Godfray et al. 2014 Proc. R. Soc. B 281, 20140558. (doi:10.1098/rspb.2014.0558)) and the subject continues to be an area of very active research and high policy relevance. PMID:26511042

  17. A restatement of recent advances in the natural science evidence base concerning neonicotinoid insecticides and insect pollinators.

    PubMed

    Godfray, H Charles J; Blacquière, Tjeerd; Field, Linda M; Hails, Rosemary S; Potts, Simon G; Raine, Nigel E; Vanbergen, Adam J; McLean, Angela R

    2015-11-01

    A summary is provided of recent advances in the natural science evidence base concerning the effects of neonicotinoid insecticides on insect pollinators in a format (a 'restatement') intended to be accessible to informed but not expert policymakers and stakeholders. Important new studies have been published since our recent review of this field (Godfray et al. 2014 Proc. R. Soc. B 281, 20140558. (doi:10.1098/rspb.2014.0558)) and the subject continues to be an area of very active research and high policy relevance.

  18. A conceptual review of the psychosocial genomics of expectancy and surprise: neuroscience perspectives about the deep psychobiology of therapeutic hypnosis.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Ernest L

    2002-10-01

    This conceptual review explores some speculative associations between the neuroscience of expectancy and surprise during stress and therapeutic hypnosis. Current neuroscience is exploring how novel interactions between the organism and the environment initiate cascades of gene expression, protein synthesis, neurogenesis, and healing that operate via Darwinian principles of natural variation and selection on all levels from the molecular-genomic to the subjective states of consciousness. From a neuroscience perspective, the novel and surprising experiences of consciousness appear to have as important a role as expectancy in memory, learning and behavior change in the psychobiology of therapeutic hypnosis. This paper explores how we may integrate the psychosocial genomics of expectancy and surprise in therapeutic hypnosis as a complex system of creative adaptation on all levels of human experience from mind to gene expression.

  19. Neuroscience and education: prime time to build the bridge.

    PubMed

    Sigman, Mariano; Peña, Marcela; Goldin, Andrea P; Ribeiro, Sidarta

    2014-04-01

    As neuroscience gains social traction and entices media attention, the notion that education has much to benefit from brain research becomes increasingly popular. However, it has been argued that the fundamental bridge toward education is cognitive psychology, not neuroscience. We discuss four specific cases in which neuroscience synergizes with other disciplines to serve education, ranging from very general physiological aspects of human learning such as nutrition, exercise and sleep, to brain architectures that shape the way we acquire language and reading, and neuroscience tools that increasingly allow the early detection of cognitive deficits, especially in preverbal infants. Neuroscience methods, tools and theoretical frameworks have broadened our understanding of the mind in a way that is highly relevant to educational practice. Although the bridge's cement is still fresh, we argue why it is prime time to march over it.

  20. Advanced Self-Potential Inversion. Development and Use for Investigating Natural Recharge Processes at the ORNL IFC

    SciTech Connect

    Revil, Andre

    2013-01-15

    Understanding the influence of coupled biological, chemical, and hydrological processes on subsurface contaminant behavior at multiple scales is a prerequisite for developing effective remedial approaches, whether they are active remediation or natural attenuation strategies. To develop this understanding, methods are needed that can measure critical components of the natural system in real time. The self-potential method corresponds to the passive measurement of the distribution of the electrical potential at the surface of the Earth or in boreholes. This method is very complemetary to other geophysical methods like DC resistivity and induced polarization. In this report, we summarize of research efforts to advance the theory of low-frequency geoelectrical methods and their applications to the contaminant plumes in the vicinity of the former S-3 settling basins at Oak Ridge, TN.

  1. The practical and principled problems with educational neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Bowers, Jeffrey S

    2016-10-01

    The core claim of educational neuroscience is that neuroscience can improve teaching in the classroom. Many strong claims are made about the successes and the promise of this new discipline. By contrast, I show that there are no current examples of neuroscience motivating new and effective teaching methods, and argue that neuroscience is unlikely to improve teaching in the future. The reasons are twofold. First, in practice, it is easier to characterize the cognitive capacities of children on the basis of behavioral measures than on the basis of brain measures. As a consequence, neuroscience rarely offers insights into instruction above and beyond psychology. Second, in principle, the theoretical motivations underpinning educational neuroscience are misguided, and this makes it difficult to design or assess new teaching methods on the basis of neuroscience. Regarding the design of instruction, it is widely assumed that remedial instruction should target the underlying deficits associated with learning disorders, and neuroscience is used to characterize the deficit. However, the most effective forms of instruction may often rely on developing compensatory (nonimpaired) skills. Neuroscience cannot determine whether instruction should target impaired or nonimpaired skills. More importantly, regarding the assessment of instruction, the only relevant issue is whether the child learns, as reflected in behavior. Evidence that the brain changed in response to instruction is irrelevant. At the same time, an important goal for neuroscience is to characterize how the brain changes in response to learning, and this includes learning in the classroom. Neuroscientists cannot help educators, but educators can help neuroscientists. (PsycINFO Database Record

  2. Flight Testing of an Advanced Airborne Natural Gas Leak Detection System

    SciTech Connect

    Dawn Lenz; Raymond T. Lines; Darryl Murdock; Jeffrey Owen; Steven Stearns; Michael Stoogenke

    2005-10-01

    ITT Industries Space Systems Division (Space Systems) has developed an airborne natural gas leak detection system designed to detect, image, quantify, and precisely locate leaks from natural gas transmission pipelines. This system is called the Airborne Natural Gas Emission Lidar (ANGEL) system. The ANGEL system uses a highly sensitive differential absorption Lidar technology to remotely detect pipeline leaks. The ANGEL System is operated from a fixed wing aircraft and includes automatic scanning, pointing system, and pilot guidance systems. During a pipeline inspection, the ANGEL system aircraft flies at an elevation of 1000 feet above the ground at speeds of between 100 and 150 mph. Under this contract with DOE/NETL, Space Systems was funded to integrate the ANGEL sensor into a test aircraft and conduct a series of flight tests over a variety of test targets including simulated natural gas pipeline leaks. Following early tests in upstate New York in the summer of 2004, the ANGEL system was deployed to Casper, Wyoming to participate in a set of DOE-sponsored field tests at the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (RMOTC). At RMOTC the Space Systems team completed integration of the system and flew an operational system for the first time. The ANGEL system flew 2 missions/day for the duration for the 5-day test. Over the course of the week the ANGEL System detected leaks ranging from 100 to 5,000 scfh.

  3. Advanced Science Students' Understanding on Nature of Science in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Köksal, Mustafa Serdar; Sormunen, Kari

    2014-01-01

    Nature of science (NOS), as an aspect of informed decision making about science related issues in daily life, is frequently emphasised when reform and the curriculum are in question. When reflecting on studies done on the subject, it comes apparent that the majority of them comprise of determination or assessment studies conducted with traditional…

  4. Characterization of natural resin materials using water adsorption and various advanced techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favvas, Evangelos P.; Kouvelos, Evangelos P.; Papageorgiou, Sergios K.; Tsanaktsidis, Constantinos G.; Mitropoulos, Athanasios Ch.

    2015-05-01

    A physicochemical characterization of natural raw resin material was evaluated and reported. The studied material is a natural resin, a natural product from pinus halepensis trees which is collected from the forests of Chalkidiki region of North Greece. The plurality of this product combined with its special property of removing water from commercial liquid fuels commands the detailed physicochemical characterization of this material. In particular, various techniques, such as water adsorption at 22 °C, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, were used in order to evaluate the structural and surface properties of the material. The water adsorption isotherm was also measured and fitted using the Guggenheim, Anderson and De Boer model in order to correlate the water activity characteristics. In addition, the kinetics of the adsorption was also fitted with good accuracy using the exponential Chapman model. Furthermore, as the results show, the natural resin presents good thermal characteristics. Finally, the studied material presents efficient water adsorption properties, up to 246.8 mmol/g, and it can be proposed as a promising dehydration material.

  5. Using a Parent Survey to Advance Knowledge about the Nature and Consequences of Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Donald B., Jr.; Raspa, Melissa; Olmsted, Murrey G.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the nature and consequences of intellectual and developmental disabilities is challenging, especially when the condition is rare, affected individuals are geographically dispersed, and/or resource constraints limit large-scale studies involving direct assessment. Surveys provide an alternative methodology for gathering information…

  6. Selection of an industrial natural-gas-fired advanced turbine system - Task 3A

    SciTech Connect

    Holloway, G.M.

    1997-05-01

    TASK OBJECTIVES: Identify a gas-fueled turbine and steam system which will meet the program goals for efficiency - and emissions. TECHNICAL GOALS AND REQUIREMENTS: Goals for the Advanced Turbine System Program (ATS) where outlined in the statement of work for five basic categories: Cycle Efficiency - System heat rate to have a 15% improvement over 1991 vintage systems being offered to the market. Environmental No post-combustion devices while meeting the following parameter targets: (1) Nitrous Oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions to equal 8 parts per million dry (ppmd) with 15% oxygen. (2) Carbon monoxide (CO) and unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) emissions to equal 20 parts per million(ppmd) each. Cost of electricity to be 10 percent less when compared to similar 1991 systems. Fuel Flexibility Have to ability to burn coal or coal derived fuels without extensive redesign. Reliability, Availability, Maintainability Reliability, availability and maintainability must be comparable to modern advanced power generation systems. For all cycle and system studies, analyses were done for the following engine system ambient conditions: Temperature - 59F; Altitude - Sea Level; Humidity - 60%. For the 1991 reference system, GE Aircraft Engines used its LM6OOO engine product offering for comparison of the Industrial System parameters developed under this program.

  7. The influence of an advanced agriculture & life science course on students' views of the nature of science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Megan N.

    One of the goals in today's society is to ensure that students exiting school have the ability to understand, develop, and comprehend scientific information. For students to be able to meet these goals, it is imperative that they become scientifically literate and understand the concept of the Nature of Science (NOS). The discipline of Agricultural Education has strong connections with science and today many students are earning science credit and developing science understanding through Agricultural Education courses. If students are continuing to gain science mastery through their Agricultural Education courses, they should also be gaining adequate conceptions of science and the NOS. Overall, many studies have indicated that students exiting the K-12 education system lack these vital skills and understanding. The purpose of this study was to explore the conceptions of the NOS of advanced agriculture students in Indiana. This study explored the conceptions of agricultural science students before and after taking a semester of an advanced life science course (N=48). Conceptions were explored through a qualitative case study utilizing the VNOS-C questionnaire. Responses were coded into one of three categories: Naive, Emerging, or Informed. Demographic data were also collected and analyzed. Overall, results of this study indicate that students in advanced agricultural science courses lack NOS understanding. The study's conclusions are discussed along with implications for theory, research and practice in addition to future directions for research.

  8. Neuroart: picturing the neuroscience of intentional actions in art and science.

    PubMed

    Siler, Todd

    2015-01-01

    Intentional actions cover a broad spectrum of human behaviors involving consciousness, creativity, innovative thinking, problem-solving, critical thinking, and other related cognitive processes self-evident in the arts and sciences. The author discusses the brain activity associated with action intentions, connecting this activity with the creative process. Focusing on one seminal artwork created and exhibited over a period of three decades, Thought Assemblies (1979-82, 2014), he describes how this symbolic art interprets the neuropsychological processes of intuition and analytical reasoning. It explores numerous basic questions concerning observed interactions between artistic and scientific inquiries, conceptions, perceptions, and representations connecting mind and nature. Pointing to some key neural mechanisms responsible for forming and implementing intentions, he considers why and how we create, discover, invent, and innovate. He suggests ways of metaphorical thinking and symbolic modeling that can help integrate the neuroscience of intentional actions with the neuroscience of creativity, art and neuroaesthetics. PMID:26257629

  9. Neuroart: picturing the neuroscience of intentional actions in art and science

    PubMed Central

    Siler, Todd

    2015-01-01

    Intentional actions cover a broad spectrum of human behaviors involving consciousness, creativity, innovative thinking, problem-solving, critical thinking, and other related cognitive processes self-evident in the arts and sciences. The author discusses the brain activity associated with action intentions, connecting this activity with the creative process. Focusing on one seminal artwork created and exhibited over a period of three decades, Thought Assemblies (1979–82, 2014), he describes how this symbolic art interprets the neuropsychological processes of intuition and analytical reasoning. It explores numerous basic questions concerning observed interactions between artistic and scientific inquiries, conceptions, perceptions, and representations connecting mind and nature. Pointing to some key neural mechanisms responsible for forming and implementing intentions, he considers why and how we create, discover, invent, and innovate. He suggests ways of metaphorical thinking and symbolic modeling that can help integrate the neuroscience of intentional actions with the neuroscience of creativity, art and neuroaesthetics. PMID:26257629

  10. Non-human primates in neuroscience research: The case against its scientific necessity.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Jarrod; Taylor, Kathy

    2016-03-01

    Public opposition to non-human primate (NHP) experiments is significant, yet those who defend them cite minimal harm to NHPs and substantial human benefit. Here we review these claims of benefit, specifically in neuroscience, and show that: a) there is a default assumption of their human relevance and benefit, rather than robust evidence; b) their human relevance and essential contribution and necessity are wholly overstated; c) the contribution and capacity of non-animal investigative methods are greatly understated; and d) confounding issues, such as species differences and the effects of stress and anaesthesia, are usually overlooked. This is the case in NHP research generally, but here we specifically focus on the development and interpretation of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), deep brain stimulation (DBS), the understanding of neural oscillations and memory, and investigation of the neural control of movement and of vision/binocular rivalry. The increasing power of human-specific methods, including advances in fMRI and invasive techniques such as electrocorticography and single-unit recordings, is discussed. These methods serve to render NHP approaches redundant. We conclude that the defence of NHP use is groundless, and that neuroscience would be more relevant and successful for humans, if it were conducted with a direct human focus. We have confidence in opposing NHP neuroscience, both on scientific as well as on ethical grounds. PMID:27031602

  11. What does addiction medicine expect from neuroscience? From genes and neurons to treatment responses.

    PubMed

    Le Foll, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    The field of neuroscience is rapidly growing as evidenced by the mapping of the human genome, the progress in brain imaging technologies, and the refinement of sophisticated molecular tools that can be combined with innovative preclinical models. With these advances, it seems that our understanding of processes underlying addiction has never been so great. In comparison, the clinical domain has evolved at a much slower pace. Nonetheless, the addiction medical field has seen some gradual improvements in clinical care with the availability of a larger range of pharmacological options. Notably, several therapeutic alternatives are now offered for the treatment of nicotine, alcohol, and opioid use disorders. Some of these developments in treatment regimens have directly emerged from basic neuroscience research and represent a success story for the bench to beside translational approach. However, the clinical and research needs in addiction medicine are huge. There are still no pharmacological interventions available for psychostimulant and cannabis use disorders. Further, major questions remain unanswered: Would a better understanding of the neurocircuitry of addiction lead to therapeutic intervention? Would a better understanding of the neurochemical signature of addiction lead to the validation of a therapeutic target? Will pharmacogenetics hold its promise as a personalized medicine treatment approach? Using recent research developments, we will illustrate the potential of neuroscience to address some of the pressing questions in Addiction Medicine. PMID:26822369

  12. "The developmental and functional logic of neuronal circuits": commentary on the Kavli Prize in Neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Glover, J C

    2009-11-10

    The first Kavli Prize in Neuroscience recognizes a confluence of career achievements that together provide a fundamental understanding of how brain and spinal cord circuits are assembled during development and function in the adult. The members of the Kavli Neuroscience Prize Committee have decided to reward three scientists (Sten Grillner, Thomas Jessell, and Pasko Rakic) jointly "for discoveries on the developmental and functional logic of neuronal circuits". Pasko Rakic performed groundbreaking studies of the developing cerebral cortex, including the discovery of how radial glia guide the neuronal migration that establishes cortical layers and for the radial unit hypothesis and its implications for cortical connectivity and evolution. Thomas Jessell discovered molecular principles governing the specification and patterning of different neuron types and the development of their synaptic interconnection into sensorimotor circuits. Sten Grillner elucidated principles of network organization in the vertebrate locomotor central pattern generator, along with its command systems and sensory and higher order control. The discoveries of Rakic, Jessell and Grillner provide a framework for how neurons obtain their identities and ultimate locations, establish appropriate connections with each other, and how the resultant neuronal networks operate. Their work has significantly advanced our understanding of brain development and function and created new opportunities for the treatment of neurological disorders. Each has pioneered an important area of neuroscience research and left a legacy of exceptional scientific achievement, insight, communication, mentoring and leadership.

  13. Non-human primates in neuroscience research: The case against its scientific necessity.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Jarrod; Taylor, Kathy

    2016-03-01

    Public opposition to non-human primate (NHP) experiments is significant, yet those who defend them cite minimal harm to NHPs and substantial human benefit. Here we review these claims of benefit, specifically in neuroscience, and show that: a) there is a default assumption of their human relevance and benefit, rather than robust evidence; b) their human relevance and essential contribution and necessity are wholly overstated; c) the contribution and capacity of non-animal investigative methods are greatly understated; and d) confounding issues, such as species differences and the effects of stress and anaesthesia, are usually overlooked. This is the case in NHP research generally, but here we specifically focus on the development and interpretation of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), deep brain stimulation (DBS), the understanding of neural oscillations and memory, and investigation of the neural control of movement and of vision/binocular rivalry. The increasing power of human-specific methods, including advances in fMRI and invasive techniques such as electrocorticography and single-unit recordings, is discussed. These methods serve to render NHP approaches redundant. We conclude that the defence of NHP use is groundless, and that neuroscience would be more relevant and successful for humans, if it were conducted with a direct human focus. We have confidence in opposing NHP neuroscience, both on scientific as well as on ethical grounds.

  14. [Advance in studies on natural antidepressant drugs and cytochrome P450].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lu; Wang, Fei-hu; Chen, Sai-zhen; Pan, Jian-chun

    2015-03-01

    In the fast pace of modern life and under the heavy work pressure, the prevalence of depression has increased year by year. Meanwhile, the demands for antidepressant drugs have also grown, especially the high-efficiency and low-toxicity natural antidepressant drugs, mainly including polyphenols, flavonoids, organic acids, alkaloids and terpenoids. Cytochrome P450 (CYP450) is a type of enzymes involving oxidative metabolism of drugs in vivo, and can change the pharmacokinetics and efficacy of drugs. Therefore, it is of important significant to define the effect of natural antidepressant drugs on CYP450 in human bodies, in order to improve the rational clinical medication, avoid drug interactions and reduce adverse reactions. PMID:26087541

  15. [Research advances in vulnerability assessment of natural ecosystem response to climate change].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hui-xia; Wu, Shao-hong; Jiang, Lu-guang

    2007-02-01

    Climate change with global warming as the sign has been caught great attention by the governments, international organizations, and scientists in the world. Human society and natural ecosystem are both exposed to climate change, and more and more people are waked up by its increasing harm. Vulnerability analysis and assessment are the key and basis for adapting and mitigating climate change, being the highlight in the research fields of climate change and ecology in recent years. The vulnerability assessment of climate change is being carried out in various research fields and on different scales, and much progress has been made. This paper introduced the concept of vulnerability, and summarized the research progress in vulnerability assessment of climate change, with the focus on the frame and methodology of vulnerability assessment of natural ecosystem response to climate change. The existed problems and future prospects in this research area were also discussed.

  16. Attending to and neglecting people: bridging neuroscience, psychology and sociology

    PubMed Central

    Hari, Riitta; Sams, Mikko; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2016-01-01

    Human behaviour is context-dependent—based on predictions and influenced by the environment and other people. We live in a dynamic world where both the social stimuli and their context are constantly changing. Similar dynamic, natural stimuli should, in the future, be increasingly used to study social brain functions, with parallel development of appropriate signal-analysis methods. Understanding dynamic neural processes also requires accurate time-sensitive characterization of the behaviour. To go beyond the traditional stimulus–response approaches, brain activity should be recorded simultaneously from two interacting subjects to reveal why human social interaction is critically different from just reacting to each other. This theme issue on Attending to and neglecting people contains original work and review papers on person perception and social interaction. The articles cover research from neuroscience, psychology, robotics, animal interaction research and microsociology. Some of the papers are co-authored by scientists who presented their own, independent views in the recent Attention and Performance XXVI conference but were brave enough to join forces with a colleague having a different background and views. In the future, information needs to converge across disciplines to provide us a more holistic view of human behaviour, its interactive nature, as well as the temporal dynamics of our social world. PMID:27069043

  17. Advanced oxidation of natural organic matter using hydrogen peroxide and iron-coated pumice particles.

    PubMed

    Kitis, M; Kaplan, S S

    2007-08-01

    The oxidative removal of natural organic matter (NOM) from waters using hydrogen peroxide and iron-coated pumice particles as heterogeneous catalysts was investigated. Two NOM sources were tested: humic acid solution and a natural source water. Iron coated pumice removed about half of the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration at a dose of 3000 mg l(-1) in 24 h by adsorption only. Original pumice and peroxide dosed together provided UV absorbance reductions as high as 49%, mainly due to the presence of metal oxides including Al(2)O(3), Fe(2)O(3) and TiO(2) in the natural pumice, which are known to catalyze the decomposition of peroxide forming strong oxidants. Coating the original pumice particles with iron oxides significantly enhanced the removal of NOM with peroxide. A strong linear correlation was found between iron contents of coated pumices and UV absorbance reductions. Peroxide consumption also correlated with UV absorbance reduction. Control experiments proved the effective coating and the stability of iron oxide species bound on pumice surfaces. Results overall indicated that in addition to adsorptive removal of NOM by metal oxides on pumice surfaces, surface reactions between iron oxides and peroxide result in the formation of strong oxidants, probably like hydroxyl radicals, which further oxidize both adsorbed NOM and remaining NOM in solution, similar to those in Fenton-like reactions.

  18. Recent advances in natural product-based anti-biofilm approaches to control infections.

    PubMed

    Buommino, Elisabetta; Scognamiglio, Monica; Donnarumma, Giovanna; Fiorentino, Antonio; D'Abrosca, Brigida

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms are highly organized surface-associated communities of bacteria encased within an extracellular matrix produced by themselves, capable of growing in connection with different biological or inert surfaces such as artificial joints or catheters. Biofilms are commonly associated with many health problems, such as endocarditis, otitis media, periodontitis, prostatitis, and urinary tract infections. Several bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, or fungal pathogen as Candida albicans, can form biofilms in the body tissues, leading to different infections. The inherently defensive character of the biofilm is demonstrated by enhanced persistence of bacteria grown in the sessile mode respect to bacteria grown planktonically. This makes most biofilm- associated infections difficult to eradicate, thus contributing to disease chronicity. Since natural products provide a diverse array of chemical structures and possess a wide variety of biological properties, natural resources are worldwide exploited in the search of new pharmaceuticals. In this context bioactive secondary metabolites from natural sources, useful for the new antimicrobial and anti-biofilm drugs, are of interest. In this review, the role of small molecules from plants and marine organisms in inhibiting and/or dispersing bacterial biofilms is discussed, as well as the approaches that have been applied to the discovery of lead small molecules that mediate biofilm development. Molecules inhibiting the formation of biofilm may have therapeutic potential. Several candidates, as halogenated furanones, 2-amminoimidazole alkaloids and flavonoids have been already isolated and characterized from many plants and from marine organisms. PMID:25553429

  19. Obesity: The Metabolic Disease, Advances on Drug Discovery and Natural Product Research.

    PubMed

    Castro, Mafalda; Preto, Marco; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Urbatzka, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a global health threat. OECD reported that more than half (52%) of the adult population in the European Union is overweight or obese. Obesity and obesity-related co-morbidities have deep negative effects on morbidity, mortality, professional and personal quality of life. Healthcare costs represent a negative impact of this disease, with an associated economic cost of 100 billion US$ per year in the United States. The most prescribed drugs for obesity treatment worldwide are orlistat, and phentermine/topiramate extended release, while the major prescribed drug for the same disease in the US are exenatide and dapagliflozin. The so far developed drugs, targeting weight loss, have a long history of malignant secondary effects. There is still a lack of efficient and safe drugs to treat obesity and related metabolic complications since in many cases cure cannot be reached by bariatric surgery or healthy lifestyle habits. Terrestrial and aquatic organisms are a promising source of valuable, bioactive compounds, often with interest for human health. Some of the natural compounds or organisms have been used for centuries by humans as traditional medicine foods. In this review, we give insights into the adipose tissue function and development, and the progress in traditional anti-obesity pharmacotherapy. A major focus is to highlight the state of the art of natural compounds with anti-obesity properties and their potential as candidates for drug development; an overview is given about natural compounds derived from different marine animal sources, cyanobacteria, marine phytoplankton, fungus or plants. PMID:27086785

  20. Advanced Surface and Microstructural Characterization of Natural Graphite Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Gallego, Nidia C; Contescu, Cristian I; Meyer III, Harry M; Howe, Jane Y; Meisner, Roberta Ann; Payzant, E Andrew; Lance, Michael J; Yoon, Steve; Denlinger, Matthew; Wood III, David L

    2014-01-01

    Natural graphite powders were subjected to a series of thermal treatments in order to improve the anode irreversible capacity loss (ICL) and capacity retention during long-term cycling of lithium ion batteries. A baseline thermal treatment in inert Ar or N2 atmosphere was compared to cases with a proprietary additive to the furnace gas environment. This additive substantially altered the surface chemistry of the natural graphite powders and resulted in significantly improved long-term cycling performance of the lithium ion batteries over the commercial natural graphite baseline. Different heat-treatment temperatures were investigated ranging from 950-2900 C with the intent of achieving the desired long-term cycling performance with as low of a maximum temperature and thermal budget as possible. A detailed summary of the characterization data is also presented, which includes X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy, and temperature-programed desorption mass spectroscopy (TPD-MS). This characterization data was correlated to the observed capacity fade improvements over the course of long-term cycling at high charge-discharge rates in full lithium-ion coin cells. It is believed that the long-term performance improvements are a result of forming a more stable solid electrolyte interface (SEI) layer on the anode graphite surfaces, which is directly related to the surface chemistry modifications imparted by the proprietary gas environment during thermal treatment.

  1. Obesity: The Metabolic Disease, Advances on Drug Discovery and Natural Product Research.

    PubMed

    Castro, Mafalda; Preto, Marco; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Urbatzka, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a global health threat. OECD reported that more than half (52%) of the adult population in the European Union is overweight or obese. Obesity and obesity-related co-morbidities have deep negative effects on morbidity, mortality, professional and personal quality of life. Healthcare costs represent a negative impact of this disease, with an associated economic cost of 100 billion US$ per year in the United States. The most prescribed drugs for obesity treatment worldwide are orlistat, and phentermine/topiramate extended release, while the major prescribed drug for the same disease in the US are exenatide and dapagliflozin. The so far developed drugs, targeting weight loss, have a long history of malignant secondary effects. There is still a lack of efficient and safe drugs to treat obesity and related metabolic complications since in many cases cure cannot be reached by bariatric surgery or healthy lifestyle habits. Terrestrial and aquatic organisms are a promising source of valuable, bioactive compounds, often with interest for human health. Some of the natural compounds or organisms have been used for centuries by humans as traditional medicine foods. In this review, we give insights into the adipose tissue function and development, and the progress in traditional anti-obesity pharmacotherapy. A major focus is to highlight the state of the art of natural compounds with anti-obesity properties and their potential as candidates for drug development; an overview is given about natural compounds derived from different marine animal sources, cyanobacteria, marine phytoplankton, fungus or plants.

  2. Integrative neuroscience approach to neuropsychiatric lupus

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Elizabeth L.; Rey, Carson; Huerta, Tomás S.; Huerta, Patricio T.

    2016-01-01

    We present a succinct review of our approach to study the interactions between the DNA-reactive antibodies that cross-react with the GluN2A and GluN2B subunits of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, denoted DNRABs, and their brain targets in subjects with neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE). We have analyzed the DNRAB-based brain symptomatology in mouse models of NPSLE by using an integrative neuroscience approach, which includes behavioral assessment coupled with electrophysiological studies of neural networks and synaptic connections in target brain regions, such as the CA1 region of the hippocampus. Our results suggest a framework for understanding the interactions between immune factors and neural networks. PMID:26467973

  3. Neuroscience of Self and Self-Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Heatherton, Todd F.

    2011-01-01

    As a social species, humans have a fundamental need to belong that encourages behaviors consistent with being a good group member. Being a good group member requires the capacity for self-regulation, which allows people to alter or inhibit behaviors that would place them at risk for group exclusion. Self-regulation requires four psychological components. First, people need to be aware of their behavior so as to gauge it against societal norms. Second, people need to understand how others are reacting to their behavior so as to predict how others will respond to them. This necessitates a third mechanism, which detects threat, especially in complex social situations. Finally, there needs to be a mechanism for resolving discrepancies between self-knowledge and social expectations or norms, thereby motivating behavior to resolve any conflict that exists. This article reviews recent social neuroscience research on the psychological components that support the human capacity for self-regulation. PMID:21126181

  4. The psychology and neuroscience of curiosity

    PubMed Central

    Kidd, Celeste; Hayden, Benjamin Y.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Curiosity is a basic element of our cognition, yet its biological function, mechanisms, and neural underpinning remain poorly understood. It is nonetheless a motivator for learning, influential in decision-making, and crucial for healthy development. One factor limiting our understanding of it is the lack of a widely agreed upon delineation of what is and is not curiosity; another factor is the dearth of standardized laboratory tasks that manipulate curiosity in the lab. Despite these barriers, recent years have seen a major growth of interest in both the neuroscience and psychology of curiosity. In this Perspective, we advocate for the importance of the field, provide a selective overview of its current state, and describe tasks that are used to study curiosity and information-seeking. We propose that, rather than worry about defining curiosity, it is more helpful to consider the motivations for information-seeking behavior and to study it in its ethological context. PMID:26539887

  5. [Analgesic placebo effect: contribution of the neurosciences].

    PubMed

    Berna, C; Cojan, Y; Vuilleumier, P; Desmeules, J

    2011-06-29

    Over the past twenty years, neuroscience has changed our understanding of placebo analgesia. Often perceived by researchers as a response bias adding noise to the assessment of efficacy, in the patients' view, it is associated with charlatanism. The origin of the word, qualifying a patient's response to "please" the doctor, did not help its rightful appreciation. However, today the placebo analgesia is considered as a psychobiological phenomenon. Thanks to pharmacological manipulations and the development of functional brain imaging, the neural circuitry involved in this effect as well as the role of endorphins and dopamine have been identified. This article describes our current knowledge about this fascinating phenomenon: a psychological modulation can lead to a biological effect.

  6. The neuroscience of social decision-making.

    PubMed

    Rilling, James K; Sanfey, Alan G

    2011-01-01

    Given that we live in highly complex social environments, many of our most important decisions are made in the context of social interactions. Simple but sophisticated tasks from a branch of experimental economics known as game theory have been used to study social decision-making in the laboratory setting, and a variety of neuroscience methods have been used to probe the underlying neural systems. This approach is informing our knowledge of the neural mechanisms that support decisions about trust, reciprocity, altruism, fairness, revenge, social punishment, social norm conformity, social learning, and competition. Neural systems involved in reward and reinforcement, pain and punishment, mentalizing, delaying gratification, and emotion regulation are commonly recruited for social decisions. This review also highlights the role of the prefrontal cortex in prudent social decision-making, at least when social environments are relatively stable. In addition, recent progress has been made in understanding the neural bases of individual variation in social decision-making.

  7. A thought experiment reconciling neuroscience and psychoanalysis.

    PubMed

    Falissard, Bruno

    2011-12-01

    Thought experiments have a long tradition in science. The thought experiment proposed in this article designs a brain that is compatible with a conceptual framework that integrates neuroscience and psychoanalysis. A connectionist model with emergent collective computational abilities is modified progressively and gradually to retrieve concepts such as the following: life instinct, the death instinct, the conscious, the preconscious, the unconscious, the free-association method, parapraxis, repetitive compulsion, repression, self, other, and "I". In this model, the process of memorisation is represented by a neural network with deep depressions, the bottoms of which correspond to learned configurations known as "attractors". This thought experiment could be helpful in suggesting new formulations of traditional psychoanalytic and neuroscientific constructs.

  8. The cognitive neuroscience of working memory.

    PubMed

    D'Esposito, Mark; Postle, Bradley R

    2015-01-01

    For more than 50 years, psychologists and neuroscientists have recognized the importance of a working memory to coordinate processing when multiple goals are active and to guide behavior with information that is not present in the immediate environment. In recent years, psychological theory and cognitive neuroscience data have converged on the idea that information is encoded into working memory by allocating attention to internal representations, whether semantic long-term memory (e.g., letters, digits, words), sensory, or motoric. Thus, information-based multivariate analyses of human functional MRI data typically find evidence for the temporary representation of stimuli in regions that also process this information in nonworking memory contexts. The prefrontal cortex (PFC), on the other hand, exerts control over behavior by biasing the salience of mnemonic representations and adjudicating among competing, context-dependent rules. The "control of the controller" emerges from a complex interplay between PFC and striatal circuits and ascending dopaminergic neuromodulatory signals. PMID:25251486

  9. Neuroscience Training for the 21st Century.

    PubMed

    Akil, Huda; Balice-Gordon, Rita; Cardozo, David Lopes; Koroshetz, Walter; Posey Norris, Sheena M; Sherer, Todd; Sherman, S Murray; Thiels, Edda

    2016-06-01

    The field of neuroscience is enjoying a rapid expansion in scope, coupled with a remarkable broadening of conceptual approaches, scientific tools, and clinical applications. This growth poses new challenges for academic training programs as they prepare young neuroscientists for a more complex, competitive, and diverse career landscape. Multiple stakeholders, including academia, federal funding agencies, industry, scientific societies, private foundations, and other public and private sector contributors, need to be actively engaged in supporting this broad training effort. A renewed commitment to a more forward-looking, flexible yet integrative training vision offers opportunities for a bright future for young neuroscientists as they assume the role of vanguard of the enterprise that enriches our understanding of the brain. PMID:27253446

  10. Neuroscience nursing elective for senior nursing students.

    PubMed

    Barker, E L

    1985-10-01

    In response to baccalaureate student requests for additional clinical experience and expanded opportunities in neurological and neurosurgical nursing, an experimental course was designed for the winter session semester in cooperation with a local teaching hospital. A three-credit elective, "Discovering Neuroscience Nursing," was offered to senior students for five weeks. The course included thirty hours of lecture and laboratory, field trips, and over 200 hours of clinical experience. A student stipend was provided by the hospital. Goals for the course centered on providing an opportunity for the student to gain competence and confidence in caring for patients with neurological dysfunctions and providing family support. Students were assigned staff nurse preceptors as they rotated to every clinical setting caring for patients with alterations to the nervous system. Evaluations from students and staff preceptors indicated the successful acceptance of the program which will be modified and continued as a senior elective.

  11. Neuroscience Training for the 21st Century.

    PubMed

    Akil, Huda; Balice-Gordon, Rita; Cardozo, David Lopes; Koroshetz, Walter; Posey Norris, Sheena M; Sherer, Todd; Sherman, S Murray; Thiels, Edda

    2016-06-01

    The field of neuroscience is enjoying a rapid expansion in scope, coupled with a remarkable broadening of conceptual approaches, scientific tools, and clinical applications. This growth poses new challenges for academic training programs as they prepare young neuroscientists for a more complex, competitive, and diverse career landscape. Multiple stakeholders, including academia, federal funding agencies, industry, scientific societies, private foundations, and other public and private sector contributors, need to be actively engaged in supporting this broad training effort. A renewed commitment to a more forward-looking, flexible yet integrative training vision offers opportunities for a bright future for young neuroscientists as they assume the role of vanguard of the enterprise that enriches our understanding of the brain.

  12. Trends in programming languages for neuroscience simulations.

    PubMed

    Davison, Andrew P; Hines, Michael L; Muller, Eilif

    2009-01-01

    Neuroscience simulators allow scientists to express models in terms of biological concepts, without having to concern themselves with low-level computational details of their implementation. The expressiveness, power and ease-of-use of the simulator interface is critical in efficiently and accurately translating ideas into a working simulation. We review long-term trends in the development of programmable simulator interfaces, and examine the benefits of moving from proprietary, domain-specific languages to modern dynamic general-purpose languages, in particular Python, which provide neuroscientists with an interactive and expressive simulation development environment and easy access to state-of-the-art general-purpose tools for scientific computing. PMID:20198154

  13. Classics in Chemical Neuroscience: Fluoxetine (Prozac)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Fluoxetine (Prozac) was the first major breakthrough for the treatment of depression since the introduction of tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) nearly 30 years earlier. It was the first selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration, offering superior efficacy and reduced side effects relative to TCAs and MAOIs. Though a debate remains regarding the exact mechanism by which the clinical efficacy of fluoxetine is manifested, the importance of fluoxetine and related SSRIs to the field is unquestionable. The trade name Prozac has permeated popular culture, helping to raise awareness of depression and to diminish the prevalence of long-standing stigmas associated with this illness. In this Review, we will showcase the history and importance of fluoxetine to neuroscience in general, as well as for the treatment of depression, and review the synthesis, pharmacology, drug metabolism, and adverse effects of fluoxetine.

  14. Neurosciences research in space Future directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulzman, Frank M.; Wolfe, James W.

    Future research in the neurosciences can best be understood in the context of NASA's life sciences goals in the near term (1990-1995), mid term (1995-2000), and long term (2000 and beyond). Since NASA is planning short-duration Spacelab and International Microgravity Laboratory (IML) flights for many years to come, the acute effects of exposure to microgravity will continue to be of experimental and operational interest in the near term. To this end, major new areas of research will be devoted to ground-based studies of preflight adaptation trainers and their efficacy in preventing or reducing the incidence of space motion sickness. In addition, an extensive series of studies of the vestibular system will be conducted inflight on the IML-1 mission The IML-2 mission will emphasize behavior and performance, biological rhythms, and further vestibular studies. In the mid-term period, Spacelab missions will employ new technology such as magnetic recording techniques in order to evaluate changes in the processing of sensory and motor inputs at the brainstem and cortical level during exposure to microgravity. Two Space Life Sciences (SLS) missions planned for the mid to late 1990's, SLS-4 and SLS-5, will utilize an onboard centrifuge facility that will enable investigators to study the effects of partial gravity on sensory and motor function. In the long term (2000 and beyond), Space Station Freedom and long-duration missions will provide opportunities to explore new options in the neurosciences, such as sensory substitution and augmentation, through the use of physical sensors to provide three-dimensional tactile-visual, tactile-auditory and tactile-somatosensory inputs. The use of this technology will be extremely important in the area of robotic telepresence. Finally, Space Station Freedom and proposed LifeSat missions will provide neuroscientists the opportunity to study the effects of partial gravity and microgravity on neuronal plasticity.

  15. Neurosciences research in space: future directions.

    PubMed

    Sulzman, F M; Wolfe, J W

    1991-01-01

    Future research in the neurosciences can best be understood in the context of NASA's life sciences goals in the near term (1990-95), mid term (1995-2000), and long term (2000 and beyond). Since NASA is planning short-duration Spacelab and International Microgravity Laboratory (IML) flights for many years to come, the acute effects of exposure to microgravity will continue to be of experimental and operational interest in the near term. To this end, major new areas of research will be devoted to ground-based studies of preflight adaptation trainers and their efficacy in preventing or reducing the incidence of space motion sickness. In addition, an extensive series of studies of the vestibular system will be conducted inflight on the IML-1 mission The IML-2 mission will emphasize behavior and performance, biological rhythms, and further vestibular studies. In the mid-term period, Spacelab missions will employ new technology such as magnetic recording techniques in order to evaluate changes in the processing of sensory and motor inputs at the brainstem and cortical level during exposure to microgravity. Two Space Life Sciences (SLS) missions planned for the mid to late 1990's, SLS-4 and SLS-5, will utilize an onboard centrifuge facility that will enable investigators to study the effects of partial gravity on sensory and motor function. In the long term (2000 and beyond), Space Station Freedom and long-duration missions will provide opportunities to explore new options in the neurosciences, such as sensory substitution and augmentation, through the use of physical sensors to provide three-dimensional tactile-visual, tactile-auditory and tactile-somatosensory inputs. The use of this technology will be extremely important in the area of robotic telepresence. Finally, Space Station Freedom and proposed LifeSat missions will provide neuroscientists the opportunity to study the effects of partial gravity and microgravity on neuronal plasticity.

  16. NeuroMorpho.Org implementation of digital neuroscience: dense coverage and integration with the NIF.

    PubMed

    Halavi, Maryam; Polavaram, Sridevi; Donohue, Duncan E; Hamilton, Gail; Hoyt, Jeffrey; Smith, Kenneth P; Ascoli, Giorgio A

    2008-09-01

    exciting new possibilities in data mining and knowledge discovery. The outcome of such coordination is the rapid and powerful advancement of neuroscience research at both the conceptual and technological level.

  17. The promise of educational neuroscience: Comment on Bowers (2016).

    PubMed

    Gabrieli, John D E

    2016-10-01

    Bowers (2016) argues that there are practical and principled problems with how educational neuroscience may contribute to education, including lack of direct influences on teaching in the classroom. Some of the arguments made are convincing, including the critique of unsubstantiated claims about the impact of educational neuroscience and the reminder that the primary outcomes of education are behavioral, such as skill in reading or mathematics. Bowers' analysis falls short in 3 major respects. First, educational neuroscience is a basic science that has made unique contributions to basic education research; it is not part of applied classroom instruction. Second, educational neuroscience contributes to ideas about education practices and policies beyond classroom curriculum that are important for helping vulnerable students. Third, educational neuroscience studies using neuroimaging have not only revealed for the first time the brain basis of neurodevelopmental differences that have profound influences on educational outcomes, but have also identified individual brain differences that predict which students learn more or learn less from various curricula. In several cases, the brain measures significantly improved or vastly outperformed conventional behavioral measures in predicting what works for individual children. These findings indicate that educational neuroscience, at a minimum, has provided novel insights into the possibilities of individualized education for students, rather than the current practice of learning through failure that a curriculum did not support a student. In the best approach to improving education, educational neuroscience ought to contribute to basic research addressing the needs of students and teachers. (PsycINFO Database Record

  18. The NIFSTD and BIRNLex vocabularies: building comprehensive ontologies for neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Bug, William J; Ascoli, Giorgio A; Grethe, Jeffrey S; Gupta, Amarnath; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Laird, Angela R; Larson, Stephen D; Rubin, Daniel; Shepherd, Gordon M; Turner, Jessica A; Martone, Maryann E

    2008-09-01

    A critical component of the Neuroscience Information Framework (NIF) project is a consistent, flexible terminology for describing and retrieving neuroscience-relevant resources. Although the original NIF specification called for a loosely structured controlled vocabulary for describing neuroscience resources, as the NIF system evolved, the requirement for a formally structured ontology for neuroscience with sufficient granularity to describe and access a diverse collection of information became obvious. This requirement led to the NIF standardized (NIFSTD) ontology, a comprehensive collection of common neuroscience domain terminologies woven into an ontologically consistent, unified representation of the biomedical domains typically used to describe neuroscience data (e.g., anatomy, cell types, techniques), as well as digital resources (tools, databases) being created throughout the neuroscience community. NIFSTD builds upon a structure established by the BIRNLex, a lexicon of concepts covering clinical neuroimaging research developed by the Biomedical Informatics Research Network (BIRN) project. Each distinct domain module is represented using the Web Ontology Language (OWL). As much as has been practical, NIFSTD reuses existing community ontologies that cover the required biomedical domains, building the more specific concepts required to annotate NIF resources. By following this principle, an extensive vocabulary was assembled in a relatively short period of time for NIF information annotation, organization, and retrieval, in a form that promotes easy extension and modification. We report here on the structure of the NIFSTD, and its predecessor BIRNLex, the principles followed in its construction and provide examples of its use within NIF. PMID:18975148

  19. For the law, neuroscience changes nothing and everything.

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Joshua; Cohen, Jonathan

    2004-01-01

    The rapidly growing field of cognitive neuroscience holds the promise of explaining the operations of the mind in terms of the physical operations of the brain. Some suggest that our emerging understanding of the physical causes of human (mis)behaviour will have a transformative effect on the law. Others argue that new neuroscience will provide only new details and that existing legal doctrine can accommodate whatever new information neuroscience will provide. We argue that neuroscience will probably have a transformative effect on the law, despite the fact that existing legal doctrine can, in principle, accommodate whatever neuroscience will tell us. New neuroscience will change the law, not by undermining its current assumptions, but by transforming people's moral intuitions about free will and responsibility. This change in moral outlook will result not from the discovery of crucial new facts or clever new arguments, but from a new appreciation of old arguments, bolstered by vivid new illustrations provided by cognitive neuroscience. We foresee, and recommend, a shift away from punishment aimed at retribution in favour of a more progressive, consequentialist approach to the criminal law. PMID:15590618

  20. The promise of educational neuroscience: Comment on Bowers (2016).

    PubMed

    Gabrieli, John D E

    2016-10-01

    Bowers (2016) argues that there are practical and principled problems with how educational neuroscience may contribute to education, including lack of direct influences on teaching in the classroom. Some of the arguments made are convincing, including the critique of unsubstantiated claims about the impact of educational neuroscience and the reminder that the primary outcomes of education are behavioral, such as skill in reading or mathematics. Bowers' analysis falls short in 3 major respects. First, educational neuroscience is a basic science that has made unique contributions to basic education research; it is not part of applied classroom instruction. Second, educational neuroscience contributes to ideas about education practices and policies beyond classroom curriculum that are important for helping vulnerable students. Third, educational neuroscience studies using neuroimaging have not only revealed for the first time the brain basis of neurodevelopmental differences that have profound influences on educational outcomes, but have also identified individual brain differences that predict which students learn more or learn less from various curricula. In several cases, the brain measures significantly improved or vastly outperformed conventional behavioral measures in predicting what works for individual children. These findings indicate that educational neuroscience, at a minimum, has provided novel insights into the possibilities of individualized education for students, rather than the current practice of learning through failure that a curriculum did not support a student. In the best approach to improving education, educational neuroscience ought to contribute to basic research addressing the needs of students and teachers. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27657440

  1. Superfluous neuroscience information makes explanations of psychological phenomena more appealing.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Duque, Diego; Evans, Jessica; Christian, Colton; Hodges, Sara D

    2015-05-01

    Does the presence of irrelevant neuroscience information make explanations of psychological phenomena more appealing? Do fMRI pictures further increase that allure? To help answer these questions, 385 college students in four experiments read brief descriptions of psychological phenomena, each one accompanied by an explanation of varying quality (good vs. circular) and followed by superfluous information of various types. Ancillary measures assessed participants' analytical thinking, beliefs on dualism and free will, and admiration for different sciences. In Experiment 1, superfluous neuroscience information increased the judged quality of the argument for both good and bad explanations, whereas accompanying fMRI pictures had no impact above and beyond the neuroscience text, suggesting a bias that is conceptual rather than pictorial. Superfluous neuroscience information was more alluring than social science information (Experiment 2) and more alluring than information from prestigious "hard sciences" (Experiments 3 and 4). Analytical thinking did not protect against the neuroscience bias, nor did a belief in dualism or free will. We conclude that the "allure of neuroscience" bias is conceptual, specific to neuroscience, and not easily accounted for by the prestige of the discipline. It may stem from the lay belief that the brain is the best explanans for mental phenomena.

  2. Intentional Excellence in the Baldwin Wallace University Neuroscience Program

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Jacqueline K.; Peppers, Kieth; Mickley, G. Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The Society for Neuroscience recognized Baldwin Wallace University’s (BWU) undergraduate Neuroscience program as their Program of the Year for 2012. This award acknowledged the “accomplishments of a neuroscience department or program for excellence in educating neuroscientists and providing innovative models to which other programs can aspire.” The Neuroscience program grew out of students interested in studying the biological basis of behavior. BWU’s neuroscience major is research-intensive, and all students are required to produce an empirically-based senior thesis. This requirement challenges program resources, and the demand for faculty attention is high. Thus, we developed an intentional 3-step peer mentoring system that encourages our students to collaborate with and learn from, not only faculty, but each other. Peer mentoring occurs in the curriculum, faculty research labs, and as students complete their senior theses. As the program has grown with over 80 current majors, we have developed a new Neuroscience Methods course to train students on the safety, ethics, and practice of research in the neuroscience laboratory space. Students in this course leave with the skills and knowledge to assist senior level students with their theses and to begin the process of developing their own projects in the laboratory. Further, our students indicate that their “peer mentorship was excellent,” “helped them gain confidence,” and “allowed them to be more successful in their research.” PMID:26240522

  3. Intentional Excellence in the Baldwin Wallace University Neuroscience Program.

    PubMed

    Morris, Jacqueline K; Peppers, Kieth; Mickley, G Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The Society for Neuroscience recognized Baldwin Wallace University's (BWU) undergraduate Neuroscience program as their Program of the Year for 2012. This award acknowledged the "accomplishments of a neuroscience department or program for excellence in educating neuroscientists and providing innovative models to which other programs can aspire." The Neuroscience program grew out of students interested in studying the biological basis of behavior. BWU's neuroscience major is research-intensive, and all students are required to produce an empirically-based senior thesis. This requirement challenges program resources, and the demand for faculty attention is high. Thus, we developed an intentional 3-step peer mentoring system that encourages our students to collaborate with and learn from, not only faculty, but each other. Peer mentoring occurs in the curriculum, faculty research labs, and as students complete their senior theses. As the program has grown with over 80 current majors, we have developed a new Neuroscience Methods course to train students on the safety, ethics, and practice of research in the neuroscience laboratory space. Students in this course leave with the skills and knowledge to assist senior level students with their theses and to begin the process of developing their own projects in the laboratory. Further, our students indicate that their "peer mentorship was excellent," "helped them gain confidence," and "allowed them to be more successful in their research."

  4. Combining natural and man-made DNA tracers to advance understanding of hydrologic flow pathway evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlke, H. E.; Walter, M. T.; Lyon, S. W.; Rosqvist, G. N.

    2014-12-01

    Identifying and characterizing the sources, pathways and residence times of water and associated constituents is critical to developing improved understanding of watershed-stream connections and hydrological/ecological/biogeochemical models. To date the most robust information is obtained from integrated studies that combine natural tracers (e.g. isotopes, geochemical tracers) with controlled chemical tracer (e.g., bromide, dyes) or colloidal tracer (e.g., carboxilated microspheres, tagged clay particles, microorganisms) applications. In the presented study we explore how understanding of sources and flow pathways of water derived from natural tracer studies can be improved and expanded in space and time by simultaneously introducing man-made, synthetic DNA-based microtracers. The microtracer used were composed of polylactic acid (PLA) microspheres into which short strands of synthetic DNA and paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles are incorporated. Tracer experiments using both natural tracers and the DNA-based microtracers were conducted in the sub-arctic, glacierized Tarfala (21.7 km2) catchment in northern Sweden. Isotopic hydrograph separations revealed that even though storm runoff was dominated by pre-event water the event water (i.e. rainfall) contributions to streamflow increased throughout the summer season as glacial snow cover decreased. This suggests that glaciers are a major source of the rainwater fraction in streamflow. Simultaneous injections of ten unique DNA-based microtracers confirmed this hypothesis and revealed that the transit time of water traveling from the glacier surface to the stream decreased fourfold over the summer season leading to instantaneous rainwater contributions during storm events. These results highlight that integrating simultaneous tracer injections (injecting tracers at multiple places at one time) with traditional tracer methods (sampling multiple times at one place) rather than using either approach in isolation can

  5. Natural products are the future of anticancer therapy: Preclinical and clinical advancements of Viscum album phytometabolites.

    PubMed

    Attar, R; Tabassum, S; Fayyaz, S; Ahmad, M S; Nogueira, D R; Yaylim, I; Timirci-Kahraman, O; Kucukhuseyin, O; Cacina, C; Farooqi, A A; Ismail, M

    2015-10-30

    Cancer is a multifaceted and genomically complex disease. Research over the years has gradually provided a near complete resolution of cancer landscape and it is now known that genetic/epigenetic mutations, inactivation of tumor suppressors, Overexpression of oncogenes, spatio-temporally dysregulated intracellular signaling cascades, epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), metastasis and loss of apoptosis are some of the most extensively studied biological mechanisms that underpin cancer development and progression. Increasingly it is being realized that current therapeutic interventions are becoming ineffective because of tumor heterogeneity and rapidly developing resistance against drugs. Considerable biological activities exerted by bioactive ingredients isolated from natural sources have revolutionized the field of natural product chemistry and rapid developments in preclinical studies are encouraging. Viscum album has emerged as a deeply studied natural source with substantial and multifaceted biological activities. In this review we have attempted to provide recent breakthroughs in existing scientific literature with emphasis on targeting of protein network in cancer cells. We partition this review into different sections, highlighting latest information from cell culture studies, preclinical and clinically oriented studies. We summarized how bioactive ingredients of Viscum album modulated extrinsic and intrinsic pathways in cancer cells. However, surprisingly, none of the study reported stimulatory effects on TRAIL receptors. The review provided in-depth analysis of how Viscum album modulated Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in cancer cells and how bioactive chemicals tactfully targeted cytoskeletal machinery in cancer cells as evidenced by cell culture studies. It is noteworthy that Viscum album has entered into various phases of clinical trials, however, there are still knowledge gaps in our understanding regarding how various bioactive constituents of

  6. Monitoring the Vernal Advancement and Retrogradation (Green Wave Effect) of Natural Vegetation. [Great Plains Corridor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rouse, J. W., Jr. (Principal Investigator); Haas, R. H.; Deering, D. W.; Schell, J. A.; Harlan, J. C.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The Great Plains Corridor rangeland project successfully utilized natural vegetation systems as phenological indicators of seasonal development and climatic effects upon regional growth conditions. An effective method was developed for quantitative measurement of vegetation conditions, including green biomass estimates, recorded in bands 5 and 6, corrected for sun angle, were used to compute a ratio parameter (TV16) which is shown to be highly correlated with green biomass and vegatation moisture content. Analyses results of ERTS-1 digital data and correlated ground data are summarized. Attention was given to analyzing weather influences and test site variables on vegetation condition measurements with ERTS-1 data.

  7. Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Evaluation of CO2 Gravity Drainage in the Naturally Fractured Spraberry Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    David S. Schechter

    1997-12-17

    Natural fractures exert a strong influence over oil production in Spraberry Trend Area reservoirs in the Permian Basin of west Texas. The importance of the fracture network has been known since the 1950s, but until recently, there has been very little detailed study of the fractures themselves. In 1996, a horizontal Spraberry well was cored as part of a DOE Class III Field Demonstration Project. Fractures from the horizontal core as well as other fractures encountered in vertical Spraberry cores were analyzed in detail for information on both large scale features including orientation and spacing and small-scale features such as the relationships between fracture mineralization and matrix rock composition. At least three sets of fractures are found within the upper and middle Spraberry cores. These sets have distinct orientations, spacing, mineralization, distribution with respect to lithology, and surface characteristics (Lorenz, 1997). Fractures found in the 1U zone of the upper Spraberry have a NE strike, and tend to be partly mineralized with barite, quartz, and dolomite. Distribution of these mineral phases can greatly affect conductivity between the fractures and the rock matrix. The 5U zone of the upper Spraberry contains fractures with NNE and ENE orientations. The NNE set of fractures has stepped fracture surfaces indicating a shear origin, and minor amounts of quartz and dolomite mineralization. The ENE fracture set has smooth planar surfaces of tension origin with some calcite mineralization present. Natural fractures in black shales overlying both the 1U and the 5U have an ENE orientation similar to unmineralized fractures in the 5U. No fractures were encountered in similar shales underlying reservoir zones. A set of hairline fractures, most completely healed with calcite cement was also found in some Middle Spraberry cores. The unique nature of each of these fracture sets implies that fracturing probably occurred as several separate events and

  8. Nature and timing of the latest Wisconsin advance of the James River lobe, South Dakota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundstrom, S. C.; Paces, J. B.; Iles, D.; Cowman, T.

    2009-12-01

    Glaciation of the James River lobe area in eastern South Dakota (SD) produced several prominent geomorphic features of the Laurentide ice sheet record. During late Wisconsin time, the James lobe advanced southward in the James River lowland, overlapping the Prairie Coteau upland on the east and the Missouri Coteau on the west. The known southern limit of late Wisconsin till is the modern Missouri River Valley between Yankton and Richland, SD. North of the Missouri River, radiocarbon dates on wood in or beneath till from 12 sites in 10 counties of the southern James River lowland range from 12,050 to 12,880 14C yr B.P. and average 12,430 yr B.P. (~14,500 ka cal), with a mean reported uncertainty of 260 yrs. At most of these sites, including two within 20 km of Yankton, the dated wood is in till at depths as great as 58 m or in underlying sand and gravel. The dates are consistent with paleoecologic studies (e.g. Yansa, 2006) that indicate spruce parkland was in this region at that time prior to the glacial readvance. Outcrops of calcite-cemented glacial gravel cut by veins of banded travertine are present on a marginal escarpment of the James River valley, where it is incised into the 30-60-m-thick surface till of the James River lowland about 15 km north of the Missouri River. Twelve robust 230Th/U dates on calcite laminae ranging from 10.5 to 13.5 ka (mean 2s uncertainty of 0.4 ka) indicate that ground-water discharge from glacial-bed aquifers was closely related to the latest Wisconsin advance of the James lobe. Four dates on younger vug-filling calcite between 8.1 and 5.8 ka, as well as modern spring discharge, show decreasing initial 234U/238U with age. Stable-isotope data on dated travertine and modern spring water provide other means for evaluating environments of carbonate precipitation, including subglacial and/or subaerial settings and mixing of surface and ground water associated with ice-sheet dynamics. The 14C dates span the Bolling-Allerod time interval

  9. NeuroTalk: Improving the Communication of Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Moser, Mary Anne; McCormick, Jennifer B.; Racine, Eric; Blakeslee, Sandra; Caplan, Arthur; Hayden, Erika Check; Ingram, Jay; Lohwater, Tiffany; McKnight, Peter; Nicholson, Christie; Phillips, Anthony; Sauvé, Kevin D.; Snell, Elaine; Weiss, Sam

    2010-01-01

    There is increasing pressure for neuroscientists to communicate their research and the societal implications of their findings to the public. Communicating science is challenging and the transformation of communication by digital and interactive media makes the challenge even greater. To successfully facilitate dialogue with the public in this new media landscape we suggest three courses of action for the neuroscience community: a cultural shift that explicitly recognizes and rewards public outreach, the identification and development of neuroscience communication experts, and ongoing empirical research on public communication of neuroscience. PMID:19953102

  10. Behavioral neuroscience, exploration, and K.C. Montgomery's legacy.

    PubMed

    Kalueff, Allan V; Zimbardo, Philip G

    2007-02-01

    Exploration is a key animal and human behavior. Kay C. Montgomery (1921-1956) has made an important contribution to behavioral neuroscience of exploration, as well as motivation and learning. His works have many important applications to current experimental models of stress, fear and memory, continuing to influence research in this field. This paper, dedicated to the 85th anniversary of Montgomery's birth, and 50 years since his tragic death, summarizes Montgomery's contribution to behavioral neuroscience, and discusses its current importance for further progress in this field. It is aimed at neuroscientists with strong interests in both theory of animal exploration and motivation, and the history of behavioral neuroscience.

  11. The utility of fractal analysis in clinical neuroscience.

    PubMed

    John, Ann M; Elfanagely, Omar; Ayala, Carlos A; Cohen, Michael; Prestigiacomo, Charles J

    2015-01-01

    Physicians and scientists can use fractal analysis as a tool to objectively quantify complex patterns found in neuroscience and neurology. Fractal analysis has the potential to allow physicians to make predictions about clinical outcomes, categorize pathological states, and eventually generate diagnoses. In this review, we categorize and analyze the applications of fractal theory in neuroscience found in the literature. We discuss how fractals are applied and what evidence exists for fractal analysis in neurodegeneration, neoplasm, neurodevelopment, neurophysiology, epilepsy, neuropharmacology, and cell morphology. The goal of this review is to introduce the medical community to the utility of applying fractal theory in clinical neuroscience.

  12. Monitoring the vernal advancement and retrogradation (green wave effect) of natural vegetation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rouse, J. W., Jr. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A comprehensive review of ERTS-1 MSS color composite imagery, obtained during the autumnal and vernal phases over the Great Plains Corridor test sites, shows that temporal changes in rangeland vegetation can be manually interpreted. The degree to which manual interpretations can be made from the MSS color composites appears to be limited primarily by variations in image reproduction quality. The vernal advancement and other phenophase related phenomena are observable from cycle to cycle and within a single frame for rangeland vegetation. Vegetation changes due to environmental conditions among the test sites and among grazing treatments within test sites are readily observable. An investigation has been initiated which will evaluate band-to-band ratios as an index of rangeland vegetation condition. Data currently available from August 1972 through April 1973 for the five southern test sites are being used to characterize band-to-band ratios as a function of quantity and quality of rangeland vegetation at each of the test sites.

  13. Comparison of advanced oxidation processes for the removal of natural organic matter.

    PubMed

    Lamsal, Rupa; Walsh, Margaret E; Gagnon, Graham A

    2011-05-01

    This study examined the impact of UV, ozone (O(3)), advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) including O(3)/UV, H(2)O(2)/UV H(2)O(2)/O(3) in the change of molecular weight distribution (MWD) and disinfection by-product formation potential (DBPFP). Bench-scale experiments were conducted with surface river water and changes in the UV absorbance at 254 nm (UV(254)), total organic carbon (TOC), trihalomethane and haloacetic acid formation potential (THMFP, HAAFP) and MWD of the raw and oxidized water were analyzed to evaluate treatment performance. Combination of O(3) and UV with H(2)O(2) was found to result in more TOC and UV(254) reduction than the individual processes. The O(3)/UV process was found to be the most effective AOP for NOM reduction, with TOC and UV(254) reduced by 31 and 88%, respectively. Application of O(3)/UV and H(2)O(2)/UV treatments to the source waters organics with 190-1500 Da molecular weight resulted in the near complete alteration of the molecular weight of NOM from >900 Da to <300 Da H(2)O(2)/UV was found to be the most effective treatment for the reduction of THM and HAA formation under uniform formation conditions. These results could hold particular significance for drinking water utilities with low alkalinity source waters that are investigating AOPs, as there are limited published studies that have evaluated the treatment efficacy of five different oxidation processes in parallel.

  14. Measuring up: Advances in How We Assess Reading Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabatini, John; Albro, Elizabeth; O'Reilly, Tenaha

    2012-01-01

    In recent decades, the science of reading acquisition, processes, and individual differences in general and special populations has been continuously advancing through interdisciplinary research in cognitive, psycholinguistic, developmental, genetic, neuroscience, cross-language studies, and experimental comparison studies of effective…

  15. Using Literature and Innovative Assessments to Ignite Interest and Cultivate Critical Thinking Skills in an Undergraduate Neuroscience Course

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Science education reform initiatives emphasize 1) the value of concepts over facts; 2) the benefits of open-ended, inquiry-based problem-solving rather than protocols leading to a single correct answer; and 3) the importance of a multidisciplinary approach to teaching that is not confined by departmental boundaries. Neuroscientists should be at the forefront of this movement by the very nature of the discipline we study. Neuroscience is a relatively new field that integrates diverse subjects (anatomy, physiology, pharmacology, molecular biology, computer science, and psychology) and experimental advances are constantly changing and expanding our understanding of brain function. How can we convey this excitement in the classroom? The project described in this article uses nonscientific literature to introduce a scientific topic of study. In addition, the multitask assignment requires the acquisition of content knowledge and the development of critical thinking skills. As students explore the topic from multiple perspectives, they recognize the interconnectedness of science and society and confront ethical and moral issues related to science. A comparison of exam scores, essay responses, engagement level, as well as students' own reflections, demonstrates that inclusion of the project does not sacrifice content knowledge, rather it enhances the overall learning process. PMID:17012207

  16. Using literature and innovative assessments to ignite interest and cultivate critical thinking skills in an undergraduate neuroscience course.

    PubMed

    Lynd-Balta, Eileen

    2006-01-01

    Science education reform initiatives emphasize 1) the value of concepts over facts; 2) the benefits of open-ended, inquiry-based problem-solving rather than protocols leading to a single correct answer; and 3) the importance of a multidisciplinary approach to teaching that is not confined by departmental boundaries. Neuroscientists should be at the forefront of this movement by the very nature of the discipline we study. Neuroscience is a relatively new field that integrates diverse subjects (anatomy, physiology, pharmacology, molecular biology, computer science, and psychology) and experimental advances are constantly changing and expanding our understanding of brain function. How can we convey this excitement in the classroom? The project described in this article uses nonscientific literature to introduce a scientific topic of study. In addition, the multitask assignment requires the acquisition of content knowledge and the development of critical thinking skills. As students explore the topic from multiple perspectives, they recognize the interconnectedness of science and society and confront ethical and moral issues related to science. A comparison of exam scores, essay responses, engagement level, as well as students' own reflections, demonstrates that inclusion of the project does not sacrifice content knowledge, rather it enhances the overall learning process.

  17. Recent Advances in the Discovery and Development of Marine Microbial Natural Products

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Zhi-Qiang; Wang, Jian-Feng; Hao, Yu-You; Wang, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Marine microbial natural products (MMNPs) have attracted increasing attention from microbiologists, taxonomists, ecologists, agronomists, chemists and evolutionary biologists during the last few decades. Numerous studies have indicated that diverse marine microbes appear to have the capacity to produce an impressive array of MMNPs exhibiting a wide variety of biological activities such as antimicrobial, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory and anti-cardiovascular agents. Marine microorganisms represent an underexplored reservoir for the discovery of MMNPs with unique scaffolds and for exploitation in the pharmaceutical and agricultural industries. This review focuses on MMNPs discovery and development over the past decades, including innovative isolation and culture methods, strategies for discovering novel MMNPs via routine screenings, metagenomics, genomics, combinatorial biosynthesis, and synthetic biology. The potential problems and future directions for exploring MMNPs are also discussed. PMID:23528949

  18. Monitoring the vernal advancement and retrogradation (green wave effect) of natural vegetation. [Great Plains Corridor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rouse, J. W., Jr. (Principal Investigator); Haas, R. H.; Deering, D. W.; Schell, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The Great Plains Corridor rangeland project utilizes natural vegetation systems as phenological indicators of seasonal development and climatic effects upon regional growth conditions. A method has been developed for quantitative measurement of vegetation conditions over broad regions using ERTS-1 MSS data. Radiance values recorded in ERTS-1 spectral bands 5 and 7, corrected for sun angle, are used to compute a band ratio parameter which is shown to be correlated with green biomass and vegetation moisture content. This report details the progress being made toward determining factors associated with the transformed vegetation index (TVI) and limitations on the method. During the first year of ERTS-1 operation (cycles 1-20), an average of 50% usable ERTS-1 data was obtained for the ten Great Plains Corridor test sites.

  19. Can the Natural Diversity of Quorum-Sensing Advance Synthetic Biology?

    PubMed Central

    Davis, René Michele; Muller, Ryan Yue; Haynes, Karmella Ann

    2015-01-01

    Quorum-sensing networks enable bacteria to sense and respond to chemical signals produced by neighboring bacteria. They are widespread: over 100 morphologically and genetically distinct species of eubacteria are known to use quorum sensing to control gene expression. This diversity suggests the potential to use natural protein variants to engineer parallel, input-specific, cell–cell communication pathways. However, only three distinct signaling pathways, Lux, Las, and Rhl, have been adapted for and broadly used in engineered systems. The paucity of unique quorum-sensing systems and their propensity for crosstalk limits the usefulness of our current quorum-sensing toolkit. This review discusses the need for more signaling pathways, roadblocks to using multiple pathways in parallel, and strategies for expanding the quorum-sensing toolbox for synthetic biology. PMID:25806368

  20. Can the natural diversity of quorum-sensing advance synthetic biology?

    PubMed

    Davis, René Michele; Muller, Ryan Yue; Haynes, Karmella Ann

    2015-01-01

    Quorum-sensing networks enable bacteria to sense and respond to chemical signals produced by neighboring bacteria. They are widespread: over 100 morphologically and genetically distinct species of eubacteria are known to use quorum sensing to control gene expression. This diversity suggests the potential to use natural protein variants to engineer parallel, input-specific, cell-cell communication pathways. However, only three distinct signaling pathways, Lux, Las, and Rhl, have been adapted for and broadly used in engineered systems. The paucity of unique quorum-sensing systems and their propensity for crosstalk limits the usefulness of our current quorum-sensing toolkit. This review discusses the need for more signaling pathways, roadblocks to using multiple pathways in parallel, and strategies for expanding the quorum-sensing toolbox for synthetic biology.

  1. Cognitive theory and brain fact: Insights for the future of cognitive neuroscience. Comment on “Toward a computational framework for cognitive biology: Unifying approaches from cognitive neuroscience and comparative cognition” by W. Tecumseh Fitch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowling, Daniel

    2014-09-01

    A central challenge in neuroscience is to understand the relationship between the mechanistic operation of the nervous system and the psychological phenomena we experience everyday (e.g., perception, memory, attention, emotion, and consciousness). Supported by revolutionary advances in technology, knowledge of neural mechanisms has grown dramatically over recent decades, but with few exceptions our understanding of how these mechanisms relate to psychological phenomena remains poor.

  2. Recent Advances in Remote Sensing of Natural Hazards-Induced Atmospheric and Ionospheric Perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y. M.; Komjathy, A.; Meng, X.; Verkhoglyadova, O. P.; Langley, R. B.; Mannucci, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    Traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs) induced by acoustic-gravity waves in the neutral atmosphere have significant impact on trans-ionospheric radio waves such as Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS, including Global Position System (GPS)) measurements. Natural hazards and solid Earth events, such as earthquakes, tsunamis and volcanic eruptions are actual sources that may trigger acoustic and gravity waves resulting in traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs) in the upper atmosphere. Trans-ionospheric radio wave measurements sense the total electron content (TEC) along the signal propagation path. In this research, we introduce a novel GPS-based detection and estimation technique for remote sensing of atmospheric wave-induced TIDs including space weather phenomena induced by major natural hazard events, using TEC time series collected from worldwide ground-based dual-frequency GNSS (including GPS) receiver networks. We demonstrate the ability of using ground- and space-based dual-frequency GPS measurements to detect and monitor tsunami wave propagation from the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake and tsunami. Major wave trains with different propagation speeds and wavelengths were identified through analysis of the GPS remote sensing observations. Dominant physical characteristics of atmospheric wave-induced TIDs are found to be associated with specific tsunami propagations and oceanic Rayleigh waves. In this research, we compared GPS-based observations, corresponding model simulations and tsunami wave propagation. Results are shown to lead to a better understanding of the tsunami-induced ionosphere responses. Based on current distribution of Plate Boundary Observatory GPS stations, the results indicate that tsunami-induced TIDs may be detected about 60 minutes prior to tsunamis arriving at the U.S. west coast. It is expected that this GNSS-based technology will become an integral part of future early-warning systems.

  3. Brain intersections of aesthetics and morals: perspectives from biology, neuroscience, and evolution.

    PubMed

    Zaidel, D W; Nadal, M

    2011-01-01

    For centuries, only philosophers debated the relationship between aesthetics and morality. Recently, with advances in neuroscience, the debate has moved to include the brain and an evolved neural underpinning linking aesthetic reactions and moral judgment. Biological survival emphasizes mate selection strategies, and the ritual displays have been linked to human aesthetics in the arts, in faces, and in various daily decision making. In parallel, cultural human practices have evolved to emphasize altruism and morality. This article explores the biological background and discusses the neuroscientific evidence for shared brain pathways for aesthetics and morals.

  4. Cognitive neuroscience 2.0: building a cumulative science of human brain function

    PubMed Central

    Yarkoni, Tal; Poldrack, Russell A.; Van Essen, David C.; Wager, Tor D.

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive neuroscientists increasingly recognize that continued progress in understanding human brain function will require not only the acquisition of new data, but also the synthesis and integration of data across studies and laboratories. Here we review ongoing efforts to develop a more cumulative science of human brain function. We discuss the rationale for an increased focus on formal synthesis of the cognitive neuroscience literature, provide an overview of recently developed tools and platforms designed to facilitate the sharing and integration of neuroimaging data, and conclude with a discussion of several emerging developments that hold even greater promise in advancing the study of human brain function. PMID:20884276

  5. Fear Extinction as a Model for Translational Neuroscience: Ten Years of Progress

    PubMed Central

    Milad, Mohammed R.; Quirk, Gregory J.

    2016-01-01

    The psychology of extinction has been studied for decades. Approximately 10 years ago, however, there began a concerted effort to understand the neural circuits of extinction of fear conditioning, in both animals and humans. Progress during this period has been facilitated by an unusual degree of coordination between rodent and human researchers examining fear extinction. This successful research program could serve as a model for translational research in other areas of behavioral neuroscience. Here we review the major advances and highlight new approaches to understanding and exploiting fear extinction. PMID:22129456

  6. Transformation of polyfluorinated compounds in natural waters by advanced oxidation processes.

    PubMed

    Anumol, Tarun; Dagnino, Sonia; Vandervort, Darcy R; Snyder, Shane A

    2016-02-01

    The presence of perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) in source and finished drinking waters is a concern with studies showing bioaccumulation and adverse toxicological effects in wildlife and potentially humans. Per/Polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) such as fluorotelomer alcohols have been identified as precursors for PFCAs in biological pathways. In this study, we investigated the fate of 6:2 and 8:2 homologues of the fluorotelomer unsaturated carboxylic acids (FTUCAs) during advanced oxidation process (AOPs). Results showed 6:2 FTUCA and 8:2 FTUCA transformed into 6-C PFCA (PFHxA) and 8-C PFCA (PFOA) respectively with very little other PFCA formation for all AOPs. The degradation of 6:2 FTUCA and 8:2 FTUCA was greater in the GW compared to SW for the ozone processes but similar for UV/H2O2. The formation of n-C PFCA followed O3>O3/H2O2 at same dose and UV/H2O2 had much lower formation at the doses tested. Non-targeted analysis with the LC-MS-qTOF indicated the production of other PFCAs which contribute to the total mass balance, although no intermediate product was discovered indicating a rapid and direct transformation from the FTUCAs to the PFCAs and/or significant volatilization of intermediates. With the use of AOPs essential to water reuse treatment schemes, this work raises concerns over the risk of potential formation of PFCAs in the treatment and their adverse health effects in finished drinking water. PMID:26524147

  7. Transformation of polyfluorinated compounds in natural waters by advanced oxidation processes.

    PubMed

    Anumol, Tarun; Dagnino, Sonia; Vandervort, Darcy R; Snyder, Shane A

    2016-02-01

    The presence of perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) in source and finished drinking waters is a concern with studies showing bioaccumulation and adverse toxicological effects in wildlife and potentially humans. Per/Polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) such as fluorotelomer alcohols have been identified as precursors for PFCAs in biological pathways. In this study, we investigated the fate of 6:2 and 8:2 homologues of the fluorotelomer unsaturated carboxylic acids (FTUCAs) during advanced oxidation process (AOPs). Results showed 6:2 FTUCA and 8:2 FTUCA transformed into 6-C PFCA (PFHxA) and 8-C PFCA (PFOA) respectively with very little other PFCA formation for all AOPs. The degradation of 6:2 FTUCA and 8:2 FTUCA was greater in the GW compared to SW for the ozone processes but similar for UV/H2O2. The formation of n-C PFCA followed O3>O3/H2O2 at same dose and UV/H2O2 had much lower formation at the doses tested. Non-targeted analysis with the LC-MS-qTOF indicated the production of other PFCAs which contribute to the total mass balance, although no intermediate product was discovered indicating a rapid and direct transformation from the FTUCAs to the PFCAs and/or significant volatilization of intermediates. With the use of AOPs essential to water reuse treatment schemes, this work raises concerns over the risk of potential formation of PFCAs in the treatment and their adverse health effects in finished drinking water.

  8. The future of real-world neuroscience: imaging techniques to assess active brains in social environments.

    PubMed

    Kasai, Kiyoto; Fukuda, Masato; Yahata, Noriaki; Morita, Kentaro; Fujii, Naotaka

    2015-01-01

    The human brain is characterized by an evolutionarily new, highly developed neocortex, which has characteristic connections with phylogenically older structures to enable adaptation to complex social environments. Adaptive social behavior requires successful mental representations of the self and others' emotions and intentions. Measurement of brain activity under laboratory-based settings has been the gold standard in previous cognitive neuroscience studies. However, these measurement settings may be sub-optimal if we want to visualize brain function in active individuals in real-world environments. Neuroscience has historically developed through generations of the "sensing brain," "emotional brain," "social brain," and "ego brain." The next generation is the "action brain" combined with "real-world neuroscience" perspective. To enable in situ measurement of the action brain, real-world or two-person neuroimaging techniques are necessary to visualize brain dynamics during natural social situations, such as the presence of others. This review discusses recent literature describing non-human primate (NHP) and human brain functions during active behaviors in social environments. Uncovering the neurobiological mechanisms of the active brain in the presence of others by using real-world neuroimaging will be an important step toward fully understanding the human brain and its mental functions.

  9. Struggle for life, struggle for love and recognition: the neglected self in social cognitive neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Paradiso, Sergio; Rudrauf, David

    2012-01-01

    In the following article we present a view that social cognition and social neuroscience, as shaped by the current research paradigms, are not sufficient to improve our understanding of psychopathological phenomena. We hold that the self, self-awareness, and inter-subjectivity are integral to social perception and actions. In addition, we emphasize that the self and self-awareness are, by their very nature and function, involved over the entire lifespan with the way the individual is perceived in the social environment. Likewise, the modes of operation and identification of the self and self-awareness receive strong developmental contributions from social interactions with parental figures, siblings, peers, and significant others. These contributions are framed by a competitive and cooperative struggle for love and recognition. We suggest that in humans social cognitive neuroscience should be informed by a thoughtful appreciation of the equal significance of the struggle for “life” and that for love and recognition. In order to be better positioned to improve the research agenda and practice of clinical psychiatry, we propose that cognitive and social neurosciences explicitly incorporate in their models phenomena relative to the self, self-awareness, and inter-subjectivity. PMID:22577306

  10. Struggle for life, struggle for love and recognition: the neglected self in social cognitive neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Paradiso, Sergio; Rudrauf, David

    2012-03-01

    In the following article we present a view that social cognition and social neuroscience, as shaped by the current research paradigms, are not sufficient to improve our understanding of psychopathological phenomena. We hold that the self, self-awareness, and inter-subjectivity are integral to social perception and actions. In addition, we emphasize that the self and self-awareness are, by their very nature and function, involved over the entire lifespan with the way the individual is perceived in the social environment. Likewise, the modes of operation and identification of the self and self-awareness receive strong developmental contributions from social interactions with parental figures, siblings, peers, and significant others. These contributions are framed by a competitive and cooperative struggle for love and recognition. We suggest that in humans social cognitive neuroscience should be informed by a thoughtful appreciation of the equal significance of the struggle for "life" and that for love and recognition. In order to be better positioned to improve the research agenda and practice of clinical psychiatry, we propose that cognitive and social neurosciences explicitly incorporate in their models phenomena relative to the self, self-awareness, and inter-subjectivity.

  11. Using Tinbergen’s Four Questions as the Framework for a Neuroscience Capstone Course

    PubMed Central

    Meitzen, John

    2015-01-01

    Capstone courses for upper-division students are a common feature of the undergraduate neuroscience curriculum. Here is described a method for adapting Nikolaas Tinbergen’s four questions to use as a framework for a neuroscience capstone course, in this case with a particular emphasis on neurotoxins. This course is intended to be a challenging opportunity for students to integrate and apply knowledge and skills gained from their major study, a B.S. in Biological Sciences with a Concentration in Integrative Physiology and Neurobiology. In particular, a broad, integrative approach is favored, with emphasis placed on primary literature, scientific process and effective, professional communication. To achieve this, Tinbergen’s four questions were adapted and implemented as the overarching framework of the course. Tinbergen’s questions range from the proximate to ultimate/evolutionary view, providing an excellent base upon which to teach students an integrative approach to understanding neuroscientific phenomena. For example, a particular neurotoxin can be examined from the proximate level (i.e., mechanism: how does this toxin specifically impact neural physiology) to the ultimate/evolutionary level (i.e., adaptation: why and to what extent did this toxin evolve naturally or the reason that it was initially invented by humans). The mechanics, goals, and objectives of the course are presented as we believe that it will serve as a flexible and useful model for neuroscience capstone courses concerning a wide variety of topics across multiple types of institutions. PMID:26557795

  12. Exploration of Natural Biomass Utilization Systems (NBUS) for advanced biofuel--from systems biology to synthetic design.

    PubMed

    Xie, Shangxian; Syrenne, Ryan; Sun, Su; Yuan, Joshua S

    2014-06-01

    Efficient degradation and utilization of lignocellulosic biomass remains a challenge for sustainable and affordable biofuels. Various natural biomass utilization systems (NBUS) evolved the capacity to combat the recalcitrance of plant cell walls. The study of these NBUS could enable the development of efficient and cost-effective biocatalysts, microorganisms, and bioprocesses for biofuels and bioproducts. Here, we reviewed the recent research progresses for several NBUS, ranging from single cell microorganisms to consortiums such as cattle rumen and insect guts. These studies aided the discovery of biomass-degrading enzymes and the elucidation of the evolutionary and functional relevance in these systems. In particular, advances in the next generation 'omics' technologies offered new opportunities to explore NBUS in a high-throughput manner. Systems biology helped to facilitate the rapid biocatalyst discovery and detailed mechanism analysis, which could in turn guide the reverse design of engineered microorganisms and bioprocesses for cost-effective and efficient biomass conversion.

  13. “Allow Natural Death” versus “Do Not Resuscitate”: What Do Patients with Advanced Cancer Choose?

    PubMed Central

    Emuron, Dennis; Rhodes, Lori; Abraham, Joseph; Miller, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Many patients with advanced cancer at our hospital request full resuscitative efforts at the end of life. We assessed the knowledge and attitudes of these patients towards end-of-life (EOL) care, and their preferences about “Do Not Resuscitate” (DNR), “Allow Natural Death” (AND), and “full code” orders. Methods: The first 100 consenting adult patients with advanced cancer were surveyed regarding their diagnosis, prognosis, and attitudes about critical care and resuscitation. They were then presented with hypothetical scenarios in which a decision on their code status had to be made if they had one year, six months, or one month left to live. Half were given a choice between being “full code“ and “DNR,” and half could choose between ”full code” and “AND.” Results: All 93 of the participants who completed the survey were considered by their attending physician to have a terminal illness, but only 42% of these interviewees believed they were terminally ill. In addition, only 25% of participants thought that their primary oncologist knew their EOL wishes. Participants were equally likely to choose either of the “no code” options in all hypothetical scenarios (p>0.54), regardless of age, sex, race, type of cancer, education, or income level. A similar proportion of patients who had a living will chose “AND” and “DNR” orders instead of “full code” in all the scenarios (47%–74% and 63%–71%). In contrast, among patients who did not have a living will, 52% chose “DNR,” while 19% opted for “AND.” Conclusions: We hypothesized that “AND” orders may be more acceptable to patients with advanced cancer, but there was no statistically significant difference in acceptability between “AND” and “DNR” orders. PMID:25825919

  14. Wind-tunnel investigation of a full-scale general aviation airplane equipped with an advanced natural laminar flow wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murri, Daniel G.; Jordan, Frank L., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the Langley 30- by 60-Foot Wind Tunnel to evaluate the performance, stability, and control characteristics of a full-scale general aviation airplane equipped with an advanced laminar flow wing. The study focused on the effects of natural laminar flow and advanced boundary layer transition on performance, stability, and control, and also on the effects of several wing leading edge modifications on the stall/departure resistance of the configuration. Data were measured over an angle-of-attack range from -6 to 40 deg and an angle-of-sideslip range from -6 to 20 deg. The Reynolds number was varied from 1.4 to 2.4 x 10 to the 6th power based on the mean aerodynamic chord. Additional measurements were made using hot-film and sublimating chemical techniques to determine the condition of the wing boundary layer, and wool tufts were used to study the wing stall characteristics. The investigation showed that large regions of natural laminar flow existed on the wing which would significantly enhance cruise performance. Also, because of the characteristics of the airfoil section, artificially tripping the wing boundary layer to a turbulent condition did not significantly effect the lift, stability, and control characteristics. The addition of a leading-edge droop arrangement was found to increase the stall angle of attack at the wingtips and, therefore, was considered to be effective in improving the stall/departure resistance of the configuration. Also the addition of the droop arrangement resulted in only minor increases in drag.

  15. Experimental studies in natural groundwater recharge dynamics: Assessment of recent advances in instrumentation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sophocleous, M.; Perry, C.A.

    1984-01-01

    To quantify and model the natural groundwater-recharge process, two sites in south-central Kansas, U.S.A., were instrumented with various modern sensors and data microloggers. The atmospheric-boundary layer and the unsaturated and saturated soil zones were monitored as a unified regime. Data from the various sensors were collected using microloggers in combination with magnetic-cassette tape, graphical and digital recorders, analog paper-tape recorders, and direct observations to evaluate and automate data collection and processing. Atmospheric sensors included an anemometer, a tipping-bucket raingage, an air-temperature thermistor, a relative-humidity probe, a net radiometer, and a barometric-pressure transducer. Sensors in the unsaturated zone consisted of soil-temperature thermocouples, tensiometers coupled with pressure transducers and dial gages, gypsum blocks, and a neutron moisture probe operated by an observer. The saturated-zone sensors consisted of a water-level pressure transducer, a conventional float gage connected to a variable potentiometer, soil thermocouples, and a number of multiple-depth piezometers. Evaluation of the operation of these sensors and recorders indicated that certain types of equipment such as pressure transducers are very sensitive to environmental conditions. Extraordinary steps had to be taken to protect some of the equipment, whereas other equipment seemed to be reliable under all conditions. Based on such experiences, a number of suggestions aimed at improving such investigations are outlined. ?? 1984.

  16. Monitoring the vernal advancement and retrogradation (green wave effect) of natural vegetation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rouse, J. W., Jr. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Preliminary evaluation of autumnal phase ground truth data suggests that the sampling procedures at the Great Plains Corridor network test sites are adequate to show relatively small temporal changes in above-ground vegetation biomass and vegetation condition. Vegetation changes measured August through December, reflect grazing intensity and environmental conditions at the test sites. Preliminary analysis of black and white imagery suggests that detail in vegetation patterns is much greater than originally anticipated. A first look analysis of single band imagery and digital data at two locations shows that woodland, grassland, and cropland areas are easily delineated. Computer derived grey-scale maps from MSS digital data were shown to be useful in identifying the location of small fields and features of the natural and cultivated lands. Single band imagery and digital data are believed to have important application for synoptic land use mapping and inventory. Initial ratio analysis, using band 5 and 7 data, suggests the applicability in the greenness of a vegetative scene.

  17. Teaching laboratory neuroscience at bowdoin: the laboratory instructor perspective.

    PubMed

    Hauptman, Stephen; Curtis, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    Bowdoin College is a small liberal arts college that offers a comprehensive Neuroscience major. The laboratory experience is an integral part of the major, and many students progress through three stages. A core course offers a survey of concepts and techniques. Four upper-level courses function to give students more intensive laboratory research experience in neurophysiology, molecular neurobiology, social behavior, and learning and memory. Finally, many majors choose to work in the individual research labs of the Neuroscience faculty. We, as laboratory instructors, are vital to the process, and are actively involved in all aspects of the lab-based courses. We provide student instruction in state of the art techniques in neuroscience research. By sharing laboratory teaching responsibilities with course professors, we help to prepare students for careers in laboratory neuroscience and also support and facilitate faculty research programs.

  18. The role of neurosciences intensive care in neurological conditions.

    PubMed

    Sadek, Ahmed-Ramadan; Damian, Maxwell; Eynon, C Andy

    2013-10-01

    The neurosciences intensive care unit provides specialized medical and nursing care to both the neurosurgical and neurological patient. This second of two articles describes the role it plays in the management of patients with neurological conditions.

  19. Regional orientation program for the department of clinical neurosciences.

    PubMed

    Wong, Frankie W H

    2006-01-01

    A regional orientation program increases the efficient and effective use of resources such as classroom, equipment, and educator time. It provides consistent information to all new nurses and maintains standards of nursing practice throughout the Department of Clinical Neurosciences.

  20. A hybrid human and machine resource curation pipeline for the Neuroscience Information Framework.

    PubMed

    Bandrowski, A E; Cachat, J; Li, Y; Müller, H M; Sternberg, P W; Ciccarese, P; Clark, T; Marenco, L; Wang, R; Astakhov, V; Grethe, J S; Martone, M E

    2012-01-01

    The breadth of information resources available to researchers on the Internet continues to expand, particularly in light of recently implemented data-sharing policies required by funding agencies. However, the nature of dense, multifaceted neuroscience data and the design of contemporary search engine systems makes efficient, reliable and relevant discovery of such information a significant challenge. This challenge is specifically pertinent for online databases, whose dynamic content is 'hidden' from search engines. The Neuroscience Information Framework (NIF; http://www.neuinfo.org) was funded by the NIH Blueprint for Neuroscience Research to address the problem of finding and utilizing neuroscience-relevant resources such as software tools, data sets, experimental animals and antibodies across the Internet. From the outset, NIF sought to provide an accounting of available resources, whereas developing technical solutions to finding, accessing and utilizing them. The curators therefore, are tasked with identifying and registering resources, examining data, writing configuration files to index and display data and keeping the contents current. In the initial phases of the project, all aspects of the registration and curation processes were manual. However, as the number of resources grew, manual curation became impractical. This report describes our experiences and successes with developing automated resource discovery and semiautomated type characterization with text-mining scripts that facilitate curation team efforts to discover, integrate and display new content. We also describe the DISCO framework, a suite of automated web services that significantly reduce manual curation efforts to periodically check for resource updates. Lastly, we discuss DOMEO, a semi-automated annotation tool that improves the discovery and curation of resources that are not necessarily website-based (i.e. reagents, software tools). Although the ultimate goal of automation was to

  1. Psychoanalysis on the couch: can neuroscience provide the answers?

    PubMed

    Mechelli, Andrea

    2010-12-01

    Over a century after Freud's attempt to establish psychoanalysis as a natural science, there is renewed interest in the integration of psychoanalytic and neuroscientific findings within a single theoretical and experimental framework. However, it is important that any intellectual exchange is not motivated only by declining confidence in psychoanalytic theory and practice or awareness of the rising fortunes of the brain sciences. The present paper considers three possible ways in which psychoanalysis and neuroscience might be integrated. These include the investigation of the neurological organisation of psychoanalytically defined phenomena; the evaluation of psychoanalytic theories based on their neurobiological evidence; and the use of neuroimaging techniques to assess the progress and outcome of psychoanalytic treatment. The author argues that these exercises are unlikely to provide psychoanalysis with the "unlimited opportunities for overcoming its uncertainties and doubts" that some have anticipated. For instance, the argument that mapping psychoanalytically defined phenomena in the brain may provide biological validity to these phenomena should be considered an expression of logical confusion; the evaluation of psychoanalytic theories based on their biological evidence is critically dependent on speculative interpretation of what the theories predict at neuronal level; and the supposedly objective evaluation of the progress and outcome of psychoanalytic treatment on the basis of neurobiological data relies on the subjective reports of the patient and analyst. In light of this conclusion, there are a number of outstanding questions which remain to be addressed, including whether psychoanalysis should adhere to scientific canons and whether this would necessarily require an experimental methodology.

  2. What does recent neuroscience tell us about criminal responsibility?

    PubMed Central

    Maoz, Uri; Yaffe, Gideon

    2015-01-01

    A defendant is criminally responsible for his action only if he is shown to have engaged in a guilty act—actus reus (eg for larceny, voluntarily taking someone else's property without permission)—while possessing a guilty mind—mens rea (eg knowing that he had taken someone else's property without permission, intending not to return it)—and lacking affirmative defenses (eg the insanity defense or self-defense). We therefore first review neuroscientific studies that bear on the nature of voluntary action, and so could, potentially, tell us something of importance about the actus reus of crimes. Then we look at studies of intention, perception of risk, and other mental states that matter to the mens rea of crimes. And, last, we discuss studies of self-control, which might be relevant to some formulations of the insanity defense. As we show, to date, very little is known about the brain that is of significance for understanding criminal responsibility. But there is no reason to think that neuroscience cannot provide evidence that will challenge our understanding of criminal responsibility. PMID:27774235

  3. Advancements in treating subquality natural gas using N-formyl morpholine

    SciTech Connect

    Palla, N.; Lee, A.L.; Gross, M.; Hooper, H.M.; Menzel, J.; Leppin, D.

    1998-12-31

    Process selection for gas treating is a complex phenomenon because processing requirements vary widely, and there are many gas sweetening solvents that are available to meet the requisite specification. Over the past few years, the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) and Krupp Uhde GmbH (KU) have been conducting research on a physical solvent N-Formyl Morpholine (NFM) for treatment of subquality natural gas because of its advantages of lower energy consumption, higher CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}S gas loadings, selective absorption of CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}S, and lower loss of valuable C{sub 1}-C{sub 6} hydrocarbons as compared with other commercial physical solvents. Field experiment studies form the 1 MMscfd pilot plant unit operating at Shell`s Fandango facility confirms NFM as a cost-effective gas treating solvent. To date, a total of 78 tests using Koch`s random, high capacity and high-efficiency structured packing have been completed. These field experiments were conducted at wellhead conditions at 1,000 psig using slipstream from the Shell plant containing sour gas concentrations up to 43 mol % CO{sub 2}. These data, when used in a sophisticated process simulation, predicted a minimum of 40% operating cost savings depending upon sour gas concentration. This paper explains the development of NFM technology with results from laboratory and field tests. This paper also discusses case studies pertaining to NFM application to retrofits, as well as new plants. Furthermore, this paper illustrates the scaling-up calculations from field test investigations. The potential of mixed solvent -- NFM and morpholine additives -- will also be discussed for increased acid gas loading, reduced circulation rate and column size. This emerging technology is the product of extensive research by IGT and is commercially available through KU for gas treating applications.

  4. Humans, brains, and their environment: marriage between neuroscience and anthropology?

    PubMed

    Northoff, Georg

    2010-03-25

    How do we define ourselves as humans and interact with our various environments? Recently, neuroscience has extended into other disciplines in the humanities and social sciences, questioning the existence of distinct disciplines like anthropology, which describes the relationship between humans and their various environments. However, rather than being incorporated into neuroscience, anthropology may be considered complementary, and a marriage of the two disciplines can provide deep insight into these fundamental questions.

  5. Putting big data to good use in neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Sejnowski, Terrence J; Churchland, Patricia S; Movshon, J Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Big data has transformed fields such as physics and genomics. Neuroscience is set to collect its own big data sets, but to exploit its full potential, there need to be ways to standardize, integrate and synthesize diverse types of data from different levels of analysis and across species. This will require a cultural shift in sharing data across labs, as well as to a central role for theorists in neuroscience research. PMID:25349909

  6. K-12 Neuroscience Education Outreach Program: Interactive Activities for Educating Students about Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Deal, Alex L.; Erickson, Kristen J.; Bilsky, Edward J.; Hillman, Susan J.; Burman, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    The University of New England’s Center for Excellence in the Neurosciences has developed a successful and growing K-12 outreach program that incorporates undergraduate and graduate/professional students. The program has several goals, including raising awareness about fundamental issues in neuroscience, supplementing science education in area schools and enhancing undergraduate and graduate/professional students’ academic knowledge and skill set. The outreach curriculum is centered on core neuroscience themes including: Brain Safety, Neuroanatomy, Drugs of Abuse and Addiction, Neurological and Psychiatric Disorders, and Cognition and Brain Function. For each theme, lesson plans were developed based upon interactive, small-group activities. Additionally, we’ve organized our themes in a “Grow-up, Grow-out” approach. Grow-up refers to returning to a common theme, increasing in complexity as we revisit students from early elementary through high school. Grow-out refers to integrating other scientific fields into our lessons, such as the chemistry of addiction, the physics of brain injury and neuronal imaging. One of the more successful components of our program is our innovative team-based model of curriculum design. By creating a team of undergraduate, graduate/professional students and faculty, we create a unique multi-level mentoring opportunity that appears to be successful in enhancing undergraduate students’ skills and knowledge. Preliminary assessments suggest that undergraduates believe they are enhancing their content knowledge and professional skills through our program. Additionally, we’re having a significant, short-term impact on K-12 interest in science. Overall, our program appears to be enhancing the academic experience of our undergraduates and exciting K-12 students about the brain and science in general. PMID:25565921

  7. K-12 Neuroscience Education Outreach Program: Interactive Activities for Educating Students about Neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Deal, Alex L; Erickson, Kristen J; Bilsky, Edward J; Hillman, Susan J; Burman, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    The University of New England's Center for Excellence in the Neurosciences has developed a successful and growing K-12 outreach program that incorporates undergraduate and graduate/professional students. The program has several goals, including raising awareness about fundamental issues in neuroscience, supplementing science education in area schools and enhancing undergraduate and graduate/professional students' academic knowledge and skill set. The outreach curriculum is centered on core neuroscience themes including: Brain Safety, Neuroanatomy, Drugs of Abuse and Addiction, Neurological and Psychiatric Disorders, and Cognition and Brain Function. For each theme, lesson plans were developed based upon interactive, small-group activities. Additionally, we've organized our themes in a "Grow-up, Grow-out" approach. Grow-up refers to returning to a common theme, increasing in complexity as we revisit students from early elementary through high school. Grow-out refers to integrating other scientific fields into our lessons, such as the chemistry of addiction, the physics of brain injury and neuronal imaging. One of the more successful components of our program is our innovative team-based model of curriculum design. By creating a team of undergraduate, graduate/professional students and faculty, we create a unique multi-level mentoring opportunity that appears to be successful in enhancing undergraduate students' skills and knowledge. Preliminary assessments suggest that undergraduates believe they are enhancing their content knowledge and professional skills through our program. Additionally, we're having a significant, short-term impact on K-12 interest in science. Overall, our program appears to be enhancing the academic experience of our undergraduates and exciting K-12 students about the brain and science in general. PMID:25565921

  8. K-12 Neuroscience Education Outreach Program: Interactive Activities for Educating Students about Neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Deal, Alex L; Erickson, Kristen J; Bilsky, Edward J; Hillman, Susan J; Burman, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    The University of New England's Center for Excellence in the Neurosciences has developed a successful and growing K-12 outreach program that incorporates undergraduate and graduate/professional students. The program has several goals, including raising awareness about fundamental issues in neuroscience, supplementing science education in area schools and enhancing undergraduate and graduate/professional students' academic knowledge and skill set. The outreach curriculum is centered on core neuroscience themes including: Brain Safety, Neuroanatomy, Drugs of Abuse and Addiction, Neurological and Psychiatric Disorders, and Cognition and Brain Function. For each theme, lesson plans were developed based upon interactive, small-group activities. Additionally, we've organized our themes in a "Grow-up, Grow-out" approach. Grow-up refers to returning to a common theme, increasing in complexity as we revisit students from early elementary through high school. Grow-out refers to integrating other scientific fields into our lessons, such as the chemistry of addiction, the physics of brain injury and neuronal imaging. One of the more successful components of our program is our innovative team-based model of curriculum design. By creating a team of undergraduate, graduate/professional students and faculty, we create a unique multi-level mentoring opportunity that appears to be successful in enhancing undergraduate students' skills and knowledge. Preliminary assessments suggest that undergraduates believe they are enhancing their content knowledge and professional skills through our program. Additionally, we're having a significant, short-term impact on K-12 interest in science. Overall, our program appears to be enhancing the academic experience of our undergraduates and exciting K-12 students about the brain and science in general.

  9. Neuroscience Study Abroad: Developing a Short-Term Summer Course

    PubMed Central

    Ruscio, Michael G.; Korey, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Collaborative and international scientific efforts continue to be of increasing importance in the development of successful educational and research programs. The goal of our study abroad program, Neuroscience Seminar in Germany, is to bring this fact to light for undergraduates and make them aware of the global opportunities that exist in the neurosciences and related biological sciences. Here we discuss our experience of conducting a four-week summer study abroad course in collaboration with two universities associated with the German Graduate Schools of Neuroscience: Munich Center for Neurosciences – Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität (MCN-LMU) and Charité – Universitätsmedizin, Berlin (a joint institution of the Freie Universität and the Humboldt-Universität). This course combined the historical foundations of neuroscience in Germany with current research programs at these two prominent German research universities. Two weeks were spent at each location and faculty members from the participating universities provided seminars, laboratory exercises, demonstrations and tours. Students were presented with background reading and lecture material prior to the seminars and activities. Additionally, they were responsible for leading seminar-style class discussions through brief presentations and submitting written critical analyses of primary research papers associated with the laboratory exercises. These assignments provided a means to assess learning outcomes, coupled with course evaluations. Overall, this experience may serve as a template for those interested in study abroad course development and research opportunities in the neurosciences. PMID:23493243

  10. Community-based, Experiential Learning for Second Year Neuroscience Undergraduates

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Heather J.; Ramos-Goyette, Sharon; McCoy, John G.; Tirrell, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    Service learning is becoming a keystone of the undergraduate learning experience. At Stonehill College, we implemented a service learning course, called a Learning Community, in Neuroscience. This course was created to complement the basic research available to Stonehill Neuroscience majors with experience in a more applied and “clinical” setting. The Neuroscience Learning Community is designed to promote a deep understanding of Neuroscience by combining traditional classroom instruction with clinical perspectives and real-life experiences. This Neuroscience Learning Community helps students translate abstract concepts within the context of neurodevelopment by providing students with contextual experience in a real-life, unscripted setting. The experiential learning outside of the classroom enabled students to participate in informed discussions in the classroom, especially with regard to neurodevelopmental disorders. We believe that all students taking this course gain an understanding of the importance of basic and applied Neuroscience as it relates to the individual and the community. Students also have used this concrete, learning-by-doing experience to make informed decisions about career paths and choice of major. PMID:24319392

  11. And the winner is: inviting hollywood into the neuroscience classroom.

    PubMed

    Wiertelak, Eric P

    2002-01-01

    Both short excerpts from, and full-length presentation of feature films have been used with success in undergraduate instruction. Studies of such use of films has revealed that incorporation of film viewing within courses can promote both content mastery and the development of critical thinking skills. This article discusses and provides examples of successful use of two methods that may be used to incorporate a variety of full-length feature films into neuroscience instruction. One, the "neuro-cinema" pairs the presentation of a film featuring extensive neuroscience content with primary literature reading assignments, group discussion and writing exercises. The second, a neuroscience film series, features group discussion of movies of perhaps more limited relevance to neuroscience. An additional goal of this article is provide the reader with initial resources for the selection of potential film titles for use in neuroscience education. Three extensive tables are included to provide a wide range of title suggestions appropriate for use in activities such as the neuro-cinema, the neuroscience film series, or for more limited use as short "clips" in classroom instruction.

  12. Culturing the adolescent brain: what can neuroscience learn from anthropology?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Cultural neuroscience is set to flourish in the next few years. As the field develops, it is necessary to reflect on what is meant by ‘culture’ and how this can be translated for the laboratory context. This article uses the example of the adolescent brain to discuss three aspects of culture that may help us to shape and reframe questions, interpretations and applications in cultural neuroscience: cultural contingencies of categories, cultural differences in experience and cultural context of neuroscience research. The last few years have seen a sudden increase in the study of adolescence as a period of both structural and functional plasticity, with new brain-based explanations of teenage behaviour being taken up in education, policy and medicine. However, the concept of adolescence, as an object of behavioural science, took shape relatively recently, not much more than a hundred years ago and was shaped by a number of cultural and historical factors. Moreover, research in anthropology and cross-cultural psychology has shown that the experience of adolescence, as a period of the lifespan, is variable and contingent upon culture. The emerging field of cultural neuroscience has begun to tackle the question of cultural differences in social cognitive processing in adults. In this article, I explore what a cultural neuroscience can mean in the case of adolescence. I consider how to integrate perspectives from social neuroscience and anthropology to conceptualize, and to empirically study, adolescence as a culturally variable phenomenon, which, itself, has been culturally constructed. PMID:19959484

  13. And the Winner Is: Inviting Hollywood into the Neuroscience Classroom

    PubMed Central

    Wiertelak, Eric P.

    2002-01-01

    Both short excerpts from, and full-length presentation of feature films have been used with success in undergraduate instruction. Studies of such use of films has revealed that incorporation of film viewing within courses can promote both content mastery and the development of critical thinking skills. This article discusses and provides examples of successful use of two methods that may be used to incorporate a variety of full-length feature films into neuroscience instruction. One, the “neuro-cinema” pairs the presentation of a film featuring extensive neuroscience content with primary literature reading assignments, group discussion and writing exercises. The second, a neuroscience film series, features group discussion of movies of perhaps more limited relevance to neuroscience. An additional goal of this article is provide the reader with initial resources for the selection of potential film titles for use in neuroscience education. Three extensive tables are included to provide a wide range of title suggestions appropriate for use in activities such as the neuro-cinema, the neuroscience film series, or for more limited use as short “clips” in classroom instruction. PMID:23493171

  14. What event-related potentials (ERPs) bring to social neuroscience?

    PubMed

    Ibanez, Agustin; Melloni, Margherita; Huepe, David; Helgiu, Elena; Rivera-Rei, Alvaro; Canales-Johnson, Andrés; Baker, Phil; Moya, Alvaro

    2012-01-01

    Social cognitive neuroscience is a recent interdisciplinary field that studies the neural basis of the social mind. Event-related potentials (ERPs) provide precise information about the time dynamics of the brain. In this study, we assess the role of ERPs in cognitive neuroscience, particularly in the emerging area of social neuroscience. First, we briefly introduce the technique of ERPs. Subsequently, we describe several ERP components (P1, N1, N170, vertex positive potential, early posterior negativity, N2, P2, P3, N400, N400-like, late positive complex, late positive potential, P600, error-related negativity, feedback error-related negativity, contingent negative variation, readiness potential, lateralized readiness potential, motor potential, re-afferent potential) that assess perceptual, cognitive, and motor processing. Then, we introduce ERP studies in social neuroscience on contextual effects on speech, emotional processing, empathy, and decision making. We provide an outline of ERPs' relevance and applications in the field of social cognitive neuroscience. We also introduce important methodological issues that extend classical ERP research, such as intracranial recordings (iERP) and source location in dense arrays and simultaneous functional magnetic resonance imaging recordings. Further, this review discusses possible caveats of the ERP question assessment on neuroanatomical areas, biophysical origin, and methodological problems, and their relevance to explanatory pluralism and multilevel, contextual, and situated approaches to social neuroscience.

  15. [Origins and first steps of the Spanish Society for Neuroscience].

    PubMed

    Reinoso Suárez, Fernando

    2008-01-01

    I recall the background, the environment, the people and the events that led to the birth of the Spanish Society for Neuroscience (SENC) and remember how and why the multidisciplinary Neurobiology teachers at the Medical School of the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid decided to organize the First Meeting of Spanish Neurobiologists in 1979. Our principal aim was to promote Neuroscience research in Spain. For this was necessary: to know each other, support each other and organize and set up a modern and solid framework for training young researchers in Neuroscience. After reporting the results and circumstances of the first two Meetings, in 1980 and 1981, I discuss the impact of the Sixth European Neuroscience Congress held in Torremolinos in 1982 on Neuroscience in our country. The 1983 Meeting of the Spanish Neurobiologists decided to create the Spanish Society for Neuroscience. The effort of the heterogeneous Management Commission, the preparation of the Bylaws, the selection of the first members and the birth of the Society in 1985 are outlined. I continue in describing the components and work of the three first Boards of Directors and events of the corresponding Congresses until the consolidation of SENC in national and international scientific fields. My talk runs through the development of our Society, its growth in membership and quality and our hopes for the future.

  16. Neuroscience study abroad: developing a short-term summer course.

    PubMed

    Ruscio, Michael G; Korey, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Collaborative and international scientific efforts continue to be of increasing importance in the development of successful educational and research programs. The goal of our study abroad program, Neuroscience Seminar in Germany, is to bring this fact to light for undergraduates and make them aware of the global opportunities that exist in the neurosciences and related biological sciences. Here we discuss our experience of conducting a four-week summer study abroad course in collaboration with two universities associated with the German Graduate Schools of Neuroscience: Munich Center for Neurosciences - Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität (MCN-LMU) and Charité - Universitätsmedizin, Berlin (a joint institution of the Freie Universität and the Humboldt-Universität). This course combined the historical foundations of neuroscience in Germany with current research programs at these two prominent German research universities. Two weeks were spent at each location and faculty members from the participating universities provided seminars, laboratory exercises, demonstrations and tours. Students were presented with background reading and lecture material prior to the seminars and activities. Additionally, they were responsible for leading seminar-style class discussions through brief presentations and submitting written critical analyses of primary research papers associated with the laboratory exercises. These assignments provided a means to assess learning outcomes, coupled with course evaluations. Overall, this experience may serve as a template for those interested in study abroad course development and research opportunities in the neurosciences.

  17. Applying Advanced and Existing Sensors in Dealing with Potential Natural Disasters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib, Shahid

    2006-01-01

    together to address such colossal problems. Increasing our knowledge of the home planet, via amplified set of observations, is certainly a right step in a right direction. Furthermore, this is a prerequisite in understanding multiple hazard phenomena's. This paper examines various sensorweb options and observing architectures that can be useful specifically in addressing some of these complex issues. The ultimate goal is to serve the society by providing potential natural hazards information to the decision makers in the most expeditious manner so they can prepare themselves to mitigate potential risks to human life, livestock and property.

  18. Advanced modelling of the transport phenomena across horizontal clothing microclimates with natural convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayor, T. S.; Couto, S.; Psikuta, A.; Rossi, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    The ability of clothing to provide protection against external environments is critical for wearer's safety and thermal comfort. It is a function of several factors, such as external environmental conditions, clothing properties and activity level. These factors determine the characteristics of the different microclimates existing inside the clothing which, ultimately, have a key role in the transport processes occurring across clothing. As an effort to understand the effect of transport phenomena in clothing microclimates on the overall heat transport across clothing structures, a numerical approach was used to study the buoyancy-driven heat transfer across horizontal air layers trapped inside air impermeable clothing. The study included both the internal flow occurring inside the microclimate and the external flow occurring outside the clothing layer, in order to analyze the interdependency of these flows in the way heat is transported to/from the body. Two-dimensional simulations were conducted considering different values of microclimate thickness (8, 25 and 52 mm), external air temperature (10, 20 and 30 °C), external air velocity (0.5, 1 and 3 m s-1) and emissivity of the clothing inner surface (0.05 and 0.95), which implied Rayleigh numbers in the microclimate spanning 4 orders of magnitude (9 × 102-3 × 105). The convective heat transfer coefficients obtained along the clothing were found to strongly depend on the transport phenomena in the microclimate, in particular when natural convection is the most important transport mechanism. In such scenario, convective coefficients were found to vary in wavy-like manner, depending on the position of the flow vortices in the microclimate. These observations clearly differ from data in the literature for the case of air flow over flat-heated surfaces with constant temperature (which shows monotonic variations of the convective heat transfer coefficients, along the length of the surface). The flow patterns and

  19. Biofilm control in water by advanced oxidation process (AOP) pre-treatment: effect of natural organic matter (NOM).

    PubMed

    Lakretz, Anat; Ron, Eliora Z; Harif, Tali; Mamane, Hadas

    2011-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to examine the influence of natural organic matter (NOM) on the efficiency of H₂O₂/UV advanced oxidation process (AOP) as a preventive treatment for biofilm control. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 biofilm-forming bacteria were suspended in water and exposed to various AOP conditions with different NOM concentrations, and compared to natural waters. H₂O₂/UV prevented biofilm formation: (a) up to 24 h post treatment - when residual H₂O₂ was neutralized; (b) completely (days) - when residual H₂O₂ was maintained. At high NOM concentrations (i.e. 25 mg/L NOM or 12.5 mg/L DOC) an additive biofilm control effect was observed for the combined H₂O₂/UV system compared to UV irradiation alone, after short biofilm incubation times (<24 h). This effect was H₂O₂ concentration dependent and can be explained by the high organic content of these water samples, whereby an increase in NOM could enhance (•)OH production and promote the formation of additional reactive oxygen species. In addition, maintaining an appropriate ratio of bacterial surviving conc.: residual H₂O₂ conc. post-treatment could prevent bacterial regrowth and biofilm formation.

  20. The cognitive neuroscience of signed language.

    PubMed

    Rönnberg, J; Söderfeldt, B; Risberg, J

    2000-12-01

    The present article is an assessment of the current state of knowledge in the field of cognitive neuroscience of signed language. Reviewed lesion data show that the left hemisphere is dominant for perception and production of signed language in aphasics, in a fashion similar to spoken language aphasia. Several neuropsychological dissociations support this claim: Non-linguistic visuospatial functions can be dissociated from spatial functions and general motor deficits can be dissociated from execution of signs. Reviewed imaging data corroborate the lesion data in that the importance of the left hemisphere is re-confirmed. The data also establish the role of the right hemisphere in signed language processing. Alternative hypotheses regarding what aspects of signed language processing are handled by the right hemisphere are currently tested. The second section of the paper starts by addressing the role that early acquisition of signed and spoken language play for the neurofunctional activation patterns in the brain. Compensatory cognitive and communicative enhancements have also been documented as a function of early sign language use, suggesting an interesting interaction between language and cognition. Recent behavioural data on sign processing in working memory--a cognitive system important for language perception and production suggest e.g. phonological loop effects analogous to those obtained for speech processing. Neuroimaging studies will have to address this potential communality. PMID:11194414