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Sample records for nauplii biometry characteristics

  1. Prevalence of Corneal Astigmatism and Anterior Segmental Biometry Characteristics Before Surgery in Chinese Congenital Cataract Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Duoru; Chen, Jingjing; Liu, Zhenzhen; Wu, Xiaohang; Long, Erping; Luo, Lixia; Lin, Zhuoling; Li, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Li; Chen, Hui; Liu, Jinchao; Chen, Weirong; Lin, Haotian; Liu, Yizhi

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence and the distribution characteristics of corneal astigmatism (CA) and anterior segment biometry before surgery in Chinese congenital cataract (CC) patients are not completely understood. This study involved 400 CC patients from the Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center enrolled from February 2011 to August 2015. Data on CA, keratometry, central corneal thickness (CCT) and anterior chamber depth (ACD) were measured by the Pentacam Scheimpflug System. The mean age of patients was 54.27 months, and the ratio of boys to girls was 1.53:1. The mean CA was 2.03 diopters (D), and 39.25% of subjects had CA values ≥2 D. The most frequent (71.8%) diagnosis was with-the-rule astigmatism. Oblique astigmatism was present in 16.2% of cases, and 12% of cases had against-the-rule astigmatism. The mean keratometry measurement of cataractous eyes in bilateral patients was significantly larger than that in unilateral patients. Girls had a larger mean keratometry but a thinner CCT than did boys. The CA, CCT, and ACD of cataractous eyes were significantly larger than those of non-cataractous eyes in unilateral patients. The CA, mean keratometry, CCT, and ACD in CC patients varied with age, gender, and laterality. Fully understanding these characteristics may help inform guidelines and treatment decisions in CC patients. PMID:26912400

  2. Biometry | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    [[{"fid":"66","view_mode":"default","fields":{"format":"default","field_file_image_alt_text[und][0][value]":"Biometry Research Group Homepage Logo","field_file_image_title_text[und][0][value]":"Biometry Research Group Homepage Logo","field_folder[und]":"15"},"type":"media","attributes":{"alt":"Biometry Research Group Homepage Logo","title":"Biometry Research Group Homepage Logo","height":"266","width":"400","style":"height: 259px; width: 400px;","class":"image-style-none media-element file-de | Consults, conducts and supports independent and collaborative research and data analysis.

  3. [Ocular biometry using Orbscan].

    PubMed

    Touzeau, O; Allouch, C; Borderie, V; Laroche, L

    2005-06-01

    Orbscan is a recent optical device that combines the Placido disk of the videokeratoscope and a scanning slit. The scanning slit measures the elevation of both the corneal surface (anterior and posterior) and the anterior iris-lens surface. Biometric measures of the anterior segment such as corneal thickness, anterior chamber depth, corneal diameter, and iridocorneal angle are obtained using spatial coordinates of various ocular surfaces. Orbscan is not only a corneal topograph but a versatile device capable of measuring the biometry of the anterior segment of the eye.

  4. Choreographed swimming of copepod nauplii

    PubMed Central

    Takagi, Daisuke; Hartline, Daniel K.

    2015-01-01

    Small metazoan paddlers, such as crustacean larvae (nauplii), are abundant, ecologically important and active swimmers, which depend on exploiting viscous forces for locomotion. The physics of micropaddling at low Reynolds number was investigated using a model of swimming based on slender-body theory for Stokes flow. Locomotion of nauplii of the copepod Bestiolina similis was quantified from high-speed video images to obtain precise measurements of appendage movements and the resulting displacement of the body. The kinematic and morphological data served as inputs to the model, which predicted the displacement in good agreement with observations. The results of interest did not depend sensitively on the parameters within the error of measurement. Model tests revealed that the commonly attributed mechanism of ‘feathering’ appendages during return strokes accounts for only part of the displacement. As important for effective paddling at low Reynolds number is the ability to generate a metachronal sequence of power strokes in combination with synchronous return strokes of appendages. The effect of feathering together with a synchronous return stroke is greater than the sum of each factor individually. The model serves as a foundation for future exploration of micropaddlers swimming at intermediate Reynolds number where both viscous and inertial forces are important. PMID:26490629

  5. Physiological characteristics and stress resistance of great sturgeon (Huso huso) juveniles fed with vitamins C, E, and HUFA-enriched Artemia urmiana nauplii.

    PubMed

    Jalali, Mohammad Ali; Hosseini, Seyed Abbas; Imanpour, Mohammad Reza

    2010-09-01

    This study was carried out to examine the effect of Artemia urmiana nauplii enriched with HUFA, and vitamins C and E on stress tolerance, hematocrit, and biochemical parameters of great sturgeon, Huso huso juveniles. Cod liver oil (EPA 18% and DHA 12%), ascorbyl-6-palmitate and alpha-tocopherol acetate were used as lipid, and vitamin C and E sources, respectively. Beluga juveniles at the stage of first feeding (69.7 +/- 5.9 mg body weight) were randomly divided into five treatments and three tanks were assigned to each diet. All fish groups were fed non-enriched Artemia for the initial 5 days and then fed enriched Artemia for 7 days. Juveniles were fed with Artemia enriched with HUFA + 20% vitamin C (C group); HUFA + 20% vitamin E-enriched Artemia nauplii (E group); HUFA + 20% vitamin C + 20% vitamin E (C and E group); HUFA without vitamins (HUFA) and non-enriched Artemia (control). After the period of enrichment, Juveniles were fed with Daphnia sp. from the 13th to the 40th day. At day 40, the fish were transferred directly from fresh water (0.5 ppt) to brackish water (6 ppt for 4 days and 12 ppt for 2 days) and warm water (from 27 to 33 degrees C) to evaluate juvenile resistance to salinity and thermal shocks. Moreover, all treatments were separately exposed to freshwater in tanks with the same capacity as used for osmotic and thermal tests (as fresh water control). The addition of vitamins C, E, and C + E to HUFA significantly increased fish resistance to 12 ppt salinity and temperature stress tests, whereas survival was not significantly different among challenges at 6 ppt. There was no significant difference in the hematocrit index under stress conditions. Enrichment had significant influence on plasma Na(+) level in the C group on the 4th day at 6 ppt. Na(+) and Ca(2+) concentrations in C, E, and C and E groups on the 1st day at 12 ppt, and Ca(2+) level in E group on the 2nd day at 12 ppt were lower than the other groups. The glucose level in the C and C and

  6. Partially coherent interferometric biometry in cataract surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drexler, Wolfgang; Findl, Oliver; Menapace, Rupert; Hitzenberger, Christoph K.; Fercher, Adolf F.

    1999-02-01

    In an earlier study we showed that precise axial eye length measurement on cataract eyes is possible with the dual beam partial coherence interferometry technique (PCI). A high correlation with the standard ultrasound technique has been obtained. Recently, in a prospective study, partially coherent interferometry and ultrasound biometry were compared in cataract surgery using the SRK II formula based on US applanation biometry. Three months after surgery PCI was repeated and refractive outcome was determined. The use of PCI would have improved refractive outcome by about 30%.

  7. Prey Detection and Prey Capture in Copepod Nauplii

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, Eleonora; Andersen Borg, Christian Marc; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Copepod nauplii are either ambush feeders that feed on motile prey or they produce a feeding current that entrains prey cells. It is unclear how ambush and feeding-current feeding nauplii perceive and capture prey. Attack jumps in ambush feeding nauplii should not be feasible at low Reynolds numbers due to the thick viscous boundary layer surrounding the attacking nauplius. We use high-speed video to describe the detection and capture of phytoplankton prey by the nauplii of two ambush feeding species (Acartia tonsa and Oithona davisae) and by the nauplii of one feeding-current feeding species (Temora longicornis). We demonstrate that the ambush feeders both detect motile prey remotely. Prey detection elicits an attack jump, but the jump is not directly towards the prey, such as has been described for adult copepods. Rather, the nauplius jumps past the prey and sets up an intermittent feeding current that pulls in the prey from behind towards the mouth. The feeding-current feeding nauplius detects prey arriving in the feeding current but only when the prey is intercepted by the setae on the feeding appendages. This elicits an altered motion pattern of the feeding appendages that draws in the prey. PMID:23144712

  8. The Kinematics of Swimming and Relocation Jumps in Copepod Nauplii

    PubMed Central

    Andersen Borg, Christian Marc; Bruno, Eleonora; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Copepod nauplii move in a world dominated by viscosity. Their swimming-by-jumping propulsion mode, with alternating power and recovery strokes of three pairs of cephalic appendages, is fundamentally different from the way other microplankters move. Protozoans move using cilia or flagella, and copepodites are equipped with highly specialized swimming legs. In some species the nauplius may also propel itself more slowly through the water by beating and rotating the appendages in a different, more complex pattern. We use high-speed video to describe jumping and swimming in nauplii of three species of pelagic copepods: Temora longicornis, Oithona davisae and Acartia tonsa. The kinematics of jumping is similar between the three species. Jumps result in a very erratic translation with no phase of passive coasting and the nauplii move backwards during recovery strokes. This is due to poorly synchronized recovery strokes and a low beat frequency relative to the coasting time scale. For the same reason, the propulsion efficiency of the nauplii is low. Given the universality of the nauplius body plan, it is surprising that they seem to be inefficient when jumping, which is different from the very efficient larger copepodites. A slow-swimming mode is only displayed by T. longicornis. In this mode, beating of the appendages results in the creation of a strong feeding current that is about 10 times faster than the average translation speed of the nauplius. The nauplius is thus essentially hovering when feeding, which results in a higher feeding efficiency than that of a nauplius cruising through the water. PMID:23115647

  9. Hydrodynamics and energetics of jumping copepod nauplii and copepodids.

    PubMed

    Wadhwa, Navish; Andersen, Anders; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    Within its life cycle, a copepod goes through drastic changes in size, shape and swimming mode. In particular, there is a stark difference between the early (nauplius) and later (copepodid) stages. Copepods inhabit an intermediate Reynolds number regime (between ~1 and 100) where both viscosity and inertia are potentially important, and the Reynolds number changes by an order of magnitude during growth. Thus we expect the life stage related changes experienced by a copepod to result in hydrodynamic and energetic differences, ultimately affecting the fitness. To quantify these differences, we measured the swimming kinematics and fluid flow around jumping Acartia tonsa at different stages of its life cycle, using particle image velocimetry and particle tracking velocimetry. We found that the flow structures around nauplii and copepodids are topologically different, with one and two vortex rings, respectively. Our measurements suggest that copepodids cover a larger distance compared to their body size in each jump and are also hydrodynamically quieter, as the flow disturbance they create attenuates faster with distance. Also, copepodids are energetically more efficient than nauplii, presumably due to the change in hydrodynamic regime accompanied with a well-adapted body form and swimming stroke.

  10. Refractive Results Using a New Optical Biometry Device: Comparison With Ultrasound Biometry Data.

    PubMed

    Aktas, Serdar; Aktas, Hatice; Tetikoglu, Mehmet; Sagdk, Hac Murat; Özcura, Fatih

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the measurements of optical (AL-Scan; Nidek Co., Ltd.) and ultrasonic (Echo Scan US-800; Nidek Co., Ltd.) biometry devices and to assess refractive results after cataract surgery. Eighty-one cataractous eyes of 81 patients were included in this study. Biometry was performed using the AL-Scan and an ultrasonic biometer (USB). Axial length (AL), keratometry (K) data, and intraocular lens (IOL) power calculations using the SRK/T formula were compared. Bland-Altman analysis was used to assess the extent of agreement between AL-Scan and USB data in terms of AL measurement and IOL power calculation. The K measurements of the AL-Scan were compared to autorefractor data (Canon Autorefractor RK-F1). The AL-Scan assessed the AL as longer (average difference 0.06 ± 0.18 mm; ICC = 0.987; P < 0.001) and the IOL power as greater (average difference 0.19 ± 0.66 D; ICC = 0.964; P < 0.001) than the USB. The AL-Scan also measured average K values (average difference 0.25 ± 0.25 D; ICC = 0.985; P < 0.001) greater than those given by the autorefractor. The postoperative mean absolute error was +0.30 ± 0.04 D (minimum: -0.51 D, maximum +1.04 D). The postoperative mean K value change was 0.36 ± 0.29 D (P < 0.05). The differences between measurements afforded by the AL-Scan and USB may be clinically acceptable. Keratometric changes that develop after cataract operations compromise the attainment of good refractive outcomes.

  11. Wavefront Derived Refraction and Full Eye Biometry in Pseudophakic Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Xinjie; Banta, James T.; Ke, Bilian; Jiang, Hong; He, Jichang; Liu, Che; Wang, Jianhua

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To assess wavefront derived refraction and full eye biometry including ciliary muscle dimension and full eye axial geometry in pseudophakic eyes using spectral domain OCT equipped with a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. Methods Twenty-eight adult subjects (32 pseudophakic eyes) having recently undergone cataract surgery were enrolled in this study. A custom system combining two optical coherence tomography systems with a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor was constructed to image and monitor changes in whole eye biometry, the ciliary muscle and ocular aberration in the pseudophakic eye. A Badal optical channel and a visual target aligning with the wavefront sensor were incorporated into the system for measuring the wavefront-derived refraction. The imaging acquisition was performed twice. The coefficients of repeatability (CoR) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were calculated. Results Images were acquired and processed successfully in all patients. No significant difference was detected between repeated measurements of ciliary muscle dimension, full-eye biometry or defocus aberration. The CoR of full-eye biometry ranged from 0.36% to 3.04% and the ICC ranged from 0.981 to 0.999. The CoR for ciliary muscle dimensions ranged from 12.2% to 41.6% and the ICC ranged from 0.767 to 0.919. The defocus aberrations of the two measurements were 0.443 ± 0.534 D and 0.447 ± 0.586 D and the ICC was 0.951. Conclusions The combined system is capable of measuring full eye biometry and refraction with good repeatability. The system is suitable for future investigation of pseudoaccommodation in the pseudophakic eye. PMID:27010674

  12. Nonhatching Decapsulated Artemia Cysts As a Replacement to Artemia Nauplii in Juvenile and Adult Zebrafish Culture.

    PubMed

    Tye, Marc; Rider, Dana; Duffy, Elizabeth A; Seubert, Adam; Lothert, Brogen; Schimmenti, Lisa A

    2015-12-01

    Feeding Artemia nauplii as the main nutrition source for zebrafish is a common practice for many research facilities. Culturing live feed can be time-consuming and requires additional equipment to be purchased, maintained, and cleaned. Nonhatching decapsulated Artemia cysts (decaps) are a commercially available product that can be fed directly to fish. Several other ornamental fish species have been successfully cultured using decaps. Replacing Artemia nauplii with decaps could reduce the overall time and costs associated with the operation of a zebrafish facility. The objective of this study was to determine if decaps could be a suitable replacement to Artemia nauplii in juvenile and adult zebrafish culture. Wild-type zebrafish were fed one of three dietary treatments: decaps only, nauplii only, or a standard consisting of nauplii plus a commercially prepared pellet food. Survival, growth (length and weight), and embryo production were analyzed between the treatments. Fish receiving the decap diet demonstrated a significantly higher growth and embryo production when compared to the fish receiving the nauplii-only diet. When comparing the decap fish to the standard fish, no significant difference was found in mean survival, mean weight at 90 days postfertilization, or mean embryo production. It was determined that nonhatching decapsulated Artemia cysts can be used as a suitable replacement to Artemia nauplii in juvenile and adult zebrafish culture.

  13. Effect of mercuric ion on attraction to light of artemia sp nauplii.

    PubMed

    Saunders, J P; Trieff, N M; Kalmaz, E E; Uchida, T

    1985-02-01

    Living organisms exhibit a phototactic response which can be altered by certain environmental toxic chemical species. The analysis of photobehavior can help in elucidating environmental factors that influence photomotility reactions of the organisms. A method has been developed that measures the phototactic response of Artemia nauplii under the influence of mercuric ion (Hg2+) in synthetic seawater. The phototactic response of Artemia nauplii was manifested by movement of the organisms from a darkened half to lighted half of an experimental vessel containing synthetic seawater. The density as a function of time of Artemia nauplii is determined by removing aliquots from both light and dark sides and then plating on agar for counting under the dissecting microscope. Measurements consistently show a significant movement of nauplii to the lighted side within 45 min of the start of the experiments. The present investigation demonstrated that at concentrations as low as 0.010 mg HgCl2/liter there is an enhancement of phototactic effect on Artemia nauplii by mercuric ion as compared with control. The phototactic response of Artema nauplii is altered by mercuric ion in a dose-related manner, but the mechanism of this effect is presently unknown.

  14. Characterization of metalloproteinase-like activities in barnacle (Balanus amphitrite) nauplii.

    PubMed

    Mannello, Ferdinando; Canesi, Laura; Faimali, Marco; Piazza, Veronica; Gallo, Gabriella; Geraci, Sebastiano

    2003-05-01

    The presence of extracellular matrix (ECM) degrading enzymes was investigated in naupliar stages of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite Darwin. The results of substrate gel-zymography and quantitative assays demonstrated that naupliar extracts contain several protease activities that are specific towards gelatin substrates; some caseinolytic activity was also detected. Substrate specificity was observed in all naupliar stages (II-VI). The gelatinolytic activities showed dependence on both Ca(2+) and Zn(2+) and inhibition by EDTA, EGTA, and 1,10-phenanthroline. Also Mg(2+) partially activated the enzymes, whereas Cd(2+), Cu(2+), Hg(2+) and Pb(2+) were inhibitory. The thermal denaturation profile was significantly different in the presence and absence of Ca(2+) and Zn(2+). Overall, the results indicate that the Ca(2+)/Zn(2+)-dependent gelatinase activities in barnacle nauplii belong to the subfamily of matrix metalloproteases. Barnacle larvae MMPs showed biochemical characteristics different from those of vertebrate MMPs but common to other gelatinases from marine invertebrates: they were unaffected by several protease inhibitors and insensitive to specific activators/inhibitors of vertebrate MMPs. The presence of MMP-like activities in different naupliar stages suggests a constitutive role for these enzymes in ECM remodeling during barnacle larvae growth and development.

  15. Normative biometry of the fetal brain using magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Kyriakopoulou, Vanessa; Vatansever, Deniz; Davidson, Alice; Patkee, Prachi; Elkommos, Samia; Chew, Andrew; Martinez-Biarge, Miriam; Hagberg, Bibbi; Damodaram, Mellisa; Allsop, Joanna; Fox, Matt; Hajnal, Joseph V; Rutherford, Mary A

    2016-11-24

    The fetal brain shows accelerated growth in the latter half of gestation, and these changes can be captured by 2D and 3D biometry measurements. The aim of this study was to quantify brain growth in normal fetuses using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and to produce reference biometry data and a freely available centile calculator ( https://www.developingbrain.co.uk/fetalcentiles/ ). A total of 127 MRI examinations (1.5 T) of fetuses with a normal brain appearance (21-38 gestational weeks) were included in this study. 2D and 3D biometric parameters were measured from slice-to-volume reconstructed images, including 3D measurements of supratentorial brain tissue, lateral ventricles, cortex, cerebellum and extra-cerebral CSF and 2D measurements of brain biparietal diameter and fronto-occipital length, skull biparietal diameter and occipitofrontal diameter, head circumference, transverse cerebellar diameter, extra-cerebral CSF, ventricular atrial diameter, and vermis height, width, and area. Centiles were constructed for each measurement. All participants were invited for developmental follow-up. All 2D and 3D measurements, except for atrial diameter, showed a significant positive correlation with gestational age. There was a sex effect on left and total lateral ventricular volumes and the degree of ventricular asymmetry. The 5th, 50th, and 95th centiles and a centile calculator were produced. Developmental follow-up was available for 73.1% of cases [mean chronological age 27.4 (±10.2) months]. We present normative reference charts for fetal brain MRI biometry at 21-38 gestational weeks. Developing growth trajectories will aid in the better understanding of normal fetal brain growth and subsequently of deviations from typical development in high-risk pregnancies or following premature delivery.

  16. Fetal Biometry of Head Circumference for Malaysian Pregnant Women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramli, Remsen Maizan; Jaafar, M. S.; Ismail, N. E.; Saltani, Hend A. A.; Ahmad, A. L.; Bermakai, M. Yahaya

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this research is to study the fetal head circumference (HC) biometry for local population. Retrospective study was selected, done at Hospital Pulau Pinang and 5551 files of pregnant women were collected. The HC mean values of this study (HCmean) was compared with other published studies to see whether there was any difference between the various populations in the world. Comparison of means, regression analysis and paired sample t-test in SPSS software version 11.5 were used in the analysis. A total of 9874 HC data (mm) were recorded for gestational age (GA) of 12 to 41 weeks. The HC growth rate in second trimester (11.32 mm/week) has decreased to nearly half than in third trimester (5.53 mm/week). The HCmean was found to be highly significant difference (SD) than other 9 studies and only lower than HC values of USA, UK and Zimbabwe populations. The HC values of German show close similarity with HCmean. From 45 comparisons done, more than three-quarter of the comparisons resulted as SD (37) compared to insignificant differences (8). Consequently, each country should have their own standard HC of fetus biometry of the various gestations for their own population.

  17. Comparison of IOL--master and ultrasound biometry in preoperative intra ocular lens (IOL) power calculation.

    PubMed

    Kolega, Marija Škara; Kovačević, Suzana; Čanović, Samir; Pavičić, Ana Didović; Bašić, Jadranka Katušić

    2015-03-01

    Postoperative refractive outcome largely depends on the accuracy of calculating power of implanted IOL. Lens power calculation can be done by conventional ultrasound biometry and partial coherence laser interferometry (IOL Master). The aim was to compare the accuracy of IOL power calculations using conventional ultrasound biometry and partial coherence laser interferometry.40 eyes were included in this prospective randomized trial. Twenty eyes underwent IOL master and 20 eyes had aplanation ultrasound biometry. There were included only eyes with age-related cataract and postoperative natural visual acuity (VA) 0.7. Visual acuity was performed 6 weeks after cataract surgery. After 6 weeks best natural visual acuity were 0.9 (± 0.1) in IOL-Master group and 0.85 (± 0.15) in ultrasound biometry. The postoperative mean absolute refractive error was 0.75 (± 0.5) D for ultrasound biometry and 0.50 (± 0.50) D for IOL-Master. Optical biometry with the IOL-Master proved to be slightly more accurate than ultrasound biometry for IOL power calculation.

  18. Fetal Biometry Studies of Malaysian Pregnant Women and Comparison with International Charts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, N.; Ramli, R. M.; Jaafar, M. S.

    2010-07-01

    Fetal biometry is a measurement done on fetus anatomy to relate the fetus growth with gestational age (GA). In this study [1], fetal biometry that was studied consists of biparietal diameter (BPD), abdominal circumference (AC) and femur length (FL). Studies were carried out at Maternity Unit, Hospital Pulau Penang. From the finding, it is understood that fetal biometry distinguish the normal from abnormal fetal structures and it vary among different populations, depending upon their racial [2,3] and nutrition [4,5,6]. True findings are valuable in estimating the gestational age of the fetus, abnormalities in fetus and the consideration of maternal health specific to the Malaysian population.

  19. Full OCT anterior segment biometry: an application in cataract surgery.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Sergio; Pérez-Merino, Pablo; Durán, Sonia; Velasco-Ocana, Miriam; Birkenfeld, Judith; de Castro, Alberto; Jiménez-Alfaro, Ignacio; Marcos, Susana

    2013-03-01

    In vivo three-dimensional (3-D) anterior segment biometry before and after cataract surgery was analyzed by using custom high-resolution high-speed anterior segment spectral domain Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). The system was provided with custom algorithms for denoising, segmentation, full distortion correction (fan and optical) and merging of the anterior segment volumes (cornea, iris, and crystalline lens or IOL), to provide fully quantitative data of the anterior segment of the eye. The method was tested on an in vitro artificial eye with known surfaces geometry at different orientations and demonstrated on an aging cataract patient in vivo. Biometric parameters CCT, ACD/ILP, CLT/ILT Tilt and decentration are retrieved with a very high degree of accuracy. IOL was placed 400 μm behind the natural crystalline lens, The IOL was aligned with a similar orientation of the natural lens (2.47 deg superiorly), but slightly lower amounts (0.77 deg superiorly). The IOL was decentered superiorly (0.39 mm) and nasally (0.26 mm).

  20. Small animal ocular biometry using optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggeri, Marco; Kocaoglu, Omer; Uhlhorn, Stephen; Borja, David; Urs, Raksha; Chou, Tsung-Han; Porciatti, Vittorio; Parel, Jean-Marie; Manns, Fabrice

    2010-02-01

    A custom-built OCT system was used to obtain images of the whole mouse eye. We developed a semi-automated segmentation method to detect the boundaries of the anterior and posterior corneal, lens and retinal surfaces as well as the anterior surface of the iris. The radii of curvature of the surfaces were calculated using a conic section fit of each boundary. Image distortions due to refraction of the OCT beam at the successive boundaries were corrected using a ray-tracing algorithm. Corrected ocular distances, radii of curvature of the cornea and lens surfaces, and anterior chamber angle were obtained on 3 C57BL/6J mice. In vivo imaging of the whole eye, segmentation, conic function fits and correction were successful in all three animals. The posterior lens surface of one mouse could not be fit accurately with a conic section. Biometric parameters of C57BL/6J mice compared well with previous published data obtained from histological sections. The study demonstrates the feasibility of quantitative in vivo biometry of mouse models.

  1. Influence of UVB radiation on the lethal and sublethal toxicity of dispersed crude oil to planktonic copepod nauplii.

    PubMed

    Almeda, Rodrigo; Harvey, Tracy E; Connelly, Tara L; Baca, Sarah; Buskey, Edward J

    2016-06-01

    Toxic effects of petroleum to marine zooplankton have been generally investigated using dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons and in the absence of sunlight. In this study, we determined the influence of natural ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation on the lethal and sublethal toxicity of dispersed crude oil to naupliar stages of the planktonic copepods Acartia tonsa, Temora turbinata and Pseudodiaptomus pelagicus. Low concentrations of dispersed crude oil (1 μL L(-1)) caused a significant reduction in survival, growth and swimming activity of copepod nauplii after 48 h of exposure. UVB radiation increased toxicity of dispersed crude oil by 1.3-3.8 times, depending on the experiment and measured variables. Ingestion of crude oil droplets may increase photoenhanced toxicity of crude oil to copepod nauplii by enhancing photosensitization. Photoenhanced sublethal toxicity was significantly higher when T. turbinata nauplii were exposed to dispersant-treated oil than crude oil alone, suggesting that chemical dispersion of crude oil may promote photoenhanced toxicity to marine zooplankton. Our results demonstrate that acute exposure to concentrations of dispersed crude oil and dispersant (Corexit 9500) commonly found in the sea after oil spills are highly toxic to copepod nauplii and that natural levels of UVB radiation substantially increase the toxicity of crude oil to these planktonic organisms. Overall, this study emphasizes the importance of considering sunlight in petroleum toxicological studies and models to better estimate the impact of crude oil spills on marine zooplankton.

  2. Laser optical method of visualizing cutaneous blood vessels and its applications in biometry and photomedicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asimov, M. M.; Asimov, R. M.; Rubinov, A. N.

    2011-05-01

    We propose and examine a new approach to visualizing a local network of cutaneous blood vessels using laser optical methods for applications in biometry and photomedicine. Various optical schemes of the formation of biometrical information on the architecture of blood vessels of skin tissue are analyzed. We developed an optical model of the interaction of the laser radiation with the biological tissue and a mathematical algorithm of processing of measurement results. We show that, in medicine, the visualization of blood vessels makes it possible to calculate and determine regions of disturbance of blood microcirculation and to control tissue hypoxia, as well as to maintain the local concentration of oxygen at a level necessary for the normal cellular metabolism. We propose noninvasive optical methods for modern photomedicine and biometry for diagnostics and elimination of tissue hypoxia and for personality identification and verification via the pattern of cutaneous blood vessels.

  3. Biometry based ageing of nestling Indian Spotted Owlets ( Athene brama brama)

    PubMed Central

    Pande, Satish; Pawashe, Amit; Mahajan, Mahadeo N.; Mahabal, Anil; Yosef, Reuven; Dahanukar, Neelesh

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Biometric analysis helps in sex differentiation, understanding development and for studies of avian biology such as foraging ecology, evolutionary ecology, and survivorship. We suggest that biometry can also be a reliable, practical and inexpensive tool to determine the age of nestlings in the field by non-invasive methods. As an example we studied the biometry of wing, culmen, talon, tarsus and body mass of nestling southern Indian Spotted Owlets (Athene brama brama). Based on the growth pattern analysis using logistic growth model, discriminant analysis and CHAID (Chi-squared Automatic Interaction Detection) based decision tree, we show that biometry of nestling Spotted Owlets is an easy, reliable and inexpensive method to determine nestling age and to assess growth rate and relative nutritional status. These biometric parameters also allow us to predict their ability to initiate first flight from the nest site. This method is described here for the first time and we postulate that such charts can be devised for other avian species as well, so as to assist conservation biologists and bird rescuers. PMID:22140335

  4. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of the retinoid X receptor (RXR) gene in golden pompano Trachinotus ovatus fed Artemia nauplii with different enrichments.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qibin; Zheng, Panlong; Ma, Zhenhua; Li, Tao; Jiang, Shigui; Qin, Jian G

    2015-12-01

    The retinoid X receptors (RXRs) are involved in the skeletal development and other biological process such as blood vessel formation and metabolism. Partial sequences of RXRα and β genes were obtained, and their expressions were quantified on golden pompano Trachinotus ovatus at 28 days post hatching (DPH) to explore the molecular response to nutritional manipulation in fish larvae. As live food, Artemia nauplii were separately enriched with Nannochloropsis and Algamac 3080 and non-enriched Artemia nauplii (control) for fish feeding. The expressions of RXRs were detected in the embryos and fish larvae at early stages, suggesting that the skeletal development in golden pompano initiated before yolk re-sorption completion. Fish fed non-enriched Artemia nauplii ended up with higher jaw malformation. The highest specific growth rate was obtained when fish were fed with the Artemia nauplii enriched with Algamac 3080, and the lowest growth rate was observed when fish were fed with unenriched Artemia nauplii. The highest survival was obtained when fish were fed with non-enriched or Nannochloropsis-enriched Artemia nauplii. This study indicates that the use of enriched formula for Artemia nauplii can significantly affect the expression levels of RXRs and jaw malformation of golden pompano larvae, but there is no clear correlation between RXRs expressions and malformation rates when fish are subjected to nutrient challenge.

  5. Assessment of femur length for fetal biometry in Malaysian pregnant women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramli, Ramzun Maizan; Adam, Noraina; Jaafar, Mohamad Suhaimi; Rahman, Azhar Abdul; Mustafa, Iskandar Shahrim; Radzi, Yasmin; Nordin, Suriani; Kamarudin, Izyani

    2013-05-01

    The fetal biometry assessment of femur length (FL) was developed in most countries to evaluate the foetus growth. In this study, the FL values for Malaysia population were determined. A prospective study was conducted and a number of 6501 pregnant women were involved with 12372 FL data were collected, performed at antenatal care clinic of Hospital Pulau Pinang, Malaysia. The SPSS software version 17 (regression analysis and paired sample t-test) were used for analysis. The FL values of this study were constructed and rapid FL growth rate in second trimester (2.59 mm/week) than third trimester (1.43 mm/week) was observed. By ethnicity, no significant difference (p ≥ 0.05) was found between the FL values for fetuses of Malay and Indian ethnic's mother (t = -2.042), however these two groups shows significantly (p < 0.05) higher values than those of Chinese ethnic's mother (t = 4.019, 4.083; accordingly). The FL values of Malaysian resulted as significant difference with the common reference FL values from USA and UK, and also with selected Asian populations (India, China, Korea and Japan). As conclusion, it is strong suggested that medical practitioner in Malaysia should avoid in using biometry references based on other population to avoid under- or over-estimation and for accurate assessment of the fetus growth. As this study involved local Malaysian fetuses, therefore the medical practitioner can use the FL values of this study as reference value for fetus biometry assessment in Malaysia.

  6. Impact Assessment of Urethral Meatus Morphology and Penile Biometry in Transurethral Prostate and Bladder Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Vieiralves, Rodrigo Ribeiro; Conte, Paulo Henrique Pereira; Felici, Eduardo Medina; Rodrigues, Nádia Cristina Pinheiro; de souza, Tomás Accioly; Sampaio, Francisco J. B.

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To analyze the penile and urethral meatus biometry and its correlation with meatoplasty during endoscopic resections. We also propose a new classification for urethral meatus morphology. Materials and Methods. We prospectively studied 105 patients who underwent prostate and bladder transurethral resections. We performed standardized measurement of penile and urethral meatus biometry followed by penile photo in the front position. The need to perform meatoplasty or dilatation during resectoscope introduction was registered. Data were analyzed comparing the correlation between two groups: without intervention (Group A) and with intervention (Group B). Results. We observed in Group A and Group B, respectively, the average length of urethral meatus of 1.07 cm versus 0.75 cm (p < 0.001) and average width of urethral meatus of 0.59 cm versus 0.38 cm (p < 0.001). Considering the morphology of the urethral meatus, we propose a new classification, in the following groups: (a) typical; (b) slit; (c) point-like; (d) horseshoe; and (e) megameatus. The point-like meatus was the one that most needed intervention, followed by the slit and the typical meatus (p < 0.001). Conclusions. Point-like and slit-shaped urethral meatus, as well as reduced length and width of the urethral meatus, are the determining factors. PMID:28298923

  7. beta-Hydroxybutyrate in developing nauplii of brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana K.) under feeding and non-feeding conditions.

    PubMed

    Weltzien, F A; Hemre, G I; Evjemo, J O; Olsen, Y; Fyhn, H J

    2000-01-01

    Body content of beta-hydroxybutyrate, and individual dry mass, carbon content, and survival rate, were studied in developing nauplii of the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana K. from hatching to 96-97 h post hatching at 27 +/- 1 degrees C. The effect of two diets was studied in the experiment: Super Selco (SS) with a high lipid content; and Protein Selco (PS) with a high protein content. A starving group (S) was used as reference. The level of beta-hydroxybutyrate at hatching was 0.6 nmol.ind-1; it increased to 1.0-1.5 nmol.ind-1 in the SS- and S-groups, while in the PS-group it remained stable between 0.6-0.8 nmol.ind-1. At 60-80 h post hatch in the SS- and S-groups, the levels of beta-hydroxybutyrate were similar to the initial levels. The survival rate remained higher than 95% until 24 h post hatching in all groups. At the end of the experiment, the survival rate was 63% in the PS-group, 13% in the S-group and 3% in the SS-group. The Artemia nauplii individual dry mass and carbon content remained relatively stable in the SS-group; both parameters showed a significant increase in the PS-group and a significant decrease in the S-group. The results suggest that Artemia nauplii utilise ketone bodies as a fuel during development and growth, but that ketone catabolism may be overloaded by excessive lipid feeding resulting in increased mortality and possibly a ketotic acidosis.

  8. Spatiotemporal distribution of protozooplankton and copepod nauplii in relation to the occurrence of giant jellyfish in the Yellow Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lu; Xu, Kuidong

    2013-11-01

    The occurrence of the giant jellyfish, Nemopilema nomurai, has been a frequent phenomenon in the Yellow Sea. However, the relationship between the giant jellyfish and protozoa, in particular ciliates, remains largely unknown. We investigated the distribution of nanoflagellates, ciliates, Noctiluca scintillans, and copepod nauplii along the transect 33°N in the Yellow Sea in June and August, 2012, during an occurrence of the giant jellyfish, and in October of that year when the jellyfish was absent. The organisms studied were mainly concentrated in the surface waters in summer, while in autumn they were evenly distributed in the water column. Nanoflagellate, ciliate, and copepod nauplii biomasses increased from early June to August along with jellyfish growth, the first two decreased in October, while N. scintillans biomass peaked in early June to 3 571 μg C/L and decreased in August and October. In summer, ciliate biomass greatly exceeded that of copepod nauplii (4.61-15.04 μg C/L vs. 0.34-0.89 μg C/L). Ciliate production was even more important than biomass, ranging from 6.59 to 34.19 μg C/(L·d) in summer. Our data suggest a tight and positive association among the nano-, micro-, and meso-zooplankton in the study area. Statistical analysis revealed that the abundance and total production of ciliate as well as loricate ciliate biomass were positively correlated with giant jellyfish biomass, indicating a possible predator-prey relationship between ciliates and giant jellyfish. This is in contrast to a previous study, which reported a significant reduction in ciliate standing crops due to the mass occurrence of N. nomurai in summer. Our study indicates that, with its high biomass and, in particular, high production ciliates might support the mass occurrence of giant jellyfish.

  9. Protective efficacy of the antioxidants vitamin E and Trolox against Microcystis aeruginosa and microcystin-LR in Artemia franciscana nauplii.

    PubMed

    Ruebhart, David R; Wickramasinghe, Wasantha; Cock, Ian E

    2009-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the protective efficacy of the antioxidants vitamin E and Trolox (a water-soluble vitamin E derivative) against the toxicity of microcystin-LR (MC-LR), Microcystis aeruginosa aqueous extract (CE), and a reference toxin, menadione sodium bisulfite (MSB), in Artemia franciscana nauplii. This was achieved by using the well-established brine shrimp bioassay. The experiment was conducted in 2 stages, with (1) 12-h mortality time course and (2) LC50 determination for 12- and 24-h exposures. Treatments consisted of MC-LR, CE, and MSB alone and with 4-h pretreatments of either vitamin E or Trolox. Sensitivity of A. franciscana nauplii with 24-h LC50 values of 11 (10.1-12.1) microg/ml for MSB and 9.5 (8.8-10.4) microg/ml for MC-LR were in general agreement with values reported for Artemia sp. Both antioxidant pretreatments resulted in significant reductions in mortality of approximately 50% at 9 h postexposure when challenged by either 40 microg/ml MC-LR or 20 microg/ml MSB. In contrast, the antioxidant pretreatments offered little to no protection from CE, suggesting that other uncharacterized bioactive compounds contributed to overall toxicity. The described bioassay is easily accessible, inexpensive, rapid, and complies with animal ethics guidelines of many countries, and thus provides a potential alternative to the mouse bioassay for the initial screening for chemoprotectants against MC-LR toxicity.

  10. Repeatability and comparability of anterior segment biometry obtained by the Sirius and the Pentacam analyzers.

    PubMed

    De la Parra-Colín, Paola; Garza-León, Manuel; Barrientos-Gutierrez, Tonatiuh

    2014-02-01

    To assess the repeatability and comparability of six anterior segment biometry parameters obtained with a novel Scheimpflug camera with a Placido disc topographer (Sirius) and slit-scanning tomography with a Scheimpflug camera (Pentacam), in a sample of 16 unoperated eyes of healthy subjects. The anterior segment was analyzed by a single examiner using the Sirius and the Pentacam analyzers. Mean simulated keratometry (Sim K), flat and steep axis keratometry (K f and K s ), central and thinnest corneal thicknesses (CCT and TCT), and anterior chamber depth (ACD) measurements were evaluated. Repeatability of three sets of measurements from each device was assessed using the coefficient of variation (CV), within-subject standard deviation, and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Bonferroni-adjusted t-tests, and Bland and Altman plots were used to establish agreement between devices. For both devices the CV of repeated measurements was <0.79 %. The ICC was >0.95 in all measurements except for Sirius K s (ICC = 0.869). For all parameters evaluated, the Pentacam systematically yielded higher values, although differences were statistically significant in only three parameters-0.31 diopters for K s , 10.1 μm for CCT and 12.4 μm for TCT. In the assessment of normal corneas both devices showed overall high repeatability. Although good agreement was found in three parameters (Sim K, K f and ACD) these devices do not seem to be interchangeable for pachymetric determination.

  11. Simultaneous refraction measurement and OCT axial biometry of the eye during accommodation (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Freitas, Carolina; Hernandez, Victor M.; Ruggeri, Marco; Durkee, Heather A.; Williams, Siobhan; Gregori, Giovanni; Ho, Arthur; Manns, Fabrice; Parel, Jean-Marie

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this project is to design and evaluate a system that will enable objective assessment of the optical accommodative response in real-time while acquiring axial biometric information. The system combines three sub-systems which were integrated and mounted on a joystick x-y-z adjustable modified slit-lamp base to facilitate alignment and data acquisition: (1) a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor for dynamic refraction measurement, provided software calculates sphere, cylinder and axis values, (2) an extended-depth Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) system using an optical switch records high-resolution cross-sectional images across the length of the eye, from which, dynamic axial biometry (corneal thickness, anterior chamber depth, crystalline lens thickness and vitreous depth) can be extracted, and (3) a modified dual-channel accommodation stimulus unit based on the Badal optometer for providing a step change in accommodative stimulus. The prototypal system is capable of taking simultaneous measurements of both the optical and the mechanical response of lens accommodation. These measurements can provide insight into correlating changes in lens shape with changes in lens power and ocular refraction and ultimately provide a more comprehensive understanding of accommodation, presbyopia and an objective assessment of presbyopia correction techniques.

  12. Effect of pupillary dilation on Haigis formula-calculated intraocular lens power measurement by using optical biometry

    PubMed Central

    Khambhiphant, Bharkbhum; Sasiwilasagorn, Suganlaya; Chatbunchachai, Nattida; Pongpirul, Krit

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of pupillary dilation on the Haigis formula-calculated intraocular lens (IOL) power and ocular biometry measurements by using IOLMaster®. Methods A prospective study was performed for biometry measurements of 373 eyes of 192 healthy subjects using the IOLMaster at the outpatient department of King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital from February 2013 to July 2013. The axial length (AL), anterior chamber depth (ACD), keratometry (K), and IOL power were measured before and after 1% tropicamide eye drop instillation. The Haigis formula was used in the IOL power calculation with the predicted target to emmetropia. Each parameter was compared by a paired t-test prior to and after pupillary dilation. Bland–Altman plots were also used to determine the agreement between each parameter. Results The mean age of the subjects was 53.74±14.41 years (range 18–93 years). No differences in AL (P=0.03), steepest K (P=0.42), and flattest K (P=0.41) were obtained from the IOLMaster after pupillary dilation. However, ACD and IOL power were significantly different postdilation (P<0.01 and P<0.01, respectively). In ACD and IOL power measurements, the concordance rates were 93.03% and 97.05% within 95% limits of agreement (−0.48 to 0.26 mm and −1.09 to 0.88 D, respectively) in the Bland–Altman plots. Conclusion Biometry measurements in the cycloplegic stage should be considered in the IOL formulas that use parameters other than AL and K. PMID:27555746

  13. Reducing Vibrio load in Artemia nauplii using antimicrobial photodynamic therapy: a promising strategy to reduce antibiotic application in shrimp larviculture.

    PubMed

    Asok, Aparna; Arshad, Esha; Jasmin, C; Pai, S Somnath; Singh, I S Bright; Mohandas, A; Anas, Abdulaziz

    2012-01-01

    We propose antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) as an alternative strategy to reduce the use of antibiotics in shrimp larviculture systems. The growth of a multiple antibiotic resistant Vibrio harveyi strain was effectively controlled by treating the cells with Rose Bengal and photosensitizing for 30 min using a halogen lamp. This resulted in the death of >50% of the cells within the first 10 min of exposure and the 50% reduction in the cell wall integrity after 30 min could be attributed to the destruction of outer membrane protein of V. harveyi by reactive oxygen intermediates produced during the photosensitization. Further, mesocosm experiments with V. harveyi and Artemia nauplii demonstrated that in 30 min, the aPDT could kill 78.9% and 91.2% of heterotrophic bacterial and Vibrio population respectively. In conclusion, the study demonstrated that aPDT with its rapid action and as yet unreported resistance development possibilities could be a propitious strategy to reduce the use of antibiotics in shrimp larviculture systems and thereby, avoid their hazardous effects on human health and the ecosystem at large.

  14. Successful Replacement of Artemia salina nauplii with Marine Rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis) in the Diet of Preadult Zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Christian; James, Althea; Mobley, Scottie

    2015-10-01

    Previously established rearing protocols for zebrafish begin feeding with marine rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis), followed by Artemia nauplii until the fish reach subadult stage, the developmental time point at which they can be most easily transitioned onto a processed diet. However, the inclusion of Artemia is less than ideal, given its fluctuating availability and high costs. We tested whether or not we could replace Artemia with rotifers during our normal rearing sequence and still meet published performance standards for (i) weaning fish onto a processed diet by 25 days postfertilization (dpf) and (ii) successful breeding by 60 dpf. Here, we present the results of trials where wild-type and casper zebrafish were fed exclusively with rotifers (R) or rotifers followed by Artemia (RA) for the first 25 dpf after which point all fish were transitioned to a processed diet (Gemma Micro 300). We measured growth and survival at days 25 and 60, and tested for reproductive capability at 60 dpf. While growth performance was significantly better in the RA groups, we were still able to meet goals for both weaning and generation time in the R groups without compromising survival or sex ratios.

  15. Meta-analysis of optical low-coherence reflectometry versus partial coherence interferometry biometry

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jinhai; McAlinden, Colm; Huang, Yingying; Wen, Daizong; Savini, Giacomo; Tu, Ruixue; Wang, Qinmei

    2017-01-01

    A meta-analysis to compare ocular biometry measured by optical low-coherence reflectometry (Lenstar LS900; Haag Streit) and partial coherence interferometry (the IOLMaster optical biometer; Carl Zeiss Meditec). A systematic literature search was conducted for articles published up to August 6th 2015 in the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Medline, Embase, China Knowledge Resource Integrated Database and Wanfang Data. A total of 18 studies involving 1921 eyes were included. There were no statistically significant differences in axial length (mean difference [MD] 0 mm; 95% confidence interval (CI) −0.08 to 0.08 mm; p = 0.92), anterior chamber depth (MD 0.02 mm; 95% CI −0.07 to 0.10 mm; p = 0.67), flat keratometry (MD −0.05 D; 95% CI −0.16 to 0.06 D; p = 0.39), steep keratometry (MD −0.09 D; 95% CI −0.20 to 0.03 D; p = 0.13), and mean keratometry (MD −0.15 D; 95% CI −0.30 to 0.00 D; p = 0.05). The white to white distance showed a statistically significant difference (MD −0.14 mm; 95% CI −0.25 to −0.02 mm; p = 0.02). In conclusion, there was no difference in the comparison of AL, ACD and keratometry readings between the Lenstar and IOLMaster. However the WTW distance indicated a statistically significant difference between the two devices. Apart from the WTW distance, measurements for AL, ACD and keratometry readings may be used interchangeability with both devices. PMID:28233846

  16. Dispersant Corexit 9500A and chemically dispersed crude oil decreases the growth rates of meroplanktonic barnacle nauplii (Amphibalanus improvisus) and tornaria larvae (Schizocardium sp.).

    PubMed

    Almeda, Rodrigo; Bona, Shawn; Foster, Charles R; Buskey, Edward J

    2014-08-01

    Our knowledge of the lethal and sublethal effects of dispersants and dispersed crude oil on meroplanktonic larvae is limited despite the importance of planktonic larval stages in the life cycle of benthic invertebrates. We determined the effects of Light Louisiana Sweet crude oil, dispersant Corexit 9500A, and dispersant-treated crude oil on the survival and growth rates of nauplii of the barnacle Amphibalanus improvisus and tornaria larvae of the enteropneust Schizocardium sp. Growth rates of barnacle nauplii and tornaria larvae were significantly reduced after exposure to chemically dispersed crude oil and dispersant Corexit 9500A at concentrations commonly found in the water column after dispersant application in crude oil spills. We also found that barnacle nauplii ingested dispersed crude oil, which may have important consequences for the biotransfer of petroleum hydrocarbons through coastal pelagic food webs after a crude oil spill. Therefore, application of chemical dispersants increases the impact of crude oil spills on meroplanktonic larvae, which may affect recruitment and population dynamics of marine benthic invertebrates.

  17. Comparison of the biometric formulas used for applanation A-scan ultrasound biometry.

    PubMed

    Özcura, Fatih; Aktaş, Serdar; Sağdık, Hacı Murat; Tetikoğlu, Mehmet

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the accuracy of various biometric formulas for predicting postoperative refraction determined using applanation A-scan ultrasound. This retrospective comparative study included 485 eyes that underwent uneventful phacoemulsification with intraocular lens (IOL) implantation. Applanation A-scan ultrasound biometry and postoperative manifest refraction were obtained in all eyes. Biometric data were entered into each of the five IOL power calculation formulas: SRK-II, SRK/T, Holladay I, Hoffer Q, and Binkhorst II. All eyes were divided into three groups according to axial length: short (≤22.0 mm), average (22.0-25.0 mm), and long (≥25.0 mm) eyes. The postoperative spherical equivalent was calculated and compared with the predicted refractive error using each biometric formula. The results showed that all formulas had significantly lower mean absolute error (MAE) in comparison with Binkhorst II formula (P < 0.01). The lowest MAE was obtained with the SRK-II for average (0.49 ± 0.40 D) and short (0.67 ± 0.54 D) eyes and the SRK/T for long (0.61 ± 0.50 D) eyes. The highest postoperative hyperopic shift was seen with the SRK-II for average (46.8 %), short (28.1 %), and long (48.4 %) eyes. The highest postoperative myopic shift was seen with the Holladay I for average (66.4 %) and long (71.0 %) eyes and the SRK/T for short eyes (80.6 %). In conclusion, the SRK-II formula produced the lowest MAE in average and short eyes and the SRK/T formula produced the lowest MAE in long eyes. The SRK-II has the highest postoperative hyperopic shift in all eyes. The highest postoperative myopic shift is with the Holladay I for average and long eyes and SRK/T for short eyes.

  18. Feeding behaviour of the nauplii of the marine calanoid copepod Paracartia grani Sars: Functional response, prey size spectrum, and effects of the presence of alternative prey

    PubMed Central

    Saiz, Enric

    2017-01-01

    Laboratory feeding experiments were conducted to study the functional response and prey size spectrum of the young naupliar stages of the calanoid copepod Paracartia grani Sars. Experiments were conducted on a range of microalgal prey of varying sizes and motility patterns. Significant feeding was found in all prey of a size range of 4.5–19.8 μm, with Holling type III functional responses observed for most prey types. The highest clearance rates occurred when nauplii fed on the dinoflagellate Heterocapsa sp. and the diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii (respectively, 0.61 and 0.70 mL ind-1 d-1), suggesting an optimal prey:predator ratio of 0.09. Additional experiments were conducted to examine the effects of the presence of alternative prey (either Heterocapsa sp. or Gymnodinium litoralis) on the functional response to the haptophyte Isochrysis galbana. In the bialgal mixtures, clearance and ingestion rates of I. galbana along the range of the functional response were significantly reduced as a result of selectivity towards the larger, alternative prey. Paradoxically, relatively large prey trigger a perception response in the nauplii, but most likely such prey cannot be completely ingested and a certain degree of sloppy feeding may occur. Our results are further evidence of the complex prey-specific feeding interactions that are likely to occur in natural assemblages with several available prey types. PMID:28257517

  19. Characteristics of the Anterior Segment Biometry and Corneal Endothelium in Eyes with Pseudoexfoliation Syndrome and Senile Cataract

    PubMed Central

    Bozkurt, Banu; Güzel, Hüseyin; Kamış, Ümit; Gedik, Şansal; Okudan, Süleyman

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the anterior segment biometric features and corneal endothelial changes in eyes with pseudoexfoliation (PEX) syndrome and senile cataract. Materials and Methods: The central corneal thickness, anterior chamber depth (ACD), pupil diameter, lens thickness, endothelial cell density (ECD), and percentages of polymegathism and pleomorphism of 52 subjects with PEX and cataract were compared with 51 age- and gender-matched control subjects with cataract using optical low-coherence reflectometry (OLCR, Lenstar LS 900; Haag Streit AG, Switzerland) and in-vivo confocal microscopy (Confo Scan 4, Nidek Co. Ltd, Osaka, Japan). Nineteen subjects with PEX syndrome had glaucoma and were using anti-glaucoma medications. Only one eye of the subjects was used in statistical analysis and a p value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: None of the OLCR parameters reached statistically significant differences among the 3 groups (ANOVA p>0.05). The percentage of eyes with ACD <2.5 mm was 13.7% in the control group, 24.2% in PEX eyes without glaucoma and 21.1% in PEX eyes with glaucoma, with no statistically significant differences (p=0.45). There was a significant difference in mean ECD among the 3 groups (ANOVA p=0.02), whereas no differences could be found in respect to polymegathism and pleomorphism (p>0.05). Mean ECD was significantly lower in the PEX glaucoma group (2,199.5±176.8 cells/mm2) than the control group (2,363±229.3 cells/mm2) (p=0.02), whereas no difference was found in mean ECD of PEX eyes without glaucoma and the control group (p=0.42). ECD was less than 2,000 cells/mm2 in 15.8% of PEX subjects with glaucoma, 9.8% of control subjects and 6.1% of PEX eyes without glaucoma, with no statistically significant difference (p=0.52). Conclusion: As eyes with both PEX glaucoma and cataract seem to be associated with decreased endothelial cell number, specular or confocal microscopy screening should be done for the patients scheduled for intraocular surgery. PMID:27800230

  20. Highly reproducible swept-source, dispersion-encoded full-range biometry and imaging of the mouse eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ling; Hofer, Bernd; Chen, Yen-Po; Guggenheim, Jeremy A.; Drexler, Wolfgang; Považay, Boris

    2010-07-01

    We report a high-speed, dispersion-encoded, full-range (DEFR) swept-source optical coherence tomography system for in vivo ocular imaging and biometry of small animals. The fast DEFR algorithm removes the depth ambiguity, gives access to objects located at the zero delay position, and doubles the sampling depth to 2×5.0 mm (at -101 to -71 dB sensitivity) in a single scan using 2048 samples/depth scan 0.43 nm line width of a light source operating at 1056 nm with 70 nm tuning range. The acquisition speed (frames of 512 depth scans in 18.3 ms) permits precise on-line monitoring during positioning and provides cross-sectional views of the mouse eye. Preliminary studies demonstrate high-throughput, reproducible assessment of multiple biometric features (e.g., day-to-day reproducibility of axial length measurement +/-5.3 μm) that is insensitive to eye motion sufficient for long-term monitoring.

  1. DXA, bioelectrical impedance, ultrasonography and biometry for the estimation of fat and lean mass in cats during weight loss

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Few equations have been developed in veterinary medicine compared to human medicine to predict body composition. The present study was done to evaluate the influence of weight loss on biometry (BIO), bioimpedance analysis (BIA) and ultrasonography (US) in cats, proposing equations to estimate fat (FM) and lean (LM) body mass, as compared to dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as the referenced method. For this were used 16 gonadectomized obese cats (8 males and 8 females) in a weight loss program. DXA, BIO, BIA and US were performed in the obese state (T0; obese animals), after 10% of weight loss (T1) and after 20% of weight loss (T2). Stepwise regression was used to analyze the relationship between the dependent variables (FM, LM) determined by DXA and the independent variables obtained by BIO, BIA and US. The better models chosen were evaluated by a simple regression analysis and means predicted vs. determined by DXA were compared to verify the accuracy of the equations. Results The independent variables determined by BIO, BIA and US that best correlated (p < 0.005) with the dependent variables (FM and LM) were BW (body weight), TC (thoracic circumference), PC (pelvic circumference), R (resistance) and SFLT (subcutaneous fat layer thickness). Using Mallows’Cp statistics, p value and r2, 19 equations were selected (12 for FM, 7 for LM); however, only 7 equations accurately predicted FM and one LM of cats. Conclusions The equations with two variables are better to use because they are effective and will be an alternative method to estimate body composition in the clinical routine. For estimated lean mass the equations using body weight associated with biometrics measures can be proposed. For estimated fat mass the equations using body weight associated with bioimpedance analysis can be proposed. PMID:22781317

  2. On the morphology, biometry and biogeography of Lamtopyxis callistoma (Amoebozoa: Arcellinida)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The ultra-structure of the shell and the morphometric variability of soil inhabiting testate amoeba Lamtopyxis callistoma from Madagascar were studied by using light- and scanning electron microscopy. The biometrical characteristic of the species was made on the basis of 75 specimens measured. In addition to the diameter of the shell, six other shell characters were described biometrically for the first time. The analysis of the variation coefficients shows that the studied population of L. callistoma is comparatively homogeneous and almost all measured characters are weakly to moderate variable (CV less than 10%). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies on the shell ultra-morphology show that it has a smooth apertural surface with a thick layer of porous and fibrous organic cement and a rough dorsal surface composed of bigger and angular pieces of quartz. The shell wall has a thickness of about 5-6 µm and is composed of three layers. Unlike the previously accepted opinion that species is characterized by the presence of four teeth, this study shows that population of L. callistoma from Madagascar is comprised of both, specimens with four teeth and specimens with three teeth, in ratio of about 60% to 40%. Taking into account the restricted geographical distribution, large sizes and characteristic apertural morphology of L. callistoma it is assumed that this species, like some bryophilic ‘Nebelas’ with circumaustral distribution (e.g. Apodera vas, Alocodera cockayni, Certesella certesi, Certesella martiali, etc.), can be used as an example that in free-living microbial eukaryotes ‘not everything is everywhere’. PMID:25632260

  3. Nonhuman Primate Ocular Biometry

    PubMed Central

    Augusteyn, Robert C.; Maceo Heilman, Bianca; Ho, Arthur; Parel, Jean-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To examine ocular growth in nonhuman primates (NHPs) from measurements on ex vivo eyes. Methods We obtained NHP eyes from animals that had been killed as part of other studies or because of health-related issues. Digital calipers were used to measure the horizontal, vertical, and anteroposterior globe diameters as well as corneal horizontal and vertical diameters of excised globes from 98 hamadryas baboons, 551 cynomolgus monkeys, and 112 rhesus monkeys, at ages ranging from 23 to 360 months. Isolated lens sagittal thickness and equatorial diameter were measured by shadowphotogrammetry. Wet and fixed dry weights were obtained for lenses. Results Nonhuman primate globe growth continues throughout life, slowing toward an asymptotic maximum. The final globe size scales with negative allometry to adult body size. Corneal growth ceases at around 20 months. Lens diameter increases but thickness decreases with increasing age. Nonhuman primate lens wet and dry weight accumulation is monophasic, continuing throughout life toward asymptotic maxima. The dry/wet weight ratio reaches a maximum of 0.33. Conclusions Nonhuman primate ocular globe and lens growth differ in several respects from those in humans. Although age-related losses of lens power and accommodative amplitude are similar, lens growth and properties are different indicating care should be taken in extrapolating NHP observations to the study of human accommodation. PMID:26780314

  4. Transfer of benzo[a]pyrene from microplastics to Artemia nauplii and further to zebrafish via a trophic food web experiment: CYP1A induction and visual tracking of persistent organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Batel, Annika; Linti, Frederic; Scherer, Martina; Erdinger, Lothar; Braunbeck, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    The uptake of microplastic particles and the transfer of potential harmful substances along with microplastics has been studied in a variety of organisms, especially invertebrates. However, the potential accumulation of very small microplastic particles along food webs ending with vertebrate models has not been investigated so far. Therefore, a simple artificial food chain with Artemia sp. nauplii and zebrafish (Danio rerio) was established to analyze the transfer of microplastic particles and associated persistent organic pollutants (POPs) between different trophic levels. Very small (1-20 μm) microplastic particles accumulated in Artemia nauplii and were subsequently transferred to fish. Virgin particles not loaded with POPs did not cause any observable physical harm in the intestinal tracts of zebrafish, although parts of the particles were retained within the mucus of intestinal villi and might even have been taken up by epithelial cells. The transfer of associated POPs was tested with the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon benzo[a]pyrene and an ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) assay for CYP1A induction in zebrafish liver as well as via fluorescence analyses. Whereas a significant induction in the EROD assay could not be shown, because of high individual variation and low sensitivity regarding substance concentration, the fluorescence tracking of benzo[a]pyrene indicates that food-borne microplastic-associated POPs may actually desorb in the intestine of fish and are thus transferred to the intestinal epithelium and liver. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1656-1666. © 2016 SETAC.

  5. Would gestational age and presence of brain anomalies affect interobserver reliability of fetal head biometry? Using off-line analysis of 3-D dataset.

    PubMed

    Salman, Mona S M; Mousa, Hatem A; Twining, Peter; Jones, Nia W; James, David; Momtaz, Mohamed; Aboulghar, Mona; El-Sheikhah, Ahmad; Bugg, George

    2012-01-01

    The objective was to assess interobserver reliability of fetal head biometry using archived three-dimensional (3-D) volumes and the impact of gestational age and presence of brain anomalies on examiners' performance. Seventy nine 3-D volume datasets of fetal head were examined: 27 were normal and 52 had brain abnormalities. Off-line analysis was done by three fetal medicine experts (E1, E2 and E2), all were blinded to history and patient details. Measurements of the biparietal diameter (BPD), head circumference (HC), lateral ventricle (Vp) and transcerebellar diameter (TCD) were compared between examiners and to two-dimensional (2-D) measurements. Comparisons were made at two gestational age groups (≤22 and >22 weeks) and in presence and absence of brain anomalies. The intraclass coefficient showed a significantly high level of measurement agreement between 3-D examiners and 2-D, with values >0.9 throughout (p < 0.001). Bias was evident between 3-D examiners. E2 produced smaller measurements. The mean percentage difference between this examiner and the other two in BPD, HC, Vp and TCD measurements was significant, of 1.6%, 1%, 4.9% and 1.8%, respectively. E1 measured statistically larger for HC and TCD. E3 measured significantly larger for only BPD. The presence of anomalies was of no influence on the 3-D examiners' performance except for E3 who showed bias in BPD measurements only in cases with brain anomalies. Unlike other examiners, bias of E2 was only seen at gestational age group ≤22 weeks. Limits of agreement in measurements between observers were narrow for all parameters but were widest for the Vp measurements, being ±23% of the mean difference. Despite the above bias, the actual mean difference between examiners was small and unlikely to be of any clinical significance. Off-line measurement of fetal head biometry using 3-D volumes is reliable. In our study, presence of brain anomalies was unlikely to influence the reproducibility of measurements

  6. Larval development of Lynceus brachyurus (Crustacea, Branchiopoda, Laevicaudata): redescription of unusual crustacean nauplii, with special attention to the molt between last nauplius and first juvenile.

    PubMed

    Olesen, Jørgen

    2005-05-01

    The larval development of "conchostracans" has received only scattered attention. Here I present the results of a study on the larval (naupliar) development and the metamorphosis of Lynceus brachyurus, a member of the bivalved branchiopod order the Laevicaudata. Lynceus brachyurus is the only species of the "Conchostraca" in Denmark. The phylogenetic position of the Laevicaudata has traditionally been a source of controversy, and this study does not solve the question completely. This work focuses on features potentially important for phylogeny. The general appearance of the larvae of L. brachyurus has been known for more than a century and a half, and some of its unique features include a large, larval dorsal shield; a huge, plate-like labrum; and a pair of immovable, horn-like antennules. However, many details relating to limb morphology, potentially important for phylogeny, have not been studied previously. Based on size categories, five or six larval stages can be recognized. The larvae approximately double their length and width during development (length: 230-520 microm). Most morphological features stay largely unchanged during development, but the antennal coxal masticatory spines are significant exceptions: they become bifid after one of the first molts. In all larval stages only the antennae and the mandibles actively move. In late naupliar stages the trunk limbs become visible as rows of laterally placed, undeveloped, and still immovable lobes. Swimming is performed by the antennae, whereas the mandibles appear to be involved mainly in feeding, as in other branchiopod larvae. The last naupliar stage undergoes a small metamorphosis to the first juvenile stage, the details of which in part were studied by following the premolt juvenile condition through the cuticle of the last stage nauplius. Among other changes there is a characteristic change in the shape and morphology of the univalved dorsal naupliar shield to a bivalved juvenile carapace. The general

  7. [Morphology and biometry of eggs and larvae of Strongyloides sp. Grassi, 1879 (Rhabditoidea: Strongyloididae), a gastrointestinal parasite of Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1766) (Rodentia: Hydrochaeridae), in the municipality of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Vieira, Fabiano M; Lima, Sueli de S; Bessa, Elisabeth Cristina de A

    2006-01-01

    An important method to diagnose and study the helminthofauna of wild animals is to examine the host's feces to find eggs and larvae, seeking to identify the parasites and study their morphobiology. The objective of the present work is to provide morphological and biometric data on the eggs and larvae of Strongyloides sp., a capybara gastrointestinal parasite. Using the technique of Gordon and Whitlock, simple flotation and the modified Baermann examination, capybara fecal samples were selected based on a criterion of the highest proportion of eggs and larvae in the initial development stages, for morphometric description of eggs, L1, L2 and L3 of Strongyloides sp. From past reports of parasitism in Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris, we suspect that the eggs and larvae in this study are of Strongyloides chapini Sandground, 1925, which constitutes the first description of these stages for this species of nematode. Nevertheless, the morphology and biometry data of these stages demonstrate that they are similar to those of other species of the Strongyloides genus.

  8. Biometry Staff | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  9. Biometry, biometrics, biostatistics, bioinformatics,..., bio-X.

    PubMed

    Molenberghs, Geert

    2005-03-01

    Recent scientific evolutions force us to rethink our profession's position on the scientific map, in relation to our neighboring professions, the ones with which we traditionally have strong collaborative links as well as the newly emerging fields, but also within our own, diverse professional group. We will show that great inspiration can be drawn from our own history, in fact from the early days of the Society. A recent inspiring example has been set by the late Rob Kempton, who died suddenly just months before he was to become President of the International Biometric Society.

  10. Muscular Biometry With Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-25

    contribution of Dr H. Mallouche of the Centre hospitalier universitaire de Montréal ( CHUM ). During his stay in Montreal , A. Malanda was supported by...s) and Address(es) Institut de Genie Biomedical Universite de Montreal Canada Performing Organization Report Number Sponsoring/Monitoring Agency

  11. Seed and Germination Characteristics of 20 Amazonian Liana Species

    PubMed Central

    Roeder, Mareike; Ferraz, Isolde D. K.; Hölscher, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Lianas are an important component of tropical forests, and may reach their highest densities in disturbed areas. However, information on seed and germination characteristics is scarce. Twenty Amazon liana species were screened for their germination characteristics, including light dependence, tolerance of desiccation and of alternating temperatures; these characteristics are considered important for the germination success in areas with relatively open canopies. Between 31–1,420 seeds per species were available, as 15 species seeds came from one mother plant. We studied seed biometry and conducted germination trials with fresh seeds (12 h light daily, or dark) and desiccated seeds at 25 °C. Germination at alternating temperatures (20/30 °C, 15/35 °C) was analyzed for nine species. Of the 20 species, eight species with the largest seeds had desiccation sensitive seeds; this is the first record for species of four genera and one family, where only desiccation tolerant seeds are otherwise recorded. Light-dependent germination was found in three species (0.01–0.015 g) and is the first record for two; however, results were based on seeds from one plant per species. Alternating temperatures of 15/35 °C decreased final germination of four out of nine species, and response to 20/30 °C cycles varied compared to constant 25 °C. Seed and germination characteristics of the species ranged from pioneer to climax traits indicating that establishment of lianas from seeds may be confined to species specific niches. PMID:27137363

  12. Fine morphology of frontal filaments in nauplii of cirriped crustaceans.

    PubMed

    Obukhova, A L; Voronezhskaya, E E; Malakhov, V V

    2016-05-01

    Fine morphology of the frontal filaments (FFs) at all nauplius stages of two barnacle species (Verruca stroemia and Hesperibalanus hesperius) has been investigated by scanning electron microscopy. FFs have been detected at the second nauplius stage and persist during all stages. FFs contain a wide proximal and a fine distal parts, but they are not actually separated as segments of the limbs, and the area between them looks like a single cuticular crease. Apical and subapical pores have been found at the top of each FF in the larvae of both species, which may indicate the chemoreceptor function of these organs.

  13. Retina and Optic Disc Characteristics in Amblyopic and Non-amblyopic Eyes of Patients with Myopic or Hyperopic Anisometropia

    PubMed Central

    Taşkıran Çömez, Arzu; Şanal Ulu, Elif; Ekim, Yeliz

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To compare retinal and optic disc characteristics between amblyopic and non-amblyopic eyes in patients with myopic and hyperopic anisometropia measured with optical coherence tomography (OCT). Materials and Methods: Patients with myopic (25 patients: 17 female, 8 male; median age 27 years, range 16-40 years) and hyperopic (31 patients: 19 female, 12 male; median age 20 years, range 13-41 years) anisometropic amblyopia were included. Eye examination included determination of best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) with a Snellen chart, measurement of manifest and cycloplegic refraction after pupillary dilation, alternate cover testing, globe movement evaluation, A-scan biometry for axial length, biomicroscopy, fundus examination, and OCT scanning. Main outcome measures were spherical equivalence, BCVA, axial length, retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness, macular thickness, macular volume, and optic disc area. Results: In both myopic and hyperopic patients, the absolute value of the mean spherical equivalence was significantly greater in the amblyopic than non-amblyopic eyes, and the mean BCVA was significantly less in the amblyopic than the non-amblyopic eyes. In both myopic and hyperopic patients, there were no significant differences in mean RNFL thickness, macular thickness, macular volume, axial length, or optic disc area between amblyopic and non-amblyopic eyes. Conclusion: The amblyopic process may have no significant effect on the RNFL, macula, or optic disc. Further studies with more patients, including postmortem studies, may clarify the retinal, histopathologic, and anatomic differences between amblyopic and non-amblyopic eyes. PMID:28182148

  14. Sperm characteristics in plains (Bison bison bison) versus wood (Bison bison athabascae) bison.

    PubMed

    Pegge, Raymond B G; Krishnakumar, Sulochana; Whiteside, Douglas; Elkin, Brett; Parlevliet, Joyce M; Thundathil, Jacob C

    2011-04-15

    The objective was to compare sperm characteristics between the two subspecies of North American bison, plains bison (Bison bison bison) and wood bison (Bison bison athabascae). Frozen-thawed ejaculated sperm from age-matched plains (n = 3) and wood (n = 2) bison were evaluated for morphometry, motility, viability, protein profile, and in vitro fertilization characteristics. Sperm morphometry and motility were assessed with computer-based systems, viability was assessed with SYBR-14 and propidium iodide, and fertilizing ability was determined using a heterologous in vitro fertilization system (using bovine oocytes). For plains versus wood bison, there were significant differences for head width (4.76 ± 0.22 vs 4.71 ± 0.19 μm; mean ± SD), head area (35.64 ± 1.91 vs 34.72 ± 2.64 μm(2)), head perimeter (23.61 ± 0.68 vs 23.31 ± 0.98 μm), midpiece length (14.58 ± 0.4 vs 14.36 ± 0.51 μm), midpiece width (0.81 ± 0.06 vs 0.79 ± 0.07 μm), and tail length (46.61 ± 2.15 vs 45.98 ± 2.08 μm). However, there was no significant difference in head length (overall, 9.04 ± 0.37 μm), progressive motility (41.16 ± 8.39%), or viability (41.58 ± 5.58%). Based on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, 93 out of 113 protein spots were similar in their expression patterns. Furthermore, we inferred that differences in sperm biometry between these subspecies did not affect in vitro fertilization percentage (overall, 82.62 ± 12.13%). Based on these findings, we concluded that plains bison were an appropriate research model for developing reproductive technologies for wood bison.

  15. Biometry and the IBS--Strength through diversity.

    PubMed

    Mead, Andrew

    2009-03-01

    The International Biometric Society (IBS) brings together members from a diversity of cultural backgrounds, organized into geographically based Regions and National Groups, and covering a diverse range of interests, in terms of both methodological topics and application areas. We briefly reflect on how the historical development of our science, society, and international conferences reflects this diversity, with a focus on the history of the British and Irish Region of the IBS. Then, by considering the cultural/geographical diversity of the society, and the scientific diversity of the society and biometricians, we identify both some strengths of the society (diverse topics for meetings arranged across the world, application of biometrical methods to diverse application areas, management of the society by members from a diversity of backgrounds) and also some current challenges (electronic delivery of journals and other information, the diversity of application areas addressed by members of the society, improving links with the scientific societies of those who motivate our research). Finally, we illustrate the diversity of scientific problems that each of us face in our roles as biometricians.

  16. Optical biometry of biological tissues by ellipsoidal reflectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezuglyi, M. A.; Pavlovets, N. V.

    2013-06-01

    Possibilities of measuring systems that uses ellipsoidal reflectors for determining the optical parameters of biological tissue are studied. The modified inverse Monte Carlo method was designed for biomedical photometric system "biological tissue - ellipsoidal mirror."

  17. Foetal biometry in polyhydramnios: Does femur length fall behind?

    PubMed

    Ipek, Ali; Idilman, Ilkay S; Kurt, Aydın; Cay, Nurdan; Unal, Ozlem; Erdogan, Beyza Doganay; Keskin, Huseyin Levent; Arslan, Halil

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to identify the growth patterns in polyhydramnios, and therefore evaluated 108 singleton pregnancies complicated with polyhydramnios according to the changes in biparietal diameter (BPD), abdominal circumference (AC) and femur length (FL) percentiles. The pregnancy outcomes according to the growth features were analysed. In the study population, BPD and AC percentiles exhibited a significant increase (p = 0.023 and 0.05, respectively), although FL percentiles showed a significant decrease (p = 0.006) according to the changes in third trimester relative to second trimester. In the overgrown group (n = 52), the FL/BPD ratio was lower (p < 0.001), with more foetuses with FL/BPD ratios below 71 (p = 0.05). In conclusion, there was a significant increase in BPD and AC percentiles and a decrease in FL percentiles in third trimester relative to second trimester in foetuses with polyhydramnios. However, we observed a shorter FL and a lower FL/BPD ratio without associated skeletal dysplasia in overgrown foetuses.

  18. Biometry Meetings and Events | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  19. Characteristic Curves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walkiewicz, Thomas A.; Kirk, James R.

    1994-01-01

    Describes an experiment designed to help students gain a better understanding of the characteristics of various electronic components by incorporating a dual-trace oscilloscope in the X-Y mode in addition to direct observations of phase shifts of various signals into a laboratory exercise. (ZWH)

  20. Temperature and salinity effects on cadmium toxicity on lethal and sublethal responses of Amphibalanus amphitrite nauplii.

    PubMed

    Piazza, Veronica; Gambardella, Chiara; Canepa, Sara; Costa, Elisa; Faimali, Marco; Garaventa, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    The official protocol of an ecotoxicological assay employing larvae of the crustacean Amphibalanus amphitrite as a model organism has recently been published by the Italian regulatory authority UNICHIM. Such assay is now one of the applicable tests for water quality assessment under Italian law. While specific temperature and salinity values are recommended by ecotoxicology bioassay protocols for test set up, little information is available on response changes in case of parameter variations. In particular, information is totally lacking for this innovative model organism. Under the standard test protocol, 20°C and 37‰ temperature and salinity, respectively, are required to be set in A. amphitrite bioassay. In order to evaluate the environmental relevance of the test, laboratory experiments simulating the effect on larval responses due to variations of temperature and salinity expected in field collected samples were carried out. The effect of temperature and salinity changes on different end-points, involving increasing sensitivity levels, has been investigated, with and without the presence of cadmium nitrate, Cd(NO3)2, as a reference toxicant, to determine the possible interactions between pollutants and environmental parameters fluctuations. Three end-points - mortality, immobilization, and swimming speed alteration - were measured in order to evaluate the impact of a wide range of temperature (5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40°C) and salinity values (10, 20, 30, 37, 40, 50, 60, 70‰) on response variation after 24 and 48h of exposure. For each parameter, a Non-Effect Range (NER) - namely the limit values within which no effect related to environmental parameter changes is observed - has been defined. For both parameters, NER resulted to be wider for the less sensitive end-points - such as mortality and immobilization - and for shorter exposure time (24h). Later, the same end-points have been evaluated by exposing the same organisms to a reference toxic compound, Cd(NO3)2 (0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, 1.6, 3.2mg/L), within the detected NER both for temperature and salinity. LC50 and EC50 values have been calculated for each end-point after 24 and 48h. Cadmium toxicity was shown to decrease at higher salinity values and increase at higher temperatures. Obtained results offer a better bioassay characterization, and the possibility of a more realistic estimation of ecotoxicological assessments performed on field collected samples. Further studies are needed, especially to investigate the effects of simultaneous salinity and temperature changes on end-points.

  1. Thermistor Characteristics and Stability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fricker, H. S.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the uses of thermistors in teaching electronics and semiconductors. Describes how to experimentally measure and graph the characteristics of a thermistor. Suggests one possible approach to understand the shapes of the characteristics. (CW)

  2. Theory of Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tollmien, W.

    1949-01-01

    The theory of characteristics will be presented generally for quasilinear differential equations of the second order in two variables. This is necessary because of the manifold requirements to be demanded from the theory of characteristics.

  3. Wetland Characteristics and Denitrification

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation serves as an initial summary of our wetland field work's watershed characteristics hydrologic characteristics, water quality measurements, and denitrification assays. We present our measurement results in the context of wetland type (Estuarine, Freshwater Mars...

  4. Characteristics of Successful Entrepreneurs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClelland, David C.

    1987-01-01

    Comparison of characteristics of 12 average and 12 superior small business people in three developing nations (India, Malawi, and Ecuador) found proactive qualities such as initiative and assertiveness, achievement orientation, and commitment to others characteristic of successful entrepreneurs. Other expected qualities (self-confidence,…

  5. Aircraft compass characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, John B; Smith, Clyde W

    1937-01-01

    A description of the test methods used at the National Bureau of Standards for determining the characteristics of aircraft compasses is given. The methods described are particularly applicable to compasses in which mineral oil is used as the damping liquid. Data on the viscosity and density of certain mineral oils used in United States Navy aircraft compasses are presented. Characteristics of Navy aircraft compasses IV to IX and some other compasses are shown for the range of temperatures experienced in flight. Results of flight tests are presented. These results indicate that the characteristic most desired in a steering compass is a short period and, in a check compass, a low overswing.

  6. Onboard Navigation Systems Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The space shuttle onboard navigation systems characteristics are described. A standard source of equations and numerical data for use in error analyses and mission simulations related to space shuttle development is reported. The sensor characteristics described are used for shuttle onboard navigation performance assessment. The use of complete models in the studies depend on the analyses to be performed, the capabilities of the computer programs, and the availability of computer resources.

  7. Housing characteristics 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    This report, Housing Characteristics 1993, presents statistics about the energy-related characteristics of US households. These data were collected in the 1993 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) -- the ninth in a series of nationwide energy consumption surveys conducted since 1978 by the Energy Information Administration of the US Department of Energy. Over 7 thousand households were surveyed, representing 97 million households nationwide. A second report, to be released in late 1995, will present statistics on residential energy consumption and expenditures.

  8. Characteristics of intuitive nurses.

    PubMed

    Miller, V G

    1995-06-01

    A description is provided of the process used to verify characteristics of intuitive nurses that had been reported in the literature. These characteristics supplied the framework for construction of the Miller Intuitiveness Instrument (MII) reported earlier (Miller, 1993). Evidence for validity of the MII was provided in the Miller (1993) study by examining factor analyses and correlations with the intuitive component of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). The following characteristics were subsequently verified: Intuitive nurses are willing to act on their intuitions, are skilled clinicians, and incorporate a spiritual component in their practices. In addition, intuitive nurses express an interest in the abstract nature of things and are risk takers. Intuitive nurses prefer intuition to sensing (as reflected by the MBTI) as a way to take in information. They are extroverted and express confidence in their intuitions. Likewise, nurses who delay making decisions until all the information is in are more intuitive than those who make decisions abruptly.

  9. Commercial Buildings Characteristics, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-29

    Commercial Buildings Characteristics 1992 presents statistics about the number, type, and size of commercial buildings in the United States as well as their energy-related characteristics. These data are collected in the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), a national survey of buildings in the commercial sector. The 1992 CBECS is the fifth in a series conducted since 1979 by the Energy Information Administration. Approximately 6,600 commercial buildings were surveyed, representing the characteristics and energy consumption of 4.8 million commercial buildings and 67.9 billion square feet of commercial floorspace nationwide. Overall, the amount of commercial floorspace in the United States increased an average of 2.4 percent annually between 1989 and 1992, while the number of commercial buildings increased an average of 2.0 percent annually.

  10. Watershed geomorphological characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fitzpatrick, Faith

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes commonly used geomorphological characteristics that are useful for analyzing watershed-scale hydrology and sediment dynamics. It includes calculations and measurements for stream network features and areal basin characteristics that cover a range of spatial and temporal scales and dimensions of watersheds. Construction and application of longitudinal profiles are described in terms of understanding the three-dimensional development of stream networks. A brief discussion of outstanding problems and directions for future work, particularly as they relate to water-resources management, is provided. Notations with preferred units are given.

  11. Metering Characteristics of Carburetors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tice, Percival S; Dickinson, H C

    1919-01-01

    Report presents the results of an extensive experimental investigation of the performance of different types of carburetors as effecting the maintenance under all conditions of correct ratio between the weights of fuel and air. It also gives a description of the Bureau of Standards carburetor test plant, test equipment and measuring instruments used to determine the metering characteristics of carburetors.

  12. Gender and Learner Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hindal, Huda; Reid, Norman; Whitehead, Rex

    2013-01-01

    It is well established that girls and boys perform differently in traditional examinations in most countries. This study looks at a sample of 754 school students in Kuwait (aged about 13) and explores how boys and girls differ in the performance in a range of tests related to learner characteristics. The fundamental question is how boys and girls…

  13. Personality Characteristics of Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Molen, Henk T.; Schmidt, Henk G.; Kruisman, Gerard

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to investigate the personality characteristics of a group of engineers with a variety of years of experience. It was executed to remedy shortcomings of the literature concerning this issue and to produce suggestions for a postgraduate training programme for engineers. A total of 103 engineers were tested with…

  14. Characteristics of USB noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, J. S.; Searle, N.

    1976-01-01

    An extensive series of noise measurements, for a variety of geometric and operational parameters, was made on models of upper surface blowing (USB) powered lift systems. The data obtained were analyzed and the effects and trends of parametric variation defined. The behavior and nature of USB noise and the design of USB systems with low noise characteristics is examined.

  15. Characteristics of Excellent Principals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batsis, Thomas M.

    Recent business and education publications have stressed the excellence concept and the pivotal role of the executive. While effective business leaders are thought to possess certain characteristics, no consensus exists concerning educational leaders' roles. Although instructional leadership has received most attention in education literature,…

  16. Characteristics of healthcare wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz, L.F. Eggerth, L.L.; Enkhtsetseg, Sh.; Savage, G.M.

    2008-07-01

    A comprehensive understanding of the quantities and characteristics of the material that needs to be managed is one of the most basic steps in the development of a plan for solid waste management. In this case, the material under consideration is the solid waste generated in healthcare facilities, also known as healthcare waste. Unfortunately, limited reliable information is available in the open literature on the quantities and characteristics of the various types of wastes that are generated in healthcare facilities. Thus, sound management of these wastes, particularly in developing countries, often is problematic. This article provides information on the quantities and properties of healthcare wastes in various types of facilities located in developing countries, as well as in some industrialized countries. Most of the information has been obtained from the open literature, although some information has been collected by the authors and from reports available to the authors. Only data collected within approximately the last 15 years and using prescribed methodologies are presented. The range of hospital waste generation (both infectious and mixed solid waste fractions) varies from 0.016 to 3.23 kg/bed-day. The relatively wide variation is due to the fact that some of the facilities surveyed in Ulaanbaatar include out-patient services and district health clinics; these facilities essentially provide very basic services and thus the quantities of waste generated are relatively small. On the other hand, the reported amount of infectious (clinical, yellow bag) waste varied from 0.01 to 0.65 kg/bed-day. The characteristics of the components of healthcare wastes, such as the bulk density and the calorific value, have substantial variability. This literature review and the associated attempt at a comparative analysis point to the need for worldwide consensus on the terms and characteristics that describe wastes from healthcare facilities. Such a consensus would greatly

  17. Advanced turboprop vibratory characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, A. V.; Fulton, G. B.

    1984-01-01

    The assembly of SR5 advanced turboprop blades to develop a structural dynamic data base for swept props is reported. Steady state blade deformation under centrifugal loading and vibratory characteristics of the rotor assembly were measured. Vibration was induced through a system of piezoelectric crystals attached to the blades. Data reduction procedures are used to provide deformation, mode shape, and frequencies of the assembly at predetermined speeds.

  18. Combustion Characteristics of Sprays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-01

    regarded by implication or otherwise, or in any way licensing the holder or any other person or corporation, or conveying any rights or permission to...00 _’N 1. TI TLE inctuat Security CZaaafication5 Combustion Characteristics of Sprays 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Sohrab, Siavash H. 13& TYPE OF REPORT...to ?!HF of rich butane/air 3unsen flames. .lso, the rotacion speed and :he oerodic temDeracure fluc:uations of rotacfng ?HF are examined. :’!naily

  19. Air Superiority Fighter Characteristics.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-06-05

    many a dispute could have been deflated into a single paragraph if the disputants had just dared to define their terms.7 Aristotle ...meaningful. This section will expand on some key ideology concepts. The phrase "air superiority fighter" may bring to mind visions of fighter... biographies are useful in garnering airpower advocate theories as well as identifying key characteristics. Air campaign results, starting with World

  20. Accuracy of optical biometry combined with Placido disc corneal topography for intraocular lens power calculation

    PubMed Central

    Savini, Giacomo; Hoffer, Kenneth J.; Barboni, Piero; Balducci, Nicole; Schiano-Lomoriello, Domenico; Ducoli, Pietro

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the accuracy of a new optical biometer for intraocular lens (IOL) power calculation in eyes undergoing cataract surgery. Methods Consecutive eyes of patients undergoing cataract surgery with the same IOL model were enrolled in a prospective cohort study. Axial length (AL) and corneal power were measured with an optical biometer based on optical low-coherence interferometry and Placido-disc corneal topography. IOL power was calculated with the Hoffer Q, Holladay 1 and SRK/T formulas. For each formula the lens constant was optimized in retrospect in order to achieve a mean prediction error (PE) of zero (difference between the predicted and the postoperative refraction). Median absolute error (MedAE) and percentage of eyes with PE ±0.50 D were calculated. Results Seventy-four eyes of 74 cataract patients were enrolled. The MedAE was 0.25 D with all formulas. A PE within ±0.50 D was obtained in 89.04% of cases with the Hoffer Q and SRK/T formulas, and in 87.67% of cases with the Holladay 1 formula. Conclusions The optical biometer investigated in the present study provides accurate measurements for IOL power calculation. PMID:28231267

  1. Ocular biometry in an urban Indian population: the Singapore Indian Eye Study (SINDI).

    PubMed

    Pan, Chen-Wei; Wong, Tien-Yin; Chang, Lan; Lin, Xiao-Yu; Lavanya, Raghavan; Zheng, Ying-Feng; Kok, Yee-Onn; Wu, Ren-Yi; Aung, Tin; Saw, Seang-Mei

    2011-08-22

    PURPOSE. To describe the distribution and determinants of ocular biometric parameters in adult Singapore Indians. METHODS. A population-based, cross-sectional study was conducted on 3400 Indians aged 40 to 83 years residing in Singapore. Ocular components including axial length (AL), anterior chamber depth (ACD), and corneal radius (CR) were measured by partial coherence interferometry. Refraction was recorded in spherical equivalent (SE). RESULTS. After 502 individuals with previous cataract surgery were excluded, ocular biometric data on 2785 adults were analyzed. The mean AL, ACD, and CR were 23.45 ± 1.10, 3.15 ± 0.36, and 7.61 ± 0.26 mm, respectively. The mean AL/CR ratio was 3.08 ± 0.13. The mean AL was 23.53, 23.49, 23.35, and 23.25 mm in 40- to 49-, 50- to 59-, 60- to 69-, and 700 to 83-year age groups, respectively (P < 0.001). Men had significantly longer ALs than women (23.68 mm versus 23.23 mm, P < 0.001). In multivariate linear regression models, AL was found to be longer in adults who were taller (P < 0.001), better educated (University, P < 0.001), and more apt to spend time reading (P < 0.001). Increasing CR was associated with increasing height (P = 0.008). AL was the strongest determinant for refraction in all age groups, whereas lens nuclear opacity was a predictor in adults aged 60 to 83 years. CONCLUSIONS. The AL in Indians living in Singapore was similar to that of Malays in Singapore, but longer than that of Indians living in India. Time spent reading, height, and educational level were the strongest determinants of AL. AL was the strongest predictor of SE in all age groups.

  2. Measurement of anterior chamber diameter and biometry of anterior segment by Scheimpflug slitlamp photography

    SciTech Connect

    Lerman, S.; Hockwin, O.

    1985-03-01

    Twenty-eight fresh donor eyes (Georgia Lions Eye Bank) ranging in age from four months to 87 years were used for an in vitro study to determine the feasibility of obtaining accurate anterior chamber diameter measurements with our Scheimpflug ultraviolet-visible slitlamp densitography apparatus. The in vivo study was performed on 16 hybrid monkeys (of varying age). These data were within 0.1 mm of measurements obtained with a modified paracentesis needle specially designed to obtain such measurements. The results of the foregoing study demonstrate that the Scheimpflug slitlamp photographic analyses can provide an accurate measurement of the anterior chamber diameter without entering the globe surgically. This will enable the surgeon to determine the diameter and order an anterior chamber IOL of a specified size prior to surgery. The authors have devised an automated program to analyze the negatives and provide direct anterior chamber diameter measurements.

  3. Biometry of stomata in Blechnum species (Blechnaceae) with some taxonomic and ecological implications for the ferns.

    PubMed

    Gabriel y Galán, José María; Prada, Carmen; Rolleri, Cristina H; Lahoz-Beltrá, Rafael; Martínez-Calvo, Cristina

    2011-03-01

    Morphological stomatal traits, such as size, form and frequency, have been subject of much literature, including their relationships with environmental factors. However, little effort have focused on ferns, and very few in the genus Blechnum. Stomatal length, width and frequency (as stomatal index) of a number of specimens of fourteen Neotropical species of Blechnum were measured in adult pinnae. The aim of the work was to find biometrical relationships between stomatal traits and between stomatal traits and habit, habitat and ecosystem of the plants. Statistical analyses of data were conducted using Exploratory Data Analysis and Multivariate Statistical Methods. Stomatal length and width showed a very high correlation, suggesting an endogenous, genetic control, thus giving these traits a considerable diagnostic utility. With respect to the relationships between stomatal traits and environment, we found significant statistical relationships between altitude and stomatal index. We also addressed the interpretation of the ecological-selective significance of various assemblages of stomatal traits in a diverse conjunction of habits, habitats and ecosystems.

  4. PALEOBIOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL BIOMETRY ON LARGER BENTHIC FORAMINIFERA: A NEW ROUTE OF DISCOVERIES.

    PubMed

    Briguglio, Antonino; Hohenegger, Johann; Less, György

    2013-01-01

    Four specimens of larger benthic foraminifera (the Recent Palaeonummulites venosus and Operculina ammonoides, and the phylogenetically related Paleogene Nummulites fabianii and N. fichteli) were investigated by X-ray tomography. The resulting three-dimensional measurements enabled a comprehensive, quantitative study of shell morphology to interpret cell growth without specific shell preparation and/or destruction. After segmentation and extraction of all scanned lumina, the following characters were measured on all chambers of each specimen: chamber volume, septal distance, chamber height, and chamber width. The sequence of chamber lumina follows either a logistic function (Palaeonummulites, Operculina), where the deceleration in growth rate of the latest chambers could mark the onset of reproduction, or it can be modeled by a series of stepwise functions with differing constants (Nummulites). Variations around the growth model are either periodic, following external cycles, or random as expressed by abrupt deviations. Therefore, they may reflect the response of the cell to environmental changes in terms of cyclic changes (e.g., seasonality) or single events (e.g., predator attack). Correlations between chamber volume and the other chamber parameters show that septal distance always matches the sequence in chamber volume and can therefore be used as a proxy for environmental analyses in both growth models. Chamber height and width often remain constant around their function and rarely deviate drastically to accommodate the needed lumen for retaining test size and shape. Chamber width may vary according to chamber volume in involute specimens, whereas both chamber height and width correlate with volume in those tests following an Archimedean spiral. X-ray-tomography shows particular promise in determining which parameters that can be assessed routinely in two dimensions primarily reflect environmental conditions vs. parameters best used for taxonomic identification and for systematic lineage reconstruction.

  5. Relationships between fetal biometry, maternal factors and birth weight of purebred domestic cat kittens.

    PubMed

    Gatel, L; Rosset, E; Chalvet-Monfray, K; Buff, S; Rault, D N

    2011-12-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the relation between kittens' birth weights and biometrical factors from the kittens and the mother during pregnancy. Knowing fetal birth weight could help in detecting abnormalities before parturition. A Caesarean-section or a postnatal management plan could be scheduled. Consequently, the neonatal mortality rate should be decreased. We used ultrasonographic measurements of femur length (FL) or fetal biparietal diameter (BPD), pregnancies, and maternal factors to obtain a model of prediction. For this purpose, linear mixed-effects models were used because of random effects (several fetuses for one queen and a few paired measurements) and fixed effects (litter size, pregnancy rank, weight, wither height, and age of the queen). This study was performed in 24 purebred queens with normal pregnancies and normal body conditions. Queens were scanned in the second half of pregnancy, using a micro-convex probe. They gave birth to 140 healthy kittens whose mean birth weight was 104 g (ranged 65 to 165 g). No correlation between the birth weight and the age of the queen, as a maternal factor alone, was observed. But the birth weight was found to be inversely proportional to the pregnancy rank and the litter size. Moreover, birth weight increased when the weight and wither height of queen increased. BPD and FL increased linearly during pregnancy so a model was used to estimate mean birth weight. Using this model, we found a correlation between mean birth weights and an association of parameters: maternal factors (wither height and age), and litter size.

  6. Biometry and phenology of two sibling Phylloscopus warblers on their circum-Mediterranean migrations

    PubMed Central

    Zduniak, Piotr; Yosef, Reuven; Bensusan, Keith J.; Perez, Charles E.; Tryjanowski, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Mediterranean Sea is known as an ecological barrier for numerous migratory birds flying from European breeding grounds to African wintering sites. Birds generally avoid migration over open sea and fly over land. In the Mediterranean Basin, few land bridges or bottlenecks for migratory birds exist. The narrowest are at the western and eastern extremes: the Strait of Gibraltar and Israel. Comparative studies between these locations are extremely rare to date. Therefore, in order to elucidate the differences between the two flyways, we compared data collected simultaneously for two sister leaf warbler species, the Bonelli’s Warbler complex, Phylloscopus bonelli and Phylloscopus orientalis, at ringing stations in the western Mediterranean Basin Gibraltar, and the eastern Eilat, Israel. Data on biometrics and passage dates of individuals trapped at Gibraltar and Eilat were used, and it was found that mean arrival date of Western Bonelli’s Warblers at Gibraltar was 15 days later than Eastern Bonelli’s Warblers at Eilat. Furthermore, Western Bonelli’s Warblers had shorter wings than Eastern Bonelli’s Warblers. On the other hand, birds in Eilat were in poorer body condition than individuals in Gibraltar. The comparison between geographically distant stop-over sites contributes to furthering our understanding of the development of migration strategies across ecological barriers in sibling species. Our study showed that populations that breed in southwestern Europe migrate through Gibraltar and winter in West Africa are able to accomplish migration in comparatively good body condition. This is in contrast to those that winter in East Africa, migrate through Israel and have to endure the combined challenge of crossing the Sahel, Sahara and Sinai deserts before reaching their breeding grounds across southeast Europe and southwest Asia. Hence, the discrepancies described between the western and the eastern flyway suggest that individuals in the west, in general, migrate shorter distances, have a physiologically less demanding crossing of the North African deserts and appear to stage before their crossing the Strait of Gibraltar, a privilege unavailable to the migrants of the eastern flyway. PMID:26692801

  7. Eopolydiexodina (Middle Permian giant fusulinids) from Afghanistan: Biometry, morphometry, paleobiogeography, and end-Guadalupian events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colpaert, Clémentine; Monnet, Claude; Vachard, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    The most spectacular macroevolutionary trend presented by the genera of schwagerinoid fusulinids, during the Pennsylvanian -Permian, is an enormous increase in size, which culminated in the Middle Permian with Eopolydiexodina. However, this potential major biogeographic marker, during the Kubergandian-early Midian time interval, is as yet hampered by its poor taxonomic characterization. Hence, Eopolydiexodina is revised here using biometric and morphometric methods applied to large collections from Afghanistan and selected taxa in the literature. These multivariate analyses consist of classical linear test parameters, as well as new area parameters acquired by computer image analysis. The Afghan species are re-defined, and some other species, occasionally described as Cimmerian, are re-discussed. These methods, combined with classical morphological analyses, also permit to conclude that the largest Eopolydiexodina of Afghanistan are microspheric specimens (probably agamonts) of E. afghanensis and E. bithynica. Two megalospheric groups of individuals (probably gamonts and schizonts) are represented in both species, as well as in E. persica and E. darvasica. Due to this presence of gamonts, agamonts and schizonts in several species, Eopolydiexodina is probably the oldest identified trimorphic genus among the large benthic foraminifers. Biostratigraphically, Eopolydiexodina appears restricted to the late Kubergandian to early Midian. The associated Afghan fusulinids (Dunbarula, Kahlerina, Afghanella, Yangchienia, Sumatrina, and Codonofusiella) allow proposing an accurate biostratigraphy of the Eopolydiexodina species in the Murgabian-Midian boundary interval. Paleobiogeographically, Eopolydiexodina was essentially located in the Laurentian and Perigondwanan borders of the Tethys. The possible presence of Eopolydiexodina in the Cimmerian Continent and in some regions of China has never been irrefutably demonstrated. This paleobiological revision of Eopolydiexodina and the biostratigraphic revision of other large Capitanian fusulinids, permit to suggest that the end-Guadalupian event is most probably a protracted succession of last appearance data of giant genera rather than an instantaneous Lilliput effect at the Capitanian/Wuchiapingian boundary.

  8. Ultrasound signal processing for characterization and enhanced biometry of the cornea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silverman, Ronald H.; Reinstein, Dan Z.; Lizzi, Frederick L.; Coleman, D. J.

    2001-05-01

    Purpose: The cornea acts as the window of the eye's optical system, and its chief refractive component. The lack of intervening tissues makes the cornea accessible to very high frequency ultrasonic study. In this report, we detail use of radiofrequency (RF) signal processing methods to characterize corneal pathology and to enhance biometric precision. Methods: Using a 50 MHz PVDF transducer, we scanned the cornea using an arc motion so as to maintain normality and consistent range. RF data were acquired at a sample rate of 500 MHz. Deconvolution against a glass-plate echo allowed biometric enhancement (by effectively broadening the bandwidth) and measurement of tissue backscatter spectra. Results: Calibrated spectrum analysis was used to quantitatively measure backscatter in corneal scars and other pathologies. Signal processing allowed us to attain reproducibility for repeated measurements of the corneal epithelium (approximately 50 microns thick) to 1 micron. By combining measurements from a series of planes, maps of the thickness of the individual layers comprising the cornea were produced. Conclusion: The layers of the cornea have different optical refractive indices, and thus their thicknesses directly affect visual acuity. The scattering of light by a corneal scar is caused by inhomogeneities or irregularities that may result in acoustic backscatter as well. The ability of ultrasound to quantify backscatter and corneal layer thickness provides a new avenue for diagnosis of corneal disease and refractive abnormalities.

  9. Magnesium battery disposal characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soffer, Louis; Atwater, Terrill

    1994-12-01

    This study assesses the disposal characteristics of U.S. Army procured military magnesium batteries under current Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous waste identification regulations administered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Magnesium batteries were tested at 100, 50, 10 and 0 percent remaining state of charge. Present findings indicate that magnesium batteries with less than 50 percent remaining charge do not exceed the federal regulatory limit of 5.0 mg/L for chromium. All other RCRA contaminates were below regulatory limits at all levels of remaining charge. Assay methods, findings, disposal requirements and design implications are discussed.

  10. [Nanobacteria--microbiological characteristics].

    PubMed

    Wilk, Iwona; Martirosian, Gayane

    2004-03-03

    We have reviewed recent publications regarding the microbiological characteristic and pathogenicity of a novel infectious agent, the mineral-forming, sterile-filterable, slow-growing Gram-negative Nanobacteria, detected in bovine/human blood, kidney cyst fluid, urine and kidney stones. According to their 16S rDNA structure, nanobacteria belong to the alpha-2 Proteobacteria, subgroup, which includes the Brucella and Bartonella species. Their cell diameter is 0.2-0.5 microm (the smallest known cell-walled bacteria). Their most remarkable characteristic is the formation of carbonate apatite crystals of neutral pH and at physiologic phosphate and calcium concentrations. The extracellular mineralization forms a hard protective shelter for these hardy microorganisms, and enables them to survive conditions of physical stress that would be lethal to most other bacterial species. The Olavi Kajander group (Finland) suggests that the apatite produced by nanobacteria may play a key role in the formation of all kidney stones, by providing a central calcium phosphate deposit around which other crystalline components can collect. Nanobacteria seems to be a causative agent of diseases related to biomineralization processes.

  11. Optical characteristics of lightning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, S. J.

    1985-01-01

    A study of the optical characteristics of cloud-to-ground dischargers and how they compare with intracloud flashes was completed. Time resolved optical (7774A) and electric field-change waveforms were measured above clouds from a U2 airplane coincident with ground-based measurements of lightning. The optical pulse trains are studied for within and between flash variability. Specifically, for each flash researchers examine the 10, 50 (full width half maximum), and 90 percent pulse widths; the 10-10, 10-50, 10-90, and 10-peak percent amplitude rise times; the radiances (optical power densities); radiant energy densities; and pulse intervals. The optical pulse characteristics of first strokes, subsequent strokes, the intracloud components of cloud-to-ground flashes and intracloud flashes as viewed from above cloud are shown to exhibit very similar waveshapes, radiances and radiant energy densities. Descriptive statistics on these pulse categories were tabulated for 25 visually confirmed cloud-to-ground flashes (229 optical pulses) and 232 intracloud flashes (3126 optical pulses). A companion study of lightning observations above and below cloud in storms, storm complexes, and mesoscale convective systems has also been completed. Researchers compared the mapping of total lightning activity from above clouds with ground-based measurements and storm evolution. Although the total (IC + CG) lightning activity is the more representative indication of thunderstorm growth and decay, the ground strike data can be used to locate, diagnose, and track storm evolution in a number of instances.

  12. Wafer characteristics via reflectometry

    DOEpatents

    Sopori, Bhushan L.

    2010-10-19

    Various exemplary methods (800, 900, 1000, 1100) are directed to determining wafer thickness and/or wafer surface characteristics. An exemplary method (900) includes measuring reflectance of a wafer and comparing the measured reflectance to a calculated reflectance or a reflectance stored in a database. Another exemplary method (800) includes positioning a wafer on a reflecting support to extend a reflectance range. An exemplary device (200) has an input (210), analysis modules (222-228) and optionally a database (230). Various exemplary reflectometer chambers (1300, 1400) include radiation sources positioned at a first altitudinal angle (1308, 1408) and at a second altitudinal angle (1312, 1412). An exemplary method includes selecting radiation sources positioned at various altitudinal angles. An exemplary element (1650, 1850) includes a first aperture (1654, 1854) and a second aperture (1658, 1858) that can transmit reflected radiation to a fiber and an imager, respectfully.

  13. Three Characteristics of Effective Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Natalie A.

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses three characteristics that are often associated with successful music educators. The three characteristics discussed include nonverbal communication, teacher self-efficacy, and servant leadership. Although there is no magical combination of characteristics that will produce an effective music teacher, these three attributes…

  14. Teacher Retention: Teacher Characteristics, School Characteristics, Organizational Characteristics, and Teacher Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Gail D.

    2012-01-01

    The researcher utilized block-entry regression analysis to determine the impacts of teacher characteristics, school characteristics, organizational characteristics, and teacher efficacy on retention in teaching from 782 teacher surveys. Findings indicated that 83.50% of participants planned to teach until retirement. Wald statistics indicated that…

  15. Characteristics of Pulsating Aurora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humberset, B. K.; Gjerloev, J. W.; Mann, I. R.; Samara, M.; Michell, R.

    2013-12-01

    We have investigated the spatiotemporal characteristics of pulsating auroral patches observed with an all-sky imager located at Poker Flat, Alaska. Pulsating aurora often covers the entire sky with intermixed large and small-scale patches that vary in intensity or disappear and reappear on different time scales and timings. The broad definition of pulsating aurora covers patches and bands from tens to several tens of km which have a quasi-periodic temporal variation from 1 s to tens of seconds. In this paper we examine >15 patches from different events. We analyze all-sky movies (557.7 nm, 3.31 Hz) with a simple, yet robust, technique that allows us to determine the scale size dependent variability of the >15 individual patches. A spatial 2D Fourier Transform is used to separate the aurora into different horizontal scale sizes, and by correlating each patch for all image separations and available scale sizes smaller than the patch itself, we reveal what scale sizes are pulsating and their variability. The patches are found to be persistent, meaning that we can follow them for typically 5 minutes. The period of the pulsations is often remarkably variable and it seems that only certain scale sizes pulsate (typically the size of the patch). The patches drift with the background ExB plasma drift indicating that the magnetospheric source mechanism drifts with the field lines.

  16. Sensor Characteristics Reference Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Cree, Johnathan V.; Dansu, A.; Fuhr, P.; Lanzisera, Steven M.; McIntyre, T.; Muehleisen, Ralph T.; Starke, M.; Banerjee, Pranab; Kuruganti, T.; Castello, C.

    2013-04-01

    The Buildings Technologies Office (BTO), within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), is initiating a new program in Sensor and Controls. The vision of this program is: • Buildings operating automatically and continuously at peak energy efficiency over their lifetimes and interoperating effectively with the electric power grid. • Buildings that are self-configuring, self-commissioning, self-learning, self-diagnosing, self-healing, and self-transacting to enable continuous peak performance. • Lower overall building operating costs and higher asset valuation. The overarching goal is to capture 30% energy savings by enhanced management of energy consuming assets and systems through development of cost-effective sensors and controls. One step in achieving this vision is the publication of this Sensor Characteristics Reference Guide. The purpose of the guide is to inform building owners and operators of the current status, capabilities, and limitations of sensor technologies. It is hoped that this guide will aid in the design and procurement process and result in successful implementation of building sensor and control systems. DOE will also use this guide to identify research priorities, develop future specifications for potential market adoption, and provide market clarity through unbiased information

  17. Restructured Freedom configuration characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Troutman, Patrick A.; Heck, Michael L.; Kumar, Renjith R.; Mazanek, Daniel D.

    1991-01-01

    In Jan. 1991, the LaRc SSFO performed an assessment of the configuration characteristics of the proposed pre-integrated Space Station Freedom (SSF) concept. Of particular concern was the relationship of solar array operation and orientation with respect to spacecraft controllability. For the man-tended configuration (MTC), it was determined that torque equilibrium attitude (TEA) seeking Control Moment Gyroscope (CMG) control laws could not always maintain attitude. The control problems occurred when the solar arrays were tracking the sun to produce full power while flying in an arrow or gravity gradient flight mode. The large solar array articulations that sometimes result from having the functions of the alpha and beta joints reversed on MTC induced large product of inertia changes that can invalidate the control system gains during an orbit. Several modified sun tracking techniques were evaluated with respect to producing a controllable configuration requiring no modifications to the CMG control algorithms. Another assessment involved the permanently manned configuration (PMC) which has a third asymmetric PV unit on one side of the transverse boom. Recommendations include constraining alpha rotations for MTC in the arrow and gravity gradient flight modes and perhaps developing new non-TEA seeking control laws. Recommendations for PMC include raising the operational altitude and moving to a symmetric configuration as soon as possible.

  18. Exploring Lightning Jump Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chronis, Themis; Carey, Larry D.; Schultz, Christopher J.; Schultz, Elise; Calhoun, Kristin; Goodman, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    This study is concerned with the characteristics of storms exhibiting an abrupt temporal increase in the total lightning flash rate (i.e., lightning jump, LJ). An automated storm tracking method is used to identify storm "clusters" and total lightning activity from three different lightning detection systems over Oklahoma, northern Alabama and Washington, D.C. On average and for different employed thresholds, the clusters that encompass at least one LJ (LJ1) last longer, relate to higher Maximum Expected Size of Hail, Vertical Integrated Liquid and lightning flash rates (area-normalized) than the clusters that did not exhibit any LJ (LJ0). The respective mean values for LJ1 (LJ0) clusters are 80 min (35 min), 14 mm (8 mm), 25 kg per square meter (18 kg per square meter) and 0.05 flash per min per square kilometer (0.01 flash per min per square kilometer). Furthermore, the LJ1 clusters are also characterized by slower decaying autocorrelation functions, a result that implies a less "random" behavior in the temporal flash rate evolution. In addition, the temporal occurrence of the last LJ provides an estimate of the time remaining to the storm's dissipation. Depending of the LJ strength (i.e., varying thresholds), these values typically range between 20-60 min, with stronger jumps indicating more time until storm decay. This study's results support the hypothesis that the LJ is a proxy for the storm's kinematic and microphysical state rather than a coincidental value.

  19. Pharmacological characteristics of metamizole.

    PubMed

    Jasiecka, A; Maślanka, T; Jaroszewski, J J

    2014-01-01

    Metamizole (dipyrone) is a popular analgetic, non-opioid drug, commonly used in human and veterinary medicine. In some cases, this agent is still incorrectly classified as a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). Metamizole is a pro-drug, which spontaneously breaks down after oral administration to structurally related pyrazolone compounds. Apart from its analgesic effect, the medication is an antipyretic and spasmolytic agent. The mechanism responsible for the analgesic effect is a complex one, and most probably rests on the inhibition of a central cyclooxygenase-3 and activation of the opioidergic system and cannabinoid system. Metamizole can block both PG-dependent and PG-independent pathways of fever induced by LPS, which suggests that this drug has a profile of antipyretic action distinctly different from that of NSAIDs. The mechanism responsible for the spasmolytic effect of metamizole is associated with the inhibited release of intracellular Ca2+ as a result of the reduced synthesis of inositol phosphate. Metamizole is predominantly applied in the therapy of pain of different etiology, of spastic conditions, especially affecting the digestive tract, and of fever refractory to other treatments. Co-administration of morphine and metamizole produces superadditive, antinociceptive effects. Metamizole is a relatively safe pharmaceutical preparation although it is not completely free from undesirable effects. Among these side-effects, the most serious one that raises most controversy is the myelotoxic effect. It seems that in the past the risk of metamizole-induced agranulocytosis was exaggerated. Despite the evidence showing no risk of teratogenic and embryotoxic effects, the drug must not be administered to pregnant women, although it is allowed to be given to pregnant and lactating animals. This paper seeks to describe the characteristics of metamizole in the light of current knowledge.

  20. [Cocaine - Characteristics and addiction].

    PubMed

    Girczys-Połedniok, Katarzyna; Pudlo, Robert; Jarząb, Magdalena; Szymlak, Agnieszka

    Cocaine use leads to health, social and legal problems. The aim of this paper is to discuss cocaine action, addicts characteristics, use patterns and consequences, as well as addiction treatment methods. A literature review was based on the Medline, PubMed, Polish Medical Bibliography databases and the Silesian Library resources. The Police and Central Statistical Office statistics, as well as the World Health Organization, the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction and the National Office for Combating Drug Addiction reports were used. Cocaine leads to mood improvement, appetite decrease, physical and intellectual activity enhancement, euphoria, inflated self-esteem, social networking ease and increased sexual desire. Cocaine hydrochloride is mainly used intranasaly, but also as intravenous and subcutaneous injections. Cocaine use and first addiction treatment fall in later age compared to other psychoactive substances. There is a high men to women ratio among addicts. There is a relationship between cocaine addiction, the presence of other disorders and genetic predisposition to addiction development. Polish reports indicate higher popularity of cocaine among people with a high economic and social status. Although Poland is a country with the low percentage of cocaine use, its popularity is growing. The consequences of cocaine use concern somatic and mental health problems, socioeconomic and legal conditions. The drug plays a role in crimes and traffic accidents. Because of the risks associated with cocaine use, it has been listed in a register of drugs attached to the Act on Counteracting Drug Addiction. Addiction treatment includes psychological, pharmacological and harm reduction strategies. Med Pr 2016;67(4):537-544.

  1. Characteristics Data Base

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, E.D.; Moore, R.S. )

    1990-08-01

    The LWR Serial Numbers Database System (SNDB) contains detailed data about individual, historically discharged LWR spent fuel assemblies. This data includes the reactor where used, the year the assemblies were discharged, the pool where they are currently stored, assembly type, burnup, weight, enrichment, and an estimate of their radiological properties. This information is distributed on floppy disks to users in the nuclear industry to assist in planning for the permanent nuclear waste repository. This document describes the design and development of the SNDB. It provides a complete description of the file structures and an outline of the major code modules. It serves as a reference for a programmer maintaining the system, or for others interested in the technical detail of this database. This is the initial version of the SNDB. It contains historical data through December 31, 1987, obtained from the Energy Information Administration (EIA). EIA obtains the data from the utility companies via the RW-859 Survey Form. It evaluates and standardizes the data and distributes the resulting batch level database as a large file on magnetic tape. The Characteristics Data Base obtains this database for use in the LWR Quantities Data Base. Additionally, the CDB obtains the individual assembly level detail from EIA for use in the SNDB. While the Quantities Data Base retains only the level of detail necessary for its reporting, the SNDB does retain and use the batch level data to assist in the identification of a particular assembly serial number. We expect to update the SNDB on an annual basis, as new historical data becomes available.

  2. Trend of airplane flight characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Von Koppen, Joachim

    1933-01-01

    This report describes the development of airplane characteristics since the war and indicates the direction development should take in the immediate future. Some of the major topics include: the behavior of an airplane about its lateral, vertical, and longitudinal axes. Behavior at large angles of attack and landing characteristics are also included.

  3. Characteristics of Ethical Business Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ardichvili, Alexandre A.; Jondle, Douglas J.; Mitchell, James A.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify general characteristics attributed to ethical business cultures by executives from a variety of industries. Our research identified five clusters of characteristics: (1) Mission- and Values-Driven; (2) Stakeholder Balance; (3) Leadership Effectiveness; (4) Process Integrity; and (5) Long-term Perspective.…

  4. Naupliar and Metanaupliar Development of Thysanoessa raschii (Malacostraca, Euphausiacea) from Godthåbsfjord, Greenland, with a Reinstatement of the Ancestral Status of the Free-Living Nauplius in Malacostracan Evolution.

    PubMed

    Akther, Hasna; Agersted, Mette Dalgaard; Olesen, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    The presence of a characteristic crustacean larval type, the nauplius, in many crustacean taxa has often been considered one of the few uniting characters of the Crustacea. Within Malacostraca, the largest crustacean group, nauplii are only present in two taxa, Euphauciacea (krill) and Decapoda Dendrobranchiata. The presence of nauplii in these two taxa has traditionally been considered a retained primitive characteristic, but free-living nauplii have also been suggested to have reappeared a couple of times from direct developing ancestors during malacostracan evolution. Based on a re-study of Thysanoessa raschii (Euphausiacea) using preserved material collected in Greenland, we readdress this important controversy in crustacean evolution, and, in the process, redescribe the naupliar and metanaupliar development of T. raschii. In contrast to most previous studies of euphausiid development, we recognize three (not two) naupliar (= ortho-naupliar) stages (N1-N3) followed by a metanauplius (MN). While there are many morphological changes between nauplius 1 and 2 (e.g., appearance of long caudal setae), the changes between nauplius 2 and 3 are few but distinct. They involve the size of some caudal spines (largest in N3) and the setation of the antennal endopod (an extra seta in N3). A wider comparison between free-living nauplii of both Malacostraca and non-Malacostraca revealed similarities between nauplii in many taxa both at the general level (e.g., the gradual development and number of appendages) and at the more detailed level (e.g., unclear segmentation of naupliar appendages, caudal setation, presence of frontal filaments). We recognize these similarities as homologies and therefore suggest that free-living nauplii were part of the ancestral malacostracan type of development. The derived morphology (e.g., lack of feeding structures, no fully formed gut, high content of yolk) of both euphausiid and dendrobranchiate nauplii is evidently related to their non

  5. [Collage work characteristics and personality].

    PubMed

    Sato, Shizuka

    2002-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between personality and characteristics in collage work. Seventy undergraduates filled the Yatabe-Guilford (YG) personality test and produced a piece of collage work. The YG personality types were not different in terms of collage work characteristics. However, emotional adaptation and introvert/extrovert scores were reflected in the number of cuttings used in the piece. General activity score was reflected in the number of vehicle pictures used. Those who used an eye picture had a tendency to be depressed and lacking in confidence. Those who used a "stone circle" picture tended to be more emotionally adapted and extroverted. The results suggested a possibility that personality traits were reflected in specific characteristics in collage work.

  6. NLS nozzle base flow characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erhart, John J.

    1992-01-01

    The flow characteristics of the National Launch System (NLS) nozzle base area need to be determined in order for heat transfer rates to be estimated. The objective of this work is to calculate these flow characteristics using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). A full Navier-Stokes code in an axisymmetric mode, using a kappa-epsilon model with wall functions is applied. Calculations were completed at an altitude of 3,250 and 80,000 feet in the flight trajectory. The results show flow features which can affect vehicle design. Calibration of a 3-D case with data is underway. Information is given in viewgraph form.

  7. Compressibility Characteristics of Compacted Snow

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-06-01

    Cornpressibility characteristics 7Jj i C’p of compacted snowifAG2� 004 t Cover: ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ a - Thn***o htgrp fpoyrsaliekAmgife i ote rm...nwcmrse to7 asa 10 Phtgahb nhn Gow1 CRREL Report 76-21 Compressibility characteristics of compacted snow %i" Gunars Abele and Anthony J. Cow I ~ June 1976 A ...c , I fu. A AD,:j ly M3rs CORPS OF ENGINEERS, U.S. ARMY COLD REGIONS RESEARCH AND ENGINEERZ]NG LABORATORY HANOVER, NEW HAMPSHIRE Approved for public

  8. Uncertainty relations for characteristic functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudnicki, Łukasz; Tasca, D. S.; Walborn, S. P.

    2016-02-01

    We present the uncertainty relation for the characteristic functions (ChUR) of the quantum mechanical position and momentum probability distributions. This inequality is more general than the Heisenberg uncertainty relation and is saturated in two extreme cases for wave functions described by periodic Dirac combs. We further discuss a broad spectrum of applications of the ChUR; in particular, we constrain quantum optical measurements involving general detection apertures and provide the uncertainty relation that is relevant for loop quantum cosmology. A method to measure the characteristic function directly using an auxiliary qubit is also briefly discussed.

  9. Characteristic impedance of microstrip lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, M. C.; Deshpande, M. D.

    1989-01-01

    The dyadic Green's function for a current embedded in a grounded dielectric slab is used to analyze microstrip lines at millimeter wave frequencies. The dyadic Green's function accounts accurately for fringing fields and dielectric cover over the microstrip line. Using Rumsey's reaction concept, an expression for the characteristic impedance is obtained. The numerical results are compared with other reported results.

  10. Characteristics of Male Alcohol Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratliff, Katharine G.; Ellis, Thomas E.

    Because most studies investigating psychological profiles of subjects convicted of driving under the influence of alcohol (DUI) have been conducted at the time of arrest or treatment, it is unclear whether subjects' anxiety, depression, and hostility represent "trait" characteristics central to alcohol abuse or "state"…

  11. Computerized Investigations of Battery Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinrichsen, P. F.

    2001-01-01

    Uses a computer interface to measure terminal voltage versus current characteristic of a variety of batteries, their series and parallel combinations, and the variation with discharge. The concept of an internal resistance demonstrates that current flows through the battery determine the efficiency and serve to introduce Thevenin's theorem.…

  12. Perceived Characteristics of an Innovation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloway, Robert E.

    This study investigated the characteristics of an innovative cooperative high school-college program as perceived by principals of adopting and nonadopting schools. The data from survey questionnaires with 24 Likert-type items were reduced to six factors: observability, status, simplicity, cost, trialability, and relative…

  13. Attitudes and Characteristics of Nonusers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Ann; Kahn, Malcolm

    The attitudes and life-style characteristics of 58 undergraduate nonusers of illegal drugs were evaluated through comparisons with 47 regular marijuana users. The nonusers were found to be more settled in their values, more goal-directed, and more involved academically. They also had higher Grade Point Averages. The nonusers appeared to be both…

  14. Acoustic Absorption Characteristics of People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingsbury, H. F.; Wallace, W. J.

    1968-01-01

    The acoustic absorption characteristics of informally dressed college students in typical classroom seating are shown to differ substantially from data for formally dressed audiences in upholstered seating. Absorption data, expressed as sabins per person or absorption coefficient per square foot, shows that there is considerable variation between…

  15. Characteristics of Autism. Literature Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Marilyn

    The literature review considers characteristics of autism in three general areas of impairment: communication; cognition; and social behavior. Briefly noted are incidence and etiology facts. A variety of definitions are presented including a psychiatric definition, Leo Kanner's definition, and the definition of the Autism Study Committee of Iowa.…

  16. Characteristics of Effective Leadership Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leithwood, Kenneth; Azah, Vera Ndifor

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to inquire about the characteristics of effective school leadership networks and the contribution of such networks to the development of individual leaders' professional capacities. Design/methodology/approach: The study used path-analytic techniques with survey data provided by 450 school and district leaders…

  17. School Choice with Chinese Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Xiaoxin

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the major characteristics of school choice in the Chinese context. It highlights the involvement of cultural and economic capital, such as choice fees, donations, prize-winning certificates and awards in gaining school admission, as well as the use of social capital in the form of "guanxi". The requirement for these…

  18. Characteristics of Successful Native Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Robert J.; Demmert, William G., Jr.

    Characteristics were profiled for 40 southeast Alaskan Haida, Tlingit, and Tsimshian tribal members in positions of responsibility in business, government, or a profession. Respondents had found school easy, did well, liked school, and participated in school-related activities. Positive influence and encouragement of family members, especially…

  19. Handbook of sensor technical characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanner, S.

    1982-07-01

    Space and terrestrial applications remote sensor systems are described. Each sensor is presented separately. Information is included on its objectives, description, technical characteristics, data products obtained, data archives location, period of operation, and measurement and potential derived parameters. Each sensor is cross indexed.

  20. Handbook of sensor technical characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanner, S.

    1982-01-01

    Space and terrestrial applications remote sensor systems are described. Each sensor is presented separately. Information is included on its objectives, description, technical characteristics, data products obtained, data archives location, period of operation, and measurement and potential derived parameters. Each sensor is cross indexed.

  1. Artistic Understanding and Motivational Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lekue, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to analyse artistic understanding in primary and secondary education and the relationship between this understanding and motivational characteristics such as goal orientation, engagement in art activities and attitude to art education at school, which determine (according to prior research) learners' academic achievement, in…

  2. Tourette's Syndrome: Characteristics and Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prestia, Kelly

    2003-01-01

    This article overviews the characteristics of children and youth with Tourette syndrome and provides suggestions that can be used in the school setting for addressing academic concerns, social-emotional concerns, and physical concerns. Teachers are urged to break down assignments, allow computer use to complete work, and give preferential seating.…

  3. Roughness characteristics of natural channels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnes, Harry Hawthorne

    1967-01-01

    Color photographs and descriptive data are presented for 50 stream channels for which roughness coefficients have been determined. All hydraulic computations involving flow in open channels require an evaluation of the roughness characteristics of the channel. In the absence of a satisfactory quantitative procedure this evaluation remains chiefly an art. The ability to evaluate roughness coefficients must be developed through experience. One means of gaining this experience is by examining and becoming acquainted with the appearance of some typical channels whose roughness coefficients are known. The photographs and data contained in this report represent a wide range of channel conditions. Familiarity with the appearance, geometry, and roughness characteristics of these channels will improve the engineer's ability to select roughness coefficients for other channels .

  4. Radio characteristics of galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Condon, J. J.

    1986-02-01

    Radio characteristics of galactic nuclei, providing such unique information as spectral data on source variability, and the long-term history of the central engine and its duration of activity and total energy, are reviewed. The compact radio source characteristics are complicated by orientation-dependent relativistic beaming and by refractive focusing in the interstellar medium. Incoherent synchrotron radiation is thought to be the emission mechanism, with the result that synchrotron self-absorption in compact sources hides the central engine from direct radio observation. However, the history revealed by the extended jets and lobes of radio galaxies and quasars favors a single massive object not supported by radiation pressure, either a spinar or a black hole, as the energy source in radio-galaxy nuclei.

  5. The Characteristic Curves of Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumaier, Arnold; Deiters, Ulrich K.

    2016-09-01

    In 1960, E. H. Brown defined a set of characteristic curves (also known as ideal curves) of pure fluids, along which some thermodynamic properties match those of an ideal gas. These curves are used for testing the extrapolation behaviour of equations of state. This work is revisited, and an elegant representation of the first-order characteristic curves as level curves of a master function is proposed. It is shown that Brown's postulate—that these curves are unique and dome-shaped in a double-logarithmic p, T representation—may fail for fluids exhibiting a density anomaly. A careful study of the Amagat curve (Joule inversion curve) generated from the IAPWS-95 reference equation of state for water reveals the existence of an additional branch.

  6. Map characteristics of Landsat mosaics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zobrist, A. L.; Bryant, N. A.

    1979-01-01

    Map characteristics of the Landsat mosaics developed at JPL are considered. Procedures for digital mosaicking of Landsat frames to standard map projections were used to mosaic at full resolution ten scenes over the California desert region and twenty-one scenes over Arizona. The procedures are analyzed for horizontal positioning error (global and local) and the potential for classification error associated with the adjustment of brightness of Z values between frames; the use of this technology for the mapping of extensive features is discussed. Mosaicking facilities, techniques, mapping accuracy, and thematic mapping characteristics are described. A comparative analysis of Landsat mosaicking technology developed at Goddard Space Flight Center, IBM Gaithersburg, and USGS Flagstaff is made, and suggestions are given for algorithm development to improve systems capacity and ability to handle a variety of cases.

  7. Fracture characteristics of balloon films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Portanova, Marc A.

    1989-01-01

    An attempt was made to determine the failure modes of high altitude scientific balloons through an investigation of the fracture characteristics of the thin polyethylene films. Two films were the subject of the evaluation, Winzen Int.'s Stratafilm SF-85 and Raven Industries' Astro-E. Research began with an investigation of the film's cold brittleness point and it's effect on the ultimate strength and elasticity of the polyethylene film. A series of preliminary investigations were conducted to develop an understanding of the material characteristics. The primary focus of this investigation was on the notch sensitivity of the films. Simple stress strain tests were also conducted to enable analysis employing fracture toughness parameters. Studies were conducted on both film types at 23 C (room temperature), -60 C, -90 C, and -120 C.

  8. 40 CFR 261.24 - Toxicity characteristic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Toxicity characteristic. 261.24... Toxicity characteristic. (a) A solid waste (except manufactured gas plant waste) exhibits the characteristic of toxicity if, using the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure, test Method 1311 in...

  9. 40 CFR 261.24 - Toxicity characteristic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Toxicity characteristic. 261.24... Toxicity characteristic. (a) A solid waste (except manufactured gas plant waste) exhibits the characteristic of toxicity if, using the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure, test Method 1311 in...

  10. Endfire tapered slot antenna characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaubert, D. H.

    1989-01-01

    Typical configurations and operating characteristics for endfire tapered slot antennas are described. The feed transition modeling and moment method modeling techniques are utilized to predict antenna performance. The radiation pattern and cross polarization properties for the linearly tapered slot antennas are examined. Endfire tapered slot antennas are applicable for wide-band scanning arrays and focal plane arrays for imaging and multiple beam reflector systems.

  11. Calculation of gas turbine characteristic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamaev, B. I.; Murashko, V. L.

    2016-04-01

    The reasons and regularities of vapor flow and turbine parameter variation depending on the total pressure drop rate π* and rotor rotation frequency n are studied, as exemplified by a two-stage compressor turbine of a power-generating gas turbine installation. The turbine characteristic is calculated in a wide range of mode parameters using the method in which analytical dependences provide high accuracy for the calculated flow output angle and different types of gas dynamic losses are determined with account of the influence of blade row geometry, blade surface roughness, angles, compressibility, Reynolds number, and flow turbulence. The method provides satisfactory agreement of results of calculation and turbine testing. In the design mode, the operation conditions for the blade rows are favorable, the flow output velocities are close to the optimal ones, the angles of incidence are small, and the flow "choking" modes (with respect to consumption) in the rows are absent. High performance and a nearly axial flow behind the turbine are obtained. Reduction of the rotor rotation frequency and variation of the pressure drop change the flow parameters, the parameters of the stages and the turbine, as well as the form of the characteristic. In particular, for decreased n, nonmonotonic variation of the second stage reactivity with increasing π* is observed. It is demonstrated that the turbine characteristic is mainly determined by the influence of the angles of incidence and the velocity at the output of the rows on the losses and the flow output angle. The account of the growing flow output angle due to the positive angle of incidence for decreased rotation frequencies results in a considerable change of the characteristic: poorer performance, redistribution of the pressure drop at the stages, and change of reactivities, growth of the turbine capacity, and change of the angle and flow velocity behind the turbine.

  12. Personality characteristics and sleep variables.

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Y; Kotorii, M; Arikawa, K; Horikawa, S; Hasuzawa, H

    1975-01-01

    In a sleep study of 14 normal healthy adults an investigation was made of sleep measurements of a baseline record for its eventual relationship to the percentage of increase of REM percentage of the 1st recovery night following partial differential REM deprivation (PDRD), as well as to personality characteristics. The percentage of change in NREM sleep of the 1st recovery night was compared with the baseline record andthen compared with corresponding values of REM sleep. The results are summarized as follows. No significant correlation exists between the percentage of increase in the REM percentage of the 1st recovery night and sleep measures of the baseline record. An investigation of the relationship between sleep measures of the baseline record and personality characteristics revealed that stage SWS(%) was significantly greater in the introvert than in the extrovert, in the neurotic than in the non-neurotic, and in the nervous than in the optimistic. Comparison of the changes in NREM and REM sleep percentages of the 1st recovery night with the baseline record was made between paired personality characteristics. A significantly high percentage of increase in REM percentage was almost always associated with a significantly high percentage of decrease in stage 2 percentage. From these results it was inferred that an increase in REM percentage occurs at the expense of stage 2 percentage.

  13. Neurocognitive characteristics of DUI recidivists.

    PubMed

    Ouimet, Marie Claude; Brown, Thomas G; Nadeau, Louise; Lepage, Martin; Pelletier, Marc; Couture, Sophie; Tremblay, Jacques; Legault, Lucie; Dongier, Maurice; Gianoulakis, Christina; Ng Ying Kin, N M K

    2007-07-01

    Individuals who drive under the influence (DUI) of alcohol may be at greater risk for neurocognitive impairment because of their exposure to multiple sources of neurological risk. This could contribute to the persistence of DUI behaviour and influence the effectiveness of remedial interventions. The objectives of this study were to clarify the neurocognitive characteristics of DUI recidivists and the nature of potential impairments, and to explore relationships between these characteristics and the frequency of past DUI convictions. One hundred male recidivists were evaluated for visuospatial constructional abilities and visual memory, verbal fluency, attention skills, cognitive flexibility, spatial planning, and verbal and movement inhibition. Results indicated that a majority of recidivists showed signs of neurocognitive impairment on several dimensions. Impairment was most marked on visuospatial constructional abilities and visual memory. In contrast to previous studies, no participants were found to have impulse control problems. Measures of memory and cognitive efficiency were significantly associated with the frequency of past convictions. Finally, exploratory analyses of two potential sources of impairment, alcohol exposure and head trauma, suggested the role of excessive alcohol use as the most obvious associated factor. Overall, the findings indicate that neurocognitive impairments are a common feature in recidivists and may contribute to DUI persistence. Development of a DUI-specific neurocognitive assessment and greater understanding of how neurocognitive status influences DUI risk could lead to remediation strategies better adapted to the individual characteristics of recidivists.

  14. Entrepreneurship Psychological Characteristics of Nurses.

    PubMed

    Dehghanzadeh, Mohammad Reza; Kholasehzadeh, Golrasteh; Birjandi, Masoumeh; Antikchi, Ensieh; Sobhan, Mohamad Reza; Neamatzadeh, Hossein

    2016-09-01

    Nurses are full partners with other health care professionals. Until fairly recently the scope of nurses potential in entrepreneurship has not been widely recognized. The present study tries to evaluate entrepreneurship psychological characteristics among nurses. The survey instrument included scales measuring entrepreneurship psychological characteristics including locus of control, need for achievement, risk taking propensity, ambiguity tolerance, and innovation, among nurses in the Shahid Sadoughi Hospital, Yazd, Iran in 2013. In this study average of entrepreneurship psychological characteristics of nurses which are higher than standard mark. The majority of the nurses have average entrepreneurship (20.4%). It means that they have some strong entrepreneurship. The result show that average of the need for achievement is 34.5%, the locus of control 33.8%, risk taking propensity 33.2%, ambiguity tolerance 34.2%, and innovation 41.6%. The results indicate that the 4 dimensions of the need for achievement, risk taking, Ambiguity Tolerance, and Innovation were significant. However, the locus of control is not significant at a 0.05 significance level. In terms, entrepreneurially nurses are comparatively more innovative, have risk taking attitudes, need for achievement, Ambiguity Tolerance, and Innovation. Results largely support significant positive relationships between psychological traits and entrepreneurial orientations.

  15. Statistical characteristics of simulated walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demiański, M.; Doroshkevich, A. G.; Müller, V.; Turchaninov, V.

    2000-11-01

    The large-scale matter distribution in three different simulations of CDM models is investigated and compared with corresponding results of the Zel'dovich theory of non-linear gravitational instability. We show that the basic characteristics of wall-like structure elements are well described by this theory, and that they can be expressed by the cosmological parameters and a few spectral moments of the perturbation spectrum. Therefore the characteristics of such elements provide reasonable estimates of these parameters. We show that the compressed matter is relaxed and gravitationally confined and manifests itself in the existence of walls as (quasi-)stationary structure elements with a lifetime restricted by their disruption into high-density clouds. The matter distribution is investigated in both real and redshift spaces. In both cases almost the same particles form the walls, and we estimate differences in corresponding wall characteristics. The same methods are applied to several mock catalogues of `galaxies', which allows us to characterize a large-scale bias between the spatial distribution of dark matter and of simulated `galaxies'.

  16. Characteristics of successful alien plants.

    PubMed

    van Kleunen, M; Dawson, W; Maurel, N

    2015-05-01

    Herbert Baker arguably initiated the search for species characteristics determining alien plant invasion success, with his formulation of the 'ideal weed'. Today, a profusion of studies has tested a myriad of traits for their importance in explaining success of alien plants, but the multiple, not always appropriate, approaches used have led to some confusion and criticism. We argue that a greater understanding of the characteristics explaining alien plant success requires a refined approach that respects the multistage, multiscale nature of the invasion process. We present a schema of questions we can ask regarding the success of alien species, with the answering of one question in the schema being conditional on the answer of preceding questions (thus acknowledging the nested nature of invasion stages). For each question, we identify traits and attributes of species we believe are likely to be most important in explaining species success, and we make predictions as to how we expect successful aliens to differ from natives and from unsuccessful aliens in their characteristics. We organize the findings of empirical studies according to the questions in our schema that they have addressed, to assess the extent to which they support our predictions. We believe that research on plant traits of alien species has already told us a lot about why some alien species become successful after introduction. However, if we ask the right questions at the appropriate scale and use appropriate comparators, research on traits may tell us whether they are really important or not, and if so under which conditions.

  17. Runoff characteristics of California streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rantz, S.E.

    1972-01-01

    California streams exhibit a wide range of runoff characteristics that are related to the climatologic, topographic, and geologic characteristics of the basins they drain. The annual volume of runoff of a stream, expressed in inches, may be large or small, and daily discharge rates may be highly variable or relatively steady. The bulk of the annual runoff may be storm runoff, or snowmelt runoff, or a combination of both. The streamflow may be ephemeral, intermittent, or perennial; if perennial, base flow may be well sustained or poorly sustained. In this report the various runoff characteristics are identified by numerical index values. They are shown to be related generally to mean annual precipitation, altitude, latitude, and location with respect to the 11 geomorphic provinces in the California Region. With respect to mean annual precipitation on the watershed, streamflow is generally (1) ephemeral if the mean annual precipitation is less than 10 inches, (2) intermittent if the mean annual precipitation is between 10 and 40 inches, and (3) perennial if the mean annual precipitation is more than 40 inches. Departures from those generalizations are associated with (a) the areal variation of such geologic factors as the infiltration and storage capacities of the rocks underlying the watersheds, and (b) the areal variation of evapotranspiration loss as influenced by varying conditions of climate, soil, vegetal cover, and geologic structure. Latitude and altitude determine the proportion of the winter precipitation that will be stored for subsequent runoff in the late spring and summer. In general, if a watershed has at least 30 percent of its area above the normal altitude of the snowline on April 1, it will have significant snowmelt runoff. Snowmelt runoff in California is said to be significant if at least 30 percent of the annual runoff occurs during the 4 months, April through July. Storm runoff is said to be predominant if at least 65 percent of the annual

  18. Spectral Characteristics of Titan's Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffith, Caitlin A.; Turner, Jake D.; Penteado, Paulo; Khamsi, Tymon B.; Soderblom, Jason M.

    2014-11-01

    Cassini/Huygens and ground-based measurements of Titan reveal an eroded surface, with lakes, dunes, and sinuous washes. These features, coupled with measurements of clouds and rain, indicate the transfer of methane between Titan’s surface and atmosphere. The presence of methane-damp lowlands suggests further that the atmospheric methane (which is continually depleted through photolysis) may be supplied by sub-surface reservoirs. The byproducts of methane photolysis condense onto the surface, leaving layers of organic sediments that record Titan’s past atmospheres.Thus knowledge of the source and history of Titan's atmosphere requires measurements of the large scale compositional makeup of Titan's surface, which is shrouded by a thick and hazy atmosphere. Towards this goal, we analyzed roughly 100,000 spectra recorded by Cassini’s Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS). Our study is confined to the latitude region (20S—20N) surrounding the landing site of the Huygens probe (at 10S, 192W), which supplied only measurement of the vertical profiles of the methane abundance and haze scattering characteristics. VIMS near-IR spectral images indicate subtle latitudinal and temporal variations in the haze characteristics in the tropics. We constrain these small changes with full radiative transfer analyses of each of the thousands of VIMS spectra, which were recorded of different terrains and at different lighting conditions. The resulting models of Titan’s atmosphere as a function of latitude and year indicate the seasonal migration of Titan’s tropical haze and enable the derivation of Titan’s surface albedo at 8 near-IR wavelength regions where Titan’s atmosphere is transparent enough to allow visibility to the surface. The resultant maps of Titan’s surface indicate a number of terrain types with distinct spectral characteristics that are suggestive of atmospheric and surficial processes, including the deposition of organic material, erosion of

  19. Combustion characteristics of husk charcoal

    SciTech Connect

    Shimizu, H.; Kimura, T.; Nishiyama, Y.; Terui, T.

    1984-07-01

    This paper analyzes the factors involved in the extraordinary temperature generation in husk combustion furnaces, and investigates methods of protecting furnaces from heat damage. The combustion characteristics of fixed carbon in rice husks are examined in relation to the air flow rate using different husk charcoals. The theoretical flame temperature in a practical bed was determined from the combustion propagation velocity. It is determined that deviation from the regression line relating the combustion propagation velocity with the specific air flow rate showed a slight correlation with the bulk density of the charcoal samples used.

  20. [Exaggerated breed characteristics in dogs].

    PubMed

    Wilting, M M; Endenburg, N

    2012-01-01

    Dutch dog owners seem to be aware of bad dog breeding practices with regard to exaggerated breed characteristics that are detrimental to the dog's welfare. Yet they do not always look for these features when buying a dog. Most dog owners think that veterinarians could have an important role in preventing these exaggerated physical traits, by providing information about these traits and taking action in their capacity as veterinarian. Articles 36 and 55 of the Dutch GWWD (animal health and welfare law) provide opportunities to act against the breeding of dogs with exaggerated genetic traits.

  1. Inflight lightning characteristics measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, F. L.; Thomas, M. E.; Campbell, R. E.; Thomas, R. M.; Zaepfel, K. P.

    1979-01-01

    A research data-gathering system being developed for inflight measurement of direct and nearby lightning strike characteristics is described. Wideband analog recorders used to record the lightning scenario are supplemented with high-sample-rate digital transient recorders with augmented memory capacity for increased time resolution of specific times of interest. The endless-loop data storage technique employed by the transient recorders circumvents problems associated with oscilloscopic techniques and allows unattended operation. System integrity and immunity from induced effects is accomplished by fiber-optics signal-transmission links, shielded system enclosures, and the use of a dynamotor for power system isolation.

  2. Imaging and full-length biometry of the eye during accommodation using spectral domain OCT with an optical switch

    PubMed Central

    Ruggeri, Marco; Uhlhorn, Stephen R.; De Freitas, Carolina; Ho, Arthur; Manns, Fabrice; Parel, Jean-Marie

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: An optical switch was implemented in the reference arm of an extended depth SD-OCT system to sequentially acquire OCT images at different depths into the eye ranging from the cornea to the retina. A custom-made accommodation module was coupled with the delivery of the OCT system to provide controlled step stimuli of accommodation and disaccommodation that preserve ocular alignment. The changes in the lens shape were imaged and ocular distances were dynamically measured during accommodation and disaccommodation. The system is capable of dynamic in vivo imaging of the entire anterior segment and eye-length measurement during accommodation in real-time. PMID:22808424

  3. Biometry of the anterior border of the human hip bone: normal values and their use in sex determination.

    PubMed Central

    Gómez Pellico, L; Fernández Camacho, F J

    1992-01-01

    Sixteen different variables and 3 indices for the anterior border of 42 human hip bones from a Spanish skeletal collection were studied. Values for 15 of these variables and for the 3 indices are reported. We were unable to detect statistically significant differences between means relating to side in any of the variables and indices studied. Statistically significant differences were detected between means in relation to sex for 4 variables (distance from the anterior superior iliac spine to the pubic tubercle, distance from the anterior inferior iliac spine to the iliopubic eminence, distance from the anterior inferior iliac spine to the pubic tubercle, length of the notch between the anterior inferior iliac spine and the iliopubic eminence). These variables could be used for sex determination from the human hip bone or its fragments. PMID:1304579

  4. Charge Characteristics of Rechargeable Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maheswaranathan, Ponn; Kelly, Cormac

    2014-03-01

    Rechargeable batteries play important role in technologies today and they are critical for the future. They are used in many electronic devices and their capabilities need to keep up with the accelerated pace of technology. Efficient energy capture and storage is necessary for the future rechargeable batteries. Charging and discharging characteristics of three popular commercially available re-chargeable batteries (NiCd, NiMH, and Li Ion) are investigated and compared with regular alkaline batteries. Pasco's 850 interface and their voltage & current sensors are used to monitor the current through and the potential difference across the battery. The discharge current and voltage stayed fairly constant until the end, with a slightly larger drop in voltage than current, which is more pronounced in the alkaline batteries. After 25 charge/discharge cycling there is no appreciable loss of charge capacities in the Li Ion battery. Energy densities, cycle characteristics, and memory effects will also be presented. Sponsored by the South Carolina Governor's school for Science and Mathematics under the Summer Program for Research Interns program.

  5. Geotechnical characteristics of residual soils

    SciTech Connect

    Townsend, F.C.

    1985-01-01

    Residual soils are products of chemical weathering and thus their characteristics are dependent upon environmental factors of climate, parent material, topography and drainage, and age. These conditions are optimized in the tropics where well-drained regions produce reddish lateritic soils rich in iron and aluminum sesquioxides and kaolinitic clays. Conversely, poorly drained areas tend towards montmorillonitic expansive black clays. Andosols develop over volcanic ash and rock regions and are rich in allophane (amorphous silica) and metastable halloysite. The geological origins greatly affect the resulting engineering characteristics. Both lateritic soils and andosols are susceptible to property changes upon drying, and exhibit compaction and strength properties not indicative of their classification limits. Both soils have been used successfully in earth dam construction, but attention must be given to seepage control through the weathered rock. Conversely, black soils are unpopular for embankments. Lateritic soils respond to cement stabilization and, in some cases, lime stabilization. Andosols should also respond to lime treatment and cement treatments if proper mixing can be achieved. Black expansive residual soils respond to lime treatment by demonstrating strength gains and decreased expansiveness. Rainfall induced landslides are typical of residual soil deposits.

  6. Sensitometric characteristics of dental xeroradiography

    SciTech Connect

    Gratt, B.M.; Sickles, E.A.

    1983-11-01

    Dental xeroradiography is a high-quality intraoral imaging system which provides a potentially convenient, rapid, low-dose alternative to conventional film radiography. In this study the sensitometric properties of dental xeroradiography were investigated via assessment of high- and low-contrast xeroradiographic processor settings, transmission versus reflection densitometry, reciprocity-law failure, and kVp (tube voltage) plate dependence. Findings of the study indicated that imaging at high-contrast processor settings results in greater dynamic range but less exposure latitude than imaging at low-contrast processor settings. Determination of characteristic curves demonstrated greater contrast in reflection mode than imaging by transillumination for all but the very densest of images (greater than 1.6 O.D.). There was also little difference in characteristic curves produced from 50 to 90 kVp, indicating that the xeroradiographic plate exhibits a relatively constant sensitivity over the tube voltages tested if exposure is expressed in roentgens. Finally, no substantial reciprocity-law failure was observed for dental xeroradiography over a clinically relevant range of exposure times.

  7. Sampling characteristics of satellite orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wunsch, Carl

    1989-01-01

    The irregular space-time sampling of any finite region by an orbiting satellite raises difficult questions as to which frequencies and wavenumbers can be determined and which will alias into others. Conventional sampling theorems must be extended to account for both irregular data distributions and observational noise - the sampling irregularity making the system much more susceptible to noise than in regularly sampled cases. The problem is formulated here in terms of least-squares and applied to spacecraft in 10-day and 17-day repeating orbits. The 'diamond-pattern' laid down spatially in such repeating orbits means that either repeat period adequately samples the spatial variables, but the slow overall temporal coverage in the 17-day pattern leads to much greater uncertainty than in the shorter repeat cycle. The result is not definitive and it is not concluded that a 10-day orbit repeat is the most appropriate one. A major conclusion, however, is that different orbital choices have potentially quite different sampling characteristics which need to be analyzed in terms of the spectral characteristics of the moving sea surface.

  8. 30 CFR 7.45 - Critical characteristics

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Battery Assemblies § 7.45 Critical characteristics The following critical characteristics shall be inspected or tested on each battery assembly...

  9. 30 CFR 7.45 - Critical characteristics

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Battery Assemblies § 7.45 Critical characteristics The following critical characteristics shall be inspected or tested on each battery assembly...

  10. Effect of Nanofiller Characteristics on Nanocomposite Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Working, Dennis C.; Lillehei, Peter T.; Lowther, Sharon E.; Siochi, Emilie J.; Kim, Jae-Woo; Sauti, Godfrey; Wise, Kristopher E.; Park, Cheol

    2016-01-01

    This report surveys the effect of nanofiller characteristics on nanocomposites fabricated with two polyimide matrices. Mechanical and electrical properties were determined. Microscopy results showed that matrix chemistry, nanofiller characteristics and processing conditions had significant impact on nanocomposite quality.

  11. 30 CFR 7.45 - Critical characteristics

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Battery Assemblies § 7.45 Critical characteristics The following critical characteristics shall be inspected or tested on each battery assembly...

  12. 30 CFR 7.45 - Critical characteristics

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Battery Assemblies § 7.45 Critical characteristics The following critical characteristics shall be inspected or tested on each battery assembly...

  13. Characteristics of Older Motorcyclist Crashes

    PubMed Central

    Stutts, Jane; Foss, Robert; Svoboda, Colleen

    2004-01-01

    In the U.S. as well as other countries, the number of motorcyclists killed in traffic crashes has risen sharply over the past five years, due in part to the increased popularity of motorcycling among older riders. This paper examines trends in motorcyclist casualties and vehicle registrations from 1990–2002, based on national and state (North Carolina) motor vehicle crash and vehicle registration data. The data show similar patterns of increased fatalities that parallel a growth in motorcycle registrations. Whereas the number of motorcyclists ages 16–24 declined over the 13–year study period, the number of riders ages 35 and older increased. Three years of recent (2000–2002) NC data are examined to identify salient characteristics of the crashes of these older riders. Results are discussed with respect to approaches for mitigating the increase in motorcyclist deaths and injuries. PMID:15319126

  14. Doppler characteristics of sea clutter.

    SciTech Connect

    Raynal, Ann Marie; Doerry, Armin Walter

    2010-06-01

    Doppler radars can distinguish targets from clutter if the target's velocity along the radar line of sight is beyond that of the clutter. Some targets of interest may have a Doppler shift similar to that of clutter. The nature of sea clutter is different in the clutter and exo-clutter regions. This behavior requires special consideration regarding where a radar can expect to find sea-clutter returns in Doppler space and what detection algorithms are most appropriate to help mitigate false alarms and increase probability of detection of a target. This paper studies the existing state-of-the-art in the understanding of Doppler characteristics of sea clutter and scattering from the ocean to better understand the design and performance choices of a radar in differentiating targets from clutter under prevailing sea conditions.

  15. Chemical characteristics of Adirondack lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Driscoll, C.T.; Newton, R.M.

    1985-11-01

    This paper discussed the role of atmospheric deposition of mineral acids in the acidification of low-ionic-strength (dilute) surface waters in remote regions. Surface water acidification has been attributed to the atmospheric deposition of sulfuric acid, sulfur dioxide, and nitric acid, the oxidation of organic nitrogen from the soil, the production of soluble organic acids through the decay of dead plants and animals in soil, the oxidation of naturally occurring sulfide minerals, and the changes in land use. The research reported here was conducted as part of the Regionalized Integrated Lake-Watershed Acidification Study (RILWAS). The intent was to evaluate the general chemical characteristics of lakes in the Adirondack region of New York and to access the mechanisms that regulate the acid-base chemistry of these waters. 36 references, 5 figures, 3 tables.

  16. Pathophysiologic characteristics of hypovolemic shock.

    PubMed

    Moore, K E; Murtaugh, R J

    2001-11-01

    In the late 1800s, while caring for a trauma victim, Warren characterized shock as "a momentary pause in the act of death." A great deal about shock has been discovered since this first description. Dorland's Medical Dictionary defines shock as a condition of profound hemodynamic and metabolic disturbance characterized by failure of the circulatory system to maintain adequate perfusion of vital organs. Shock is now being defined at the cellular level as the inadequate delivery of nutrients to the cells of the body. Because oxygen is the only nutrient that cells cannot store in any appreciable quantity, shock is also equivalent to inadequate oxygen delivery (DO2). Although there are many types of shock, this article concentrates on the pathophysiologic characteristics of hypovolemic shock.

  17. Molecular characteristics versus biological activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Applegate, Vernon C.; Smith, Manning A.; Willeford, Bennett R.

    1967-01-01

    The molecular characteristics of mononitrophenols containing halogens not only play a key role in their biological activity but provide a novel example of selective toxicity among vertebrate animals. It has been reported that efforts to control the parasitic sea lamprey in the Great Lakes are directed at present to the applications of a selective toxicant to streams inhabited by lamprey larvae. Since 1961, the larvicide that has been used almost exclusively in the control program has been 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM). However, this is only one of about 15 closely related compounds, all halogen-containing mononitrophenols, that display a selectively toxic action upon lampreys. Although not all of the halogenated mononitrophenols are selectively toxic to lampreys (in fact, fewer than half of those tested), no other group of related compounds has displayed any useful larvicidal activity except for the substituted nitrosalicylanilides.

  18. Personality characteristics of Wikipedia members.

    PubMed

    Amichai-Hamburger, Yair; Lamdan, Naama; Madiel, Rinat; Hayat, Tsahi

    2008-12-01

    Wikipedia is an online, free access, volunteer-contributed encyclopedia. This article focuses on the Wikipedians' (Wikipedia users) personality characteristics, studying Wikipedians' conceptions of Real-Me and BFI dimensions. To survey these aspects, we posted links to two online web questionnaires; one was targeted at Wikipedians and the second to non-Wikipedia users. One hundred and thirty-nine subjects participated in the study, of which 69 were active Wikipedia members. It was found that Wikipedia members locate their real me on the Internet more frequently as compared to non-Wikipedia members. Variance analysis revealed significant differences between Wikipedia members and non-Wikipedia members in agreeableness, openness, and conscientiousness, which were lower for the Wikipedia members. An interaction was found between Wikipedia membership and gender: introverted women were more likely to be Wikipedia members as compared with extroverted women. The results of this study are discussed with special emphasis on the understanding of the motivators of Wikipedia members.

  19. Thermal Characteristics of Heating Towers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Toshihiko; Kametani, Shigeki

    Thermal characteristics of heating towers for air-source heat pumps are studied in terms of the overall enthalpy-transfer coefficient. Ka. First. the method of counter-flow calculation is presented taking physical properties of ethylene glycol solutions into account. Next, both cooling-tower and heating-tower experiments are carried out in a small, induced-draft. counterflow tower packed with tubes of a staggerd arrangement. using water and commercial ethylene glycol solutions. The coefficient Ka measured in the heating-tower experiment shows a trend similar to that in the cooling-tower experiment. So. the data on cooling towers will be helpful to the thermal design of heating towers.

  20. Characteristics of Myosin V Processivity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun-Ping; Liu, Yi; Sun, Wei; Zhao, Xiaoyang; La, Ta; Guo, Wei-Sheng

    2017-02-14

    Myosin V is a processive doubled-headed biomolecular motor involved in many intracellular organelle and vesicle transport. The unidirectional movement is coupled with the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis and product release cycle. With the progress of experimental techniques and the enhancement of measuring directness, detailed knowledge of the motility of myosin V has been obtained.Following the ATPase cycle, the 4-state mechanochemical model of the myosin V's processive movement is used. The transitions between various states take place in a stochastic manner. We can use the master equation to analyze and calculate quantitatively. Meanwhile the effect of the reverse reaction is takenfully into account. We fit the mean velocity, the mean dwell time, the mean run length andtheratio of forward/backward steps as a functionof ATP, ADP and Pi concertration. The theoretical curves are generally in line with the experimental data. This work provides a new insight for the characteristic of myosin V.

  1. Characteristic Time Scales of Characteristic Magmatic Processes and Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, B. D.

    2004-05-01

    Every specific magmatic process, regardless of spatial scale, has an associated characteristic time scale. Time scales associated with crystals alone are rates of growth, dissolution, settling, aggregation, annealing, and nucleation, among others. At the other extreme are the time scales associated with the dynamics of the entire magmatic system. These can be separated into two groups: those associated with system genetics (e.g., the production and transport of magma, establishment of the magmatic system) and those due to physical characteristics of the established system (e.g., wall rock failure, solidification front propagation and instability, porous flow). The detailed geometry of a specific magmatic system is particularly important to appreciate; although generic systems are useful, care must be taken to make model systems as absolutely realistic as possible. Fuzzy models produce fuzzy science. Knowledge of specific time scales is not necessarily useful or meaningful unless the hierarchical context of the time scales for a realistic magmatic system is appreciated. The age of a specific phenocryst or ensemble of phenocrysts, as determined from isotopic or CSD studies, is not meaningful unless something can be ascertained of the provenance of the crystals. For example, crystal size multiplied by growth rate gives a meaningful crystal age only if it is from a part of the system that has experienced semi-monotonic cooling prior to chilling; crystals entrained from a long-standing cumulate bed that were mechanically sorted in ascending magma may not reveal this history. Ragged old crystals rolling about in the system for untold numbers of flushing times record specious process times, telling more about the noise in the system than the life of typical, first generation crystallization processes. The most helpful process-related time scales are those that are known well and that bound or define the temporal style of the system. Perhaps the most valuable of these

  2. Spent fuel characteristics & disposal considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Oversby, V.M.

    1996-06-01

    The fuel used in commercial nuclear power reactors is uranium, generally in the form of an oxide. The gas-cooled reactors developed in England use metallic uranium enclosed in a thin layer of Magnox. Since this fuel must be processed into a more stable form before disposal, we will not consider the characteristics of the Magnox spent fuel. The vast majority of the remaining power reactors in the world use uranium dioxide pellets in Zircaloy cladding as the fuel material. Reactors that are fueled with uranium dioxide generally use water as the moderator. If ordinary water is used, the reactors are called Light Water Reactors (LWR), while if water enriched in the deuterium isotope of hydrogen is used, the reactors are called Heavy Water reactors. The LWRs can be either pressurized reactors (PWR) or boiling water reactors (BWR). Both of these reactor types use uranium that has been enriched in the 235 isotope to about 3.5 to 4% total abundance. There may be minor differences in the details of the spent fuel characteristics for PWRs and BWRs, but for simplicity we will not consider these second-order effects. The Canadian designed reactor (CANDU) that is moderated by heavy water uses natural uranium without enrichment of the 235 isotope as the fuel. These reactors run at higher linear power density than LWRs and produce spent fuel with lower total burn-up than LWRs. Where these difference are important with respect to spent fuel management, we will discuss them. Otherwise, we will concentrate on spent fuel from LWRs.

  3. Characteristic length of glass transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donth, E.

    1996-03-01

    The characteristic length of the glass transition (ξ _α ) is based on the concept of cooperatively rearranging regions (CRR's) by Adam & Gibbs (1965): ξ _α is the diameter of one CRR. In the theoretical part of the talk a formula is derived how this length can be calculated from calorimetric data of the transformation interval. The approach is based on fluctuations in natural functional subsystems. The corresponding thermodynamics is represented e.g. in a book of the author (E. Donth, Relaxation and Thermodynamics in Polymers. Glass Transition, Akademie-Verlag, Berlin 1992). A typical value for this length is 3 nanometers. In the experimental part several examples are reported to enlarge the experimental evidence for such a length: Squeezing the glass transition in the amorphous layers of partially crystallized PET (C. Schick, Rostock), glass transition of small-molecule glass formers in a series of nanoscaled pores of porous glasses (F. Kremer, Leipzig), comparison with a concentration fluctuation model in homogeneous polymer mixtures (E.W. Fischer, Mainz), and, from our laboratory, backscaling to ξ _α across the main transition from the entanglement spacing in several amorphous polymers such as PVAC, PS, NR, and some polymer networks. Rouse backscaling was possible in the α β splitting region of several poly(n alkyl methacrylates) resulting in small characteristic lengths of order 1 nanometer near the onset of α cooperativity. In a speculative outlook a dynamic density pattern is presented, having a cellular structure with higher density and lower mobility of the cell walls. It will be explained, with the aid of different thermal expansion of wall and clusters, how the clusters within the cells maintain a certain mobility far below the glass temperature.

  4. ILLIAC 4 systems characteristics and programming manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The latest edition is presented of the Systems Characteristics and Programming Manual of the ILLIAC 4 array and parallel disc memory system. The major aspects of the array described include: the array systems characteristics, programming characteristics, definition and flow charts, and timing. A glossary of terms, and an instruction index are included.

  5. Characteristics of High-Performing School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leithwood, Kenneth; Azah, Vera N.

    2017-01-01

    This mixed-methods study inquired about characteristics of districts which influence changes in student achievement and how those characteristics are developed. Staff in 49 Ontario districts were surveyed to estimate the status of nine district characteristics on changes in provincial tests of math and language achievement over five years. A…

  6. 30 CFR 7.99 - Critical characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Critical characteristics. 7.99 Section 7.99... Areas of Underground Coal Mines Where Permissible Electric Equipment is Required § 7.99 Critical characteristics. The following critical characteristics shall be inspected or tested on each diesel power...

  7. 30 CFR 7.65 - Critical characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Critical characteristics. 7.65 Section 7.65 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND... Critical characteristics. The following critical characteristics shall be inspected or tested on...

  8. 30 CFR 7.305 - Critical characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Critical characteristics. 7.305 Section 7.305... APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Electric Motor Assemblies § 7.305 Critical characteristics. The following critical characteristics shall be inspected on each motor assembly to which...

  9. F-5-L Boat Seaplane : performance characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diehl, W S

    1922-01-01

    Performance characteristics for the F-5-L Boat Seaplane are given. Characteristic curves for the RAF-6 airfoil and the F-5-L wings, parasite resistance and velocity data, engine and propeller characteristics, effective and maximum horsepower, and cruising performance are discussed.

  10. Tier identification (TID) for tiered memory characteristics

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Jichuan; Lim, Kevin T; Ranganathan, Parthasarathy

    2014-03-25

    A tier identification (TID) is to indicate a characteristic of a memory region associated with a virtual address in a tiered memory system. A thread may be serviced according to a first path based on the TID indicating a first characteristic. The thread may be serviced according to a second path based on the TID indicating a second characteristic.

  11. Approximating the efficiency characteristics of blade pumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shekun, G. D.

    2007-11-01

    Results from a statistical investigation into the experimental efficiency characteristics of commercial type SD centrifugal pumps and type SDS swirl flow pumps are presented. An exponential function for approximating the efficiency characteristics of blade pumps is given. The versatile nature of this characteristic is confirmed by the fact that the use of different systems of relative units gives identical results.

  12. Characteristics of the equine embryo and fetus from days 15 to 107 of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Franciolli, André Luis Rezende; Cordeiro, Bruna Mascaro; da Fonseca, Erika Toledo; Rodrigues, Marcio Nogueira; Sarmento, Carlos Alberto Palmeira; Ambrosio, Carlos Eduardo; de Carvalho, Ana Flavia; Miglino, Maria Angélica; Silva, Luciano Andrade

    2011-09-15

    In spite of numerous, substantial advances in equine reproduction, many stages of embryonic and fetal morphological development are poorly understood, with no apparent single source of comprehensive information. Hence, the objective of the present study was to provide a complete macroscopic and microscopic description of the equine embryo/fetus at various gestational ages. Thirty-four embryos/fetuses were aged based on their crown rump length (CRL), and submitted to macroscopic description, biometry, light and scanning microscopy, as well as the alizarin technique. All observed developmental changes were chronologically ordered and described. As examples of the main observed features, an accentuated cervical curvature was observed upon macroscopic examination in all specimens. In the nervous system, the encephalic fourth ventricle and the encephalic vesicles forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain, were visualized from Day 19 (ovulation = Day 0). The thoracic and pelvic limbs were also visualized; their extremities gave rise to the hoof during development from Day 27. Development of other structures such as pigmented optical vesicle, liver, tail, cardiac area, lungs, and dermal vascularization started on Days 25, 25, 19, 19, 34, and 35, respectively. Light and scanning microscopy facilitated detailed examinations of several organs, e.g., heart, kidneys, lungs, and intestine, whereas the alizarin technique enabled visualization of ossification. Observations in this study contributed to the knowledge regarding equine embryogenesis, and included much detailed data from many specimens collected over a long developmental interval.

  13. [Electroencephalographic characteristics of West syndrome].

    PubMed

    Kholin, A A; Mukhin, K Iu; Petrukhin, A S; Il'ina, E S

    2002-01-01

    The study aimed at interictal electroencephalographic characteristics investigation in the patients with West syndrome. It has been carried out in 48 children, aged 3 months--2 years, the inpatients of Psychoneurology and Epilepsy Department, Russian Clinical Children Hospital No. 2, from March 1999 to march 2001. The following EEG awakeness types were detected: typical hypsarrithmia--8 (16.7%) patients; different variants of modified hypsarrithmia--35 (72.9%); a presence of focal epileptiform discharges, but not in the form of modified hypsarrithmia with focal component--3 (6.2%); an absence of epileptiform discharges--2 (4.2%). Typical and modified hypsarrithmia cases ratio was estimated as 18.6%:81.4%. Among the patients with modified hypsarrithmia, the following variants have been detected: synchronized variant of modified hypsarrithmia--35.3% of the cases with modified hypsarrithmia; asymmetric regional or unilateral hypsarrithmia--42.9%; hypsarrithmia with partial component--45.7%; hypsarrithmia with persisting "suppressive-burst" pattern--20% of the cases. Correct evaluation of clinical, electrophysiological and neurovisual data (clinico-electro-anatomical approach) facilitated the rational differential choice of antiepileptic therapy. The approach allows the early prognosis of disease course and its transformation to other epilepsy types.

  14. Temporal Characteristics of Otoacoustic Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Withnell, R. H.; Dhar, S.; Talmadge, C. L.; Shaffer, L. A.; de Boer, E.; Roberts, R.; McPherson, D.

    2003-02-01

    The recent work of Talmadge et al. [1] and Shera and Guinan [2] argues for two distinct mechanisms for the production of otoacoustic emissions: i) a retrograde traveling wave produced by the amplifier induced pressure gradient across the basilar membrane due primarily to the nonlinearities inherent in the amplifier, and ii) linear coherent reflections encompassing intracochlear standing waves. It would appear that for emissions arising from their characteristic frequency (CF) place, the dominant mechanism of production is one of reflection [2,3]. Inherent in a reflection mechanism is that the incident energy propagates to the CF place and then is reflected back to the stapes (i.e., two distinct delays, an anterograde delay and a retrograde delay). For emissions arising significantly basal to the CF place the dominant mechanism of production is non-linear, but it is not clear if such emissions are a result of reflection or energy injected into the basilar membrane by the active process. Estimates of delay to date have been largely based on phase-gradients of steady-state signals and not true time delays [4]. In this study, we report signal-front delays measured in the human from DPOAEs (2f1-f2) using a pulsed-tone paradigm. In particular, we examine whether all DPOAEs arise from reflection, albeit via different mechanisms.

  15. Cervical characteristics of Noonan syndrome.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Jun J; Yabunaka, Tomoe; Moriyama, Keiji

    2014-04-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES A short neck and low posterior hairline are characteristics of Noonan syndrome (NS) and are hallmarks of basilar invagination/impression. However, it is seldom that NS has been directly linked with this symptom. Thus, this study aimed to investigate basilar impression in NS subjects compared with control subjects and individuals exhibiting Turner Syndrome (TS). SUBJECTS/METHODS The degree of basilar impression and vertical positional differences of the third and fourth cervical vertebrae and hyoid bone in NS (n = 9, mean age: 12.1 years), TS (n = 9, mean age: 12.1 years), and control subjects (n = 9, mean age: 12.0 years) were investigated using lateral cephalometric radiographs. Differences between the three groups were compared using the Steel-Dwass test. Vertical positional differences in the anatomical structures within each group were compared using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test accompanied by a Bonferroni-Holm correction. RESULTS The distance by which the odontoid tip extended past McGregor's line in subjects with NS was significantly greater compared with TS and control subjects. The third and fourth cervical vertebrae were positioned significantly superiorly in subjects with NS compared with TS and control subjects and, in NS, were also significantly superior to the hyoid bone. There was no difference in the position of the hyoid bone itself between the groups. CONCLUSION/IMPLICATION These results suggest that basilar impression may be a frequently found symptom of NS.

  16. X-34 Vehicle Aerodynamic Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brauckmann, Gregory J.

    1998-01-01

    The X-34, being designed and built by the Orbital Sciences Corporation, is an unmanned sub-orbital vehicle designed to be used as a flying test bed to demonstrate key vehicle and operational technologies applicable to future reusable launch vehicles. The X-34 will be air-launched from an L-1011 carrier aircraft at approximately Mach 0.7 and 38,000 feet altitude, where an onboard engine will accelerate the vehicle to speeds above Mach 7 and altitudes to 250,000 feet. An unpowered entry will follow, including an autonomous landing. The X-34 will demonstrate the ability to fly through inclement weather, land horizontally at a designated site, and have a rapid turn-around capability. A series of wind tunnel tests on scaled models was conducted in four facilities at the NASA Langley Research Center to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of the X-34. Analysis of these test results revealed that longitudinal trim could be achieved throughout the design trajectory. The maximum elevon deflection required to trim was only half of that available, leaving a margin for gust alleviation and aerodynamic coefficient uncertainty. Directional control can be achieved aerodynamically except at combined high Mach numbers and high angles of attack, where reaction control jets must be used. The X-34 landing speed, between 184 and 206 knots, is within the capabilities of the gear and tires, and the vehicle has sufficient rudder authority to control the required 30-knot crosswind.

  17. X-33 Hypersonic Aerodynamic Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Kelly J.; Nowak, Robert J.; Thompson, Richard A.; Hollis, Brian R.; Prabhu, Ramadas K.

    1999-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Skunk Works, under a cooperative agreement with NASA, will design, build, and fly the X-33, a half-scale prototype of a rocket-based, single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO), reusable launch vehicle (RLV). A 0.007-scale model of the X-33 604BOO02G configuration was tested in four hypersonic facilities at the NASA Langley Research Center to examine vehicle stability and control characteristics and to populate the aerodynamic flight database for the hypersonic regime. The vehicle was found to be longitudinally controllable with less than half of the total body flap deflection capability across the angle of attack range at both Mach 6 and Mach 10. Al these Mach numbers, the vehicle also was shown to be longitudinally stable or neutrally stable for typical (greater than 20 degrees) hypersonic flight attitudes. This configuration was directionally unstable and the use of reaction control jets (RCS) will be necessary to control the vehicle at high angles of attack in the hypersonic flight regime. Mach number and real gas effects on longitudinal aerodynamics were shown to be small relative to X-33 control authority.

  18. X-33 Hypersonic Aerodynamic Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Kelly J.; Nowak, Robert J.; Thompson, Richard A.; Hollis, Brian R.; Prabhu, Ramadas K.

    1999-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Skunk Works, under a cooperative agreement with NASA, will build and fly the X-33, a half-scale prototype of a rocket-based, single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO), reusable launch vehicle (RLV). A 0.007-scale model of the X-33 604B0002G configuration was tested in four hypersonic facilities at the NASA Langley Research Center to examine vehicle stability and control characteristics and to populate an aerodynamic flight database i n the hypersonic regime. The vehicle was found to be longitudinally controllable with less than half of the total body flap deflection capability across the angle of attack range at both Mach 6 and Mach 10. At these Mach numbers, the vehicle also was shown to be longitudinally stable or neutrally stable for typical (greater than 20 degrees) hypersonic flight attitudes. This configuration was directionally unstable and the use of reaction control jets (RCS) will be necessary to control the vehicle at high angles of attack in the hypersonic flight regime. Mach number and real gas effects on longitudinal aerodynamics were shown to be small relative to X-33 control authority.

  19. Key characteristics of specular stereo.

    PubMed

    Muryy, Alexander A; Fleming, Roland W; Welchman, Andrew E

    2014-12-24

    Because specular reflection is view-dependent, shiny surfaces behave radically differently from matte, textured surfaces when viewed with two eyes. As a result, specular reflections pose substantial problems for binocular stereopsis. Here we use a combination of computer graphics and geometrical analysis to characterize the key respects in which specular stereo differs from standard stereo, to identify how and why the human visual system fails to reconstruct depths correctly from specular reflections. We describe rendering of stereoscopic images of specular surfaces in which the disparity information can be varied parametrically and independently of monocular appearance. Using the generated surfaces and images, we explain how stereo correspondence can be established with known and unknown surface geometry. We show that even with known geometry, stereo matching for specular surfaces is nontrivial because points in one eye may have zero, one, or multiple matches in the other eye. Matching features typically yield skew (nonintersecting) rays, leading to substantial ortho-epipolar components to the disparities, which makes deriving depth values from matches nontrivial. We suggest that the human visual system may base its depth estimates solely on the epipolar components of disparities while treating the ortho-epipolar components as a measure of the underlying reliability of the disparity signals. Reconstructing virtual surfaces according to these principles reveals that they are piece-wise smooth with very large discontinuities close to inflection points on the physical surface. Together, these distinctive characteristics lead to cues that the visual system could use to diagnose specular reflections from binocular information.

  20. Permeation characteristics of gramicidin conformers.

    PubMed Central

    Busath, D; Szabo, G

    1988-01-01

    To investigate the molecular origin of decreased conductance in variant gramicidin channels, we examined the current-voltage (IV) characteristics of single Val1-gramicidin A channels. Unlike standard channels, all variant channels showed pronounced rectification even though bathing solutions were symmetrical. Moreover, channels of lower conductance consistently showed more pronounced rectification. Analysis within the framework of a three-barrier, two-site, single-filing model indicates that the shape of the variant channel IVs could be best explained by an increase in binding affinity near one of the two channel entrances. This conclusion was further tested by characterizing single channel IVs in bi-ionic solutions having different cationic species at each channel entrance. In Cs/Na bi-ionic solutions, reversal potentials of variant channels often differed by a small but significant amount from those of standard channels. When a membrane potential was applied, the ionic currents tended to be reduced more when flowing from the Na+ side than the Cs+ side. These observations support the conclusion that variant channels have increased binding affinity at one end of the channel. Furthermore, H+ currents were increased while Ag+ currents were unaltered for most variant channels exhibiting decreased Na+ or Cs+ currents. The increased H+ conductance argues against long-range coulombic forces as the basis for decreased Na+ or Cs+ conductance while the normal Ag+ conductance suggests that the binding site field strength increases by a change in carbonyl geometry at the channel entrance. PMID:2455549

  1. X-33 Hypersonic Aerodynamic Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Kelly J.; Nowak, Robert J.; Thompson, Richard A.; Hollis, Brian R.; Prabhu, Ramadas K.

    1999-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Skunk Works, under a cooperative agreement with NASA, will build and fly the X-33, a half-scale prototype of a rocket-based, single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO), reusable launch vehicle (RLV). A 0.007-scale model of the X-33 604B0002G configuration was tested in four hypersonic facilities at the NASA Langley Research Center to examine vehicle stability and control characteristics and to populate an aerodynamic flight database in the hypersonic regime. The vehicle was found to be longitudinally controllable with less than half of the total body flap deflection capability across the angle of attack range at both Mach 6 and Mach 10. At these Mach numbers, the vehicle also was shown to be longitudinally stable or neutrally stable for typical (greater than 20 degrees) hypersonic flight attitudes. This configuration was directionally unstable and the use of reaction control jets (RCS) will be necessary to control the vehicle at high angles of attack in the hypersonic flight regime. Mach number and real gas effects on longitudinal aerodynamics were shown to be small relative to X-33 control authority.

  2. X-33 Hypersonic Aerodynamic Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Kelly J.; Nowak, Robert J.; Thompson, Richard A.; Hollis, Brian R.; Prabhu, Ramadas K.

    1999-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Skunk Works, under a cooperative agreement with NASA, will build and fly the X-33, a half-scale prototype of a rocket-based, single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO), reusable launch vehicle (RLV). A 0.007-scale model of the X-33 604B0002G configuration was tested in four hypersonic facilities at the NASA Langley Research Center to examine vehicle stability and control characteristics and to populate an aerodynamic flight database in the hypersonic regime, The vehicle was found to be longitudinally controllable with less than half of the total body flap deflection capability across the angle of attack range at both Mach 6 and Mach 10. At these Mach numbers, the vehicle also was shown to be longitudinally stable or neutrally stable for typical (greater than 20 degrees) hypersonic flight attitudes. This configuration was directionally unstable and the use of reaction control jets (RCS) will be necessary to control the vehicle at high angles of attack in the hypersonic flight regime. Mach number and real gas effects on longitudinal aerodynamics were shown to be small relative to X-33 control authority.

  3. Stationary Plasma Thruster Plume Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Roger M.; Manzella, David H.

    1994-01-01

    Stationary Plasma Thrusters (SPT's) are being investigated for application to a variety of near-term missions. This paper presents the results of a preliminary study of the thruster plume characteristics which are needed to assess spacecraft integration requirements. Langmuir probes, planar probes, Faraday cups, and a retarding potential analyzer were used to measure plume properties. For the design operating voltage of 300 V the centerline electron density was found to decrease from approximately 1.8 x 10 exp 17 cubic meters at a distance of 0.3 m to 1.8 X 10 exp 14 cubic meters at a distance of 4 m from the thruster. The electron temperature over the same region was between 1.7 and 3.5 eV. Ion current density measurements showed that the plume was sharply peaked, dropping by a factor of 2.6 within 22 degrees of centerline. The ion energy 4 m from the thruster and 15 degrees off-centerline was approximately 270 V. The thruster cathode flow rate and facility pressure were found to strongly affect the plume properties. In addition to the plume measurements, the data from the various probe types were used to assess the impact of probe design criteria

  4. The Seismotectonic Characteristics of Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poljak, M.; Živčić, M.; Zupančič, P.

    Slovenia with its neighbouring areas lies at the junction of the Alps, the Dinarides and the Pannonian basin. These belong to the three plates: Europe, Adria and Tisza. On the Slovenian territory itself converge the External Dinarides NW-SE oriented right lateral strike-slip faults, the Transdanubian Range NE-SW oriented left lateral strike-slip faults, and the Southern Alps E-W oriented thrusts. The direction of the principal stress σ1 (azimuth = 6°, dip = 8°) is determined under the assumption of uniform stress throughout the region. Dip of the least principal stress σ3 of 5° is consistent with the regional strike-slip regime. Listed structures form a pure shear structural mechanism on a regional scale.In spite of geologic evidence of tectonic displacements along mentioned structures in the past, there is no surface expression of their recent activity.The lithospheric units of the investigated area were amalgamated together during Tertiary. The seismicity is not concentrated along the primary plate boundaries but is rather spread in a broad zone along their deformed rims. The seismicity is moderate with the average depth of earthquakes in Slovenia of 6.5 km, and 9 to 20 km for stronger earthquakes (MLH > 4.2). No surface rupture related to an earthquake has been detected to date in Slovenia.The territory of Slovenia and its neighbouring regions has been delineated into five seismogenic areas, i.e., the areas with similar and among themselves differentiable tectonic and seismological characteristics. They are the Eastern Alps, the Southern Alps, with the Friuli region as a separate unit, the External Dinarides, and the Transdanubian Range.

  5. Photometric Characteristics of Lunar Terrains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Hiroyuki; Hapke, Bruce W.; Denevi, Brett W.; Robinson, Mark

    2016-10-01

    The photometric properties of the lunar depend on albedo, surface roughness, porosity, and the internal/external structure of particles. Hapke parameter maps derived using a bidirectional reflectance model [Hapke, 2012] from Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) Wide Angle Camera (WAC) images demonstrated the spatial and spectral variation of the photometric properties of the Moon [Sato et al., 2014]. Using the same methodology, here we present the photometric characteristics of typical lunar terrains, which were not systematically analyzed in the previous study.We selected five representative terrain types: mare, highland, swirls, and two Copernican (fresh) crater ejecta (one mare and one highlands example). As for the datasets, we used ~39 months of WAC repeated observations, and for each image pixel, we computed latitude, longitude, incidence, emission, and phase angles using the WAC GLD100 stereo DTM [Scholten et al., 2012]. To obtain similar phase and incidence angle ranges, all sampling sites are near the equator and in the vicinity of Reiner Gamma. Three free Hapke parameters (single scattering albedo: w, HG2 phase function parameter: c, and angular width of SHOE: hs) were then calculated for the seven bands (321-689 nm). The remaining parameters were fixed by simplifying the model [Sato et al., 2014].The highlands, highland ejecta, and swirl (Reiner Gamma) showed clearly higher w than the mare and mare ejecta. The derived c values were lower (less backscattering) for the swirl and higher (more backscattering) for the highlands (and ejecta) relative to the other sites. Forward scattering materials such as unconsolidated transparent crystalline materials might be relatively enriched in the swirl. In the highlands, anorthositic agglutinates with dense internal scattering could be responsible for the strong backscattering. The mare and mare ejecta showed continuously decreasing c from UV to visible wavelengths. This might be caused by the FeO-rich pyroxene

  6. Indiana stream-temperature characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shampine, W.J.

    1977-01-01

    Periodic stream-temperature data have been collected at 280 different sites in Indiana by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Indiana State Board of Health. These data have been analyzed using a simple-harmonic curve-fitting procedure. When the equation coefficients are known, calculations can be made for a given stream to estimate the maximum and minimum temperatures, the temperature on a given day, the day a given temperature is expected, or the length of time temperatures will exceed, or be less than, a specific. The calculated harmonic coefficients were related to 23 topographic, basin, and climatic characteristics, and were analyzed by multiple-regression analysis techniques. The regional regression analysis for the harmonic- mean stream temperature, M, resulted in the following arithmetic function of station latitude (LAT). M = 41.36 - 0.7166 (LAT) The multiple correlation coefficient (r) was .72. Poor correlations were found for the harmonic phase-angle and amplitude coefficients, C and A, respectively. Constants of 4.32 radians for C and 11.27° Celsius for A are suggested as average statewide values in Indiana streams. The mean temperature of the White River at Indianapolis was raised 3.5° Celsius above expected ambient levels caused by climatic conditions alone, primarily as a result of discharges from powerplants. In general, the harmonic coefficients depicting annual variability in stream temperatures, generated from the Indiana State board of Health data collected every 2 weeks, are the same as coefficients generated from the U.S. Geological Survey date collected every 4-6 weeks.

  7. Rainfall characteristics along mountainous transect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwiebel, Jimmy; Van Baelen, Joël; Anquetin, Sandrine; Pointin, Yves; Boudevillain, Brice

    2014-05-01

    The HYdrological cycle in Mediterranean EXperiment is an experiment framework that aims at improving our understanding and quantification of processes related to the hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean region at different scales (from the individual event scale to seasonal and inter-annual variability). During the Special Observation Period (SOP-1) conducted from September 5th to November 6th 2012, an important and complementary remote sensing network (operational radars, X band research radars, Micro Rain Radars, disdrometers, and a dense network of rain gauges) has been deployed in the Cévennes-Vivarais region (South of France). This network was specifically designed to investigate the structure and the heterogeneity of precipitations as well as, in particular, the impact of orography on this structure and it has provided us with high resolution data (time and space) along strong topographic gradients (small hills, foothills and mountain). Hence, these data will support our research to precisely describe the precipitation systems and their structures over a complex terrain. In this work, we will describe the characteristics of rainfall along two topographic gradients based on the major events observed during the fall 2012 campaign period. A classification according to the type of precipitation (convective, stratiform and orographic) which can affect the region has been made to investigate orographic impact under different rainfall regimes. We will also examine the influence of the relief on the vertical and horizontal structure of precipitation. In particular, we will illustrate the modification of the drop size distribution toward smaller droplets as we go from the small hills to the mountains.

  8. Effective characteristics of corrugated plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkhangel'skii, A. F.; Gorbachev, V. I.

    2007-06-01

    characteristic dimension L. As a result, the dependence between the new local variables and the new scaled dimensionless variables is such that the factor 1/ α, where α= l/ L ≪ 1 is a small geometric parameter, appears in differentiating any function of the local coordinate with respect to the global coordinate. After this, the solution of the problem in new coordinates is sought as an asymptotic expansion in the small geometric parameter [1], [4-10]. We note that, in the small geometric parameter method, the asymptotic series simultaneously have the form of expansions in the gradients of functions depending only on the global coordinates. This averaging procedure can be applied to linear and nonlinear boundary value problems for differential equations with variable periodic coefficients for which the periodicity cell can be affinely transformed into the periodicity cube. In the case of an arbitrary dependence of the coefficients on the coordinates (including periodic dependence), another averaging technique can be used in linear problems. This technique is based on the possibility of the integral representation of the solution of the original problem for the linear equation with variables coefficients in terms of the solution of the same problem for an equation of the same type but with constant coefficients [11-13]. The integral representation implies that the solution of the original problem can be represented in the form of the series in the gradients of the solution of the problem for the equation with constant coefficients [13]. The aim of the present paper is to develop methods for calculating effective characteristics of corrugated plates. To this end, we first write out the equilibrium equations for a flexible anisotropic plate, which is inhomogeneous in the thickness direction and in the horizontal projection, with an initial deflection. We write these equations in matrix form, which allows one to significantly reduce the length of the expressions and to simplify

  9. Flood-frequency characteristics of Wisconsin streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, John F.; Krug, William R.

    2003-01-01

    Flood-frequency characteristics for 312 gaged sites on Wisconsin streams are presented for recurrence intervals of 2 to 100 years using flood-peak data collected through water year 2000. Equations of the relations between flood-frequency and drainage-basin characteristics were developed by multiple-regression analyses. Flood-frequency characteristics for ungaged sites on unregulated, rural streams can be estimated by use of these equations. The state was divided into five areas with similar physiographic characteristics. The most significant basin characteristics are drainage area, main-channel slope, soil permeability, storage, rainfall intensity, and forest cover. The standard error of prediction for the equation for the 100-year flood discharge ranges from 22 to 44 percent in the state. A graphical method for estimating flood-frequency characteristics of regulated streams was developed from the relation of discharge and drainage area. Graphs for the major regulated streams are presented.

  10. Thermo-optical characteristics of DKDP crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mironov, E. A.; Vyatkin, A. G.; Starobor, A. V.; Palashov, O. V.

    2017-03-01

    This letter presents a theoretical and experimental investigation of thermally induced polarization distortions occurring in an optical element made of c-cut tetragonal crystals. Two material characteristics were defined for this class of crystals: the optical anisotropy parameter ξ and the thermo-optical constant Q. These were generalized with analogous characteristics of elastically isotropic cubic crystals. The experimental investigation of these characteristics for popular tetragonal deuterated potassium dihydrogen phosphate (DKDP) crystal was carried out.

  11. Audiometric Characteristics of Hyperacusis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sheldrake, Jacqueline; Diehl, Peter U.; Schaette, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Hyperacusis is a frequent auditory disorder where sounds of normal volume are perceived as too loud or even painfully loud. There is a high degree of co-morbidity between hyperacusis and tinnitus, most hyperacusis patients also have tinnitus, but only about 30–40% of tinnitus patients also show symptoms of hyperacusis. In order to elucidate the mechanisms of hyperacusis, detailed measurements of loudness discomfort levels (LDLs) across the hearing range would be desirable. However, previous studies have only reported LDLs for a restricted frequency range, e.g., from 0.5 to 4 kHz or from 1 to 8 kHz. We have measured audiograms and LDLs in 381 patients with a primary complaint of hyperacusis for the full standard audiometric frequency range from 0.125 to 8 kHz. On average, patients had mild high-frequency hearing loss, but more than a third of the tested ears had normal hearing thresholds (HTs), i.e., ≤20 dB HL. LDLs were found to be significantly decreased compared to a normal-hearing reference group, with average values around 85 dB HL across the frequency range. However, receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that LDL measurements are neither sensitive nor specific enough to serve as a single test for hyperacusis. There was a moderate positive correlation between HTs and LDLs (r = 0.36), i.e., LDLs tended to be higher at frequencies where hearing loss was present, suggesting that hyperacusis is unlikely to be caused by HT increase, in contrast to tinnitus for which hearing loss is a main trigger. Moreover, our finding that LDLs are decreased across the full range of audiometric frequencies, regardless of the pattern or degree of hearing loss, indicates that hyperacusis might be due to a generalized increase in auditory gain. Tinnitus on the other hand is thought to be caused by neuroplastic changes in a restricted frequency range, suggesting that tinnitus and hyperacusis might not share a common mechanism. PMID:26029161

  12. Potato Types and Characteristics: Laboratory Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlista, Alexander D.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a number of simple exercises that demonstrate potato tuber characteristics and are designed for high school biology students and teachers. Exercises include Typing, Grading, Shape, Eye Characteristics, Defects, Specific Gravity, Dry Matter Content, Glucose Content, Baking, Frying/Chipping, and Taste Testing. (JRH)

  13. Some Structural Characteristics of Music Television Videos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fry, Donald L.; Fry, Virginia H.

    1987-01-01

    Indicates, by analyzing two types of montage structures, that music television is a hybrid form of television programing displaying visual characteristics of both television commercials and drama. Argues that this amalgam of different characteristics gives music television its distinctive look and power as a promotional tool for the record…

  14. Structural and Environmental Characteristics of Stereotyped Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Scott; Thorns, Tracy; Oliver, Chris

    2003-01-01

    This study examined structural characteristics and environmental variables in the stereotypic behaviors of eight individuals with developmental disabilities. Findings indicated that structural characteristics (percentage of time, bout length, and bout length variability) were highly correlated. Also, stereotyped behaviors were more likely to occur…

  15. Selective Recruiting: College Characteristics and Job Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colarelli, Stephen M.; And Others

    Although institutions of higher education differ widely, little is known about the effects of different college characteristics on early career outcomes. A study was conducted to examine the relationships among nine college characteristics and job offers, employment status, job attitudes, and job performance of recent college graduates. College…

  16. Sport Management Graduate Programs: Characteristics of Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Ming; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Reports a study that examined the characteristics that enable graduate sport management programs to achieve their objectives. Surveys of sport management educators found they agreed on 11 characteristics that indicated a sport management program's effectiveness. Respondents believed an effective program should produce sport managers, not…

  17. 30 CFR 7.25 - Critical characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Critical characteristics. 7.25 Section 7.25 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND....25 Critical characteristics. A sample of each batch or lot of brattice cloth and ventilation...

  18. 30 CFR 7.405 - Critical characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Critical characteristics. 7.405 Section 7.405 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND... Cable Splice Kits § 7.405 Critical characteristics. (a) A sample from each production run, batch, or...

  19. Vowel Space Characteristics and Vowel Identification Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neel, Amy T.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the relation between vowel production characteristics and intelligibility. Method: Acoustic characteristics of 10 vowels produced by 45 men and 48 women from the J. M. Hillenbrand, L. A. Getty, M. J. Clark, and K. Wheeler (1995) study were examined and compared with identification accuracy. Global (mean f0, F1, and F2;…

  20. 30 CFR 7.99 - Critical characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Diesel engine approval marking. (g) Fuel rate setting to ensure that it is appropriate for the intended... APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Diesel Power Packages Intended for Use in... characteristics. The following critical characteristics shall be inspected or tested on each diesel power...

  1. 30 CFR 7.99 - Critical characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Diesel engine approval marking. (g) Fuel rate setting to ensure that it is appropriate for the intended... APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Diesel Power Packages Intended for Use in... characteristics. The following critical characteristics shall be inspected or tested on each diesel power...

  2. Nickel-hydrogen cell reversal characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lurie, Charles

    1994-01-01

    Nickel-hydrogen cell reversal characteristics are being studied as part of a TRW program directed towards development of a high current battery cell bypass switch. The following are discussed: cell bypass switch; nickel-hydrogen cell reversal characteristics; and nickel-hydrogen cell chemistry: discharge/reversal and overdischarge (reversal) with nickel and hydrogen precharge.

  3. Methods for Predicting Submersible Hydrodynamic Characteristics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-07-01

    TO PREDICT COMPLETE CONFIGURATION CHARACTERISTICS In this section the previously developed methods are combined to determine... characteristics of individual vehicle components (bodies, tails ), and with their mutual interactions when combined into complete configurations . Each method is...approach used successfully in mis- sile aerodynamics , a set of models was built and tested to obtain systematic data over relevant ranges of geometry

  4. Prospective Teachers' Personal Characteristics to Multicultural Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eskici, Menekse

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to determine prospective teachers' personal characteristics to multicultural education. It is also aimed to reveal whether there are meaningful differences in prospective teachers' personal characteristics to multicultural education according to their genders, age and number of siblings. The descriptive model was chosen to…

  5. 10 CFR 61.56 - Waste characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Waste characteristics. 61.56 Section 61.56 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE Technical Requirements for Land Disposal Facilities § 61.56 Waste characteristics. (a) The following requirements...

  6. 10 CFR 61.56 - Waste characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Waste characteristics. 61.56 Section 61.56 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE Technical Requirements for Land Disposal Facilities § 61.56 Waste characteristics. (a) The following requirements...

  7. 10 CFR 61.56 - Waste characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Waste characteristics. 61.56 Section 61.56 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE Technical Requirements for Land Disposal Facilities § 61.56 Waste characteristics. (a) The following requirements...

  8. 10 CFR 61.56 - Waste characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Waste characteristics. 61.56 Section 61.56 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE Technical Requirements for Land Disposal Facilities § 61.56 Waste characteristics. (a) The following requirements...

  9. 10 CFR 61.56 - Waste characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Waste characteristics. 61.56 Section 61.56 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE Technical Requirements for Land Disposal Facilities § 61.56 Waste characteristics. (a) The following requirements...

  10. 46 CFR 109.564 - Maneuvering characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Maneuvering characteristics. 109.564 Section 109.564 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 109.564 Maneuvering characteristics. (a) The master or person in charge of...

  11. 46 CFR 109.564 - Maneuvering characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Maneuvering characteristics. 109.564 Section 109.564 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 109.564 Maneuvering characteristics. (a) The master or person in charge of...

  12. 46 CFR 109.564 - Maneuvering characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Maneuvering characteristics. 109.564 Section 109.564 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 109.564 Maneuvering characteristics. (a) The master or person in charge of...

  13. 46 CFR 109.564 - Maneuvering characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maneuvering characteristics. 109.564 Section 109.564 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 109.564 Maneuvering characteristics. (a) The master or person in charge of...

  14. 46 CFR 109.564 - Maneuvering characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Maneuvering characteristics. 109.564 Section 109.564 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 109.564 Maneuvering characteristics. (a) The master or person in charge of...

  15. 30 CFR 7.45 - Critical characteristics

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Battery Assemblies § 7.45 Critical characteristics The following critical characteristics shall be inspected or tested on each battery assembly to... of insulating material. (c) Size and location of ventilation openings. (d) Method of...

  16. Characteristics of Learning Disabilities Persisting into Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whyte, Lillian A.

    1984-01-01

    Describes characteristics of learning disabled teenagers. Describes results of a study of 331 secondary students who completed a self-report inventory showing that childhood learning disability characteristics persist into adolescence, most seriously in the areas of visual perception, fine motor skills, and the ability to write and make spatial…

  17. Characteristics Orientation, Needs and Expectations. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on characteristics orientation, needs, and expectations. "Characteristics Orientation of Emerging Professions: Implications for Research, Policy, and Practice of Continuing Professional Education" (William H. Young, Margot B. Weinstein) reports on a qualitative study that examined…

  18. Some engineering characteristics of heavyweight shotcrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cakıroglu, M. Alkan; Akkas, A.

    2015-03-01

    In this study some engineering characteristics of heavyweight shotcrete were determined that encountered any information in the literature, for this purpose heavyweight shotcrete were produced with using barite aggregates, that max grain size was 8mm, and some engineering characteristics such as compressive strength, Elastic Modules and ultrasonic pulse velocity were investigated with nondestructive tests.

  19. 40 CFR 261.24 - Toxicity characteristic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... characteristic of toxicity if, using the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure, test Method 1311 in “Test...-49-2 1.0 D011 Silver 7440-22-4 5.0 D039 Tetrachloroethyl-ene 127-18-4 0.7 D015 Toxaphene 8001-35-2...

  20. Enhanced flight characteristics by heterogeneous autorotating wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, Lionel; Zheng, Min; Kanso, Eva

    2015-11-01

    We investigate experimentally the effect of mass distribution and flexibility on the descent motion of thin rectangular auto-rotating wings. We vary the wing thickness and material density under carefully controlled initial conditions. We focus in particular on the flight characteristics and how it affects the dispersion properties, namely, the flight duration, descent angle, and flight range. We found that altering the mass distribution along the auto-rotation axis generally leads to a diminution of aerodynamic characteristics, in agreement with previous studies. On the other hand, changing the mass distribution width-wise can lead to enhanced flight characteristics, from beneficial aerodynamic effects.

  1. Output tube emission characteristics of operational radars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matheson, R. J.; Smilley, J. D.; Falcon, G. D.; Lawrence, V. S.

    1982-01-01

    Measurement of the emission spectra and other characteristics of many radars operating in the government frequency bands is described. The emission spectra of 19 different types of radars, selected to show the different emission spectrum characteristics produced by a variety of radar output tube technologies are presented. The radars include examples of ground based search, airport surveillance, weather, and height finding radars operating in L band, S band, or C band. The RSMS, contained within a mobile van, is described, along with the measurement techniques used for obtaining radar emission characteristics. The emission limits imposed by the Radar Spectrum Engineering Criteria (RSEC) are displayed with each emission spectrum.

  2. Variable nonlinear transfer characteristics of MSLM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Yuji; Hara, Tsutomu; Suzuki, Yoshiji

    1990-08-01

    Variable nonlinear transfer characteristics (gamma characteristics) of microchannel spatial light modulator (MSLM) are investigated theoretically and experimentally. The MSLM structure and the principle of operation are discussed, and experimental results are presented. It is shown that the thresholding nonlinearities of the MSLM can be controlled by either the mesh voltage or by writing the time change in the thresholding operation. The resulting variable nonlinear transfer characteristics can be used in various optical processings such as a sigmoid function on optical neural networks and an analog operating on optical information processing.

  3. Characteristics of Entrepreneurs: Implications for Vocational Guidance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobowitz, Alan; Vidler, Derek C.

    1982-01-01

    Small business managers (N=430) were administered structured questionnaires through informal interviews to study the nature of the entrepreneur. Results indicated certain common characteristics, patterns of behavior, values and attitudes among entrepreneurs, and similarities in personality profiles. (RC)

  4. 30 CFR 7.25 - Critical characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Brattice Cloth and Ventilation Tubing § 7.25 Critical characteristics. A sample of each batch or lot of brattice cloth and ventilation...

  5. 30 CFR 7.25 - Critical characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Brattice Cloth and Ventilation Tubing § 7.25 Critical characteristics. A sample of each batch or lot of brattice cloth and ventilation...

  6. 30 CFR 7.25 - Critical characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Brattice Cloth and Ventilation Tubing § 7.25 Critical characteristics. A sample of each batch or lot of brattice cloth and ventilation...

  7. 30 CFR 7.25 - Critical characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Brattice Cloth and Ventilation Tubing § 7.25 Critical characteristics. A sample of each batch or lot of brattice cloth and ventilation...

  8. Combustion characteristics of bamboo-biochars.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhijia; Fei, Benhua; Jiang, Zehui; Liu, Xing'e

    2014-09-01

    Combustion characteristics of biomass are very important to directly utilize as an energy resource. Bamboo was carbonized using a XD-1200N muffle furnace in the nitrogen environment and its combustion characteristics were investigated. Results showed that bamboo-biochars had better combustion characteristics compared to bamboo materials, such as a lower content of moisture and volatiles, a higher energy density, HHV and EHC, a lower H/C and O/C ratios and a shorter TTI. Characteristic peak of bamboo-biochars shifted to higher temperature in thermal decomposition process, indicating a more steady-state burning and a higher combustion efficiency. Bamboo-biochars had a low content of S and N, which was helpful to decrease pollutant emissions. A higher content of K and Na was observed in the ash of bamboo-biochars, resulting in slagging, fouling, corrosion and agglomeration. The data from this research will be very helpful to efficiently design and operate its combustion systems.

  9. Properties and characteristics of optical glass

    SciTech Connect

    Marker, A.J. III.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of SPIE on properties and characteristics of optical glass. Topics covered include IR reflectance measurement of ion-implanted silica, specifying optical materials, and impurity absorption coefficient measurements in phosphate glass melted under oxidizing conditions.

  10. Imaginary Play Companions: Characteristics and Functions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalyan-Masih, V.

    1986-01-01

    Investigates some of the following characteristics associated with young children playing with imaginary play companions (IPCs): intelligence, parental and socioeconomic and educational background, family size, and birth order. Compares these children to those without IPCs. (HOD)

  11. Arsenic Treatment Residuals: Quantities, Characteristics and Disposal

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation provides information on the quantities, the characteristics and the disposal options for the common arsenic removal technologies. The technologies consist of adsorption media, iron removal, coagulation/filtration and ion exchange. The information for the prese...

  12. Section 10: Ground Water - Waste Characteristics & Targets

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    HRS Training. The waste characteristics factor category in the ground water pathway is made up of two components: the toxicity/mobility of the most hazardous substance associated with the site and the hazardous waste quantity at the site.

  13. 49 CFR 236.717 - Characteristics, operating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.717 Characteristics, operating. The measure of electrical values at which electrical or...

  14. Characteristic Energy Scales of Quantum Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Michael J.; Jakovidis, Greg

    1994-01-01

    Provides a particle-in-a-box model to help students understand and estimate the magnitude of the characteristic energy scales of a number of quantum systems. Also discusses the mathematics involved with general computations. (MVL)

  15. Principal Characteristics of the Petroleum Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Robert W.

    1982-01-01

    The major characteristics of oil marketing, with special attention to developments in the Middle East, are described. The information presented provides a firm basis for several types of instructional inquiry. (RM)

  16. The prediction of radio-path characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gitina, G. M.; Kalinin, Iu. K.

    The paper examines algorithms for the long-term prediction of radio-path characteristics in the ionosphere, the main characteristic being the MUF at a given distance. The proposed approach is based on long-term memories called DATA BANKS. Attention is given to the characteritics of the various banks, including the BANK OF CITIES, the BANK OF RADIO PATHS, the REFERENCE DATA BANK, and the OUTPUT DATA BANK.

  17. Characteristics of Yerevan High Transparency Scintillators

    SciTech Connect

    Zorn, Carl; Asryan, Gegham; Egiyan, Kim; Tarverdyan, M.; Amaryan, Moscov; Amaryan, Moskov; Demirchyan, Raphael; Stepanyan, Stepan; Burkert, Volker; Sharabian, Youri

    1992-08-01

    Optical transmission, light output and time characteristics are given for long scintillator strips fabricated at the Yerevan Physics Institute using the extrusion method. It is shown that at 45% relative (to anthracene) light output, good transmission (2.5/2.9 m attenuation length with photomultiplier direct readout and 3/3.5 m attenuation length fiber readout) and time characteristics (average decay time 2.8 nsec) were obtained.

  18. Dispersion Characteristics of a Dielectric Loaded Waveguide,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-30

    NATIONAL BUREAU OF STANOAODS-1963-A ., ’I A NSWC TR 84-338 00 In ’DISPERSION CHARACTERISTICS OF A SDIELECTRIC LOADED WAVEGUIDE By H. CROSBY J. CHOE Y...4. TITLE (and Subtitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED DISPERSION CHARACTERISTICS OF A DIELECTRIC LOADED WAVEGUIDE S. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES S. KEY WORDS (Continue on reverse aide it necessary and Identify by block number) Dielectric Loaded Waveguide ) " Resonant Cavity) a

  19. Myopia Control with Orthokeratology Contact Lenses in Spain (MCOS): Study Design and General Baseline Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Santodomingo-Rubido, Jacinto; Villa-Collar, César; Gilmartin, Bernard; Gutiérrez-Ortega, Ramón

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Although previous studies suggest that orthokeratology contact lens wear slows eye growth in children with progressing myopia, some limitations in the methodology employed have become evident. Furthermore, the safety of this modality of visual correction has not been assessed. The study “Myopia Control with Orthokeratology Contact Lenses in Spain” (MCOS) is being conducted to compare axial length growth between white European myopic children wearing orthokeratology contact lenses (OK) and wearing distance single-vision spectacles (SV). Additionally, the incidence of adverse events and discontinuations is also recorded. We outline the methodology and baseline data adopted. Methods Subjects aged 6 to 12, with myopia ranging from 0.75 to 4.00 D and astigmatism ≤1.00 D were prospectively allocated OK or SV correction. Measurements of axial length, anterior chamber depth, corneal topography, cycloplegic autorefraction, visual acuity and corneal staining are performed at 6-month intervals. The incidence of adverse events and discontinuations are also recorded. Results Thirty one children were fitted with OK and 31 with SV correction. Eight subjects did not meet the refraction-related inclusion criteria for enrollment. No significant differences were found in baseline mean age and refractive and biometric data betwseen the two groups (P>0.05). No adverse events were found in any of the two groups at baseline. Conclusion To the authors’ knowledge, MCOS is the first prospective clinical trial to assess the safety and efficacy of orthokeratology contact lens wear to slow myopia progression vs. single-vision spectacle wear. The MCOS offers a number of notable features: prospective design; well-matched samples and high-resolution ocular biometry measures, which should collectively elucidate whether orthokeratology contact lens wear is a feasible and safe method for myopia-progression control.

  20. New biometric modalities using internal physical characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortenson, Juliana (Brooks)

    2010-04-01

    Biometrics is described as the science of identifying people based on physical characteristics such as their fingerprints, facial features, hand geometry, iris patterns, palm prints, or speech recognition. Notably, all of these physical characteristics are visible or detectable from the exterior of the body. These external characteristics can be lifted, photographed, copied or recorded for unauthorized access to a biometric system. Individual humans are unique internally, however, just as they are unique externally. New biometric modalities have been developed which identify people based on their unique internal characteristics. For example, "BoneprintsTM" use acoustic fields to scan the unique bone density pattern of a thumb pressed on a small acoustic sensor. Thanks to advances in piezoelectric materials the acoustic sensor can be placed in virtually any device such as a steering wheel, door handle, or keyboard. Similarly, "Imp-PrintsTM" measure the electrical impedance patterns of a hand to identify or verify a person's identity. Small impedance sensors can be easily embedded in devices such as smart cards, handles, or wall mounts. These internal biometric modalities rely on physical characteristics which are not visible or photographable, providing an added level of security. In addition, both the acoustic and impedance methods can be combined with physiologic measurements such as acoustic Doppler or impedance plethysmography, respectively. Added verification that the biometric pattern came from a living person can be obtained. These new biometric modalities have the potential to allay user concerns over protection of privacy, while providing a higher level of security.*

  1. Characteristic model of travelling wave ultrasonic motor.

    PubMed

    Jingzhuo, Shi; Dongmei, You

    2014-02-01

    In general, the design and analysis of ultrasonic motor and motor's control strategy are based on mathematical model. The academic model is widely used in the analysis of traveling wave ultrasonic motor (TWUSM). But the dispersive characteristic of piezoelectric ceramics and other complicated process, such as the friction, make the model's precision not so accurate. On the other hand, identification modeling method, which is built based on the tested data, has obtained increasing application in the study of ultrasonic motor's control technology. Based on the identification model, many control strategies can be designed easily. But the identification model is an approximate model, so if a more accurate model of ultrasonic motor can be obtained, the analysis and design of motor control system will be more effective. Characteristic model is a kind of identification model which can accurately describe the characteristics of TWUSM. Based on the tested data, this paper proposes the modeling method of ultrasonic motor's characteristic model. The paper also makes a comparison of the effectiveness of different identification algorithms. Aiming at the speed control of ultrasonic motor, the influence of the parameter's initial values on the precision of model is discussed. The calculating results indicate the availability of this characteristic model.

  2. Learner characteristics involved in distance learning

    SciTech Connect

    Cernicek, A.T.; Hahn, H.A.

    1991-01-01

    Distance learning represents a strategy for leveraging resources to solve educational and training needs. Although many distance learning programs have been developed, lessons learned regarding differences between distance learning and traditional education with respect to learner characteristics have not been well documented. Therefore, we conducted a survey of 20 distance learning professionals. The questionnaire was distributed to experts attending the second Distance Learning Conference sponsored by Los Alamos National Laboratory. This survey not only acquired demographic information from each of the respondents but also identified important distance learning student characteristics. Significant distance learner characteristics, which were revealed statistically and which influence the effectiveness of distance learning, include the following: reading level, student autonomy, and self-motivation. Distance learning cannot become a more useful and effective method of instruction without identifying and recognizing learner characteristics. It will be important to consider these characteristics when designing all distance learning courses. This paper will report specific survey findings and their implications for developing distance learning courses. 9 refs., 6 tabs.

  3. Characteristics of Medical Teams in Disaster.

    PubMed

    Oldenburger, David; Baumann, Andrea; Banfield, Laura

    2017-04-01

    Disasters present unique challenges for teams providing medical assistance to those populations impacted by the event. This scoping review focused on the characteristics of medical teams in disaster and how these characteristics are developed. The scoping review methods of Arksey and O'Malley were followed. An inductive thematic analysis of selected articles was used to identify recurrent themes. A total of 6,521 articles were reviewed from eight databases, yielding 33 articles. Four recurrent theme groups were identified: (1) adaptability, flexibility, and improvisation; (2) creativity and innovation; (3) experience and training; and (4) leadership and command structure. The study highlighted key characteristics identified by responders for effective team functioning and interdependence between the characteristics. It also identified the paucity of literature on the subject. Results from the study can help to guide future research and training development for medical teams in disaster. Oldenburger D , Baumann A , Banfield L . Characteristics of medical teams in disaster. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(2):195-200.

  4. [Analysis of typical mangrove spectral reflectance characteristics].

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiang; Zhang, Feng-Shou; Liu, Qing; Li, De-Yi; Zhao, Dong-Zhi

    2013-02-01

    Acquisition of mangrove spectrum properties and detecting the sensitive bands provide technology basis for inverse modeling and estimation by remote sensing for various indexes of mangrove. The typical mangroves of Guangxi Shankou Mangrove Reserve were taken for study objects, the standard spectrum curves of Bruguiera gymnorrhiza (Linn.) Savigny, Rhizophora stylosa, Kandelia candel, Avicennia marina, Aegiceras corniculatum, Spartina anglica and mudflat were gained by denoising analysis of field-measured spectrum curves acquired by ASD FieldSpec 2. Analyzing the spectral characteristics and their differences, the authors found that the spectrum curves for various kinds of mangrove are coincident, the bands that appeared with reflection peaks and reflection valleys are basically identical, the within-class differentiated characteristics are comparatively small, the spectrum characteristics of mangroves are obviously different with Spartina anglica and mudflat. In order to gain the quantitative description for within-class differentiated characteristics of mangrove, space distance method, correlation coefficient method and spectral angle mapping method were used to calculate the within-class differentiated characteristics. The division accuracy of correlation coefficient method is higher than spectral angle mapping method which is higher than space distance method, and the result indicates that the spectrum differences of within-class mangrove and Spartina anglica are relatively small with correlation coefficients more than 0.995, and spectrum curve angle cosine values more than 0.95.

  5. Mexican-American Adolescents' Gender-Typed Characteristics: The Role of Sibling and Friend Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Perez-Brena, Norma J; Wheeler, Lorey A; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Schaefer, David R

    2015-07-01

    This study examined the role of sibling and friend characteristics in Mexican-American youth's gender-typed characteristics (i.e., attitudes, interests, and leisure activities) in early versus middle adolescence using a sibling design. Mexican-American 7th graders (M = 12.51 years; SD = .58) and their older siblings (M = 15.48 years; SD = 1.57) from 246 families participated in home interviews and a series of seven nightly phone calls. Results revealed that younger/early adolescent siblings reported more traditional gender role attitudes than their older/middle adolescent siblings and older brothers were more traditional in their attitudes than older sisters. When comparing siblings' gender-typed interests and leisure activities, boys reported more masculine orientations than girls and girls reported more feminine orientations than boys. Older brothers' gender-typed characteristics were associated with the amount of time spent with and gender characteristics of their friendship group, but for younger brothers, sibling characteristics were associated with their gender-typed characteristics. In contrast, both sibling and friendship characteristics were significantly associated with older and younger sisters' gender-typed characteristics. The discussion addressed the different correlates of older and younger sisters' and brothers' gender-typed characteristics.

  6. Mexican-American Adolescents’ Gender-Typed Characteristics: The Role of Sibling and Friend Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Lorey A.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Schaefer, David R.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the role of sibling and friend characteristics in Mexican-American youth’s gender-typed characteristics (i.e., attitudes, interests, and leisure activities) in early versus middle adolescence using a sibling design. Mexican-American 7th graders (M = 12.51 years; SD = .58) and their older siblings (M = 15.48 years; SD = 1.57) from 246 families participated in home interviews and a series of seven nightly phone calls. Results revealed that younger/early adolescent siblings reported more traditional gender role attitudes than their older/middle adolescent siblings and older brothers were more traditional in their attitudes than older sisters. When comparing siblings’ gender-typed interests and leisure activities, boys reported more masculine orientations than girls and girls reported more feminine orientations than boys. Older brothers’ gender-typed characteristics were associated with the amount of time spent with and gender characteristics of their friendship group, but for younger brothers, sibling characteristics were associated with their gender-typed characteristics. In contrast, both sibling and friendship characteristics were significantly associated with older and younger sisters’ gender-typed characteristics. The discussion addressed the different correlates of older and younger sisters’ and brothers’ gender-typed characteristics. PMID:25539774

  7. Damping characteristics of damaged fiber composite components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eberle, K.

    1986-01-01

    Defects in fiber composite components produce changes with respect to the vibrational characteristics of the material. These changes can be recognized in the form of a frequency shift or an alteration of the damping process. The present investigation is concerned with questions regarding the possibility of a utilization of the changes in suitable defect-detecting inspection procedures. A description is given of a method for measuring the damping characteristics of a specimen. This method provides a spectrum of the damping coefficients of the sample as a basis for a comprehensive evaluation of the damping behavior. The correlation between defects and change in the damping characteristics is demonstrated with the aid of results obtained in measurements involving specimens of carbon-fiber composites and a component consisting of glass-fiber-reinforced plastics.

  8. [Mechanical buffering characteristics of feline paw pads].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaopeng; Yang, Jialing; Yu, Hui

    2012-12-01

    In the long time of natural evolution, the bodies of some animals, such as feline, that live in the wild and complicate surroundings have evolved to possess outstanding buffering characteristics, which make the animals adapt to the environment perfectly. These animals generally have well-developed paw pads under their soles to play an important role in attenuating the intensity of impact when they land on the ground. Investigating the buffering characteristics of these animals' paw pads could help us to design "bionic" buffering and energy-absorption devices. In this paper, based on observations of animal jumping test, a simple mass-spring-buffer model was proposed to explore the buffering characteristics of the animals' paw pads. By analytically solving the differential equations of this model, the parameters concerned with paw pads functions were discussed and some significant results were obtained.

  9. Fractal characteristics for binary noise radar waveform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bing C.

    2016-05-01

    Noise radars have many advantages over conventional radars and receive great attentions recently. The performance of a noise radar is determined by its waveforms. Investigating characteristics of noise radar waveforms has significant value for evaluating noise radar performance. In this paper, we use binomial distribution theory to analyze general characteristics of binary phase coded (BPC) noise waveforms. Focusing on aperiodic autocorrelation function, we demonstrate that the probability distributions of sidelobes for a BPC noise waveform depend on the distances of these sidelobes to the mainlobe. The closer a sidelobe to the mainlobe, the higher the probability for this sidelobe to be a maximum sidelobe. We also develop Monte Carlo framework to explore the characteristics that are difficult to investigate analytically. Through Monte Carlo experiments, we reveal the Fractal relationship between the code length and the maximum sidelobe value for BPC waveforms, and propose using fractal dimension to measure noise waveform performance.

  10. PMR polyimide prepreg with improved tack characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serafini, T. T.; Delvigs, P.

    1976-01-01

    Current PMR Polyimide prepreg technology utilizes methanol or ethanol solvents for preparation of the PMR prepreg solutions. The volatility of these solvents limits the tack and drape retention characteristics of unprotected prepreg exposed to ambient conditions. Studies conducted to achieve PMR 15 Polyimide prepreg with improved tack and drape characteristics were described. Improved tack and drape retention were obtained by incorporation of an additional monomer. The effects of various levels of the added monomer on the thermo-oxidative stability and mechanical properties of graphite fiber reinforced PMR 15 composites exposed and tested at 316 C (600 F) were discussed.

  11. Gas hydrate reservoir characteristics and economics

    SciTech Connect

    Collett, T.S.; Bird, K.J.; Burruss, R.C.; Lee, Myung W.

    1992-06-01

    The primary objective of the DOE-funded USGS Gas Hydrate Program is to assess the production characteristics and economic potential of gas hydrates in northern Alaska. The objectives of this project for FY-1992 will include the following: (1) Utilize industry seismic data to assess the distribution of gas hydrates within the nearshore Alaskan continental shelf between Harrison Bay and Prudhoe Bay; (2) Further characterize and quantify the well-log characteristics of gas hydrates; and (3) Establish gas monitoring stations over the Eileen fault zone in northern Alaska, which will be used to measure gas flux from destabilized hydrates.

  12. Gas hydrate reservoir characteristics and economics

    SciTech Connect

    Collett, T.S.; Bird, K.J.; Burruss, R.C.; Lee, Myung W.

    1992-01-01

    The primary objective of the DOE-funded USGS Gas Hydrate Program is to assess the production characteristics and economic potential of gas hydrates in northern Alaska. The objectives of this project for FY-1992 will include the following: (1) Utilize industry seismic data to assess the distribution of gas hydrates within the nearshore Alaskan continental shelf between Harrison Bay and Prudhoe Bay; (2) Further characterize and quantify the well-log characteristics of gas hydrates; and (3) Establish gas monitoring stations over the Eileen fault zone in northern Alaska, which will be used to measure gas flux from destabilized hydrates.

  13. Modelling of dc characteristics for granular semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varpula, Aapo; Sinkkonen, Juha; Novikov, Sergey

    2010-11-01

    The dc characteristics of granular n-type semiconductors are calculated analytically with the drift-diffusion theory. Electronic trapping at the grain boundaries (GBs) is taken into account. The use of quadratic and linear GB potential profiles in the calculation is compared. The analytical model is verified with numerical simulation performed by SILVACO ATLAS. The agreement between the analytical and numerical results is excellent in a large voltage range. The results show that electronic trapping at the GBs has a remarkable effect on the highly nonlinear I-V characteristics of the material.

  14. Identifying characteristic scales in the human genome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpena, P.; Bernaola-Galván, P.; Coronado, A. V.; Hackenberg, M.; Oliver, J. L.

    2007-03-01

    The scale-free, long-range correlations detected in DNA sequences contrast with characteristic lengths of genomic elements, being particularly incompatible with the isochores (long, homogeneous DNA segments). By computing the local behavior of the scaling exponent α of detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), we discriminate between sequences with and without true scaling, and we find that no single scaling exists in the human genome. Instead, human chromosomes show a common compositional structure with two characteristic scales, the large one corresponding to the isochores and the other to small and medium scale genomic elements.

  15. Reionization: Characteristic Scales, Topology And Observability

    SciTech Connect

    Iliev, Ilian T.; Shapiro, Paul R.; Mellema, Garrelt; Pen, Ue-Li; McDonald, Patrick; Alvarez, Marcelo A.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2007-11-02

    Recently the numerical simulations of the process of reionization of the universe at z > 6 have made a qualitative leap forward, reaching sufficient sizes and dynamic range to determine the characteristic scales of this process. This allowed making the first realistic predictions for a variety of observational signatures. We discuss recent results from large-scale radiative transfer and structure formation simulations on the observability of high-redshift Ly-{alpha} sources. We also briefly discuss the dependence of the characteristic scales and topology of the ionized and neutral patches on the reionization parameters.

  16. Acoustic Characteristics of Sentences Produced in Noise

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    MONITORING OPOANIZATION REPORT NUMIIIIR( S ) AAMRL-TR-89- 036 1 ao.rNAM OF P1 ORM IN G ORGANIZATION 6 .OFFICE SY B L U , NAME OF MNITORIN G 6ORANIZA7IONary...and aerodynamic characteristics of pharyngeal consonants in Iraqi Arabic," Phonetica, 44, 156-172. 4. Cyphers, D . S ., Kassel, R. H., Kaufman, D . Hd...AAMRL-TR-89-036 AD-A235 344UIl IIIIII 11111111 liii III!l ~ l!l ACOUSTIC CHARACTERISTICS OF SENTENCES PRODUCED IN NOISE Z, S . Bond Thomas J. Moore

  17. Switching Characteristics of Ferroelectric Transistor Inverters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laws, Crystal; Mitchell, Coey; MacLeod, Todd C.; Ho, Fat D.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the switching characteristics of an inverter circuit using a ferroelectric field effect transistor, FeFET. The propagation delay time characteristics, phl and plh are presented along with the output voltage rise and fall times, rise and fall. The propagation delay is the time-delay between the V50% transitions of the input and output voltages. The rise and fall times are the times required for the output voltages to transition between the voltage levels V10% and V90%. Comparisons are made between the MOSFET inverter and the ferroelectric transistor inverter.

  18. Lung cancer stem cells—characteristics, phenotype

    PubMed Central

    George, Rachel; Sethi, Tariq

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer remains a major cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide with unfavourable prognosis mainly due to the late stage of disease at presentation. High incidence and disease recurrence rates are a fact despite advances in treatment. Ongoing experimental and clinical observations suggest that the malignant phenotype in lung cancer is sustained by lung cancer stem cells (CSCs) which are putative stem cells situated throughout the airways that have the potential of initiating lung cancer formation. These cells share the common characteristic of increased proliferation and differentiation, long life span and resistance to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. This review summarises the current knowledge on their characteristics and phenotype. PMID:27413709

  19. USB flow characteristics related to noise generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, W. H.; Reddy, N. N.

    1976-01-01

    The effects of nozzle and flap geometry on upper surface blown flow field characteristics related to noise generation were examined experimentally using static models. Flow attachment and spreading characteristics were observed using flow visualization techniques. Velocity and turbulence profiles in the trailing edge wake were measured using hot-wire anemometry, and the effects of the geometric variables on peak velocity and turbulence intensity were determined. It is shown that peak trailing edge velocity is a function of the ratio of flow length to modified hydraulic diameter.

  20. Structure and Deformation Characteristics of Rheocast Metals.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    7 A-AO86 469 ILLINOIS UNIV AT URBANA-CHAMPAIGN DEPT OF METALLURGY --ETC FGL/ STRUCTURE AND DEFORMATION CHARACTERISTICS OF RHEOCAST METALS.(U) MAR 80...lhEEIll/ EEllEEEEEElllE I *%LS AD I AMMRC TR 80-5 I ~ STRUCTURE AND DEFORMATION I ~ CHARACTERISTICS OF RHEOCAST METALS 1 March, 1980 R. Mebrabian, F.M...a number of Rheocast alloys, (2) a comparison of the DD ,0N 1473 EDITION OF I NOV 695 OBSOLETE UCASFE ~~, ~ T~/U CLASSIFICATION OF TNIS PAGE (When

  1. Abdominal vascular syndromes: characteristic imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Cardarelli-Leite, Leandro; Velloni, Fernanda Garozzo; Salvadori, Priscila Silveira; Lemos, Marcelo Delboni; D'Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal vascular syndromes are rare diseases. Although such syndromes vary widely in terms of symptoms and etiologies, certain imaging findings are characteristic. Depending on their etiology, they can be categorized as congenital-including blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome, Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome, and hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome)-or compressive-including "nutcracker" syndrome, median arcuate ligament syndrome, Cockett syndrome (also known as May-Thurner syndrome), and superior mesenteric artery syndrome. In this article, we aimed to illustrate imaging findings that are characteristic of these syndromes, through studies conducted at our institution, as well as to perform a brief review of the literature on this topic.

  2. Tribotechnical characteristics of titanium diboride electrospark coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Polotai, V.V.; Chiplik, V.N.; Egorov, F.F.; Podchernyaeva, I.A.; Verkhoturov, A.D.

    1985-10-01

    The most important characteristics of electrospark coatings are wear resistance and coefficient of friction. However, information on the tribotechnical properties of electrospark coatings is extremely limited in the literature, in part due to methodological difficulties caused by the insignificant thickness of electrospark coatings, as a rule, 40-60 mum and less. In this work a study was made of the tribotechnical characteristics of 45 steel after electroerosion hardening with TiB2-Mo alloys with a volume share of molybdenum in the original charge of 5, 10, 20, 30 and 50%. For comparison, specimens with coatings of the standard sintered carbides VK6 and T15K6 were also tested.

  3. Dispersivity as an oil reservoir rock characteristic

    SciTech Connect

    Menzie, D.E.; Dutta, S.

    1989-12-01

    The main objective of this research project is to establish dispersivity, {alpha}{sub d}, as an oil reservoir rock characteristic and to use this reservoir rock property to enhance crude oil recovery. A second objective is to compare the dispersion coefficient and the dispersivity of various reservoir rocks with other rock characteristics such as: porosity, permeability, capillary pressure, and relative permeability. The dispersivity of a rock was identified by measuring the physical mixing of two miscible fluids, one displacing the other in a porous medium. 119 refs., 27 figs., 12 tabs.

  4. Characteristics of primary electric propulsion systems. [conferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byers, D. C.

    1979-01-01

    The use of advanced electric propulsion systems is expected to provide cost and performance benefits for future energetic space missions. A methodology to predict the characteristics of advanced electric propulsion systems was developed and programmed for computer calculations to allow evaluation of a broad set of technology and mission assumptions. The impact on overall thrust system characteristics was assessed for variations of propellant type, total accelerating voltage, thruster area, specific impulse, and power system approach. The data may be used both to provide direction to technology emphasis and allow for preliminary estimates of electric propulsion system properties for a wide variety of applications.

  5. Static Characteristics of the Ferroelectric Transistor Inverter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Cody; Laws, crystal; MacLeond, Todd C.; Ho, Fat D.

    2010-01-01

    The inverter is one of the most fundamental building blocks of digital logic, and it can be used as the foundation for understanding more complex logic gates and circuits. This paper presents the characteristics of an inverter circuit using a ferroelectric field-effect transistor. The voltage transfer characteristics are analyzed with respect to varying parameters such as supply voltage, input voltage, and load resistance. The effects of the ferroelectric layer between the gate and semiconductor are examined, and comparisons are made between the inverters using ferroelectric transistors and those using traditional MOSFETs.

  6. Low-flow characteristics of Virginia streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Austin, Samuel H.; Krstolic, Jennifer L.; Wiegand, Ute

    2011-01-01

    Low-flow annual non-exceedance probabilities (ANEP), called probability-percent chance (P-percent chance) flow estimates, regional regression equations, and transfer methods are provided describing the low-flow characteristics of Virginia streams. Statistical methods are used to evaluate streamflow data. Analysis of Virginia streamflow data collected from 1895 through 2007 is summarized. Methods are provided for estimating low-flow characteristics of gaged and ungaged streams. The 1-, 4-, 7-, and 30-day average streamgaging station low-flow characteristics for 290 long-term, continuous-record, streamgaging stations are determined, adjusted for instances of zero flow using a conditional probability adjustment method, and presented for non-exceedance probabilities of 0.9, 0.8, 0.7, 0.6, 0.5, 0.4, 0.3, 0.2, 0.1, 0.05, 0.02, 0.01, and 0.005. Stream basin characteristics computed using spatial data and a geographic information system are used as explanatory variables in regional regression equations to estimate annual non-exceedance probabilities at gaged and ungaged sites and are summarized for 290 long-term, continuous-record streamgaging stations, 136 short-term, continuous-record streamgaging stations, and 613 partial-record streamgaging stations. Regional regression equations for six physiographic regions use basin characteristics to estimate 1-, 4-, 7-, and 30-day average low-flow annual non-exceedance probabilities at gaged and ungaged sites. Weighted low-flow values that combine computed streamgaging station low-flow characteristics and annual non-exceedance probabilities from regional regression equations provide improved low-flow estimates. Regression equations developed using the Maintenance of Variance with Extension (MOVE.1) method describe the line of organic correlation (LOC) with an appropriate index site for low-flow characteristics at 136 short-term, continuous-record streamgaging stations and 613 partial-record streamgaging stations. Monthly

  7. Fusibility and sintering characteristics of ash

    SciTech Connect

    Ots, A. A.

    2012-03-15

    The temperature characteristics of ash fusibility are studied for a wide range of bituminous and brown coals, lignites, and shales with ratios R{sub B/A} of their alkaline and acid components between 0.03 and 4. Acritical value of R{sub B/A} is found at which the fusion temperatures are minimal. The sintering properties of the ashes are determined by measuring the force required to fracture a cylindrical sample. It is found that the strength of the samples increases sharply at certain temperatures. The alkali metal content of the ashes has a strong effect on their sintering characteristics.

  8. 43 CFR 3715.2-1 - What additional characteristic(s) must my occupancy have?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What additional characteristic(s) must my occupancy have? 3715.2-1 Section 3715.2-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands...(s) must my occupancy have? In addition to the requirements specified in § 3715.2, your...

  9. 43 CFR 3715.2-1 - What additional characteristic(s) must my occupancy have?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What additional characteristic(s) must my occupancy have? 3715.2-1 Section 3715.2-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands...(s) must my occupancy have? In addition to the requirements specified in § 3715.2, your...

  10. Characteristic(s) of Hypermedia and How They Relate to Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fastrez, Pierre

    2001-01-01

    Offers a redefining of three problem areas associated with the cognitive effects of the semiotic characteristics of hypermedia: hypertext associativity, non-linearity, and the rapprochement of real and hypertext navigation. Focuses on navigation and discusses characteristics of hypermedia and its rapport with knowledge. (Author/LRW)

  11. Approximating the head characteristics and characteristic surfaces of dynamic pumps by means of an exponential function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shekun, G. D.

    2009-08-01

    Results obtained from statistical and experimental studies of the head characteristics of commercially available centrifugal and free-vortex pumps are presented. A regression equation in the form of an exponential function written in a reduced-relative system of coordinates for approximating the head characteristics of blade pumps is obtained.

  12. 7 CFR 51.2650 - Similar varietal characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades for Sweet Cherries 1 Definitions § 51.2650 Similar varietal characteristics. Similar varietal characteristics means that the cherries...

  13. 7 CFR 51.3057 - Similar varietal characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Florida Avocados Definitions § 51.3057 Similar varietal characteristics. Similar varietal characteristics means that the avocados in...

  14. Laser Microprobe Mass Spectrometry 1: Basic Principles and Performance Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denoyer, Eric; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Describes the historical development, performance characteristics (sample requirements, analysis time, ionization characteristics, speciation capabilities, and figures of merit), and applications of laser microprobe mass spectrometry. (JN)

  15. 7 CFR 51.2650 - Similar varietal characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades for Sweet Cherries 1 Definitions § 51.2650 Similar varietal characteristics. Similar varietal characteristics means that the cherries...

  16. Characteristics and Quality of Autism Websites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichow, Brian; Halpern, Jason I.; Steinhoff, Timothy B.; Letsinger, Nicole; Naples, Adam; Volkmar, Fred R.

    2012-01-01

    The World Wide Web is a common method for obtaining information on autism spectrum disorders, however, there are no guidelines for finding websites with high quality. We conducted two studies examining the characteristics and/or quality of autism websites in 2009 and 2010. We found websites with a .gov top-level domain had a statistically…

  17. Aerodynamic Characteristics of Tracheostomy Speaking Valves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fornataro-Clerici, Lisa; Zajac, David J.

    1993-01-01

    Pressure-flow characteristics were determined for four different one-way valves (Kisner, Montgomery, Olympic, and Passy-Muir) used for speech production in tracheotomy patients. Results indicated significant differences in resistance among the valves, with the resistance of one valve substantially greater than that of the normal upper airways.…

  18. Characteristics of arachnoids from Magellan data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, C. B.; Crumpler, L. S.

    1993-01-01

    Current high resolution Magellan data enables more detailed geological study of arachnoids, first identified by Barsukov et al. as features characterized by a combination of radar-bright, concentric rings and radiating lineations, named 'arachnoids' on the basis of their spider and web-like appearance. Identification of arachnoids in Magellan data has been based on SAR images, in keeping with the original definition. However, there is some overlap by other workers in identification of arachnoids, corona (predominantly bright rings), and novae (predominantly radiating lineations), as all of these features share some common characteristics. Features used in this survey were chosen based on their classification as arachnoids in Head et al.'s catalog and on SAR characteristics matching Barsukov et al.'s original definition. The 259 arachnoids have been currently identified on Venus, all of which were considered in this study. Fifteen arachnoids from different regions, chosen for their 'type' characteristics and lack of deformation by other regional processes, were studied in depth, using SAR and altimetric data to map and profile these arachnoids in an attempt to better determine their geologic and altimetric characteristics and possible formation sequences.

  19. Potato Types: Their Characteristics and Uses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlista, Alexander D.

    1997-01-01

    Presents material for a talk and demonstration about the relationship of potato types to their different uses by consumers and processors. Includes background information for the instructor and discussions to accompany classroom exercises. Discusses the history of the potato, potato types and external characteristics, and internal characteristics…

  20. Differentiating Characteristics of Juvenile Methamphetamine Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fass, Daniel; Calhoun, Georgia B.; Glaser, Brian A.; Yanosky, Daniel J., II

    2009-01-01

    The authors investigated the differences in characteristics and risk behaviors endorsed by detained adolescent methamphetamine users and compared them with other drug users. Subjects completed the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory and a questionnaire in which sociodemographics and behavioral information were explored and compared. Multivariate…

  1. Psychological Characteristics of South African Street Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    le Roux, Johann; Smith, Cheryl Sylvia

    1998-01-01

    Attempts to identify the psychological characteristics that predispose certain children to run away and to survive, often for long periods, on the streets of South Africa. Examines vulnerability and resilience as well as social conditions that mediate the psychological predisposition to become a street child. (Author/GCP)

  2. Rehearsal Characteristics of "Superior" Band Directors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juchniewicz, Jay; Kelly, Steven N.; Acklin, Amy I.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the rehearsal characteristics of "superior" middle and high school band directors. A total of 131 respondents from Florida, Kentucky, and North Carolina who received a "superior" rating for 4 out of the past 5 years, completed an open-ended essay question online asking them to…

  3. Characteristics of Positive Autobiographical Memories in Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bluck, Susan; Alea, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    The characteristics of positive autobiographical memory narratives were examined in younger and older adults. Narratives were content-coded for the extent to which they contained indicators of affect, sensory imagery, and cognition. Affect was additionally assessed through self-report. Young adults expressed more positive affect and less sensory…

  4. Determining Consumer Preference for Furniture Product Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Carolyn S.; Edwards, Kay P.

    1974-01-01

    The paper describes instruments for determining preferences of consumers for selected product characteristics associated with furniture choices--specifically style, color, color scheme, texture, and materials--and the procedures for administration of those instruments. Results are based on a random sampling of public housing residents. (Author/MW)

  5. Teacher Characteristics for Culturally Responsive Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rychly, Laura; Graves, Emily

    2012-01-01

    Culturally responsive pedagogy, as defined by one of the most prominent authors in the field, Geneva Gay (2002), is "using the cultural characteristics, experiences, and perspectives of ethnically diverse students as conduits for teaching them more effectively". Culturally responsive pedagogy can be thought of, then, as teaching practices that…

  6. Atypical Gifted Learners and Their Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diket, Read M., Ed.; Abel, Trudy, Ed.

    This collection of 12 handouts focuses on different categories of atypical gifted learners and their characteristics. The handouts are generally two pages long and present a summary of the literature on the topic, some practical teaching suggestions, and references. The handouts include: (1) "Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Gifted Students" (Pam…

  7. Characteristics of an Effective District Leader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Research supports the importance of effective district superintendents. A meta-analysis conducted by Marzano and Waters (2009) found that five characteristics were common in districts with effective superintendents. Twenty-seven studies met their criteria for the meta-analysis. Their primary research question was: "What is the strength of…

  8. Saturn IB Launch Vehicle - Characteristics and Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    This 1968 chart illustrates the characteristics and proposed missions for the Saturn IB launch vehicle. Developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) as an interim vehicle in MSFC's 'building block' approach to the Saturn rocket development, the Saturn IB utilized Saturn I technology to further develop and refine the larger boosters and the Apollo spacecraft capabilities required for the marned lunar missions.

  9. Prior Learning Assessment: Outcomes and Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Barbara

    1995-01-01

    Describes the Ontario college system's Prior Learning Assessment program for adult learners, focusing on outcomes and characteristics of students completing the process at Seneca College from April 1994 to February 1995. Indicates that of 77 participants, 46 were female, the mean age was 31, and 81% passed the process successfully. (BCY)

  10. Moisture-dependent color characteristics of walnuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Characterizing the shell color of walnuts based on their moisture content (MC) at harvest can provide valuable information for performing walnut sorting before drying. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between the color characteristics of the shell of walnuts and their...

  11. Characteristics of Disaster Associated with Chronic Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, India; Baum, Andrew

    Historically, most investigations of the social and psychological effects of disaster have focused on describing the impact of single traumatic events rather than on developing an understanding of how disasters or particular characteristics of disasters affect various groups of victims. This study investigated the hypothesis that stress caused by…

  12. 40 CFR 261.24 - Toxicity characteristic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Hazardous Waste Number specified in Table 1 which corresponds to the toxic contaminant causing it to be... Section 261.24 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION AND LISTING OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Characteristics of Hazardous Waste §...

  13. Chains versus Independents: Newspaper and Market Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, F. Dennis

    A study examined the marketing differences between large chain newspapers and small chain and independent newspapers by analyzing differences in characteristics of the newspapers, patterns of circulation, economic and social conditions of the market, and competition from other print media. The 200 newspapers studied--113 large chain and 87 small…

  14. Characteristics of Distinguished Programs of Agricultural Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birkenholz, Robert J.; Simonsen, Jon C.

    2011-01-01

    Academic program rankings are highly anticipated by many university administrators, faculty, and alumni. This study analyzed the perceptions of agricultural education departmental contact persons to identify esteemed post-secondary agricultural education programs and the distinguishing characteristics of each program. The ten most distinguished…

  15. Performance Characteristics of an Isothermal Freeze Valve

    SciTech Connect

    Hailey, A.E.

    2001-08-22

    This document discusses performance characteristics of an isothermal freeze valve. A freeze valve has been specified for draining the DWPF melter at the end of its lifetime. Two freeze valve designs have been evaluated on the Small Cylindrical Melter-2 (SCM-2). In order to size the DWPF freeze valve, the basic principles governing freeze valve behavior need to be identified and understood.

  16. Characteristics of Noncredit University Extension Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dow, June Barth

    Characteristics of noncredit University Extension enrollees of 1964 were studied further to explore Houle's typology of the continuous learner. A structured questionnaire composed of 47 items was presented to 24 participants in interview sessions. It was found that most participants did not fit Houle's classification of being activity-oriented; a…

  17. Catchment biophysical drivers of streamflow characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trancoso, R.

    2015-12-01

    The characteristics of streamflow reflect the co-evolution of climate, soils, topography and vegetation of catchments. Hydrological metrics or signatures can represent the long-term behaviour and integrate the influence of all the streamflow drivers. Although this sort of relationship has been developed in regional studies exploring prediction of Flow Duration Curves and other streamflow metrics, little is known about the controls of other key streamflow characteristics especially in continent scale. This study aims to understand how catchment biophysical variables control key hydrological metrics such as baseflow index, elasticity of streamflow to rainfall variability and intermittency in continent scale and regionally. We used a set of catchment biophysical variables to model key streamflow signatures using multivariate power-law and beta regressions in 355 catchments located along the eastern Australian seaboard. Streamflow signatures were derived from daily streamflow time series data from 1980 to 2013. We tested 52 catchment biophysical characteristics related to climate, soil, topography, geography, geomorphology, vegetation and land-cover as predictors of the streamflow signatures. The prediction R-squared ranged from 63 to 72% when relationships are built in continent scale, but can be greater than 80% when regressions are regionalised. The interpretation of the modelled relationships offers new insights regarding the controls of flow characteristics.

  18. Thermochemical characteristics of chitosan-polylactide copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goruynova, P. E.; Larina, V. N.; Smirnova, N. N.; Tsverova, N. E.; Smirnova, L. A.

    2016-05-01

    The energies of combustion of chitosan and its block-copolymers with different polylactide contents are determined in a static bomb calorimeter. Standard enthalpies of combustion and formation are calculated for these substances. The dependences of the thermochemical characteristics on block-copolymer composition are determined and discussed.

  19. Psychosocial and Sociodemographic Characteristics of DWI Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veneziano, Carol; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined demographic characteristics, arrest and treatment data, symptoms of problem drinking, drug use, stressful life events, and depressive symptomatology among 498 driving while intoxicated (DWI) offenders. DWI offenders were likely to have experienced financial problems, new job, job loss or unemployment, conflict at home, illness or death of…

  20. Measuring Contextual Characteristics for Community Health

    PubMed Central

    Hillemeier, Marianne M; Lynch, John; Harper, Sam; Casper, Michele

    2003-01-01

    Objective To conceptualize and measure community contextual influences on population health and health disparities. Data Sources We use traditional and nontraditional secondary sources of data comprising a comprehensive array of community characteristics. Study Design Using a consultative process, we identify 12 overarching dimensions of contextual characteristics that may affect community health, as well as specific subcomponents relating to each dimension. Data Collection An extensive geocoded library of data indicators relating to each dimension and subcomponent for metropolitan areas in the United States is assembled. Principal Findings We describe the development of community contextual health profiles, present the rationale supporting each of the profile dimensions, and provide examples of relevant data sources. Conclusions Our conceptual framework for community contextual characteristics, including a specified set of dimensions and components, can provide practical ways to monitor health-related aspects of the economic, social, and physical environments in which people live. We suggest several guiding principles useful for understanding how aspects of contextual characteristics can affect health and health disparities. PMID:14727793

  1. Psychological Characteristics of Adolescent Steroid Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, Kent F.; Kleiman, Mark E.

    1994-01-01

    Used Millon Adolescent Personality Inventory and Profile of Mood States to assess psychological characteristics in 72 adolescent males: 24 adolescent athletes who reported steroid use, 24 athletes with no steroid use, and 24 nonathletes. Although some personality variables differentiated between athletes and nonathletes, no personality variables…

  2. Characteristics of "Adders" in Proportional Reasoning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Fou-Lai

    1991-01-01

    The errors and strategies made by students who consistently use the incorrect-addition strategy on "hard" ratio tasks were investigated. The characteristics of these "adders," such as awareness of noninteger multiples, the use of fractions and decimals, awareness of both within and between ratios, and distinguishing nonratio…

  3. Yemeni Student Characteristics and Language Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Ian C.

    A study was undertaken to identify useful methods for measuring progress in English language proficiency among students at the Yemen-America Language Institute (YALI) in Sana'a, Yemen. The study examined factors critical to such progress as well as the profiles of student attitudes and demographic characteristics. A questionnaire was administered…

  4. School-Related Characteristics of Male Juveniles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapp, Gary L.; Abbott, Gypsy A.

    School-related characteristics of 256 male juveniles under the jurisdiction of a Family Court system were examined by perusing court records and conducting individual interviews with the juveniles. Results indicated that most juveniles last attended eighth grade, more than 81% had failed at least once, and more than half had fought frequently at…

  5. Superconducting wire with improved strain characteristics

    DOEpatents

    Luhman, T.; Klamut, C.J.; Suenaga, M.; Welch, D.

    1979-12-19

    A superconducting wire comprising a superconducting filament and a beryllium strengthened bronze matrix in which the addition of beryllium to the matrix permits a low volume matrix to exhibit reduced elastic deformation after heat treating which increases the compression of the superconducting filament on cooling and thereby improve the strain characteristics of the wire.

  6. Superconducting wire with improved strain characteristics

    DOEpatents

    Luhman, Thomas; Klamut, Carl J.; Suenaga, Masaki; Welch, David

    1982-01-01

    A superconducting wire comprising a superconducting filament and a beryllium strengthened bronze matrix in which the addition of beryllium to the matrix permits a low volume matrix to exhibit reduced elastic deformation after heat treating which increases the compression of the superconducting filament on cooling and thereby improve the strain characteristics of the wire.

  7. Superconducting wire with improved strain characteristics

    DOEpatents

    Luhman, Thomas; Klamut, Carl J.; Suenaga, Masaki; Welch, David

    1982-01-01

    A superconducting wire comprising a superconducting filament and a beryllium strengthened bronze matrix in which the addition of beryllium to the matrix permits a low volume matrix to exhibit reduced elastic deformation after heat treating which increases the compression of the superconducting filament on cooling and thereby improves the strain characteristics of the wire.

  8. An Investigation of Double Bass Vibrato Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mick, James

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate and describe various vibrato characteristics of university double bass students. The primary objectives were: (1) to describe vibrato rate and width for commonly used fingers in first, fourth, and thumb positions; (2) to investigate whether students initiate vibrato in an upward or downward direction;…

  9. 14 CFR 25.203 - Stall characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stall characteristics. 25.203 Section 25.203 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... promptly prevent stalling and to recover from a stall by normal use of the controls. (b) For level...

  10. Circular polarisation characteristics of stacked microstrip antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, R. Q.; Talty, T.; Lee, K. F.

    1990-12-01

    Experimental results on the circular polarization (CP) characteristics of a two-layer electromagnetically coupled (EMCP) antenna are presented. Compared to the single CP patch antenna, the two-layer EMCP antenna with proper spacings can provide better axial ratio and directivity.

  11. Characteristics of Inclusive Classrooms in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melekoglu, Macid Ayhan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, inclusive classrooms in Turkey are described in terms of the characteristics of both classroom teachers and students with special needs. Participants of this study consisted of 54 teachers working in inclusive classrooms and 54 students with mild intellectual disabilities in those classrooms in Turkey. Data for this study were…

  12. Estimating urban flood-frequency characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jennings, M.E.; Atkins, J.B.; Inman, E.J.

    1989-01-01

    Methods in use by the U.S. Geological Survey to estimate flood-frequency characteristics for urban watersheds are compared with estimates based on the Soil Conservation Service TR-55 model. Data from four small urban watersheds in Georgia are used in the flood-peak and hydrograph comparisons.

  13. Land characteristics data on CD-ROM

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) publishes land characteristics data on CD-ROM. The following lists the types of products and their contents and specifications. The discs cost $32 each, plus a $5.00 handling fee per order mailed.

  14. Near surface characteristics of foehn winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiperski, Ivana

    2015-04-01

    Downslope windstorms occur commonly in mountainous regions around the world. Their importance is particularly great for air traffic, as well as wind energy, air pollution but also for ice shelf stability in the Antarctica, or deep water formation of the mountainous coasts. In this work we will focus on the foehn type of downslope windstorms and examine it's near surface turbulence characteristics in the Inn Valley, Austria. The foehn in the Inn Valley has been extensively studied throughout the past century, especially in several intensive campaigns. However, the smaller scale turbulence characteristics have only received limited attention. Here we present results from foehn episodes spanning over a year of data. The turbulence measurements at 5 stations within the Inn Valley, Austria as part of the i-Box project are used for the analysis. The general near surface turbulence characteristics of these events are examined and the characteristic scales of dominant transport are determined. Their dependence to horizontal heterogeneity is investigated both on the mesoscale and sub-mesoscale. Special focus is places on the question of energy balance closure during foehn episodes and the influence of advection.

  15. Characteristics of Successful Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forman, Scheherazade West

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to find predictors of student success. Using a predictive correlational design, the intent of the study was to find the relationships between the dichotomous dependent variable with the categories, degree recipients and non-degree recipients, and the independent variables, student characteristics and risk…

  16. Compensatory Hypertrophy of Skeletal Muscle: Contractile Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ianuzzo, C. D.; Chen, V.

    1977-01-01

    Describes an experiment using rats that demonstrates contractile characteristics of normal and hypertrophied muscle. Compensatory hypertrophy of the plantaris muscle is induced by surgical removal of the synergistic gastrocnemium muscle. Includes methods for determination of contractile properties of normal and hypertrophied muscle and…

  17. Successful Aging: Early Influences and Contemporary Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruchno, Rachel A.; Wilson-Genderson, Maureen; Rose, Miriam; Cartwright, Francine

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Positing that successful aging has independent, yet related, dimensions that are both objective and subjective, we examine how early influences and contemporary characteristics define 4 groups of people. Design and Methods: Data were gathered from 5,688 persons aged 50-74 years living in New Jersey who participated in telephone…

  18. Language Characteristics of Individuals with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Gary E.; Klusek, Jessica; Estigarribia, Bruno; Roberts, Joanne E.

    2009-01-01

    On average, language and communication characteristics of individuals with Down syndrome (the most common genetic cause of intellectual disability) follow a consistent profile. Despite considerable individual variability, receptive language is typically stronger than expressive language, with particular challenges in phonology and syntax. We…

  19. Research on cavitation characteristic of inducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, N.; Wang, L. Q.; Y Kong, F.; Wu, D. Z.

    2013-12-01

    The inducer has significant effect on improving the cavitation characteristic of a centrifugal pump. The fact which can not be neglected is that the inducer itself is a kind of axial pump. Research on inducer's cavitation characteristic is very important. Several inducers were designed and modeled by Pro/E software. The mesh of flow field was done by ICEM and imported to ANSYS CFX to analyze the inducer's cavitation characteristic. The relationship between cavity length and head breakdown was discussed. With the decrease of NPSH, there is a slight increase in the head just prior to the decrease associated with head breakdown. This conclusion coincides with experimental results. The influence of backflow eddy on the inducer's cavitation characteristic was analyzed, and the change of backflow eddy in the process of cavitation was illustrated. It can be concluded that the correlation between the inducer head breakdown and the relative cavity length is very close which agrees well with the theoretical and experimental results. As the inlet pressure is decreased, inception almost always occurs in the tip vortex generated by the corner where the leading edge meets the tip. And backflow vortex gradually disappears in the process of cavitation.

  20. Student Characteristics and Enrollment Trends, Fall 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartnal, Ryan

    Cuesta College's (California) Five-year Student Characteristics and Enrollment Trends (1996-2000) report provides tables and figures that show student demography and enrollment status. Tables 1 through 11 present data for the entire college. Table 1 shows that enrollment at Cuesta College continues to increase and is now at an all-time high of…

  1. Kinetographic determination of airplane flight characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raethjen, P; Knott, H

    1927-01-01

    The author's first experiments with a glider on flight characteristics demonstrated that an accurate flight-path measurement would enable determination of the polar diagram from a gliding flight. Since then he has endeavored to obtain accurate flight measurements by means of kinetograph (motion-picture camera). Different methods of accomplishing this are presented.

  2. Maternal Characteristics Predicting Young Girls' Disruptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Molen, Elsa; Hipwell, Alison E.; Vermeiren, Robert; Loeber, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the relative predictive utility of maternal characteristics and parenting skills on the development of girls' disruptive behavior. The current study used five waves of parent- and child-report data from the ongoing Pittsburgh Girls Study to examine these relationships in a sample of 1,942 girls from age 7 to 12 years.…

  3. School Board Member Characteristics and Fiscal Responsibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, William S.; Bernardo, Charles M.

    1967-01-01

    An attempt is made to judge characteristics affecting a school district's fiscal performance by conducting a factor analysis on 74 variables having factor loadings of .30 or greater. The 16 factors studied (containing the 74 variables) include many facets of school board fiscal policy and information on the kinds of people who make the policies.…

  4. Characteristics Related to Female & Male Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Agnes M.

    2004-01-01

    The following research investigated gender and the leadership role and determined if there are differences in leadership styles, behaviors, traits, and characteristics between female leaders and male leaders. Literature suggests there are specific gender leadership differences between males and females in leadership styles, behaviors, traits, and…

  5. Systematic Sorting: Teacher Characteristics and Class Assignments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalogrides, Demetra; Loeb, Susanna; Beteille, Tara

    2013-01-01

    Although prior research has documented differences in the distribution of teacher characteristics across schools serving different student populations, few studies have examined the extent to which teacher sorting occurs within schools. This study uses data from one large urban school district and compares the class assignments of teachers who…

  6. Supply and Characteristics of Selected Health Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ake, James N.; Johnson, Donald W.

    Detailed statistics on trends in the U.S. supply and geographic distribution of personnel in eight health occupations, along with current data on selected professional characteristics, are presented. Statistical tables include combined data for the eight occupations, and groups of tables for the individual health occupations: physicians (both…

  7. Psychosocial Characteristics of Female Medical Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumberg, Phyllis; And Others

    Self-perceptions of male and female medical students on various psychosocial characteristics were compared in 1980. The questionnaire consisted of: the Social Support Networks questions, the Social Readjustment Rating Scale (Holmes and Rahe, 1967), the General Well Being Scale (Gurin, Veroff, and Felds, 1960), the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale…

  8. Effect of aileron displacement on wing characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heald, R H

    1933-01-01

    The effect of aileron displacement on wing characteristics has been investigated for the Clark Y and the U.S.A. 27 wing sections equipped with rectangular ailerons. The airfoils, rectangular in plan, and having a 10 inch chord and 60 inch span, were mounted on a model fuselage.

  9. Teacher Characteristics, Classroom Factors and Class Attendance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhandari, Jaswant Singh; Menta, R. C.

    1974-01-01

    Teachers from 20 traditional literacy (teaching 3 R's) and 12 functional literacy (developmental oriented) centers in the Udaipur district of Rajasthan, India were studied. Data are analyzed regarding personal characteristics, educational background, the role of supervisors, teaching aids, social participation, recruitment and selections, student…

  10. School Characteristics and the Demand for College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bezmen, Trisha; Depken, Craig A., II

    1998-01-01

    Estimates demand for 772 U.S. colleges in 1994 by relating new applications to easily confirmable institutional characteristics. Demand is positively related to out-of-state tuition but inversely related to in-state tuition. Those who apply to public and private colleges are distinct subpopulations. Private-school applicants are less price- and…

  11. Characteristics of Second Graders' Mathematical Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Jeremy A.; Casa, Tutita M.; Miller, Heather C.; Firmender, Janine M.

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the characteristics of second graders' mathematical writing between an intervention and comparison group. Two six-week Project M2 units were implemented with students in the intervention group. The units position students to communicate in ways similar to mathematicians, including engaging in verbal discourse where they…

  12. Characteristics of fluidized-packed beds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabor, J. D.; Mecham, W. J.

    1968-01-01

    Study of fluidized-packed bed includes investigation of heat transfer, solids-gas mixing, and elutriation characteristics. A fluidized-packed bed is a system involving the fluidization of small particles in the voids of a packed bed of larger nonfluidized particles.

  13. 30 CFR 7.85 - Critical characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Critical characteristics. 7.85 Section 7.85 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND... properly; and (b) Fuel injection pump adjustment is sealed, if applicable....

  14. Survey of Characteristics of Measurement Services Offices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, T. Dary; And Others

    This paper briefly summarizes the findings from a national survey for the Measurement Services Association (MSA) of testing and measurement offices regarding their organizational characteristics and their activities and services. Questionnaires were mailed to all testing offices (n=146) at colleges and universities on the MSA Newsletter mailing…

  15. 40 CFR 261.24 - Toxicity characteristic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 261.24 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... Toxicity characteristic. (a) A solid waste (except manufactured gas plant waste) exhibits the... Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste, Physical/Chemical Methods,” EPA Publication SW-846, as incorporated...

  16. CHARACTERISTICS OF COLLODION MEMBRANES FOR ULTRAFILTRATION

    PubMed Central

    Bugher, John C.

    1953-01-01

    An apparatus for the production of graded collodion membranes is described. The theoretical considerations of calibration are discussed in relation to the demonstrable structure and statistical characteristics of the membranes. A new definition of an "end-point" is suggested. PMID:13022936

  17. Low-flow characteristics of Florida streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rumenik, R.P.

    1996-01-01

    Knowledge of the low-flow characteristics of Florida streams and rivers is essential in planning for the availability of adequate quantities of water for commercial- and public-water supply, agricultural irrigation, artificial recharge, and the dilution of waste discharge. This report provides low-flow characteristics for 216 continuous-record gaging stations using frequency analysis techniques. Included are low-flow frequency characteristics for 143 unregulated, gaging stations; and sample percentiles for 32 stations that were subject to regulation or diversion, and sample percentiles for 41 stations, regulated and unregulated, that exhibited significant trends in the annual low-flow time series. Estimates of low-flow frequency characteristics are provided for 242 partial-record stations and miscellaneous sites based on correlations with daily mean discharges at continuous-record stations. Low-flow measurement data are available at approximately 1,300 continuous-record gaging stations, partial- record stations and miscellaneous sites. Historic low-flow measurement data are accessible through the U.S. Geological Survey Automatic Data Processing System.

  18. Peak-flow characteristics of Virginia streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Austin, Samuel H.; Krstolic, Jennifer L.; Wiegand, Ute

    2011-01-01

    Peak-flow annual exceedance probabilities, also called probability-percent chance flow estimates, and regional regression equations are provided describing the peak-flow characteristics of Virginia streams. Statistical methods are used to evaluate peak-flow data. Analysis of Virginia peak-flow data collected from 1895 through 2007 is summarized. Methods are provided for estimating unregulated peak flow of gaged and ungaged streams. Station peak-flow characteristics identified by fitting the logarithms of annual peak flows to a Log Pearson Type III frequency distribution yield annual exceedance probabilities of 0.5, 0.4292, 0.2, 0.1, 0.04, 0.02, 0.01, 0.005, and 0.002 for 476 streamgaging stations. Stream basin characteristics computed using spatial data and a geographic information system are used as explanatory variables in regional regression model equations for six physiographic regions to estimate regional annual exceedance probabilities at gaged and ungaged sites. Weighted peak-flow values that combine annual exceedance probabilities computed from gaging station data and from regional regression equations provide improved peak-flow estimates. Text, figures, and lists are provided summarizing selected peak-flow sites, delineated physiographic regions, peak-flow estimates, basin characteristics, regional regression model equations, error estimates, definitions, data sources, and candidate regression model equations. This study supersedes previous studies of peak flows in Virginia.

  19. The Characteristic Dimensions of the Nanoworld

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wautelet, M.; Duvivier, D.

    2007-01-01

    Nanoscience is defined as the study of phenomena and manipulation of materials at atomic, molecular and macromolecular scales, where properties differ significantly from those at larger scale. It is the aim of this paper to examine the characteristic dimensions for which the properties of nanosystems differ significantly from those at a larger…

  20. Personality Characteristics of Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkowitz, Alan; Perkins, H. Wesley

    1988-01-01

    Compared the personality characteristics of late adolescent and young adult children of alcoholics (COAs) with those of their peers, examining gender specificity in personality differences. COA respondents, particularly women, and especially women with alcoholic fathers, were more likely to report greater self-depreciation. Male COAs rated…

  1. Personality Characteristics of Child Abusing Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flanagan, Clyde; And Others

    A study involving 22 fathers and 21 mothers was conducted to explore several personality characteristics of child abusive parents which may set them apart from nonabusive peers. A social history was taken, and each parent completed both the Motivation Analysis Test (MAT) and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI). Among findings…

  2. Motorcycle-related spinal injury: crash characteristics.

    PubMed

    Zulkipli, Zarir Hafiz; Abdul Rahmat, Abdul Manap; Mohd Faudzi, Siti Atiqah; Paiman, Noor Faradila; Wong, Shaw Voon; Hassan, Ahamedali

    2012-11-01

    This study presents an analysis of crash characteristics of motorcyclists who sustained spinal injuries in motorcycle crashes. The aim of the study is to identify the salient crash characteristics that would help explain spinal injury risks for motorcyclists. Data were retrospectively collected from police case reports that were archived at MIROS from year 2005 to 2007. The data were categorized into two subcategories; the first group was motorcycle crashes with spinal injury (case) and the second group was motorcycle crashes without spinal injury (control). A total of 363 motorcyclists with spinal injury and 873 motorcyclists without spinal injury were identified and analyzed. Descriptive analysis and multivariate analysis were performed in order to determine the odds of each characteristic in contributing to spinal injury. Single vehicle crash, collision with fixed objects and crash configuration were found to have significant influence on motorcyclists in sustaining spinal injury (p<0.05). Although relatively few than other impact configurations, the rear-end impacted motorcyclist shows the highest risk of spinal injury. Helmets have helped to reduce head injury but they did not seem to offer corresponding protection for the spine in the study. With a growing number of young motorcyclists, further efforts are needed to find effective measures to help reduce the crash incidents and severity of spinal injury. In sum, the study provides some insights on some vital crash characteristics associated with spinal injury that can be further investigated to determine the appropriate counter-measures and prevention strategies to reduce spinal injury.

  3. Urban School Counseling: Context, Characteristics, and Competencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Courtland C.

    2005-01-01

    This article explores the nature of professional school counseling in urban settings. An overview of key characteristics of the urban environment and urban schools first provides context for the role of the professional school counselor in such a setting. Second, specific challenges facing urban school counselors are considered. Third, a set of…

  4. Physical characteristics related to bra fit.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chin-Man; LaBat, Karen; Bye, Elizabeth

    2010-04-01

    Producing well-fitting garments has been a challenge for retailers and manufacturers since mass production began. Poorly fitted bras can cause discomfort or pain and result in lost sales for retailers. Because body contours are important factors affecting bra fit, this study analyses the relationship of physical characteristics to bra-fit problems. This study has used 3-D body-scanning technology to extract upper body angles from a sample of 103 college women; these data were used to categorise physical characteristics into shoulder slope, bust prominence, back curvature and acromion placement. Relationships between these physical categories and bra-fit problems were then analysed. Results show that significant main effects and two-way interactions of the physical categories exist in the fit problems of poor bra support and bra-motion restriction. The findings are valuable in helping the apparel industry create better-fitting bras. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Poorly fitted bras can cause discomfort or pain and result in lost sales for retailers. The findings regarding body-shape classification provide researchers with a statistics method to quantify physical characteristics and the findings regarding the relationship analysis between physical characteristics and bra fit offer bra companies valuable information about bra-fit perceptions attributable to women with figure variations.

  5. 14 CFR 25.203 - Stall characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ....203 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Stalls § 25.203 Stall characteristics. (a) It must... controls, up to the time the airplane is stalled. No abnormal nose-up pitching may occur. The...

  6. 14 CFR 25.203 - Stall characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ....203 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Stalls § 25.203 Stall characteristics. (a) It must... controls, up to the time the airplane is stalled. No abnormal nose-up pitching may occur. The...

  7. 14 CFR 25.203 - Stall characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ....203 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Stalls § 25.203 Stall characteristics. (a) It must... controls, up to the time the airplane is stalled. No abnormal nose-up pitching may occur. The...

  8. 14 CFR 25.203 - Stall characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....203 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Stalls § 25.203 Stall characteristics. (a) It must... controls, up to the time the airplane is stalled. No abnormal nose-up pitching may occur. The...

  9. 33 CFR 62.45 - Light characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Section 62.45 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.45 Light characteristics. (a) Lights on aids to navigation are differentiated by color and rhythm. Lighthouses and...

  10. 33 CFR 62.45 - Light characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Section 62.45 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.45 Light characteristics. (a) Lights on aids to navigation are differentiated by color and rhythm. Lighthouses and...

  11. 33 CFR 62.45 - Light characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Section 62.45 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.45 Light characteristics. (a) Lights on aids to navigation are differentiated by color and rhythm. Lighthouses and...

  12. 33 CFR 62.45 - Light characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Section 62.45 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.45 Light characteristics. (a) Lights on aids to navigation are differentiated by color and rhythm. Lighthouses and...

  13. 33 CFR 62.45 - Light characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 62.45 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.45 Light characteristics. (a) Lights on aids to navigation are differentiated by color and rhythm. Lighthouses and...

  14. Power characteristics of fuels for aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, W S; James, W S; Roberts, E W; Gage, V R; Harper, D R Iii

    1920-01-01

    Report presents the summation of results obtained in the testing of fuels of various compositions and characteristics in the altitude laboratory. The data upon which this report is based has had an important influence upon the writing of specifications for the various grades of aviation fuels.

  15. Logbook Language Characteristics and Recordation Requirement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Gang; Shen, Jiang

    2011-01-01

    With a view of the deficiency irregular phenomena existing in logbook recordation among Chinese crew members, this paper analyzed the language characteristics and recording requirement of logbook, expounded how to employ accurate, concise and precise words to record logbook, listed out matters to be paid attention to in the process of recording…

  16. Product Characteristics and Internet Shopping Intentions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vijayasarathy, Leo R.

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of electronic commerce and online marketing focuses on an empirical study that investigated differences between Internet shopping intentions for products categorized by cost and tangibility. Highlights include hypotheses; respondent characteristics; results that showed that intentions to shop using the Internet differ by tangibility of…

  17. Characteristics of Work Placements Valued by Employers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chivers, Barbara; Flatten, Kay

    1996-01-01

    Group Feedback Strategy was used to evaluate data from 73 employers, 18 tutors, 156 students, and 45 graduates involved in work placements in a library and information science program. Respondents showed reasonably high satisfaction for the following characteristics of placements: teamwork experience, assessment of capabilities, training…

  18. Surface characteristics of thermally treated titanium surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yang-Jin; Cui, De-Zhe; Jeon, Ha-Ra; Chung, Hyun-Ju; Park, Yeong-Joon; Kim, Ok-Su

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The characteristics of oxidized titanium (Ti) surfaces varied according to treatment conditions such as duration time and temperature. Thermal oxidation can change Ti surface characteristics, which affect many cellular responses such as cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation. Thus, this study was conducted to evaluate the surface characteristics and cell response of thermally treated Ti surfaces. Methods The samples were divided into 4 groups. Control: machined smooth titanium (Ti-S) was untreated. Group I: Ti-S was treated in a furnace at 300℃ for 30 minutes. Group II: Ti-S was treated at 500℃ for 30 minutes. Group III: Ti-S was treated at 750℃ for 30 minutes. A scanning electron microscope, atomic force microscope, and X-ray diffraction were used to assess surface characteristics and chemical composition. The water contact angle and surface energy were measured to assess physical properties. Results The titanium dioxide (TiO2) thickness increased as the treatment temperature increased. Additional peaks belonging to rutile TiO2 were only found in group III. The contact angle in group III was significantly lower than any of the other groups. The surface energy significantly increased as the treatment temperature increased, especially in group III. In the 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, after 24 hours of incubation, the assessment of cell viability showed that the optical density of the control had a higher tendency than any other group, but there was no significant difference. However, the alkaline phosphatase activity increased as the temperature increased, especially in group III. Conclusions Consequently, the surface characteristics and biocompatibility increased as the temperature increased. This indicates that surface modification by thermal treatment could be another useful method for medical and dental implants. PMID:22803009

  19. 1994 Athletic Trainer Employment and Salary Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Brent L.; Perrin, David H.; VanLunen, Bonnie L.; Szczerba, Joseph E.; Mattacola, Carl G.; Gansneder, Bruce M.

    1996-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine: 1) demographics and professional credentials of recently hired athletic trainers, 2) the association between these characteristics and the high school, clinical, and collegiate setting, and 3) which of these factors best predicted salary. Design and Setting: A survey was sent to all prospective employers. Of the 472 surveys sent, 282 (60%) were returned. Subjects: Prospective employers who were listed on the NATA job vacancy notices from January 1, 1994 to October 1, 1994. Measurements: Employers selected a job description for their position opening and indicated the characteristics of the people they hired. The job descriptions were placed into three categories. A chi-square analysis was used to determine the degree of association between applicant characteristics and job descriptions. Employee characteristics were coded and a stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed to determined which of the characteristics best predicted salary. Analyses of variance were performed to determine differences among the three practice settings and as follow-up analyses to the multiple regression. An analysis of variance was also performed to compare salaries based on job description and teaching responsibilities. Results: No association was found between the employment setting and gender, ethnicity, marital status, educational route, physical therapy, credential, or EMT certification. There was an association between the CPR instructor's credential and employment setting and between highest degree attained and employment setting. Conclusions: The results suggest that these factors were most closely associated with employment in the collegiate setting. With regard to salary, it was determined that a doctoral degree, a master's degree, and marital status were the best predictors of salary. PMID:16558401

  20. Characteristics of coal mine ventilation air flows.

    PubMed

    Su, Shi; Chen, Hongwei; Teakle, Philip; Xue, Sheng

    2008-01-01

    Coal mine methane (CMM) is not only a greenhouse gas but also a wasted energy resource if not utilised. Underground coal mining is by far the most important source of fugitive methane emissions, and approximately 70% of all coal mining related methane is emitted to the atmosphere through mine ventilation air. Therefore, research and development on mine methane mitigation and utilisation now focuses on methane emitted from underground coal mines, in particular ventilation air methane (VAM) capture and utilisation. To date, most work has focused on the oxidation of very low concentration methane. These processes may be classified based on their combustion kinetic mechanisms into thermal oxidation and catalytic oxidation. VAM mitigation/utilisation technologies are generally divided into two basic categories: ancillary uses and principal uses. However, it is possible that the characteristics of ventilation air flows, for example the variations in methane concentration and the presence of certain compounds, which have not been reported so far, could make some potential VAM mitigation and utilisation technologies unfeasible if they cannot cope with the characteristics of mine site ventilation air flows. Therefore, it is important to understand the characteristics of mine ventilation air flows. Moreover, dust, hydrogen sulphide, sulphur dioxide, and other possible compounds emitted through mine ventilation air into the atmosphere are also pollutants. Therefore, this paper presents mine-site experimental results on the characteristics of mine ventilation air flows, including methane concentration and its variations, dust loadings, particle size, mineral matter of the dust, and other compounds in the ventilation air flows. The paper also discusses possible correlations between ventilation air characteristics and underground mining activities.

  1. Low-flow characteristics of Indiana streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fowler, K.K.; Wilson, J.T.

    1996-01-01

    Knowledge of low-flow characteristics of streams is essential for management of water resources. Low-flow characteristics are presented for 229 continuous-record, streamflow-gaging stations and 285 partial-record stations in Indiana. Low- flow-frequency characteristics were computed for 210 continuous-record stations that had at least 10 years of record, and flow-duration curves were computed for all continuous-record stations. Low-flow-frequency and flow-duration analyses are based on available streamflow records through September 1993. Selected low-flow-frequency curves were computed for annual low flows and seasonal low flows. The four seasons are represented by the 3-month groups of March-May, June-August, September-November, and December- February. The 7-day, 10-year and the 7-day, 2 year low flows were estimated for 285 partial-record stations, which are ungaged sites where streamflow measurements were made at base flow. The same low-flow characteristics were estimated for 19 continuous-record stations where less than 10 years of record were available. Precipitation and geology directly influence the streams in Indiana. Streams in the northern, glaciated part of the State tend to have higher sustained base flows than those in the nonglaciated southern part. Flow at several of the continuous-record gaging stations is affected by some form of regulation or diversion. Low-flow characteristics for continuous-record stations at which flow is affected by regulation are determined using the period of record affected by regulation; natural flows prior to regulation are not used.

  2. Characteristics of egg production of the planktonic copepod, Calanus finmarchicus, on Georges Bank: 1994 1999

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runge, J. A.; Plourde, S.; Joly, P.; Niehoff, B.; Durbin, E.

    2006-11-01

    We present here a synthesis of observations of egg production rates (EP) of the planktonic copepod, Calanus finmarchicus, carried out during process cruises of the US GLOBEC Northwest Atlantic/Georges Bank program between January and June 1995, 1997 and 1999. Female C. finmarchicus produced eggs at relatively high rates in at least some regions of Georges Bank during all months between January and June. Median, monthly EP varied between 24 eggs female -1 d -1 in January to 50 eggs female -1 d -1 in April-June; the highest mean EP was 86 eggs female -1 d -1. Mean egg diameter was negatively related to ambient mean water-column temperature (0-100 m or bottom), decreasing from 149 to 142 μm between January and June. Direct measurements of body C or N or prosome length-mass relationships were used to determine mass-specific egg production rates. The relationships between estimates of chlorophyll a standing stock (mg chl. a m -2) and both C- and N-specific rates (% d -1) are reasonably well ( r2=0.42) described by Ivlev curves. It is likely that chlorophyll standing stock serves as a proxy of both phytoplankton and microzooplankton food concentrations available to adult females. Chlorophyll standing stocks were below the critical concentration (at which EP is 95% of the calculated maximum) at approximately 55% of stations occupied over the study period, indicating frequent food limitation to varying extent. There were periods (e.g., over at least 6 d in April, 1997 on the southern flank) during which food limitation was severe. There was no detectable influence of mean water-column temperature on mass-specific EP. Hatching success varied between 50% and 95% without any seasonal trend. Our qualitative observations suggest the possibility that a significant proportion of hatching nauplii incubations were non-viable, meriting further study.

  3. Flow-frequency characteristics of Vermont streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, Scott A.

    2002-01-01

    The safe and economical design of infrastructure in and near waterways and the effective management of flood-hazard areas require information on streamflow that may not be readily available. This report provides estimates of flow-frequency characteristics for gaged streams in Vermont and describes methods for estimating flow-frequency characteristics for ungaged streams. The flow-frequency characteristics investigated are the magnitude of peak discharges at recurrence intervals of 2, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, and 500 years, and the magnitude of daily-mean discharges exceeded 25, 50, and 75 percent of the time. Peak-flow frequency characteristics for gaged streams were computed following the guidelines in Bulletin 17B of the U.S. Interagency Advisory Committee on Water Data. To determine the peak-flow exceedance probabilities at stream-gaging stations in Vermont, a new generalized skew coefficient map for the State was developed. This new map has greater resolution and more current data than the existing National map. The standard error of the new map is 0.269. Two methods of extending streamflow record were applied to improve estimates of peak-flow frequency for streams with short flow records (10 to 15 years) in small drainage areas (sites less than 15 square miles). In the first method, a two-station comparison, data from a long-record site was used to adjust the frequency characteristics at the short-record site. This method was applied to 31 crest-stage gages--stations at which only instantaneous peak discharges are determined--in Vermont. The second method used rainfall-runoff modeling. Precipitation and evapotranspiration data from 1948 to 1999 for numerous climate data-collection sites were used as input to a model to simulate flows at 10 stream-gaging stations in Vermont. Also, methods are described to estimate flow-frequency characteristics for ungaged and unregulated rural streams in Vermont. The peak-flow estimating methods were developed by generalized

  4. Characteristic length of the knotting probability revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uehara, Erica; Deguchi, Tetsuo

    2015-09-01

    We present a self-avoiding polygon (SAP) model for circular DNA in which the radius of impermeable cylindrical segments corresponds to the screening length of double-stranded DNA surrounded by counter ions. For the model we evaluate the probability for a generated SAP with N segments having a given knot K through simulation. We call it the knotting probability of a knot K with N segments for the SAP model. We show that when N is large the most significant factor in the knotting probability is given by the exponentially decaying part exp(-N/NK), where the estimates of parameter NK are consistent with the same value for all the different knots we investigated. We thus call it the characteristic length of the knotting probability. We give formulae expressing the characteristic length as a function of the cylindrical radius rex, i.e. the screening length of double-stranded DNA.

  5. Characteristics of potential repository wastes. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    This document, and its associated appendices and microcomputer (PC) data bases, constitutes the reference OCRWM data base of physical and radiological characteristics data of radioactive wastes. This Characteristics Data Base (CDB) system includes data on spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste (HLW), which clearly require geologic disposal, and other wastes which may require long-term isolation, such as sealed radioisotope sources. The data base system was developed for OCRWM by the CDB Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Various principal or official sources of these data provided primary information to the CDB Project which then used the ORIGEN2 computer code to calculate radiological properties. The data have been qualified by an OCRWM-sponsored peer review as suitable for quality-affecting work meeting the requirements of OCRWM`s Quality Assurance Program. The wastes characterized in this report include: light-water reactor (LWR) spent fuel and immobilized HLW.

  6. Pycnodysostosis with Special Emphasis on Dentofacial Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Khoja, Aisha; Fida, Mubassar; Shaikh, Attiya

    2015-01-01

    Pycnodysostosis is an autosomal recessive disorder that manifests as osteosclerosis of the skeleton due to the defective osteoclasts mediated bone turnover. The diagnosis of this disorder is established on the basis of its characteristic features and must be differentially diagnosed with other bone disorders. Dental surgeons should be aware of the limitations and possible adverse oral complications such as osteomyelitis of bone in these patients. This will guide them in planning realistic treatment goals. This paper reports the clinical and radiographic features of pycnodysostosis with the great emphasis on its dentofacial characteristics. The aim of this case report is to give an insight into the etiology, pathogenesis, and differential diagnosis of this disorder and to prepare the dentists and maxillofacial surgeons to overcome the challenges in treating these patients. PMID:26649209

  7. Thermoluminescence characteristics of hydrogenated amorphous zirconia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montalvo, T. R.; Tenorio, L. O.; Nieto, J. A.; Salgado, M. B.; Estrada, A. M. S.; Furetta, C.

    2005-05-01

    This paper reports the experimental results concerning the thermoluminescent (TL) characteristics of hydrogenated amorphous zirconium oxide (a-Zr:H) powder prepared by the sol-gel method. The advantages of this method are the homogeneity and the purity of the gels associated with a relatively low sintering temperature. Hydrogenated amorphous powder was characterized by thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction. The main TL characteristics investigated were the TL response as a function of the absorbed dose, the reproducibility of the TL readings and the fading. The undoped a-Zr:H powder presents a TL glow curve with two peaks centered at 150 and 260 degrees C, respectively, after beta irradiation. The TL response a-Zr:H as a function of the absorbed dose showed a linear behavior over a wide range. The results presented open the possibility to use this material as a good TL dosimeter.

  8. Abdominal vascular syndromes: characteristic imaging findings*

    PubMed Central

    Cardarelli-Leite, Leandro; Velloni, Fernanda Garozzo; Salvadori, Priscila Silveira; Lemos, Marcelo Delboni; D'Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal vascular syndromes are rare diseases. Although such syndromes vary widely in terms of symptoms and etiologies, certain imaging findings are characteristic. Depending on their etiology, they can be categorized as congenital-including blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome, Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome, and hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome)-or compressive-including "nutcracker" syndrome, median arcuate ligament syndrome, Cockett syndrome (also known as May-Thurner syndrome), and superior mesenteric artery syndrome. In this article, we aimed to illustrate imaging findings that are characteristic of these syndromes, through studies conducted at our institution, as well as to perform a brief review of the literature on this topic. PMID:27777480

  9. Characteristics of power demand in Tokyo

    SciTech Connect

    Meguro, Kimiro; Yamazaki, Fumio; Katayama, Tsuneo; Soejima, Michiyo

    1995-12-31

    Modern societies suffer functional damage due to power outage when natural disasters strike. As the first step for developing a new methodology for estimating the effects of power outage on city functions considering the characteristics of the area, and time and duration of outage, a database is made which consists of regional characteristics and electric power demand in the Tokyo metropolis using geographic information system (GIS). Power demand is examined as a function of time, season and region. With a statistical technique, four elemental load curves of residential, office, industrial and entertainment components are calculated. Assuming that every load curve is a combination of the four elemental curves, the contribution rate of the four elements in each area is calculated. Then the areas could be classified based on the contribution rate.

  10. The dynamic characteristics of hydrostatic bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Zhicheng; Sun, Jingwu; Zhai, Wenjie; Liu, Qingming; Chi, Wei

    1993-07-01

    Results of a theoretical study of the characteristics of hydrostatic bearings performed in terms of the compressibility of the air-contained oil are presented. A formula for the stability criterion of a hydrostatic bearing system and a dynamic stiffness formula is derived. It is found that, under the sinusoidal load, each of the pressure compensation systems has its own load frequency-film characteristics. The greater that compressible volume, V(oa), of oil, the smaller the dynamic stiffness. V(oa) must be reduced in the design of high-precision hydrostatic bearings. If the load frequency is in the low-stiffness area, the dynamic stiffness is small. Methods to enhance the dynamic stiffness are discussed.

  11. Dolomite reservoirs: Porosity evolution and reservoir characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, S.Q.

    1995-02-01

    Systematic analyses of the published record of dolomite reservoirs worldwide reveal that the majority of hydrocarbon-producing dolomite reservoirs occurs in (1) peritidal-dominated carbonate, (2) subtidal carbonate associated with evaporitic tidal flat/lagoon, (3) subtidal carbonate associated with basinal evaporite, and (4) nonevaporitic carbonate sequence associated with topographic high/unconformity, platform-margin buildup or fault/fracture. Reservoir characteristics vary greatly from one dolomite type to another depending upon the original sediment fabric, the mechanism by which dolomite was formed, and the extent to which early formed dolomite was modified by post-dolomitization diagenetic processes (e.g., karstification, fracturing, and burial corrosion). This paper discusses the origin of dolomite porosity and demonstrates the porosity evolution and reservoir characteristics of different dolomite types.

  12. Performance Characteristics of a Preformed Elliptical Parachute

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    Performance Characteristics of a Preformed Elliptical Parachute at Altitudes between 200,000 and 100,000 Thousand Feet Obtained by In-Flight Photography. The performance characteristics of a pre-formed elliptical parachute at altitudes between 200,000 and 100,000 feet were obtained by means of in-flight photography. The tests demonstrate that this type of parachute will open at altitudes of about 200,000 feet if conditions such as twisting of the suspension lines or draping of the suspension lines over the canopy do not occur. Drag-coefficient values between 0.6 and 0.8 were found to be reasonable for this type of parachute system in the altitude range between 200,000 and 100,000 feet. [Entire movie available on DVD from CASI as Doc ID 20070030980. Contact help@sti.nasa.gov

  13. Investigation of aerodynamic characteristics of subsonic wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejarnette, F. R.; Frink, N. T.

    1979-01-01

    An analytical strake design procedure is investigated. A numerical solution to the governing strake design equation is used to generate a series of strakes which are tested in a water tunnel to study their vortex breakdown characteristics. The strakes are scaled for use on a half-scale model of the NASA-LaRC general research fuselage with a 44 degrees trapezoidal wing. An analytical solution to the governing design equation is obtained. The strake design procedure relates the potential-flow leading-edge suction and pressure distributions to vortex stability. Several suction distributions are studied and those which are more triangular and peak near the tip generate strakes that reach higher angles of attack before vortex breakdown occurs at the wing trailing edge. For the same suction distribution, a conical rather than three dimensional pressure specification results in a better strake shape as judged from its vortex breakdown characteristics.

  14. Technical characteristics of current cardiotocographic monitors.

    PubMed

    Ayres-de-Campos, Diogo; Nogueira-Reis, Zilma

    2016-01-01

    Cardiotocographic (CTG) monitors are complex electronic devices developed to acquire, process and display foetal heart rate (FHR) and uterine contraction (UC) signals. This chapter describes the main characteristics of current CTG monitors, in order to allow a better understanding of the technology. An ultrasound transducer is used for the external monitoring of FHR signals, whereas a tocodynamometer is used for the external monitoring of UCs. These technologies are recommended for routine clinical use in both the antepartum and intrapartum periods. Foetal electrode and intrauterine pressure sensors provide internal monitoring of FHR and UC signals, respectively, which are more precise than external signals. They are only applicable during labour, after cervical dilatation and ruptured membranes, and they have established contraindications. The registration of foetal movements, simultaneous monitoring of twins and triplets, continuous maternal heart rate monitoring, monitoring of other maternal parameters, alarms, digital outputs and telemetry are other available characteristics in some CTG monitors.

  15. Characteristics of Five Propellers in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowley, J W , Jr; Mixson, R E

    1928-01-01

    This investigation was made for the purpose of determining the characteristics of five full-scale propellers in flight. The equipment consisted of five propellers in conjunction with a VE-7 airplane and a Wright E-2 engine. The propellers were of the same diameter and aspect ratio. Four of them differed uniformly in thickness and pitch and the fifth propeller was identical with one of the other four with exception of a change of the airfoil section. The propeller efficiencies measured in flight are found to be consistently lower than those obtained in model tests. It is probable that this is mainly a result of the higher tip speeds used in the full-scale tests. The results show also that because of differences in propeller deflections it is difficult to obtain accurate comparisons of propeller characteristics. From this it is concluded that for accurate comparisons it is necessary to know the propeller pitch angles under actual operating conditions. (author)

  16. Fibre Optic Sensors for Selected Wastewater Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Su Sin; Abdul Aziz, A. R.; Harun, Sulaiman W.

    2013-01-01

    Demand for online and real-time measurements techniques to meet environmental regulation and treatment compliance are increasing. However the conventional techniques, which involve scheduled sampling and chemical analysis can be expensive and time consuming. Therefore cheaper and faster alternatives to monitor wastewater characteristics are required as alternatives to conventional methods. This paper reviews existing conventional techniques and optical and fibre optic sensors to determine selected wastewater characteristics which are colour, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD). The review confirms that with appropriate configuration, calibration and fibre features the parameters can be determined with accuracy comparable to conventional method. With more research in this area, the potential for using FOS for online and real-time measurement of more wastewater parameters for various types of industrial effluent are promising. PMID:23881131

  17. Physical characteristics of Eurasian winter temperature variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kwang-Yul; Son, Seok-Woo

    2016-04-01

    Despite the on-going global warming, recent winters in Eurasian mid-latitudes were much colder than average. In an attempt to better understand the physical characteristics for cold Eurasian winters, major sources of variability in surface air temperature (SAT) are investigated based on cyclostationary EOF analysis. The two leading modes of SAT variability represent the effect of Arctic amplification (AA) and the Arctic oscillation (AO), respectively. These two modes are distinct in terms of the physical characteristics, including surface energy fluxes and tropospheric circulations, and result in significantly different winter SAT patterns over the Eurasian continent. The AA-related SAT anomalies are dipolar with warm Arctic, centered at the Barents-Kara Seas, and cold East Asia. In contrast, the negative AO-related SAT anomalies are characterized by widespread cold anomalies in Northern Eurasia. Relative importance of the AA and the negative AO contributions to cold Eurasian winters is sensitive to the region of interest.

  18. Pycnodysostosis with Special Emphasis on Dentofacial Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Khoja, Aisha; Fida, Mubassar; Shaikh, Attiya

    2015-01-01

    Pycnodysostosis is an autosomal recessive disorder that manifests as osteosclerosis of the skeleton due to the defective osteoclasts mediated bone turnover. The diagnosis of this disorder is established on the basis of its characteristic features and must be differentially diagnosed with other bone disorders. Dental surgeons should be aware of the limitations and possible adverse oral complications such as osteomyelitis of bone in these patients. This will guide them in planning realistic treatment goals. This paper reports the clinical and radiographic features of pycnodysostosis with the great emphasis on its dentofacial characteristics. The aim of this case report is to give an insight into the etiology, pathogenesis, and differential diagnosis of this disorder and to prepare the dentists and maxillofacial surgeons to overcome the challenges in treating these patients.

  19. Measuring spatial variability in soil characteristics

    DOEpatents

    Hoskinson, Reed L.; Svoboda, John M.; Sawyer, J. Wayne; Hess, John R.; Hess, J. Richard

    2002-01-01

    The present invention provides systems and methods for measuring a load force associated with pulling a farm implement through soil that is used to generate a spatially variable map that represents the spatial variability of the physical characteristics of the soil. An instrumented hitch pin configured to measure a load force is provided that measures the load force generated by a farm implement when the farm implement is connected with a tractor and pulled through or across soil. Each time a load force is measured, a global positioning system identifies the location of the measurement. This data is stored and analyzed to generate a spatially variable map of the soil. This map is representative of the physical characteristics of the soil, which are inferred from the magnitude of the load force.

  20. Analytic prediction of airplane equilibrium spin characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, W. M., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    The nonlinear equations of motion are solved algebraically for conditions for which an airplane is in an equilibrium spin. Constrained minimization techniques are employed in obtaining the solution. Linear characteristics of the airplane about the equilibrium points are also presented and their significance in identifying the stability characteristics of the equilibrium points is discussed. Computer time requirements are small making the method appear potentially applicable in airplane design. Results are obtained for several configurations and are compared with other analytic-numerical methods employed in spin prediction. Correlation with experimental results is discussed for one configuration for which a rather extensive data base was available. A need is indicated for higher Reynolds number data taken under conditions which more accurately simulate a spin.

  1. Accident characteristics of injured motorcyclists in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Pang, T Y; Umar, R S; Azhar, A A; Ahmad, M M; Nasir, M T; Harwant, S

    2000-03-01

    This study examines the accident characteristics of injured motorcyclists in Malaysia. The aim of this study is to identify the characteristics of motorcyclists who are at higher fatality risk and subsequently be the targeted group for the fatality-reduction countermeasures. A total of 412 motorcycle crash victims with serious or fatal injuries were analysed. The results showed that the injured motorcyclists were predominant young, novice riders of less than 3 years licensure and male. A fatal outcome was more likely to be associated with a larger engine capacity motorcycle, collision with a heavy vehicle, head on collision, and collision at a non-junction road. In contrast, a non-fatal outcome was more likely to be associated with a small engine capacity motorcycle, collision with another motorcycle or passenger car, junction accidents, and side or rear collisions.

  2. [Demographic characteristics of consumers in Indonesia?].

    PubMed

    Ananta, A

    1993-06-01

    "This paper presents a mosaic of business opportunities arising from the different demographic characteristics of the provinces in the western part of Indonesia. The author discusses the total number of population, density, and per capita income to [shed] some light on the volume of the market. He also presents the business impact of the [changes] in fertility, mortality, and the...life style of those aged 40-64." (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  3. Indicator characteristics of bromothymol blue derivatives.

    PubMed

    Puschett, J B; Rao, B S; Karandikar, B M; Matyjaszewski, K

    1991-03-01

    Some Bromothymol Blue derivatives with a nitro, amino, isothiocyanato or sulfonamide group substituted on the sulfonated ring of the dibromothymolsulfonephthalein have been studied spectrometrically. All the dyes have two characteristic absorption peaks which can be used to measure pH in the physiological range. The molar absorptivities, wavelengths of maximum absorption and pK(a) values have been determined from the absorbances, and are similar for all four dyes.

  4. Characteristics of flight simulator visual systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Statler, I. C. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    The physical parameters of the flight simulator visual system that characterize the system and determine its fidelity are identified and defined. The characteristics of visual simulation systems are discussed in terms of the basic categories of spatial, energy, and temporal properties corresponding to the three fundamental quantities of length, mass, and time. Each of these parameters are further addressed in relation to its effect, its appropriate units or descriptors, methods of measurement, and its use or importance to image quality.

  5. Directional Characteristics of Waves in Shallow Water

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-01

    directional characteristics are deduced from a spread parameter, bLsed or ,he angular arc which subtends the central half of the area under a wave...constant monitoring and attention. Another is that the wave field must be uniform (i.e., have the same basic statistics) through- out the area covered by...constitute a complete wave climate. Furthermore, the 14 maximum fetch was 300 km so that wind waves and swell from distant generating areas (as would occur in

  6. Electrophysiological Characteristics of Fetal Atrioventricular Block

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hui; Cuneo, Bettina F.; Strasburger, Janette F.; Huhta, James C.; Gotteiner, Nina L.; Wakai, Ronald T.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of our work was to define the complex electrophysiological characteristics seen in second- (2°) and third-degree (3°) atrioventricular block (AVB) and to longitudinally follow the development of atrial and ventricular heart rate and rhythm patterns with a goal of identifying heart rate and rhythm patterns associated with urgent delivery or neonatal pacing. Background The electrophysiological characteristics of congenital AVB before birth have not been extensively studied, yet the mortality from this disease is substantial. Along with advances in fetal therapies and interventions, a comprehensive natural history specific to the etiology of AVB, as well as the electrophysiological factors influencing outcome, are needed to best select treatment options. Methods Twenty-eight fetuses with AVB were evaluated by fetal magnetocardiography; 21 fetuses were evaluated serially. Results Fetuses with 2° AVB and isolated 3° AVB showed: 1) diverse atrial rhythms and mechanisms of atrioventricular conduction during 2° AVB; 2) junctional ectopic tachycardia and ventricular tachycardia during 3° AVB; 3) reactive ventricular and atrial fetal heart rate (FHR) tracings at ventricular rates >56 beats/min; and 4) flat ventricular FHR tracings at ventricular rates <56 beats/min despite reactive atrial FHR tracings. In contrast, fetuses with 3° AVB associated with structural cardiac disease exhibited predominantly nonreactive heart rate tracings and simpler rhythms. Conclusions Second-degree AVB, isolated 3° AVB, and 3° AVB associated with structural cardiac disease manifest distinctly different electrophysiological characteristics and outcome. Fetuses with 2° AVB or isolated 3° AVB commonly exhibited complex, changing heart rate and rhythm patterns; all 19 delivered fetuses are alive and healthy. Fetuses with structural cardiac disease and 3° AVB exhibited largely monotonous heart rate and rhythm patterns and poor prognosis. Junctional ectopic

  7. Phyllodes tumor: review of key imaging characteristics.

    PubMed

    Plaza, Michael Jonathan; Swintelski, Cara; Yaziji, Hadi; Torres-Salichs, Manuel; Esserman, Lisa E

    2015-01-01

    Phyllodes tumor of the breast is rare and often resembles the more commonly seen fibroadenoma at imaging and histologically. As core biopsy cannot always distinguish the two, assessing radiologic-pathologic concordance is essential to guide appropriate clinical management. We review the imaging characteristics of phyllodes tumor at mammography, ultrasound, and MRI to help the interpreting radiologist be aware of key imaging features that should alert him to the possibility of a phyllodes tumor even if not verified by initial core biopsy.

  8. Measurements of AAFE RADSCAT antenna characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, A. E.; Jones, W. L., Jr.; Jones, A. L.

    1977-01-01

    Antenna characteristics (active and passive) for a modified AAFE-RADSCAT parabolic dish antenna are documented for a variety of antenna configurations. The modified antenna was a replacement for the original unit which was damaged in January 1975. Pattern measurements made at Langley Research Center and Johnson Space Center are presented, with an analysis of the results. Antenna loss measurements are also presented and summarized.

  9. Heat Transfer Characteristics of SHS Reactions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-07-01

    A+R?0 Qt43 =5 -YA co ,/A FINAL REPORT AD- A225 769-=-_ HEAT TRANSFER CHARACTERISTICS OF SHS REACTIONS K. V. Logan, G. R. Villalobos, J. N. Harris, P...2741 Ta 180.9 3287 5731 Cr 52.0 2130 2945 lNb 95.9 2890 4919 W 183.8 3683 >6000 Mli 54.9 1518 2335 Fe 55.8 1808 3135 Co 58.9 1768 3201 Ni 58.7 1726

  10. [The characteristics of public health resources management].

    PubMed

    2011-01-01

    The article analyses the position of human health in the system of social economic relationships. The notion of material and technical resources in health institutions is defined. It is demonstrated that they are characterized by number of health institutions, their structure according levels and stages of medical care provision, costs of fixed assets, their structure and wear. The conceptual characteristics of actual management of public health resources are analyzed.

  11. Characteristics of edge breakdowns on Teflon samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yadlowsky, E. J.; Hazelton, R. C.; Churchill, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    The characteristics of electrical discharges induced on silverbacked Teflon samples irradiated by a monoenergetic electron beam have been studied under controlled laboratory conditions. Measurements of breakdown threshold voltages indicate a marked anisotropy in the electrical breakdown properties of Teflon: differences of up to 10 kV in breakdown threshold voltage are observed depending on the sample orientation. The material anisotropy can be utilized in spacecraft construction to reduce the magnitude of discharge currents.

  12. Thermic diode performance characteristics and design manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernard, D. E.; Buckley, S.

    1979-01-01

    Thermic diode solar panels are a passive method of space and hot water heating using the thermosyphon principle. Simplified methods of sizing and performing economic analyses of solar heating systems had until now been limited to passive systems. A mathematical model of the thermic diode including its high level of stratification has been constructed allowing its performance characteristics to be studied. Further analysis resulted in a thermic diode design manual based on the f-chart method.

  13. Local aggregation characteristics of microscale blood flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaliviotis, Efstathios; Sherwood, Joseph M.; Dusting, Jonathan; Balabani, Stavroula

    2015-11-01

    Erythrocyte aggregation (EA) is an important aspect of microvascular flows affecting blood flow and viscosity. Microscale blood flows have been studied extensively in recent years using computational and microfluidic based approaches. However, the relationship between the local structural characteristics of blood and the velocity field has not been quantified. We report simultaneous measurements of the local velocity, aggregation and haematocrit distributions of human erythrocytes flowing in a microchannel. EA was induced using Dextran and flows were imaged using brightfield microscopy. Local aggregation characteristics were investigated using statistical and edge-detection image processing techniques while velocity profiles were obtained using PIV algorithms. Aggregation intensity was found to strongly correlate with local variations in velocity in both the central and wall regions of the channel. The edge detection method showed that near the side wall large aggregates are associated with high local velocities and low local shear rates. In the central region large aggregates occurred in regions of low velocity and high erythrocyte concentration. The results demonstrate the combined effect of haematocrit and velocity distributions on local aggregation characteristics.

  14. Characteristics of the inductive nitrogen laser generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razhev, A. M.; Churkin, D. S.; Kargapoltsev, E. S.

    2016-05-01

    The results of the experimental study of energy, temporal, spectral and spatial characteristics of UV inductive laser generation are presented. The study has identified a number of characteristics which demonstrate the differences between electron parameters of inductively coupled plasma and the plasma of longitudinal and transverse electrical discharges. The mechanism of simultaneous occurrence of Lewis-Rayleigh afterglow representing transitions between higher vibrational substates of B3Πg and A3∑u+ states; laser generation at C3Πu→B3Πg transition as well as the absence of IR radiation at 1st positive system typical for electrical discharge nitrogen lasers has been thoroughly researched. The major characteristic is ring shaped laser beam which size and width depend on excitation conditions. Inductive UV nitrogen laser is found to operate in ASE regime, but has a low divergence of 0.4±0.1 mrad and high pulse-to-pulse stability (laser pulse deviation amplitude did not exceed 1%).

  15. Characteristics of Hyperacusis in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Paulin, Johan; Andersson, Linus; Nordin, Steven

    2016-01-01

    There is a need for better understanding of various characteristics in hyperacusis in the general population. The objectives of the present study were to investigate individuals in the general population with hyperacusis regarding demographics, lifestyle, perceived general health and hearing ability, hyperacusis-specific characteristics and behavior, and comorbidity. Using data from a large-scale population-based questionnaire study, we investigated individuals with physician-diagnosed (n=66) and self-reported (n=313) hyperacusis in comparison to individuals without hyperacusis (n=2995). High age, female sex, and high education were associated with hyperacusis, and that trying to avoid sound sources, being able to affect the sound environment, and having sough medical attention were common reactions and behaviors. Posttraumatic stress disorder, chronic fatigue syndrome, generalized anxiety disorder, depression, exhaustion, fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome, migraine, hearing impairment, tinnitus, and back/joint/muscle disorders were comorbid with hyperacusis. The results provide ground for future study of these characteristic features being risk factors for development of hyperacusis and/or consequences of hyperacusis. PMID:27569405

  16. Quantifying Flaw Characteristics from IR NDE Data

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, W; Philips, N R; Burke, M W; Robbins, C L

    2003-02-14

    Work is presented which allows flaw characteristics to be quantified from the transient IR NDE signature. The goal of this effort was to accurately determine the type, size and depth of flaws revealed with IR NDE, using sonic IR as the example IR NDE technique. Typically an IR NDE experiment will result in a positive qualitative indication of a flaw such as a cold or hot spot in the image, but will not provide quantitative data thereby leaving the practitioner to make educated guesses as to the source of the signal. The technique presented here relies on comparing the transient IR signature to exact heat transfer analytical results for prototypical flaws, using the flaw characteristics as unknown fitting parameters. A nonlinear least squares algorithm is used to evaluate the fitting parameters, which then provide a direct measure of the flaw characteristics that can be mapped to the imaged surface for visual reference. The method uses temperature data for the heat transfer analysis, so radiometric calibration of the IR signal is required. The method provides quantitative data with a single thermal event (e.g. acoustic pulse or flash), as compared to phase-lock techniques that require many events. The work has been tested with numerical data but remains to be validated by experimental data, and that effort is underway.

  17. Watershed characteristics rating for North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Terziotti, Silvia; Eimers, Jo Leslie; Weaver, J. Curtis

    2001-01-01

    This web site contains the Federal Geographic Data Committee-compliant metadata (documentation) for digital data produced for the North Carolina, Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Public Water Supply Section, Source Water Assessment Program. The metadata are for 11 individual Geographic Information System data sets. An overlay and indexing method was used with the data to derive a rating for unsaturated zone and watershed characteristics for use by the State of North Carolina in assessing more than 11,000 public water-supply wells and approximately 245 public surface-water intakes for susceptibility to contamination. For ground-water supplies, the digital data sets used in the assessment included unsaturated zone rating, vertical series hydraulic conductance, land-surface slope, and land cover. For assessment of public surface-water intakes, the data sets included watershed characteristics rating, average annual precipitation, land-surface slope, land cover, and ground-water contribution. Documentation for the land-use data set applies to both the unsaturated zone and watershed characteristics ratings. Documentation for the estimated depth-to-water map used in the calculation of the vertical series hydraulic conductance also is included.

  18. Unsaturated zone characteristics rating for North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Terziotti, Silvia; Eimers, Jo Leslie

    2001-01-01

    This web site contains the Federal Geographic Data Committee-compliant metadata (documentation) for digital data produced for the North Carolina, Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Public Water Supply Section, Source Water Assessment Program. The metadata are for 11 individual Geographic Information System data sets. An overlay and indexing method was used with the data to derive a rating for unsaturated zone and watershed characteristics for use by the State of North Carolina in assessing more than 11,000 public water-supply wells and approximately 245 public surface-water intakes for susceptibility to contamination. For ground-water supplies, the digital data sets used in the assessment included unsaturated zone rating, vertical series hydraulic conductance, land-surface slope, and land cover. For assessment of public surface-water intakes, the data sets included watershed characteristics rating, average annual precipitation, land-surface slope, land cover, and ground-water contribution. Documentation for the land-use data set applies to both the unsaturated zone and watershed characteristics ratings. Documentation for the estimated depth-to-water map used in the calculation of the vertical series hydraulic conductance also is included.

  19. CHARACTERISTIC STRUCTURE OF STAR-FORMING CLOUDS

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, Philip C.

    2015-06-20

    This paper presents a new method to diagnose the star-forming potential of a molecular cloud region from the probability density function of its column density (N-pdf). This method provides expressions for the column density and mass profiles of a symmetric filament having the same N-pdf as a filamentary region. The central concentration of this characteristic filament can distinguish regions and can quantify their fertility for star formation. Profiles are calculated for N-pdfs which are pure lognormal, pure power law, or a combination. In relation to models of singular polytropic cylinders, characteristic filaments can be unbound, bound, or collapsing depending on their central concentration. Such filamentary models of the dynamical state of N-pdf gas are more relevant to star-forming regions than are spherical collapse models. The star formation fertility of a bound or collapsing filament is quantified by its mean mass accretion rate when in radial free fall. For a given mass per length, the fertility increases with the filament mean column density and with its initial concentration. In selected regions the fertility of their characteristic filaments increases with the level of star formation.

  20. Exploring Galaxy Environments with Characteristic Field Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snider, Shannon A.

    2006-12-01

    The connection between characteristic properties of galaxies and their local environments is an important tool in understanding the life history of galaxies, their formation, and their effects on the large-scale structure of the universe. However, while there has been significant progress in understanding galaxy properties with relation to local densities and nearby cluster distances, fundamental questions still remain unanswered. Three-dimensional field mapping techniques are explored as a means of investigating the environmental dependence of characteristic properties of galaxies in large data sets. Field maps are applied to the Millenium Run semi-analytic galaxy catalog to create a baseline of methodology against a simulated data set. The field maps are then extended for application to the Data Release 5 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. An open architecture is presented as a framework for further studies of the correlational dependence of arbitrary characteristics. In particular, the techniques are being applied in current investigation towards an understanding of the relationships of metallicity, densities, star formation, mass, and luminosities in local environments in the DR5 of the SDSS.

  1. Dynamic characteristics of pulsed supersonic fuel sprays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pianthong, K.; Matthujak, A.; Takayama, K.; Milton, B. E.; Behnia, M.

    2008-06-01

    This paper describes the dynamic characteristics of pulsed, supersonic liquid fuel sprays or jets injected into ambient air. Simple, single hole nozzles were employed with the nozzle sac geometries being varied. Different fuel types, diesel fuel, bio-diesel, kerosene, and gasoline were used to determine the effects of fuel properties on the spray characteristics. A vertical two-stage light gas gun was employed as a projectile launcher to provide a high velocity impact to produce the liquid jet. The injection pressure was around 0.88-1.24 GPa in all cases. The pulsed, supersonic fuel sprays were visualized by using a high-speed video camera and shadowgraph method. The spray tip penetration and velocity attenuation and other characteristics were examined and are described here. An instantaneous spray tip velocity of 1,542 m/s (Mach number 4.52) was obtained. However, this spray tip velocity can be sustained for only a very short period (a few microseconds). It then attenuates very quickly. The phenomenon of multiple high frequency spray pulses generated by a single shot impact and the changed in the angle of the shock structure during the spray flight, which had already been observed in previous studies, is again noted. Multiple shock waves from the conical nozzle spray were also clearly captured.

  2. An Implicit Characteristic Based Method for Electromagnetics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beggs, John H.; Briley, W. Roger

    2001-01-01

    An implicit characteristic-based approach for numerical solution of Maxwell's time-dependent curl equations in flux conservative form is introduced. This method combines a characteristic based finite difference spatial approximation with an implicit lower-upper approximate factorization (LU/AF) time integration scheme. This approach is advantageous for three-dimensional applications because the characteristic differencing enables a two-factor approximate factorization that retains its unconditional stability in three space dimensions, and it does not require solution of tridiagonal systems. Results are given both for a Fourier analysis of stability, damping and dispersion properties, and for one-dimensional model problems involving propagation and scattering for free space and dielectric materials using both uniform and nonuniform grids. The explicit Finite Difference Time Domain Method (FDTD) algorithm is used as a convenient reference algorithm for comparison. The one-dimensional results indicate that for low frequency problems on a highly resolved uniform or nonuniform grid, this LU/AF algorithm can produce accurate solutions at Courant numbers significantly greater than one, with a corresponding improvement in efficiency for simulating a given period of time. This approach appears promising for development of dispersion optimized LU/AF schemes for three dimensional applications.

  3. Distinctive characteristics of sexual orientation bias crimes.

    PubMed

    Stacey, Michele

    2011-10-01

    Despite increased attention in the area of hate crime research in the past 20 years, sexual orientation bias crimes have rarely been singled out for study. When these types of crimes are looked at, the studies are typically descriptive in nature. This article seeks to increase our knowledge of sexual orientation bias by answering the question: What are the differences between sexual orientation motivated bias crimes and racial bias crimes? This question is examined using data from the National Incident Based Reporting System (NIBRS) and multiple regression techniques. This analysis draws on the strengths of NIBRS to look at the incident characteristics of hate crimes and distinguishing characteristics of sexual orientation crimes. Specifically this analysis looks at the types and seriousness of offenses motivated by sexual orientation bias as opposed to race bias as well as victim and offender characteristics. The findings suggest that there are differences between these two types of bias crimes, suggesting a need for further separation of the bias types in policy and research.

  4. On the Dynamic Measurements of Hydraulic Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasmatuchi, Vlad; Bosioc, Alin; Münch-Alligné, Cécile

    2016-11-01

    The present work introduces the implementation and validation of a faster method to measure experimentally the efficiency characteristics of hydraulic turbomachines at a model scale on a test rig. The case study is represented by a laboratory prototype of an in-line axial microturbine for water supply networks. The 2.65 kW one-stage variable speed turbine, composed by one upstream 5-blade runner followed by one counter-rotating downstream 7-blade runner, has been installed on the HES-SO Valais/Wallis universal test rig dedicated to assess performances of small hydraulic machinery following the IEC standard recommendations. In addition to the existing acquisition/control system of the test rig used to measure the 3D hill-chart of a turbine by classical static point-by-point method, a second digitizer has been added to acquire synchronized dynamic signals of the employed sensors. The optimal acceleration/deceleration ramps of the electrical drives have been previously identified in order to cope with the purpose of a reduced measurement time while avoiding errors and hysteresis on the acquired hydraulic characteristics. Finally, the comparison between the turbine efficiency hill-charts obtained by dynamic and static point-by-point methods shows a very good agreement in terms of precision and repeatability. Moreover, the applied dynamic method reduces significantly (by a factor of up to ten) the time necessary to measure the efficiency characteristics on model testing.

  5. Analysis of reflectance characteristics of selected plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaszczuk, Miroslawa; Mierczyk, Zygmunt; Zygmunt, Marek; Piotrowski, Wieslaw; Mierczyk, Jadwiga

    2011-06-01

    The paper presents reflectance characteristics of plants. The objects of the research were the selected plants, taking the various levels of organization and structure into consideration, as well as the state of plant health and growth. Reflectance spectrum was analyzed in the range of wavelengths from 0,2 to 2,5 μm. The values of reflectance for three wavelengths (λ1=850 nm, λ2=905 nm, λ3=1550 nm) were analyzed with the particular emphasis. The sample tests were performed immediately after biological material taking and in the several 24-hour time intervals. The time intervals enabled the process of plants wilting and drying. The reflectance measurements were repeated until the moment of plant complete dried out. All measurements were performed with the use of the spectrometer Lambda 900 (Perkin Elmer) equipped with the 150 mm integrating sphere PELA1001 dedicated for the measurements of the hemispherical reflectance both of diffuse and specular type. On the basis of the obtained results one calculated the values of signal ratios for the three selected wavelengths: 850/1550nm, 905/1550nm, and 850/905nm. The collected spectra and reflectance characteristics enabled the analyses of both results similarities and differences, which enabled the determination of the reflectance changes tendency associated with the typical processes occurring in plants. The analyses of plants reflectance characteristics were made for the use of the laser system for identification of terrain elements and their physico-chemical properties.

  6. Sibship characteristics during upbringing and schizophrenia risk.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, C B; Mortensen, P B

    2004-10-01

    The potential association between sibship characteristics and the risk of schizophrenia has been investigated previously. However, methods have differed and results have been conflicting. The authors explored the association between birth order, sibship size, and birth interval to siblings and schizophrenia while accounting for potential confounders. Using Danish Civil Registration System data, the authors established a cohort of 763,000 people. Schizophrenia was identified by linkage with the Danish Psychiatric Central Register. Overall, 2,536 people developed schizophrenia from 1986 to 2001. Children with no siblings and children with three or more siblings had significantly increased risks (relative risk = 1.22 and 1.27, respectively). This association was explained by change of residence and urbanization during upbringing. Children with half siblings had a significantly increased risk (relative risk = 1.20). The authors found a significantly increased risk associated with siblings 7-8 and 11-14 years younger (relative risk = 1.30 and 1.22, respectively) combined with a significantly decreased risk associated with siblings 2-10 and 12 or more years older (relative risk = 0.92 and 0.82, respectively). There was no consistent pattern between the birth interval to siblings and schizophrenia risk. Results of the association between sibship characteristics and schizophrenia from a single country may not be comparable with results from other countries, and sibship characteristics are minor determinants of schizophrenia risk.

  7. Characterization and characteristics of degradable polymer sacks

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Georgina

    2003-10-15

    This paper reviews the categories and characteristics of degradable polymers used to manufacture sacks for the collection and subsequent treatment of organic wastes from householders. The characteristics of polyethylene (PE) and starch-based sacks were examined using a number of different methods, including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), chemical analysis and mechanical strength testing of the sacks during their use. The analyses revealed that the characteristics of the PE and starch-based sacks were very different. Photomicrographs indicated that the surface of the PE sack was much smoother than the surface of the starch-based sacks. Polyethylene sacks exhibited a greater mechanical strength, both in the unused state and over time during householder use. The severe loss of mechanical strength during use of the starch-based sacks indicated that only thicker gauge sacks were suitable for the fortnightly kerbside collection of biodegradable municipal waste (BMW). Chemical analysis of two different PE sacks indicated that transition metals and other elements were commonly incorporated into the PE structure in order to facilitate increased polymer degradation.

  8. Community Characteristics and Mortality: The Relative Strength of Association of Different Community Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Eric; McCleary, Rachael; Buttorff, Christine; Gaskin, Darrell J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We compared the strength of association between average 5-year county-level mortality rates and area-level measures, including air quality, sociodemographic characteristics, violence, and economic distress. Methods. We obtained mortality data from the National Vital Statistics System and linked it to socioeconomic and demographic data from the Census Bureau, air quality data, violent crime statistics, and loan delinquency data. We modeled 5-year average mortality rates (1998–2002) for all-cause, cancer, heart disease, stroke, and respiratory diseases as a function of county-level characteristics using ordinary least squares regression models. We limited analyses to counties with population of 100 000 or greater (n = 458). Results. Demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, particularly the percentage older than 65 years and near poor, were top predictors of all-cause and condition-specific mortality, as were a high concentration of construction and service workers. We found weaker associations for air quality, mortgage delinquencies, and violent crimes. Protective characteristics included the percentage of Hispanics, Asians, and married residents. Conclusions. Multiple factors influence county-level mortality. Although county demographic and socioeconomic characteristics are important, there are independent, although weaker, associations of other environmental characteristics. Future studies should investigate these factors to better understand community mortality risk. PMID:25033152

  9. CONSTANCY OF CHARACTERISTICS IN THE STREPTOMYCETES1

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Marroquin, A.

    1962-01-01

    Sanchez-Marroquin, A. (University of Mexico, México D.F.). Constancy of characteristics in the streptomycetes. J. Bacteriol. 83:1183–1192. 1962.—A total of 150 Streptomyces strains isolated from soil was studied during a 3-year period in regard to constancy and variation of the following characteristics: sporophore micromorphology, color of the aerial and substrate mycelium, surface configuration of the spores, assimilation of carbon compounds, production of H2S and melanoid pigment, and reduction of nitrates. A remarkable constancy in the following characteristics was found: (i) sporophore micromorphology when only three of the seven morphological series of Pridham et al. were developed on tomato paste-oatmeal agar or yeast extract-malt extract agar; (ii) color of the aerial mycelium if only four fundamental colors are distinguished (white to cream or buff shades; yellow to orange or brown; pink to cinnamon, red or pinkish tan to lavender; and green to gray or blue); (iii) surface configuration of the spores divided in two types (smooth and warty to spinous or hairy); (iv) assimilation of five carbon compounds (arabinose, xylose, rhamnose, raffinose, and mannitol); (v) production of H2S on Difco peptone-iron agar supplemented with 0.1% Difco yeast extract; and (vi) production of melanoid pigment on peptone agar, giving similar results to those of the H2S test. Color of the substrate mycelium, size and shape of the spores, and reduction of nitrates should be used only as complementary data in the species descriptions, owing to their inconsistency and unreliability. Images PMID:14496763

  10. Constancy of characteristics in the streptomycetes.

    PubMed

    SANCHEZ-MARROQUIN, A

    1962-06-01

    Sanchez-Marroquin, A. (University of Mexico, México D.F.). Constancy of characteristics in the streptomycetes. J. Bacteriol. 83:1183-1192. 1962.-A total of 150 Streptomyces strains isolated from soil was studied during a 3-year period in regard to constancy and variation of the following characteristics: sporophore micromorphology, color of the aerial and substrate mycelium, surface configuration of the spores, assimilation of carbon compounds, production of H(2)S and melanoid pigment, and reduction of nitrates. A remarkable constancy in the following characteristics was found: (i) sporophore micromorphology when only three of the seven morphological series of Pridham et al. were developed on tomato paste-oatmeal agar or yeast extract-malt extract agar; (ii) color of the aerial mycelium if only four fundamental colors are distinguished (white to cream or buff shades; yellow to orange or brown; pink to cinnamon, red or pinkish tan to lavender; and green to gray or blue); (iii) surface configuration of the spores divided in two types (smooth and warty to spinous or hairy); (iv) assimilation of five carbon compounds (arabinose, xylose, rhamnose, raffinose, and mannitol); (v) production of H(2)S on Difco peptone-iron agar supplemented with 0.1% Difco yeast extract; and (vi) production of melanoid pigment on peptone agar, giving similar results to those of the H(2)S test. Color of the substrate mycelium, size and shape of the spores, and reduction of nitrates should be used only as complementary data in the species descriptions, owing to their inconsistency and unreliability.

  11. The Optimizer Topology Characteristics in Seismic Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengor, T.

    2015-12-01

    The characteristic data of the natural phenomena are questioned in a topological space approach to illuminate whether there is an algorithm behind them bringing the situation of physics of phenomena to optimized states even if they are hazards. The optimized code designing the hazard on a topological structure mashes the metric of the phenomena. The deviations in the metric of different phenomena push and/or pull the fold of the other suitable phenomena. For example if the metric of a specific phenomenon A fits to the metric of another specific phenomenon B after variation processes generated with the deviation of the metric of previous phenomenon A. Defining manifold processes covering the metric characteristics of each of every phenomenon is possible for all the physical events; i.e., natural hazards. There are suitable folds in those manifold groups so that each subfold fits to the metric characteristics of one of the natural hazard category at least. Some variation algorithms on those metric structures prepare a gauge effect bringing the long time stability of Earth for largely scaled periods. The realization of that stability depends on some specific conditions. These specific conditions are called optimized codes. The analytical basics of processes in topological structures are developed in [1]. The codes are generated according to the structures in [2]. Some optimized codes are derived related to the seismicity of NAF beginning from the quakes of the year 1999. References1. Taner SENGOR, "Topological theory and analytical configuration for a universal community model," Procedia- Social and Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 81, pp. 188-194, 28 June 2013, 2. Taner SENGOR, "Seismic-Climatic-Hazardous Events Estimation Processes via the Coupling Structures in Conserving Energy Topologies of the Earth," The 2014 AGU Fall Meeting, Abstract no.: 31374, ABD.

  12. Discharge characteristics of embankment-shaped weirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kindsvater, Carl E.

    1964-01-01

    An embankment-shaped weir is an embankment overtopped by flood waters. Among the engineering problems frequently resulting from. this occurrence is the need to compute the peak discharge from postflood yield observations. The research described in this. report was concerned with the theoretical and experimental bases for the computation procedure. The research had two main objectives. One was to determine the relationship between embankment form and roughness and some of the more important discharge characteristics. The second was to define, theoretically and experimentally, the relationship between free-flow discharge and the boundary layer on the roadway. The first objective was accomplished with the experimental determination of coefficients of discharge and other significant flow characteristics for a variety of boundary and flow conditions. The second objective was accomplished with the development and experimental verification of a discharge equation which involved the boundary layer displacement thickness. This phase of the research included a general investigation of boundary layer growth on the roadway. It is included that both free- and submerged-flow discharge are virtually independent of the influence of embankment shape and relative height. The influence of boundary resistance is appreciable only for smaller heads. The most practical solution for discharge is one which is based on. the simple weir equation and experimentally determined coefficients. A completely analytical equation of discharge is impractical. The report contains the results of 936 experiments on the discharge characteristics of 17 different models; plus 106 boundary-layer velocity traverses on 4 different models. The data are summarized in both graphical and tabular form.

  13. Aerodynamic yawing moment characteristics of bird wings.

    PubMed

    Sachs, Gottfried

    2005-06-21

    The aerodynamic yawing moments due to sideslip are considered for wings of birds. Reference is made to the experience with aircraft wings in order to identify features which are significant for the yawing moment characteristics. Thus, it can be shown that wing sweep, aspect ratio and lift coefficient have a great impact. Focus of the paper is on wing sweep which can considerably increase the yawing moment due to sideslip when compared with unswept wings. There are many birds the wings of which employ sweep. To show the effect of sweep for birds, the aerodynamic characteristics of a gull wing which is considered as a representative example are treated in detail. For this purpose, a sophisticated aerodynamic method is used to compute results of high precision. The yawing moments of the gull wing with respect to the sideslip angle and the lift coefficient are determined. They show a significant level of yaw stability which strongly increases with the lift coefficient. It is particularly high in the lift coefficient region of best gliding flight conditions. In order to make the effect of sweep more perspicuous, a modification of the gull wing employing no sweep is considered for comparison. It turns out that the unswept wing yields yawing moments which are substantially smaller than those of the original gull wing with sweep. Another feature significant for the yawing moment characteristics concerns the fact that sweep is at the outer part of bird wings. By considering the underlying physical mechanism, it is shown that this feature is most important for the efficiency of wing sweep. To sum up, wing sweep provides a primary contribution to the yawing moments. It may be concluded that this is an essential reason why there is sweep in bird wings.

  14. Ejaculatory process and related semen characteristics.

    PubMed

    Bravo, P W; Moscoso, R; Alarcon, V; Ordoñez, C

    2002-01-01

    South American camelids are dribble ejaculators, and urethral contractions occur throughout copulation, which may last 25 min. The urethral contractions and their association with semen characteristics during copulation were determined in llamas and alpacas. A transrectal probe was held in the rectum of the male while copulating an artificial vagina, which was accessed underneath the dummy through a hole. The semen-collecting tube was changed every 5 min. Semen characteristics, color, volume, consistency, motility, concentration, and percentage of live sperm were determined at 5-min intervals. Urethral contractions were evenly distributed during copulation: 40 in alpacas and 63 in llamas (p < .05), with a general range of 11 to 132. Semen color was milky in 63%, and translucent in 36.5% for alpacas; and creamy (9.9%), milky (47%), and translucent (42%) for llamas. The mean volume of ejaculate was 0.3, 0.4, 0.6, 0.7, 0.6, 0.8, 0.3, and 3.0 mL for 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 min, respectively. Semen consistency was variable: viscous (65%) and semiviscous (34%) in alpacas; and viscous (57%) and semiviscous (42%) in llamas. Spermatic motility varied between 60 and 80% for the llama, and 40 and 80% for the alpaca. Spermatic concentration varied between 60 and 188 x 10(3)/mm3 in llamas, and 30 and 170 x 10(3)/mm3 in alpacas. Percentage of live sperm varied the least: 81 to 90% in llamas and 65 to 90% in alpacas. The ejaculate of llamas and alpacas is not fractionated, urethral contractions are evenly distributed, during copulation, and semen characteristics are present throughout the copulatory period.

  15. TEMPERATURE CHARACTERISTICS FOR PULSATION FREQUENCY IN GONIONEMUS

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Ernst

    1928-01-01

    The frequency of contraction of the bell of Gonionemus was studied in relation to temperature, with intact animals and also where different operations were made on the nervous system. A number of values of µ are found for intact animals namely 8,100±, 10,500±, 32,000± and 22,500±, with critical temperatures at 9.6°, 12.3°, and 14.0°. Four different classes of operations were used: (1) Animals where the nerve ring was cut on two opposite sides of the bell; the µ values found are 10,500± and 21,300±, with a critical temperature at 13.4°. (2) Animals with four cuts through the nerve ring gave µ = 10,600 ± and µ = 21,000, with a critical temperature at 13.1°. (3) In animals where the bell was cut in half the temperature characteristic was found to be 16,900. And finally (4) in the animals where the nerve ring was totally removed µ values of 8,100, 16,000±, and 29,000 were found, with critical temperatures at 15.0° and 9.4°. These results are discussed from the standpoint of the theory which supposes that definite "temperature characteristics" may be associated with the functional activity of particular elements in a complex functional unit, and that these elements may be separately studied and identified by suitable experimental procedures involving the magnitudes of the respective temperature characteristics and the locations of associated critical temperatures. The swimming bell of medusæ with its marginal sense organs permits a fairly direct approach to such questions. It is found that even slight injuries to the marginal nerve ring, for example, produce specific modifications in the temperature relations which are different from those appearing when the organism is cut in half. PMID:19872420

  16. Combining interior and exterior characteristics for remote sensing image denoising

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Ni; Sun, Shujin; Wang, Runsheng; Zhong, Ping

    2016-04-01

    Remote sensing image denoising faces many challenges since a remote sensing image usually covers a wide area and thus contains complex contents. Using the patch-based statistical characteristics is a flexible method to improve the denoising performance. There are usually two kinds of statistical characteristics available: interior and exterior characteristics. Different statistical characteristics have their own strengths to restore specific image contents. Combining different statistical characteristics to use their strengths together may have the potential to improve denoising results. This work proposes a method combining statistical characteristics to adaptively select statistical characteristics for different image contents. The proposed approach is implemented through a new characteristics selection criterion learned over training data. Moreover, with the proposed combination method, this work develops a denoising algorithm for remote sensing images. Experimental results show that our method can make full use of the advantages of interior and exterior characteristics for different image contents and thus improve the denoising performance.

  17. Frequency Content and Characteristics of Ventricular Conduction

    PubMed Central

    Tereshchenko, Larisa G.; Josephson, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    The spectrum of frequencies producing the QRS complex has not been fully explored. In this manuscript we review previous studies of QRS frequency content, and discuss our novel method of the conjoint analysis of the ECG signal in six dimensions: in the domain of three space dimensions, in time domain, and in frequency domain. Orbital frequency of QRS loop is introduced as a six-dimensional characteristic of ventricular conduction, which helped to reveal inapparent ventricular conduction, and to characterize electrophysiological substrate. In this paper, we review our novel method in the historical context. PMID:26364232

  18. Renewable energy and characteristics of the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Léger, Valérie

    2016-04-01

    During studying sustainable development, my sixth-form pupils have to devise and carry out experiments to show connection between some characteristics of the Earth and renewable energy. Thus, helping by a list of equipment, they can show, using simples' experiments, causal link. For example, they show that the layout in latitude of solar energy received on the ground, creates ocean and atmospheric currents. These currents are useful to product renewable energy. These researches allow me to show them new jobs link with renewable energy and sustainable development on the Earth. They can have more information thanks to other teachers working on the professional training centre including my secondary school.

  19. Transfer function characteristics of super resolving systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milster, Tom D.; Curtis, Craig H.

    1992-01-01

    Signal quality in an optical storage device greatly depends on the optical system transfer function used to write and read data patterns. The problem is similar to analysis of scanning optical microscopes. Hopkins and Braat have analyzed write-once-read-many (WORM) optical data storage devices. Herein, transfer function analysis of magnetooptic (MO) data storage devices is discussed with respect to improving transfer-function characteristics. Several authors have described improving the transfer function as super resolution. However, none have thoroughly analyzed the MO optical system and effects of the medium. Both the optical system transfer function and effects of the medium of this development are discussed.

  20. Characteristics of established group practices in Ontario.

    PubMed

    Vayda, E; Williams, A P; Stevenson, H M; Pierre, K D; Burke, M; Barnsley, J

    1989-01-01

    Established group practices in Ontario were surveyed to determine their structure, characteristics and attitudes toward government assistance in the development of group practice. The degree of organization of the groups surveyed was related to size and less than that reported in surveys of United States group practices. Group size and years of operation were strongly associated. Night, weekend and vacation coverage, the use of a unit patient record and the employment of non-physician administrators were reported frequently, and were more common in older and larger groups. As well, fringe benefits, except for professional organization dues, were not commonly provided.

  1. Characteristics of Flight Simulator Visual Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    Schnmler. A. 0. 23 Biberman, L. 24 Self, H. 25 Matsubayashi, A. 26 Webb, P. 27 Rayleigh , John William Strutt , 3d Baron "Dynamic Characteristics of...AVRADCOM) Ames Research Center, M/S 215-1 Moffett Field. CA 94035, U.S.A. Technical Secretary: Mr. John B. Sinacori J. B. Sinacori Associates P.O. Box...Mr. John C. Dusterberry Research Assistant to the Director Ames Research C»"*-i-, M/S 200-10 Moffett Field. CA 94035. U.S.A. Dr. 0. Falco Combat

  2. Propagation characteristics of superconducting microstrip lines

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, S.G.; Ke, J.Y.; Chen, C.H.

    1996-01-01

    The modified spectral-domain approach is applied to study the propagation characteristics of high temperature superconducting microstrip lines whose signal strip and ground plane are of arbitrary thickness. In this study, numerical results for effective dielectric constant, attenuation constant, and strip current distribution are presented to discuss the effects due to frequency, temperature, strip thickness, and substrate loss tangent. In particular, the conductor and dielectric attenuation constants of superconducting microstrip line are depicted separately to discuss the mechanism of the line losses. A comparison with published theoretical and experimental results is also included to check the accuracy of the new approach`s results.

  3. Hospital characteristics: can an audit be predicted?

    PubMed

    Chang, C F; Tuckman, H P

    1993-01-01

    Each year Medicare-participant hospitals submit a cost report to the Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA) to settle their reimbursement claims. These reports are subject to audit, and a decision by HCFA to audit can be costly to the auditee. This article uses data from 6,270 cost reports filed in 1986 to explore the factors related to the probability of an audit. Logistic regression equations are estimated to examine how hospital characteristics influence the chance of audit. The results suggest that audit probability can be predicted with reasonable accuracy by a hospital's bed size, ownership type, teaching status, function, proportion of Medicare inpatient days, and geographic location.

  4. The research of Organophosphorus pesticide biosensor characteristic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Yong; Luo, Xixian; Cheng, Yi

    2010-10-01

    To study the fiber-sensor film applied in detecting Organophosphorus pesticide, methyltriethoxysilane was used as precursor, which was doped by FITC- AchE. Consequently, the excellent Acetylcholinesterase biology sensitivity film was prepared. Physics characteristic of the film and sensitivity of Organophosphorus pesticide were researched. In organophosphorus pesticide residue testing, the experimental results indicated that the linear measurement range could reach 10-7{10-6 mol/L, moreover the detection limit is 10-8 mol/L. The sensor could be applied in biological / chemical research, clinical medicine, environmental protection, food inspection, biochemical preventive war field and so on.

  5. Fracture Characteristics of Structural Steels and Weldments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-11-01

    constrctionTECHNICAL REPORT`M.170 engineringNovember 1975 research laboratory FRACTURE CHARACTERISTICS OF STRUCTURAL STEELS AND WELDMENTS by J...microscope structure steel steel weldments 2 0. AUS51RA.Y’ Ztiu is~~g e ".C f ,e owl mod Idwisf~yb 6405 ". b mbef This5 tepof I p)wnh~t tlie tiIodings...CLALUVICA1IOli Of UAE(.0’ LINCLASSTFI~n SECURITY CLASSIFICATION Of THIS PAQE(1h.M Data EntWOO4 The hydrogen-enibrittled, high-strength steels exhibited

  6. Settlement characteristics of major infrastructures in Shanghai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, X.; Yan, X. X.; Wang, H. M.

    2015-11-01

    Critical infrastructures in Shanghai have undergone uneven settlement since their operation, which plays an important role in affecting the security of Shanghai. This paper, taking rail transportation as example, investigates settlement characteristics and influencing factors of this linear engineering, based on long-term settlement monitoring data. Results show that rail settlement is related to geological conditions, regional ground subsidence, surrounding construction activities and structural differences in the rail systems. In order to effectively decrease the impact of regional ground subsidence, a monitoring and early-warning mechanism for critical infrastructure is established by the administrative department and engineering operators, including monitoring network construction, settlement monitoring, information sharing, settlement warning, and so on.

  7. [Characteristics of the course of glottic cancer].

    PubMed

    Traserra, J; Avellaneda, R; Cuchi, A; Arias, C

    1989-01-01

    We present a retrospective study of the course of glottic cancer in a series of 302 cases. We studied the precise tumour localisation, the treatment carried out, the anatomico-pathological characteristics of the resected tissue and the results obtained as a function of the therapy used. It would seem important to stress the necessity of homogenizing the results of various authors by: presenting a series large enough for the results to be significant; there should be detailed total and prolonged follow up of patients, with use of similar evaluation parameters.

  8. An improved viscous characteristics analysis program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, R. V.

    1978-01-01

    An improved two dimensional characteristics analysis program is presented. The program is built upon the foundation of a FORTRAN program entitled Analysis of Supersonic Combustion Flow Fields With Embedded Subsonic Regions. The major improvements are described and a listing of the new program is provided. The subroutines and their functions are given as well as the input required for the program. Several applications of the program to real problems are qualitatively described. Three runs obtained in the investigation of a real problem are presented to provide insight for the input and output of the program.

  9. [Constructivism: a characteristic of the psychic process].

    PubMed

    Ruiz, R H

    1995-05-01

    Constructivism, more than a posture or a school concept, is a specific feature of the psychic process. The term "specific" needs to be understood taking into account two senses. On the one hand, as a first sense, one must consider it as something inherent to the psychic process. On the other, as a second sense, it means that constructivism in the psychic process has distinctive characteristics: and this make it differ from the concept of constructivism applied in other fields. The fact of considering the psychism as a "construction" lets explain those mental productions such as art and science; as well as madness and crime: possibilities and risks of that construction.

  10. Characteristics of in vivo radiotherapy dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Edwards, C R; Mountford, P J

    2009-11-01

    The recent discussion and debate about the use of in vivo dosimetry as a routine component of the radiotherapy treatment process has not included the limitations introduced by the physical characteristics of the detectors. Although a robust calibration procedure will ensure acceptable uncertainties in the measurements of tumour dose, further work is required to confirm the accuracy of critical organ measurements with a diode or a thermoluminescent dosemeter outside the main field owing to limitations caused by a non-uniform X-ray energy response of the detector, differences between the X-ray energy spectrum inside and outside the main field, and contaminating electrons.

  11. BOREAS TE-21 SSA Site Characteristics Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knox, Robert; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Papagno, Andrea (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmospheric Study (BOREAS) TE-20 (Terrestrial Ecology) team collected several data sets for use in developing and testing models of forest ecosystem dynamics. This data set contains measurements of site characteristics conducted in the Southern Study Area (SSA) from 18 Jul 1994 to 30 Jul 1994. The data are stored in CSV files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  12. SONOS Nonvolatile Memory Cell Programming Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacLeod, Todd C.; Phillips, Thomas A.; Ho, Fat D.

    2010-01-01

    Silicon-oxide-nitride-oxide-silicon (SONOS) nonvolatile memory is gaining favor over conventional EEPROM FLASH memory technology. This paper characterizes the SONOS write operation using a nonquasi-static MOSFET model. This includes floating gate charge and voltage characteristics as well as tunneling current, voltage threshold and drain current characterization. The characterization of the SONOS memory cell predicted by the model closely agrees with experimental data obtained from actual SONOS memory cells. The tunnel current, drain current, threshold voltage and read drain current all closely agreed with empirical data.

  13. Distribution characteristics of stock market liquidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Jiawen; Chen, Langnan; Liu, Hao

    2013-12-01

    We examine the distribution characteristics of stock market liquidity by employing the generalized additive models for location, scale and shape (GAMLSS) model and three-minute frequency data from Chinese stock markets. We find that the BCPE distribution within the GAMLSS framework fits the distributions of stock market liquidity well with the diagnosis test. We also find that the stock market index exhibits a significant impact on the distributions of stock market liquidity. The stock market liquidity usually exhibits a positive skewness, but a normal distribution at a low level of stock market index and a high-peak and fat-tail shape at a high level of stock market index.

  14. Pituitary gigantism: Causes and clinical characteristics.

    PubMed

    Rostomyan, Liliya; Daly, Adrian F; Beckers, Albert

    2015-12-01

    Acromegaly and pituitary gigantism are very rare conditions resulting from excessive secretion of growth hormone (GH), usually by a pituitary adenoma. Pituitary gigantism occurs when GH excess overlaps with the period of rapid linear growth during childhood and adolescence. Until recently, its etiology and clinical characteristics have been poorly understood. Genetic and genomic causes have been identified in recent years that explain about half of cases of pituitary gigantism. We describe these recent discoveries and focus on some important settings in which gigantism can occur, including familial isolated pituitary adenomas (FIPA) and the newly described X-linked acrogigantism (X-LAG) syndrome.

  15. A heat engine with unique characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Baranescu, G.S.

    1996-12-31

    A heat engine which operates with one heat reservoir is described. The engine transforms the heat input completely into work by using a compressed fluid from a resource of the environment. For this reason the engine is not a perpetual motion machine of the second kind. The characteristics of the engine are analyzed, and the ways for achieving the most economic use of the compressed fluid are described. The principle of operation of the engine shows that the concepts of phenomenological thermodynamics regarding heat and its transformation in other forms of energy are not true.

  16. Polarization Null Characteristics of Simple Targets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    of average polarization characteristics; model 2, Scale A; ka - 5.24; 0 - 0*. 95 50 Illustration of FMCW range bin system. 98 51 Dual polarized radar ...of Dual-Polarized Radar 97 4.2 Measurement of Stokqe Vectors 108 4.3 Polarization Calibration 111 4.4 Other Concerns 113 4.4.1 System 113 4.4.2...Measurements 214 8.12 Historical Development of Radar Polarlmetry 219 LIST OF I LLUWTRATIONS Fir Tite r I Normalized polarization ellipse for right-sense

  17. Evaluating the Characteristics of Social Vulnerability to Wildfire: Demographics, Perceptions, and Parcel Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paveglio, Travis B.; Prato, Tony; Edgeley, Catrin; Nalle, Darek

    2016-09-01

    A large body of research focuses on identifying patterns of human populations most at risk from hazards and the factors that help explain performance of mitigations that can help reduce that risk. One common concept in such studies is social vulnerability—human populations' potential exposure to, sensitivity from and ability to reduce negative impacts from a hazard. While there is growing interest in social vulnerability for wildfire, few studies have critically evaluated the characteristics that scholars often indicate influence social vulnerability to that hazard. This research utilizes surveys, wildfire simulations, and GIS data to test the relationships between select demographic, perceptual and parcel characteristics of property owners against empirically simulated metrics for wildfire exposure or wildfire-related damages and their performance of mitigation actions. Our results from Flathead County, MT, USA, suggest that parcel characteristics such as property value, building value, and the year structures were built explaining a significant amount of the variance in elements of social vulnerability. Demographic characteristics commonly used in social vulnerability analysis did not have significant relationships with measures of wildfire exposure or vulnerability. Part-time or full-time residency, age, perceived property risk, and year of development were among the few significant determinants of residents' performance of fuel reduction mitigations, although the significance of these factors varied across the levels of fuel reduction performed by homeowners. We use these and other results to argue for a renewed focus on the finer-scale characteristics that expose some populations to wildfire risk more than others.

  18. Characteristics of undulatory locomotion in granular media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Zhiwei; Pak, On Shun; Elfring, Gwynn J.

    2016-03-01

    Undulatory locomotion is ubiquitous in nature and observed in different media, from the swimming of flagellated microorganisms in biological fluids, to the slithering of snakes on land, or the locomotion of sandfish lizards in sand. Despite the similarity in the undulating pattern, the swimming characteristics depend on the rheological properties of different media. Analysis of locomotion in granular materials is relatively less developed compared with fluids partially due to a lack of validated force models but recently a resistive force theory in granular media has been proposed and shown useful in studying the locomotion of a sand-swimming lizard. Here we employ the proposed model to investigate the swimming characteristics of a slender filament, of both finite and infinite length, undulating in a granular medium and compare the results with swimming in viscous fluids. In particular, we characterize the effects of drifting and pitching in terms of propulsion speed and efficiency for a finite sinusoidal swimmer. We also find that, similar to Lighthill's results using resistive force theory in viscous fluids, the sawtooth swimmer is the optimal waveform for propulsion speed at a given power consumption in granular media. The results complement our understanding of undulatory locomotion and provide insights into the effective design of locomotive systems in granular media.

  19. Analyzing characteristics of hybrid rice seed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Fang; Ying, Yibin

    2004-03-01

    Incompletely closed glumes, germ on panicle and disease are three characteristics of hybrid rice seed, which are actual reasons of poor seed quality. To find how many and which categories should be classified to meet the demand of produce actually, the effects of various degree of incompletely closed glumes, germ on panicle and disease on ratio of germination in changed storage periods were studied with standard germination rate test. An electronic scanning microscope was used for micro-observation and measurement. Then the possibility of automation inspection was tested with a machine vision system. The measures of increasing quality of hybrid rice seed were discussed in the paper at last. In the light of the periods of treatment and the classification of characteristics, difference steps should be taken. Before storage, Seeds with germ or severe disease should be rejected at first. Then seeds with incompletely closed glumes or spot disease might be stored separately for a shorter time in dried condition and treated with antisepsis before using for some special fields with lower quality demand. The seeds with fine fissure between glumes should be stored in a strictly controlled condition separately and inspected before use, just like other normal and healthy seeds.

  20. Clinicopathological characteristics of invasive gastric Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Dudley, Jonathan; Wieczorek, Tad; Selig, Martin; Cheung, Hoiwan; Shen, Jeanne; Odze, Robert; Deshpande, Vikram; Zukerberg, Lawrence

    2017-03-01

    Helicobacter pylori organisms have been observed deep within the stomach mucosa with an "intracellular" appearance, although the clinicopathological characteristics of such cases remain poorly understood. We analyzed 18 cases of deep mucosal H pylori and associated clinical (sex, age, history of H pylori infection, or proton pump inhibitor [PPI] use, medications, smoking, alcohol use, comorbidities, treatment response) and pathological (presence of lymphoid aggregates, intestinal metaplasia, PPI effect, active and/or chronic inflammation, quantity of invasive versus surface H pylori) characteristics. Electron microscopy was performed on 6 cases with the highest burden of invasive H pylori. Within our sample, 3 of 16 had a history of H pylori infection, 10 of 15 were receiving PPIs at the time of biopsy, and 12 of 13 had a negative posttreatment follow-up. Histology revealed that invasive H pylori were more commonly associated with chronic inflammation, in both the antrum (15/15 chronic, 8/15 acute) and fundus (17/18 chronic, 8/18 acute). Electron microscopy showed organisms within intercellular and luminal spaces, but no intracellular organisms. Deep mucosal H pylori often have an intracellular appearance but are contained within intercellular and luminal spaces and are responsive to standard therapy.

  1. Pulsed plasma thruster ignitor plug ignition characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brady, M. E.; Aston, G.

    1982-01-01

    The operating characteristics of the semiconductor spark gap ignitor plug used to initiate the discharge in a pulsed plasma thruster are investigated. Current and voltage waveform measurements for the ignitor plug alone, and for the plug mounted in the thruster cathode indicate an average dynamic impedance of 0.2 ohms for a wide range of operating conditions, and a trigger circuit energy transfer efficiency to the plug on the order of 25%. Two modes of trigger ignition are found which are related to the rise time of the applied voltage pulse. Analysis of plasma characteristics reveals plug erosion to occur primarily in the semiconductor and anode regions, by mechanisms including plug metal embrittlement, plasma sputtering and vaporization caused by the discharge current pulse. Measurements also indicate a plume velocity on the order of 1580,000 cm/sec which increases with trigger circuit stored energy. The results establish levels of performance for future applications of semiconductor spark gap ignitor plugs in plasma devices.

  2. Physical characteristics of cinnamon oil microcapsule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermanto, R. F.; Khasanah, L. U.; Kawiji; Atmaka, W.; Manuhara, G. J.; Utami, R.

    2016-02-01

    Cinnamon (Cinnamomum burmanii) oil products can be obtained from the bark by steam distillation. Essential oils are susceptible to high temperatures, oxidation, UV light, and humidity. Microencapsulation may change essential oils into powder, protect the sensitive core material and reduce the amount of flavor which lost during storage. In the microencapsulation, one of the important factors is the type of coating agent. The objective of this work was to characterize the cinnamon oil microcapsule. Ratio variations of coating agent maltodextrin and gum arabic were (1:0); (0:1); (1:1); (2:3). Physical characteristics such as water content, solubility, bulk density, surface oil, and microencapsulation efficiency of samples were investigated. Results showed that the ratio variations of the coating agent significantly affected the water content, bulk density, surface oil and microencapsulation efficiency but significantly affected the water solubility. Characteristics of selected microcapsule were 6.13% water content; 96.33% solubility; 0.46 g/cm3 bulk density; 2.68% surface oil; 70.68% microencapsulation efficiency and microstructures were rather good.

  3. Safety characteristics of potential waste transmutation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Van Tuyle, G.J.

    1993-06-01

    For nuclear waste transmutation to alter significantly the need for geologic disposal of spent fuel from US Light-water reactors (LWRs), about 1.4% of the spent fuel (by mass) must be separated and transmuted. This includes the plutonium, the minor actinides, and four fission products: iodine. technetium, cesium and strontium. Regarding the actinides, fissioning of the plutonium, neptunium, americium, and curium generates a great deal of heat, so much so that most of the plutonium should be used to produce power. However, these actinides have some undesirable neutronic characteristics, and their utilization in reactors or subcritical (proton-accelerator) targets requires either a fast neutronic spectrum or a very high thermal-neutron flux. Transmutation of the fission products is generally by neutron capture, although this is difficult in the case of cesium and strontium. In this paper, various proposed means of transmuting the actinides and fission products are discussed, with the main focus being on the safety characteristics of each approach.

  4. Response characteristics of selected personnel neutron dosimeters

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, J.C.; Fix, J.J.; Hadley, R.T.; Holbrook, K.L.; Yoder, R.C.; Roberson, P.L.; Endres, G.W.R.; Nichols, L.L.; Schwartz, R.B.

    1983-09-01

    Performance characteristics of selected personnel neutron dosimeters in current use at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities were determined from their evaluation of neutron dose equivalent received after irradiations with specific neutron sources at either the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) or the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The characteristics assessed included: lower detection level, energy response, precision and accuracy. It was found that when all of the laboratories employed a common set of calibrations, the overall accuracy was approximately +-20%, which is within uncertainty expected for these dosimeters. For doses above 80 mrem, the accuracy improved to better than 10% when a common calibration was used. Individual differences found in this study may reflect differences in calibration technique rather than differences in the dose rates of actual calibration standards. Second, at dose rates above 100 mrem, the precision for the best participants was generally below +-10% which is also within expected limits for these types of dosimeters. The poorest results had a standard deviation of about +-25%. At the lowest doses, which were sometimes below the lower detection limit, the precision often approached or exceeded +-100%. Third, the lower level of detection for free field /sup 252/Cf neutrons generally ranged between 20 and 50 mrem. Fourth, the energy dependence study provided a characterization of the response of the dosimeters to neutron energies far from the calibration energy. 11 references, 22 figures, 26 tables.

  5. Arbitrarily high order nodal and characteristic methods

    SciTech Connect

    Azmy, Y.Y.

    1994-09-01

    The quest for higher computational efficiency initially led researchers in the neutron transport area to develop and implement high-order approximations for solving the linear Boltzmann equational. This drive aimed at achieving higher accuracy on coarse meshes, thereby resulting in a net savings of computational resources represented by execution time and memory. Many endeavors succeeded in reaching this goal, producing a variety of elegent, albeit complicated, formalisms, that proved extremely accurate and efficient in solving test, as well as practical applications, problems. The two main classes of high order transport methods that recieved the most attention are the Nodal and Characteristic methods. A de facto linear order standard for the spatial approximation (even though Quadratic Nodal Methods were also considered) was dictated by the algebraic complexity of the derivation of the discrete variable equations, the programming complexity of implementing and verifying them in codes, and limitations on computational resources available to run such codes. The significant advances in computational resources in terms of hardware capacity and speed, as well as architectural innovations such as vector and parallel processing, all but eliminated the third (above) obstacle towards the development and implementation of even higher order methods. The algebraic and programming complexities, on the other hand, were alleviated to some extent by the development of Arbitrarily High Order Transport methods of the Nodal and the Characteristic types, which are discussed in this report.

  6. Dosimetric characteristics of the Elekta Beam Modulator.

    PubMed

    Patel, I; Glendinning, A G; Kirby, M C

    2005-12-07

    The dosimetric characteristics of a production pilot multi-leaf collimator (Elekta Beam Modulator, Elekta Oncology Systems, Crawley, UK) having a 4 mm leaf width (at isocentre) have been investigated. Characteristics explored included leaf bank set-up, penumbra width (80-20%) as a function of leaf position, leaf positioning reproducibility, interleaf leakage and leaf transmission. The penumbra values for leaf ends were measured to be between 4.2 and 4.8 mm for various large rectangular fields studied using Kodak X-omat V film at isocentre (1.5 cm deep). Similar films were taken with a standard 1 cm width multi-leaf collimator (MLC) and the penumbra for leaf ends was found to range from 4.3 to 5.2 mm. Other results showed that the rounded leaf tip provided tight control of the penumbra across the leaves' full range of travel. The positioning of the leaves was within a 0.5 mm range when approaching from the same direction. The maximum interleaf leakage was found to be 1.7% and the average leaf transmission less than 1.0%. No major differences were observed in leakage and transmission with changing gantry angle.

  7. Demographic Characteristics of World Class Jamaican Sprinters

    PubMed Central

    Irving, Rachael; Charlton, Vilma; Morrison, Errol; Facey, Aldeam; Buchanan, Oral

    2013-01-01

    The dominance of Jamaican sprinters in international meets remains largely unexplained. Proposed explanations include demographics and favorable physiological characteristics. The aim of this study was to analyze the demographic characteristics of world class Jamaican sprinters. Questionnaires administered to 120 members of the Jamaican national team and 125 controls elicited information on place of birth, language, ethnicity, and distance and method of travel to school. Athletes were divided into three groups based on athletic disciplines: sprint (s: 100–400 m; n = 80), jump and throw (j/t: jump and throw; n = 25) and, middle distance (md: 800–3000 m; n = 15). Frequency differences between groups were assessed using chi-square tests. Regional or county distribution of sprint differed from that of middle distance (P < 0.001) but not from that of jump and throw athletes (P = 0.24) and that of controls (P = 0.59). Sprint athletes predominately originated from the Surrey county (s = 46%, j/t = 37%, md = 17, C = 53%), whilst middle distance athletes exhibited excess from the Middlesex county (md = 60%). The language distribution of all groups showed uniformity with a predominance of English. A higher proportion of middle distance and jump and throw athletes walked to school (md = 80%, j/t = 52%, s = 10%, and C = 12%) and travelled greater distances to school. In conclusion, Jamaica's success in sprinting may be related to environmental and social factors. PMID:24396303

  8. Dispersion and surface characteristics of nanosilica suspensions.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ranganathan; Milanova, Denitsa

    2009-04-01

    Nanofluids consisting of nanometer-sized particles dispersed in base liquids are known to be effective in extending the saturated boiling regime and critical heat flux in pool boiling. The heat transfer characteristics of nanosilica suspensions with particle sizes of 10 and 20 nm in pool boiling with a suspended heating Nichrome wire have been analyzed. The pH value of the nanosuspensions is important from the point of view that it determines the stability of the particles and their mutual interactions toward the suspended heated wire. When silica is suspended in water with no additives, the surface potential of the nanoparticles determines their movement toward the electrodes. Particles continuously deposit on the wire and extend the burnout heat flux, influenced by the chemical composition of the nanofluids. This agglomeration allows high heat transfer through interagglomerate pores, resulting in a nearly threefold increase in burnout heat flux. Particle size, zeta potential, and the burnout heat flux values under different volume concentrations are provided. The burnout heat flux of the wire does not increase monotonically with concentration, but depends on the agglomeration characteristics, particle shape, and the hydroxylated surface of the nanoparticles.

  9. Emission Characteristics of CNT-Based Cathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocharov, G. S.; Eletskii, A. V.; Pal, A. F.; Pernbaum, A. G.; Pichugin, V. V.

    2004-09-01

    There have been measured the current-voltage characteristics (CVC) of electron field emission cathodes fabricated on the basis of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT). SWNT's of 1.2 - 1.5 nm in diameter were produced by the standard arc discharge method using Ni-Cr alloy foil as a catalyst. At relatively high electrical field strength the CVC are well agreed with the known Fowler-Nordheim dependence (FND). A notable deviation of those from FND at low fields has been observed. This deviation is due presumably to a spread in geometry of SWNT, which promotes even a larger spread in their emission properties owing to the electrical field amplification phenomenon. A model approach to description of the electron field emission characteristics of a CNT-based cathode with taking into account a spread in the geometry of individual nanotubes has been developed. Supposing a normal distribution in the electrical field amplification factor γ of individual CNT's, the generalized expression for CVC of a CNT-based cathode has been derived. This expression transforms to the FND in the limiting case of zero dispersion of the amplification factor. Close agreement of measured CVC and calculated through the generalized expression is reached at Δγ/γ = 0.304.

  10. Some characteristics of the international space channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noack, T. L.; Poland, W. B., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Some physical characteristics of radio transmission links and the technology of PCM modulation combine with the Radio Regulations of the International Telecommunications Union to define a communications channel having a determinable channel capacity, error rate, and sensitivity to interference. These characteristics and the corresponding limitations on EIRP, power flux density, and power spectral density for space service applications are described. The ITU regulations create a critical height of 1027 km where some parameters of the limitation rules change. The nature of restraints on power spectral density are discussed and an approach to a standardized representation of Necessary Bandwidth for the Space Services is described. It is shown that, given the PFD (power flux density) and PSD (power spectral density) limitations of radio regulations, the channel performance is determined by the ratio of effective receiving antenna aperture to system noise temperature. Based on this approach, the method for a quantitative trade-off between spectrum spreading and system performance is presented. Finally, the effects of radio frequency interference between standard systems is analyzed.

  11. Eccentric Exercise: Physiological Characteristics and Acute Responses.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Jamie; Pearson, Simon; Ross, Angus; McGuigan, Mike

    2017-04-01

    An eccentric contraction involves the active lengthening of muscle under an external load. The molecular and neural mechanisms underpinning eccentric contractions differ from those of concentric and isometric contractions and remain less understood. A number of molecular theories have been put forth to explain the unexplained observations during eccentric contractions that deviate from the predictions of the established theories of muscle contraction. Postulated mechanisms include a strain-induced modulation of actin-myosin interactions at the level of the cross-bridge, the activation of the structural protein titin, and the winding of titin on actin. Accordingly, neural strategies controlling eccentric contractions also differ with a greater, and possibly distinct, cortical activation observed despite an apparently lower activation at the level of the motor unit. The characteristics of eccentric contractions are associated with several acute physiological responses to eccentrically-emphasised exercise. Differences in neuromuscular, metabolic, hormonal and anabolic signalling responses during, and following, an eccentric exercise bout have frequently been observed in comparison to concentric exercise. Subsequently, the high levels of muscular strain with such exercise can induce muscle damage which is rarely observed with other contraction types. The net result of these eccentric contraction characteristics and responses appears to be a novel adaptive signal within the neuromuscular system.

  12. Mycobacterium bovis: characteristics of wildlife reservoir hosts.

    PubMed

    Palmer, M V

    2013-11-01

    Mycobacterium bovis is the cause of tuberculosis in animals and sometimes humans. Many developed nations have long-standing programmes to eradicate tuberculosis in livestock, principally cattle. As disease prevalence in cattle decreases these efforts are sometimes impeded by passage of M. bovis from wildlife to cattle. In epidemiological terms, disease can persist in some wildlife species, creating disease reservoirs, if the basic reproduction rate (R0) and critical community size (CCS) thresholds are achieved. Recognized wildlife reservoir hosts of M. bovis include the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) in New Zealand, European badger (Meles meles) in Great Britain and Ireland, African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in South Africa, wild boar (Sus scrofa) in the Iberian Peninsula and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Michigan, USA. The epidemiological concepts of R0 and CCS are related to more tangible disease/pathogen characteristics such as prevalence, pathogen-induced pathology, host behaviour and ecology. An understanding of both epidemiological and disease/pathogen characteristics is necessary to identify wildlife reservoirs of M. bovis. In some cases, there is a single wildlife reservoir host involved in transmission of M. bovis to cattle. Complexity increases, however, in multihost systems where multiple potential reservoir hosts exist. Bovine tuberculosis eradication efforts require elimination of M. bovis transmission between wildlife reservoirs and cattle. For successful eradication identification of true wildlife reservoirs is critical, as disease control efforts are most effective when directed towards true reservoirs.

  13. Analysis of the characteristics of competitive badminton

    PubMed Central

    Cabello, M; Gonzalez-Badillo, J

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To describe the characteristics of badminton in order to determine the energy requirements, temporal structure, and movements in the game that indicate performance level. To use the findings to plan training with greater precision. Methods: Eleven badminton players (mean (SD) age 21.8 (3.26) years) with international experience from four different countries (France, Italy, Spain, and Portugal) were studied. Two of the Spanish players were monitored in several matches, giving a total of 14 samples, all during the 1999 Spanish International Tournament. Blood lactate concentration was measured with a reflective photometer. Maximum and average heart rates were recorded with a heart rate monitor. Temporal structure and actions during the matches were determined from video recordings. All variables were measured during and after the game and later analysed using a descriptive study. Results: The results confirmed the high demands of the sport, with a maximum heart rate of 190.5 beats/min and an average of 173.5 beats/min during matches over 28 minutes long and performance intervals of 6.4 seconds and rest time of 12.9 seconds between exchanges. Conclusions: The results suggest that badminton is characterised by repetitive efforts of alactic nature and great intensity which are continuously performed throughout the match. An awareness of these characteristics, together with data on the correlations between certain actions such as unforced errors and winning shots and the final result of the match, will aid in more appropriate planning and monitoring of specific training. PMID:12547746

  14. [Clinical characteristics and prognosis of mediastinal fibrosis].

    PubMed

    Liao, J P; Hu, Y; Qiu, J X; Jin, Z; Zhang, H; Ma, J; Wang, G F

    2017-03-12

    Objective: To investigate the clinical characteristics and prognosis of mediastinal fibrosis. Methods: Twelve patients with mediastinal fibrosis diagnosed between 2008 and 2015 in our hospital were studied retrospectively. Clinical manifestations, radiological characteristics, endoscopic features, treatment and prognosis were analyzed. Results: There were 3 males and 9 females, with a mean age of 68.8 years.Six patients had previous tuberculosis infection. The most common clinical symptoms were dyspnea on exertion (11 cases), cough (7 cases), and wheezing (6 cases). Chest CT scans revealed an infiltrative mediastinal process, with a discrete mass, enlargement of mediastinal lymph nodes, mediastinal lymph node calcification (9 case). Twelve patients had bronchial and pulmonary artery compression at lobar or segmental levels, 7 cases had localized pulmonary edema, and 6 cases had pulmonary atelectasis. The principal findings of bronchoscopy were distortion of bronchus with stenosis, multiple pigmentation of bronchial mucosa, and bronchial mucosal edema. Pulmonary hypertension (PH) was the main severe complication. One patients suffered from sudden death after bronchoscopy. Eleven patients were followed for 3 month to 7 years, and 5 patients got progression. Anti-tuberculosis therapy with or without corticosteroid was not beneficial. Conclusion: Tuberculosis was the leading cause of mediastinal fibrosis in our study, which was characterized with diffuse bronchial and pulmonary artery compression at lobar or segmental levels, and multiple pigmentation of bronchial mucosa.Anti-tuberculosis therapy with or without corticosteroids was not beneficial.

  15. Breakdown characteristics of xenon HID Lamps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babaeva, Natalia; Sato, Ayumu; Brates, Nanu; Noro, Koji; Kushner, Mark

    2009-10-01

    The breakdown characteristics of mercury free xenon high intensity discharge (HID) lamps exhibit a large statistical time lag often having a large scatter in breakdown voltages. In this paper, we report on results from a computational investigation of the processes which determine the ignition voltages for positive and negative pulses in commercial HID lamps having fill pressures of up to 20 atm. Steep voltage rise results in higher avalanche electron densities and earlier breakdown times. Circuit characteristics also play a role. Large ballast resistors may limit current to the degree that breakdown is quenched. The breakdown voltage critically depends on cathode charge injection by electric field emission (or other mechanisms) which in large part controls the statistical time lag for breakdown. For symmetric lamps, ionization waves (IWs) simultaneously develop from the bottom and top electrodes. Breakdown typically occurs when the top and bottom IWs converge. Condensed salt layers having small conductivities on the inner walls of HID lamps and on the electrodes can influence the ignition behavior. With these layers, IWs tend to propagate along the inner wall and exhibit a different structure depending on the polarity.

  16. Blood flow characteristics in the aortic arch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prahl Wittberg, Lisa; van Wyk, Stevin; Mihaiescu, Mihai; Fuchs, Laszlo; Gutmark, Ephraim; Backeljauw, Philippe; Gutmark-Little, Iris

    2012-11-01

    The purpose with this study is to investigate the flow characteristics of blood in the aortic arch. Cardiovascular diseases are associated with specific locations in the arterial tree. Considering atherogenesis, it is claimed that the Wall Shear Stress (WSS) along with its temporal and spatial gradients play an important role in the development of the disease. The WSS is determined by the local flow characteristics, that in turn depends on the geometry as well as the rheological properties of blood. In this numerical work, the time dependent fluid flow during the entire cardiac cycle is fully resolved. The Quemada model is applied to account for the non-Newtonian properties of blood, an empirical model valid for different Red Blood Cell loading. Data obtained through Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging have been used in order to reconstruct geometries of the the aortic arch. Here, three different geometries are studied out of which two display malformations that can be found in patients having the genetic disorder Turner's syndrome. The simulations show a highly complex flow with regions of secondary flow that is enhanced for the diseased aortas. The financial support from the Swedish Research Council (VR) and the Sweden-America Foundation is gratefully acknowledged.

  17. Addiction treatment dropout: exploring patients' characteristics.

    PubMed

    López-Goñi, José J; Fernández-Montalvo, Javier; Arteaga, Alfonso

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the characteristics associated with treatment dropout in substance dependence patients. A sample of 122 addicted patients (84 treatment completers and 38 treatment dropouts) who sought outpatient treatment was assessed to collect information on sociodemographic, consumption (assessed by EuropASI), psychopathological (assessed by SCL-90-R), and personality variables (assessed by MCMI-II). Completers and dropouts were compared on all studied variables. According to the results, dropouts scored significantly higher on the EuropASI variables measuring employment/support, alcohol consumption, and family/social problems, as well as on the schizotypal scale of MCMI-II. Because most of the significant differences were found in EuropASI variables, three clusters analyses (2, 3, and 4 groups) based on EuropASI mean scores were carried out to determine clinically relevant information predicting dropout. The most relevant results were obtained when four groups were used. Comparisons between the four groups derived from cluster analysis showed statistically significant differences in the rate of dropout, with one group exhibiting the highest dropout rate. The distinctive characteristics of the group with highest dropout rate included the presence of an increased labor problem combined with high alcohol consumption. Furthermore, this group had the highest scores on three scales of the MCMI-II: phobic, dependent, and schizotypal. The implications of these results for further research and clinical practice are discussed. 

  18. MOMBE growth characteristics of antimonide compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asahi, H.; Kaneko, T.; Okuno, Y.; Itani, Y.; Asami, K.; Gonda, S.

    1992-05-01

    The growth characteristics of antimonide compounds grown by metal organic molecular beam epitaxy (MOMBE) and using trimethylindium, triethylgallium (TEGa), and triisobutylaluminum (TIBAl) as group III sources and As4, Sb4, triethylarsine (TEAs), and triethylstibine (TESb) as group V sources were obtained by measuring growth rates and composition variations obtained with different growth conditions. It was found that the use of Sb instead of As produced a substantial change in the MOMBE growth characteristics for the growth of GaSb and GaAs, in spite of using the same TEGa. The use of TEAs and TESb instead of As4 and Sb4, respectively, was found to change the growth rate variation of both the GaAs and GaSb with T(sub). In the growth of AlGaSb using TIBAl, TEGa, and Sb4, the incorporation rate of Al was suppressed by the coexistence of TEGa on the growth surface in the low substrate temperature region, while that of Ga was hardly influenced by the TIBAl.

  19. Sleep characteristics in the turkey Meleagris gallopavo.

    PubMed

    Ayala-Guerrero, Fructuoso; Mexicano, G; Ramos, J I

    2003-03-01

    Electrophysiological and behavioral characteristics of the states of vigilance were analyzed in chronically implanted specimens of the turkey Meleagris gallopavo (M. gallopavo). Five different states of vigilance were observed throughout the nyctohemeral period: active wakefulness (AW), quiet wakefulness (QW), drowsiness (D), slow wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. These states exhibit characteristics similar to those described in other bird species. Sleep periods displayed a polyphasic distribution; however, they showed the tendency to concentrate between 2100 and 0900 h in spite of the fact that the recordings were carried out under constant illumination. Sleep period occupied 45.71% of the nyctohemeral cycle, 43.33% corresponded to SWS, while 2.38% to REM sleep. The average duration of the REM sleep phase was very short, lasting 7.7+/-0.55 s (mean+/-S.D.). In contrast, its frequency was very high with an average recurrence of 268+/-63 phases throughout the nyctohemeral cycle. The short duration of REM sleep phase presented by the turkey as by other bird species studied up to now may be dependent upon genetic factors shared by this group of vertebrates.

  20. Characteristics of Surface Sterilization using ECR Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonesu, Akira; Hara, Kazufumi; Nishikawa, Tatsuya; Hayashi, Nobuya

    2015-09-01

    Plasma sterilization techniques have superior characteristics such as a short treatment times, non-toxicity and low thermal damages on the sterilized materials. In plasma sterilization, microorganisms can be sterilized by active radicals, energetic charged particles, and vacuum UV radiation. The influence of each factor depends on the plasma operating parameters. Microwave discharges under the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) condition produce higher electron temperature and density plasma as compared with other plasma generation techniques. In the present study, characteristics of surface sterilization using ECR plasma have been investigated.The experiment was performed in the vacuum chamber which contains a magnet holder. A pair of rectangular Sm-Co permanent magnets is aligned parallel to each other within the magnet holder. The region of the magnetic field for ECR exists near the magnet holder surface. When the microwave is introduced into the vacuum chamber, a ECR plasma is produced around surface of the magnet holder. High energy electrons and oxygen radicals were observed at ECR zone by electric probe method and optical spectroscopic method. Biological indicators (B.I.) having spore of 106 was sterilized in 2min for oxygen discharge. The temperature of the B.I. installation position was about 55°. The sterilization was achieved by the effect of oxygen radicals and high energy electrons.

  1. Biological characteristics of mouse skin melanocytes.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zhanquan; Ji, Kaiyuan; Yang, Shanshan; Zhang, Junzhen; Yao, Jianbo; Dong, Changsheng; Fan, Ruiwen

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the optimal passage number according to the biological characteristics of mouse skin melanocytes from different passages. Skin punch biopsies harvested from the dorsal region of 2-day old mice were used to establish melanocyte cultures. The cells from passage 4, 7, 10 and 13 were collected and evaluated for their melanogenic activity. Histochemical staining for tyrosinase (TYR) activity and immunostaining for the melanocyte specific markers including S-100 antigen, TYR, tyrosinase related protein 1 (TYRP1), tyrosinase related protein 2 (TYRP2) and micropthalmia associated transcription factor (MITF) confirmed purity and melanogenic capacity of melanocytes from different passages, with better melanogenic activity of passage 10 and 13 cells being observed. Treatment of passage 13 melanocytes with α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) showed increased expression of MITF, TYR and TYRP2 mRNA. However, considering the TYR mRNA dramatically high expression which is the characteristics of melanoma cells, melanocytes from passage 10 was the optimal passage number for the further research. Our results demonstrate culture of pure populations of mouse melanocytes to at least 10 passages and illustrate the potential utility of passage 10 cells for studies of intrinsic and extrinsic regulation of genes controlling pigmentation and coat color in mouse.

  2. Tessera terrain: Characteristics and models of origin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bindschadler, D. L.; Head, James W.

    1989-01-01

    Tessera terrain consists of complexly deformed regions characterized by sets of ridges and valleys that intersect at angles ranging from orthogonal to oblique, and were first viewed in Venera 15/16 SAR data. Tesserae cover more area (approx. 15 percent of the area north of 30 deg N) than any of the other tectonic units mapped from the Venera data and are strongly concentrated in the region between longitudes 0 deg E and 150 deg E. Tessera terrain is concentrated between a proposed center of crustal extension and divergence in Aphrodite and a region of intense deformation, crustal convergence, and orogenesis in western Ishtar Terra. Thus, the tectonic processes responsible for tesserae are an important part of Venus tectonics. As part of an effort to understand the formation and evolution of this unusual terrain type, the basic characteristics of the tesserae were compared to the predictions made by a number of tectonic models. The basic characteristics of tessera terrain are described and the models and some of their basic predictions are briefly discussed.

  3. Synthesis and characteristics of poly/bisdichloromaleimides/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varma, I. K.; Fohlen, G. M.; Parker, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    The characteristics of six bisdichloromaleimides with different aromatic structures are investigated. The compounds are prepared by reacting 2,3-dichloromaleic anhydride with 1,5-diaminonaphthaline; bis (m-aminophenyl)methylphosphine oxide; 2,5-bis (p-aminophenyl) 1,3,4-oxadiazole; 3,3-bis (p-aminophenyl)phthalide; 9,9-bis (p-aminophenyl) fluorene; 10,10-bis (p-aminophenyl)anthrone. Dynamic thermogravity is used to determine the effect of structural differences on the thermal characteristics of these compounds. These compounds are polymerized by nucleophilic displacement of chlorine with 9,9-bis (p-aminophenyl)fluorene. The polymers are then characterized by IR spectroscopy and reduced viscosity measurements. The anaerobic char yields of these polymers at 800 C are found to range from 55-60%. A complete loss of weight is observed between 600-650 C in the presence of air. In addition, the thermal cross-linking of these polymers is investigated.

  4. Characteristics and Prediction of RNA Structure

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Daming; Zhang, Caiming; Han, Huijian; Crandall, Keith A.

    2014-01-01

    RNA secondary structures with pseudoknots are often predicted by minimizing free energy, which is NP-hard. Most RNAs fold during transcription from DNA into RNA through a hierarchical pathway wherein secondary structures form prior to tertiary structures. Real RNA secondary structures often have local instead of global optimization because of kinetic reasons. The performance of RNA structure prediction may be improved by considering dynamic and hierarchical folding mechanisms. This study is a novel report on RNA folding that accords with the golden mean characteristic based on the statistical analysis of the real RNA secondary structures of all 480 sequences from RNA STRAND, which are validated by NMR or X-ray. The length ratios of domains in these sequences are approximately 0.382L, 0.5L, 0.618L, and L, where L is the sequence length. These points are just the important golden sections of sequence. With this characteristic, an algorithm is designed to predict RNA hierarchical structures and simulate RNA folding by dynamically folding RNA structures according to the above golden section points. The sensitivity and number of predicted pseudoknots of our algorithm are better than those of the Mfold, HotKnots, McQfold, ProbKnot, and Lhw-Zhu algorithms. Experimental results reflect the folding rules of RNA from a new angle that is close to natural folding. PMID:25110687

  5. Mass-balance characteristics of arctic glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braithwaite, Roger J.

    A survey of available mass-balance data shows that glaciers on arctic islands, i.e. mountain glaciers and ice caps in northern Canada, Greenland, Svalbard and the Eurasian islands, share mass-balance characteristics of low annual amplitude and small interannual variability. By contrast, glaciers around the Arctic (e.g. in Alaska, Iceland, mainland Scandinavia and northern Eurasia) can have exceptionally large annual amplitude and interannual variability but otherwise share characteristics with glaciers in lower latitudes. The arctic island glaciers occur in areas with low annual precipitation and high annual temperature variability, i.e. in dry-cold or continental regions. Most glaciers surrounding the Arctic (Alaska, Iceland and Scandinavia) occur in areas with high annual precipitation and low annual temperature variability, i.e. in wet-warm or maritime regions. Earlier mass-balance modelling showed that arctic island glaciers have low sensitivity to temperature changes consistent with their low mass-balance amplitude. However, very large changes in mass balance could occur on arctic island glaciers if the sea ice surrounding the arctic islands were reduced so that the climate of the arctic islands becomes more maritime.

  6. Characteristics of sexual behavior in Spanish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Teva, Inmaculada; Paz Bermúdez, Ma; Buela-Casal, Gualberto

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this study is to describe some characteristics of the sexual behavior of adolescents in Spain and to compare these characteristics according to gender, using a cross-sectional survey. Participants were 1.279 male and female adolescents who reported having had sexual intercourse. A questionnaire about sexual behavior was applied at their high schools and during school hours. Data were collected between 2006 and 2007. Mean age at the onset of sexual intercourse was 14.8 years in males and 15.0 years in females. Males and females were different according to the type of partner at the last sexual intercourse: 63.0% of males had a steady partner compared to 90.5% of females (p < 0.01). The mean number of sexual partners during the last 12 months was higher in males than in females (M = 2.1 and M = 1.5 partners, for males and females, respectively, p < 0.01). 50.0% of males had sexual intercourse under the effects of drugs versus 39.3% of females (p < 0.01). STD and HIV prevention programs should be designed considering the differences according to adolescents' sex.

  7. Noise characteristics research of Overhauser magnetometer sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tala; Gu, Lingjia; Zhang, Shuang; Fu, Haoyang

    2015-09-01

    Overhauser magnetometer, a kind of weak-magnetic measurement system based on the Overhauser effect, has been widely used in satellite magnetic survey, aeromagnetic survey and other engineering and environmental applications. Overhauser magnetometer plays an important role in the application of magnetic field measurement for its advantages of low power consumption and high accuracy. Weak field magnetic resonance is usually limited by the signal to noise ratio (SNR). In order to improve the SNR of Overhauser magnetometer, noise characteristics of Overhauser magnetometer sensor are investigated in this paper. A background noise model of Overhauser magnetometer sensor is presented. The calculated results indicate that the noise power spectral density shows a band-limited white noise characteristic. The maximum value of the noise power spectral density observed at the resonant frequency. The measured results coincide with the calculated results. The correlation between the SNR and the matched resistance is investigated by using the noise model. The calculated results demonstrate that large matched resistance is beneficial to improve the SNR of the sensor. When matched resistance is larger than 100kΩ, the SNR tends to be a constant. On the premise of stability, the sensor will achieve the optimal SNR when the matched resistance is around 100kΩ. This investigation is beneficial to improve noise performance of Overhauser magnetometer sensor.

  8. Development of improved pyroelectric detectors. Measurements of pyroelectric material characteristics and FET characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiner, S.; Beerman, H. P.; Schwarz, F. C.

    1990-01-01

    Research was undertaken to improve the detectivity of the pyroelectric detector with the ultimate goal of operation at or near the temperature-noise limit. Two general areas of investigation were undertaken: (1) to improve responsivity through the use of new materials; and (2) to reduce noise through improved field effect transistor characteristics, and improved electroding of the pyroelectric material. FET's are being obtained from various manufacturers, evaulated, and selected units tested for evaluation of characteristics critical to their use as preamplifiers with pyroelectric detectors.

  9. Internal performance characteristics of short convergent-divergent exhaust nozzles designed by the method of characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krull, H George; Beale, William T

    1956-01-01

    Internal performance data on a short exhaust nozzle designed by the method of characteristics were obtained over a range of pressure ratios from 1.5 to 22. The peak thrust coefficient was not affected by a shortened divergent section, but it occurred at lower pressure ratios due to reduction in expansion ratio. This nozzle contour based on characteristics solution gave higher thrust coefficients than a conical convergent-divergent nozzle of equivalent length. Abrupt-inlet sections permitted a reduction in nozzle length without a thrust-coefficient reduction.

  10. Spatiotemporal characteristics of flood protection level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanoue, M.; Ikeuchi, H.; Hirabayashi, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Flooding is the most frequent natural hazard and its global impacts will be rising associated with climate change and socioeconomic growth. So, the understanding of the physical and spatial-temporal patterns of risk drivers (exposure, damage, and flood protection level) are required to conduct effective adaptation and reduce the negative impacts of flooding. Although the understanding of exposure and damage has greatly improved using a combination of numerical model simulation and spatiotemporal distributions of population and asset, that of flood protection level is still lacking in particular spatial patterns. Previous research clarifies its temporal variation and relationship with per-capita income, however they do not consider its spatial variation. Flood protection level was associated with geographical characteristics (e.g., soil type and tectonic zone etc). This study tried to estimate spatiotemporal of flood protection level at country level and discuss about relationship between its spatial patterns and geographical characteristics. Mortality rate (percentage of fatalities in modeled exposed population) and loss rate (percentage of losses in modeled exposed GDP) to fluvial river flooding across the world suggested by Jongmann et al. (2015) were estimated from modeled flood exposure and damage statistics taken from the International Emergency Disasters Database. The result indicated that mortality rate reduced across the world from 1990 to 2005. The degree of its reduction decreased with increasing per-capita income level. On the other hand, loss rate at high income and middle low income levels reduced, while that at middle high income and low income levels drastically increased between 1995 and 2000 due to growth economic and occurrence of serious fluvial river flooding. Spatial distribution of mortality and loss rates were high in East Asia, the western part of South America, and the eastern part of Europe. These regions seem to be corresponded to the

  11. Physical Characteristics Underpinning Repetitive Lunging in Fencing.

    PubMed

    Turner, Anthony N; Marshall, Geoff; Phillips, James; Noto, Angelo; Buttigieg, Conor; Chavda, Shyam; Downing, William; Atlay, Nathan; Dimitriou, Lygeri; Kilduff, Laim

    2016-11-01

    Turner, AN, Marshall, G, Phillips, J, Noto, A, Buttigieg, C, Chavda, S, Downing, W, Atlay, N, Dimitriou, L, and Kilduff, L. Physical characteristics underpinning repetitive lunging in fencing. J Strength Cond Res 30(11): 3134-3139, 2016-Given the repetitive demand to execute lunging and changes in direction within fencing, the ability to sustain these at maximal capacity is fundamental to performance. The aim of this study was threefold. First, to provide normative values for this variable referred to as repeat lunge ability (RLA) and second to identify the physical characteristics that underpin it. Third, was to establish if a cause and effect relationship existed by training the associated characteristics. Assessment of lower-body power, reactive strength, speed, change of direction speed (CODS), and a sport-specific RLA were conducted on senior and junior elite male fencers (n = 36). Fencers were on average (±SD) 18.9 ± 3.2 years of age, 174.35 ± 10.42 cm tall, 70.67 ± 7.35 kg in mass, and 8.5 ± 4.2 years fencing experience. The RLA test had average work times of 16.03 ± 1.40 seconds and demonstrated "large" to "very large" associations with all tested variables, but in particular CODS (r = 0.70) and standing broad jump (SBJ; r = -0.68). Through linear regression analysis, these also provided a 2-predictor model accounting for 61% of the common variance associated with RLA. A cause and effect relationship with SBJ and CODS was confirmed by the training group, where RLA performance in these fencers improved from 15.80 ± 1.07 to 14.90 ± 0.86 seconds, with the magnitude of change reported as "moderate" (effect size (ES) = 0.93). Concurrent improvements were also noted in both SBJ (216.86 ± 17.15 vs. 221.71 ± 17.59 cm) and CODS (4.44 ± 0.29 vs. 4.31 ± 0.09 seconds) and while differences were only significant in SBJ, magnitudes of change were classed as "small" (ES = 0.28) and "moderate" (ES = 0.61), respectively. In conclusion, to improve RLA strength

  12. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Characteristics, Prevention, Treatment and Long Term Outlook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seward, Cynthia A.; Barber, William H.

    1991-01-01

    This article discusses fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) including causes, common characteristics, secondary characteristics, prevention, and treatment. Economic implications are noted which suggest that treatment costs are 100 times the cost of prevention programs. (DB)

  13. Personality Characteristics of Teachers Serving in Washington State Correctional Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsgaard, John O.; Kelso, Charles E. Jr.; Schumacher, Thomas W.

    1998-01-01

    Personality inventory scoring of 90 correctional educators working in Washington penal institutions yielded 27 factors describing personality characteristics. It was determined that 15 of these factors are valuable in describing the characteristics of those working in successful programs. (JOW)

  14. 7 CFR 51.2650 - Similar varietal characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades for Sweet Cherries 1 Definitions § 51.2650 Similar varietal characteristics. Similar varietal characteristics means that the cherries in any container are similar in...

  15. Fluorescence induction characteristics of iron deficient cyanobacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, R.; Guikema, J.A.

    1986-04-01

    The fluorescence induction characteristics of Anacystis nidulans were examined after cultures were stressed with iron deficiency. When these cells were illuminated with 620 nm light to excite phycocyanin, a fluorescence induction transient was observed which was not present in normal cells. The transient had a rise time of approximately 3-4 sec, and was abolished when cells were preilluminated with 620 nm light. One goal of this work was to ascertain the role of electron transfer between PSII and either PSI or the respiratory system in causing the fluorescence transient. The effects of electron transport inhibitors and uncouplers on fluorescence induction were examined. Respiratory inhibitors, such as KCN, had little or no effect on the fluorescence transient. p-Chloromercuribenzoic acid, at concentrations below 0.5 mM, delayed the transient rise time without causing a decrease in the extent. Uncouplers, such as gramicidin and CCCP, caused a decrease in the extent of the transient.

  16. Transgenic plants with enhanced growth characteristics

    DOEpatents

    Unkefer, Pat J.; Anderson, Penelope S.; Knight, Thomas J.

    2016-09-06

    The invention relates to transgenic plants exhibiting dramatically enhanced growth rates, greater seed and fruit/pod yields, earlier and more productive flowering, more efficient nitrogen utilization, increased tolerance to high salt conditions, and increased biomass yields. In one embodiment, transgenic plants engineered to over-express both glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase (GPT) and glutamine synthetase (GS) are provided. The GPT+GS double-transgenic plants of the invention consistently exhibit enhanced growth characteristics, with T0 generation lines showing an increase in biomass over wild type counterparts of between 50% and 300%. Generations that result from sexual crosses and/or selfing typically perform even better, with some of the double-transgenic plants achieving an astounding four-fold biomass increase over wild type plants.

  17. Free-volume characteristics of epoxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Jag J.; Eftekhari, Abe; Shultz, William J.; St.clair, Terry L.

    1992-01-01

    Positron annihilation spectroscopy was used to measure free-volume characteristics of selected epoxies. Fluorene resins, a new family of high-temperature thermosetting resins, were selected as the test medium. Experimental results indicate that the free-volume cell size V sub f varies with the molecular weight between the cross-links M sub c according to an equation of the form V sub f = AM sub c sup B, where A and B are structural constants. In two of the samples, the concentration of bulky fluorene groups was increased in the network backbone by replacement of some of the conventional bisphenol A epoxy resin with fluorene-derived epoxy resin. This resulted in an increase in their glass transition temperature for a given level of cross-linking. It was found that in these samples, the Doppler broadening of the annihilation peak decreases with the increasing fluorene content, presumably due to enhanced damping of the chain motions.

  18. Microwave heating characteristics of magnetite ore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajavaram, Ramaraghavulu; Lee, Jaehong; Oh, Joon Seok; Kim, Han Gyeol; Lee, Joonho

    2016-11-01

    The heating characteristics of magnetite ore under microwave irradiation were investigated as a function of incident microwave power, particle size, and magnetite ore mass. The results showed that the heating rate of magnetite ore is highly dependent on microwave power and magnetite ore mass. The maximum heating rate was obtained at a microwave irradiation power of 1.70 kW with a mass of 25 g and particle size between 53-75 µm. The volumetric heating rate of magnetite ore was investigated by measuring the temperature at different depths during microwave irradiation. Microwave irradiation resulted in modification of the microstructure of the magnetite ore, but new phases such as FeO or Fe2O3 were not formed. In addition, the crystal size decreased from 115 nm to 63 nm after microwave irradiation up to 1573 K.

  19. Fire victims: medical outcomes and demographic characteristics.

    PubMed Central

    Levine, M S; Radford, E P

    1977-01-01

    The medical outcomes and demographic characteristics of all victims of fires identified by The Baltimore Fire Department during a 14-month period in Baltimore City were studied. Fifty-nine per cent of victims suffered minor injuries, 25 per cent required hospitalization and 16 per cent were fatalities. The majority of survivable injuries were due to burns, while the majority of deaths were due to pulmonary injury and carbon monoxide intoxication. Deaths occurring at the scene of the fire or during the first 24 hours were predominantly due to carbon monoxide. Exposure to fires was more likely to result in deaths in the very young and very old. Evidence from autopsy protocols suggests that alcohol was a contributory factor. PMID:911020

  20. HIV Testing Characteristics Among Hispanic Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ma, Mindy; Malcolm, Lydia; Diaz-Albertini, Kristine; Klinoff, Vera A

    2016-02-01

    Hispanic adolescents are disproportionally impacted by HIV/AIDS. Among Hispanic people living with HIV, delayed testing and late entry into HIV care have been documented. The current study examined Hispanic adolescents' HIV testing characteristics and factors related to testing. Adolescents aged 13-16 (N = 223) completed a survey on HIV testing motivation, perceptions, and experience, sexual behavior, and substance use. Results indicate few adolescents (9%) had taken an HIV test. Among those who have not been tested, 32.5% expressed interest in testing. HIV testing was favorably perceived with 82.4% reported testing should be done with all youth or those are sexually active. Adolescents who had engaged in high risk behaviors (history of sexual intercourse, substance use) were more likely to have been tested or to express interest in testing. Given that HIV testing is positively perceived by Hispanic adolescents, prevention efforts should focus on minimizing barriers and enhancing accessibility to HIV screening.

  1. First observations of saturopeaking: Characteristics and implications.

    PubMed

    Pulg, Ulrich; Vollset, Knut Wiik; Velle, Gaute; Stranzl, Sebastian

    2016-12-15

    During the monitoring of total dissolved gas (TDG) saturation in the Vetlefjordelva River in western Norway in 2014-2015, characteristic waves of supersaturated water were discovered. These waves were significantly correlated with hydropower operation, which was run by hydropeaking (R(2)=0.82, p<0.001). The TDG saturation varied between 99% and 108%, with a median of 105%. The term "saturopeaking" is introduced for these waves, defined as the artificial, rapid, periodic and frequent fluctuation of gas saturation caused by hydropeaking. Hydropeaking is recognized as hydropower operation that rapidly fluctuates according to the electricity market demand. Though the observed TDG saturation levels were moderate and not likely to cause acute effects on biota, we expect that the observed saturopeaking may have significant ecological impacts in general, especially in cases with TDG saturation levels >110^% which is considered as potentially lethal for fish in rivers.

  2. The boundary characteristics of lucid dreamers.

    PubMed

    Galvin, F

    1990-06-01

    Based on the previously established personality correlates of frequent lucid dreaming and frequent nightmare dreaming, several hypotheses were generated regarding the boundary characteristics of these dreamers relative to each other and to a control group of non-lucid and comparatively nightmare-free dreamers. The data from Hartmann's Boundary Questionnaire obtained from 40 subjects in each dreamer group (who were individually matched for sex, age, and background as far as possible) were analyzed. The results of the study give evidence that lucid dreamers have "thin" boundaries in many of the same senses that nightmare sufferers do, but can be differentiated from nightmare dreamers by the greater degree of coherence of their psychological sense of self as measured on the Self-Coherence Subscale of the Boundary Questionnaire. The suggestion is made that, given the similarity of "thin" boundaries, perhaps nightmare sufferers could become lucid dreamers and possibly resolve their nightmare condition while in the dream state.

  3. Stream-temperature characteristics in Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dyar, T.R.; Alhadeff, S. Jack

    1997-01-01

    Stream-temperature measurements for 198 periodic and 22 daily record stations were analyzed using a harmonic curve-fitting procedure. Statistics of data from 78 selected stations were used to compute a statewide stream-temperature harmonic equation, derived using latitude, drainage area, and altitude for natural streams having drainage areas greater than about 40 square miles. Based on the 1955-84 reference period, the equation may be used to compute long-term natural harmonic stream-temperature coefficients to within an on average of about 0.4? C. Basin-by-basin summaries of observed long-term stream-temperature characteristics are included for selected stations and river reaches, particularly along Georgia's mainstem streams. Changes in the stream- temperature regimen caused by the effects of development, principally impoundments and thermal power plants, are shown by comparing harmonic curves and coefficients from the estimated natural values to the observed modified-condition values.

  4. Pancoast tumors: characteristics and preoperative assessment

    PubMed Central

    Panagopoulos, Nikolaos; Leivaditis, Vasilios; Koletsis, Efstratios; Prokakis, Christos; Alexopoulos, Panagiotis; Baltayiannis, Nikolaos; Hatzimichalis, Antonios; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Kougioumtzi, Ioanna; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Tsiouda, Theodora; Kesisis, Georgios; Siminelakis, Stavros; Madesis, Athanasios; Dougenis, Dimitrios

    2014-01-01

    Superior sulcus tumors (SSTs), or as otherwise known Pancoast tumors, make up a clinically unique and challenging subset of non-small cell carcinoma of the lung (NSCLC). Although the outcome of patients with this disease has traditionally been poor, recent developments have contributed to a significant improvement in prognosis of SST patients. The combination of severe and unrelenting shoulder and arm pain along the distribution of the eighth cervical and first and second thoracic nerve trunks, Horner’s syndrome (ptosis, miosis, and anhidrosis) and atrophy of the intrinsic hand muscles comprises a clinical entity named as “Pancoast-Tobias syndrome”. Apart NSCLC, other lesions may, although less frequently, result in Pancoast syndrome. In the current review we will present the main characteristics of the disease and focus on the preoperative assessment. PMID:24672686

  5. Behavioral characteristics of effective crew leaders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ginnett, Robert C.

    1989-01-01

    The behaviors of effective versus less effective captains as they form and lead their crews in line operations are analyzed. The research examines real work groups in an actual organization with a specific and consequential task to perform and is based on a normative model of work group effectiveness. Selection of captains is outlined, as well as data collection over the course of six months of crew and cockpit observations including over 300 hours of direct crew observations and 110 hours of actual flight time. Common characteristics of the effective leaders as well as the deviations of the less effective are described, and organizational implications are assessed. The concept of 'shells' depicted as a series of concentric circles moving outward from the group's task execution at the center is introduced and discussed.

  6. Study on fluorescence characteristics of duloxetine hydrochloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiangping; Du, Yingxiang; Wu, Xiulan

    2008-12-01

    The fluorescence characteristics of duloxetine hydrochloride are studied in this paper. The fluorescence emission spectra of duloxetine demonstrate that intramolecular charge-transfer takes place between thiophene ring and napthalenyloxy group upon irradiation. The effects of excitation light, solvent system, variation of solution pH value, metal ions and vitamin C on the fluorescence spectra of duloxetine hydrochloride are elucidated, respectively. A spectrofluorometric method of quantitative determination of duloxetine in dosage form is reported for the first time, the linear range is 7.14 × 10 -8 mol/L to 1.43 × 10 -5 mol/L, the linear correlation coefficient r is equal to 0.9997, and the detection limit is 3.5 × 10 -8 mol/L. The accuracy and the precision are satisfactory.

  7. [Burnout, work characteristics and retirement intentions].

    PubMed

    Leenders, M V E; Henkens, K

    2010-06-01

    We investigated whether there is a relationship between burnout and work characteristics and retirement intentions from older workers. Data were taken from a survey held among Dutch older workers (50+) and their spouses (N=2,892). The results show that high workload, heavy physical work, and lack of challenge are related to burnout. No effect, however, was found for competence. Besides the effect of burnout, retirement intentions are related to the level of marital quality. Older workers who report a higher level of marital quality report a stronger intention to retire. Burnout and retirement intentions are related, but appear to be two different processes. While burnout can generally be explained by the work environment, nonwork related factors enhance our understanding of retirement intentions. This study shows that actual retirement is often preceded by feelings of burnout, in particular a mental detachment from work and feelings of exhaustion.

  8. [Microbe amylases: characteristic, properties and practical use].

    PubMed

    Kubrak, O I; Lushchak, V I

    2007-01-01

    Current data concerning structure, properties and methods of purification ofmicrobial amylolytic enzymes are summarized in this paper. A short characteristic of the main methods of amylase activity measuring is presented, the advantages and disadvantages of each method are shown. It is proposed that novel techniques of enzyme immobilization stabilize the structure of amylases and allow their multiple uses. Scientific interest to amylases is analyzed that is explained by a number of their unique properties such as thermostability and pH-tolerance. Authors have demonstrated some examples of the practical using ofamylases in different fields of industry: textile, paper, food industries, brewing and wine-making. The prospects of their possible using in detergent preparing for laundries and dishwashers are presented. It is supposed that future investigations in this trend for isolating new amrnylases from native producers will be developed.

  9. Nurse manager characteristics and skills: curriculum implications.

    PubMed

    Dienemann, J; Shaffer, C

    1993-01-01

    If one accepts the premise that all nurses need knowledge of management and leadership, then schools of nursing need to design their curriculum to provide administrative content and learning experiences to adequately prepare nurses for leadership positions. This study assays the opinions of nurse unit managers about the relative importance of different characteristics and skills in effective job performance. A sample of 73 unit managers from six hospitals and two community health agencies ranked human relations and communication skills as most important. Nursing knowledge and clinical skills were ranked second. Experienced managers thought political savvy and business or management skills were more important than did novice managers. The results of this study are discussed in relation to curriculum issues in nursing management at both the baccalaureate and the graduate level.

  10. Synthesis of Nickel Nanowires with Tunable Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Zengzilu; Wen, Weijia

    2016-01-01

    A one-step synthesis of magnetic nickel nanowires (NiNWs) with tunable characteristics is reported. The method is simple and easy to be conducted, leading to high compatibility with scaling-up. It is discovered that the size and morphology of NiNWs can be adjusted by tuning the reaction temperature, time length, as well as surfactant concentration. It is found that the products have shown high purity which remained after being stored for several months. A remarkable enhanced saturation magnetization of the product was also observed, compared to that of bulk nickel. By providing both practical experimental details and in-depth mechanism, the work introduced in this paper may advance the mass production and further applications of NiNWs.

  11. Study of scratch drive actuator force characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lijie; Brown, J. Gordon; Uttamchandani, Deepak

    2002-11-01

    Microactuators are one of the key components in MEMS technology, and various designs have been realized through different fabrication processes. One type of microactuator commonly used is the scratch drive actuator (SDA) that is frequently fabricated by surface micromachining processes. An experimental investigation has been conducted on the force characteristics of SDAs fabricated using the JDSU Microsystems MUMPs process. One-, two-, three- and four-plate SDAs connected to box-springs have been designed and fabricated for these experiments using MUMPs run 44. The spring constant for the box-springs has been calculated by FEM using ANSYS software. The product of the spring constant and spring extension is used to measure the forces produced by these SDAs. It is estimated that the forces produced exceed 250 μN from a one-plate SDA and 850 μN from a four-plate SDA.

  12. Aerodynamic characteristics of the HL-20

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ware, George M.; Cruz, Christopher I.

    1993-09-01

    Wind tunnel tests were made from subsonic to hypersonic speeds to define the aerodynamic characteristics of the HL-20 lifting-body configuration. The data have been assembled into an aerodynamic database for flight analysis of this proposed vehicle. The wind tunnel data indicates that the model is longitudinally and laterally stable (about a center-of-gravity location of 0.54 body length) over the test range from Mach 20 to 0.3. At hypersonic speeds, the HL-20 model trimmed at a lift/drag (L/D) ratio of 1.4. This value gives the vehicle a crossrange capability similar to that of the space shuttle. At subsonic speeds, the HL-20 has a trimmed L/D ratio of about 3.6. Replacing the flat-plate outboard fins with fins having an airfoil shape increased the maximum subsonic trimmed L/D to 4.2.

  13. CADASIL: Imaging Characteristics and Clinical Correlation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shuhan; Nahas, Stephanie J

    2016-10-01

    Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is caused by mutations in the NOTCH3 gene located on chromosome 19p13. CADASIL causes a clinical syndrome of migraines (frequently with aura), progressive strokes, and cognitive decline in adults leading to severe functional impairment by the seventh decade of life. Genetic testing is the gold standard for diagnosing this condition, but the syndrome can be suspected clinically based on history and a characteristic pattern of confluent subcortical white matter disease in the anterior temporal poles and external capsule. Additional abnormalities include cerebral microbleeds and large vessel stenosis, particularly in Asian populations. Familiarity with radiologic findings in CADASIL is essential to the correct diagnosis and subsequent management of this disease.

  14. Characteristics of civil aviation atmospheric hazards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, Robert E.; Montoya, J.; Richards, Mark A.; Galliano, J.

    1994-01-01

    Clear air turbulence, wake vortices, dry hail, and volcanic ash are hazards to civil aviation that have not been brought to the forefront of public attention by a catastrophic accident. However, these four hazards are responsible for major and minor injuries, emotional trauma, significant aircraft damage, and in route and terminal area inefficiency. Most injuries occur during clear air turbulence. There is significant aircraft damage for any volcanic ash encounter. Rolls induced by wake vortices occur near the ground. Dry hail often appears as an area of weak echo on the weather radar. This paper will present the meteorological, electromagnetic, and spatiotemporal characteristics of each hazard. A description of a typical aircraft encounter with each hazard will be given. Analyzed microwave and millimeter wave sensor systems to detect each hazard will be presented.

  15. Casting Characteristics of Aluminum Die Casting Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Makhlouf M. Makhlouf; Diran Apelian

    2002-02-05

    The research program investigates the casting characteristics of selected aluminum die casting alloys. Specifically, the alloys' tendencies towards die soldering and sludge formation, and the alloys' fluidity and machinability are evaluated. It was found that: When the Fe and Mn contents of the alloy are low; caution has to be taken against possible die soldering. When the alloy has a high sludge factor, particularly a high level of Fe, measures must be taken to prevent the formation of large hardspots. For this kind of alloy, the Fe content should be kept at its lowest allowable level and the Mn content should be at its highest possible level. If there are problems in die filling, measures other than changing the alloy chemistry need to be considered first. In terms of alloy chemistry, the elements that form high temperature compounds must be kept at their lowest allowable levels. The alloys should not have machining problems when appropriate machining techniques and machining parameters are used.

  16. Performance characteristics of pitching flexible foil propulsors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brownell, Cody; Egan, Brendan; Murray, Mark

    2014-11-01

    Performance characteristics of flexible foil propulsors are studied experimentally. The project investigates the dependence of thrust and efficiency on foil elasticity, Strouhal number, and flow velocity. The experiments took place in a large recirculating water channel, using full span flexible propulsor models to approximate a 2D geometry. The propulsor pitched about a fixed axis at its quarter chord, with a six-axis load cell measuring the forces and torques on the shaft. Propulsive efficiency is found to peak at an optimum Strouhal number for each foil tested. Varying elasticity did not produce a similar local maximum over the sampled parameter space. The ensemble data will facilitate the engineering of fish-like propulsion systems for future application of this technology.

  17. Housing characteristics of older Asian Americans.

    PubMed

    Burr, Jeffrey A; Mutchler, Jan E

    2012-09-01

    This study described the housing tenure and residential density of elders from the six largest Asian American ethnic groups in the US: Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, Asian Indian, and Vietnamese. These groups were compared to non-Hispanic White elders. Based on data from the 2000 US Census of Population, multilevel regression analyses showed that Japanese elders were most like the non-Hispanic White comparison group across the two housing dimensions. Older Vietnamese persons were least likely to own their homes compared to the other Asian American groups, and with the exception of the Japanese elders, all Asian groups were more likely than non-Hispanic Whites to live in crowded residences. In general, considerable heterogeneity in housing characteristics was observed across the six older Asian American ethnic groups, even after controlling for assimilation and housing discrimination indicators.

  18. Effects of pattern characteristics on copper CMP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenbiao, Ruan; Lan, Chen; Zhigang, Li; Tianchun, Ye

    2009-04-01

    Copper chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) is influenced by geometric characteristics such as line width and pattern density, as well as by the more obvious parameters such as slurry chemistry, pad type, polishing pressure and rotational speed. Variations in the copper thickness across each die and across the wafer can impact the circuit performance and reduce the yield. In this paper, we propose a modeling method to simulate the polishing behavior as a function of layout pattern factors. Under the same process conditions, the pattern density, the line width and the line spacing have a strong influence on copper dishing, dielectric erosion and topography. The test results showed: the wider the copper line or the spacing, the higher the copper dishing; the higher the density, the higher the dielectric erosion; the dishing and erosion increase slowly as a function of increasing density and go into saturation when the density is more than 0.7.

  19. Social-cognitive functioning and schizotypal characteristics.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Joseph; Shean, Glenn

    2006-05-01

    The authors examined the relationship between social cognition and a feature of schizotypal personality referred to as magical ideation, defined broadly as the presence and intensity of illogical beliefs about causality and the nature of reality. The measures of social cognition used in this study were the Character Intention Task (CIT) and the adult version of the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test. Regression analyses indicated that understanding of character intentions, as measured by CIT scores, and ability to identify emotions on the Eyes test were related to non-realistic beliefs. Principal components analysis of the Magical Ideation Scale generated 3 factors: Occult Beliefs, Non-Realism, and New Age Ideas. Results indicated that impaired understanding of character intentions and ability to identify emotions on the Eyes test were related to non-realistic beliefs. Understanding the cognitive impairments associated with schizotypal characteristics can facilitate development of more targeted therapeutic interventions.

  20. Fracture characteristics of monolayer CVD-graphene.

    PubMed

    Hwangbo, Yun; Lee, Choong-Kwang; Kim, Sang-Min; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Kwang-Seop; Jang, Bongkyun; Lee, Hak-Joo; Lee, Seoung-Ki; Kim, Seong-Su; Ahn, Jong-Hyun; Lee, Seung-Mo

    2014-03-24

    We have observed and analyzed the fracture characteristics of the monolayer CVD-graphene using pressure bulge testing setup. The monolayer CVD-graphene has appeared to undergo environmentally assisted subcritical crack growth in room condition, i.e. stress corrosion cracking arising from the adsorption of water vapor on the graphene and the subsequent chemical reactions. The crack propagation in graphene has appeared to be able to be reasonably tamed by adjusting applied humidity and stress. The fracture toughness, describing the ability of a material containing inherent flaws to resist catastrophic failure, of the CVD-graphene has turned out to be exceptionally high, as compared to other carbon based 3D materials. These results imply that the CVD-graphene could be an ideal candidate as a structural material notwithstanding environmental susceptibility. In addition, the measurements reported here suggest that specific non-continuum fracture behaviors occurring in 2D monoatomic structures can be macroscopically well visualized and characterized.