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Sample records for nauplii biometry characteristics

  1. Biometry | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Biometry Research Group provides key consultations to NCI program managers and scientific decision-makers based on independent and cooperative studies usi | Consults, conducts and supports independent and collaborative research and data analysis.

  2. Physiological characteristics and stress resistance of great sturgeon (Huso huso) juveniles fed with vitamins C, E, and HUFA-enriched Artemia urmiana nauplii.

    PubMed

    Jalali, Mohammad Ali; Hosseini, Seyed Abbas; Imanpour, Mohammad Reza

    2010-09-01

    This study was carried out to examine the effect of Artemia urmiana nauplii enriched with HUFA, and vitamins C and E on stress tolerance, hematocrit, and biochemical parameters of great sturgeon, Huso huso juveniles. Cod liver oil (EPA 18% and DHA 12%), ascorbyl-6-palmitate and alpha-tocopherol acetate were used as lipid, and vitamin C and E sources, respectively. Beluga juveniles at the stage of first feeding (69.7 +/- 5.9 mg body weight) were randomly divided into five treatments and three tanks were assigned to each diet. All fish groups were fed non-enriched Artemia for the initial 5 days and then fed enriched Artemia for 7 days. Juveniles were fed with Artemia enriched with HUFA + 20% vitamin C (C group); HUFA + 20% vitamin E-enriched Artemia nauplii (E group); HUFA + 20% vitamin C + 20% vitamin E (C and E group); HUFA without vitamins (HUFA) and non-enriched Artemia (control). After the period of enrichment, Juveniles were fed with Daphnia sp. from the 13th to the 40th day. At day 40, the fish were transferred directly from fresh water (0.5 ppt) to brackish water (6 ppt for 4 days and 12 ppt for 2 days) and warm water (from 27 to 33 degrees C) to evaluate juvenile resistance to salinity and thermal shocks. Moreover, all treatments were separately exposed to freshwater in tanks with the same capacity as used for osmotic and thermal tests (as fresh water control). The addition of vitamins C, E, and C + E to HUFA significantly increased fish resistance to 12 ppt salinity and temperature stress tests, whereas survival was not significantly different among challenges at 6 ppt. There was no significant difference in the hematocrit index under stress conditions. Enrichment had significant influence on plasma Na(+) level in the C group on the 4th day at 6 ppt. Na(+) and Ca(2+) concentrations in C, E, and C and E groups on the 1st day at 12 ppt, and Ca(2+) level in E group on the 2nd day at 12 ppt were lower than the other groups. The glucose level in the C and C and

  3. Physiological characteristics and stress resistance of great sturgeon (Huso huso) juveniles fed with vitamins C, E, and HUFA-enriched Artemia urmiana nauplii.

    PubMed

    Jalali, Mohammad Ali; Hosseini, Seyed Abbas; Imanpour, Mohammad Reza

    2010-09-01

    This study was carried out to examine the effect of Artemia urmiana nauplii enriched with HUFA, and vitamins C and E on stress tolerance, hematocrit, and biochemical parameters of great sturgeon, Huso huso juveniles. Cod liver oil (EPA 18% and DHA 12%), ascorbyl-6-palmitate and alpha-tocopherol acetate were used as lipid, and vitamin C and E sources, respectively. Beluga juveniles at the stage of first feeding (69.7 +/- 5.9 mg body weight) were randomly divided into five treatments and three tanks were assigned to each diet. All fish groups were fed non-enriched Artemia for the initial 5 days and then fed enriched Artemia for 7 days. Juveniles were fed with Artemia enriched with HUFA + 20% vitamin C (C group); HUFA + 20% vitamin E-enriched Artemia nauplii (E group); HUFA + 20% vitamin C + 20% vitamin E (C and E group); HUFA without vitamins (HUFA) and non-enriched Artemia (control). After the period of enrichment, Juveniles were fed with Daphnia sp. from the 13th to the 40th day. At day 40, the fish were transferred directly from fresh water (0.5 ppt) to brackish water (6 ppt for 4 days and 12 ppt for 2 days) and warm water (from 27 to 33 degrees C) to evaluate juvenile resistance to salinity and thermal shocks. Moreover, all treatments were separately exposed to freshwater in tanks with the same capacity as used for osmotic and thermal tests (as fresh water control). The addition of vitamins C, E, and C + E to HUFA significantly increased fish resistance to 12 ppt salinity and temperature stress tests, whereas survival was not significantly different among challenges at 6 ppt. There was no significant difference in the hematocrit index under stress conditions. Enrichment had significant influence on plasma Na(+) level in the C group on the 4th day at 6 ppt. Na(+) and Ca(2+) concentrations in C, E, and C and E groups on the 1st day at 12 ppt, and Ca(2+) level in E group on the 2nd day at 12 ppt were lower than the other groups. The glucose level in the C and C and

  4. SALT EFFECTS ON EGGS AND NAUPLII OF ARTEMIA SALINA L.

    PubMed

    Boone, E; Baas-Becking, L G

    1931-07-20

    Eggs of Artemia salina L., the brine shrimp, are easily obtainable in large quantities. Ecdysis takes place in two stages: (a) extrusion of the inner membrane, and (b) ecdysis of the nauplius from that membrane. The conditions which allow for the former are much more varied than those for the latter. Nauplii form in only solutions of a few sodium salts; and, in Mg, Ca, and Sr salts, potassium is very toxic. The possible environment for the nauplii (1 M total molarity) has been ascertained for chlorides of Na, K, Mg, and Ca. The facts observed account for the peculiar distribution of the organism.

  5. The Kinematics of Swimming and Relocation Jumps in Copepod Nauplii

    PubMed Central

    Andersen Borg, Christian Marc; Bruno, Eleonora; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Copepod nauplii move in a world dominated by viscosity. Their swimming-by-jumping propulsion mode, with alternating power and recovery strokes of three pairs of cephalic appendages, is fundamentally different from the way other microplankters move. Protozoans move using cilia or flagella, and copepodites are equipped with highly specialized swimming legs. In some species the nauplius may also propel itself more slowly through the water by beating and rotating the appendages in a different, more complex pattern. We use high-speed video to describe jumping and swimming in nauplii of three species of pelagic copepods: Temora longicornis, Oithona davisae and Acartia tonsa. The kinematics of jumping is similar between the three species. Jumps result in a very erratic translation with no phase of passive coasting and the nauplii move backwards during recovery strokes. This is due to poorly synchronized recovery strokes and a low beat frequency relative to the coasting time scale. For the same reason, the propulsion efficiency of the nauplii is low. Given the universality of the nauplius body plan, it is surprising that they seem to be inefficient when jumping, which is different from the very efficient larger copepodites. A slow-swimming mode is only displayed by T. longicornis. In this mode, beating of the appendages results in the creation of a strong feeding current that is about 10 times faster than the average translation speed of the nauplius. The nauplius is thus essentially hovering when feeding, which results in a higher feeding efficiency than that of a nauplius cruising through the water. PMID:23115647

  6. Nonhatching Decapsulated Artemia Cysts As a Replacement to Artemia Nauplii in Juvenile and Adult Zebrafish Culture.

    PubMed

    Tye, Marc; Rider, Dana; Duffy, Elizabeth A; Seubert, Adam; Lothert, Brogen; Schimmenti, Lisa A

    2015-12-01

    Feeding Artemia nauplii as the main nutrition source for zebrafish is a common practice for many research facilities. Culturing live feed can be time-consuming and requires additional equipment to be purchased, maintained, and cleaned. Nonhatching decapsulated Artemia cysts (decaps) are a commercially available product that can be fed directly to fish. Several other ornamental fish species have been successfully cultured using decaps. Replacing Artemia nauplii with decaps could reduce the overall time and costs associated with the operation of a zebrafish facility. The objective of this study was to determine if decaps could be a suitable replacement to Artemia nauplii in juvenile and adult zebrafish culture. Wild-type zebrafish were fed one of three dietary treatments: decaps only, nauplii only, or a standard consisting of nauplii plus a commercially prepared pellet food. Survival, growth (length and weight), and embryo production were analyzed between the treatments. Fish receiving the decap diet demonstrated a significantly higher growth and embryo production when compared to the fish receiving the nauplii-only diet. When comparing the decap fish to the standard fish, no significant difference was found in mean survival, mean weight at 90 days postfertilization, or mean embryo production. It was determined that nonhatching decapsulated Artemia cysts can be used as a suitable replacement to Artemia nauplii in juvenile and adult zebrafish culture.

  7. Nonhatching Decapsulated Artemia Cysts As a Replacement to Artemia Nauplii in Juvenile and Adult Zebrafish Culture.

    PubMed

    Tye, Marc; Rider, Dana; Duffy, Elizabeth A; Seubert, Adam; Lothert, Brogen; Schimmenti, Lisa A

    2015-12-01

    Feeding Artemia nauplii as the main nutrition source for zebrafish is a common practice for many research facilities. Culturing live feed can be time-consuming and requires additional equipment to be purchased, maintained, and cleaned. Nonhatching decapsulated Artemia cysts (decaps) are a commercially available product that can be fed directly to fish. Several other ornamental fish species have been successfully cultured using decaps. Replacing Artemia nauplii with decaps could reduce the overall time and costs associated with the operation of a zebrafish facility. The objective of this study was to determine if decaps could be a suitable replacement to Artemia nauplii in juvenile and adult zebrafish culture. Wild-type zebrafish were fed one of three dietary treatments: decaps only, nauplii only, or a standard consisting of nauplii plus a commercially prepared pellet food. Survival, growth (length and weight), and embryo production were analyzed between the treatments. Fish receiving the decap diet demonstrated a significantly higher growth and embryo production when compared to the fish receiving the nauplii-only diet. When comparing the decap fish to the standard fish, no significant difference was found in mean survival, mean weight at 90 days postfertilization, or mean embryo production. It was determined that nonhatching decapsulated Artemia cysts can be used as a suitable replacement to Artemia nauplii in juvenile and adult zebrafish culture. PMID:25495227

  8. Wavefront Derived Refraction and Full Eye Biometry in Pseudophakic Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Xinjie; Banta, James T.; Ke, Bilian; Jiang, Hong; He, Jichang; Liu, Che; Wang, Jianhua

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To assess wavefront derived refraction and full eye biometry including ciliary muscle dimension and full eye axial geometry in pseudophakic eyes using spectral domain OCT equipped with a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. Methods Twenty-eight adult subjects (32 pseudophakic eyes) having recently undergone cataract surgery were enrolled in this study. A custom system combining two optical coherence tomography systems with a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor was constructed to image and monitor changes in whole eye biometry, the ciliary muscle and ocular aberration in the pseudophakic eye. A Badal optical channel and a visual target aligning with the wavefront sensor were incorporated into the system for measuring the wavefront-derived refraction. The imaging acquisition was performed twice. The coefficients of repeatability (CoR) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were calculated. Results Images were acquired and processed successfully in all patients. No significant difference was detected between repeated measurements of ciliary muscle dimension, full-eye biometry or defocus aberration. The CoR of full-eye biometry ranged from 0.36% to 3.04% and the ICC ranged from 0.981 to 0.999. The CoR for ciliary muscle dimensions ranged from 12.2% to 41.6% and the ICC ranged from 0.767 to 0.919. The defocus aberrations of the two measurements were 0.443 ± 0.534 D and 0.447 ± 0.586 D and the ICC was 0.951. Conclusions The combined system is capable of measuring full eye biometry and refraction with good repeatability. The system is suitable for future investigation of pseudoaccommodation in the pseudophakic eye. PMID:27010674

  9. Digital holography applications in ophthalmology, biometry, and optical trapping characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potcoava, Mariana Camelia

    This dissertation combines various holographic techniques with application on the two- and three-dimensional imaging of ophthalmic tissue, fingerprints, and microsphere samples with micrometer resolution. Digital interference holography (DIH) uses scanned wavelengths to synthesize short-coherence interference tomographic images. We used DIH for in vitro imaging of human optic nerve head and retina. Tomographic images were produced by superposition of holograms. Holograms were obtained with a signal-to-noise ratio of approximately 50 dB. Optic nerve head characteristics (shape, diameter, cup depth, and cup width) were quantified with a few micron resolution (4.06--4.8mum). Multiple layers were distinguishable in cross-sectional images of the macula. To our knowledge, this is the first report of DIH use to image human macular and optic nerve tissue. Holographic phase microscopy is used to produce images of thin film patterns left by latent fingerprints. Two or more holographic phase images with different wavelengths are combined for optical phase unwrapping of images of patent prints. We demonstrated digital interference holography images of a plastic print, and latent prints. These demonstrations point to significant contributions to biometry by using digital interference holography to identify and quantify Level 1 (pattern), Level 2 (minutia points), and Level 3 (pores and ridge contours). Quantitative studies of physical and biological processes and precise non-contact manipulation of nanometer/micrometer trapped objects can be effectuated with nanometer accuracy due to the development of optical tweezers. A three-dimensional gradient trap is produced at the focus position of a high NA microscope objective. Particles are trapped axially and laterally due to the gradient force. The particle is confined in a potential well and the trap acts as a harmonic spring. The elastic constant or the stiffness along any axis is determined from the particle displacements in

  10. Characterization of metalloproteinase-like activities in barnacle (Balanus amphitrite) nauplii.

    PubMed

    Mannello, Ferdinando; Canesi, Laura; Faimali, Marco; Piazza, Veronica; Gallo, Gabriella; Geraci, Sebastiano

    2003-05-01

    The presence of extracellular matrix (ECM) degrading enzymes was investigated in naupliar stages of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite Darwin. The results of substrate gel-zymography and quantitative assays demonstrated that naupliar extracts contain several protease activities that are specific towards gelatin substrates; some caseinolytic activity was also detected. Substrate specificity was observed in all naupliar stages (II-VI). The gelatinolytic activities showed dependence on both Ca(2+) and Zn(2+) and inhibition by EDTA, EGTA, and 1,10-phenanthroline. Also Mg(2+) partially activated the enzymes, whereas Cd(2+), Cu(2+), Hg(2+) and Pb(2+) were inhibitory. The thermal denaturation profile was significantly different in the presence and absence of Ca(2+) and Zn(2+). Overall, the results indicate that the Ca(2+)/Zn(2+)-dependent gelatinase activities in barnacle nauplii belong to the subfamily of matrix metalloproteases. Barnacle larvae MMPs showed biochemical characteristics different from those of vertebrate MMPs but common to other gelatinases from marine invertebrates: they were unaffected by several protease inhibitors and insensitive to specific activators/inhibitors of vertebrate MMPs. The presence of MMP-like activities in different naupliar stages suggests a constitutive role for these enzymes in ECM remodeling during barnacle larvae growth and development. PMID:12781969

  11. A new protocol for ecotoxicological assessment of seawater using nauplii of Tisbe biminiensis (Copepoda:Harpacticoida).

    PubMed

    Lavorante, Beatriz R B O; Oliveira, Deloar D; Costa, Bruno V M; Souza-Santos, Lília P

    2013-09-01

    Copepods are largely used in toxicity tests. The nauplii of these organisms are more sensitive to contaminants than the adult stage. The aim of the present study was to test a protocol for the use of nauplii of the copepod Tisbe biminiensis in the ecotoxicological assessment of seawater. The sensitivity of these organisms to zinc sulphate (ZnSO4·7H2O) was also determined. The following conditions were established for the protocol based on the best development of nauplii to copepodites: 72-h duration, the microalga Chaetocerus gracilis at 2.5×10(5)cellsmL(-1) as feed and incubation temperature of 28°C. In the zinc sulphate sensitivity tests, EC50-72 h and LC50/72 h were 3.25±0.59 mg L(-1) and 3.46±0.72 mg L(-1), respectively, as estimated by the final number of copepodites and total number of live animals in relation to the mean number of inoculated nauplii. The estimated NOEC was 2.0 mg L(-1). The test developed is fast and not labour intensive. T. biminiensis nauplii exhibit sensitivity to zinc sulphate similar to that of other species of copepods employed in water toxicity tests, demonstrating the usefulness of these organisms in ecotoxicological studies involving samples of environmental seawater. PMID:23769123

  12. Biometry of the crystalline lens in early-onset diabetes.

    PubMed Central

    Sparrow, J M; Bron, A J; Brown, N A; Neil, H A

    1990-01-01

    Lenticular biometry on non-cataractous lenses has been studied by means of Scheimpflug photography and digital image analysis in 153 patients with early-onset insulin-dependent diabetes and 153 non-diabetic controls. Anteroposterior axial lens thickness, cortical thickness, nuclear thickness, anterior and posterior lenticular curvatures, and anterior chamber depth were assessed. Highly significant differences between the lenses of the diabetic subjects and non-diabetic controls were found. After the effect of age had been accounted for within the diabetic subgroup, diabetic duration was found to be a highly significant determinant of lens dimensions, such that age-related dimensional changes for various biometric parameters were accelerated by between 52% and 121% after the onset of diabetes. Because the diabetic duration of the early-onset diabetic subjects studied in this work was accurately known, this report is the first in which a precise assessment of the effect of 'true' diabetic duration on lens biometry has been possible. PMID:2223701

  13. [Comparison of contact and immersion techniques of ultrasound biometry].

    PubMed

    Hrebcová, J; Vasků, A

    2008-01-01

    Biometry, i. e. the measurement of the eye axial length, is performed in patients before cataract surgery. Together with keratometry, it serves for the calculation of the intraocular lens refractive (dioptric) power. The purpose of our study was to determine whether contact and immersion A-scan ultrasound techniques produce comparable measurements of the eye axial length. The axial length of 120 non-paired eyes was measured, using both contact and immersion techniques. The measurements were performed by means of an Alcon Ocuscan machine. The mean eye axial length using the contact technique was 23.28 mm (min. 19.31 mm, max. 31.25 mm), compared to the mean of 23.38 mm (min. 19.38 mm, max. 31.36 mm) gained by the immersion technique. The standard deviation of the measurements using both techniques was less than 0.1 mm. A statistically significant difference was proved between the contact and the immersion techniques (p < 0.01). There is significant correlation between both methods (p < 0.01). The eye axial length gained by means of the immersion technique was on average 0.1 mm longer than that obtained by the contact technique. Biometry is of great importance for achieving accurate postoperative target refraction in cataract surgery that is a part of refractive surgery today. It will be necessary to carry out another retrospective study with a special focus on the target postoperative refraction in order to verify the accuracy of both the biometric techniques.

  14. Fetal Biometry of Head Circumference for Malaysian Pregnant Women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramli, Remsen Maizan; Jaafar, M. S.; Ismail, N. E.; Saltani, Hend A. A.; Ahmad, A. L.; Bermakai, M. Yahaya

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this research is to study the fetal head circumference (HC) biometry for local population. Retrospective study was selected, done at Hospital Pulau Pinang and 5551 files of pregnant women were collected. The HC mean values of this study (HCmean) was compared with other published studies to see whether there was any difference between the various populations in the world. Comparison of means, regression analysis and paired sample t-test in SPSS software version 11.5 were used in the analysis. A total of 9874 HC data (mm) were recorded for gestational age (GA) of 12 to 41 weeks. The HC growth rate in second trimester (11.32 mm/week) has decreased to nearly half than in third trimester (5.53 mm/week). The HCmean was found to be highly significant difference (SD) than other 9 studies and only lower than HC values of USA, UK and Zimbabwe populations. The HC values of German show close similarity with HCmean. From 45 comparisons done, more than three-quarter of the comparisons resulted as SD (37) compared to insignificant differences (8). Consequently, each country should have their own standard HC of fetus biometry of the various gestations for their own population.

  15. Comparison of IOL--master and ultrasound biometry in preoperative intra ocular lens (IOL) power calculation.

    PubMed

    Kolega, Marija Škara; Kovačević, Suzana; Čanović, Samir; Pavičić, Ana Didović; Bašić, Jadranka Katušić

    2015-03-01

    Postoperative refractive outcome largely depends on the accuracy of calculating power of implanted IOL. Lens power calculation can be done by conventional ultrasound biometry and partial coherence laser interferometry (IOL Master). The aim was to compare the accuracy of IOL power calculations using conventional ultrasound biometry and partial coherence laser interferometry.40 eyes were included in this prospective randomized trial. Twenty eyes underwent IOL master and 20 eyes had aplanation ultrasound biometry. There were included only eyes with age-related cataract and postoperative natural visual acuity (VA) 0.7. Visual acuity was performed 6 weeks after cataract surgery. After 6 weeks best natural visual acuity were 0.9 (± 0.1) in IOL-Master group and 0.85 (± 0.15) in ultrasound biometry. The postoperative mean absolute refractive error was 0.75 (± 0.5) D for ultrasound biometry and 0.50 (± 0.50) D for IOL-Master. Optical biometry with the IOL-Master proved to be slightly more accurate than ultrasound biometry for IOL power calculation.

  16. Biometry in X linked megalocornea: pathognomonic findings.

    PubMed

    Meire, F M; Delleman, J W

    1994-10-01

    Biometric study in a series of 11 affected males provides characteristic findings. The patients present with a large cornea with short radius, very deep anterior chamber depth (AC depth) exceeding the normal mean value of plus 2 SD, and a short vitreous length. Calculation of the postlimbal depth, a method applied in this study to obtain information about positioning of the iris and the lens, reveals a posterior positioning of the iris and lens. The posterior positioning of the iris and lens was proved to occur at the expense of the vitreous. The importance of biometric data for diagnosis and for differential diagnosis in primary infantile glaucoma and other diseases with megalocornea is discussed.

  17. Fetal Biometry Studies of Malaysian Pregnant Women and Comparison with International Charts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, N.; Ramli, R. M.; Jaafar, M. S.

    2010-07-01

    Fetal biometry is a measurement done on fetus anatomy to relate the fetus growth with gestational age (GA). In this study [1], fetal biometry that was studied consists of biparietal diameter (BPD), abdominal circumference (AC) and femur length (FL). Studies were carried out at Maternity Unit, Hospital Pulau Penang. From the finding, it is understood that fetal biometry distinguish the normal from abnormal fetal structures and it vary among different populations, depending upon their racial [2,3] and nutrition [4,5,6]. True findings are valuable in estimating the gestational age of the fetus, abnormalities in fetus and the consideration of maternal health specific to the Malaysian population.

  18. Distributed scanning volumetric SDOCT for motion corrected corneal biometry

    PubMed Central

    McNabb, Ryan P.; LaRocca, Francesco; Farsiu, Sina; Kuo, Anthony N.; Izatt, Joseph A.

    2012-01-01

    We present a method, termed distributed scanning OCT (DSOCT), which reduces the effects of patient motion on corneal biometry utilizing current-generation clinically available spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) systems. We first performed a pilot study of the power spectrum of normal patient axial eye motion based on repeated (M-mode) SDOCT. Using DSOCT to reduce the effects of patient motion, we conducted a preliminary patient study comparing the measured anterior and posterior corneal curvatures and the calculated corneal power to both corneal topography and Scheimpflug photography in normal subjects. The repeatability for the measured radius of curvature of both anterior and posterior surfaces as well as calculated corneal refractive power using DSOCT was comparable to those of both topography and Scheimpflug photography. PMID:23024900

  19. Small animal ocular biometry using optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggeri, Marco; Kocaoglu, Omer; Uhlhorn, Stephen; Borja, David; Urs, Raksha; Chou, Tsung-Han; Porciatti, Vittorio; Parel, Jean-Marie; Manns, Fabrice

    2010-02-01

    A custom-built OCT system was used to obtain images of the whole mouse eye. We developed a semi-automated segmentation method to detect the boundaries of the anterior and posterior corneal, lens and retinal surfaces as well as the anterior surface of the iris. The radii of curvature of the surfaces were calculated using a conic section fit of each boundary. Image distortions due to refraction of the OCT beam at the successive boundaries were corrected using a ray-tracing algorithm. Corrected ocular distances, radii of curvature of the cornea and lens surfaces, and anterior chamber angle were obtained on 3 C57BL/6J mice. In vivo imaging of the whole eye, segmentation, conic function fits and correction were successful in all three animals. The posterior lens surface of one mouse could not be fit accurately with a conic section. Biometric parameters of C57BL/6J mice compared well with previous published data obtained from histological sections. The study demonstrates the feasibility of quantitative in vivo biometry of mouse models.

  20. Biometry of the ciliary muscle during dynamic accommodation assessed with OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggeri, Marco; Hernandez, Victor; de Freitas, Carolina; Manns, Fabrice; Parel, Jean-Marie

    2014-02-01

    Little is known about the structural changes of the ciliary muscle with age and how it may contribute to presbyopia. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been used to perform ciliary muscle biometry at different age and accommodative states with low resolution and speed. Dynamic imaging and accurate biometry of the ciliary muscle requires high-speed, high-resolution and correction of the OCT image distortions. We integrate an existing custom-made Spectral Domain OCT (SD-OCT) platform working at 840nm for biometry of the human eye with a SD-OCT system working at 1325nm that enables high-speed and high-resolution transscleral imaging of the ciliary muscle dynamically during accommodation and we developed an algorithm to provide corrected thickness measurements of the ciliary muscle.

  1. LETHAL EFFECTS OF PESTICIDES ON THE NAUPLII FAIRY SHRIMP, BRANCHINELLA THAILANDENSIS.

    PubMed

    Thaimuangphol, W; Kasamesiri, P

    2015-01-01

    During agricultural activities, large amounts of insecticides and herbicides are used for controlling pests. The overspraying of pesticides may contaminate freshwater bodies, as well as having a significant effect on aquatic animals. To determine the potential risk of pesticides, the acute toxicity of insecticides and herbicides on the nauplii fairy shrimp, Branchinella thailandensis were evaluated. The organisms were exposed to different concentrations of insecticides (chlorpyrifos and carbaryl), and herbicides (paraquat and 2,4-D) for 24 h, after which the LC50 values were compared. The acute toxicity tests determined that the LC50 values of chlorpyrifos and carbaryl after 24 h were 0.00186 mg/L and 0.21 mg/L, respectively. For herbicides, paraquat and 2,4-D, the LC50 values were 0.11 mg/L and 27.91 mg/L. Therefore, chlorpyrifos insecticides were found to be more toxic than herbicides (2,4-D and paraquat) with regard to the nauplii fairy shrimp. The high toxicity of pesticides has a long-term, and potentially damaging effect on aquatic organisms in the application areas.

  2. Whole eye axial biometry during accommodation using ultra-long scan depth optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Jianguang; Tao, Aizhu; Xu, Zhe; Jiang, Hong; Shao, Yilei; Zhang, Huicheng; Liu, Che; Wang, Jianhua

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE To investigate changes of whole eye axial biometry during accommodation using ultra-long scan depth optical coherence tomography (UL-OCT). DESIGN Prospective, observational case series. METHODS Twenty-one adult subjects were enrolled. Using UL-OCT, the left eye of each subject was imaged with relaxed (0 D) and accommodative stimuli (+6 D). Full eye biometry included central corneal thickness (CCT), anterior chamber depth (ACD), lens thickness, vitreous length and axial length (AL). RESULTS During accommodation (+6 D), the axial biometry of the whole eye changed significantly. Compared to the rest state, ACD at the accommodative state decreased significantly from 3.128 ± 0.305 mm to 2.961 ± 0.298 mm (paired t-test, P < 0.001). The lens thickness increased significantly from 3.723 ± 0.237 mm to 3.963 ± 0.234 mm (P < 0.001). The vitreous length decreased significantly from 17.129 ± 0.864 mm to 17.057± 0.848 mm (P < 0.001). AL was 24.519 ± 0.917 mm at the rest state and increased to 24.545±0.915 mm with +6 D accommodation stimulus. The elongated AL of 26.1 ± 13.4 μm between the rest and accommodative states was significant (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS During accommodation, whole eye axial biometry changed, including a decrease in ACD and vitreous length, and an increase in lens thickness and AL. UL-OCT provides an alternative method that is suitable for full eye biometry during accommodation. PMID:24487051

  3. Influence of UVB radiation on the lethal and sublethal toxicity of dispersed crude oil to planktonic copepod nauplii.

    PubMed

    Almeda, Rodrigo; Harvey, Tracy E; Connelly, Tara L; Baca, Sarah; Buskey, Edward J

    2016-06-01

    Toxic effects of petroleum to marine zooplankton have been generally investigated using dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons and in the absence of sunlight. In this study, we determined the influence of natural ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation on the lethal and sublethal toxicity of dispersed crude oil to naupliar stages of the planktonic copepods Acartia tonsa, Temora turbinata and Pseudodiaptomus pelagicus. Low concentrations of dispersed crude oil (1 μL L(-1)) caused a significant reduction in survival, growth and swimming activity of copepod nauplii after 48 h of exposure. UVB radiation increased toxicity of dispersed crude oil by 1.3-3.8 times, depending on the experiment and measured variables. Ingestion of crude oil droplets may increase photoenhanced toxicity of crude oil to copepod nauplii by enhancing photosensitization. Photoenhanced sublethal toxicity was significantly higher when T. turbinata nauplii were exposed to dispersant-treated oil than crude oil alone, suggesting that chemical dispersion of crude oil may promote photoenhanced toxicity to marine zooplankton. Our results demonstrate that acute exposure to concentrations of dispersed crude oil and dispersant (Corexit 9500) commonly found in the sea after oil spills are highly toxic to copepod nauplii and that natural levels of UVB radiation substantially increase the toxicity of crude oil to these planktonic organisms. Overall, this study emphasizes the importance of considering sunlight in petroleum toxicological studies and models to better estimate the impact of crude oil spills on marine zooplankton.

  4. Seasonal changes in nauplii and adults of Calanus hyperboreus (Copepoda) captured in sediment traps, Amundsen Gulf, Canadian Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ota, Y.; Hattori, H.; Makabe, R.; Sampei, M.; Tanimura, A.; Sasaki, H.

    Arctic copepods were collected using time-series sediment traps in the Amundsen Gulf, Canadian Arctic, as part of the CASES (Canadian Arctic Shelf Exchange Study) program. Four sediment traps were deployed at three stations (200 m depth for CA15, 200 and 400 m depths for CA18, and 200 m depth for CA20) from October 2003 to July 2004. We collected many copepod nauplii ranging in body length from 155 to 811 μm, among which nauplii (mostly N1-2) of Calanus with a size of ∼190 μm apparently increased in abundance from February to mid-March. Mature-stage adult females (AF) of Calanus hyperboreus were collected in the traps from February to March, and adult males of C. hyperboreus appeared from November to December at all stations. The likely spawning period of these AF coincided with the occurrence period of ∼190 μm-sized nauplii. This finding suggests that these nauplii were derived from C. hyperboreus and that their breeding began at the beginning of November or December at the latest, continuing through April in the Amundsen Gulf.

  5. Influence of UVB radiation on the lethal and sublethal toxicity of dispersed crude oil to planktonic copepod nauplii.

    PubMed

    Almeda, Rodrigo; Harvey, Tracy E; Connelly, Tara L; Baca, Sarah; Buskey, Edward J

    2016-06-01

    Toxic effects of petroleum to marine zooplankton have been generally investigated using dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons and in the absence of sunlight. In this study, we determined the influence of natural ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation on the lethal and sublethal toxicity of dispersed crude oil to naupliar stages of the planktonic copepods Acartia tonsa, Temora turbinata and Pseudodiaptomus pelagicus. Low concentrations of dispersed crude oil (1 μL L(-1)) caused a significant reduction in survival, growth and swimming activity of copepod nauplii after 48 h of exposure. UVB radiation increased toxicity of dispersed crude oil by 1.3-3.8 times, depending on the experiment and measured variables. Ingestion of crude oil droplets may increase photoenhanced toxicity of crude oil to copepod nauplii by enhancing photosensitization. Photoenhanced sublethal toxicity was significantly higher when T. turbinata nauplii were exposed to dispersant-treated oil than crude oil alone, suggesting that chemical dispersion of crude oil may promote photoenhanced toxicity to marine zooplankton. Our results demonstrate that acute exposure to concentrations of dispersed crude oil and dispersant (Corexit 9500) commonly found in the sea after oil spills are highly toxic to copepod nauplii and that natural levels of UVB radiation substantially increase the toxicity of crude oil to these planktonic organisms. Overall, this study emphasizes the importance of considering sunlight in petroleum toxicological studies and models to better estimate the impact of crude oil spills on marine zooplankton. PMID:27003367

  6. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of the retinoid X receptor (RXR) gene in golden pompano Trachinotus ovatus fed Artemia nauplii with different enrichments.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qibin; Zheng, Panlong; Ma, Zhenhua; Li, Tao; Jiang, Shigui; Qin, Jian G

    2015-12-01

    The retinoid X receptors (RXRs) are involved in the skeletal development and other biological process such as blood vessel formation and metabolism. Partial sequences of RXRα and β genes were obtained, and their expressions were quantified on golden pompano Trachinotus ovatus at 28 days post hatching (DPH) to explore the molecular response to nutritional manipulation in fish larvae. As live food, Artemia nauplii were separately enriched with Nannochloropsis and Algamac 3080 and non-enriched Artemia nauplii (control) for fish feeding. The expressions of RXRs were detected in the embryos and fish larvae at early stages, suggesting that the skeletal development in golden pompano initiated before yolk re-sorption completion. Fish fed non-enriched Artemia nauplii ended up with higher jaw malformation. The highest specific growth rate was obtained when fish were fed with the Artemia nauplii enriched with Algamac 3080, and the lowest growth rate was observed when fish were fed with unenriched Artemia nauplii. The highest survival was obtained when fish were fed with non-enriched or Nannochloropsis-enriched Artemia nauplii. This study indicates that the use of enriched formula for Artemia nauplii can significantly affect the expression levels of RXRs and jaw malformation of golden pompano larvae, but there is no clear correlation between RXRs expressions and malformation rates when fish are subjected to nutrient challenge. PMID:26159320

  7. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of the retinoid X receptor (RXR) gene in golden pompano Trachinotus ovatus fed Artemia nauplii with different enrichments.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qibin; Zheng, Panlong; Ma, Zhenhua; Li, Tao; Jiang, Shigui; Qin, Jian G

    2015-12-01

    The retinoid X receptors (RXRs) are involved in the skeletal development and other biological process such as blood vessel formation and metabolism. Partial sequences of RXRα and β genes were obtained, and their expressions were quantified on golden pompano Trachinotus ovatus at 28 days post hatching (DPH) to explore the molecular response to nutritional manipulation in fish larvae. As live food, Artemia nauplii were separately enriched with Nannochloropsis and Algamac 3080 and non-enriched Artemia nauplii (control) for fish feeding. The expressions of RXRs were detected in the embryos and fish larvae at early stages, suggesting that the skeletal development in golden pompano initiated before yolk re-sorption completion. Fish fed non-enriched Artemia nauplii ended up with higher jaw malformation. The highest specific growth rate was obtained when fish were fed with the Artemia nauplii enriched with Algamac 3080, and the lowest growth rate was observed when fish were fed with unenriched Artemia nauplii. The highest survival was obtained when fish were fed with non-enriched or Nannochloropsis-enriched Artemia nauplii. This study indicates that the use of enriched formula for Artemia nauplii can significantly affect the expression levels of RXRs and jaw malformation of golden pompano larvae, but there is no clear correlation between RXRs expressions and malformation rates when fish are subjected to nutrient challenge.

  8. Laser optical method of visualizing cutaneous blood vessels and its applications in biometry and photomedicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asimov, M. M.; Asimov, R. M.; Rubinov, A. N.

    2011-05-01

    We propose and examine a new approach to visualizing a local network of cutaneous blood vessels using laser optical methods for applications in biometry and photomedicine. Various optical schemes of the formation of biometrical information on the architecture of blood vessels of skin tissue are analyzed. We developed an optical model of the interaction of the laser radiation with the biological tissue and a mathematical algorithm of processing of measurement results. We show that, in medicine, the visualization of blood vessels makes it possible to calculate and determine regions of disturbance of blood microcirculation and to control tissue hypoxia, as well as to maintain the local concentration of oxygen at a level necessary for the normal cellular metabolism. We propose noninvasive optical methods for modern photomedicine and biometry for diagnostics and elimination of tissue hypoxia and for personality identification and verification via the pattern of cutaneous blood vessels.

  9. [Comparison of contact and immersion techniques of ultrasound biometry in terms of target postoperative refraction].

    PubMed

    Hrebcová, J; Skorkovská, S; Vasků, A

    2009-07-01

    The success of cataract surgery in terms of the postoperative refractive result depends on the calculation of optimal intraocular lens (IOL) power. The accuracy of preoperative measurements (keratometry, biometry) is of a great importance due to the increasing patients' demands on final refractive results. The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of contact and immersion techniques of A - scan ultrasound biometry in terms of target postoperative refraction while using the SRK/T formula. The accuracy of the applied biometric techniques was compared by means of the postoperative spherical equivalent (SE). The prospective longitudinal study included 111 non-paired eyes, and the preoperative biometry was performed by means of an OcuScan ultrasound machine (Alcon).The contact technique was used in 48 eyes whereas the immersion technique was employed in 63 eyes.The mean SE in the group measured by the contact technique was -0.13 D, compared to 0.25 D in the group with the applied immersion technique. No statistically significant difference was found in postoperative spherical equivalents while using both biometric techniques (p > 0.1). In this study the choice of a biometric technique had therefore no influence on the predicted postoperative refraction. The results have indicated that the biometric techniques (contact and immersion) are interchangeable in terms of postoperative refractive results.

  10. Biometry based ageing of nestling Indian Spotted Owlets ( Athene brama brama)

    PubMed Central

    Pande, Satish; Pawashe, Amit; Mahajan, Mahadeo N.; Mahabal, Anil; Yosef, Reuven; Dahanukar, Neelesh

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Biometric analysis helps in sex differentiation, understanding development and for studies of avian biology such as foraging ecology, evolutionary ecology, and survivorship. We suggest that biometry can also be a reliable, practical and inexpensive tool to determine the age of nestlings in the field by non-invasive methods. As an example we studied the biometry of wing, culmen, talon, tarsus and body mass of nestling southern Indian Spotted Owlets (Athene brama brama). Based on the growth pattern analysis using logistic growth model, discriminant analysis and CHAID (Chi-squared Automatic Interaction Detection) based decision tree, we show that biometry of nestling Spotted Owlets is an easy, reliable and inexpensive method to determine nestling age and to assess growth rate and relative nutritional status. These biometric parameters also allow us to predict their ability to initiate first flight from the nest site. This method is described here for the first time and we postulate that such charts can be devised for other avian species as well, so as to assist conservation biologists and bird rescuers. PMID:22140335

  11. Biometry based ageing of nestling Indian Spotted Owlets ( Athene brama brama).

    PubMed

    Pande, Satish; Pawashe, Amit; Mahajan, Mahadeo N; Mahabal, Anil; Yosef, Reuven; Dahanukar, Neelesh

    2011-01-01

    Biometric analysis helps in sex differentiation, understanding development and for studies of avian biology such as foraging ecology, evolutionary ecology, and survivorship. We suggest that biometry can also be a reliable, practical and inexpensive tool to determine the age of nestlings in the field by non-invasive methods. As an example we studied the biometry of wing, culmen, talon, tarsus and body mass of nestling southern Indian Spotted Owlets (Athene brama brama). Based on the growth pattern analysis using logistic growth model, discriminant analysis and CHAID (Chi-squared Automatic Interaction Detection) based decision tree, we show that biometry of nestling Spotted Owlets is an easy, reliable and inexpensive method to determine nestling age and to assess growth rate and relative nutritional status. These biometric parameters also allow us to predict their ability to initiate first flight from the nest site. This method is described here for the first time and we postulate that such charts can be devised for other avian species as well, so as to assist conservation biologists and bird rescuers.

  12. Assessment of femur length for fetal biometry in Malaysian pregnant women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramli, Ramzun Maizan; Adam, Noraina; Jaafar, Mohamad Suhaimi; Rahman, Azhar Abdul; Mustafa, Iskandar Shahrim; Radzi, Yasmin; Nordin, Suriani; Kamarudin, Izyani

    2013-05-01

    The fetal biometry assessment of femur length (FL) was developed in most countries to evaluate the foetus growth. In this study, the FL values for Malaysia population were determined. A prospective study was conducted and a number of 6501 pregnant women were involved with 12372 FL data were collected, performed at antenatal care clinic of Hospital Pulau Pinang, Malaysia. The SPSS software version 17 (regression analysis and paired sample t-test) were used for analysis. The FL values of this study were constructed and rapid FL growth rate in second trimester (2.59 mm/week) than third trimester (1.43 mm/week) was observed. By ethnicity, no significant difference (p ≥ 0.05) was found between the FL values for fetuses of Malay and Indian ethnic's mother (t = -2.042), however these two groups shows significantly (p < 0.05) higher values than those of Chinese ethnic's mother (t = 4.019, 4.083; accordingly). The FL values of Malaysian resulted as significant difference with the common reference FL values from USA and UK, and also with selected Asian populations (India, China, Korea and Japan). As conclusion, it is strong suggested that medical practitioner in Malaysia should avoid in using biometry references based on other population to avoid under- or over-estimation and for accurate assessment of the fetus growth. As this study involved local Malaysian fetuses, therefore the medical practitioner can use the FL values of this study as reference value for fetus biometry assessment in Malaysia.

  13. beta-Hydroxybutyrate in developing nauplii of brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana K.) under feeding and non-feeding conditions.

    PubMed

    Weltzien, F A; Hemre, G I; Evjemo, J O; Olsen, Y; Fyhn, H J

    2000-01-01

    Body content of beta-hydroxybutyrate, and individual dry mass, carbon content, and survival rate, were studied in developing nauplii of the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana K. from hatching to 96-97 h post hatching at 27 +/- 1 degrees C. The effect of two diets was studied in the experiment: Super Selco (SS) with a high lipid content; and Protein Selco (PS) with a high protein content. A starving group (S) was used as reference. The level of beta-hydroxybutyrate at hatching was 0.6 nmol.ind-1; it increased to 1.0-1.5 nmol.ind-1 in the SS- and S-groups, while in the PS-group it remained stable between 0.6-0.8 nmol.ind-1. At 60-80 h post hatch in the SS- and S-groups, the levels of beta-hydroxybutyrate were similar to the initial levels. The survival rate remained higher than 95% until 24 h post hatching in all groups. At the end of the experiment, the survival rate was 63% in the PS-group, 13% in the S-group and 3% in the SS-group. The Artemia nauplii individual dry mass and carbon content remained relatively stable in the SS-group; both parameters showed a significant increase in the PS-group and a significant decrease in the S-group. The results suggest that Artemia nauplii utilise ketone bodies as a fuel during development and growth, but that ketone catabolism may be overloaded by excessive lipid feeding resulting in increased mortality and possibly a ketotic acidosis. PMID:10840642

  14. Spatiotemporal distribution of protozooplankton and copepod nauplii in relation to the occurrence of giant jellyfish in the Yellow Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lu; Xu, Kuidong

    2013-11-01

    The occurrence of the giant jellyfish, Nemopilema nomurai, has been a frequent phenomenon in the Yellow Sea. However, the relationship between the giant jellyfish and protozoa, in particular ciliates, remains largely unknown. We investigated the distribution of nanoflagellates, ciliates, Noctiluca scintillans, and copepod nauplii along the transect 33°N in the Yellow Sea in June and August, 2012, during an occurrence of the giant jellyfish, and in October of that year when the jellyfish was absent. The organisms studied were mainly concentrated in the surface waters in summer, while in autumn they were evenly distributed in the water column. Nanoflagellate, ciliate, and copepod nauplii biomasses increased from early June to August along with jellyfish growth, the first two decreased in October, while N. scintillans biomass peaked in early June to 3 571 μg C/L and decreased in August and October. In summer, ciliate biomass greatly exceeded that of copepod nauplii (4.61-15.04 μg C/L vs. 0.34-0.89 μg C/L). Ciliate production was even more important than biomass, ranging from 6.59 to 34.19 μg C/(L·d) in summer. Our data suggest a tight and positive association among the nano-, micro-, and meso-zooplankton in the study area. Statistical analysis revealed that the abundance and total production of ciliate as well as loricate ciliate biomass were positively correlated with giant jellyfish biomass, indicating a possible predator-prey relationship between ciliates and giant jellyfish. This is in contrast to a previous study, which reported a significant reduction in ciliate standing crops due to the mass occurrence of N. nomurai in summer. Our study indicates that, with its high biomass and, in particular, high production ciliates might support the mass occurrence of giant jellyfish.

  15. On the morphology, biometry and biogeography of Lamtopyxiscallistoma (Amoebozoa: Arcellinida).

    PubMed

    Todorov, Milcho

    2015-01-01

    The ultra-structure of the shell and the morphometric variability of soil inhabiting testate amoeba Lamtopyxiscallistoma from Madagascar were studied by using light- and scanning electron microscopy. The biometrical characteristic of the species was made on the basis of 75 specimens measured. In addition to the diameter of the shell, six other shell characters were described biometrically for the first time. The analysis of the variation coefficients shows that the studied population of L.callistoma is comparatively homogeneous and almost all measured characters are weakly to moderate variable (CV less than 10%). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies on the shell ultra-morphology show that it has a smooth apertural surface with a thick layer of porous and fibrous organic cement and a rough dorsal surface composed of bigger and angular pieces of quartz. The shell wall has a thickness of about 5-6 µm and is composed of three layers. Unlike the previously accepted opinion that species is characterized by the presence of four teeth, this study shows that population of L.callistoma from Madagascar is comprised of both, specimens with four teeth and specimens with three teeth, in ratio of about 60% to 40%. Taking into account the restricted geographical distribution, large sizes and characteristic apertural morphology of L.callistoma it is assumed that this species, like some bryophilic 'Nebelas' with circumaustral distribution (e.g. Apoderavas, Alocoderacockayni, Certesellacertesi, Certesellamartiali, etc.), can be used as an example that in free-living microbial eukaryotes 'not everything is everywhere'.

  16. Refractive outcomes comparison between the Lenstar LS 900® optical biometry and immersion A-scan ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Naicker, Palanyraj; Sundralingam, Siva; Peyman, Mohammadreza; Juana, Azida; Mohamad, Nor Fadhilah; Win, Maung Maung; Loo, Angela; Subrayan, Visvaraja

    2015-08-01

    To determine the accuracy of intraocular lens (IOL) calculations in eyes undergoing phacoemulsification cataract surgery with IOL implantation using immersion A-scan ultrasound (US) and Lenstar LS 900(®) biometry. In this prospective study, 200 eyes of 200 patients were randomized to undergo either Lenstar LS 900(®) or immersion A-scan US biometry to determine the IOL dioptric power prior to phacoemulsification cataract surgery. Post-operative refractive outcomes of these two groups of patients were compared. The result showed no significant difference between the target spherical equivalent (SE) and the post-operative SE value by the Lenstar LS 900(®) (p value = 0.632) or immersion A-scan US biometry (p value = 0.438) devices. The magnitude of difference between the two biometric devices were not significantly different (p value = 0.868). There was no significant difference in the predicted post-operative refractive outcome between immersion A-scan US biometry and Lenstar LS 900(®). Based on the results, the immersion A-scan US technique is as accurate as Lenstar LS 900(®) in the hands of an experienced operator.

  17. A data assimilation framework for constraining upscaled cropland carbon flux seasonality and biometry with MODIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sus, O.; Heuer, M. W.; Meyers, T. P.; Williams, M.

    2012-08-01

    Agroecosystem models are strongly dependent on information on land management patterns for regional applications. Land management practices play a major role in determining global yield variability, and add an anthropogenic signal to the observed seasonality of atmospheric CO2 concentrations. However, there is still little knowledge on spatial and temporal variability of important farmland activities such as crop sowing dates, and thus these remain rather crudely approximated within carbon cycle studies. In this study, we present a framework allowing for spatio-temporally resolved simulation of cropland carbon fluxes under observational constraints on land management and canopy greenness. We apply a data assimilation methodology in order to explicitly account for information on sowing dates and model leaf area index. MODIS 250 m vegetation index data were assimilated both variationally (for sowing date estimation) and sequentially (for improved model state estimation, using the Ensemble Kalman Filter) into a crop carbon mass balance model (SPAc). In doing so, we are able to accurately quantify the multiannual (2000-2006) regional carbon flux and biometry seasonality of maize-soybean crop rotations surrounding the Bondville Ameriflux eddy covariance site, averaged over 104 pixel locations within the wider area. (1) From Bondville site results we deduce that MODIS-derived sowing dates allow for accurate simulations of growing season carbon cycling at locations for which such ground-truth data are not available. Thus, this framework enables modellers to simulate current (i.e. last 10 yr) carbon cycling of major agricultural regions. Averaged over the 104 field patches analysed, relative spatial variability for biometry and net ecosystem exchange ranges from ~7 % to ~18 %. The annual sign of net biome productivity is not significantly different from carbon neutrality. (2) Moreover, observing carbon cycling at one single field with its individual sowing pattern is not

  18. A data assimilation framework for constraining upscaled cropland carbon flux seasonality and biometry with MODIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sus, O.; Heuer, M. W.; Meyers, T. P.; Williams, M.

    2013-04-01

    Agroecosystem models are strongly dependent on information on land management patterns for regional applications. Land management practices play a major role in determining global yield variability, and add an anthropogenic signal to the observed seasonality of atmospheric CO2 concentrations. However, there is still little knowledge on spatial and temporal variability of important farmland activities such as crop sowing dates, and thus these remain rather crudely approximated within carbon cycle studies. In this study, we present a framework allowing for spatio-temporally resolved simulation of cropland carbon fluxes under observational constraints on land management and canopy greenness. We apply data assimilation methodology in order to explicitly account for information on sowing dates and model leaf area index. MODIS 250 m vegetation index data were assimilated both in batch-calibration for sowing date estimation and sequentially for improved model state estimation, using the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF), into a crop carbon mass balance model (SPAc). In doing so, we are able to quantify the multiannual (2000-2006) regional carbon flux and biometry seasonality of maize-soybean crop rotations surrounding the Bondville Ameriflux eddy covariance site, averaged over 104 pixel locations within the wider area. (1) Validation at the Bondville site shows that growing season C cycling is simulated accurately with MODIS-derived sowing dates, and we expect that this framework allows for accurate simulations of C cycling at locations for which ground-truth data are not available. Thus, this framework enables modellers to simulate current (i.e. last 10 yr) carbon cycling of major agricultural regions. Averaged over the 104 field patches analysed, relative spatial variability for biometry and net ecosystem exchange ranges from ∼7% to ∼18%. The annual sign of net biome productivity is not significantly different from carbon neutrality. (2) Moreover, observing carbon

  19. Simultaneous refraction measurement and OCT axial biometry of the eye during accommodation (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Freitas, Carolina; Hernandez, Victor M.; Ruggeri, Marco; Durkee, Heather A.; Williams, Siobhan; Gregori, Giovanni; Ho, Arthur; Manns, Fabrice; Parel, Jean-Marie

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this project is to design and evaluate a system that will enable objective assessment of the optical accommodative response in real-time while acquiring axial biometric information. The system combines three sub-systems which were integrated and mounted on a joystick x-y-z adjustable modified slit-lamp base to facilitate alignment and data acquisition: (1) a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor for dynamic refraction measurement, provided software calculates sphere, cylinder and axis values, (2) an extended-depth Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) system using an optical switch records high-resolution cross-sectional images across the length of the eye, from which, dynamic axial biometry (corneal thickness, anterior chamber depth, crystalline lens thickness and vitreous depth) can be extracted, and (3) a modified dual-channel accommodation stimulus unit based on the Badal optometer for providing a step change in accommodative stimulus. The prototypal system is capable of taking simultaneous measurements of both the optical and the mechanical response of lens accommodation. These measurements can provide insight into correlating changes in lens shape with changes in lens power and ocular refraction and ultimately provide a more comprehensive understanding of accommodation, presbyopia and an objective assessment of presbyopia correction techniques.

  20. Measuring phacoemulsification groove depth using probe tip dimensions and biometry lens thickness readings

    PubMed Central

    Dunne, Kevin; Buller, Alex J

    2016-01-01

    Aim To describe a useful technique utilizing lens thickness from biometric data as well as phacoemulsification (phaco) probe tip dimensions, in order to more accurately determine safe groove depth during divide and conquer techniques for cataract surgery. Methods Single center, selection of patients for cataract surgery deemed low risk and suitable for surgical teaching cases. Individual lens thickness measurements from biometry were calculated with known phaco tip dimensions to give an individualized safe number of phaco tip depths for grooving during divide and conquer. This technique was then applied during cataract surgery. Results Utilization of this technique allows calculation and determination of an appropriate number of phaco tip depths of grooving for each individual patient. This technique was applied as a teaching tool for surgical trainees, with subsequent successful safe cataract surgeries completed. No posterior capsule ruptures were noted for these cases. Conclusion By combining the biometric measurements of an individual patient’s lens thickness together with known phaco tip dimensions, individualized safe groove depths can be theoretically determined and applied during divide and conquer cataract surgery. PMID:27574395

  1. Dispersant Corexit 9500A and chemically dispersed crude oil decreases the growth rates of meroplanktonic barnacle nauplii (Amphibalanus improvisus) and tornaria larvae (Schizocardium sp.).

    PubMed

    Almeda, Rodrigo; Bona, Shawn; Foster, Charles R; Buskey, Edward J

    2014-08-01

    Our knowledge of the lethal and sublethal effects of dispersants and dispersed crude oil on meroplanktonic larvae is limited despite the importance of planktonic larval stages in the life cycle of benthic invertebrates. We determined the effects of Light Louisiana Sweet crude oil, dispersant Corexit 9500A, and dispersant-treated crude oil on the survival and growth rates of nauplii of the barnacle Amphibalanus improvisus and tornaria larvae of the enteropneust Schizocardium sp. Growth rates of barnacle nauplii and tornaria larvae were significantly reduced after exposure to chemically dispersed crude oil and dispersant Corexit 9500A at concentrations commonly found in the water column after dispersant application in crude oil spills. We also found that barnacle nauplii ingested dispersed crude oil, which may have important consequences for the biotransfer of petroleum hydrocarbons through coastal pelagic food webs after a crude oil spill. Therefore, application of chemical dispersants increases the impact of crude oil spills on meroplanktonic larvae, which may affect recruitment and population dynamics of marine benthic invertebrates.

  2. Dispersant Corexit 9500A and chemically dispersed crude oil decreases the growth rates of meroplanktonic barnacle nauplii (Amphibalanus improvisus) and tornaria larvae (Schizocardium sp.).

    PubMed

    Almeda, Rodrigo; Bona, Shawn; Foster, Charles R; Buskey, Edward J

    2014-08-01

    Our knowledge of the lethal and sublethal effects of dispersants and dispersed crude oil on meroplanktonic larvae is limited despite the importance of planktonic larval stages in the life cycle of benthic invertebrates. We determined the effects of Light Louisiana Sweet crude oil, dispersant Corexit 9500A, and dispersant-treated crude oil on the survival and growth rates of nauplii of the barnacle Amphibalanus improvisus and tornaria larvae of the enteropneust Schizocardium sp. Growth rates of barnacle nauplii and tornaria larvae were significantly reduced after exposure to chemically dispersed crude oil and dispersant Corexit 9500A at concentrations commonly found in the water column after dispersant application in crude oil spills. We also found that barnacle nauplii ingested dispersed crude oil, which may have important consequences for the biotransfer of petroleum hydrocarbons through coastal pelagic food webs after a crude oil spill. Therefore, application of chemical dispersants increases the impact of crude oil spills on meroplanktonic larvae, which may affect recruitment and population dynamics of marine benthic invertebrates. PMID:25028258

  3. Larval brine shrimp (Nauplii): a potentially useful model to study cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Bargman, G J

    1976-01-01

    One of the most consistent characteristics of cystic fibrosis is the abnormal handling of electrolytes by exocrine glands. The present study has examined the possibility that diminished respiratory energy formation is a primary biochemical error responsible for this abnormality. Using oxygen consumption of intact larval brine shrimp, quantitative differences have been observed from reaction of mixed mouth saliva between CF heterozygotes and CF homozygotes. In addition, information demonstrating a correlation between a biochemical abnormality and disease severity was observed. The differences observed in inhibition by saliva from both CF homozygotes and obligate heterozygotes may occur as the result of 1) interference with electron transfer from organic fuel molecules to molecular oxygen or 2) interference with the mechanism responsible for generating the biochemical reducing power necessary for multiple biosynthetic reactions. PMID:996791

  4. Effect of pupillary dilation on Haigis formula-calculated intraocular lens power measurement by using optical biometry

    PubMed Central

    Khambhiphant, Bharkbhum; Sasiwilasagorn, Suganlaya; Chatbunchachai, Nattida; Pongpirul, Krit

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of pupillary dilation on the Haigis formula-calculated intraocular lens (IOL) power and ocular biometry measurements by using IOLMaster®. Methods A prospective study was performed for biometry measurements of 373 eyes of 192 healthy subjects using the IOLMaster at the outpatient department of King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital from February 2013 to July 2013. The axial length (AL), anterior chamber depth (ACD), keratometry (K), and IOL power were measured before and after 1% tropicamide eye drop instillation. The Haigis formula was used in the IOL power calculation with the predicted target to emmetropia. Each parameter was compared by a paired t-test prior to and after pupillary dilation. Bland–Altman plots were also used to determine the agreement between each parameter. Results The mean age of the subjects was 53.74±14.41 years (range 18–93 years). No differences in AL (P=0.03), steepest K (P=0.42), and flattest K (P=0.41) were obtained from the IOLMaster after pupillary dilation. However, ACD and IOL power were significantly different postdilation (P<0.01 and P<0.01, respectively). In ACD and IOL power measurements, the concordance rates were 93.03% and 97.05% within 95% limits of agreement (−0.48 to 0.26 mm and −1.09 to 0.88 D, respectively) in the Bland–Altman plots. Conclusion Biometry measurements in the cycloplegic stage should be considered in the IOL formulas that use parameters other than AL and K. PMID:27555746

  5. Comparison of the biometric formulas used for applanation A-scan ultrasound biometry.

    PubMed

    Özcura, Fatih; Aktaş, Serdar; Sağdık, Hacı Murat; Tetikoğlu, Mehmet

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the accuracy of various biometric formulas for predicting postoperative refraction determined using applanation A-scan ultrasound. This retrospective comparative study included 485 eyes that underwent uneventful phacoemulsification with intraocular lens (IOL) implantation. Applanation A-scan ultrasound biometry and postoperative manifest refraction were obtained in all eyes. Biometric data were entered into each of the five IOL power calculation formulas: SRK-II, SRK/T, Holladay I, Hoffer Q, and Binkhorst II. All eyes were divided into three groups according to axial length: short (≤22.0 mm), average (22.0-25.0 mm), and long (≥25.0 mm) eyes. The postoperative spherical equivalent was calculated and compared with the predicted refractive error using each biometric formula. The results showed that all formulas had significantly lower mean absolute error (MAE) in comparison with Binkhorst II formula (P < 0.01). The lowest MAE was obtained with the SRK-II for average (0.49 ± 0.40 D) and short (0.67 ± 0.54 D) eyes and the SRK/T for long (0.61 ± 0.50 D) eyes. The highest postoperative hyperopic shift was seen with the SRK-II for average (46.8 %), short (28.1 %), and long (48.4 %) eyes. The highest postoperative myopic shift was seen with the Holladay I for average (66.4 %) and long (71.0 %) eyes and the SRK/T for short eyes (80.6 %). In conclusion, the SRK-II formula produced the lowest MAE in average and short eyes and the SRK/T formula produced the lowest MAE in long eyes. The SRK-II has the highest postoperative hyperopic shift in all eyes. The highest postoperative myopic shift is with the Holladay I for average and long eyes and SRK/T for short eyes.

  6. Characteristics of the Anterior Segment Biometry and Corneal Endothelium in Eyes with Pseudoexfoliation Syndrome and Senile Cataract

    PubMed Central

    Bozkurt, Banu; Güzel, Hüseyin; Kamış, Ümit; Gedik, Şansal; Okudan, Süleyman

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the anterior segment biometric features and corneal endothelial changes in eyes with pseudoexfoliation (PEX) syndrome and senile cataract. Materials and Methods: The central corneal thickness, anterior chamber depth (ACD), pupil diameter, lens thickness, endothelial cell density (ECD), and percentages of polymegathism and pleomorphism of 52 subjects with PEX and cataract were compared with 51 age- and gender-matched control subjects with cataract using optical low-coherence reflectometry (OLCR, Lenstar LS 900; Haag Streit AG, Switzerland) and in-vivo confocal microscopy (Confo Scan 4, Nidek Co. Ltd, Osaka, Japan). Nineteen subjects with PEX syndrome had glaucoma and were using anti-glaucoma medications. Only one eye of the subjects was used in statistical analysis and a p value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: None of the OLCR parameters reached statistically significant differences among the 3 groups (ANOVA p>0.05). The percentage of eyes with ACD <2.5 mm was 13.7% in the control group, 24.2% in PEX eyes without glaucoma and 21.1% in PEX eyes with glaucoma, with no statistically significant differences (p=0.45). There was a significant difference in mean ECD among the 3 groups (ANOVA p=0.02), whereas no differences could be found in respect to polymegathism and pleomorphism (p>0.05). Mean ECD was significantly lower in the PEX glaucoma group (2,199.5±176.8 cells/mm2) than the control group (2,363±229.3 cells/mm2) (p=0.02), whereas no difference was found in mean ECD of PEX eyes without glaucoma and the control group (p=0.42). ECD was less than 2,000 cells/mm2 in 15.8% of PEX subjects with glaucoma, 9.8% of control subjects and 6.1% of PEX eyes without glaucoma, with no statistically significant difference (p=0.52). Conclusion: As eyes with both PEX glaucoma and cataract seem to be associated with decreased endothelial cell number, specular or confocal microscopy screening should be done for the patients scheduled for intraocular surgery. PMID:27800230

  7. Full anterior segment biometry with extended imaging range spectral domain optical coherence tomography at 1340 nm

    PubMed Central

    Li, Peng; Johnstone, Murray; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. We demonstrate an extended-imaging-range anterior-segment optical coherence tomography (eAS-OCT) system for the biometric assessment of full AS in human eye. This newly developed eAS-OCT operating at 1340-nm wavelength band is simultaneously capable of an imaging speed of 120 kHz A-line scan rate, an axial resolution of 7.2 μm, and an extended imaging range of up to 16 mm in air. Imaging results from three healthy subjects and one subject with a narrow-angle demonstrate the instrument’s utility. With this system, it can provide anatomical dimensions of AS, including central corneal thickness, anterior chamber width, anterior chamber depth, crystalline lens vault, crystalline lens thickness, angle opening distance (AOD500/AOD750), and the area described by the trabecular-iris space (TISA500/TISA750) at 500/750  μm. We also use eAS-OCT to image and quantify dynamic functional changes of the AS in response to a light stimulus that induces physiological pupillary changes as well as accommodative efforts that induce lens changes. The results show that the described eAS-OCT is able to provide full anatomical biometry for AS and is useful for the studies where the dynamic response of AS compartment to certain stimulus is required. PMID:24752381

  8. DXA, bioelectrical impedance, ultrasonography and biometry for the estimation of fat and lean mass in cats during weight loss

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Few equations have been developed in veterinary medicine compared to human medicine to predict body composition. The present study was done to evaluate the influence of weight loss on biometry (BIO), bioimpedance analysis (BIA) and ultrasonography (US) in cats, proposing equations to estimate fat (FM) and lean (LM) body mass, as compared to dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as the referenced method. For this were used 16 gonadectomized obese cats (8 males and 8 females) in a weight loss program. DXA, BIO, BIA and US were performed in the obese state (T0; obese animals), after 10% of weight loss (T1) and after 20% of weight loss (T2). Stepwise regression was used to analyze the relationship between the dependent variables (FM, LM) determined by DXA and the independent variables obtained by BIO, BIA and US. The better models chosen were evaluated by a simple regression analysis and means predicted vs. determined by DXA were compared to verify the accuracy of the equations. Results The independent variables determined by BIO, BIA and US that best correlated (p < 0.005) with the dependent variables (FM and LM) were BW (body weight), TC (thoracic circumference), PC (pelvic circumference), R (resistance) and SFLT (subcutaneous fat layer thickness). Using Mallows’Cp statistics, p value and r2, 19 equations were selected (12 for FM, 7 for LM); however, only 7 equations accurately predicted FM and one LM of cats. Conclusions The equations with two variables are better to use because they are effective and will be an alternative method to estimate body composition in the clinical routine. For estimated lean mass the equations using body weight associated with biometrics measures can be proposed. For estimated fat mass the equations using body weight associated with bioimpedance analysis can be proposed. PMID:22781317

  9. On the morphology, biometry and biogeography of Lamtopyxis callistoma (Amoebozoa: Arcellinida)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The ultra-structure of the shell and the morphometric variability of soil inhabiting testate amoeba Lamtopyxis callistoma from Madagascar were studied by using light- and scanning electron microscopy. The biometrical characteristic of the species was made on the basis of 75 specimens measured. In addition to the diameter of the shell, six other shell characters were described biometrically for the first time. The analysis of the variation coefficients shows that the studied population of L. callistoma is comparatively homogeneous and almost all measured characters are weakly to moderate variable (CV less than 10%). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies on the shell ultra-morphology show that it has a smooth apertural surface with a thick layer of porous and fibrous organic cement and a rough dorsal surface composed of bigger and angular pieces of quartz. The shell wall has a thickness of about 5-6 µm and is composed of three layers. Unlike the previously accepted opinion that species is characterized by the presence of four teeth, this study shows that population of L. callistoma from Madagascar is comprised of both, specimens with four teeth and specimens with three teeth, in ratio of about 60% to 40%. Taking into account the restricted geographical distribution, large sizes and characteristic apertural morphology of L. callistoma it is assumed that this species, like some bryophilic ‘Nebelas’ with circumaustral distribution (e.g. Apodera vas, Alocodera cockayni, Certesella certesi, Certesella martiali, etc.), can be used as an example that in free-living microbial eukaryotes ‘not everything is everywhere’. PMID:25632260

  10. Hylemetry versus Biometry: a new method to certificate the lithography authenticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schirripa Spagnolo, Giuseppe; Cozzella, Lorenzo; Simonetti, Carla

    2011-06-01

    When we buy an artwork object a certificate of authenticity contain specific details about the artwork. Unfortunately, these certificates are often exchanged between similar artworks: the same document is supplied by the seller to certificate the originality. In this way the buyer will have a copy of an original certificate to attest that the "not original artwork" is an original one. A solution for this problem would be to insert a system that links together the certificate and a specific artwork. To do this it is necessary, for a single artwork, to find unique, unrepeatable, and unchangeable characteristics. In this paper we propose a new lithography certification based on the color spots distribution, which compose the lithography itself. Due to the high resolution acquisition media available today, it is possible using analysis method typical of speckle metrology. In particular, in verification phase it is only necessary acquiring the same portion of lithography, extracting the verification information, using the private key to obtain the same information from the certificate and confronting the two information using a comparison threshold. Due to the possible rotation and translation it is applied image correlation solutions, used in speckle metrology, to determine translation and rotation error and correct allow to verifying extracted and acquired images in the best situation, for granting correct originality verification.

  11. Biometry and diversity of Arabica coffee genotypes cultivated in a high density plant system.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, W N; Tomaz, M A; Ferrão, M A G; Martins, L D; Colodetti, T V; Brinate, S V B; Amaral, J F T; Sobreira, F M; Apostólico, M A

    2016-01-01

    The present study was developed to respond to the need for an increase in crop yield in the mountain region of Caparaó (southern Espírito Santo State, Brazil), an area of traditional coffee production. This study aimed to analyze the diversity and characterize the crop yield of genotypes of Coffea arabica L. with potential for cultivation in high plant density systems. In addition, it also aimed to quantify the expression of agronomic traits in this cultivation system and provide information on the genotypes with the highest cultivation potential in the studied region. The experiment followed a randomized block design with 16 genotypes, four repetitions, and six plants per experimental plot. Plant spacing was 2.00 x 0.60 m, with a total of 8333 plants per hectare, representing a high-density cultivation system. Coffee plants were cultivated until the start of their reproductive phenological cycles and were evaluated along four complete reproductive cycles. Genotypes with high crop yield and beverage quality, short canopy, and rust resistance were selected. C. arabica genotypes showed variability in almost all characteristics. It was possible to identify different responses among genotypes grown in a high plant density cultivation system. Although the chlorophyll a content was similar among genotypes, the genotypes Acauã, Araponga MG1, Sacramento MG1, Tupi, and Catuaí IAC 44 showed a higher chlorophyll b content than the other genotypes. Among these, Sacramento MG1 also showed high leafiness and growth of vegetative structures, whereas Araponga MG1, Pau-Brasil MG1, and Tupi showed high fruit production. In addition, Araponga MG1 had also a higher and more stable crop yield over the years.

  12. Biometry and diversity of Arabica coffee genotypes cultivated in a high density plant system.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, W N; Tomaz, M A; Ferrão, M A G; Martins, L D; Colodetti, T V; Brinate, S V B; Amaral, J F T; Sobreira, F M; Apostólico, M A

    2016-01-01

    The present study was developed to respond to the need for an increase in crop yield in the mountain region of Caparaó (southern Espírito Santo State, Brazil), an area of traditional coffee production. This study aimed to analyze the diversity and characterize the crop yield of genotypes of Coffea arabica L. with potential for cultivation in high plant density systems. In addition, it also aimed to quantify the expression of agronomic traits in this cultivation system and provide information on the genotypes with the highest cultivation potential in the studied region. The experiment followed a randomized block design with 16 genotypes, four repetitions, and six plants per experimental plot. Plant spacing was 2.00 x 0.60 m, with a total of 8333 plants per hectare, representing a high-density cultivation system. Coffee plants were cultivated until the start of their reproductive phenological cycles and were evaluated along four complete reproductive cycles. Genotypes with high crop yield and beverage quality, short canopy, and rust resistance were selected. C. arabica genotypes showed variability in almost all characteristics. It was possible to identify different responses among genotypes grown in a high plant density cultivation system. Although the chlorophyll a content was similar among genotypes, the genotypes Acauã, Araponga MG1, Sacramento MG1, Tupi, and Catuaí IAC 44 showed a higher chlorophyll b content than the other genotypes. Among these, Sacramento MG1 also showed high leafiness and growth of vegetative structures, whereas Araponga MG1, Pau-Brasil MG1, and Tupi showed high fruit production. In addition, Araponga MG1 had also a higher and more stable crop yield over the years. PMID:26909972

  13. Morphology, biometry, and taxonomy of freshwater and marine interstitial cyphoderia (cercozoa: euglyphida).

    PubMed

    Todorov, Milcho; Golemansky, Vassil; Mitchell, Edward A D; Heger, Thierry J

    2009-01-01

    Good taxonomy is essential for ecological, biogeographical, and evolutionary studies of any group of organisms. Therefore, we performed detailed light- and scanning electron microscopy investigations on the shell ultrastructure and biometric analyses of the morphometric variability of five freshwater and marine interstitial testate amoebae of the genus Cyphoderia (C. trochus var. amphoralis, C. ampulla, C. margaritacea var. major, C. compressa, and C. littoralis), isolated from different populations in Bulgaria and Switzerland. Our aims were (1) to clarify the morphological characteristics of these taxa, and (2) to compare the morphology of a given taxon (C. ampulla) among different locations in Bulgaria and Switzerland as a first step towards an assessment of the geographical variation within a supposedly cosmopolitan taxon. Four of the studied taxa are characterized by a well-expressed main-size class and by a small size range of all the characters and can be defined as size-monomorphic species. Based on these results, the following systematic changes are proposed: C. major (Penard, 1891) n. comb. (Syn.: C. margaritacea var. major (Penard, 1891) and C. amphoralis (Wailes & Penard, 1911) n. comb. (Syn.: C. trochus var. amphoralis (Wailes & Penard, 1911)). However, we also show significant morphological variability between the Swiss and Bulgarian populations of C. ampulla, suggesting the possible existence of more than one taxon within this species. Further studies are required to assess (1) if these two morphologically different taxa represent individual species, (2) if so, if more species exist, and if this diversity is due to limited distribution ranges (endemism) or if several closely related taxa occur together in different geographical areas.

  14. Transfer of benzo[a]pyrene from microplastics to Artemia nauplii and further to zebrafish via a trophic food web experiment: CYP1A induction and visual tracking of persistent organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Batel, Annika; Linti, Frederic; Scherer, Martina; Erdinger, Lothar; Braunbeck, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    The uptake of microplastic particles and the transfer of potential harmful substances along with microplastics has been studied in a variety of organisms, especially invertebrates. However, the potential accumulation of very small microplastic particles along food webs ending with vertebrate models has not been investigated so far. Therefore, a simple artificial food chain with Artemia sp. nauplii and zebrafish (Danio rerio) was established to analyze the transfer of microplastic particles and associated persistent organic pollutants (POPs) between different trophic levels. Very small (1-20 μm) microplastic particles accumulated in Artemia nauplii and were subsequently transferred to fish. Virgin particles not loaded with POPs did not cause any observable physical harm in the intestinal tracts of zebrafish, although parts of the particles were retained within the mucus of intestinal villi and might even have been taken up by epithelial cells. The transfer of associated POPs was tested with the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon benzo[a]pyrene and an ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) assay for CYP1A induction in zebrafish liver as well as via fluorescence analyses. Whereas a significant induction in the EROD assay could not be shown, because of high individual variation and low sensitivity regarding substance concentration, the fluorescence tracking of benzo[a]pyrene indicates that food-borne microplastic-associated POPs may actually desorb in the intestine of fish and are thus transferred to the intestinal epithelium and liver. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1656-1666. © 2016 SETAC.

  15. Transfer of benzo[a]pyrene from microplastics to Artemia nauplii and further to zebrafish via a trophic food web experiment: CYP1A induction and visual tracking of persistent organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Batel, Annika; Linti, Frederic; Scherer, Martina; Erdinger, Lothar; Braunbeck, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    The uptake of microplastic particles and the transfer of potential harmful substances along with microplastics has been studied in a variety of organisms, especially invertebrates. However, the potential accumulation of very small microplastic particles along food webs ending with vertebrate models has not been investigated so far. Therefore, a simple artificial food chain with Artemia sp. nauplii and zebrafish (Danio rerio) was established to analyze the transfer of microplastic particles and associated persistent organic pollutants (POPs) between different trophic levels. Very small (1-20 μm) microplastic particles accumulated in Artemia nauplii and were subsequently transferred to fish. Virgin particles not loaded with POPs did not cause any observable physical harm in the intestinal tracts of zebrafish, although parts of the particles were retained within the mucus of intestinal villi and might even have been taken up by epithelial cells. The transfer of associated POPs was tested with the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon benzo[a]pyrene and an ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) assay for CYP1A induction in zebrafish liver as well as via fluorescence analyses. Whereas a significant induction in the EROD assay could not be shown, because of high individual variation and low sensitivity regarding substance concentration, the fluorescence tracking of benzo[a]pyrene indicates that food-borne microplastic-associated POPs may actually desorb in the intestine of fish and are thus transferred to the intestinal epithelium and liver. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1656-1666. © 2016 SETAC. PMID:26752309

  16. 'Further Development' of Mendel's legacy? Erich von Tschermak-Seysenegg in the context of Mendelian-biometry controversy, 1901-1906.

    PubMed

    Simunek, Michal; Hoßfeld, Uwe; Breidbach, Olaf

    2012-12-01

    The contribution of Erich von Tschermak-Seysenegg (1871-1962) to the beginning of classical genetics is a matter of dispute. The aim of this study is to analyse, based on newly accessible archive materials, the relevance of his positions and theoretical views in a debate between advocates of early Mendelian explanation of heredity and proponents of biometry, which took place in England around 1901-1906. We challenge not only his role of an 'external consultant', which at the time de facto confirmed his status of 'rediscoverer' of Mendel's work but also analyse his ambivalent positions which are to be seen as a part of 'further development' (Weiterführung), a development of Mendel's legacy as he understood it. Second, there is an interesting aspect of establishing connections within an 'experimental culture' along the Mendel's lines of thought that was parallel to the first step of institutionalizing the new discipline of Genetics after 1905/06. Part of the study is also the analysis of contribution of his older brother Armin von Tschermak-Seysenegg (1870-1952) who--much like in the case of 'rediscovery' of 1900-1901--was for his younger brother an important source of theoretical knowledge. In this particular case, it regarded Bateson's 'Defence' of Mendel from 1902. PMID:22855371

  17. Blood and seminal plasma concentrations of selenium, zinc and testosterone and their relationship to sperm quality and testicular biometry in domestic cats.

    PubMed

    Villaverde, Ana Izabel S B; Fioratti, Eduardo G; Ramos, Renata S; Neves, Renato C F; Ferreira, João Carlos P; Cardoso, Guilherme S; Padilha, Pedro M; Lopes, Maria Denise

    2014-11-10

    The aim of this study was to assess seminal plasma (SP) and serum concentrations of zinc (Zn), selenium (Se) and testosterone (T) in domestic cats and determine whether these are related to sperm quality and testicular biometry. Six tomcats were collected using an artificial vagina and sperm analysis included motility by CASA, morphology, plasma membrane integrity, and sperm count. Serum and SP were submitted to total T concentration determination using a solid-phase radioimmunoassay technique while Zn and Se were measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Serum T concentrations were greater compared to SP concentrations, but both values were significantly correlated. Se concentrations were higher in serum, whereas SP had greater Zn values. Concentrations of Se, Zn and T were not correlated with each other either in serum or SP. Negative correlations were detected between Se concentrations in SP and total sperm head defects, and between Se concentrations in serum and VAP, VSL, STR, and LIN. Serum concentrations of Zn were negatively correlated with total abnormal sperm and midpiece defects and positively related to progressive motility. Both serum and SP concentrations of T had no relationship with sperm quality. Concentrations of Se exhibited a negative correlation with total testicular weight, whereas T concentrations in SP and serum were correlated with total testicular volume and weight. In conclusion, both Se and Zn concentrations in serum were correlated to sperm quality variables in the domestic cat, thus, making these potential candidates for fertility markers.

  18. Development of a Rat Schematic Eye From In Vivo Biometry and the Correction of Lateral Magnification in SD-OCT Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Lozano, Diana C.; Twa, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Optical magnification in optical coherence tomography (OCT) depends on ocular biometric parameters (e.g., axial length). Biometric differences between eyes will influence scan location. A schematic model eye was developed to compensate for lateral magnification in OCT images of the healthy rat. Methods. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography images were acquired in 19 eyes of 19 brown Norway rats. Images were scaled using the OCT instrument's built-in scaling function and by calculating the micron per degree from schematic model eyes developed from in vivo biometry (immersion A-scan and videokeratometry). Mean total retinal thickness was measured 500 μm away from the optic nerve head and optic nerve head diameter was measured. Corneal curvature, lens thickness, and axial length were modified to calculate their effects on OCT scan location and total retinal thickness. Results. Mean total retinal thickness increased by 21 μm and the SD doubles when images were scaled with the Built-in scaling (222 ± 13 μm) compared with scaling with individual biometric parameters (201 ± 6 μm). Optic nerve head diameter was three times larger when images were scaled with the Built-in scaling (925 ± 97 μm) than the individual biometric parameters (300 ± 27 μm). Assuming no other change in biometric parameters, total retinal thickness would decrease by 37 μm for every millimeter increase in anterior chamber depth due to changes in ocular lateral magnification and associated change in scan location. Conclusions. Scaling SD-OCT images with schematic model eyes derived from individual biometric data is important. This approach produces estimates of retinal thickness and optic nerve head size that are in good agreement with previously reported measurements. PMID:23989191

  19. Larval development of Lynceus brachyurus (Crustacea, Branchiopoda, Laevicaudata): redescription of unusual crustacean nauplii, with special attention to the molt between last nauplius and first juvenile.

    PubMed

    Olesen, Jørgen

    2005-05-01

    The larval development of "conchostracans" has received only scattered attention. Here I present the results of a study on the larval (naupliar) development and the metamorphosis of Lynceus brachyurus, a member of the bivalved branchiopod order the Laevicaudata. Lynceus brachyurus is the only species of the "Conchostraca" in Denmark. The phylogenetic position of the Laevicaudata has traditionally been a source of controversy, and this study does not solve the question completely. This work focuses on features potentially important for phylogeny. The general appearance of the larvae of L. brachyurus has been known for more than a century and a half, and some of its unique features include a large, larval dorsal shield; a huge, plate-like labrum; and a pair of immovable, horn-like antennules. However, many details relating to limb morphology, potentially important for phylogeny, have not been studied previously. Based on size categories, five or six larval stages can be recognized. The larvae approximately double their length and width during development (length: 230-520 microm). Most morphological features stay largely unchanged during development, but the antennal coxal masticatory spines are significant exceptions: they become bifid after one of the first molts. In all larval stages only the antennae and the mandibles actively move. In late naupliar stages the trunk limbs become visible as rows of laterally placed, undeveloped, and still immovable lobes. Swimming is performed by the antennae, whereas the mandibles appear to be involved mainly in feeding, as in other branchiopod larvae. The last naupliar stage undergoes a small metamorphosis to the first juvenile stage, the details of which in part were studied by following the premolt juvenile condition through the cuticle of the last stage nauplius. Among other changes there is a characteristic change in the shape and morphology of the univalved dorsal naupliar shield to a bivalved juvenile carapace. The general

  20. [Morphology and biometry of eggs and larvae of Strongyloides sp. Grassi, 1879 (Rhabditoidea: Strongyloididae), a gastrointestinal parasite of Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1766) (Rodentia: Hydrochaeridae), in the municipality of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Vieira, Fabiano M; Lima, Sueli de S; Bessa, Elisabeth Cristina de A

    2006-01-01

    An important method to diagnose and study the helminthofauna of wild animals is to examine the host's feces to find eggs and larvae, seeking to identify the parasites and study their morphobiology. The objective of the present work is to provide morphological and biometric data on the eggs and larvae of Strongyloides sp., a capybara gastrointestinal parasite. Using the technique of Gordon and Whitlock, simple flotation and the modified Baermann examination, capybara fecal samples were selected based on a criterion of the highest proportion of eggs and larvae in the initial development stages, for morphometric description of eggs, L1, L2 and L3 of Strongyloides sp. From past reports of parasitism in Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris, we suspect that the eggs and larvae in this study are of Strongyloides chapini Sandground, 1925, which constitutes the first description of these stages for this species of nematode. Nevertheless, the morphology and biometry data of these stages demonstrate that they are similar to those of other species of the Strongyloides genus.

  1. Biometry Staff | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  2. Seed and Germination Characteristics of 20 Amazonian Liana Species.

    PubMed

    Roeder, Mareike; Ferraz, Isolde D K; Hölscher, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Lianas are an important component of tropical forests, and may reach their highest densities in disturbed areas. However, information on seed and germination characteristics is scarce. Twenty Amazon liana species were screened for their germination characteristics, including light dependence, tolerance of desiccation and of alternating temperatures; these characteristics are considered important for the germination success in areas with relatively open canopies. Between 31-1,420 seeds per species were available, as 15 species seeds came from one mother plant. We studied seed biometry and conducted germination trials with fresh seeds (12 h light daily, or dark) and desiccated seeds at 25 °C. Germination at alternating temperatures (20/30 °C, 15/35 °C) was analyzed for nine species. Of the 20 species, eight species with the largest seeds had desiccation sensitive seeds; this is the first record for species of four genera and one family, where only desiccation tolerant seeds are otherwise recorded. Light-dependent germination was found in three species (0.01-0.015 g) and is the first record for two; however, results were based on seeds from one plant per species. Alternating temperatures of 15/35 °C decreased final germination of four out of nine species, and response to 20/30 °C cycles varied compared to constant 25 °C. Seed and germination characteristics of the species ranged from pioneer to climax traits indicating that establishment of lianas from seeds may be confined to species specific niches. PMID:27137363

  3. Seed and Germination Characteristics of 20 Amazonian Liana Species

    PubMed Central

    Roeder, Mareike; Ferraz, Isolde D. K.; Hölscher, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Lianas are an important component of tropical forests, and may reach their highest densities in disturbed areas. However, information on seed and germination characteristics is scarce. Twenty Amazon liana species were screened for their germination characteristics, including light dependence, tolerance of desiccation and of alternating temperatures; these characteristics are considered important for the germination success in areas with relatively open canopies. Between 31–1,420 seeds per species were available, as 15 species seeds came from one mother plant. We studied seed biometry and conducted germination trials with fresh seeds (12 h light daily, or dark) and desiccated seeds at 25 °C. Germination at alternating temperatures (20/30 °C, 15/35 °C) was analyzed for nine species. Of the 20 species, eight species with the largest seeds had desiccation sensitive seeds; this is the first record for species of four genera and one family, where only desiccation tolerant seeds are otherwise recorded. Light-dependent germination was found in three species (0.01–0.015 g) and is the first record for two; however, results were based on seeds from one plant per species. Alternating temperatures of 15/35 °C decreased final germination of four out of nine species, and response to 20/30 °C cycles varied compared to constant 25 °C. Seed and germination characteristics of the species ranged from pioneer to climax traits indicating that establishment of lianas from seeds may be confined to species specific niches. PMID:27137363

  4. Water Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Gregory D.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the nature and analysis of chemical species in water, covering publications of 1967-77. This review is concerned with water characteristics. A list of 49 references is also presented. (HM)

  5. Sperm characteristics in plains (Bison bison bison) versus wood (Bison bison athabascae) bison.

    PubMed

    Pegge, Raymond B G; Krishnakumar, Sulochana; Whiteside, Douglas; Elkin, Brett; Parlevliet, Joyce M; Thundathil, Jacob C

    2011-04-15

    The objective was to compare sperm characteristics between the two subspecies of North American bison, plains bison (Bison bison bison) and wood bison (Bison bison athabascae). Frozen-thawed ejaculated sperm from age-matched plains (n = 3) and wood (n = 2) bison were evaluated for morphometry, motility, viability, protein profile, and in vitro fertilization characteristics. Sperm morphometry and motility were assessed with computer-based systems, viability was assessed with SYBR-14 and propidium iodide, and fertilizing ability was determined using a heterologous in vitro fertilization system (using bovine oocytes). For plains versus wood bison, there were significant differences for head width (4.76 ± 0.22 vs 4.71 ± 0.19 μm; mean ± SD), head area (35.64 ± 1.91 vs 34.72 ± 2.64 μm(2)), head perimeter (23.61 ± 0.68 vs 23.31 ± 0.98 μm), midpiece length (14.58 ± 0.4 vs 14.36 ± 0.51 μm), midpiece width (0.81 ± 0.06 vs 0.79 ± 0.07 μm), and tail length (46.61 ± 2.15 vs 45.98 ± 2.08 μm). However, there was no significant difference in head length (overall, 9.04 ± 0.37 μm), progressive motility (41.16 ± 8.39%), or viability (41.58 ± 5.58%). Based on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, 93 out of 113 protein spots were similar in their expression patterns. Furthermore, we inferred that differences in sperm biometry between these subspecies did not affect in vitro fertilization percentage (overall, 82.62 ± 12.13%). Based on these findings, we concluded that plains bison were an appropriate research model for developing reproductive technologies for wood bison.

  6. Association between Refractive Errors and Ocular Biometry in Iranian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hashemi, Hassan; Khabazkhoob, Mehdi; Emamian, Mohammad Hassan; Shariati, Mohammad; Miraftab, Mohammad; Yekta, Abbasali; Ostadimoghaddam, Hadi; Fotouhi, Akbar

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the association between ocular biometrics such as axial length (AL), anterior chamber depth (ACD), lens thickness (LT), vitreous chamber depth (VCD) and corneal power (CP) with different refractive errors. Methods: In a cross-sectional study on the 40 to 64-year-old population of Shahroud, random cluster sampling was performed. Ocular biometrics were measured using the Allegro Biograph (WaveLight AG, Erlangen, Germany) for all participants. Refractive errors were determined using cycloplegic refraction. Results: In the first model, the strongest correlations were found between spherical equivalent with axial length and corneal power. Spherical equivalent was strongly correlated with axial length in high myopic and high hyperopic cases, and with corneal power in high hyperopic cases; 69.5% of variability in spherical equivalent was attributed to changes in these variables. In the second model, the correlations between vitreous chamber depth and corneal power with spherical equivalent were stronger in myopes than hyperopes, while the correlations between lens thickness and anterior chamber depth with spherical equivalent were stronger in hyperopic cases than myopic ones. In the third model, anterior chamber depth + lens thickness correlated with spherical equivalent only in moderate and severe cases of hyperopia, and this index was not correlated with spherical equivalent in moderate to severe myopia. Conclusion: In individuals aged 40-64 years, corneal power and axial length make the greatest contribution to spherical equivalent in high hyperopia and high myopia. Anterior segment biometric components have a more important role in hyperopia than myopia. PMID:26730304

  7. Biometry Meetings and Events | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  8. Biometry of face and brain in fetuses with trisomy 21.

    PubMed

    Guihard-Costa, Anne-Marie; Khung, Suonavy; Delbecque, Kathy; Ménez, Françoise; Delezoide, Anne-Lise

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to specify the early setting of the particular craniofacial morphology in Down syndrome during the fetal period from data based on postmortem examinations. The study included 1277 fetuses at 15-38 gestational weeks (GW): 922 control fetuses and 355 fetuses with trisomy 21, selected from fetopathology units in Paris. Body weight (BW) and nine dimensions of the face, skull, and brain were recorded: the outer and inner canthal distances (OCD, ICD), biparietal diameter (BPD), head circumference (HC), brain weight (BrW), occipitofrontal diameters of left and right hemispheres (lOFD, rOFD), weight of the infratentorial part of the brain (IBW), and maximal transversal diameter of the cerebellum (CTD). Four ratios were computed: BPD/HC, OCD/BPD, BrW/BW, IBW/BrW. Differences between trisomic fetuses and control fetuses were tested by age interval. Results showed that BW, rOFD, and lOFD were lower in trisomic fetuses as early as 15 GW. Cerebellar hypoplasia included lower IBW and CTD in trisomic fetuses. The IBW/BrW ratio was higher in trisomic fetuses, showing that growth restriction affected the infratentorial part of the brain less than the supratentorial part. Early brachycephaly was found in trisomic fetuses, with higher values of BPD and BPD/HC from 15 GW. ICD and OCD were not significantly different in the two groups, but OCD/DBP ratio was lower in trisomic fetuses. These results confirm the early phenotypical expression of trisomy 21 on craniofacial morphology, associated with a marked restriction of brain growth, especially in the supratentorial part. PMID:16326987

  9. Fetal biometry of skeletal dysplasias: a multicentric study.

    PubMed

    Goncalves, L; Jeanty, P

    1994-10-01

    Twenty-three diagnostic centers worldwide contributed 127 cases of 17 skeletal dysplasias. Discriminant analysis showed that the femur length was the best biometric parameter to distinguish among the five most common disorders in this series (thanatophoric dysplasia, osteogenesis imperfecta type II, achondrogenesis, achondroplasia and hypochondroplasia). Fifty-four percent of fetuses with femur length below 30% of the mean for gestational age had achondrogenesis. Seventy-eight percent of measurements between 40 and 60% of the mean for gestational age represented either thanatophoric dysplasia or osteogenesis imperfecta type II. Fetuses who had over 80% of the mean for gestational age had predominantly hypochondroplasia, achondroplasia, and osteogenesis imperfecta type III. PMID:7880297

  10. Fetal biometry of skeletal dysplasias: a multicentric study.

    PubMed

    Goncalves, L; Jeanty, P

    1994-12-01

    Twenty-three diagnostic centers worldwide contributed 127 cases of 17 skeletal dysplasias. Discriminant analysis showed that the femur length was the best biometric parameter to distinguish among the five most common disorders in this series (thanatophoric dysplasia, osteogenesis imperfecta type II, achondrogenesis, achondroplasia and hypochondroplasia). Fifty-four percent of fetuses with femur length below 30% of the mean for gestational age had achondrogenesis. Seventy-eight percent of measurements between 40 and 60% of the mean for gestational age represented either thanatophoric dysplasia or osteogenesis imperfecta type II. Fetuses who had over 80% of the mean for gestational age had predominantly hypochondroplasia, achondroplasia, and osteogenesis imperfecta type III. PMID:7877211

  11. Biometry and the IBS--Strength through diversity.

    PubMed

    Mead, Andrew

    2009-03-01

    The International Biometric Society (IBS) brings together members from a diversity of cultural backgrounds, organized into geographically based Regions and National Groups, and covering a diverse range of interests, in terms of both methodological topics and application areas. We briefly reflect on how the historical development of our science, society, and international conferences reflects this diversity, with a focus on the history of the British and Irish Region of the IBS. Then, by considering the cultural/geographical diversity of the society, and the scientific diversity of the society and biometricians, we identify both some strengths of the society (diverse topics for meetings arranged across the world, application of biometrical methods to diverse application areas, management of the society by members from a diversity of backgrounds) and also some current challenges (electronic delivery of journals and other information, the diversity of application areas addressed by members of the society, improving links with the scientific societies of those who motivate our research). Finally, we illustrate the diversity of scientific problems that each of us face in our roles as biometricians.

  12. Temperature and salinity effects on cadmium toxicity on lethal and sublethal responses of Amphibalanus amphitrite nauplii.

    PubMed

    Piazza, Veronica; Gambardella, Chiara; Canepa, Sara; Costa, Elisa; Faimali, Marco; Garaventa, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    The official protocol of an ecotoxicological assay employing larvae of the crustacean Amphibalanus amphitrite as a model organism has recently been published by the Italian regulatory authority UNICHIM. Such assay is now one of the applicable tests for water quality assessment under Italian law. While specific temperature and salinity values are recommended by ecotoxicology bioassay protocols for test set up, little information is available on response changes in case of parameter variations. In particular, information is totally lacking for this innovative model organism. Under the standard test protocol, 20°C and 37‰ temperature and salinity, respectively, are required to be set in A. amphitrite bioassay. In order to evaluate the environmental relevance of the test, laboratory experiments simulating the effect on larval responses due to variations of temperature and salinity expected in field collected samples were carried out. The effect of temperature and salinity changes on different end-points, involving increasing sensitivity levels, has been investigated, with and without the presence of cadmium nitrate, Cd(NO3)2, as a reference toxicant, to determine the possible interactions between pollutants and environmental parameters fluctuations. Three end-points - mortality, immobilization, and swimming speed alteration - were measured in order to evaluate the impact of a wide range of temperature (5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40°C) and salinity values (10, 20, 30, 37, 40, 50, 60, 70‰) on response variation after 24 and 48h of exposure. For each parameter, a Non-Effect Range (NER) - namely the limit values within which no effect related to environmental parameter changes is observed - has been defined. For both parameters, NER resulted to be wider for the less sensitive end-points - such as mortality and immobilization - and for shorter exposure time (24h). Later, the same end-points have been evaluated by exposing the same organisms to a reference toxic compound, Cd(NO3)2 (0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, 1.6, 3.2mg/L), within the detected NER both for temperature and salinity. LC50 and EC50 values have been calculated for each end-point after 24 and 48h. Cadmium toxicity was shown to decrease at higher salinity values and increase at higher temperatures. Obtained results offer a better bioassay characterization, and the possibility of a more realistic estimation of ecotoxicological assessments performed on field collected samples. Further studies are needed, especially to investigate the effects of simultaneous salinity and temperature changes on end-points. PMID:26410667

  13. Temperature and salinity effects on cadmium toxicity on lethal and sublethal responses of Amphibalanus amphitrite nauplii.

    PubMed

    Piazza, Veronica; Gambardella, Chiara; Canepa, Sara; Costa, Elisa; Faimali, Marco; Garaventa, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    The official protocol of an ecotoxicological assay employing larvae of the crustacean Amphibalanus amphitrite as a model organism has recently been published by the Italian regulatory authority UNICHIM. Such assay is now one of the applicable tests for water quality assessment under Italian law. While specific temperature and salinity values are recommended by ecotoxicology bioassay protocols for test set up, little information is available on response changes in case of parameter variations. In particular, information is totally lacking for this innovative model organism. Under the standard test protocol, 20°C and 37‰ temperature and salinity, respectively, are required to be set in A. amphitrite bioassay. In order to evaluate the environmental relevance of the test, laboratory experiments simulating the effect on larval responses due to variations of temperature and salinity expected in field collected samples were carried out. The effect of temperature and salinity changes on different end-points, involving increasing sensitivity levels, has been investigated, with and without the presence of cadmium nitrate, Cd(NO3)2, as a reference toxicant, to determine the possible interactions between pollutants and environmental parameters fluctuations. Three end-points - mortality, immobilization, and swimming speed alteration - were measured in order to evaluate the impact of a wide range of temperature (5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40°C) and salinity values (10, 20, 30, 37, 40, 50, 60, 70‰) on response variation after 24 and 48h of exposure. For each parameter, a Non-Effect Range (NER) - namely the limit values within which no effect related to environmental parameter changes is observed - has been defined. For both parameters, NER resulted to be wider for the less sensitive end-points - such as mortality and immobilization - and for shorter exposure time (24h). Later, the same end-points have been evaluated by exposing the same organisms to a reference toxic compound, Cd(NO3)2 (0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, 1.6, 3.2mg/L), within the detected NER both for temperature and salinity. LC50 and EC50 values have been calculated for each end-point after 24 and 48h. Cadmium toxicity was shown to decrease at higher salinity values and increase at higher temperatures. Obtained results offer a better bioassay characterization, and the possibility of a more realistic estimation of ecotoxicological assessments performed on field collected samples. Further studies are needed, especially to investigate the effects of simultaneous salinity and temperature changes on end-points.

  14. Are streamflow recession characteristics really characteristic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoelzle, M.; Stahl, K.; Weiler, M.

    2012-09-01

    Streamflow recession has been investigated by a variety of methods, often involving the fit of a model to empirical recession plots to parameterize a non-linear storage-outflow relationship. Such recession analysis methods (RAMs) are used to estimate hydraulic conductivity, storage capacity, or aquifer thickness and to model streamflow recession curves for regionalization and prediction at the catchment scale. Numerous RAMs have been published, but little is known about how characteristic the resulting recession models are to distinguish characteristic catchment behavior. In this study we combined three established recession extraction methods with three different parameter-fitting methods to the power-law storage-outflow model to compare the range of recession characteristics that result from the application of these different RAMs. Resulting recession characteristics including recession time and corresponding storage depletion were evaluated for 20 meso-scale catchments in Germany. We found plausible ranges for model parameterization, however, calculated recession characteristics varied over two orders of magnitude. While recession characteristics of the 20 catchments derived with the different methods correlate strongly, particularly for the RAMs that use the same extraction method and while they rank the catchments relatively consistent, there are still considerable differences among the methods. To elucidate this variability we discuss the ambiguous roles of recession extraction procedures and the parameterization of storage-outflow model and the limitations of the presented recession plots. The results suggest strong limitations to the comparability of recession characteristics derived with different methods, not only in the model parameters but also in the relative characterization of different catchments. A multiple methods approach to investigate streamflow recession characteristics should be considered for applications whenever possible.

  15. Thermistor Characteristics and Stability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fricker, H. S.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the uses of thermistors in teaching electronics and semiconductors. Describes how to experimentally measure and graph the characteristics of a thermistor. Suggests one possible approach to understand the shapes of the characteristics. (CW)

  16. Wetland Characteristics and Denitrification

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation serves as an initial summary of our wetland field work's watershed characteristics hydrologic characteristics, water quality measurements, and denitrification assays. We present our measurement results in the context of wetland type (Estuarine, Freshwater Mars...

  17. Are streamflow recession characteristics really characteristic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoelzle, M.; Stahl, K.; Weiler, M.

    2013-02-01

    Streamflow recession has been investigated by a variety of methods, often involving the fit of a model to empirical recession plots to parameterize a non-linear storage-outflow relationship based on the dQ/dt-Q method. Such recession analysis methods (RAMs) are used to estimate hydraulic conductivity, storage capacity, or aquifer thickness and to model streamflow recession curves for regionalization and prediction at the catchment scale. Numerous RAMs have been published, but little is known about how comparably the resulting recession models distinguish characteristic catchment behavior. In this study we combined three established recession extraction methods with three different parameter-fitting methods to the power-law storage-outflow model to compare the range of recession characteristics that result from the application of these different RAMs. Resulting recession characteristics including recession time and corresponding storage depletion were evaluated for 20 meso-scale catchments in Germany. We found plausible ranges for model parameterization; however, calculated recession characteristics varied over two orders of magnitude. While recession characteristics of the 20 catchments derived with the different methods correlate strongly, particularly for the RAMs that use the same extraction method, not all rank the catchments consistently, and the differences among some of the methods are larger than among the catchments. To elucidate this variability we discuss the ambiguous roles of recession extraction procedures and the parameterization of the storage-outflow model and the limitations of the presented recession plots. The results suggest strong limitations to the comparability of recession characteristics derived with different methods, not only in the model parameters but also in the relative characterization of different catchments. A multiple-methods approach to investigating streamflow recession characteristics should be considered for applications

  18. Mothers' Characteristics, Interactions, and Infants' Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson-Hinde, J.; Simpson, M. J. A.

    1981-01-01

    Stable characteristics of female rhesus monkeys with offspring, in terms of Confident and Excitable scores, were significantly positively correlated with the respective scores of their female offspring but not their male offspring. Female parents' Excitable scores were significantly negatively correlated with males' Confident scores. How this…

  19. Globally mapping baseflow characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2013-12-01

    Characterizing baseflow, the slowly varying portion of streamflow, is important for water resources management, hydropower generation, tracking contaminant transport, and other applications. Most previous studies of baseflow have analyzed small groups of catchments with similar characteristics. Now, to develop globally applicable models of baseflow characteristics, Beck et al. studied observations from 3394 catchments around the world with a variety of climatic, hydrological, and physiographic characteristics. Their novel approach investigates the relationship between catchment characteristics and baseflow characteristics, showing how baseflow is related to annual potential evaporation, mean snow water equivalent depth, abundance of surface water bodies, and other landscape characteristics. Their global maps of baseflow characteristics—which could be useful for benchmarking and calibrating hydrological models and for a variety of other hydrological applications—are freely available at http://www.hydrology-amsterdam.nl.

  20. Comparing Item Characteristic Curves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbaum, Paul R.

    1987-01-01

    This paper develops and applies three nonparametric comparisons of the shapes of two item characteristic surfaces: (1) proportional latent odds; (2) uniform relative difficulty; and (3) item sensitivity. A method is presented for comparing the relative shapes of two item characteristic curves in two examinee populations who were administered an…

  1. Mothers' characteristics, interactions, and infants' characteristics.

    PubMed

    Stevenson-Hinde, J; Simpson, M J

    1981-01-01

    Stable characteristics of rhesus monkey mothers, in terms of Confident and Excitable scores, were significantly positively correlated with the respective scores of their daughters but not their sons. With sons, mothers' Excitable scores were significantly negatively correlated with sons' Confident scores. Correlations of the maternal scores with earlier mother/infant interactions suggest how mothers' characteristics could have influenced infant characteristics. Mothers' Confident scores were negatively correlated with both rejecting and leaving their daughters. When a year old the daughters, on the other hand, left mothers relatively frequently and played a relatively low role in maintaining proximity. For both sons and daughters, mothers' Excitable scores were positively correlated with approaching and leaving their infants, as well as restricting at the age of weaning. Infants approached Excitable mothers relatively frequently, and year-old sons played a relatively high role in maintaining proximity with mother. In terms of attachment theory, Confident mothers appear to provide a "secure base" for their daughters, but reject their sons when very young. Excitable mothers appear to behave inappropriately to both sons and daughters, producing infants who may be "insecurely attached." PMID:7198571

  2. Aircraft compass characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, John B; Smith, Clyde W

    1937-01-01

    A description of the test methods used at the National Bureau of Standards for determining the characteristics of aircraft compasses is given. The methods described are particularly applicable to compasses in which mineral oil is used as the damping liquid. Data on the viscosity and density of certain mineral oils used in United States Navy aircraft compasses are presented. Characteristics of Navy aircraft compasses IV to IX and some other compasses are shown for the range of temperatures experienced in flight. Results of flight tests are presented. These results indicate that the characteristic most desired in a steering compass is a short period and, in a check compass, a low overswing.

  3. 3D Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, Maurice

    1998-01-01

    Contributions to the Method of Characteristics in Three Dimensions, which previously received incomplete recognition, are reviewed. They mostly follow from a fundamental paper by Rusanov which led to several developments in Russia, described by Chushkin.

  4. Housing characteristics 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    This report, Housing Characteristics 1993, presents statistics about the energy-related characteristics of US households. These data were collected in the 1993 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) -- the ninth in a series of nationwide energy consumption surveys conducted since 1978 by the Energy Information Administration of the US Department of Energy. Over 7 thousand households were surveyed, representing 97 million households nationwide. A second report, to be released in late 1995, will present statistics on residential energy consumption and expenditures.

  5. Onboard Navigation Systems Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The space shuttle onboard navigation systems characteristics are described. A standard source of equations and numerical data for use in error analyses and mission simulations related to space shuttle development is reported. The sensor characteristics described are used for shuttle onboard navigation performance assessment. The use of complete models in the studies depend on the analyses to be performed, the capabilities of the computer programs, and the availability of computer resources.

  6. Commercial Buildings Characteristics, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-29

    Commercial Buildings Characteristics 1992 presents statistics about the number, type, and size of commercial buildings in the United States as well as their energy-related characteristics. These data are collected in the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), a national survey of buildings in the commercial sector. The 1992 CBECS is the fifth in a series conducted since 1979 by the Energy Information Administration. Approximately 6,600 commercial buildings were surveyed, representing the characteristics and energy consumption of 4.8 million commercial buildings and 67.9 billion square feet of commercial floorspace nationwide. Overall, the amount of commercial floorspace in the United States increased an average of 2.4 percent annually between 1989 and 1992, while the number of commercial buildings increased an average of 2.0 percent annually.

  7. Educators' Professional Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krishnaveni, R.; Anitha, J.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a comprehensive model of professional characteristics of an educator that will prepare them for high standards of professional achievements, as all professions demand standardization and formulation of guidelines in today's competitive environment. Design/methodology/approach: Literature on essentials of an educator was sourced…

  8. Gender and Learner Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hindal, Huda; Reid, Norman; Whitehead, Rex

    2013-01-01

    It is well established that girls and boys perform differently in traditional examinations in most countries. This study looks at a sample of 754 school students in Kuwait (aged about 13) and explores how boys and girls differ in the performance in a range of tests related to learner characteristics. The fundamental question is how boys and girls…

  9. Characteristics of USB noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, J. S.; Searle, N.

    1976-01-01

    An extensive series of noise measurements, for a variety of geometric and operational parameters, was made on models of upper surface blowing (USB) powered lift systems. The data obtained were analyzed and the effects and trends of parametric variation defined. The behavior and nature of USB noise and the design of USB systems with low noise characteristics is examined.

  10. Characteristics of pressure waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Air blast characteristics generated by most types of explosions are discussed. Data cover both negative and positive blast load phases and net transverse pressure as a function of time. The effects of partial or total confinement, atmospheric propagation, absorption of energy by ground shock or cratering, and transmission over irregular terrain on blast wave properties were also considered.

  11. Personality Characteristics of Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Molen, Henk T.; Schmidt, Henk G.; Kruisman, Gerard

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to investigate the personality characteristics of a group of engineers with a variety of years of experience. It was executed to remedy shortcomings of the literature concerning this issue and to produce suggestions for a postgraduate training programme for engineers. A total of 103 engineers were tested with…

  12. Magnetohydrodynamic Characteristic Boundary Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaffenberger, Werner; Stein, R.

    2009-05-01

    We implemented MHD characteristic boundary conditions for a non-ideal plasma in the "stagger-code" (Gudiksen and Nordlund, 2005, ApJ 618, 1020). The aim of these boundary conditions is to reduce reflection at the boundaries which is important for the simulation of wave propagation. We present some test simulations of propagating waves demonstrating the capability of these boundary conditions.

  13. Metering Characteristics of Carburetors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tice, Percival S; Dickinson, H C

    1919-01-01

    Report presents the results of an extensive experimental investigation of the performance of different types of carburetors as effecting the maintenance under all conditions of correct ratio between the weights of fuel and air. It also gives a description of the Bureau of Standards carburetor test plant, test equipment and measuring instruments used to determine the metering characteristics of carburetors.

  14. CHARACTERISTICS OF POLYPHENOL OXIDASES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO, EC 1.14.18.1 or EC 1.10.3.1) catalyzes the oxidation of o-diphenols to o-quinones. Highly reactive o-quinones couple with phenolics and specific amino acids on proteins to form the characteristic browning products in many wounded fruits, vegetables, and leaf tissues of plant...

  15. Steering characteristics of motorcycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Shigeru; Shiozawa, Souichi; Shinagawa, Akinori; Kishi, Tomoaki

    2012-08-01

    In this study, the results of a steady-state cornering test using a sport-touring motorcycle and the analysis of those test results are presented. This test was conducted as an activity in our efforts to realise a quantitative development method for motorcycles. The measurement data from this test include measurement results for tyre force, tyre moment, and tyre slip angle that have not been practically addressed in the research of motorcycles, in addition to normal measurement results for velocity, steering angle, steering torque, roll angle, etc. Until now research on motorcycle dynamics characteristics has indicated that 'there is a strong relationship between the motorcycle dynamics characteristics and the tyre slip angle'. However, since it is difficult to take highly precise measurements of the motorcycle's tyre slip angle during actual riding, especially when the motorcycle is tilted during cornering, such measurements have been avoided, cf. [H. Ishii and Y. Tezuka, Considerations of turning performance for motorcycle, SETC (1997), pp. 383-389]. Nevertheless, in this research we attempted to measure the tyre slip angle and also attempted to investigate in detail the dynamics characteristics and tyre characteristics during riding. Until now there has not been an adequate investigation conducted under a variety of riding conditions, but it is the aim of this research to show that it is possible to measure the tyre slip angle with a reasonable accuracy. It is our opinion that this will open a new path to a more detailed investigation of the motorcycle's dynamics characteristics. In addition, we conducted measurements using not only the normal rider's lean angle (lean-with posture), but also measurements in the case where the rider's lean angle was intentionally changed, in order to investigate the effects that a change in the rider's posture has on the variation in the measurement results of the motorcycle's dynamics. Furthermore, we then compared these

  16. Advanced turboprop vibratory characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, A. V.; Fulton, G. B.

    1984-01-01

    The assembly of SR5 advanced turboprop blades to develop a structural dynamic data base for swept props is reported. Steady state blade deformation under centrifugal loading and vibratory characteristics of the rotor assembly were measured. Vibration was induced through a system of piezoelectric crystals attached to the blades. Data reduction procedures are used to provide deformation, mode shape, and frequencies of the assembly at predetermined speeds.

  17. Anthropometric characteristics of ultramarathoners.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, M D

    2008-10-01

    Little is known about the anthropometric characteristics of ultramarathon runners. The present work reports on the physical characteristics of the 392 (310 males, 82 females) starters and 270 (216 males, 54 females) finishers of the 2007 Western States Endurance Run, one of the largest 161-km trail runs in North America. Among the starters, mean (and 25th to 75th percentiles) body mass index (BMI) values were 23.2 (21.6 - 24.6) and 20.6 (19.4 - 21.9) kg . m (-2) for the men and women, respectively. Men were significantly taller, heavier and had greater BMI's across all age groups compared with the women. Among the top-5 overall finishers, mean BMI values were 23.2 (range 22.4 - 24.7) for the men and 19.8 (range 17.3 - 21.1) for the women. Average running speed and BMI were negatively correlated for both men (r (2) = 0.11, p < 0.0001) and women (r (2) = 0.10, p = 0.02). From this analysis, it is concluded that those participating in ultramarathon runs can vary widely in physical characteristics with BMI values that would classify some individuals as underweight and others as overweight. BMI varied considerably even among the top finishers, but lower BMI values were associated with faster running times. PMID:18401807

  18. Magnesium battery disposal characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soffer, Louis; Atwater, Terrill

    1994-12-01

    This study assesses the disposal characteristics of U.S. Army procured military magnesium batteries under current Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous waste identification regulations administered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Magnesium batteries were tested at 100, 50, 10 and 0 percent remaining state of charge. Present findings indicate that magnesium batteries with less than 50 percent remaining charge do not exceed the federal regulatory limit of 5.0 mg/L for chromium. All other RCRA contaminates were below regulatory limits at all levels of remaining charge. Assay methods, findings, disposal requirements and design implications are discussed.

  19. Characteristics of cosmic time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salopek, D. S.

    1995-11-01

    The nature of cosmic time is illuminated using Hamilton-Jacobi theory for general relativity. For problems of interest to cosmology, one may solve for the phase of the wave functional by using a line integral in superspace. Each contour of integration corresponds to a particular choice of time hypersurface, and each yields the same answer. In this way, one can construct a covariant formalism where all time hypersurfaces are treated on an equal footing. Using the method of characteristics, explicit solutions for an inflationary epoch with several scalar fields are given. The theoretical predictions of double inflation are compared with recent galaxy data and large angle microwave background anistropies.

  20. Optical characteristics of lightning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, S. J.

    1985-01-01

    A study of the optical characteristics of cloud-to-ground dischargers and how they compare with intracloud flashes was completed. Time resolved optical (7774A) and electric field-change waveforms were measured above clouds from a U2 airplane coincident with ground-based measurements of lightning. The optical pulse trains are studied for within and between flash variability. Specifically, for each flash researchers examine the 10, 50 (full width half maximum), and 90 percent pulse widths; the 10-10, 10-50, 10-90, and 10-peak percent amplitude rise times; the radiances (optical power densities); radiant energy densities; and pulse intervals. The optical pulse characteristics of first strokes, subsequent strokes, the intracloud components of cloud-to-ground flashes and intracloud flashes as viewed from above cloud are shown to exhibit very similar waveshapes, radiances and radiant energy densities. Descriptive statistics on these pulse categories were tabulated for 25 visually confirmed cloud-to-ground flashes (229 optical pulses) and 232 intracloud flashes (3126 optical pulses). A companion study of lightning observations above and below cloud in storms, storm complexes, and mesoscale convective systems has also been completed. Researchers compared the mapping of total lightning activity from above clouds with ground-based measurements and storm evolution. Although the total (IC + CG) lightning activity is the more representative indication of thunderstorm growth and decay, the ground strike data can be used to locate, diagnose, and track storm evolution in a number of instances.

  1. Wafer characteristics via reflectometry

    DOEpatents

    Sopori, Bhushan L.

    2010-10-19

    Various exemplary methods (800, 900, 1000, 1100) are directed to determining wafer thickness and/or wafer surface characteristics. An exemplary method (900) includes measuring reflectance of a wafer and comparing the measured reflectance to a calculated reflectance or a reflectance stored in a database. Another exemplary method (800) includes positioning a wafer on a reflecting support to extend a reflectance range. An exemplary device (200) has an input (210), analysis modules (222-228) and optionally a database (230). Various exemplary reflectometer chambers (1300, 1400) include radiation sources positioned at a first altitudinal angle (1308, 1408) and at a second altitudinal angle (1312, 1412). An exemplary method includes selecting radiation sources positioned at various altitudinal angles. An exemplary element (1650, 1850) includes a first aperture (1654, 1854) and a second aperture (1658, 1858) that can transmit reflected radiation to a fiber and an imager, respectfully.

  2. Characteristics of a Healthy Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Phylis Lan

    The reason for studying the characteristics of a healthy family is to encourage and strengthen the family and to move toward an enriched family life by using the characteristics as bench marks. Six characteristics are discussed as the essence of a healthy family: (1) commitment; (2) togetherness; (3) appreciation; (4) good communication; (5)…

  3. Three Characteristics of Effective Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Natalie A.

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses three characteristics that are often associated with successful music educators. The three characteristics discussed include nonverbal communication, teacher self-efficacy, and servant leadership. Although there is no magical combination of characteristics that will produce an effective music teacher, these three attributes…

  4. Individual and molecular level effects of produced water contaminants on nauplii and adult females of Calanus finmarchicus.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Louise Kiel; Halvorsen, Elisabeth; Song, You; Hallanger, Ingeborg G; Hansen, Elisabeth Lindbo; Brooks, Steven J; Hansen, Bjørn Henrik; Tollefsen, Knut Erik

    2016-01-01

    In the Barents Sea region new petroleum fields are discovered yearly and extraction of petroleum products is expected to increase in the upcoming years. Despite enhanced technology and stricter governmental legislation, establishment of the petroleum industry in the Barents Sea may potentially introduce a new source of contamination to the area, as some discharges of produced water will be allowed. Whether the presence of produced water poses a risk to the Arctic marine life remains to be investigated. The aim of this study was to examine effects of exposure to several compounds found in produced water-a mixture of selected organic compounds (APW), radium-226 ((226)Ra), barium (Ba), and a scale inhibitor-on the copepod species Calanus finmarchicus. Experiments were performed using exposure concentrations at realistic levels based on those detected in the vicinity of known discharge points. The influence of lethal and sublethal effects on early life stages was determined and significantly lower survival in the APW exposure groups was found. In the Ba treatment the life stage development did not proceed to the same advanced stages as observed in the control (filtered sea water). The scale inhibitor and (226)Ra treatments showed no significant difference from control. In addition, adult females were exposed to APW, (226)Ra, and a mixture of the two. Both individual-level effects (egg production and feeding) and molecular-level effects (gene expression) were assessed. On the individual level endpoints, only treatments including APW produced an effect compared to control. However, on the molecular level the possibility that also (226)Ra induced toxicologically relevant effects cannot be ruled out. PMID:27484140

  5. Biometry and phenology of two sibling Phylloscopus warblers on their circum-Mediterranean migrations

    PubMed Central

    Zduniak, Piotr; Yosef, Reuven; Bensusan, Keith J.; Perez, Charles E.; Tryjanowski, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Mediterranean Sea is known as an ecological barrier for numerous migratory birds flying from European breeding grounds to African wintering sites. Birds generally avoid migration over open sea and fly over land. In the Mediterranean Basin, few land bridges or bottlenecks for migratory birds exist. The narrowest are at the western and eastern extremes: the Strait of Gibraltar and Israel. Comparative studies between these locations are extremely rare to date. Therefore, in order to elucidate the differences between the two flyways, we compared data collected simultaneously for two sister leaf warbler species, the Bonelli’s Warbler complex, Phylloscopus bonelli and Phylloscopus orientalis, at ringing stations in the western Mediterranean Basin Gibraltar, and the eastern Eilat, Israel. Data on biometrics and passage dates of individuals trapped at Gibraltar and Eilat were used, and it was found that mean arrival date of Western Bonelli’s Warblers at Gibraltar was 15 days later than Eastern Bonelli’s Warblers at Eilat. Furthermore, Western Bonelli’s Warblers had shorter wings than Eastern Bonelli’s Warblers. On the other hand, birds in Eilat were in poorer body condition than individuals in Gibraltar. The comparison between geographically distant stop-over sites contributes to furthering our understanding of the development of migration strategies across ecological barriers in sibling species. Our study showed that populations that breed in southwestern Europe migrate through Gibraltar and winter in West Africa are able to accomplish migration in comparatively good body condition. This is in contrast to those that winter in East Africa, migrate through Israel and have to endure the combined challenge of crossing the Sahel, Sahara and Sinai deserts before reaching their breeding grounds across southeast Europe and southwest Asia. Hence, the discrepancies described between the western and the eastern flyway suggest that individuals in the west, in general, migrate shorter distances, have a physiologically less demanding crossing of the North African deserts and appear to stage before their crossing the Strait of Gibraltar, a privilege unavailable to the migrants of the eastern flyway. PMID:26692801

  6. Ultrasound signal processing for characterization and enhanced biometry of the cornea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silverman, Ronald H.; Reinstein, Dan Z.; Lizzi, Frederick L.; Coleman, D. J.

    2001-05-01

    Purpose: The cornea acts as the window of the eye's optical system, and its chief refractive component. The lack of intervening tissues makes the cornea accessible to very high frequency ultrasonic study. In this report, we detail use of radiofrequency (RF) signal processing methods to characterize corneal pathology and to enhance biometric precision. Methods: Using a 50 MHz PVDF transducer, we scanned the cornea using an arc motion so as to maintain normality and consistent range. RF data were acquired at a sample rate of 500 MHz. Deconvolution against a glass-plate echo allowed biometric enhancement (by effectively broadening the bandwidth) and measurement of tissue backscatter spectra. Results: Calibrated spectrum analysis was used to quantitatively measure backscatter in corneal scars and other pathologies. Signal processing allowed us to attain reproducibility for repeated measurements of the corneal epithelium (approximately 50 microns thick) to 1 micron. By combining measurements from a series of planes, maps of the thickness of the individual layers comprising the cornea were produced. Conclusion: The layers of the cornea have different optical refractive indices, and thus their thicknesses directly affect visual acuity. The scattering of light by a corneal scar is caused by inhomogeneities or irregularities that may result in acoustic backscatter as well. The ability of ultrasound to quantify backscatter and corneal layer thickness provides a new avenue for diagnosis of corneal disease and refractive abnormalities.

  7. Age-Related Changes in the Anterior Segment Biometry During Accommodation

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Yilei; Tao, Aizhu; Jiang, Hong; Mao, Xinjie; Zhong, Jianguang; Shen, Meixiao; Lu, Fan; Xu, Zhe; Karp, Carol L.; Wang, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. We investigated the dynamic response of human accommodative elements as a function of age during accommodation using synchronized spectral domain optical coherence tomography devices (SD-OCT). Methods. We enrolled 33 left eyes from 33 healthy subjects (age range, 20–39 years, 17 males and 16 females). Two SD-OCT devices were synchronized to simultaneously image the anterior segment through pupil and the ciliary muscle during 6.00 diopter (D) accommodation for approximately 3.7 seconds in two repeated measurements. The anterior segment parameters included the lens thickness (LT), radius of curvature of the lens anterior surface (LAC), maximum thickness of ciliary muscle (CMTMAX), and anterior length of the ciliary muscle (CMAL). A first-order exponential equation was used to fit the dynamic changes during accommodation. The age-related changes in the dynamic response and their relationship were calculated and compared. Results. The amplitude (r = −0.40 and 0.53 for LT and LAC, respectively) and peak velocity (r = −0.65 and 0.71 for LT and LAC, respectively) of the changes in LT and LAC significantly decreased with age (P < 0.05), whereas the parameters of the ciliary muscle remained unchanged (P > 0.05), except for the peak velocity of the CMAL (r = 0.44, P = 0.01). The difference in the time constant between the lens reshaping (LT and LAC) and CMTMAX increased with age (r = 0.46 and 0.57 for LT and LAC, respectively, P < 0.01). The changes in LT and LAC per millimeter of CMTMAX change decreased with age (r = −0.52 and −0.34, respectively, P < 0.05). The ciliary muscle forward movement correlated with the lens deformation (r = −0.35 and 0.40 for amplitude, while r = 0.36 and 0.58 for time constant, respectively, P < 0.05). Conclusions. Age-related changes in the lens reshaping and ciliary muscle forward movement were found. Lens reshaping was much slower than the contraction of the ciliary muscle, especially in aging eyes, and this process required the ciliary muscle to contract more to reach a given response. PMID:26030106

  8. [The heart of the Papio Erxleben, 1777: biometry and macroscopic anatomy].

    PubMed

    Mandarim-de-Lacerda, C A; Hureau, J

    1985-12-01

    One hundred hearts of baboons were studied (P. hamadryas and P. cynocepahlus). The weight and the volume of the hearts were measured by Scherle method (1970). The other measurements were: oblique diameter right "atrium" - apex cordis", right and left free ventricular thickness and the inner aorta diameter. The hearts were also studied by gross dissection and anatomical sections. The morphology of the heart of the baboon proved to be similar to the human heart morphology. Probably it is a good model to the cardiovascular research and may be surgical applications.

  9. Eopolydiexodina (Middle Permian giant fusulinids) from Afghanistan: Biometry, morphometry, paleobiogeography, and end-Guadalupian events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colpaert, Clémentine; Monnet, Claude; Vachard, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    The most spectacular macroevolutionary trend presented by the genera of schwagerinoid fusulinids, during the Pennsylvanian -Permian, is an enormous increase in size, which culminated in the Middle Permian with Eopolydiexodina. However, this potential major biogeographic marker, during the Kubergandian-early Midian time interval, is as yet hampered by its poor taxonomic characterization. Hence, Eopolydiexodina is revised here using biometric and morphometric methods applied to large collections from Afghanistan and selected taxa in the literature. These multivariate analyses consist of classical linear test parameters, as well as new area parameters acquired by computer image analysis. The Afghan species are re-defined, and some other species, occasionally described as Cimmerian, are re-discussed. These methods, combined with classical morphological analyses, also permit to conclude that the largest Eopolydiexodina of Afghanistan are microspheric specimens (probably agamonts) of E. afghanensis and E. bithynica. Two megalospheric groups of individuals (probably gamonts and schizonts) are represented in both species, as well as in E. persica and E. darvasica. Due to this presence of gamonts, agamonts and schizonts in several species, Eopolydiexodina is probably the oldest identified trimorphic genus among the large benthic foraminifers. Biostratigraphically, Eopolydiexodina appears restricted to the late Kubergandian to early Midian. The associated Afghan fusulinids (Dunbarula, Kahlerina, Afghanella, Yangchienia, Sumatrina, and Codonofusiella) allow proposing an accurate biostratigraphy of the Eopolydiexodina species in the Murgabian-Midian boundary interval. Paleobiogeographically, Eopolydiexodina was essentially located in the Laurentian and Perigondwanan borders of the Tethys. The possible presence of Eopolydiexodina in the Cimmerian Continent and in some regions of China has never been irrefutably demonstrated. This paleobiological revision of Eopolydiexodina and the biostratigraphic revision of other large Capitanian fusulinids, permit to suggest that the end-Guadalupian event is most probably a protracted succession of last appearance data of giant genera rather than an instantaneous Lilliput effect at the Capitanian/Wuchiapingian boundary.

  10. PALEOBIOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL BIOMETRY ON LARGER BENTHIC FORAMINIFERA: A NEW ROUTE OF DISCOVERIES

    PubMed Central

    Briguglio, Antonino; Hohenegger, Johann; Less, György

    2015-01-01

    Four specimens of larger benthic foraminifera (the Recent Palaeonummulites venosus and Operculina ammonoides, and the phylogenetically related Paleogene Nummulites fabianii and N. fichteli) were investigated by X-ray tomography. The resulting three-dimensional measurements enabled a comprehensive, quantitative study of shell morphology to interpret cell growth without specific shell preparation and/or destruction. After segmentation and extraction of all scanned lumina, the following characters were measured on all chambers of each specimen: chamber volume, septal distance, chamber height, and chamber width. The sequence of chamber lumina follows either a logistic function (Palaeonummulites, Operculina), where the deceleration in growth rate of the latest chambers could mark the onset of reproduction, or it can be modeled by a series of stepwise functions with differing constants (Nummulites). Variations around the growth model are either periodic, following external cycles, or random as expressed by abrupt deviations. Therefore, they may reflect the response of the cell to environmental changes in terms of cyclic changes (e.g., seasonality) or single events (e.g., predator attack). Correlations between chamber volume and the other chamber parameters show that septal distance always matches the sequence in chamber volume and can therefore be used as a proxy for environmental analyses in both growth models. Chamber height and width often remain constant around their function and rarely deviate drastically to accommodate the needed lumen for retaining test size and shape. Chamber width may vary according to chamber volume in involute specimens, whereas both chamber height and width correlate with volume in those tests following an Archimedean spiral. X-ray-tomography shows particular promise in determining which parameters that can be assessed routinely in two dimensions primarily reflect environmental conditions vs. parameters best used for taxonomic identification and for systematic lineage reconstruction. PMID:26166915

  11. Accuracy of cornea and lens biometry using anterior segment optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Dunne, Mark C M; Davies, Leon N; Wolffsohn, James S

    2007-01-01

    We assess the accuracy of the Visante anterior segment optical coherence tomographer (AS-OCT) and present improved formulas for measurement of surface curvature and axial separation. Measurements are made in physical model eyes. Accuracy is compared for measurements of corneal thickness (d(1)) and anterior chamber depth (d(2)) using-built-in AS-OCT software versus the improved scheme. The improved scheme enables measurements of lens thickness (d(3)) and surface curvature, in the form of conic sections specified by vertex radii and conic constants. These parameters are converted to surface coordinates for error analysis. The built-in AS-OCT software typically overestimates [mean+/-standard deviation(SD)]d(1) by +62+/-4 mum and d(2) by + 4 +/- 88 microm. The improved scheme reduces d(1) (-0.4 +/- 4 microm) and d(2) (0 +/- 49 microm) errors while also reducing d(3) errors from +218 +/- 90 (uncorrected) to +14 +/- 123 microm (corrected). Surface x coordinate errors gradually increase toward the periphery. Considering the central 6-mm zone of each surface, the x coordinate errors for anterior and posterior corneal surfaces reached +3 +/- 10 and 0 +/- 23 microm, respectively, with the improved scheme. Those of the anterior and posterior lens surfaces reached +2 +/- 22 and +11 +/- 71 microm, respectively. Our improved scheme reduced AS-OCT errors and could, therefore, enhance pre- and postoperative assessments of keratorefractive or cataract surgery, including measurement of accommodating intraocular lenses.

  12. Association between Myopia, Biometry and Occludable Angle: The Jiangning Eye Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qi; Cai, Xuan; Yu, Wenjing; Yu, Siyi; Wang, Tianyu; Lu, Wuyi; Li, Xiang; Zhao, Peiquan

    2016-01-01

    Background Myopia subjects usually have long axial lengths and are predisposed to deep anterior chamber depths and open angles. Jiangning eye study is a randomized, population based study in Shanghai to determine whether myopia has an effect on the prevalence of occludable angles. Methods A total of 2478 residents aged 50 years and over were randomly selected, and 2044 (82.5%) individuals of them participated in ophthalmic examinations between November 2012 and February 2013. Eye examinations included autorefraction, noncontact tonometry, measurement of axial length, anterior chamber depth, lens thickness and spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Results The crude prevalences of iris trabecular meshwork contact in Jiangning Chinese individuals with myopia, emmetropia, and hyperopia are 1.25%, 6.44%, and 7.43%, respectively. There is also iris trabecular meshwork contact and shallow anterior chamber depth in myopia subjects even with long axial lengths. Conclusions The prevalence of iris trabecular meshwork contact in myopia subjects is lower than their emmetropia or hyperopia counterparts. Axial length is an important factor associate with occludable angle. PMID:27764227

  13. Metal contents in Centaurium erythraea and its biometry at various levels of environmental pollution.

    PubMed

    Brudzińska-Kosior, Anna; Kosior, Grzegorz; Samecka-Cymerman, Aleksandra; Kolon, Krzysztof; Mróz, Lucyna; Kempers, Alexander J

    2012-06-01

    In this investigation we focus on the influence of pollution on concentration of elements in the medicinal Centaurium erythraea. This herb is collected from wild populations and also provides important information as monitor of environmental quality. Concentrations of Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, N, Ni, P, Pb, V and Zn in Centaurium erythraea and in the soil in which this plant grew were measured together with biometrical features of the species from sites affected by various levels of pollution. C. erythraea from sites polluted by lignite mining and industrial combustion had the highest concentrations of Cd, Co and Zn (principal component and classification analysis, PCCA). C. erythraea from sites influenced by ferrous-chromium and thermal power plants had the highest concentrations of Cr and Fe as well as Cu, Mn and Ni and the highest length of shoots and number of leaves, shoots, nodes, flowers and flowers on the main shoot. These luxurious growth forms were probably related to the highest concentrations of N, P and Fe in the soil and concentrations of N and K accumulated by C. erythraea on these sites as revealed by the established models. Controlling the collection of C. erythraea for medicinal purposes is recommended as this species is able to accumulate increased levels of metals from polluted sites. The medical quality of C. erythraea may be negatively related to the degree and type of pollution of the environment and should not be based on the luxurious growth of individuals which may contain hazardous levels of metals.

  14. Errors Associated with IOLMaster Biometry as a Function of Internal Ocular Dimensions

    PubMed Central

    Faria-Ribeiro, Miguel; Lopes-Ferreira, Daniela; López-Gil, Norberto; Jorge, Jorge; González-Méijome, José Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the error in the estimation of axial length (AL) with the IOLMaster partial coherence interferometry (PCI) biometer and obtain a correction factor that varies as a function of AL and crystalline lens thickness (LT). Methods Optical simulations were produced for theoretical eyes using Zemax-EE software. Thirty-three combinations including eleven different AL (from 20 mm to 30 mm in 1 mm steps) and three different LT (3.6 mm, 4.2 mm and 4.8 mm) were used. Errors were obtained comparing the AL measured for a constant equivalent refractive index of 1.3549 and for the actual combinations of indices and intra-ocular dimensions of LT and AL in each model eye. Results In the range from 20 mm to 30 mm AL and 3.6–4.8 mm LT, the instrument measurements yielded an error between −0.043 mm and +0.089 mm. Regression analyses for the three LT condition were combined in order to derive a correction factor as a function of the instrument measured AL for each combination of AL and LT in the theoretical eye. Conclusions The assumption of a single “average” refractive index in the estimation of AL by the IOLMaster PCI biometer only induces very small errors in a wide range of combinations of ocular dimensions. Even so, the accurate estimation of those errors may help to improve accuracy of intra-ocular lens calculations through exact ray tracing, particularly in longer eyes and eyes with thicker or thinner crystalline lenses. PMID:24766863

  15. Teacher Retention: Teacher Characteristics, School Characteristics, Organizational Characteristics, and Teacher Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Gail D.

    2012-01-01

    The researcher utilized block-entry regression analysis to determine the impacts of teacher characteristics, school characteristics, organizational characteristics, and teacher efficacy on retention in teaching from 782 teacher surveys. Findings indicated that 83.50% of participants planned to teach until retirement. Wald statistics indicated that…

  16. Sensor Characteristics Reference Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Cree, Johnathan V.; Dansu, A.; Fuhr, P.; Lanzisera, Steven M.; McIntyre, T.; Muehleisen, Ralph T.; Starke, M.; Banerjee, Pranab; Kuruganti, T.; Castello, C.

    2013-04-01

    The Buildings Technologies Office (BTO), within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), is initiating a new program in Sensor and Controls. The vision of this program is: • Buildings operating automatically and continuously at peak energy efficiency over their lifetimes and interoperating effectively with the electric power grid. • Buildings that are self-configuring, self-commissioning, self-learning, self-diagnosing, self-healing, and self-transacting to enable continuous peak performance. • Lower overall building operating costs and higher asset valuation. The overarching goal is to capture 30% energy savings by enhanced management of energy consuming assets and systems through development of cost-effective sensors and controls. One step in achieving this vision is the publication of this Sensor Characteristics Reference Guide. The purpose of the guide is to inform building owners and operators of the current status, capabilities, and limitations of sensor technologies. It is hoped that this guide will aid in the design and procurement process and result in successful implementation of building sensor and control systems. DOE will also use this guide to identify research priorities, develop future specifications for potential market adoption, and provide market clarity through unbiased information

  17. Exploring Lightning Jump Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chronis, Themis; Carey, Larry D.; Schultz, Christopher J.; Schultz, Elise; Calhoun, Kristin; Goodman, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    This study is concerned with the characteristics of storms exhibiting an abrupt temporal increase in the total lightning flash rate (i.e., lightning jump, LJ). An automated storm tracking method is used to identify storm "clusters" and total lightning activity from three different lightning detection systems over Oklahoma, northern Alabama and Washington, D.C. On average and for different employed thresholds, the clusters that encompass at least one LJ (LJ1) last longer, relate to higher Maximum Expected Size of Hail, Vertical Integrated Liquid and lightning flash rates (area-normalized) than the clusters that did not exhibit any LJ (LJ0). The respective mean values for LJ1 (LJ0) clusters are 80 min (35 min), 14 mm (8 mm), 25 kg per square meter (18 kg per square meter) and 0.05 flash per min per square kilometer (0.01 flash per min per square kilometer). Furthermore, the LJ1 clusters are also characterized by slower decaying autocorrelation functions, a result that implies a less "random" behavior in the temporal flash rate evolution. In addition, the temporal occurrence of the last LJ provides an estimate of the time remaining to the storm's dissipation. Depending of the LJ strength (i.e., varying thresholds), these values typically range between 20-60 min, with stronger jumps indicating more time until storm decay. This study's results support the hypothesis that the LJ is a proxy for the storm's kinematic and microphysical state rather than a coincidental value.

  18. Restructured Freedom configuration characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Troutman, Patrick A.; Heck, Michael L.; Kumar, Renjith R.; Mazanek, Daniel D.

    1991-01-01

    In Jan. 1991, the LaRc SSFO performed an assessment of the configuration characteristics of the proposed pre-integrated Space Station Freedom (SSF) concept. Of particular concern was the relationship of solar array operation and orientation with respect to spacecraft controllability. For the man-tended configuration (MTC), it was determined that torque equilibrium attitude (TEA) seeking Control Moment Gyroscope (CMG) control laws could not always maintain attitude. The control problems occurred when the solar arrays were tracking the sun to produce full power while flying in an arrow or gravity gradient flight mode. The large solar array articulations that sometimes result from having the functions of the alpha and beta joints reversed on MTC induced large product of inertia changes that can invalidate the control system gains during an orbit. Several modified sun tracking techniques were evaluated with respect to producing a controllable configuration requiring no modifications to the CMG control algorithms. Another assessment involved the permanently manned configuration (PMC) which has a third asymmetric PV unit on one side of the transverse boom. Recommendations include constraining alpha rotations for MTC in the arrow and gravity gradient flight modes and perhaps developing new non-TEA seeking control laws. Recommendations for PMC include raising the operational altitude and moving to a symmetric configuration as soon as possible.

  19. Characteristics of Pulsating Aurora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humberset, B. K.; Gjerloev, J. W.; Mann, I. R.; Samara, M.; Michell, R.

    2013-12-01

    We have investigated the spatiotemporal characteristics of pulsating auroral patches observed with an all-sky imager located at Poker Flat, Alaska. Pulsating aurora often covers the entire sky with intermixed large and small-scale patches that vary in intensity or disappear and reappear on different time scales and timings. The broad definition of pulsating aurora covers patches and bands from tens to several tens of km which have a quasi-periodic temporal variation from 1 s to tens of seconds. In this paper we examine >15 patches from different events. We analyze all-sky movies (557.7 nm, 3.31 Hz) with a simple, yet robust, technique that allows us to determine the scale size dependent variability of the >15 individual patches. A spatial 2D Fourier Transform is used to separate the aurora into different horizontal scale sizes, and by correlating each patch for all image separations and available scale sizes smaller than the patch itself, we reveal what scale sizes are pulsating and their variability. The patches are found to be persistent, meaning that we can follow them for typically 5 minutes. The period of the pulsations is often remarkably variable and it seems that only certain scale sizes pulsate (typically the size of the patch). The patches drift with the background ExB plasma drift indicating that the magnetospheric source mechanism drifts with the field lines.

  20. Arcjet load characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamley, John A.

    1990-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to define the interface characteristics and constraints of 1 kW class arcjets run on simulated decomposition products of hydrazine and power processors. The impacts of power supply output current ripple on arcjet performance were assessed by variation of the ripple frequency from 100 Hz to 100 kHz with 10 percent peak-to-peak ripple amplitude at 1.2 kW. Ripple had no significant effects on thrust, specific impulse or efficiency. The impact of output ripple on thruster lifetime was not assessed. The static and dynamic impedances of the arcjet were quantified with two thrusters of nearly identical configuration. Superposition of an AC component on the DC arc current was used to characterize the dynamic impedance as a function of flow rate and DC current level. A mathematical model was formulated from these data. Both the static and dynamic impedance magnitude were found to be dependent on mass flow rate. The amplitude of the AC component was found to have little effect on the dynamic impedance. Reducing the DC level from 10 to 8 amps led to a large change in the magnitude of the dynamic impedance with no observable phase change. The impedance data compared favorably between the two thrusters.

  1. Characteristics of predictable MJOs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H. M.; Kim, D.; Vitart, F.; Toma, V. E.; Kug, J. S.; Webster, P. J.

    2015-12-01

    The Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) has been considered as a major potential source of global climate predictability on subseasonal time scales. Current operational forecasting systems are able to predict the MJO up to 3-4 weeks with the mean of ensembles, while the skill is still below the theoretical estimates of the predictability (6-7 weeks). It is well accepted that MJO prediction skill in operational systems is distinctly better when the MJO is well organized with having strong amplitude at the beginning of the forecast compared to when it starts with weak or nonexistent MJOs. However, while initially strong MJOs have better skill than weak/non MJOs, the 'initial amplitude-skill' relationship is not linear. It is not every initially strong MJO that has high skill, and not every weak/non MJO that has low skill. What physical mechanism drives some MJOs to be more predictable than others? Using dynamical MJO reforecasts, this study will show that the skill of highly predictable MJOs depends on the background environment that influence on MJO evolution. The favorable conditions for highly predictable MJOs (starting with moderate amplitude) support for stronger ocean-atmosphere coupling, and for sufficient heat and low-tropospheric moisture supply for better MJO propagation, particularly for the MJO crossing over the Maritime Continent. Understanding the characteristics of predictable MJOs may provide insights into the overall predictability of MJO, thus advance the prediction of 3-4 weeks towards its theoretical limit.

  2. [Cocaine - Characteristics and addiction].

    PubMed

    Girczys-Połedniok, Katarzyna; Pudlo, Robert; Jarząb, Magdalena; Szymlak, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    Cocaine use leads to health, social and legal problems. The aim of this paper is to discuss cocaine action, addicts characteristics, use patterns and consequences, as well as addiction treatment methods. A literature review was based on the Medline, PubMed, Polish Medical Bibliography databases and the Silesian Library resources. The Police and Central Statistical Office statistics, as well as the World Health Organization, the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction and the National Office for Combating Drug Addiction reports were used. Cocaine leads to mood improvement, appetite decrease, physical and intellectual activity enhancement, euphoria, inflated self-esteem, social networking ease and increased sexual desire. Cocaine hydrochloride is mainly used intranasaly, but also as intravenous and subcutaneous injections. Cocaine use and first addiction treatment fall in later age compared to other psychoactive substances. There is a high men to women ratio among addicts. There is a relationship between cocaine addiction, the presence of other disorders and genetic predisposition to addiction development. Polish reports indicate higher popularity of cocaine among people with a high economic and social status. Although Poland is a country with the low percentage of cocaine use, its popularity is growing. The consequences of cocaine use concern somatic and mental health problems, socioeconomic and legal conditions. The drug plays a role in crimes and traffic accidents. Because of the risks associated with cocaine use, it has been listed in a register of drugs attached to the Act on Counteracting Drug Addiction. Addiction treatment includes psychological, pharmacological and harm reduction strategies. Med Pr 2016;67(4):537-544. PMID:27623834

  3. Characteristics Data Base

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, E.D.; Moore, R.S. )

    1990-08-01

    The LWR Serial Numbers Database System (SNDB) contains detailed data about individual, historically discharged LWR spent fuel assemblies. This data includes the reactor where used, the year the assemblies were discharged, the pool where they are currently stored, assembly type, burnup, weight, enrichment, and an estimate of their radiological properties. This information is distributed on floppy disks to users in the nuclear industry to assist in planning for the permanent nuclear waste repository. This document describes the design and development of the SNDB. It provides a complete description of the file structures and an outline of the major code modules. It serves as a reference for a programmer maintaining the system, or for others interested in the technical detail of this database. This is the initial version of the SNDB. It contains historical data through December 31, 1987, obtained from the Energy Information Administration (EIA). EIA obtains the data from the utility companies via the RW-859 Survey Form. It evaluates and standardizes the data and distributes the resulting batch level database as a large file on magnetic tape. The Characteristics Data Base obtains this database for use in the LWR Quantities Data Base. Additionally, the CDB obtains the individual assembly level detail from EIA for use in the SNDB. While the Quantities Data Base retains only the level of detail necessary for its reporting, the SNDB does retain and use the batch level data to assist in the identification of a particular assembly serial number. We expect to update the SNDB on an annual basis, as new historical data becomes available.

  4. [Cocaine - Characteristics and addiction].

    PubMed

    Girczys-Połedniok, Katarzyna; Pudlo, Robert; Jarząb, Magdalena; Szymlak, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    Cocaine use leads to health, social and legal problems. The aim of this paper is to discuss cocaine action, addicts characteristics, use patterns and consequences, as well as addiction treatment methods. A literature review was based on the Medline, PubMed, Polish Medical Bibliography databases and the Silesian Library resources. The Police and Central Statistical Office statistics, as well as the World Health Organization, the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction and the National Office for Combating Drug Addiction reports were used. Cocaine leads to mood improvement, appetite decrease, physical and intellectual activity enhancement, euphoria, inflated self-esteem, social networking ease and increased sexual desire. Cocaine hydrochloride is mainly used intranasaly, but also as intravenous and subcutaneous injections. Cocaine use and first addiction treatment fall in later age compared to other psychoactive substances. There is a high men to women ratio among addicts. There is a relationship between cocaine addiction, the presence of other disorders and genetic predisposition to addiction development. Polish reports indicate higher popularity of cocaine among people with a high economic and social status. Although Poland is a country with the low percentage of cocaine use, its popularity is growing. The consequences of cocaine use concern somatic and mental health problems, socioeconomic and legal conditions. The drug plays a role in crimes and traffic accidents. Because of the risks associated with cocaine use, it has been listed in a register of drugs attached to the Act on Counteracting Drug Addiction. Addiction treatment includes psychological, pharmacological and harm reduction strategies. Med Pr 2016;67(4):537-544.

  5. Residential-appliance load characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, J.

    1982-04-01

    The performance of residential photovoltaic systems in combination with energy efficient appliances is examined. The load characteristics are presented for several types of major residential appliances. Load characteristics consist of the average energy use of each appliance, the power demand while the appliance is operating, and a typical use schedule. Potential energy conserving features are investigated for each appliance and used to identify a best available model and maximum feasible energy efficient appliance. Load characteristics of these energy conserving designs are then compared with the load characteristics of a standard model. The feasibility of converting appliances to dc power for use with photovoltaic systems is also discussed.

  6. Characteristics of Ethical Business Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ardichvili, Alexandre A.; Jondle, Douglas J.; Mitchell, James A.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify general characteristics attributed to ethical business cultures by executives from a variety of industries. Our research identified five clusters of characteristics: (1) Mission- and Values-Driven; (2) Stakeholder Balance; (3) Leadership Effectiveness; (4) Process Integrity; and (5) Long-term Perspective.…

  7. Trend of airplane flight characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Von Koppen, Joachim

    1933-01-01

    This report describes the development of airplane characteristics since the war and indicates the direction development should take in the immediate future. Some of the major topics include: the behavior of an airplane about its lateral, vertical, and longitudinal axes. Behavior at large angles of attack and landing characteristics are also included.

  8. Perceptual Characteristics of Female Voices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batstone, Susan; Tuomi, Seppo K.

    1981-01-01

    Male and females listeners rated 21 young female voices on seven scales representing unique vocal features. Voices were described as "passive", or traditionally female, and "active," characterized as "lively,""colorful," and "sexy." Females found active characteristics more salient; males preferred the passive characteristics. Implications for…

  9. Naupliar and Metanaupliar Development of Thysanoessa raschii (Malacostraca, Euphausiacea) from Godthåbsfjord, Greenland, with a Reinstatement of the Ancestral Status of the Free-Living Nauplius in Malacostracan Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Akther, Hasna; Agersted, Mette Dalgaard; Olesen, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    The presence of a characteristic crustacean larval type, the nauplius, in many crustacean taxa has often been considered one of the few uniting characters of the Crustacea. Within Malacostraca, the largest crustacean group, nauplii are only present in two taxa, Euphauciacea (krill) and Decapoda Dendrobranchiata. The presence of nauplii in these two taxa has traditionally been considered a retained primitive characteristic, but free-living nauplii have also been suggested to have reappeared a couple of times from direct developing ancestors during malacostracan evolution. Based on a re-study of Thysanoessa raschii (Euphausiacea) using preserved material collected in Greenland, we readdress this important controversy in crustacean evolution, and, in the process, redescribe the naupliar and metanaupliar development of T. raschii. In contrast to most previous studies of euphausiid development, we recognize three (not two) naupliar (= ortho-naupliar) stages (N1-N3) followed by a metanauplius (MN). While there are many morphological changes between nauplius 1 and 2 (e.g., appearance of long caudal setae), the changes between nauplius 2 and 3 are few but distinct. They involve the size of some caudal spines (largest in N3) and the setation of the antennal endopod (an extra seta in N3). A wider comparison between free-living nauplii of both Malacostraca and non-Malacostraca revealed similarities between nauplii in many taxa both at the general level (e.g., the gradual development and number of appendages) and at the more detailed level (e.g., unclear segmentation of naupliar appendages, caudal setation, presence of frontal filaments). We recognize these similarities as homologies and therefore suggest that free-living nauplii were part of the ancestral malacostracan type of development. The derived morphology (e.g., lack of feeding structures, no fully formed gut, high content of yolk) of both euphausiid and dendrobranchiate nauplii is evidently related to their non

  10. Naupliar and Metanaupliar Development of Thysanoessa raschii (Malacostraca, Euphausiacea) from Godthåbsfjord, Greenland, with a Reinstatement of the Ancestral Status of the Free-Living Nauplius in Malacostracan Evolution.

    PubMed

    Akther, Hasna; Agersted, Mette Dalgaard; Olesen, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    The presence of a characteristic crustacean larval type, the nauplius, in many crustacean taxa has often been considered one of the few uniting characters of the Crustacea. Within Malacostraca, the largest crustacean group, nauplii are only present in two taxa, Euphauciacea (krill) and Decapoda Dendrobranchiata. The presence of nauplii in these two taxa has traditionally been considered a retained primitive characteristic, but free-living nauplii have also been suggested to have reappeared a couple of times from direct developing ancestors during malacostracan evolution. Based on a re-study of Thysanoessa raschii (Euphausiacea) using preserved material collected in Greenland, we readdress this important controversy in crustacean evolution, and, in the process, redescribe the naupliar and metanaupliar development of T. raschii. In contrast to most previous studies of euphausiid development, we recognize three (not two) naupliar (= ortho-naupliar) stages (N1-N3) followed by a metanauplius (MN). While there are many morphological changes between nauplius 1 and 2 (e.g., appearance of long caudal setae), the changes between nauplius 2 and 3 are few but distinct. They involve the size of some caudal spines (largest in N3) and the setation of the antennal endopod (an extra seta in N3). A wider comparison between free-living nauplii of both Malacostraca and non-Malacostraca revealed similarities between nauplii in many taxa both at the general level (e.g., the gradual development and number of appendages) and at the more detailed level (e.g., unclear segmentation of naupliar appendages, caudal setation, presence of frontal filaments). We recognize these similarities as homologies and therefore suggest that free-living nauplii were part of the ancestral malacostracan type of development. The derived morphology (e.g., lack of feeding structures, no fully formed gut, high content of yolk) of both euphausiid and dendrobranchiate nauplii is evidently related to their non

  11. [Collage work characteristics and personality].

    PubMed

    Sato, Shizuka

    2002-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between personality and characteristics in collage work. Seventy undergraduates filled the Yatabe-Guilford (YG) personality test and produced a piece of collage work. The YG personality types were not different in terms of collage work characteristics. However, emotional adaptation and introvert/extrovert scores were reflected in the number of cuttings used in the piece. General activity score was reflected in the number of vehicle pictures used. Those who used an eye picture had a tendency to be depressed and lacking in confidence. Those who used a "stone circle" picture tended to be more emotionally adapted and extroverted. The results suggested a possibility that personality traits were reflected in specific characteristics in collage work. PMID:12199065

  12. Corrective Taxes and Cigarette Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Calcott, Paul; Petkov, Vladimir

    2016-07-01

    If cigarette design was exogenous, inefficiencies arising from smoking could be addressed either with a tax per packet or with an ad valorem tax. However, it is well known that the consequences of these two instruments differ when product characteristics are endogenous. We consider three such characteristics: nicotine, tar, and flavor. Implementation of the first-best social optimum typically requires the capacity to tax or regulate harmful ingredients. Without such a capacity, the next-best policy often combines a per-unit tax on cigarettes with an ad valorem subsidy. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Transient characteristics of rocket turbopumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimura, Takashi; Watanabe, Mitsuo

    Transient characteristics of high-speed, high-pressure cryogenic turbopumps for rocket engines were examined experimentally by starting and stopping several rocket turbopumps rapidly by gas turbine drive. Aspects of transient characteristics studied were instantaneous pump head coefficient and pump efficiency, cavitation growth in the inducer during rapid acceleration, effects of the starting mode related to the propulsion system mission, and transient behavior of a self-balancing type axial thrust balancing system. Based on the test results, the feasibility of definite starting modes for the LE-5 turbopump was confirmed and the self-balancing type axial thrust balancing system for the LE-7 LOX turbopump was completed.

  14. Artistic Understanding and Motivational Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lekue, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to analyse artistic understanding in primary and secondary education and the relationship between this understanding and motivational characteristics such as goal orientation, engagement in art activities and attitude to art education at school, which determine (according to prior research) learners' academic achievement, in…

  15. Acoustic Absorption Characteristics of People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingsbury, H. F.; Wallace, W. J.

    1968-01-01

    The acoustic absorption characteristics of informally dressed college students in typical classroom seating are shown to differ substantially from data for formally dressed audiences in upholstered seating. Absorption data, expressed as sabins per person or absorption coefficient per square foot, shows that there is considerable variation between…

  16. Characteristics of the Federal Executive.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Civil Service Commission, Washington, DC.

    The personal characteristics, educational background, occupations, and attitudes of 54 Federal Executives who attended Session IX of the Federal Executive Institute, U. S. Civil Service Commission, are given. The average age of the group was 47.6 years (range 36 to 61). The federal grades were 18% in GS-5, 66% in GS-16 and equivalent, and 16% in…

  17. Personality Characteristics and Student Housing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yonge, George; Regan, Mary

    This study aimed to determine relationships between a student's personality characteristics and his choice of a living residence while a senior at the University of California, Davis. A phenomological approach--or, the idea that a person's actions and decisions reveal something about his personality--was used. Data for the study were derived from…

  18. Characteristics of Effective Leadership Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leithwood, Kenneth; Azah, Vera Ndifor

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to inquire about the characteristics of effective school leadership networks and the contribution of such networks to the development of individual leaders' professional capacities. Design/methodology/approach: The study used path-analytic techniques with survey data provided by 450 school and district leaders…

  19. Computerized Investigations of Battery Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinrichsen, P. F.

    2001-01-01

    Uses a computer interface to measure terminal voltage versus current characteristic of a variety of batteries, their series and parallel combinations, and the variation with discharge. The concept of an internal resistance demonstrates that current flows through the battery determine the efficiency and serve to introduce Thevenin's theorem.…

  20. School Choice with Chinese Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Xiaoxin

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the major characteristics of school choice in the Chinese context. It highlights the involvement of cultural and economic capital, such as choice fees, donations, prize-winning certificates and awards in gaining school admission, as well as the use of social capital in the form of "guanxi". The requirement for these resources…

  1. Handbook of sensor technical characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanner, S.

    1982-01-01

    Space and terrestrial applications remote sensor systems are described. Each sensor is presented separately. Information is included on its objectives, description, technical characteristics, data products obtained, data archives location, period of operation, and measurement and potential derived parameters. Each sensor is cross indexed.

  2. Distinctive Characteristics of Educational Donors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Russell N., III.

    2008-01-01

    Examining the charitable behavior of 56,663 US households, this paper evaluates the distinctive characteristics of educational donors as compared with donors to noneducational charitable organizations and with nondonors. In general, educational donors had significantly greater income, wealth, and education than other donors. Educational donors…

  3. Characteristics of Male Alcohol Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratliff, Katharine G.; Ellis, Thomas E.

    Because most studies investigating psychological profiles of subjects convicted of driving under the influence of alcohol (DUI) have been conducted at the time of arrest or treatment, it is unclear whether subjects' anxiety, depression, and hostility represent "trait" characteristics central to alcohol abuse or "state" responses to arrest and…

  4. Characteristic impedance of microstrip lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, M. C.; Deshpande, M. D.

    1989-01-01

    The dyadic Green's function for a current embedded in a grounded dielectric slab is used to analyze microstrip lines at millimeter wave frequencies. The dyadic Green's function accounts accurately for fringing fields and dielectric cover over the microstrip line. Using Rumsey's reaction concept, an expression for the characteristic impedance is obtained. The numerical results are compared with other reported results.

  5. Attitudes and Characteristics of Nonusers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Ann; Kahn, Malcolm

    The attitudes and life-style characteristics of 58 undergraduate nonusers of illegal drugs were evaluated through comparisons with 47 regular marijuana users. The nonusers were found to be more settled in their values, more goal-directed, and more involved academically. They also had higher Grade Point Averages. The nonusers appeared to be both…

  6. Nurses executive characteristics. Gender differences.

    PubMed

    Rozier, C K

    1996-12-01

    Do male nurse executives working in a female-dominated profession adopt more of the female leadership characteristics? A study investigates gender differences of nurse executives on a variety of managerial attributes: sex role, supervision, power, career commitment and work/family conflict. Results also were compared to executives of other professions.

  7. Tourette's Syndrome: Characteristics and Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prestia, Kelly

    2003-01-01

    This article overviews the characteristics of children and youth with Tourette syndrome and provides suggestions that can be used in the school setting for addressing academic concerns, social-emotional concerns, and physical concerns. Teachers are urged to break down assignments, allow computer use to complete work, and give preferential seating.…

  8. Receiver design and performance characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, M. K.; Yuen, J. H.

    1982-01-01

    The basic design, principles of operation, and characteristics of deep space communications receivers are examined. In particular, the basic fundamentals of phase-locked loop and Costas loop receivers used for synchronization, tracking, and demodulation of phase-coherent signals in residual carrier and suppressed carrier systems are addressed.

  9. Receiver design and performance characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, M. K.; Yuen, J. H.

    1982-07-01

    The basic design, principles of operation, and characteristics of deep space communications receivers are examined. In particular, the basic fundamentals of phase-locked loop and Costas loop receivers used for synchronization, tracking, and demodulation of phase-coherent signals in residual carrier and suppressed carrier systems are addressed.

  10. Beginning Writing: Characteristics of Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osburn, E. Bess; McDonell, Gloria M.

    A study was conducted to identify characteristics of young children's written compositions that might be used to indicate growth patterns. Written compositions of 482 children of all ability levels, grades 1-3, were examined by two teams of teacher-researchers and placed on a continuum of sophistication. Four growth strands were identified: (1)…

  11. Temperament Characteristics of Suicide Attempters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehrabian, Albert; Weinstein, Lisa

    1985-01-01

    In a preliminary study of a single group of suicide attempters, male and female subjects did not differ in temperament characteristics. Data from both sexes indicated that suicide-prone individuals have unpleasant, arousable, and submissive temperaments, with arousability a strong discriminator of suicide attempters relative to the general…

  12. Fracture characteristics of balloon films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Portanova, Marc A.

    1989-01-01

    An attempt was made to determine the failure modes of high altitude scientific balloons through an investigation of the fracture characteristics of the thin polyethylene films. Two films were the subject of the evaluation, Winzen Int.'s Stratafilm SF-85 and Raven Industries' Astro-E. Research began with an investigation of the film's cold brittleness point and it's effect on the ultimate strength and elasticity of the polyethylene film. A series of preliminary investigations were conducted to develop an understanding of the material characteristics. The primary focus of this investigation was on the notch sensitivity of the films. Simple stress strain tests were also conducted to enable analysis employing fracture toughness parameters. Studies were conducted on both film types at 23 C (room temperature), -60 C, -90 C, and -120 C.

  13. Map characteristics of Landsat mosaics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zobrist, A. L.; Bryant, N. A.

    1979-01-01

    Map characteristics of the Landsat mosaics developed at JPL are considered. Procedures for digital mosaicking of Landsat frames to standard map projections were used to mosaic at full resolution ten scenes over the California desert region and twenty-one scenes over Arizona. The procedures are analyzed for horizontal positioning error (global and local) and the potential for classification error associated with the adjustment of brightness of Z values between frames; the use of this technology for the mapping of extensive features is discussed. Mosaicking facilities, techniques, mapping accuracy, and thematic mapping characteristics are described. A comparative analysis of Landsat mosaicking technology developed at Goddard Space Flight Center, IBM Gaithersburg, and USGS Flagstaff is made, and suggestions are given for algorithm development to improve systems capacity and ability to handle a variety of cases.

  14. Roughness characteristics of natural channels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnes, Harry Hawthorne

    1967-01-01

    Color photographs and descriptive data are presented for 50 stream channels for which roughness coefficients have been determined. All hydraulic computations involving flow in open channels require an evaluation of the roughness characteristics of the channel. In the absence of a satisfactory quantitative procedure this evaluation remains chiefly an art. The ability to evaluate roughness coefficients must be developed through experience. One means of gaining this experience is by examining and becoming acquainted with the appearance of some typical channels whose roughness coefficients are known. The photographs and data contained in this report represent a wide range of channel conditions. Familiarity with the appearance, geometry, and roughness characteristics of these channels will improve the engineer's ability to select roughness coefficients for other channels .

  15. Characteristics of adopted juvenile delinquents.

    PubMed

    Kim, W J; Zrull, J P; Davenport, C W; Weaver, M

    1992-05-01

    There have been many reports describing the uniqueness of adopted children and adolescents' delinquent behaviors in terms of both their delinquent characteristics and courts' treatment of them. A total of 43 adopted juveniles, 32 extrafamilial (1.0%) and 11 intrafamilial (0.3%) adoptions were initially identified out of 3,280 juvenile delinquents. The adopted subjects were then compared with the demographically matched and offense matched nonadopted subjects. The family variables, such as marital and employment status of parents, were significantly different. However, there were only a few discernible trends, and in general there were no significant differences between the adopted and nonadopted juveniles in terms of their offense characteristics and dispositions. PMID:1592787

  16. The Characteristic Curves of Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumaier, Arnold; Deiters, Ulrich K.

    2016-09-01

    In 1960, E. H. Brown defined a set of characteristic curves (also known as ideal curves) of pure fluids, along which some thermodynamic properties match those of an ideal gas. These curves are used for testing the extrapolation behaviour of equations of state. This work is revisited, and an elegant representation of the first-order characteristic curves as level curves of a master function is proposed. It is shown that Brown's postulate—that these curves are unique and dome-shaped in a double-logarithmic p, T representation—may fail for fluids exhibiting a density anomaly. A careful study of the Amagat curve (Joule inversion curve) generated from the IAPWS-95 reference equation of state for water reveals the existence of an additional branch.

  17. Calculation of gas turbine characteristic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamaev, B. I.; Murashko, V. L.

    2016-04-01

    The reasons and regularities of vapor flow and turbine parameter variation depending on the total pressure drop rate π* and rotor rotation frequency n are studied, as exemplified by a two-stage compressor turbine of a power-generating gas turbine installation. The turbine characteristic is calculated in a wide range of mode parameters using the method in which analytical dependences provide high accuracy for the calculated flow output angle and different types of gas dynamic losses are determined with account of the influence of blade row geometry, blade surface roughness, angles, compressibility, Reynolds number, and flow turbulence. The method provides satisfactory agreement of results of calculation and turbine testing. In the design mode, the operation conditions for the blade rows are favorable, the flow output velocities are close to the optimal ones, the angles of incidence are small, and the flow "choking" modes (with respect to consumption) in the rows are absent. High performance and a nearly axial flow behind the turbine are obtained. Reduction of the rotor rotation frequency and variation of the pressure drop change the flow parameters, the parameters of the stages and the turbine, as well as the form of the characteristic. In particular, for decreased n, nonmonotonic variation of the second stage reactivity with increasing π* is observed. It is demonstrated that the turbine characteristic is mainly determined by the influence of the angles of incidence and the velocity at the output of the rows on the losses and the flow output angle. The account of the growing flow output angle due to the positive angle of incidence for decreased rotation frequencies results in a considerable change of the characteristic: poorer performance, redistribution of the pressure drop at the stages, and change of reactivities, growth of the turbine capacity, and change of the angle and flow velocity behind the turbine.

  18. Review of GLONASS system characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daly, P.

    A review is presented of various events over the past year that have had an influence on progress towards joint operation of GPS and GLONASS, with special attention to GLONASS characteristics and development. In the case of GPS, launches of the operational block II satellites have proceeded very successfully; for GLONASS the last year was more a year of retrenchment with the loss of the two spacecraft launched in May 1989.

  19. Microfiltration membranes: characteristics and manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Reif, Oscar W

    2006-01-01

    Membrane filtration is used within a multitude of processes ranging from dialysis to desalination processes to sterilizing filtration in the pharmaceutical industry. Membranes, nevertheless, have to have special characteristics and properties to serve such specific applications. Microfiltration membranes are utilized in a large range of membrane polymers and structures, which all have individual production process steps to achieve consistently the same membrane parameters. This chapter discusses membrane polymers and production processes in detail.

  20. Hydrologic characteristics of Nebraska soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dugan, Jack T.

    1984-01-01

    The influence of the physical characteristics of soil on hydrology is frequently neglected. In this report, the effects of five characteristics on the hydrologic responses of soils in Nebraska are evaluated quantitatively, soils are grouped through use of a simplified coding system according to similarities in hydrologic responses, and are mapped according to these responses. General soils maps of the U.S. Department of Agriculture Soil Conservation Service and data for the physical properties of the soils proved well-suited to hydrologic interpretation. This interpretation of the maps and data led to the selection of three characteristics as classification variables: Average permeability of the 60-inch soil profile, average maximum soil slope, and depth to the seasonal high water table. Permeability of the least permeable horizon and available water capacity, although not needed as classification variables, are useful in explaining some of the hydrologic responses of soils. The primary soil units used in groupings and interpretation of the soils for this study are the soil associations. A computer program is presented that sorts the soils into groups and calculates statistics for each group. The 147 soil associations in Nebraska were thus sorted into 29 hydrologic soil groups. The location and extent of these hydrologic soil groups are shown on maps at scales of 1:750,000 and 1:250,000 for the State.

  1. Characteristics of successful alien plants.

    PubMed

    van Kleunen, M; Dawson, W; Maurel, N

    2015-05-01

    Herbert Baker arguably initiated the search for species characteristics determining alien plant invasion success, with his formulation of the 'ideal weed'. Today, a profusion of studies has tested a myriad of traits for their importance in explaining success of alien plants, but the multiple, not always appropriate, approaches used have led to some confusion and criticism. We argue that a greater understanding of the characteristics explaining alien plant success requires a refined approach that respects the multistage, multiscale nature of the invasion process. We present a schema of questions we can ask regarding the success of alien species, with the answering of one question in the schema being conditional on the answer of preceding questions (thus acknowledging the nested nature of invasion stages). For each question, we identify traits and attributes of species we believe are likely to be most important in explaining species success, and we make predictions as to how we expect successful aliens to differ from natives and from unsuccessful aliens in their characteristics. We organize the findings of empirical studies according to the questions in our schema that they have addressed, to assess the extent to which they support our predictions. We believe that research on plant traits of alien species has already told us a lot about why some alien species become successful after introduction. However, if we ask the right questions at the appropriate scale and use appropriate comparators, research on traits may tell us whether they are really important or not, and if so under which conditions.

  2. Spectral Characteristics of Titan's Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffith, Caitlin A.; Turner, Jake D.; Penteado, Paulo; Khamsi, Tymon B.; Soderblom, Jason M.

    2014-11-01

    Cassini/Huygens and ground-based measurements of Titan reveal an eroded surface, with lakes, dunes, and sinuous washes. These features, coupled with measurements of clouds and rain, indicate the transfer of methane between Titan’s surface and atmosphere. The presence of methane-damp lowlands suggests further that the atmospheric methane (which is continually depleted through photolysis) may be supplied by sub-surface reservoirs. The byproducts of methane photolysis condense onto the surface, leaving layers of organic sediments that record Titan’s past atmospheres.Thus knowledge of the source and history of Titan's atmosphere requires measurements of the large scale compositional makeup of Titan's surface, which is shrouded by a thick and hazy atmosphere. Towards this goal, we analyzed roughly 100,000 spectra recorded by Cassini’s Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS). Our study is confined to the latitude region (20S—20N) surrounding the landing site of the Huygens probe (at 10S, 192W), which supplied only measurement of the vertical profiles of the methane abundance and haze scattering characteristics. VIMS near-IR spectral images indicate subtle latitudinal and temporal variations in the haze characteristics in the tropics. We constrain these small changes with full radiative transfer analyses of each of the thousands of VIMS spectra, which were recorded of different terrains and at different lighting conditions. The resulting models of Titan’s atmosphere as a function of latitude and year indicate the seasonal migration of Titan’s tropical haze and enable the derivation of Titan’s surface albedo at 8 near-IR wavelength regions where Titan’s atmosphere is transparent enough to allow visibility to the surface. The resultant maps of Titan’s surface indicate a number of terrain types with distinct spectral characteristics that are suggestive of atmospheric and surficial processes, including the deposition of organic material, erosion of

  3. [Exaggerated breed characteristics in dogs].

    PubMed

    Wilting, M M; Endenburg, N

    2012-01-01

    Dutch dog owners seem to be aware of bad dog breeding practices with regard to exaggerated breed characteristics that are detrimental to the dog's welfare. Yet they do not always look for these features when buying a dog. Most dog owners think that veterinarians could have an important role in preventing these exaggerated physical traits, by providing information about these traits and taking action in their capacity as veterinarian. Articles 36 and 55 of the Dutch GWWD (animal health and welfare law) provide opportunities to act against the breeding of dogs with exaggerated genetic traits.

  4. Geotechnical characteristics of residual soils

    SciTech Connect

    Townsend, F.C.

    1985-01-01

    Residual soils are products of chemical weathering and thus their characteristics are dependent upon environmental factors of climate, parent material, topography and drainage, and age. These conditions are optimized in the tropics where well-drained regions produce reddish lateritic soils rich in iron and aluminum sesquioxides and kaolinitic clays. Conversely, poorly drained areas tend towards montmorillonitic expansive black clays. Andosols develop over volcanic ash and rock regions and are rich in allophane (amorphous silica) and metastable halloysite. The geological origins greatly affect the resulting engineering characteristics. Both lateritic soils and andosols are susceptible to property changes upon drying, and exhibit compaction and strength properties not indicative of their classification limits. Both soils have been used successfully in earth dam construction, but attention must be given to seepage control through the weathered rock. Conversely, black soils are unpopular for embankments. Lateritic soils respond to cement stabilization and, in some cases, lime stabilization. Andosols should also respond to lime treatment and cement treatments if proper mixing can be achieved. Black expansive residual soils respond to lime treatment by demonstrating strength gains and decreased expansiveness. Rainfall induced landslides are typical of residual soil deposits.

  5. Characteristics of spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Notz, K.J.

    1988-04-01

    The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is responsible for the spent fuels and other wastes that will, or may, eventually be disposed of in a geological repository. The two major sources of these materials are commercial light-water reactor (LWR) spent fuel and immobilized high-level waste (HLW). Other wastes that may require long-term isolation include non-LWR spent fuels and miscellaneous sources such as activated metals. This report deals with spent fuels, but for completeness, the other sources are described briefly. Detailed characterizations are required for all of these potential repository wastes. These characteristics include physical, chemical, and radiological properties. The latter must take into account decay as a function of time. In addition, the present inventories and projected quantities of the various wastes are needed. This information has been assembled in a Characteristics Data Base which provides data in four formats: hard copy standard reports, menu-driven personal computer (PC) data bases, program-level PC data bases, and mainframe computer files. 5 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Characteristics of potential repository wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Notz, K.J.

    1989-01-01

    The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is responsible for the spent fuels and other wastes that will be disposed of in a geologic repository. The two major sources of these materials are commercial light-water reactor (LWR) spent fuel and immobilized high-level waste (HLW). Other wastes that may require long-term isolation include non-LWR spent fuels and miscellaneous sources such as activated metals. Detailed characterizations are required for all of these potential repository wastes. These characterizations include physical, chemical, and radiological properties. The latter must take into account decay as a function of time. This information has been extracted from primary data sources, evaluated, and assembled in a Characteristics Data Base which provides data in four formats: hard copy standard reports, menu-driven personal computer (PC) data bases, program-level PC data bases, and mainframe computer files. The Characteristics Data Base provides a standard set of self-consistent data to the various areas of responsibility including systems integration and waste stream analysis, storage, transportation, and geologic disposal. The data will be used for design studies, evaluation of alternatives, and system optimization by OCRWM and supporting contractors. 7 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.

  7. Charge Characteristics of Rechargeable Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maheswaranathan, Ponn; Kelly, Cormac

    2014-03-01

    Rechargeable batteries play important role in technologies today and they are critical for the future. They are used in many electronic devices and their capabilities need to keep up with the accelerated pace of technology. Efficient energy capture and storage is necessary for the future rechargeable batteries. Charging and discharging characteristics of three popular commercially available re-chargeable batteries (NiCd, NiMH, and Li Ion) are investigated and compared with regular alkaline batteries. Pasco's 850 interface and their voltage & current sensors are used to monitor the current through and the potential difference across the battery. The discharge current and voltage stayed fairly constant until the end, with a slightly larger drop in voltage than current, which is more pronounced in the alkaline batteries. After 25 charge/discharge cycling there is no appreciable loss of charge capacities in the Li Ion battery. Energy densities, cycle characteristics, and memory effects will also be presented. Sponsored by the South Carolina Governor's school for Science and Mathematics under the Summer Program for Research Interns program.

  8. Sensitometric characteristics of dental xeroradiography

    SciTech Connect

    Gratt, B.M.; Sickles, E.A.

    1983-11-01

    Dental xeroradiography is a high-quality intraoral imaging system which provides a potentially convenient, rapid, low-dose alternative to conventional film radiography. In this study the sensitometric properties of dental xeroradiography were investigated via assessment of high- and low-contrast xeroradiographic processor settings, transmission versus reflection densitometry, reciprocity-law failure, and kVp (tube voltage) plate dependence. Findings of the study indicated that imaging at high-contrast processor settings results in greater dynamic range but less exposure latitude than imaging at low-contrast processor settings. Determination of characteristic curves demonstrated greater contrast in reflection mode than imaging by transillumination for all but the very densest of images (greater than 1.6 O.D.). There was also little difference in characteristic curves produced from 50 to 90 kVp, indicating that the xeroradiographic plate exhibits a relatively constant sensitivity over the tube voltages tested if exposure is expressed in roentgens. Finally, no substantial reciprocity-law failure was observed for dental xeroradiography over a clinically relevant range of exposure times.

  9. Tribological characteristics of healthy tendon.

    PubMed

    Theobald, Peter S; Dowson, Duncan; Khan, Ilyas M; Jones, Michael D

    2012-07-26

    Tendons transfer muscular forces efficiently and painlessly, facilitating joint motion. Whilst the tribology of articular cartilage is constantly explored, a poorer understanding remains of tendon lubrication and friction. This study reports experimental data describing the tribological characteristics of tendon and its surrounding tissue, before presenting an arithmetic solution to facilitate numerical modelling. The experimental characteristics of the tensile (i.e. mid-substance) and compressive (i.e. fibrocartilaginous) regions of bovine flexor tendon were investigated using a pin-on-plate tribometer, with immunofluroscence analysis describing the relative intensity and distribution of surface-bound lubricin. Arithmetic analysis considering the digital extensor tendon determined that, in physiological conditions, the tensile tendon region was able to generate elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL). The equivalent region of compressive tendon exhibited a higher intensity of surface-bound lubricin which, it is hypothesised, serves to minimise the increased frictional resistance due to generating only mixed or boundary lubrication regimes. Arithmetic analysis indicates that, given a more favourable biomechanical environment, this region can also generate EHL. Whilst acknowledging the limitations of transferring data from an animal model to a clinical environment, by providing the first data and equations detailing the film thicknesses and lubrication regime for these two tendon regions it is hoped that clinicians, engineers and scientists can consider improved clinical strategies to tackle both tendinopathy and tendon rupture.

  10. Hazardous waste landfill leachate characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Pavelka, C. ); Loehr, R.C. . Environmental and Water Resources Engineering Program); Haikola, B. )

    1993-01-01

    Leachate data from 18 commercial hazardous waste landfills or cells were evaluated to determine overall leachate characteristics and parameters that may affect leachate generation and characteristics. The landfills studied have a wide range of practices, none of which are necessarily representative of the most current landfill design, operating or closure practice in the United States. The leachate samples were from landfills that represented varying waste types, waste age, geographic locations and climate. The parameters evaluated included chemical properties, co-disposal of hazardous and municipal solid wastes, climatic conditions, and waste age in the landfills. The leachate samples had been analyzed for 62 volatiles, 107 semi-volatiles, 16 metals, 28 pesticides, herbicides and insecticides, and 17 other chemicals. The results indicate that: (a) the organics in the leachate with high concentrations had high solubilities and low octanol-water coefficients, (b) landfills in arid climates produced less leachate than those in temperate and sub-tropical climates, and (c) leachate production appeared to be related to use of a cap or cover.

  11. Sampling characteristics of satellite orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wunsch, Carl

    1989-01-01

    The irregular space-time sampling of any finite region by an orbiting satellite raises difficult questions as to which frequencies and wavenumbers can be determined and which will alias into others. Conventional sampling theorems must be extended to account for both irregular data distributions and observational noise - the sampling irregularity making the system much more susceptible to noise than in regularly sampled cases. The problem is formulated here in terms of least-squares and applied to spacecraft in 10-day and 17-day repeating orbits. The 'diamond-pattern' laid down spatially in such repeating orbits means that either repeat period adequately samples the spatial variables, but the slow overall temporal coverage in the 17-day pattern leads to much greater uncertainty than in the shorter repeat cycle. The result is not definitive and it is not concluded that a 10-day orbit repeat is the most appropriate one. A major conclusion, however, is that different orbital choices have potentially quite different sampling characteristics which need to be analyzed in terms of the spectral characteristics of the moving sea surface.

  12. Effect of Nanofiller Characteristics on Nanocomposite Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Working, Dennis C.; Lillehei, Peter T.; Lowther, Sharon E.; Siochi, Emilie J.; Kim, Jae-Woo; Sauti, Godfrey; Wise, Kristopher E.; Park, Cheol

    2016-01-01

    This report surveys the effect of nanofiller characteristics on nanocomposites fabricated with two polyimide matrices. Mechanical and electrical properties were determined. Microscopy results showed that matrix chemistry, nanofiller characteristics and processing conditions had significant impact on nanocomposite quality.

  13. Organizational Characteristics as Predictors of Personnel Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Susan E.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Investigated relationship between organizational context characteristics and personnel practices. Results from 267 organizations supported hypothesis that personnel practices vary as function of organizational characteristics (industry sector, pursuit of innovation as competitive strategy, manufacturing technology, organizational structure).…

  14. 30 CFR 7.45 - Critical characteristics

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Battery Assemblies § 7.45 Critical characteristics The following critical characteristics shall be inspected or tested on each battery assembly...

  15. 30 CFR 7.45 - Critical characteristics

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Battery Assemblies § 7.45 Critical characteristics The following critical characteristics shall be inspected or tested on each battery assembly...

  16. Characteristics of rain and rain systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-12-01

    The description and measurement of the macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of rain and rain systems are discussed. The statistical relationships of these characteristics and their effect on polarization and attenuation are considered. Macroscopic characteristics include the size, distribution, and movements of rain cells, the height of melting layers, and the presence of ice crystals. Microscopic characteristics include the size distribution, density, and oblateness of rain drops and ice crystals. The estimation of a major propagation effect, specific attenuation, is described.

  17. Partner attachment and interpersonal characteristics.

    PubMed

    Kilmann, Peter R; Finch, Holmes; Parnell, Michele M; Downer, Jason T

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated partner attachment and interpersonal characteristics in 134 nonclinical couples in long-term marriages. Irrespective of gender, spouses with greater anxiety over abandonment or discomfort with closeness endorsed dysfunctional relationship beliefs to a greater extent. On the anxiety over abandonment dimension, husbands with higher scores were rated less aggressive, less controlling, and more rebellious, whereas wives with higher scores were rated more dependent, more self-critical, and less competitive. Husbands higher on discomfort with closeness were rated less cooperative and responsible and were rated more aggressive and rebellious. Matched secure couples reported lower marital dissatisfaction than matched insecure or mismatched couples. Future research should contrast samples of nonclinical and clinical couples by marital duration to identify specific partner behaviors that are likely to foster marital dissatisfaction within particular attachment pairings. The authors' findings suggest the importance of marital therapists being attuned to the attachment-related beliefs and interpersonal styles uniquely operating within each couple.

  18. Characteristics of Older Motorcyclist Crashes

    PubMed Central

    Stutts, Jane; Foss, Robert; Svoboda, Colleen

    2004-01-01

    In the U.S. as well as other countries, the number of motorcyclists killed in traffic crashes has risen sharply over the past five years, due in part to the increased popularity of motorcycling among older riders. This paper examines trends in motorcyclist casualties and vehicle registrations from 1990–2002, based on national and state (North Carolina) motor vehicle crash and vehicle registration data. The data show similar patterns of increased fatalities that parallel a growth in motorcycle registrations. Whereas the number of motorcyclists ages 16–24 declined over the 13–year study period, the number of riders ages 35 and older increased. Three years of recent (2000–2002) NC data are examined to identify salient characteristics of the crashes of these older riders. Results are discussed with respect to approaches for mitigating the increase in motorcyclist deaths and injuries. PMID:15319126

  19. Physical characteristics of sand injectites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurst, Andrew; Scott, Anthony; Vigorito, Mario

    2011-06-01

    Almost two hundred years of research is reviewed that focuses on the physical characteristics of sandstone intrusions. It is concerned with mechanisms of sand injection, particularly with fluid-grain transport and sedimentation processes during the remobilization, injection and extrusion of sand. Outcrop and subsurface studies in combination with laboratory experimental data are drawn on to present the state-of-the-art of sand injection. The text covers 1) geometry, internal structure, and microtexture of deformed parent units, injected and extruded sandstones, 2) host-strata and their seal characteristics that contribute to basin-wide overpressure generation, 3) common trigger mechanisms for sand injection such as high magnitude seismicity and the rapid injection of large volumes of fluids, 4) fluid types that drive sand into fractures, 5) hydrofracture mechanisms that induce regional-scale seal failure, 6) liquefaction and fluidization processes that transport sand into fractures, 7) sedimentation processes in fractures, 8) the flow regime of fluidized sand during injection, 9) post-sand-injection fluid flow and diagenesis, 10) porosity and permeability characteristics of injected sandstones and 11) post-sand-injection fluid-flow over geological timescales. Processes of sand remobilization, injection, and extrusion are complex and depend on many interrelated factors including: fluid(s) properties (e.g. pressure, volume, composition), parent unit and host-strata characteristics (e.g. depositional architecture, grain size and distribution, clay-size fraction, thickness, permeability) and burial depth at the time of injection. Many studies report erosional contacts between host strata and injected sands and these record high-velocity, erosive flow during injection. The flow regime is poorly constrained and similar features are interpreted as records of laminar and turbulent flow, or both, during injection. Internal structures are common in sandstone intrusions and

  20. Molecular characteristics versus biological activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Applegate, Vernon C.; Smith, Manning A.; Willeford, Bennett R.

    1967-01-01

    The molecular characteristics of mononitrophenols containing halogens not only play a key role in their biological activity but provide a novel example of selective toxicity among vertebrate animals. It has been reported that efforts to control the parasitic sea lamprey in the Great Lakes are directed at present to the applications of a selective toxicant to streams inhabited by lamprey larvae. Since 1961, the larvicide that has been used almost exclusively in the control program has been 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM). However, this is only one of about 15 closely related compounds, all halogen-containing mononitrophenols, that display a selectively toxic action upon lampreys. Although not all of the halogenated mononitrophenols are selectively toxic to lampreys (in fact, fewer than half of those tested), no other group of related compounds has displayed any useful larvicidal activity except for the substituted nitrosalicylanilides.

  1. Characteristics of potential repository wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Cowart, C.G.; Notz, K.J.

    1992-10-01

    This report presents the results of a fully documented peer review of DOE/RW-0184, Rev. 1, Characteristics of Potential Repository Wastes''. The peer review was chaired and administered by oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) and was conducted in accordance with OCRWM QA procedure QAAP 3.3 Peer Review'' for the purpose of quailing the document for use in OCRWM quality-affecting work. The peer reviewers selected represent a wide range of experience and knowledge particularly suitable for evaluating the subject matter. A total of 596 formal comments were documented by the seven peer review panels, and all were successfully resolved. The peers reached the conclusion that DOE/RW-0184, Rev. 1, is quality determined and suitable for use in quality-affecting work.

  2. Characteristics of coking coal burnout

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, M.; Bailey, J.G.

    1996-12-31

    An attempt was made to clarify the characteristics of coking coal burnout by the morphological analysis of char and fly ash samples. Laboratory-scale combustion testing, simulating an ignition process, was carried out for three kinds of coal (two coking coals and one non-coking coal for reference), and sampled chars were analyzed for size, shape and type by image analysis. The full combustion process was examined in industrial-scale combustion testing for the same kinds of coal. Char sampled at the burner outlet and fly ash at the furnace exit were also analyzed. The difference between the char type, swelling properties, agglomeration, anisotropy and carbon burnout were compared at laboratory scale and at industrial scale. As a result, it was found that coking coals produced chars with relatively thicker walls, which mainly impeded char burnout, especially for low volatile coals.

  3. Doppler characteristics of sea clutter.

    SciTech Connect

    Raynal, Ann Marie; Doerry, Armin Walter

    2010-06-01

    Doppler radars can distinguish targets from clutter if the target's velocity along the radar line of sight is beyond that of the clutter. Some targets of interest may have a Doppler shift similar to that of clutter. The nature of sea clutter is different in the clutter and exo-clutter regions. This behavior requires special consideration regarding where a radar can expect to find sea-clutter returns in Doppler space and what detection algorithms are most appropriate to help mitigate false alarms and increase probability of detection of a target. This paper studies the existing state-of-the-art in the understanding of Doppler characteristics of sea clutter and scattering from the ocean to better understand the design and performance choices of a radar in differentiating targets from clutter under prevailing sea conditions.

  4. Characteristic Time Scales of Characteristic Magmatic Processes and Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, B. D.

    2004-05-01

    Every specific magmatic process, regardless of spatial scale, has an associated characteristic time scale. Time scales associated with crystals alone are rates of growth, dissolution, settling, aggregation, annealing, and nucleation, among others. At the other extreme are the time scales associated with the dynamics of the entire magmatic system. These can be separated into two groups: those associated with system genetics (e.g., the production and transport of magma, establishment of the magmatic system) and those due to physical characteristics of the established system (e.g., wall rock failure, solidification front propagation and instability, porous flow). The detailed geometry of a specific magmatic system is particularly important to appreciate; although generic systems are useful, care must be taken to make model systems as absolutely realistic as possible. Fuzzy models produce fuzzy science. Knowledge of specific time scales is not necessarily useful or meaningful unless the hierarchical context of the time scales for a realistic magmatic system is appreciated. The age of a specific phenocryst or ensemble of phenocrysts, as determined from isotopic or CSD studies, is not meaningful unless something can be ascertained of the provenance of the crystals. For example, crystal size multiplied by growth rate gives a meaningful crystal age only if it is from a part of the system that has experienced semi-monotonic cooling prior to chilling; crystals entrained from a long-standing cumulate bed that were mechanically sorted in ascending magma may not reveal this history. Ragged old crystals rolling about in the system for untold numbers of flushing times record specious process times, telling more about the noise in the system than the life of typical, first generation crystallization processes. The most helpful process-related time scales are those that are known well and that bound or define the temporal style of the system. Perhaps the most valuable of these

  5. 30 CFR 7.305 - Critical characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Critical characteristics. 7.305 Section 7.305 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND... characteristics. The following critical characteristics shall be inspected on each motor assembly to which...

  6. 14 CFR 27.239 - Spray characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spray characteristics. 27.239 Section 27... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Ground and Water Handling Characteristics § 27.239 Spray characteristics. If certification for water operation is requested, no spray...

  7. 14 CFR 29.239 - Spray characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spray characteristics. 29.239 Section 29... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Ground and Water Handling Characteristics § 29.239 Spray characteristics. If certification for water operation is requested, no spray...

  8. 30 CFR 7.405 - Critical characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Critical characteristics. 7.405 Section 7.405... Cable Splice Kits § 7.405 Critical characteristics. (a) A sample from each production run, batch, or lot... tested, or (b) A sample of the materials that contribute to the flame-resistant characteristic of...

  9. 30 CFR 7.25 - Critical characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Critical characteristics. 7.25 Section 7.25....25 Critical characteristics. A sample of each batch or lot of brattice cloth and ventilation tubing...-resistance characteristic shall be inspected or tested to ensure that the finished product will meet...

  10. 14 CFR 23.239 - Spray characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spray characteristics. 23.239 Section 23.239 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Handling Characteristics § 23.239 Spray characteristics. Spray may not dangerously obscure the vision...

  11. F-5-L Boat Seaplane : performance characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diehl, W S

    1922-01-01

    Performance characteristics for the F-5-L Boat Seaplane are given. Characteristic curves for the RAF-6 airfoil and the F-5-L wings, parasite resistance and velocity data, engine and propeller characteristics, effective and maximum horsepower, and cruising performance are discussed.

  12. Tier identification (TID) for tiered memory characteristics

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Jichuan; Lim, Kevin T; Ranganathan, Parthasarathy

    2014-03-25

    A tier identification (TID) is to indicate a characteristic of a memory region associated with a virtual address in a tiered memory system. A thread may be serviced according to a first path based on the TID indicating a first characteristic. The thread may be serviced according to a second path based on the TID indicating a second characteristic.

  13. Course Enrichment and the Job Characteristics Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catanzaro, Diane

    1997-01-01

    Describes how the job characteristics model (J. R. Hackman), used by industrial-organizational psychologists to enhance the motivating potential of jobs in industry, can be applied to increase student motivation. The job characteristics model describes the relationship between the core characteristics of skill variety, task identity, task…

  14. 14 CFR 23.239 - Spray characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Spray characteristics. 23.239 Section 23.239 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Handling Characteristics § 23.239 Spray characteristics. Spray may not dangerously obscure the vision...

  15. 14 CFR 23.239 - Spray characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Spray characteristics. 23.239 Section 23.239 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Handling Characteristics § 23.239 Spray characteristics. Spray may not dangerously obscure the vision...

  16. 14 CFR 23.239 - Spray characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Spray characteristics. 23.239 Section 23.239 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Handling Characteristics § 23.239 Spray characteristics. Spray may not dangerously obscure the vision...

  17. ILLIAC 4 systems characteristics and programming manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The latest edition is presented of the Systems Characteristics and Programming Manual of the ILLIAC 4 array and parallel disc memory system. The major aspects of the array described include: the array systems characteristics, programming characteristics, definition and flow charts, and timing. A glossary of terms, and an instruction index are included.

  18. Surface characteristics of lead ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perovich, Donald K.; Richter-Menge, Jacqueline A.

    1994-08-01

    Under cold conditions, ice growth in a lead occurs rapidly, giving young sea ice a high bulk salinity. The surface characteristics of this ice type are dominated by a thin, highly saline surface skim and often by the formation of frost flowers. These surface characteristics are of particular interest because of their significant temporal variability and large impact on the electromagnetic properties of sea ice. As part of the Lead Experiment held during March and April of 1991 and 1992 in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea, ice properties and surface conditions typical of springtime leads were monitored at three sites during the initial few days of growth. Observations indicate that once the ice thickness reached approximately 2 cm, a thin (˜1 mm), highly saline (˜100 parts per thousand (ppt)) skim of brine formed on the surface. After only a few hours of growth the initially smooth surface of the sea ice developed some small-scale roughness. Frost flowers, the result of ice grown from the vapor phase, quickly formed on the surface of the sea ice and continued to develop during the observations. Depending on the temperature, the frost flowers were composed of various ice crystal types, including clumps, stellar dendrites, and needles. The initially fresh frost flowers quickly became salty, reaching salinities as high as 100 ppt. The salinity of both the frost flowers and the surface skim decreased at night as temperatures dropped and additional hoarfrost accumulated on the surface. These decreases were also due in part to the accumulation of snow on the surface of the leads. Combining these observations with simple calculations, possible mechanisms for the development and evolution of the surface skim and frost flowers are discussed. They include the hypothesis that the source of the surface skim is brine expelled upward from the sea ice as it cools, that the surface protrusions serve as nucleation sites for the frost flowers, and that the source of the excess water vapor

  19. General Characteristics of the Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    This illustration shows general characteristics of the Skylab with callouts of its major components. In an early effort to extend the use of Apollo for further applications, NASA established the Apollo Applications Program (AAP) in August of 1965. The AAP was to include long duration Earth orbital missions during which astronauts would carry out scientific, technological, and engineering experiments in space by utilizing modified Saturn launch vehicles and the Apollo spacecraft. Established in 1970, the Skylab Program was the forerurner of the AAP. The goals of the Skylab were to enrich our scientific knowledge of the Earth, the Sun, the stars, and cosmic space; to study the effects of weightlessness on living organisms, including man; to study the effects of the processing and manufacturing of materials utilizing the absence of gravity; and to conduct Earth resource observations. The Skylab also conducted 19 selected experiments submitted by high school students. Skylab's 3 different 3-man crews spent up to 84 days in Earth orbit. The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) had responsibility for developing and integrating most of the major components of the Skylab: the Orbital Workshop (OWS), Airlock Module (AM), Multiple Docking Adapter (MDA), Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM), Payload Shroud (PS), and most of the experiments. MSFC was also responsible for providing the Saturn IB launch vehicles for three Apollo spacecraft and crews and a Saturn V launch vehicle for the Skylab.

  20. Partner violence and abortion characteristics.

    PubMed

    Colarossi, Lisa; Dean, Gillian

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a retrospective cohort study using randomly selected medical charts of women reporting a history of partner violence and women with no history of partner violence at the time of a family planning or abortion appointment (n = 6,564 per group). We analyzed lifetime history of partner violence for odds of lifetime history of abortion and miscarriage number, and birth control problems. To more closely match timing, we analyzed a subsample of 2,186 women reporting current violence versus not at the time of an abortion appointment for differences in gestational age, medical versus surgical method choice, and return for follow-up visit. After adjusting for years at risk and demographic characteristics, women with a past history of partner violence were not more likely to have ever had one abortion, but they were more likely to have had problems with birth control, repeat abortions, and miscarriages than women with no history of violence. Women with current partner violence were also more likely to be receiving an abortion at a later gestational age. We found no differences between the groups in return for abortion follow-up visit or choice of surgical versus medication abortion. Findings support screening for the influence of partner violence on reproductive health and related safety planning. PMID:24580133

  1. X-34 Vehicle Aerodynamic Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brauckmann, Gregory J.

    1998-01-01

    The X-34, being designed and built by the Orbital Sciences Corporation, is an unmanned sub-orbital vehicle designed to be used as a flying test bed to demonstrate key vehicle and operational technologies applicable to future reusable launch vehicles. The X-34 will be air-launched from an L-1011 carrier aircraft at approximately Mach 0.7 and 38,000 feet altitude, where an onboard engine will accelerate the vehicle to speeds above Mach 7 and altitudes to 250,000 feet. An unpowered entry will follow, including an autonomous landing. The X-34 will demonstrate the ability to fly through inclement weather, land horizontally at a designated site, and have a rapid turn-around capability. A series of wind tunnel tests on scaled models was conducted in four facilities at the NASA Langley Research Center to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of the X-34. Analysis of these test results revealed that longitudinal trim could be achieved throughout the design trajectory. The maximum elevon deflection required to trim was only half of that available, leaving a margin for gust alleviation and aerodynamic coefficient uncertainty. Directional control can be achieved aerodynamically except at combined high Mach numbers and high angles of attack, where reaction control jets must be used. The X-34 landing speed, between 184 and 206 knots, is within the capabilities of the gear and tires, and the vehicle has sufficient rudder authority to control the required 30-knot crosswind.

  2. Scaling characteristics of topographic depressions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, P. V.; Kumar, P.

    2013-12-01

    Topographic depressions, areas of no lateral surface flow, are ubiquitous characteristic of land surface that control many ecosystem and biogeochemical processes. Landscapes with high density of depressions increase the surface storage capacity, whereas lower depression density increase runoff, thus influencing soil moisture states, hydrologic connectivity and the climate--soil--vegetation interactions. With the widespread availability of high resolution LiDAR based digital elevation model (lDEM) data, it is now possible to identify and characterize the structure of the spatial distribution of topographic depressions for incorporation in ecohydrologic and biogeochemical studies. Here we use lDEM data to document the prevalence and patterns of topographic depressions across five different landscapes in the United States and quantitatively characterize the distribution of attributes, such as surface area, storage volume, and the distance to the nearest neighbor. Through the use of a depression identification algorithm, we show that these distribution attributes follow scaling laws indicative of a fractal structure in which a large fraction of land surface areas can consist of high number of topographic depressions, accounting for 4 to 200 mm of depression storage. This implies that the impacts of small-scale topographic depressions in the fractal landscapes on the redistribution of surface energy fluxes, evaporation, and hydrologic connectivity are quite significant.

  3. X-33 Hypersonic Aerodynamic Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Kelly J.; Nowak, Robert J.; Thompson, Richard A.; Hollis, Brian R.; Prabhu, Ramadas K.

    1999-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Skunk Works, under a cooperative agreement with NASA, will design, build, and fly the X-33, a half-scale prototype of a rocket-based, single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO), reusable launch vehicle (RLV). A 0.007-scale model of the X-33 604BOO02G configuration was tested in four hypersonic facilities at the NASA Langley Research Center to examine vehicle stability and control characteristics and to populate the aerodynamic flight database for the hypersonic regime. The vehicle was found to be longitudinally controllable with less than half of the total body flap deflection capability across the angle of attack range at both Mach 6 and Mach 10. Al these Mach numbers, the vehicle also was shown to be longitudinally stable or neutrally stable for typical (greater than 20 degrees) hypersonic flight attitudes. This configuration was directionally unstable and the use of reaction control jets (RCS) will be necessary to control the vehicle at high angles of attack in the hypersonic flight regime. Mach number and real gas effects on longitudinal aerodynamics were shown to be small relative to X-33 control authority.

  4. X-33 Hypersonic Aerodynamic Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Kelly J.; Nowak, Robert J.; Thompson, Richard A.; Hollis, Brian R.; Prabhu, Ramadas K.

    1999-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Skunk Works, under a cooperative agreement with NASA, will build and fly the X-33, a half-scale prototype of a rocket-based, single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO), reusable launch vehicle (RLV). A 0.007-scale model of the X-33 604B0002G configuration was tested in four hypersonic facilities at the NASA Langley Research Center to examine vehicle stability and control characteristics and to populate an aerodynamic flight database in the hypersonic regime, The vehicle was found to be longitudinally controllable with less than half of the total body flap deflection capability across the angle of attack range at both Mach 6 and Mach 10. At these Mach numbers, the vehicle also was shown to be longitudinally stable or neutrally stable for typical (greater than 20 degrees) hypersonic flight attitudes. This configuration was directionally unstable and the use of reaction control jets (RCS) will be necessary to control the vehicle at high angles of attack in the hypersonic flight regime. Mach number and real gas effects on longitudinal aerodynamics were shown to be small relative to X-33 control authority.

  5. X-33 Hypersonic Aerodynamic Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Kelly J.; Nowak, Robert J.; Thompson, Richard A.; Hollis, Brian R.; Prabhu, Ramadas K.

    1999-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Skunk Works, under a cooperative agreement with NASA, will build and fly the X-33, a half-scale prototype of a rocket-based, single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO), reusable launch vehicle (RLV). A 0.007-scale model of the X-33 604B0002G configuration was tested in four hypersonic facilities at the NASA Langley Research Center to examine vehicle stability and control characteristics and to populate an aerodynamic flight database i n the hypersonic regime. The vehicle was found to be longitudinally controllable with less than half of the total body flap deflection capability across the angle of attack range at both Mach 6 and Mach 10. At these Mach numbers, the vehicle also was shown to be longitudinally stable or neutrally stable for typical (greater than 20 degrees) hypersonic flight attitudes. This configuration was directionally unstable and the use of reaction control jets (RCS) will be necessary to control the vehicle at high angles of attack in the hypersonic flight regime. Mach number and real gas effects on longitudinal aerodynamics were shown to be small relative to X-33 control authority.

  6. X-33 Hypersonic Aerodynamic Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Kelly J.; Nowak, Robert J.; Thompson, Richard A.; Hollis, Brian R.; Prabhu, Ramadas K.

    1999-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Skunk Works, under a cooperative agreement with NASA, will build and fly the X-33, a half-scale prototype of a rocket-based, single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO), reusable launch vehicle (RLV). A 0.007-scale model of the X-33 604B0002G configuration was tested in four hypersonic facilities at the NASA Langley Research Center to examine vehicle stability and control characteristics and to populate an aerodynamic flight database in the hypersonic regime. The vehicle was found to be longitudinally controllable with less than half of the total body flap deflection capability across the angle of attack range at both Mach 6 and Mach 10. At these Mach numbers, the vehicle also was shown to be longitudinally stable or neutrally stable for typical (greater than 20 degrees) hypersonic flight attitudes. This configuration was directionally unstable and the use of reaction control jets (RCS) will be necessary to control the vehicle at high angles of attack in the hypersonic flight regime. Mach number and real gas effects on longitudinal aerodynamics were shown to be small relative to X-33 control authority.

  7. Acoustic characteristics of Ekonda scrapers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demolin, Didier; Weisser, Stephanie

    2002-11-01

    This paper describes some acoustic characteristics of a musical instrument played with the complex vocal polyphonies of the Ekonda of the Congo. The complexity of these songs and the remarkable pitch accuracy of their intonation are striking given that there is no tuning fork or fixed pitch instrument which can account for the pitch stability. Ekonda scrapers are required to accompany the polyphonies. An acoustic study of these idiophones was made to understand their contributions to the songs. The scrapers are made in a hollow piece of a palm tree branch. The instrument is played by rubbing a piece of hard wood upon splits made on the piece of palm tree. In addition to the friction noise due to the rubbing of the piece of hard wood, there are some very distinct resonances which can be identified. An important observation is that there is always a very intense resonance at the frequency of the musical scales tonic. The relation between the pitch of the tonic and the frequency of the scrapers resonances which act as a tuning fork are detailed.

  8. Stationary Plasma Thruster Plume Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Roger M.; Manzella, David H.

    1994-01-01

    Stationary Plasma Thrusters (SPT's) are being investigated for application to a variety of near-term missions. This paper presents the results of a preliminary study of the thruster plume characteristics which are needed to assess spacecraft integration requirements. Langmuir probes, planar probes, Faraday cups, and a retarding potential analyzer were used to measure plume properties. For the design operating voltage of 300 V the centerline electron density was found to decrease from approximately 1.8 x 10 exp 17 cubic meters at a distance of 0.3 m to 1.8 X 10 exp 14 cubic meters at a distance of 4 m from the thruster. The electron temperature over the same region was between 1.7 and 3.5 eV. Ion current density measurements showed that the plume was sharply peaked, dropping by a factor of 2.6 within 22 degrees of centerline. The ion energy 4 m from the thruster and 15 degrees off-centerline was approximately 270 V. The thruster cathode flow rate and facility pressure were found to strongly affect the plume properties. In addition to the plume measurements, the data from the various probe types were used to assess the impact of probe design criteria

  9. Characteristics of ovine cytotoxic lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Knisley, K.A.

    1987-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to examine characteristics of the effector cells responsible for cell-mediated cytotoxicity in the sheep. Conditions for the production and assay of ovine T cell growth factor (TCGF) activity were evaluated. Peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) were stimulated with concanavalin A (Con A) in the presence of 2% autologous serum or serum-free media. A 28 h proliferation assay with 2.5 x 10/sup 4/ h Con A blasts per well was optimal for detection of TCGF. Peak TCGF activity occurred with a 30-37kD molecular weight fraction. Ovine PBL were used for in vitro generation of genetically-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). Peripheral blood leukocytes from sheep that had been previously inoculated with live vaccinia virus were stimulated by being cultured in vitro on glutaraldehyde-fixed vaccinia-infected autologous skin fibroblasts. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity was assessed in a 6 h /sup 51/Cr-release assay on autologous and allogeneic fibroblasts targets. Killing was restricted to virus-infected autologous targets. In vitro generation of both anti-vaccinia and anti-TNP CTL activity could be enhanced by the addition of TCGF containing media from ConA-stimulated PBL.

  10. Characteristics of the equine embryo and fetus from days 15 to 107 of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Franciolli, André Luis Rezende; Cordeiro, Bruna Mascaro; da Fonseca, Erika Toledo; Rodrigues, Marcio Nogueira; Sarmento, Carlos Alberto Palmeira; Ambrosio, Carlos Eduardo; de Carvalho, Ana Flavia; Miglino, Maria Angélica; Silva, Luciano Andrade

    2011-09-15

    In spite of numerous, substantial advances in equine reproduction, many stages of embryonic and fetal morphological development are poorly understood, with no apparent single source of comprehensive information. Hence, the objective of the present study was to provide a complete macroscopic and microscopic description of the equine embryo/fetus at various gestational ages. Thirty-four embryos/fetuses were aged based on their crown rump length (CRL), and submitted to macroscopic description, biometry, light and scanning microscopy, as well as the alizarin technique. All observed developmental changes were chronologically ordered and described. As examples of the main observed features, an accentuated cervical curvature was observed upon macroscopic examination in all specimens. In the nervous system, the encephalic fourth ventricle and the encephalic vesicles forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain, were visualized from Day 19 (ovulation = Day 0). The thoracic and pelvic limbs were also visualized; their extremities gave rise to the hoof during development from Day 27. Development of other structures such as pigmented optical vesicle, liver, tail, cardiac area, lungs, and dermal vascularization started on Days 25, 25, 19, 19, 34, and 35, respectively. Light and scanning microscopy facilitated detailed examinations of several organs, e.g., heart, kidneys, lungs, and intestine, whereas the alizarin technique enabled visualization of ossification. Observations in this study contributed to the knowledge regarding equine embryogenesis, and included much detailed data from many specimens collected over a long developmental interval. PMID:21719090

  11. Use of Non-invasive Methods for Evaluating the Testicular Biometry in Collared Peccaries (Pecari tajacu Linnaeus, 1758).

    PubMed

    Peixoto, G C X; Silva, M A; Lima, G L; Campos, L B; Paiva, A L C; Paula, V V; Ricarte, A R F; Silva, A R

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of two methods used to estimate testicular volume in the collared peccary. Calliper and ultrasonographic measurements of testicular dimensions (length, width and height) of both testes were taken on five adult collared peccaries. The testicular volume was calculated by Lambert's empiric formula: length (L) × width (W) × height (H) × 0.71, the formula of an ellipsoid L × W × H × 0.52, and Hansen's formula: L × W(2)  × 0.52. The calculated volumes were then compared with the actual ones, which were estimated by water displacement. The mean of true testicular volume was 22.65 ± 1.52 ml. Lambert's formula estimated testicular volume more accurately when ultrasound measurements were taken. However, when the calliper was the methodology used, the results were closest to the true volume, especially when Ellipsoid formula and Hansen's formula were applied, and underestimated the true volumes by 1.53 ± 1.75 ml and 1.53 ± 1.65 ml, respectively. This specific application of technologies in wild animals has the potential to revolutionize the selection process for the collared peccary entering artificial insemination or natural breeding programmes.

  12. Ocular biometry in the adult population in rural central China: a population-based, cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Ting; Song, Yin-Wei; Chen, Zhi-Qi; He, Jun-Wen; Qiao, Kun; Sun, Xu-Fang; Zhang, Hong; Wang, Jun-Ming

    2015-01-01

    AIM To describe the distribution and determinants of ocular biometric parameters and to ascertain the relative importance of these determinants in a large population of adults in rural central China. METHODS A population-based, cross-sectional study performed in rural central China included 1721 participants aged 40 or more years. Ocular biometrical parameters including axial length (AL), anterior chamber depth (ACD), radius of corneal curvature (K) and horizontal corneal diameter [white-to-white (WTW) distance] were measured using non-contact partial coherence interferometry [intraocular lens (IOL)-Master]. RESULTS Ocular biometric data on 1721 participants with a average age of 57.0±8.7y were analyzed at last. The general mean AL, ACD, mean corneal curvature radius (MCR), WTW were 22.80±1.12, 2.96±0.36, 7.56±0.26 and 11.75±0.40 mm, respectively. The mean values of each parameter in 40 to 49, 50 to 59, 60 to 69, and 70 to 91 years age groups were as follows: AL, 22.77±0.87, 22.76±1.06, 22.89±1.41, 22.92±0.80 mm; ACD, 3.10±0.32, 2.98±0.34, 2.86±0.36, 2.77±0.35 mm; MCR, 7.58±0.25, 7.54±0.26, 7.55±0.26, 7.49±0.28 mm; WTW, 11.79±0.38, 11.75±0.40, 11.72±0.41, 11.67±0.41 mm. The AL, ACD, MCR and WTW were correlated with age and the AL was correlated with height and weight. CONCLUSION Our findings can serve as an important normative reference for multiple purposes and may help to improve the quality of rural eye care. PMID:26309884

  13. Biometry of the anterior border of the human hip bone: normal values and their use in sex determination.

    PubMed Central

    Gómez Pellico, L; Fernández Camacho, F J

    1992-01-01

    Sixteen different variables and 3 indices for the anterior border of 42 human hip bones from a Spanish skeletal collection were studied. Values for 15 of these variables and for the 3 indices are reported. We were unable to detect statistically significant differences between means relating to side in any of the variables and indices studied. Statistically significant differences were detected between means in relation to sex for 4 variables (distance from the anterior superior iliac spine to the pubic tubercle, distance from the anterior inferior iliac spine to the iliopubic eminence, distance from the anterior inferior iliac spine to the pubic tubercle, length of the notch between the anterior inferior iliac spine and the iliopubic eminence). These variables could be used for sex determination from the human hip bone or its fragments. PMID:1304579

  14. Imaging and full-length biometry of the eye during accommodation using spectral domain OCT with an optical switch

    PubMed Central

    Ruggeri, Marco; Uhlhorn, Stephen R.; De Freitas, Carolina; Ho, Arthur; Manns, Fabrice; Parel, Jean-Marie

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: An optical switch was implemented in the reference arm of an extended depth SD-OCT system to sequentially acquire OCT images at different depths into the eye ranging from the cornea to the retina. A custom-made accommodation module was coupled with the delivery of the OCT system to provide controlled step stimuli of accommodation and disaccommodation that preserve ocular alignment. The changes in the lens shape were imaged and ocular distances were dynamically measured during accommodation and disaccommodation. The system is capable of dynamic in vivo imaging of the entire anterior segment and eye-length measurement during accommodation in real-time. PMID:22808424

  15. [Ultrasonic biometry of the fetal crown-rump length between 7 and 20 weeks gestation (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Hansmann, M; Schuhmacher, H; Foebus, J; Voigt, U

    1979-08-01

    In 370 examinations on 258 patients with known gestational age crown-rump length (CRL) of the fetus was determined by sonar between 7 and 20 weeks. From the results the mean and "2 SD" limits of CRL were derived by means of a non linear regression analysis. The measurements were further analysed to determine gestational age for a given CRL. Besides a velocity curve of CRL growth was calculated. It showed a maximum of 1.8 mm per day at 14 weeks. It was confirmated that sonar measurements of crown-rump length are very useful to estimate maturity of the fetus. The accuracy was found to be best in early measurements (+/-6 days at 7 weeks -+/-11 days at 20 weeks). In regard to clinical decisions reading errors have to be taken into consideration. To avoid them control examinations should be carried out.

  16. The effect of ceramic/metal gradient armor's components characteristic on its impact-resistant characteristic

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Lisheng; Zhang Qingjie; Zhai Pengcheng; Cao Dongfeng

    2008-02-15

    The effect of ceramic/metal gradient armor's components characteristic on its impact-resistant characteristic has been investigated by a new modified Alekseevskii-Tate equation. The following researching work is done by the former model [1]: the effect of ceramic layer on the impact-resistant characteristic, the effect of gradient layer on the impact-resistant characteristic and the effect of metal layer on the impact-resistant characteristic.

  17. Photometric Characteristics of Lunar Terrains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Hiroyuki; Hapke, Bruce W.; Denevi, Brett W.; Robinson, Mark

    2016-10-01

    The photometric properties of the lunar depend on albedo, surface roughness, porosity, and the internal/external structure of particles. Hapke parameter maps derived using a bidirectional reflectance model [Hapke, 2012] from Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) Wide Angle Camera (WAC) images demonstrated the spatial and spectral variation of the photometric properties of the Moon [Sato et al., 2014]. Using the same methodology, here we present the photometric characteristics of typical lunar terrains, which were not systematically analyzed in the previous study.We selected five representative terrain types: mare, highland, swirls, and two Copernican (fresh) crater ejecta (one mare and one highlands example). As for the datasets, we used ~39 months of WAC repeated observations, and for each image pixel, we computed latitude, longitude, incidence, emission, and phase angles using the WAC GLD100 stereo DTM [Scholten et al., 2012]. To obtain similar phase and incidence angle ranges, all sampling sites are near the equator and in the vicinity of Reiner Gamma. Three free Hapke parameters (single scattering albedo: w, HG2 phase function parameter: c, and angular width of SHOE: hs) were then calculated for the seven bands (321-689 nm). The remaining parameters were fixed by simplifying the model [Sato et al., 2014].The highlands, highland ejecta, and swirl (Reiner Gamma) showed clearly higher w than the mare and mare ejecta. The derived c values were lower (less backscattering) for the swirl and higher (more backscattering) for the highlands (and ejecta) relative to the other sites. Forward scattering materials such as unconsolidated transparent crystalline materials might be relatively enriched in the swirl. In the highlands, anorthositic agglutinates with dense internal scattering could be responsible for the strong backscattering. The mare and mare ejecta showed continuously decreasing c from UV to visible wavelengths. This might be caused by the FeO-rich pyroxene

  18. Imaging characteristics of ball lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qinghui; Shao, Xiaopeng

    2014-05-01

    In most digital imaging applications, high-resolution imaging or videos are usually desired for later processing and analysis. The desire for high-resolution stems from two principal application areas: improvement of pictorial information for human interpretation, and helping representation for automatic machine preception. While the image sensors limit the spatial resolution of the image, the image details are also limited by the optical system, due to diffraction, and aberration1. Monocentric lens are an attractive option for gigapixel camera because the symmetrical design focuses light identically coming from any direction. Marks and Brady proposed a monocentric lens design imaging 40 gigapixels with an f-number of 2.5 and resolving 2 arcsec over a 120 degrees field of view2. Recently, Cossairt, Miau, and Nayer proposed a proof-of-concept gigapixel computational camera consisting of a large ball lens shared by several small planar sensors coupled with a deblurring step3. The design consists of a ball element resulting in a lens that is both inexpensive to produce and easy to align. Because the resolution of spherical lens is fundamentally limited by geometric aberrations, the imaging characteristics of the ball lens is expressed by the geometrical aberrations, in which the general equations for the primary aberration of the ball lens are given. The effect of shifting the stop position on the aberrations of a ball lens is discussed. The variation of the axial chromatic aberration with the Abbe V-number when the refraction index takes different values is analyzed. The variation of the third-order spherical aberration ,the fifth-order spherical aberration and the spherical aberration obtained directly from ray tracing with the f-number is discussed. The other imaging evaluation merits, such as the spot diagram, the modulation transfer function(MTF) and the encircled energy are also described. Most of the analysis of the ball lens is carried out using OSLO optics

  19. Quality characteristics of blackgram papad.

    PubMed

    Senthil, Amudha; Ravi, R; Vasanth Kumar, A K

    2006-01-01

    Twelve commercial samples (S1-S12) of blackgram papad from south Indian markets were studied for sensory and physico-chemical properties, and positioned using canonical discriminant analysis (CDA). Results of analysis revealed perceptible variations in physico-chemical characteristics in both raw and fried papads. The percentage expansion on frying ranged from 32.75+/-2.73 (S4) to 73.53+/-3.47 (S3) and the extent of oil absorption varied from 28.30+/-0.02 (S4) to 49.45+/-0.03 (S3). The percentage expansion of papads negatively correlated with the moisture content of raw and fried papads (-0.86 and -0.76, respectively). Significant differences were seen in CIE color parameters, namely L* and a* values, between raw and fried samples for S1, S2, S4, S5 and S9, and for S3, S4, S6, S10 and S11, respectively, whereas b* values were significantly different for all the samples except for the sample S4. Sensory analysis using the quantitative descriptive analysis method revealed that all samples had good overall quality and had higher scores for the positive attributes, namely color, crispness, snappiness and blackgram aroma. A positive correlation (0.67) was found between the sensory score for yellow color and b* values. Further CDA was run to position the samples. The results of CDA indicated that samples S1 and S10 were grouped together in the same quadrant, which represents fairly high levels of four attributes (blisters, oily aroma, snappiness and overall quality). Samples S9, S11, S3 and S4 were located away from the directional vectors, having lower intensities of many attributes.

  20. Electromagnetomechanical coupling characteristics of plastoferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brosseau, Christian; NDong, Wilfried; Castel, Vincent; Youssef, Jamal Ben; Vidal, Alain

    2007-07-01

    The impetus of this work was to investigate the electromagnetic and tensile properties of several commercially available plastoferrites (PFs) at ambient conditions. The approach involved selection of a set of PFs and measuring their complex effective permittivity ɛ =ɛ'-jɛ″ and permeability μ =μ'-jμ″ under uniaxial stress at microwave frequencies (0.1-4.5GHz) and room temperature. We analyze the ɛ and μ spectra for tensilely strained PFs up to 3%. Comparing our experimental ɛ data against several dielectric relaxational behaviors, we find that the main physics cannot be understood with a single relaxation mechanism. We then go on to consider the magnetic permeability spectra in the microwave range of frequencies and show that an appropriate magnetization mechanism is given by the gyromagnetic spin resonance mechanism. We use a combination of Bruggeman mean field analysis and Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert modeling to reproduce the experimental bimodal line-shape characteristics of the effective complex magnetic permeability. These findings are discussed in light of the polydispersity in size of the ferrite gains contained in the PFs. The vibrating sample magnetometry investigations of the static magnetization are found to be consistent with this modeling. In addition, the analysis shows also how magnetized PFs respond to electromagnetic waves, and we evaluate the hysteretic behaviors of ɛ and μ. More importantly we show that the ɛ and μ measurements under stress can be explained in terms of a Gaussian molecular network model in the limit of low stress. The present results have important applications in magnetoactive smart composite materials, e.g., flexible circuit technology in the electronics industry (sensors, actuators, and micromechanical systems), functionalized artificial skin, and muscles for robotic applications.

  1. Flood-frequency characteristics of Wisconsin streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, John F.; Krug, William R.

    2003-01-01

    Flood-frequency characteristics for 312 gaged sites on Wisconsin streams are presented for recurrence intervals of 2 to 100 years using flood-peak data collected through water year 2000. Equations of the relations between flood-frequency and drainage-basin characteristics were developed by multiple-regression analyses. Flood-frequency characteristics for ungaged sites on unregulated, rural streams can be estimated by use of these equations. The state was divided into five areas with similar physiographic characteristics. The most significant basin characteristics are drainage area, main-channel slope, soil permeability, storage, rainfall intensity, and forest cover. The standard error of prediction for the equation for the 100-year flood discharge ranges from 22 to 44 percent in the state. A graphical method for estimating flood-frequency characteristics of regulated streams was developed from the relation of discharge and drainage area. Graphs for the major regulated streams are presented.

  2. Characteristics of Stabilizer Muscles: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Green, Rodney A.; Taylor, Nicholas F.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To identify the main characteristics, based on available evidence, of stabilizer muscles to inform the development of a definition of stabilizer muscles. Methods: Electronic databases were systematically searched for relevant literature from the databases' inception to June 2013 using keywords related to stability, muscles, and characteristics of stabilizer muscles. Studies that provided at least one characteristic of a stabilizer muscle were included. For the quality assessment, all included articles were categorized as either experimental or opinion-based studies. Methodological quality was assessed using a customized checklist, and data were analyzed with a narrative synthesis involving content analysis. The number of articles providing either direct evidence supporting a link between the characteristic and joint stability or indirect evidence that a muscle considered to be a stabilizer has that characteristic determined the level of significance of that characteristic for stabilizer muscles. Results: A total of 77 studies met the inclusion criteria. The highest number of articles providing supporting evidence that a particular muscle characteristic plays a stabilizing role related to biomechanical characteristics (27 articles), followed by neurological characteristics (22 articles) and anatomical/physiological characteristics (4 articles). Conclusion: Based on a synthesis of supporting evidence from the literature, stabilizer muscles can be defined as muscles that contribute to joint stiffness by co-contraction and show an early onset of activation in response to perturbation via either a feed-forward or a feedback control mechanism. These results may guide researchers to investigate which muscles exhibit these characteristics to determine whether particular muscles have a stabilizer rather than a prime mover role during normal functioning. PMID:25922556

  3. Accretion characteristics in intermediate polars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Tracey Louise

    This thesis concerns the class of interacting binaries known as intermediate polars (IPs). These are semi-detached magnetic cataclysmic variable systems in which a red dwarf secondary transfers material via Roche lobe overflow onto a white dwarf (WD). The magnetic field of the white dwarf (~10 6 to 10 7 Gauss) plays an important part in determining the type of accretion flow from the secondary. In chapter 1, I discuss binary systems in general, moving on to a more in depth look at Intermediate polars (IPs), their geometry and characteristics, ending with a brief look at all known IPs to date. In the first part of the thesis I present an analysis of the X-ray lightcurves in 16 IPs in order to examine the possible cause of the orbital modulation. I show that X-ray orbital modulation is widespread amongst IN, but not ubiquitous. The orbital modulation is most likely due to photoelectric absorption in material at the edge of the accretion disk. Assuming a random distribution of inclination angles, the fact that such a modulation is seen in seven systems out of sixteen studied (plus two eclipsing systems) implies that modulations are visible at inclination angles in excess of 60°. It is also apparent that these modulations can appear and disappear on timescales of ~years or months in an individual system, which may be evidence for precessing, tilted accretion disks. In the second half of the thesis I use a particle hydrodynamical code known as HyDisc, to investigate the accretion flows in IPs, as a function of parameter space for two dipole models. One where we assume that the density and size scale of the blobs being accreted are constant which we refer to as the n 6 model, and the other where the size scale and density of the accreted blobs are not constant referred to as the n 3 model. I show that the accretion flow can take the form of an accretion disk, accretion stream, propeller accretion and ring accretion for the n 3 model and stream and disk accretion in the

  4. 30 CFR 7.99 - Critical characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Diesel Power Packages Intended for Use in... characteristics. The following critical characteristics shall be inspected or tested on each diesel power...

  5. 28 CFR 571.12 - General characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General characteristics. 571.12 Section 571.12 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE COMMUNITY PROGRAMS AND RELEASE RELEASE FROM CUSTODY Release Preparation Program § 571.12 General characteristics. (a) Staff...

  6. 14 CFR 25.203 - Stall characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stall characteristics. 25.203 Section 25.203 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Stalls § 25.203 Stall characteristics. (a) It...

  7. 49 CFR 236.717 - Characteristics, operating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Characteristics, operating. 236.717 Section 236.717 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... § 236.717 Characteristics, operating. The measure of electrical values at which electrical or...

  8. 30 CFR 7.99 - Critical characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Diesel engine approval marking. (g) Fuel rate setting to ensure that it is appropriate for the intended... APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Diesel Power Packages Intended for Use in... characteristics. The following critical characteristics shall be inspected or tested on each diesel power...

  9. 30 CFR 7.99 - Critical characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Diesel engine approval marking. (g) Fuel rate setting to ensure that it is appropriate for the intended... APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Diesel Power Packages Intended for Use in... characteristics. The following critical characteristics shall be inspected or tested on each diesel power...

  10. Potato Types and Characteristics: Laboratory Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlista, Alexander D.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a number of simple exercises that demonstrate potato tuber characteristics and are designed for high school biology students and teachers. Exercises include Typing, Grading, Shape, Eye Characteristics, Defects, Specific Gravity, Dry Matter Content, Glucose Content, Baking, Frying/Chipping, and Taste Testing. (JRH)

  11. 30 CFR 7.99 - Critical characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Diesel engine approval marking. (g) Fuel rate setting to ensure that it is appropriate for the intended... APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Diesel Power Packages Intended for Use in... characteristics. The following critical characteristics shall be inspected or tested on each diesel power...

  12. 10 CFR 61.56 - Waste characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Waste characteristics. 61.56 Section 61.56 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE Technical Requirements for Land Disposal Facilities § 61.56 Waste characteristics. (a) The following requirements...

  13. 10 CFR 61.56 - Waste characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Waste characteristics. 61.56 Section 61.56 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE Technical Requirements for Land Disposal Facilities § 61.56 Waste characteristics. (a) The following requirements...

  14. 10 CFR 61.56 - Waste characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Waste characteristics. 61.56 Section 61.56 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE Technical Requirements for Land Disposal Facilities § 61.56 Waste characteristics. (a) The following requirements...

  15. Ethnic Group Preferences for Counselor Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Donald R.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Administered paired-comparison questionnaire to ethnically mixed undergraduates (N-339) to measure preferences for 14 counselor characteristics. Found top 4 counselor characteristics cited by all 3 ethnic groups (Asian-American, Mexican-American, and Caucasian-American) to be counselors with similar attitudes, similar personality, greater…

  16. Leader Behavior Characteristics and Organizational Climate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiggins, Thomas W.

    To investigate the leader behavior characteristics of elementary school principals and to examine these characteristics as they relate to organizational climate, 35 randomly selected southern California schools with approximately 715 teachers and principals were studied. The data on organizational climate were collected by means of the…

  17. 46 CFR 109.564 - Maneuvering characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Maneuvering characteristics. 109.564 Section 109.564 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 109.564 Maneuvering characteristics. (a) The master or person in charge of...

  18. 46 CFR 109.564 - Maneuvering characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maneuvering characteristics. 109.564 Section 109.564 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 109.564 Maneuvering characteristics. (a) The master or person in charge of...

  19. 46 CFR 109.564 - Maneuvering characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Maneuvering characteristics. 109.564 Section 109.564 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 109.564 Maneuvering characteristics. (a) The master or person in charge of...

  20. 46 CFR 109.564 - Maneuvering characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Maneuvering characteristics. 109.564 Section 109.564 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 109.564 Maneuvering characteristics. (a) The master or person in charge of...

  1. 46 CFR 109.564 - Maneuvering characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Maneuvering characteristics. 109.564 Section 109.564 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 109.564 Maneuvering characteristics. (a) The master or person in charge of...

  2. 30 CFR 7.45 - Critical characteristics

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Battery Assemblies § 7.45 Critical characteristics The following critical characteristics shall be inspected or tested on each battery assembly to... of insulating material. (c) Size and location of ventilation openings. (d) Method of...

  3. 30 CFR 7.45 - Critical characteristics

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Battery Assemblies § 7.45 Critical characteristics The following critical characteristics shall be inspected or tested on each battery assembly to... of insulating material. (c) Size and location of ventilation openings. (d) Method of...

  4. 30 CFR 7.45 - Critical characteristics

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Battery Assemblies § 7.45 Critical characteristics The following critical characteristics shall be inspected or tested on each battery assembly to... of insulating material. (c) Size and location of ventilation openings. (d) Method of...

  5. Personality Characteristics of Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seefeldt, Richard W.; Lyon, Mark A.

    1992-01-01

    Conducted study to validate characteristics of Adult Children of Alcoholics (ACOAs) as presented by Woititz (1983). Findings from college students self-reported to be ACOAs, non-ACOAs, or individuals who had participated in ACOA treatment group were compared on 12 of Woititz's 13 characteristics using objective personality measures. No significant…

  6. School Size, School Characteristics, and School Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, William J., Jr.

    A study investigated the possible dependence of educational outcomes on staff attributes and organizational size once socioeconomic indexes are taken into account. All data were obtained from the New Jersey Department of Education. The variables of interest and their operational definitions include school characteristics, teacher characteristics,…

  7. 14 CFR 27.239 - Spray characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Spray characteristics. 27.239 Section 27.239 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Spray characteristics. If certification for water operation is requested, no spray...

  8. 14 CFR 27.239 - Spray characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Spray characteristics. 27.239 Section 27.239 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Spray characteristics. If certification for water operation is requested, no spray...

  9. 14 CFR 29.239 - Spray characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Spray characteristics. 29.239 Section 29.239 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Spray characteristics. If certification for water operation is requested, no spray...

  10. 14 CFR 27.239 - Spray characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Spray characteristics. 27.239 Section 27.239 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Spray characteristics. If certification for water operation is requested, no spray...

  11. 14 CFR 29.239 - Spray characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Spray characteristics. 29.239 Section 29.239 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Spray characteristics. If certification for water operation is requested, no spray...

  12. 14 CFR 29.239 - Spray characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Spray characteristics. 29.239 Section 29.239 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Spray characteristics. If certification for water operation is requested, no spray...

  13. 14 CFR 27.239 - Spray characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Spray characteristics. 27.239 Section 27.239 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Spray characteristics. If certification for water operation is requested, no spray...

  14. 14 CFR 29.239 - Spray characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Spray characteristics. 29.239 Section 29.239 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Spray characteristics. If certification for water operation is requested, no spray...

  15. Sport Management Graduate Programs: Characteristics of Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Ming; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Reports a study that examined the characteristics that enable graduate sport management programs to achieve their objectives. Surveys of sport management educators found they agreed on 11 characteristics that indicated a sport management program's effectiveness. Respondents believed an effective program should produce sport managers, not…

  16. 10 CFR 61.56 - Waste characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Waste characteristics. 61.56 Section 61.56 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE Technical Requirements for Land Disposal Facilities § 61.56 Waste characteristics. (a) The following requirements...

  17. 10 CFR 61.56 - Waste characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Waste characteristics. 61.56 Section 61.56 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE Technical Requirements for Land Disposal Facilities § 61.56 Waste characteristics. (a) The following requirements...

  18. Impacts of harvesting on brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) in Great Salt Lake, Utah, USA.

    PubMed

    Sura, Shayna A; Belovsky, Gary E

    2016-03-01

    Selective harvesting can cause evolutionary responses in populations via shifts in phenotypic characteristics, especially those affecting life history. Brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) cysts in Great Salt Lake (GSL), Utah, USA are commercially harvested with techniques that select against floating cysts. This selective pressure could cause evolutionary changes over time. Our objectives are to (1) determine if there is a genetic basis to cyst buoyancy, (2) determine if cyst buoyancy and nauplii mortality have changed over time, and (3) to examine GSL environmental conditions over time to distinguish whether selective harvesting pressure or a trend in environmental conditions caused changes in cyst buoyancy and nauplii mortality. Mating crosses between floating and sinking parental phenotypes with two food concentrations (low and high) indicated there is a genetic basis to cyst buoyancy. Using cysts harvested from 1991-2011, we found cyst buoyancy decreased and nauplii mortality increased over time. Data on water temperature, salinity, and chlorophyll a concentration in GSL from 1994 to 2011 indicated that although water temperature has increased over time and chlorophyll a concentration has decreased over time, the selective harvesting pressure against floating cysts is a better predictor of changes in cyst buoyancy and nauplii mortality over time than trends in environmental conditions. Harvesting of GSL A. franciscana cysts is causing evolutionary changes, which has implications for the sustainable management and harvesting of these cysts. Monitoring phenotypic characteristics and life-history traits of the population should be implemented and appropriate responses taken to reduce the impacts of the selective harvesting. PMID:27209783

  19. Enhanced flight characteristics by heterogeneous autorotating wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, Lionel; Zheng, Min; Kanso, Eva

    2015-11-01

    We investigate experimentally the effect of mass distribution and flexibility on the descent motion of thin rectangular auto-rotating wings. We vary the wing thickness and material density under carefully controlled initial conditions. We focus in particular on the flight characteristics and how it affects the dispersion properties, namely, the flight duration, descent angle, and flight range. We found that altering the mass distribution along the auto-rotation axis generally leads to a diminution of aerodynamic characteristics, in agreement with previous studies. On the other hand, changing the mass distribution width-wise can lead to enhanced flight characteristics, from beneficial aerodynamic effects.

  20. Characteristic Age and True Age of Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Long; Zhang, Cheng-Min; Tanni, Ali; Zhao, Hai-Hui

    2013-01-01

    Age of a pulsar is a useful parameter, but it is difficult to get the age from observation. We can only derive the characteristic age from the observed parameters: spin period (P) and period derivative (Ṗ). In this paper, we discussed the relationship between characteristic age and magnetic field of a pulsar. Monte Carlo simulation is also used to support the idea: it is useless to study the magnetic field evolution using characteristic age. From some observation evidences we get that: the characteristic age cannot be used as true age, especially for millisecond pulsar (MSP). The difference between them is also discussed. From the studying of breaking index and MSP's initial spin period (P0), we get the conclusion that: the problem cannot be resolved using different radiation models.

  1. 30 CFR 7.25 - Critical characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....25 Critical characteristics. A sample of each batch or lot of brattice cloth and ventilation tubing shall be flame tested or a sample of each batch or lot of the materials that contribute to the...

  2. 30 CFR 7.25 - Critical characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....25 Critical characteristics. A sample of each batch or lot of brattice cloth and ventilation tubing shall be flame tested or a sample of each batch or lot of the materials that contribute to the...

  3. "The Friendly Clergy": Characteristics and Referral.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faiver, Christopher M.; O'Brien, Eugene M.; McNally, Christopher J.

    1998-01-01

    Among the recommendations possible in assessment of clients' religious beliefs is that of referral to the "friendly clergy." Delineates guidelines for referral as well as ideal characteristics of that spiritual profession. (Author)

  4. Reprint Characteristics of Non-Silver Films.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Microform Review, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Describes reprint characteristics of diazo and vesicular films. Use with microform reader-printers and autogeneration of copies are discussed, and methods of dealing with the unusual reprint behavior of these films are outlined. (MES)

  5. [Design of acupoint electric characteristic sensing needle].

    PubMed

    Liu, Tang-yi; Yang, Hua-yuan; Kuai, Le; Gao, Ming

    2007-09-01

    The electric characteristics of acupoints have been confirmed by researchers at home and abroad. Because the traditional detection methods are various (mainly are different positions of the reference electrode), and they are influenced by many affective factors, with unstable results and bad repeatability, so the studies of the electric characteristics of acupoints are limited. The acupoint electric characteristic sensing needle is introduced in detail from its design, detection methods and so on, which can detects changes of the acupoint electric characteristics of channels and acupoints in different healthy states real-timely, dynamically and continuously. It not only can avoid those affective factors, and also the detective results are relatively stable and the repeatability is also better.

  6. The Characteristics of Americana and Britannica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Dorothy Ethlyn

    1973-01-01

    In this study quantifiable characteristics of encyclopedia articles such as subjects treated, length, illustrations and bibliographies were examined. Random subsamples were analyzed and the findings are presented in twelve tables. (1 reference) (DH)

  7. Viscoelastic and aging characteristics of polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, W W

    1984-04-01

    This paper concerns the time dependent mechanical properties for incompressible polymer-like materials subjected to finite deformations. There are two parts: the viscoelastic effects and the aging characteristics. A method for determining these mechanical properties is presented in detail.

  8. Employment Characteristics of Indochinese Refugees: January 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bach, Robert L.

    1980-01-01

    Summarizes Immigration and Naturalization Service data on demographic characteristics and employment of Indochinese refugees. Reports that employment increases with time in the United States, and that refugee dependence on public assistance will be reduced. (ST)

  9. Imaginary Play Companions: Characteristics and Functions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalyan-Masih, V.

    1986-01-01

    Investigates some of the following characteristics associated with young children playing with imaginary play companions (IPCs): intelligence, parental and socioeconomic and educational background, family size, and birth order. Compares these children to those without IPCs. (HOD)

  10. Characteristics of Extreme Auroral Charging Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Willis, Emily; Parker, Linda Neergaard

    2014-01-01

    Today’s presentation describes preliminary results from a study of extreme auroral charging in low Earth orbit. Goal of study is to document characteristics of auroral charging events of importance to spacecraft design, operations, and anomaly investigations.

  11. Arsenic Treatment Residuals: Quantities, Characteristics and Disposal

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation provides information on the quantities, the characteristics and the disposal options for the common arsenic removal technologies. The technologies consist of adsorption media, iron removal, coagulation/filtration and ion exchange. The information for the prese...

  12. 38 CFR 0.602 - Core Characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... support the ongoing transformation to a 21st Century VA. These characteristics are: (a) Trustworthy. VA... continuously assessing the environment in which it operates and devising solutions to better serve...

  13. 38 CFR 0.602 - Core Characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... support the ongoing transformation to a 21st Century VA. These characteristics are: (a) Trustworthy. VA... continuously assessing the environment in which it operates and devising solutions to better serve...

  14. Characteristic Energy Scales of Quantum Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Michael J.; Jakovidis, Greg

    1994-01-01

    Provides a particle-in-a-box model to help students understand and estimate the magnitude of the characteristic energy scales of a number of quantum systems. Also discusses the mathematics involved with general computations. (MVL)

  15. The prediction of radio-path characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gitina, G. M.; Kalinin, Iu. K.

    The paper examines algorithms for the long-term prediction of radio-path characteristics in the ionosphere, the main characteristic being the MUF at a given distance. The proposed approach is based on long-term memories called DATA BANKS. Attention is given to the characteritics of the various banks, including the BANK OF CITIES, the BANK OF RADIO PATHS, the REFERENCE DATA BANK, and the OUTPUT DATA BANK.

  16. Characteristic Numbers of Matrix Lie Algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu-Feng; Fan, En-Gui

    2008-04-01

    A notion of characteristic number of matrix Lie algebras is defined, which is devoted to distinguishing various Lie algebras that are used to generate integrable couplings of soliton equations. That is, the exact classification of the matrix Lie algebras by using computational formulas is given. Here the characteristic numbers also describe the relations between soliton solutions of the stationary zero curvature equations expressed by various Lie algebras.

  17. Characteristics of Yerevan High Transparency Scintillators

    SciTech Connect

    Zorn, Carl; Asryan, Gegham; Egiyan, Kim; Tarverdyan, M.; Amaryan, Moscov; Amaryan, Moskov; Demirchyan, Raphael; Stepanyan, Stepan; Burkert, Volker; Sharabian, Youri

    1992-08-01

    Optical transmission, light output and time characteristics are given for long scintillator strips fabricated at the Yerevan Physics Institute using the extrusion method. It is shown that at 45% relative (to anthracene) light output, good transmission (2.5/2.9 m attenuation length with photomultiplier direct readout and 3/3.5 m attenuation length fiber readout) and time characteristics (average decay time 2.8 nsec) were obtained.

  18. Characteristic-Wave Approach Complements Modal Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, Michail

    1990-01-01

    Aspects of estimation of unmodeled dynamics discussed. Report discusses solution of nonhomogeneous governing matrix equation for dynamics of short vibrational pulses propagating as characteristic waves in large structure. Applied to analyze response, to repeated pulses, of beam clamped at one end and free at other. Shows all qualitative characteristics occuring under arbitrary periodic excitations of beam and those of quasi-periodic excitations, in as much as such excitations obtained by linear superpositions of periodic excitations.

  19. Learner characteristics involved in distance learning

    SciTech Connect

    Cernicek, A.T.; Hahn, H.A.

    1991-01-01

    Distance learning represents a strategy for leveraging resources to solve educational and training needs. Although many distance learning programs have been developed, lessons learned regarding differences between distance learning and traditional education with respect to learner characteristics have not been well documented. Therefore, we conducted a survey of 20 distance learning professionals. The questionnaire was distributed to experts attending the second Distance Learning Conference sponsored by Los Alamos National Laboratory. This survey not only acquired demographic information from each of the respondents but also identified important distance learning student characteristics. Significant distance learner characteristics, which were revealed statistically and which influence the effectiveness of distance learning, include the following: reading level, student autonomy, and self-motivation. Distance learning cannot become a more useful and effective method of instruction without identifying and recognizing learner characteristics. It will be important to consider these characteristics when designing all distance learning courses. This paper will report specific survey findings and their implications for developing distance learning courses. 9 refs., 6 tabs.

  20. New biometric modalities using internal physical characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortenson, Juliana (Brooks)

    2010-04-01

    Biometrics is described as the science of identifying people based on physical characteristics such as their fingerprints, facial features, hand geometry, iris patterns, palm prints, or speech recognition. Notably, all of these physical characteristics are visible or detectable from the exterior of the body. These external characteristics can be lifted, photographed, copied or recorded for unauthorized access to a biometric system. Individual humans are unique internally, however, just as they are unique externally. New biometric modalities have been developed which identify people based on their unique internal characteristics. For example, "BoneprintsTM" use acoustic fields to scan the unique bone density pattern of a thumb pressed on a small acoustic sensor. Thanks to advances in piezoelectric materials the acoustic sensor can be placed in virtually any device such as a steering wheel, door handle, or keyboard. Similarly, "Imp-PrintsTM" measure the electrical impedance patterns of a hand to identify or verify a person's identity. Small impedance sensors can be easily embedded in devices such as smart cards, handles, or wall mounts. These internal biometric modalities rely on physical characteristics which are not visible or photographable, providing an added level of security. In addition, both the acoustic and impedance methods can be combined with physiologic measurements such as acoustic Doppler or impedance plethysmography, respectively. Added verification that the biometric pattern came from a living person can be obtained. These new biometric modalities have the potential to allay user concerns over protection of privacy, while providing a higher level of security.*

  1. Characteristic model of travelling wave ultrasonic motor.

    PubMed

    Jingzhuo, Shi; Dongmei, You

    2014-02-01

    In general, the design and analysis of ultrasonic motor and motor's control strategy are based on mathematical model. The academic model is widely used in the analysis of traveling wave ultrasonic motor (TWUSM). But the dispersive characteristic of piezoelectric ceramics and other complicated process, such as the friction, make the model's precision not so accurate. On the other hand, identification modeling method, which is built based on the tested data, has obtained increasing application in the study of ultrasonic motor's control technology. Based on the identification model, many control strategies can be designed easily. But the identification model is an approximate model, so if a more accurate model of ultrasonic motor can be obtained, the analysis and design of motor control system will be more effective. Characteristic model is a kind of identification model which can accurately describe the characteristics of TWUSM. Based on the tested data, this paper proposes the modeling method of ultrasonic motor's characteristic model. The paper also makes a comparison of the effectiveness of different identification algorithms. Aiming at the speed control of ultrasonic motor, the influence of the parameter's initial values on the precision of model is discussed. The calculating results indicate the availability of this characteristic model.

  2. [Analysis of typical mangrove spectral reflectance characteristics].

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiang; Zhang, Feng-Shou; Liu, Qing; Li, De-Yi; Zhao, Dong-Zhi

    2013-02-01

    Acquisition of mangrove spectrum properties and detecting the sensitive bands provide technology basis for inverse modeling and estimation by remote sensing for various indexes of mangrove. The typical mangroves of Guangxi Shankou Mangrove Reserve were taken for study objects, the standard spectrum curves of Bruguiera gymnorrhiza (Linn.) Savigny, Rhizophora stylosa, Kandelia candel, Avicennia marina, Aegiceras corniculatum, Spartina anglica and mudflat were gained by denoising analysis of field-measured spectrum curves acquired by ASD FieldSpec 2. Analyzing the spectral characteristics and their differences, the authors found that the spectrum curves for various kinds of mangrove are coincident, the bands that appeared with reflection peaks and reflection valleys are basically identical, the within-class differentiated characteristics are comparatively small, the spectrum characteristics of mangroves are obviously different with Spartina anglica and mudflat. In order to gain the quantitative description for within-class differentiated characteristics of mangrove, space distance method, correlation coefficient method and spectral angle mapping method were used to calculate the within-class differentiated characteristics. The division accuracy of correlation coefficient method is higher than spectral angle mapping method which is higher than space distance method, and the result indicates that the spectrum differences of within-class mangrove and Spartina anglica are relatively small with correlation coefficients more than 0.995, and spectrum curve angle cosine values more than 0.95.

  3. Mexican-American Adolescents’ Gender-Typed Characteristics: The Role of Sibling and Friend Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Lorey A.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Schaefer, David R.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the role of sibling and friend characteristics in Mexican-American youth’s gender-typed characteristics (i.e., attitudes, interests, and leisure activities) in early versus middle adolescence using a sibling design. Mexican-American 7th graders (M = 12.51 years; SD = .58) and their older siblings (M = 15.48 years; SD = 1.57) from 246 families participated in home interviews and a series of seven nightly phone calls. Results revealed that younger/early adolescent siblings reported more traditional gender role attitudes than their older/middle adolescent siblings and older brothers were more traditional in their attitudes than older sisters. When comparing siblings’ gender-typed interests and leisure activities, boys reported more masculine orientations than girls and girls reported more feminine orientations than boys. Older brothers’ gender-typed characteristics were associated with the amount of time spent with and gender characteristics of their friendship group, but for younger brothers, sibling characteristics were associated with their gender-typed characteristics. In contrast, both sibling and friendship characteristics were significantly associated with older and younger sisters’ gender-typed characteristics. The discussion addressed the different correlates of older and younger sisters’ and brothers’ gender-typed characteristics. PMID:25539774

  4. Mexican-American Adolescents' Gender-Typed Characteristics: The Role of Sibling and Friend Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Perez-Brena, Norma J; Wheeler, Lorey A; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Schaefer, David R

    2015-07-01

    This study examined the role of sibling and friend characteristics in Mexican-American youth's gender-typed characteristics (i.e., attitudes, interests, and leisure activities) in early versus middle adolescence using a sibling design. Mexican-American 7th graders (M = 12.51 years; SD = .58) and their older siblings (M = 15.48 years; SD = 1.57) from 246 families participated in home interviews and a series of seven nightly phone calls. Results revealed that younger/early adolescent siblings reported more traditional gender role attitudes than their older/middle adolescent siblings and older brothers were more traditional in their attitudes than older sisters. When comparing siblings' gender-typed interests and leisure activities, boys reported more masculine orientations than girls and girls reported more feminine orientations than boys. Older brothers' gender-typed characteristics were associated with the amount of time spent with and gender characteristics of their friendship group, but for younger brothers, sibling characteristics were associated with their gender-typed characteristics. In contrast, both sibling and friendship characteristics were significantly associated with older and younger sisters' gender-typed characteristics. The discussion addressed the different correlates of older and younger sisters' and brothers' gender-typed characteristics.

  5. 33 CFR 157.158 - COW operations: Changed characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... characteristics. 157.158 Section 157.158 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...: Changed characteristics. The COW system may be operated with characteristics that do not meet those... changed characteristics; (b) The changed characteristics used to pass the inspections under § 157.140...

  6. A digital algorithm for characteristic film curves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckner, J.; Cash, T.; Craven, P.; Edwards, T.

    1975-01-01

    The task of establishing a film calibration scheme for magnitude studies of Skylab photographic images of Comet Kohoutek is examined. Since the data are recorded in terms of film density and have to be used in terms of exposure, the conversion from density to exposure is critical. In this film calibration scheme, the hardware deals with the data sources, recording medium, and data conversion to a computer compatible program, whereas the software deals with signal to noise enhancement, stepwedge calibration curve and leads to modeling of the film characteristic curves. A mathematical model of the characteristic curve is obtained using a modified version of Efroymson's (1960) stepwise multiple linear regression algorithm, which gives log exposure as a function of density. The difference in the calibration curves from pre- and postflight exposures is well accounted for in the model as a result of sensitive statistical tests. The characteristic curve modeling program requires about 4K of core and is executed in about 3 min.

  7. Spray Behavior and Atomization Characteristics of Biodiesel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Seung-Hun; Oh, Young-Taig

    Biodiesel has large amount of oxygen in itself, which make it very efficient in reducing exhaust emission by improving combustion inside an engine. But biodiesel has a low temperature flow problem because it has a high viscosity. In this study, the spray behavior and atomization characteristics were investigated to confirm of some effect for the combination of non-esterification biodiesel and fuel additive WDP and IPA. The process of spray was visualized through the visualization system composed of a halogen lamp and high speed camera, and atomization characteristics were investigated through LDPA. When blending WDP and IPA with biodiesel, atomization and spray characteristics were improved. Through this experimental result, SMD of blended fuel, WDP 25% and biodiesel 75%, was 33.9% reduced at distance 6cm from a nozzle tip under injection pressure 30MPa.

  8. Analysis of Petal Rotation Trajectory Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Rodney L.; Campagnola, Stefano; Buffington, Brent B.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the characteristics of petal rotation trajectories are explored in both the two-body and circular restricted three-body problem (CRTBP) models. Petal rotation trajectories alternate long and short resonances of different kinds to rotate the line of apsides. They are typically computed using the patched conic model, and they are used in a number of different missions and mission concepts including Cassini, JUICE, and Europa mission concepts. Petal rotation trajectories are first analyzed here using the patched conic model to quantify their characteristics and search for cases with fast rotation of the line of apsides. When they are computed in the CRTBP, they are unstable periodic orbits with corresponding stable and unstable manifolds. The characteristics of these orbits are explored from a dynamical systems perspective in the second phase of the study.

  9. Fractal characteristics for binary noise radar waveform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bing C.

    2016-05-01

    Noise radars have many advantages over conventional radars and receive great attentions recently. The performance of a noise radar is determined by its waveforms. Investigating characteristics of noise radar waveforms has significant value for evaluating noise radar performance. In this paper, we use binomial distribution theory to analyze general characteristics of binary phase coded (BPC) noise waveforms. Focusing on aperiodic autocorrelation function, we demonstrate that the probability distributions of sidelobes for a BPC noise waveform depend on the distances of these sidelobes to the mainlobe. The closer a sidelobe to the mainlobe, the higher the probability for this sidelobe to be a maximum sidelobe. We also develop Monte Carlo framework to explore the characteristics that are difficult to investigate analytically. Through Monte Carlo experiments, we reveal the Fractal relationship between the code length and the maximum sidelobe value for BPC waveforms, and propose using fractal dimension to measure noise waveform performance.

  10. Switching Characteristics of Ferroelectric Transistor Inverters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laws, Crystal; Mitchell, Coey; MacLeod, Todd C.; Ho, Fat D.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the switching characteristics of an inverter circuit using a ferroelectric field effect transistor, FeFET. The propagation delay time characteristics, phl and plh are presented along with the output voltage rise and fall times, rise and fall. The propagation delay is the time-delay between the V50% transitions of the input and output voltages. The rise and fall times are the times required for the output voltages to transition between the voltage levels V10% and V90%. Comparisons are made between the MOSFET inverter and the ferroelectric transistor inverter.

  11. Static Characteristics of the Ferroelectric Transistor Inverter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Cody; Laws, crystal; MacLeond, Todd C.; Ho, Fat D.

    2010-01-01

    The inverter is one of the most fundamental building blocks of digital logic, and it can be used as the foundation for understanding more complex logic gates and circuits. This paper presents the characteristics of an inverter circuit using a ferroelectric field-effect transistor. The voltage transfer characteristics are analyzed with respect to varying parameters such as supply voltage, input voltage, and load resistance. The effects of the ferroelectric layer between the gate and semiconductor are examined, and comparisons are made between the inverters using ferroelectric transistors and those using traditional MOSFETs.

  12. Dispersivity as an oil reservoir rock characteristic

    SciTech Connect

    Menzie, D.E.; Dutta, S.

    1989-12-01

    The main objective of this research project is to establish dispersivity, {alpha}{sub d}, as an oil reservoir rock characteristic and to use this reservoir rock property to enhance crude oil recovery. A second objective is to compare the dispersion coefficient and the dispersivity of various reservoir rocks with other rock characteristics such as: porosity, permeability, capillary pressure, and relative permeability. The dispersivity of a rock was identified by measuring the physical mixing of two miscible fluids, one displacing the other in a porous medium. 119 refs., 27 figs., 12 tabs.

  13. USB flow characteristics related to noise generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, W. H.; Reddy, N. N.

    1976-01-01

    The effects of nozzle and flap geometry on upper surface blown flow field characteristics related to noise generation were examined experimentally using static models. Flow attachment and spreading characteristics were observed using flow visualization techniques. Velocity and turbulence profiles in the trailing edge wake were measured using hot-wire anemometry, and the effects of the geometric variables on peak velocity and turbulence intensity were determined. It is shown that peak trailing edge velocity is a function of the ratio of flow length to modified hydraulic diameter.

  14. Adaptive predictive image coding using local characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, C. H.; Lu, P. C.; Liou, W. G.

    1989-12-01

    The paper presents an efficient adaptive predictive coding method using the local characteristics of images. In this method, three coding schemes, namely, mean, subsampling combined with fixed DPCM, and ADPCM/PCM, are used and one of these is chosen adaptively based on the local characteristics of images. The prediction parameters of the two-dimensional linear predictor in the ADPCM/PCM are extracted on a block by block basis. Simulation results show that the proposed method is effective in reducing the slope overload distortion and the granular noise at low bit rates, and thus it can improve the visual quality of reconstructed images.

  15. Low-flow characteristics of Virginia streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Austin, Samuel H.; Krstolic, Jennifer L.; Wiegand, Ute

    2011-01-01

    Low-flow annual non-exceedance probabilities (ANEP), called probability-percent chance (P-percent chance) flow estimates, regional regression equations, and transfer methods are provided describing the low-flow characteristics of Virginia streams. Statistical methods are used to evaluate streamflow data. Analysis of Virginia streamflow data collected from 1895 through 2007 is summarized. Methods are provided for estimating low-flow characteristics of gaged and ungaged streams. The 1-, 4-, 7-, and 30-day average streamgaging station low-flow characteristics for 290 long-term, continuous-record, streamgaging stations are determined, adjusted for instances of zero flow using a conditional probability adjustment method, and presented for non-exceedance probabilities of 0.9, 0.8, 0.7, 0.6, 0.5, 0.4, 0.3, 0.2, 0.1, 0.05, 0.02, 0.01, and 0.005. Stream basin characteristics computed using spatial data and a geographic information system are used as explanatory variables in regional regression equations to estimate annual non-exceedance probabilities at gaged and ungaged sites and are summarized for 290 long-term, continuous-record streamgaging stations, 136 short-term, continuous-record streamgaging stations, and 613 partial-record streamgaging stations. Regional regression equations for six physiographic regions use basin characteristics to estimate 1-, 4-, 7-, and 30-day average low-flow annual non-exceedance probabilities at gaged and ungaged sites. Weighted low-flow values that combine computed streamgaging station low-flow characteristics and annual non-exceedance probabilities from regional regression equations provide improved low-flow estimates. Regression equations developed using the Maintenance of Variance with Extension (MOVE.1) method describe the line of organic correlation (LOC) with an appropriate index site for low-flow characteristics at 136 short-term, continuous-record streamgaging stations and 613 partial-record streamgaging stations. Monthly

  16. Identifying characteristic scales in the human genome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpena, P.; Bernaola-Galván, P.; Coronado, A. V.; Hackenberg, M.; Oliver, J. L.

    2007-03-01

    The scale-free, long-range correlations detected in DNA sequences contrast with characteristic lengths of genomic elements, being particularly incompatible with the isochores (long, homogeneous DNA segments). By computing the local behavior of the scaling exponent α of detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), we discriminate between sequences with and without true scaling, and we find that no single scaling exists in the human genome. Instead, human chromosomes show a common compositional structure with two characteristic scales, the large one corresponding to the isochores and the other to small and medium scale genomic elements.

  17. Gas hydrate reservoir characteristics and economics

    SciTech Connect

    Collett, T.S.; Bird, K.J.; Burruss, R.C.; Lee, Myung W.

    1992-06-01

    The primary objective of the DOE-funded USGS Gas Hydrate Program is to assess the production characteristics and economic potential of gas hydrates in northern Alaska. The objectives of this project for FY-1992 will include the following: (1) Utilize industry seismic data to assess the distribution of gas hydrates within the nearshore Alaskan continental shelf between Harrison Bay and Prudhoe Bay; (2) Further characterize and quantify the well-log characteristics of gas hydrates; and (3) Establish gas monitoring stations over the Eileen fault zone in northern Alaska, which will be used to measure gas flux from destabilized hydrates.

  18. Gas hydrate reservoir characteristics and economics

    SciTech Connect

    Collett, T.S.; Bird, K.J.; Burruss, R.C.; Lee, Myung W.

    1992-01-01

    The primary objective of the DOE-funded USGS Gas Hydrate Program is to assess the production characteristics and economic potential of gas hydrates in northern Alaska. The objectives of this project for FY-1992 will include the following: (1) Utilize industry seismic data to assess the distribution of gas hydrates within the nearshore Alaskan continental shelf between Harrison Bay and Prudhoe Bay; (2) Further characterize and quantify the well-log characteristics of gas hydrates; and (3) Establish gas monitoring stations over the Eileen fault zone in northern Alaska, which will be used to measure gas flux from destabilized hydrates.

  19. Reionization: Characteristic Scales, Topology And Observability

    SciTech Connect

    Iliev, Ilian T.; Shapiro, Paul R.; Mellema, Garrelt; Pen, Ue-Li; McDonald, Patrick; Alvarez, Marcelo A.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2007-11-02

    Recently the numerical simulations of the process of reionization of the universe at z > 6 have made a qualitative leap forward, reaching sufficient sizes and dynamic range to determine the characteristic scales of this process. This allowed making the first realistic predictions for a variety of observational signatures. We discuss recent results from large-scale radiative transfer and structure formation simulations on the observability of high-redshift Ly-{alpha} sources. We also briefly discuss the dependence of the characteristic scales and topology of the ionized and neutral patches on the reionization parameters.

  20. Congruence of Real and Ideal Job Characteristics: A Focus on Sex, Parenthood Status, and Extrinsic Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Sharon L.; Tittle, Carol Kehr

    1987-01-01

    Intrinsic and extrinsic job characteristics were studied in relation to perceived real-ideal job characteristic congruence for a sample of male and female full-time lawyers (N=60). Results indicated that sex differences exist in perceived real-ideal congruence even when variables known to covary with sex in the work setting are controlled.…

  1. Characteristics of Long-Term First Marriages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenell, David L.

    1993-01-01

    Investigated characteristics of long-term first marriages (over 20 years). Findings from 147 couples revealed: lifetime commitment to marriage, loyalty to spouse, strong moral values, respect for spouse as best friend, commitment to sexual fidelity, desire to be good parent, faith in God, desire to please and support spouse, good companion to…

  2. Family Characteristics and Adolescent Substance Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Andy L.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Study used self-report questionnaire data from high school students to determine the relation between adolescents' perception of family characteristics and adolescent substance use patterns. Results indicate adolescents' perception of maternal substance use, family hardiness, and age of the adolescent were significant predictors of substance use.…

  3. Private School Location and Neighborhood Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Lisa

    2006-01-01

    Using data from Illinois, I examine relationships between the number of private schools and characteristics of the public schools and surrounding population. I find positive, statistically significant relationships between number of private schools in 1998 and public school 3rd grade class size, the percent college educated, and the percent over…

  4. Rehearsal Characteristics of "Superior" Band Directors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juchniewicz, Jay; Kelly, Steven N.; Acklin, Amy I.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the rehearsal characteristics of "superior" middle and high school band directors. A total of 131 respondents from Florida, Kentucky, and North Carolina who received a "superior" rating for 4 out of the past 5 years, completed an open-ended essay question online asking them to…

  5. Characteristics of Principal Leadership Influencing School Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Norma J.

    2012-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study is to examine characteristics of principal leadership influencing school culture as viewed by stakeholders involved in the International Schools Group (ISG) in Saudi Arabia. A secondary purpose of this study is to inform ISG educational leaders about the perspectives of their respective stakeholder groups…

  6. Successful Aging: Early Influences and Contemporary Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruchno, Rachel A.; Wilson-Genderson, Maureen; Rose, Miriam; Cartwright, Francine

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Positing that successful aging has independent, yet related, dimensions that are both objective and subjective, we examine how early influences and contemporary characteristics define 4 groups of people. Design and Methods: Data were gathered from 5,688 persons aged 50-74 years living in New Jersey who participated in telephone…

  7. Psychometric Characteristics of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aman, Michael G.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Information is presented on the psychometric characteristics of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist, a measure of psychotropic drug effects. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the checklist appeared very good. Interrater reliability was generally in the moderate range. In general, validity was established for most Aberrant Behavior…

  8. Logbook Language Characteristics and Recordation Requirement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Gang; Shen, Jiang

    2011-01-01

    With a view of the deficiency irregular phenomena existing in logbook recordation among Chinese crew members, this paper analyzed the language characteristics and recording requirement of logbook, expounded how to employ accurate, concise and precise words to record logbook, listed out matters to be paid attention to in the process of recording…

  9. Personality Characteristics of Child Abusing Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flanagan, Clyde; And Others

    A study involving 22 fathers and 21 mothers was conducted to explore several personality characteristics of child abusive parents which may set them apart from nonabusive peers. A social history was taken, and each parent completed both the Motivation Analysis Test (MAT) and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI). Among findings…

  10. Characteristics of Successful Campus Police Officers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leitner, Dennis W.; Sedlacek, William E.

    1976-01-01

    Campus officers (N=52) were administered seven personality and attitude measures. Their performance was predicted on nine criterion measures, using multiple regression. Results yielded significant predictions on all criteria, but showed each criterion was associated with different, sometimes opposite characteristics. Negative racial attitudes were…

  11. Student Characteristics and Enrollment Trends, Fall 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartnal, Ryan

    Cuesta College's (California) Five-year Student Characteristics and Enrollment Trends (1996-2000) report provides tables and figures that show student demography and enrollment status. Tables 1 through 11 present data for the entire college. Table 1 shows that enrollment at Cuesta College continues to increase and is now at an all-time high of…

  12. Characteristics of High-Quality Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Jason E.; Gulek, James C.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the characteristics of high-quality teachers who used a structured mathematics program for teaching, namely the Math Achievement Program (MAP[superscript 2]D), which demonstrated significant gains on student achievement as measured by California's Standards Test (CST) in mathematics. Specifically, the…

  13. Some Characteristics of the Historically Black Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, Robert

    The role of historically Black colleges is discussed in relation to their ability to offer educational alternatives and options. Some characteristics of the Black colleges are that 42 percent are located in cities with less than 50,000 people, while fewer than 20 percent are located in cities with populations in excess of 500,000. Black colleges…

  14. Characteristics of an Effective District Leader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Research supports the importance of effective district superintendents. A meta-analysis conducted by Marzano and Waters (2009) found that five characteristics were common in districts with effective superintendents. Twenty-seven studies met their criteria for the meta-analysis. Their primary research question was: "What is the strength of…

  15. Deep stall characteristics of MU-300

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanai, T.

    1986-01-01

    The deep stall characteristics of the MU-300 Diamond aircraft are described. The MU-300 obtained type certification from the FAA in 1981, and from Canada, West Germany, and England in 1983. The aircraft has achieved a high angle of attack. The aerodynamic design, structural dimensions, and flight tests of the MU-300 are described.

  16. Survey of Characteristics of Measurement Services Offices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, T. Dary; And Others

    This paper briefly summarizes the findings from a national survey for the Measurement Services Association (MSA) of testing and measurement offices regarding their organizational characteristics and their activities and services. Questionnaires were mailed to all testing offices (n=146) at colleges and universities on the MSA Newsletter mailing…

  17. 14 CFR 23.239 - Spray characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Spray characteristics. 23.239 Section 23.239 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... the pilots or damage the propellers or other parts of a seaplane or amphibian at any time...

  18. Low-flow characteristics of Florida streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rumenik, R.P.

    1996-01-01

    Knowledge of the low-flow characteristics of Florida streams and rivers is essential in planning for the availability of adequate quantities of water for commercial- and public-water supply, agricultural irrigation, artificial recharge, and the dilution of waste discharge. This report provides low-flow characteristics for 216 continuous-record gaging stations using frequency analysis techniques. Included are low-flow frequency characteristics for 143 unregulated, gaging stations; and sample percentiles for 32 stations that were subject to regulation or diversion, and sample percentiles for 41 stations, regulated and unregulated, that exhibited significant trends in the annual low-flow time series. Estimates of low-flow frequency characteristics are provided for 242 partial-record stations and miscellaneous sites based on correlations with daily mean discharges at continuous-record stations. Low-flow measurement data are available at approximately 1,300 continuous-record gaging stations, partial- record stations and miscellaneous sites. Historic low-flow measurement data are accessible through the U.S. Geological Survey Automatic Data Processing System.

  19. Characteristics of Disaster Associated with Chronic Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, India; Baum, Andrew

    Historically, most investigations of the social and psychological effects of disaster have focused on describing the impact of single traumatic events rather than on developing an understanding of how disasters or particular characteristics of disasters affect various groups of victims. This study investigated the hypothesis that stress caused by…

  20. Aerodynamic Characteristics of Tracheostomy Speaking Valves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fornataro-Clerici, Lisa; Zajac, David J.

    1993-01-01

    Pressure-flow characteristics were determined for four different one-way valves (Kisner, Montgomery, Olympic, and Passy-Muir) used for speech production in tracheotomy patients. Results indicated significant differences in resistance among the valves, with the resistance of one valve substantially greater than that of the normal upper airways.…

  1. Characteristics of Second Graders' Mathematical Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Jeremy A.; Casa, Tutita M.; Miller, Heather C.; Firmender, Janine M.

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the characteristics of second graders' mathematical writing between an intervention and comparison group. Two six-week Project M2 units were implemented with students in the intervention group. The units position students to communicate in ways similar to mathematicians, including engaging in verbal discourse where they…

  2. Characteristics and Quality of Autism Websites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichow, Brian; Halpern, Jason I.; Steinhoff, Timothy B.; Letsinger, Nicole; Naples, Adam; Volkmar, Fred R.

    2012-01-01

    The World Wide Web is a common method for obtaining information on autism spectrum disorders, however, there are no guidelines for finding websites with high quality. We conducted two studies examining the characteristics and/or quality of autism websites in 2009 and 2010. We found websites with a .gov top-level domain had a statistically…

  3. Incidental Learning of Sex Role Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinsell-Rainey, Lynn W.

    The content and process of incidental learning of sex role related characteristics through play behavior was explored in a study of more than 6000 toys sold by Sears, Roebuck & Company between 1900 and 1970, as represented in their mail order catalogs. Sixty percent of all toys were sex typed by Sears. The nature of the play behavior associated…

  4. Superconducting wire with improved strain characteristics

    DOEpatents

    Luhman, Thomas; Klamut, Carl J.; Suenaga, Masaki; Welch, David

    1982-01-01

    A superconducting wire comprising a superconducting filament and a beryllium strengthened bronze matrix in which the addition of beryllium to the matrix permits a low volume matrix to exhibit reduced elastic deformation after heat treating which increases the compression of the superconducting filament on cooling and thereby improves the strain characteristics of the wire.

  5. Superconducting wire with improved strain characteristics

    DOEpatents

    Luhman, Thomas; Klamut, Carl J.; Suenaga, Masaki; Welch, David

    1982-01-01

    A superconducting wire comprising a superconducting filament and a beryllium strengthened bronze matrix in which the addition of beryllium to the matrix permits a low volume matrix to exhibit reduced elastic deformation after heat treating which increases the compression of the superconducting filament on cooling and thereby improve the strain characteristics of the wire.

  6. Superconducting wire with improved strain characteristics

    DOEpatents

    Luhman, T.; Klamut, C.J.; Suenaga, M.; Welch, D.

    1979-12-19

    A superconducting wire comprising a superconducting filament and a beryllium strengthened bronze matrix in which the addition of beryllium to the matrix permits a low volume matrix to exhibit reduced elastic deformation after heat treating which increases the compression of the superconducting filament on cooling and thereby improve the strain characteristics of the wire.

  7. Land characteristics data on CD-ROM

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) publishes land characteristics data on CD-ROM. The following lists the types of products and their contents and specifications. The discs cost $32 each, plus a $5.00 handling fee per order mailed.

  8. Peak-flow characteristics of Virginia streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Austin, Samuel H.; Krstolic, Jennifer L.; Wiegand, Ute

    2011-01-01

    Peak-flow annual exceedance probabilities, also called probability-percent chance flow estimates, and regional regression equations are provided describing the peak-flow characteristics of Virginia streams. Statistical methods are used to evaluate peak-flow data. Analysis of Virginia peak-flow data collected from 1895 through 2007 is summarized. Methods are provided for estimating unregulated peak flow of gaged and ungaged streams. Station peak-flow characteristics identified by fitting the logarithms of annual peak flows to a Log Pearson Type III frequency distribution yield annual exceedance probabilities of 0.5, 0.4292, 0.2, 0.1, 0.04, 0.02, 0.01, 0.005, and 0.002 for 476 streamgaging stations. Stream basin characteristics computed using spatial data and a geographic information system are used as explanatory variables in regional regression model equations for six physiographic regions to estimate regional annual exceedance probabilities at gaged and ungaged sites. Weighted peak-flow values that combine annual exceedance probabilities computed from gaging station data and from regional regression equations provide improved peak-flow estimates. Text, figures, and lists are provided summarizing selected peak-flow sites, delineated physiographic regions, peak-flow estimates, basin characteristics, regional regression model equations, error estimates, definitions, data sources, and candidate regression model equations. This study supersedes previous studies of peak flows in Virginia.

  9. Characteristics of arachnoids from Magellan data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, C. B.; Crumpler, L. S.

    1993-03-01

    Current high resolution Magellan data enables more detailed geological study of arachnoids, first identified by Barsukov et al. as features characterized by a combination of radar-bright, concentric rings and radiating lineations, named 'arachnoids' on the basis of their spider and web-like appearance. Identification of arachnoids in Magellan data has been based on SAR images, in keeping with the original definition. However, there is some overlap by other workers in identification of arachnoids, corona (predominantly bright rings), and novae (predominantly radiating lineations), as all of these features share some common characteristics. Features used in this survey were chosen based on their classification as arachnoids in Head et al.'s catalog and on SAR characteristics matching Barsukov et al.'s original definition. The 259 arachnoids have been currently identified on Venus, all of which were considered in this study. Fifteen arachnoids from different regions, chosen for their 'type' characteristics and lack of deformation by other regional processes, were studied in depth, using SAR and altimetric data to map and profile these arachnoids in an attempt to better determine their geologic and altimetric characteristics and possible formation sequences.

  10. Measuring Contextual Characteristics for Community Health

    PubMed Central

    Hillemeier, Marianne M; Lynch, John; Harper, Sam; Casper, Michele

    2003-01-01

    Objective To conceptualize and measure community contextual influences on population health and health disparities. Data Sources We use traditional and nontraditional secondary sources of data comprising a comprehensive array of community characteristics. Study Design Using a consultative process, we identify 12 overarching dimensions of contextual characteristics that may affect community health, as well as specific subcomponents relating to each dimension. Data Collection An extensive geocoded library of data indicators relating to each dimension and subcomponent for metropolitan areas in the United States is assembled. Principal Findings We describe the development of community contextual health profiles, present the rationale supporting each of the profile dimensions, and provide examples of relevant data sources. Conclusions Our conceptual framework for community contextual characteristics, including a specified set of dimensions and components, can provide practical ways to monitor health-related aspects of the economic, social, and physical environments in which people live. We suggest several guiding principles useful for understanding how aspects of contextual characteristics can affect health and health disparities. PMID:14727793

  11. The Characteristic Dimensions of the Nanoworld

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wautelet, M.; Duvivier, D.

    2007-01-01

    Nanoscience is defined as the study of phenomena and manipulation of materials at atomic, molecular and macromolecular scales, where properties differ significantly from those at larger scale. It is the aim of this paper to examine the characteristic dimensions for which the properties of nanosystems differ significantly from those at a larger…

  12. Circular polarisation characteristics of stacked microstrip antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, R. Q.; Talty, T.; Lee, K. F.

    1990-01-01

    Experimental results on the circular polarization (CP) characteristics of a two-layer electromagnetically coupled (EMCP) antenna are presented. Compared to the single CP patch antenna, the two-layer EMCP antenna with proper spacings can provide better axial ratio and directivity.

  13. Prior Learning Assessment: Outcomes and Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Barbara

    1995-01-01

    Describes the Ontario college system's Prior Learning Assessment program for adult learners, focusing on outcomes and characteristics of students completing the process at Seneca College from April 1994 to February 1995. Indicates that of 77 participants, 46 were female, the mean age was 31, and 81% passed the process successfully. (BCY)

  14. Population Characteristics of Potential Satellite Campus Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landini, Albert J.

    This document presents a method of determining the best location for a potential satellite campus by predetermining the population characteristics of its potential students. The question is approached as a marketing problem with a geographical orietation. The test site for this project was Pierce College in the Los Angeles Comunity College…

  15. Maternal Characteristics Predicting Young Girls' Disruptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Molen, Elsa; Hipwell, Alison E.; Vermeiren, Robert; Loeber, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the relative predictive utility of maternal characteristics and parenting skills on the development of girls' disruptive behavior. The current study used five waves of parent- and child-report data from the ongoing Pittsburgh Girls Study to examine these relationships in a sample of 1,942 girls from age 7 to 12 years.…

  16. 33 CFR 62.45 - Light characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Section 62.45 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.45 Light characteristics. (a) Lights on aids to navigation are differentiated by color and rhythm. Lighthouses and...

  17. 33 CFR 62.45 - Light characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Section 62.45 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.45 Light characteristics. (a) Lights on aids to navigation are differentiated by color and rhythm. Lighthouses and...

  18. 33 CFR 62.45 - Light characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Section 62.45 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.45 Light characteristics. (a) Lights on aids to navigation are differentiated by color and rhythm. Lighthouses and...

  19. Language Characteristics of Individuals with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Gary E.; Klusek, Jessica; Estigarribia, Bruno; Roberts, Joanne E.

    2009-01-01

    On average, language and communication characteristics of individuals with Down syndrome (the most common genetic cause of intellectual disability) follow a consistent profile. Despite considerable individual variability, receptive language is typically stronger than expressive language, with particular challenges in phonology and syntax. We…

  20. Exploring the Innovative Personality Characteristics among Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Othman, Nooraini

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the characteristics of innovative personality among teachers in Malaysia. Samples of the research were randomly selected among secondary school teachers in three districts in Malaysia. Research instrument was self-developed by the researchers based on interviews carried out with some resource persons who are…

  1. Chains versus Independents: Newspaper and Market Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, F. Dennis

    A study examined the marketing differences between large chain newspapers and small chain and independent newspapers by analyzing differences in characteristics of the newspapers, patterns of circulation, economic and social conditions of the market, and competition from other print media. The 200 newspapers studied--113 large chain and 87 small…

  2. Yemeni Student Characteristics and Language Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Ian C.

    A study was undertaken to identify useful methods for measuring progress in English language proficiency among students at the Yemen-America Language Institute (YALI) in Sana'a, Yemen. The study examined factors critical to such progress as well as the profiles of student attitudes and demographic characteristics. A questionnaire was administered…

  3. Predicting Adult Personality from Minor Physical Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulhus, Delroy; Martin, Carol

    While minor physical anomalies (MPAs), a set of 17 non-obvious but measurable characteristics of the hands, face and feet, have been linked to a number of behavioral syndromes in children, such personality correlates of MPAs in adults have not been studied. To explore the relationshp between MPAs and temperament in a college sample, 114 students…

  4. Dynamic and Performance Characteristics of Baseball Bats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Fred O.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The dynamic and performance characteristics of wooden and aluminum baseball bats were investigated in two phases; the first dealing with the velocity of the batted balls, and the second with a study of centers of percussion and impulse response at the handle. (MJB)

  5. Characteristics Related to Female & Male Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Agnes M.

    2004-01-01

    The following research investigated gender and the leadership role and determined if there are differences in leadership styles, behaviors, traits, and characteristics between female leaders and male leaders. Literature suggests there are specific gender leadership differences between males and females in leadership styles, behaviors, traits, and…

  6. Characteristics of arachnoids from Magellan data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, C. B.; Crumpler, L. S.

    1993-01-01

    Current high resolution Magellan data enables more detailed geological study of arachnoids, first identified by Barsukov et al. as features characterized by a combination of radar-bright, concentric rings and radiating lineations, named 'arachnoids' on the basis of their spider and web-like appearance. Identification of arachnoids in Magellan data has been based on SAR images, in keeping with the original definition. However, there is some overlap by other workers in identification of arachnoids, corona (predominantly bright rings), and novae (predominantly radiating lineations), as all of these features share some common characteristics. Features used in this survey were chosen based on their classification as arachnoids in Head et al.'s catalog and on SAR characteristics matching Barsukov et al.'s original definition. The 259 arachnoids have been currently identified on Venus, all of which were considered in this study. Fifteen arachnoids from different regions, chosen for their 'type' characteristics and lack of deformation by other regional processes, were studied in depth, using SAR and altimetric data to map and profile these arachnoids in an attempt to better determine their geologic and altimetric characteristics and possible formation sequences.

  7. Remote sensing data products: types and characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carneggie, David M.

    1978-01-01

    Objectives: To identify and define remote sending data products available for analysis of wildlife management problems. To ascribe characteristics and formats as they relate to a choice of the data product to select for a particular analysis. To identify the various remote sensing data products discussed, displayed, and presented at the symposium.

  8. Product Characteristics and Internet Shopping Intentions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vijayasarathy, Leo R.

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of electronic commerce and online marketing focuses on an empirical study that investigated differences between Internet shopping intentions for products categorized by cost and tangibility. Highlights include hypotheses; respondent characteristics; results that showed that intentions to shop using the Internet differ by tangibility of…

  9. Characteristics of Distinguished Programs of Agricultural Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birkenholz, Robert J.; Simonsen, Jon C.

    2011-01-01

    Academic program rankings are highly anticipated by many university administrators, faculty, and alumni. This study analyzed the perceptions of agricultural education departmental contact persons to identify esteemed post-secondary agricultural education programs and the distinguishing characteristics of each program. The ten most distinguished…

  10. Psychological Characteristics of Adolescent Steroid Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, Kent F.; Kleiman, Mark E.

    1994-01-01

    Used Millon Adolescent Personality Inventory and Profile of Mood States to assess psychological characteristics in 72 adolescent males: 24 adolescent athletes who reported steroid use, 24 athletes with no steroid use, and 24 nonathletes. Although some personality variables differentiated between athletes and nonathletes, no personality variables…

  11. Characteristics of Online Searchers in University Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomon, Kristine; Burgess, Curt

    A nationwide survey of online searchers at 150 college and university libraries was conducted to explore various characteristics of this group. From a sample of 380 searchers representing 85 libraries, 201 surveys (52.9%) were returned, and 198 responses were usable. Variables examined include online training, searcher experience, professional…

  12. Differentiating Characteristics of Juvenile Methamphetamine Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fass, Daniel; Calhoun, Georgia B.; Glaser, Brian A.; Yanosky, Daniel J., II

    2009-01-01

    The authors investigated the differences in characteristics and risk behaviors endorsed by detained adolescent methamphetamine users and compared them with other drug users. Subjects completed the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory and a questionnaire in which sociodemographics and behavioral information were explored and compared. Multivariate…

  13. Compensatory Hypertrophy of Skeletal Muscle: Contractile Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ianuzzo, C. D.; Chen, V.

    1977-01-01

    Describes an experiment using rats that demonstrates contractile characteristics of normal and hypertrophied muscle. Compensatory hypertrophy of the plantaris muscle is induced by surgical removal of the synergistic gastrocnemium muscle. Includes methods for determination of contractile properties of normal and hypertrophied muscle and…

  14. Characteristics of Positive Autobiographical Memories in Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bluck, Susan; Alea, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    The characteristics of positive autobiographical memory narratives were examined in younger and older adults. Narratives were content-coded for the extent to which they contained indicators of affect, sensory imagery, and cognition. Affect was additionally assessed through self-report. Young adults expressed more positive affect and less sensory…

  15. The Online Learner: Characteristics and Pedagogical Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dabbagh, Nada

    2007-01-01

    Globalization has stretched the scope of the online learner population from a homogeneous profile of mostly adult, mostly employed, place-bound, goal-oriented, and intrinsically motivated to one that is heterogeneous, younger, dynamic, and responsive to rapid technological innovations. This paper describes the emerging characteristics of the…

  16. Thermochemical characteristics of chitosan-polylactide copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goruynova, P. E.; Larina, V. N.; Smirnova, N. N.; Tsverova, N. E.; Smirnova, L. A.

    2016-05-01

    The energies of combustion of chitosan and its block-copolymers with different polylactide contents are determined in a static bomb calorimeter. Standard enthalpies of combustion and formation are calculated for these substances. The dependences of the thermochemical characteristics on block-copolymer composition are determined and discussed.

  17. An Investigation of Double Bass Vibrato Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mick, James

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate and describe various vibrato characteristics of university double bass students. The primary objectives were: (1) to describe vibrato rate and width for commonly used fingers in first, fourth, and thumb positions; (2) to investigate whether students initiate vibrato in an upward or downward direction;…

  18. Characteristics of Inclusive Classrooms in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melekoglu, Macid Ayhan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, inclusive classrooms in Turkey are described in terms of the characteristics of both classroom teachers and students with special needs. Participants of this study consisted of 54 teachers working in inclusive classrooms and 54 students with mild intellectual disabilities in those classrooms in Turkey. Data for this study were…

  19. Urban School Counseling: Context, Characteristics, and Competencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Courtland C.

    2005-01-01

    This article explores the nature of professional school counseling in urban settings. An overview of key characteristics of the urban environment and urban schools first provides context for the role of the professional school counselor in such a setting. Second, specific challenges facing urban school counselors are considered. Third, a set of…

  20. Vocational Teacher Stress and Internal Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Elaine

    1999-01-01

    A survey of 235 Virginia vocational teachers examined 6 internal characteristics that would affect stress: role preparedness, job satisfaction, life satisfaction, illness symptoms, locus of control, and self-esteem. Role preparedness, illness symptoms, and self-esteem were significant contributors in explaining teacher stress. (SK)

  1. Reverse Transfer Students: Characteristics, Motivations, and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowrey, Kathryn Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    The reverse transfer literature contains studies investigating the demographic characteristics of postsecondary students that attended a community college after attending a four-year institution, and their proportion in the community college student population. A few researchers have investigated reverse transfer student motives for enrolling in…

  2. Personality Characteristics of Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Jean; Blocher, Linda

    1990-01-01

    Investigated personality characteristics of adult children of alcoholics (ACAs) by using the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test and the Personal Orientation Inventory with undergraduate and graduate college students (N=41). Results indicated there were no significant differences between the ACAs and nonACAs in identifying feelings, expressing…

  3. Personality Characteristics of Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkowitz, Alan; Perkins, H. Wesley

    1988-01-01

    Compared the personality characteristics of late adolescent and young adult children of alcoholics (COAs) with those of their peers, examining gender specificity in personality differences. COA respondents, particularly women, and especially women with alcoholic fathers, were more likely to report greater self-depreciation. Male COAs rated…

  4. Leadership Characteristics That Facilitate School Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendez-Morse, Sylvia

    Accompanying the frequent calls for school reform is the assumption that the leadership needed to bring change will somehow emerge. Education researchers have begun to examine school administrators' leadership skills looking for the characteristics that help or impede efforts to improve education for at-risk students. Personal qualities have an…

  5. Catchment biophysical drivers of streamflow characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trancoso, R.

    2015-12-01

    The characteristics of streamflow reflect the co-evolution of climate, soils, topography and vegetation of catchments. Hydrological metrics or signatures can represent the long-term behaviour and integrate the influence of all the streamflow drivers. Although this sort of relationship has been developed in regional studies exploring prediction of Flow Duration Curves and other streamflow metrics, little is known about the controls of other key streamflow characteristics especially in continent scale. This study aims to understand how catchment biophysical variables control key hydrological metrics such as baseflow index, elasticity of streamflow to rainfall variability and intermittency in continent scale and regionally. We used a set of catchment biophysical variables to model key streamflow signatures using multivariate power-law and beta regressions in 355 catchments located along the eastern Australian seaboard. Streamflow signatures were derived from daily streamflow time series data from 1980 to 2013. We tested 52 catchment biophysical characteristics related to climate, soil, topography, geography, geomorphology, vegetation and land-cover as predictors of the streamflow signatures. The prediction R-squared ranged from 63 to 72% when relationships are built in continent scale, but can be greater than 80% when regressions are regionalised. The interpretation of the modelled relationships offers new insights regarding the controls of flow characteristics.

  6. 33 CFR 62.45 - Light characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the topmost band is green. (2) Red lights mark starboard (right) sides of channels and locations of... vessel. Red lights are also used on Preferred Channel Marks where the topmost band is red. (3) Certain... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Light characteristics....

  7. 33 CFR 62.45 - Light characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the topmost band is green. (2) Red lights mark starboard (right) sides of channels and locations of... vessel. Red lights are also used on Preferred Channel Marks where the topmost band is red. (3) Certain... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Light characteristics....

  8. Bulimia Nervosa: A Review of Family Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, DeeAnne Karyl

    The purpose of this literature review was to demonstrate that a family systems conceptualization of family dysfunction could be applied to bulimic families. In general, self-report and observational family characteristics studies support the hypothesis that bulimic families, like anorectic families, have significant systemic dysfunction in…

  9. Characteristics of Knowledge Interconnectedness in Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antonijevic, Radovan

    2006-01-01

    The subject of the paper presents establishing basic characteristics, forms and levels of knowledge interconnectedness in teaching, especially in mathematics and biology teaching. The analysis was realized by considering basic theoretical views in this field, as well as by establishing features and levels of knowledge interconnectedness in the…

  10. Moisture-dependent Color Characteristics of Walnuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Characterization of the relationship between the shell color of walnuts and their moisture content (MC) at harvest can provide valuable information to perform walnut sorting before the drying process. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between the color characteristics ...

  11. Adult Learner Characteristics and Instructional Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etter, David Campbell George

    Using 40 male and 40 female part time learners with an average age of 36.6, this program planning study explored relationships between selected learner characteristics and behaviorally stated cognitive instructional objectives (IOs). Variables included age, sex, socioeconomic status, verbal ability, and a measure of learners' goals or learning…

  12. Atypical Gifted Learners and Their Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diket, Read M., Ed.; Abel, Trudy, Ed.

    This collection of 12 handouts focuses on different categories of atypical gifted learners and their characteristics. The handouts are generally two pages long and present a summary of the literature on the topic, some practical teaching suggestions, and references. The handouts include: (1) "Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Gifted Students" (Pam…

  13. Characteristics of Successful Learning Center Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange, Joseph E.; Fundis, Ronald J.

    A study was conducted at Jefferson College, Hillsboro Campus, in Missouri, to determine the relationship between the characteristics of successful Learning Center students and their questionnaire responses on an entry survey and their final course grades. Jefferson College is a two-year, open admissions community college, and the college's…

  14. Potato Types: Their Characteristics and Uses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlista, Alexander D.

    1997-01-01

    Presents material for a talk and demonstration about the relationship of potato types to their different uses by consumers and processors. Includes background information for the instructor and discussions to accompany classroom exercises. Discusses the history of the potato, potato types and external characteristics, and internal characteristics…

  15. Near surface characteristics of foehn winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiperski, Ivana

    2015-04-01

    Downslope windstorms occur commonly in mountainous regions around the world. Their importance is particularly great for air traffic, as well as wind energy, air pollution but also for ice shelf stability in the Antarctica, or deep water formation of the mountainous coasts. In this work we will focus on the foehn type of downslope windstorms and examine it's near surface turbulence characteristics in the Inn Valley, Austria. The foehn in the Inn Valley has been extensively studied throughout the past century, especially in several intensive campaigns. However, the smaller scale turbulence characteristics have only received limited attention. Here we present results from foehn episodes spanning over a year of data. The turbulence measurements at 5 stations within the Inn Valley, Austria as part of the i-Box project are used for the analysis. The general near surface turbulence characteristics of these events are examined and the characteristic scales of dominant transport are determined. Their dependence to horizontal heterogeneity is investigated both on the mesoscale and sub-mesoscale. Special focus is places on the question of energy balance closure during foehn episodes and the influence of advection.

  16. Performance Characteristics of an Isothermal Freeze Valve

    SciTech Connect

    Hailey, A.E.

    2001-08-22

    This document discusses performance characteristics of an isothermal freeze valve. A freeze valve has been specified for draining the DWPF melter at the end of its lifetime. Two freeze valve designs have been evaluated on the Small Cylindrical Melter-2 (SCM-2). In order to size the DWPF freeze valve, the basic principles governing freeze valve behavior need to be identified and understood.

  17. Proposed interestingness measure for characteristic rules

    SciTech Connect

    Kamber, M.; Shinghal, R.

    1996-12-31

    Knowledge discovery systems can be used to generate rules describing data from databases. Typically, only a small fraction of the rules generated are of interest. Measures of rule interestingness are hence essential for filtering out useless information. Such measures have been predominantly objective, based on statistics underlying the discovered rules, or patterns. Examples include the J-measure, rule strength, and certainty. Although these measures help assess the interestingness of discriminant rules, they do not fully serve their purpose when applied to characteristic rules. Discriminant rules describe how objects of a class differ from objects of other classes. Such rules take the form e {r_arrow} h, where e is the evidence (typically a conjunction of attribute-value conditions) and h is the hypothesis (predicting the class of objects satisfying e). Characteristic rules are of the form h {r_arrow} e. They describe the characteristics common to all objects in a given class, although this constraint may be relaxed slightly in order to deal with real-world noisy data. Both types of rules can be of interest. We propose an interestingness measure for characteristic rules, based on the technical definition of sufficiency.

  18. Raindrop Characteristics in the Pacific Northwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The U.S. Pacific Northwest, influenced by maritime air masses for most of the year, generally exhibits low rainfall intensities. The drop-size characteristics of such low-intensity storms are rarely studied. An investigation of natural drop sizes and their distribution was conducted at the Palouse ...

  19. Combustion characteristics of bamboo-biochars.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhijia; Fei, Benhua; Jiang, Zehui; Liu, Xing'e

    2014-09-01

    Combustion characteristics of biomass are very important to directly utilize as an energy resource. Bamboo was carbonized using a XD-1200N muffle furnace in the nitrogen environment and its combustion characteristics were investigated. Results showed that bamboo-biochars had better combustion characteristics compared to bamboo materials, such as a lower content of moisture and volatiles, a higher energy density, HHV and EHC, a lower H/C and O/C ratios and a shorter TTI. Characteristic peak of bamboo-biochars shifted to higher temperature in thermal decomposition process, indicating a more steady-state burning and a higher combustion efficiency. Bamboo-biochars had a low content of S and N, which was helpful to decrease pollutant emissions. A higher content of K and Na was observed in the ash of bamboo-biochars, resulting in slagging, fouling, corrosion and agglomeration. The data from this research will be very helpful to efficiently design and operate its combustion systems. PMID:24971950

  20. Supply and Characteristics of Selected Health Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ake, James N.; Johnson, Donald W.

    Detailed statistics on trends in the U.S. supply and geographic distribution of personnel in eight health occupations, along with current data on selected professional characteristics, are presented. Statistical tables include combined data for the eight occupations, and groups of tables for the individual health occupations: physicians (both…

  1. Laser Microprobe Mass Spectrometry 1: Basic Principles and Performance Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denoyer, Eric; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Describes the historical development, performance characteristics (sample requirements, analysis time, ionization characteristics, speciation capabilities, and figures of merit), and applications of laser microprobe mass spectrometry. (JN)

  2. 7 CFR 51.2650 - Similar varietal characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades for Sweet Cherries 1 Definitions § 51.2650 Similar varietal characteristics. Similar varietal characteristics means that the cherries...

  3. Surface characteristics of thermally treated titanium surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yang-Jin; Cui, De-Zhe; Jeon, Ha-Ra; Chung, Hyun-Ju; Park, Yeong-Joon; Kim, Ok-Su

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The characteristics of oxidized titanium (Ti) surfaces varied according to treatment conditions such as duration time and temperature. Thermal oxidation can change Ti surface characteristics, which affect many cellular responses such as cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation. Thus, this study was conducted to evaluate the surface characteristics and cell response of thermally treated Ti surfaces. Methods The samples were divided into 4 groups. Control: machined smooth titanium (Ti-S) was untreated. Group I: Ti-S was treated in a furnace at 300℃ for 30 minutes. Group II: Ti-S was treated at 500℃ for 30 minutes. Group III: Ti-S was treated at 750℃ for 30 minutes. A scanning electron microscope, atomic force microscope, and X-ray diffraction were used to assess surface characteristics and chemical composition. The water contact angle and surface energy were measured to assess physical properties. Results The titanium dioxide (TiO2) thickness increased as the treatment temperature increased. Additional peaks belonging to rutile TiO2 were only found in group III. The contact angle in group III was significantly lower than any of the other groups. The surface energy significantly increased as the treatment temperature increased, especially in group III. In the 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, after 24 hours of incubation, the assessment of cell viability showed that the optical density of the control had a higher tendency than any other group, but there was no significant difference. However, the alkaline phosphatase activity increased as the temperature increased, especially in group III. Conclusions Consequently, the surface characteristics and biocompatibility increased as the temperature increased. This indicates that surface modification by thermal treatment could be another useful method for medical and dental implants. PMID:22803009

  4. Low-flow characteristics of Indiana streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fowler, K.K.; Wilson, J.T.

    1996-01-01

    Knowledge of low-flow characteristics of streams is essential for management of water resources. Low-flow characteristics are presented for 229 continuous-record, streamflow-gaging stations and 285 partial-record stations in Indiana. Low- flow-frequency characteristics were computed for 210 continuous-record stations that had at least 10 years of record, and flow-duration curves were computed for all continuous-record stations. Low-flow-frequency and flow-duration analyses are based on available streamflow records through September 1993. Selected low-flow-frequency curves were computed for annual low flows and seasonal low flows. The four seasons are represented by the 3-month groups of March-May, June-August, September-November, and December- February. The 7-day, 10-year and the 7-day, 2 year low flows were estimated for 285 partial-record stations, which are ungaged sites where streamflow measurements were made at base flow. The same low-flow characteristics were estimated for 19 continuous-record stations where less than 10 years of record were available. Precipitation and geology directly influence the streams in Indiana. Streams in the northern, glaciated part of the State tend to have higher sustained base flows than those in the nonglaciated southern part. Flow at several of the continuous-record gaging stations is affected by some form of regulation or diversion. Low-flow characteristics for continuous-record stations at which flow is affected by regulation are determined using the period of record affected by regulation; natural flows prior to regulation are not used.

  5. Characteristics of coal mine ventilation air flows.

    PubMed

    Su, Shi; Chen, Hongwei; Teakle, Philip; Xue, Sheng

    2008-01-01

    Coal mine methane (CMM) is not only a greenhouse gas but also a wasted energy resource if not utilised. Underground coal mining is by far the most important source of fugitive methane emissions, and approximately 70% of all coal mining related methane is emitted to the atmosphere through mine ventilation air. Therefore, research and development on mine methane mitigation and utilisation now focuses on methane emitted from underground coal mines, in particular ventilation air methane (VAM) capture and utilisation. To date, most work has focused on the oxidation of very low concentration methane. These processes may be classified based on their combustion kinetic mechanisms into thermal oxidation and catalytic oxidation. VAM mitigation/utilisation technologies are generally divided into two basic categories: ancillary uses and principal uses. However, it is possible that the characteristics of ventilation air flows, for example the variations in methane concentration and the presence of certain compounds, which have not been reported so far, could make some potential VAM mitigation and utilisation technologies unfeasible if they cannot cope with the characteristics of mine site ventilation air flows. Therefore, it is important to understand the characteristics of mine ventilation air flows. Moreover, dust, hydrogen sulphide, sulphur dioxide, and other possible compounds emitted through mine ventilation air into the atmosphere are also pollutants. Therefore, this paper presents mine-site experimental results on the characteristics of mine ventilation air flows, including methane concentration and its variations, dust loadings, particle size, mineral matter of the dust, and other compounds in the ventilation air flows. The paper also discusses possible correlations between ventilation air characteristics and underground mining activities.

  6. Elaphoidella grandidieri (Harpacticoida: Copepoda): demographic characteristics and possible use as live prey in aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Nandini, S; Nunez Ortiz, Alma Rosa; Sarma, S S S

    2011-07-01

    In freshwater ecosystems, rotifers and cladocerans are ideal prey for fish larvae whereas copepods, due to their purported low growth rate and predatory tendency, are not. We recently isolated the parthenogenetic Elaphoidella grandidieri (Gueme et Richard, 1893) a benthic freshwater harpacticoid, from a fish farm in the State of Morelos, central Mexico and tested its potential as a live prey organism for larval vertebrates. Population growth and life table demography experiments were conducted, in 100 ml recipients with 50 ml of test medium on a diet of Scenedesmus acutus at a density of 1.0 X 10(6) cell ml(-1); the former on live algae alone while the latter on live algae as well as detritus. We also conducted experiments to document the prey preference for this copepod by the larval Ameca splendens (Pisces: Goodeidae) and Ambystoma mexicanum (Amphibia: Ambystomatidae), fed the rotifer Plationus patulus, the ostracod Heterocypris incongruens, and the cladocerans Moina macrocopa and Daphnia pulex. Elaphoidella grandidieri is relatively easy to maintain under laboratory conditions, reaching densities (copepodites and adults) of more than 10,000 l(-1). The generation time ranged between 30-45 days, depending on the diet. The net reproductive rate was as high as 60 nauplii female(-1) day (1). Population growth rates ranged between 0.03 and 0.11 d(-1), live algae being the superior diet compared to detritus. Both predators showed no preference for E. grandidieri, but in the absence of alternate prey they consumed 80% of the harpacticoids offered. The data have been discussed in relation to the potential of E. grandidierias live food for aquaculture. PMID:22315830

  7. Flow-frequency characteristics of Vermont streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, Scott A.

    2002-01-01

    The safe and economical design of infrastructure in and near waterways and the effective management of flood-hazard areas require information on streamflow that may not be readily available. This report provides estimates of flow-frequency characteristics for gaged streams in Vermont and describes methods for estimating flow-frequency characteristics for ungaged streams. The flow-frequency characteristics investigated are the magnitude of peak discharges at recurrence intervals of 2, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, and 500 years, and the magnitude of daily-mean discharges exceeded 25, 50, and 75 percent of the time. Peak-flow frequency characteristics for gaged streams were computed following the guidelines in Bulletin 17B of the U.S. Interagency Advisory Committee on Water Data. To determine the peak-flow exceedance probabilities at stream-gaging stations in Vermont, a new generalized skew coefficient map for the State was developed. This new map has greater resolution and more current data than the existing National map. The standard error of the new map is 0.269. Two methods of extending streamflow record were applied to improve estimates of peak-flow frequency for streams with short flow records (10 to 15 years) in small drainage areas (sites less than 15 square miles). In the first method, a two-station comparison, data from a long-record site was used to adjust the frequency characteristics at the short-record site. This method was applied to 31 crest-stage gages--stations at which only instantaneous peak discharges are determined--in Vermont. The second method used rainfall-runoff modeling. Precipitation and evapotranspiration data from 1948 to 1999 for numerous climate data-collection sites were used as input to a model to simulate flows at 10 stream-gaging stations in Vermont. Also, methods are described to estimate flow-frequency characteristics for ungaged and unregulated rural streams in Vermont. The peak-flow estimating methods were developed by generalized

  8. Thermoluminescence characteristics of hydrogenated amorphous zirconia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montalvo, T. R.; Tenorio, L. O.; Nieto, J. A.; Salgado, M. B.; Estrada, A. M. S.; Furetta, C.

    2005-05-01

    This paper reports the experimental results concerning the thermoluminescent (TL) characteristics of hydrogenated amorphous zirconium oxide (a-Zr:H) powder prepared by the sol-gel method. The advantages of this method are the homogeneity and the purity of the gels associated with a relatively low sintering temperature. Hydrogenated amorphous powder was characterized by thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction. The main TL characteristics investigated were the TL response as a function of the absorbed dose, the reproducibility of the TL readings and the fading. The undoped a-Zr:H powder presents a TL glow curve with two peaks centered at 150 and 260 degrees C, respectively, after beta irradiation. The TL response a-Zr:H as a function of the absorbed dose showed a linear behavior over a wide range. The results presented open the possibility to use this material as a good TL dosimeter.

  9. Forward and reverse characteristics of irradiated MOSFETs

    SciTech Connect

    Paccagnella, A.; Ceschia, M.; Verzellesi, G.; Dalla Betta, G.F.; Soncini, G.; Bellutti, P.; Fuochi, P.G.

    1996-06-01

    pMOSFETs biased with V{sub gs} < V{sub gd} during Co{sup 60} {gamma} irradiation have shown substantial differences between the forward and reverse subthreshold characteristics, induced by a non-uniform charge distribution in the gate oxide. Correspondingly, modest differences have been observed in the over-threshold I-V characteristics. After irradiation, the forward subthreshold curves can shift at higher or lower gate voltages than the reverse ones. The former behavior has been observed in long-channel devices, in agreement with the classical MOS theory and numerical simulations. The latter result has been obtained in short-channel devices, and it has been correlated to a parasitic punch-through conduction mechanism.

  10. 17. Local Characteristic Algorithms for Relativistic Hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Font, Jose A.

    Numerical schemes for the general relativistic hydrodynamic equations are discussed. The use of conservative algorithms based upon the characteristic structure of those equations, developed during the last decade building on ideas first applied in Newtonian hydrodynamics, provides a robust methodology to obtain stable and accurate solutions even in the presence of discontinuities. The knowledge of the wave structure of the above system is essential in the construction of the so-called linearized Riemann solvers, a class of numerical schemes specifically designed to solve nonlinear hyperbolic systems of conservation laws. In the last part of the review some astrophysical applications of such schemes, using the coupled system of the (characteristic) Einstein and hydrodynamic equations, are also briefly presented.

  11. [Eight characteristics of leaders in crisis management].

    PubMed

    Yen, Miaofen; Fang, Szu-Ting

    2006-02-01

    Everything is changing in our daily life. The ancient Chinese philosopher, Sun Tzu, said "The art of war teaches us to rely not on the likelihood of the enemy's not coming, but on our own readiness to receive him". In the challenging environment of today, nursing administrators should prepare themselves by developing a range of skills to face the changing world. This article introduces Chinese and Western leadership theories and suggests eight key characteristics of successful leaders in health care. Equipped with these characteristics, nursing leaders should be able to collaborate with other professionals in their organization to manage any crisis. Success in crisis management also enhances an organization's general potential to succeed in this competitive world.

  12. Characteristics of Five Propellers in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowley, J W , Jr; Mixson, R E

    1928-01-01

    This investigation was made for the purpose of determining the characteristics of five full-scale propellers in flight. The equipment consisted of five propellers in conjunction with a VE-7 airplane and a Wright E-2 engine. The propellers were of the same diameter and aspect ratio. Four of them differed uniformly in thickness and pitch and the fifth propeller was identical with one of the other four with exception of a change of the airfoil section. The propeller efficiencies measured in flight are found to be consistently lower than those obtained in model tests. It is probable that this is mainly a result of the higher tip speeds used in the full-scale tests. The results show also that because of differences in propeller deflections it is difficult to obtain accurate comparisons of propeller characteristics. From this it is concluded that for accurate comparisons it is necessary to know the propeller pitch angles under actual operating conditions. (author)

  13. Concept, Characteristics and Defending Mechanism of Worms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yong; Luo, Jiaqing; Xiao, Bin; Wei, Guiyi

    Worms are a common phenomenon in today's Internet and cause tens of billions of dollars in damages to businesses around the world each year. This article first presents various concepts related to worms, and then classifies the existing worms into four types- Internet worms, P2P worms, email worms and IM (Instant Messaging) worms, based on the space in which a worm finds a victim target. The Internet worm is the focus of this article. We identify the characteristics of Internet worms in terms of their target finding strategy, propagation method and anti-detection capability. Then, we explore state-of-the-art worm detection and worm containment schemes. This article also briefly presents the characteristics, defense methods and related research work of P2P worms, email worms and IM worms. Nowadays, defense against worms remains largely an open problem. In the end of this article, we outline some future directions on the worm research.

  14. Dolomite reservoirs: Porosity evolution and reservoir characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, S.Q.

    1995-02-01

    Systematic analyses of the published record of dolomite reservoirs worldwide reveal that the majority of hydrocarbon-producing dolomite reservoirs occurs in (1) peritidal-dominated carbonate, (2) subtidal carbonate associated with evaporitic tidal flat/lagoon, (3) subtidal carbonate associated with basinal evaporite, and (4) nonevaporitic carbonate sequence associated with topographic high/unconformity, platform-margin buildup or fault/fracture. Reservoir characteristics vary greatly from one dolomite type to another depending upon the original sediment fabric, the mechanism by which dolomite was formed, and the extent to which early formed dolomite was modified by post-dolomitization diagenetic processes (e.g., karstification, fracturing, and burial corrosion). This paper discusses the origin of dolomite porosity and demonstrates the porosity evolution and reservoir characteristics of different dolomite types.

  15. Physical characteristics of Eurasian winter temperature variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kwang-Yul; Son, Seok-Woo

    2016-04-01

    Despite the on-going global warming, recent winters in Eurasian mid-latitudes were much colder than average. In an attempt to better understand the physical characteristics for cold Eurasian winters, major sources of variability in surface air temperature (SAT) are investigated based on cyclostationary EOF analysis. The two leading modes of SAT variability represent the effect of Arctic amplification (AA) and the Arctic oscillation (AO), respectively. These two modes are distinct in terms of the physical characteristics, including surface energy fluxes and tropospheric circulations, and result in significantly different winter SAT patterns over the Eurasian continent. The AA-related SAT anomalies are dipolar with warm Arctic, centered at the Barents–Kara Seas, and cold East Asia. In contrast, the negative AO-related SAT anomalies are characterized by widespread cold anomalies in Northern Eurasia. Relative importance of the AA and the negative AO contributions to cold Eurasian winters is sensitive to the region of interest.

  16. Pycnodysostosis with Special Emphasis on Dentofacial Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Khoja, Aisha; Fida, Mubassar; Shaikh, Attiya

    2015-01-01

    Pycnodysostosis is an autosomal recessive disorder that manifests as osteosclerosis of the skeleton due to the defective osteoclasts mediated bone turnover. The diagnosis of this disorder is established on the basis of its characteristic features and must be differentially diagnosed with other bone disorders. Dental surgeons should be aware of the limitations and possible adverse oral complications such as osteomyelitis of bone in these patients. This will guide them in planning realistic treatment goals. This paper reports the clinical and radiographic features of pycnodysostosis with the great emphasis on its dentofacial characteristics. The aim of this case report is to give an insight into the etiology, pathogenesis, and differential diagnosis of this disorder and to prepare the dentists and maxillofacial surgeons to overcome the challenges in treating these patients. PMID:26649209

  17. Structural and mechanical characteristics of polymersomes.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hung-Yu; Sheng, Yu-Jane; Tsao, Heng-Kwong

    2014-09-14

    Polymersomes self-assembled from amphiphilic macromolecules have attracted growing attention because of their multifunctionality and stability. By controlling the structural characteristics of polymersomes, including vesicle shape, size, and membrane thickness, their mechanical and transport properties as well as their fusion behavior can be manipulated. Numerous experimental techniques have been developed to explore polymersome characteristics; however, experimental microscopic observations and knowledge of vesicles are limited. Mesoscale simulations can complement experimental studies of the vesicular features at the microscopic level and thus provide a feasible method to better understand the relationship between the fundamental structures and physicochemical properties of polymersomes. Moreover, the predictive ability of the simulation approaches may greatly assist developments and future applications of polymersomes.

  18. Thermoluminescence dosimetric characteristics of beta irradiated salt.

    PubMed

    Murthy, K V R; Pallavi, S P; Rahul, G; Patel, Y S; Sai Prasad, A S; Elangovan, D

    2006-01-01

    The thermoluminescence (TL) characteristics of sodium chloride (NaCl), known as common salt, used for cooking purposes (iodised salt), have been studied in the present paper considering its usage as an 'accidental dosemeter' in the case of a nuclear fallout. TL characteristics of common salt have been examined under excitation with a beta dose of 20 Gy from a 90Sr beta source. The salt specimens are used in the form of discs. The average salt grain that sticks to the disc is measured to be approximately 1 mg. The TL of the beta irradiated salt is recorded in the conventional TL apparatus. Initially three peaks were observed at 133, 205 and 238 degrees C. All three peaks are well resolved, having maximum intensity at 238 degrees C. The material under investigation, i.e. 'common salt' possesses many good dosimetric properties and therefore this can be considered as an 'accidental dosemeter'.

  19. Characteristics of potential repository wastes. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    This document, and its associated appendices and microcomputer (PC) data bases, constitutes the reference OCRWM data base of physical and radiological characteristics data of radioactive wastes. This Characteristics Data Base (CDB) system includes data on spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste (HLW), which clearly require geologic disposal, and other wastes which may require long-term isolation, such as sealed radioisotope sources. The data base system was developed for OCRWM by the CDB Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Various principal or official sources of these data provided primary information to the CDB Project which then used the ORIGEN2 computer code to calculate radiological properties. The data have been qualified by an OCRWM-sponsored peer review as suitable for quality-affecting work meeting the requirements of OCRWM`s Quality Assurance Program. The wastes characterized in this report include: light-water reactor (LWR) spent fuel and immobilized HLW.

  20. Characteristics of gamma-ray line flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bai, T.; Dennis, B.

    1983-01-01

    Observations of solar gamma rays by the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) demonstrate that energetic protons and ions are rapidly accelerated during the impulsive phase. To understand the acceleration mechanisms for these particles, the characteristics of the gamma ray line flares observed by SMM were studied. Some very intense hard X-ray flares without detectable gamma ray lines were also investigated. Gamma ray line flares are distinguished from other flares by: (1) intense hard X-ray and microwave emissions; (2) delay of high energy hard X-rays; (3) emission of type 2 and/or type 4 radio bursts; and (4) flat hard X-ray spectra (average power law index: 3.1). The majority of the gamma ray line flares shared all these characteristics, and the remainder shared at least three of them. Positive correlations were found between durations of spike bursts and spatial sizes of flare loops as well as between delay times and durations of spike bursts.

  1. Measuring spatial variability in soil characteristics

    DOEpatents

    Hoskinson, Reed L.; Svoboda, John M.; Sawyer, J. Wayne; Hess, John R.; Hess, J. Richard

    2002-01-01

    The present invention provides systems and methods for measuring a load force associated with pulling a farm implement through soil that is used to generate a spatially variable map that represents the spatial variability of the physical characteristics of the soil. An instrumented hitch pin configured to measure a load force is provided that measures the load force generated by a farm implement when the farm implement is connected with a tractor and pulled through or across soil. Each time a load force is measured, a global positioning system identifies the location of the measurement. This data is stored and analyzed to generate a spatially variable map of the soil. This map is representative of the physical characteristics of the soil, which are inferred from the magnitude of the load force.

  2. Pycnodysostosis with Special Emphasis on Dentofacial Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Khoja, Aisha; Fida, Mubassar; Shaikh, Attiya

    2015-01-01

    Pycnodysostosis is an autosomal recessive disorder that manifests as osteosclerosis of the skeleton due to the defective osteoclasts mediated bone turnover. The diagnosis of this disorder is established on the basis of its characteristic features and must be differentially diagnosed with other bone disorders. Dental surgeons should be aware of the limitations and possible adverse oral complications such as osteomyelitis of bone in these patients. This will guide them in planning realistic treatment goals. This paper reports the clinical and radiographic features of pycnodysostosis with the great emphasis on its dentofacial characteristics. The aim of this case report is to give an insight into the etiology, pathogenesis, and differential diagnosis of this disorder and to prepare the dentists and maxillofacial surgeons to overcome the challenges in treating these patients. PMID:26649209

  3. Global Characteristics of 'Arachnoids' on Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, V. E.; Stofan, E. R.

    1996-03-01

    The term "arachnoid" has been used colloquially to describe circular to elliptical structures having a set of radiating lineaments distinctly resembling the legs of a spider. However, little is known about the origin of these features and whether or not they are genetically related to each other or to other circular structures on Venus (e.g., coronae, volcanoes, and calderas). We have conducted a global survey of these features in order to more clearly define their characteristics and determine if they are in fact a separate type of feature. In contrast to previous counts, we find a rather small global population of only 36 features that we feel we can confidently call "arachnoids". A detailed examination of these features reveals that they do not display a common set of volcanic or tectonic characteristics indicative of a single process of formation. We also find that these features do not appear to universally represent a particular stage of corona, volcano, or caldera development. _

  4. Fibre Optic Sensors for Selected Wastewater Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Su Sin; Abdul Aziz, A. R.; Harun, Sulaiman W.

    2013-01-01

    Demand for online and real-time measurements techniques to meet environmental regulation and treatment compliance are increasing. However the conventional techniques, which involve scheduled sampling and chemical analysis can be expensive and time consuming. Therefore cheaper and faster alternatives to monitor wastewater characteristics are required as alternatives to conventional methods. This paper reviews existing conventional techniques and optical and fibre optic sensors to determine selected wastewater characteristics which are colour, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD). The review confirms that with appropriate configuration, calibration and fibre features the parameters can be determined with accuracy comparable to conventional method. With more research in this area, the potential for using FOS for online and real-time measurement of more wastewater parameters for various types of industrial effluent are promising. PMID:23881131

  5. Maneuver and buffet characteristics of fighter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, E. J.; Mckinney, L. W.; Carmichael, J. G.

    1972-01-01

    The high subsonic and transonic characteristics of fighter aircraft and the factors affecting aerodynamic boundaries, such as maximum obtainable lift, buffet onset, pitchup, wing rock, and nose slice are discussed. Investigations were made using a general research configuration which encompassed a systematic matrix of wing design parameters. These results emphasized the sensitivity to section and planform geometry at the selected design point. The incorporation of variable-wing-geometry devices in the form of leading-edge slats or flaps was shown in a number of flight and wind-tunnel studies to provide controlled flow over a wide range of flight conditions and substantial improvements in maneuver capabilities. Additional studies indicated that the blending of a highly swept maneuver strake with an efficient moderately swept wing offers a promising approach for improving maneuver characteristics at high angles of attack without excessive penalties in structural weight.

  6. Abdominal vascular syndromes: characteristic imaging findings*

    PubMed Central

    Cardarelli-Leite, Leandro; Velloni, Fernanda Garozzo; Salvadori, Priscila Silveira; Lemos, Marcelo Delboni; D'Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal vascular syndromes are rare diseases. Although such syndromes vary widely in terms of symptoms and etiologies, certain imaging findings are characteristic. Depending on their etiology, they can be categorized as congenital-including blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome, Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome, and hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome)-or compressive-including "nutcracker" syndrome, median arcuate ligament syndrome, Cockett syndrome (also known as May-Thurner syndrome), and superior mesenteric artery syndrome. In this article, we aimed to illustrate imaging findings that are characteristic of these syndromes, through studies conducted at our institution, as well as to perform a brief review of the literature on this topic. PMID:27777480

  7. Analytic prediction of airplane equilibrium spin characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, W. M., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    The nonlinear equations of motion are solved algebraically for conditions for which an airplane is in an equilibrium spin. Constrained minimization techniques are employed in obtaining the solution. Linear characteristics of the airplane about the equilibrium points are also presented and their significance in identifying the stability characteristics of the equilibrium points is discussed. Computer time requirements are small making the method appear potentially applicable in airplane design. Results are obtained for several configurations and are compared with other analytic-numerical methods employed in spin prediction. Correlation with experimental results is discussed for one configuration for which a rather extensive data base was available. A need is indicated for higher Reynolds number data taken under conditions which more accurately simulate a spin.

  8. Learner-centered characteristics of nurse educators.

    PubMed

    Greer, Annette G; Pokorny, Marie; Clay, Maria C; Brown, Sylvia; Steele, Linda L

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the learner-centered teaching characteristics of nurse faculty who report using contemporary pedagogy. A secondary analysis of data collected by an international survey of nurse educators regarding pedagogical teaching approaches and strategies was used to answer the research questions. The study sought to: 1) describe characteristics emerging from faculty response, 2) make inferences from faculty responses regarding meaning, and 3) make inferences regarding the importance of the meaning to nursing. A qualitative research design was used to address the research question. Themes that emerged were placed under the concepts of power, role of teacher, responsibility of learner, and philosophy of evaluation guided by Weimer's (2002) conceptual framework of a learner-centered philosophy of teaching. Themes and meaning units derived from the study helped to generate textual and structure statements that represent the characterizations of learner-centered nurse educators. PMID:20196765

  9. 14 CFR 23.939 - Powerplant operating characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Powerplant operating characteristics. 23... General § 23.939 Powerplant operating characteristics. (a) Turbine engine powerplant operating characteristics must be investigated in flight to determine that no adverse characteristics (such as stall,...

  10. 14 CFR 25.253 - High-speed characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false High-speed characteristics. 25.253 Section...-speed characteristics. Link to an amendment published at 76 FR 74654, December 1, 2011. (a) Speed increase and recovery characteristics. The following speed increase and recovery characteristics must...

  11. 40 CFR 261.22 - Characteristic of corrosivity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Characteristic of corrosivity. 261.22... (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION AND LISTING OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Characteristics of Hazardous Waste § 261.22 Characteristic of corrosivity. (a) A solid waste exhibits the characteristic of corrosivity if a...

  12. 40 CFR 261.22 - Characteristic of corrosivity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Characteristic of corrosivity. 261.22... (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION AND LISTING OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Characteristics of Hazardous Waste § 261.22 Characteristic of corrosivity. (a) A solid waste exhibits the characteristic of corrosivity if a...

  13. 40 CFR 261.22 - Characteristic of corrosivity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Characteristic of corrosivity. 261.22... (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION AND LISTING OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Characteristics of Hazardous Waste § 261.22 Characteristic of corrosivity. (a) A solid waste exhibits the characteristic of corrosivity if a...

  14. Investigation of electrolyte electric discharge characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirko, D. L.; Savjolov, A. S.

    2016-09-01

    The most important electrical characteristics of electrolyte electric discharge were investigated. The electric burning discharge was obtained with the help of different electrolytes. The spectral composition of the electric discharge electromagnetic radiation was determined, the plasma temperature was determined. The spectrum of the electric discharge high-frequency oscillations was calculated in the region v=10 kHz-80 MHz. The most appropriate modes of the electric burning discharge in different electrolytes were proposed.

  15. [Hygienic characteristics of children's educational establishments].

    PubMed

    Ponomarenko, I I; Cherkashin, O G

    2009-01-01

    The improved procedure for an integrated assessment of the state-of-the-art of preschool educational establishments was appraised. This procedure provides the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of each factor, the degree of its incompliance to the hygienic standards, reveals risk factors, and allows one to take operative decisions to manage a risk, which are aimed at promoting the health status in infants, and expands a sociohygienic monitoring methodology, by increasing the number of accountable objects of the vital activity medium.

  16. [The characteristics of public health resources management].

    PubMed

    2011-01-01

    The article analyses the position of human health in the system of social economic relationships. The notion of material and technical resources in health institutions is defined. It is demonstrated that they are characterized by number of health institutions, their structure according levels and stages of medical care provision, costs of fixed assets, their structure and wear. The conceptual characteristics of actual management of public health resources are analyzed.

  17. Cometary dust - Its source and characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, D. W.

    Cometary dust can be "seen" in many guises, as meteoroids responsible for meteor showers, as "Brownlee" particles in the stratosphere, as cometary tails and as the dust that scatters the infrared continuum of cometary comae. All these dust particles originate in the cometary nucleus. This paper presents a brief review of our knowledge of the source and characteristics of cometary dust, concentrating mainly on the knowledge obtained from the investigation of meteors.

  18. Program Characteristics that Predict Improved Learner Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Margaret Becker; Mellard, Daryl

    2011-01-01

    This study identifies adult education program characteristics that predict improved learner outcomes through statistical analyses of data across four years in a single state. Data indicate that, collectively, several predictors contribute to our understanding of learner outcomes, including (a) learner entry level, (b) size of community, (c) staff qualifications, and (d) learner exposure to high quality services. A surprising finding was the lack of robust outcome predictors that maintain consistency from one year to another. PMID:22348153

  19. Technical characteristics of fractional light devices.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kevin C; Schachter, G Daniel

    2011-05-01

    This article deals with the technical characteristics of fractional light devices, fractional lasers, and light sources that cause their biologic effects by increasing the temperature of the target tissues to the point where the target is either killed, or in other cases where the temperature of the target tissue is increased to the point where repair and remodeling systems are turned on but tissue is not killed. Resurfacing devices act by causing ablation and/or coagulation. PMID:21763984

  20. Characteristics of flight simulator visual systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Statler, I. C. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    The physical parameters of the flight simulator visual system that characterize the system and determine its fidelity are identified and defined. The characteristics of visual simulation systems are discussed in terms of the basic categories of spatial, energy, and temporal properties corresponding to the three fundamental quantities of length, mass, and time. Each of these parameters are further addressed in relation to its effect, its appropriate units or descriptors, methods of measurement, and its use or importance to image quality.

  1. An Experimental Study of Airfoil Icing Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, R. J.; Sotos, R. G.; Solano, F. R.

    1982-01-01

    A full scale general aviation wing with a NACA 63 sub 2 A415 airfoil section was tested to determine icing characteristics for representative rime and glaze icing conditions. Measurements were made of ice accretion shapes and resultant wing section drag coefficient levels. It was found that the NACA 63 sub 2 A415 wing section was less sensitive to rime and glaze icing encounters for climb conditions.

  2. Characteristics of 30-centimeter mercury ion thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maloy, J. E.; Poeschel, R. L.; Dugeroff, C. R.

    1981-01-01

    The technology development of the 30 centimeter J series mercury ion thruster for prime propulsion application in solar electric propulsion systems is described. Thruster design is reviewed. A standardized set of test and data recording procedures formulated to allow for the characterization of the J series thruster is described. Characteristics measured are the magnetic baffle characterization, the neutralizer characterization, perveance, the minimum eV/ion measurement, and the electrical and propellant utilization efficiency measurements. Test results are presented.

  3. [[Demographic characteristics of "business bachelors" in Japan

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, C

    1987-01-01

    The demographic characteristics of those obliged to live away from their families because of the distance between their normal homes and places of work or education in Japan are described. Data are from a variety of official and other sources. The author notes that such persons are generally male. Factors affecting the growth of this phenomenon in Japan are the concept of lifetime employment with the same company and the popularity of sending children away to school.

  4. Temperamental Characteristics of Young Children Who Stutter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Julie D.; Pellowski, Mark W.; Conture, Edward G.; Kelly, Ellen M.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to assess the temperamental characteristics of children who do (CWS) and do not (CWNS) stutter using a norm-referenced parent-report questionnaire. Participants were 31 CWS and 31 CWNS between the ages of 3;0 (years;months) and 5;4 (CWS: mean age = 48.03 months; CWNS: mean age = 48.58 months). The CWS were…

  5. Measurements of AAFE RADSCAT antenna characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, A. E.; Jones, W. L., Jr.; Jones, A. L.

    1977-01-01

    Antenna characteristics (active and passive) for a modified AAFE-RADSCAT parabolic dish antenna are documented for a variety of antenna configurations. The modified antenna was a replacement for the original unit which was damaged in January 1975. Pattern measurements made at Langley Research Center and Johnson Space Center are presented, with an analysis of the results. Antenna loss measurements are also presented and summarized.

  6. THE TEMPERATURE CHARACTERISTIC OF RESPIRATION OF AZOTOBACTER.

    PubMed

    Lineweaver, H; Burk, D; Horner, C K

    1932-05-20

    The temperature characteristic of respiration of Azotobacter vinelandii possesses a constant value of 19,330 +/- 165 over the temperature range 20-30 degrees C. This value is independent of pH, oxygen tension, age of culture, and other factors within the limits studied. The optimum temperature of respiration is 34-35 degrees C., with limits at about 10 degrees and 50 degrees C.

  7. Morphological characteristics of korean dried ginseng products.

    PubMed

    Hong, Hee-Do; Cho, Chang-Won; Kim, Young-Chan; Kim, Eunyoung; Rhee, Young-Kyung; Rho, Jeonghae; Choi, Seung-Hoe

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine a standard quality characteristic through the evaluation and statistical analysis of the morphological characteristics of dried ginseng (white ginseng) products. Samples of 4-year-old 30 and 50 piece grade curved ginseng and 5-year-old 25 and 15 piece grade straight ginseng products were collected from a market, with 5 to 10 packs of each product being collected annually over a 5-year period (2006-2010). Morphological characteristics, such as weight, length, diameter, and surface color, were measured and statistically analyzed to present a standard quality characteristic value using mean±3SD, a range that excluded outlier. The 4-year-old curved ginseng samples of 50 and 30 piece grade were 4.80 to 6.12 cm and 5.28 to 7.60 cm long, 0.22 to 1.70 cm and 0.21 to 2.07 cm wide, and weighed 5.28 to 7.40 g and 8.62 to 12.26 g, respectively. The 5-year-old straight ginseng samples of 25 and 15 piece grade were 9.66 to 15.47 cm and 10.66 to 16.80 cm long, 1.32 to 1.94 cm and 1.48 to 2.43 cm wide, and weighed 9.18 to 16.40 g and 15.89 to 24.82 g, respectively. The surface color of the different piece grades in the same type of dried ginseng product was similar, whereas the straight ginseng demonstrated a lower level of brightness, but the relative redness and yellowness were of higher levels, than that of curved ginseng.

  8. [Characteristics of Raman Spectra of Polyethylene Terephthalate].

    PubMed

    Tong, Na; Zhu, Chang-jun; Song, Li-xun; Zhang, Chong-hui; Zhang, Guo-qing; Zhang, Yi-xin

    2016-01-01

    Raman spectrometry was employed to study the characteristics of Raman spectra of polyethylene terephthalate (PET), which were treated with sodium hydroxide, sulfuric acid and copper sulfate, respectively. Raman spectra under different conditions were obtained and the characteristics of the Raman spectra were analyzed. The morphology structures were observed under different conditions using Atomic Force Microscope. The results show that the spectral intensity of PET treated with sodium hydroxide is higher than that untreated between 200-1 750 cm(-1), while the intensity of PET treated with sodium hydroxide is lower than that untreated beyond 1 750 cm(-1) and the fluorescence background of Raman spectra is decreased. The spectral intensity of PET treated with sulfuric acid is remarkably reduced than that untreated, and the intensity of PET treated with copper sulphate is much higher than that untreated. The research results obtained by Atomic Force Microscopy show that the variations of the Raman spectra of PET fibers are closely related to. the chemical bonds and molecular structures of PET fibers. The surface of the PET treated with sodium hydroxide is rougher than that untreated, the surface roughness of the PET treated with sulfuric acid is reduced as compared to that untreated, while the surface roughness of the PET treated with copper sulphate is increased. The results obtained by Raman spectroscopy are consistent with those by Atomic Force Microscopy, indicating that the combination of Raman spectroscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy is expected to be a promising characterization technology for polymer characteristics. PMID:27228752

  9. An Implicit Characteristic Based Method for Electromagnetics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beggs, John H.; Briley, W. Roger

    2001-01-01

    An implicit characteristic-based approach for numerical solution of Maxwell's time-dependent curl equations in flux conservative form is introduced. This method combines a characteristic based finite difference spatial approximation with an implicit lower-upper approximate factorization (LU/AF) time integration scheme. This approach is advantageous for three-dimensional applications because the characteristic differencing enables a two-factor approximate factorization that retains its unconditional stability in three space dimensions, and it does not require solution of tridiagonal systems. Results are given both for a Fourier analysis of stability, damping and dispersion properties, and for one-dimensional model problems involving propagation and scattering for free space and dielectric materials using both uniform and nonuniform grids. The explicit Finite Difference Time Domain Method (FDTD) algorithm is used as a convenient reference algorithm for comparison. The one-dimensional results indicate that for low frequency problems on a highly resolved uniform or nonuniform grid, this LU/AF algorithm can produce accurate solutions at Courant numbers significantly greater than one, with a corresponding improvement in efficiency for simulating a given period of time. This approach appears promising for development of dispersion optimized LU/AF schemes for three dimensional applications.

  10. Accurate determination of characteristic relative permeability curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, Michael H.; Benson, Sally M.

    2015-09-01

    A recently developed technique to accurately characterize sub-core scale heterogeneity is applied to investigate the factors responsible for flowrate-dependent effective relative permeability curves measured on core samples in the laboratory. The dependency of laboratory measured relative permeability on flowrate has long been both supported and challenged by a number of investigators. Studies have shown that this apparent flowrate dependency is a result of both sub-core scale heterogeneity and outlet boundary effects. However this has only been demonstrated numerically for highly simplified models of porous media. In this paper, flowrate dependency of effective relative permeability is demonstrated using two rock cores, a Berea Sandstone and a heterogeneous sandstone from the Otway Basin Pilot Project in Australia. Numerical simulations of steady-state coreflooding experiments are conducted at a number of injection rates using a single set of input characteristic relative permeability curves. Effective relative permeability is then calculated from the simulation data using standard interpretation methods for calculating relative permeability from steady-state tests. Results show that simplified approaches may be used to determine flowrate-independent characteristic relative permeability provided flow rate is sufficiently high, and the core heterogeneity is relatively low. It is also shown that characteristic relative permeability can be determined at any typical flowrate, and even for geologically complex models, when using accurate three-dimensional models.

  11. [Characteristics of Raman Spectra of Polyethylene Terephthalate].

    PubMed

    Tong, Na; Zhu, Chang-jun; Song, Li-xun; Zhang, Chong-hui; Zhang, Guo-qing; Zhang, Yi-xin

    2016-01-01

    Raman spectrometry was employed to study the characteristics of Raman spectra of polyethylene terephthalate (PET), which were treated with sodium hydroxide, sulfuric acid and copper sulfate, respectively. Raman spectra under different conditions were obtained and the characteristics of the Raman spectra were analyzed. The morphology structures were observed under different conditions using Atomic Force Microscope. The results show that the spectral intensity of PET treated with sodium hydroxide is higher than that untreated between 200-1 750 cm(-1), while the intensity of PET treated with sodium hydroxide is lower than that untreated beyond 1 750 cm(-1) and the fluorescence background of Raman spectra is decreased. The spectral intensity of PET treated with sulfuric acid is remarkably reduced than that untreated, and the intensity of PET treated with copper sulphate is much higher than that untreated. The research results obtained by Atomic Force Microscopy show that the variations of the Raman spectra of PET fibers are closely related to. the chemical bonds and molecular structures of PET fibers. The surface of the PET treated with sodium hydroxide is rougher than that untreated, the surface roughness of the PET treated with sulfuric acid is reduced as compared to that untreated, while the surface roughness of the PET treated with copper sulphate is increased. The results obtained by Raman spectroscopy are consistent with those by Atomic Force Microscopy, indicating that the combination of Raman spectroscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy is expected to be a promising characterization technology for polymer characteristics.

  12. Characteristics of cities with rapid transit

    SciTech Connect

    Siregar, F.M.

    1991-01-01

    This study identifies the characteristics of cities and urban areas associated with rapid transit systems as part of the urban multimodal transportation system. This is addressed by studying the characteristics of global cities that have utilized rapid transit (100 cities in 1986) and a global sample of cities that have not (100 cities). Data are collected on eighteen variables which include population size, growth rate, density of the central city and metropolitan area, automobile registrations per 1,000 population, city bus riderships, existence of a tramway system in the city, number of large banks located in the city, the country's economy, and whether it is a capital city. The research found that two of the most important city characteristics associated with rapid transit utilization are city population size and level of automobile ownership. The larger the population size and the higher the number of automobiles per 1,000 population, the greater the occurrence of rapid-transit systems. Also, rapid transit systems world wide are growing in number, and the largest growth of rapid transit ridership is being generated by rapid transit systems in developing countries.

  13. Characteristics of hyperacusis in the general population.

    PubMed

    Paulin, Johan; Andersson, Linus; Nordin, Steven

    2016-01-01

    There is a need for better understanding of various characteristics in hyperacusis in the general population. The objectives of the present study were to investigate individuals in the general population with hyperacusis regarding demographics, lifestyle, perceived general health and hearing ability, hyperacusis-specific characteristics and behavior, and comorbidity. Using data from a large-scale population-based questionnaire study, we investigated individuals with physician-diagnosed (n = 66) and self-reported (n = 313) hyperacusis in comparison to individuals without hyperacusis (n = 2995). High age, female sex, and high education were associated with hyperacusis, and that trying to avoid sound sources, being able to affect the sound environment, and having sough medical attention were common reactions and behaviors. Posttraumatic stress disorder, chronic fatigue syndrome, generalized anxiety disorder, depression, exhaustion, fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome, migraine, hearing impairment, tinnitus, and back/joint/muscle disorders were comorbid with hyperacusis. The results provide ground for future study of these characteristic features being risk factors for development of hyperacusis and/or consequences of hyperacusis. PMID:27569405

  14. Correlating cement characteristics with rheology of paste

    SciTech Connect

    Vikan, H. Justnes, H.; Winnefeld, F.; Figi, R.

    2007-11-15

    The influence of cement characteristics such as cement fineness and clinker composition on the 'flow resistance' measured as the area under the shear stress-shear rate flow curve has been investigated. Three different types of plasticizers namely naphthalene sulphonate-formaldehyde condensate, polyether grafted polyacrylate, and lignosulphonate have been tested in this context on 6 different cements. The flow resistance correlated well with the cement characteristic (Blaine.{l_brace}d.cC{sub 3}A + [1 - d].C{sub 3}S{r_brace}) where the factor d represents relative reactivity of cubic C{sub 3}A and C{sub 3}S while cC{sub 3}A and C{sub 3}S represent the content of these minerals. It was found to be either a linear or exponential function of the combined cement characteristic depending on plasticizer type and dosage. The correlation was valid for a mix of pure cement and cement with fly ash, limestone filler (4%), as well as pastes with constant silica fume dosage, when the mineral contents were determined by Rietveld analysis of X-ray diffractograms.

  15. Characterization and characteristics of degradable polymer sacks

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Georgina

    2003-10-15

    This paper reviews the categories and characteristics of degradable polymers used to manufacture sacks for the collection and subsequent treatment of organic wastes from householders. The characteristics of polyethylene (PE) and starch-based sacks were examined using a number of different methods, including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), chemical analysis and mechanical strength testing of the sacks during their use. The analyses revealed that the characteristics of the PE and starch-based sacks were very different. Photomicrographs indicated that the surface of the PE sack was much smoother than the surface of the starch-based sacks. Polyethylene sacks exhibited a greater mechanical strength, both in the unused state and over time during householder use. The severe loss of mechanical strength during use of the starch-based sacks indicated that only thicker gauge sacks were suitable for the fortnightly kerbside collection of biodegradable municipal waste (BMW). Chemical analysis of two different PE sacks indicated that transition metals and other elements were commonly incorporated into the PE structure in order to facilitate increased polymer degradation.

  16. Distinctive characteristics of sexual orientation bias crimes.

    PubMed

    Stacey, Michele

    2011-10-01

    Despite increased attention in the area of hate crime research in the past 20 years, sexual orientation bias crimes have rarely been singled out for study. When these types of crimes are looked at, the studies are typically descriptive in nature. This article seeks to increase our knowledge of sexual orientation bias by answering the question: What are the differences between sexual orientation motivated bias crimes and racial bias crimes? This question is examined using data from the National Incident Based Reporting System (NIBRS) and multiple regression techniques. This analysis draws on the strengths of NIBRS to look at the incident characteristics of hate crimes and distinguishing characteristics of sexual orientation crimes. Specifically this analysis looks at the types and seriousness of offenses motivated by sexual orientation bias as opposed to race bias as well as victim and offender characteristics. The findings suggest that there are differences between these two types of bias crimes, suggesting a need for further separation of the bias types in policy and research.

  17. Quantifying Flaw Characteristics from IR NDE Data

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, W; Philips, N R; Burke, M W; Robbins, C L

    2003-02-14

    Work is presented which allows flaw characteristics to be quantified from the transient IR NDE signature. The goal of this effort was to accurately determine the type, size and depth of flaws revealed with IR NDE, using sonic IR as the example IR NDE technique. Typically an IR NDE experiment will result in a positive qualitative indication of a flaw such as a cold or hot spot in the image, but will not provide quantitative data thereby leaving the practitioner to make educated guesses as to the source of the signal. The technique presented here relies on comparing the transient IR signature to exact heat transfer analytical results for prototypical flaws, using the flaw characteristics as unknown fitting parameters. A nonlinear least squares algorithm is used to evaluate the fitting parameters, which then provide a direct measure of the flaw characteristics that can be mapped to the imaged surface for visual reference. The method uses temperature data for the heat transfer analysis, so radiometric calibration of the IR signal is required. The method provides quantitative data with a single thermal event (e.g. acoustic pulse or flash), as compared to phase-lock techniques that require many events. The work has been tested with numerical data but remains to be validated by experimental data, and that effort is underway.

  18. CHARACTERISTIC STRUCTURE OF STAR-FORMING CLOUDS

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, Philip C.

    2015-06-20

    This paper presents a new method to diagnose the star-forming potential of a molecular cloud region from the probability density function of its column density (N-pdf). This method provides expressions for the column density and mass profiles of a symmetric filament having the same N-pdf as a filamentary region. The central concentration of this characteristic filament can distinguish regions and can quantify their fertility for star formation. Profiles are calculated for N-pdfs which are pure lognormal, pure power law, or a combination. In relation to models of singular polytropic cylinders, characteristic filaments can be unbound, bound, or collapsing depending on their central concentration. Such filamentary models of the dynamical state of N-pdf gas are more relevant to star-forming regions than are spherical collapse models. The star formation fertility of a bound or collapsing filament is quantified by its mean mass accretion rate when in radial free fall. For a given mass per length, the fertility increases with the filament mean column density and with its initial concentration. In selected regions the fertility of their characteristic filaments increases with the level of star formation.

  19. Unsaturated zone characteristics rating for North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Terziotti, Silvia; Eimers, Jo Leslie

    2001-01-01

    This web site contains the Federal Geographic Data Committee-compliant metadata (documentation) for digital data produced for the North Carolina, Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Public Water Supply Section, Source Water Assessment Program. The metadata are for 11 individual Geographic Information System data sets. An overlay and indexing method was used with the data to derive a rating for unsaturated zone and watershed characteristics for use by the State of North Carolina in assessing more than 11,000 public water-supply wells and approximately 245 public surface-water intakes for susceptibility to contamination. For ground-water supplies, the digital data sets used in the assessment included unsaturated zone rating, vertical series hydraulic conductance, land-surface slope, and land cover. For assessment of public surface-water intakes, the data sets included watershed characteristics rating, average annual precipitation, land-surface slope, land cover, and ground-water contribution. Documentation for the land-use data set applies to both the unsaturated zone and watershed characteristics ratings. Documentation for the estimated depth-to-water map used in the calculation of the vertical series hydraulic conductance also is included.

  20. Watershed characteristics rating for North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Terziotti, Silvia; Eimers, Jo Leslie; Weaver, J. Curtis

    2001-01-01

    This web site contains the Federal Geographic Data Committee-compliant metadata (documentation) for digital data produced for the North Carolina, Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Public Water Supply Section, Source Water Assessment Program. The metadata are for 11 individual Geographic Information System data sets. An overlay and indexing method was used with the data to derive a rating for unsaturated zone and watershed characteristics for use by the State of North Carolina in assessing more than 11,000 public water-supply wells and approximately 245 public surface-water intakes for susceptibility to contamination. For ground-water supplies, the digital data sets used in the assessment included unsaturated zone rating, vertical series hydraulic conductance, land-surface slope, and land cover. For assessment of public surface-water intakes, the data sets included watershed characteristics rating, average annual precipitation, land-surface slope, land cover, and ground-water contribution. Documentation for the land-use data set applies to both the unsaturated zone and watershed characteristics ratings. Documentation for the estimated depth-to-water map used in the calculation of the vertical series hydraulic conductance also is included.

  1. Characteristic Structure of Star-forming Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, Philip C.

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents a new method to diagnose the star-forming potential of a molecular cloud region from the probability density function of its column density (N-pdf). This method provides expressions for the column density and mass profiles of a symmetric filament having the same N-pdf as a filamentary region. The central concentration of this characteristic filament can distinguish regions and can quantify their fertility for star formation. Profiles are calculated for N-pdfs which are pure lognormal, pure power law, or a combination. In relation to models of singular polytropic cylinders, characteristic filaments can be unbound, bound, or collapsing depending on their central concentration. Such filamentary models of the dynamical state of N-pdf gas are more relevant to star-forming regions than are spherical collapse models. The star formation fertility of a bound or collapsing filament is quantified by its mean mass accretion rate when in radial free fall. For a given mass per length, the fertility increases with the filament mean column density and with its initial concentration. In selected regions the fertility of their characteristic filaments increases with the level of star formation.

  2. Dynamic characteristics of pulsed supersonic fuel sprays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pianthong, K.; Matthujak, A.; Takayama, K.; Milton, B. E.; Behnia, M.

    2008-06-01

    This paper describes the dynamic characteristics of pulsed, supersonic liquid fuel sprays or jets injected into ambient air. Simple, single hole nozzles were employed with the nozzle sac geometries being varied. Different fuel types, diesel fuel, bio-diesel, kerosene, and gasoline were used to determine the effects of fuel properties on the spray characteristics. A vertical two-stage light gas gun was employed as a projectile launcher to provide a high velocity impact to produce the liquid jet. The injection pressure was around 0.88-1.24 GPa in all cases. The pulsed, supersonic fuel sprays were visualized by using a high-speed video camera and shadowgraph method. The spray tip penetration and velocity attenuation and other characteristics were examined and are described here. An instantaneous spray tip velocity of 1,542 m/s (Mach number 4.52) was obtained. However, this spray tip velocity can be sustained for only a very short period (a few microseconds). It then attenuates very quickly. The phenomenon of multiple high frequency spray pulses generated by a single shot impact and the changed in the angle of the shock structure during the spray flight, which had already been observed in previous studies, is again noted. Multiple shock waves from the conical nozzle spray were also clearly captured.

  3. Anthropometric characteristics of young Turkish male athletes.

    PubMed

    Pelin, Can; Kürkçüoğlu, Ayla; Ozener, Bariş; Yazici, Ayşe Canan

    2009-12-01

    Comparative reports on the anthropometric characteristics of athletes are certainly important in modern sports and have long been studied by sports scientists. Studies on Turkish athletes however, are limited. In the present study physical characteristics of athletes active in various sports (American football, basketball, volleyball and football) were observed and compared to each other and to those of non-athlete individuals. 153 volunteer male subjects participated in the study. All of the athletes were licensed members of teams in inter-university leagues. All subjects were given information about the objectives of the study and were advised of the manner with which the anthropometric measurements would be obtained. In addition to 17 anthropometric values, body mass index (BMI) and somatotype components were calculated and evaluated. Length, breadth, and girth values were evaluated by ANCOVA and height and weight were used as co-variate factors. The other variables were evaluated by metric and non-metric ANOVA. The results of the study indicate that basketball and volleyball players were characteristic with their longer lower limb length; American football players were with their wider biiliac breadth and higher girth values; and football players with their small structure. It was also observed that Turkish athletes have higher endomorphy and lower mesomorphy values when compared to athletes from other countries.

  4. Community Characteristics and Mortality: The Relative Strength of Association of Different Community Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Eric; McCleary, Rachael; Buttorff, Christine; Gaskin, Darrell J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We compared the strength of association between average 5-year county-level mortality rates and area-level measures, including air quality, sociodemographic characteristics, violence, and economic distress. Methods. We obtained mortality data from the National Vital Statistics System and linked it to socioeconomic and demographic data from the Census Bureau, air quality data, violent crime statistics, and loan delinquency data. We modeled 5-year average mortality rates (1998–2002) for all-cause, cancer, heart disease, stroke, and respiratory diseases as a function of county-level characteristics using ordinary least squares regression models. We limited analyses to counties with population of 100 000 or greater (n = 458). Results. Demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, particularly the percentage older than 65 years and near poor, were top predictors of all-cause and condition-specific mortality, as were a high concentration of construction and service workers. We found weaker associations for air quality, mortgage delinquencies, and violent crimes. Protective characteristics included the percentage of Hispanics, Asians, and married residents. Conclusions. Multiple factors influence county-level mortality. Although county demographic and socioeconomic characteristics are important, there are independent, although weaker, associations of other environmental characteristics. Future studies should investigate these factors to better understand community mortality risk. PMID:25033152

  5. The Optimizer Topology Characteristics in Seismic Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengor, T.

    2015-12-01

    The characteristic data of the natural phenomena are questioned in a topological space approach to illuminate whether there is an algorithm behind them bringing the situation of physics of phenomena to optimized states even if they are hazards. The optimized code designing the hazard on a topological structure mashes the metric of the phenomena. The deviations in the metric of different phenomena push and/or pull the fold of the other suitable phenomena. For example if the metric of a specific phenomenon A fits to the metric of another specific phenomenon B after variation processes generated with the deviation of the metric of previous phenomenon A. Defining manifold processes covering the metric characteristics of each of every phenomenon is possible for all the physical events; i.e., natural hazards. There are suitable folds in those manifold groups so that each subfold fits to the metric characteristics of one of the natural hazard category at least. Some variation algorithms on those metric structures prepare a gauge effect bringing the long time stability of Earth for largely scaled periods. The realization of that stability depends on some specific conditions. These specific conditions are called optimized codes. The analytical basics of processes in topological structures are developed in [1]. The codes are generated according to the structures in [2]. Some optimized codes are derived related to the seismicity of NAF beginning from the quakes of the year 1999. References1. Taner SENGOR, "Topological theory and analytical configuration for a universal community model," Procedia- Social and Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 81, pp. 188-194, 28 June 2013, 2. Taner SENGOR, "Seismic-Climatic-Hazardous Events Estimation Processes via the Coupling Structures in Conserving Energy Topologies of the Earth," The 2014 AGU Fall Meeting, Abstract no.: 31374, ABD.

  6. Radiometric Characteristics of Cassini RADAR Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiles, B. W.; Gim, Y.; Hamilton, G. A.; Johnson, W. T.; Shimada, J. G.; West, R. D.

    2004-12-01

    The Cassini RADAR instrument on-board the Cassini Orbiter is currently being employed to obtain SAR imagery of the surface of Saturn's largest moon, Titan. The viewing geometry of Cassini RADAR is different from most imaging radars because the Cassini Orbiter flies by Titan rather than entering into orbit about it. This unusual viewing geometry leads to variable noise characteristics throughout the SAR swath. Due to large changes in range to target and number of looks, noise characteristics and effective resolution vary widely throughout the swath. A good understanding of these parameters is important in order to draw scientific conclusions from the SAR images. Changes in noise bias could be misinterpreted as changes in reflectivity from the surface. Changes in resolution or noise variance could be misinterpreted as changes in the heterogeneity of the surface. The purpose of this paper is to quantify noise variance, bias, and effective radiometric resolution throughout the SAR swath in order to aid scientists in interpreting the data. Of the three parameters, the easiest to model is noise bias which increases with the range to the target. Noise variance is more complicated. The thermal noise (SNR) contribution to the overall variance increases with range, but the fading (speckle) noise contribution varies inversely with number of looks and thus with range. Effective resolution becomes coarser as range increases, but cross track and along track resolution vary differently. Along track resolution varies continuously, but cross track resolution has a discontinuity at 1600 km altitude, due to a change in commanded bandwidth. This paper presents the equations governing the noise characteristics and effective resolution as well as providing pseudo-color images of each quantity in SAR image coordinates for the October 2004 Cassini RADAR observation of Titan. This work was performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under contract with

  7. Breakthrough pain: definition, prevalence and characteristics.

    PubMed

    Portenoy, R K; Hagen, N A

    1990-06-01

    In the cancer population, the term breakthrough pain typically refers to a transitory flare of pain in the setting of chronic pain managed with opioid drugs. The prevalence and characteristics of this phenomenon have not been defined, and its impact on patient care is unknown. We developed operational definitions for breakthrough pain and its major characteristics, and applied these in a prospective survey of patients with cancer pain. Data were collected during a 3 month period from consecutive patients who reported moderate pain or less for more than 12 h daily and stable opioid dosing for a minimum of 2 consecutive days. Of 63 patients surveyed, 41 (64%) reported breakthrough pain, transient flares of severe or excruciating pain. Fifty-one different pains were described (median 4 pains/day; range 1-3600). Pain characteristics were extremely varied. Twenty-two (43%) pains were paroxysmal in onset; the remainder were more gradual. The duration varied from seconds to hours (median/range: 30 min/1-240 min), and 21 (41%) were both paroxysmal and brief (lancinating pain). Fifteen (29%) of the pains were related to the fixed opioid dose, occurring solely at the end of the dosing interval. Twenty-eight (55%) of the pains were precipitated; of these, 22 were caused by an action of the patient (incident pain), and 6 were associated with a non-volitional precipitant, such as flatulence. The pathophysiology of the pain was believed to be somatic in 17 (33%), visceral in 10 (20%), neuropathic in 14 (27%), and mixed in 10 (20%). Pain was related to the tumor in 42 (82%), the effects of therapy in 7 (14%), and neither in 2 (4%). Diverse interventions were employed to manage these pains, with variable efficacy. These data clarify the spectrum of breakthrough pains and indicate their importance in cancer pain management. PMID:1697056

  8. Effect of solvent characteristics on coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, He; Wang, Shaojie; Wang, Keyu; Klein, M.T.; Calkins, W.H.

    1996-12-31

    It has been known for a long time that the characteristics of the liquefaction solvent has a profound effect on direct coal liquefaction. The amount of hydrogen consumed during the liquefaction process, the degree and quantity of retrograde reactions that occur, and the quality of the liquid products are all influenced by the process solvent. A number of analytical approaches have been developed to determine the important characteristics of the solvent for coal liquefaction. The hydrogen donor ability has clearly been important. However, such other characteristics of a liquefaction solvent as solubility parameter, content and type of higher aromatic hydrocarbons, and phenolic content have also been found to be significant. Finseth et al. have shown that the bulk of the hydrogen consumed from an uncatalyzed donor solvent liquefaction above 400{degrees}C is consumed in gas generation, heteroatom removal and hydrogenolysis of the coal matrix. Wilson et al. have also shown that the major role of hydrogen in uncatalyzed liquefaction is consumed by alkyl fission and hydrogenolysis reactions and not with hydrogenating aromatic rings. McMillan et al. have postulated that a radical hydrogen transfer process along with donor solvent capping of thermally produced radicals from the coal as possible processes involved with the hydroaromatic donor solvents in coal liquefaction. With the development of a short contact time batch reactor (SCTBR), determining the influence of the processing solvent on the liquefaction rates, conversion profiles and the quality of the liquid product at a particular time became possible. The influence of type of solvent, combined with other effects, such as gas atmosphere (i.e., in hydrogen and in nitrogen) and catalyst, on the coal liquefaction is reported in this paper.

  9. Exploring The Detectability of Terrestrial Exoplanet Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Nicole; Meadows, V. S.; Domagal-Goldman, S. D.

    2011-01-01

    Of the 400+ extrasolar planets that have been discovered to date, the vast majority are massive gas giants. This is largely due to the inherent difficulty of detecting terrestrial planets, which are small and faint by comparison. Both NASA and ESA have proposed mission concepts for space-based observatories (Terrestrial Planet Finder [TPF] and Darwin, respectively) capable of detecting these planets by suppressing the light of their host stars, in order to discern the light reflected by the planetary companion. Following a successful detection, TPF/Darwin will then analyze the planet's spectrum to determine its chemical composition, and whether it may be capable of supporting life. Prior to the launch of such missions, we will need to understand the spectral characteristics of the planets we may find, and how detectable these characteristics will be. NASA's Virtual Planetary Laboratory (VPL) has generated synthetic spectra for a variety of possible planets, including the early and modern-day Earth, other planets in our solar system, and model planets around other stars. Using these spectra and a TPF-C simulator (provided by S. Heap and D. Lindler, GSFC), we have calculated the exposure times necessary to obtain the spectral resolution required to identify signs of habitability and life, such as the presence of oxygen and liquid water. By determining the detectability of key spectral characteristics within the limitations of a mission concept such as TPF, we hope to evaluate and quantify what is essential for a successful future planet-characterizing mission. Support for this work was provided by the NASA Astrobiology Institute's Virtual Planetary Laboratory.

  10. Combining interior and exterior characteristics for remote sensing image denoising

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Ni; Sun, Shujin; Wang, Runsheng; Zhong, Ping

    2016-04-01

    Remote sensing image denoising faces many challenges since a remote sensing image usually covers a wide area and thus contains complex contents. Using the patch-based statistical characteristics is a flexible method to improve the denoising performance. There are usually two kinds of statistical characteristics available: interior and exterior characteristics. Different statistical characteristics have their own strengths to restore specific image contents. Combining different statistical characteristics to use their strengths together may have the potential to improve denoising results. This work proposes a method combining statistical characteristics to adaptively select statistical characteristics for different image contents. The proposed approach is implemented through a new characteristics selection criterion learned over training data. Moreover, with the proposed combination method, this work develops a denoising algorithm for remote sensing images. Experimental results show that our method can make full use of the advantages of interior and exterior characteristics for different image contents and thus improve the denoising performance.

  11. The research of Organophosphorus pesticide biosensor characteristic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Yong; Luo, Xixian; Cheng, Yi

    2010-10-01

    To study the fiber-sensor film applied in detecting Organophosphorus pesticide, methyltriethoxysilane was used as precursor, which was doped by FITC- AchE. Consequently, the excellent Acetylcholinesterase biology sensitivity film was prepared. Physics characteristic of the film and sensitivity of Organophosphorus pesticide were researched. In organophosphorus pesticide residue testing, the experimental results indicated that the linear measurement range could reach 10-7{10-6 mol/L, moreover the detection limit is 10-8 mol/L. The sensor could be applied in biological / chemical research, clinical medicine, environmental protection, food inspection, biochemical preventive war field and so on.

  12. [Constructivism: a characteristic of the psychic process].

    PubMed

    Ruiz, R H

    1995-05-01

    Constructivism, more than a posture or a school concept, is a specific feature of the psychic process. The term "specific" needs to be understood taking into account two senses. On the one hand, as a first sense, one must consider it as something inherent to the psychic process. On the other, as a second sense, it means that constructivism in the psychic process has distinctive characteristics: and this make it differ from the concept of constructivism applied in other fields. The fact of considering the psychism as a "construction" lets explain those mental productions such as art and science; as well as madness and crime: possibilities and risks of that construction.

  13. SONOS Nonvolatile Memory Cell Programming Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacLeod, Todd C.; Phillips, Thomas A.; Ho, Fat D.

    2010-01-01

    Silicon-oxide-nitride-oxide-silicon (SONOS) nonvolatile memory is gaining favor over conventional EEPROM FLASH memory technology. This paper characterizes the SONOS write operation using a nonquasi-static MOSFET model. This includes floating gate charge and voltage characteristics as well as tunneling current, voltage threshold and drain current characterization. The characterization of the SONOS memory cell predicted by the model closely agrees with experimental data obtained from actual SONOS memory cells. The tunnel current, drain current, threshold voltage and read drain current all closely agreed with empirical data.

  14. Renewable energy and characteristics of the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Léger, Valérie

    2016-04-01

    During studying sustainable development, my sixth-form pupils have to devise and carry out experiments to show connection between some characteristics of the Earth and renewable energy. Thus, helping by a list of equipment, they can show, using simples' experiments, causal link. For example, they show that the layout in latitude of solar energy received on the ground, creates ocean and atmospheric currents. These currents are useful to product renewable energy. These researches allow me to show them new jobs link with renewable energy and sustainable development on the Earth. They can have more information thanks to other teachers working on the professional training centre including my secondary school.

  15. BOREAS TE-21 SSA Site Characteristics Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knox, Robert; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Papagno, Andrea (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmospheric Study (BOREAS) TE-20 (Terrestrial Ecology) team collected several data sets for use in developing and testing models of forest ecosystem dynamics. This data set contains measurements of site characteristics conducted in the Southern Study Area (SSA) from 18 Jul 1994 to 30 Jul 1994. The data are stored in CSV files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  16. Parent characteristics linked with daughters' attachment styles.

    PubMed

    Kilmann, Peter R; Vendemia, Jennifer M C; Parnell, Michele M; Urbaniak, Geoffrey C

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated links between parent characteristics and daughters' attachment styles for 90 female undergraduates and their married biological parents. Parents with a secure attachment pattern were rated as more accepting, less controlling, more competent, and more consistent in showing love and affection to their daughter in contrast to parents with an insecure attachment pattern. Significant positive associations were found between mothers' fearful attachment scores and the fearful, preoccupied, and dismissive attachment scores of daughters. Daughters of matched secure parents were more likely to report a secure attachment style, while daughters of matched insecure parents were more likely to report an insecure attachment style.

  17. Average characteristics of partially coherent electromagnetic beams.

    PubMed

    Seshadri, S R

    2000-04-01

    Average characteristics of partially coherent electromagnetic beams are treated with the paraxial approximation. Azimuthally or radially polarized, azimuthally symmetric beams and linearly polarized dipolar beams are used as examples. The change in the mean squared width of the beam from its value at the location of the beam waist is found to be proportional to the square of the distance in the propagation direction. The proportionality constant is obtained in terms of the cross-spectral density as well as its spatial spectrum. The use of the cross-spectral density has advantages over the use of its spatial spectrum.

  18. Anti-Rga: identifying serologic characteristics.

    PubMed

    Strohm, P L; Molthan, L

    1982-12-01

    Anti-Rga is a rare alloantibody that is difficult to recognize and identify. Although posing no apparent transfusion risk itself, it can mask the presence of underlying alloantibodies which could be transfusion risks. The five patients reported here demonstrate the serologic findings characteristic of anti-Rga. Known Rg(a-) test cells and multiple "target cells" in neutralization studies are needed to demonstrate partial neutralization findings and to detect underlying alloantibody. Other observations were that clotted samples of red cells retained Rga reactivity for 49 days, whereas EDTA-anticoagulated red cell samples lost such reactivity after 13 days. Frozen red cells tested within hours of deglycerolization showed excellent Rga reactivity.

  19. DIAGNOSTIC CHARACTERISTICS OF CHILD PSYCHIATRIC SERVICE UTILIZERS

    PubMed Central

    Khanna, Rakesh; Singh, Brij Mohan

    1994-01-01

    Sex, age and diagnostic characteristics of a consecutive series of first contact children seen over a period of one year at a psychiatric center was analyzed Most of (he referrals were for male adolescents. “No diagnosis on Axis I” was quite common, especially in the younger age group; most of them had mental retardation. “Hysteria ” was uncommon, and this was the only category which was slightly more common in girls. Manic depressive psychosis was the most common disorder among adolescents. PMID:21743676

  20. Ignition characteristics of cracked JP-7 fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Puri, Puneesh; Ma, Fuhua; Choi, Jeong-Yeol; Yang, Vigor

    2005-09-01

    The ignition characteristics of cracked JP-7 fuel with both oxygen and air is studied over a wide range of pressures (1-20 atm), temperatures (1200-2000 K), and equivalence ratios (0.5-1.5). Correlations of ignition delay times, of the form t=Aexp(E/RT)[F]a[O2]b, are established using the Chemkin-II package and least-squares analysis. The effect of C3 hydrocarbons in cracked JP-7 fuel is examined by comparing ignition delay times for two different cracked compositions.

  1. Quantifying Permafrost Characteristics with DCR-ERT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnabel, W.; Trochim, E.; Munk, J.; Kanevskiy, M. Z.; Shur, Y.; Fortier, R.

    2012-12-01

    Geophysical methods are an efficient method for quantifying permafrost characteristics for Arctic road design and engineering. In the Alaskan Arctic construction and maintenance of roads requires integration of permafrost; ground that is below 0 degrees C for two or more years. Features such as ice content and temperature are critical for understanding current and future ground conditions for planning, design and evaluation of engineering applications. This study focused on the proposed Foothills West Transportation Access project corridor where the purpose is to construct a new all-season road connecting the Dalton Highway to Umiat. Four major areas were chosen that represented a range of conditions including gravel bars, alluvial plains, tussock tundra (both unburned and burned conditions), high and low centered ice-wedge polygons and an active thermokarst feature. Direct-current resistivity using galvanic contact (DCR-ERT) was applied over transects. In conjunction complimentary site data including boreholes, active layer depths, vegetation descriptions and site photographs was obtained. The boreholes provided information on soil morphology, ice texture and gravimetric moisture content. Horizontal and vertical resolutions in the DCR-ERT were varied to determine the presence or absence of ground ice; subsurface heterogeneity; and the depth to groundwater (if present). The four main DCR-ERT methods used were: 84 electrodes with 2 m spacing; 42 electrodes with 0.5 m spacing; 42 electrodes with 2 m spacing; and 84 electrodes with 1 m spacing. In terms of identifying the ground ice characteristics the higher horizontal resolution DCR-ERT transects with either 42 or 84 electrodes and 0.5 or 1 m spacing were best able to differentiate wedge-ice. This evaluation is based on a combination of both borehole stratigraphy and surface characteristics. Simulated apparent resistivity values for permafrost areas varied from a low of 4582 Ω m to a high of 10034 Ω m. Previous

  2. Transfer function characteristics of super resolving systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milster, Tom D.; Curtis, Craig H.

    1992-01-01

    Signal quality in an optical storage device greatly depends on the optical system transfer function used to write and read data patterns. The problem is similar to analysis of scanning optical microscopes. Hopkins and Braat have analyzed write-once-read-many (WORM) optical data storage devices. Herein, transfer function analysis of magnetooptic (MO) data storage devices is discussed with respect to improving transfer-function characteristics. Several authors have described improving the transfer function as super resolution. However, none have thoroughly analyzed the MO optical system and effects of the medium. Both the optical system transfer function and effects of the medium of this development are discussed.

  3. A heat engine with unique characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Baranescu, G.S.

    1996-12-31

    A heat engine which operates with one heat reservoir is described. The engine transforms the heat input completely into work by using a compressed fluid from a resource of the environment. For this reason the engine is not a perpetual motion machine of the second kind. The characteristics of the engine are analyzed, and the ways for achieving the most economic use of the compressed fluid are described. The principle of operation of the engine shows that the concepts of phenomenological thermodynamics regarding heat and its transformation in other forms of energy are not true.

  4. Distribution characteristics of stock market liquidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Jiawen; Chen, Langnan; Liu, Hao

    2013-12-01

    We examine the distribution characteristics of stock market liquidity by employing the generalized additive models for location, scale and shape (GAMLSS) model and three-minute frequency data from Chinese stock markets. We find that the BCPE distribution within the GAMLSS framework fits the distributions of stock market liquidity well with the diagnosis test. We also find that the stock market index exhibits a significant impact on the distributions of stock market liquidity. The stock market liquidity usually exhibits a positive skewness, but a normal distribution at a low level of stock market index and a high-peak and fat-tail shape at a high level of stock market index.

  5. Heat transfer characteristics of an emergent strand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, W. E.; Witte, L. C.; Hedgcoxe, P. G.

    1974-01-01

    A mathematical model was developed to describe the heat transfer characteristics of a hot strand emerging into a surrounding coolant. A stable strand of constant efflux velocity is analyzed, with a constant (average) heat transfer coefficient on the sides and leading surface of the strand. After developing a suitable governing equation to provide an adequate description of the physical system, the dimensionless governing equation is solved with Laplace transform methods. The solution yields the temperature within the strand as a function of axial distance and time. Generalized results for a wide range of parameters are presented, and the relationship of the results and experimental observations is discussed.

  6. Characteristics of Androgenetic Alopecia in Asian

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hae-Jin

    2012-01-01

    Androgenetic alopecia (AGA), or pattern hair loss, is a common disorder in Asian men and women, with a reported incidence of up to 73% among general population. There are several descriptions regarding the characteristics of AGA in patients of European descent. Asian patients with AGA have different types of hair loss and family histories from Europeans, which may affect treatment response. Therefore, in this review, prevalence, hair loss patterns, familial factors, androgen receptor gene polymorphisms of Asian AGA patients, and management based on algorithmic guidelines for AGA are discussed. This review may be useful for dermatologists in clinical practice for diagnosing and designing management approaches for Asian patients with AGA. PMID:22879706

  7. [Clinical and instrumental characteristics of chronic neuroborreliosis].

    PubMed

    Baranova, N S; Spirin, N N; Nizovtseva, L A; Pakhomova, Iu A; Fadeeva, O A

    2012-01-01

    The impairment of the nervous system is the main clinical presentation of chronic Lyme borreliosis. Frequency and characteristics of neuroborreliosis in Russia are still under-investigated. The article contains the analysis of 160 cases of chronic Lyme borreliosis with detailed descriptions of different neurologic syndromes - radiculopathy, polyneuropathy, encephalopathy and encephalomyelitis. Epidemiology of this disease as well as its laboratory and instrumental diagnosis are discussed. Extraneural signs and symptoms of late stages of neuroborreliosis are presented. The results of antibacterial treatment of different forms of chronic neuroborreliosis are outlined. PMID:23235423

  8. Pituitary gigantism: Causes and clinical characteristics.

    PubMed

    Rostomyan, Liliya; Daly, Adrian F; Beckers, Albert

    2015-12-01

    Acromegaly and pituitary gigantism are very rare conditions resulting from excessive secretion of growth hormone (GH), usually by a pituitary adenoma. Pituitary gigantism occurs when GH excess overlaps with the period of rapid linear growth during childhood and adolescence. Until recently, its etiology and clinical characteristics have been poorly understood. Genetic and genomic causes have been identified in recent years that explain about half of cases of pituitary gigantism. We describe these recent discoveries and focus on some important settings in which gigantism can occur, including familial isolated pituitary adenomas (FIPA) and the newly described X-linked acrogigantism (X-LAG) syndrome. PMID:26585365

  9. Propagation characteristics of superconducting microstrip lines

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, S.G.; Ke, J.Y.; Chen, C.H.

    1996-01-01

    The modified spectral-domain approach is applied to study the propagation characteristics of high temperature superconducting microstrip lines whose signal strip and ground plane are of arbitrary thickness. In this study, numerical results for effective dielectric constant, attenuation constant, and strip current distribution are presented to discuss the effects due to frequency, temperature, strip thickness, and substrate loss tangent. In particular, the conductor and dielectric attenuation constants of superconducting microstrip line are depicted separately to discuss the mechanism of the line losses. A comparison with published theoretical and experimental results is also included to check the accuracy of the new approach`s results.

  10. Pituitary gigantism: Causes and clinical characteristics.

    PubMed

    Rostomyan, Liliya; Daly, Adrian F; Beckers, Albert

    2015-12-01

    Acromegaly and pituitary gigantism are very rare conditions resulting from excessive secretion of growth hormone (GH), usually by a pituitary adenoma. Pituitary gigantism occurs when GH excess overlaps with the period of rapid linear growth during childhood and adolescence. Until recently, its etiology and clinical characteristics have been poorly understood. Genetic and genomic causes have been identified in recent years that explain about half of cases of pituitary gigantism. We describe these recent discoveries and focus on some important settings in which gigantism can occur, including familial isolated pituitary adenomas (FIPA) and the newly described X-linked acrogigantism (X-LAG) syndrome.

  11. Modification of the characteristic gravitational constants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vujičić, V. A.

    2006-08-01

    In the educational and scientific literature the numerical values of gravitational constants are seen as only approximately correct. The numerical values are different in work by various researchers, as also are the formulae and definitions of constants employed. In this paper, on the basis of Newton’s laws and Kepler’s laws we prove that it is necessary to modify the characteristic gravitational constants and their definitions. The formula for the geocentric gravitational constant of the satellites Kosmos N and the Moon are calculated.

  12. Client engagement in psychotherapeutic treatment and associations with client characteristics, therapist characteristics, and treatment factors.

    PubMed

    Holdsworth, Emma; Bowen, Erica; Brown, Sarah; Howat, Douglas

    2014-07-01

    Client engagement has been associated with positive psychotherapeutic outcomes, yet it is relatively under-theorized. The aims of this review were to establish how client engagement with psychotherapeutic interventions targeting psychological or behavioral change has been operationally defined and assessed, and the associated client characteristics, therapist characteristic, and treatment factors. Seventy-nine studies were selected for review, revealing inconsistent definitions and assessments of engagement and a broad array of client characteristics and treatment factors investigated. Attendance was frequently used as a proxy for engagement, but may not be reliable. Participation or involvement in conjunction with homework compliance which reflects clients' efforts within and between sessions may more reliably reflect engagement. The findings of associations between client characteristics and engagement variables were equivocal, although clients' capacities to address their problems tended to be positively associated with engagement. Nearly all therapist characteristics, particularly therapists' interpersonal skills, and most treatment factors, particularly strengths-based approaches and the therapeutic relationship, were positively associated with engagement. A theory of engagement that characterizes the function and inter-relations of variables across different psychotherapeutic settings is needed. PMID:25000204

  13. Evaluating the Characteristics of Social Vulnerability to Wildfire: Demographics, Perceptions, and Parcel Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Paveglio, Travis B; Prato, Tony; Edgeley, Catrin; Nalle, Darek

    2016-09-01

    A large body of research focuses on identifying patterns of human populations most at risk from hazards and the factors that help explain performance of mitigations that can help reduce that risk. One common concept in such studies is social vulnerability-human populations' potential exposure to, sensitivity from and ability to reduce negative impacts from a hazard. While there is growing interest in social vulnerability for wildfire, few studies have critically evaluated the characteristics that scholars often indicate influence social vulnerability to that hazard. This research utilizes surveys, wildfire simulations, and GIS data to test the relationships between select demographic, perceptual and parcel characteristics of property owners against empirically simulated metrics for wildfire exposure or wildfire-related damages and their performance of mitigation actions. Our results from Flathead County, MT, USA, suggest that parcel characteristics such as property value, building value, and the year structures were built explaining a significant amount of the variance in elements of social vulnerability. Demographic characteristics commonly used in social vulnerability analysis did not have significant relationships with measures of wildfire exposure or vulnerability. Part-time or full-time residency, age, perceived property risk, and year of development were among the few significant determinants of residents' performance of fuel reduction mitigations, although the significance of these factors varied across the levels of fuel reduction performed by homeowners. We use these and other results to argue for a renewed focus on the finer-scale characteristics that expose some populations to wildfire risk more than others.

  14. Evaluating the Characteristics of Social Vulnerability to Wildfire: Demographics, Perceptions, and Parcel Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paveglio, Travis B.; Prato, Tony; Edgeley, Catrin; Nalle, Darek

    2016-09-01

    A large body of research focuses on identifying patterns of human populations most at risk from hazards and the factors that help explain performance of mitigations that can help reduce that risk. One common concept in such studies is social vulnerability—human populations' potential exposure to, sensitivity from and ability to reduce negative impacts from a hazard. While there is growing interest in social vulnerability for wildfire, few studies have critically evaluated the characteristics that scholars often indicate influence social vulnerability to that hazard. This research utilizes surveys, wildfire simulations, and GIS data to test the relationships between select demographic, perceptual and parcel characteristics of property owners against empirically simulated metrics for wildfire exposure or wildfire-related damages and their performance of mitigation actions. Our results from Flathead County, MT, USA, suggest that parcel characteristics such as property value, building value, and the year structures were built explaining a significant amount of the variance in elements of social vulnerability. Demographic characteristics commonly used in social vulnerability analysis did not have significant relationships with measures of wildfire exposure or vulnerability. Part-time or full-time residency, age, perceived property risk, and year of development were among the few significant determinants of residents' performance of fuel reduction mitigations, although the significance of these factors varied across the levels of fuel reduction performed by homeowners. We use these and other results to argue for a renewed focus on the finer-scale characteristics that expose some populations to wildfire risk more than others.

  15. Evaluating the Characteristics of Social Vulnerability to Wildfire: Demographics, Perceptions, and Parcel Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Paveglio, Travis B; Prato, Tony; Edgeley, Catrin; Nalle, Darek

    2016-09-01

    A large body of research focuses on identifying patterns of human populations most at risk from hazards and the factors that help explain performance of mitigations that can help reduce that risk. One common concept in such studies is social vulnerability-human populations' potential exposure to, sensitivity from and ability to reduce negative impacts from a hazard. While there is growing interest in social vulnerability for wildfire, few studies have critically evaluated the characteristics that scholars often indicate influence social vulnerability to that hazard. This research utilizes surveys, wildfire simulations, and GIS data to test the relationships between select demographic, perceptual and parcel characteristics of property owners against empirically simulated metrics for wildfire exposure or wildfire-related damages and their performance of mitigation actions. Our results from Flathead County, MT, USA, suggest that parcel characteristics such as property value, building value, and the year structures were built explaining a significant amount of the variance in elements of social vulnerability. Demographic characteristics commonly used in social vulnerability analysis did not have significant relationships with measures of wildfire exposure or vulnerability. Part-time or full-time residency, age, perceived property risk, and year of development were among the few significant determinants of residents' performance of fuel reduction mitigations, although the significance of these factors varied across the levels of fuel reduction performed by homeowners. We use these and other results to argue for a renewed focus on the finer-scale characteristics that expose some populations to wildfire risk more than others. PMID:27272166

  16. Plasticity characteristics obtained through hardness measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Milman, Y.V.; Galanov, B.A.; Chugunova, S.I. )

    1993-09-01

    A characteristic of material plasticity [delta][sub H] is proposed. [delta][sub H] is determined as a part of plastic deformation in the total deformation during indentation. The following analytic expressions for the elastic deformation [epsilon][sub e] and for the total deformation [epsilon] on the contact area indenter-specimen in the direction of loading force are obtained, [epsilon][sub e] = 1.08(1 [minus] v [minus] 2v[sup 2])H[sub V/E], [epsilon] [approx] 0.076, where H[sub V] is the Vickers hardness, E is Young's modulus, v is the Poisson ratio, and [delta][sub H] = 1 [minus] ([epsilon][sub e]/[epsilon]). The [delta][sub H] value is calculated for various crystalline materials at different temperatures and in different structural states. [delta][sub H] is consistent with the concept of plasticity established before, and to characterize the influence of temperature, alloying and strain hardening on plasticity. The necessary condition for revealing ductility at tension and bending is [delta][sub H] [>=] 0.9. [delta][sub H] can be used as a plasticity characteristic of brittle materials.

  17. Kabuki syndrome: clinical and molecular characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Cheon, Chong-Kun

    2015-01-01

    Kabuki syndrome (KS) is a rare syndrome characterized by multiple congenital anomalies and mental retardation. Other characteristics include a peculiar facial gestalt, short stature, skeletal and visceral abnormalities, cardiac anomalies, and immunological defects. Whole exome sequencing has uncovered the genetic basis of KS. Prior to 2013, there was no molecular genetic information about KS in Korean patients. More recently, direct Sanger sequencing and exome sequencing revealed KMT2D variants in 11 Korean patients and a KDM6A variant in one Korean patient. The high detection rate of KMT2D and KDM6A mutations (92.3%) is expected owing to the strict criteria used to establish a clinical diagnosis. Increased awareness and understanding of KS among clinicians is important for diagnosis and management of KS and for primary care of KS patients. Because mutation detection rates rely on the accuracy of the clinical diagnosis and the inclusion or exclusion of atypical cases, recognition of KS will facilitate the identification of novel mutations. A brief review of KS is provided, highlighting the clinical and genetic characteristics of patients with KS. PMID:26512256

  18. Hydrodynamic characteristics of the helical flow pump.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Kohei; Hosoda, Kyohei; Nishida, Masahiro; Isoyama, Takashi; Saito, Itsuro; Ariyoshi, Koki; Inoue, Yusuke; Ono, Toshiya; Nakagawa, Hidemoto; Sato, Masami; Hara, Sintaro; Lee, Xinyang; Wu, Sheng-Yuan; Imachi, Kou; Abe, Yusuke

    2015-09-01

    The helical flow pump (HFP) was invented to be an ideal pump for developing the TAH and the helical flow TAH (HFTAH) using two HFPs has been developed. However, since the HFP is quite a new pump, hydrodynamic characteristics inside the pump are not clarified. To analyze hydrodynamic characteristics of the HFP, flow visualization study using the particle image velocimetry and computational fluid dynamics analysis were performed. The experimental and computational models were developed to simulate the left HFP of the HFTAH and distributions of flow velocity vectors, shear stress and pressure inside the pump were examined. In distribution of flow velocity vectors, the vortexes in the vane were observed, which indicated that the HFP has a novel and quite unique working principle in which centrifugal force rotates the fluid in the helical volutes and the fluid is transferred from the inlet to the outlet helical volutes according to the helical structure. In distribution of shear stress, the highest shear stress that was considered to be occurred by the shunt flow across the impeller was found around the entrance of the inlet helical volute. However, it was not so high to cause hemolysis. This shunt flow is thought to be improved by redesigning the inlet and outlet helical volutes. In distribution of pressure, negative pressure was found near the entrance of the inlet helical volute. However, it was not high. Negative pressure is thought to be reduced with an improvement in the design of the impeller or the vane shape. PMID:25784463

  19. Characteristics of sexual behavior in Spanish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Teva, Inmaculada; Paz Bermúdez, Ma; Buela-Casal, Gualberto

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this study is to describe some characteristics of the sexual behavior of adolescents in Spain and to compare these characteristics according to gender, using a cross-sectional survey. Participants were 1.279 male and female adolescents who reported having had sexual intercourse. A questionnaire about sexual behavior was applied at their high schools and during school hours. Data were collected between 2006 and 2007. Mean age at the onset of sexual intercourse was 14.8 years in males and 15.0 years in females. Males and females were different according to the type of partner at the last sexual intercourse: 63.0% of males had a steady partner compared to 90.5% of females (p < 0.01). The mean number of sexual partners during the last 12 months was higher in males than in females (M = 2.1 and M = 1.5 partners, for males and females, respectively, p < 0.01). 50.0% of males had sexual intercourse under the effects of drugs versus 39.3% of females (p < 0.01). STD and HIV prevention programs should be designed considering the differences according to adolescents' sex.

  20. Physical characteristics of cinnamon oil microcapsule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermanto, R. F.; Khasanah, L. U.; Kawiji; Atmaka, W.; Manuhara, G. J.; Utami, R.

    2016-02-01

    Cinnamon (Cinnamomum burmanii) oil products can be obtained from the bark by steam distillation. Essential oils are susceptible to high temperatures, oxidation, UV light, and humidity. Microencapsulation may change essential oils into powder, protect the sensitive core material and reduce the amount of flavor which lost during storage. In the microencapsulation, one of the important factors is the type of coating agent. The objective of this work was to characterize the cinnamon oil microcapsule. Ratio variations of coating agent maltodextrin and gum arabic were (1:0); (0:1); (1:1); (2:3). Physical characteristics such as water content, solubility, bulk density, surface oil, and microencapsulation efficiency of samples were investigated. Results showed that the ratio variations of the coating agent significantly affected the water content, bulk density, surface oil and microencapsulation efficiency but significantly affected the water solubility. Characteristics of selected microcapsule were 6.13% water content; 96.33% solubility; 0.46 g/cm3 bulk density; 2.68% surface oil; 70.68% microencapsulation efficiency and microstructures were rather good.

  1. Exoplanet's Atmospheres Characteristics vs. Exoplanet's Orbital Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molaverdikhani, Karan

    2009-10-01

    400 years after Galileo Galilei was detected Jovian system, we know about 400 exoplanets in other stellar systems. But we identify just about their major properties like some of orbital elements, planet's radii or density. Also, there are many scientists who interested in searching for life or habitability on these planets. They are working in different ways such as planetary formation, planetary orbital stability or immigration, HabStars, composition of atmospheres, most probable zone in sky for exoplanets detection, etc. In this research we distinct and defined some main characteristics of terrestrial planet's atmospheres with surveying on solar system's planets and matching with current theorems on atmosphere formation. On the other hand, we were modeled Mars, Venus, Titan, single Hadley Earth and virtual Venus with different tilt angel (applying Global Circulation Modeling) to finding a critical limit on Polar Vortex formation in our last research. With extension this method on hypothetical terrestrial planets in constraint mass between 0.7 to 2.5 Earth's mass on Green Belt and applying host stars from 0.5 to 1.5 Sun's mass, we found some limitations on planet's atmosphere formation and estimation values of atmosphere's main characteristics.

  2. Radar characteristics of Viking 1 landing sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tyler, G.L.; Campbell, D.B.; Downs, G.S.; Green, R.R.; Moore, H.J.

    1976-01-01

    Radar observations of Mars at centimeter wavelengths in May, June, and July 1976 provided estimates of surface roughness and reflectivity in three potential landing areas for Viking 1. Surface roughness is characterized by the distribution of surface landing slopes or tilts on lateral scales of the order of 1 to 10 meters; measurements of surface reflectivity are indicators of bulk surface density in the uppermost few centimeters. By these measures, the Viking 1 landing site at 47.5??W, 22.4??N is rougher than the martian average, although it may be near the martian average for elevations accessible to Viking, and is estimated to be near the Mars average in reflectivity. The AINW site at the center of Chryse Planitia, 43.5??W, 23.4??N, may be an area of anomalous radar characteristics, indicative of extreme, small-scale roughness, very low surface density, or a combination of these two characteristics. Low signal-to-noise ratio observations of the original Chryse site at 34??W, 19.5??N indicate that that area is at least twice as rough as the Mars average.

  3. Addiction treatment dropout: exploring patients' characteristics.

    PubMed

    López-Goñi, José J; Fernández-Montalvo, Javier; Arteaga, Alfonso

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the characteristics associated with treatment dropout in substance dependence patients. A sample of 122 addicted patients (84 treatment completers and 38 treatment dropouts) who sought outpatient treatment was assessed to collect information on sociodemographic, consumption (assessed by EuropASI), psychopathological (assessed by SCL-90-R), and personality variables (assessed by MCMI-II). Completers and dropouts were compared on all studied variables. According to the results, dropouts scored significantly higher on the EuropASI variables measuring employment/support, alcohol consumption, and family/social problems, as well as on the schizotypal scale of MCMI-II. Because most of the significant differences were found in EuropASI variables, three clusters analyses (2, 3, and 4 groups) based on EuropASI mean scores were carried out to determine clinically relevant information predicting dropout. The most relevant results were obtained when four groups were used. Comparisons between the four groups derived from cluster analysis showed statistically significant differences in the rate of dropout, with one group exhibiting the highest dropout rate. The distinctive characteristics of the group with highest dropout rate included the presence of an increased labor problem combined with high alcohol consumption. Furthermore, this group had the highest scores on three scales of the MCMI-II: phobic, dependent, and schizotypal. The implications of these results for further research and clinical practice are discussed. 

  4. Tessera terrain: Characteristics and models of origin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bindschadler, D. L.; Head, James W.

    1989-01-01

    Tessera terrain consists of complexly deformed regions characterized by sets of ridges and valleys that intersect at angles ranging from orthogonal to oblique, and were first viewed in Venera 15/16 SAR data. Tesserae cover more area (approx. 15 percent of the area north of 30 deg N) than any of the other tectonic units mapped from the Venera data and are strongly concentrated in the region between longitudes 0 deg E and 150 deg E. Tessera terrain is concentrated between a proposed center of crustal extension and divergence in Aphrodite and a region of intense deformation, crustal convergence, and orogenesis in western Ishtar Terra. Thus, the tectonic processes responsible for tesserae are an important part of Venus tectonics. As part of an effort to understand the formation and evolution of this unusual terrain type, the basic characteristics of the tesserae were compared to the predictions made by a number of tectonic models. The basic characteristics of tessera terrain are described and the models and some of their basic predictions are briefly discussed.

  5. Nonlinear ADC with digitally selectable quantizing characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Lygouras, J.N.

    1988-10-01

    In this paper a method is presented for generating linear or nonlinear functions digitally. The Nonlinear Analog to Digital Conversion (NLADC) is accomplished using the Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) of the analog input voltage. The conversion is done according to a special Quantizing Characteristic Function (Q.C.F.), which depends on the specific application. This special Q.C.F. sampled, quantized and coded has been stored in an EPROM. The quantizing characteristic can be any monotonically increasing function of any type (e.g. linear, square, exponential e.t.c.) resulting in a very flexible linear or nonlinear A/D converter. More than one Q.C.F. can be stored in the EPROM. Such a NLADC could be used for the expansion or compression of the dynamic range in Nuclear Science measurements, in robotics for the cartesian space path planning, as in the case of Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) nonlinear quantization, e.t.c. The corresponding nonlinear Digital to Analog Converter is described.

  6. Addiction treatment dropout: exploring patients' characteristics.

    PubMed

    López-Goñi, José J; Fernández-Montalvo, Javier; Arteaga, Alfonso

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the characteristics associated with treatment dropout in substance dependence patients. A sample of 122 addicted patients (84 treatment completers and 38 treatment dropouts) who sought outpatient treatment was assessed to collect information on sociodemographic, consumption (assessed by EuropASI), psychopathological (assessed by SCL-90-R), and personality variables (assessed by MCMI-II). Completers and dropouts were compared on all studied variables. According to the results, dropouts scored significantly higher on the EuropASI variables measuring employment/support, alcohol consumption, and family/social problems, as well as on the schizotypal scale of MCMI-II. Because most of the significant differences were found in EuropASI variables, three clusters analyses (2, 3, and 4 groups) based on EuropASI mean scores were carried out to determine clinically relevant information predicting dropout. The most relevant results were obtained when four groups were used. Comparisons between the four groups derived from cluster analysis showed statistically significant differences in the rate of dropout, with one group exhibiting the highest dropout rate. The distinctive characteristics of the group with highest dropout rate included the presence of an increased labor problem combined with high alcohol consumption. Furthermore, this group had the highest scores on three scales of the MCMI-II: phobic, dependent, and schizotypal. The implications of these results for further research and clinical practice are discussed.  PMID:22211350

  7. Analysis of the characteristics of competitive badminton

    PubMed Central

    Cabello, M; Gonzalez-Badillo, J

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To describe the characteristics of badminton in order to determine the energy requirements, temporal structure, and movements in the game that indicate performance level. To use the findings to plan training with greater precision. Methods: Eleven badminton players (mean (SD) age 21.8 (3.26) years) with international experience from four different countries (France, Italy, Spain, and Portugal) were studied. Two of the Spanish players were monitored in several matches, giving a total of 14 samples, all during the 1999 Spanish International Tournament. Blood lactate concentration was measured with a reflective photometer. Maximum and average heart rates were recorded with a heart rate monitor. Temporal structure and actions during the matches were determined from video recordings. All variables were measured during and after the game and later analysed using a descriptive study. Results: The results confirmed the high demands of the sport, with a maximum heart rate of 190.5 beats/min and an average of 173.5 beats/min during matches over 28 minutes long and performance intervals of 6.4 seconds and rest time of 12.9 seconds between exchanges. Conclusions: The results suggest that badminton is characterised by repetitive efforts of alactic nature and great intensity which are continuously performed throughout the match. An awareness of these characteristics, together with data on the correlations between certain actions such as unforced errors and winning shots and the final result of the match, will aid in more appropriate planning and monitoring of specific training. PMID:12547746

  8. Habitat availability and animal community characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Seagle, S.W.; Shugart, H.H.; West, D.C.

    1984-12-01

    The microhabitat utilization and niche characteristics of Peromyscus leucopus, Ochrotomys nuttalli, and Blarina brevicauda were examined within a pine plantation on the Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park (NERP) in East Tennessee. Although general microhabitat utilization was the same, niche parameters (such as niche breadth) for each species varied between two study grids, apparently in response to differing understory density. Specialization is thus proposed to be a function of local microhabitat structure. Removal of the generalist species, P. leucopus, from one grid while maintaining the other as a control elicited a significant microhabitat shift and increase in niche breadth by O. nuttalli. B. brevicauda displayed a slight but nonsignificant microhabitat shift and increased niche breadth. These results are a counter example to the hypothesis that generalist species are poor competitors. Spatial microhabitat heterogeneity created by plant secondary succession and extrinsic disturbances such as tree blow-down is suggested to allow coexistence of these species by altering competitive abilities or microhabitat selection at a small spatial scale. Since interspecific competition affects small mammal niche characteristics, two hypotheses to explain the relative abundances of coexisting animal species are examined. Analysis of the small mammal fauna of the Oak Ridge NERP indicates that habitat availability, not niche breadth, is a good predictor of abundance. This result is discussed in the context of habitat dynamics and the evolutionary history of the species. 103 references, 10 figures, 10 tables.

  9. Some characteristics of the international space channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noack, T. L.; Poland, W. B., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Some physical characteristics of radio transmission links and the technology of PCM modulation combine with the Radio Regulations of the International Telecommunications Union to define a communications channel having a determinable channel capacity, error rate, and sensitivity to interference. These characteristics and the corresponding limitations on EIRP, power flux density, and power spectral density for space service applications are described. The ITU regulations create a critical height of 1027 km where some parameters of the limitation rules change. The nature of restraints on power spectral density are discussed and an approach to a standardized representation of Necessary Bandwidth for the Space Services is described. It is shown that, given the PFD (power flux density) and PSD (power spectral density) limitations of radio regulations, the channel performance is determined by the ratio of effective receiving antenna aperture to system noise temperature. Based on this approach, the method for a quantitative trade-off between spectrum spreading and system performance is presented. Finally, the effects of radio frequency interference between standard systems is analyzed.

  10. Clinical and Pathological Characteristics of Organized Hematoma

    PubMed Central

    Ohta, Nobuo; Watanabe, Tomoo; Ito, Tsukasa; Kubota, Toshinori; Suzuki, Yusuke; Ishida, Akihiro; Aoyagi, Masaru; Matsubara, Atsushi; Izuhara, Kenji; Kakehata, Seiji

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To study the clinical and pathological characteristics of patients with organized hematoma with malignant features in maxillary sinuses. Subjects and Methods. This was a retrospective study of five patients who were treated surgically for organized hematoma. The preoperative CT and MRI findings were studied clinically. The expressions of CD31, CD34, and periostin in surgical samples were investigated by immunohistochemistry. Results. The clinical features of organized hematoma, such as a mass expanding from the maxillary sinus with bone destruction, resembled those of maxillary carcinoma. However, CT and MRI provided sufficient and useful information to differentiate this condition from malignancy. Surgical resection was the first-line treatment because of the presence of a firm capsule. Characteristic histopathological findings were a mixture of dilated vessels, hemorrhage, fibrin exudation, fibrosis, hyalinization, and neovascularization. The expressions of periostin, CD31, and CD34 were observed in organized hematoma of the maxillary sinus. Conclusion. The expressions of periostin, CD31, and CD34 were observed in organized hematoma of the maxillary sinus. Organized hematoma is characterized pathologically by a mixture of bleeding, dilated vessels, hemorrhage, fibrin exudation, fibrosis, hyalinization, and neovascularization. CT and MRI show heterogeneous findings reflecting a mixture of these pathological entities. PMID:23533421

  11. Identification and characteristics of vaccine refusers

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Feifei; Mullooly, John P; Goodman, Mike; McCarty, Maribet C; Hanson, Ann M; Crane, Bradley; Nordin, James D

    2009-01-01

    Background This study evaluated the utility of immunization registries in identifying vaccine refusals among children. Among refusers, we studied their socioeconomic characteristics and health care utilization patterns. Methods Medical records were reviewed to validate refusal status in the immunization registries of two health plans. Racial, education, and income characteristics of children claiming refusal were collected based on the census tract of each child. Health care utilization was identified using both electronic medical record and insurance claims. Within the immunization registries of two HMOs in the study, some providers use refusal and medical contraindication interchangeably, and some providers tend to always use "ever refusal." Therefore, we combined medical contraindication and refusal together and treated them all as "refusal" in this study. Results The immunization registry, compared to chart review, had negative predictive values of 85–92% and 90–97% for 2- and 6-year olds, and positive predictive values of only 52–74% and 59–62% to identify vaccine refusals. Refusers were more likely to reside in well-educated, higher income areas than non-refusers. Refusers had not opted out of health care system and continued, although less frequently for the age 2 and under group, to use services. Conclusion Without enhancements to immunization registries, identifying children with immunization refusal would be time consuming. Since communities where refusers live are well educated, interventions should target these communities to communicate vaccine adverse events and consequences of vaccine preventable diseases. PMID:19261196

  12. Characteristics of the GPR field pattern antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Gracia, V.; González-Drigo, R.; Di Capua, D.; Pujades, L. G.

    2007-10-01

    Ground-Penetrating Radar has become a popular non-destructive and non-invasive tool in different kind of applications: civil engineering, archaeology, concrete and masonry analysis, etc. The selection of the antenna frequencies depends on the application, but each antenna has a radiation pattern and some characteristics that have influence in the final interpretation and in the model obtained for the studied medium. The knowledge of these features and its coupling effects with the medium could improve the results of the GPR prospecting studies. In this work, some experimental procedures were carried out in order to obtain the 1.6 GHz centre frequency antenna characteristics in the air and in one material medium and to compare them. First, the study of the attenuation due to geometrical spreading was performed. This result was compared with the amplitude attenuation in a material medium, deduced from the GPR experimental data. Second, the shape of the radiation pattern was estimated in laboratory for different distances between the target and the antenna. Near field and far field were considered during the experimental data acquisition. Third, the relative amplitude of the reflected wave (in dB) was obtained depending on the relative position of the antenna over the target. The shape of the radiation pattern and the relative amplitudes obtained in the air were compared with those obtained in a slow medium (water). This slow medium was characterized with the wave velocity and the attenuation factor of the GPR signal.

  13. Mycobacterium bovis: characteristics of wildlife reservoir hosts.

    PubMed

    Palmer, M V

    2013-11-01

    Mycobacterium bovis is the cause of tuberculosis in animals and sometimes humans. Many developed nations have long-standing programmes to eradicate tuberculosis in livestock, principally cattle. As disease prevalence in cattle decreases these efforts are sometimes impeded by passage of M. bovis from wildlife to cattle. In epidemiological terms, disease can persist in some wildlife species, creating disease reservoirs, if the basic reproduction rate (R0) and critical community size (CCS) thresholds are achieved. Recognized wildlife reservoir hosts of M. bovis include the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) in New Zealand, European badger (Meles meles) in Great Britain and Ireland, African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in South Africa, wild boar (Sus scrofa) in the Iberian Peninsula and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Michigan, USA. The epidemiological concepts of R0 and CCS are related to more tangible disease/pathogen characteristics such as prevalence, pathogen-induced pathology, host behaviour and ecology. An understanding of both epidemiological and disease/pathogen characteristics is necessary to identify wildlife reservoirs of M. bovis. In some cases, there is a single wildlife reservoir host involved in transmission of M. bovis to cattle. Complexity increases, however, in multihost systems where multiple potential reservoir hosts exist. Bovine tuberculosis eradication efforts require elimination of M. bovis transmission between wildlife reservoirs and cattle. For successful eradication identification of true wildlife reservoirs is critical, as disease control efforts are most effective when directed towards true reservoirs.

  14. Mycobacterium bovis: characteristics of wildlife reservoir hosts.

    PubMed

    Palmer, M V

    2013-11-01

    Mycobacterium bovis is the cause of tuberculosis in animals and sometimes humans. Many developed nations have long-standing programmes to eradicate tuberculosis in livestock, principally cattle. As disease prevalence in cattle decreases these efforts are sometimes impeded by passage of M. bovis from wildlife to cattle. In epidemiological terms, disease can persist in some wildlife species, creating disease reservoirs, if the basic reproduction rate (R0) and critical community size (CCS) thresholds are achieved. Recognized wildlife reservoir hosts of M. bovis include the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) in New Zealand, European badger (Meles meles) in Great Britain and Ireland, African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in South Africa, wild boar (Sus scrofa) in the Iberian Peninsula and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Michigan, USA. The epidemiological concepts of R0 and CCS are related to more tangible disease/pathogen characteristics such as prevalence, pathogen-induced pathology, host behaviour and ecology. An understanding of both epidemiological and disease/pathogen characteristics is necessary to identify wildlife reservoirs of M. bovis. In some cases, there is a single wildlife reservoir host involved in transmission of M. bovis to cattle. Complexity increases, however, in multihost systems where multiple potential reservoir hosts exist. Bovine tuberculosis eradication efforts require elimination of M. bovis transmission between wildlife reservoirs and cattle. For successful eradication identification of true wildlife reservoirs is critical, as disease control efforts are most effective when directed towards true reservoirs. PMID:24171844

  15. Blood flow characteristics in the aortic arch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prahl Wittberg, Lisa; van Wyk, Stevin; Mihaiescu, Mihai; Fuchs, Laszlo; Gutmark, Ephraim; Backeljauw, Philippe; Gutmark-Little, Iris

    2012-11-01

    The purpose with this study is to investigate the flow characteristics of blood in the aortic arch. Cardiovascular diseases are associated with specific locations in the arterial tree. Considering atherogenesis, it is claimed that the Wall Shear Stress (WSS) along with its temporal and spatial gradients play an important role in the development of the disease. The WSS is determined by the local flow characteristics, that in turn depends on the geometry as well as the rheological properties of blood. In this numerical work, the time dependent fluid flow during the entire cardiac cycle is fully resolved. The Quemada model is applied to account for the non-Newtonian properties of blood, an empirical model valid for different Red Blood Cell loading. Data obtained through Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging have been used in order to reconstruct geometries of the the aortic arch. Here, three different geometries are studied out of which two display malformations that can be found in patients having the genetic disorder Turner's syndrome. The simulations show a highly complex flow with regions of secondary flow that is enhanced for the diseased aortas. The financial support from the Swedish Research Council (VR) and the Sweden-America Foundation is gratefully acknowledged.

  16. Sleep characteristics in the turkey Meleagris gallopavo.

    PubMed

    Ayala-Guerrero, Fructuoso; Mexicano, G; Ramos, J I

    2003-03-01

    Electrophysiological and behavioral characteristics of the states of vigilance were analyzed in chronically implanted specimens of the turkey Meleagris gallopavo (M. gallopavo). Five different states of vigilance were observed throughout the nyctohemeral period: active wakefulness (AW), quiet wakefulness (QW), drowsiness (D), slow wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. These states exhibit characteristics similar to those described in other bird species. Sleep periods displayed a polyphasic distribution; however, they showed the tendency to concentrate between 2100 and 0900 h in spite of the fact that the recordings were carried out under constant illumination. Sleep period occupied 45.71% of the nyctohemeral cycle, 43.33% corresponded to SWS, while 2.38% to REM sleep. The average duration of the REM sleep phase was very short, lasting 7.7+/-0.55 s (mean+/-S.D.). In contrast, its frequency was very high with an average recurrence of 268+/-63 phases throughout the nyctohemeral cycle. The short duration of REM sleep phase presented by the turkey as by other bird species studied up to now may be dependent upon genetic factors shared by this group of vertebrates. PMID:12676279

  17. Breakdown characteristics of xenon HID Lamps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babaeva, Natalia; Sato, Ayumu; Brates, Nanu; Noro, Koji; Kushner, Mark

    2009-10-01

    The breakdown characteristics of mercury free xenon high intensity discharge (HID) lamps exhibit a large statistical time lag often having a large scatter in breakdown voltages. In this paper, we report on results from a computational investigation of the processes which determine the ignition voltages for positive and negative pulses in commercial HID lamps having fill pressures of up to 20 atm. Steep voltage rise results in higher avalanche electron densities and earlier breakdown times. Circuit characteristics also play a role. Large ballast resistors may limit current to the degree that breakdown is quenched. The breakdown voltage critically depends on cathode charge injection by electric field emission (or other mechanisms) which in large part controls the statistical time lag for breakdown. For symmetric lamps, ionization waves (IWs) simultaneously develop from the bottom and top electrodes. Breakdown typically occurs when the top and bottom IWs converge. Condensed salt layers having small conductivities on the inner walls of HID lamps and on the electrodes can influence the ignition behavior. With these layers, IWs tend to propagate along the inner wall and exhibit a different structure depending on the polarity.

  18. Sleep characteristics in the turkey Meleagris gallopavo.

    PubMed

    Ayala-Guerrero, Fructuoso; Mexicano, G; Ramos, J I

    2003-03-01

    Electrophysiological and behavioral characteristics of the states of vigilance were analyzed in chronically implanted specimens of the turkey Meleagris gallopavo (M. gallopavo). Five different states of vigilance were observed throughout the nyctohemeral period: active wakefulness (AW), quiet wakefulness (QW), drowsiness (D), slow wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. These states exhibit characteristics similar to those described in other bird species. Sleep periods displayed a polyphasic distribution; however, they showed the tendency to concentrate between 2100 and 0900 h in spite of the fact that the recordings were carried out under constant illumination. Sleep period occupied 45.71% of the nyctohemeral cycle, 43.33% corresponded to SWS, while 2.38% to REM sleep. The average duration of the REM sleep phase was very short, lasting 7.7+/-0.55 s (mean+/-S.D.). In contrast, its frequency was very high with an average recurrence of 268+/-63 phases throughout the nyctohemeral cycle. The short duration of REM sleep phase presented by the turkey as by other bird species studied up to now may be dependent upon genetic factors shared by this group of vertebrates.

  19. Characteristic infrared intensities of carbonyl stretching vibrations.

    PubMed

    Richter, Wagner E; Silva, Arnaldo F; Vidal, Luciano N; Bruns, Roy E

    2016-07-14

    The experimental infrared fundamental intensities of gas phase carbonyl compounds obtained by the integration of spectral bands in the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) spectral database are in good agreement with the intensities reported by other laboratories having a root mean square error of 27 km mol(-1) or about 13% of the average intensity value. The Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules/Charge-Charge Transfer-Counterpolarization (QTAIM/CCTCP) model indicates that the large intensity variation from 61.7 to 415.4 km mol(-1) is largely due to static atomic charge contributions, whereas charge transfer and counterpolarization effects essentially cancel one another leaving only a small net effect. The Characteristic Substituent Shift Model estimates the atomic charge contributions to the carbonyl stretching intensities within 30 km mol(-1) or 10% of the average contribution. However, owing to the size of the 2 × C × CTCP interaction contribution, the total intensities cannot be estimated with this degree of accuracy. The dynamic intensity contributions of the carbon and oxygen atoms account for almost all of the total stretching intensities. These contributions vary over large ranges with the dynamic contributions of carbon being about twice the size of the oxygen ones for a large majority of carbonyls. Although the carbon monoxide molecule has an almost null dipole moment contrary to the very polar bond of the characteristic carbonyl group, its QTAIM/CCTCP model is very similar to those found for the carbonyl compounds. PMID:27306140

  20. Dispersion and surface characteristics of nanosilica suspensions.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ranganathan; Milanova, Denitsa

    2009-04-01

    Nanofluids consisting of nanometer-sized particles dispersed in base liquids are known to be effective in extending the saturated boiling regime and critical heat flux in pool boiling. The heat transfer characteristics of nanosilica suspensions with particle sizes of 10 and 20 nm in pool boiling with a suspended heating Nichrome wire have been analyzed. The pH value of the nanosuspensions is important from the point of view that it determines the stability of the particles and their mutual interactions toward the suspended heated wire. When silica is suspended in water with no additives, the surface potential of the nanoparticles determines their movement toward the electrodes. Particles continuously deposit on the wire and extend the burnout heat flux, influenced by the chemical composition of the nanofluids. This agglomeration allows high heat transfer through interagglomerate pores, resulting in a nearly threefold increase in burnout heat flux. Particle size, zeta potential, and the burnout heat flux values under different volume concentrations are provided. The burnout heat flux of the wire does not increase monotonically with concentration, but depends on the agglomeration characteristics, particle shape, and the hydroxylated surface of the nanoparticles.