Science.gov

Sample records for navigation lights

  1. Navigation lights color study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, Jose G.; Alberg, Matthew T.

    2015-05-01

    The chromaticity of navigation lights are defined by areas on the International Commission on Illumination (CIE) 1931 chromaticity diagram. The corner coordinates for these areas are specified in the International Regulations for Prevention of Collisions at Sea, 1972 (72 COLREGS). The navigation light's color of white, red, green, and yellow are bounded by these areas. The chromaticity values specified by the COLREGS for navigation lights were intended for the human visual system (HVS). The HVS can determine the colors of these lights easily under various conditions. For digital color camera imaging systems the colors of these lights are dependent on the camera's color spectral sensitivity, settings, and color correction. At night the color of these lights are used to quickly determine the relative course of vessels. If these lights are incorrectly identified or there is a delay in identifying them this could be a potential safety of ship concern. Vessels that use camera imaging systems exclusively for sight, at night, need to detect, identify, and discriminate navigation lights for navigation and collision avoidance. The introduction of light emitting diode (LED) lights and lights with different spectral signatures have the potential to be imaged very differently with an RGB color filter array (CFA) color camera than with the human eye. It has been found that some green navigation lights' images appear blue verse green. This has an impact on vessels that use camera imaging systems exclusively for navigation. This paper will characterize color cameras ability to properly reproducing navigation lights' color and survey a set of navigation light to determine if they conform to the COLREGS.

  2. 46 CFR 183.420 - Navigation lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Navigation lights. 183.420 Section 183.420 Shipping...) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Lighting Systems § 183.420 Navigation lights. All vessels must have navigation lights..., except that a vessel of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length must also have navigation lights...

  3. 46 CFR 183.420 - Navigation lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Navigation lights. 183.420 Section 183.420 Shipping...) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Lighting Systems § 183.420 Navigation lights. All vessels must have navigation lights..., except that a vessel of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length must also have navigation lights...

  4. 46 CFR 183.420 - Navigation lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Navigation lights. 183.420 Section 183.420 Shipping...) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Lighting Systems § 183.420 Navigation lights. All vessels must have navigation lights..., except that a vessel of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length must also have navigation lights...

  5. 46 CFR 183.420 - Navigation lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Navigation lights. 183.420 Section 183.420 Shipping...) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Lighting Systems § 183.420 Navigation lights. All vessels must have navigation lights..., except that a vessel of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length must also have navigation lights...

  6. 46 CFR 183.420 - Navigation lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Navigation lights. 183.420 Section 183.420 Shipping...) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Lighting Systems § 183.420 Navigation lights. All vessels must have navigation lights..., except that a vessel of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length must also have navigation lights...

  7. 46 CFR 120.420 - Navigation lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Navigation lights. 120.420 Section 120.420 Shipping... Systems § 120.420 Navigation lights. All vessels must have navigation lights that are in compliance with... than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length must also have navigation lights that meet UL 1104,...

  8. 46 CFR 120.420 - Navigation lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Navigation lights. 120.420 Section 120.420 Shipping... Systems § 120.420 Navigation lights. All vessels must have navigation lights that are in compliance with... than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length must also have navigation lights that meet UL 1104,...

  9. 46 CFR 120.420 - Navigation lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Navigation lights. 120.420 Section 120.420 Shipping... Systems § 120.420 Navigation lights. All vessels must have navigation lights that are in compliance with... than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length must also have navigation lights that meet UL 1104,...

  10. 46 CFR 120.420 - Navigation lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Navigation lights. 120.420 Section 120.420 Shipping... Systems § 120.420 Navigation lights. All vessels must have navigation lights that are in compliance with... than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length must also have navigation lights that meet UL 1104,...

  11. 46 CFR 120.420 - Navigation lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Navigation lights. 120.420 Section 120.420 Shipping... Systems § 120.420 Navigation lights. All vessels must have navigation lights that are in compliance with... than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length must also have navigation lights that meet UL 1104,...

  12. 46 CFR 129.430 - Navigational lighting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Navigational lighting. 129.430 Section 129.430 Shipping... INSTALLATIONS Lighting Systems § 129.430 Navigational lighting. (a) Each vessel of less than 100 gross tons and less than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length must have navigational lighting in compliance with the...

  13. 46 CFR 129.430 - Navigational lighting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Navigational lighting. 129.430 Section 129.430 Shipping... INSTALLATIONS Lighting Systems § 129.430 Navigational lighting. (a) Each vessel of less than 100 gross tons and less than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length must have navigational lighting in compliance with the...

  14. 46 CFR 129.430 - Navigational lighting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Navigational lighting. 129.430 Section 129.430 Shipping... INSTALLATIONS Lighting Systems § 129.430 Navigational lighting. (a) Each vessel of less than 100 gross tons and less than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length must have navigational lighting in compliance with the...

  15. 46 CFR 129.430 - Navigational lighting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Navigational lighting. 129.430 Section 129.430 Shipping... INSTALLATIONS Lighting Systems § 129.430 Navigational lighting. (a) Each vessel of less than 100 gross tons and less than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length must have navigational lighting in compliance with the...

  16. 46 CFR 129.430 - Navigational lighting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Navigational lighting. 129.430 Section 129.430 Shipping... INSTALLATIONS Lighting Systems § 129.430 Navigational lighting. (a) Each vessel of less than 100 gross tons and less than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length must have navigational lighting in compliance with the...

  17. 46 CFR 169.691 - Navigation lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Navigation lights. 169.691 Section 169.691 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS... lights. Navigation light systems must meet the requirements of § 111.75-17 of this chapter except...

  18. 46 CFR 169.691 - Navigation lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Navigation lights. 169.691 Section 169.691 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS... lights. Navigation light systems must meet the requirements of § 111.75-17 of this chapter except...

  19. 46 CFR 169.691 - Navigation lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Navigation lights. 169.691 Section 169.691 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS... lights. Navigation light systems must meet the requirements of § 111.75-17 of this chapter except...

  20. 46 CFR 169.691 - Navigation lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Navigation lights. 169.691 Section 169.691 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS... lights. Navigation light systems must meet the requirements of § 111.75-17 of this chapter except...

  1. 46 CFR 169.691 - Navigation lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Navigation lights. 169.691 Section 169.691 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS... lights. Navigation light systems must meet the requirements of § 111.75-17 of this chapter except...

  2. 33 CFR 66.10-35 - Navigation lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Navigation lights. 66.10-35... NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Uniform State Waterway Marking System § 66.10-35 Navigation lights. A red light shall only be used on a solid colored red buoy. A green light shall only be used on a...

  3. 33 CFR 66.10-35 - Navigation lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Navigation lights. 66.10-35... NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Uniform State Waterway Marking System § 66.10-35 Navigation lights. A red light shall only be used on a solid colored red buoy. A green light shall only be used on a...

  4. 33 CFR 66.10-35 - Navigation lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Navigation lights. 66.10-35... NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Uniform State Waterway Marking System § 66.10-35 Navigation lights. A red light shall only be used on a solid colored red buoy. A green light shall only be used on a...

  5. 33 CFR 66.10-35 - Navigation lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Navigation lights. 66.10-35... NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Uniform State Waterway Marking System § 66.10-35 Navigation lights. A red light shall only be used on a solid colored red buoy. A green light shall only be used on a...

  6. 33 CFR 66.10-35 - Navigation lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Navigation lights. 66.10-35... NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Uniform State Waterway Marking System § 66.10-35 Navigation lights. A red light shall only be used on a solid colored red buoy. A green light shall only be used on a...

  7. 33 CFR 209.325 - Navigation lights, aids to navigation, navigation charts, and related data policy, practices and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Navigation lights, aids to... ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.325 Navigation lights, aids to navigation, navigation charts, and related data... procedure to be used by all Corps of Engineers installations and activities in connection with aids...

  8. 33 CFR 209.325 - Navigation lights, aids to navigation, navigation charts, and related data policy, practices and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Navigation lights, aids to... ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.325 Navigation lights, aids to navigation, navigation charts, and related data... procedure to be used by all Corps of Engineers installations and activities in connection with aids...

  9. 33 CFR 209.325 - Navigation lights, aids to navigation, navigation charts, and related data policy, practices and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Navigation lights, aids to... ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.325 Navigation lights, aids to navigation, navigation charts, and related data... procedure to be used by all Corps of Engineers installations and activities in connection with aids...

  10. 33 CFR 209.325 - Navigation lights, aids to navigation, navigation charts, and related data policy, practices and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Navigation lights, aids to... ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.325 Navigation lights, aids to navigation, navigation charts, and related data... procedure to be used by all Corps of Engineers installations and activities in connection with aids...

  11. 33 CFR 209.325 - Navigation lights, aids to navigation, navigation charts, and related data policy, practices and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Navigation lights, aids to... ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.325 Navigation lights, aids to navigation, navigation charts, and related data... procedure to be used by all Corps of Engineers installations and activities in connection with aids...

  12. 33 CFR 183.810 - Navigation light certification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Navigation light certification... SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Navigation Lights § 183.810 Navigation light certification requirements. (a) Except as provided by paragraph (b) of this section,...

  13. 33 CFR 183.810 - Navigation light certification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Navigation light certification... SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Navigation Lights § 183.810 Navigation light certification requirements. (a) Except as provided by paragraph (b) of this section,...

  14. 33 CFR 183.810 - Navigation light certification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Navigation light certification... SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Navigation Lights § 183.810 Navigation light certification requirements. (a) Except as provided by paragraph (b) of this section,...

  15. 33 CFR 183.810 - Navigation light certification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Navigation light certification... SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Navigation Lights § 183.810 Navigation light certification requirements. (a) Except as provided by paragraph (b) of this section,...

  16. 33 CFR 183.810 - Navigation light certification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Navigation light certification... SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Navigation Lights § 183.810 Navigation light certification requirements. (a) Except as provided by paragraph (b) of this section,...

  17. 46 CFR 111.75-17 - Navigation lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Navigation lights. 111.75-17 Section 111.75-17 Shipping... REQUIREMENTS Lighting Circuits and Protection § 111.75-17 Navigation lights. Each navigation light system must...-5(a) of this chapter, each navigation light panel must be supplied by a feeder from the...

  18. 46 CFR 111.75-17 - Navigation lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Navigation lights. 111.75-17 Section 111.75-17 Shipping... REQUIREMENTS Lighting Circuits and Protection § 111.75-17 Navigation lights. Each navigation light system must...-5(a) of this chapter, each navigation light panel must be supplied by a feeder from the...

  19. 46 CFR 111.75-17 - Navigation lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Navigation lights. 111.75-17 Section 111.75-17 Shipping... REQUIREMENTS Lighting Circuits and Protection § 111.75-17 Navigation lights. Each navigation light system must...-5(a) of this chapter, each navigation light panel must be supplied by a feeder from the...

  20. 46 CFR 111.75-17 - Navigation lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Navigation lights. 111.75-17 Section 111.75-17 Shipping... REQUIREMENTS Lighting Circuits and Protection § 111.75-17 Navigation lights. Each navigation light system must...-5(a) of this chapter, each navigation light panel must be supplied by a feeder from the...

  1. 46 CFR 111.75-17 - Navigation lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Navigation lights. 111.75-17 Section 111.75-17 Shipping... REQUIREMENTS Lighting Circuits and Protection § 111.75-17 Navigation lights. Each navigation light system must...-5(a) of this chapter, each navigation light panel must be supplied by a feeder from the...

  2. 46 CFR 25.10-3 - Navigation light certification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Navigation light certification requirements. 25.10-3... Navigation Lights § 25.10-3 Navigation light certification requirements. (a) Except as provided by paragraph (b) of this section, each navigation light must— (1) Meet the technical standards of the...

  3. 46 CFR 25.10-3 - Navigation light certification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Navigation light certification requirements. 25.10-3... Navigation Lights § 25.10-3 Navigation light certification requirements. (a) Except as provided by paragraph (b) of this section, each navigation light must— (1) Meet the technical standards of the...

  4. 46 CFR 25.10-3 - Navigation light certification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Navigation light certification requirements. 25.10-3... Navigation Lights § 25.10-3 Navigation light certification requirements. (a) Except as provided by paragraph (b) of this section, each navigation light must— (1) Meet the technical standards of the...

  5. 46 CFR 25.10-3 - Navigation light certification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Navigation light certification requirements. 25.10-3... Navigation Lights § 25.10-3 Navigation light certification requirements. (a) Except as provided by paragraph (b) of this section, each navigation light must— (1) Meet the technical standards of the...

  6. 46 CFR 25.10-3 - Navigation light certification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Navigation light certification requirements. 25.10-3... Navigation Lights § 25.10-3 Navigation light certification requirements. (a) Except as provided by paragraph (b) of this section, each navigation light must— (1) Meet the technical standards of the...

  7. Polarized light helps monarch butterflies navigate.

    PubMed

    Reppert, Steven M; Zhu, Haisun; White, Richard H

    2004-01-20

    During their spectacular migratory journey in the fall, North American monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) use a time-compensated sun compass to help them navigate to their overwintering sites in central Mexico. One feature of the sun compass mechanism not fully explored in monarchs is the sunlight-dependent parameters used to navigate. We now provide data suggesting that the angle of polarized skylight (the e-vector) is a relevant orientation parameter. By placing butterflies in a flight simulator outdoors and using a linear polarizing filter, we show that manipulating the e-vector alters predictably the direction of oriented flight. Butterflies studied in either the morning or afternoon showed similar responses to filter rotation. Monarch butterflies possess the anatomical structure needed for polarized skylight detection, as rhabdoms in the dorsalmost row of photoreceptor cells in monarch eye show the organization characteristic of polarized-light receptors. The existence of polarized-light detection could allow migrants to accurately navigate under a variety of atmospheric conditions and reveals a critical input pathway into the sun compass mechanism.

  8. 33 CFR 150.715 - What are the requirements for lights used as aids to navigation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... lights used as aids to navigation? 150.715 Section 150.715 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: OPERATIONS Aids to Navigation § 150.715 What are the requirements for lights used as aids to navigation? (a) Each light under part...

  9. 33 CFR 150.715 - What are the requirements for lights used as aids to navigation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... lights used as aids to navigation? 150.715 Section 150.715 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: OPERATIONS Aids to Navigation § 150.715 What are the requirements for lights used as aids to navigation? (a) Each light under part...

  10. 33 CFR 150.715 - What are the requirements for lights used as aids to navigation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... lights used as aids to navigation? 150.715 Section 150.715 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: OPERATIONS Aids to Navigation § 150.715 What are the requirements for lights used as aids to navigation? (a) Each light under part...

  11. 33 CFR 150.715 - What are the requirements for lights used as aids to navigation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... lights used as aids to navigation? 150.715 Section 150.715 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: OPERATIONS Aids to Navigation § 150.715 What are the requirements for lights used as aids to navigation? (a) Each light under part...

  12. 33 CFR 150.715 - What are the requirements for lights used as aids to navigation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... lights used as aids to navigation? 150.715 Section 150.715 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: OPERATIONS Aids to Navigation § 150.715 What are the requirements for lights used as aids to navigation? (a) Each light under part...

  13. 33 CFR 118.45 - Lighting for the protection of aerial navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lighting for the protection of aerial navigation. 118.45 Section 118.45 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.45 Lighting for the protection of aerial...

  14. 33 CFR 118.45 - Lighting for the protection of aerial navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lighting for the protection of aerial navigation. 118.45 Section 118.45 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.45 Lighting for the protection of aerial...

  15. 33 CFR 118.45 - Lighting for the protection of aerial navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lighting for the protection of aerial navigation. 118.45 Section 118.45 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.45 Lighting for the protection of aerial...

  16. 33 CFR 118.45 - Lighting for the protection of aerial navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lighting for the protection of aerial navigation. 118.45 Section 118.45 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.45 Lighting for the protection of aerial...

  17. 33 CFR 118.45 - Lighting for the protection of aerial navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lighting for the protection of aerial navigation. 118.45 Section 118.45 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.45 Lighting for the protection of aerial...

  18. New Light on Growth Cone Navigation.

    PubMed

    Pollard, Thomas D

    2015-12-21

    Growth cones on neuronal process navigate over long distances to their targets in the developing nervous system. New work by Menon et al., 2015 in the current issue of Developmental Cell reveals that reversible ubiquitination of the actin filament polymerase called VASP is part of the guidance system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Recognition of the aircraft navigation light color code.

    PubMed

    Bowman, K J; Cole, B L

    1981-11-01

    Navigation lights are a set of color-coded signals intended to indicate the presence, orientation, and relative direction of aircraft at night, and thereby reduce the possibility of midair collisions. It is known that some people with defective color vision have difficulty with quite simple codes. Accordingly, the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) has recommended -- and most countries apply -- that applicants for pilot's licences demonstrate the ability to recognise colored light signals. Pilots who fail to meet this requirement are restricted from flying at night. But is the navigation light signal system effective? This paper concludes that the navigation light system at night can serve as a crude screening method to categorize intruder aircraft into "potential threat" and "no threat" categories. An experiment is described which shows that observers with normal color vision can determine intruder aircraft orientation and relative direction from the navigation light code with a moderately high degree of reliability. The reliability of judgement is, however, decreased by the higher-intensity presence lights also displayed by aircraft.

  20. Cueing light configuration for aircraft navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, Mary K. (Inventor); Johnson, Walter J. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A pattern of light is projected from multiple sources located on an aircraft to form two clusters. The pattern of each cluster changes as the aircraft flies above and below a predetermined nominal altitude. The initial patterns are two horizontal, spaced apart lines. Each is capable of changing to a delta formation as either the altitude or the terrain varies. The direction of the delta cues the pilot as to the direction of corrective action.

  1. 46 CFR 112.43-13 - Navigation light indicator panel supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Navigation light indicator panel supply. 112.43-13 Section 112.43-13 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Lighting Systems § 112.43-13 Navigation light indicator panel...

  2. 46 CFR 112.43-13 - Navigation light indicator panel supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Navigation light indicator panel supply. 112.43-13 Section 112.43-13 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Lighting Systems § 112.43-13 Navigation light indicator panel...

  3. 46 CFR 112.43-13 - Navigation light indicator panel supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Navigation light indicator panel supply. 112.43-13 Section 112.43-13 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Lighting Systems § 112.43-13 Navigation light indicator panel...

  4. 46 CFR 112.43-13 - Navigation light indicator panel supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Navigation light indicator panel supply. 112.43-13 Section 112.43-13 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Lighting Systems § 112.43-13 Navigation light indicator panel...

  5. 46 CFR 112.43-13 - Navigation light indicator panel supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Navigation light indicator panel supply. 112.43-13 Section 112.43-13 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Lighting Systems § 112.43-13 Navigation light indicator panel...

  6. Honeybee navigation: following routes using polarized-light cues.

    PubMed

    Kraft, P; Evangelista, C; Dacke, M; Labhart, T; Srinivasan, M V

    2011-03-12

    While it is generally accepted that honeybees (Apis mellifera) are capable of using the pattern of polarized light in the sky to navigate to a food source, there is little or no direct behavioural evidence that they actually do so. We have examined whether bees can be trained to find their way through a maze composed of four interconnected tunnels, by using directional information provided by polarized light illumination from the ceilings of the tunnels. The results show that bees can learn this task, thus demonstrating directly, and for the first time, that bees are indeed capable of using the polarized-light information in the sky as a compass to steer their way to a food source.

  7. Honeybee navigation: following routes using polarized-light cues

    PubMed Central

    Kraft, P.; Evangelista, C.; Dacke, M.; Labhart, T.; Srinivasan, M. V.

    2011-01-01

    While it is generally accepted that honeybees (Apis mellifera) are capable of using the pattern of polarized light in the sky to navigate to a food source, there is little or no direct behavioural evidence that they actually do so. We have examined whether bees can be trained to find their way through a maze composed of four interconnected tunnels, by using directional information provided by polarized light illumination from the ceilings of the tunnels. The results show that bees can learn this task, thus demonstrating directly, and for the first time, that bees are indeed capable of using the polarized-light information in the sky as a compass to steer their way to a food source. PMID:21282174

  8. Navigation by light polarization in clear and turbid waters

    PubMed Central

    Lerner, Amit; Sabbah, Shai; Erlick, Carynelisa; Shashar, Nadav

    2011-01-01

    Certain terrestrial animals use sky polarization for navigation. Certain aquatic species have also been shown to orient according to a polarization stimulus, but the correlation between underwater polarization and Sun position and hence the ability to use underwater polarization as a compass for navigation is still under debate. To examine this issue, we use theoretical equations for per cent polarization and electric vector (e-vector) orientation that account for the position of the Sun, refraction at the air–water interface and Rayleigh single scattering. The polarization patterns predicted by these theoretical equations are compared with measurements conducted in clear and semi-turbid coastal sea waters at 2 m and 5 m depth over sea floors of 6 m and 28 m depth. We find that the per cent polarization is correlated with the Sun's elevation only in clear waters. We furthermore find that the maximum value of the e-vector orientation angle equals the angle of refraction only in clear waters, in the horizontal viewing direction, over the deeper sea floor. We conclude that navigation by use of underwater polarization is possible under restricted conditions, i.e. in clear waters, primarily near the horizontal viewing direction, and in locations where the sea floor has limited effects on the light's polarization. PMID:21282170

  9. 76 FR 77585 - Notice to Manufacturers of Airport Lighting and Navigation Aid Equipment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-13

    ...Projects funded under the Airport Improvement Program (AIP) must meet the requirements of 49 U.S.C. 50101, Buy American Preferences. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is considering issuing waivers to foreign manufacturers of certain airport lighting and navigation aid equipment that is lit with Light Emitting Diode (LED) lighting. This notice requests information from manufacturers of......

  10. Light Detection and Ranging-Based Terrain Navigation: A Concept Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Jacob; UijtdeHaag, Maarten; vanGraas, Frank; Young, Steve

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of Airborne Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) equipment for terrain navigation. Airborne LiDAR is a relatively new technology used primarily by the geo-spatial mapping community to produce highly accurate and dense terrain elevation maps. In this paper, the term LiDAR refers to a scanning laser ranger rigidly mounted to an aircraft, as opposed to an integrated sensor system that consists of a scanning laser ranger integrated with Global Positioning System (GPS) and Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) data. Data from the laser range scanner and IMU will be integrated with a terrain database to estimate the aircraft position and data from the laser range scanner will be integrated with GPS to estimate the aircraft attitude. LiDAR data was collected using NASA Dryden's DC-8 flying laboratory in Reno, NV and was used to test the proposed terrain navigation system. The results of LiDAR-based terrain navigation shown in this paper indicate that airborne LiDAR is a viable technology enabler for fully autonomous aircraft navigation. The navigation performance is highly dependent on the quality of the terrain databases used for positioning and therefore high-resolution (2 m post-spacing) data was used as the terrain reference.

  11. Structured Light-Based Hazard Detection For Planetary Surface Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nefian, Ara; Wong, Uland Y.; Dille, Michael; Bouyssounouse, Xavier; Edwards, Laurence; To, Vinh; Deans, Matthew; Fong, Terry

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes a structured light-based sensor for hazard avoidance in planetary environments. The system presented here can also be used in terrestrial applications constrained by reduced onboard power and computational complexity and low illumination conditions. The sensor is on a calibrated camera and laser dot projector system. The onboard hazard avoidance system determines the position of the projected dots in the image and through a triangulation process detects potential hazards. The paper presents the design parameters for this sensor and describes the image based solution for hazard avoidance. The system presented here was tested extensively in day and night conditions in Lunar analogue environments. The current system achieves over 97 detection rate with 1.7 false alarms over 2000 images.

  12. Fusion Based on Visible Light Positioning and Inertial Navigation Using Extended Kalman Filters

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhitian; Feng, Lihui; Yang, Aiying

    2017-01-01

    With the rapid development of smart technology, the need for location-based services (LBS) increases every day. Since classical positioning technology such as GPS cannot satisfy the needs of indoor positioning, new indoor positioning technologies, such as Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, and Visible light communication (VLC), have already cut a figure. VLC positioning has been proposed because it has higher accuracy, costs less, and is easier to accomplish in comparison to the other indoor positioning technologies. However, the practicality of VLC positioning is limited since it is easily affected by multipath effects and the layout of LEDs. Thus, we propose a fusion positioning system based on extended Kalman filters, which can fuse the VLC position and the inertial navigation data. The accuracy of the fusion positioning system is in centimeters, which is better compared to the VLC-based positioning or inertial navigation alone. Furthermore, the fusion positioning system has high accuracy, saves energy, costs little, and is easy to install, making it a promising candidate for future indoor positioning applications. PMID:28492479

  13. Fusion Based on Visible Light Positioning and Inertial Navigation Using Extended Kalman Filters.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhitian; Feng, Lihui; Yang, Aiying

    2017-05-11

    With the rapid development of smart technology, the need for location-based services (LBS) increases every day. Since classical positioning technology such as GPS cannot satisfy the needs of indoor positioning, new indoor positioning technologies, such as Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, and Visible light communication (VLC), have already cut a figure. VLC positioning has been proposed because it has higher accuracy, costs less, and is easier to accomplish in comparison to the other indoor positioning technologies. However, the practicality of VLC positioning is limited since it is easily affected by multipath effects and the layout of LEDs. Thus, we propose a fusion positioning system based on extended Kalman filters, which can fuse the VLC position and the inertial navigation data. The accuracy of the fusion positioning system is in centimeters, which is better compared to the VLC-based positioning or inertial navigation alone. Furthermore, the fusion positioning system has high accuracy, saves energy, costs little, and is easy to install, making it a promising candidate for future indoor positioning applications.

  14. 3D point cloud analysis of structured light registration in computer-assisted navigation in spinal surgeries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Shaurya; Guha, Daipayan; Jakubovic, Raphael; Yang, Victor X. D.

    2017-02-01

    Computer-assisted navigation is used by surgeons in spine procedures to guide pedicle screws to improve placement accuracy and in some cases, to better visualize patient's underlying anatomy. Intraoperative registration is performed to establish a correlation between patient's anatomy and the pre/intra-operative image. Current algorithms rely on seeding points obtained directly from the exposed spinal surface to achieve clinically acceptable registration accuracy. Registration of these three dimensional surface point-clouds are prone to various systematic errors. The goal of this study was to evaluate the robustness of surgical navigation systems by looking at the relationship between the optical density of an acquired 3D point-cloud and the corresponding surgical navigation error. A retrospective review of a total of 48 registrations performed using an experimental structured light navigation system developed within our lab was conducted. For each registration, the number of points in the acquired point cloud was evaluated relative to whether the registration was acceptable, the corresponding system reported error and target registration error. It was demonstrated that the number of points in the point cloud neither correlates with the acceptance/rejection of a registration or the system reported error. However, a negative correlation was observed between the number of the points in the point-cloud and the corresponding sagittal angular error. Thus, system reported total registration points and accuracy are insufficient to gauge the accuracy of a navigation system and the operating surgeon must verify and validate registration based on anatomical landmarks prior to commencing surgery.

  15. Indoor/Outdoor Seamless Positioning Using Lighting Tags and GPS Cellular Phones for Personal Navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namie, Hiromune; Morishita, Hisashi

    The authors focused on the development of an indoor positioning system which is easy to use, portable and available for everyone. This system is capable of providing the correct position anywhere indoors, including onboard ships, and was invented in order to evaluate the availability of GPS indoors. Although the performance of GPS is superior outdoors, there has been considerable research regarding indoor GPS involving sensitive GPS, pseudolites (GPS pseudo satellite), RFID (Radio Frequency IDentification) tags, and wireless LAN .However, the positioning rate and the precision are not high enough for general use, which is the reason why these technologies have not yet spread to personal navigation systems. In this regard, the authors attempted to implement an indoor positioning system using cellular phones with built-in GPS and infrared light data communication functionality, which are widely used in Japan. GPS is becoming increasingly popular, where GPGGS sentences of the NMEA outputted from the GPS receiver provide spatiotemporal information including latitude, longitude, altitude, and time or ECEF xyz coordinates. As GPS applications grow rapidly, spatiotemporal data becomes key to the ubiquitous outdoor and indoor seamless positioning services at least for the entire area of Japan, as well as to becoming familiar with satellite positioning systems (e.g. GPS). Furthermore, the authors are also working on the idea of using PDAs (Personal Digital Assistants), as cellular phones with built-in GPS and PDA functionality are also becoming increasingly popular.

  16. A summary of light dose distribution using an IR navigation system for Photofrin-mediated Pleural PDT

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Timothy C.; Kim, Michele M.; Ong, Yi-Hong; Penjweini, Rozhin; Dimofte, Andreea; Finlay, Jarod C.; Rodriguez, Carmen; Cengel, Keith A.

    2017-01-01

    Uniform delivery of light fluence is an important goal for photodynamic therapy. We present summary results for an infrared (IR) navigation system to deliver light dose uniformly during intracavitory PDT by tracking the movement of the light source and providing real-time feedback on the light fluence rate on the entire cavity surface area. In the current intrapleural PDT protocol, 8 detectors placed in selected locations in the pleural cavity monitor the light doses. To improve the delivery of light dose uniformity, an IR camera system is used to track the motion of the light source as well as the surface contour of the pleural cavity. A MATLAB-based GUI program is developed to display the light dose in real-time during PDT to guide the PDT treatment delivery to improve the uniformity of the light dose. A dualcorrection algorithm is used to improve the agreement between calculations and in-situ measurements. A comprehensive analysis of the distribution of light fluence during PDT is presented in both phantom conditions and in clinical cases. PMID:28690354

  17. A summary of light dose distribution using an IR navigation system for Photofrin-mediated Pleural PDT.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Timothy C; Kim, Michele M; Ong, Yi-Hong; Penjweini, Rozhin; Dimofte, Andreea; Finlay, Jarod C; Rodriguez, Carmen; Cengel, Keith A

    2017-01-28

    Uniform delivery of light fluence is an important goal for photodynamic therapy. We present summary results for an infrared (IR) navigation system to deliver light dose uniformly during intracavitory PDT by tracking the movement of the light source and providing real-time feedback on the light fluence rate on the entire cavity surface area. In the current intrapleural PDT protocol, 8 detectors placed in selected locations in the pleural cavity monitor the light doses. To improve the delivery of light dose uniformity, an IR camera system is used to track the motion of the light source as well as the surface contour of the pleural cavity. A MATLAB-based GUI program is developed to display the light dose in real-time during PDT to guide the PDT treatment delivery to improve the uniformity of the light dose. A dualcorrection algorithm is used to improve the agreement between calculations and in-situ measurements. A comprehensive analysis of the distribution of light fluence during PDT is presented in both phantom conditions and in clinical cases.

  18. A summary of light dose distribution using an IR navigation system for Photofrin-mediated Pleural PDT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Timothy C.; Kim, Michele M.; Ong, Yi-Hong; Penjweini, Rozhin; Dimofte, Andreea; Finlay, Jarod C.; Rodriguez, Carmen; Cengel, Keith A.

    2017-02-01

    Uniform delivery of light fluence is an important goal for photodynamic therapy. We present summary results for an infrared (IR) navigation system to deliver light dose uniformly during intracavitory PDT by tracking the movement of the light source and providing real-time feedback on the light fluence rate on the entire cavity surface area. In the current intrapleural PDT protocol, 8 detectors placed in selected locations in the pleural cavity monitor the light doses. To improve the delivery of light dose uniformity, an IR camera system is used to track the motion of the light source as well as the surface contour of the pleural cavity. A MATLAB-based GUI program is developed to display the light dose in real-time during PDT to guide the PDT treatment delivery to improve the uniformity of the light dose. A dualcorrection algorithm is used to improve the agreement between calculations and in-situ measurements. A comprehensive analysis of the distribution of light fluence during PDT is presented in both phantom conditions and in clinical cases.

  19. Evaluation of light penetration on Navigation Pools 8 and 13 of the Upper Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giblin, Shawn; Hoff, Kraig; Fischer, Jim; Dukerschein, Terry

    2010-01-01

    The availability of light can have a dramatic affect on macrophyte and phytoplankton abundance in virtually all aquatic ecosystems. The Long Term Resource Monitoring Program and other monitoring programs often measure factors that affect light extinction (nonvolatile suspended solids, volatile suspended solids, and chlorophyll) and correlates of light extinction (turbidity and Secchi depth), but rarely do they directly measure light extinction. Data on light extinction, Secchi depth, transparency tube, turbidity, total suspended solids, and volatile suspended solids were collected during summer 2003 on Pools 8 and 13 of the Upper Mississippi River. Regressions were developed to predict light extinction based upon Secchi depth, transparency tube, turbidity, and total suspended solids. Transparency tube, Secchi depth, and turbidity all showed strong relations with light extinction and can effectively predict light extinction. Total suspended solids did not show as strong a relation to light extinction. Volatile suspended solids had a greater affect on light extinction than nonvolatile suspended solids. The data were compared to recommended criteria established for light extinction, Secchi depth, total suspended solids, and turbidity by the Upper Mississippi River Conservation Committee to sustain submersed aquatic vegetation in the Upper Mississippi River. During the study period, the average condition in Pool 8 met or exceeded all of the criteria whereas the average condition in Pool 13 failed to meet any of the criteria. This report provides river managers with an effective tool to predict light extinction based upon readily available data.

  20. Inland Waters Night Lighting Configurations: A Navigation Rules Course for Coast Guard Auxiliarists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Gregory Peter

    A project developed a training program to teach boaters to recognize and interpret properly the lights of other vessels in nighttime or other reduced visibility conditions in the inland waters of the United States. The project followed the Instructional Systems Design model in the development of the course. The target population were members of…

  1. Inland Waters Night Lighting Configurations: A Navigation Rules Course for Coast Guard Auxiliarists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Gregory Peter

    A project developed a training program to teach boaters to recognize and interpret properly the lights of other vessels in nighttime or other reduced visibility conditions in the inland waters of the United States. The project followed the Instructional Systems Design model in the development of the course. The target population were members of…

  2. Relative Navigation Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) Sensor Development Test Objective (DTO) Performance Verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennehy, Cornelius J.

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) received a request from the NASA Associate Administrator (AA) for Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD), to quantitatively evaluate the individual performance of three light detection and ranging (LIDAR) rendezvous sensors flown as orbiter's development test objective on Space Transportation System (STS)-127, STS-133, STS-134, and STS-135. This document contains the outcome of the NESC assessment.

  3. Navigating the gender minefield: An IPV prevention campaign sheds light on the gender gap.

    PubMed

    Keller, Sarah N; Honea, Joy C

    2016-01-01

    This article examines how differences in male and female views about intimate partner violence (IPV) contributed to divergent responses to a prevention campaign conducted in the western USA. The study examines focus groups (n = 22) and in-depth interview data (n = 13) collected during campaign development to shed light on quantitative results indicating that women (but not men) increased their perceived severity of domestic violence and awareness of services from pre-test to post-test, while male attitudes moved in the opposite direction. Results of the qualitative study provide the basis for the authors' conclusions about why reactions differed: (1) men's unwillingness to view abuse within a gender context limits men's ability to accept the inequity in statistically demonstrated male and female roles as perpetrators and victims; (2) male resentment of existing gender stereotypes contributed to a rejection of campaign messages that utilised gender prevalence statistics to depict images showing men as perpetrators and women as victims; and (3) victim blaming attitudes contributed to resistance to empathy for victims depicted in the campaign. The authors offer suggestions for future campaigns that foster agency among both perpetrators and survivors while confronting the structural barriers to enacting change.

  4. A novel angle computation and calibration algorithm of bio-inspired sky-light polarization navigation sensor.

    PubMed

    Xian, Zhiwen; Hu, Xiaoping; Lian, Junxiang; Zhang, Lilian; Cao, Juliang; Wang, Yujie; Ma, Tao

    2014-09-15

    Navigation plays a vital role in our daily life. As traditional and commonly used navigation technologies, Inertial Navigation System (INS) and Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) can provide accurate location information, but suffer from the accumulative error of inertial sensors and cannot be used in a satellite denied environment. The remarkable navigation ability of animals shows that the pattern of the polarization sky can be used for navigation. A bio-inspired POLarization Navigation Sensor (POLNS) is constructed to detect the polarization of skylight. Contrary to the previous approach, we utilize all the outputs of POLNS to compute input polarization angle, based on Least Squares, which provides optimal angle estimation. In addition, a new sensor calibration algorithm is presented, in which the installation angle errors and sensor biases are taken into consideration. Derivation and implementation of our calibration algorithm are discussed in detail. To evaluate the performance of our algorithms, simulation and real data test are done to compare our algorithms with several exiting algorithms. Comparison results indicate that our algorithms are superior to the others and are more feasible and effective in practice.

  5. A Novel Angle Computation and Calibration Algorithm of Bio-Inspired Sky-Light Polarization Navigation Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Xian, Zhiwen; Hu, Xiaoping; Lian, Junxiang; Zhang, Lilian; Cao, Juliang; Wang, Yujie; Ma, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Navigation plays a vital role in our daily life. As traditional and commonly used navigation technologies, Inertial Navigation System (INS) and Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) can provide accurate location information, but suffer from the accumulative error of inertial sensors and cannot be used in a satellite denied environment. The remarkable navigation ability of animals shows that the pattern of the polarization sky can be used for navigation. A bio-inspired POLarization Navigation Sensor (POLNS) is constructed to detect the polarization of skylight. Contrary to the previous approach, we utilize all the outputs of POLNS to compute input polarization angle, based on Least Squares, which provides optimal angle estimation. In addition, a new sensor calibration algorithm is presented, in which the installation angle errors and sensor biases are taken into consideration. Derivation and implementation of our calibration algorithm are discussed in detail. To evaluate the performance of our algorithms, simulation and real data test are done to compare our algorithms with several exiting algorithms. Comparison results indicate that our algorithms are superior to the others and are more feasible and effective in practice. PMID:25225872

  6. AUTOMATIC NAVIGATION.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    NAVIGATION, REPORTS), (*CONTROL SYSTEMS, *INFORMATION THEORY), ABSTRACTS, OPTIMIZATION, DYNAMIC PROGRAMMING, GAME THEORY, NONLINEAR SYSTEMS, CORRELATION TECHNIQUES, FOURIER ANALYSIS, INTEGRAL TRANSFORMS, DEMODULATION, NAVIGATION CHARTS, PATTERN RECOGNITION, DISTRIBUTION THEORY , TIME SHARING, GRAPHICS, DIGITAL COMPUTERS, FEEDBACK, STABILITY

  7. 33 CFR 62.45 - Light characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Light characteristics. 62.45... NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.45 Light characteristics. (a) Lights on aids to navigation are differentiated by color and rhythm. Lighthouses and...

  8. 33 CFR 62.45 - Light characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Light characteristics. 62.45... NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.45 Light characteristics. (a) Lights on aids to navigation are differentiated by color and rhythm. Lighthouses and...

  9. 33 CFR 62.45 - Light characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Light characteristics. 62.45... NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.45 Light characteristics. (a) Lights on aids to navigation are differentiated by color and rhythm. Lighthouses and...

  10. 33 CFR 62.45 - Light characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Light characteristics. 62.45... NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.45 Light characteristics. (a) Lights on aids to navigation are differentiated by color and rhythm. Lighthouses and...

  11. 33 CFR 62.45 - Light characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Light characteristics. 62.45... NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.45 Light characteristics. (a) Lights on aids to navigation are differentiated by color and rhythm. Lighthouses and...

  12. 33 CFR 66.01-11 - Lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lights. 66.01-11 Section 66.01-11... TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than Federal or State § 66.01-11 Lights. (a) Except for range and sector lights, each light approved as a private aid to navigation must: (1) Have at least...

  13. 33 CFR 66.01-11 - Lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lights. 66.01-11 Section 66.01-11... TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than Federal or State § 66.01-11 Lights. (a) Except for range and sector lights, each light approved as a private aid to navigation must: (1) Have at least...

  14. 33 CFR 66.01-11 - Lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lights. 66.01-11 Section 66.01-11... TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than Federal or State § 66.01-11 Lights. (a) Except for range and sector lights, each light approved as a private aid to navigation must: (1) Have at least...

  15. 33 CFR 66.01-11 - Lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lights. 66.01-11 Section 66.01-11... TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than Federal or State § 66.01-11 Lights. (a) Except for range and sector lights, each light approved as a private aid to navigation must: (1) Have at least...

  16. 33 CFR 66.01-11 - Lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lights. 66.01-11 Section 66.01-11... TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than Federal or State § 66.01-11 Lights. (a) Except for range and sector lights, each light approved as a private aid to navigation must: (1) Have at least...

  17. Inertial Navigation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    also been well-known for some time. However, inertial navigation systems (called inertial guidance systems in rocket technology) which are composed of... navigation technology has developed rapidly, and the precision of inertial navigation has increased greatly. In 1944, the ’V-2’ rocket made the first...gyroscopes, accelerometers, and electronic computers have only been on the market for a little over twenty years. In the past twenty years, inertial

  18. SEXTANT: Navigating by Cosmic Beacon

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Imagine a technology that would allow space travelers to transmit gigabytes of data per second over interplanetary distances or to navigate to Mars and beyond using powerful beams of light emanatin...

  19. Micro Navigator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blaes, B. R.; Kia, T.; Chau, S. N.

    2001-01-01

    Miniature high-performance low-mass space avionics systems are desired for planned future outer planetary exploration missions (i.e. Europa Orbiter/Lander, Pluto-Kuiper Express). The spacecraft fuel and mass requirements enabling orbit insertion is the driving requirement. The Micro Navigator is an integrated autonomous Guidance, Navigation & Control (GN&C)micro-system that would provide the critical avionics function for navigation, pointing, and precision landing. The Micro Navigator hardware and software allow fusion of data from multiple sensors to provide a single integrated vehicle state vector necessary for six degrees of freedom GN&C. The benefits of this MicroNavigator include: 1) The Micro Navigator employs MEMS devices that promise orders of magnitude reductions in mass power and volume of inertial sensors (accelerometers and gyroscopes), celestial sensing devices (startracker, sun sensor), and computing element; 2) The highly integrated nature of the unit will reduce the cost of flight missions. a) The advanced miniaturization technologies employed by the Micro Navigator lend themselves to mass production, and therefore will reduce production cost of spacecraft. b) The integral approach simplifies interface issues associated with discrete components and reduces cost associated with integration and test of multiple components; and 3) The integration of sensors and processing elements into a single unit will allow the Micro Navigator to encapsulate attitude information and determination functions into a single object. This is particularly beneficial for object-oriented software architectures that are used in advanced spacecraft. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  20. Micro Navigator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaes, B. R.; Kia, T.; Chau, S. N.

    2001-01-01

    Miniature high-performance low-mass space avionics systems are desired for planned future outer planetary exploration missions (i.e. Europa Orbiter/Lander, Pluto-Kuiper Express). The spacecraft fuel and mass requirements enabling orbit insertion is the driving requirement. The Micro Navigator is an integrated autonomous Guidance, Navigation & Control (GN&C)micro-system that would provide the critical avionics function for navigation, pointing, and precision landing. The Micro Navigator hardware and software allow fusion of data from multiple sensors to provide a single integrated vehicle state vector necessary for six degrees of freedom GN&C. The benefits of this MicroNavigator include: 1) The Micro Navigator employs MEMS devices that promise orders of magnitude reductions in mass power and volume of inertial sensors (accelerometers and gyroscopes), celestial sensing devices (startracker, sun sensor), and computing element; 2) The highly integrated nature of the unit will reduce the cost of flight missions. a) The advanced miniaturization technologies employed by the Micro Navigator lend themselves to mass production, and therefore will reduce production cost of spacecraft. b) The integral approach simplifies interface issues associated with discrete components and reduces cost associated with integration and test of multiple components; and 3) The integration of sensors and processing elements into a single unit will allow the Micro Navigator to encapsulate attitude information and determination functions into a single object. This is particularly beneficial for object-oriented software architectures that are used in advanced spacecraft. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  1. PATIENT NAVIGATION

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Kristen J.; Battaglia, Tracy A.; Dudley, Donald J.; Garcia, Roland; Greene, Amanda; Calhoun, Elizabeth; Mandelblatt, Jeanne S.; Paskett, Electra D.; Raich, Peter C.

    2008-01-01

    Background First implemented in 1990, patient navigation interventions are emerging as an approach to reduce cancer disparities. However, there is lack of consensus about how patient navigation is defined, what patient navigators do, and what their qualifications should be. Little is known about the efficacy and cost effectiveness of patient navigation. Methods We conducted a qualitative synthesis of published literature on cancer patient navigation. Using the keywords “navigator” or “navigation” and “cancer,” we identified 45 articles from Pubmed and reference searches that were published or in press through October 2007. 16 provided data on efficacy of navigation in improving timeliness and receipt of cancer screening, diagnostic follow-up care, and treatment. Patient navigation services are defined and differentiated from other outreach services. Results Overall there is evidence for some degree of efficacy for patient navigation in increasing participation in cancer screening and adherence to diagnostic follow-up care following an abnormality, with increases in screening ranging from 10.8% to 17.1% and increases in adherence to diagnostic follow-up care ranging from 21% to 29.2%, when compared to control patients. There is less evidence regarding efficacy of patient navigation in reducing either late stage cancer diagnosis or delays in initiation of cancer treatment or improving outcomes during cancer survivorship. There were methodological limitations in most studies, such as lack of control groups, small sample sizes, and contamination with other interventions. Conclusions Although cancer-related patient navigation interventions are being increasingly adopted across the U.S. and Canada, further research is necessary to evaluate their efficacy and cost-effectiveness in improving cancer care. PMID:18780320

  2. INL Autonomous Navigation System

    SciTech Connect

    2005-03-30

    The INL Autonomous Navigation System provides instructions for autonomously navigating a robot. The system permits high-speed autonomous navigation including obstacle avoidance, waypoing navigation and path planning in both indoor and outdoor environments.

  3. Lighting.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-09-01

    Since lighting accounts for about one-third of the energy used in commercial buildings, there is opportunity to conserve. There are two ways to reduce lighting energy use: modify lighting systems so that they used less electricity and/or reduce the number of hours the lights are used. This booklet presents a number of ways to do both. Topics covered include: reassessing lighting levels, reducing lighting levels, increasing bulb & fixture efficiency, using controls to regulate lighting, and taking advantage of daylight.

  4. Viking navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oneil, W. J.; Rudd, R. P.; Farless, D. L.; Hildebrand, C. E.; Mitchell, R. T.; Rourke, K. H.; Euler, E. A.

    1979-01-01

    A comprehensive description of the navigation of the Viking spacecraft throughout their flight from Earth launch to Mars landing is given. The flight path design, actual inflight control, and postflight reconstruction are discussed in detail. The preflight analyses upon which the operational strategies and performance predictions were based are discussed. The inflight results are then discussed and compared with the preflight predictions and, finally, the results of any postflight analyses are presented.

  5. 33 CFR 84.13 - Color specification of lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Color specification of lights. 84... NAVIGATION RULES ANNEX I: POSITIONING AND TECHNICAL DETAILS OF LIGHTS AND SHAPES § 84.13 Color specification of lights. (a) The chromaticity of all navigation lights shall conform to the following...

  6. 33 CFR 118.65 - Lights on fixed bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lights on fixed bridges. 118.65... LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.65 Lights on fixed bridges. (a) Each fixed bridge span over a navigable... range of two green lights, and each margin of each navigable channel will be marked by a red...

  7. 33 CFR 118.65 - Lights on fixed bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lights on fixed bridges. 118.65... LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.65 Lights on fixed bridges. (a) Each fixed bridge span over a navigable... range of two green lights, and each margin of each navigable channel will be marked by a red...

  8. 33 CFR 84.13 - Color specification of lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Color specification of lights. 84... NAVIGATION RULES ANNEX I: POSITIONING AND TECHNICAL DETAILS OF LIGHTS AND SHAPES § 84.13 Color specification of lights. (a) The chromaticity of all navigation lights shall conform to the following...

  9. 33 CFR 84.13 - Color specification of lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Color specification of lights. 84... NAVIGATION RULES ANNEX I: POSITIONING AND TECHNICAL DETAILS OF LIGHTS AND SHAPES § 84.13 Color specification of lights. (a) The chromaticity of all navigation lights shall conform to the following...

  10. 33 CFR 84.13 - Color specification of lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Color specification of lights. 84... NAVIGATION RULES ANNEX I: POSITIONING AND TECHNICAL DETAILS OF LIGHTS AND SHAPES § 84.13 Color specification of lights. (a) The chromaticity of all navigation lights shall conform to the following...

  11. 33 CFR 118.65 - Lights on fixed bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lights on fixed bridges. 118.65... LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.65 Lights on fixed bridges. (a) Each fixed bridge span over a navigable... range of two green lights, and each margin of each navigable channel will be marked by a red...

  12. 33 CFR 118.65 - Lights on fixed bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lights on fixed bridges. 118.65... LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.65 Lights on fixed bridges. (a) Each fixed bridge span over a navigable... range of two green lights, and each margin of each navigable channel will be marked by a red...

  13. 33 CFR 84.13 - Color specification of lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Color specification of lights. 84... NAVIGATION RULES ANNEX I: POSITIONING AND TECHNICAL DETAILS OF LIGHTS AND SHAPES § 84.13 Color specification of lights. (a) The chromaticity of all navigation lights shall conform to the following...

  14. 33 CFR 118.65 - Lights on fixed bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lights on fixed bridges. 118.65... LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.65 Lights on fixed bridges. (a) Each fixed bridge span over a navigable... range of two green lights, and each margin of each navigable channel will be marked by a red...

  15. 33 CFR 67.05-20 - Minimum lighting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Minimum lighting requirements. 67.05-20 Section 67.05-20 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... for Lights § 67.05-20 Minimum lighting requirements. The obstruction lighting requirements...

  16. 33 CFR 67.05-20 - Minimum lighting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Minimum lighting requirements. 67.05-20 Section 67.05-20 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... for Lights § 67.05-20 Minimum lighting requirements. The obstruction lighting requirements...

  17. 33 CFR 67.05-20 - Minimum lighting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Minimum lighting requirements. 67.05-20 Section 67.05-20 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... for Lights § 67.05-20 Minimum lighting requirements. The obstruction lighting requirements...

  18. 33 CFR 67.05-20 - Minimum lighting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Minimum lighting requirements. 67.05-20 Section 67.05-20 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... for Lights § 67.05-20 Minimum lighting requirements. The obstruction lighting requirements...

  19. 33 CFR 67.05-20 - Minimum lighting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Minimum lighting requirements. 67.05-20 Section 67.05-20 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... for Lights § 67.05-20 Minimum lighting requirements. The obstruction lighting requirements...

  20. 33 CFR 82.5 - Lights for moored vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lights for moored vessels. 82.5 Section 82.5 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES 72 COLREGS: INTERPRETATIVE RULES § 82.5 Lights for moored vessels. For the purposes of...

  1. 33 CFR 90.5 - Lights for moored vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lights for moored vessels. 90.5 Section 90.5 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INLAND NAVIGATION RULES INLAND RULES: INTERPRETATIVE RULES § 90.5 Lights for moored vessels. A vessel at...

  2. 33 CFR 90.5 - Lights for moored vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lights for moored vessels. 90.5 Section 90.5 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INLAND NAVIGATION RULES INLAND RULES: INTERPRETATIVE RULES § 90.5 Lights for moored vessels. A vessel at...

  3. 33 CFR 82.5 - Lights for moored vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lights for moored vessels. 82.5 Section 82.5 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES 72 COLREGS: INTERPRETATIVE RULES § 82.5 Lights for moored vessels. For the purposes of...

  4. 33 CFR 82.5 - Lights for moored vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lights for moored vessels. 82.5 Section 82.5 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES 72 COLREGS: INTERPRETATIVE RULES § 82.5 Lights for moored vessels. For the purposes of...

  5. 33 CFR 82.5 - Lights for moored vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lights for moored vessels. 82.5 Section 82.5 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES 72 COLREGS: INTERPRETATIVE RULES § 82.5 Lights for moored vessels. For the purposes of...

  6. 33 CFR 90.5 - Lights for moored vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lights for moored vessels. 90.5 Section 90.5 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INLAND NAVIGATION RULES INLAND RULES: INTERPRETATIVE RULES § 90.5 Lights for moored vessels. A vessel at...

  7. 33 CFR 90.5 - Lights for moored vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lights for moored vessels. 90.5 Section 90.5 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INLAND NAVIGATION RULES INLAND RULES: INTERPRETATIVE RULES § 90.5 Lights for moored vessels. A vessel at...

  8. 33 CFR 82.5 - Lights for moored vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lights for moored vessels. 82.5 Section 82.5 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES 72 COLREGS: INTERPRETATIVE RULES § 82.5 Lights for moored vessels. For the purposes of...

  9. 33 CFR 90.5 - Lights for moored vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lights for moored vessels. 90.5 Section 90.5 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INLAND NAVIGATION RULES INLAND RULES: INTERPRETATIVE RULES § 90.5 Lights for moored vessels. A vessel at...

  10. 33 CFR 81.20 - Lights and sound signal appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lights and sound signal appliances. 81.20 Section 81.20 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES 72 COLREGS: IMPLEMENTING RULES Exemptions § 81.20 Lights and sound...

  11. 33 CFR 81.20 - Lights and sound signal appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lights and sound signal appliances. 81.20 Section 81.20 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES 72 COLREGS: IMPLEMENTING RULES Exemptions § 81.20 Lights and sound...

  12. 33 CFR 81.20 - Lights and sound signal appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lights and sound signal appliances. 81.20 Section 81.20 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES 72 COLREGS: IMPLEMENTING RULES Exemptions § 81.20 Lights and sound...

  13. 33 CFR 81.20 - Lights and sound signal appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lights and sound signal appliances. 81.20 Section 81.20 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES 72 COLREGS: IMPLEMENTING RULES Exemptions § 81.20 Lights and sound...

  14. 33 CFR 81.20 - Lights and sound signal appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lights and sound signal appliances. 81.20 Section 81.20 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES 72 COLREGS: IMPLEMENTING RULES Exemptions § 81.20 Lights and sound...

  15. 33 CFR 165.1303 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... § 165.1303 Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA—regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a... Light to New Dungeness Light and all points in the Puget Sound area north and south of these lights....

  16. 33 CFR 165.1303 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... § 165.1303 Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA—regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a... Light to New Dungeness Light and all points in the Puget Sound area north and south of these lights....

  17. 33 CFR 165.1303 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... § 165.1303 Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA—regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a... Light to New Dungeness Light and all points in the Puget Sound area north and south of these lights....

  18. 33 CFR 165.1303 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... § 165.1303 Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA—regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a... Light to New Dungeness Light and all points in the Puget Sound area north and south of these lights....

  19. 33 CFR 165.1303 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... § 165.1303 Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA—regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a... Light to New Dungeness Light and all points in the Puget Sound area north and south of these lights....

  20. Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernon, C. G.

    2016-09-01

    Preface; 1. Historical; 2. Waves and wave-motion; 3. The behaviour of ripples; 4. The behaviour of light; 5. Refraction through glass blocks and prisms; 6. The imprinting of curvatures; 7. Simple mathematical treatment; 8. More advanced mathematical treatment; 9. The velocity of light; 10. The spectrum and colour; 11. Geometrical optics; 12. The eye and optical instruments; 13. Sources of light; 14. Interference, diffraction and polarisation; 15. Suggestions for class experiments; Index.

  1. 14 CFR 171.61 - Air navigation certificate: Revocation and termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Air navigation certificate: Revocation and... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) NAVIGATIONAL FACILITIES NON-FEDERAL NAVIGATION FACILITIES True Lights § 171.61 Air navigation certificate: Revocation and termination. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section...

  2. 14 CFR 171.61 - Air navigation certificate: Revocation and termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Air navigation certificate: Revocation and... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) NAVIGATIONAL FACILITIES NON-FEDERAL NAVIGATION FACILITIES True Lights § 171.61 Air navigation certificate: Revocation and termination. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section...

  3. 14 CFR 171.61 - Air navigation certificate: Revocation and termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air navigation certificate: Revocation and... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) NAVIGATIONAL FACILITIES NON-FEDERAL NAVIGATION FACILITIES True Lights § 171.61 Air navigation certificate: Revocation and termination. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section...

  4. 14 CFR 171.61 - Air navigation certificate: Revocation and termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Air navigation certificate: Revocation and... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) NAVIGATIONAL FACILITIES NON-FEDERAL NAVIGATION FACILITIES True Lights § 171.61 Air navigation certificate: Revocation and termination. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section...

  5. 14 CFR 171.61 - Air navigation certificate: Revocation and termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air navigation certificate: Revocation and... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) NAVIGATIONAL FACILITIES NON-FEDERAL NAVIGATION FACILITIES True Lights § 171.61 Air navigation certificate: Revocation and termination. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section...

  6. 33 CFR 67.05-25 - Special lighting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Special lighting requirements. 67.05-25 Section 67.05-25 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... for Lights § 67.05-25 Special lighting requirements. Whenever a structure is erected in a position...

  7. 33 CFR 67.05-25 - Special lighting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Special lighting requirements. 67.05-25 Section 67.05-25 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... for Lights § 67.05-25 Special lighting requirements. Whenever a structure is erected in a position...

  8. 33 CFR 67.05-25 - Special lighting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Special lighting requirements. 67.05-25 Section 67.05-25 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... for Lights § 67.05-25 Special lighting requirements. Whenever a structure is erected in a position...

  9. 33 CFR 67.05-25 - Special lighting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special lighting requirements. 67.05-25 Section 67.05-25 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... for Lights § 67.05-25 Special lighting requirements. Whenever a structure is erected in a position...

  10. 33 CFR 67.05-25 - Special lighting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Special lighting requirements. 67.05-25 Section 67.05-25 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... for Lights § 67.05-25 Special lighting requirements. Whenever a structure is erected in a position...

  11. 46 CFR 112.43-7 - Navigating bridge distribution panel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Navigating bridge distribution panel. 112.43-7 Section 112.43-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Lighting Systems § 112.43-7 Navigating bridge distribution...

  12. 46 CFR 112.43-7 - Navigating bridge distribution panel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Navigating bridge distribution panel. 112.43-7 Section 112.43-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Lighting Systems § 112.43-7 Navigating bridge distribution...

  13. 46 CFR 112.43-7 - Navigating bridge distribution panel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Navigating bridge distribution panel. 112.43-7 Section 112.43-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Lighting Systems § 112.43-7 Navigating bridge distribution...

  14. 46 CFR 112.43-7 - Navigating bridge distribution panel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Navigating bridge distribution panel. 112.43-7 Section 112.43-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Lighting Systems § 112.43-7 Navigating bridge distribution...

  15. 46 CFR 112.43-7 - Navigating bridge distribution panel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Navigating bridge distribution panel. 112.43-7 Section 112.43-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Lighting Systems § 112.43-7 Navigating bridge distribution...

  16. Autonomous Deep-Space Optical Navigation Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    D'Souza, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    This project will advance the Autonomous Deep-space navigation capability applied to Autonomous Rendezvous and Docking (AR&D) Guidance, Navigation and Control (GNC) system by testing it on hardware, particularly in a flight processor, with a goal of limited testing in the Integrated Power, Avionics and Software (IPAS) with the ARCM (Asteroid Retrieval Crewed Mission) DRO (Distant Retrograde Orbit) Autonomous Rendezvous and Docking (AR&D) scenario. The technology, which will be harnessed, is called 'optical flow', also known as 'visual odometry'. It is being matured in the automotive and SLAM (Simultaneous Localization and Mapping) applications but has yet to be applied to spacecraft navigation. In light of the tremendous potential of this technique, we believe that NASA needs to design a optical navigation architecture that will use this technique. It is flexible enough to be applicable to navigating around planetary bodies, such as asteroids.

  17. Two Systems of Spatial Representation Underlying Navigation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Ah; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2011-01-01

    We review evidence for two distinct cognitive processes by which humans and animals represent the navigable environment. One process uses the shape of the extended 3D surface layout to specify the navigator’s position and orientation. A second process uses objects and patterns as beacons to specify the locations of significant objects. Although much of the evidence for these processes comes from neurophysiological studies of navigating animals and neuroimaging studies of human adults, behavioral studies of navigating children shed light both on the nature of these systems and on their interactions. PMID:20614214

  18. VOR area navigation - Techniques and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ragsdale, W. A.

    1982-01-01

    Several methods for deriving position from VOR (without DME) have been developed and evaluated in this study. These methods permit navigation to arbitrary waypoints using either two VOR's or one VOR and a clock. These algorithms have been tested in computer simulations and in flight tests. The single VOR method appears to be the most practical and is a candidate for an automated light plane area navigation system, called VORNAV.

  19. 33 CFR 165.1704 - Prince William Sound, Alaska-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Prince William Sound, Alaska... District § 165.1704 Prince William Sound, Alaska-regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a... Hinchinbrook Light to Schooner Rock Light, comprising that portion of Prince William Sound between 146°30′...

  20. 33 CFR 165.1704 - Prince William Sound, Alaska-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Prince William Sound, Alaska... District § 165.1704 Prince William Sound, Alaska-regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a... Hinchinbrook Light to Schooner Rock Light, comprising that portion of Prince William Sound between 146°30′...

  1. 33 CFR 165.1704 - Prince William Sound, Alaska-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Prince William Sound, Alaska... District § 165.1704 Prince William Sound, Alaska-regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a... Hinchinbrook Light to Schooner Rock Light, comprising that portion of Prince William Sound between 146°30′...

  2. 33 CFR 165.1704 - Prince William Sound, Alaska-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prince William Sound, Alaska... District § 165.1704 Prince William Sound, Alaska-regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a... Hinchinbrook Light to Schooner Rock Light, comprising that portion of Prince William Sound between 146°30′...

  3. 33 CFR 165.1704 - Prince William Sound, Alaska-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Prince William Sound, Alaska... District § 165.1704 Prince William Sound, Alaska-regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a... Hinchinbrook Light to Schooner Rock Light, comprising that portion of Prince William Sound between 146°30′...

  4. Navigating the Internet.

    PubMed Central

    Powsner, S M; Roderer, N K

    1994-01-01

    Navigating any complex set of information resources requires tools for both browsing and searching. A number of tools are available today for using Internet resources, and more are being developed. This article reviews existing navigational tools, including two developed at the Yale University School of Medicine, and points out their strengths and weaknesses. A major shortcoming of the present Internet navigation methods is the lack of controlled descriptions of the available resources. As a result, navigating the Internet is very difficult. PMID:7841913

  5. Learning navigation - Learning with navigation. A review.

    PubMed

    Jenny, Jean-Yves; Picard, Frederic

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this review paper is to retrieve from the existing literature relevant information (1) about the learning curve of the currently existing navigation systems and (2) about the use of navigation system for teaching orthopaedic procedures. All studies reporting on the learning curve of navigation systems support the hypothesis that computer-navigated total knee arthroplasty (TKA) involves only a short learning curve and that beginners can obtain good results from the beginning of their experience, as navigation provides continuous feedback during all phases of the knee replacement surgery and allows for correcting any bone cut errors. Interestingly, there is no comparable research on the learning curve of TKA with standard, manual instrumentation. One might postulate that this learning curve might be longer than with navigation, with potentially a higher rate of outliers. The current literature does support that navigation may be an efficient teaching tool for both experienced orthopaedic surgeons and trainees. Experienced surgeons may improve their skills with conventional techniques and learn new techniques more efficiently and more quickly. Trainees may have a better understanding of the procedure and learn standard techniques with a shorter learning curve. This is probably due to the immediate feedback of navigation systems. A shorter learning curve may be associated with improved clinical and functional results for the patient during this critical period. However, there is no evidence that training with navigation excludes trainees from the need to work in academic environments with experienced teachers. Future techniques in training may include the development of laboratory simulation procedures using navigated feedback. © The Authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2017.

  6. Personal Navigation System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-31

    the capabilities of prototype hardware for navigation in GPS - denied and significantly challenged environments. Two technologies, developed at...building operational navigation sequence: GPS position initialization, handover to Deep Integration tracking, GPS - denied navigation, and finally satellite...Vertical Gait CEP relative to entry Max Relative Error Position error at entry Entry to exit Time GPS denied or challenged Draper Indoor Course

  7. Coastal Navigation Portfolio Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-19

    CIRP.aspx Coastal Inlets Research Program Coastal Navigation Portfolio Management The Coastal Navigatoin Portfolio Management work unit...across the vast coastal navigation portfolio of projects. The USACE maintains a vast infrastructure portfolio of deep-draft coastal entrance...the Corps needs to be able to direct resources at the navigation projects that are most critical to overall marine transportation system performance

  8. Autonomous navigation of USAF spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, J. R., Jr.

    1983-12-01

    The U. S. Air Force is developing satellite-borne sensors to enable autonomous navigation of spacecraft in the near future. This study compares the observations from several medium-accuracy space sensors, such as the existing telescopic space sextant, with those of future matrix-type sensors. The large field of view of matrix sensors will allow them to determine the Earth horizon to approximately an order of magnitude better than current infrared sensors by observing atmospheric refraction of stellar light. This horizon determination will give the matrix sensors an accuracy of less than 1 km. The limiting factor in Earth-horizon determination is the modeling of atmospheric refraction effects. For high-accuracy requirements (100 meters or less), the Global Positioning System (GPS) offers the only near-term solution. A relative navigation technique using range and Doppler data is proposed for autonomous navigation of the GPS satellites. The navigation accuracy of this technique is evaluated by consider covariance analysis and by processing corrupted data through a reduced-order onboard Sequentially Partitioned Algorithm. The algorithm is stable and for the GPS system produces in-plane accuracy of 40 meters over twenty days. However, out-of-plane motion is shown to be unobservable in the GPS-to-GPS tracking mode, and errors of up to 1.5 km over 60 days are experienced. For this reason, a supplemental transmitter on the ground or in a different orbit is recommended.

  9. 33 CFR 67.15-1 - Lights and signals on attendant vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lights and signals on attendant vessels. 67.15-1 Section 67.15-1 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES...

  10. 33 CFR 67.15-1 - Lights and signals on attendant vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lights and signals on attendant vessels. 67.15-1 Section 67.15-1 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES...

  11. 33 CFR 67.05-15 - Operating periods of obstruction lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Operating periods of obstruction lights. 67.05-15 Section 67.05-15 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES...

  12. 33 CFR 67.05-15 - Operating periods of obstruction lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Operating periods of obstruction lights. 67.05-15 Section 67.05-15 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES...

  13. 33 CFR 67.05-15 - Operating periods of obstruction lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operating periods of obstruction lights. 67.05-15 Section 67.05-15 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES...

  14. 33 CFR 67.05-15 - Operating periods of obstruction lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Operating periods of obstruction lights. 67.05-15 Section 67.05-15 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES...

  15. 33 CFR 67.15-1 - Lights and signals on attendant vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lights and signals on attendant vessels. 67.15-1 Section 67.15-1 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES...

  16. 33 CFR 67.15-1 - Lights and signals on attendant vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lights and signals on attendant vessels. 67.15-1 Section 67.15-1 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES...

  17. 33 CFR 67.15-1 - Lights and signals on attendant vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lights and signals on attendant vessels. 67.15-1 Section 67.15-1 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES...

  18. 33 CFR 67.05-15 - Operating periods of obstruction lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Operating periods of obstruction lights. 67.05-15 Section 67.05-15 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES...

  19. Space Shuttle navigation validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragsdale, A.

    The validation of the guidance, navigation, and control system of the Space Shuttle is explained. The functions of the ascent, on-board, and entry mission phases software of the navigation system are described. The common facility testing, which evaluates the simulations to be used in the navigation validation, is examined. The standard preflight analysis of the operational modes of the navigation software and the post-flight navigation analysis are explained. The conversion of the data into a useful reference frame and the use of orbit parameters in the analysis of the data are discussed. Upon entry the data received are converted to flags, ratios, and residuals in order to evaluate performance and detect errors. Various programs developed to support navigation validation are explained. A number of events that occurred with the Space Shuttle's navigation system are described.

  20. Space Shuttle navigation validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ragsdale, A.

    1985-01-01

    The validation of the guidance, navigation, and control system of the Space Shuttle is explained. The functions of the ascent, on-board, and entry mission phases software of the navigation system are described. The common facility testing, which evaluates the simulations to be used in the navigation validation, is examined. The standard preflight analysis of the operational modes of the navigation software and the post-flight navigation analysis are explained. The conversion of the data into a useful reference frame and the use of orbit parameters in the analysis of the data are discussed. Upon entry the data received are converted to flags, ratios, and residuals in order to evaluate performance and detect errors. Various programs developed to support navigation validation are explained. A number of events that occurred with the Space Shuttle's navigation system are described.

  1. 33 CFR 84.15 - Intensity of lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Intensity of lights. 84.15... NAVIGATION RULES ANNEX I: POSITIONING AND TECHNICAL DETAILS OF LIGHTS AND SHAPES § 84.15 Intensity of lights. (a) The minimum luminous intensity of lights shall be calculated by using the formula:...

  2. 33 CFR 84.15 - Intensity of lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intensity of lights. 84.15... NAVIGATION RULES ANNEX I: POSITIONING AND TECHNICAL DETAILS OF LIGHTS AND SHAPES § 84.15 Intensity of lights. (a) The minimum luminous intensity of lights shall be calculated by using the formula:...

  3. 33 CFR 84.15 - Intensity of lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Intensity of lights. 84.15... NAVIGATION RULES ANNEX I: POSITIONING AND TECHNICAL DETAILS OF LIGHTS AND SHAPES § 84.15 Intensity of lights. (a) The minimum luminous intensity of lights will be calculated by using the formula: I=3.43×106...

  4. 33 CFR 84.15 - Intensity of lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Intensity of lights. 84.15... NAVIGATION RULES ANNEX I: POSITIONING AND TECHNICAL DETAILS OF LIGHTS AND SHAPES § 84.15 Intensity of lights. (a) The minimum luminous intensity of lights will be calculated by using the formula: I=3.43×106...

  5. 33 CFR 84.15 - Intensity of lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Intensity of lights. 84.15... NAVIGATION RULES ANNEX I: POSITIONING AND TECHNICAL DETAILS OF LIGHTS AND SHAPES § 84.15 Intensity of lights. (a) The minimum luminous intensity of lights will be calculated by using the formula: I = 3.43 ×...

  6. Space Shuttle Navigation in the GPS Era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, John L.

    2001-01-01

    The Space Shuttle navigation architecture was originally designed in the 1970s. A variety of on-board and ground based navigation sensors and computers are used during the ascent, orbit coast, rendezvous, (including proximity operations and docking) and entry flight phases. With the advent of GPS navigation and tightly coupled GPS/INS Units employing strapdown sensors, opportunities to improve and streamline the Shuttle navigation process are being pursued. These improvements can potentially result in increased safety, reliability, and cost savings in maintenance through the replacement of older technologies and elimination of ground support systems (such as Tactical Air Control and Navigation (TACAN), Microwave Landing System (MLS) and ground radar). Selection and missionization of "off the shelf" GPS and GPS/INS units pose a unique challenge since the units in question were not originally designed for the Space Shuttle application. Various options for integrating GPS and GPS/INS units with the existing orbiter avionics system were considered in light of budget constraints, software quality concerns, and schedule limitations. An overview of Shuttle navigation methodology from 1981 to the present is given, along with how GPS and GPS/INS technology will change, or not change, the way Space Shuttle navigation is performed in the 21 5 century.

  7. Lighting

    SciTech Connect

    Audin, L.

    1994-12-31

    EPAct covers a vast territory beyond lighting and, like all legislation, also contains numerous {open_quotes}favors,{close_quotes} compromises, and even some sleight-of-hand. Tucked away under Title XIX, for example, is an increase from 20% to 28% tax on gambling winnings, effective January 1, 1993 - apparently as a way to help pay for new spending listed elsewhere in the bill. Overall, it is a landmark piece of legislation, about a decade overdue. It remains to be seen how the Federal Government will enforce upgrading of state (or even their own) energy codes. There is no mention of funding for {open_quotes}energy police{close_quotes} in EPAct. Merely creating such a national standard, however, provides a target for those who sincerely wish to create an energy-efficient future.

  8. Mars rover local navigation and hazard avoidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, B. H.; Gennery, D. B.; Mishkin, A. H.

    1989-01-01

    A Mars rover sample return mission has been proposed for the late 1990's. Due to the long speed-of-light delays between earth and Mars, some autonomy on the rover is highly desirable. JPL has been conducting research in two possible modes of rover operation, Computer-Aided Remote Driving and Semiautonomous Navigation. A recently-completed research program used a half-scale testbed vehicle to explore several of the concepts in semiautonomous navigation. A new, full-scale vehicle with all computational and power resources on-board will be used in the coming year to demonstrate relatively fast semiautonomous navigation. The computational and power requirements for Mars rover local navigation and hazard avoidance are discussed.

  9. 33 CFR 118.60 - Characteristics of lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Characteristics of lights. 118.60... LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.60 Characteristics of lights. All lights required or authorized under this.... Lights must meet the requirements of this part. Lights shall be fixed lights excepting as provided...

  10. 33 CFR 118.60 - Characteristics of lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Characteristics of lights. 118.60... LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.60 Characteristics of lights. All lights required or authorized under this.... Lights must meet the requirements of this part. Lights shall be fixed lights excepting as provided...

  11. 33 CFR 118.60 - Characteristics of lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Characteristics of lights. 118.60... LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.60 Characteristics of lights. All lights required or authorized under this.... Lights must meet the requirements of this part. Lights shall be fixed lights excepting as provided...

  12. 33 CFR 118.60 - Characteristics of lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Characteristics of lights. 118.60... LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.60 Characteristics of lights. All lights required or authorized under this.... Lights must meet the requirements of this part. Lights shall be fixed lights excepting as provided...

  13. 33 CFR 118.60 - Characteristics of lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Characteristics of lights. 118.60... LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.60 Characteristics of lights. All lights required or authorized under this.... Lights must meet the requirements of this part. Lights shall be fixed lights excepting as provided...

  14. Retrosplenial Cortical Neurons Encode Navigational Cues, Trajectories and Reward Locations During Goal Directed Navigation.

    PubMed

    Vedder, Lindsey C; Miller, Adam M P; Harrison, Marc B; Smith, David M

    2016-07-29

    The retrosplenial cortex (RSC) plays an important role in memory and spatial navigation. It shares functional similarities with the hippocampus, including the presence of place fields and lesion-induced impairments in spatial navigation, and the RSC is an important source of visual-spatial input to the hippocampus. Recently, the RSC has been the target of intense scrutiny among investigators of human memory and navigation. fMRI and lesion data suggest an RSC role in the ability to use landmarks to navigate to goal locations. However, no direct neurophysiological evidence of encoding navigational cues has been reported so the specific RSC contribution to spatial cognition has been uncertain. To examine this, we trained rats on a T-maze task in which the reward location was explicitly cued by a flashing light and we recorded RSC neurons as the rats learned. We found that RSC neurons rapidly encoded the light cue. Additionally, RSC neurons encoded the reward and its location, and they showed distinct firing patterns along the left and right trajectories to the goal. These responses may provide key information for goal-directed navigation, and the loss of these signals may underlie navigational impairments in subjects with RSC damage.

  15. Research on the airborne SINS/CNS integrated navigation system assisted by BD navigation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Mei-lin; Yang, Xiao-xu; Han, Jun-feng; Wei, Yu; Yue, Peng; Deng, Xiao-guo; Huang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    When the star navigation system working during the day, the strong sky background radiation lead to a result that the detect target light is too weak, in the field of view, because of the limitation on the number of the navigation star, usually choose the single star navigation work mode. In order to improve the reliability of the airborne SINS/CNS integrated navigation system, meet the demand of the long-endurance and high precision navigation, use the tight combination way, single star patrol algorithm to get the position and attitude. There exists filtering divergence problem because of the model error and the system measurement noise is uncertain, put forward a new fuzzy adaptive kalman filtering algorithm. Adjust the size of measurement noise to prevent the filter divergence; the positioning accuracy of integrated navigation system can be improved through BeiDou satellite. Without the information of BeiDou satellite, based on the level of the virtual reference, the navigation precision of integrated navigation system can be ensured over a period of time.

  16. FAA navigation program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, N. A.

    1978-01-01

    The FAA navigation program, which includes two major activity areas: those associated with certification of navigation systems to meet current requirements and those associated with building the data base needed to define future system improvements is examined. The near term activities, including the VORTAC upgrading program, the development of the technical data base needed for certification of LORAN C and OMEGA as a part of the current air navigation system, and the development of area navigation standards are examined in regard to cost factors and user requirements. Future system activities discussed include analysis of alternative system configurations made up of system elements including VORTAC VOR-DME, OMEGA and differential OMEGA, LORAN C, and GPS. The interrelationships between the near and far term programs are discussed. A helicopter IFR program which includes an assessment of the operational suitability of several navigation system alternatives for meeting helicopter navigation requirements for CONUS and offshore operations is reported.

  17. High Speed Lunar Navigation for Crewed and Remotely Piloted Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pedersen, L.; Allan, M.; To, V.; Utz, H.; Wojcikiewicz, W.; Chautems, C.

    2010-01-01

    Increased navigation speed is desirable for lunar rovers, whether autonomous, crewed or remotely operated, but is hampered by the low gravity, high contrast lighting and rough terrain. We describe lidar based navigation system deployed on NASA's K10 autonomous rover and to increase the terrain hazard situational awareness of the Lunar Electric Rover crew.

  18. Mixing navigation on networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Tao

    2008-05-01

    In this article, we propose a mixing navigation mechanism, which interpolates between random-walk and shortest-path protocol. The navigation efficiency can be remarkably enhanced via a few routers. Some advanced strategies are also designed: For non-geographical scale-free networks, the targeted strategy with a tiny fraction of routers can guarantee an efficient navigation with low and stable delivery time almost independent of network size. For geographical localized networks, the clustering strategy can simultaneously increase efficiency and reduce the communication cost. The present mixing navigation mechanism is of significance especially for information organization of wireless sensor networks and distributed autonomous robotic systems.

  19. Autonomous navigation of USAF spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, J. R., Jr.

    Observations from several medium-accuracy space sensors, such as the existing telescopic space sextant are compared with those of future matrix-type sensors. The large field of view of matrix sensors should permit determining the Earth horizon to approximately an order of magnitude better than current infrared sensors by observing atmospheric refraction of stellar light. This horizon determination will give the matrix sensors an accuracy of less than 1 km. The limiting factor in Earth-horizon determination is the modeling of atmospheric refraction effects. For high-accuracy requirements (100 meters or less), the Global Positioning System (GPS) offers the only near-term solution. A relative navigation technique using range and Doppler data is proposed for autonomous navigation of the GPS satellites. The navigation accuracy of this technique is evaluated by considering covariance analysis and by processing corrupted data through a reduced-order onboard sequentially partitioned algorithm. The algorithm is stable and for the GPS system produces in-plane accuracy of 40 meters over twenty days. However, out-of-plane motion is shown to be unobservable in the GPS-to-GPS tracking mode, and errors of up to 1.5 km over 60 days are experienced. For this reason, a supplemental transmitter on the ground or in a different orbit is recommended.

  20. 33 CFR 84.23 - Maneuvering light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maneuvering light. 84.23 Section... RULES ANNEX I: POSITIONING AND TECHNICAL DETAILS OF LIGHTS AND SHAPES § 84.23 Maneuvering light. Notwithstanding the provisions of § 84.03(f), the maneuvering light described in Rule 34(b) shall be...

  1. 33 CFR 84.23 - Maneuvering light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Maneuvering light. 84.23 Section... RULES ANNEX I: POSITIONING AND TECHNICAL DETAILS OF LIGHTS AND SHAPES § 84.23 Maneuvering light. Notwithstanding the provisions of § 84.03(f), the maneuvering light described in Rule 34(b) shall be...

  2. 33 CFR 84.23 - Maneuvering light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Maneuvering light. 84.23 Section... RULES ANNEX I: POSITIONING AND TECHNICAL DETAILS OF LIGHTS AND SHAPES § 84.23 Maneuvering light. Notwithstanding the provisions of § 84.03(f), the maneuvering light described in Rule 34(b) shall be...

  3. 33 CFR 84.23 - Maneuvering light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maneuvering light. 84.23 Section... RULES ANNEX I: POSITIONING AND TECHNICAL DETAILS OF LIGHTS AND SHAPES § 84.23 Maneuvering light. Notwithstanding the provisions of § 84.03(f), the maneuvering light described in Rule 34(b) shall be...

  4. 33 CFR 84.23 - Maneuvering light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maneuvering light. 84.23 Section... RULES ANNEX I: POSITIONING AND TECHNICAL DETAILS OF LIGHTS AND SHAPES § 84.23 Maneuvering light. Notwithstanding the provisions of § 84.03(f), the maneuvering light described in Rule 34(b) shall be...

  5. Sensor fusion for improved indoor navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emilsson, Erika; Rydell, Joakim

    2012-09-01

    A reliable indoor positioning system providing high accuracy has the potential to increase the safety of first responders and military personnel significantly. To enable navigation in a broad range of environments and obtain more accurate and robust positioning results, we propose a multi-sensor fusion approach. We describe and evaluate a positioning system, based on sensor fusion between a foot-mounted inertial measurement unit (IMU) and a camera-based system for simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM). The complete system provides accurate navigation in many relevant environments without depending on preinstalled infrastructure. The camera-based system uses both inertial measurements and visual data, thereby enabling navigation also in environments and scenarios where one of the sensors provides unreliable data during a few seconds. When sufficient light is available, the camera-based system generally provides good performance. The foot-mounted system provides accurate positioning when distinct steps can be detected, e.g., during walking and running, even in dark or smoke-filled environments. By combining the two systems, the integrated positioning system can be expected to enable accurate navigation in almost all kinds of environments and scenarios. In this paper we present results from initial tests, which show that the proposed sensor fusion improves the navigation solution considerably in scenarios where either the foot-mounted or camera-based system is unable to navigate on its own.

  6. Maps and navigation methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duval, A

    1922-01-01

    Different maps and scales are discussed with particular emphasis on their use in aviation. The author makes the observation that current navigation methods are slow and dangerous and should be replaced by scientific methods of navigation based on loxodromy and the use of the compass.

  7. Autonomous Optical Lunar Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zanetti, Renato; Crouse, Brian; D'souza, Chris

    2009-01-01

    The performance of optical autonomous navigation is investigated for low lunar orbits and for high elliptical lunar orbits. Various options for employing the camera measurements are presented and compared. Strategies for improving navigation performance are developed and applied to the Orion vehicle lunar mission

  8. The Aging Navigational System.

    PubMed

    Lester, Adam W; Moffat, Scott D; Wiener, Jan M; Barnes, Carol A; Wolbers, Thomas

    2017-08-30

    The discovery of neuronal systems dedicated to computing spatial information, composed of functionally distinct cell types such as place and grid cells, combined with an extensive body of human-based behavioral and neuroimaging research has provided us with a detailed understanding of the brain's navigation circuit. In this review, we discuss emerging evidence from rodents, non-human primates, and humans that demonstrates how cognitive aging affects the navigational computations supported by these systems. Critically, we show 1) that navigational deficits cannot solely be explained by general deficits in learning and memory, 2) that there is no uniform decline across different navigational computations, and 3) that navigational deficits might be sensitive markers for impending pathological decline. Following an introduction to the mechanisms underlying spatial navigation and how they relate to general processes of learning and memory, the review discusses how aging affects the perception and integration of spatial information, the creation and storage of memory traces for spatial information, and the use of spatial information during navigational behavior. The closing section highlights the clinical potential of behavioral and neural markers of spatial navigation, with a particular emphasis on neurodegenerative disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Navigator program risk management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wessen, Randii R.; Padilla, Deborah A.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, program risk management as applied to the Navigator Program: In Search of New Worlds will be discussed. The Navigator Program's goals are to learn how planetary systems form and to search for those worlds that could or do harbor life.

  10. Navigator program risk management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wessen, Randii R.; Padilla, Deborah A.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, program risk management as applied to the Navigator Program: In Search of New Worlds will be discussed. The Navigator Program's goals are to learn how planetary systems form and to search for those worlds that could or do harbor life.

  11. Integrated multisensor navigation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vangraas, Frank

    1988-01-01

    The multisensor navigation systems research evolved from the availability of several stand alone navigation systems and the growing concern for aircraft navigation reliability and safety. The intent is to develop a multisensor navigation system during the next decade that will be capable of providing reliable aircraft position data. These data will then be transmitted directly, or by satellite, to surveillance centers to aid the process of air traffic flow control. In order to satisfy the requirements for such a system, the following issues need to be examined: performance, coverage, reliability, availability, and integrity. The presence of a multisensor navigation system in all aircraft will improve safety for the aviation community and allow for more economical operation.

  12. 33 CFR 149.550 - What are the requirements for lights on a floating hose string?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... flashing yellow light. Lights on Buoys Used To Define Traffic Lanes ... lights on a floating hose string? 149.550 Section 149.550 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... EQUIPMENT Aids to Navigation Lights on Floating Hose Strings § 149.550 What are the requirements for lights...

  13. 33 CFR 88.13 - Lights on moored barges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lights on moored barges. 88.13... NAVIGATION RULES ANNEX V: PILOT RULES § 88.13 Lights on moored barges. (a) The following barges shall display at night and if practicable in periods of restricted visibility the lights described in paragraph...

  14. 33 CFR 88.13 - Lights on moored barges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lights on moored barges. 88.13... NAVIGATION RULES ANNEX V: PILOT RULES § 88.13 Lights on moored barges. (a) The following barges shall display at night and if practicable in periods of restricted visibility the lights described in paragraph...

  15. 33 CFR 88.15 - Lights on dredge pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lights on dredge pipelines. 88.15... NAVIGATION RULES ANNEX V: PILOT RULES § 88.15 Lights on dredge pipelines. Dredge pipelines that are floating or supported on trestles shall display the following lights at night and in periods of...

  16. 33 CFR 88.15 - Lights on dredge pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lights on dredge pipelines. 88.15... NAVIGATION RULES ANNEX V: PILOT RULES § 88.15 Lights on dredge pipelines. Dredge pipelines that are floating or supported on trestles shall display the following lights at night and in periods of...

  17. 33 CFR 88.15 - Lights on dredge pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lights on dredge pipelines. 88.15... NAVIGATION RULES ANNEX V: PILOT RULES § 88.15 Lights on dredge pipelines. Dredge pipelines that are floating or supported on trestles shall display the following lights at night and in periods of...

  18. 33 CFR 88.13 - Lights on moored barges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lights on moored barges. 88.13... NAVIGATION RULES ANNEX V: PILOT RULES § 88.13 Lights on moored barges. (a) The following barges shall display at night and if practicable in periods of restricted visibility the lights described in paragraph...

  19. 33 CFR 88.13 - Lights on moored barges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lights on moored barges. 88.13... NAVIGATION RULES ANNEX V: PILOT RULES § 88.13 Lights on moored barges. (a) The following barges shall display at night and if practicable in periods of restricted visibility the lights described in paragraph...

  20. 33 CFR 88.15 - Lights on dredge pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lights on dredge pipelines. 88.15... NAVIGATION RULES ANNEX V: PILOT RULES § 88.15 Lights on dredge pipelines. Dredge pipelines that are floating or supported on trestles shall display the following lights at night and in periods of...

  1. 33 CFR 88.15 - Lights on dredge pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lights on dredge pipelines. 88.15... NAVIGATION RULES ANNEX V: PILOT RULES § 88.15 Lights on dredge pipelines. Dredge pipelines that are floating or supported on trestles shall display the following lights at night and in periods of...

  2. 33 CFR 88.13 - Lights on moored barges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lights on moored barges. 88.13... NAVIGATION RULES ANNEX V: PILOT RULES § 88.13 Lights on moored barges. (a) The following barges shall display at night and if practicable in periods of restricted visibility the lights described in paragraph...

  3. Algorithm for navigated ESS.

    PubMed

    Baudoin, T; Grgić, M V; Zadravec, D; Geber, G; Tomljenović, D; Kalogjera, L

    2013-12-01

    ENT navigation has given new opportunities in performing Endoscopic Sinus Surgery (ESS) and improving surgical outcome of the patients` treatment. ESS assisted by a navigation system could be called Navigated Endoscopic Sinus Surgery (NESS). As it is generally accepted that the NESS should be performed only in cases of complex anatomy and pathology, it has not yet been established as a state-of-the-art procedure and thus not used on a daily basis. This paper presents an algorithm for use of a navigation system for basic ESS in the treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). The algorithm includes five units that should be highlighted using a navigation system. They are as follows: 1) nasal vestibule unit, 2) OMC unit, 3) anterior ethmoid unit, 4) posterior ethmoid unit, and 5) sphenoid unit. Each unit has a shape of a triangular pyramid and consists of at least four reference points or landmarks. As many landmarks as possible should be marked when determining one of the five units. Navigated orientation in each unit should always precede any surgical intervention. The algorithm should improve the learning curve of trainees and enable surgeons to use the navigation system routinely and systematically.

  4. Space shuttle navigation analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, H. L.; Luders, G.; Matchett, G. A.; Sciabarrasi, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    A detailed analysis of space shuttle navigation for each of the major mission phases is presented. A covariance analysis program for prelaunch IMU calibration and alignment for the orbital flight tests (OFT) is described, and a partial error budget is presented. The ascent, orbital operations and deorbit maneuver study considered GPS-aided inertial navigation in the Phase III GPS (1984+) time frame. The entry and landing study evaluated navigation performance for the OFT baseline system. Detailed error budgets and sensitivity analyses are provided for both the ascent and entry studies.

  5. Navigating Ski Slopes Safely

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162902.html Navigating Ski Slopes Safely National Ski Areas Association offers advice on ... 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Many people head for the slopes at the first sign of snow, but it's ...

  6. Spatial cognition and navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aretz, Anthony J.

    1989-01-01

    An experiment that provides data for the development of a cognitive model of pilot flight navigation is described. The experiment characterizes navigational awareness as the mental alignment of two frames of reference: (1) the ego centered reference frame that is established by the forward view out of the cockpit and (2) the world centered reference frame that is established by the aircraft's location on a map. The data support a model involving at least two components: (1) the perceptual encoding of the navigational landmarks and (2) the mental rotation of the map's world reference frame into alignment with the ego centered reference frame. The quantitative relationships of these two factors are provided as possible inputs for a computational model of spatial cognition during flight navigation.

  7. Spatial cognition and navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aretz, Anthony J.

    1989-01-01

    An experiment that provides data for the development of a cognitive model of pilot flight navigation is described. The experiment characterizes navigational awareness as the mental alignment of two frames of reference: (1) the ego centered reference frame that is established by the forward view out of the cockpit and (2) the world centered reference frame that is established by the aircraft's location on a map. The data support a model involving at least two components: (1) the perceptual encoding of the navigational landmarks and (2) the mental rotation of the map's world reference frame into alignment with the ego centered reference frame. The quantitative relationships of these two factors are provided as possible inputs for a computational model of spatial cognition during flight navigation.

  8. Navigating the System

    MedlinePlus

    ... Text Size Print Navigating The System What You Need to Know to Work the System Here are ... confidentiality. Keep track of all the services you access and be knowledgeable about them. If you are ...

  9. Navigated unicompartmental knee replacement.

    PubMed

    Jenny, Jean-Yves

    2008-06-01

    Computer-aided systems have been developed recently to improve the precision of implantation of unicompartmental knee replacement (UKR) or total knee replacement. Minimal invasive techniques have been developed to decrease the surgical trauma related to the prosthesis implantation. However, there might be a concern about the potential of minimal invasive techniques for a loss of accuracy. Navigation systems might address this issue. We are currently using routinely a nonimage-based navigation for total knee replacement. We developed a modified system for UKR, suitable for either a conventional or a mini-invasive approach. Navigated implantation of a UKR allowed improving the accuracy of the radiologic implantation. Mini-invasive implantation was effective, but the accuracy may not reach that of the conventional navigated technique and should be still improved. Minimal invasive techniques have to be validated because a loss of accuracy will negatively influence long-term outcomes.

  10. Line of Light Aid to Navigation,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    1980. 5. Sharf , Bertram, et. al., Experimental Sensory Psychology, Scott, Foresman and Company, Glenview, Illinois, 1975, pp. 240-244. 6. Davy, E., "The...Schiffman, Harvey Richard , Sensation and Perception, John Wile3 Thns, Inc., New York, 1976, p. 190-192. 8. Arecchi, LCDR A. V. and LTJG D. J. Pietraszewski

  11. Automated Satellite Image Navigation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    3b TIME . Master’s Thesis I . December 1992 16 SUPPIEMENoARY NOATIO; The views expressed in this thesis are those of the author and do not reflect...demand greater navigational accuracy. At the same time there is an increasing operational requirement to attain this greater accuracy via a method that is...resolution of Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) images (1.1 km) can be achieved. This "optimal" navigation has been achieved by the

  12. Onboard Navigation Systems Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The space shuttle onboard navigation systems characteristics are described. A standard source of equations and numerical data for use in error analyses and mission simulations related to space shuttle development is reported. The sensor characteristics described are used for shuttle onboard navigation performance assessment. The use of complete models in the studies depend on the analyses to be performed, the capabilities of the computer programs, and the availability of computer resources.

  13. Stellar Inertial Navigation Workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W.; Johnson, B.; Swaminathan, N.

    1989-01-01

    Software and hardware assembled to support specific engineering activities. Stellar Inertial Navigation Workstation (SINW) is integrated computer workstation providing systems and engineering support functions for Space Shuttle guidance and navigation-system logistics, repair, and procurement activities. Consists of personal-computer hardware, packaged software, and custom software integrated together into user-friendly, menu-driven system. Designed to operate on IBM PC XT. Applied in business and industry to develop similar workstations.

  14. USACE Navigation Strategic Vision

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    Initiatives ( SNI ) within these Objectives. Figure 2 illustrates the relationship of SNI to the focus areas and guiding documents, the USACE Campaign...appreciation of the value provided by the MTS and proactive participation with the USACE navigation program. Figure 2. Strategic Navigation Initiatives ( SNI ...Campaign Plan Goal 5, Objective 4a, the CW Strategic Plan Goal 5, and NSV Objective 4 and two supporting SNIs .   7 Objective: Create an inventory of all

  15. Odometry and insect navigation.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Harald

    2011-05-15

    Animals have needed to find their way about almost since a free-living life style evolved. Particularly, if an animal has a home--shelter or nesting site--true navigation becomes necessary to shuttle between this home and areas of other activities, such as feeding. As old as navigation is in the animal kingdom, as diverse are its mechanisms and implementations, depending on an organism's ecology and its endowment with sensors and actuators. The use of landmarks for piloting or the use of trail pheromones for route following have been examined in great detail and in a variety of animal species. The same is true for senses of direction--the compasses for navigation--and the construction of vectors for navigation from compass and distance cues. The measurement of distance itself--odometry--has received much less attention. The present review addresses some recent progress in the understanding of odometers in invertebrates, after outlining general principles of navigation to put odometry in its proper context. Finally, a number of refinements that increase navigation accuracy and safety are addressed.

  16. Synergies in Astrometry: Predicting Navigational Error of Visual Binary Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gessner Stewart, Susan

    2015-08-01

    Celestial navigation can employ a number of bright stars which are in binary systems. Often these are unresolved, appearing as a single, center-of-light object. A number of these systems are, however, in wide systems which could introduce a margin of error in the navigation solution if not handled properly. To illustrate the importance of good orbital solutions for binary systems - as well as good astrometry in general - the relationship between the center-of-light versus individual catalog position of celestial bodies and the error in terrestrial position derived via celestial navigation is demonstrated. From the list of navigational binary stars, fourteen such binary systems with at least 3.0 arcseconds apparent separation are explored. Maximum navigational error is estimated under the assumption that the bright star in the pair is observed at maximum separation, but the center-of-light is employed in the navigational solution. The relationships between navigational error and separation, orbital periods, and observers' latitude are discussed.

  17. 33 CFR 67.20-5 - Obstruction lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Obstruction lights. 67.20-5... Obstruction lights. The obstruction lights shall be white lights as prescribed in Subpart 67.05 of this part. The lights shall be of sufficient candlepower as to be visible at a distance of at least five...

  18. 33 CFR 67.05-5 - Multiple obstruction lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Multiple obstruction lights. 67... for Lights § 67.05-5 Multiple obstruction lights. When more than one obstruction light is required by this part to mark a structure, all such lights shall be operated to flash in unison....

  19. 33 CFR 67.05-5 - Multiple obstruction lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Multiple obstruction lights. 67... for Lights § 67.05-5 Multiple obstruction lights. When more than one obstruction light is required by this part to mark a structure, all such lights shall be operated to flash in unison....

  20. 33 CFR 67.30-5 - Obstruction lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Obstruction lights. 67.30-5... Obstruction lights. (a) The obstruction lights shall be white or red lights as prescribed in Subpart 67.05 of... nautical mile 90 percent of the nights of the year. The lights shall be displayed at such height,...

  1. 33 CFR 67.05-10 - Characteristics of obstruction lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... lights. 67.05-10 Section 67.05-10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Requirements for Lights § 67.05-10 Characteristics of obstruction lights. All obstruction lights required by... marking Class “C” structures. In determining whether white or red lights shall be authorized, the...

  2. 33 CFR 67.05-10 - Characteristics of obstruction lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... lights. 67.05-10 Section 67.05-10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Requirements for Lights § 67.05-10 Characteristics of obstruction lights. All obstruction lights required by... marking Class “C” structures. In determining whether white or red lights shall be authorized, the...

  3. 33 CFR 67.25-5 - Obstruction lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Obstruction lights. 67.25-5... Obstruction lights. (a) The obstruction lights shall be white lights as prescribed in Subpart 67.05 of this... miles 90 percent of the nights of the year. The lights shall be displayed not less than 20 feet...

  4. 33 CFR 67.30-5 - Obstruction lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Obstruction lights. 67.30-5... Obstruction lights. (a) The obstruction lights shall be white or red lights as prescribed in Subpart 67.05 of... nautical mile 90 percent of the nights of the year. The lights shall be displayed at such height,...

  5. 33 CFR 67.30-5 - Obstruction lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Obstruction lights. 67.30-5... Obstruction lights. (a) The obstruction lights shall be white or red lights as prescribed in Subpart 67.05 of... nautical mile 90 percent of the nights of the year. The lights shall be displayed at such height,...

  6. 33 CFR 67.05-5 - Multiple obstruction lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Multiple obstruction lights. 67... for Lights § 67.05-5 Multiple obstruction lights. When more than one obstruction light is required by this part to mark a structure, all such lights shall be operated to flash in unison....

  7. 33 CFR 67.25-5 - Obstruction lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Obstruction lights. 67.25-5... Obstruction lights. (a) The obstruction lights shall be white lights as prescribed in Subpart 67.05 of this... miles 90 percent of the nights of the year. The lights shall be displayed not less than 20 feet...

  8. 33 CFR 118.70 - Lights on swing bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lights on swing bridges. 118.70... LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.70 Lights on swing bridges. (a) Swing span lights on through bridges. Each... an approaching vessel the swing span when closed will display three red lights on top of the...

  9. 33 CFR 118.80 - Lights on bascule bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lights on bascule bridges. 118.80... LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.80 Lights on bascule bridges. (a) Lift span lights. Each lift span of... green light which shows only when the span is fully open for the passage of a vessel and by a red...

  10. 33 CFR 118.70 - Lights on swing bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lights on swing bridges. 118.70... LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.70 Lights on swing bridges. (a) Swing span lights on through bridges. Each... an approaching vessel the swing span when closed will display three red lights on top of the...

  11. 33 CFR 67.20-5 - Obstruction lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Obstruction lights. 67.20-5... Obstruction lights. The obstruction lights shall be white lights as prescribed in Subpart 67.05 of this part. The lights shall be of sufficient candlepower as to be visible at a distance of at least five...

  12. 33 CFR 67.25-5 - Obstruction lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Obstruction lights. 67.25-5... Obstruction lights. (a) The obstruction lights shall be white lights as prescribed in Subpart 67.05 of this... miles 90 percent of the nights of the year. The lights shall be displayed not less than 20 feet...

  13. 33 CFR 118.70 - Lights on swing bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lights on swing bridges. 118.70... LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.70 Lights on swing bridges. (a) Swing span lights on through bridges. Each... an approaching vessel the swing span when closed will display three red lights on top of the...

  14. 33 CFR 118.80 - Lights on bascule bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lights on bascule bridges. 118.80... LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.80 Lights on bascule bridges. (a) Lift span lights. Each lift span of... green light which shows only when the span is fully open for the passage of a vessel and by a red...

  15. 33 CFR 67.30-5 - Obstruction lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Obstruction lights. 67.30-5... Obstruction lights. (a) The obstruction lights shall be white or red lights as prescribed in Subpart 67.05 of... nautical mile 90 percent of the nights of the year. The lights shall be displayed at such height,...

  16. 33 CFR 118.70 - Lights on swing bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lights on swing bridges. 118.70... LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.70 Lights on swing bridges. (a) Swing span lights on through bridges. Each... an approaching vessel the swing span when closed will display three red lights on top of the...

  17. 33 CFR 67.05-10 - Characteristics of obstruction lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... lights. 67.05-10 Section 67.05-10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Requirements for Lights § 67.05-10 Characteristics of obstruction lights. All obstruction lights required by... marking Class “C” structures. In determining whether white or red lights shall be authorized, the...

  18. 33 CFR 118.80 - Lights on bascule bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lights on bascule bridges. 118.80... LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.80 Lights on bascule bridges. (a) Lift span lights. Each lift span of... green light which shows only when the span is fully open for the passage of a vessel and by a red...

  19. 33 CFR 67.20-5 - Obstruction lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Obstruction lights. 67.20-5... Obstruction lights. The obstruction lights shall be white lights as prescribed in Subpart 67.05 of this part. The lights shall be of sufficient candlepower as to be visible at a distance of at least five...

  20. 33 CFR 67.20-5 - Obstruction lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Obstruction lights. 67.20-5... Obstruction lights. The obstruction lights shall be white lights as prescribed in Subpart 67.05 of this part. The lights shall be of sufficient candlepower as to be visible at a distance of at least five...

  1. 33 CFR 118.80 - Lights on bascule bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lights on bascule bridges. 118.80... LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.80 Lights on bascule bridges. (a) Lift span lights. Each lift span of... green light which shows only when the span is fully open for the passage of a vessel and by a red...

  2. 33 CFR 67.25-5 - Obstruction lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Obstruction lights. 67.25-5... Obstruction lights. (a) The obstruction lights shall be white lights as prescribed in Subpart 67.05 of this... miles 90 percent of the nights of the year. The lights shall be displayed not less than 20 feet...

  3. 33 CFR 67.05-10 - Characteristics of obstruction lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... lights. 67.05-10 Section 67.05-10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Requirements for Lights § 67.05-10 Characteristics of obstruction lights. All obstruction lights required by... marking Class “C” structures. In determining whether white or red lights shall be authorized, the...

  4. 33 CFR 67.05-5 - Multiple obstruction lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Multiple obstruction lights. 67... for Lights § 67.05-5 Multiple obstruction lights. When more than one obstruction light is required by this part to mark a structure, all such lights shall be operated to flash in unison....

  5. 33 CFR 67.25-5 - Obstruction lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Obstruction lights. 67.25-5... Obstruction lights. (a) The obstruction lights shall be white lights as prescribed in Subpart 67.05 of this... miles 90 percent of the nights of the year. The lights shall be displayed not less than 20 feet...

  6. 33 CFR 67.30-5 - Obstruction lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Obstruction lights. 67.30-5... Obstruction lights. (a) The obstruction lights shall be white or red lights as prescribed in Subpart 67.05 of... nautical mile 90 percent of the nights of the year. The lights shall be displayed at such height,...

  7. 33 CFR 67.05-10 - Characteristics of obstruction lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... lights. 67.05-10 Section 67.05-10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Requirements for Lights § 67.05-10 Characteristics of obstruction lights. All obstruction lights required by... marking Class “C” structures. In determining whether white or red lights shall be authorized, the...

  8. 33 CFR 118.80 - Lights on bascule bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lights on bascule bridges. 118.80... LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.80 Lights on bascule bridges. (a) Lift span lights. Each lift span of... green light which shows only when the span is fully open for the passage of a vessel and by a red...

  9. 33 CFR 67.20-5 - Obstruction lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Obstruction lights. 67.20-5... Obstruction lights. The obstruction lights shall be white lights as prescribed in Subpart 67.05 of this part. The lights shall be of sufficient candlepower as to be visible at a distance of at least five...

  10. 33 CFR 67.05-5 - Multiple obstruction lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Multiple obstruction lights. 67... for Lights § 67.05-5 Multiple obstruction lights. When more than one obstruction light is required by this part to mark a structure, all such lights shall be operated to flash in unison....

  11. 33 CFR 118.70 - Lights on swing bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lights on swing bridges. 118.70... LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.70 Lights on swing bridges. (a) Swing span lights on through bridges. Each... an approaching vessel the swing span when closed will display three red lights on top of the...

  12. 33 CFR 118.85 - Lights on vertical lift bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lights on vertical lift bridges... BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.85 Lights on vertical lift bridges. (a) Lift span lights. The vertical lift span of every vertical lift bridge shall be lighted so that the center of the...

  13. 33 CFR 118.85 - Lights on vertical lift bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lights on vertical lift bridges... BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.85 Lights on vertical lift bridges. (a) Lift span lights. The vertical lift span of every vertical lift bridge shall be lighted so that the center of the...

  14. 33 CFR 118.85 - Lights on vertical lift bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lights on vertical lift bridges... BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.85 Lights on vertical lift bridges. (a) Lift span lights. The vertical lift span of every vertical lift bridge shall be lighted so that the center of the...

  15. 33 CFR 118.85 - Lights on vertical lift bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lights on vertical lift bridges... BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.85 Lights on vertical lift bridges. (a) Lift span lights. The vertical lift span of every vertical lift bridge shall be lighted so that the center of the...

  16. 33 CFR 118.85 - Lights on vertical lift bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lights on vertical lift bridges... BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.85 Lights on vertical lift bridges. (a) Lift span lights. The vertical lift span of every vertical lift bridge shall be lighted so that the center of the...

  17. 33 CFR 401.18 - Steering lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Steering lights. 401.18 Section... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Condition of Vessels § 401.18 Steering lights. Every vessel shall be equipped with: (a) A steering light located on the centerline at or near the stem of...

  18. 33 CFR 401.18 - Steering lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Steering lights. 401.18 Section... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Condition of Vessels § 401.18 Steering lights. Every vessel shall be equipped with: (a) A steering light located on the centerline at or near the stem of...

  19. 33 CFR 401.18 - Steering lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Steering lights. 401.18 Section... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Condition of Vessels § 401.18 Steering lights. Every vessel shall be equipped with: (a) A steering light located on the centerline at or near the stem of...

  20. 33 CFR 401.18 - Steering lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Steering lights. 401.18 Section... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Condition of Vessels § 401.18 Steering lights. Every vessel shall be equipped with: (a) A steering light located on the centerline at or near the stem of...

  1. 33 CFR 401.18 - Steering lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Steering lights. 401.18 Section... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Condition of Vessels § 401.18 Steering lights. Every vessel shall be equipped with: (a) A steering light located on the centerline at or near the stem of...

  2. 33 CFR 127.1109 - Lighting systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lighting systems. 127.1109... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Design and Construction § 127.1109 Lighting systems... sunrise, must have outdoor lighting that illuminates the marine transfer area for LHG. (b) All outdoor...

  3. 33 CFR 127.1109 - Lighting systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lighting systems. 127.1109... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Design and Construction § 127.1109 Lighting systems... sunrise, must have outdoor lighting that illuminates the marine transfer area for LHG. (b) All outdoor...

  4. 33 CFR 127.1109 - Lighting systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lighting systems. 127.1109... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Design and Construction § 127.1109 Lighting systems... sunrise, must have outdoor lighting that illuminates the marine transfer area for LHG. (b) All outdoor...

  5. 33 CFR 127.1109 - Lighting systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lighting systems. 127.1109... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Design and Construction § 127.1109 Lighting systems... sunrise, must have outdoor lighting that illuminates the marine transfer area for LHG. (b) All outdoor...

  6. 33 CFR 127.1109 - Lighting systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lighting systems. 127.1109... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Design and Construction § 127.1109 Lighting systems... sunrise, must have outdoor lighting that illuminates the marine transfer area for LHG. (b) All outdoor...

  7. 33 CFR 84.21 - Intensity of non-electric lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Intensity of non-electric lights... INLAND NAVIGATION RULES ANNEX I: POSITIONING AND TECHNICAL DETAILS OF LIGHTS AND SHAPES § 84.21 Intensity of non-electric lights. Non-electric lights shall so far as practicable comply with the...

  8. 33 CFR 84.21 - Intensity of non-electric lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Intensity of non-electric lights... INLAND NAVIGATION RULES ANNEX I: POSITIONING AND TECHNICAL DETAILS OF LIGHTS AND SHAPES § 84.21 Intensity of non-electric lights. Non-electric lights shall so far as practicable comply with the...

  9. 33 CFR 84.21 - Intensity of non-electric lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intensity of non-electric lights... INLAND NAVIGATION RULES ANNEX I: POSITIONING AND TECHNICAL DETAILS OF LIGHTS AND SHAPES § 84.21 Intensity of non-electric lights. Non-electric lights shall so far as practicable comply with the...

  10. 33 CFR 84.21 - Intensity of non-electric lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Intensity of non-electric lights... INLAND NAVIGATION RULES ANNEX I: POSITIONING AND TECHNICAL DETAILS OF LIGHTS AND SHAPES § 84.21 Intensity of non-electric lights. Non-electric lights shall so far as practicable comply with the...

  11. 33 CFR 84.21 - Intensity of non-electric lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Intensity of non-electric lights... INLAND NAVIGATION RULES ANNEX I: POSITIONING AND TECHNICAL DETAILS OF LIGHTS AND SHAPES § 84.21 Intensity of non-electric lights. Non-electric lights shall so far as practicable comply with the...

  12. 33 CFR 401.35 - Navigation underway.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Navigation underway. 401.35 Section 401.35 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.35 Navigation...

  13. 33 CFR 401.35 - Navigation underway.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Navigation underway. 401.35 Section 401.35 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.35 Navigation...

  14. 33 CFR 401.35 - Navigation underway.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Navigation underway. 401.35 Section 401.35 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.35 Navigation...

  15. 33 CFR 401.35 - Navigation underway.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Navigation underway. 401.35 Section 401.35 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.35 Navigation...

  16. 33 CFR 401.35 - Navigation underway.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Navigation underway. 401.35 Section 401.35 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.35 Navigation...

  17. 33 CFR 207.50 - Hudson River Lock at Troy, N.Y.; navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... navigating the lock or not. No one shall cause any movement of any vessel, boat, or other floating thing in... entrance a green light will be shown from the river wall. An amber light will indicate that the lock...

  18. 33 CFR 207.50 - Hudson River Lock at Troy, N.Y.; navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... navigating the lock or not. No one shall cause any movement of any vessel, boat, or other floating thing in... entrance a green light will be shown from the river wall. An amber light will indicate that the lock...

  19. 33 CFR 207.50 - Hudson River Lock at Troy, N.Y.; navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... navigating the lock or not. No one shall cause any movement of any vessel, boat, or other floating thing in... entrance a green light will be shown from the river wall. An amber light will indicate that the lock...

  20. 33 CFR 207.50 - Hudson River Lock at Troy, N.Y.; navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... navigating the lock or not. No one shall cause any movement of any vessel, boat, or other floating thing in... entrance a green light will be shown from the river wall. An amber light will indicate that the lock...

  1. 33 CFR 207.50 - Hudson River Lock at Troy, N.Y.; navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... navigating the lock or not. No one shall cause any movement of any vessel, boat, or other floating thing in... entrance a green light will be shown from the river wall. An amber light will indicate that the lock...

  2. Lunar rover navigation concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, James D.

    1993-01-01

    With regard to the navigation of mobile lunar vehicles on the surface, candidate techniques are reviewed and progress of simulations and experiments made up to now are described. Progress that can be made through precursor investigations on Earth is considered. In the early seventies the problem was examined in a series of relevant tests made in the California desert. Meanwhile, Apollo rovers made short exploratory sorties and robotic Lunokhods traveled over modest distances on the Moon. In these early missions some of the required methods were demonstrated. The navigation problem for a lunar traverse can be viewed in three parts: to determine the starting point with enough accuracy to enable the desired mission; to determine the event sequence required to reach the site of each traverse objective; and to redetermine actual positions enroute. The navigator's first tool is a map made from overhead imagery. The Moon was almost completely photographed at moderate resolution by spacecraft launched in the sixties, but that data set provides imprecise topographic and selenodetic information. Therefore, more advanced orbital missions are now proposed as part of a resumed lunar exploration program. With the mapping coverage expected from such orbiters, it will be possible to use a combination of visual landmark navigation and external radio and optical references (Earth and Sun) to achieve accurate surface navigation almost everywhere on the near side of the Moon. On the far side and in permanently dark polar areas, there are interesting exploration targets where additional techniques will have to be used.

  3. Navigational Mechanisms of Migrating Monarch Butterflies

    PubMed Central

    Reppert, Steven M.; Gegear, Robert J.; Merlin, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies of the iconic fall migration of monarch butterflies have illuminated the mechanisms behind the navigation south, using a time-compensated sun compass. Skylight cues, such as the sun itself and polarized light, are processed through both eyes and likely integrated in the brain’s central complex, the presumed site of the sun compass. Time compensation is provided by circadian clocks that have a distinctive molecular mechanism and that reside in the antennae. Monarchs may also use a magnetic compass, because they possess two cryptochromes that have the molecular capability for light-dependent magnetoreception. Multiple genomic approaches are being utilized to ultimately identify navigation genes. Monarch butterflies are thus emerging as an excellent model organism to study the molecular and neural basis of long-distance migration. PMID:20627420

  4. Navigational mechanisms of migrating monarch butterflies.

    PubMed

    Reppert, Steven M; Gegear, Robert J; Merlin, Christine

    2010-09-01

    Recent studies of the iconic fall migration of monarch butterflies have illuminated the mechanisms behind their southward navigation while using a time-compensated sun compass. Skylight cues, such as the sun itself and polarized light, are processed through both eyes and are probably integrated in the brain's central complex, the presumed site of the sun compass. Time compensation is provided by circadian clocks that have a distinctive molecular mechanism and that reside in the antennae. Monarchs might also use a magnetic compass because they possess two cryptochromes that have the molecular capability for light-dependent magnetoreception. Multiple genomic approaches are now being used with the aim of identifying navigation genes. Monarch butterflies are thus emerging as an excellent model organism in which to study the molecular and neural basis of long-distance migration. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Aerocapture navigation at Neptune

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haw, Robert J.

    2003-01-01

    A proposed Neptune orbiter Aerocapture mission will use solar electric propulsion to send an orbiter to Neptune. Navigation feasibility of direct-entry aerocapture for orbit insertion at Neptune is shown. The navigation strategy baselines optical imaging and (delta)VLBI measurement in order to satisfy the flight system's atmosphere entry flight path angle, which is targeted to enter Neptune with an entry flight path angle of -11.6 . Error bars on the entry flight path angle of plus/minus0.55 (3(sigma)) are proposed. This requirement can be satisfied with a data cutoff 3.2 days prior to arrival. There is some margin in the arrival template to tighten (i.e. reduce) the entry corridor either by scheduling a data cutoff closer to Neptune or alternatively, reducing uncertainties by increasing the fidelity of the optical navigation camera.

  6. Mariner 9 navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neil, W. J.; Jordan, J. F.; Zielenbach, J. W.; Wong, S. K.; Mitchell, R. T.; Webb, W. A.; Koskela, P. E.

    1973-01-01

    A final, comprehensive description of the navigation of Mariner 9-the first U.S. spacecraft to orbit another planet is provided. The Mariner 9 navigation function included not only precision flight path control but also pointing of the spacecraft's scientific instruments mounted on a two degree of freedom scan platform. To the extent appropriate, each section describes the perflight analyses on which the operational strategies and performance predictions were based. Inflight results are then discussed and compared with the preflight predictions. Postflight analyses, which were primarily concerned with developing a thorough understanding of unexpected in-flight results, are also presented.

  7. Cassini tour navigation strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, Duane; Alwar, Vijay; Bordi, John; Goodson, Troy; Hahn, Yungsun; Ionasescu, Rodica; Jones, Jeremy; Owen, William; Pojman, Joan; Roundhill, Ian; hide

    2003-01-01

    The Cassini-Huygens spacecraft was launched on October 15, 1997 as a joint NASA/ESA mission to explore Saturn. After a 7 year cruise the spacecraft will enter orbit around Saturn on 1 July 2004 for a 4 year investigation of the Saturnian system. The Cassini Navigation Team is responsible for designing the reference trajectory and conducting operations to realize this design. This paper describes the strategy for achieving project requirements, the characteristics of the Cassini navigation challenge, and the underlying assumptions.

  8. Cassini tour navigation strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, Duane; Alwar, Vijay; Bordi, John; Goodson, Troy; Hahn, Yungsun; Ionasescu, Rodica; Jones, Jeremy; Owen, William; Pojman, Joan; Roundhill, Ian; Santos, Shawna; Strange, Nathan; Wagner, Sean; Wong, Mau

    2003-01-01

    The Cassini-Huygens spacecraft was launched on October 15, 1997 as a joint NASA/ESA mission to explore Saturn. After a 7 year cruise the spacecraft will enter orbit around Saturn on 1 July 2004 for a 4 year investigation of the Saturnian system. The Cassini Navigation Team is responsible for designing the reference trajectory and conducting operations to realize this design. This paper describes the strategy for achieving project requirements, the characteristics of the Cassini navigation challenge, and the underlying assumptions.

  9. Navigational Planning in Orienteering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakoshi, Shin

    Navigation is a human activity with the aim being to arrive at a predetermined destination. In order to find the way to the destination, the use of current input from the actual environment while travelling is needed as well as stored and organized knowledge of the local geography. Although the knowledge requirement has been studied extensively in the form of cognitive maps or other spatial representation, few studies deal with how the knowledge is used together with the input from the actual environment while navigating.

  10. Space shuttle navigation analysis. Volume 2: Baseline system navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, H. L.; Luders, G.; Matchett, G. A.; Rains, R. G.

    1980-01-01

    Studies related to the baseline navigation system for the orbiter are presented. The baseline navigation system studies include a covariance analysis of the Inertial Measurement Unit calibration and alignment procedures, postflight IMU error recovery for the approach and landing phases, on-orbit calibration of IMU instrument biases, and a covariance analysis of entry and prelaunch navigation system performance.

  11. Inertial Navigation Components and Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    INERTIAL NAVIGATION , SYMPOSIA, INERTIAL GUIDANCE, INSTRUMENTATION, GYROSCOPES, OPTIMIZATION, STABILIZED PLATFORMS, GYRO COMPASSES, ALIGNMENT, CALIBRATION, COST EFFECTIVENESS, AIR TO SURFACE MISSILES.

  12. Learning for autonomous navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angelova, Anelia; Howard, Andrew; Matthies, Larry; Tang, Benyang; Turmon, Michael; Mjolsness, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Autonomous off-road navigation of robotic ground vehicles has important applications on Earth and in space exploration. Progress in this domain has been retarded by the limited lookahead range of 3-D sensors and by the difficulty of preprogramming systems to understand the traversability of the wide variety of terrain they can encounter.

  13. Navigation for everyday life

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, D.D.; Hammond, K.J.; Swain, M.J.

    1996-12-31

    Past work in navigation has worked toward the goal of producing an accurate map of the environment. While no one can deny the usefulness of such a map, the ideal of producing a complete map becomes unrealistic when an agent is faced with performing real tasks. And yet an agent accomplishing recurring tasks should navigate more efficiently as time goes by. We present a system which integrates navigation, planning, and vision. In this view, navigation supports the needs of a larger system as opposed to being a task in its own right. Whereas previous approaches assume an unknown and unstructured environment, we assume a structured environment whose organization is known, but whose specifics are unknown. The system is endowed with a wide range of visual capabilities as well as search plans for informed exploration of a simulated store constructed from real visual data. We demonstrate the agent finding items while mapping the world. In repeatedly retrieving items, the agent`s performance improves as the learned map becomes more useful.

  14. Inertial Navigation Sensors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    In theory, this means that atom interferometers could make the most accurate gyroscopes, accelerometers, gravity gradiometers , and precision clocks...improve navigation accuracy, which is ultimately limited by imperfect knowledge of the gravity vector. A superconducting gravity gradiometer (comprising...Interferometry, Physics, May 2001 [44] Moody M. and Ho Jung Paik, Canavan E., Three-Axis Superconducting Gravity Gradiometer for Sensitive Gravity

  15. Gaspra Optical Navigation Image

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-02-08

    This time-exposure picture of the asteroid Gaspra and background stars is one of four optical navigation images made by NASA Galileo imaging system to improve knowledge of Gaspra location for the spacecraft flyby. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00229

  16. Learning for autonomous navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angelova, Anelia; Howard, Andrew; Matthies, Larry; Tang, Benyang; Turmon, Michael; Mjolsness, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Autonomous off-road navigation of robotic ground vehicles has important applications on Earth and in space exploration. Progress in this domain has been retarded by the limited lookahead range of 3-D sensors and by the difficulty of preprogramming systems to understand the traversability of the wide variety of terrain they can encounter.

  17. Navigating Mandated Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ukpokodu, Omiunota Nelly; Hernandez-Scott, Erica; Brown, Takeisha

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the authors--a university social studies professor and two elementary classroom teachers in a metropolitan urban community--share their perspectives, experiences, and commitment to keeping social studies in the curriculum. Specifically, they discuss practices that they have engaged in to navigate the school district's mandated…

  18. Navigating between the Dimensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleron, Julian F.; Ecke, Volker

    2011-01-01

    Generations have been inspired by Edwin A. Abbott's profound tour of the dimensions in his novella "Flatland: A Romance of Many Dimensions" (1884). This well-known satire is the story of a flat land inhabited by geometric shapes trying to navigate the subtleties of their geometric, social, and political positions. In this article, the authors…

  19. Navigating between the Dimensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleron, Julian F.; Ecke, Volker

    2011-01-01

    Generations have been inspired by Edwin A. Abbott's profound tour of the dimensions in his novella "Flatland: A Romance of Many Dimensions" (1884). This well-known satire is the story of a flat land inhabited by geometric shapes trying to navigate the subtleties of their geometric, social, and political positions. In this article, the authors…

  20. Coastal Piloting & Charting: Navigation 101.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osinski, Alison

    This curriculum guide for a beginning course on marine navigation describes marine navigation (the art of and science of determining position of a ship and its movement from one position to another in order to keep track of where the ship is and where it is going) and defines dead reckoning, piloting, electronic navigation, and celestial…

  1. 33 CFR 67.05-1 - Arrangement of obstruction lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Arrangement of obstruction lights... for Lights § 67.05-1 Arrangement of obstruction lights. (a) Structures having a maximum horizontal... light visible for 360°. (b) Structures having a maximum horizontal dimension of over 30 feet, but not...

  2. 33 CFR 67.05-1 - Arrangement of obstruction lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Arrangement of obstruction lights... for Lights § 67.05-1 Arrangement of obstruction lights. (a) Structures having a maximum horizontal... light visible for 360°. (b) Structures having a maximum horizontal dimension of over 30 feet, but not...

  3. 33 CFR 67.05-1 - Arrangement of obstruction lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Arrangement of obstruction lights... for Lights § 67.05-1 Arrangement of obstruction lights. (a) Structures having a maximum horizontal... light visible for 360°. (b) Structures having a maximum horizontal dimension of over 30 feet, but not...

  4. 33 CFR 67.05-1 - Arrangement of obstruction lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Arrangement of obstruction lights... for Lights § 67.05-1 Arrangement of obstruction lights. (a) Structures having a maximum horizontal... light visible for 360°. (b) Structures having a maximum horizontal dimension of over 30 feet, but not...

  5. 33 CFR 67.05-1 - Arrangement of obstruction lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Arrangement of obstruction lights... for Lights § 67.05-1 Arrangement of obstruction lights. (a) Structures having a maximum horizontal... light visible for 360°. (b) Structures having a maximum horizontal dimension of over 30 feet, but not...

  6. Autonomous Navigation for Deep Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhaskaran, Shyam

    2012-01-01

    Navigation (determining where the spacecraft is at any given time, controlling its path to achieve desired targets), performed using ground-in- the-loop techniques: (1) Data includes 2-way radiometric (Doppler, range), interferometric (Delta- Differential One-way Range), and optical (images of natural bodies taken by onboard camera) (2) Data received on the ground, processed to determine orbit, commands sent to execute maneuvers to control orbit. A self-contained, onboard, autonomous navigation system can: (1) Eliminate delays due to round-trip light time (2) Eliminate the human factors in ground-based processing (3) Reduce turnaround time from navigation update to minutes, down to seconds (4) React to late-breaking data. At JPL, we have developed the framework and computational elements of an autonomous navigation system, called AutoNav. It was originally developed as one of the technologies for the Deep Space 1 mission, launched in 1998; subsequently used on three other spacecraft, for four different missions. The primary use has been on comet missions to track comets during flybys, and impact one comet.

  7. Science Benefits of Onboard Spacecraft Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cangahuala, Al; Bhaskaran, Shyam; Owen, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Primitive bodies (asteroids and comets), which have remained relatively unaltered since their formation, are important targets for scientific missions that seek to understand the evolution of the solar system. Often the first step is to fly by these bodies with robotic spacecraft. The key to maximizing data returns from these flybys is to determine the spacecraft trajectory relative to the target body-in short, navigate the spacecraft- with sufficient accuracy so that the target is guaranteed to be in the instruments' field of view. The most powerful navigation data in these scenarios are images taken by the spacecraft of the target against a known star field (onboard astrometry). Traditionally, the relative trajectory of the spacecraft must be estimated hours to days in advance using images collected by the spacecraft. This is because of (1)!the long round-trip light times between the spacecraft and the Earth and (2)!the time needed to downlink and process navigation data on the ground, make decisions based on the result, and build and uplink instrument pointing sequences from the results. The light time and processing time compromise navigation accuracy considerably, because there is not enough time to use more accurate data collected closer to the target-such data are more accurate because the angular capability of the onboard astrometry is essentially constant as the distance to the target decreases, resulting in better "plane-of- sky" knowledge of the target. Excellent examples of these timing limitations are high-speed comet encounters. Comets are difficult to observe up close; their orbits often limit scientists to brief, rapid flybys, and their coma further restricts viewers from seeing the nucleus in any detail, unless they can view the nucleus at close range. Comet nuclei details are typically discernable for much shorter durations than the roundtrip light time to Earth, so robotic spacecraft must be able to perform onboard navigation. This onboard

  8. 33 CFR 401.53 - Obstructing navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Obstructing navigation. 401.53 Section 401.53 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.53 Obstructing...

  9. Control algorithms for autonomous robot navigation

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgensen, C.C.

    1985-09-20

    This paper examines control algorithm requirements for autonomous robot navigation outside laboratory environments. Three aspects of navigation are considered: navigation control in explored terrain, environment interactions with robot sensors, and navigation control in unanticipated situations. Major navigation methods are presented and relevance of traditional human learning theory is discussed. A new navigation technique linking graph theory and incidental learning is introduced.

  10. 33 CFR 401.53 - Obstructing navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Obstructing navigation. 401.53 Section 401.53 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.53 Obstructing...

  11. 33 CFR 401.53 - Obstructing navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Obstructing navigation. 401.53 Section 401.53 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.53 Obstructing...

  12. 33 CFR 401.53 - Obstructing navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Obstructing navigation. 401.53 Section 401.53 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.53 Obstructing...

  13. 33 CFR 401.53 - Obstructing navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Obstructing navigation. 401.53 Section 401.53 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.53 Obstructing...

  14. Celestial navigation technique in the background of navigation war - the history, present situation and developing tendency of celestial navigation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Anguo

    2001-06-01

    This paper probes into the development of celestial navigation technique and its related theories or methods in the recent 30 years. It is introduced the attentions which the major military countries of the world has paid on celestial navigation technique. It is also discussed about the conspicuous superiority of celestial navigation technique in the background of navigation war. The main contents are: (1) The history and present situation of celestial navigation equipment, (2) new achievements of celstial navigation theory, (3) attitudes towards celestial navigation of major military countries, (4) superiority of celestial navigation, (5) key technique to the automation of celestial navigation and (6) developing tendency of automatic celestial navigation technique.

  15. 33 CFR 118.110 - Daymarks and lateral lighting on bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... bridges. 118.110 Section 118.110 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.110 Daymarks and lateral lighting on bridges. (a... through bridges with U.S. aids to navigation system lateral marks and lights installed on the...

  16. 33 CFR 118.110 - Daymarks and lateral lighting on bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... bridges. 118.110 Section 118.110 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.110 Daymarks and lateral lighting on bridges. (a... through bridges with U.S. aids to navigation system lateral marks and lights installed on the...

  17. 33 CFR 118.110 - Daymarks and lateral lighting on bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... bridges. 118.110 Section 118.110 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.110 Daymarks and lateral lighting on bridges. (a... through bridges with U.S. aids to navigation system lateral marks and lights installed on the...

  18. 33 CFR 118.110 - Daymarks and lateral lighting on bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... bridges. 118.110 Section 118.110 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.110 Daymarks and lateral lighting on bridges. (a... through bridges with U.S. aids to navigation system lateral marks and lights installed on the...

  19. 33 CFR 118.110 - Daymarks and lateral lighting on bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... bridges. 118.110 Section 118.110 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.110 Daymarks and lateral lighting on bridges. (a... through bridges with U.S. aids to navigation system lateral marks and lights installed on the...

  20. 33 CFR 207.185 - Taylors Bayou, Tex., Beaumont Navigation District Lock; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Taylors Bayou, Tex., Beaumont Navigation District Lock; use, administration, and navigation. 207.185 Section 207.185 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION...

  1. 33 CFR 207.185 - Taylors Bayou, Tex., Beaumont Navigation District Lock; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Taylors Bayou, Tex., Beaumont Navigation District Lock; use, administration, and navigation. 207.185 Section 207.185 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION...

  2. 33 CFR 207.185 - Taylors Bayou, Tex., Beaumont Navigation District Lock; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Taylors Bayou, Tex., Beaumont Navigation District Lock; use, administration, and navigation. 207.185 Section 207.185 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS...

  3. 33 CFR 207.185 - Taylors Bayou, Tex., Beaumont Navigation District Lock; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Taylors Bayou, Tex., Beaumont Navigation District Lock; use, administration, and navigation. 207.185 Section 207.185 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS...

  4. 33 CFR 207.185 - Taylors Bayou, Tex., Beaumont Navigation District Lock; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Taylors Bayou, Tex., Beaumont Navigation District Lock; use, administration, and navigation. 207.185 Section 207.185 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS...

  5. Integrated navigation method based on inertial navigation system and Lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoyue; Shi, Haitao; Pan, Jianye; Zhang, Chunxi

    2016-04-01

    An integrated navigation method based on the inertial navigational system (INS) and Lidar was proposed for land navigation. Compared with the traditional integrated navigational method and dead reckoning (DR) method, the influence of the inertial measurement unit (IMU) scale factor and misalignment was considered in the new method. First, the influence of the IMU scale factor and misalignment on navigation accuracy was analyzed. Based on the analysis, the integrated system error model of INS and Lidar was established, in which the IMU scale factor and misalignment error states were included. Then the observability of IMU error states was analyzed. According to the results of the observability analysis, the integrated system was optimized. Finally, numerical simulation and a vehicle test were carried out to validate the availability and utility of the proposed INS/Lidar integrated navigational method. Compared with the test result of a traditional integrated navigation method and DR method, the proposed integrated navigational method could result in a higher navigation precision. Consequently, the IMU scale factor and misalignment error were effectively compensated by the proposed method and the new integrated navigational method is valid.

  6. Giotto navigation support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mottinger, N. A.; Premkumar, R. I.

    1986-01-01

    Cooperative efforts between NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA) in supporting the flight of Giotto to Halley's Comet included prelaunch checks of ESA navigation software and delivery of validated DSN radio metric tracking data during the mission. Effects of drag from passing through the coma are seen in data received pre and post encounter. The post encounter Giotto trajectory provides a solar occultation in January 1988, prior to returning to the Earth in 1990 for possible retargeting to yet another comet.

  7. Space plane navigation simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsushima, Koichi; Murata, Masaaki; Shingu, Hirokimi; Shimizu, Tetsuo; Mikami, Tatsuo; Hashida, Yoshikazu

    A simulation program for a future Japanese space-plane (SP) considered for development is presented along with the results of the analysis of a candidate navigation configuration, focused on the terminal area energy management phase and the approach/landing phase of SP. The guidance laws and aerodynamic parameters which are applied to the program for the analysis are modeled using the laws and parameters of the U.S. Space Suttle, assuming typical values for the accuracy of sensors.

  8. Autonomous rough terrain navigation - Lessons learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, David P.

    1991-01-01

    Because of light-time delays, a planetary rover located on Mars or beyond will probably need to be able to navigate autonomously, in order to do significant exploration. Recent work at JPL has explored several different autonomous navigation strategies. This work includes highly deliberative methods that require large amounts of computation and internal storage but yield very planful behavior to more reactive systems that require less resources but whose behavior is more difficult to model. This paper briefly presents these methods, the results from experiments both in simulation and in the field, and some conclusions on the value of different approaches, and their possible impact on the structure of the robot and the mission architecture.

  9. An IR Navigation System for Pleural PDT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Timothy; Liang, Xing; Kim, Michele; Finlay, Jarod; Dimofte, Andreea; Rodriguez, Carmen; Simone, Charles; Friedberg, Joseph; Cengel, Keith

    2015-03-01

    Pleural photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been used as an adjuvant treatment with lung-sparing surgical treatment for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). In the current pleural PDT protocol, a moving fiber-based point source is used to deliver the light. The light fluences at multiple locations are monitored by several isotropic detectors placed in the pleural cavity. To improve the delivery of light fluence uniformity, an infrared (IR) navigation system is used to track the motion of the light source in real-time at a rate of 20 - 60 Hz. A treatment planning system uses the laser source positions obtained from the IR camera to calculate light fluence distribution to monitor the light dose uniformity on the surface of the pleural cavity. A novel reconstruction algorithm is used to determine the pleural cavity surface contour. A dual-correction method is used to match the calculated fluences at detector locations to the detector readings. Preliminary data from a phantom shows superior light uniformity using this method. Light fluence uniformity from patient treatments is also shown with and without the correction method.

  10. An IR Navigation System for Pleural PDT.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Timothy C; Liang, Xing; Kim, Michele M; Finlay, Jarod C; Dimofte, Andreea; Rodriguez, Carmen; Simone, Charles B; Friedberg, Joseph S; Cengel, Keith A

    2015-03-01

    Pleural photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been used as an adjuvant treatment with lung-sparing surgical treatment for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). In the current pleural PDT protocol, a moving fiber-based point source is used to deliver the light. The light fluences at multiple locations are monitored by several isotropic detectors placed in the pleural cavity. To improve the delivery of light fluence uniformity, an infrared (IR) navigation system is used to track the motion of the light source in real-time at a rate of 20 - 60 Hz. A treatment planning system uses the laser source positions obtained from the IR camera to calculate light fluence distribution to monitor the light fluence uniformity on the surface of the pleural cavity. A novel reconstruction algorithm is used to determine the pleural cavity surface contour. A dual-correction method is used to match the calculated fluences at detector locations to the detector readings. Preliminary data from a phantom shows superior light uniformity using this method. Light fluence uniformity from patient treatments is also shown with and without the correction method.

  11. An IR Navigation System for Pleural PDT

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Timothy C.; Liang, Xing; Kim, Michele M.; Finlay, Jarod C.; Dimofte, Andreea; Rodriguez, Carmen; Simone, Charles B.; Friedberg, Joseph S.; Cengel, Keith A.

    2015-01-01

    Pleural photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been used as an adjuvant treatment with lung-sparing surgical treatment for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). In the current pleural PDT protocol, a moving fiber-based point source is used to deliver the light. The light fluences at multiple locations are monitored by several isotropic detectors placed in the pleural cavity. To improve the delivery of light fluence uniformity, an infrared (IR) navigation system is used to track the motion of the light source in real-time at a rate of 20 – 60 Hz. A treatment planning system uses the laser source positions obtained from the IR camera to calculate light fluence distribution to monitor the light fluence uniformity on the surface of the pleural cavity. A novel reconstruction algorithm is used to determine the pleural cavity surface contour. A dual-correction method is used to match the calculated fluences at detector locations to the detector readings. Preliminary data from a phantom shows superior light uniformity using this method. Light fluence uniformity from patient treatments is also shown with and without the correction method. PMID:25995987

  12. Aeronautic Instruments. Section VI : Aerial Navigation and Navigating Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eaton, H N

    1923-01-01

    This report outlines briefly the methods of aerial navigation which have been developed during the past few years, with a description of the different instruments used. Dead reckoning, the most universal method of aerial navigation, is first discussed. Then follows an outline of the principles of navigation by astronomical observation; a discussion of the practical use of natural horizons, such as sea, land, and cloud, in making extant observations; the use of artificial horizons, including the bubble, pendulum, and gyroscopic types. A description is given of the recent development of the radio direction finder and its application to navigation.

  13. Principles of JTIDS Relative Navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranger, J. F. O.

    This paper describes one of the key features of the JTIDS/Link 16 tactical data-link, namely its relative navigation facility. A brief overview of the general features of the JTIDS system is given to provide the necessary background to the navigation aspects, and some mention is made of the message-exchange facilities. The main part of the paper describes how the JTIDS system provides the capability to perform accurate navigation, and discusses the basic principles of its operation. Some applications of the navigation function which enhance operational effectiveness are then described. The following topics are covered:(ii) JTIDS Architecture(i) Definition of JTIDS/Link 16(iii) Principles of Relative Navigation(iv) Source Selection(v) The Kalman Filter(vi) Time Synchronization(vii) The Use of Relative Navigation(viii) The Relative Grid

  14. 33 CFR 207.476 - The Inland Route-lock in Crooked River, Alanson, Mich.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., whether navigating the lock or not. No one shall cause any movement of any boat, craft or other floating... signal light shows. (2) When the green signal light shows and the lock horn sounds three blasts,...

  15. 33 CFR 207.476 - The Inland Route-lock in Crooked River, Alanson, Mich.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., whether navigating the lock or not. No one shall cause any movement of any boat, craft or other floating... signal light shows. (2) When the green signal light shows and the lock horn sounds three blasts,...

  16. 33 CFR 207.476 - The Inland Route-lock in Crooked River, Alanson, Mich.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., whether navigating the lock or not. No one shall cause any movement of any boat, craft or other floating... signal light shows. (2) When the green signal light shows and the lock horn sounds three blasts,...

  17. 33 CFR 207.476 - The Inland Route-lock in Crooked River, Alanson, Mich.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., whether navigating the lock or not. No one shall cause any movement of any boat, craft or other floating... signal light shows. (2) When the green signal light shows and the lock horn sounds three blasts,...

  18. 33 CFR 207.476 - The Inland Route-lock in Crooked River, Alanson, Mich.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., whether navigating the lock or not. No one shall cause any movement of any boat, craft or other floating... signal light shows. (2) When the green signal light shows and the lock horn sounds three blasts,...

  19. On Navigation Sensor Error Correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larin, V. B.

    2016-01-01

    The navigation problem for the simplest wheeled robotic vehicle is solved by just measuring kinematical parameters, doing without accelerometers and angular-rate sensors. It is supposed that the steerable-wheel angle sensor has a bias that must be corrected. The navigation parameters are corrected using the GPS. The approach proposed regards the wheeled robot as a system with nonholonomic constraints. The performance of such a navigation system is demonstrated by way of an example

  20. Research and development for Onboard Navigation (ONAV) ground based expert/trainer system: Test report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bochsler, Daniel C.

    1988-01-01

    The test results for the onboard navigation (ONAV) Ground Based Expert System Trainer System for an aircraft/space shuttle navigation entry phase system are described. A summary of the test methods and analysis results are included. Functional inspection and execution, interface tests, default data sources, function call returns, status light indicators, and user interface command acceptance are covered.

  1. Navigated bronchoscopy: a technical review.

    PubMed

    Reynisson, Pall J; Leira, Håkon O; Hernes, Toril N; Hofstad, Erlend F; Scali, Marta; Sorger, Hanne; Amundsen, Tore; Lindseth, Frank; Langø, Thomas

    2014-07-01

    Navigated bronchoscopy uses virtual 3-dimensional lung model visualizations created from preoperative computed tomography images often in synchronization with the video bronchoscope to guide a tool to peripheral lesions. Navigated bronchoscopy has developed fast since the introduction of virtual bronchoscopy with integrated electromagnetic sensors in the late 1990s. The purposes of the review are to give an overview and update of the technological components of navigated bronchoscopy, an assessment of its clinical usefulness, and a brief assessment of the commercial platforms for navigated bronchoscopy. We performed a literature search with relevant keywords to navigation and bronchoscopy and iterated on the reference lists of relevant papers, with emphasis on the last 5 years. The paper presents an overview of the components necessary for performing navigated bronchoscopy, assessment of the diagnostic accuracy of different approaches, and an analysis of the commercial systems. We were able to identify 4 commercial platforms and 9 research and development groups with considerable activity in the field. Finally, on the basis of our findings and our own experience, we provide a discussion on navigated bronchoscopy with focus on the next steps of development. The literature review showed that the peripheral diagnostic accuracy has improved using navigated bronchoscopy compared with traditional bronchoscopy. We believe that there is room for improvement in the diagnostic success rate by further refinement of methods, approaches, and tools used in navigated bronchoscopy.

  2. Satellite Navigation Backup Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-19

    Stakeholder 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 Ov era ll All AC All G A Go v/S tnd s To tal U S US AC US G A US G ov /St nd s To tal E uro pe Eu rop...Engineering and Technology of Ohio University, Jacob L. Campbell contains a good survey of TRN technology history, applications, and component trade...71 Honeywell Precision Terrain Aided Navigation (PTAN) summary found in Jacob L. Campbell citation. NGATS Institute

  3. Fundamentals of satellite navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiller, A. H.

    The basic operating principles and capabilities of conventional and satellite-based navigation systems for air, sea, and land vehicles are reviewed and illustrated with diagrams. Consideration is given to autonomous onboard systems; systems based on visible or radio beacons; the Transit, Cicada, Navstar-GPS, and Glonass satellite systems; the physical laws and parameters of satellite motion; the definition of time in satellite systems; and the content of the demodulated GPS data signal. The GPS and Glonass data format frames are presented graphically, and tables listing the GPS and Glonass satellites, their technical characteristics, and the (past or scheduled) launch dates are provided.

  4. Waves at Navigation Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-27

    upgrades the Coastal Modeling System’s ( CMS ) wave model CMS -Wave, a phase-averaged spectral wave model, and BOUSS-2D, a Boussinesq-type nonlinear wave...provided by this work unit address these critical needs of the Corps’ navigation mission. Description Issue Addressed CMS -Wave application at Braddock...Bay, NY WaveNet application in Gulf of Mexico CMS -Wave and BOUSS-2D are two numerical wave models, and WaveNet and TideNet are two web-based

  5. 33 CFR 118.75 - Lights on single-opening drawbridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.75 Lights on single-opening drawbridges. (a... span. (c) Pier or abutment lights. Every swing bridge shall be lighted so that the end of each pier... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lights on single-opening...

  6. 33 CFR 118.75 - Lights on single-opening drawbridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.75 Lights on single-opening drawbridges. (a... span. (c) Pier or abutment lights. Every swing bridge shall be lighted so that the end of each pier... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lights on single-opening...

  7. 33 CFR 118.75 - Lights on single-opening drawbridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.75 Lights on single-opening drawbridges. (a... span. (c) Pier or abutment lights. Every swing bridge shall be lighted so that the end of each pier... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lights on single-opening...

  8. 33 CFR 118.75 - Lights on single-opening drawbridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.75 Lights on single-opening drawbridges. (a... span. (c) Pier or abutment lights. Every swing bridge shall be lighted so that the end of each pier... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lights on single-opening...

  9. 33 CFR 143.15 - Lights and warning devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lights and warning devices. 143... (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT General § 143.15 Lights and warning devices. (a) OCS facilities must meet the lights and warning devices requirements under part 67 of...

  10. 33 CFR 143.15 - Lights and warning devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lights and warning devices. 143... (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT General § 143.15 Lights and warning devices. (a) OCS facilities must meet the lights and warning devices requirements under part 67 of...

  11. 33 CFR 143.15 - Lights and warning devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lights and warning devices. 143... (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT General § 143.15 Lights and warning devices. (a) OCS facilities must meet the lights and warning devices requirements under part 67 of...

  12. 33 CFR 143.15 - Lights and warning devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lights and warning devices. 143... (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT General § 143.15 Lights and warning devices. (a) OCS facilities must meet the lights and warning devices requirements under part 67 of...

  13. 33 CFR 143.15 - Lights and warning devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lights and warning devices. 143... (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT General § 143.15 Lights and warning devices. (a) OCS facilities must meet the lights and warning devices requirements under part 67 of...

  14. Space shuttle navigation analysis. Volume 1: GPS aided navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matchett, G. A.; Vogel, M. A.; Macdonald, T. J.

    1980-01-01

    Analytical studies related to space shuttle navigation are presented. Studies related to the addition of NAVSTAR Global Positioning System user equipment to the shuttle avionics suite are presented. The GPS studies center about navigation accuracy covariance analyses for both developmental and operational phases of GPS, as well as for various orbiter mission phases.

  15. Learning for Autonomous Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angelova, Anelia; Howard, Andrew; Matthies, Larry; Tang, Benyang; Turmon, Michael; Mjolsness, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Robotic ground vehicles for outdoor applications have achieved some remarkable successes, notably in autonomous highway following (Dickmanns, 1987), planetary exploration (1), and off-road navigation on Earth (1). Nevertheless, major challenges remain to enable reliable, high-speed, autonomous navigation in a wide variety of complex, off-road terrain. 3-D perception of terrain geometry with imaging range sensors is the mainstay of off-road driving systems. However, the stopping distance at high speed exceeds the effective lookahead distance of existing range sensors. Prospects for extending the range of 3-D sensors is strongly limited by sensor physics, eye safety of lasers, and related issues. Range sensor limitations also allow vehicles to enter large cul-de-sacs even at low speed, leading to long detours. Moreover, sensing only terrain geometry fails to reveal mechanical properties of terrain that are critical to assessing its traversability, such as potential for slippage, sinkage, and the degree of compliance of potential obstacles. Rovers in the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission have got stuck in sand dunes and experienced significant downhill slippage in the vicinity of large rock hazards. Earth-based off-road robots today have very limited ability to discriminate traversable vegetation from non-traversable vegetation or rough ground. It is impossible today to preprogram a system with knowledge of these properties for all types of terrain and weather conditions that might be encountered.

  16. Learning for Autonomous Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angelova, Anelia; Howard, Andrew; Matthies, Larry; Tang, Benyang; Turmon, Michael; Mjolsness, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Robotic ground vehicles for outdoor applications have achieved some remarkable successes, notably in autonomous highway following (Dickmanns, 1987), planetary exploration (1), and off-road navigation on Earth (1). Nevertheless, major challenges remain to enable reliable, high-speed, autonomous navigation in a wide variety of complex, off-road terrain. 3-D perception of terrain geometry with imaging range sensors is the mainstay of off-road driving systems. However, the stopping distance at high speed exceeds the effective lookahead distance of existing range sensors. Prospects for extending the range of 3-D sensors is strongly limited by sensor physics, eye safety of lasers, and related issues. Range sensor limitations also allow vehicles to enter large cul-de-sacs even at low speed, leading to long detours. Moreover, sensing only terrain geometry fails to reveal mechanical properties of terrain that are critical to assessing its traversability, such as potential for slippage, sinkage, and the degree of compliance of potential obstacles. Rovers in the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission have got stuck in sand dunes and experienced significant downhill slippage in the vicinity of large rock hazards. Earth-based off-road robots today have very limited ability to discriminate traversable vegetation from non-traversable vegetation or rough ground. It is impossible today to preprogram a system with knowledge of these properties for all types of terrain and weather conditions that might be encountered.

  17. 14 CFR 121.389 - Flight navigator and specialized navigation equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight navigator and specialized navigation....389 Flight navigator and specialized navigation equipment. (a) No certificate holder may operate an... flight navigator certificate; or (2) Specialized means of navigation approved in accordance with § 121...

  18. 14 CFR 121.389 - Flight navigator and specialized navigation equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight navigator and specialized navigation....389 Flight navigator and specialized navigation equipment. (a) No certificate holder may operate an... flight navigator certificate; or (2) Specialized means of navigation approved in accordance with § 121...

  19. 14 CFR 121.389 - Flight navigator and specialized navigation equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight navigator and specialized navigation....389 Flight navigator and specialized navigation equipment. (a) No certificate holder may operate an... flight navigator certificate; or (2) Specialized means of navigation approved in accordance with § 121...

  20. 14 CFR 121.389 - Flight navigator and specialized navigation equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flight navigator and specialized navigation....389 Flight navigator and specialized navigation equipment. (a) No certificate holder may operate an... flight navigator certificate; or (2) Specialized means of navigation approved in accordance with § 121...

  1. 14 CFR 121.389 - Flight navigator and specialized navigation equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight navigator and specialized navigation....389 Flight navigator and specialized navigation equipment. (a) No certificate holder may operate an... flight navigator certificate; or (2) Specialized means of navigation approved in accordance with § 121...

  2. Learning navigation – Learning with navigation. A review

    PubMed Central

    Jenny, Jean-Yves; Picard, Frederic

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this review paper is to retrieve from the existing literature relevant information (1) about the learning curve of the currently existing navigation systems and (2) about the use of navigation system for teaching orthopaedic procedures. All studies reporting on the learning curve of navigation systems support the hypothesis that computer-navigated total knee arthroplasty (TKA) involves only a short learning curve and that beginners can obtain good results from the beginning of their experience, as navigation provides continuous feedback during all phases of the knee replacement surgery and allows for correcting any bone cut errors. Interestingly, there is no comparable research on the learning curve of TKA with standard, manual instrumentation. One might postulate that this learning curve might be longer than with navigation, with potentially a higher rate of outliers. The current literature does support that navigation may be an efficient teaching tool for both experienced orthopaedic surgeons and trainees. Experienced surgeons may improve their skills with conventional techniques and learn new techniques more efficiently and more quickly. Trainees may have a better understanding of the procedure and learn standard techniques with a shorter learning curve. This is probably due to the immediate feedback of navigation systems. A shorter learning curve may be associated with improved clinical and functional results for the patient during this critical period. However, there is no evidence that training with navigation excludes trainees from the need to work in academic environments with experienced teachers. Future techniques in training may include the development of laboratory simulation procedures using navigated feedback. PMID:28573966

  3. 33 CFR 149.560 - How must buoys used to define traffic lanes be marked and lighted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... EQUIPMENT Aids to Navigation Lights on Buoys Used to Define Traffic Lanes § 149.560 How must buoys used to define traffic lanes be marked and lighted? (a) Each buoy that is used to define the lateral boundaries... traffic lanes be marked and lighted? 149.560 Section 149.560 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD...

  4. 33 CFR 149.560 - How must buoys used to define traffic lanes be marked and lighted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... EQUIPMENT Aids to Navigation Lights on Buoys Used to Define Traffic Lanes § 149.560 How must buoys used to define traffic lanes be marked and lighted? (a) Each buoy that is used to define the lateral boundaries... traffic lanes be marked and lighted? 149.560 Section 149.560 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD...

  5. 33 CFR 149.560 - How must buoys used to define traffic lanes be marked and lighted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... EQUIPMENT Aids to Navigation Lights on Buoys Used to Define Traffic Lanes § 149.560 How must buoys used to define traffic lanes be marked and lighted? (a) Each buoy that is used to define the lateral boundaries... traffic lanes be marked and lighted? 149.560 Section 149.560 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD...

  6. 33 CFR 149.560 - How must buoys used to define traffic lanes be marked and lighted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... EQUIPMENT Aids to Navigation Lights on Buoys Used to Define Traffic Lanes § 149.560 How must buoys used to define traffic lanes be marked and lighted? (a) Each buoy that is used to define the lateral boundaries... traffic lanes be marked and lighted? 149.560 Section 149.560 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD...

  7. 33 CFR 149.560 - How must buoys used to define traffic lanes be marked and lighted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... EQUIPMENT Aids to Navigation Lights on Buoys Used to Define Traffic Lanes § 149.560 How must buoys used to define traffic lanes be marked and lighted? (a) Each buoy that is used to define the lateral boundaries... traffic lanes be marked and lighted? 149.560 Section 149.560 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD...

  8. 33 CFR 207.187 - Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, Tex.; special floodgate, lock and navigation regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... floodgates and locks are equipped with short wave radio equipment transmitting and receiving on VHF—FM... § 207.180. (d) Navigation of the Colorado River Channel—(1) Traffic signals. (i) Light and sound signals...

  9. 33 CFR 207.187 - Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, Tex.; special floodgate, lock and navigation regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... floodgates and locks are equipped with short wave radio equipment transmitting and receiving on VHF—FM... § 207.180. (d) Navigation of the Colorado River Channel—(1) Traffic signals. (i) Light and sound signals...

  10. 33 CFR 207.187 - Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, Tex.; special floodgate, lock and navigation regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... floodgates and locks are equipped with short wave radio equipment transmitting and receiving on VHF—FM... § 207.180. (d) Navigation of the Colorado River Channel—(1) Traffic signals. (i) Light and sound signals...

  11. Navigating the Seas of Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Stephanie; Kennedy, Steve; McAlonan, Susan; Hotchkiss, Heather

    As the sun, moon, and stars helped sea captains to navigate, policy (defined as a formalized idea to encourage change) indicates general direction and speed but does not establish a specific approach to achieve implementation. Formal and informal policies have advantages and disadvantages. These are steps in navigating policy formation: identify…

  12. Introductory Course on Satellite Navigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giger, Kaspar; Knogl, J. Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Satellite navigation is widely used for personal navigation and more and more in precise and safety-critical applications. Thus, the subject is suited for attracting the interest of young people in science and engineering. The practical applications allow catching the students' attention for the theoretical background. Educational material on the…

  13. A Navigation Compendium. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Training Command, Pensacola, FL.

    This unit of instruction was prepared for use in navigation study at the Officer Candidate School, the various Naval ROTC Units, and within the fleet. It is considered a naval text. It covers a wide and expanding subject area with brevity. Basic and elementary navigational terms and instruments are presented and described. The use of charts and…

  14. Visual Navigation in Nocturnal Insects.

    PubMed

    Warrant, Eric; Dacke, Marie

    2016-05-01

    Despite their tiny eyes and brains, nocturnal insects have evolved a remarkable capacity to visually navigate at night. Whereas some use moonlight or the stars as celestial compass cues to maintain a straight-line course, others use visual landmarks to navigate to and from their nest. These impressive abilities rely on highly sensitive compound eyes and specialized visual processing strategies in the brain.

  15. Sea turtles: navigating with magnetism.

    PubMed

    Lohmann, Kenneth J

    2007-02-06

    Young sea turtles use the Earth's magnetic field as a source of navigational information during their epic transoceanic migrations and while homing. A new study using satellite telemetry has now demonstrated for the first time that adult turtles also navigate using the Earth's magnetic field.

  16. Patient Navigators: Agents of Creating Community-Nested Patient-Centered Medical Homes for Cancer Care

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Melissa A.; Samaras, Athena T.; Nonzee, Narissa J.; Hajjar, Nadia; Frankovich, Carmi; Bularzik, Charito; Murphy, Kara; Endress, Richard; Tom, Laura S.; Dong, XinQi

    2016-01-01

    Patient navigation is an internationally utilized, culturally grounded, and multifaceted strategy to optimize patients’ interface with the health-care team and system. The DuPage County Patient Navigation Collaborative (DPNC) is a campus–community partnership designed to improve access to care among uninsured breast and cervical cancer patients in DuPage County, IL. Importantly, the DPNC connects community-based social service delivery with the patient-centered medical home to achieve a community-nested patient-centered medical home model for cancer care. While the patient navigator experience has been qualitatively documented, the literature pertaining to patient navigation has largely focused on efficacy outcomes and program cost effectiveness. Here, we uniquely highlight stories of women enrolled in the DPNC, told from the perspective of patient navigators, to shed light on the myriad barriers that DPNC patients faced and document the strategies DPNC patient navigators implemented. PMID:27594792

  17. The real-world navigator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balabanovic, Marko; Becker, Craig; Morse, Sarah K.; Nourbakhsh, Illah R.

    1994-01-01

    The success of every mobile robot application hinges on the ability to navigate robustly in the real world. The problem of robust navigation is separable from the challenges faced by any particular robot application. We offer the Real-World Navigator as a solution architecture that includes a path planner, a map-based localizer, and a motion control loop that combines reactive avoidance modules with deliberate goal-based motion. Our architecture achieves a high degree of reliability by maintaining and reasoning about an explicit description of positional uncertainty. We provide two implementations of real-world robot systems that incorporate the Real-World Navigator. The Vagabond Project culminated in a robot that successfully navigated a portion of the Stanford University campus. The Scimmer project developed successful entries for the AIAA 1993 Robotics Competition, placing first in one of the two contests entered.

  18. Biomimetic MEMS sensor array for navigation and water detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Futterknecht, Oliver; Macqueen, Mark O.; Karman, Salmah; Diah, S. Zaleha M.; Gebeshuber, Ille C.

    2013-05-01

    The focus of this study is biomimetic concept development for a MEMS sensor array for navigation and water detection. The MEMS sensor array is inspired by abstractions of the respective biological functions: polarized skylight-based navigation sensors in honeybees (Apis mellifera) and the ability of African elephants (Loxodonta africana) to detect water. The focus lies on how to navigate to and how to detect water sources in desert-like or remote areas. The goal is to develop a sensor that can provide both, navigation clues and help in detecting nearby water sources. We basically use the information provided by the natural polarization pattern produced by the sunbeams scattered within the atmosphere combined with the capability of the honeybee's compound eye to extrapolate the navigation information. The detection device uses light beam reactive MEMS, which are capable to detect the skylight polarization based on the Rayleigh sky model. For water detection we present various possible approaches to realize the sensor. In the first approach, polarization is used: moisture saturated areas near ground have a small but distinctively different effect on scattering and polarizing light than less moist ones. Modified skylight polarization sensors (Karman, Diah and Gebeshuber, 2012) are used to visualize this small change in scattering. The second approach is inspired by the ability of elephants to detect infrasound produced by underground water reservoirs, and shall be used to determine the location of underground rivers and visualize their exact routes.

  19. 33 CFR 207.275 - McClellan-Kerr Arkansas River navigation system: use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... area, whether navigating the lock or not. No one shall cause any movement of any vessel or other... moored, the pilot shall not cause movement of the propeller except in an emergency or unless directed by... will be governed as follows: (i) One flashing green light to indicate that the lock is open...

  20. 33 CFR 207.275 - McClellan-Kerr Arkansas River navigation system: use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... area, whether navigating the lock or not. No one shall cause any movement of any vessel or other... moored, the pilot shall not cause movement of the propeller except in an emergency or unless directed by... will be governed as follows: (i) One flashing green light to indicate that the lock is open...

  1. 33 CFR 207.275 - McClellan-Kerr Arkansas River navigation system: use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... area, whether navigating the lock or not. No one shall cause any movement of any vessel or other... moored, the pilot shall not cause movement of the propeller except in an emergency or unless directed by... will be governed as follows: (i) One flashing green light to indicate that the lock is open...

  2. 33 CFR 207.275 - McClellan-Kerr Arkansas River navigation system: use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... area, whether navigating the lock or not. No one shall cause any movement of any vessel or other... moored, the pilot shall not cause movement of the propeller except in an emergency or unless directed by... will be governed as follows: (i) One flashing green light to indicate that the lock is open...

  3. 33 CFR 207.275 - McClellan-Kerr Arkansas River navigation system: use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... area, whether navigating the lock or not. No one shall cause any movement of any vessel or other... moored, the pilot shall not cause movement of the propeller except in an emergency or unless directed by... will be governed as follows: (i) One flashing green light to indicate that the lock is open...

  4. NES: How to Navigate the Virtual Campus

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This video describes how to navigate the NASA Explorer Schools public website. Information includes descriptions of the left navigation, using the breadcrumbs, understanding the various announcemen...

  5. Stardust Navigation Covariance Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menon, Premkumar R.

    2000-01-01

    The Stardust spacecraft was launched on February 7, 1999 aboard a Boeing Delta-II rocket. Mission participants include the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Lockheed Martin Astronautics (LMA) and the University of Washington. The primary objective of the mission is to collect in-situ samples of the coma of comet Wild-2 and return those samples to the Earth for analysis. Mission design and operational navigation for Stardust is performed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). This paper will describe the extensive JPL effort in support of the Stardust pre-launch analysis of the orbit determination component of the mission covariance study. A description of the mission and it's trajectory will be provided first, followed by a discussion of the covariance procedure and models. Predicted accuracy's will be examined as they relate to navigation delivery requirements for specific critical events during the mission. Stardust was launched into a heliocentric trajectory in early 1999. It will perform an Earth Gravity Assist (EGA) on January 15, 2001 to acquire an orbit for the eventual rendezvous with comet Wild-2. The spacecraft will fly through the coma (atmosphere) on the dayside of Wild-2 on January 2, 2004. At that time samples will be obtained using an aerogel collector. After the comet encounter Stardust will return to Earth when the Sample Return Capsule (SRC) will separate and land at the Utah Test Site (UTTR) on January 15, 2006. The spacecraft will however be deflected off into a heliocentric orbit. The mission is divided into three phases for the covariance analysis. They are 1) Launch to EGA, 2) EGA to Wild-2 encounter and 3) Wild-2 encounter to Earth reentry. Orbit determination assumptions for each phase are provided. These include estimated and consider parameters and their associated a-priori uncertainties. Major perturbations to the trajectory include 19 deterministic and statistical maneuvers

  6. Optimetrics for Precise Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Guangning; Heckler, Gregory; Gramling, Cheryl

    2017-01-01

    Optimetrics for Precise Navigation will be implemented on existing optical communication links. The ranging and Doppler measurements are conducted over communication data frame and clock. The measurement accuracy is two orders of magnitude better than TDRSS. It also has other advantages of: The high optical carrier frequency enables: (1) Immunity from ionosphere and interplanetary Plasma noise floor, which is a performance limitation for RF tracking; and (2) High antenna gain reduces terminal size and volume, enables high precision tracking in Cubesat, and in deep space smallsat. High Optical Pointing Precision provides: (a) spacecraft orientation, (b) Minimal additional hardware to implement Precise Optimetrics over optical comm link; and (c) Continuous optical carrier phase measurement will enable the system presented here to accept future optical frequency standard with much higher clock accuracy.

  7. Dynamic Transportation Navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Xiaofeng; Chen, Jidong

    Miniaturization of computing devices, and advances in wireless communication and sensor technology are some of the forces that are propagating computing from the stationary desktop to the mobile outdoors. Some important classes of new applications that will be enabled by this revolutionary development include intelligent traffic management, location-based services, tourist services, mobile electronic commerce, and digital battlefield. Some existing application classes that will benefit from the development include transportation and air traffic control, weather forecasting, emergency response, mobile resource management, and mobile workforce. Location management, i.e., the management of transient location information, is an enabling technology for all these applications. In this chapter, we present the applications of moving objects management and their functionalities, in particular, the application of dynamic traffic navigation, which is a challenge due to the highly variable traffic state and the requirement of fast, on-line computations.

  8. Stardust Navigation Covariance Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menon, Premkumar R.

    2000-01-01

    The Stardust spacecraft was launched on February 7, 1999 aboard a Boeing Delta-II rocket. Mission participants include the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Lockheed Martin Astronautics (LMA) and the University of Washington. The primary objective of the mission is to collect in-situ samples of the coma of comet Wild-2 and return those samples to the Earth for analysis. Mission design and operational navigation for Stardust is performed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). This paper will describe the extensive JPL effort in support of the Stardust pre-launch analysis of the orbit determination component of the mission covariance study. A description of the mission and it's trajectory will be provided first, followed by a discussion of the covariance procedure and models. Predicted accuracy's will be examined as they relate to navigation delivery requirements for specific critical events during the mission. Stardust was launched into a heliocentric trajectory in early 1999. It will perform an Earth Gravity Assist (EGA) on January 15, 2001 to acquire an orbit for the eventual rendezvous with comet Wild-2. The spacecraft will fly through the coma (atmosphere) on the dayside of Wild-2 on January 2, 2004. At that time samples will be obtained using an aerogel collector. After the comet encounter Stardust will return to Earth when the Sample Return Capsule (SRC) will separate and land at the Utah Test Site (UTTR) on January 15, 2006. The spacecraft will however be deflected off into a heliocentric orbit. The mission is divided into three phases for the covariance analysis. They are 1) Launch to EGA, 2) EGA to Wild-2 encounter and 3) Wild-2 encounter to Earth reentry. Orbit determination assumptions for each phase are provided. These include estimated and consider parameters and their associated a-priori uncertainties. Major perturbations to the trajectory include 19 deterministic and statistical maneuvers

  9. Comprehension of Navigation Directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Healy, Alice F.; Schneider, Vivian I.

    2002-01-01

    Subjects were shown navigation instructions varying in length directing them to move in a space represented by grids on a computer screen. They followed the instructions by clicking on the grids in the locations specified. Some subjects repeated back the instructions before following them, some did not, and others repeated back the instructions in reduced form, including only the critical words. The commands in each message were presented simultaneously for half of the subjects and sequentially for the others. For the longest messages, performance was better on the initial commands and worse on the final commands with simultaneous than with sequential presentation. Instruction repetition depressed performance, but reduced repetition removed this disadvantage. Effects of presentation format were attributed to visual scanning strategies. The advantage for reduced repetition was attributable either to enhanced visual scanning or to reduced output interference. A follow-up study with auditory presentation supported the visual scanning explanation.

  10. Comprehension of Navigation Directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Vivian I.; Healy, Alice F.

    2000-01-01

    In an experiment simulating communication between air traffic controllers and pilots, subjects were given navigation instructions varying in length telling them to move in a space represented by grids on a computer screen. The subjects followed the instructions by clicking on the grids in the locations specified. Half of the subjects read the instructions, and half heard them. Half of the subjects in each modality condition repeated back the instructions before following them,and half did not. Performance was worse for the visual than for the auditory modality on the longer messages. Repetition of the instructions generally depressed performance, especially with the longer messages, which required more output than did the shorter messages, and especially with the visual modality, in which phonological recoding from the visual input to the spoken output was necessary. These results are explained in terms of the degrading effects of output interference on memory for instructions.

  11. 33 CFR 88.09 - Temporary exemption from light and shape requirements when operating under bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and shape requirements when operating under bridges. 88.09 Section 88.09 Navigation and Navigable... Temporary exemption from light and shape requirements when operating under bridges. A vessel's navigation lights and shapes may be lowered if necessary to pass under a bridge. ...

  12. 33 CFR 88.09 - Temporary exemption from light and shape requirements when operating under bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and shape requirements when operating under bridges. 88.09 Section 88.09 Navigation and Navigable... Temporary exemption from light and shape requirements when operating under bridges. A vessel's navigation lights and shapes may be lowered if necessary to pass under a bridge. ...

  13. 33 CFR 88.09 - Temporary exemption from light and shape requirements when operating under bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and shape requirements when operating under bridges. 88.09 Section 88.09 Navigation and Navigable... Temporary exemption from light and shape requirements when operating under bridges. A vessel's navigation lights and shapes may be lowered if necessary to pass under a bridge. ...

  14. 33 CFR 88.09 - Temporary exemption from light and shape requirements when operating under bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and shape requirements when operating under bridges. 88.09 Section 88.09 Navigation and Navigable... Temporary exemption from light and shape requirements when operating under bridges. A vessel's navigation lights and shapes may be lowered if necessary to pass under a bridge. ...

  15. 33 CFR 88.09 - Temporary exemption from light and shape requirements when operating under bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and shape requirements when operating under bridges. 88.09 Section 88.09 Navigation and Navigable... Temporary exemption from light and shape requirements when operating under bridges. A vessel's navigation lights and shapes may be lowered if necessary to pass under a bridge. ...

  16. 47 CFR 80.925 - Electric light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Electric light. 80.925 Section 80.925... MARITIME SERVICES Compulsory Radiotelephone Installations for Small Passenger Boats § 80.925 Electric light. (a) If the vessel is navigated at night an electric light or dial lights which clearly illuminate...

  17. 47 CFR 80.925 - Electric light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Electric light. 80.925 Section 80.925... MARITIME SERVICES Compulsory Radiotelephone Installations for Small Passenger Boats § 80.925 Electric light. (a) If the vessel is navigated at night an electric light or dial lights which clearly illuminate...

  18. 47 CFR 80.925 - Electric light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electric light. 80.925 Section 80.925... MARITIME SERVICES Compulsory Radiotelephone Installations for Small Passenger Boats § 80.925 Electric light. (a) If the vessel is navigated at night an electric light or dial lights which clearly illuminate...

  19. 47 CFR 80.925 - Electric light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Electric light. 80.925 Section 80.925... MARITIME SERVICES Compulsory Radiotelephone Installations for Small Passenger Boats § 80.925 Electric light. (a) If the vessel is navigated at night an electric light or dial lights which clearly illuminate...

  20. 47 CFR 80.925 - Electric light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Electric light. 80.925 Section 80.925... MARITIME SERVICES Compulsory Radiotelephone Installations for Small Passenger Boats § 80.925 Electric light. (a) If the vessel is navigated at night an electric light or dial lights which clearly illuminate...

  1. The navigation of homing pigeons: Do they use sun Navigation?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walcott, C.

    1972-01-01

    Experiments to determine the dependence of homing pigeons on the sun as a navigational cue are discussed. Various methods were employed to interrupt the circadian rhythms of the pigeons prior to release. It was determined that the sun may serve as a compass, but that topographic features are more important for navigation. The effects of a magnetic field produced by electric equipment carried by the bird were also investigated. It was concluded that magnetic fields may have a small effect on the homing ability. The exact nature of the homing pigeon's navigational ability is still unknown after years of elaborate experimentation.

  2. 33 CFR 66.10-15 - Aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aids to navigation. 66.10-15 Section 66.10-15 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Uniform State Waterway Marking System § 66.10-15 Aids to navigation....

  3. 33 CFR 66.10-15 - Aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aids to navigation. 66.10-15 Section 66.10-15 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Uniform State Waterway Marking System § 66.10-15 Aids to navigation....

  4. 33 CFR 66.10-15 - Aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aids to navigation. 66.10-15 Section 66.10-15 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Uniform State Waterway Marking System § 66.10-15 Aids to navigation....

  5. 33 CFR 66.10-15 - Aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aids to navigation. 66.10-15 Section 66.10-15 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Uniform State Waterway Marking System § 66.10-15 Aids to navigation....

  6. 33 CFR 66.10-15 - Aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aids to navigation. 66.10-15 Section 66.10-15 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Uniform State Waterway Marking System § 66.10-15 Aids to navigation....

  7. Lunar Navigation Architecture Design Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    D'Souza, Christopher; Getchius, Joel; Holt, Greg; Moreau, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Constellation Program is aiming to establish a long-term presence on the lunar surface. The Constellation elements (Orion, Altair, Earth Departure Stage, and Ares launch vehicles) will require a lunar navigation architecture for navigation state updates during lunar-class missions. Orion in particular has baselined earth-based ground direct tracking as the primary source for much of its absolute navigation needs. However, due to the uncertainty in the lunar navigation architecture, the Orion program has had to make certain assumptions on the capabilities of such architectures in order to adequately scale the vehicle design trade space. The following paper outlines lunar navigation requirements, the Orion program assumptions, and the impacts of these assumptions to the lunar navigation architecture design. The selection of potential sites was based upon geometric baselines, logistical feasibility, redundancy, and abort support capability. Simulated navigation covariances mapped to entry interface flightpath- angle uncertainties were used to evaluate knowledge errors. A minimum ground station architecture was identified consisting of Goldstone, Madrid, Canberra, Santiago, Hartebeeshoek, Dongora, Hawaii, Guam, and Ascension Island (or the geometric equivalent).

  8. Vision and visual navigation in nocturnal insects.

    PubMed

    Warrant, Eric; Dacke, Marie

    2011-01-01

    With their highly sensitive visual systems, nocturnal insects have evolved a remarkable capacity to discriminate colors, orient themselves using faint celestial cues, fly unimpeded through a complicated habitat, and navigate to and from a nest using learned visual landmarks. Even though the compound eyes of nocturnal insects are significantly more sensitive to light than those of their closely related diurnal relatives, their photoreceptors absorb photons at very low rates in dim light, even during demanding nocturnal visual tasks. To explain this apparent paradox, it is hypothesized that the necessary bridge between retinal signaling and visual behavior is a neural strategy of spatial and temporal summation at a higher level in the visual system. Exactly where in the visual system this summation takes place, and the nature of the neural circuitry that is involved, is currently unknown but provides a promising avenue for future research.

  9. Navigable networks as Nash equilibria of navigation games

    PubMed Central

    Gulyás, András; Bíró, József J.; Kőrösi, Attila; Rétvári, Gábor; Krioukov, Dmitri

    2015-01-01

    Common sense suggests that networks are not random mazes of purposeless connections, but that these connections are organized so that networks can perform their functions well. One function common to many networks is targeted transport or navigation. Here, using game theory, we show that minimalistic networks designed to maximize the navigation efficiency at minimal cost share basic structural properties with real networks. These idealistic networks are Nash equilibria of a network construction game whose purpose is to find an optimal trade-off between the network cost and navigability. We show that these skeletons are present in the Internet, metabolic, English word, US airport, Hungarian road networks, and in a structural network of the human brain. The knowledge of these skeletons allows one to identify the minimal number of edges, by altering which one can efficiently improve or paralyse navigation in the network. PMID:26138277

  10. Navigable networks as Nash equilibria of navigation games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulyás, András; Bíró, József J.; Kőrösi, Attila; Rétvári, Gábor; Krioukov, Dmitri

    2015-07-01

    Common sense suggests that networks are not random mazes of purposeless connections, but that these connections are organized so that networks can perform their functions well. One function common to many networks is targeted transport or navigation. Here, using game theory, we show that minimalistic networks designed to maximize the navigation efficiency at minimal cost share basic structural properties with real networks. These idealistic networks are Nash equilibria of a network construction game whose purpose is to find an optimal trade-off between the network cost and navigability. We show that these skeletons are present in the Internet, metabolic, English word, US airport, Hungarian road networks, and in a structural network of the human brain. The knowledge of these skeletons allows one to identify the minimal number of edges, by altering which one can efficiently improve or paralyse navigation in the network.

  11. Navigable networks as Nash equilibria of navigation games.

    PubMed

    Gulyás, András; Bíró, József J; Kőrösi, Attila; Rétvári, Gábor; Krioukov, Dmitri

    2015-07-03

    Common sense suggests that networks are not random mazes of purposeless connections, but that these connections are organized so that networks can perform their functions well. One function common to many networks is targeted transport or navigation. Here, using game theory, we show that minimalistic networks designed to maximize the navigation efficiency at minimal cost share basic structural properties with real networks. These idealistic networks are Nash equilibria of a network construction game whose purpose is to find an optimal trade-off between the network cost and navigability. We show that these skeletons are present in the Internet, metabolic, English word, US airport, Hungarian road networks, and in a structural network of the human brain. The knowledge of these skeletons allows one to identify the minimal number of edges, by altering which one can efficiently improve or paralyse navigation in the network.

  12. Navigation/Prop Software Suite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruchmiller, Tomas; Tran, Sanh; Lee, Mathew; Bucker, Scott; Bupane, Catherine; Bennett, Charles; Cantu, Sergio; Kwong, Ping; Propst, Carolyn

    2012-01-01

    Navigation (Nav)/Prop software is used to support shuttle mission analysis, production, and some operations tasks. The Nav/Prop suite containing configuration items (CIs) resides on IPS/Linux workstations. It features lifecycle documents, and data files used for shuttle navigation and propellant analysis for all flight segments. This suite also includes trajectory server, archive server, and RAT software residing on MCC/Linux workstations. Navigation/Prop represents tool versions established during or after IPS Equipment Rehost-3 or after the MCC Rehost.

  13. NASA tracking ship navigation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckenna, J. J.

    1976-01-01

    The ship position and attitude measurement system that was installed aboard the tracking ship Vanguard is described. An overview of the entire system is given along with a description of how precise time and frequency is utilized. The instrumentation is broken down into its basic components. Particular emphasis is given to the inertial navigation system. Each navigation system used, a mariner star tracker, navigation satellite system, Loran C and OMEGA in conjunction with the inertial system is described. The accuracy of each system is compared along with their limitations.

  14. Omega navigation for general aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollister, W. M.

    1976-01-01

    A 70-hour flight test evaluation of an Omega navigation system was performed using a Piper Cherokee 180, to determine the feasibility of Omega for worldwide general aviation navigation. Measurements were made of position accuracy, noise phenomena, and signal to noise ratio. It was found that Omega accuracy is essentially insensitive to local geography, but that there are isolated local interference phenomena associated with radio transmitters, although the strongest noise source observed was due to the onboard power source for the VHF comm/nav radio. An occurrence of lane jumps was observed when attempting to navigate with one weak station.

  15. Navigational strategies underlying phototaxis in larval zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiuye; Engert, Florian

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how the brain transforms sensory input into complex behavior is a fundamental question in systems neuroscience. Using larval zebrafish, we study the temporal component of phototaxis, which is defined as orientation decisions based on comparisons of light intensity at successive moments in time. We developed a novel "Virtual Circle" assay where whole-field illumination is abruptly turned off when the fish swims out of a virtually defined circular border, and turned on again when it returns into the circle. The animal receives no direct spatial cues and experiences only whole-field temporal light changes. Remarkably, the fish spends most of its time within the invisible virtual border. Behavioral analyses of swim bouts in relation to light transitions were used to develop four discrete temporal algorithms that transform the binary visual input (uniform light/uniform darkness) into the observed spatial behavior. In these algorithms, the turning angle is dependent on the behavioral history immediately preceding individual turning events. Computer simulations show that the algorithms recapture most of the swim statistics of real fish. We discovered that turning properties in larval zebrafish are distinctly modulated by temporal step functions in light intensity in combination with the specific motor history preceding these turns. Several aspects of the behavior suggest memory usage of up to 10 swim bouts (~10 sec). Thus, we show that a complex behavior like spatial navigation can emerge from a small number of relatively simple behavioral algorithms.

  16. Navigational strategies underlying phototaxis in larval zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiuye; Engert, Florian

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how the brain transforms sensory input into complex behavior is a fundamental question in systems neuroscience. Using larval zebrafish, we study the temporal component of phototaxis, which is defined as orientation decisions based on comparisons of light intensity at successive moments in time. We developed a novel “Virtual Circle” assay where whole-field illumination is abruptly turned off when the fish swims out of a virtually defined circular border, and turned on again when it returns into the circle. The animal receives no direct spatial cues and experiences only whole-field temporal light changes. Remarkably, the fish spends most of its time within the invisible virtual border. Behavioral analyses of swim bouts in relation to light transitions were used to develop four discrete temporal algorithms that transform the binary visual input (uniform light/uniform darkness) into the observed spatial behavior. In these algorithms, the turning angle is dependent on the behavioral history immediately preceding individual turning events. Computer simulations show that the algorithms recapture most of the swim statistics of real fish. We discovered that turning properties in larval zebrafish are distinctly modulated by temporal step functions in light intensity in combination with the specific motor history preceding these turns. Several aspects of the behavior suggest memory usage of up to 10 swim bouts (~10 sec). Thus, we show that a complex behavior like spatial navigation can emerge from a small number of relatively simple behavioral algorithms. PMID:24723859

  17. Modelling group navigation: transitive social structures improve navigational performance.

    PubMed

    Flack, Andrea; Biro, Dora; Guilford, Tim; Freeman, Robin

    2015-07-06

    Collective navigation demands that group members reach consensus on which path to follow, a task that might become more challenging when the group's members have different social connections. Group decision-making mechanisms have been studied successfully in the past using individual-based modelling, although many of these studies have neglected the role of social connections between the group's interacting members. Nevertheless, empirical studies have demonstrated that individual recognition, previous shared experiences and inter-individual familiarity can influence the cohesion and the dynamics of the group as well as the relative spatial positions of specific individuals within it. Here, we use models of collective motion to study the impact of social relationships on group navigation by introducing social network structures into a model of collective motion. Our results show that groups consisting of equally informed individuals achieve the highest level of accuracy when they are hierarchically organized with the minimum number of preferred connections per individual. We also observe that the navigational accuracy of a group will depend strongly on detailed aspects of its social organization. More specifically, group navigation does not only depend on the underlying social relationships, but also on how much weight leading individuals put on following others. Also, we show that groups with certain social structures can compensate better for an increased level of navigational error. The results have broader implications for studies on collective navigation and motion because they show that only by considering a group's social system can we fully elucidate the dynamics and advantages of joint movements.

  18. 33 CFR 150.519 - What are the requirements for emergency lighting and power systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... emergency lighting and power systems? 150.519 Section 150.519 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Specialty Equipment Emergency Lighting and Power Systems § 150.519 What are the requirements for emergency lighting and power systems? (a) The operator must test and inspect the emergency lighting and power systems...

  19. 33 CFR 150.519 - What are the requirements for emergency lighting and power systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... emergency lighting and power systems? 150.519 Section 150.519 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Specialty Equipment Emergency Lighting and Power Systems § 150.519 What are the requirements for emergency lighting and power systems? (a) The operator must test and inspect the emergency lighting and power systems...

  20. 33 CFR 150.519 - What are the requirements for emergency lighting and power systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... emergency lighting and power systems? 150.519 Section 150.519 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Specialty Equipment Emergency Lighting and Power Systems § 150.519 What are the requirements for emergency lighting and power systems? (a) The operator must test and inspect the emergency lighting and power systems...

  1. 33 CFR 150.519 - What are the requirements for emergency lighting and power systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... emergency lighting and power systems? 150.519 Section 150.519 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Specialty Equipment Emergency Lighting and Power Systems § 150.519 What are the requirements for emergency lighting and power systems? (a) The operator must test and inspect the emergency lighting and power systems...

  2. 33 CFR 150.519 - What are the requirements for emergency lighting and power systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... emergency lighting and power systems? 150.519 Section 150.519 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Specialty Equipment Emergency Lighting and Power Systems § 150.519 What are the requirements for emergency lighting and power systems? (a) The operator must test and inspect the emergency lighting and power systems...

  3. SURVIVORSHIP NAVIGATION OUTCOME MEASURES: A report from the ACS Patient Navigation Working Group on Survivorship Navigation

    PubMed Central

    Pratt-Chapman, Mandi; Simon, Melissa A.; Patterson, Angela; Risendal, Betsy C.; Patierno, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Survivorship navigation is a relatively new concept in the field of patient navigation, but an important one. This paper highlights the essential functions of the survivorship navigator and defines core outcomes and measures for navigation in the survivorship period. Barriers to access to care experienced by patients during active cancer treatment can continue into the post-treatment period, affecting quality follow-up care for survivors. These barriers to care can be particularly acute for non-English speakers, immigrants, the uninsured, the underinsured and other vulnerable populations. The survivorship navigator can help reduce barriers and facilitate access to survivorship care and services through communication and information exchange for patients. Survivorship navigation may improve appropriate health care utilization through education and care coordination, potentially improving health outcomes and quality of life of survivors while reducing cost to the health care system. Survivorship navigators can also educate survivors on how to improve their overall wellness, thereby directly impacting the health of a growing population of cancer survivors. PMID:21780092

  4. 32 CFR 644.3 - Navigation Projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Navigation Projects. 644.3 Section 644.3 National... HANDBOOK Project Planning Civil Works § 644.3 Navigation Projects. (a) Land to be acquired in fee. All... channel improvements, navigation pools, navigation aids, and spoil disposal areas for future...

  5. 32 CFR 644.3 - Navigation projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Navigation projects. 644.3 Section 644.3 National... HANDBOOK Project Planning Civil Works § 644.3 Navigation projects. (a) Land to be acquired in fee. All... channel improvements, navigation pools, navigation aids, and spoil disposal areas for future...

  6. 32 CFR 644.3 - Navigation projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Navigation projects. 644.3 Section 644.3... ESTATE HANDBOOK Project Planning Civil Works § 644.3 Navigation projects. (a) Land to be acquired in fee... for channel improvements, navigation pools, navigation aids, and spoil disposal areas for...

  7. 32 CFR 644.3 - Navigation projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Navigation projects. 644.3 Section 644.3 National... HANDBOOK Project Planning Civil Works § 644.3 Navigation projects. (a) Land to be acquired in fee. All... channel improvements, navigation pools, navigation aids, and spoil disposal areas for future...

  8. 32 CFR 644.3 - Navigation projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Navigation projects. 644.3 Section 644.3... ESTATE HANDBOOK Project Planning Civil Works § 644.3 Navigation projects. (a) Land to be acquired in fee... for channel improvements, navigation pools, navigation aids, and spoil disposal areas for...

  9. Orion Cislunar Guidance and Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    D'Souza, Christopher; Crain, Timothy; Clark, Fred C.

    2007-01-01

    The Orion vehicle is being designed to provide nominal crew transport to the lunar transportation stack in low Earth orbit, crew abort prior during transit to the moon, and crew return to Earth once lunar orbit is achieved. Design of guidance and navigation algorithms to perform maneuvers in support of these functions is dependent on the support provided by navigation infrastructure, the performance of the onboard GN&C system, and the choice of trajectory maneuver methodology for outbound and return mission phases. This paper documents the preliminary integrated analyses performed by members of the Orion Orbit GN&C System team investigating the navigation update accuracy of a modern equivalent to the Apollo era ground tracking network and the expected onboard dispersion and navigation errors during a lunar mission using a linear covariance error analysis technique.

  10. Navigating the Rockets Educator Guide

    NASA Image and Video Library

    In this brief video overview, learn how to navigate the Rockets Educator Guide. Get a glimpse of the resources available in the guide, including a pictorial history, an overview of the physics cont...

  11. Autonomous navigation using lunar beacons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khatib, A. R.; Ellis, J.; French, J.; Null, G.; Yunck, T.; Wu, S.

    1983-01-01

    The concept of using lunar beacon signal transmission for on-board navigation for earth satellites and near-earth spacecraft is described. The system would require powerful transmitters on the earth-side of the moon's surface and black box receivers with antennae and microprocessors placed on board spacecraft for autonomous navigation. Spacecraft navigation requires three position and three velocity elements to establish location coordinates. Two beacons could be soft-landed on the lunar surface at the limits of allowable separation and each would transmit a wide-beam signal with cones reaching GEO heights and be strong enough to be received by small antennae in near-earth orbit. The black box processor would perform on-board computation with one-way Doppler/range data and dynamical models. Alternatively, GEO satellites such as the GPS or TDRSS spacecraft can be used with interferometric techniques to provide decimeter-level accuracy for aircraft navigation.

  12. Potential applications of satellite navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaenzer, G.

    The applicability of Navstar GPS to civil air navigation is discussed. The accuracy of current air-navigation systems is reviewed; the basic principle and accuracy of GPS navigation are characterized; the relatively low cost of GPS receiving equipment is pointed out; and particular attention is given to hybrid systems combining GPS with inertial navigation. It is predicted that CAT III landings will be possible using such hybrid systems when the GPS satellites are fully deployed, even without access to the military GPS code. Techniques for GPS-based precision landings, reduced-noise landings, landings on parallel runways, control of taxiing maneuvers, and aircraft-based geodetic measurements are briefly described and illustrated with diagrams.

  13. Almanac services for celestial navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelmes, S.; Whittaker, J.

    2015-08-01

    Celestial navigation remains a vitally important back up to Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) and relies on the use of almanac services. HM Nautical Almanac Office (HMNAO) provides a number of these services. The printed book, The Nautical Almanac, produced yearly and now available as an electronic publication, is continuously being improved, making use of the latest ideas and ephemerides to provide the user with their required data. HMNAO also produces NavPac, a software package that assists the user in calculating their position as well as providing additional navigational and astronomical tools. A new version of NavPac will be released in 2015 that will improve the user experience. The development of applications for mobile devices is also being considered. HMNAO continues to combine the latest improvements and theories of astrometry with the creation of books and software that best meet the needs of celestial navigation users.

  14. Navigator program: exploring new worlds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, Peter R.

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Navigator Program is a series of interrelated missions to explore and characterize new worlds. Each successive mission provides an essential step toward the ultimate goal of discovering habitable planets and life around nearby stars.

  15. Navigator program: exploring new worlds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, Peter R.

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Navigator Program is a series of interrelated missions to explore and characterize new worlds. Each successive mission provides an essential step toward the ultimate goal of discovering habitable planets and life around nearby stars.

  16. A new algorithm of gravity matching aided navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Li; Cui, Chenfeng

    2007-11-01

    Up to now, TERCOM hasn't been used in the gravity matching aided navigation, because of its disability in precise positioning. So does ICCP, which needs precise initial values, whereas the initial values provided by INS are not accurate enough. This paper starts from the introduction of the basic principles of TERCOM and ICCP, and compares their advantages and disadvantages, then incorporates these two methods into a new algorithm in which TERCOM provides the initial position and ICCP does the precise positioning. At last simulation data is used in the experiments, with the purpose to shed light on the effect of this new algorithm in gravity matching aided navigation. It is proved that the new method is precise and needs no initial values. It is very fit for gravity matching aided navigation.

  17. LITERATURE FORENSICS: NAVIGATING THROUGH ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Intimidation and bewilderment are but two feelings scientists often confront when facing the ever- expanding universe of the published scientific literature. With the birth of any hypothesis, all fantasies of a one-way freeway for a scientific endeavor evaporate when the journey abruptly confronts a forked-road dilemma. One direction (what is known and what was known) leads back in time. A twisted, rutted, convoluted course, it can reveal how, and from where, pioneers from other, unrelated journeys arrived at the same juncture; but it can make for a punishing and, at first thought, boring ride. The other (what is unknown or pretends to be the unknown) quickly recedes into what at least appears to be the unexplored horizon - and its seductive siren can easily win our attention. Proper navigation of this juncture of old vs. new, past vs. future, dull vs. exciting, known vs. unknown is critical in avoiding a morass of ill fates, including reinventions duplication, and attendant ridicule or censure by our colleagues for failing to build upon or acknowledge what those before us have done. Following the siren of exploration without investigating where others have traveled is fraught with risks - the worst being when the fork's two branches loop back on one another, revealing that they are one continuum. What had seemed to be uncharted territory is unveiled as a Mobius path towards the fool's gold of rediscovery. Much like the disoriented spelunker seeking a

  18. Radiometric Navigation Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nettles, James L.; Witsmeer, A. James; Wilt, Robert E.

    1980-12-01

    Boeing Aerospace Company (BAC) of Seattle, Washington and Sperry Microwave Electronics of Clearwater, Florida have developed a multiple-beam radiometric navigation update system. This paper describes the system design, flight test program, and preliminary results. The system was designed and its performance evaluated using analytically derived formulas for performance measures and detailed Monte Carlo simulations. As a result BAC recommended a five or seven fixed beam radiometer. Sperry built a seven-beam, 35 GHz radiometer which BAC flight tested in 1979 to demonstrate its effectiveness over a variety of test scenes under various environmental conditions. Four scenes were selected for the flight test varying from land-water to highly forested regions. Preliminary analysis of the flight test results confirm the expected performance improvement over the single-fixed-beam system tested in 1975. This approach to a terrain sensing millimeter wave radiometer would be applicable to low altitude penetrating aircraft. The system is low cost, with no moving parts; low volume, requiring only a single receiver with small wide-beam antennas; and stealthy, being completely passive. Radiometry can also be complementary to todays terrain correlation approach since flat areas usually contain a maximum of cultural features; where one system works poorly the other works well. This test program provides a data base for studying a wide variety of pattern matching and correlation algorithms, with and without attitude compensation, and using various subsets of the full seven-beam combination.

  19. The navigation toolkit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rich, William F.; Strom, Stephen W.

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes the experience of the authors in managing, designing, and implementing an object-oriented applications framework for orbital navigation analysis for the Flight Design and Dynamics Department of the Rockwell Space Operations Company in Houston, in support of the Mission Operations Directorate of NASA's Johnson Space Center. The 8 person year project spanned 1.5 years and produced 30,000 lines of C++ code, replacing 150,000 lines of Fortran/C. We believe that our experience is important because it represents a 'second project' experience and generated real production-quality code - it was not a pilot. The project successfully demonstrated the use of 'continuous development' or rapid prototyping techniques. Use of formal methods and executable models contributed to the quality of the code. Keys to the success of the project were a strong architectural vision and highly skilled workers. This report focuses on process and methodology, and not on a detailed design description of the product. But the true importance of the object-oriented paradigm is its liberation of the developer to focus on the problem rather than the means used to solve the problem.

  20. Navigation Image of Ceres

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-04-07

    NASA's Dawn spacecraft took this picture on its way to a new orbit, at an altitude of about 30,000 miles (48,300 kilometers), as part of a series of images intended to help the navigation of the spacecraft relative to Ceres. The image was taken on March 28, 2017. Several familiar features can be identified: At the top, we see Occator Crater and its faculae (bright deposits identified as a mixture of sodium carbonate and other salts). Below center is the crater Urvara, and to the right of it, the larger crater Yalode (the third and second largest craters on Ceres, respectively). Large-scale faults called Samhain Catenae stretch from the Occator region toward the Yalode-Urvara region. The spacecraft will settle into a new orbit that will allow it to observe Ceres in opposition at the end of April 2017, when Dawn is directly between the sun and the Occator bright spots, at an altitude of about 12,400 miles (20,000 kilometers). The Dawn Journal has more details about the science expected from these observations. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21401

  1. NAVO MSRC Navigator. Spring 2008

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    CFD), Climate/Weather/Ocean Modeling and Simulation (CWO), Environmental Quality Modeling and Simulation (EQM), Computational Electromagnetic...EINSTEIN and DAVINCI Come to the MSRC The Porthole 19 Visitors to the Naval Oceanographic Office Major Shared Resource Center Navigator Tools and...Events 5SPRING 2008NAVO MSRC NAVIGATOR IntroductIon Higher-altitude missile and re-entry vehicle flowfield simulations often require the

  2. The navigation of space probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fliegel, H. F.; Ohandley, D. A.; Zielenbach, J. W.

    1974-01-01

    A new navigational method combining electronic measurement procedures and celestial mechanics makes it possible to conduct a space probe very close to a desired point in the neighborhood of a remote planet. Approaches for the determination of the position of the space probe in space are discussed, giving attention to the effects of errors in the employed data. The application of the navigational methods in a number of space missions is also considered.

  3. 14 CFR 125.267 - Flight navigator and long-range navigation equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight navigator and long-range navigation... Requirements § 125.267 Flight navigator and long-range navigation equipment. (a) No certificate holder may...-range means of navigation which enable a reliable determination to be made of the position of...

  4. 14 CFR 125.267 - Flight navigator and long-range navigation equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight navigator and long-range navigation... Requirements § 125.267 Flight navigator and long-range navigation equipment. (a) No certificate holder may...-range means of navigation which enable a reliable determination to be made of the position of the...

  5. 77 FR 42637 - Navigation and Navigable Waters; Technical, Organizational, and Conforming Amendments; Corrections

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Parts 84 and 115 RIN 1625-AB86 Navigation and Navigable Waters; Technical... 21, 2012 (77 FR 37305), the Coast Guard published a final rule entitled ``Navigation and Navigable... of Subjects 33 CFR Part 84 Navigation (water), Waterways. 33 CFR Part 115 Administrative practice and...

  6. 14 CFR 125.267 - Flight navigator and long-range navigation equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight navigator and long-range navigation... Requirements § 125.267 Flight navigator and long-range navigation equipment. (a) No certificate holder may...-range means of navigation which enable a reliable determination to be made of the position of the...

  7. 14 CFR 125.267 - Flight navigator and long-range navigation equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flight navigator and long-range navigation... Requirements § 125.267 Flight navigator and long-range navigation equipment. (a) No certificate holder may...-range means of navigation which enable a reliable determination to be made of the position of the...

  8. 14 CFR 125.267 - Flight navigator and long-range navigation equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight navigator and long-range navigation... Requirements § 125.267 Flight navigator and long-range navigation equipment. (a) No certificate holder may...-range means of navigation which enable a reliable determination to be made of the position of the...

  9. FLASH LIDAR Based Relative Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brazzel, Jack; Clark, Fred; Milenkovic, Zoran

    2014-01-01

    Relative navigation remains the most challenging part of spacecraft rendezvous and docking. In recent years, flash LIDARs, have been increasingly selected as the go-to sensors for proximity operations and docking. Flash LIDARS are generally lighter and require less power that scanning Lidars. Flash LIDARs do not have moving parts, and they are capable of tracking multiple targets as well as generating a 3D map of a given target. However, there are some significant drawbacks of Flash Lidars that must be resolved if their use is to be of long-term significance. Overcoming the challenges of Flash LIDARs for navigation-namely, low technology readiness level, lack of historical performance data, target identification, existence of false positives, and performance of vision processing algorithms as intermediaries between the raw sensor data and the Kalman filter-requires a world-class testing facility, such as the Lockheed Martin Space Operations Simulation Center (SOSC). Ground-based testing is a critical step for maturing the next-generation flash LIDAR-based spacecraft relative navigation. This paper will focus on the tests of an integrated relative navigation system conducted at the SOSC in January 2014. The intent of the tests was to characterize and then improve the performance of relative navigation, while addressing many of the flash LIDAR challenges mentioned above. A section on navigation performance and future recommendation completes the discussion.

  10. Mission Operations and Navigation Toolkit Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sunseri, Richard F.; Wu, Hsi-Cheng; Hanna, Robert A.; Mossey, Michael P.; Duncan, Courtney B.; Evans, Scott E.; Evans, James R.; Drain, Theodore R.; Guevara, Michelle M.; Martin Mur, Tomas J.; Attiyah, Ahlam A.

    2009-01-01

    MONTE (Mission Operations and Navigation Toolkit Environment) Release 7.3 is an extensible software system designed to support trajectory and navigation analysis/design for space missions. MONTE is intended to replace the current navigation and trajectory analysis software systems, which, at the time of this reporting, are used by JPL's Navigation and Mission Design section. The software provides an integrated, simplified, and flexible system that can be easily maintained to serve the needs of future missions in need of navigation services.

  11. Wellborne inertial navigation system

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsey, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    A phototype wireline tool which includes a downhole inertial platform and a surface computer to spatially map a well is described. The hardware consists of a single-gimbaled inertial platform with accelerometers and gyros to obtain three-axis motion information. The gyroscope and accelerometer outputs are transmitted to a computer at the surface which calculates probe attitude relative to north, east, and vertical. Double integration of the accelerometer data provides the position information. A conventional 7-conductor wireline is used for the system data transmission. System accuracy is enhanced by advances made in the computer software which processes the data received from the tool. The software uses statistical sampling estimation to obtain optimal estimates of the system errors. Measurement errors are determined by periodically stopping the tool during the logging procedure and observing the indicated velocity measurements. This procedure, known as Kalman filtering, results in increased accuracy of the data. Present mapping systems have an X-Y-Z location accuracy of +- 100 to +- 200 feet for a typical well depth of 10,000 feet. Test results show that the new system is accurate to about +- 1 foot per 1000 feet of well depth. Unlike conventional systems, the inertial navigator does not require any sort of projection of the cable length (which may not be accurately known). Also this system provides continuous data throughout the wellbore and logging speeds on the order of 10 ft/sec appear possible. The hardware and software associated with this mapping system are described and the recent field test results are reported.

  12. Dawn Navigating Ceres

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-05-24

    NASA's Dawn spacecraft took this image of Ceres' south polar region on May 17, 2017, from an altitude of about 26,400 miles (42,500 kilometers). The image scale is about 2.5 miles (4 kilometers) per pixel. Dawn took this image to help navigators refine their measurements of the spacecraft's position in orbit. Ceres appears as a crescent as Dawn is on the night side of the dwarf planet. Zadeni Crater, which is 80 miles (128 kilometers) wide, is recognizable on the bottom left side of the crescent. The large crater seen on the right side is Urvara Crater, which is 101 miles (163 kilometers) wide. Large fractures scarring Ceres' surface can also be distinguished here. Dawn captured a similar scene (Figure 1) at higher resolution, although with a slightly different geometry, on April 26, 2015, from its RC3 orbit at an altitude of about 8,450 miles (13,600 kilometers) and an image scale of about 0.81 miles (1.3 kilometers) per pixel. The geology of Ceres' polar regions is very rough in comparison to that generally found at lower latitudes. This is because colder temperatures near the poles allow craters to hold their original shapes over longer periods of time. Features found on Ceres are named after gods and goddesses of agriculture, as well as harvest festivals, from around the world. Zadeni is named for the ancient Georgian god of bountiful harvest, while Urvara is an Indian and Iranian deity of plants and fields. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21407

  13. ICE navigation support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efron, L.; Muellerschoen, R. J.; Premkumar, R. I.

    1986-08-01

    The International Cometary Explorer (ICE) encounter with Comet Giacobini-Zinner took place 7 years after the spacecraft's original launch on 12 August 1978 as the International Sun Earth Explorer 3 (ISEE-3), part of a three-spacecraft project to study the interaction between the solar wind and the Earth's magnetosphere. Transfer to an interplanetary trajectory was performed via a 119-km-altitute, gravity-assist, lunar swingby on December 1983. Navigation support during interplanetary cruise and comet encounter was provided by orbit determination utilizing radio metric data from the DSN 64-meter antennas in Goldstone, California and Madrid, Spain. Orbit solutions yielding predictions of 50-km geocentric delivery accuracy in the target aim plane were achieved during interplanetary cruise and at comet encounter using 6-to-12-week data arcs between periodic attitude-change maneuvers. One-sigma two-way range and range rate residuals were consistently 40 meters and 0.2 mm/s or better, respectively. Non-gravitational forces affected the comet's motion during late August and early September 1985 and caused a 2300-km shift in the orbit of the comet relative to the spacecraft. This necessitated a final ICE orbit trim maneuver 3 days prior to encounter. Near-real-time assessment of two-way 2-GHz (S-band) Doppler pseudo-residuals during the June and July 1985 trajectory change maneuvers aided in calibration of the spacecraft's thrusters in preparation for this final critical maneuver. Post-flight analysis indicates tail centerline passage was achieved within 10 seconds of the predicted time and geocentric position uncertainty at encounter was less than 40 km.

  14. Bore hole navigator

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, G.J.

    1987-09-29

    A bore hole navigator is described comprising a two axis platform for lowering down a bore hole on a cable with its longitudinal axis parallel to the local bore hole direction. The two axis platform has an outer gimbal, bearing supported on the outer gimbal axis for rotation about the longitudinal axis of the platform, and an inner gimbal axis orthogonal the the outer gimbal axis. The inner gimbal axis has multiple axis segments spaced along the longitudinal axis of the platform and each bearing supported on the outer gimbal. The inner gimbal axis segment has a two axis gyro mounted thereon with its spin axis orthogonal to the respective inner gimbal axis segment, a first gyro sensitive axis parallel to the respective inner gimbal axis segment and a second gyro sensitive axis orthogonal to the spin axis. The second inner gimbal axis segment has a pitch torquer thereon operative to provide a controllable torque about the respective inner gimbal axis segment. The third inner gimbal axis segment has a pitch resolver thereon operative to measure rotation of the respective inner gimbal axis segment with respect to the outer gimbal. The first, second and third inner gimbal axis segments are coupled to rotate together. The outer gimbal has a yaw torquer thereon to provide a controllable torque about the outer gimbal axis, and a yaw resolver thereon to measure rotation of the outer gimbal about the outer gimbal axis. The outer gimbal also has a single axis accelerometer therein having its sensitive axis orthogonal to the outer gimbal axis and the inner gimbal axis segments.

  15. 33 CFR 401.54 - Interference with navigation aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Interference with navigation aids. 401.54 Section 401.54 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION... with navigation aids. (a) Aids to navigation shall not be interfered with or used as moorings. (b)...

  16. 33 CFR 401.54 - Interference with navigation aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Interference with navigation aids. 401.54 Section 401.54 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION... with navigation aids. (a) Aids to navigation shall not be interfered with or used as moorings. (b)...

  17. 33 CFR 67.35-10 - Private aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Private aids to navigation. 67.35-10 Section 67.35-10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES Applications §...

  18. 33 CFR 67.35-10 - Private aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Private aids to navigation. 67.35-10 Section 67.35-10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES Applications §...

  19. 33 CFR 401.54 - Interference with navigation aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interference with navigation aids. 401.54 Section 401.54 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION... with navigation aids. (a) Aids to navigation shall not be interfered with or used as moorings. (b)...

  20. 33 CFR 401.54 - Interference with navigation aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Interference with navigation aids. 401.54 Section 401.54 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION... with navigation aids. (a) Aids to navigation shall not be interfered with or used as moorings. (b)...

  1. 33 CFR 401.54 - Interference with navigation aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Interference with navigation aids. 401.54 Section 401.54 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION... with navigation aids. (a) Aids to navigation shall not be interfered with or used as moorings. (b)...

  2. 33 CFR 67.35-10 - Private aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Private aids to navigation. 67.35-10 Section 67.35-10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES Applications §...

  3. 33 CFR 67.35-10 - Private aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Private aids to navigation. 67.35-10 Section 67.35-10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES Applications §...

  4. 33 CFR 67.35-10 - Private aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Private aids to navigation. 67.35-10 Section 67.35-10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES Applications §...

  5. 33 CFR 164.13 - Navigation underway: tankers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Navigation underway: tankers. 164.13 Section 164.13 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY NAVIGATION SAFETY REGULATIONS § 164.13 Navigation underway:...

  6. 33 CFR 207.800 - Collection of navigation statistics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Collection of navigation statistics. 207.800 Section 207.800 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.800 Collection of navigation statistics....

  7. 33 CFR 207.800 - Collection of navigation statistics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Collection of navigation statistics. 207.800 Section 207.800 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.800 Collection of navigation statistics....

  8. 33 CFR 207.800 - Collection of navigation statistics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Collection of navigation statistics. 207.800 Section 207.800 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.800 Collection of navigation statistics....

  9. 33 CFR 164.13 - Navigation underway: tankers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Navigation underway: tankers. 164.13 Section 164.13 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY NAVIGATION SAFETY REGULATIONS § 164.13 Navigation underway:...

  10. 33 CFR 164.13 - Navigation underway: tankers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Navigation underway: tankers. 164.13 Section 164.13 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY NAVIGATION SAFETY REGULATIONS § 164.13 Navigation underway:...

  11. 33 CFR 164.78 - Navigation under way: Towing vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Navigation under way: Towing vessels. 164.78 Section 164.78 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY NAVIGATION SAFETY REGULATIONS § 164.78 Navigation under way...

  12. 33 CFR 164.78 - Navigation under way: Towing vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Navigation under way: Towing vessels. 164.78 Section 164.78 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY NAVIGATION SAFETY REGULATIONS § 164.78 Navigation under way...

  13. 33 CFR 164.78 - Navigation under way: Towing vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Navigation under way: Towing vessels. 164.78 Section 164.78 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY NAVIGATION SAFETY REGULATIONS § 164.78 Navigation under way...

  14. 33 CFR 164.78 - Navigation under way: Towing vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Navigation under way: Towing vessels. 164.78 Section 164.78 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY NAVIGATION SAFETY REGULATIONS § 164.78 Navigation under way...

  15. 33 CFR 164.78 - Navigation under way: Towing vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Navigation under way: Towing vessels. 164.78 Section 164.78 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY NAVIGATION SAFETY REGULATIONS § 164.78 Navigation under way...

  16. Navigation Challenges in the MAVEN Science Phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demcak, Stuart; Young, Brian; Lam, Try; Trawny, Nikolas; Lee, Clifford; Anderson, Rodney; Broschart, Stephen; Ballard, Christopher; Folta, David C.

    2012-01-01

    The MAVEN spacecraft will explore Mars' upper atmosphere. The primary science phase will last one (Earth) year, during which the spacecraft will be in an elliptical 4.5 hour orbit at an inclination of 75 degrees. The 75 degree inclination results in the orbit periapsis oscillating between +/-75 degrees latitude, thus naturally covering most Mars latitudes during the primary mission. The orbit will be controlled via maneuvers so that the maximum orbit density remains in a density corridor. This results in the MAVEN science phase being in a light aerobraking type orbit of around 160 km for an extended period. In addition, the mission has significantly less tracking data than aerobraking phases of other missions, and even less than other NASA Mars orbiter primary phases. This results in significant challenges for the Navigation Team. They can be summarized as a difficulty in determining the current density profile, which maps into degraded trajectory predictions and less accurate control over the spacecraft location in the targeted density corridor via maneuvers. This paper describes these challenges and the Navigation Team's plans to meet them.

  17. Navigation Challenges in the MAVEN Science Phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demcak, Stuart; Young, Brian; Lam, Try; Trawny, Nikolas; Lee, Clifford; Anderson, Rodney; Broschart, Stephen; Ballard, Christopher; Folta, David C.

    2012-01-01

    The MAVEN spacecraft will explore Mars' upper atmosphere. The primary science phase will last one (Earth) year, during which the spacecraft will be in an elliptical 4.5 hour orbit at an inclination of 75 degrees. The 75 degree inclination results in the orbit periapsis oscillating between +/-75 degrees latitude, thus naturally covering most Mars latitudes during the primary mission. The orbit will be controlled via maneuvers so that the maximum orbit density remains in a density corridor. This results in the MAVEN science phase being in a light aerobraking type orbit of around 160 km for an extended period. In addition, the mission has significantly less tracking data than aerobraking phases of other missions, and even less than other NASA Mars orbiter primary phases. This results in significant challenges for the Navigation Team. They can be summarized as a difficulty in determining the current density profile, which maps into degraded trajectory predictions and less accurate control over the spacecraft location in the targeted density corridor via maneuvers. This paper describes these challenges and the Navigation Team's plans to meet them.

  18. Optical Navigation for Dawn at Vesta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mastrodemos, Nickolaos; Rush, Brian; Vaughan, Drew; Owen, Bill

    2011-01-01

    The Dawn S/C, launched in September 2007, towards Vesta and Ceres, will enter into orbit about asteroid Vesta in July 2011 and will conduct science remote sensing operations for approximately one year at various orbital altitudes. Vesta navigation operations begin with early approach in May 2011 until departure to Ceres in July 2012. A key navigation aspect is optical navigation, which will be conducted at all mission phases. Here we review the optical navigation plan, imaging, methodology, data types, as well as expected performance in the context of the overall mission navigation. A key aspect of optical navigation at Dawn that will receive particular attention is the extensive use of landmark navigation during most of mission phases. In addition to supporting real-time navigation operations, optical navigation will be used to determine some key physical characteristics of Vesta, such as the asteroid's pole & shape, to assist mission design & science operations.

  19. Autonomous navigation system. [gyroscopic pendulum for air navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merhav, S. J. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    An inertial navigation system utilizing a servo-controlled two degree of freedom pendulum to obtain specific force components in the locally level coordinate system is described. The pendulum includes a leveling gyroscope and an azimuth gyroscope supported on a two gimbal system. The specific force components in the locally level coordinate system are converted to components in the geographical coordinate system by means of a single Euler transformation. The standard navigation equations are solved to determine longitudinal and lateral velocities. Finally, vehicle position is determined by a further integration.

  20. 33 CFR 66.05-100 - Designation of navigable waters as State waters for private aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... as State waters for private aids to navigation. 66.05-100 Section 66.05-100 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-100 Designation of navigable waters as State waters for private aids to...