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Sample records for nawabshah sindh pakistan

  1. Drinking water quality assessment in Southern Sindh (Pakistan).

    PubMed

    Memon, Mehrunisa; Soomro, Mohammed Saleh; Akhtar, Mohammad Saleem; Memon, Kazi Suleman

    2011-06-01

    The southern Sindh province of Pakistan adjoins the Arabian Sea coast where drinking water quality is deteriorating due to dumping of industrial and urban waste and use of agrochemicals and yet has limited fresh water resources. The study assessed the drinking water quality of canal, shallow pumps, dug wells, and water supply schemes from the administrative districts of Thatta, Badin, and Thar by measuring physical, chemical, and biological (total coliform) quality parameters. All four water bodies (dug wells, shallow pumps canal water, and water supply schemes) exceeded WHO MPL for turbidity (24%, 28%, 96%, 69%), coliform (96%, 77%, 92%, 81%), and electrical conductivity (100%, 99%, 44%, 63%), respectively. However, the turbidity was lower in underground water, i.e., 24% and 28% in dug wells and shallow pumps as compared to open water, i.e., 96% and 69% in canal and water supply schemes, respectively. In dug wells and shallow pumps, limits for TDS, alkalinity, hardness, and sodium exceeded, respectively, by 63% and 33%; 59% and 70%, 40% and 27%, and 78% and 26%. Sodium was major problem in dug wells and shallow pumps of district Thar and considerable percent in shallow pumps of Badin. Iron was major problem in all water bodies of district Badin ranging from 50% to 69% and to some extent in open waters of Thatta. Other parameters as pH, copper, manganese, zinc, and phosphorus were within standard permissible limits of World Health Organization. Some common diseases found in the study area were gastroenteritis, diarrhea and vomiting, kidney, and skin problems.

  2. Literacy, Income Generation, and Poverty Alleviation in Sindh Pakistan and Its Impact on Economic Development, Human Resource Development in Pakistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panhwar, Farzana

    Rural poverty in Sindh, Pakistan, has been artificially created by low prices of wheat, fixed by the federal government's price control board. Agriculture and agro-based industries account for 80 percent of the country's labor force. Among the consequences of this price control are low margins of profit to the farming community; low capacity to…

  3. The tribe Scymnini (Coccinellidae: Coleoptera) from Sindh Province, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ali, Muhammad; Perveen, Rukhsana; Naqvi, Arif-Un-Nisa; Ahmed, Khalil; Raza, Ghulam; Hussain, Ishtiaq

    2015-01-01

    Coccinellids are important natural enemies of aphids, scale insects, mealybugs, whiteflies, jassids and mites. They are being augmented or conserved for population reduction of different agricultural crop pests in the concept of Integrated Pest Management throughout the world. The genera and species in the tribe Scymnini known from Pakistan are revised and redescribed. Two genera including two subgenera and six species among which three species are newly reported, is therefore, a new addition to Coccinellid fauna of Pakistan. Keys to all taxa, descriptions of the higher taxa, species diagnoses, synonymies, and distribution records are included. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  4. The Tribe Scymnini (Coccinellidae: Coleoptera) From Sindh Province, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Muhammad; Perveen, Rukhsana; Naqvi, Arif-Un-Nisa; Ahmed, Khalil; Raza, Ghulam; Hussain, Ishtiaq

    2015-01-01

    Coccinellids are important natural enemies of aphids, scale insects, mealybugs, whiteflies, jassids and mites. They are being augmented or conserved for population reduction of different agricultural crop pests in the concept of Integrated Pest Management throughout the world. The genera and species in the tribe Scymnini known from Pakistan are revised and redescribed. Two genera including two subgenera and six species among which three species are newly reported, is therefore, a new addition to Coccinellid fauna of Pakistan. Keys to all taxa, descriptions of the higher taxa, species diagnoses, synonymies, and distribution records are included. PMID:26454480

  5. Technology and Distance Education: Sharing Experience in Sindh, Pakistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panhwar, Farzana

    Female literacy in Pakistan is among the lowest in the world. In 1981, the literacy rate was 16 percent for females, and 7.3 percent for rural women. Distance education can effect many social changes. Females would be the main beneficiaries because it is not socially acceptable for girls to leave home for education; parents do not like…

  6. Effect of Teaching of Algebra through Social Constructivist Approach on 7th Graders' Learning Outcomes in Sindh (Pakistan)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilyas, Bhutto Muhammad; Rawat, Khalid Jamil; Bhatti, Muhammad Tariq; Malik, Najeeb

    2013-01-01

    It is a bitter reality that the curricula and traditional pedagogy prevailing in public schools of Pakistan in general and Sindh in particular do not incorporate the algebraic concepts properly. Both the content and the presentation therein cannot be considered up to the mark, thereby making "Algebra" a tough and dry subject. This…

  7. Tuberculosis control in Sindh, Pakistan: Critical analysis of its implementation.

    PubMed

    Khan, Ali H

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the main health problems despite preventive and control measures that have been taken in the past few decades. It is responsible for almost 8.8 million cases and 1.4 million deaths around the world. Lack of access to TB services is a barrier for empowering TB patients. In a country like Pakistan, controlling TB has become a challenge because of the lack of private sector involvement in a National Tuberculosis Control Program (NTP). Therefore, collaboration is needed between public, private and government sectors in treating TB as well as in improving the quality of the health care system. Copyright © 2016 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Spatial distribution of pollutant emissions from crop residue burning in the Punjab and Sindh provinces of Pakistan: uncertainties and challenges.

    PubMed

    Irfan, Muhammad; Riaz, Muhammad; Arif, Muhammad Saleem; Shahzad, Sher Muhammad; Hussain, Sabir; Akhtar, Muhammad Javed; van den Berg, Leon; Abbas, Farhat

    2015-11-01

    Emissions of gaseous and particulate pollutants from burning of wheat straw, rice straw, cotton straw, and bagasse were studied for the two agricultural-activity-dominated provinces of Pakistan: the Punjab and Sindh. Emission estimates, inventory, and allocation maps indicated distinct patterns of pollutant emissions in the two provinces. Comparative pollutant emission analysis revealed that the Punjab province produced higher pollutants from agricultural biomass burning than Sindh province. Total emissions from these two provinces were estimated to be 16,084.04 Gg (16.08 Tg) for the year 2006/2007. Wheat straw was found to be the dominant source of CO, CO2, SO2, NOx, and EC emissions in the both provinces. However, for the emissions of CH4, NH3, EC, and OC, the Punjab and Sindh provinces differed markedly for the crop residue share in these pollutant emissions. Rice straw was found to be the largest contributor of CH4 (51%) and NH3 (65%) in Sindh province. When total emissions from biomass burning were considered at provincial level, wheat straw and bagasse were the major crop residues which accounted for 72 and 14% of pollutant emissions, respectively, in the Punjab province, whereas, in Sindh province, the order of crop residue contribution in total emission was as follows: wheat (59%) > bagasse (19%) > rice (14%) > cotton (7%). Emission inventory data of total pollutants per unit area under cultivation (Mg ha(-1)) revealed that Sindh province produced higher emissions per hectare for wheat straw, rice straw, and bagasse than the Punjab province.

  9. Safe delivery and newborn care practices in Sindh, Pakistan: a community-based investigation of mothers and health workers.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Hamid; Jokhio, Abdul Hakeem; Winter, Heather; Macarthur, Christine

    2012-08-01

    to determine the prevalence of specific intrapartum practices in Sindh province, Pakistan. a cross-sectional, questionnaire based study. 6 health clinics in Mirpurkhas, Sindh province, rural Pakistan. 225 mothers and 82 health workers. outcome measures were indicators of safe delivery practices and referral following an obstetric complication. Prevalence of unhygienic and unsafe practices in deliveries attended by Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs) was common. Deliveries by skilled attendants were significantly safer but with some failures in hygienic practices. 29% of women who had experienced an obstetric complication had not received emergency obstetric care. safe delivery practices and newborn care needs to be improved in rural Pakistan. This may be achieved by training health workers and TBAs in safe delivery practices, using safe delivery kits and with an effective referral system. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Characterization of drought and its assessment over Sindh, Pakistan during 1951-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adnan, Shahzada; Ullah, Kalim; Gao, Shouting

    2015-10-01

    Drought is one of the complex meteorological disasters affecting water resources, agriculture, livestock, and socioeconomic patterns of a region. Although drought prediction is difficult, it can be monitored based on climatological information. In this study, we provide high spatiotemporal resolution drought climatology, using observational, gridded precipitation data (0.5°×0.5°) from the Global Precipitation Climatological Center and soil moisture data from the Climate Prediction Center for the 60-yr period 1951-2010. The standardized precipitation index (SPI) based on a fitted Gamma distribution and Run method has been calculated from the regional drought identification model (ReDIM) for 3, 6, 9, 12, and 24 months. The results show strong temporal correlations among anomalies of precipitation, soil moisture, and SPI. Analysis of long-term precipitation data reveals that the drought vulnerability concentrates on monsoon season (July-September), which contributes 72.4% and 82.1% of the annual precipitation in northern and southern Sindh, respectively. Annual and seasonal analyses show no significant changes in the observed precipitation. The category classification criteria are defined to monitor/forecast drought in the selected area. Further analysis identifies two longest episodes of drought, i.e., 1972-1974 and 2000-2002, while 1969, 1974, 1987, and 2002 are found to be the most severe historical drought years. A drought hazard map of Sindh was developed, in which 10 districts are recognized as highly vulnerable to drought. This study helps to explain the time, duration, intensity, and frequency of meteorological droughts over Sindh as well as its neighboring regions, and provides useful information to disaster management agencies and forecasters for assessing both the regional vulnerability of drought and its seasonal predictability in Pakistan.

  11. Prevailing trends of climatic extremes across Indus-Delta of Sindh-Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbas, Farhat; Rehman, Iqra; Adrees, Muhammad; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Saleem, Farhan; Ali, Shafaqat; Rizwan, Muhammad; Salik, Muhammad Raza

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the variability and change in the patterns of climatic extremes experienced in Indus-Delta of Sindh province of Pakistan, comprising regions of Karachi, Badin, Mohenjodaro, and Rohri. The homogenized daily minimum and maximum temperature and precipitation data for a 36-year period were used to calculate 13 and 11 indices of temperature and precipitation extremes with the help of RClimDex, a program written in the statistical software package R. A non-parametric Mann-Kendall test and Sen's slope estimates were used to determine the statistical significance and magnitude of the calculated trend. Temperatures of summer days and tropical nights increased in the region with overall significant warming trends for monthly maximum temperature as well as for warm days and nights reflecting dry conditions in the study area. The warm extremes and nighttime temperature indices showed greater trends than cold extremes and daytime indices depicting an overall warming trends in the Delta. Historic decrease in the acreage of major crops and over 33% decrease in agriculture credit for Sindh are the indicators of adverse impacts of warmer and drier weather on Sindh agriculture. Trends reported for Karachi and Badin are expected to decrease rice cultivation, hatching of fisheries, and mangroves forest surrounding these cities. Increase in the prevailing temperature trends will lead to increasingly hotter and drier summers resulting to constraints on cotton, wheat, and rice yield in Rohri and Mohenjodaro areas due to increased crop water requirements that may be met with additional groundwater pumping; nonetheless, the depleted groundwater resources would have a direct impact on the region's economy.

  12. Characterization of Drought and Its Assessment over Sindh, Pakistan During 1951-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adnan, Shahzada

    2016-07-01

    Drought is one of the complex meteorological disasters, which can affect water resources, agriculture, livestock, and socioeconomic patterns of a region. Although drought prediction is difficult, it can be monitored based on climatological information. In this study, we provide high spatial and temporal resolution drought climatology, using observational, gridded precipitation data (0.5°X 0.5°) from the Global Precipitation Climatological Center and soil moisture from the Climate Prediction Centre for the 60-yr period 1951-2010. The standardized precipitation index (SPI) based on a fitted Gamma distribution and Run Method has been calculated from the regional drought identification model (ReDIM) on 3, 6, 9, 12 and 24 months. The results show strong temporal correlations among anomalies of precipitation, soil moisture, and SPI. Analysis of long-term precipitation data reveals that the drought vulnerability concentrates on monsoon season (July-September), which contributes 72.4% and 82.1% of annual precipitation in northern and southern Sindh, respectively. Annual and seasonal analyses show no significant changes in the observed precipitation. The category classification criteria are defined to monitor/forecast drought in the selected area. Further analysis identifies two longest episodes of drought, i.e., 1972-1974 and 2000-2002, while 1969, 1974, 1987, and 2002 are found to be the most severe historical drought years. A drought hazard map of Sindh was developed, in which 10 districts are recognized as highly vulnerable to drought. This study helps in explaining the time, duration, intensity, and frequency of meteorological droughts over Sindh as well as its neighboring regions, and provides useful information to disaster management agencies and forecasters for assessing both the regional vulnerability of drought and its seasonal predictability in Pakistan.

  13. SOCIETAL PERSPECTIVE ON COST DRIVERS FOR HEALTH TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT IN SINDH, PAKISTAN.

    PubMed

    Khowaja, Asif Raza; Mitton, Craig; Qureshi, Rahat; Bryan, Stirling; Magee, Laura A; von Dadelszen, Peter; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2017-01-01

    Understanding cost-drivers and estimating societal costs are important challenges for economic evaluation of health technologies in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). This study assessed community experiences of health resource usage and perceived cost-drivers from a societal perspective to inform the design of an economic model for the Community Level Interventions for Pre-eclampsia (CLIP) trials. Qualitative research was undertaken alongside the CLIP trial in two districts of Sindh province, Pakistan. Nine focus groups were conducted with a wide range of stakeholders, including pregnant women, mothers-in-law, husbands, fathers-in-law, healthcare providers at community and health facility-levels, and health decision/policy makers at district-level. The societal perspective included out-of-pocket (OOP), health system, and program implementation costs related to CLIP. Thematic analysis was performed using NVivo software. Most pregnant women and male decision makers reported a large burden of OOP costs for in- and out-patient care, informal care from traditional healers, self-medication, childbirth, newborn care, transport to health facility, and missed wages by caretakers. Many healthcare providers identified health system costs associated with human resources for hypertension risk assessment, transport, and communication about patient referrals. Health decision/policy makers recognized program implementation costs (such as the mobile health infrastructure, staff training, and monitoring/supervision) as major investments for the health system. Our investigation of care-seeking practices revealed financial implications for families of pregnant women, and program implementation costs for the health system. The societal perspective provided comprehensive knowledge of cost drivers to guide an economic appraisal of the CLIP trial in Sindh, Pakistan.

  14. Evidence of peste des petits ruminants in serology of sheep and goats from Sindh, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Abubakar, M; Arshed, M Javed; Hussain, M; Ali, Q

    2011-04-01

    The following is the first detailed description of laboratory confirmed evidence of peste des petits ruminant virus (PPRV) in 14 districts of Sindh province, Pakistan. Sindh is the 2nd largest province of Pakistan in terms of human population and livestock. Livestock are the main origin of the people's livelihood. Samples were collected during the surveillance programme from sheep and goats showing severe respiratory signs and mouth lesions. Competitive enzyme-linked immuno-sorbant assay (cELISA) was performed to detect the presence of antibodies in the serum against PPRV. Findings suggested that the overall PPR sero-prevalence in sheep was 49.5% when compared to goats, which was 56.3%. As we observed during an 18 months' period, most of the cases that occurred emerged with the start of hot season and peaked during the months of April, May, June and July, and then the prevalence dropped. Among various age groups, the animals that showed the higher prevalence of antibodies to PPRV were >2 years. In the age group <1 year, there was a significant difference in the prevalence which was 48.6% in goats when compared to 32.1% in sheep. Similarly, it was the same in the second age group (1-2 years), 46.9% in sheep when compared to 55.3% goats. There was little variation in the third age group (>2 years), being around 61.7% in goats when compared to 63.4% in sheep. The highest sero-prevalence was in Tharparkar followed by Mirpur Khas and Tando Allahyar. The study indicated the scenario of PPRV circulation in the population of the two domestic ruminant species (sheep and goats) with frequent disease outbreaks. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Seropositivity of hepatitis C in prison inmates of Pakistan--a cross sectional study in prisons of Sindh.

    PubMed

    Gorar, Zulfikar Ali; Zulfikar, Imrana

    2010-06-01

    To assess the proportion of seropositivity of Hepatitis C amongst the prison inmates in the jails of Sindh. A cross sectional HCV seroprevalence survey was done at 14 out of 19 prisons in the Sindh province from November 2008 to January 2009. A team of Pathologist, phlebotomist and laboratory technician took the blood sample of the inmates inside the correctional facility; the blood was centrifuged at the spot and brought back to the pathology laboratory on same day in cold chain i.e. a temperature-controlled supply chain. Serum was analyzed on 3rd generation ELISA for HCV antibodies. Standard ethical considerations were properly followed. Atotal of 9508 prison inmates were approached. Refusal rate was 20%. Remaining, 7539 prisoners were screened at 14 out of 19 jails in Sindh. HCV antibody positive were 965 making the proportion of seropositivity 12.8% (95% C.I. 8.92% - 12.92%). Higher seropositivity in the jails of northern Sindh jails was identified. Hepatitis C prevalence in the prison population of Sindh is higher than the national prevalence of 4.9% amongst general population. However it is lower than that reported from correctional facilities of developed countries. Hepatitis prevention and control activities in the correctional facilities of Pakistan need to be institutionalized (JPMA 60:476; 2010).

  16. Arsenic Exposure in Children through Drinking Water in Different Districts of Sindh, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Mustafa, Muhammad Ayaz; Solangi, Imam Bakhsh; Mughal, Mirza Junaid; Afridi, Hassan Imran

    2016-09-01

    A cross sectional study has been conducted during 2007-2010 for the assessment of arsenic (As) contamination in drinking water, and its impact on the health of local public belongs to five districts of Sindh, Pakistan. The toxic risk assessment of As in different areas of Sindh province based upon its concentration in drinking water and scalp hair of boys and girls of age group 5-10 and 11-15 years. The total and inorganic As species in drinking water samples of four districts Hyderabad, Sukkur, Naushehro Firoze, Nawab shah, and Dadu were determined by advance pre-concentration methodologies. The resulting data indicated that the dominant inorganic As species in municipal treated (Hyaderabad) and hand pumps (Sukkur, Naushehro Firoze, Nawab shah and Dadu) water samples were arsenate (As(V)) and arsenite (As(III)), respectively. The total As concentrations in hand pumps water samples of Dadu district were 6.0- to 35-fold higher than the World Health Organization permissible limit of (10 μg/L) for drinking water. Whereas, total As in hand pump water samples of Sukkur, Naushehro Firoze, and Nawab shah were found in the range of 26.0-98.2, 18.0-50.6, and 52.3-85.2 μg/L, respectively. However, municipal treated water samples of Hyderabad were within recommended level (As <10 μg/L). The content of total As in children of both genders and age group belonging to Sukkur, Naushehro Firoze, Nawab shah, and Dadu was found to be significantly high as compared to those children residing in Hyderabad district. The Pearson coefficient of correlation r values between As levels in hand pump water and scalp hair samples of children belonging to Sukkur, Naushehro Firoze, Nawab shah, and Dadu were observed in the range of 0.65-0.75, 0.75-0.82, 0.80-0.90, and 0.95-0.98, respectively. The results of As toxicity risk assessment based on hazard quotient indicated that Dadu district has high carcinogenic exposure risk for children. Moreover, it is concluded that the children

  17. Active contact investigation and treatment support: an integrated approach in rural and urban Sindh, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Shah, S A; Qayyum, S; Abro, R; Baig, S; Creswell, J

    2013-12-01

    Although household contacts of persons with tuberculosis (TB) have high rates of active TB, contact investigations are often not conducted. We present the results from a large-scale active contact investigation combined with treatment support in Sindh, Pakistan. Trained lay workers visited consenting smear-positive index patient homes in seven urban and 15 rural facilities. People with suspected TB were provided free transport to diagnostic centres, and sputum samples were collected for microscopy. Those diagnosed with smear-positive TB were given food baskets and sent text reminders to promote adherence. From 3037 index cases, 19,191 household contacts were screened for TB symptoms and 3478 (18.1%) symptomatic persons were identified. Of these, 2160 (62.1%) produced sputum samples on the spot for testing and 490 (22.7%) had smear-positive results. TB prevalence in urban households was 1504 per 100,000 population compared to 4044/100,000 in rural households (P < 0.001) and 2553/100,000 overall. Treatment success was high, with 80.4% cured and 17.6% completing treatment. Lay workers given basic training can conduct active contact investigations and provide treatment support to improve case detection and treatment outcomes in urban and rural areas of Pakistan. In areas with high levels of undiagnosed TB, particularly in rural areas, contact investigation should be prioritised as a means of improving case detection and early diagnosis.

  18. A case study of outsourced primary healthcare services in Sindh, Pakistan: is this a real reform?

    PubMed

    Tanzil, Sana; Zahidie, Aysha; Ahsan, Adeel; Kazi, Ambreen; Shaikh, Babar Tasneem

    2014-06-25

    Since a decade, low and middle income countries have a rising trend of contracting their primary healthcare services to NGOs. In Pakistan, public sector often lacks capacity to effectively & equitably manage the healthcare services. It led the government to outsource the administration of primary health care services to a semi-autonomous government entity i.e. Peoples' Primary Healthcare Initiative (PPHI). This small scale study has assessed the quality of healthcare services at the contracted Basic Health Units (BHUs) with the PPHI and compared it with those managed by the local district government in the province of Sindh. A cross-sectional mix methods survey was conducted in November 2011. Two BHUs of each type were selected from the districts Karachi and Thatta in Sindh province. BHUs were selected randomly and a purposive sampling technique was used to recruit the study participants at the two study sites. Focus group discussions were conducted with patients visiting the facility while in-depth interviews were conducted with service providers. An observation based resource availability checklist was also administered. There was a significant difference between the PPHI and the district government administered BHUs with regard to infrastructure, availability of essential medicines, basic medical appliances, mini-lab facilities and vehicles for referrals. These BHUs were found to have sufficient number of trained clinical staff and no punctuality and retention issues whatsoever. The district government administered BHUs presented a dismal picture in all the aspects. Out-sourcing of primary healthcare facilities has resulted in significantly improved certain aspects quality and responsiveness of primary healthcare services. This strategy is likely to achieve an efficient and perhaps an equitable healthcare delivery in low and middle income countries where governments have limited capacity to manage healthcare services.

  19. A case study of outsourced primary healthcare services in Sindh, Pakistan: is this a real reform?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Since a decade, low and middle income countries have a rising trend of contracting their primary healthcare services to NGOs. In Pakistan, public sector often lacks capacity to effectively & equitably manage the healthcare services. It led the government to outsource the administration of primary health care services to a semi-autonomous government entity i.e. Peoples’ Primary Healthcare Initiative (PPHI). This small scale study has assessed the quality of healthcare services at the contracted Basic Health Units (BHUs) with the PPHI and compared it with those managed by the local district government in the province of Sindh. Methods A cross-sectional mix methods survey was conducted in November 2011. Two BHUs of each type were selected from the districts Karachi and Thatta in Sindh province. BHUs were selected randomly and a purposive sampling technique was used to recruit the study participants at the two study sites. Focus group discussions were conducted with patients visiting the facility while in-depth interviews were conducted with service providers. An observation based resource availability checklist was also administered. Results There was a significant difference between the PPHI and the district government administered BHUs with regard to infrastructure, availability of essential medicines, basic medical appliances, mini-lab facilities and vehicles for referrals. These BHUs were found to have sufficient number of trained clinical staff and no punctuality and retention issues whatsoever. The district government administered BHUs presented a dismal picture in all the aspects. Conclusion Out-sourcing of primary healthcare facilities has resulted in significantly improved certain aspects quality and responsiveness of primary healthcare services. This strategy is likely to achieve an efficient and perhaps an equitable healthcare delivery in low and middle income countries where governments have limited capacity to manage healthcare services. PMID

  20. Monitoring changes in riverine forests of Sindh-Pakistan using remote sensing and GIS techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddiqui, M. N.; Jamil, Z.; Afsar, J.

    Depletion in the forest area threatens the sustainability of agricultural production systems and en-dangers the economy of the country. Every year extensive areas of arable agricultural and forestlands are degraded and turned into wastelands over time, due to natural causes or human interventions. Depletion in forest cover, therefore, has an important impact on socio-economic development and ecological balance. High population growth rate in Pakistan is one of the main causes for rapid deterioration of the physical environment and natural resource base. In view of this, it was felt necessary to carryout landuse studies focusing on mapping the past and present conditions and the extent of forests and rangelands using satellite remote sensing (SRS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) technologies. The SRS and GIS technologies provide a possible means of monitoring and mapping the changes occurring in natural resources and the environment on a continuous basis. The riverine forests of Sindh mostly growing along the river Indus in the flood plains are spread over an area of 241,000 ha but are disappearing very rapidly. Construction of dams/barrages on the upper reaches of the river Indus for hydroelectric power and irrigation works have significantly reduced the discharge of fresh water into the lower Indus basin and as a result 100,000 acres of forests have disappeared. Furthermore, heavy floods that occurred in 1978, 1988, 1992 and 1997, altered the course of the River Indus in many places, especially in the lower reaches, this has also damaged the riverine forests of Sindh. An integrated approach involving analysis of SRS data from 1977 to 1998 and GIS technique have been used to evaluate the geographic extent and distribution of the riverine forests of Sindh and to monitor temporal changes in the forest cover between 1977 and 1990; 1990 and 1998; and 1977 and 1998. The integrated landuse forest cover maps have shown not only the temporal changes that occur in

  1. Integrated use of SRS Data &GIS Technique for Monitoring Changes in Riverine Forest of Sindh, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddiqui, M.; Ali, Z.

    Deforestation / depletion in forest area threaten the sustainability of agricultural production systems and en-danger the economy of the country. Every year extensive areas of arable agricultural and forestlands are degraded and turned into wastelands, due to natural causes or human interventions. There are several causes of deforestation, such as expansion in agricultural area, urban development, forest fires, commercial logging, illicit cutting, grazing, constructions of dams / reservoirs and barrages, com munication links, etc. Depletion in forest cover, therefore, has an important impact on socio - economic development and ecological balance. High population growth rate in Pakistan is one of the main causes for the rapid deterioration of physical environment and natural resource base. In view of this, it is felt necessary to carryout land -u s e studies focusing on strategies for mapping the past and present conditions and extent of forests and rangelands using Satellite Remote Sensing (SRS) data and GIS t echnology. The SRS and GIS technology provides a possible means of monitoring and mapping changes occurring in natural resources and the environment on a continuing basis. The riverine forests of Sindh mostly grow along the River Indus in the flood plains, spread over an area of 241,000 ha are disappearing very rapidly. Construction of dams / barrages on the upper reaches of the River Indus for hydroelectric power and irrigation works have significantly reduced the discharge of fresh water into the lower Indus basin and as a result, 100,000 acres of forests have disappeared. Furthermore, the heavy floods that occurred in 1978, 1988, 1992 and 1997, altered the course of the River Indus in many places, especially in the lower reaches, this has also damaged the riverine forests of Sindh. An integrated approach involving analysis of SRS data from 1977 to 1998 and GIS technique have been used to evaluate the geographic ex-tent and distribution of the riverine

  2. Flaviviruses as a Cause of Undifferentiated Fever in Sindh Province, Pakistan: A Preliminary Report

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Erum; Farooqi, Joveria Q.; Barr, Kelli L.; Prakoso, Dhani; Nasir, Amna; Kanji, Akbar; Shakoor, Sadia; Malik, Faisal Riaz; Hasan, Rumina; Lednicky, John A.; Long, Maureen T.

    2016-01-01

    Arboviral diseases are expanding worldwide, yet global surveillance is often limited due to diplomatic and cultural barriers between nations. With human encroachment into new habitats, mosquito-borne viruses are also invading new areas. The actual prevalence of expanding arboviruses is unknown in Pakistan due to inappropriate diagnosis and poor testing for arboviral diseases. The primary objective of this study was to document evidence of flavivirus infections as the cause of undifferentiated fever in Pakistan. Through a cooperative effort between the USA and Pakistan, patient exposure to dengue virus (DENV), West Nile virus (WNV), and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) was examined in Sindh Province for the first time in decades. Initial results from the 2015 arbovirus season consisting of a cross-sectional study of 467 patients in 5 sites, DENV NS1 antigen was identified in 63 of the screened subjects, WNV IgM antibodies in 16 patients, and JEV IgM antibodies in 32 patients. In addition, a number of practical findings were made including (1) in silico optimization of RT-PCR primers for flavivirus strains circulating in the Middle East, (2) shipping and storage of RT-PCR master mix and other reagents at ambient temperature, (3) Smart phone applications for the collection of data in areas with limited infrastructure, and (4) fast and reliable shipping for transport of reagents and specimens to and from the Middle East. Furthermore, this work is producing a group of highly trained local scientists and medical professionals disseminating modern scientific methods and more accurate diagnostic procedures to the community. PMID:26909342

  3. Ethnobotany of medicinal plants in the Thar Desert (Sindh) of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Yaseen, Ghulam; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Sultana, Shazia; Suleiman Alharrasi, Ahmed; Hussain, Javid; Zafar, Muhammad; Shafiq-Ur-Rehman

    2015-04-02

    The traditional use of medicinal plants in health-care practices among the rural communities provides the basis for natural drug discovery development. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first quantitative ethnobotanical investigation on the use of medicinal plants in the Thar Desert (Sindh) of Pakistan. In total, 530 local informants and traditional healers were interviewed, using semistructured interviews. Various quantitative indices such as relative frequency of citation (RFC), use value (UV), informant consensus factor (ICF), fidelity level (FL), relative importance (RI), and the Jaccard Index (JI) were applied to the documented data. The traditional medical uses of 87 plant species belonging to 32 families were reported on. Amaranthaceae was the most-frequently cited (nine species), followed by Cucurbitaceae and Euphorbiaceae (six species each). The most dominant life form was herbs (73.56%). The most-used plant parts were leaves, with 65 reports (28.88%), followed by seeds (16%). The common mode of preparation reported was powder (25.75%), with 74% herbal medicines obtained from fresh plant materials. The ethnobotanical result documented in this study provides practical evidence about the use of medicinal plants among the inhabitants of the Thar Desert. Further, the findings revealed that the medicinal plants of the area are a major source of herbal drugs for primary health care used among the rural communities. This survey can be used as baseline information for further scientific investigation to develop new plant-based commercial drugs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessment of groundwater quality in the coastal area of Sindh province, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Alamgir, Aamir; Khan, Moazzam Ali; Schilling, Janpeter; Shaukat, S Shahid; Shahab, Shoaib

    2016-02-01

    Groundwater is a highly important resource, especially for human consumption and agricultural production. This study offers an assessment of groundwater quality in the coastal areas of Sindh province in Pakistan. Fifty-six samples of groundwater were taken at depths ranging from 30 to 50 m. Bacteriological and physico-chemical analyses were performed using the Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. These were supplemented with expert interviews and observations to identify the usage of water and potential sources of pollution. The quality of the groundwater was found to be unsuitable for human consumption, despite being used for this purpose. The concentrations of sulfate and phosphate were well within the tolerance limits. Most critical were the high levels of organic and fecal pollution followed by turbidity and salinity. Metal concentrations (As, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) were also determined, and Ni and Pb strongly exceeded health standards. The study stresses the need for significant improvements of the irrigation, sanitation, and sewage infrastructure.

  5. Community's perceptions of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia in Sindh Pakistan: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Khowaja, Asif Raza; Qureshi, Rahat Najam; Sheikh, Sana; Zaidi, Shujaat; Salam, Rehana; Sawchuck, Diane; Vidler, Marianne; von Dadelszen, Peter; Bhutta, Zulfiqar

    2016-06-08

    Maternal mortality is of global public health concern and >99 % of maternal deaths occur in less developed countries. The common causes of direct maternal death are hemorrhage, sepsis and pre-eclampsia/eclampsia. In Pakistan, pre-eclampsia/eclampsia deaths represents one-third of maternal deaths reported at the tertiary care hospital settings. This study explored community perceptions, and traditional management practices about pre-eclampsia/eclampsia. A qualitative study was conducted in Sindh Province of Pakistan from February to July 2012. Twenty-six focus groups were conducted, 19 with women of reproductive age/mothers-in-law (N = 173); and 7 with husbands/fathers-in-law (N = 65). The data were transcribed verbatim in Sindhi and Urdu, then analyzed for emerging themes and sub-themes using NVivo version 10 software. Pre-eclampsia in pregnancy was not recognized as a disease and there was no name in the local languages to describe this. Women however, knew about high blood pressure and were aware they can develop it during pregnancy. It was widely believed that stress and weakness caused high blood pressure in pregnancy and it caused symptoms of headache. The perception of high blood pressure was not based on measurement but on symptoms. Self-medication was often used for headaches associated with high blood pressure. They were also awareness that severely high blood pressure could result in death. Community-based participatory health education strategies are recommended to dispel myths and misperceptions regarding pre-eclampsia and eclampsia. The educational initiatives should include information on the presentation, progression of illness, danger signs associated with pregnancy, and appropriate treatment.

  6. Volutidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda) of the Lakhra Formation (Earliest Eocene, Sindh, Pakistan): systematics, biostratigraphy and paleobiogeography.

    PubMed

    Merle, Didier; Pacaud, Jean-Michel; Métais, Grégoire; Bartolini, Annachiara; Lashari, Rafiq A; Brohi, Imdad A; Solangi, Sarfraz H; Marivaux, Laurent; Welcomme, Jean-Loup

    2014-06-27

    The paleobiodiversity of the Volutidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda) of the Ranikot Group (Sindh, Pakistan) and particularly of the Lakhra Formation (SBZ 5 biozone, Earliest Eocene), is reconsidered on the basis of new material collected during recent field trips. Ten new species are described (Mitreola brohii sp. nov., Lyrischapa vredenburgi sp. nov., L. brevispira sp. nov., Athleta (Volutopupa) citharopsis sp. nov., A. (Volutocorbis) lasharii sp. nov., Volutilithes welcommei sp. nov., V. sindhiensis sp. nov., Pseudaulicina coxi sp. nov., Sindhiluta lakhraensis sp. nov. and Pakiluta solangii sp. nov.) and one species is in open nomenclature (Lyria sp.). Three new genera are described: Lyriopsis gen. nov. [Volutinae, ?Lyriini, type species: Lyriopsis cossmanni (Vredenburg, 1923)], Sindhiluta gen. nov. [Volutilithinae, type species: Sindhiluta lakhraensis n. sp.] and Pakiluta gen. nov. [?Volutodermatinae, type species: Pakiluta solangii n. sp.]. Two new combinations are proposed: Lyriopsis cossmanni (Vredenburg, 1923) comb. nov. and Athleta (Volutopupa) intercrenatus (Cossmann & Pissarro, 1909) comb. nov. Lectotypes are designated for Lyria cossmanni Vredenburg, 1923, L. feddeni Vredenburg, 1923, Volutospina noetlingi Cossmann & Pissarro, 1909, V. intercrenata Cossmann & Pissarro, 1909 and Athleta (Volutocorbis) victoriae Vredenburg, 1923. With 21 species, this volutid fauna is the most diverse recorded from the Tethys Ocean during Earliest Eocene time. The assemblage is characterized by a strong turnover marked by regional speciation and the appearance of many western Tethyan invaders. Although at the species level, the assemblage documents a strong provincialism, at the genus level, the high number of shared genera between Eastern Tethyan and Old World Tethyan realms begins a phase of long-term homogeneity of volutid assemblages from the Tethyan paleobiogeographic province.

  7. Prevalence of Thalassemia Traits and Iron Deficiency Anemia in Sindh, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Kandhro, Abdul H; Prachayasittikul, Virapong; Isarankura Na-Ayudhya, Chartchalerm; Nuchnoi, Pornlada

    2017-05-01

    Among microcytic hypochromic anemias, the most common disorders are iron deficiency anemia and co-pathological conditions such as α- or β-thalassemia (α- or β-thal) traits. The aim of the present study was to determine the frequency and prevalence of iron deficiency anemia and α- or β-thal traits based on clinical laboratory data across different ethnic groups in five districts of Sindh Province, Pakistan. The present retrospective study analyzed 3 years (2012-2015) of encoded and unlinked clinical laboratory data, and identified 3030 microcytic hypochromic anemia cases. The data contained complete blood counts (CBCs) with smear morphology examinations, serum ferritin levels, and hemoglobin (Hb) electrophoreses. After reviewing the data, 994 confirmed subjects (iron deficiency anemia and α- and β-thal traits) were then selected for the present study. The prevalence of α- and β-thal traits was highest in Badin district (35.27%), while the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia was highest in Larkana district (30.73%). According to the ethnic-wise distribution, higher numbers of α- and β-thal trait cases were seen in the Sindhi ethnic group [375 (64.21%) and 283 (69.02%), respectively] than in the other ethnic groups. In addition, a higher distribution of β-thal trait cases was observed in the Sindhi ethnic group [n = 327 (56%)] in α- and β-thal cases overall. Findings from the present study strongly suggested that screening is important not only for β-thal trait but also other traits as well. However, careful monitoring of CBC parameters, including red blood cell (RBC) indices and morphology, along with clinical findings are essential to diagnose carrier cases, especially in high prevalence areas.

  8. Toxic Risk Assessment of Arsenic in Males Through Drinking Water in Tharparkar Region of Sindh, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Brahman, Kapil Dev; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Arain, Sadaf Sadia; Kazi, Atif Gul; Talpur, Farah Naz; Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Panhwar, Abdul Haleem; Arain, Mariam Shezadi; Ali, Jamshed; Arain, Mohammad Balal; Naeemullah

    2016-07-01

    Humans are exposed to arsenic (As) through air, drinking water, and food. The arsenic (As) hazardous quotient was calculated on the basis of its concentration in drinking water of different origin and scalp hair of male subjects (n = 313), residents of different exposed and non-exposed areas of Sindh, Pakistan. The total As was determined in water and scalp hair samples, while As species were determined in water samples by advance extraction methodologies. The total As concentrations in drinking water of less-exposed (LE) and high-exposed (HE) areas was found to be 2.63 to 4.46 and 52 to 235, fold higher than the permissible limit, respectively, than recommended by World Health Organization (2004) for drinking water. While the levels of As in drinking water of non-exposed (NE) areas was within the permissible limit. The resulted data indicated that the dominant species was As(+5) in groundwater samples. The levels of As in scalp hair samples of male subjects of two age groups (18-30 and 31-50 years), belonging to NE, LE, and HE areas, ranged from 0.26 to 0.69, 0.58 to 1.34, and 15.6 to 60.9 μg/g, respectively. A significant correlation between As levels in drinking water and scalp hair was observed in HE area (r = 0.86-0.90, p < 0.001) as compared to those subjects belonging to LE area. A toxicity risk assessment was calculated as hazard quotient (HQ), which indicates that the study subjects of HE area have significantly higher values of HQ than LE. The population of As exposed areas is at high risk of non-carcinogenic and carcinogenesis effects.

  9. Geographical distribution of cutaneous leishmaniasis and sand flies in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Shakila, Ashraf; Bilqees, Fatima Mujib; Salim, Azra; Moinuddin, Moinuddin

    2006-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is found in all the four provinces of Pakistan; these are NWFP, Balochistan, Sindh and Punjab. In Balochistan the areas from where the patients came are Uthal, Quetta and Ormara. The highest number of patients came from Quetta and least from Ormara. The patients included in this study were from the Mangopir and Chakewara, areas of Karachi. The infection is endemic in this country and the recent epidemics in the Dadu District and Nawabshah indicate its importance in the locality. The sand fly vector is found in all four provinces of Pakistan that are listed here. It is quite obvious that presence of leishmaniasis indicates the presence of sand flies and cutaneous leishmaniasis is more common.

  10. Geochemistry and quality parameters of dug and tube well water of Khipro, District Sanghar, Sindh, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashir, Erum; Huda, Syed Nawaz-ul; Naseem, Shahid; Hamza, Salma; Kaleem, Maria

    2017-07-01

    Thirty-nine (23 dug and 16 tube well) samples were geochemically evaluated and investigated to ascertain the quality of water in Khipro, Sindh. The analytical results exhibited abundance of major cations and anions in Na+ > Ca2+ > Mg2+ > K+ and Cl- > HCO3 - > SO4 2- sequence. Stiff diagram showed dug well sample have high Na-Cl and moderate Mg-SO4 content as compared to tube well samples. Majority of dug well samples appeared as Na-Cl type on Piper diagram while tube well samples are mixed type. Gibbs diagram reflected evaporation as a dominant phenomenon in dug well; however, tube well samples are declined toward rock dominance. Process of ion exchange was witnessed from Na+ versus Cl- and Ca2+ + Mg2+ versus HCO3 - + SO4 2- plots. Principal component analysis also discriminates dug well and tube well water by means of positive and negative loading based on physical and chemical composition of the groundwater. Studied and computed parameters like pH, EC, TDS, TH, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, SO4 2-, HCO3 -, sodium adsorption ratio, magnesium adsorption ratio, potential salinity, residual sodium carbonate, Na%, Kelly's ratio, and permeability index were compared with WHO to evaluate studied water for drinking and agricultural purposes. Except Na+ and K+, all chemical constrains are within the allowed limits, set by WHO for drinking water. Similarly, most of the groundwater is moderately suitable for irrigation uses, with few exceptions.

  11. Geochemical factors controlling the occurrence of high fluoride groundwater in the Nagar Parkar area, Sindh, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Rafique, Tahir; Naseem, Shahid; Usmani, Tanzil Haider; Bashir, Erum; Khan, Farooque Ahmed; Bhanger, Muhammad Iqbal

    2009-11-15

    Fluoride concentrations in groundwater near Nagar Parkar in the Thar Desert of southeastern Pakistan range from 1.13 to 7.85 mg/l, and roughly 78% of the samples contain fluoride in concentrations that exceed the drinking water standard of 1.5mg/l set by WHO. The groundwater is alkaline (pH 7.1-8.4), brackish (TDS 449-15,933 mg/l), and classified as Na-Cl type water. This prevailing chemical character reflects the influence of saltwater intrusion, high evaporation rates, and ion exchange. Groundwater is also supersaturated with respect to calcite, which promotes the removal of Ca(2+) and HCO(3)(-) from solution. As a result, groundwater is generally undersaturated with respect to fluorite, the mineral that typically controls the upper limit of fluoride concentrations. This study examines a number of geochemical parameters in an effort to discover the controls on fluoride concentrations in groundwater. High fluoride concentrations are associated with high TDS, high pH, high Na concentrations, and high sodium absorption ratios (SAR). This suggests that elevated fluoride levels are the result of enhanced fluorite solubility due to Ca depletion and high ionic strength and the release of fluoride from colloid surfaces under high pH conditions. Contrary to what has been found in other studies, sample depth and water temperature do not appear to have a significant role in the distribution of fluoride within the groundwater.

  12. Exposure of children to arsenic in drinking water in the Tharparkar region of Sindh, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Brahman, Kapil Dev; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Arain, Sadaf Sadia; Talpur, Farah Naz; Kazi, Atif Gul; Ali, Jamshed; Panhwar, Abdul Haleem; Arain, Muhammad Balal

    2016-02-15

    Humans can be exposed to arsenic (As) through air, drinking water, and food. The aim of this study was to calculate the hazard quotient (HQ) of As, based on its concentration in drinking water and the scalp hair of children (males) belonging to two age groups (5-10 and 11-14 years) who consumed water contaminated with different concentrations of As. The water samples were collected from As-exposed and nonexposed areas, which were classified as low-exposed (LE), high-exposed (HE), and nonexposed (NE) areas. The total concentration of inorganic As (iAs) and its species (As(III) and As(V)) in water samples of all selected areas was determined by advanced extraction methods. For purposes of comparison, the total As level was also determined in all water samples. The resulting data indicated that the predominant inorganic As species in groundwater samples was arsenate (As(V)). The As concentrations in drinking water of LE and HE areas were found to be 2.6-230-fold higher than the permissible limit for drinking water established by the World Health Organization (2004). However, the As levels in drinking water of the NE area was within the permissible limit (<10 μg/L). The As levels in the scalp hair samples from boys of NE, LE, and HE areas ranged from 0.16 to 0.36, 0.36 to 0.83, and 11.5 to 31.9 mg/kg, respectively. A significant, positive correlation was observed between the As levels in drinking water and scalp hair samples of children from the HE area, compared with the other two groups (p>0.01). The As toxicity risk assessment based on HQ for the NE, LE, and HE areas corresponded to <10, ≥ 10, and >10, respectively. These HQ values indicated the noncarcinogenic, less carcinogenic, and highly carcinogenic exposure risks faced by children from the NE, LE, and HE areas, respectively. It can be concluded that children consuming the groundwater of the LE (Khairpur Mir's) and HE (Tharparkar) areas of Pakistan are at a potential risk of chronic As toxicity.

  13. Insight into implementation of facility-based integrated management of childhood illness strategy in a rural district of Sindh, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Nousheen Akber; Rizvi, Narjis; Sami, Neelofar; Gul, Xaher

    2013-07-05

    Integrated management of childhood illnesses (IMCI) strategy has been proven to improve health outcomes in children under 5 years of age. Pakistan, despite being in the late implementation phase of the strategy, continues to report high under-five mortality due to pneumonia, diarrhea, measles, and malnutrition - the main targets of the strategy. The study determines the factors influencing IMCI implementation at public-sector primary health care (PHC) facilities in Matiari district, Sindh, Pakistan. An exploratory qualitative study with an embedded quantitative strand was conducted. The qualitative part included 16 in-depth interviews (IDIs) with stakeholders which included planners and policy makers at a provincial level (n=5), implementers and managers at a district level (n=3), and IMCI-trained physicians posted at PHC facilities (n=8). Quantitative part included PHC facility survey (n=16) utilizing WHO health facility assessment tool to assess availability of IMCI essential drugs, supplies, and equipments. Qualitative content analysis was used to interpret the textual information, whereas descriptive frequencies were calculated for health facility survey data. The major factors reported to enhance IMCI implementation were knowledge and perception about the strategy and need for separate clinic for children aged under 5 years as potential support factors. The latter can facilitate in strategy implementation through allocated workforce and required equipments and supplies. Constraint factors mainly included lack of clear understanding of the strategy, poor planning for IMCI implementation, ambiguity in defined roles and responsibilities among stakeholders, and insufficient essential supplies and drugs at PHC centers. The latter was further substantiated through health facilities' survey findings, which indicated that none of the facilities had 100% stock of essential supplies and drugs. Only one out of all 16 surveyed facilities had 75% of the total supplies

  14. Insight into implementation of facility-based integrated management of childhood illness strategy in a rural district of Sindh, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Akber Pradhan, Nousheen; Rizvi, Narjis; Sami, Neelofar; Gul, Xaher

    2013-01-01

    Background Integrated management of childhood illnesses (IMCI) strategy has been proven to improve health outcomes in children under 5 years of age. Pakistan, despite being in the late implementation phase of the strategy, continues to report high under-five mortality due to pneumonia, diarrhea, measles, and malnutrition – the main targets of the strategy. Objective The study determines the factors influencing IMCI implementation at public-sector primary health care (PHC) facilities in Matiari district, Sindh, Pakistan. Design An exploratory qualitative study with an embedded quantitative strand was conducted. The qualitative part included 16 in-depth interviews (IDIs) with stakeholders which included planners and policy makers at a provincial level (n=5), implementers and managers at a district level (n=3), and IMCI-trained physicians posted at PHC facilities (n=8). Quantitative part included PHC facility survey (n=16) utilizing WHO health facility assessment tool to assess availability of IMCI essential drugs, supplies, and equipments. Qualitative content analysis was used to interpret the textual information, whereas descriptive frequencies were calculated for health facility survey data. Results The major factors reported to enhance IMCI implementation were knowledge and perception about the strategy and need for separate clinic for children aged under 5 years as potential support factors. The latter can facilitate in strategy implementation through allocated workforce and required equipments and supplies. Constraint factors mainly included lack of clear understanding of the strategy, poor planning for IMCI implementation, ambiguity in defined roles and responsibilities among stakeholders, and insufficient essential supplies and drugs at PHC centers. The latter was further substantiated through health facilities’ survey findings, which indicated that none of the facilities had 100% stock of essential supplies and drugs. Only one out of all 16 surveyed

  15. The Role of Quality Health Services and Discussion about Birth Spacing in Postpartum Contraceptive Use in Sindh, Pakistan: A Multilevel Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tappis, Hannah; Dahar, Zaib; Ali, Anayat; Agha, Sohail

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Rapid population growth, stagnant contraceptive prevalence, and high unmet need for family planning present significant challenges for meeting Pakistan’s national and international development goals. Although health behaviors are shaped by multiple social and environmental factors, research on contraceptive uptake in Pakistan has focused on individual and household determinants, and little attention has been given to community characteristics that may affect access to services and reproductive behavior. Methods Individual and community determinants of contraceptive use were identified using multivariable multilevel logistic regression to analyze data from a 2014 cross-sectional survey of 6,200 mothers in 503 communities in Sindh, Pakistan. Results Only 27% of women who had given birth in the two years before the study reported using contraceptives. After adjusting for individual and community characteristics, there was no difference in the odds of contraceptive use between urban and rural women. Women who had delivered at a health facility had 1.4 times higher odds of contraceptive use than women who delivered at home. Those who received information about birth spacing from a doctor or relatives/friends had 1.81 and 1.38 times higher odds of contraceptive use, respectively, than those who did not. Living in a community where a higher proportion of women received quality antenatal care and where discussion of birth spacing was more common was significantly associated with contraceptive use. Community-wide poverty lowered contraceptive use. Conclusions Quality of care at the community level has strong effects on contraceptive use, independent of the characteristics of individual households or women. These findings suggest that powerful gains in contraceptive use may be realized by improving the quality of antenatal care in Pakistan. Community health workers should focus on generating discussion of birth spacing in the community. Outreach efforts should

  16. Prevalence of head lice and hygiene practices among women over twelve years of age in Sindh, Balochistan, and North West Frontier Province: National Health Survey of Pakistan, 1990-1994

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Head lice infestation is an infection of the scalp and skin which causes blood loss, discomfort, and social and psychological distress with the possibility of secondary bacterial infections occurring at scratch sites. In Pakistan, although some small scale studies have been conducted to investigate prevalence of head lice in school children and the general population, no population based estimates have been reported. The National Health Survey of Pakistan (NHSP 1990 - 94) was a nationally representative health examination survey of the Pakistani population. The NHSP is the first population based household survey to collect data on the prevalence of head lice in adult women in Pakistan. In this paper we use data from the NHSP to present an epidemiological profile of personal hygiene practices and head lice infestation among women aged 12 years or older in three provinces of Pakistan; Balochistan, Sindh and North West Frontier Province (NWFP). Results Overall about 7% women aged 12 years and older suffered from head lice infestation. Multivariable logistic regression analysis identified factors independently associated with presence of head lice. Age less than 16 years and crowding at home were associated with higher infestation-rates. The impact of household socio-economic status on infestation rates among women was different in urban and rural settings; urban women with low socio-economic status were more vulnerable than similar women in rural settings. Bathing infrequently in summer was associated with higher prevalence rates only in Sindh, possibly due to the fact that among the three provinces Sindh has a hotter and more humid summer. Conclusions The results of our analysis of NHSP indicate high levels of head lice infestation among girls and women in the three Provinces. The epidemiological profile of hygienic practices of women indicated that NWFP and Balochistan as compared to Sindh, and rural as compared to urban areas were less developed with

  17. Prevalence of head lice and hygiene practices among women over twelve years of age in Sindh, Balochistan, and North West Frontier Province: National Health Survey of Pakistan, 1990-1994.

    PubMed

    Mahmud, Sadia; Pappas, Gregory; Hadden, Wilbur C

    2011-02-02

    Head lice infestation is an infection of the scalp and skin which causes blood loss, discomfort, and social and psychological distress with the possibility of secondary bacterial infections occurring at scratch sites. In Pakistan, although some small scale studies have been conducted to investigate prevalence of head lice in school children and the general population, no population based estimates have been reported. The National Health Survey of Pakistan (NHSP 1990 - 94) was a nationally representative health examination survey of the Pakistani population. The NHSP is the first population based household survey to collect data on the prevalence of head lice in adult women in Pakistan. In this paper we use data from the NHSP to present an epidemiological profile of personal hygiene practices and head lice infestation among women aged 12 years or older in three provinces of Pakistan; Balochistan, Sindh and North West Frontier Province (NWFP). Overall about 7% women aged 12 years and older suffered from head lice infestation. Multivariable logistic regression analysis identified factors independently associated with presence of head lice. Age less than 16 years and crowding at home were associated with higher infestation-rates. The impact of household socio-economic status on infestation rates among women was different in urban and rural settings; urban women with low socio-economic status were more vulnerable than similar women in rural settings. Bathing infrequently in summer was associated with higher prevalence rates only in Sindh, possibly due to the fact that among the three provinces Sindh has a hotter and more humid summer. The results of our analysis of NHSP indicate high levels of head lice infestation among girls and women in the three Provinces. The epidemiological profile of hygienic practices of women indicated that NWFP and Balochistan as compared to Sindh, and rural as compared to urban areas were less developed with respect to access to water supply

  18. Health workers' perspectives, knowledge and skills regarding community case management of childhood diarrhoea and pneumonia: a qualitative inquiry for an implementation research project "Nigraan" in District Badin, Sindh, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Rabbani, Fauziah; Perveen, Shagufta; Aftab, Wafa; Zahidie, Aysha; Sangrasi, Kashif; Qazi, Shamim Ahmad

    2016-09-01

    Pakistan's Lady Health Worker Programme aims to provide care to children sick with pneumonia and diarrhoea, which continues to cause 27 % under-five mortality in Pakistan. The quality of supervision received by Lady Health Workers (LHWs) in the programme influence their knowledge and skills, in turn impacting their ability to provide care. This study is part of an implementation research project titled "Nigraan" (an Urdu word meaning supervisor), and explores LHW and Lady Health Supervisor (LHS) perspectives regarding the role of supervision in improving LHWs performance and motivation in district Badin, Sindh, Pakistan. Their knowledge and skills regarding integrated community case management (iCCM) of diarrhoea and pneumonia were also assessed. Fourteen focus group discussions and 20 in-depth interviews were conducted as part of this qualitative inquiry. Analysis was done using QSR NVivo version 10. Most LHWs and LHSs identified pneumonia and diarrhoea as two major causes of death among children under-five. Poverty, illiteracy, poor hygiene and lack of clean drinking water were mentioned as underlying causes of high mortality due to diarrhoea and pneumonia. LHWs and LHSs gaps in knowledge included classification of dehydration, correctly preparing ORS and prescribing correct antibiotics in pneumonia. Lack of training, delayed salaries and insufficient medicines and other supplies were identified as major factors impeding appropriate knowledge and skill development for iCCM of childhood diarrhoea and pneumonia. LHWs considered adequate supervision and the presence of LHSs during household visits as a factor facilitating their performance. LHWs did not have a preference for written or verbal feedback, but LHSs considered written individual feedback to LHWs to be more useful than group and verbal feedback. LHWs have knowledge and skill gaps that prevent them from providing effective care for diarrhoea and pneumonia. Enhanced supportive feedback from LHSs could

  19. Content Analysis of Research Contributions towards Environmental Issues in Sindh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lashari, Jagul Huma; Bhutto, Arabella; Rashdi, Roshan S. Shah; Qureshi, S. M.

    2015-01-01

    This research article identifies the contributions of PhD faculty members of Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) in Sindh Pakistan offering degrees in the environment discipline through published articles in journals, conference proceedings, research project reports and focused areas of research. The content analyses of curriculum vitae data of…

  20. Evidence of peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) infection in Sindh Ibex (Capra aegagrus blythi) in Pakistan as confirmed by detection of antigen and antibody.

    PubMed

    Abubakar, Muhammad; Rajput, Zahid Iqbal; Arshed, Muhammad Javed; Sarwar, Ghulam; Ali, Qurban

    2011-04-01

    An outbreak resulting in mortality in Sindh Ibex (Capra aegagrus blythi) was investigated. There was a history of about 36 deaths (both young and adult) during the period of 1 month. Disease appeared in a generalized form, affecting the respiratory and digestive systems. Major lesions were respiratory distress, pustules on and in the mouth, ocular-nasal discharges, and severe diarrhea. The most significant lesion was the oculonasal discharges and diarrhea. Deaths were mainly due to blindness, anorexia, diarrhea, and respiratory arrest. Both adult (mortality = 21) and young (mortality = 15) animals were affected with the disease. Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) antigen was detected in the spleen, lung, lymph node, and swab samples by immunocapture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Spleen and lung samples were also tested and found positive for the presence of F-gene of PPRV by polymerase chain reaction. Thirteen of 20 serum samples from nearby sheep and goats were found positive for antibodies to PPRV. The disease threatened the huge population of ibex in the wild life park, which was spread over a large area, but vaccination of the domestic population of sheep and goats in the surrounding villages appeared to control the disease.

  1. Effect of sugar industry spentwash (diluted) on the characteristics of soil and sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) growth in the subtropical environment of Sindh, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Kaloi, Ghulam Muhiyuddin; Memon, Mehrunisa; Memon, Kazi Suleman; Ahmad, Sagheer; Sheikh, Saghir Ahmed; Jamro, Ghulam Murtaza

    2017-03-01

    Spentwash is a rich source of organic matter and essential plant nutrients in addition to excess salts. Sugar mills in Pakistan discharge about 3.48 million tons of spentwash annually, with no proper procedures for its disposal or utilization. To test the effect of diluted spentwash on soil and the soil's ability to support plant growth, sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) variety CPF-237 was planted. The experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design involving factorial combination of four concentrations of each spentwash (0, 10, 20, and 30%) and mineral fertilizers (0, 1/3, 2/3, and the full recommended rate of NP). The 10% spentwash plus 2/3 mineral fertilizer treatment substituted 33% each of N and P and 100% of K, saving mineral fertilizer cost (Rs. 48600 ∼ US$458) in addition to 29.54% increase in yield over full NP fertilizer. The same treatment also improved the soil organic matter (65%), N (20%), P (25%), and K (230%) over full NP treatment alone. An increase in the salt content of the soil was detected within the prescribed limits, with the exception of HCO3.

  2. NASA MISR Tracks Massive Flooding in Pakistan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-08-18

    In late July 2010, flooding caused by heavy monsoon rains began in several regions of Pakistan, including the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Sindh, Punjab and parts of Baluchistan. This image was acquired by NASA Terra spacecraft on August 11, 2010.

  3. Pakistan, Madrassas, and Militancy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    the Sindh, and ‘TAN’ for Baluchistan. Bengal, latter to be called East Pakistan and then Bangladesh after securing its independence in 1971, was... Bangladesh . The loss of East Pakistan demonstrated the pitfall of using religion as a common unifying factor for a national identity. This is...creation of Bangladesh , Bhutto nationalized education but left the madrassas free of government control in order to consolidate support from the various

  4. Pakistan.

    PubMed

    1987-03-01

    This information sheet about Pakistan, by the U.S. State Dept., summarizes its geography, political history, government, economy and international relations. Pakistan, lying on the Arabian Sea between Iran and India, and neighboring Afghanistan and China, has been independent from British control since 1947. Her people, 98 million, come from several Indo-European ethnic groups, but are 97% Muslim. Most live in the fertile Indus river valley; 53% work in agriculture; 13% in industry; mean per capita income is $331. The infant mortality rate is about 119/1000; life expectancy around 51 years. The country is endowed with resources, besides farmland, of oil, gas, coal, iron and hydroelectric power. It produces cotton, rice, fruits and vegetables as well for export. Pakistan's history is filled with strife, armed or political, marked by the independence of East Pakistan, now Bangladesh, in 1970, and rivalry for power by military and democratic factions, ending with a real election of Benazir Bhutto in 1986. Despite basic resources and a net export of food and textiles, the country has a significant debt and runs a deficit, and supports a rapidly growing young population (3.1% growth rate). Pakistan partakes in a complicated net of international relations due to the alignment of countries on her borders. Religious and ethnic conflicts with India, ideological difficulties and millions of refugees flowing from Afghanistan, but good relations with Iran and China make up this pattern.

  5. ASTER Captures New Image of Pakistan Flooding

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-08-20

    NASA Terra spacecraft captured this cloud-free image over the city of Sukkur, Pakistan, on Aug. 18, 2010. Sukkur, located in southeastern Pakistan Sindh Province, is visible as the grey, urbanized area in the lower left center of the image.

  6. Pakistan.

    PubMed

    1992-06-01

    Pakistan's background notes which profile the population, geography, government, and the economy contain a capsule of selected country statistics and a descriptive text. Pakistan has 117 million people distributed at 134/sq km with a growth rate of 3%. The major cities are Islamabad, Rawalpindi, Karachi, Lahore, and Faisalabad. Ethnic groups include the Punjabi, Sindhi, Pathan, Baluch, and Huhajirs. 97% are Muslim. Urdu is the official language, but 65% speak Punjabi, 11% Sindhi, and 24% other languages. 26% are literate. Infant mortality is 109/1000. 54% are involved in agriculture, 33% services, and 13% in industry. A parliamentary democracy was established in 1947 with an executive, legislative, and judicial branch of government. The Islamic Democratic Alliance is the most important national party. Voting rights are for those 21 years. Seats are reserved for non-Muslims. There are 4 political subdivisions. Gross national product (GNP) was $43 billion in 1990. The economic growth rate is 5% and 2%/capita. The natural resources are arable land, natural gas, petroleum, coal, iron ore, and hydropower potential. Agricultural products include wheat, cotton, rice, and sugarcane. Industry includes textiles, fertilizer, steel products, food processing, and oil and gas products. Major trade partners are Japan, the US, the United Kingdom, and Saudi Arabia. Economic aid was $36 billion between 1947-85, of which the US contributed 3 billion between 1981-87. Major donors are id entified. The population concentration is around Karachi. Political unrest has prevailed for 26 years and includes the creation of Bangladesh in 1970 from East Pakistan. Pakistan is considered to have the resources and entrepreneurial skills to develop economically rapidly. Defense strength is characterized as the world's 11th largest. Pakistan is nonaligned, but a member of the Organization of the Islamic Conference and the UN. Relations with India have been difficult. There is a desire for a stable

  7. Serum homocysteine level in vegetarians in District Tharparker, Sindh.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Aneel; Zuberi, Nudrat Anwar; Rathore, M Imran; Baig, Mukhtiar

    2015-01-01

    The aim of present study was to investigate serum homocysteine levels in apparently healthy vegetarians and ominvores in Mithi, district Tharparker, Sindh, Pakistan. This study was conducted in the Department of Biochemistry, Basic Medical Sciences Institute (BMSI), Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Center (JPMC), Karachi and blood samples were collected from Mithi, district Tharparker, Sindh, Pakistan, in 2012. One hundred vegetarian and one hundred omnivores (age ranging from 20-40 years) were enrolled for this study. Serum homocysteine levels were measured by the chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay method. Serum homocysteine (Hcy) level was considerably higher (p<0.001) in vegetarian group compared to omnivores. We further grouped and analyzed our study subjects according to their gender and according to Hcy level (greater than or lower than 15µmol/L). A considerable number of vegetarian subjects 30% were having Hcy >15µmol/L compared to omnivores 6%, (p<0.001). Gender-wise comparison showed that 27.02% male and 38.46% females had >15µmol/L serum Hcy level in vegetarian group and 6.9% male and 3.5% females had >15µmol/L serum Hcy level in omnivores group, but the difference was not significant in any group. Vegetarians are more prone to develop hyperhomocysteinemia, so they are at high risk to develop cardiovascular disease.

  8. Serum homocysteine level in vegetarians in District Tharparker, Sindh

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, Aneel; Zuberi, Nudrat Anwar; Rathore, M. Imran; Baig, Mukhtiar

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of present study was to investigate serum homocysteine levels in apparently healthy vegetarians and ominvores in Mithi, district Tharparker, Sindh, Pakistan. Methods: This study was conducted in the Department of Biochemistry, Basic Medical Sciences Institute (BMSI), Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Center (JPMC), Karachi and blood samples were collected from Mithi, district Tharparker, Sindh, Pakistan, in 2012. One hundred vegetarian and one hundred omnivores (age ranging from 20-40 years) were enrolled for this study. Serum homocysteine levels were measured by the chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay method. Results: Serum homocysteine (Hcy) level was considerably higher (p<0.001) in vegetarian group compared to omnivores. We further grouped and analyzed our study subjects according to their gender and according to Hcy level (greater than or lower than 15µmol/L). A considerable number of vegetarian subjects 30% were having Hcy >15µmol/L compared to omnivores 6%, (p<0.001). Gender-wise comparison showed that 27.02% male and 38.46% females had >15µmol/L serum Hcy level in vegetarian group and 6.9% male and 3.5% females had >15µmol/L serum Hcy level in omnivores group, but the difference was not significant in any group. Conclusion: Vegetarians are more prone to develop hyperhomocysteinemia, so they are at high risk to develop cardiovascular disease. PMID:25878628

  9. Perceptions of Private College Teachers of Karachi about the Curriculum Prescribed by Sindh Bureau of Curriculum (BOC)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syeda, Talat Jehan

    2015-01-01

    Curriculum at the college level is prescribed at provincial level to ensure a standardized education throughout. A prescribed curriculum aligns educational standards and maintains them to ensure teaching standards. In Pakistan the curriculum for intermediate students at both private and government colleges is designed and proposed by Sindh Bureau…

  10. Democracy and Education in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nazir, Muhammad

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the potential for democratic change in educational practice in Pakistan. Using focus group discussions in urban and rural areas of Sindh and Balochistan, it builds up a picture of educational practices from policy-making to implementation level and identifies the barriers to democratic approaches in education. It suggests that…

  11. Democracy and Education in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nazir, Muhammad

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the potential for democratic change in educational practice in Pakistan. Using focus group discussions in urban and rural areas of Sindh and Balochistan, it builds up a picture of educational practices from policy-making to implementation level and identifies the barriers to democratic approaches in education. It suggests that…

  12. Pakistan: Summary Report. Education Financing and People's Aspirations in Pakistan. Asia-South Pacific Education Watch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lozada, Rebecca, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted across the country in a total of 23 districts, 5 districts each in the four provinces of Pakistan, i.e. Balochistan, Punjab, Sindh, North Western Frontier Province (NWFP), and 2 districts in Azad Jammu & Kashmir (AJK). The main purpose of the paper was to unravel the intricate budgeting process in the education sector,…

  13. Gamma-emitting radionuclides in the shallow marine sediments off the Sindh coast, Arabian Sea.

    PubMed

    Akram, M; Qureshi, Riffat M; Ahmad, Nasir; Solaija, Tariq Jamal

    2006-01-01

    Determination of gamma emitting radionuclides in shallow marine sediments off the Sindh coast has been carried out using a gamma spectrometry technique. The activity concentration measured in various sediment samples off the Sindh coast has been found to vary from 15.93 +/- 5.22 to 30.53 +/- 4.70 Bq kg(-1) for 226Ra, from 11.72 +/- 1.22 to 33.94 +/- 1.86 Bq kg(-1) for 228Ra and from 295.22 +/- 32.83 to 748.47 +/- 28.75 Bq kg(-1) for 40K. The calculated mean values of radium equivalent activity, absorbed dose rate and effective dose are 98 Bq kg(-1), 49 nGy h(-1) and 0.06 mSv y(-1), respectively. No artificial radionuclide was detected in the samples measured from the study area. As no data on radioactivity of the coastal environment of Pakistan are available, the data presented here will serve as baseline information on radionuclide concentration in shallow sea sediments off the Sindh coast. The data will also be useful for tracking pollution inventories from unusual radiological events (if any) in the territorial waters of the study area. Further, the information presented will contribute to modelling of a regional radioactivity database from the perspectives of the International Atomic Energy Agency's Asia-Pacific Marine Radioactivity Database and Global Marine Radioactivity Database.

  14. Impact evaluation of different cash-based intervention modalities on child and maternal nutritional status in Sindh Province, Pakistan, at 6 mo and at 1 y: A cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Pietzsch, Silke; Sangrasi, Murtaza; Shoham, Jeremy

    2017-01-01

    Background Cash-based interventions (CBIs), offer an interesting opportunity to prevent increases in wasting in humanitarian aid settings. However, questions remain as to the impact of CBIs on nutritional status and, therefore, how to incorporate them into emergency programmes to maximise their success in terms of improved nutritional outcomes. This study evaluated the effects of three different CBI modalities on nutritional outcomes in children under 5 y of age at 6 mo and at 1 y. Methods and findings We conducted a four-arm parallel longitudinal cluster randomised controlled trial in 114 villages in Dadu District, Pakistan. The study included poor and very poor households (n = 2,496) with one or more children aged 6–48 mo (n = 3,584) at baseline. All four arms had equal access to an Action Against Hunger–supported programme. The three intervention arms were as follows: standard cash (SC), a cash transfer of 1,500 Pakistani rupees (PKR) (approximately US$14; 1 PKR = US$0.009543); double cash (DC), a cash transfer of 3,000 PKR; or a fresh food voucher (FFV) of 1,500 PKR; the cash or voucher amount was given every month over six consecutive months. The control group (CG) received no specific cash-related interventions. The median total household income for the study sample was 8,075 PKR (approximately US$77) at baseline. We hypothesized that, compared to the CG in each case, FFVs would be more effective than SC, and that DC would be more effective than SC—both at 6 mo and at 1 y—for reducing the risk of child wasting. Primary outcomes of interest were prevalence of being wasted (weight-for-height z-score [WHZ] < −2) and mean WHZ at 6 mo and at 1 y. The odds of a child being wasted were significantly lower in the DC arm after 6 mo (odds ratio [OR] = 0.52; 95% CI 0.29, 0.92; p = 0.02) compared to the CG. Mean WHZ significantly improved in both the FFV and DC arms at 6 mo (FFV: z-score = 0.16; 95% CI 0.05, 0.26; p = 0.004; DC: z-score = 0.11; 95% CI 0.00, 0

  15. Impact evaluation of different cash-based intervention modalities on child and maternal nutritional status in Sindh Province, Pakistan, at 6 mo and at 1 y: A cluster randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Fenn, Bridget; Colbourn, Tim; Dolan, Carmel; Pietzsch, Silke; Sangrasi, Murtaza; Shoham, Jeremy

    2017-05-01

    Cash-based interventions (CBIs), offer an interesting opportunity to prevent increases in wasting in humanitarian aid settings. However, questions remain as to the impact of CBIs on nutritional status and, therefore, how to incorporate them into emergency programmes to maximise their success in terms of improved nutritional outcomes. This study evaluated the effects of three different CBI modalities on nutritional outcomes in children under 5 y of age at 6 mo and at 1 y. We conducted a four-arm parallel longitudinal cluster randomised controlled trial in 114 villages in Dadu District, Pakistan. The study included poor and very poor households (n = 2,496) with one or more children aged 6-48 mo (n = 3,584) at baseline. All four arms had equal access to an Action Against Hunger-supported programme. The three intervention arms were as follows: standard cash (SC), a cash transfer of 1,500 Pakistani rupees (PKR) (approximately US$14; 1 PKR = US$0.009543); double cash (DC), a cash transfer of 3,000 PKR; or a fresh food voucher (FFV) of 1,500 PKR; the cash or voucher amount was given every month over six consecutive months. The control group (CG) received no specific cash-related interventions. The median total household income for the study sample was 8,075 PKR (approximately US$77) at baseline. We hypothesized that, compared to the CG in each case, FFVs would be more effective than SC, and that DC would be more effective than SC-both at 6 mo and at 1 y-for reducing the risk of child wasting. Primary outcomes of interest were prevalence of being wasted (weight-for-height z-score [WHZ] < -2) and mean WHZ at 6 mo and at 1 y. The odds of a child being wasted were significantly lower in the DC arm after 6 mo (odds ratio [OR] = 0.52; 95% CI 0.29, 0.92; p = 0.02) compared to the CG. Mean WHZ significantly improved in both the FFV and DC arms at 6 mo (FFV: z-score = 0.16; 95% CI 0.05, 0.26; p = 0.004; DC: z-score = 0.11; 95% CI 0.00, 0.21; p = 0.05) compared to the CG

  16. Effects of baby-friendly hospital initiative on breast-feeding practices in sindh.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mahjabeen; Akram, Durre Samin

    2013-06-01

    To determine changes in the breastfeeding practices of mothers after receiving counseling on 'Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding' as defined by the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative comparing baby friendly hospitals (BFHs) and non-baby-friendly hospitals in Sindh, Pakistan. The observational study was conducted from June 2007 to June 2009 in randomly selected baby-friendly and non-baby-friendly hospitals of Sindh, Pakistan. Non-probability purposive sampling was employed.The maternity staff was trained on 'Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding.'The changes in breastfeeding practices were analysed by SPSS version 15. A total of 236 women were included in the study. Of them, 196 (83.05%) were from baby-friendly hospitals and 40 (16.94%) from non-baby-friendly hospitals. Besides, 174 (88.7%) mothers in baby-friendly hospitals and 5 (12.5%) in non-baby-friendly hospitals during antenatal care received counseling by healthcare providers.There was an increase in breastfeeding practice up to 194 (98.97%) in the first category compared to 12 (30%) in the other category. Counseling under the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative improved breastfeeding practices up to 98.97% in baby-friendly compared to non-baby-friendly hospitals.

  17. School Inspection and Supervision in Pakistan: Approaches and Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffer, Kulsoom

    2010-01-01

    This article traces how the concept of educational inspection has evolved in Pakistan, especially in the province of Sindh, and discusses whether the existing inspection system helps to improve quality and establish accountability. The inspection system that originated in colonial days has evolved to incorporate the notion of using supervision to…

  18. Coal resources of the Sonda coal field, Sindh Province, Pakistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, R.E.; Riaz, Khan M.; Ahmed, Khan S.

    1993-01-01

    Approximately 4.7 billion t of original coal resources, ranging from lignite A to subbituminous C in rank, are estimated to be present in the Sonda coal field. These resources occur in 10 coal zones in the Bara Formation of Paleocene age. The Bara Formation does not out crop in the area covered by this report. Thin discontinuous coal beds also occur in the Sonhari Member of the Laki Formation, of Paleocene and Eocene age, but they are unimportant as a resource of the Sonda coal field. The coal resource assessment was based on 56 exploratory drill holes that were completed in the Sonda field between April 1986 and February 1988. The Sonda coal field is split into two, roughly equal, areas by the southwestward flowing Indus River, a major barrier to the logistics of communications between the two halves. As a result the two halves, called the Sonda East and Sonda West areas, were evaluated at different times by slightlydifferent techniques; but, because the geology is consistent between the two areas, the results of both evaluations have been summarized in this report. The resource estimates for the Sonda East area, approximately 1,700 million t, were based on the thickest coal bed in each zone at each drill hole. This method gives a conservative estimate of the total amount of coal in the Sonda East area. The resource estimates for the Sonda West area, approximately 3,000 million t, were based on cumulative coal bed thicknesses within each coal zone, resulting in a more liberal estimate. In both cases, minimum parameters for qualifying coal were a thickness of 30 cm or greater and no more than 50% ash; partings thicker than 1 cm were excluded. The three most important coal zones in the Sonda field are the Inayatabad, the Middle Sonda and the Lower Sonda. Together, these three coal zones contain 50% of the total resources. Isopachs were constructed for the thickest coal beds in these three coal zones and indicate large variations in thickness over relatively small distances. Coal beds in the Sonda coal field were difficult to correlate because of poor core recovery in some intervals and abrupt lateral thinning and thickening. Most coal zones are separated by 5-10 m of interburden, although in some places the interburden between zones is over 100 m thick. More closely spaced drill holes should clarify and significantly improve coal zone correlations in the Bara Formation. Coal resources in the Sonda coal field were calculated for three reliability categories; measured, indicated, and inferred. The most reliable estimates are those for the measured category. Measured coal resources are approximately 91 million t, or about 2% of the total resource; indicated resources are 681 million t, or about 14% of the total; and inferred resources, the least reliable resource category, are 3,931 million t, or 84% of the total resources. The distribution of resources by reliability category is due to the relatively wide spacing (approximately 5 km) between core holes. Analyses of 90 coal samples, on an as-received basis, indicate average ash and sulfur contents of 13.7% and 3.6%, respectively, and a range in rank from lignite A to subbituminous C. Calorific values for these samples range from 6,000 to 8,000 Btu/lb (1 Btu = 1055J; 1 lb = 4536 kg). ?? 1993.

  19. Factors associated with tobacco smoking among 6-10 grade school students in an urban Taluka of Sindh.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Jamil; Taj, Tahir; Shaikh, Shiraz; Ali, Sajid

    2011-11-01

    To determine the factors related to tobacco smoking among students of grade 6-10 in an urban setting in Sindh, Pakistan. Cross-sectional survey. The study was conducted in public and private schools of Hyderabad, Sindh, Pakistan, from January 2008 to June 2009. A sample of 501 students from grade 6-10 were selected through simple random sampling and probability proportional to size. Students answered to a pre-tested questionnaire on sociodemography and tobacco use. Descriptive statistics were used to determine frequency distribution. About 9% of the students were smoking some form of tobacco. Ten percent had tried cigarette smoking and about 80% and 61% were chewing Areca nuts and 'Paan' (concoction of Areca nuts, tobacco, hydrated lime, herbs and spices wrapped in betel leaf. Being old, male gender, peer influence, personal attitude toward future smoking, chewing 'Gutka' (concoction of tobacco, Areca nuts and hydrated lime) and having a more educated mother was associated with greater frequency of smoking any form of tobacco. High frequency of tobacco smoking, the attitude toward tobacco consumption and a very high consumption of Areca nuts and other chewable tobacco products by the children warrants urgent action in order to control the tobacco epidemic in Pakistan.

  20. Assessment of Wind Home System's Potential in Coastal Areas of Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Memon, Mujeebudin; Harijan, Khanji; Uqaili, Mohammad Aslam

    2007-10-01

    About 50 and 90 percent of the total population of rural coastal areas of Sindh and Balochistan provinces respectively have no access to electricity and meet lighting requirements through kerosene and LPG. The population density in rural coastal areas of Sindh and Balochistan provinces is about 100-150 and 10-50 persons per km2 respectively. Extension of existing centralized grid system to rural areas with very low population density and small-scattered loads is economically and technically unfeasible. In this situation, decentralized renewable electricity especially wind power appears to be one of the viable option. This paper presents the assessment of potential of wind home systems (WHS) for rural electrification in coastal areas of Pakistan using the wind speed data recorded by Pakistan Metrological Department (PMD) and power curve of a reference wind turbine. Pakistan has 1050 km long coastline, of which, 250 km is falling in Sindh and 800 km in Balochistan. A 150 Wp wind turbine could generate about 345 kWh and 250 kWh of electricity per year in coastal areas of Sindh and Balochistan respectively, which would be sufficient for meeting the electricity demand of a rural household. The average theoretical potential of WHS in the coastal area of Sindh and Balochistan is about 2245 and 1800 FLH respectively. The total installed capacity and technical potential of WHS in the coastal area of the country has been estimated as 63.75 MW and 135 GWh/year respectively.

  1. DNA barcoding of Bemisia tabaci complex (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) reveals southerly expansion of the dominant whitefly species on cotton in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ashfaq, Muhammad; Hebert, Paul D N; Mirza, M Sajjad; Khan, Arif M; Mansoor, Shahid; Shah, Ghulam S; Zafar, Yusuf

    2014-01-01

    Although whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci complex) are an important pest of cotton in Pakistan, its taxonomic diversity is poorly understood. As DNA barcoding is an effective tool for resolving species complexes and analyzing species distributions, we used this approach to analyze genetic diversity in the B. tabaci complex and map the distribution of B. tabaci lineages in cotton growing areas of Pakistan. Sequence diversity in the DNA barcode region (mtCOI-5') was examined in 593 whiteflies from Pakistan to determine the number of whitefly species and their distributions in the cotton-growing areas of Punjab and Sindh provinces. These new records were integrated with another 173 barcode sequences for B. tabaci, most from India, to better understand regional whitefly diversity. The Barcode Index Number (BIN) System assigned the 766 sequences to 15 BINs, including nine from Pakistan. Representative specimens of each Pakistan BIN were analyzed for mtCOI-3' to allow their assignment to one of the putative species in the B. tabaci complex recognized on the basis of sequence variation in this gene region. This analysis revealed the presence of Asia II 1, Middle East-Asia Minor 1, Asia 1, Asia II 5, Asia II 7, and a new lineage "Pakistan". The first two taxa were found in both Punjab and Sindh, but Asia 1 was only detected in Sindh, while Asia II 5, Asia II 7 and "Pakistan" were only present in Punjab. The haplotype networks showed that most haplotypes of Asia II 1, a species implicated in transmission of the cotton leaf curl virus, occurred in both India and Pakistan. DNA barcodes successfully discriminated cryptic species in B. tabaci complex. The dominant haplotypes in the B. tabaci complex were shared by India and Pakistan. Asia II 1 was previously restricted to Punjab, but is now the dominant lineage in southern Sindh; its southward spread may have serious implications for cotton plantations in this region.

  2. Effective genes for resistance to stripe rust and virulences of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici in Pakistan

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Virulence patterns of wheat stripe rust were studied under the field conditions across four environmentally different locations: Quaid-i-Azam University (Islamabad), Pirsabak (NWFP), Faisalabad (Punjab) and Sakrand (Sindh) by planting trap nursery of tester lines and Pakistan varieties. The results ...

  3. Role of traditional birth attendants in improving reproductive health: lessons from the family health project, Sindh.

    PubMed

    Islam, A; Malik, F A

    2001-06-01

    Despite strenuous efforts, the maternal mortality rate in Pakistan remains high. The national figure of 340 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births tends to hide the fact that in some rural areas it is as high as 700 per 100,000 live births. Not surprisingly, in Pakistan only 20% of births are attended by a trained health professional. In most rural areas, home to almost 70% of the population, traditional birth attendants (TBAs) deliver 90% of the births. TBAs, therefore, play a crucial role in the delivery of maternal health care in Pakistan. Realizing the importance of TBAs, the Family Health Project (FHP) of the Department of Health Sindh, financed by the World Bank, tried to enhance their knowledge and skills through comprehensive training programs. FHP provided training to 650 TBAs in 10 districts. The training was provided by the Department of Community Health Sciences (CHS) of the Aga Khan University (AKU) who acted as technical consultant to the project. A community-based qualitative post-intervention survey. Post-intervention survey of this seven-year project (1992-1999) revealed that (a) the training enhanced the knowledge and skills of the TBAs, (b) the trained TBAs provide more broader health care services and (c) they enjoy greater community acceptance and provide greater consumer satisfaction. It also showed that the TBAs remain the most available and accessible health resource in most rural settings. It is imperative that TBAs and their continuing training should remain central to any reproductive health intervention along with an effective referral system linking them to well-equipped emergency obstetric care facilities. However, the assessment clearly demonstrated that an integrated referral system backed by effective emergency obstetric care is essential to the success of the TBA training program.

  4. Estimating of Soil Texture Using Landsat Imagery: a Case Study in Thatta Tehsil, Sindh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalil, Zahid

    2016-07-01

    Soil texture is considered as an important environment factor for agricultural growth. It is the most essential part for soil classification in large scale. Today the precise soil information in large scale is of great demand from various stakeholders including soil scientists, environmental managers, land use planners and traditional agricultural users. With the increasing demand of soil properties in fine scale spatial resolution made the traditional laboratory methods inadequate. In addition the costs of soil analysis with precision agriculture systems are more expensive than traditional methods. In this regard, the application of geo-spatial techniques can be used as an alternative for examining soil analysis. This study aims to examine the ability of Geo-spatial techniques in identifying the spatial patterns of soil attributes in fine scale. Around 28 samples of soil were collected from the different areas of Thatta Tehsil, Sindh, Pakistan for analyzing soil texture. An Ordinary Least Square (OLS) regression analysis was used to relate the reflectance values of Landsat8 OLI imagery with the soil variables. The analysis showed there was a significant relationship (p<0.05) of band 2 and 5 with silt% (R2 = 0.52), and band 4 and 6 with clay% (R2 =0.40). The equation derived from OLS analysis was then used for the whole study area for deriving soil attributes. The USDA textural classification triangle was implementing for the derivation of soil texture map in GIS environment. The outcome revealed that the 'sandy loam' was in great quantity followed by loam, sandy clay loam and clay loam. The outcome shows that the Geo-spatial techniques could be used efficiently for mapping soil texture of a larger area in fine scale. This technology helped in decreasing cost, time and increase detailed information by reducing field work to a considerable level.

  5. Estimation of Land Surface Temperature for the Quantitative Analysis of Land Cover of Lower Areas of Sindh to Assess the Impacts of Climate Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qaisar, Maha

    2016-07-01

    Due to the present land use practices and climate variability, drastic shifts in regional climate and land covers are easily seen and their future reduction and gain are too well predicted. Therefore, there is an increasing need for data on land-cover changes at narrow and broad spatial scales. In this study, a remote sensing-based technique for land-cover-change analysis is applied to the lower Sindh areas for the last decade. Landsat satellite products were analyzed on an alternate yearly basis, from 1990 to 2016. Then Land-cover-change magnitudes were measured and mapped for alternate years. Land Surface Temperature (LST) is one of the critical elements in the natural phenomena of surface energy and water balance at local and global extent. However, LST was computed by using Landsat thermal bands via brightness temperature and a vegetation index. Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was interpreted and maps were achieved. LST reflected NDVI patterns with complexity of vegetation patterns. Along with this, Object Based Image Analysis (OBIA) was done for classifying 5 major classes of water, vegetation, urban, marshy lands and barren lands with significant map layouts. Pakistan Meteorological Department provided the climate data in which rainfall, temperature and air temperature are included. Once the LST and OBIA are performed, overlay analysis was done to correlate the results of LST with OBIA and LST with meteorological data to ascertain the changes in land covers due to increasing centigrade of LST. However, satellite derived LST was also correlated with climate data for environmental analysis and to estimate Land Surface Temperature for assessing the inverse impacts of climate variability. This study's results demonstrate the land-cover changes in Lower Areas of Sindh including the Indus Delta mostly involve variations in land-cover conditions due to inter-annual climatic variability and temporary shifts in seasonality. However it is too concluded

  6. Coverage and predictors of vaccination among children of 1-4 years of age in a rural sub-district of Sindh.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Shiraz; Taj, Tahir M; Kazi, Ambreen; Ahmed, Jamil; Fatmi, Zafar

    2010-12-01

    To estimate the proportion of children 1-4 years of age vaccinated in the first year of their life and determine socio-demographic factors associated with vaccination in the rural sub-district Khairpur, Sindh, Pakistan. Cross-sectional study. The study was conducted in 9 Union Councils of sub-district Gambat, district Khairpur, Sindh, from August to October 2008. A questionnaire based representative multi-stage cluster survey was conducted. A total of 549 children aged 1-4 years were assessed for coverage and predictors of vaccination. Univariate and multivariate analysis was done using logistic regression to determine the unadjusted and adjusted relationship between socio-demographic predictor and outcome (vaccination status). The coverage for complete vaccination was 71.9% (95%CI=68.1%-75.7%). Educational level of mother (p=0.042), father (p=0.001) and child birth at hospital (p=0.006) were significantly associated with the vaccination status. Mother's educational level of intermediate and above was the strongest predictor (OR=12.19, 95%CI=1.57-94.3) for vaccination. Education of parents, particularly mother's education was important determinant of vaccination status of the children. In addition, distance from taluka health facility and misconception of parents were among the main reasons of not getting the children vaccinated. There is a need to educate the parents especially mothers about the importance of vaccination and organize EPI services at Basic Health Unit level to improve the vaccination coverage in rural areas of Pakistan.

  7. Improving general practitioners' knowledge regarding blood pressure measurement in selected cities of Pakistan through workshop.

    PubMed

    Mujtaba, Syed Hasnain; Ashraf, Tariq; Anjum, Qudsia

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate enhancement in the knowledge of general practitioners (GPs), from the urban cities in the province of Sindh, Pakistan, regarding blood pressure measurement through workshop. This was a quasi-experimental study that involved GPs from 5 cities of Sindh province, Pakistan. The GPs were required to complete a pretested self-administered questionnaire before and after the workshop session. The questionnaire included few demographic variables and 17 questions based on the American Heart Association recommendations. The mean pretest and posttest scores were compared using Student's t test. A total of 350 GPs returned completed questionnaires, with a preponderance of males (n = 264, 75.4%) than females (n = 86, 24.6%). The mean correct responses increased significantly after the workshop session from 8 ± 2.1 to 14 ± 2.5 (P = .01). The knowledge of GPs was almost doubled after the workshop and was significantly different for variables such as qualification, affiliation with teaching hospital, and number of years of practice (P = .001). This survey, a representation of GPs from the Sindh province, indicated a significant doubling in knowledge after the workshop, proving that continuing medical education sessions play an important role in increasing awareness and staying updated.

  8. Return Levels of Temperature Extremes in Southern Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahid, Maida; Lucarini, Valerio; Blender, Richard; Caterina Bramati, Maria

    2017-04-01

    Southern Pakistan (Sindh) is one of the hottest regions in the world and is highly vulnerable to temperature extremes. In order to improve rural and urban planning, information about the recurrence of temperature extremes is required. In this work, return levels of the daily maximum temperature Tmax are estimated, as well as the daily maximum wet-bulb temperature TWmax extremes. The method used is the Peak Over Threshold (POT) and it represents a novelty among the approaches previously used for similar studies in this region. Two main datasets are analyzed: temperatures observed in nine meteorological stations in southern Pakistan from 1980 to 2013, and the ERA Interim data for the nearest corresponding locations. The analysis provides the 2, 5, 10, 25, 50 and 100-year Return Levels (RLs) of temperature extremes. The 90% quantile is found to be a suitable threshold for all stations. We find that the RLs of the observed Tmax are above 50°C in northern stations, and above 45°C in the southern stations. The RLs of the observed TWmax exceed 35°C in the region, which is considered as a limit of survivability. The RLs estimated from the ERA Interim data are lower by 3°C to 5°C than the RLs assessed for the nine meteorological stations. A simple bias correction applied to ERA Interim data improves the RLs remarkably, yet discrepancies are still present. The results have potential implications for the risk assessment of extreme temperatures in Sindh.

  9. Efficacy of four plant extracts on nematodes associated with papaya in Sindh, Pakistan

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This investigation examines the effect of ethanol extracts of four plant species--Azadirachta indica (neem), Withania somnifera (ashwagandha), Tagetes erecta (marigold) and Eucalyptus citriodora (eucalyptus)--against nematodes associated with papaya (Carica papaya), and it assesses their influence o...

  10. A comparative characterization of indigenous keratinase enzymes from district Khairpur, Sindh, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pardeep; Kazi, Yasmeen Faiz; Soomro, Irshad Hussain

    2012-01-01

    To isolate and characterize keratinolytic fungi and bacteria from indigenous soils, a total of 80 samples were collected from Ghari Mori District. Khairpur, and these organisms were isolated using standard microbiological technique. The isolated keratinolytic microorganisms comprised: Absidia sp., Chrysosporium asperatum, Chrysosporium keratinophilum, Entomophthora coronata, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus and their keratinolytic properties were distinguished from the production of keratinase by measurement of zone of hydrolysis on skimmed milk agar (p<0.05). C.keratinophylum and B. subtilis produced largest zone among all the isolated species. The crude keratinase revealed that the optimum time for production of the enzyme was seven days, optimum temperature 30°C and optimum pH 9 for C.keratinophylum but for B. subtilis, the optimum time was three days, optimum temperature 37°C and optimum pH 7. The enzyme activity of C. keratinophylum and B. subtilis were determined to be 220 U/ml and 260 U/ml respectively (P<0.05).

  11. Pakistan. Spotlight.

    PubMed

    Greene, M

    1985-01-01

    Focus in this discussion of Pakistan is on demographic factors, the issue of ethnic versus national solidarity, and economic and social development. The population was estimated at 99.2 million in 1985. The birthrate was 43/1000 in 1984 and the deaths were 15/1000. The infant mortality rate is 105 infant deaths/1000 live births, and life expectancy at birth is 51 years. In 1983 the gross national product per capita was US$390. The population of Pakistan is concentrated around Karachi on the Arabian Sea and in the crescent formed by Lahore, Rawalpindi, and Peshawar. Pakistan was a British colony, part of the Indian subcontinent until partition in 1947, when Britain gave Pakistan and India their freedom. Pakistan is not a theocracy, but the military government turns to traditional Islam for affirmation of its authority. Its martial law regime, established in 1977, is headed by President Ziaul Haq. The issue of ethnic versus national solidarity has been a problem since independence. Bengali-speaking East Pakistanis felt they did not have equal power in their country whose official language was Urdu and whose capital was in West Pakistan. East and West Pakistan ended up in armed conflict with the formation of Bangladesh in 1971 as the result. Regional and ethnic conflict is exacerbated by the low rate of literacy and the low status of certain ethnic groups in Pakistan. In addition, Pakistan suffers problems typical of many developing nations: a low per capita income, a large and growing population, and a highly stratified traditional society. In 1981 doctors, engineers, and craftsmen were in short supply, but there was a surplus of 300,000 agricultural workers. Agriculture makes up 30% of the GNP and employs 55% of the work force. In Pakistan's 6th Five Year Plan, initiated in July 1983, the government acknowledged for the 1st time the extremely poor conditions for women as indicated by literacy, health, and fertility. The total fertility rate is 6.4 average births

  12. DNA Barcoding of Bemisia tabaci Complex (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Reveals Southerly Expansion of the Dominant Whitefly Species on Cotton in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Ashfaq, Muhammad; Hebert, Paul D. N.; Mirza, M. Sajjad; Khan, Arif M.; Mansoor, Shahid; Shah, Ghulam S.; Zafar, Yusuf

    2014-01-01

    Background Although whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci complex) are an important pest of cotton in Pakistan, its taxonomic diversity is poorly understood. As DNA barcoding is an effective tool for resolving species complexes and analyzing species distributions, we used this approach to analyze genetic diversity in the B. tabaci complex and map the distribution of B. tabaci lineages in cotton growing areas of Pakistan. Methods/Principal Findings Sequence diversity in the DNA barcode region (mtCOI-5′) was examined in 593 whiteflies from Pakistan to determine the number of whitefly species and their distributions in the cotton-growing areas of Punjab and Sindh provinces. These new records were integrated with another 173 barcode sequences for B. tabaci, most from India, to better understand regional whitefly diversity. The Barcode Index Number (BIN) System assigned the 766 sequences to 15 BINs, including nine from Pakistan. Representative specimens of each Pakistan BIN were analyzed for mtCOI-3′ to allow their assignment to one of the putative species in the B. tabaci complex recognized on the basis of sequence variation in this gene region. This analysis revealed the presence of Asia II 1, Middle East-Asia Minor 1, Asia 1, Asia II 5, Asia II 7, and a new lineage “Pakistan”. The first two taxa were found in both Punjab and Sindh, but Asia 1 was only detected in Sindh, while Asia II 5, Asia II 7 and “Pakistan” were only present in Punjab. The haplotype networks showed that most haplotypes of Asia II 1, a species implicated in transmission of the cotton leaf curl virus, occurred in both India and Pakistan. Conclusions DNA barcodes successfully discriminated cryptic species in B. tabaci complex. The dominant haplotypes in the B. tabaci complex were shared by India and Pakistan. Asia II 1 was previously restricted to Punjab, but is now the dominant lineage in southern Sindh; its southward spread may have serious implications for cotton plantations in this region. PMID

  13. Bioethics on the subcontinent: the Sindh Institute in Karachi.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, Paul A

    2011-03-01

    In this personal narrative the author recounts his experiences teaching bioethics in Pakistan. He notes the different moral, cultural and legal environments of Pakistan as compared to the United States, and in particular, the ways in which subtle interpretations of Sharia law shape bioethical reflections as well as the biomedical legal environment. As he argues, any attempt to export models of bioethics from one country to another with no attention to social and cultural differences is a recipe for failure. To presume that all ethical considerations are universal is to devalue moral traditions that differ from our own, and dismiss cultural values of other societies.

  14. Monitoring the distribution of tropospheric ozone concentration over Pakistan by using OMI/MLS satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noreen, Asma; Fahim Khokhar, Muhammad; Murtaza, Rabbia; Zeb, Naila

    2016-07-01

    Pakistan is a semi-arid, agricultural country located in Indian Sub-continent, Asia. Due to exponential population growth, poor control and regulatory measures and practices in industries, it is facing a major problem of air pollution. The concentration of greenhouse gases and aerosols are showing an increasing trend in general. One of these greenhouse gases is tropospheric ozone, one of the criteria pollutant, which has a radiative forcing (RF) of about 0.4 ± 0.2 Wm-2, contributing about 14% of the present total RF. Spatial distribution and temporal evolution of tropospheric ozone concentration over Pakistan during 2004 to 2014 was studied by using combined OMI/MLS product, which was derived by tropospheric ozone residual (TOR) method. Results showed an overall increase of 3.2 ± 2.2 DU in tropospheric ozone concentration over Pakistan since October 2004. The mean spatial distribution showed high concentrations of ozone in the Punjab and southern Sindh where there is high population densities along with rapid urbanization and enhanced anthropogenic activities. The seasonal variations were observed in the provinces of the country and TO3 VCDs were found to be high during summer while minimum during winter. The statistical analysis by using seasonal Mann Kendal test also showed strong positive trends over the four provinces as well as in major cities of Pakistan. These variations were driven by various factors such as seasonality in UV-B fluxes, seasonality in ozone precursor gases such as NOx and VOCs and agricultural fire activities in Pakistan. A strong correlation of 97% was found between fire events and tropospheric ozone concentration over the country. The results also depicted the influence of UV-B radiations on the tropospheric ozone concentration over different regions of Pakistan especially in Baluchistan and Sindh provinces.

  15. Molecular characterisation of banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) from Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Amin, Imran; Qazi, Javaria; Mansoor, Shahid; Ilyas, Muhammad; Briddon, Rob W

    2008-02-01

    Banana bunchy top disease is caused by a single-stranded circular DNA virus, banana bunchy top virus (BBTV), which is a member of the genus Babuvirus (family Nanoviridae). We have cloned and sequenced five components (DNA-R, DNA-S, DNA-N, DNA-M and DNA-C) of a BBTV isolate originating from Pakistan. In addition, the DNA-R and several other components of five further isolates, originating from geographically distinct sites across the banana-growing area of Sindh province, Pakistan, were cloned and sequenced. Analysis of the sequences indicates that BBTV present in Pakistan belongs to the "South Pacific" group of isolates and that the genetic diversity of the virus in the country is very low. The virus shows the highest levels of sequence identity to BBTV isolates originating from Egypt, India and Australia. The significance of these results with respect to the possible origin of the virus in Pakistan and the prospects for obtaining genetically engineered resistance to the virus are discussed.

  16. Induced Abortions and Unintended Pregnancies in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Sathar, Zeba; Singh, Susheela; Rashida, Gul; Shah, Zakir; Niazi, Rehan

    2015-01-01

    During the past decade, unmet need for family planning has remained high in Pakistan and gains in contraceptive prevalence have been small. Drawing upon data from a 2012 national study on postabortion-care complications and a methodology developed by the Guttmacher Institute for estimating abortion incidence, we estimate that there were 2.2 million abortions in Pakistan in 2012, an annual abortion rate of 50 per 1,000 women. A previous study estimated an abortion rate of 27 per 1,000 women in 2002. After taking into consideration the earlier study’s underestimation of abortion incidence, we conclude that the abortion rate has likely increased substantially between 2002 and 2012. Varying contraceptive-use patterns and abortion rates are found among the provinces, with higher abortion rates in Baluchistan and Sindh than in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Punjab. This suggests that strategies for coping with the otherwise uniformly high unintended pregnancy rates will differ among provinces. The need for an accelerated and fortified family planning program is greater than ever, as is the need to implement strategies to improve the quality and coverage of postabortion services. PMID:25469930

  17. Induced abortions and unintended pregnancies in pakistan.

    PubMed

    Sathar, Zeba; Singh, Susheela; Rashida, Gul; Shah, Zakir; Niazi, Rehan

    2014-12-01

    During the past decade, unmet need for family planning has remained high in Pakistan and gains in contraceptive prevalence have been small. Drawing upon data from a 2012 national study on postabortion-care complications and a methodology developed by the Guttmacher Institute for estimating abortion incidence, we estimate that there were 2.2 million abortions in Pakistan in 2012, an annual abortion rate of 50 per 1,000 women. A previous study estimated an abortion rate of 27 per 1,000 women in 2002. After taking into consideration the earlier study's underestimation of abortion incidence, we conclude that the abortion rate has likely increased substantially between 2002 and 2012. Varying contraceptive-use patterns and abortion rates are found among the provinces, with higher abortion rates in Baluchistan and Sindh than in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Punjab. This suggests that strategies for coping with the other wise uniformly high unintended pregnancy rates will differ among provinces. The need for an accelerated and fortified family planning program is greater than ever, as is the need to implement strategies to improve the quality and coverage of postabortion services. © 2014 The Population Council, Inc.

  18. Biosafety perspective of clinical laboratory workers: a profile of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Nasim, Sadia; Shahid, Anjum; Mustufa, Muhammad Ayaz; Arain, Ghazala Mohyuddin; Ali, Ghazanfer; Taseer, Ijaz-ul-Haque; Talreja, Kanaya Lal; Firdous, Rukhsana; Iqbal, Rizwan; Siddique, Shameem Ahmed; Naz, Saima; Akhter, Tasleem

    2012-08-21

    Biosafety during lab work is an important concern in developing countries. Some critical issues concerning biosafety are lack of training, exceeding workload, working too fast, deciding not to follow safe practices, and skepticism about biohazards. This study aimed to determine biosafety perception and practices of laboratory technicians during routine work in clinical laboratories of Pakistan. A total of 1,782 laboratory technicians were interviewed from major public sector hospitals and a few private hospital laboratories throughout Pakistan. A total of 1,647 (92.4%) males and 135 (7.6%) females participated in the study, with over half (59.7%) having more than five years of work experience. Results showed that 28.4% of the laboratory technicians from Punjab, 35.7% from Sindh, 32% from Balochistan and 38.4% from Khyber Pakhtoon Khawa (KPK) did not use any personal protective equipment. Almost 46% of the respondents (34.2% from Punjab, 61.9% from Sindh, 25.2% from Balochistan and 85% from KPK) said they reused syringes either occasionally or regularly. Furthermore, 30.7% of the respondents said they discard used syringes directly into municipal dustbins. The majority (66.7%) claimed there are no separate bins for sharps, so they throw these in municipal dustbins. Mouth pipetting was reported by 28.3% technicians. Standard operating procedures were not available in 67.2% labs, and accident records were not maintained in 83.4%. No formal biosafety training had been provided to 84.2% of the respondents. Laboratory technicians in Pakistan lack awareness of good laboratory practices and biosafety measures, and also face a lack of resources.

  19. A primer on the occurrence of coalbed methane in low-rank coals, with special reference to its potential occurrence in Pakistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    SanFilipo, John R.

    2000-01-01

    Introduction: This report compiles and updates a series of correspondence that took place between 1998 and early 2000 among the author and representatives of various consulting groups operating in the coal sector of Pakistan. The purpose of the original correspondence was to introduce basic concepts of coalbed methane (CBM) in low-rank coals to planners and other parties interested in the development of Pakistan's coal, particularly the large deposits of the Thar desert area of Sindh Province that were recently discovered (SanFilipo and Khan, 1994) by the Geological Survey of Pakistan (GSP) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The author tested two shallow boreholes in Sindh Province for CBM in 1992, including one in Thar, with very marginal results. Additional targets with better CBM prospects were recommended shortly thereafter (SanFilipo and others, 1994), but these were not followed up during subsequent drilling, nor were any other sites tested. Recent events, notably the rapid pace of CBM development in low-rank coals of the Powder River Basin of the U.S., and a show of CBM in commercial quantities in the Cambay Basin of India - both of which are similar in age and rank to most of Pakistan's coal - have indicated a need for reevaluating the initial CBM investigations made in Pakistan in 1992 and for a reassessment of the CBM prospects for the country at large.

  20. Infrastructure Availability in the Public Sector Schools: A Case Study of Sindh Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mujahid, Nooreen; Noman, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    This focus of this study is confined to primary and secondary education in Sindh province. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the facilities available at the primary and secondary schools especially within the context of rural and urban areas. This study investigates 48,865 Government schools in terms of efficient and well-organized…

  1. Self-Medication with Antibiotics among People Dwelling in Rural Areas of Sindh

    PubMed Central

    Haseeb, Abdul; Khan, Mohammad Hassaan; Arshad, Mohammad Hussham; Ladak, Asma Akbar; Niazi, Sufyan Khan; Musharraf, Muhammad Daniyal; Manji, Adil Al-Karim

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Self-medication with antibiotics is becoming increasingly common due to multiple factors. The public who are using these antibiotics generally do not have full information regarding their proper use, especially the dosages and possible side-effects. Hence, unregulated use of such medicines may cause dangerous adverse effects in the patients. Aim The study was aimed to evaluate the prevalence and practice of self-medication with antibiotics among people dwelling in the rural areas of province Sindh. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional survey was performed at Outpatient Department of Civil Hospital Karachi, from January to March 2015. Four hundred rural dwellers who lived in the outskirts of Karachi city area of province Sindh were recruited for the study in the aforementioned time period through non-probability convenience sampling. Results The investigation reported a prevalence of 81.25% among rural dwellers of Sindh with regards to self-medication of antibiotics. The most common reason behind self-medication were economic reasons (88.0%). Amoxicillin (52.0%) was found to be the most self-prescribed antibiotic. Majority of the participants (74.7%) didn’t know about the phenomena of antibiotic resistance associated with inadequate use of antibiotics and only 25 subjects identified correctly that the situation would lead to increase resistance. Conclusion The self-medication rates with antibiotic are higher in rural areas of Sindh. There is an urgent need for the government to enforce stricter laws on pharmacies dispensing medications, especially antibiotics, without prescriptions. Lastly, provision of cost effective treatment from public sector can significantly reduce self-medication with antibiotics among rural dwellers of Sindh. PMID:27437263

  2. Prevalence and distribution of human Plasmodium infection in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khattak, Aamer A; Venkatesan, Meera; Nadeem, Muhammad F; Satti, Humayoon S; Yaqoob, Adnan; Strauss, Kathy; Khatoon, Lubna; Malik, Salman A; Plowe, Christopher V

    2013-08-28

    Both Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum are prevalent in Pakistan, yet up-to-date data on the epidemiology of malaria in Pakistan are not available. This study was undertaken to determine the current prevalence and distribution of Plasmodium species across the country. A malariometric population survey was conducted in 2011 using blood samples collected from 801 febrile patients of all ages in four provinces and the capital city of Islamabad. Microscopically confirmed Plasmodium-positive blood samples were reconfirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Confirmed parasite-positive samples were subjected to species-specific PCR capable of detecting four species of human malaria. Of the 707 PCR-positive samples, 128 (18%) were P. falciparum, 536 (76%) were P. vivax, and 43 (6%) were mixed P. falciparum and P. vivax. Ninety-four microscopy-positive samples were PCR-negative, and Plasmodium malariae and Plasmodium ovale were not detected. Prevalence of P. vivax ranged from 2.4% in Punjab Province to 10.8% in Sindh Province and prevalence of P. falciparum ranged from 0.1% in Islamabad to 3.8% in Balochistan. Plasmodium infections in Pakistan are largely attributed to P. vivax but P. falciparum and mixed species infections are also prevalent. In addition, regional variation in the prevalence and species composition of malaria is high.

  3. Prevalence and distribution of human Plasmodium infection in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Both Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum are prevalent in Pakistan, yet up-to-date data on the epidemiology of malaria in Pakistan are not available. This study was undertaken to determine the current prevalence and distribution of Plasmodium species across the country. Methods A malariometric population survey was conducted in 2011 using blood samples collected from 801 febrile patients of all ages in four provinces and the capital city of Islamabad. Microscopically confirmed Plasmodium-positive blood samples were reconfirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Confirmed parasite-positive samples were subjected to species-specific PCR capable of detecting four species of human malaria. Results Of the 707 PCR-positive samples, 128 (18%) were P. falciparum, 536 (76%) were P. vivax, and 43 (6%) were mixed P. falciparum and P. vivax. Ninety-four microscopy-positive samples were PCR-negative, and Plasmodium malariae and Plasmodium ovale were not detected. Prevalence of P. vivax ranged from 2.4% in Punjab Province to 10.8% in Sindh Province and prevalence of P. falciparum ranged from 0.1% in Islamabad to 3.8% in Balochistan. Conclusions Plasmodium infections in Pakistan are largely attributed to P. vivax but P. falciparum and mixed species infections are also prevalent. In addition, regional variation in the prevalence and species composition of malaria is high. PMID:23984968

  4. Emergency and trauma care in Pakistan: a cross-sectional study of healthcare levels

    PubMed Central

    Razzak, Junaid A; Baqir, Syed M; Khan, Uzma Rahim; Heller, David; Bhatti, Junaid; Hyder, Adnan A

    2015-01-01

    Background The importance of emergency medical care for the successful functioning of health systems has been increasingly recognised. This study aimed to evaluate emergency and trauma care facilities in four districts of the province of Sindh, Pakistan. Method We conducted a cross-sectional health facility survey in four districts of the province of Sindh in Pakistan using a modified version of WHO’s Guidelines for essential trauma care. 93 public health facilities (81 primary care facilities, nine secondary care hospitals, three tertiary hospitals) and 12 large private hospitals were surveyed. Interviews of healthcare providers and visual inspections of essential equipment and supplies as per guidelines were performed. A total of 141 physicians providing various levels of care were tested for their knowledge of basic emergency care using a validated instrument. Results Only 4 (44%) public secondary, 3 (25%) private secondary hospitals and all three tertiary care hospitals had designated emergency rooms. The majority of primary care health facilities had less than 60% of all essential equipments overall. Most of the secondary level public hospitals (78%) had less than 60% of essential equipments, and none had 80% or more. A fourth of private secondary care facilities and all tertiary care hospitals (n=3; 100%) had 80% or more essential equipments. The average percentage score on the physician knowledge test was 30%. None of the physicians scored above 60% correct responses. Conclusions The study findings demonstrated a gap in both essential equipment and provider knowledge necessary for effective emergency and trauma care. PMID:24157684

  5. Frequency and determinants of malnutrition in children aged between 6 to 59 months in district Tharparkar, a rural area of Sindh.

    PubMed

    Ahsan, Shahid; Mansoori, Naveed; Mohiuddin, Syed Maqsood; Mubeen, Syed Muhammad; Saleem, Rubab; Irfanullah, Muhammad

    2017-09-01

    To assess the nutritional status of children living in Tharparkar. This cross-sectional study was conducted in four villages of Tharparkar district of Sindh, Pakistan, in 2014, and comprised children aged between 6 and 59 months. Data was collected from mothers and anthropometry of children was done using standard techniques. Nutritional status was assessed by using age- and sex-specific World Health Organisation standard charts for underweight, stunting and wasting. Data was analysed using SPSS 16. Of the 304 children assessed, 117(38.5%) were stunted, 58(19.1 %) were wasted and 101(33.2 %) were underweight with no gender discrimination. Under-nutrition was particularly observed in the second year of life. Statistically significant factors associated with stunting were illiteracy of mother, family size of >5 members, pregnancy>4 times, child mortality in last 6 months, absence of breastfeeding and no history of child vaccination(p<0.05 each). Logistic regression revealed family size of <5 members, pregnancy ?4 times, breastfeeding and vaccination were protective factors for stunting (p<0.05 each). Mortality of a child in the last 6 months in the family was 3 times more likely to have a stunted child. Stunting was the most common type of under-nutrition with no sex discrimination.

  6. Comparative Analysis of Seasonal Variation in Tropospheric Nitrogen Dioxide over Pakistan and Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fahim Khokhar, Muhammad; Wagner, Thomas; Jamil, Mohsin

    2016-07-01

    In this study, spatial and temporal distributions of tropospheric NO2 vertical column densities over Pakistan and Saudi Arabia during the time period of 2004-2015 are discussed. Data products from the satellite instrument OMI are used. The results show a large NO2 growth over major cities of both countries, particularly the areas with rapid urbanization. Different seasonal cycles were observed over both countries. Especially, seasonal variation in tropospheric NO2 over Pakistan is largely impacted by the photolysis rate, OH radical and monsoon rains in addition to soil emissions, agriculture fires and other anthropogenic activities. While in the case of Saudi Arabia, the seasonal variation in tropospheric NO2 is completely driven by thermal power generation. Furthermore, different regions of Pakistan exhibited different seasonal trends. In the provinces of Punjab (north-east), Khyber Paktunkhwa (north-west) and Sindh (south-east), NO2 columns are maximum in winter and minimum in summer months while a reversed seasonality was observed in the province of Baluchistan (south-west). We compared the observed Spatio-temporal patterns to existing emission inventories and found that for the most populated provinces the NOx emissions are clearly dominated by anthropogenic sources. In these areas also the strongest positive trends were observed. NOx released from soils and produced by lightning both together contribute about 20% for the provinces of Punjab, Sindh, and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, while its contribution in Baluchistan is much stronger (~50%). NOx emissions from biomass burning are negligible. This finding can also explain the observed summer maximum in Baluchistan since the highest lightning activity occurs during the Monsoon season. Our comparison also indicates that the inventories of anthropogenic NOx emissions over Pakistan seem to underestimate the true emissions by about a factor of two.

  7. Trend analysis of rainfall time series for Sindh river basin in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajbhiye, Sarita; Meshram, Chandrashekhar; Mirabbasi, Rasoul; Sharma, S. K.

    2016-08-01

    The study of precipitation trends is critically important for a country like India whose food security and economy are dependent on the timely availability of water such as 83 % water used for agriculture sector, 12 % for industry sector and only 5 % for domestic sector. In this study, the historical rainfall data for the periods 1901-2002 and 1942-2002 of the Sindh river basin, India, were analysed for monthly, seasonal and annual trends. The conventional Mann-Kendall test (MK) and Mann-Kendall test (MMK), after the removal of the effect of all significant autocorrelation coefficients, and Sen's slope estimator were used to identify the trends. Kriging technique was used for interpolating the spatial pattern using Arc GIS 9.3. The analysis suggested significant increase in the trend of rainfall for seasonal and annual series in the Sindh basin during 1901-2002.

  8. Karo-kari: a form of honour killing in pakistan.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sujay; Gadit, Amin Muhammad

    2008-12-01

    Karo-Kari is a type of premeditated honour killing, which originated in rural and tribal areas of Sindh, Pakistan. The homicidal acts are primarily committed against women who are thought to have brought dishonour to their family by engaging in illicit pre-marital or extra-marital relations. In order to restore this honour, a male family member must kill the female in question. We conducted a systematic review of the published literature other sources on karo-kari and related forms of honour killing or violence against women. Media and non-governmental organization reports were utilized for case studies and analysis. Although legally proscribed, socio-cultural factors and gender role expectations have given legitimacy to karo-kari within some tribal communities. In addition to its persistence in areas of Pakistan, there is evidence that karo-kari may be increasing in incidence in other parts of the world in association with migration. Moreover, perpetrators of ;honour killings' often have motives outside of female adultery. Analysis of the socio-cultural and psycho-pathological factors associated with the practice of karo-kari can guide the development of prevention strategies.

  9. RISK CHARACTERIZATION OF MATERNAL AND NEONATAL TETANUS IN VIEW OF TETANUS VACCINATION CAMPAIGNS IN PAKISTAN.

    PubMed

    Khan, Ejaz A; Khan, Rownak; Iqbal, Muhammad Tariq; Hasan, Quamrul; Farrukh, Saadia; Rana, Muhammad Safdar; Khan, Wasiq Mehmood

    2015-01-01

    Pakistan is one of the remaining 24 countries which have not yet achieved Maternal and Neonatal Tetanus Elimination (MNTE), The country adopted high-risk approach for 56 out of 119 districts with country-wide Tetanus Toxoid (TT) provision in Routine Immunization (RI) during early 2000-2003. The TT's mass campaigns could only cover 13% of high risk districts for 2009- 2011, and mostly for the Punjab province. To achieve MNT elimination, the country needs risk mapping for cost-effective intervention. We used both the quantitative and qualitative methods to conduct risk characterization. All the three available data sets (Reported EPI coverage data, PDHS 2012-13, and PSLM 2010-11) were assessed. A mix of core and surrogate indicators-for risk categorization was used through ranking and scoring the aggregated data and considering the past tetanus campaigns' coverage. Tetanus Toxoid (TT2+)-coverage of pregnant women and delivery in health facility, both received more weightage in scoring. We based the higher and lower cuts off points for each indicator on data ranges. The districts with higher scores, i.e., 10.5 and above were ranked good followed by medium (5.5-10.4) and low performing (less than 5.5). Consultations with the national and provincial field officers were utilized to understand the local context. In Pakistan, there are 139 districts out of which, 60 are the high risk districts for tetanus. Highest percentage is for Baluchistan (83%) followed by Sindh (52%), and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (40%). Most of the Punjab is at medium risk (55%), followed by KP (52%), and Sindh (39%). Pakistan is at medium to high risk of MNT with a great variation at the sub-national level. Campaigns aiming to these districts may bring the country closer to MNT elimination target.

  10. Poverty and blindness in Pakistan: results from the Pakistan national blindness and visual impairment survey.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Clare E; Shah, S P; Jadoon, M Z; Bourne, R; Dineen, B; Khan, M A; Johnson, G J; Khan, M D

    2008-01-05

    To explore the association between blindness and deprivation in a nationally representative sample of adults in Pakistan. Cross sectional population based survey. 221 rural and urban clusters selected randomly throughout Pakistan. Nationally representative sample of 16 507 adults aged 30 or above (95.3% response rate). Associations between visual impairment and poverty assessed by a cluster level deprivation index and a household level poverty indicator; prevalence and causes of blindness; measures of the rate of uptake and quality of eye care services. 561 blind participants (<3/60 in the better eye) were identified during the survey. Clusters in urban Sindh province were the most affluent, whereas rural areas in Balochistan were the poorest. The prevalence of blindness in adults living in affluent clusters was 2.2%, compared with 3.7% in medium clusters and 3.9% in poor clusters (P<0.001 for affluent v poor). The highest prevalence of blindness was found in rural Balochistan (5.2%). The prevalence of total blindness (bilateral no light perception) was more than three times higher in poor clusters than in affluent clusters (0.24% v 0.07%, P<0.001). The prevalences of blindness caused by cataract, glaucoma, and corneal opacity were lower in affluent clusters and households. Reflecting access to eye care services, cataract surgical coverage was higher in affluent clusters (80.6%) than in medium (76.8%) and poor areas (75.1%). Intraocular lens implantation rates were significantly lower in participants from poorer households. 10.2% of adults living in affluent clusters presented to the examination station wearing spectacles, compared with 6.7% in medium clusters and 4.4% in poor cluster areas. Spectacle coverage in affluent areas was more than double that in poor clusters (23.5% v 11.1%, P<0.001). Blindness is associated with poverty in Pakistan; lower access to eye care services was one contributory factor. To reduce blindness, strategies targeting poor people will

  11. Type 2 diabetes mellitus in Pakistan: Current prevalence and future forecast.

    PubMed

    Meo, Sultan Ayoub; Zia, Inam; Bukhari, Ishfaq A; Arain, Shoukat Ali

    2016-12-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic health problem of all age groups, both gender, involves rural and urban areas and developing and developed countries globally. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Pakistan. Systematic bibliographic search of scientific databases including PubMed, ISI-web of science and Google Scholar was conducted with key words of "type 2 diabetes mellitus" "prevalence", "incidence", "occurrence". A total of 22 peer reviewed papers published in ISI and PubMed indexed journals were selected and examined. All the epidemiologic and experimental studies reporting the diabetes prevalence in Pakistan were included. Lastly, we analyzed 18 publications and remaining 04 papers were excluded. The current prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Pakistan is 11.77%. In males the prevalence is 11.20% and in females 9.19%. The mean prevalence in Sindh province is 16.2% in males and 11.70 % in females; in Punjab province it is 12.14% in males and 9.83% in females. In Baluchistan province 13.3% among males, 8.9% in females; while in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) it is 9.2% in males and 11.60% in females. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in urban areas is 14.81% and 10.34% in rural areas of Pakistan. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Pakistan is11.77%. The prevalence is higher in males than females and more common in urban areas compared to the rural areas. Pakistan must include diabetes preventive measures in their national health policy to minimize the burden of the disease.

  12. Evaluation of toxic risk assessment of arsenic in male subjects through drinking water in southern Sindh Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Shah, Abdul Qadir; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Khan, Sumaira; Kolachi, Nida Fatima; Kandhro, Ghulam Abbas; Wadhwa, Sham Kumar; Shah, Faheem

    2011-11-01

    The arsenic (As) hazardous quotient was estimated based on concentration of As in drinking water and scalp hair of male subjects of two age groups (n=360) consuming As contaminated water at different levels and non-contaminated drinking water. The total As concentrations in drinking water of less-exposed (LE) and high-exposed (HE) areas was found to be 3- to 30-fold higher than the permissible limit of the World Health Organization (2004) for drinking water, while the levels of As in drinking water of non-exposed (NE) areas was within the permissible limit. The levels of As in scalp hair samples of male subjects of two age groups belonging to NE, LE, and HE areas ranged from 0.01 to 0.27, 0.11-1.31, and 0.36-6.80 μg/g, respectively. A significant correlation between As contents of drinking water and As concentration in scalp hair was observed in sub-district Gambit (r=0.825-0.852, p<0.001) as compared to those subjects belonging to LE sub-district Thari Mirwah. A toxicity risk assessment provides a hazard quotient corresponding to <10 that indicates non-carcinogenic exposure risk of understudy areas.

  13. Motivation to Learn English Language: A Survey on Parents' & Teachers' Influence on L2 Learners in Sindh, Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadho, Saeed; Memon, Shumaila; Memon, Rafique Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Motivation is, without question, the most complex and challenging issue faced by English language teachers today (Schiedekr & Freeman, 1999). It is a key contributing factor for L2 learning (Cheng & Dornyei, 2007; Gardner, 1985b). It is an established fact that no motivation means no learning. Motivation comes from different sources.…

  14. Antibiotic susceptibility of thermo-tolerant Escherichia coli 2 isolated from drinking water of Khairpur City, Sindh, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Shar, A H; Kazi, Y F; Soomro, I H

    2009-04-15

    A total 72 drinking water sample were collected and analyzed by membrane filtration method during 1 year study from various points in Khairpur City. Out of these 58 (80.55%) samples were found to be contaminated with thermo-tolerant Escherichia coli 2. The susceptibility of these isolates to 35 antibiotics was studied by disc diffusion method and the organism was highly sensitive to levoflaxin, cefipime, enoxobid, noroxin, tarivid, ciproxin, avelox, amikacin, kanamycin, rocifin, pipenedic acid and slightly sensitive to cravit, naladixic acid, neomycin, cefizox, fortum cefotaxime, cefizox, fortum, tobramycin and cefoperoxone. The resistance against 16 antibiotics such as meropenem, linkomycin, fusidic acid, orbenin, penicillin, streptomycin, bacitracin, minocin, zinacef, amoxil, ceclor, claracid, cephalexin, augmentin, cephradin and dalacin was shown by these isolates. We report the presence of multi-drug resistance in thermo-tolerant Escherichia coli isolated in municipal water with different levels of prevalence in Khairpur City. In this study a higher number of positive results were obtained in all sampling points indicating the more fecally polluted municipal water.

  15. Role of Tuition Centers in the Performance and Achievement of Students: A Case of Hyderabad District, Sindh, Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahito, Zafarullah; Khawaja, Mumtaz; Siddiqui, Abida; Shaheen, Anjum; Saeed, Humera

    2017-01-01

    This research is designed to explore the importance of tuition centers in the perception of students. It tries to find out the role, supporting methods, environment and good characteristics of tuition centers, their owners and management to support the student to learn effectively and bring good grades in their board examinations. A qualitative…

  16. Religious Extremism in Pakistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    and Palestine to Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Indonesia , radical Islamist groups have enjoyed broad support—especially among the poorer segments of...R. Iannaccone and Eli Berman observe that: From Egypt and Palestine to Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Indonesia , radical Islamist groups have enjoyed...radicalize their supporters, who thus develop an affinity for terrorism as means to achieve their objectives. We see this happening in Pakistan where

  17. Progress Toward Poliomyelitis Eradication - Pakistan, January 2015-September 2016.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Christopher H; Mahamud, Abdirahman; Safdar, Rana Muhammad; Ahmed, Jamal; Jorba, Jaume; Sharif, Salmaan; Farag, Noha; Martinez, Maureen; Tangermann, Rudolph H; Ehrhardt, Derek

    2016-11-25

    Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Nigeria remain the only countries where endemic wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) transmission continues. This report describes the activities, challenges, and progress toward polio eradication in Pakistan during January 2015-September 2016 and updates previous reports (1,2). In 2015, a total of 54 WPV1 cases were reported in Pakistan, an 82% decrease from 2014. In 2016, 15 WPV1 cases had been reported as of November 1, representing a 61% decrease compared with the 38 cases reported during the same period in 2015 (Figure 1). Among the 15 WPV1 cases reported in 2016, children aged <36 months accounted for 13 cases; four of those children had received only a single dose of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). Seven of the 15 WPV1 cases occurred in the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), five in Sindh, two in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA), and one in Balochistan (3). During January-September 2016, WPV1 was detected in 9% (36 of 384) of environmental samples collected, compared with 19% (69 of 354) of samples collected during the same period in 2015. Rigorous implementation of the 2015-2016 National Emergency Action Plan (NEAP) (4), coordinated by the National Emergency Operations Center (EOC), has resulted in a substantial decrease in overall WPV1 circulation compared with the previous year. However, detection of WPV1 cases in high-risk areas and the detection of WPV1 in environmental samples from geographic areas where no polio cases are identified highlight the need to continue to improve the quality of supplemental immunization activities (SIAs),* immunization campaigns focused on vaccinating children with OPV outside of routine immunization services, and surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP). Continuation and refinement of successful program strategies, as outlined in the new 2016-2017 NEAP (5), with particular focus on identifying children missed by vaccination, community-based vaccination, and rapid response to virus

  18. Hepatitis C virus genotypes in Pakistan: a systemic review.

    PubMed

    Attaullah, Sobia; Khan, Sanaullah; Ali, Ijaz

    2011-09-08

    Phylogenetic analysis has led to the classification of hepatitis C virus (HCV) into 1-6 major genotypes. HCV genotypes have different biological properties, clinical outcome and response to antiviral treatment and provide important clues for studying the epidemiology, transmission and pathogenesis. This article deepens the current molecular information about the geographical distribution of HCV genotypes and subgenotypes in population of four provinces of Pakistan. 34 published papers (1996-2011) related to prevalence of HCV genotypes/serotypes and subgenotypes in Pakistan were searched. HCV genotype/s distribution from all 34 studies was observed in 28,400 HCV infected individuals in the following pattern: 1,999 (7.03%) cases of genotype 1; 1,085 (3.81%) cases of genotype 2; 22,429 (78.96%) cases of genotype 3; 453 (1.59%) cases of genotype 4; 29 (0.10%) cases of genotype 5; 37 (0.13%) cases of genotype 6; 1,429 (5.03%) cases of mixed genotypes, and 939 (3.30%) cases of untypeable genotypes. Overall, genotype 3a was the predominant genotype with a rate of 55.10%, followed by genotype 1a, 3b and mixed genotype with a rate of 10.25%, 8.20%, and 5.08%, respectively; and genotypes 4, 5 and 6 were rare. Genotype 3 occurred predominately in all the provinces of Pakistan. Second more frequently genotype was genotype 1 in Punjab province and untypeable genotypes in Sindh, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Balochistan provinces.

  19. Studies on the biology, chemotherapy and distribution of warble fly in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khan, M Qasim; Irshad, H; Jahangir, M; Razzaq, A

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents data on the prevalence, biology and control of warble fly infestation (WFI) in cattle and goats in Pakistan. A questionnaire for obtaining information on biology and prevalence was circulated amongst field veterinary staff and livestock farmers in all five provinces (Punjab, Sindh, Balochistan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa [KPK] and Gilgit-Baltistan) and in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas of the country. A total of 1,019 questionnaires were received (Punjab = 296, Sindh = 246, KPK = 318, Balochistan = 151, Gilgit-Baltistan = 8). Warble fly infestation was reported from each province and from the federally administered tribal areas, particularly from hilly, semi-hilly and sandy desert areas (the Cholistan desert, which adjoins the Rehim Yar Khan, Bahawalpur and Bahawalnagar districts, and the Nara area of Sanghar district). Warbles (nodules) started appearing on the backs of the infested animals from September through December and disappeared from October through March. The prevalence of WFI varied from 5% to 75%. It was highest in hilly areas and gradually decreased towards the plains. A map was developed of warble fly-infested areas. Four field trials were conducted to study the efficacy of different drugs indicated for the control of warble fly infestation. A total of 2,094 cattle and 3,876 goats were given five different injectables (avermectins); namely, Ivomec, Endectin, Euvectin, Dectomax and Promectin (ivermectin) during the first three weeks of September. A control group was given normal saline. All the medicines were found to be effective in controlling infestation.

  20. Mapping vulnerability to climate change and its repercussions on human health in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Malik, Sadia Mariam; Awan, Haroon; Khan, Niazullah

    2012-09-03

    Pakistan is highly vulnerable to climate change due to its geographic location, high dependence on agriculture and water resources, low adaptive capacity of its people, and weak system of emergency preparedness. This paper is the first ever attempt to rank the agro-ecological zones in Pakistan according to their vulnerability to climate change and to identify the potential health repercussions of each manifestation of climate change in the context of Pakistan. A climate change vulnerability index is constructed as an un-weighted average of three sub-indices measuring (a) the ecological exposure of each region to climate change, (b) sensitivity of the population to climate change and (c) the adaptive capacity of the population inhabiting a particular region. The regions are ranked according to the value of this index and its components. Since health is one of the most important dimensions of human wellbeing, this paper also identifies the potential health repercussions of each manifestations of climate change and links it with the key manifestations of climate change in the context of Pakistan. The results indicate that Balochistan is the most vulnerable region with high sensitivity and low adaptive capacity followed by low-intensity Punjab (mostly consisting of South Punjab) and Cotton/Wheat Sindh. The health risks that each of these regions face depend upon the type of threat that they face from climate change. Greater incidence of flooding, which may occur due to climate variability, poses the risk of diarrhoea and gastroenteritis; skin and eye Infections; acute respiratory infections; and malaria. Exposure to drought poses the potential health risks in the form of food insecurity and malnutrition; anaemia; night blindness; and scurvy. Increases in temperature pose health risks of heat stroke; malaria; dengue; respiratory diseases; and cardiovascular diseases. The study concludes that geographical zones that are more exposed to climate change in ecological and

  1. Pottery from Pakistan. A Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rammage, Alix

    One of three handbooks dealing with pottery traditions from around the world, this packet draws together information about historical, ethnographic, and pottery traditions of Pakistan. The handbook begins with a brief discussion of Pakistan's land and people, a short history of Pakistan, Islamic pottery traditions, and Pakistan potters and…

  2. Pottery from Pakistan. A Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rammage, Alix

    One of three handbooks dealing with pottery traditions from around the world, this packet draws together information about historical, ethnographic, and pottery traditions of Pakistan. The handbook begins with a brief discussion of Pakistan's land and people, a short history of Pakistan, Islamic pottery traditions, and Pakistan potters and…

  3. Pakistan and Afghanistan Librarianship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, John F.

    In March and April 1968, the author was a guest of the U.S. Information Service on a two week trip to Pakistan and Afghanistan. During this stay, 30 libraries in five cities were visited. This paper describes this trip and relates the library happenings in these countries. It was obvious that Pakistan librarianship had advanced beyond the…

  4. Bibliographical Control in Pakistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammadally, R.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the main aspects of national bibliographical control in Pakistan--legal deposit, national bibliographical agency, and retrospective and current national bibliographies. Highlights include registration of publications, copyright, the National Bibliographic Unit, National Book Council of Pakistan, and Library of Congress Office. Works…

  5. Ethnobotany of plants used by the Thari people of Nara Desert, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Rahmatullah; Raza Bhatti, G

    2008-09-01

    This paper reports the results of an ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used by the Thari people of the Nara Desert, Sindh, Pakistan. Fifty-one plant species distributed across 28 families and 43 genera were discovered to have medicinal uses by local inhabitants of the Nara Desert. Twenty-one of those species are proposed to have new uses not recorded in the Indo-Pak folk herbal medicinal literature. Boraginaceae and Amaranthaceae were the most dominant families (5 species; 2 and 4 genera, respectively) of medicinal plants, followed by Asteraceae, Capparidaceae, Convolvulaceae, Poaceae, Scrophulariacea and Zygophyllaceae. About 44 types of ailments were treated with various parts of the 51 medicinal plant species. For treating ailments, the use of the whole plant was higher (53%) than leaves (18%), roots (14%) and fruits (10%) alone.

  6. The Lakhra Anticline - An Active Structure of Pleistocene to Holocene Age in Southern Pakistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Outerbridge, William F.; SanFilipo, John R.; Khan, Rafiq Ahmed

    2007-01-01

    The Lakhra anticline is a breached north-trending structure northwest of Hyderabad in Sindh Province, Pakistan. About 340 meters (m) of Paleocene to Holocene strata have been eroded from the core of the anticline. North-trending normal faults transect the anticline at a low angle, are vertical, and form a set of nested grabens. Lakhra Nala and Siph Nala were formed where antecedent streams eroded the nalas (canyons, gullies, ravines, or watercourses and the streams in them) as the anticline rose. Lakhra Nala flows onto the Indus River flood plain, which is accumulating about 6.1 m of alluvium per 1,000 years. If the anticline rose at an equivalent rate, it started to rise about 60,000 years ago.

  7. Critical evaluation of the claims made by pharmaceutical companies in drug promotional material in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Rohra, Dileep Kumar; Gilani, Anwarul Hassan; Memon, Ismail Kamal; Perven, Ghazala; Khan, Muhammad Talha; Zafar, Hina; Kumar, Rakesh

    2006-01-01

    In Pakistan, there is no mechanism to monitor the drug promotional campaign by pharmaceutical industry despite the fact that there is enough evidence that irrational pharmacotherapy is increasingly encountered even in the developed countries due to unethical practices of pharmaceutical promotion. Objectives. To audit the drug promotional claims made by the pharmaceutical companies in Pakistan. Drug promotional pamphlets and brochures containing claims for the drugs, which were circulated by the pharmaceutical representatives were collected from 122 general practitioners (GPs) from Karachi and Larkana cities of the Sindh Province. The claims were critically analyzed and audited with the help of currently available evidence in the medical literature. 345 distinct advertisements covering 182 drugs from different manufacturers were critically analyzed for information content. Sixty two out of 345 (18%) of the reviewed advertisements were adjudged to be misleading / unjustifiable, which were again classified as, exaggerated (32%), ambiguous (21%), false (26%), and controversial (21%). The primary source of information (approximately 78%) about the newly launched drugs for the GPs was found to be the pharmaceutical representatives followed by hospital doctors (5%) and colleagues (5%). Furthermore, 110 (90%) GPs were of the view that the drug promotion has definitely an influence on their prescribing pattern. Since GPs in Pakistan rate pharmaceutical companies as their primary source of information regarding drugs, it can be anticipated that inappropriate advertisement claims would lead to irrational prescribing if physicians had no any other information to follow.

  8. Epidemiology of Hepatitis C Infection in Pakistan: Current Estimate and Major Risk Factors.

    PubMed

    Arshad, Aiman; Ashfaq, Usman Ali

    2017-01-01

    In Pakistan, hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major healthcare problem, with acute and chronic infections responsible for liver damage, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Under the Human Development Index of the United Nations, Pakistan is ranked 134th of 174 countries due to its poor educational and health standards. This study was designed to study HCV and its genotype prevalence in different cities and provinces of Pakistan and describe the major routes of HCV transmission. Literature searches were performed in PubMed, Mendeley, and Google Scholar. Ninety different studies were screened for this review, ranging from those published during the years 2000 to 2013. By calculating the mean average of all studies, it was clear that HCV percentage prevalence in the adult population was 11.55%, blood donors 10.10%, pregnant women 4.65%, children 1.6%, patients with different diseases 24.97%, and injecting drug users had the highest prevalence at 51.0%. HCV genotype 3a prevalence was found to be 63.45%, the highest of all genotypes. The percentage prevalence of HCV found for all of the provinces was Punjab: 5.46%, Sindh: 2.55%, Khyber Pakhtoonkhaw: 6.07%, Balochistan: 25.77%, and federally administrated tribal areas: 3.37%. This study shows that the overall prevalence of HCV in the provinces of Pakistan is 8.64% and suggests that the major routes of HCV transmission are reuse of syringes and needles and unchecked blood transfusions. Awareness and economic growth are required to help decrease HCV infection and improve health standards in Pakistan.

  9. ASTER Maps Continued Pakistan Flooding

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-09-07

    On Sept. 3, 2010, when NASA Terra spacecraft captured this image strip over the Indus River in Pakistan, severe flooding was still causing a major humanitarian crisis in Pakistan. The city of Hyderabad is near the middle of the image.

  10. The 2010 Pakistan floods: high-resolution simulations with the WRF model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viterbo, Francesca; Parodi, Antonio; Molini, Luca; Provenzale, Antonello; von Hardenberg, Jost; Palazzi, Elisa

    2013-04-01

    Estimating current and future water resources in high mountain regions with complex orography is a difficult but crucial task. In particular, the French-Italian project PAPRIKA is focused on two specific regions in the Hindu-Kush -- Himalaya -- Karakorum (HKKH)region: the Shigar basin in Pakistan, at the feet of K2, and the Khumbu valley in Nepal, at the feet of Mount Everest. In this framework, we use the WRF model to simulate precipitation and meteorological conditions with high resolution in areas with extreme orographic slopes, comparing the model output with station and satellite data. Once validated the model, we shall run a set of three future time-slices at very high spatial resolution, in the periods 2046-2050, 2071-2075 and 2096-2100, nested in different climate change scenarios (EXtreme PREcipitation and Hydrological climate Scenario Simulations -EXPRESS-Hydro project). As a prelude to this study, here we discuss the simulation of specific, high-intensity rainfall events in this area. In this paper we focus on the 2010 Pakistan floods which began in late July 2010, producing heavy monsoon rains in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Sindh, Punjab and Balochistan regions of Pakistan and affecting the Indus River basin. Approximately one-fifth of Pakistan's total land area was underwater, with a death toll of about 2000 people. This event has been simulated with the WRF model (version 3.3.) in cloud-permitting mode (d01 14 km and d02 3.5 km): different convective closures and microphysics parameterization have been used. A deeper understanding of the processes responsible for this event has been gained through comparison with rainfall depth observations, radiosounding data and geostationary/polar satellite images.

  11. Pattern and molecular epidemiology of Hepatitis B virus genotypes circulating in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Awan, Zunaira; Idrees, Muhammad; Amin, Irum; Butt, Sadia; Afzal, Samia; Akbar, Haji; Rehman, Irshad-ur; Younas, Saima; Shahid, Muhammad; Lal, Amreek; Saleem, Sana; Rauff, Bisma

    2010-12-01

    The continuously mutating nature of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is responsible for the emergence of varying genotypes in different regions of the world affecting the disease outcome. The objective of the current study was to find out the pattern of HBV genotypes circulating in Pakistan. HBV genotypes were determined in HBV chronic patients of different age and gender from all the four different geographical regions (provinces) of Pakistan for a period of 2 years (2007-2009). Out of the total 3137 consecutive patients, 300 (175; 58.3% males and 125; 41.7% females) were randomly selected for HBV genotype A through H determination using molecular genotyping methods. Total 269 (89.6%) isolates were successfully genotyped where as 31 (10.3%) samples failed to generate a type-specific PCR band and were found untypable. Out of the successfully genotyped samples, 43 (14.3%) were with type A, 54 (18%) were with type B, 83 (27.6%) were with type C, 39 (13%) were with type D, 2 (0.6%) were with type E, 4 (1.3%) were with genotype F and total 44 (14.6%) were with mixed HBV infections. Of the mixed genotype infection cases, 16 were with genotypes A/D, 9 were B/C, six were A/D/F, five were with genotypes A/F, two were with A/B/D and B/E and one each for A/C as well as A/E genotypes. Four common genotypes of HBV found worldwide (A, B, C & D) were isolated from Pakistan along with uncommon genotypes E and F for the first time in Pakistan. Overall Genotype C is the most prevalent genotype. Genotypes B and C are predominant in Punjab & Balochistan and Khyber Pakhtoonkhwa, respectively whereas genotype A in Sindh. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Hepatitis C virus prevalence and genotype distribution in Pakistan: Comprehensive review of recent data

    PubMed Central

    Umer, Muhammad; Iqbal, Mazhar

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is endemic in Pakistan and its burden is expected to increase in coming decades owing mainly to widespread use of unsafe medical procedures. The prevalence of HCV in Pakistan has previously been reviewed. However, the literature search conducted here revealed that at least 86 relevant studies have been produced since the publication of these systematic reviews. A revised updated analysis was therefore needed in order to integrate the fresh data. A systematic review of data published between 2010 and 2015 showed that HCV seroprevalence among the general adult Pakistani population is 6.8%, while active HCV infection was found in approximately 6% of the population. Studies included in this review have also shown extremely high HCV prevalence in rural and underdeveloped peri-urban areas (up to 25%), highlighting the need for an increased focus on this previously neglected socioeconomic stratum of the population. While a 2.45% seroprevalence among blood donors demands immediate measures to curtail the risk of transfusion transmitted HCV, a very high prevalence in patients attending hospitals with various non-liver disease related complaints (up to 30%) suggests a rise in the incidence of nosocomial HCV spread. HCV genotype 3a continues to be the most prevalent subtype infecting people in Pakistan (61.3%). However, recent years have witnessed an increase in the frequency of subtype 2a in certain geographical sub-regions within Pakistan. In Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Sindh provinces, 2a was the second most prevalent genotype (17.3% and 11.3% respectively). While the changing frequency distribution of various genotypes demands an increased emphasis on research for novel therapeutic regimens, evidence of high nosocomial transmission calls for immediate measures aimed at ensuring safe medical practices. PMID:26819533

  13. Hepatitis C virus prevalence and genotype distribution in Pakistan: Comprehensive review of recent data.

    PubMed

    Umer, Muhammad; Iqbal, Mazhar

    2016-01-28

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is endemic in Pakistan and its burden is expected to increase in coming decades owing mainly to widespread use of unsafe medical procedures. The prevalence of HCV in Pakistan has previously been reviewed. However, the literature search conducted here revealed that at least 86 relevant studies have been produced since the publication of these systematic reviews. A revised updated analysis was therefore needed in order to integrate the fresh data. A systematic review of data published between 2010 and 2015 showed that HCV seroprevalence among the general adult Pakistani population is 6.8%, while active HCV infection was found in approximately 6% of the population. Studies included in this review have also shown extremely high HCV prevalence in rural and underdeveloped peri-urban areas (up to 25%), highlighting the need for an increased focus on this previously neglected socioeconomic stratum of the population. While a 2.45% seroprevalence among blood donors demands immediate measures to curtail the risk of transfusion transmitted HCV, a very high prevalence in patients attending hospitals with various non-liver disease related complaints (up to 30%) suggests a rise in the incidence of nosocomial HCV spread. HCV genotype 3a continues to be the most prevalent subtype infecting people in Pakistan (61.3%). However, recent years have witnessed an increase in the frequency of subtype 2a in certain geographical sub-regions within Pakistan. In Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Sindh provinces, 2a was the second most prevalent genotype (17.3% and 11.3% respectively). While the changing frequency distribution of various genotypes demands an increased emphasis on research for novel therapeutic regimens, evidence of high nosocomial transmission calls for immediate measures aimed at ensuring safe medical practices.

  14. Barite in Pakistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klinger, F.L.; Richards, R.L.

    1973-01-01

    Before 1953 almost no barite deposits were known in Pakistan. Discovery of such deposits relatively close to oil fields in northern Pakistan in 1953 led to increased barite production from 1957 to 1961 and to doubling of production in 1962, firmly establishing new industry for the country. During 1962 and 1963, most of the known barite deposits in Pakistan were geologically mapped, and minimum reserves were estimated to be 1,423,000 short tons. The largest single deposit, Ehuzdar, is estimated to contain more than 1,100,000 short tons of barite. Barite has been found in Pakistan principally in the Hazara, Khuzdar, and Las Bela districts. Although several vein deposits contain good quality barite, 90 percent of estimated reserves are in replacement deposits concordant to bedding in sedimentary rocks. Host rocks range in age from Precambrian to Pleistocene, but the periods of barite deposition are probably Jurassic or younger. Some barite concentrated in sandstone may be of detrital origin. In late 1962, demand for barite in Pakistan was estimated at about 8,000 tons annually. Although domestic barite resources exceed this figure, less than 40 percent of demand was being supplied by domestic nines in 1963. Transportation costs and limited production facilities are partly responsible for output, but the lack of quality control is a major obstacle. Producers are not generally familiar with commercial specifications for barite and have net recognized that their products are too impure to be successfully marketed without installing the necessarycontrol procedures of sampling and beneficiation.

  15. Forensic psychiatry in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Tariq; Nizami, Asad Tamizuddin; Hirji, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews existing forensic psychiatric services in Pakistan highlighting the role played by the judicial and the medical fraternity in managing the legal and forensic issues of the population of patients with mental illnesses. Until 2001, all legal and forensic issues were dealt with the mental health legislation of 1912, the Lunacy Act of 1912. This was inherited from the British rulers in the Sub-Continent at the time. The Mental Health Ordinance of 2001 could not sustain following the 18th constitutional amendment in 2010, whereby psychiatric healthcare was devolved to the provinces from the previous federal authority. The article also highlights the difficulties and the barriers in implementation of the forensic psychiatric services in Pakistan at various levels within the healthcare system. This article also delves into the current framework of training in forensic psychiatry for postgraduates as well as the assessments and management schedules for the mentally ill offenders at tertiary care institutions in Pakistan.

  16. Monitoring Environmental Impacts on Mangrove Ecosystem in the Indus Delta of Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddiqui, Mehrun-Nisa

    Monitoring Environmental Impacts on Mangrove Ecosystem in the Indus Delta of Pakistan The mangrove forests growing in intertidal region along the tropical coastlines form a unique ecosystem with rich floral species and marine resources. In Pakistan, large mangrove forests are found all along the muddy coast of Sindh province at Indus Deltaic region. These mangroves are threatened by a variety of environmental pollution, like: dumping of untreated industrial and urban waste, sewage water; hazardous chemical released during ship breaking, oil spills, mangroves cutting, over fishing, scarcity of fresh water, seawater intrusion and unplanned urban development, etc. Dams and barrages, constructed on the mighty Indus River have reduced the supply of freshwater into the delta and consequently, seawater intruding into the riverine tract. The Tidal Link, constructed in 1995 to drain the agriculture effluents of cultivated areas of Sindh to sea, has also greatly damaged the ecology of the area. This study is based on integrated use of RS & GIS techniques for monitoring environmental impacts on the mangroves ecosystem of Indus Delta, for management and planning of this coastal ecosystem. Temporal satellite remote sensing (SRS) data acquired between 1976 to 2005 have been analysed using image processing and GIS techniques and coastal landuse maps representing coverage of the deltaic region have been prepared, which enabled to monitor dynamic and geomorphological changes occurred in the area. The tidal boundaries derived from temporal SRS data have been integrated to understand the coastal processes and their impact on mangroves ecosystem, and on tidal / intertidal zones. From the analysis, it was observed that the surface salt accumulation and dryness in the deltaic region and waterlogging & salinity in inland areas have been increased over the last 30 years, indicate the intrusion of seawater in groundwater aquifers and reduction in over all biomass in the area. This study

  17. Delivering post-abortion care through a community-based reproductive health volunteer programme in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Azmat, Syed Khurram; Shaikh, Babar T; Mustafa, Ghulam; Hameed, Waqas; Bilgrami, Mohsina

    2012-11-01

    This qualitative study was conducted in May-June 2010 with women using post-abortion care (PAC) services provided by the Marie Stopes Society in Pakistan during the six month period preceding the study, more than 70% of whom had been referred to the clinics by reproductive health volunteers (RHVs). The aim of the study was to establish the socio-demographic profile of clients, determine their preferred method of treatment, explore their perceptions of the barriers to accessing post-abortion services and to understand the challenges faced by RHVs. The sample women were selected from six randomly selected districts of Sindh and Punjab. Eight focus group discussions were conducted with PAC clients and fifteen in-depth interviews with RHVs. In addition, a quantitative exit interview questionnaire was administered to 76 clients. Medical, rather than surgical, treatment for incomplete and unsafe abortions was preferred because it was perceived to 'cause less pain', was 'easy to employ' and 'having fewer complications'. Household economics influence women's decision-making on seeking post-abortion care. Other restraining factors include objection by husbands and in-laws, restrictions on female mobility, the views of religious clerics and a lack of transport. The involvement of all stakeholders could secure social approval and acceptance of the provision of safe post-abortion care services in Pakistan, and improve the quality of family planning services to the women who want to space their pregnancies.

  18. Predicting impacts of climate change on medicinal asclepiads of Pakistan using Maxent modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanum, Rizwana; Mumtaz, A. S.; Kumar, Sunil

    2013-05-01

    Maximum entropy (Maxent) modeling was used to predict the potential climatic niches of three medicinally important Asclepiad species: Pentatropis spiralis, Tylophora hirsuta, and Vincetoxicum arnottianum. All three species are members of the Asclepiad plant family, yet they differ in ecological requirements, biogeographic importance, and conservation value. Occurrence data were collected from herbarium specimens held in major herbaria of Pakistan and two years (2010 and 2011) of field surveys. The Maxent model performed better than random for the three species with an average test AUC value of 0.74 for P. spiralis, 0.84 for V. arnottianum, and 0.59 for T. hirsuta. Under the future climate change scenario, the Maxent model predicted habitat gains for P. spiralis in southern Punjab and Balochistan, and loss of habitat in south-eastern Sindh. Vincetoxicum arnottianum as well as T. hirsuta would gain habitat in upper Peaks of northern parts of Pakistan. T. hirsuta is predicted to lose most of the habitats in northern Punjab and in parches from lower peaks of Galliat, Zhob, Qalat etc. The predictive modeling approach presented here may be applied to other rare Asclepiad species, especially those under constant extinction threat.

  19. Cost effectiveness of responsive stimulation and nutrition interventions on early child development outcomes in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Gowani, Saima; Yousafzai, Aisha K; Armstrong, Robert; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2014-01-01

    Early childhood programs are heralded as a way to improve children's health and educational outcomes. However, few studies in developing countries calculate the effectiveness of quality early childhood interventions. Even fewer estimate the associated costs of such interventions. The study here looks at the costs and effectiveness of a cluster-randomized effectiveness trial on children from birth to 24 months in rural Sindh, Pakistan. Responsive stimulation and/or enhanced nutrition interventions were integrated in the Lady Health Worker program in Pakistan. Outcomes suggest that children who receive responsive stimulation had significantly better development outcomes at 24 months than those who only received enhanced nutrition intervention. A cost-effectiveness analysis of the results verifies that early childhood interventions that include responsive stimulation are more cost effective than a nutrition intervention alone in promoting children's early development. Costs of a responsive stimulation intervention integrated in an existing community-based service providing basic health and nutrition care is approximately US$4 per month per child. We discuss these findings and make recommendations about scaling up and costs for future early child development programs.

  20. Rationale, design, and cohort enrolment of a prospective observational study of the clinical performance of the new contraceptive implant (Femplant) in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Azmat, Syed Khurram; Hameed, Waqas; Lendvay, Anja; Shaikh, Babar Tasneem; Mustafa, Ghulam; Siddiqui, Muhammad Ahmed; Brohi, Sajid; Karim, Asif; Ishaque, Muhammad; Hussain, Wajahat; Bilgrami, Mohsina; Feldblum, Paul J

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The use of hormonal implants has gained positive traction in family planning programs in recent times. Compared to other popular methods, such as long-term reversible intrauterine devices, the use of hormonal implants as a family planning method has distinct advantages in terms of long-term efficiency and better user compliance and availability. This paper presents a study protocol to document and evaluate the efficacy, safety, and acceptability of Femplant (contraceptive implant) in Pakistan during the first year of its use among married women of reproductive age (18–44 years) at clinics in two provinces of Pakistan (Sindh and Punjab). Materials and methods A total of 724 married women were enrolled in a noncomparative prospective observational study. The study involved six government clinics from the Population Welfare Department in Sindh Province and 13 clinics run by the Marie Stopes Society (a local nongovernmental organization) in both provinces. The participation of women was subject to voluntary acceptance and medical eligibility. All respondents were interviewed at baseline and subsequently at each scheduled visit during the study period. Side effects, complications and adverse events, if any, were recorded for every participant at each visit to the facility. Discussion Over the next 5-year period (2013–2018), 27 million hormonal implants will be made available in lower- to middle-income countries by international donors and agencies. The evidence generated from this study will identify factors affecting the acceptability and satisfaction of end users with Femplant (Sino-implant II). This will help to guide policies to enhance access to and the use of long-acting contraceptive implants in Pakistan and similar developing countries. PMID:24920939

  1. Pakistan's breastfeeding campaign.

    PubMed

    Martin, L

    1989-01-01

    A campaign to promote and protect breastfeeding in Pakistan was launched March 1988 with the adoption by the Pakistan Pediatric Association (PPA) of a twenty-point statement in support of breastfeeding. A national committee on breastfeeding comprised of representatives of the PPA, UNICEF, USAID, and the Nutrition Section of the Government of Pakistan was subsequently formed. The committee prepared over the course of six months a bibliography on breastfeeding studies in Pakistan, developed and coordinated two research studies on infant feeding practices, and planned a series of six regional seminars and a national workshop on Breastfeeding for Child Survival. The two-day seminars brought together almost 1000 health professionals, government officials, and representatives from the media, family planning associations, social welfare groups, and private voluntary organizations. Seminar recommendations formed the basis for discussion at the national workshop. The National Breastfeeding Committee has tried to sustain the momentum generated during the seminars through personal communication with health professionals and through journal articles and conferences. Over the next few months, the committee will be developing a national newborn feeding policy to issue to health facilities. The committee will also be identifying ways to train health care providers so that they are better able to assist lactating mothers. A study tour of infant feeding programs is being planned for health policymakers.

  2. Pakistan: Lifelong Literacy Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Literacy Work, 1974

    1974-01-01

    The article reports on progress towards lifelong literacy education in Pakistan, covering the project's introduction in 1972 and reviewing current activities in brief but concrete sketches of such topics as materials, operation of projects, and student drop-outs. Appendixes include a map and occupational breakdowns of teachers and students. (AJ)

  3. Country Profiles, Pakistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardee, J. Gilbert; Satterthwaite, Adaline P.

    A profile of Pakistan is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population (size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition, migration,…

  4. Frequency of hepatitis B and C in rural and periurban Sindh.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Sina; Khanani, Rafiq; Noorulain, Wajeeha; Rajper, Jamila

    2010-10-01

    To determine the frequency of HBV and HCV and identify risk factors for transmission of these viruses in rural and periurban Sindh. This is a descriptive/cross sectional study done between June 2007 to May 2008, in which screening and evaluation of risk factors for Hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) and HCV Antibody. (Anti-HCV) in two remote villages namely Taluka Tharo Shah and Jalbani, District Nausheroferoz (where investigators had to walk in the area to reach the population) and a subsection of Gharo District Thatta (periurban area) was done. Included were children of more than one year of age and all previously unscreened adults who were counseled and a written consent was obtained. All drug addicts by history were excluded. A structured information sheet regarding risk factors was filled and screening done by immunochromatography (ICT) kits. Of the 573 subjects enrolled who met the inclusion criteria, females were 52.5%. Mean age (years) of participants was 24.74 +/- 14.41. In two remote villages 7.0% were HBsAg positive and 28.6% were Anti HCV reactive, whereas in periurban area 3.1% were HBsAg reactive and 3.9% were Anti HCV positive. In the analysis of risk factors for transmission of infection, blood related factors especially for HCV like surgical, dental procedures and body piercing were main factors noted more in rural as compared to the periurban area. The frequency of HCV in our study is alarming and that of HBV also quite high which underline the need of mass HBV vaccination. Overall (in both urban and rural areas) immediate steps must be taken to reduce transmission of these viruses by limiting use of unsafe (unsterilized/reused) injections for therapeutic purposes), razor blades, body piercing equipment and proper sterilization of surgical, dental and circumcision equipment.

  5. Country watch: Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Toll, K; Agha, S

    1999-01-01

    In Pakistan, which has a high fertility rate, affordable prices of condoms and family planning services attract low-income residents. This was shown by the two projects: the condom distribution scheme and the family planning franchise. A condom social marketing (CSM) program started by Population Services International (PSI) increased contraceptive use in urban areas and sold low-priced condoms. However, in 1991 the price doubled in order to recover the costs, which resulted in a decline in sales. Thus, in 1995 PSI and Social Marketing Pakistan franchised the Green Star project that aimed to raise the quality of private sector family planning clinics serving low-income women and to increase the availability and use of female-controlled contraception. By 1996, the CSM project was selling over 80 million condoms annually.

  6. Pakistan: Frontline State Again?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-12-01

    leader Mohammed Ali Jinnah embarked on a new strategy against Indian Congress domination stating that Islam was in danger and the congress was...A. OUTLINE OF THE STUDY ............................. 4 II. A COLD W AR W ITHIN ...................................... 9 A. LEGACY OF PARTITION ...in the region, one absolute of Indo-Pak relations remains after the end of the cold war. Since the partition of India in 1947, Pakistan has been

  7. Palliative care in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khan, Robyna Irshad

    2017-01-01

    Pakistan is a developing country of South East Asia, with all the incumbent difficulties currently being faced by the region. Insufficient public healthcare facilities, poorly regulated private health sector, low budgetary allocation for health, improper priority setting while allocating limited resources, have resulted essentially in an absence of palliative care from the healthcare scene. Almost 90% of healthcare expenditure is out of the patient's pocket with more than 45% of population living below the poverty line. All these factors have a collective potential to translate into an end-of-life care disaster as a large percentage of population is suffering from chronic debilitating/terminal diseases. So far, such a disaster has not materialised, the reason being a family based culture emphasising the care of the sick and old at home, supported by religious teachings. This culture is not limited to Pakistan but subsists in the entire sub-continent, where looking after the sick/elderly at home is considered to be the duty of the younger generation. With effects of globalisation, more and more older people are living alone and an increasing need for palliative care is being realised. However, there does not seem to be any plan on the part of the public or private sectors to initiate palliative care services. This paper seeks to trace the social and cultural perspectives in Pakistan with regards to accessing palliative care in the context of healthcare facilities available.

  8. Health care provider knowledge and routine management of pre-eclampsia in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, Sana; Qureshi, Rahat Najam; Khowaja, Asif Raza; Salam, Rehana; Vidler, Marianne; Sawchuck, Diane; von Dadelszen, Peter; Zaidi, Shujat; Bhutta, Zulfiqar

    2016-09-30

    Maternal mortality ratio is 276 per 100,000 live births in Pakistan. Eclampsia is responsible for one in every ten maternal deaths despite the fact that management of this disease is inexpensive and has been available for decades. Many studies have shown that health care providers in low and middle-income countries have limited training to manage patients with eclampsia. Hence, we aimed to explore the knowledge of different cadres of health care providers regarding aetiology, diagnosis and treatment of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia and current management practices. We conducted a mixed method study in the districts of Hyderabad and Matiari in Sindh province, Pakistan. Focus group discussions and interviews were conducted with community health care providers, which included Lady Health Workers and their supervisors; traditional birth attendants and facility care providers. In total seven focus groups and 26 interviews were conducted. NVivo 10 was used for analysis and emerging themes and sub-themes were drawn. All participants were providing care for pregnant women for more than a decade except one traditional birth attendant and two doctors. The most common cause of pre-eclampsia mentioned by community health care providers was stress of daily life: the burden of care giving, physical workload, short birth spacing and financial constraints. All health care provider groups except traditional birth attendants correctly identified the signs, symptoms, and complications of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia and were referring such women to tertiary health facilities. Only doctors were aware that magnesium sulphate is recommended for eclampsia management and prevention; however, they expressed fears regarding its use at first and secondary level health facilities. This study found several gaps in knowledge regarding aetiology, diagnosis and treatment of pre-eclampsia among health care providers in Sindh. Findings suggest that lesser knowledge regarding management of pre

  9. Knowledge, attitude and perception regarding dengue fever among university students of interior Sindh.

    PubMed

    Bota, Rafaqat; Ahmed, Mushtaq; Jamali, Muhammad Salah; Aziz, Adnan

    2014-01-01

    Dengue is among the most common mosquito-borne viral diseases that affect humans. It has now become a major public health dilemma, annually affecting approximately 50-100 million people worldwide. This study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude and perception of dengue fever among university students of interior Sindh. A cross-sectional study was conducted during the period of April-June 2012. Four hundred and fifty students were surveyed. A structured pre-tested questionnaire was used to collect data. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 17. Overall, 94.6% of participants (43.3% male and 56.7% female, p-value 0.03) reported that they had heard about dengue, and 58.6% of participants reported "Aedes mosquito" as a vector of dengue virus, with gender difference (37.5% male vs 62.5% females with p-value <0.001). The Aedes mosquito is "A small dark mosquito having white stripes on its leg" was reported by 54.8% students. The Aedes mosquito breeds in "Stagnant clean water" was reported by 47.6% (male 40.2% vs female 59.8%, p-value 0.003) and usually bites at "Dusk" by 44.7% and at "Dawn" by 51%. Regarding symptoms of dengue fever, "Prolonged high fever" was reported by 52.6%, "Muscular pain" by 39.6% (p-value 0.009), "Bleeding" by 41.3% (p-value 0.001) and "Headache, nausea and vomiting" by 44.7% (p-value 0.001). Approximately half of the participants in our study were unable to correctly identify the Aedes mosquito as a transmission source (41.4%), its appearance (45.2%), its breeding place (52.4%) and its bite time (52.2%). The enhancement of knowledge through different educational programs is needed to increase awareness of dengue fever. Copyright © 2014 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia, Pakistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-05

    chance of denationalisation) Altaf Hussain and burn the crops of the Makhdoom was set up with the primary objective of slandering the Alam Anwar or for...even spoken of. On many occasions certain dacoits[Article by Shaikh Aziz: "Dacoity in Sindh" quotation have been "killed" more than once, as in the

  11. Risk Factors for Loss to Follow-Up among People Who Inject Drugs in a Risk Reduction Program at Karachi, Pakistan. A Case-Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Samo, Rab Nawaz; Agha, Ajmal; Shah, Sharaf Ali; Altaf, Arshad; Memon, Ashraf; Blevins, Meridith; Qian, Han-Zhu; Vermund, Sten H.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Retention of male people who inject drugs (PWIDs) is a major challenge for harm reduction programs that include sterile needle/syringe exchange in resource-limited settings like Pakistan. We assessed the risk factors for loss to follow-up among male PWIDs enrolled in a risk reduction program in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study among 636 HIV-uninfected male PWIDs enrolled during March-June 2009 in a harm reduction program for the estimation of incidence rate. At 24 months post-enrollment, clients who had dropped out of the program were defined as lost to follow-up and included as cases for case-cohort study. Results The median age of the participants was 29 years (interquartile range: 23–36). Active outreach accounted for 76% (483/636) of cohort recruits. Loss to follow-up at 24 months was 25.5% (162/636). In multivariable logistic regression, younger age (AOR: 0.97, 95% CI: 0.92–0.99, p = 0.028), clients from other provinces than Sindh (AOR: 1.49, 95% CI: 1.01–2.22, p = 0.046), having no formal education (AOR: 3.44, 95% CI: 2.35–4.90, p<0.001), a history of incarceration (AOR: 1.68, 95% CI: 1.14–2.46, p<0.008), and being homeless (AOR: 1.47, 95% CI: 1.00–2.19, p<0.049) were associated with loss to follow-up. Conclusions Our cohort retained 74.5% of male PWIDs in Karachi for 24 months. Its loss to follow up rate suggested substantial ongoing programmatic challenges. Programmatic enhancements are needed for the highest risk male PWIDs, i.e., younger men, men not from Sindh Province, men who are poorly educated, formerly incarcerated, and/or homeless. PMID:26840414

  12. Highest priority in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Adil, E

    1968-01-01

    Responding to the challenge posed by its population problem, Pakistan's national leadership gave the highest priority to family planning in its socioeconomic development plan. In Pakistan, as elsewhere in the world, the first family planning effort originated in the private sector. The Family Planning Association of Pakistan made a tentative beginning in popularizing family planning in the country. Some clinics were opened and some publicity and education were undertaken to emphasize the need for family limitation. It was recognized soon that the government needed to assume the primarily responsibility if family planning efforts were to be successful. For the 1st plan period, 1955-60, about $10 million was allocated by the central government in the social welfare sector for voluntary family planning. The level of support continued on the same basis during the 2nd plan, 1960-65, but has been raised 4-fold in the 1965-70 scheme of family planning. Pakistan's Family Planning Association continues to play vital collaborative roles in designing and pretesting of prototype publicity material, involvement of voluntary social workers, and functional research in the clinical and public relations fields. The real breakthrough in the program came with the 3rd 5-year plan, 1965-70. High priority assigned to family planning is reflected by the total initial budget of Rs.284 million (about $60,000,000) for the 5-year period. Current policy is postulated on 6 basic assumptions: family planning efforts need to be public relations-oriented; operations should be conducted through autonomous bodies with decentralized authority at all tiers down to the grassroots level, for expeditious decision making; monetary incentives play an important role; interpersonal motivation in terms of life experience of the clientele through various contacts, coupled with mass media for publicity, can produce a sociological breakthrough; supplies and services in all related disciplines should be

  13. Counterinsurgency in Pakistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    As one assessment noted, “[n]ot a single shop [in Spinkai] . . . is now intact. Even petrol stations and local factories have been razed to the...Director of Opera- tions, Nurith Berstein. She can be reached by email at Nurith_Ber stein@rand.org; by phone at 703-413-1100, extension 5469; or by...Pakistan supported numerous covert cells within Indian-administered Kashmir, sometimes using operatives based in the Pakistani embassy in New Delhi. In

  14. Psychiatry in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Yousaf, F

    1997-01-01

    Psychiatric services in Pakistan have undergone considerable changes since independence 50 years ago. There has been an increased awareness of psychiatric illness on both public and professional levels and great emphasis has been laid on the education and training of medical and related professions in recent years. Although old traditional methods still prevail, it is becoming increasingly common to seek professional psychiatric advice. Like any developing country, however, much remains to be done especially on a government level in order to meet the basic mental health needs of the nation.

  15. Pakistan RAPID III.

    PubMed

    Bhatti, M U

    1990-01-01

    The author describes the software called RAPID (Resources for the Awareness of Population Impact on Development), which was developed by the Futures Group, a U.S. company. The software is designed for IBM-PCs and compatibles, with a configuration that includes 640K RAM, a fixed disk drive, and DOS 2.0 or higher. The application in Pakistan of this software in an information, education, and communication program sponsored by the National Institute of Population Studies, including the translation of the software into Urdu, is briefly outlined.

  16. National Level Assessment of Mangrove Forest Cover in Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbas, S.; Qamer, F. M.; Hussain, N.; Saleem, R.; Nitin, K. T.

    2011-09-01

    Mangroves ecosystems consist of inter tidal flora and fauna found in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Mangroves forest is a collection of halophytic trees, shrubs, and other plants receiving inputs from regular tidal flushing and from freshwater streams and rivers. A global reduction of 25 % mangroves' area has been observed since 1980 and it is categorized as one of to the most threatened and vulnerable ecosystems of the world. Forest resources in Pakistan are being deteriorating both quantitatively and qualitatively due to anthropogenic activities, climatic v and loose institutional management. According to the FAO (2007), extent of forest cover of Pakistan in 2005 is 1,902,000 ha, which is 2.5% of its total land area. Annual change rate during 2000-2005 was -2.1% which is highest among all the countries in Asia. The Indus delta region contains the world's fifth-largest mangrove forest which provides a range of important ecosystem services, including coastal stabilisation, primary production and provision of nursery habitat for marine fish. Given their ecological importance in coastal settings, mangroves receive special attention in the assessment of conservation efforts and sustainable coastal developments. Coastline of Pakistan is 1050km long shared by the provinces, Sind (350km) and Baluchistan (700 km). The coastline, with typical arid subtropical climate, possesses five significant sites that are blessed with mangroves. In the Sindh province, mangroves are found in the Indus Delta and Sandspit. The Indus Delta is host to the most extensive mangroves areas and extends from Korangi Creek in the West to Sir Creek in the East, whereas Sandspit is a small locality in the West of Karachi city. In the Balochistan province, mangroves are located at three sites, Miani Hor, Kalmat Khor and Jiwani. Contemporary methods of Earth observation sciences are being incorporated as an integral part of environmental assessment related studies in coastal areas

  17. Continuum of care in maternal, newborn and child health in Pakistan: analysis of trends and determinants from 2006 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Sarosh; Maqsood, Sidra; Zakar, Rubeena; Zakar, Muhammad Zakria; Fischer, Florian

    2017-03-09

    Pakistan, being a developing country, presents the dismal picture of maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity. The majority of maternal and neonatal deaths could be avoided if Continuum of Care (CoC) is provided in a structured pathway from pregnancy to birth and to the first week of life of the newborn child. This study aimed to analyse the trends of CoC at all three levels (antenatal care, skilled delivery and postpartum care) and to identify various factors affecting the continuation in receiving CoC in Pakistan during 2006 to 2012. Secondary data analysis was performed on nationally representative data from the last two iterations of Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey (PDHS), conducted during 2006/07 to 2012/13. The analysis is limited to women of the reproductive age group (15-49 years) who gave birth during the last five years preceding both surveys. This leads to a sample size of 5,724 and 7,461 respondents from PDHS 2006/07 and 2012/13 respectively. The association between CoC and several factors, including individual attributes (reproductive status), family influences, community context, as well as cultural and social values was assessed in bivariate analyses in a first step. Furthermore, odds ratios and adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals using a binary and multivariable logistic regression were calculated. Our research presents the trends of a composite measure of CoC including antenatal care, delivery assistance and postpartum care. The largest gap in CoC was observed at antenatal care followed by delivery and postnatal care within 48 h after delivery. Results show that CoC completion rate has increased from 15% to 27% amongst women in Pakistan over time from 2006 to 2012. Women with high age at first birth, having less number of children, with higher education, belonging to richest quintile, living in Sindh province and urban areas, having high autonomy and exposure to mass media were most likely to avail complete CoC. The

  18. Khyber Pass, Afghanistan-Pakistan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-11-08

    The ASTER instrument onboard NASA Terra spacecraft imaged the Khyber Pass, a mountain pass that links Afghanistan and Pakistan. Throughout its history it has been an important trade route between Central Asia and South Asia.

  19. Pakistan-U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-24

    further tightening of monetary policy , but still come in above the central bank’s target. Spurred by an expansionary , pro-growth fiscal policy , the...of 157 countries. The index identified restrictive trade policies , a heavy fiscal burden, weak property ownership protections, and limited financial...democratization. Pakistan remains a vital U.S. ally in U.S.-led anti-terrorism efforts. Yet the outcomes of U.S. policies toward Pakistan since 9/11, while not

  20. Pakistan-U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-26

    seek future civil nuclear assistance from Beijing, including potential provision of complete power reactors, especially in light of Washington’s...nuclear proliferation to North Korea, Iran, and Libya may complicate future Pakistan-U.S. relations. Security International Terrorism. After the...an apparent arms race between India and Pakistan to be among the most likely potential causes of the future use of nuclear weapons by states. In May

  1. Pakistan-U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-06

    2008. 3 See http://islamabad.usembassy.gov/pr_03272008.html. 4 Talat Masood, “Managing Pakistan-U.S. Relations” (op-ed), Hindu ( Chennai ), June 25...Taleban Bring New Fear to Peshawar,” BBC News, November 13, 2008. Paramilitary commanders reported having secured most areas surrounding the city ...Pakistan.”40 34 “Pakistan’s Deal With the Devil,” Salon, July 8, 2008; “In City of

  2. Pakistan-U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-10

    and the ensuing enlistment of Pakistan as a key ally in U.S.- led counterterrorism efforts. Top U.S. officials have praised Pakistan for its ongoing...military rule for more than half of its existence. In 1999, the elected government was ousted in a coup led by Army Chief General Pervez Musharraf...Bhutto. However, February 2008 parliamentary elections were relatively credible and seated a coalition led by Bhutto’s widower, Asif Zardari, and

  3. Unusual sex differences in tuberculosis notifications across Pakistan and the role of environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Khan, M S; Khan, M S; Hasan, R; Godfrey-Faussett, P

    2013-09-01

    In developing countries, only one-third of new tuberculosis cases notified are from women. It is not clear whether tuberculosis incidence is lower in women than men, or whether notification figures reflect under-detection of tuberculosis in women. Pakistan, however, presents an unusual pattern of sex differences in tuberculosis notifications. While 2 of the 4 provinces (Sindh and Punjab) report more notifications from men (female to male ratios 0.81 and 0.89 respectively in 2009), the other 2 provinces (Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa and Balochistan) consistently report higher numbers of smear-positive tuberculosis notifications from women than men (1.37 and 1.40). No other country is known to have such a large variation in the sex ratios of notifications across regions. Large variations in female to male smear-positive notification ratios in different settings across a single country may indicate that environmental factors, rather than endogenous biological factors, are important in influencing the observed sex differences in tuberculosis notifications.

  4. Rural Women’s Experience of Living and Giving Birth in Relief Camps in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Maheen, Humaira; Hoban, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Background: Women are more vulnerable than men in the same natural disaster setting. Preexisting gender inequality, socio-cultural community dynamics and poverty puts women at significant risk of mortality. Pregnant women are particularly vulnerable because of their limited or no access to prenatal and obstetric care during any disaster or humanitarian emergency setting. Methods: In-depth interviews were conducted with 15 women who gave birth during the 2011 floods in Sindh Province, Pakistan. Thematic analysis explored women’s experiences of pregnancy and giving birth in natural disaster settings, the challenges they faced at this time and strategies they employed to cope with them.  Results: Women were not afforded any control over decisions about their health and safety during the floods. Decisions about the family’s relocation prior to and during the floods were made by male kin and women made no contribution to that decision making process. There were no skilled birth attendants, ambulances, birthing or breastfeeding stations and postnatal care for women in the relief camps. Women sought the assistance of the traditional birth attendants when they gave birth in unhygienic conditions in the camps. Conclusion: The absence of skilled birth attendants and a clean physical space for childbirth put women and their newborn infants at risk of mortality. A clean physical space or birthing station with essential obstetric supplies managed by skilled birth attendants or community health workers can significantly reduce the risks of maternal morbidity and mortality in crisis situations. PMID:28286699

  5. Comparative study of liver cancer patients in arsenic exposed and non-exposed areas of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Wadhwa, Sham Kumar; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Chandio, Akhtar Ali; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Kolachi, Nida Fatima; Khan, Sumaira; Kandhro, Ghulam Abbas; Nasreen, Syeda; Shah, Abdul Qadir; Baig, Jameel Ahmed

    2011-12-01

    The investigated data shows that arsenic (As) in drinking water is associated with increased mortality from different types of cancers including liver cancer. In this study, blood and scalp hair samples of male liver cancer patients and healthy referents belonging to As exposed areas of Sindh Pakistan were analyzed for As contents. The As levels in drinking water of understudy area showed that sections of this population was exposed to 3-15-folds higher concentrations of As than permissible limit. For comparative purposes, blood and scalp hair samples of matched cancerous patient as referent patients belonging to big city (Hyderabad) who have used municipal treated water with low As levels <10 μg/L were also collected. The results of this study showed that the average As concentration was higher in the blood and scalp hair of exposed and non-exposed referent cancer patients as compared to referents (p < 001). The exposed cancerous patients have twofolds higher As level in both biological samples as related to non-exposed case matched cancerous male subjects.

  6. Posttransplant malignancies in renal transplant recipients: 22-years experience from a single center in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Yunus, Mahira; Aziz, Tahir; Mubarak, Muhammed

    2012-01-01

    To study the incidence, types and distribution pattern of malignant tumors in renal transplant recipients at a single center in Pakistan. This retrospective study was conducted at Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation (SIUT) and included all transplant patients on regular follow-up from November 1986 to December 2008. The original biopsy reports and case files of all patients who developed posttransplant malignancies were reviewed and relevant demographic, clinical, radiological, and histopathological data were retrieved and analyzed. SPSS version 10.0 was used for statistical analysis. Over 22 years of study period, 1816 renal transplants were carried out at our center. Among these, 44 patients developed malignancies constituting an overall incidence rate of 2.4%. All patients in this study were males with a mean age of 34.9±9.5 years (range: 9 to 60 years). The most common type of malignancy was lymphoma (27 patients, 61.4%), followed by Kaposi's sarcoma (11 patients, 25%) and skin malignancies (3 patients, 6.8%). One case each of adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder, acute myeloid leukemia (AML), conjunctival carcinoma-in-situ and seminoma were also diagnosed. Posttransplant malignancies occurring in our renal transplant recipients show different incidence rates and patterns as compared with western studies.

  7. Customary Marriages in Rural Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Rehan, N; Qayyum, K

    2017-06-01

    Although the incidents of customary marriages are frequently reported in Pakistani press, yet no large scale community-based study has ever been conducted to gauge the magnitude of such marriages. The present study is the first-ever community based study on this topic. 4,385 ever-married women, aged 18-83 years, from six rural districts, were interviewed to enquire about the types of their marriages. The data was collected through interviews conducted by trained female interviewers and analysed through SPSS-20. Twelve percent marriages were the result of Vanni, Swara, Sang Chatti, Badal , Bazo i.e. to settle blood feuds; 58.7% were Watta-Satta / Pait Likhai i.e. exchange marriages and pledging a fetus; in 7.9% case bride was bought; 1.0% marriages were Badle-Sullah i.e to settle dispute other than murder and 0.1% women were married to Quran. The traditional marriages, where wishes of both families and consent of the couple to be married are also considered, constituted 20.3%. The prevalence of Vanni, Swara / Sang Chatti / Badal / Bazo was the highest in Balochistan (22-24%) followed by Sindh (5-17%) and the least in Punjab (0-4%). The other practices in Balochistan were selling the bride (10-17%), Badle-Sulah (3%) and marriage to Quran (1%). Watta Satta was most prevalent in Sindh (66-78%), where 3-13% brides were bought. In Punjab also Watta-Satta was common (44-47%), where 0.5-4% brides were bought and 0.3-3% marriages were Budle-Sullah. Since laws against these harmful customs exist but are not applied forcefully, there is a great need to create massive awareness against such customs.

  8. A Review of the Status of the Indian Ocean Humpback Dolphin (Sousa plumbea) in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Kiani, Muhammad Shoaib; Van Waerebeek, Koen

    2015-01-01

    Limited historical and new information on Indian Ocean humpback dolphins, Sousa plumbea, in Pakistan are reviewed. Although present along most of the coast, S. plumbea concentrates in the mangrove-lined creek system of the Indus Delta (Sindh), Miani Hor (Sonmiani Bay), Kalmat Lagoon, Gwadar and the Dasht River estuary (Gwater Bay, Jiwani). Other areas of distribution comprise the Karachi coast, Kund Malir, Ormara and Pasni. In the Indus Delta, 46 small-boat surveys conducted monthly (minus July and October) in 2005-2009, documented 112 sightings (439 individuals) in major creeks, smaller channels and nearshore waters. Group sizes ranged from 1-35 animals (mean=3.92±4.60). Groups of 1-10 animals composed 91% of total (27.9% single animals). An encounter rate of 0.07-0.17 dolphins km(-1) lacked a significant trend across survey years. A discovery curve remained steep after 87 dolphins were photo-identified, suggesting the population is vastly larger. In Sonmiani Bay, Balochistan, during 9 survey days in 2011-2012, group sizes ranged from 1-68 animals (mean=11.9±13.59; n=36), totalling 428 dolphins. Incidental entanglements, primarily in gillnets, pollution (especially around Karachi), overfishing and the ship breaking industry in Gaddani, pose major threats. Incidental catches occur along the entire Pakistani coast. Of 106 stranded cetaceans, 24.5% were S. plumbea. Directed takes in Balochistan, driven by demand for bait in shark fisheries, have reportedly declined following dwindling shark stocks. Habitat degradation threats include depletion of prey and increased maritime traffic. Domestic sewage and solid waste pollution are predominant on the Balochistan coast, especially at Miani Hor, Kund Malir, Ormara, Kalmat Lagoon, Pasni, Gwadar and Jiwani. An exhaustive habitat assessment combined with appropriate fishery management is the only way to safeguard the future of S. plumbea in Pakistan. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of foot and mouth vaccination for yak (Bos grunniens) in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Mortenson, J A; Khan, E H Haq; Ali, I; Manzoor, S; Jamil, A; Abubakar, M; Afzal, M; Hussain, M

    2017-04-01

    In northern Pakistan, many farming communities rely on domestic yak (Bos grunniens) as a principle source of income. A 2006 participatory disease surveillance report from this region indicated that foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is the most prevalent annual disease of yak. Our objectives of this study were to determine exposure levels of yak to FMD virus; implement a vaccination program based on current, regional FMD virus serotypes and subtypes; and quantify immune responses following vaccination. Blood samples were used to determine pre-vaccination exposure of animals to FMD virus by antibody presence to non-structural proteins of FMD virus using a 3-ABC trapping indirect ELISA. Vaccine used consisted of FMD serotypes 'O' (PanAsia-2), 'A' (Iran-05), and 'Asia-1' (Shamir), but changed later during the study to match newly circulating viruses in the country ('O'-PanAsia-2; 'A'-Turk-06 and Asia-1-Sindh-08). Three hundred sixty-three blood samples were tested from selected villages to determine pre-vaccination FMD virus exposure in yak with an average of 37.7%. Immune responses from initial vaccination and booster dose 30 days later showed clear protective levels (as mean percent inhibition) of antibodies against structural proteins of serotypes 'O,' 'A,' and 'Asia-1.' These responses remained above threshold positive level even at day 210 following initial vaccination. Results of sero-surveillance and anecdotal information of repeated FMD outbreaks demonstrate the persistence of FMD virus of yak in northern Pakistan. Laboratory results and field observations clearly indicated that yak can be protected against FMD with a good quality vaccine with FMD serotype(s) matching current, regionally circulating FMD virus.

  10. Molecular characterization of peste des petits ruminants viruses from outbreaks caused by unrestricted movements of small ruminants in pakistan.

    PubMed

    Munir, M; Saeed, A; Abubakar, M; Kanwal, S; Berg, M

    2015-02-01

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an endemic disease of small ruminants, and vaccination has been the method of control but outbreaks are continuously occurring in Pakistan. The following study presents a detailed investigation of an outbreak, suspected to be PPR, probably introduced by PPRV-infected sheep and goats from Sindh Province (north-west) to Punjab Province (central) of Pakistan during the flood relief campaign in 2011. A total of 70 serum samples from 28 different flocks were tested with competitive ELISA (H antibodies), which detected 24 (34.2%) samples positive for PPRV antibodies. Nasal swabs and faeces were tested with immunocapture ELISA (N antigen), which detected 18 (25.7%) samples positive for PPRV antigen. The RNA detected positive (n = 28, 40%) using real-time PCR was subjected to conventional PCR for the amplification of the fusion and nucleoprotein genes. Sequencing of both genes and subsequent phylogenetic analysis indicated the grouping of all the sequences to be in lineage IV along with other Asian isolates of PPRV. However, sequences of both genes were divided into two groups within lineage IV. One group of viruses clustered with previously characterized Pakistani isolates, whereas the other group was distinctly clustered with isolates from the Middle East or India. The sequence identity indicated the introduction of at least one population of PPRV from a different source and circulation in the local flocks of small ruminants, which emphasized the need to obtain health clearance certificate before movement of animals. The results of this study provide baseline data for the genetic characterization of different PPRV populations in Pakistan.

  11. Population genetics of Leishmania (Leishmania) major DNA isolated from cutaneous leishmaniasis patients in Pakistan based on multilocus microsatellite typing

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a major and fast increasing public health problem, both among the local Pakistani populations and the Afghan refugees in camps. Leishmania (Leishmania) major is one of the etiological agents responsible for CL in Pakistan. Genetic variability and population structure have been investigated for 66 DNA samples of L. (L.) major isolated from skin biopsy of CL patients. Methods Multilocus microsatellite typing (MLMT), employing 10 independent genetic markers specific to L. (L.) major, was used to investigate the genetic polymorphisms and population structures of Pakistani L. (L.) major DNA isolated from CL human cases. Their microsatellite profiles were compared to those of 130 previously typed strains of L. (L.) major from various geographical localities. Results All the markers were polymorphic and fifty-one MLMT profiles were recognized among the 66 L. (L.) major DNA samples. The data displayed significant microsatellite polymorphisms with rare allelic heterozygosities. A Bayesian model-based approach and phylogenetic analysis inferred two L. (L.) major populations in Pakistan. Thirty-four samples belonged to one population and the remaining 32 L. (L.) major samples grouped together into another population. The two Pakistani L. (L.) major populations formed separate clusters, which differ genetically from the populations of L. (L.) major from Central Asia, Iran, Middle East and Africa. Conclusions The considerable genetic variability of L. (L.) major might be related to the existence of different species of sand fly and/or rodent reservoir host in Sindh province, Pakistan. A comprehensive study of the epidemiology of CL including the situation or spreading of reservoirs and sand fly vectors in these foci is, therefore, warranted. PMID:25030377

  12. Genetic Characterization of Serotypes A and Asia-1 Foot-and-mouth Disease Viruses in Balochistan, Pakistan, in 2011.

    PubMed

    Ullah, A; Jamal, S M; Romey, A; Gorna, K; Kakar, M A; Abbas, F; Ahmad, J; Zientara, S; Bakkali Kassimi, L

    2017-10-01

    This study reports characterization of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) in samples collected from Balochistan, Pakistan. FMDV was detected by pan-FMDV real-time RT-PCR in 31 samples (epithelial and oral swabs) collected in 2011 from clinical suspect cases. Of these, 29 samples were serotyped by serotype-specific real-time RT-PCR assays and were confirmed by sequencing the VP1 coding region. Sixteen samples were found positive for serotype A and eight for serotype Asia-1, whereas five samples were found positive for both serotypes A and Asia-1. Two serotype A positive samples were found positive for two different strains of serotype A FMDV each. Phylogenetic analyses of serotype A FMDVs showed circulation of at least three different sublineages within the A-Iran05 lineage. These included two earlier reported sublineages, A-Iran05(HER)(-10) and A-Iran05(FAR)(-11) , and a new sublineage, designated here as A-Iran05(BAL)(-11) . This shows that viruses belonging to the A-Iran05 lineage are continuously evolving in the region. Viruses belonging to the A-Iran05(FAR)(-11) sublineage showed close identity with the viruses circulating in 2009 in Pakistan and Afghanistan. However, viruses belonging to the A-Iran05(HER)(-10) detected in Balochistan, Pakistan, showed close identity with the viruses circulating in Kyrgyzstan, Iran and Kazakhstan in 2011 and 2012, showing that viruses responsible for outbreak in these countries have a common origin. Serotype Asia-1 FMDVs reported in this study all belonged to the earlier reported Group-VII (Sindh-08), which is currently a dominant strain in the West Eurasian region. Detection of two different serotypes of FMDV or/and two different strains of the same serotype in one animal/sample shows complexity in occurrence of FMD in the region. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Association of household and community socioeconomic position and urbanicity with underweight and overweight among women in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Janjua, Naveed Zafar; Mahmood, Bushra; Bhatti, Junaid A; Khan, M Imran

    2015-01-01

    Similar to other developing countries, Pakistan is going through a rapid nutrition transition where shift from underweight to overweight and obesity is occurring. In this paper, we report on the relationship of household socioeconomic position (SEP), community SEP and urbanicity with under- and over-weight categories of BMI among Pakistani women. We analyzed data on 4,767 women ages 15-49 years enrolled in a nationally representative Pakistan Demographic Health Survey (PDHS) conducted in 2012-13 that employed a multistage, stratified cluster sampling design. We assessed the association of urbanicity, household and community SEP derived from household assets and utilities, with categories of body mass index (BMI) using multinomial regression analysis where normal weight (BMI 18.6-22.5) was the reference category. Thirteen percent of women were underweight (BMI <18.5), 15% pre-overweight (BMI: 22.6-24.9), 25% overweight (BMI: 25.0-29.9) and 14% were obese (BMI≥30). Pre-overweight, overweight and obesity among women increased across household wealth quintiles (HWQs) in a graded fashion whereas there was no significant difference in underweight by household wealth. Women in urban areas were more likely to be obese. There was a pronounced increase in adjusted odds ratios (aORs) for overweight/obesity across HWQs within urban areas compared to rural areas. There was a steeper gradient in aORs for obesity from 1st to 5th HWQs in high income communities compared to the middle- and low income communities. In community-level analyses, communities in urban areas were more likely to have higher levels of obesity while in rural areas, especially in Sindh, more communities were more likely to have a higher level of underweight. A shift to higher overweight and obesity than underweight in Pakistan is associated with high household and community wealth as well as living in urban areas. Clustering of obesity and underweight in distinct communities afford opportunity for tailored

  14. Survey report: Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Zheng, J

    1991-10-01

    Pakistan suffers an unsuccessful population policy, with a resultant annual population growth of greater than 3%. Cultural and religious objections to family planning (FP) are recognized as the major obstacles to reducing fertility. Accordingly, a 1990-91 demographic and health survey was conducted to elicit information or fertility, family planning, marriage patterns, breastfeeding, and child health for planners and policymakers. The survey was jointly funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development and the government of Pakistan, and interviewed 6,494 ever-married women aged 15-49. The average total fertility rate for the 6-year period prior to the survey was 5.5 lifetime births/woman, less than the figure of greater than 6 found in previous surveys. Increasing age at 1st marriage and a slightly higher level of contraceptive use may be causal factors for the observed decline. Decreased fertility notwithstanding, contraceptive prevalence is low compared to other developing countries in Asia. 1 out of 5 Pakistani women report ever having used contraceptives, and no single method has ever been used by more than 7% of married women. 7% use condoms, 5% the pill, 3% female sterilization, and 3 the IUD and injections, with male sterilization virtually nonexistent, and only limited knowledge of barrier methods. Contraceptive prevalence, including traditional methods, among married women was 12%, with higher coverage in cities, especially among educated women. 37% desire no additional children, and 18% wish to delay child birth for 2 years. Intervention strategy may include working to improve the status of women, fostering greater educational opportunities for women, changing traditional attitudes toward large families and son preference, providing sufficient FP services, and getting commitments for support and action from government and community leaders.

  15. Renal transplantation in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, S A H; Naqvi, S A A; Zafar, M N

    2002-01-01

    The economic indicators of Pakistan show that the GNP is dollar 70 billion and foreign exchange reserves stand at dollar 8.0 billion and foreign debt at more than dollar 36 billion. Against this backdrop, the government is unlikely to provide state-of-the-art facilities for management of end-stage organ failure. The unequal distribution of wealth leaves more than 40% below the poverty line. Economic solutions are based on temporary fixes where foreign aid and loans keeps the government machinery operational. Many of the basic health measures such as immunization are also foreign funded. Under such a scenario, local philanthropy has come to play a vital role. SIUT developed a model based on self-help--a model based on a community-government partnership, where the doctor plays the pivotal role and the beneficiary is the patient. SIUT acquired funds by developing a community-government partnership. The government fulfills about 40% of the total budget and the rest comes from the community as donations. The scheme has been extremely successful in providing free medical care and renal support to thousands of patients. It has been sustained over the past 15 years through complete transparency, public audit and accountability. These confidence-building means stimulate the community to come forward and donate money, equipment and medicines. The goal of transplantation is to provide organs to all with long-term survival of the graft. The emerging challenges to achieve this goal and efforts that can be made to increase and sustain transplant activity in Pakistan require a concerted effort on the part of the government, society and the medical profession.

  16. Pakistan’s Impact on Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    never loses CI • Baloch five insurgencies: 1948, 1958-59, 1962-63, 1973-77, and 2002+ (Talibanizing) • Suppressed 75 million Bengalis in 1970-71 with...1962-1963 sporadic infiltration • Pakistan: Lesson Learned : Local security • 1963-1973 Royal Peace with Pakistan • Afghanistan supports Pakistan

  17. Pakistan’s Search for Identity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1966-04-08

    50Ibid., pp. 378-379. 51-Gustav F. Papanek , Pakistan: The Development Miracle, p. 12. ->^Lord Birdwood, A Continent Decides, pp. 95-97. "Fazal Muqeem...pp. 269- 403. (DS35 K3 1963) 46. Papanek , Gustav F. Pakistan: The Development Miracle. Washington: Embassy of Pakistan, Information Division

  18. Associates of Neonatal, Infant and Child Mortality in the Islamic Republic of Pakistan: A Multilevel Analysis Using the 2012-2013 Demographic and Health Surveys.

    PubMed

    Helova, Anna; Hearld, Kristine R; Budhwani, Henna

    2017-02-01

    Objectives Pakistan is one of five nations contributing to half of the world's child mortality and holds under-five mortality rates which are nearly double global targets. Reasons for this shortfall include civil conflicts, political uncertainty, low education, poverty, rural-urban disparities, and limited health care access. The aim of this study was to explore associations between individual characteristics, community factors, and child mortality in Pakistan. Methods Data were derived from the 2012 to 2013 Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey, and included 7399 live births and 380 child deaths. Multivariate, multilevel logistic regression was used to model risk of neonatal, infant and under-five child deaths. Results Seventy-one percent of child deaths occurred during the neonatal period. Significant factors (p < 0.05) associated with lower odds of child mortality included adhering to recommended minimum of 24 months interpregnancy interval and higher household wealth. These were significant for neonatal (OR 0.448; 0.871), infancy (OR 0.465; 0.881), and under-five deaths (OR 0.465; 0.879). Employed mothers had higher odds of neonatal (OR 1.479), infant (OR 1.506), and child mortality (OR 1.459). Likewise, women living in consanguineous marriages had higher odds of infant (OR 1.454) and under-five deaths (OR 1.381). Children in Balochistan, Punjab, and Sindh, regions disproportionately poor, rural with low levels of education, were at highest risk of dying. Conclusions for Practice Findings may assist in designing targeted interventions, developing appropriate public health messaging, and implementing policies designed to lower child mortality. Focusing on lowering rates of maternal poverty, increasing opportunities for education, and improving access to health care could assist in reducing child mortality in Pakistan.

  19. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia, Pakistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-08-09

    arms sales to the area would amount erned by her geostrategic compulsions . Two mighty to yielding to the arrogance of Israel. Such a step would oceans...making units, there will be no buyers . The hanging in public, life imprisonment and confiscation of chairman of the Privatisation Commission, Lt. Gen...two-dozen kidnap- operating in Sindh are compulsive desperadoes. pings of Pakistani traders, businessmen and ordinary Even doctors owing to high

  20. Serious fungal infections in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Jabeen, K; Farooqi, J; Mirza, S; Denning, D; Zafar, A

    2017-02-04

    The true burden of fungal infection in Pakistan is unknown. High-risk populations for fungal infections [tuberculosis (TB), diabetes, chronic respiratory diseases, asthma, cancer, transplant and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection] are numerous. Here, we estimate the burden of fungal infections to highlight their public health significance. Whole and at-risk population estimates were obtained from the WHO (TB), BREATHE study (COPD), UNAIDS (HIV), GLOBOCAN (cancer) and Heartfile (diabetes). Published data from Pakistan reporting fungal infections rates in general and specific populations were reviewed and used when applicable. Estimates were made for the whole population or specific populations at risk, as previously described in the LIFE methodology. Of the 184,500,000 people in Pakistan, an estimated 3,280,549 (1.78%) are affected by a serious fungal infection, omitting all cutaneous infection, oral candidiasis and allergic fungal sinusitis, which we could not estimate. Compared with other countries, the rates of candidaemia (21/100,000) and mucormycosis (14/100,000) are estimated to be very high, and are based on data from India. Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis rates are estimated to be high (39/100,000) because of the high TB burden. Invasive aspergillosis was estimated to be around 5.9/100,000. Fungal keratitis is also problematic in Pakistan, with an estimated rate of 44/100,000. Pakistan probably has a high rate of certain life- or sight-threatening fungal infections.

  1. Pakistan-U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-11

    tightening of monetary policy , but still come in above the central bank’s target. Spurred by an expansionary , pro-growth fiscal policy , the budget...ranked it 89th out of 157 countries. The index identified restrictive trade policies , a heavy fiscal burden, weak property ownership protections, and...democratization. Pakistan remains a vital U.S. ally in U.S.-led anti-terrorism efforts. Yet the outcomes of U.S. policies toward Pakistan since 9/11, while

  2. The Merging of Two Dynasties—Identification of an African Cotton Leaf Curl Disease-Associated Begomovirus with Cotton in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Tahir, Muhammad Nouman; Amin, Imran; Briddon, Rob W.; Mansoor, Shahid

    2011-01-01

    Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) is a severe disease of cotton that occurs in Africa and Pakistan/northwestern India. The disease is caused by begomoviruses in association with specific betasatellites that differ between Africa and Asia. During survey of symptomatic cotton in Sindh (southern Pakistan) Cotton leaf curl Gezira virus (CLCuGV), the begomovirus associated with CLCuD in Africa, was identified. However, the cognate African betasatellite (Cotton leaf curl Gezira betasatellite) was not found. Instead, two Asian betasatellites, the CLCuD-associated Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMB) and Chilli leaf curl betasatellite (ChLCB) were identified. Inoculation of the experimental plant species Nicotiana benthamiana showed that CLCuGV was competent to maintain both CLCuMB and ChLCB. Interestingly, the enations typical of CLCuD were only induced by CLCuGV in the presence of CLCuMB. Also in infections involving both CLCuMB and ChLCB the enations typical of CLCuMB were less evident. This is the first time an African begomovirus has been identified on the Indian sub-continent, highlight the growing threat of begomoviruses and particularly the threat of CLCuD causing viruses to cotton cultivation in the rest of the world. PMID:21637815

  3. The merging of two dynasties--identification of an African cotton leaf curl disease-associated begomovirus with cotton in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Tahir, Muhammad Nouman; Amin, Imran; Briddon, Rob W; Mansoor, Shahid

    2011-01-01

    Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) is a severe disease of cotton that occurs in Africa and Pakistan/northwestern India. The disease is caused by begomoviruses in association with specific betasatellites that differ between Africa and Asia. During survey of symptomatic cotton in Sindh (southern Pakistan) Cotton leaf curl Gezira virus (CLCuGV), the begomovirus associated with CLCuD in Africa, was identified. However, the cognate African betasatellite (Cotton leaf curl Gezira betasatellite) was not found. Instead, two Asian betasatellites, the CLCuD-associated Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMB) and Chilli leaf curl betasatellite (ChLCB) were identified. Inoculation of the experimental plant species Nicotiana benthamiana showed that CLCuGV was competent to maintain both CLCuMB and ChLCB. Interestingly, the enations typical of CLCuD were only induced by CLCuGV in the presence of CLCuMB. Also in infections involving both CLCuMB and ChLCB the enations typical of CLCuMB were less evident. This is the first time an African begomovirus has been identified on the Indian sub-continent, highlight the growing threat of begomoviruses and particularly the threat of CLCuD causing viruses to cotton cultivation in the rest of the world.

  4. Traditional management of diabetes in Pakistan: Ethnobotanical investigation from Traditional Health Practitioners.

    PubMed

    Yaseen, Ghulam; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Zafar, Muhammad; Sultana, Shazia; Kayani, Sadaf; Cetto, Adolfo Andrade; Shaheen, Shabnum

    2015-11-04

    The uses of anti-diabetic plants are well anchored in the traditional health care system of Pakistan. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first ethno-botanical study about the uses of plants for the treatment of diabetes. The aim of the study is to record indigenous knowledge on anti-diabetic plants from Traditional Health Practitioners (THPs) and diabetic patients. In addition, it is aimed to ascertain and validate the traditional uses of anti-diabetic plants by citing pharmacological activities and phytochemical constitutes from previously published literature. The ethno-medicinal data was documented during 14 field surveys, each comprising of 10 days, from 3 regions of Pakistan (Islamabad, Khyber Pukhtoonkhwa and Deserts of Sindh). In total, 113 THPs and 44 diabetic patients were interviewed using open-ended and semi-structured questionnaires. Quantitative indices, including Relative Frequency of Citation percentage (RFC %) and Disease Consensus Index (DCI) were calculated. The documented data is authenticated by comparing with 28 published articles on ethno-botanical aspects and many pharmacological studies. In total, 120 plant species belonging to 50 families were reported. The ethno-botanical results indicated that Moraceae (11 species); herb (56 reports) is dominant life form; the leaves (56 reports) are the most used plant part and decoction (24%) is the preferred mode of preparation. The quantitative analysis shows that RFC% ranges from 14 to 42 and DCI varies from 0.15 to 0.74. By comparing to previous studies, 64 species are reported new in traditional treatment of DM; 40 species are new to pharmacological evidence and 3 species are new to phytochemical studies. This study recoded the significant indigenous knowledge about anti-diabetic plants among the THPs and diabetic patients in Pakistan. This type of ethno-botanical knowledge on traditional use of anti-diabetic plants is an important step in designing detailed pharmacological and clinical

  5. Molecular Epidemiology of Glanders, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Hornstra, Heidie; Pearson, Talima; Georgia, Shalamar; Liguori, Andrew; Dale, Julia; Price, Erin; O’Neill, Matthew; DeShazer, David; Muhammad, Ghulam; Saqib, Muhammad; Naureen, Abeera

    2009-01-01

    We collected epidemiologic and molecular data from Burkholderia mallei isolates from equines in Punjab, Pakistan from 1999 through 2007. We show that recent outbreaks are genetically distinct from available whole genome sequences and that these genotypes are persistent and ubiquitous in Punjab, probably due to human-mediated movement of equines. PMID:19961695

  6. Quality of antenatal care and household wealth as determinants of institutional delivery in Pakistan: Results of a cross-sectional household survey.

    PubMed

    Agha, Sohail; Williams, Emma

    2016-07-19

    Pakistan has a high burden of maternal and newborn mortality, which would be largely preventable through appropriate antenatal and delivery care. While the influence of socio-economic status on institutional delivery is well established in the literature, relatively little is known about the relationship between the quality of antenatal care and institutional delivery. A household survey of 4,000 currently married women who had given birth in the two years before the survey was conducted in Sindh province in 2013. The survey collected data on socio-economic and demographic variables, the quality of antenatal care provided during a woman's last pregnancy and whether she delivered at a health facility. Logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios and 95 % confidence intervals around independent variables for institutional delivery. In the multivariate analysis, a variable measuring quality of antenatal care showed the strongest association with institutional delivery. Moreover, there was a dose-response relationship between the number of elements of quality provided and the odds of institutional delivery: receiving one element of quality increased the odds of institutional delivery 1.7 times, receiving three elements increased the odds 3.8 times and receiving seven elements increased the odds 10.6 times. Household wealth had a statistically significant relationship with institutional delivery but the effect was weaker than that of quality of care. Urban-rural differentials in institutional delivery did not remain significant after adjusting for household wealth and education. The quality of antenatal care provided to a woman during her pregnancy is more strongly associated with institutional delivery than household wealth. Improving the quality of care at health facilities in Sindh should be the foremost priority. Improving the quality of antenatal care services is likely to contribute to rapid increases in skilled birth attendance and better health

  7. Satellite image maps of Pakistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1997-01-01

    Georeferenced Landsat satellite image maps of Pakistan are now being made available for purchase from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The first maps to be released are a series of Multi-Spectral Scanner (MSS) color image maps compiled from Landsat scenes taken before 1979. The Pakistan image maps were originally developed by USGS as an aid for geologic and general terrain mapping in support of the Coal Resource Exploration and Development Program in Pakistan (COALREAP). COALREAP, a cooperative program between the USGS, the United States Agency for International Development, and the Geological Survey of Pakistan, was in effect from 1985 through 1994. The Pakistan MSS image maps (bands 1, 2, and 4) are available as a full-country mosaic of 72 Landsat scenes at a scale of 1:2,000,000, and in 7 regional sheets covering various portions of the entire country at a scale of 1:500,000. The scenes used to compile the maps were selected from imagery available at the Eros Data Center (EDC), Sioux Falls, S. Dak. Where possible, preference was given to cloud-free and snow-free scenes that displayed similar stages of seasonal vegetation development. The data for the MSS scenes were resampled from the original 80-meter resolution to 50-meter picture elements (pixels) and digitally transformed to a geometrically corrected Lambert conformal conic projection. The cubic convolution algorithm was used during rotation and resampling. The 50-meter pixel size allows for such data to be imaged at a scale of 1:250,000 without degradation; for cost and convenience considerations, however, the maps were printed at 1:500,000 scale. The seven regional sheets have been named according to the main province or area covered. The 50-meter data were averaged to 150-meter pixels to generate the country image on a single sheet at 1:2,000,000 scale

  8. Spatial-temporal variations of vegetation and drought severity across Tharparkar, Pakistan, using remote sensing-derived indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Sami Ullah; Iqbal, Javed

    2016-07-01

    Tharparkar is an arid region in the southeastern province of Sindh, Pakistan, and experienced drought as a regular phenomenon in the past. The complex nature of drought and sparsely located network of met stations handicapped reliable spatial and temporal analysis of drought severity across Tharparkar. Freely available tropical rainfall measuring mission rainfall satellite data and moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) satellite data fulfilled this gap and were used to generate drought indices. Commonly used NDVI and NDVI anomalies pose problems when compared with standardized meteorological drought indices such as standardized precipitation index (SPI) and standardized precipitation and evapotranspiration index (SPEI) for drought characterization. This study compared standardized vegetation index (SVI) with traditionally used, i.e., SPI and SPEI, for modeling drought severity in the arid and fragile agro-ecosystem of Tharparkar. SVI significantly correlated with standardized meteorological drought indices (SPI and SPEI) and revealed vegetation dynamics under rainfall and temperature variations. Weighted overlay analysis in geographical information systems depicted an accurate onset of the 2014 drought. This study provides useful information for drought characterization that can be used for drought monitoring and early warning systems in data scarce, arid, and semiarid regions.

  9. Estimation and correlation of stress and cholesterol levels in college teachers and housewives of Hyderabad-Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Wattoo, Feroza Hamid; Memon, Muhammad Saleh; Memon, Allah Nawaz; Wattoo, Muhammad Hamid Sarwar; Tirmizi, Syed Ahmed; Iqbal, Javed

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate environmental, psychological and physiological stresses in college teachers and housewives, and to correlate with their serum total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol, and triglyceride levels. This cohort study was performed at the Institute of Biochemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan during 2003-2005. Eighty females from middle socioeconomic groups, college teachers (40) and housewives (40) aged between 25-45 years participated in this study and subjects were selected from Hyderabad and its adjoining areas. Environmental, psychological and physiological stress levels were measured with Likert scale. Total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and HDL cholesterol were measured by CHOD-PAP method and triglyceride levels were measured by GPO method. Housewives had high levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglyceride but low levels of HDL cholesterol were found in college teachers. Environmental, psychological and physiological stresses were significantly higher in housewives as compared to college teachers. Housewives were under more stress than college teachers. High levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglyceride but low levels of HDL cholesterol were found in housewives compared to college teachers.

  10. Suitable Site Selection of Small Dams Using Geo-Spatial Technique: a Case Study of Dadu Tehsil, Sindh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalil, Zahid

    2016-07-01

    Decision making about identifying suitable sites for any project by considering different parameters, is difficult. Using GIS and Multi-Criteria Analysis (MCA) can make it easy for those projects. This technology has proved to be an efficient and adequate in acquiring the desired information. In this study, GIS and MCA were employed to identify the suitable sites for small dams in Dadu Tehsil, Sindh. The GIS software is used to create all the spatial parameters for the analysis. The parameters that derived are slope, drainage density, rainfall, land use / land cover, soil groups, Curve Number (CN) and runoff index with a spatial resolution of 30m. The data used for deriving above layers include 30 meter resolution SRTM DEM, Landsat 8 imagery, and rainfall from National Centre of Environment Prediction (NCEP) and soil data from World Harmonized Soil Data (WHSD). Land use/Land cover map is derived from Landsat 8 using supervised classification. Slope, drainage network and watershed are delineated by terrain processing of DEM. The Soil Conservation Services (SCS) method is implemented to estimate the surface runoff from the rainfall. Prior to this, SCS-CN grid is developed by integrating the soil and land use/land cover raster. These layers with some technical and ecological constraints are assigned weights on the basis of suitability criteria. The pair wise comparison method, also known as Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) is took into account as MCA for assigning weights on each decision element. All the parameters and group of parameters are integrated using weighted overlay in GIS environment to produce suitable sites for the Dams. The resultant layer is then classified into four classes namely, best suitable, suitable, moderate and less suitable. This study reveals a contribution to decision making about suitable sites analysis for small dams using geo-spatial data with minimal amount of ground data. This suitability maps can be helpful for water resource

  11. Panel Analyzes Pakistan's Internal Water Concerns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-06-01

    Although transboundary water issues between Pakistan and neighboring countries may be exciting and interesting, Pakistan's real water and security nexus is at the local level, according to Daanish Mustafa, coauthor of a new report, "Understanding Pakistan's Water-Security Nexus." Mustafa, a reader in politics and environment at King's College, London, U.K., was a panelist at a 30 May forum in Washington, D. C., sponsored by the United States Institute of Peace, which published the report.

  12. Respiratory viruses associated with severe pneumonia in children under 2 years old in a rural community in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ali, Asad; Akhund, Tauseef; Warraich, Gohar Javed; Aziz, Fatima; Rahman, Najeeb; Umrani, Fayyaz Ahmed; Qureshi, Shahida; Petri, William A; Bhutta, Zulfiqar; Zaidi, Anita K M; Hughes, Molly A

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of respiratory viruses associated with severe pneumonia among children less than 2 years of age in the rural district of Matiari in Sindh, Pakistan. This study was a community-based prospective cohort active surveillance of infants enrolled at birth and followed for 2 years. Cases were identified using the World Health Organization's Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses' definition of severe pneumonia. Nasopharyngeal swabs were obtained for assessment by multiplex RT-PCR for eight viruses and their subtypes, including RSV, influenza virus, human metapneumovirus, enterovirus/rhinovirus, coronavirus, parainfluenza virus, adenovirus, and human bocavirus. Blood cultures were collected from febrile participants. A total of 817 newborns were enrolled and followed with fortnightly surveillance for 2 years, accounting for a total of 1,501 child-years of follow-up. Of the nasopharyngeal swabs collected, 77.8% (179/230) were positive for one or more of the above mentioned respiratory viruses. The incidence of laboratory confirmed viral-associated pneumonia was 11.9 per 100 child-years of follow-up. Enterovirus/rhinovirus was detected in 51.7% patients, followed by parainfluenza virus type III (8.3%), and RSV (5.7%). Of the uncontaminated blood cultures, 1.4% (5/356) were positive. Respiratory viruses are frequently detected during acute respiratory infection episodes in children under 2 years old in a rural community in Pakistan. However, causal association is yet to be established and the concomitant role of bacteria as a co-infection or super-infection needs further investigation. J. Med. Virol. 88:1882-1890, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Pre-harvest aflatoxins and Aspergillus flavus contamination in variable germplasms of red chillies from Kunri, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Akhund, Shaista; Akram, Abida; Hanif, Nafeesa Qudsia; Qureshi, Rahmatullah; Naz, Farah; Nayyar, Brian Gagosh

    2017-05-01

    Various cultivars of red chilli were collected from a small town named Kunri, located in the province Sindh, Pakistan. This town is a hub of red chilli production in Asia. A total of 69 samples belonging to 6 cultivars were obtained and analysed for the occurrence of aflatoxins and Aspergillus flavus, to explore the potential of resistant and susceptible germplasm. Aflatoxins were detected by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), while A. flavus was isolated and identified using agar plate, blotter paper, deep freezing and dilution techniques. Molecular characterization using internal transcribed spacer (ITS) 1/4 and A. flavus specific FL1-F/R primers confirmed the identity of A. flavus. The data revealed that 67 and 75% samples contaminated with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and with A. flavus, respectively. A highly susceptible chilli cultivar was 'Nagina', showing 78.8% frequency of total aflatoxins (1.2-600 μg/kg) and a mean of 87.7 μg/kg for AFB1 and 121.9 μg/kg for total aflatoxins. A. flavus was detected with 93% frequency and 2.14 × 10(4) colony forming units. In contrast, cultivars 'Kunri' and 'Drooping Type' were found to be resistant, with low levels of aflatoxins and fungal counts. The study was conducted for the first time to explore two potential cultivars that were less susceptible towards A. flavus and aflatoxin contamination. These cultivars could be preferably cultivated and thereby boost Pakistan's chilli production.

  14. Respiratory symptoms and illnesses among brick kiln workers: a cross sectional study from rural districts of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Shiraz; Nafees, Asaad Ahmed; Khetpal, Vikash; Jamali, Abid Ali; Arain, Abdul Manan; Yousuf, Akram

    2012-11-20

    Occupational risk factors are one of the major causes of respiratory illnesses and symptoms, and account for 13% of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and 11% of asthma worldwide. Majority of brick kilns in Pakistan use wood and coal for baking the bricks which makes the brick kiln workers susceptible to high exposure of air pollution. This study was designed to describe frequency of chronic respiratory symptoms and illnesses and study the association between these symptoms and different types of work. This was a questionnaire based cross sectional survey conducted among the brick kiln workers in Larkana and Dadu districts, Sindh, Pakistan. A total of 340 adult men were assessed using translated version of the American Thoracic Society Division of Lung Disease (ATS-DLD) questionnaire. Logistic regression analysis was done to determine the relationship between various socio-demographic and occupational factors (age, education, type of work, number of years at work, smoking status), and the respiratory symptoms and illnesses (chronic cough, chronic phlegm, wheeze, Chronic Bronchitis and asthma). Results of the study show that 22.4% workers had chronic cough while 21.2% reported chronic phlegm. 13.8% had two or more attacks of shortness of breath with wheezing. 17.1% workers were suffering from Chronic Bronchitis while 8.2% reported physician diagnosed asthma. Amongst the non-smoking workers 8.9% had Chronic Bronchitis. Multivariate analysis found that workers involved in brick baking were more likely to have Chronic Bronchitis (OR= 3.7, 95% CI 1.1-11.6, p=<0.05) and asthma (OR= 3.9, 95% CI 1.01-15.5, p=<0.05) compared to those involved in carriage and placement work. A high frequency of respiratory symptoms and illnesses was observed among brick kiln workers. Age, nature of work and smoking were strong predictors of developing these symptoms and illnesses.

  15. Respiratory symptoms and illnesses among brick kiln workers: a cross sectional study from rural districts of Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Occupational risk factors are one of the major causes of respiratory illnesses and symptoms, and account for 13% of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and 11% of asthma worldwide. Majority of brick kilns in Pakistan use wood and coal for baking the bricks which makes the brick kiln workers susceptible to high exposure of air pollution. This study was designed to describe frequency of chronic respiratory symptoms and illnesses and study the association between these symptoms and different types of work. Methods This was a questionnaire based cross sectional survey conducted among the brick kiln workers in Larkana and Dadu districts, Sindh, Pakistan. A total of 340 adult men were assessed using translated version of the American Thoracic Society Division of Lung Disease (ATS-DLD) questionnaire. Logistic regression analysis was done to determine the relationship between various socio-demographic and occupational factors (age, education, type of work, number of years at work, smoking status), and the respiratory symptoms and illnesses (chronic cough, chronic phlegm, wheeze, Chronic Bronchitis and asthma). Results Results of the study show that 22.4% workers had chronic cough while 21.2% reported chronic phlegm. 13.8% had two or more attacks of shortness of breath with wheezing. 17.1% workers were suffering from Chronic Bronchitis while 8.2% reported physician diagnosed asthma. Amongst the non-smoking workers 8.9% had Chronic Bronchitis. Multivariate analysis found that workers involved in brick baking were more likely to have Chronic Bronchitis (OR= 3.7, 95% CI 1.1-11.6, p=<0.05) and asthma (OR= 3.9, 95% CI 1.01-15.5, p=<0.05) compared to those involved in carriage and placement work. Conclusion A high frequency of respiratory symptoms and illnesses was observed among brick kiln workers. Age, nature of work and smoking were strong predictors of developing these symptoms and illnesses. PMID:23164428

  16. Impact of Social Franchising on Contraceptive Use When Complemented by Vouchers: A Quasi-Experimental Study in Rural Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Khurram Azmat, Syed; Tasneem Shaikh, Babar; Hameed, Waqas; Mustafa, Ghulam; Hussain, Wajahat; Asghar, Jamshaid; Ishaque, Muhammad; Ahmed, Aftab; Bilgrami, Mohsina

    2013-01-01

    Background Pakistan has had a low contraceptive prevalence rate for the last two decades; with preference for natural birth spacing methods and condoms. Family planning services offered by the public sector have never fulfilled the demand for contraception, particularly in rural areas. In the private sector, cost is a major constraint. In 2008, Marie Stopes Society – a local NGO started a social franchise programme along with a free voucher scheme to promote uptake of IUCDs amongst the poor. This paper evaluates the effectiveness of this approach, which is designed to increase modern long term contraceptive awareness and use in rural areas of Pakistan. Methodology We used a quasi-experimental study design with controls, selecting one intervention district and one control district from the Sindh and Punjab provinces. In each district, we chose a total of four service providers. A baseline survey was carried out among 4,992 married women of reproductive age (MWRA) in February 2009. Eighteen months after the start of intervention, an independent endline survey was conducted among 4,003 women. We used multilevel logistic regression for analysis using Stata 11. Results Social franchising used alongside free vouchers for long term contraceptive choices significantly increased the awareness of modern contraception. Awareness increased by 5% in the intervention district. Similarly, the ever use of modern contraceptive increased by 28.5%, and the overall contraceptive prevalence rate increased by 19.6%. A significant change (11.1%) was recorded in the uptake of IUCDs, which were being promoted with vouchers. Conclusion Family planning franchise model promotes awareness and uptake of contraceptives. Moreover, supplemented with vouchers, it may enhance the use of IUCDs, which have a significant cost attached. Our research also supports a multi-pronged approach- generating demand through counselling, overcoming financial constraints by offering vouchers, training

  17. PCR/RFLP-based analysis of genetically distinct Plasmodium vivax population of Pvmsp-3α and Pvmsp-3β genes in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shahid Niaz; Khan, Asif; Khan, Sanaullah; Ayaz, Sultan; Attaullah, Sobia; Khan, Jabbar; Khan, Muhammad Asim; Ali, Ijaz; Shah, Abdul Haleem

    2014-09-09

    Plasmodium vivax is one of the widespread human malarial parasites accounting for 75% of malaria epidemics. However, there is no baseline information about the status and nature of genetic variation of Plasmodium species circulating in various parts of Pakistan. The present study was aimed at observing the molecular epidemiology and genetic variation of Plasmodium vivax by analysing its merozoite surface protein-3α (msp-3α) and merozoite surface protein-3β (msp-3β) genes, by using suballele, species-specific, combined nested PCR/RFLP detection techniques. A total of 230 blood samples from suspected subjects tested slide positive for vivax malaria were collected from Punjab, Sindh, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, and Balochistan during the period May 2012 to December 2013. Combined nested PCR/RFLP technique was conducted using Pvmsp-3α and Pvmsp-3β genetic markers to detect extent of genetic variation in clinical isolates of P. vivax in the studied areas of Pakistan. By PCR, P. vivax, 202/230 (87.82%), was found to be widely distributed in the studied areas. PCR/RFLP analysis showed a high range of allelic variations for both msp-3α and msp-3β genetic markers of P. vivax, i.e., 21 alleles for msp-3α and 19 for msp-3β. Statistically a significant difference (p ≤ 0.05) was observed in the genetic diversity of the suballelic variants of msp-3α and msp-3β genes of P. vivax. It is concluded that P. vivax populations are highly polymorphic and diverse allelic variants of Pvmsp-3α and Pvmsp-3β are present in Pakistan.

  18. Food irradiation development in Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, I.

    The large scale trials were held to extend the storage life of potatoes, onions and dry fruits by gamma radiation. It was concluded that radiation preservation of potatoes and onions was much cheaper as compared to conventional methods. A dose of 1 kGy can control the insects in dry fruits and nuts. The consumers' acceptability and market testing performed during the last four years are also conducive to the commercialization of the technology in this country. The Government of Pakistan has accorded clearance for the irradiation of some food items like potatoes, onions, garlic and spices for human consumption. The Pakistan Radiation Services (PARAS), the commercial irradiator (200 Kci) at Lahore, has already started functioning in April, 1987. It is planned to start large scale sterilization of spices by gamma radiation in PARAS shortly.

  19. Pakistan-U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-04

    of monetary policy , but still come in above the central bank’s target. Spurred by an expansionary , pro-growth fiscal policy , the budget deficit will...index identified restrictive trade policies , a heavy fiscal burden, weak property ownership protections, and limited financial freedoms.155 Corruption is...Yet the outcomes of U.S. policies toward Pakistan since 9/11, while not devoid of meaningful successes, have seen a failure to neutralize anti-Western

  20. Pakistan-U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-23

    but still come in above the central bank’s target. Spurred by an expansionary , pro-growth fiscal policy , the budget deficit will widen slightly, as...Pakistan’s economy as being “mostly unfree” and ranked it 89th out of 157 countries. The index identified restrictive trade policies , a heavy fiscal ... policies toward Pakistan since 9/11, while not devoid of meaningful successes, have neither neutralized anti-Western militants and reduced religious

  1. Pakistan-U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-18

    Spurred by an expansionary , pro-growth fiscal policy , the budget deficit will widen slightly, as will the current account deficit. The medium-term...ranked it 89th out of 157 countries. The index identified restrictive trade policies , a heavy fiscal burden, weak property ownership protections, and...anti-terrorism efforts. Yet the outcomes of U.S. policies toward Pakistan since 9/11, while not devoid of meaningful successes, have neither

  2. Internal Security Threats to Pakistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    Niazi Qazi Hussain Ahmed Mln Fazlur Rehman Mln Sami-ul-Haq Allam Ahsan llali Zahir Armed Militias Apparently none Hizb-ul-Mujahiddin...special tribute to Bannett Jones, Christopher Jaffrelot, Rodney W. Jones, P.W. Singer, John M . Olin, Stephen Philip Cohen, Jessica Stern, Riffat... Hussain , Iftikhar H. Malik, Shahid Javed Burki, Moonis Ahmar, and Ishrat Husain. I am also thankful to the Pakistan Army for giving me an opportunity

  3. Pakistan-U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-25

    beyond the operational control of its nominal administrators. Yet many informed observers conclude that the ISI, while sometimes willing to “push the...on Pakistani- controlled territory. With indications that terrorism on Indian soil beyond the Jammu and Kashmir state may have been linked to Pakistan...international guidelines; establishment of a modern, effective systems to control the export of sensitive dual-use items related to WMD; and the conduct of

  4. China-Pakistan Economic Corridor.

    SciTech Connect

    Boyce, Tucker

    2017-01-01

    International trade and related economic activities in Central and South Asia are increasing as developing economies, particularly India and Pakistan, grow. China continues to emerge as a major regional and global power and has embarked upon numerous regional economic and political initiatives . A major development is the China - Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC), a host of infrastructure and trade projects worth over 40 billion American dollars . This report analyzes CPEC a nd its potential regional effects, including the trade security implications of the port and land infrastructure developments . As trade increase s in the reg ion and the major CPEC infrastructure projects are completed, there will be numerous implications on trade security and geopolitics within South Asia. CPEC projects uniquely intersect numerous regional situations, including territorial disputes in Kashmir, the Afghanistan/Pakistan border, and Chinese foreign policy a mbitions. A nuanced understanding of these effects can influence future policy adjustments in this region . The views expressed in this report are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the position of Sandia National Laboratories or the author's current and past institutions.

  5. Somatoform disorders: perspectives from Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Minhas, Fareed A; Nizami, Asad Tamizuddin

    2006-02-01

    Somatoform disorders represent widespread and largely unsolved problems at the border between psychiatry and medicine. Patients with somatoform disorders often present difficult diagnostic and management problems. A series of three community-based epidemiological surveys of rural and urban populations in Pakistan found high prevalence of common mental disorders where the core presentations were somatic complaints. All the three epidemiological surveys used the Bradford Somatic Inventory (BSI), which was developed from symptom reports by psychiatric patients in Pakistan; these enquired about somatic symptoms in the local language, taking into account local cultural idioms of distress. At a conservative estimate, 66% of women and 25% men suffered from anxiety and depressive disorders whereby the complaints predominantly were somatic in nature. People in rural non-Western cultures are not psychologically minded and do not have abstract language or concepts of emotional distress and therefore communicate their emotions somatically. In Pakistan somatoform disorders possess a prominent diagnostic dilemma. The cornerstone of the management is a comprehensive medical, psychiatric and psychosocial evaluation of the patient. Patients with multiple somatic complaints not only present formidable management problems but also often have severe functional impairments that may outweigh those of patients with other so-called severe mental illnesses. Since somatoform disorders are the most common psychiatric disorders to present in non-psychiatric settings, it is important that training about them begin at undergraduate level. It should also be incorporated in the training of a wide variety of non-psychiatric specialists, both medical and non-medical.

  6. Gender differentials in the cost of primary education: a study of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Z H

    1996-01-01

    This study examined differences in the costs of primary education for boys versus girls in provinces in Pakistan. Data were obtained from the Federal and Provincial Annual Development Plans. Enrollment during 1973-91 increased faster for girls than for boys, but the number of teachers and schools for girls was much lower than the optimum. There were too many schools for boys. Provincial governments may allocate funds for primary education on the basis of intersectoral priorities rather than as a production function of enrollments. The real growth in expenditures per year has been rising at a rate of 8.1% annually. Expenditures adjusted to real terms and deflated by the construction sector rose by 8.8% annually. The author estimates enrollment and output costs of primary schools per student in 1990-91 prices during 1973-91 by province and gender. Costs varied by province and gender. In Balochistan, relative costs did not change over time, but were higher due to construction costs. Pooled time series data were used to determine average cost function for the primary education of girls and boys. For all provinces, average costs declined initially and then rose with an increase in the ratio of schools to school-age population. In the determination of costs of teachers per school, costs rose initially, declined up to a certain level, and then rose again. The optimum number of schools/1000 students, in Punjab and Sindh, was 6.02 for girls and 5.67 for boys. For NWFP and Balochistan, the optimum number of schools was 3.88 for boys and 0.27 for girls, which is unrealistic. Funds for development need to be shifted to recurring expenditures to employ teachers.

  7. Clinical manifestations and treatment outcomes in HIV-1-infected children receiving antiretroviral therapy in Karachi, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Mir, Fatima; Qamar, Farah Naz; Baig-Ansari, Naila; Abro, Azra Ghayas; Abbas, Syed Qamar; Kazi, Mohammed Ahmed; Rizvi, Arjumand; Zaidi, Anita Kaniz Mehdi

    2014-04-15

    The impact of antiretroviral (ARV) therapy on immunological and growth parameters in HIV-positive children in Pakistan has not been reported to date. A retrospective chart review of children diagnosed with HIV at the Sindh AIDS Control Proigramme (SACP) and registered at the Aga Khan University, Karachi, between January 2005 and 2013 was conducted, evaluating clinical and laboratory profiles of HIV+ ARV+ children for ARV impact (serial height and weight CD4 and viral counts). Twenty-four children were diagnosed and registered as HIV positive over five years, and 20 were started on ARV. Six were excluded from analysis (ARV duration < 6 months). Nine (64.3%) of 14 fulfilled WHO criteria for treatment failure at a median duration of 25 weeks (IQR 18-32) on ARV and underwent resistance genotyping. All nine had NNRTI resistance, two had high-grade NRTI resistance (≥ 4 thymidine analog mutations). Median age at start of ARV was 71.5 weeks (IQR 37.5-119). Median baseline weight for age (WAZ) and height for age (HAZ) z-scores changed from -1.94 to 1.69 and -1.99 to -1.59, respectively, after six months of therapy. Median CD4 percentage and viral load at baseline changed from 13.8 to 17.8, while viral load changed from 285 × 104 copies to zero at six months. ARV improved absolute CD4 and viral counts. Weight and height did not  improve significantly, highlighting the need for aggressive nutritional rehabilitation. Early development of ARV resistance in these children requires formal assessment.

  8. India and Pakistan Civil-Military Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-21

    culturally similar militaries and both countries faced tremendous stresses during their independence. However, in Pakistan the military became involved...and Pakistan. Both countries achieved their independence from Great Britain. They had culturally similar militaries and both countries faced tremendous...countries had culturally similar militaries, and both countries faced tremendous stresses during their early years after independence. However, in

  9. Militancy in Pakistan: Rebottling the Genie

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    Pakistan. Pakistan is very different today from what was envisioned by its founding father, Quaid-e- Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah.1 A culture of ruling...running the country affairs in accordance to Quran and Sunnah of prophet. 32 Ibid., 517. 33 Jacob N . Shapiro and C. Christine Fair

  10. Staff Development Needs in Pakistan Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullah, Muhammad Hameed; Khan, Muhammad Naeem Ullah; Murtaza, Ali; Ud Din, Muhammad Naseer

    2011-01-01

    Staff development is very significant for the achievement of overall goals of higher education in Pakistan. The success of innovations depends largely upon the skills of instructors; but in Pakistan, the people with a simple masters degree (without any pedagogical training) are inducted as teaching staff at the university level, so it is time to…

  11. Higher Education and Women's Empowerment in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malik, Samina; Courtney, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    This paper summarises the findings of a 2005 doctoral study by Malik which explored to what extent participation in higher education offers empowerment to women in Pakistan. A survey instrument was used to question female faculty members and female students from 10 public universities in Pakistan; 1290 students and 290 faculty members responded.…

  12. Female Suicide Rates in Ghizer, Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Murad M.; Ahmed, Aziz; Khan, Sultan R.

    2009-01-01

    Suicide is an understudied subject in Pakistan. There are many social, legal, and religious sanctions against it. National rates of suicides are not known. We calculated suicide rates of women in the Ghizer District of the remote Northern Areas of Pakistan. During years 2000 to 2004, 49 women committed suicide. Taking average mean population for…

  13. A Review of Pakistan School System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farooq, Muhammad Sabil; Kai, Yuan Tong

    2017-01-01

    It is mandated in the Constitution of Pakistan to enhance adult literacy and quality education at primary level through provide free and compulsory education to all children between the ages of 5-16 years. The year 2015 was the deadline for the participants of Dakar declaration [Education for All (EFA) commitment] including Pakistan but they fail…

  14. Anatomy Education Faces Challenges in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Memon, Ismail K.

    2009-01-01

    Anatomy education in Pakistan is facing many of the same challenges as in other parts of the world. Roughly, a decade ago, all medical and dental colleges in Pakistan emphasized anatomy as a core basic discipline within a traditional medical science curriculum. Now institutions are adopting problem based learning (PBL) teaching philosophies, and…

  15. English-Teaching Institutions in Pakistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahman, Tariq

    2001-01-01

    Discusses English medium teaching in Pakistan and suggests that at the moment it is an elitist preserve and a stumbling block for Pakistanis not taught through English. Indicates that exposing other students to English could counteract growing cultural and religious intolerance in Pakistan. (Author/VWL)

  16. Pakistan's Education Crisis: The Real Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naviwala, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Pakistan suffers from an extensive education crisis. Millions of Pakistani children do not attend school, and those that do must deal with absent teachers and poor learning environments, among other challenges. While this crisis is frequently discussed in Pakistan and beyond, it is often misunderstood. This new Wilson Center report, based on…

  17. Staff Development Needs in Pakistan Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullah, Muhammad Hameed; Khan, Muhammad Naeem Ullah; Murtaza, Ali; Ud Din, Muhammad Naseer

    2011-01-01

    Staff development is very significant for the achievement of overall goals of higher education in Pakistan. The success of innovations depends largely upon the skills of instructors; but in Pakistan, the people with a simple masters degree (without any pedagogical training) are inducted as teaching staff at the university level, so it is time to…

  18. Female Suicide Rates in Ghizer, Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Murad M.; Ahmed, Aziz; Khan, Sultan R.

    2009-01-01

    Suicide is an understudied subject in Pakistan. There are many social, legal, and religious sanctions against it. National rates of suicides are not known. We calculated suicide rates of women in the Ghizer District of the remote Northern Areas of Pakistan. During years 2000 to 2004, 49 women committed suicide. Taking average mean population for…

  19. Anatomy Education Faces Challenges in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Memon, Ismail K.

    2009-01-01

    Anatomy education in Pakistan is facing many of the same challenges as in other parts of the world. Roughly, a decade ago, all medical and dental colleges in Pakistan emphasized anatomy as a core basic discipline within a traditional medical science curriculum. Now institutions are adopting problem based learning (PBL) teaching philosophies, and…

  20. Higher Education and Women's Empowerment in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malik, Samina; Courtney, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    This paper summarises the findings of a 2005 doctoral study by Malik which explored to what extent participation in higher education offers empowerment to women in Pakistan. A survey instrument was used to question female faculty members and female students from 10 public universities in Pakistan; 1290 students and 290 faculty members responded.…

  1. Potential for task-sharing to Lady Health Workers for identification and emergency management of pre-eclampsia at community level in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Salam, Rehana A; Qureshi, Rahat Najam; Sheikh, Sana; Khowaja, Asif Raza; Sawchuck, Diane; Vidler, Marianne; von Dadelszen, Peter; Zaidi, Shujaat; Bhutta, Zulfiqar

    2016-09-30

    An estimated 276 Pakistani women die for every 100,000 live births; with eclampsia accounting for about 10 % of these deaths. Community health workers contribute to the existing health system in Pakistan under the banner of the Lady Health Worker (LHW) Programme and are responsible to provide a comprehensive package of antenatal services. However, there is a need to increase focus on early identification and prompt diagnosis of pre-eclampsia in community settings, since women with mild pre-eclampsia often present without symptoms. This study aims to explore the potential for task-sharing to LHWs for the community-level management of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia in Pakistan. A qualitative exploratory study was undertaken February-July 2012 in two districts, Hyderabad and Matiari, in the southern province of Sindh, Pakistan. Altogether 33 focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted and the LHW curriculum and training materials were also reviewed. The data was audio-recorded, then transcribed verbatim for thematic analysis using QSR NVivo-version10. Findings from the review of the LHW curriculum and training program describe that in the existing community delivery system, LHWs are responsible for identification of pregnant women, screening women for danger signs and referrals for antenatal care. They are the first point of contact for women in pregnancy and provide nutritional counselling along with distribution of iron and folic acid supplements. Findings from FGDs suggest that LHWs do not carry a blood pressure device or antihypertensive medications; they refer to the nearest public facility in the event of a pregnancy complication. Currently, they provide tetanus toxoid in pregnancy. The health advice provided by lady health workers is highly valued and accepted by pregnant women and their families. Many Supervisors of LHWs recognized the need for increased training regarding pre-eclampsia and eclampsia, with a focus on identifying women at high risk. The entire

  2. Vouchers in Fragile States: Reducing Barriers to Long-Acting Reversible Contraception in Yemen and Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Boddam-Whetham, Luke; Gul, Xaher; Al-Kobati, Eman; Gorter, Anna C

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In conflict-affected states, vouchers have reduced barriers to reproductive health services and have enabled health programs to use targeted subsidies to increase uptake of specific health services. Vouchers can also be used to channel funds to public- and private-service providers and improve service quality. The Yamaan Foundation for Health and Social Development in Yemen and the Marie Stopes Society (MSS) in Pakistan—both working with Options Consultancy Services—have developed voucher programs that subsidize voluntary access to long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs) and permanent methods (PMs) of family planning in their respective fragile countries. The programs focus on LARCs and PMs because these methods are particularly difficult for poor women to access due to their cost and to provider biases against offering them. Using estimates of expected voluntary uptake of LARCs and PMs for 2014 based on contraceptive prevalence rates, and comparing these with uptake of LARCs and PMs through the voucher programs, we show the substantial increase in service utilization that vouchers can enable by contributing to an expanded method choice. In the governorate of Lahj, Yemen, vouchers for family planning led to an estimated 38% increase in 2014 over the expected use of LARCs and PMs (720 vs. 521 expected). We applied the same approach in 13 districts of Punjab, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK), and Sindh provinces in Pakistan. Our calculations suggest that vouchers enabled 10 times more women than expected to choose LARCs and PMs in 2014 in those areas of Pakistan (73,639 vs. 6,455 expected). Voucher programs can promote and maintain access to family planning services where existing health systems are hampered. Vouchers are a flexible financing approach that enable expansion of contraceptive choice and the inclusion of the private sector in service delivery to the poor. They can keep financial resources flowing where the public sector is prevented from

  3. Frequency distribution of hepatitis C virus genotypes in different geographical regions of Pakistan and their possible routes of transmission.

    PubMed

    Idrees, Muhammad; Riazuddin, Sheikh

    2008-05-23

    Information regarding hepatitis C virus genotypes and subtypes circulating in Pakistan and various risk factors for their transmission are not known well. The specific objective of this study was to find out the frequency of various HCV genotypes present in well-characterized Pakistani HCV isolates and their possible routes of transmission. A total of 3351 serum samples were tested by type-specific genotyping assay. Out of 3351 HCV RNA positive patients, 2039 were males and 1312 were females. As regard as genotyped samples, 2165 belonged to Punjab region, 823 belonged to N.W.F.P., 239 to Sindh and 124 patients were from Balochistan. Out of the total 3351 tested serum samples, type-specific PCR fragments were observed in 3150 (94.00%) serum samples. The distribution of genotypes of the typeable samples as determined by this assay, was as follows: 1664 (49.05%) genotype 3a; 592 (17.66%) genotype 3b; 280 (8.35%) genotype 1a; 252 (7.52%) genotype 2a; 101 (3.01%) genotype 1b; 50 (1.49%) with genotype 4; 25 (0.75%) with 3c; 27 (0.80%) genotype 2b; 6 (0.18%) with subtype 5a; 5 (0.15%) genotype 1c; 4 (0.12%) with subtype 6a; 3 (0.09%) genotype 2c; and 161 (4.80%) patients were infected with mixed infection. Two hundred and one (5.99%) serum samples were found untypeable by the present genotyping system. More than 86% and 72% patients with genotypes 3a and 3b respectively had received multiple injections in past. For genotypes 1a and 1b the route of transmission was major/minor surgery along with unknown reasons. Majority of the cases with type 2a, 2b and indeterminate genotypes were sporadic. Mixed infections were common in thalassaemic patients. The most common HCV genotype in Pakistan is type 3a. Regional difference in genotypes was observed only in Balochistan province of Pakistan. More than 70% of the cases were acquired in hospitals through reuse of needles/syringes and major/minor surgery that is very common in this country.

  4. NASA's IMERG Measures Flooding Rainfall in Pakistan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    NASA used satellite data and added up heavy rainfall that has been occurring in northwestern Pakistan that caused flooding that killed more than 50 people. NASA's IMERG added up rainfall in northwe...

  5. Population and population policy in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Mauldin, W P

    1963-02-01

    Pakistan is a divided country with different religious groups represented. Since independence in 1941, the Muslim population has increased more rapidly than the Hindu population, the West Pakistan population more rapidly and steadily than the East Pakistan population. In the late 1950s the Pakistan government initiated a family planning program. The program has trained medical and paramedical personnel in family planning, added family planning services to existing medical centers, planned for a National Research Institute of Family Planning, employed mobile units to reach outlying areas, conducted limited clinical studies on some contraceptives, and used mass media advertising. Only India and Japan are doing more with government-sponsored family planning. A weak organizational structure and an inadequate number of trained personnel are the main weakness of the program. It is too early to assess the success of the program. A 10-point reduction in annual birth rates will be considered successful.

  6. NASA AIRS Detects Extent of Pakistan Flooding

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-08-19

    This image from NASA Aqua spacecraft shows how surface emissivity -- how efficiently Earth surface radiates heat -- changed in several regions of Pakistan over a 32-day period between July 11 pre-flood and August 12 post-flood.

  7. Damselflies (Zygoptera: Odonata) of Pakistan: Part 1

    PubMed Central

    Zia, Ahmed; Naeem, Muhammad; Rafi, Muhammad Ather; Naz, Falak; Afsheen, Sumera; Ilyas, Muhammad

    2011-01-01

    The present study is an effort to document bio-geographical distribution for Zygoptera of Pakistan. Damselflies were collected throughout the country and territory of Azad Jammu and Kashmir during 2004–2009. A total of 2692 specimens were collected yielding 9 families, 21 genera, and 48 species and subspecies. Three of these species, Libellago lineata lineata (Burmeister), Elattoneura atkinsoni (Selys), and Elattoneura souteri (Fraser), are recorded for the first time from Pakistan. Distribution, habitats, previous records, and Zoogeographic affiliation for all collected taxa are discussed. Help was also taken from published literature on Zygoptera of Pakistan, and specimens housed at National Insect Museum were also studied. In total, 53 species are accounted for providing an updated record for all modern taxa of damselfly fauna of Pakistan. PMID:22221175

  8. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia: Pakistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-15

    to "hear no evil", "see no evil" and "speak no Factories boss Maj. Gen. Mahmood Ali Durrani, an evil" are secretly decided in advance by mutual...nuclear technology, especially to the Middle East..." [Text] Whether the recent meeting between Pakistan’s Federal Minister, Chaudhry Nisar Ali , who...Nisar Ali , On his part, gave Mr Warren Christopher every obtain Russian cyrogenic [as published] rocket engines assurance that Pakistan was opposed

  9. Long term changes of tropospheric Nitrogen Dioxide over Pakistan derived from Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) during the time period of October 2004 to December 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murtaza, Rabbia; Fahim Khokhar, Muhammad

    2016-07-01

    Urban air pollution is causing huge number of diseases and deaths annually. Nitrogen dioxide is an important component of urban air pollution and a precursor to particulate matter, ground level ozone, and acid rain. The satellite based measurements of nitrogen dioxide from Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) can help in analyzing spatio temporal variability in ground level concentrations within a large urban area. In this study, the spatial and temporal distributions of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide Vertical Column Densities (VCDs) over Pakistan are presented from 2004 to 2014. The results showed that the winter season is having high nitrogen dioxide levels as compared to summers. The increase can be attributed to the anthropogenic activities especially thermal power generation and traffic count. Punjab is one of the major provinces with high nitrogen dioxide levels followed by Sindh, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Balochistan. Six hotspots have been examined in the present study such as Lahore, Islamabad, Karachi, Faisalabad, Okara and Multan. Emissions of nitrogen compounds from thermal power plants and transportation sector represent a significant fraction of the total nitrogen dioxide emissions to the atmosphere.

  10. Pulmonary Tuberculosis Is Associated With Biomass Fuel Use Among Rural Women in Pakistan: An Age- and Residence-Matched Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Rabbani, Unaib; Sahito, Ambreen; Nafees, Asaad Ahmed; Kazi, Ambreen; Fatmi, Zafar

    2017-04-01

    Facility-based, age- and residential area-matched case-control study was conducted in Sindh, Pakistan to determine association between biomass fuel use for cooking and pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). Cases were women with pulmonary TB, and controls were those suffering from other diseases. Current users of biomass fuel were at higher risk of pulmonary TB (adjusted matched odds ratio [mOR] = 3.0; 95% CI = 1.1-4.9) compared with nonusers. In comparison with former biomass users (women not using biomass for >10 years), recent biomass users (women who switched from biomass to nonbiomass ≤10 years ago), and current (lifetime) users were at a higher risk in a dose-response manner (adjusted mOR = 2.8, 95% CI = 0.9-8.2 and adjusted mOR = 3.9, 95% CI = 1.4-10.7, respectively). Population attributable fraction for TB related to biomass fuel use was 40.6% (95% CI = 35.5%-45.7%). This study strengthens the evidence that biomass fuel use for cooking is associated with pulmonary TB and risk increases with duration of exposure.

  11. Seroprevalence of Anti-polio Antibodies in Children From Polio High-risk Areas of Pakistan: A Cross-Sectional Survey 2015-2016.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Imtiaz; Mach, Ondrej; Habib, Atif; Bhatti, Zaid; Suhag, Zamir; Oberste, M Steven; Weldon, William C; Sutter, Roland W; Soofi, Sajid B; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2017-09-01

    Pakistan is one of the 3 remaining wild poliovirus endemic countries. We collected sera from children to assess the prevalence of poliovirus antibodies in selected high-risk areas for poliovirus transmission. Children in 2 age groups (6-11 and 36-48 months) were randomly selected between November 2015 and March 2016 in 6 areas of Pakistan (Sindh Province: Karachi and Kashmore; Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province: Peshawar, Bannu and Nowshera; Punjab Province: Faisalabad). After obtaining informed consent, basic demographic and vaccination history data were collected, 1 peripheral venipuncture was obtained, and assays to detect poliovirus (PV)-neutralizing antibodies were performed. A total of 1301 children were enrolled and had peripheral blood drawn that analyzed. Study subjects were evenly distributed among survey sites and age groups. Anti-polio seroprevalence differed significantly among geographic areas (P < 0.001); in the 6-11 months group, it ranged between 89% and 98%, 58% and 95%, and 74% and 96% for PV serotypes 1, 2 and 3, respectively; in 36-48 months group, it ranged between 99% and 100%, 95% and 100%, and 92% and 100% for PV 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Having received inactivate poliovirus vaccine, malnourishment (stunting) and educational level of parents were found to be associated with presence of anti-polio antibodies. The polio eradication program achieved overall high serologic protection; however, immunity gaps in young children in the high polio risk areas remain. These gaps enable sustained circulation of wild poliovirus type 1, and pose risk for emergence of vaccine-derived polioviruses. Focusing on the lowest socioeconomic strata of society, where malnutrition is most prevalent, could accelerate poliovirus eradication.

  12. Battle against poliovirus in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Fatima, Kaneez; Qadri, Ishtiaq

    2013-11-15

    On 22 Feb 2013, the Polio Monitoring Cell of Pakistan announced that the 2012-2013 polio campaign ended, and that 1.6 million children could not be vaccinated due to security concerns in several regions where polio workers had been killed. Those who could not be vaccinated included 50,000 children from the Federally Administrated Tribal Area (FATA), 150,000 form Khyber Pakhtoon Khao, 400,000 from a Quetta, 400,000 from Karachi, and a small number from the Rawalpindi District. These statistics are worrying, as several districts in the large metropolitan cities of Karachi and Quetta were also excluded. The fear of advanced medicine, ideas, or complex devices is a new phenomenon in many conservative and poor countries such as Pakistan, Afghanistan, Sudan, and Somalia. To safeguard the safety of the rest of the world, the failure in the implementation of WHO guidelines for vaccination must be regulated by the UN. There are a number of reasons for the phobias surrounding vaccination, but as technology continues to evolve at such a rapid rate, those with self-determined ideologies cannot cope with such advances. They become vocal to gain popularity and prevent the use of these technologies and medicine by creating and spreading rumors and propaganda of expediency. The struggle to vaccinate children is not easily understood by anyone living in the developed world. The irrational fear of vaccines and the lack of vaccination pose a serious global health risk and must be curbed through a wide variety of pro-vaccination media and religious campaigns.

  13. Development of Automated Assignment Model for Sailors in Pakistan Navy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-01

    Haider, Clifton Karachi, Pakistan 7. library, PNEC , PNS JAUHAR 1 Habib Rehmatullah Road Karachi, Pakistan 8. LCDR Sukhdev 1 Staff Officer Maintenance Fleet Operation Command 32100 Naval Base Lumut Malaysia 78

  14. Unconventional Warfare and Counterinsurgency in Pakistan: A Brief History

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-01

    When British India was divided, Pakistan inherited 18 percent of the subcontinent’s population, but only 10 percent of its industrial base and 6...Daily Times (Pakistan), July 6, 2004. 56 Naveed Miraj, “250 Tribesmen to be Freed in Wana, Shakai,” The News (Pakistan), November 11, 2004. 22

  15. Evaluation of arsenic and other physico-chemical parameters of surface and ground water of Jamshoro, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Arain, Muhammad Balal; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Kandhro, Ghulam Abbas; Sarfraz, Raja Adil; Jamal, Muhammad Khan; Shah, Abdul Qadir

    2009-07-30

    Arsenic contamination in water has caused severe health problems around the world. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the geological and anthropogenic aspects of As pollution in surface and groundwater resources of Jamshoro Sindh, Pakistan. Hydride generator atomic absorption spectrophotometry (HG-AAS) is employed for the determination of arsenic in water samples, with detection limit of 0.02 microg l(-1). Arsenic concentrations in surface and underground water range from 3.0 to 50.0, and 13 to 106 microg l(-1), respectively. In most of the water samples As levels exceeded the WHO provisional guideline values 10 microg l(-1). The high level of As in under study area may be due to widespread water logging from Indus river irrigation system which causes high saturation of salts in this semi-arid region and lead to enrichment of As in shallow groundwater. Among the physico-chemical parameters, electrical conductivity, Na(+), K(+), and SO(4)(2-) were found to be higher in surface and ground water, while elevated levels of Ca(2+) and Cl(-) were detected only in ground water than WHO permissible limit. The high level of iron was observed in ground water, which is a possible source of As enrichment in the study area. The multivariate technique (cluster analysis) was used for the elucidation of high, medium and low As contaminated areas. It may be concluded that As originate from coal combustion at brick factories and power generation plants, and it was mobilized promotionally by the alkaline nature of the understudy groundwater samples.

  16. Frequent Occurrence of Tomato Leaf Curl New Delhi Virus in Cotton Leaf Curl Disease Affected Cotton in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Zaidi, Syed Shan-e-Ali; Shafiq, Muhammad; Amin, Imran; Scheffler, Brian E.; Scheffler, Jodi A.; Briddon, Rob W.; Mansoor, Shahid

    2016-01-01

    Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) is the major biotic constraint to cotton production on the Indian subcontinent, and is caused by monopartite begomoviruses accompanied by a specific DNA satellite, Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMB). Since the breakdown of resistance against CLCuD in 2001/2002, only one virus, the “Burewala” strain of Cotton leaf curl Kokhran virus (CLCuKoV-Bur), and a recombinant form of CLCuMB have consistently been identified in cotton across the major cotton growing areas of Pakistan. Unusually a bipartite isolate of the begomovirus Tomato leaf curl virus was identified in CLCuD-affected cotton recently. In the study described here we isolated the bipartite begomovirus Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV) from CLCuD-affected cotton. To assess the frequency and geographic occurrence of ToLCNDV in cotton, CLCuD-symptomatic cotton plants were collected from across the Punjab and Sindh provinces between 2013 and 2015. Analysis of the plants by diagnostic PCR showed the presence of CLCuKoV-Bur in all 31 plants examined and ToLCNDV in 20 of the samples. Additionally, a quantitative real-time PCR analysis of the levels of the two viruses in co-infected plants suggests that coinfection of ToLCNDV with the CLCuKoV-Bur/CLCuMB complex leads to an increase in the levels of CLCuMB, which encodes the major pathogenicity (symptom) determinant of the complex. The significance of these results are discussed. PMID:27213535

  17. Polymorphisms of cytochrome b gene in Leishmania parasites and their relation to types of cutaneous leishmaniasis lesions in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Myint, Chomar Kaung; Asato, Yutaka; Yamamoto, Yu-ichi; Kato, Hirotomo; Bhutto, Abdul M; Soomro, Farooq R; Memon, Muhamad Z; Matsumoto, Jun; Marco, Jorge D; Oshiro, Minoru; Katakura, Ken; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa; Uezato, Hiroshi

    2008-02-01

    The exact species and/or strains of Leishmania parasites involved strongly influence the clinical and epidemiological features of leishmaniasis, and current knowledge of those influences and relationships is inadequate. We report that cytochrome b (cyt b) gene sequencing identified causal Leishmania parasites of 69 cutaneous leishmaniasis cases in Pakistan over a 3-year period. Of 21 cases in highland areas (Quetta city, Balochistan province), 16 (76.2%) were identified as Leishmania (L.) tropica and five (23.8%) as Leishmania (L.) major. Of 48 cases from lowland areas, cities/villages in Indus valley in Sindh and Balochistan provinces, 47 (97.9%) were identified as L. (L.) major and one (2.1%) as L. (L.) tropica. Statistical analysis (Fisher's exact test) revealed a significant difference (P < 0.0001) in the distribution of the two species by altitude; L. (L.) major is predominant in lowland and L. (L.) tropica at highland areas. The present result enriched our earlier finding, based on the first year's cultured parasite data, that only L. (L.) tropica was found in highland areas and only L. (L.) major in lowland areas. Among Leishmania samples analyzed, three types of cyt b polymorphism of L. (L.) major were found, including 45 (86.5%) cases of type I, six (11.5%) of type II and one (2%) of type III. We report for the first time on the presence of polymorphisms in L. (L.) major (types I, II and III) based on species identification using cyt b gene sequencing from clinical samples. Moreover, we found no correlation between clinical presentation (wet-, dry- and/or mixed-types of cutaneous lesions) and causal Leishmania parasites.

  18. Respiratory effects in people exposed to arsenic via the drinking water and tobacco smoking in southern part of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Arain, Muhammad Balal; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Jamali, Muhammad Khan; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Jalbani, Nusrat; Sarfraz, Raja Adil; Shah, Abdul Qadir; Kandhro, Ghulam Abbas

    2009-10-15

    In this study, a survey has been conducted during 2005-2007 on surface and groundwater arsenic (As) contamination and its impact on the health of local population, of villages located on the banks of Manchar lake, southern part of Sindh, Pakistan. We have also assessed the relationship between arsenic exposure through respiratory disorders in male subjects with drinking water and smoking cigarettes made from tobacco grown in agricultural land irrigated with As contaminated lake water. The biological samples (blood and scalp hair) were collected from As exposed subjects (100% smokers) and age matched healthy male subjects (40.2% smoker and 59.8% non smokers) belong to unexposed areas for comparison purposes. The As concentration in drinking water (surface and underground water), agricultural soil, cigarette tobacco and biological samples were determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The range of As concentrations in lake water was 35.2-158 microg/L (average 97.5 microg/L), which is 3-15 folds higher than permissible limit of World Health Organization (WHO, 2004). While the As level in local cigarette tobacco was found to be 3-6 folds higher than branded cigarettes (0.37-0.79 microg/g). Arsenic exposed subjects (with and without RD) had significantly elevated levels of As in their biological samples as compared to referent male subject of unexposed area. These respiratory effects were more pronounced in individuals who had also As induced skin lesions. The linear regressions showed good correlations between As concentrations in water versus hair and blood samples of exposed subjects with and without respiratory problems.

  19. Comparing risk factors of HIV among hijra sex workers in Larkana and other cities of Pakistan: an analytical cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In 2005, Pakistan was first labeled as a country with concentrated epidemic of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). This was revealed through second generation surveillance conducted by HIV/AIDS Surveillance Project (HASP). While injection drug users (IDUs) were driving the epidemic, subsequent surveys showed that Hijra (transgender) sex workers (HSWs) were emerging as the second most vulnerable group with an average national prevalence of 6.4%. An exceptionally high prevalence (27.6%) was found in Larkana, which is a small town on the right bank of river Indus near the ruins of Mohenjo-Daro in the province of Sindh. This paper presents the risk factors associated with high prevalence of HIV among HSWs in Larkana as compared to other cities of the country. Methods Data were extracted for secondary analysis from 2008 Integrated behavioral and biological survey (IBBS) to compare HSWs living in Larkana with those living in other cities including Karachi and Hyderabad in Sindh; Lahore and Faisalabad in Punjab; and Peshawar in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa provinces. After descriptive analysis, univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify risk factors. P value of 0.25 or less was used to include factors in multivariate analysis. Results We compared 199 HSWs from Larkana with 420 HSWs from other cities. The average age of HSWs in Larkana was 26.42 (±5.4) years. Majority were Sindhi speaking (80%), uneducated (68%) and unmarried (97%). In univariate analysis, factors associated with higher prevalence of HIV in Larkana included younger age i.e. 20–24 years (OR: 5.8, CI: 2.809–12.15), being unmarried (OR: 2.4, CI: 1.0–5.7), sex work as the only mode of income (OR: 5.5, CI: 3.70–8.2) and longer duration of being involved in sex work 5–10 years (OR: 3.3, CI: 1.7–6.12). In multivariate logistic regression the HSWs from Larkana were more likely to lack knowledge regarding preventive measures against HIV (OR 11.9, CI: 3.4–41.08) and were more

  20. Marine geology and oceanography of Arabian Sea and coastal Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Haq, B.U.; Milliman, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    This volume is a collection of papers presented at the first US-Pakistan workshop in marine science held in Karachi, Pakistan, in November 1982. Of the twenty-four contributions in this book, fourteen cover topics specific to the Arabian Sea-coastal Pakistan region. These include six papers on the geology, tectonics, and petroleum potential of Pakistan, four papers on sedimentary processes in the Indus River delta-fan complex, and four papers on the biological oceanography of the Arabian Sea and coastal Pakistan. The additional ten papers are overviews of shelf sedimentation processes, paleoceanography, the marine nutrient cycle, and physical and chemical oceanography.

  1. The United States in Pakistan: Toward a More Unified Effort

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-25

    Rashid, Pakistan on the Brink: The Future of America, Pakistan and Afghanistan. (Viking Press, 2012). 14 Stephen D . Krasner , ―Talking Tough to...39 ―America and Pakistan: Sorry Story,‖ The Economist, December 22, 2011. 40 Stephen D . Krasner , ―Talking Tough to Pakistan,‖ Foreign Affairs, Jan...pomed-notes-cap-8-12-09.pdf 43 Stephen D . Krasner , ―Talking Tough to Pakistan,‖ Foreign Affairs, Jan/Feb 2012, 90-93. 44 K. Alan Kronstadt

  2. The burden of headache disorders in Pakistan: methodology of a population-based nationwide study, and questionnaire validation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Large geographical gaps in our knowledge of the prevalence and burden of headache disorders include Pakistan, a country with major problems of poverty, illiteracy and security. We report implementation in this country of standard methods developed by Lifting The Burden (LTB) for population-based burden-of-headache studies. Methods We surveyed six locations from the four provinces: Lahore and Multan (Punjab), Karachi and Sukkur (Sindh), Abbottabad (Khyber Pakhtunkhwa) and Gwadar (Baluchistan). We randomly selected rural and urban households in each, which were visited by trained non-medical interviewers from the same locations. One randomly selected adult member (18–65 years) of each household was interviewed using LTB’s structured questionnaire translated into Urdu, the national language. Validation was performed among patients and accompanying attendants in three (urban and rural) medical facilities. After responding to the questionnaire, these participants were re-interviewed and diagnosed by a neurologist (gold standard). Results The survey was completed by 4,223 respondents (1,957 [46.3%] male, 2,266 [53.7%] female, 1,443 [34.2%] urban, 2,780 [65.8%] rural, mean age 34.4 ± 11.0 years). The participation rate was 89.5%. There were 180 participants (46.1% male, 53.9% female, 41.7% urban, 58.3% rural, mean age 39.4 ± 14.2 years) in the validation sample, of whom 147 (81.7%) reported headache in the last year. The questionnaire was 100% sensitive in screening for headache and for headache on ≥15 days/month, and showed good agreement with the gold-standard diagnoses (kappa = 0.77). It was relatively insensitive for TTH. The questionnaire’s default diagnosis of probable MOH when medication overuse accompanied headache on ≥15 days/month was not supported by evidence of causation in most cases seen by the neurologist. In public-health terms, precise diagnosis in these cases matters less than reliably detecting the coexistence of

  3. Source rock potential in Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Raza, H.A. )

    1991-03-01

    Pakistan contains two sedimentary basins: Indus in the east and Balochistan in the west. The Indus basin has received sediments from precambrian until Recent, albeit with breaks. It has been producing hydrocarbons since 1914 from three main producing regions, namely, the Potwar, Sulaisman, and Kirthar. In the Potwar, oil has been discovered in Cambrian, Permian, Jurassic, and Tertiary rocks. Potential source rocks are identified in Infra-Cambrian, Permian, Paleocene, and Eocene successions, but Paleocene/Eocene Patala Formation seems to be the main source of most of the oil. In the Sulaiman, gas has been found in Cretaceous and Tertiary; condensate in Cretaceous rocks. Potential source rocks are indicated in Cretaceous, Paleocene, and Eocene successions. The Sembar Formation of Early Cretaceous age appears to be the source of gas. In the Kirthar, oil and gas have been discovered in Cretaceous and gas has been discovered in paleocene and Eocene rocks. Potential source rocks are identified in Kirthar and Ghazij formations of Eocene age in the western part. However, in the easter oil- and gas-producing Badin platform area, Union Texas has recognized the Sembar Formation of Early Cretaceous age as the only source of Cretaceous oil and gas. The Balochistan basin is part of an Early Tertiary arc-trench system. The basin is inadequately explored, and there is no oil or gas discovery so far. However, potential source rocks have been identified in Eocene, Oligocene, Miocene, and Pliocene successions based on geochemical analysis of surface samples. Mud volcanoes are present.

  4. Cretaceous source rocks in Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Kari, I.B. )

    1993-02-01

    Pakistan is located at the converging boundaries of the Indian, Arabian, and Eurasian plates. Evolution of this tectonic setting has provided an array of environmental habitats for deposition of petroleum source rocks and development of structural forms. The potential Cretaceous source rocks in Central and South Indus Basin are spread over an area of about 300,000 km[sup 2]. With 2% cutoff on Total Organic Carbon, the average source rock thickness is 30-50 m, which is estimated to have generated more than 200 billion bbl of oil equivalent. To date, production of more than 30,000 bbl of oil and about 1200 million ft[sup 3] of gas per day can be directly attributed to Cretaceous source. This basin was an area of extensional tectonics during the Lower to Middle Cretaceous associated with slightly restricted circulation of the sea waters at the north-western margin of Indian Plate. Lower Cretaceous source rocks (Sembar Formation) were deposited while the basin was opening up and anoxia was prevailing. Similarly Middle to Upper Cretaceous clastics were deposited in setting favorable for preservation of organic matter. The time and depth of burial of the Cretaceous source material and optimum thermal regime have provided the requisite maturation level for generation of hydrocarbons in the basin. Central Indus basin is characterized by Cretaceous source rocks mature for gas generation. However, in South Indus Basin Cretaceous source rocks lie within the oil window in some parts and have gone past it in others.

  5. Pakistan mental health country profile.

    PubMed

    Karim, Salman; Saeed, Khalid; Rana, Mowaddat Hussain; Mubbashar, Malik Hussain; Jenkins, Rachel

    2004-01-01

    The Republic of Pakistan is a South East Asian country with a population of over 140.7 million. Its population is fast growing and the majority (70%) live in rural areas with a feudal or tribal value system. The economy is dependent on agriculture and 35% of the population live below the poverty line. Islam is the main religion and 'mental illnesses' are stigmatized and widely perceived to have supernatural causes. The traditional healers along with psychiatric services are the main mental health service providers. The number of trained mental health professionals is small as compared to the population demands and specialist services are virtually non-existent. Lack of data on prevalence of various mental illnesses and monitory constraints are the major hurdles in the development of mental health services. A number of innovative programmes to develop indigenous models of care like the 'Community Mental Health Programme' and 'Schools Mental Health Programme' have been developed. These programmes have been found effective in reducing stigma and increase awareness of mental illness amongst the adults and children living in rural areas. Efforts by the government and mental health professionals have led to the implementation of a 'National Mental Health Policy' and 'Mental Health Act' in 2001. These aim at integrating mental health services with the existing health services, improving mental health care delivery and safeguarding the rights of mentally ill people. A favourable political will and the help of international institutions like the World Health Organization are required to achieve these aims.

  6. Advisory board approves Pakistan SMC marketing plan.

    PubMed

    1986-01-01

    Under a 2-year contract funded by the US Agency for International Development, PSI Marketing Associates is providing technical assistance for the development of a social marketing project in Pakistan. The national launch of a new condom, Sathi, is planned for 1987. This new social marketing of contraceptives project emphasizes child spacing and will use the slogan, "Until you want another child." As a result of the Pakistan Government's generic family planning advertising and promotion campaigns, there is a high degree of public awareness of contraception. However, this awareness is not reflected in levels of contraceptive use. A 3-month test market for Sathi (which means "companion") will take place in 2 areas representative of Pakistan's socioeconomic and ethnic composition. All printed materials (including posters, stickers, mobiles, and shop signs) will use the Sathi logo--2 birds flying into the sun. Other project materials include a 1-minute video and pamphlets for consumers, dealers, and medical professionals.

  7. Heterorhabditis pakistanense n. sp. (Nematoda: Heterorhabditidae) a new entomopathogenic nematode from Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Shahina, F; Tabassum, K A; Salma, J; Mehreen, G; Knoetze, R

    2017-03-01

    A new entomopathogenic nematode species of Heterorhabditis, described as H. pakistanense n. sp., was isolated from soil samples around the roots of grass at Malir, Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. The new species is characterized morphologically by features of males: body size 819 μm (720-1013 μm), D% ((distance from anterior end to excretory pore divided by pharynx length) × 100) 119 (110-126), SW% ((spicule length divided by anal body diameter) × 100) 156 (144-191), GS% ((gubernaculum length divided by spicule length) × 100) 58 (48-65) and variations in the number of bursal papillae of the terminal group: 8th and 9th papillae sometimes absent on both sides, sometimes eight papillae present on the right side whereas six papillae present on the left side. On the right side the arrangement of papillae is 1 + 2 + 3 + 2 whereas on the left side it is 1 + 2 + 3. The hermaphrodite has a prominent post-anal swelling and a conoid tail 82 μm (64-95 μm) long with a pointed terminus. Hermaphrodites of H. pakistanense n. sp. can be distinguished from all species of Heterorhabditis except H. downesi by having a mucronate tail. Infective juveniles have a medium-sized body (581 μm (558-624 μm)), long pharynx (117 μm (113-125 μm)), ensheathed tail (99 μm (95-110 μm)) and E% ((distance from anterior end to excretory pore divided by tail length) × 100) 100 (95-107). The new species can be distinguished from all species of Heterorhabditis by the absence of the 7th, 8th and 9th bursal papillae. Heterorhabditis pakistanense is further characterized by the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and the D2D3 region of the 28S rDNA gene. The closest species H. indica, H. gerrardi, H. amazonensis and H. noenieputensis being separated by 9, 7, 66 and 15 bp, respectively, in the ITS region. Molecular phylogenetic trees based on sequences of ITS rDNA, D2D3 regions and the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene support the description of H. pakistanense as a new species.

  8. Burden of skin lesions of arsenicosis at higher exposure through groundwater of taluka Gambat district Khairpur, Pakistan: a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Fatmi, Zafar; Abbasi, Imran Naeem; Ahmed, Mubashir; Kazi, Ambreen; Kayama, Fujio

    2013-06-01

    Prior surveys conducted have found higher proportion of arsenic-contaminated wells in villages along river Indus in Pakistan. This study aims to determine the prevalence of arsenicosis skin lesions among population exposed to higher exposure in taluka Gambat district Khairpur in Sindh. The cross-sectional survey was conducted from August 2008 to January 2009 among 610 households. A total of 707 water sources (hand pumps/wells) were tested from the villages of union councils of Agra and Jado Wahan for arsenic levels with Quick rapid arsenic field test kits. A total of 110 households exposed to arsenic levels >50 ppb were identified. Case screening for arsenic skin lesions was performed for 610 individuals residing in these 110 high-risk households. Information regarding household and socio-demographic characteristics, height and weight measurements and arsenic exposure assessment were collected. Physical examinations by trained physicians were carried out to diagnose the arsenic skin lesions. After data cleaning, 534 individuals from all age groups were included in the final analysis which had complete exposure and outcome information. Overall prevalence of arsenicosis skin lesions was 13.5 % (72 cases). Of the 534 individuals, 490 (91.8 %) were exposed to arsenic levels of ≥100 ppb in drinking water (8.2 % to >50-99 ppb, 58.6 % to 100-299 ppb, 14.6 % to 300-399 ppb and 18 % to ≥400 ppb). Prevalence rate (per 100 population) of arsenicosis was highest at arsenic levels of 100-199 ppb (15.2 cases) followed by ≥400 ppb (13.5 cases) and 300-399 (12.8 cases). Prevalence rate was higher among females (15.2) compared to males (11.3). Our study reports arsenicosis burden due to exposure to higher arsenic levels in drinking water in Pakistan. Exposure to very high levels of arsenic in drinking water calls for urgent action along river Indus. Prevalence of skin lesions increases with increasing arsenic levels in drinking groundwater. Provision of arsenic-free drinking

  9. Albian ammonites from northern Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, William James; Fatmi, Ali N.

    2014-03-01

    The occurrence of rich Albian ammonite faunas in what is now northern Pakistan has been known for more than 80 years, but there has been no comprehensive account of the assemblages present. A total of 36 taxa are described below. The middle part of the Lumshiwal Formation yields Upper Aptian ammonites south of the Samana Range. Elsewhere, it yields Douvilleiceras leightonense Casey, 1962, of the lower Lower Albian Leymeriella regularis Zone and the Sonneratia perinflata and S. kitchini Subzones of the Sonneratia chalensis Zone of the northwest European sequence. The top one to two metres of the Lumshiwal yields an abundant fauna of rolled and phosphatised ammonites that includes elements from much of the Albian. Of these, Prolyelliceras gevreyi (Jacob, 1907) first appears in the lower Lower Albian Leymeriella tardefurcata Zone. The commonest ammonite is Douvilleiceras mammillatum (Schlotheim, 1813) sensu lato, which ranges from the perinflata Subzone of the chalensis Zone to the Otohoplites bulliensis Subzone of the O. auritiformis Zone of the Lower Albian. The presence of Lyelliceras pseudolyelli (Parona and Bonarelli, 1897) indicates the uppermost, pseudolyelli Subzone of the auritiformis Zone. The presence of Lyelliceras lyelli (d'Orbigny, 1841) indicates the basal Middle Albian lyelli Subzone of the Hoplites dentatus Zone. There is no evidence for the higher parts of the Middle Albian. Dipoloceras (Rhytidoceras ) sp. indicates the presence of lower Upper Albian, possibly the pricei Zone. There is evidence, in the form of specifically indeterminate Mortoniceras (Mortoniceras) sp., of a level within the inflatum to fallax Zone inteval from a single locality, but no evidence of the succeeding parts of the upper Upper Albian. The base of the Kawagarth Formation that succeeds the Lumshiwal yields lower Upper Albian Mortoniceras (M.) geometricum Spath, 1932 of the Mortoniceras pricei Zone, northwest of Darmasand in the Samana range.

  10. The hawkmoth fauna of Pakistan (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae).

    PubMed

    Rafi, Muhammad Ather; Sultan, Amir; Kitching, Ian J; Pittaway, Anthony R; Markhasiov, Maxim; Khan, Muhammad Rafique; Naz, Falak

    2014-05-07

    This study represents the first complete modern account of the Sphingidae of Pakistan and takes the form of an annotated checklist, based on several national collections and those of a number of individuals. Of the 60 species and subspecies found, 14 are new records to the fauna of Pakistan, namely Agnosia orneus, Langia zenzeroides subsp. zenzeroides, Polyptychus trilineatus subsp. trilineatus, Dolbina inexacta, Ambulyx sericeipennis subsp. sericeipennis, Thamnoecha uniformis, Macroglossum belis, Macroglossum stellatarum, Cechetra scotti, Hippotion boerhaviae, Hyles euphorbiae subsp. euphorbiae, Rhagastis olivacea, Rethera brandti subsp. euteles and Theretra latreillii subsp. lucasii. Anambulyx elwesi subsp. kitchingi and Clanis deucalion subsp. thomaswitti are not recognised as valid subspecies and are synonymized with their respective nominotypical subspecies. An additional list is given of 30 taxa which may yet be found in Pakistan as they are present in neighbouring countries close to the border. Of the species/subspecies found, 24 are part of the Palaearctic fauna, 27 are part of the Oriental fauna and nine are Palaeo-Oriental/Palaeotropical. This reconfirms the transitional biogeographical position of the Pakistan fauna.

  11. Nuclear programs in India and Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mian, Zia

    2014-05-01

    India and Pakistan launched their respective nuclear programs in the 1940s and 1950s with considerable foreign technical support, especially from the United States Atoms for Peace Program. The technology and training that was acquired served as the platform for later nuclear weapon development efforts that included nuclear weapon testing in 1974 and in 1998 by India, and also in 1998 by Pakistan - which had illicitly acquired uranium enrichment technology especially from Europe and received assistance from China. As of 2013, both India and Pakistan were continuing to produce fissile material for weapons, in the case of India also for nuclear naval fuel, and were developing a diverse array of ballistic and cruise missiles. International efforts to restrain the South Asian nuclear build-up have been largely set aside over the past decade as Pakistani support became central for the U.S. war in Afghanistan and as U.S. geopolitical and economic interests in supporting the rise of India, in part as a counter to China, led to India being exempted both from U.S non-proliferation laws and international nuclear trade guidelines. In the absence of determined international action and with Pakistan blocking the start of talks on a fissile material cutoff treaty, nuclear weapon programs in South Asia are likely to keep growing for the foreseeable future.

  12. Food safety challenges--a Pakistan's perspective.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Biological, chemical, and physical contamination of foods is a terrifying threat for the health and economic growth in developing societies. Rampantly available literature on foodborne illnesses especially diarrhea among children exclusively depicts the intensified disease burden associated with foodborne illness in the underdeveloped economies. Prevalence of many pathogens in several foods is commonplace in Pakistan. Precise estimates for foodborne illnesses in Pakistan are hard to make because of the absence of any monitoring, surveillance, and infection control. Poor processing and storage of milk, cereal grains, and nuts are a major cause of aflatoxin contamination and mold proliferation. Numerous studies manifest a multitude of foods to be contaminated with heavy metals. Escalating population growth limits the economic potential of the individual and the state through a tendency among the traders and manufacturers to intentionally debase food commodities offered for sale to make profit at the cost of their quality and safety. Therefore, a growing trend of adulteration in foods during the recent past, particularly adulteration of milk, poses a pressing challenge for the government. This review is a concerted attempt to elucidate the prevailing food safety scenario in Pakistan. Information derived from local and related international studies will be presented to clearly depict a picture of food safety in Pakistan. It is proposed that an extensive food safety infrastructure leading to a safer supply of foods needs to be devised, designed, and implemented.

  13. Status of Project Management Education in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arain, Faisal Manzoor; Tipu, Syed Awais Ahmad

    2009-01-01

    Emerging contractual delivery systems, collaborative partnerships, new management initiatives, and global product markets require professionals and students to have a broader awareness of construction methods and project management issues. This paper presents the state of the project management education in Pakistan. The analysis is based on…

  14. Population Bulletin. Pakistan: A Demographic Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Population Reference Bureau, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This report presents a brief history of Pakistan as a nation and reviews a number of demographic variables. Major topics discussed are population growth and shifts, urbanization, and labor characteristics and problems. Based on this information and projections, the report concludes with a discussion of the failure of family planning programs and…

  15. Pakistan: Key Current Issues and Developments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    2009/0707_counterinsurgency_cohen.aspx; “Haider Ali Hussein Mullik, “Lions and Jackals ,” Foreign Affairs (online), July 15, 2009, at http...www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/65200/haider-ali-hussein-mullick/lions-and- jackals . 165 “Pakistan: Countering Militancy in FATA,” International Crisis Group

  16. Polarisation of Social Studies Textbooks in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaidi, Syed Manzar Abbas

    2011-01-01

    This article looks at the evolution of the social studies curricula in Pakistan, which are of critical importance in shaping the outlook of many young Pakistanis, who are affected by this polarised discourse. The author argues that this trend of polarisation springing from dynamics of education also effectively contributes to a widening social…

  17. Nuclear programs in India and Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Mian, Zia

    2014-05-09

    India and Pakistan launched their respective nuclear programs in the 1940s and 1950s with considerable foreign technical support, especially from the United States Atoms for Peace Program. The technology and training that was acquired served as the platform for later nuclear weapon development efforts that included nuclear weapon testing in 1974 and in 1998 by India, and also in 1998 by Pakistan - which had illicitly acquired uranium enrichment technology especially from Europe and received assistance from China. As of 2013, both India and Pakistan were continuing to produce fissile material for weapons, in the case of India also for nuclear naval fuel, and were developing a diverse array of ballistic and cruise missiles. International efforts to restrain the South Asian nuclear build-up have been largely set aside over the past decade as Pakistani support became central for the U.S. war in Afghanistan and as U.S. geopolitical and economic interests in supporting the rise of India, in part as a counter to China, led to India being exempted both from U.S non-proliferation laws and international nuclear trade guidelines. In the absence of determined international action and with Pakistan blocking the start of talks on a fissile material cutoff treaty, nuclear weapon programs in South Asia are likely to keep growing for the foreseeable future.

  18. Status of Project Management Education in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arain, Faisal Manzoor; Tipu, Syed Awais Ahmad

    2009-01-01

    Emerging contractual delivery systems, collaborative partnerships, new management initiatives, and global product markets require professionals and students to have a broader awareness of construction methods and project management issues. This paper presents the state of the project management education in Pakistan. The analysis is based on…

  19. BCG-vaccination programme in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Roelsgaard, Erik; Christensen, Hans; Iversen, Erik

    1957-01-01

    The authors outline the development and organization of the BCG-vaccination campaign that was launched in August 1949 by the Government of Pakistan, with assistance from the International Tuberculosis Campaign. They present some statistical data on the work done up to the end of December 1954 and briefly discuss the pattern of tuberculin sensitivity found in various parts of the country. PMID:13489463

  20. Polarisation of Social Studies Textbooks in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaidi, Syed Manzar Abbas

    2011-01-01

    This article looks at the evolution of the social studies curricula in Pakistan, which are of critical importance in shaping the outlook of many young Pakistanis, who are affected by this polarised discourse. The author argues that this trend of polarisation springing from dynamics of education also effectively contributes to a widening social…

  1. Aid cutoff threatens condom program in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Barron, T

    1991-01-01

    The Pressler Amendment, a law prohibiting US assistance to any country that does not sign the UN Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty, is forcing USAID to shut down its highly successful Social Marketing of Contraceptives (SMC) program in Pakistan. Adopted in 1985, the amendment calls for an end of funding for projects in Pakistan as of fiscal year 1991, since the country has refused to sign the treaty. Only previously committed funds have kept SMC running, but it may soon have a close shop. The cutoff comes at an especially inopportune time--just when SMC had begun to make an impact. Introduced 5 years ago, Sathi condoms (the project's main product) account for 2/3 of all condoms used in Pakistan. Sales jumped from 30 million in 1978 to 74 million last year. SMC administrators explain that the country has a vast potential for social marketing. But because of the cutoff in aid, the program will exhaust its supply of condoms by March 1992. The end of the SMC program will mean a serious setback for Pakistan, which already has the 2nd largest population in southern Asia, and which has double the fertility of the most populous country in the region, India. Only 7% of the women in Pakistan rely on a modern method of contraception, compared to 42% in India and 26% in Bangladesh. USAID officials explain that the organization is working with the Pakistani government to find ways to continue funding the program after US funds run out. They add that this development will provide Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif an opportunity to demonstrate his stated commitment to curb population growth.

  2. Exploring the China-Pakistan Relationship. Roundtable Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    Mumbai Terror Strikes: Pro-Pakistan Bias? South Asia Analysis Group, Paper No. 2972, December 8, 2008. (Rajan is the Director of the Chennai Centre...for Chinese Studies in Chennai , India.) that China should support Pakistan in such a case.s Other views in China appear more harshly critical of India...its northern end, the Chinese city of Kashgar with key points in northern Pakistan (see figure 2). The highway remains a critical connection between

  3. Cytogenetic and Molecular Analyses of Philadelphia Chromosome Variants in CML (chronic myeloid leukemia) Patients from Sindh using Karyotyping and RT-PCR

    PubMed Central

    Ujjan, Ikram Din; Akhund, Anwar Ali; Saboor, Muhammad; Qureshi, Muhammad Asif; Khan, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of Philadelphia chromosome (Ph) and its variants in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cases at a tertiary care hospital of Sindh. Methods: The study was conducted at the Department of Pathology, Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences, Jamshoro and Isra University Hospital, Hyderabad during May-to-September 2014. Bone marrow and peripheral blood samples from a total of 145 diagnosed cases of CML were collected. Cytogenetic analyses were performed using karyotyping as per the International System for Human Cytogenetic Nomenclature guidelines. All karyotypic images were analyzed using the Cytovision software. In order to identify BCR-ABL transcripts, RT-PCR was performed. Statistical analysis of the data was done using SPSS-version-21.0. Results: Of the 145 samples, a total of 133 (91.7%) were positive for the Ph (Ph+) while 12 (8.3%) were negative for the Ph (Ph-). Of the 133 Ph+ samples, standard karyotypes were noted in 121 (91%), simple variants in 9 (6.7%) and complex variants in 3 (2.3%) of the samples. All the Ph+ samples (n=133) showed BCR-ABL positivity. Of the 12 Ph- samples, a total of 7 (58.3%) were BCR-ABL-positive and 5 (41.6%) were BCR-ABL-negative. Conclusion: Frequency of the Ph was found to be of 90.9% in CML patients using a highly sensitive technique, the RT-PCR. Cytogenetic abnormalities were at a lower frequency. Cytogenetic and molecular studies must be conducted for better management of CML cases. These findings could be very useful in guiding the appropriate therapeutic options for CML patients. PMID:26430433

  4. Pakistan/USAID to start CSM project.

    PubMed

    1984-01-01

    Pakistan, with the assistance of funds for the US Agency for International Development (USAID), is about to start its novel approach to contraceptive social marketing (CSM). This new effort suggests a marked policy shift on the part of the Pakistan government toward intensifying its family planning activities. The program will be government-operated and supported by AID over the next 5 years with $20 million, more than double the cost of similar CSM projects elswhere. Distribution of a condom on a pilot project basis is expected to begin by December 1984. Sales of a low-dose oral contraceptive (OC) could begin in test market areas by mid-1985, with national launching of both products tentatively scheduled for January 1986. The Pakistan/USAID agreement represents the 1st time since the formation of India's Nirodh project in the late 1960s that a CSM program is being established without the involvement of either an international social marketing contractor or a country's family planning association. The Pakistan CSM program will be managed by a policy board composed of representatives from the government's Ministries of Planning, Health and Education; a resident advisor from USAID; and a local company responsible for product marketing and distribution. The approach has received a skeptical response among international social marketing experts about the program's chances for success. Their doubts extend to 2 other aspects of the proposed design: an official of the Ministry of Planning's Population and Welfare Division expects the CSM program to generate sufficient revenues to cover all operating costs following the 5-year subsidy period, while also providing attractive profit margins for the marketing/distribution company; and the government prohibits mass media advertising of contraceptives. According to AID, the issue of mass media contraceptive advertising has not yet been resolved, and a national survey will be conducted to determine what communication needs are

  5. Environment Friendly Coal Based Power Generation in Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qureshi, S. A.; Javed, M. Adnan

    2010-06-01

    The main emphasis of this paper is on the engineering economics and design developments in the field of thermal power generation in Pakistan. Pakistan is rich with coal fields but is making no use of this available natural resource to fulfil its energy demands. The shortage of power is getting worst day by day and to align with the power requirements, Pakistan needs to add 2000 MW each year to national grid. With the increasing prices of natural gas and oil, Pakistan should consider coal, the abundantly available natural resource, as an alternate fuel for its new power plants to overcome the power crises.

  6. Adopting Cloud Computing in the Pakistan Navy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    Department of Defense, the U.S. Navy, and the National Institute of Standards and Technology cloud architectures , a framework has been laid out for... architecture , DoD cloud 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 83 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF REPORT Unclassified 18. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION...National Institute of Standards and Technology cloud architectures , a framework has been laid out for adopting cloud computing in the Pakistan Navy

  7. The Status of Women Physicists in Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasnain, Aziz Fatima; Islam, Jabeen

    2009-04-01

    A significant number of women physicists work in high-ranking positions in the universities and research institutes of Pakistan; however, the number of women is much lower compared with men. We surveyed these women about the challenges they faced in the workplace and the pace of their progress and scientific work in a male-dominant society. We also surveyed girls' attitudes toward studying physics at the graduate and undergraduate levels.

  8. Security Decision-Making in Pakistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    towards the other direction; for me, homosexuality is such a big crime against humanity that chopping off hands for stealing -95- in Pakistan, I do not...consider to be against humanity. You consider such things [liberalization of laws con- cerning homosexuality ] to be a step forward, we consider it to be...must be cured first. The sooner we realize this, the better. 3 Virtually the sane argument was made by a distinguished retired corps commander

  9. Makran Mountain Range, Iran and Pakistan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The long folded mountain ridges and valleys of the coastal Makran Ranges of Iran and Pakistan (26.0N, 63.0E) illustrate the classical Trellis type of drainage pattern, common in this region. The Dasht River and its tributaries is the principal drainage network for this area. To the left, the continental drift of the northward bound Indian sub-continent has caused the east/west parallel ranges to bend in a great northward arc.

  10. Pakistan’s Domestic Political Developments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-19

    two parliamentary seats in the 1993 and 1997 elections). Notable Leaders of Pakistan Governor-General Mohammed Ali Jinnah 1947-1948 Prime Minister...Nation) Muhammed Ali Jinnah and his lieutenant, Liaquat Ali Khan, the PML was weakened upon their premature deaths in 1948 and 1951 ( Jinnah by natural...Liaquat Ali Khan 1947-1951 President Iskandar Ali Mirza 1955-1958 President-General Mohammed Ayub Khan 1958-1969 President-General Mohammed Yahya Khan

  11. Pakistan: social basis of the economy.

    PubMed

    Maloney, C

    1987-01-01

    Pakistan's gross domestic product (GDP) has grown at an average of 5.3%/year since 1950 and real per capita income has increased 3.7%/year over the past decade, despite a 3% annual population growth rate. Contributing to this dynamic economic growth have been migration, the construction of a new national economy following independence, controlled irrigation, foreign exchange availability, and an expectation on the part of the public of higher earnings and consumption. Despite these trends, the Pakistan economy is structurally weak and there have been rapid increases in both the domestic and foreign debt. Economic growth has been based largely on trading and soft services. Government departments are known for their corruption. This self-contradictory economic picture derives directly from the structure of Pakistani society, which is dominated by the elite of Punjab Province. Urbanization is increasing economic inequality in the society, and government taxation policies are biased toward big agriculture and industry. Pakistan's poor performance in education, social development, and family planning are expected to inhibit future economic development. Only 26% of Pakistanis are literate, reflecting the low social value placed on education. Even in urban areas, there is no evidence of a decline in fertility. This results from the psychological and economic need for children, women's limited roles, Islamic opposition to family planning, and inefficient government delivery of social services. Within a few years, population growth will magnify the structural weaknesses of the Pakistan economy. It is hoped that the dynamic nature of Panjabi values and behavior, especially of the new middle class, will lead to a redress of this situation.

  12. US-Pakistan Relations: The Way Forward

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-15

    of British India under the leadership of Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah . Jinnah is considered the father of Pakistan and set in motion many...political platforms that became the foundation for Pakistan’s society. Jinnah was influenced by both his life experiences and the challenges he overcame. A...Muslim from Karachi, Jinnah had received most of his higher education in law from London. As a barrister, he soon became the leading lawyer of

  13. Radio and distance learning in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Abbas, R

    1987-01-01

    Radio is a powerful communication vehicle in Pakistan able to reach 3/4 of urban and 2/3 of rural households. Until 1974, most radio broadcasts of the Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation, a state monopoly, were in the categories of music, drama, and features; news and current affairs; and religious broadcasts. The Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU), a distance learning educational institution, was established through an act of the Pakistan Parliament in 1974 and is the only institution in the country to use radio broadcasts for its curriculum. Also established in 1974 within the AIOU was the Institute of Educational Technology (IET). The IET channels the transmission and flow of well-designed educational messages and lessons from the teachers to the students by employing distance teaching methodology that seeks to reinforce students' weekly lessons. IET closely integrates its activities within the University's academic departments. IET staff members not only participate in the development of course curriculum and syllabi, but also help to identify course content needing reinforcement through radio. While the teachers at AIOU convert the course curricula into distance-learning self-study activity-oriented correspondence texts, IET producers transcribe these scripts into actual production scripts. Feedback from students and findings of the University's Research and Statistical Cell are used to make revisions in the scripts. The AIOU enrolls an average of 100,000 students each year. Expansion is being limited only by the costs of purchasing time from the Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation (Rs 2000 for a 15-minute lesson) and the availability of appropriate time slots.

  14. Pakistan lags behind in reproductive health.

    PubMed

    Wallerstein, C

    1998-12-05

    This article focuses on Pakistan's slowness in shifting values to improve the health of women from birth until death. Girls experience 66% higher death as children aged under 4 years than boys. Large segments of Pakistani society still value males and consider daughters to be a "shameful burden." The lessons learned from the 1994 Cairo Conference on Population and Development reveal that Pakistan will suffer socioeconomic decline by ignoring the need to change traditional male and religious attitudes. Pakistan was criticized for neglecting preventive health care and education and for spending less on social welfare than smaller neighbors, such as Bhutan and Nepal. 1 in 38 women dies during childbirth or pregnancy; the regional average is 1/230. Literacy is 26% for women and 50% for men. Almost 25% of children are born underweight. Infant mortality is 95/1000 live births; child mortality is 136/1000 live births. 45% of the population still do not have access to any form of health service. The health budget is largely spent on curative treatment instead of IEC campaigns which are potentially more effective over the long term. Field workers experience mistrust and constraints from religious leaders and matriarchs in their efforts to spread use of contraception among younger women. There are beginning to be signs of change at the grassroots level.

  15. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Rai, Mohammad A; Khanani, Mohammad R; Warraich, Haider J; Hayat, Abbas; Ali, Syed H

    2008-06-01

    Crimean-Congo virus, the causative agent of Crimean-Congo Virus Fever (CCVF) is endemic in Pakistan. Cases are documented sporadically ever year, mostly at and around the time of Eid-ul-Adha, an Islamic festival, celebrated on day 10 through 13 of the 12th month of each lunar calendar year. At this time of the year in Pakistan, livestock are brought down to the urban areas from the rural parts of the country. Animals are housed in open spaces and private houses until they are slaughtered during the 3 days of Eid-ul-Adha. This allows the CCHF virus, which is carried by a tick that inhabits the animal hide, to be transmitted through unprotected contact with live animals as well as through contact with animal blood subsequent to its slaughter. In this report, a typical case of CCVF is described that was encountered in Rawalpindi, Pakistan. A number of issues pertaining to the management of recurrent outbreaks of CCVF in the country are discussed.

  16. An overview of poultry industry in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    HUSSAIN, J.; RABBANI, I.; ASLAM, S.; AHMAD, H.A.

    2015-01-01

    The poultry sector is an important and vibrant segment of agriculture in Pakistan with a significant contribution to the national GDP (1.3%). Commercial poultry production in Pakistan started in the 1960’s and has been providing a significant portion of daily proteins to the Pakistani population ever since. During its evolution the industry enjoyed promotional policies of the Government, but has faced several challenges such as disease outbreaks and retail price fluctuations. Despite its important role in the country’s economy, not a single scientific study is available on its evolutionary history. The data available in this regard are scattered and lack reliability. This review is an effort to encompass the history of the overall growth of the poultry industry in Pakistan, its present status (2012 statistics) and future directions and challenges. This article may serve as the basic source of information on Pakistan’s poultry industry achievements. It will also guide poultry experts and policy makers for developing strategic planning for further growth of the industry. PMID:26696690

  17. Regulated compensated donation in Pakistan and Iran.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, Adibul Hasan S; Naqvi, Anwar S A; Zafar, Naqi M; Ahmed, Ejaz

    2009-04-01

    Paid living unrelated kidney donor transplantation has flourished in Pakistan and Iran. This review discusses the dynamics and consequences of organ trade in Pakistan and of a regulated paid donor model in Iran on transplant activities in these countries. In 2007, over 2500 renal transplants were performed in Pakistan, where more than 70% were from socioeconomic disadvantaged kidney vendors. More than half of recipients were foreigners who paid US$20,000-30,000. Recipients of vendor kidneys had poor outcome and high infectious complications. Regulated paid donor kidney transplant in Iran number around 1500 per year and constitute 70% of the total transplants. Graft survival rates are similar to those for living related donors. The donors are paid US$1200 and additional monies are negotiated between the recipient-donor pair. This model claims to have abolished waiting lists, although many poor patients wait for deceased donors. In both countries, recipients are relatively rich and vendors are the poor of the society who sell kidneys for quick money or to repay debts. Paid donation, regulated or commercial, leads to coercion and exploitation of the poor and benefits the rich. This situation has forestalled deceased donor program and hence other solid-organ transplants. The way forward is to promote deceased donors by making transplant available to all who need it.

  18. An epidemiological study of urban and rural children in Pakistan: examining the relationship between delayed psychomotor development, low birth weight and postnatal growth failure.

    PubMed

    Avan, Bilal I; Raza, Syed A; Kirkwood, Betty R

    2015-03-01

    Low birth weight is known to be associated with postnatal growth failure. It is not yet established that both conditions are determinants of psychomotor development. The study investigated whether or not low birth weight leads to delayed psychomotor development of a child, and whether it can be mitigated by adequate postnatal growth. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2002 in 15 rural and 11 urban communities of Sindh province, Pakistan. Assessment of 1234 children less than 3 years of age included Bayley's Scale of Infant Development II, socioeconomic questionnaire and anthropometry; WHO standards were used to calculate z-scores of height-for-age, weight-for-height and weight-for-age. The underlying study hypotheses were tested through multiple regression modelling. Out of 1219 children, 283 (23.2%) had delayed psychomotor development and 639 (52.4%) were undernourished according to the composite index of anthropometric failure. Strong negative associations with the psychomotor development index were detected between stunting and being underweight, with a larger magnitude of effect for stunting (p<0.001). The strong relationship persisted even when the analysis was restricted to non-malnourished children. The psychomotor index increased by 2.07 points with every unit increase in height-for-age z-score. The relationship between low birth weight and psychomotor development appears to be mediated largely by postnatal growth and nutritional status. This association suggests that among undernourished children there is significant likelihood of a group that is developmentally delayed. It is important to emphasize developmental needs in programmes that target underprivileged children. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Diagnostic accuracy of WHO verbal autopsy tool for ascertaining causes of neonatal deaths in the urban setting of Pakistan: a hospital-based prospective study.

    PubMed

    Soofi, Sajid Bashir; Ariff, Shabina; Khan, Ubaidullah; Turab, Ali; Khan, Gul Nawaz; Habib, Atif; Sadiq, Kamran; Suhag, Zamir; Bhatti, Zaid; Ahmed, Imran; Bhal, Rajiv; Bhutta, Zulfiqar Ahmed

    2015-10-05

    Globally, clinical certification of the cause of neonatal death is not commonly available in developing countries. Under such circumstances it is imperative to use available WHO verbal autopsy tool to ascertain causes of death for strategic health planning in countries where resources are limited and the burden of neonatal death is high. The study explores the diagnostic accuracy of WHO revised verbal autopsy tool for ascertaining the causes of neonatal deaths against reference standard diagnosis obtained from standardized clinical and supportive hospital data. All neonatal deaths were recruited between August 2006 -February 2008 from two tertiary teaching hospitals in Province Sindh, Pakistan. The reference standard cause of death was established by two senior pediatricians within 2 days of occurrence of death using the International Cause of Death coding system. For verbal autopsy, trained female community health worker interviewed mother or care taker of the deceased within 2-6 weeks of death using a modified WHO verbal autopsy tool. Cause of death was assigned by 2 trained pediatricians. The performance was assessed in terms of sensitivity and specificity. Out of 626 neonatal deaths, cause-specific mortality fractions for neonatal deaths were almost similar in both verbal autopsy and reference standard diagnosis. Sensitivity of verbal autopsy was more than 93% for diagnosing prematurity and 83.5% for birth asphyxia. However the verbal autopsy didn't have acceptable accuracy for diagnosing the congenital malformation 57%. The specificity for all five major causes of neonatal deaths was greater than 90%. The WHO revised verbal autopsy tool had reasonable validity in determining causes of neonatal deaths. The tool can be used in resource limited community-based settings where neonatal mortality rate is high and death certificates from hospitals are not available.

  20. Returns to Schooling, Ability and Cognitive Skills in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslam, Monazza; Bari, Faisal; Kingdon, Geeta

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the economic outcomes of education for wage earners in Pakistan. This is done by analysing the relationship between schooling, cognitive skills and ability, on the one hand, and economic activity, occupation, sectoral choice and earnings, on the other. In Pakistan, an important question remains largely unaddressed: what…

  1. Deconstructive Pedagogy and Ideological Demystification in Post-Colonial Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansoor, Asma; Malik, Samina

    2016-01-01

    With post-colonial Pakistan inheriting the British colonial ideological and governmental apparatus, the English literature curriculum implemented at the university level in Pakistan carried the interpellatory baggage of its colonial past. Our interdisciplinary exploration focuses on using deconstructive pedagogy to demystify and subvert the…

  2. Evaluation Study of Early Childhood Education in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shakeel, Muhammad; Farooq, Muhammad; Umbreen

    2011-01-01

    Early Childhood Education (ECE) was globally and locally an innovation, particularly in third world. The objective of this study was to investigate an impact evaluation of ECE initiated recently in Pakistan. The data of impact evaluation were drawn from three ECE Centers of Islamabad Capital Territory (ICT), Pakistan. Total samples of 65…

  3. What Drives Pakistan’s Interest in Afghanistan?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-19

    Asian markets . 40 Ibid, 52-53. 41 Ahmed Rashid, Taliban: Militant Islam, Oil and...complex challenges in this volatile region, an observer must not only analyze Pakistan but also their historical relationship with Afghanistan to...analyze Pakistan but its relationship with Afghanistan to understand Pakistani motivations and concerns within this volatile region of the world

  4. Combining Education and Work; Experiences in Asia and Oceania: Pakistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Ministry of Education, Islamabad (Pakistan).

    In Pakistan, academic education is a luxury. Instead, education must be geared to production, solving practical problems, and promoting national development. Since 1951, Pakistan has attempted to bring work and education together and to throw off the structural and attitudinal restrictions of a foreign educational system which strangled tradition,…

  5. Empowerment of Women through Distance Education in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bukhsh, Qadir

    2007-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to highlight the gender disparities of Pakistan as well as at regional and international level. The study, measured the comparative outcome of formal and non-formal system of education in Pakistan. To achieve the desired goal, documentary analysis was considered appropriate. The number of schools and enrollment…

  6. Education and Gendered Citizenship in Pakistan. Postcolonial Studies in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naseem, M. Ayaz

    2010-01-01

    "Education and Gendered Citizenship in Pakistan" challenges the uncritical use of the long held dictum of the development discourse that education empowers women. Situated in the post-structuralist feminist position, it argues that in its current state the educational discourse in Pakistan actually disempowers women. Through a systematic…

  7. Education Reform in Pakistan: Building for the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hathaway, Robert M., Ed.

    2005-01-01

    Washington seems to be in a season of worrying--some might say "obsessing"--about the education system in Pakistan. The 9/11 Commission, whose final report has become a fixture on the bestseller lists, has highlighted the links between international terrorism and Pakistan's religious seminaries, or "madaris", and recommended…

  8. In Pakistan, the Problems that Money Can Bring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neelakantan, Shailaja

    2007-01-01

    Over the past four years, Pakistan's higher-education budget has increased more than sevenfold, to about $449-million. While that amounts to only 0.5 percent of Pakistan's gross domestic product, it is a big improvement from the days of barely enough to pay "measly salaries and basic bills." But for students, along with many of…

  9. Deconstructive Pedagogy and Ideological Demystification in Post-Colonial Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansoor, Asma; Malik, Samina

    2016-01-01

    With post-colonial Pakistan inheriting the British colonial ideological and governmental apparatus, the English literature curriculum implemented at the university level in Pakistan carried the interpellatory baggage of its colonial past. Our interdisciplinary exploration focuses on using deconstructive pedagogy to demystify and subvert the…

  10. In Pakistan, the Problems that Money Can Bring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neelakantan, Shailaja

    2007-01-01

    Over the past four years, Pakistan's higher-education budget has increased more than sevenfold, to about $449-million. While that amounts to only 0.5 percent of Pakistan's gross domestic product, it is a big improvement from the days of barely enough to pay "measly salaries and basic bills." But for students, along with many of…

  11. Assessment Drives Student Learning: Evidence for Summative Assessment from Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qureshi, Rashida; Zahoor, Mahrukh; Zahoor, Mahwish

    2017-01-01

    Research studies from various parts of the world indicate that university students find research methodology courses among the most difficult subjects to grasp. Students in Pakistan display similar attitudes towards learning of research. Those of us who teach research at the institutions of higher learning in Pakistan continuously hear students…

  12. Women's Perspectives of Peace: Unheard Voices from Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habib, Zehra

    2013-01-01

    Pakistan is currently impacted by rampant terrorism and is simultaneously grappling with intrastate ethnic and sectarian violence. The focus of this dissertation was on examining grassroots Pakistani women's perspectives on peace and women's contributions to peace in Pakistan. The study was centered on grassroots women because their voices remain…

  13. Faunistics of Tiger Beetles (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae) from Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Rafi, Muhammad Ather; Jürgen, Wiesner; Matin, Muhammad Abdul; Zia, Ahmed; Sultan, Amir; Naz, Falak

    2010-01-01

    The present biogeographic distribution of tiger beetle fauna is an attempt to register all modern taxa from Pakistan. It includes 55 taxa under 14 genera and 11 subgenera. Three species, Cylindera (Eriodera) albopunctata (Chaudoir 1852), Cicindela viridilabris (Chaudoir 1852) and Neocollyris (Neocollyris) redtenbacheri (Horn 1894) are recorded from Pakistan for the first time. PMID:20874597

  14. Pakistan: Can the United States Secure an Insecure State?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    Ethnocentrism is a problem. Pakistan lost Bangladesh in its 1971 civil war in part because West Pakistanis viewed Bengalis, who are the dominant ethnic...137. 64 Pakistan: Can the United States Secure an Insecure State? in the last few years of rapid growth, consumer price inflation surged to 25

  15. A Study of Students' Attitude Towards Virtual Education in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussain, Irshad

    2007-01-01

    Virtual education paradigm has been developing as a form of distance education to provide education across the boundaries of a nation and/or country. It imparts education through information and communication technologies. In Pakistan the Virtual University of Pakistan imparts it. The main objective of the study was to evaluate the students'…

  16. Promoting Primary Education for Girls in Pakistan. CDIE Impact Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agency for International Development (IDCA), Washington, DC.

    This report details a field study to evaluate the efforts of Pakistan's Primary Education Development Program (PED) to improve the access, equity, and quality of primary education in Pakistan, especially for rural girls. A 3-week visit was conducted in 1997 by a team from the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) Center for…

  17. Women's Perspectives of Peace: Unheard Voices from Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habib, Zehra

    2013-01-01

    Pakistan is currently impacted by rampant terrorism and is simultaneously grappling with intrastate ethnic and sectarian violence. The focus of this dissertation was on examining grassroots Pakistani women's perspectives on peace and women's contributions to peace in Pakistan. The study was centered on grassroots women because their voices remain…

  18. Education and Gendered Citizenship in Pakistan. Postcolonial Studies in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naseem, M. Ayaz

    2010-01-01

    "Education and Gendered Citizenship in Pakistan" challenges the uncritical use of the long held dictum of the development discourse that education empowers women. Situated in the post-structuralist feminist position, it argues that in its current state the educational discourse in Pakistan actually disempowers women. Through a systematic…

  19. Returns to Schooling, Ability and Cognitive Skills in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslam, Monazza; Bari, Faisal; Kingdon, Geeta

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the economic outcomes of education for wage earners in Pakistan. This is done by analysing the relationship between schooling, cognitive skills and ability, on the one hand, and economic activity, occupation, sectoral choice and earnings, on the other. In Pakistan, an important question remains largely unaddressed: what…

  20. Problematizing High School Certificate Exam in Pakistan: A Washback Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jilani, Raana

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes and evaluates the Higher-Secondary School Certificate (HSC) exam in Pakistan that has been in place in its present form for more than thirty years. The author recounts her experience as a teacher of English in a representative high school in Pakistan and, reflecting on the impact of high school public exam, she argues that the…

  1. A Pragmatic LDI Operational Network Model for Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheikh, Roshan; Mirza, Zahir Abbas

    2008-10-01

    This paper describes some common components of contemporary designs for the Long Distance & International (LDI) License in Pakistan and identifies critical aspects needed to implement a commercial LDI network in any developing country like Pakistan. An extensive study is carried out to evaluate various methods through which a carrier can receive and transmit voice traffic and identify their respective merits and demerits. Deficiencies which can harm the growth of telecom market in Pakistan and which require redress by the Pakistan Telecommunication Authority (PTA) are highlighted. A pragmatic model is proposed which takes into consideration, the constraints of Pakistan Telecommunication market. The paper concludes that the proposed model be incorporated with specific suggestions and economic justifications.

  2. Mercury exposure in the work place and human health: dental amalgam use in dentistry at dental teaching institutions and private dental clinics in selected cities of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khwaja, Mahmood A; Nawaz, Sadaf; Ali, Saeed Waqar

    2016-03-01

    During the past two decades, mercury has come under increasing scrutiny with regard to its safety both in the general population and in occupationally exposed groups. It's a growing issue of global concern because of its adverse environmental and health impacts. Very few investigations on mercury amalgam use in the dentistry sector have been carried out in South Asia and there is little data reported on mercury contamination of indoor/outdoor air at dental sites. According to an earlier SDPI study, reported in 2013, alarmingly high mercury levels were observed in air (indoor as well as outdoor) at 11 of the 34 visited dental sites (17 dental teaching institutions, 7 general hospitals & 10 dental clinics) in five main cities of Pakistan. 88% of the sites indicated indoor mercury levels in air above the USA EPA reference level of 300 ng/m3. According to our study, carried out at 38 dental teaching institutions in 12 main cities (in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Punjab and Sindh provinces) of Pakistan, respondents were of the opinion that the currently offered BDS curriculum does not effectively guide outgoing dental professionals and does not provide them adequate knowledge and training about mercury/mercury amalgam and other mercury related human health and mercury waste issues. 90% of respondents supported the review and revision of the present dental curriculum offered at dental teaching institutions in the country, at the earliest. A study has also been conducted to assess the status of mercury amalgam use in private dental clinics in Gilgit, Hunza, Peshawar, Rawalpindi and Islamabad. More than 90 private dental clinics were visited and dental professionals/private clinics in-charge were interviewed during June-July, 2015. The focus areas of the study were Hg amalgam toxicity, its waste management practices and safety measures practiced among the dental practitioners. In the light of the findings described and discussed in this brief report, to safeguard public health and

  3. Review of the idiocerine leafhoppers of Pakistan (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae) with a description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Khatri, Imran; Webb, M D

    2014-09-05

    The Idiocerinae of Pakistan are reviewed and a new species, Tasnimocerus sindhensis sp. nov. (Pakistan: Tandojam), is described and illustrated from Pakistan. Two new junior synonyms of Idioscopus nitidulus (Walker) are recognized: Idioscopus karachiensis Ahmed, Naheed & Ahmed syn. nov. and I. freytagi Ahmed, Naheed & Ahmed syn. nov. Idioscopus nagpurensis (Pruthi) is newly recorded from Pakistan. A checklist of Idiocerinae from Pakistan is also provided together with a key to genera and species. 

  4. Women's rights in Pakistan: a forensic perspective.

    PubMed

    Hadi, Sibte

    2003-04-01

    Pakistan is a large and an important West Asian country which came into being in the name of Islam and therefore Islamic tenets remain the core of its constitution. The laws of the state have to conform to Islamic law so that they can have a positive impact on the society. Unfortunately, in Pakistan today not all men enjoy the rights and facilities to which they are entitled and women are doubly disadvantaged by poverty and gender. With their own political agendas, various governments have promulgated laws which affect the society in various ways. The laws which directly influence women's rights merit mention, as women comprise more than 50% of the population of Pakistan and are still kept on the sidelines by the male dominant society. The Muslim Family Law Ordinance, 1961, and the Hudood Ordinance, 1979 were both promulgated by military dictators with different visions. The former codified the rights of women bestowed by Islamic law; the latter repealed laws for sexual offences according to the injunctions of Islam and had a negative impact. Both laws need the assistance of forensic medicine as age estimation and medical examinations are necessary if they are to be followed in the right perspective. However, a legal need for an examination by an expert in forensic medicine is sadly lacking in both laws. This has happened due to lack of training of forensic physicians and therefore a lack of research in important areas of forensic medicine in the country. This paper examines these laws and the interaction they have with forensic medicine and proposes that the laws need revision in accordance with modern science, incorporating forensic sciences as well as the injunctions of Islam.

  5. Factors affecting contraceptive use in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, N; Ringheim, K

    1996-01-01

    This study postulates that contraceptive use in Pakistan is affected by the usual demographic factors as well as husband-wife communication, female autonomy, son preference, religious beliefs, and family planning service supply. Analysis is based on data obtained from the Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey of 1990-91. Findings indicate that 74% of women never talked in the past year with their husbands about family planning. Almost 60% believed that family size was "up to God." About 47% knew where to obtain contraception; only 20.4% had easy access to a source of supplies. Current use was 14% and ever use was 22.4%. Analysis is based on three basic models. Model 1 includes the control variables and son preference. Model 2 includes husband-wife communication, religious attitudes, and female autonomy. Model 3 includes the addition of family planning to model 2 variables. Urban residence increases the odds of contraceptive use considerably only in Model 1. The influence of urban residence in the other models is reduced. Husband's education is significant only in Models 1 and 2 and insignificant in Model 3 when the family planning variable is included. Increased women's age is also insignificant in Model 3. Of the supply factors in Model 3, knowledge of a source and easy access to a source were highly significant, while mass media exposure was not important. Knowledge of a source was the most important predictor. Model 3 explained 90% of use. Among urban women, lack of husband-wife communication and fatalistic beliefs reduce the log-odds of contraceptive use. For rural women, age and women's secondary education were key predictors. Findings confirm that demographic and socio-cultural factors affect contraceptive use in Pakistan. All the theorized variables exerted a strong influence on contraceptive use, which can be counteracted by improved supply and service strategies.

  6. Earthquake Births New Island off Pakistan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-28

    On September 24, 2013, a major strike-slip earthquake rattled western Pakistan, killing at least 350 people and leaving more than 100,000 homeless. The 7.7 magnitude quake struck the Baluchistan province of northwestern Pakistan. Amidst the destruction, a new island was created offshore in the Paddi Zirr (West Bay) near Gwadar, Pakistan. On September 26, 2013, the Advanced Land Imager (ALI) on NASA’s Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) satellite captured the top image of that new island, which sits roughly one kilometer (0.6 miles) offshore. Likely a “mud volcano,” the island rose from the seafloor near Gwadar on September 24, shortly after the earthquake struck about 380 kilometers (230 miles) inland. The lower image, acquired by the Operational Land Imager on the Landsat 8 satellite, shows the same area on April 17, 2013. In the satellite images, lighter shades of green and tan in the water reveal shallow seafloor or suspended sediment. The water depth around the new island is roughly 15 to 20 meters (50 to 65 feet), according to marine geologist Asif Inam of Pakistan’s National Institute of Oceanography. “The floor in that area is generally flat, but the gradient in this area changes quite abruptly,” Inam said. The top image from ALI is also clear enough to show the parallel ripples of waves marching toward the shore. Read more: earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=82146 NASA Earth Observatory image by Jesse Allen and Robert Simmon, using EO-1 ALI data from the NASA EO-1 team. NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  7. Stressors affecting nursing students in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Watson, R; Rehman, S; Ali, P A

    2017-08-08

    To determine factors contributing to stress experienced by preregistration nursing students in Pakistan, using the Stressors in Nursing Students scale. The aim was to explore the psychometric properties of this instrument and to investigate the effect of a range of demographic variables on the perception of stressors in nursing students. Nursing is a stressful profession, and nursing students may experience more stress due to competing demands and challenges of nursing education, assessment, placements and worries about employment prospects. In this cross-sectional survey, data from 726 nursing students from 11 schools of nursing in Karachi, Pakistan, were collected using a questionnaire. Data were analysed using descriptive as well inferential statistics. An exploratory factor analysis was also conducted. There was no apparent factor structure to the Stressors in Nursing Students scale, unlike in previous studies. The total score on the Stressors in Nursing Students scale was related to gender with males scoring higher. The score generally increased over 4 years of the programme, and students in private schools of nursing scored higher than those in public schools of nursing. Nursing students in Pakistan do not appear to differentiate between different stressors, and this may be due to cultural differences in the students and to the structure of the programme and the articulation between the academic and clinical aspects. Likewise, cultural reasons may account for differences between stress experienced by male and female students. The fact that scores on the Stressors in Nursing Students scale increased over 4 years of the programme and males scored higher than females should alert nursing schools and policymakers related to nursing education and workforce to pay attention to prevent attrition from nursing programmes. © 2017 International Council of Nurses.

  8. Health sector reform in Pakistan: future directions.

    PubMed

    Islam, A

    2002-04-01

    The health care system in Pakistan is beset with numerous problems--structural fragmentation, gender insensitivity, resource scarcity, inefficiency and lack of functional specificity and accessibility. Faced with a precarious economic situation characterized by heavy external debt and faltering productivity, Pakistan's room to maneuver with health sector reform is quite limited. Although the recently announced Devolution Plan provides a window of opportunity, it must go beyond and introduce far-reaching changes in the health and social sectors. Regionalization of health care services in an integrated manner with functional specificity for each level of care is an essential step. Integration of current vertical programs within the framework of a need-based comprehensive primary health care system is another necessary step. Most importantly, fostering a public-private partnership to share the cost of basic primary health care and public health services must be an integral part of any reform. Pakistan must also make the health care system more gender sensitive through appropriate training programs for the service providers along with wide community participation in decision-making processes. Relevant WHO/World Bank/UNDP developed tools could be extremely useful in this respect. The article is based on a critical analysis of secondary data from the public domain as well as from various research projects undertaken by the Aga Khan University. It also draws from the experiences of health sector reform carried out in other countries, particularly those in the Asia-Pacific region. The purpose is to inform and hopefully influence, public policy as the country moves towards devolution.

  9. Leprosy in Pakistan: LEPRA elective study.

    PubMed

    Ladhani, S

    1998-06-01

    As part of the curriculum, medical students at the United Medical and Dental Schools of Guy's and St Thomas's Hospitals (UMDS), London, are encouraged to spend an elective period of 8 weeks in their final year anywhere in the world, studying any field of medicine they are interested in. Having lived in Tanzania for 10 years, I have had contact with people suffering from leprosy and my interest in leprosy continued after I moved to Europe to continue my education. I therefore decided to use my elective to gain hands-on experience with the disease so that I could understand and appreciate the impact of leprosy in developing countries such as Pakistan.

  10. Engaging with community-based public and private mid-level providers for promoting the use of modern contraceptive methods in rural Pakistan: results from two innovative birth spacing interventions.

    PubMed

    Azmat, Syed Khurram; Hameed, Waqas; Hamza, Hasan Bin; Mustafa, Ghulam; Ishaque, Muhammad; Abbas, Ghazunfer; Khan, Omar Farooq; Asghar, Jamshaid; Munroe, Erik; Ali, Safdar; Hussain, Wajahat; Ali, Sajid; Ahmed, Aftab; Ali, Moazzam; Temmerman, Marleen

    2016-03-17

    Family planning (FP) interventions aimed at reducing population growth have negligible during the last two decades in Pakistan. Innovative FP interventions that help reduce the growing population burden are the need of the hour. Marie Stopes Society--Pakistan implemented an operational research project--'Evidence for Innovating to Save Lives', to explore effective and viable intervention models that can promote healthy timing and spacing of pregnancy in rural and under-served communities of Sindh, Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa provinces of Pakistan. We conducted a quasi-experimental (pre- and post-intervention with control arm) study to assess the effectiveness of each of the two intervention models, (1) Suraj model (meaning 'Sun' in English), which uses social franchises (SF) along with a demand-side financing (DSF) approach using free vouchers, and (2) Community Midwife (CMW) model, in promoting the use of modern contraceptive methods compared to respective controls. Baseline and endline cross-sectional household surveys were conducted, 24 months apart, by recruiting 5566 and 6316 married women of reproductive age (MWRA) respectively. We used Stata version 8 to report the net effect of interventions on outcome indicators using difference-in-differences analysis. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was used to assess the net effect of the intervention on current contraceptive use, keeping time constant and adjusting for other variables in the model. The Suraj model was effective in significantly increasing awareness about FP methods among MWRA by 14% percentage points, current contraceptive use by 5% percentage points and long term modern method--intrauterine device (IUD) use by 6% percentage points. The CMW model significantly increased contraceptive awareness by 28% percentage points, ever use of contraceptives by 7% percentage points and, IUD use by 3% percentage points. Additionally the Suraj intervention led to a 35% greater prevalence

  11. 76 FR 59488 - Designation of Three Individuals Pursuant to Executive Order 13224

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-26

    .... DOB Sep 1977; alt. DOB 1976; POB Madinah, Saudi Arabia; alt. POB Sangrar, Sindh Province, Pakistan; nationality Pakistan; alt. nationality Saudi Arabia (individual) . 3. SALIM, 'Abd al-Rahman Ould Muhammad...

  12. Progress toward poliomyelitis eradication--Afghanistan and Pakistan, 2008.

    PubMed

    2009-03-06

    Afghanistan and Pakistan, two of the four remaining countries where wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission has never been interrupted, represent one epidemiologic reservoir. During 2008, both countries continued to conduct coordinated supplemental immunization activities (SIAs) against type 1 WPV (WPV1) and type 3 WPV (WPV3) using oral polio vaccine (OPV). Much of Afghanistan remained polio-free in 2008, with the exception of the conflict-affected South Region. In Pakistan, however, WPV transmission increased, particularly after WPV1 reintroduction into polio-free areas of Punjab Province. In total, 149 WPV cases (31 in Afghanistan and 118 in Pakistan) were confirmed in 2008, compared with 49 cases in 2007. Serious security problems in areas along the common border limited access by vaccination teams to large numbers of children in the two countries. In Pakistan, continued managerial and operational problems impeded full implementation of SIAs and adversely affected vaccination coverage in areas not affected by security problems. This report updates previous reports and describes polio eradication activities in Afghanistan and Pakistan during January--December 2008. Further progress toward interruption of WPV transmission in Afghanistan and Pakistan will require continued measures to overcome access problems in conflict-affected areas of both countries and improvements in the quality of SIAs and delivery of routine immunization services in Pakistan.

  13. TRENDS IN COMPLETE DENTURE IMPRESSIONS IN PAKISTAN.

    PubMed

    Vohra, Fahim; Rashid, Haroon; Hanif, Ayesha; Ghani, Siti Mariam Ab; Najeeb, Shariq

    2015-01-01

    Multiple materials and techniques have been reported for complete denture impressions in literature. The aim of the study was to assess the trends in complete denture impression materials and techniques among general dental practitioners (GDP) and specialists (SP) in Pakistan. In this cross-sectional study, self-designed-structured questionnaires were distributed among 500 dentists in Pakistan. The three-part questionnaire enquired about the demographic features, preferred impression materials, impression techniques and related procedures commonly used in their clinical practice. A comparison between the responses of SP and GDP was also drawn. Frequency distribution and Chi-square test were performed to compare the responses. A total of 294 questionnaires were completed at a response rate of 58.8%. 75% of GDP used alginate for primary impressions and 66% of SP preferred impression compound for the same. A majority of both SP and GDP favoured the used of custom trays (SP 81%, GDP 85%) and selective pressure technique (SP 84%, GDP 53%) for final impression. However, 85% of GDP used zinc-oxide eugenol and 62% of SP favoured elastomeric materials for the same. Most of the SP and GDP used chemical cured resin custom trays (SP 54%, GDP 75%), however, 86% of SP used spaced trays and almost 60% of GDP preferred close-fitting trays. The practice of GDP and SP with regards to CD impression materials and techniques differed significantly. Continued education and training for GDP and SP with respect to procedures and techniques related to CD is recommended.

  14. Terrorism in Pakistan: a behavioral sciences perspective.

    PubMed

    Nizami, Asad Tamizuddin; Rana, Mowadat Hussain; Hassan, Tariq Mahmood; Minhas, Fareed Aslam

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews the behavioral science perspectives of terrorism in Pakistan. It can be argued that Pakistan has gained worldwide attention for "terrorism" and its role in the "war against terrorism". The region is well placed geopolitically for economic successes but has been plagued by terrorism in various shapes and forms. A behavioral sciences perspective of terrorism is an attempt to explain it in this part of the world as a complex interplay of historical, geopolitical, anthropological and psychosocial factors and forces. Drawing from theories by Western scholars to explain the behavioral and cognitive underpinnings of a terrorist mind, the authors highlight the peculiarities of similar operatives at individual and group levels. Thorny issues related to the ethical and human right dimensions of the topic are visited from the unique perspective of a society challenged by schisms and divergence of opinions at individual, family, and community levels. The authors have attempted to minimize the political descriptions, although this cannot be avoided entirely, because of the nature of terrorism.

  15. Priorities for toxic wastewater management in Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Rahman, A.

    1996-12-31

    This study assesses the number of industries in Pakistan, the total discharge of wastewater, the biological oxygen demand (BOD) load, and the toxicity of the wastewater. The industrial sector is a major contributor to water pollution, with high levels of BOD, heavy metals, and toxic compounds. Only 30 industries have installed water pollution control equipment, and most are working at a very low operational level. Priority industrial sectors for pollution control are medium- to large-scale textile industries and small-scale tanneries and electroplating industries. Each day the textile industries discharge about 85,000 m{sup 3} of wastewater with a high BOD, while the electroplating industries discharge about 23,000 m{sup 3} of highly toxic and hazardous wastewater. Various in-plant modifications can reduce wastewater discharges. Economic incentives, like tax rebates, subsidies, and soft loans, could be an option for motivating medium- to large-scale industries to control water pollution. Central treatment plants may be constructed for treating wastewater generated by small-scale industries. The estimated costs for the treatment of textile and electroplating wastewater are given. The legislative structure in Pakistan is insufficient for control of industrial pollution; not only do existing laws need revision, but more laws and regulations are needed to improve the state of affairs, and enforcement agencies need to be strengthened. 15 refs., 1 fig., 9 tabs.

  16. Pakistan's pattern of development and prospects.

    PubMed

    Baqui, M

    1979-01-01

    This paper analyzes past and present development experiences in Pakistan, and gives indications of possible directions for future development. Since 1969 there has been an open dissatisfaction with economic management from the government, which has resulted in a drying up of private investment. However, this drawback was partly balanced by a rapid increase in income received by Pakistanis working abroad, particularly in the Middle East. There have been slight increases in growth in agriculture, industry, and in the service sector, such as banking, insurance, and shipping. The growth of per capita income, however, is constantly offset by the acceleration in population growth, which has reached 3% a year. Literacy rate is still 19% of the total population, and basic health facilities cover only 50% of the population, while potable water supply is available to 11.2% of the rural population. Possible development directions would include the denationalization of some industries, and the creation of competition between the private and public sectors, so to improve the climate for private investment. Water availability for land irrigation should be expanded, and mineral fields better surveyed and exploited. Pakistan should develop the possibility of growing trade offered by its geographical location, improve all kinds of social services, including family planning, education, and health services, and provide the means to produce energy for all the prospected programs.

  17. Political determinants of Health: Lessons for Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Jooma, Rashid; Sabatinelli, Guido

    2014-01-01

    There is much concern about the capacity of the health system of Pakistan to meet its goals and obligations. Historically, the political thrust has been absent from the health policy formulation and this is reflected in the low and stagnant public allocations to health. Successive political leaderships have averred from considering healthcare is a common good rather than a market commodity and health has not been recognized as a constitutional right. Over 120 of world’s nation states have accepted health as a constitutional right but the 1973 Constitution of Pakistan does not mandate health or education as a fundamental right and the recently adopted 18th constitutional amendment missed the opportunity to extend access to primary health care as an obligation of the State. It is argued in this communication that missing from the calculations of policy formulation and agenda setting is the political benefits of providing health and other social services to underserved populations. Across the developing world, many examples are presented of governments undertaking progressive health reforms that bring services where none existed and subsequently reaping electoral benefit. The political determinant of healthcare will be realized when the political leaders of poorly performing countries can be convinced that embracing distributive policies and successfully bringing healthcare to the poor can be major factors in their re-elections. PMID:24948958

  18. Trends in the growth of population and labour force in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Hashmi, S S

    1990-01-01

    Trends in the growth of the population and labor force in Pakistan are examined and future prospects for growth of population and labor, particularly agriculture, are estimated. The definition of labor force as employed or seeking work after a short period of employment has led to a great disparity in results for women in the labor force. Past trends in population growth reflected a growth rate of 1.6% for the 1950's, and 2.4% in 1960. The population rose to 84.3 million in 1981 from 42.6 million in 1961, which intercensally was an increase of 3.6% per annum for 1961-72 and 3.1% per annum for 1972-81. The estimated rate for 1981-86 was 2.9%/year. The rural population doubled and the urban tripled. There was a net migration of 2.123 million to urban areas reported in the 1981 census. There is also evidence of a high sex ratio. Balochistan (7.1%) and Sindh (3.6%) provinces have the highest growth rates. Although the largest population is in the Punjab, the growth is the lowest at 2.7%. The population is primarily young -- 44.5% 15 years in 1981, which is the highest in the world. Under high, medium, and low levels of fertility, prospective trends are estimated for 2006 and 2031, and by sex every 5 years from 1981. Population under high fertility is expected to reach 270 million by 2031, which is 3.39 persons/hectare. The population/hectare of land under cultivation was 4.25 in 1981 and is expected to rise to 13.49 persons/hectare in 2031. 11 million acres could be brought under cultivation to reduce the ratio. However, there are ecological considerations as well as an employment problem. The dependency ratio under the high variant will decline from 76.8 persons 0-14 and 65 years/100 persons 15-64 years in 1986 to 70.3 in 2006 which is still considerably higher than other developing countries. It is suggested that replacement level fertility be attained as soon as possible. Under low fertility, replacement level can be reached by 2011 with strong political commitment

  19. Pattern of fall injuries in Pakistan: the Pakistan National Emergency Department Surveillance (Pak-NEDS) study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background We aimed to analyse the frequency and patterns of fall-related injuries presenting to the emergency departments (EDs) across Pakistan. Methods Pakistan National Emergency Departments surveillance system collected data from November 2010 to March 2011 on a 24/7 basis using a standardized tool in seven major EDs (five public and two private hospitals) in six major cities of Pakistan. For all patients presenting with fall-related injuries, we analysed data by intent with focus on unintentional falls. Simple frequencies were run for basic patient demographics, mechanism of falls, outcomes of fall injuries, mode of arrival to ED, investigations, and procedures with outcomes. Results There were 3335 fall-related injuries. In cases where intent was available, two-thirds (n = 1186, 65.3%) of fall injuries were unintentional. Among unintentional fall patients presenting to EDs, the majority (76.9%) were males and between 15-44 years of age (69%). The majority of the unintentional falls (n = 671, 56.6%) were due to slipping, followed by fall from height (n = 338, 28.5%). About two-thirds (n = 675, 66.6%) of fall injuries involved extremities, followed by head/neck (n = 257, 25.4%) and face (n = 99, 9.8%). Most of the patients were discharged from the hospital (n = 1059, 89.3%). There were 17 (1.3%) deaths among unintentional fall cases. Conclusion Falls are an important cause of injury-related visits to EDs in Pakistan. Most of the fall injury patients were men and in a productive age group. Fall injuries pose a burden on the healthcare system, especially emergency services, and future studies should therefore focus on safety measures at home and in workplaces to reduce this burden. PMID:26691821

  20. Improving oral health in Pakistan using dental hygienists.

    PubMed

    Shah, M A; Darby, M L; Bauman, D B

    2011-02-01

    This paper reviews the healthcare system, available dental care, and oral health status of people in Pakistan. Considering the enormous unmet oral health needs, the insufficient supply of dental professionals and the current unstructured dental hygiene curriculum in Pakistan, a mission, vision, and goals for professional dental hygiene in Pakistan is recommended. The authors offer recommendations for competency-based dental hygiene education and practice, professional credentialing, a practice act, and a dental hygiene scope of practice to promote the health, welfare, and quality of life of the Pakistani people. Specifically, the authors recommend increasing the number of quality dental hygiene programs, establishing the dental hygienist as a primary care provider of oral health services, enhancing current dental hygiene curriculum, and establishing a dental hygiene council with responsibility for educational requirements and regulation of dental hygienists in Pakistan.

  1. Child Labor in Pakistan: A Study of the Lahore Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Mian Aftab

    1991-01-01

    Child labor is exceptionally extensive in Pakistan. An interview survey in the Lahore area documented the magnitude, causes, and effects of child labor. Steps for fighting this problem are recommended. (BC)

  2. Child Labor in Pakistan: A Study of the Lahore Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Mian Aftab

    1991-01-01

    Child labor is exceptionally extensive in Pakistan. An interview survey in the Lahore area documented the magnitude, causes, and effects of child labor. Steps for fighting this problem are recommended. (BC)

  3. Barriers and strategies to improve influenza vaccination in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Farrukh, Muhammad Junaid; Ming, Long Chiau; Zaidi, Syed Tabish Razi; Khan, Tahir Mehmood

    2017-02-06

    Influenza vaccination is strongly recommended by World Health Organisation on a yearly basis. The rate of immunization in Pakistan is suboptimal. High cost, traditional norms, customs and low levels of education in Pakistan are preventing people from getting vaccinated. It is timely to include influenza vaccination in the expanded programme on immunization (EPI), which is a disease prevention programme aiming to eradicate preventable diseases through subsidized or free immunization. The Ministry of National Health Services, Regulation and Coordination, Government of Pakistan should launch a national influenza vaccine policy in view of this current situation and oversee its implementation. Healthcare professionals should promote influenza vaccination and focus on high risk groups such as the elderly, pregnant women and children. Convincing and educating family members regarding immunization of pregnant women and follow-up with parents regarding a second influenza shot for their children will further improve vaccination rates in Pakistan.

  4. Improving diabetes care in developing countries: the example of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Basit, Abdul; Riaz, Musarrat; Fawwad, Asher

    2015-02-01

    Pakistan is a developing country with limited recourses and diverse economic social patterns. Pakistan has high prevalence of diabetes and its complication, which is a huge challenge to the existing health care system. The major contributing risk factors are urbanization and change in lifestyle, maternal and fetal malnutrition and genetic factors. National action plans for control of diabetes have been made since 1995 but actions in this regard were not perfect. Training of primary care physicians and development of multidisciplinary diabetes care teams was initiated. Prioritization strategies were defined according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) guidance, mainly focusing on diabetic foot, diabetes education and children with diabetes. Researches for better understanding and management of diabetes in Pakistan were undertaken. Collaboration between various stakeholders was promoted at national and international level. In summary, public private relationships and development of multifaceted approaches is expected to improve the lives of millions of diabetics of Pakistan. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. NASA CloudSat Spots Beginning of Pakistan Floods

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-08-19

    In late July 2010, flooding caused by heavy monsoon rains began in several regions of Pakistan. This image from NASA Aqua spacecraft reveals the bright white cloud tops from the cluster of thunderstorms.

  6. Genetic history of hepatitis C virus in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    ur Rehman, Irshad; Vaughan, Gilberto; Purdy, Michael A; Xia, Guo-liang; Forbi, Joseph C; Rossi, Livia Maria Gonçalves; Butt, Sadia; Idrees, Muhammad; Khudyakov, Yury E

    2014-10-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 3a accounts for ∼80% of HCV infections in Pakistan, where ∼10 million people are HCV-infected. Here, we report analysis of the genetic heterogeneity of HCV NS3 and NS5b subgenomic regions from genotype 3a variants obtained from Pakistan. Phylogenetic analyses showed that Pakistani genotype 3a variants were as genetically diverse as global variants, with extensive intermixing. Bayesian estimates showed that the most recent ancestor for genotype 3a in Pakistan was last extant in ∼1896-1914 C.E. (range: 1851-1932). This genotype experienced a population expansion starting from ∼1905 to ∼1970 after which the effective population leveled. Death/birth models suggest that HCV 3a has reached saturating diversity with decreasing turnover rate and positive extinction. Taken together, these observations are consistent with a long and complex history of HCV 3a infection in Pakistan.

  7. JPRS Report, Near East and South Asia: Pakistan.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    foreign minister, now that the Warsaw Pact countries the infant’s " milk teeth" are "atomic teeth" that they have been defeated, Eastern European...indirect support has now exceeded $1,320 billion, the denial of access to from Pakistan, Afghan Muhajideen and some organisa- the markets of the...haven in Pakistan and borders completely fluid for cross movement, Indians The answer to all this is the South-South co-operation. In are heavily guarding

  8. Pakistan’s Nuclear Weapons: Proliferation and Security Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-30

    Fissile Material Report 2007,” International Panel on Fissile Materials http://www.fissilematerials.org/ipfm/site_down/gfmr07.pdf; SIPRI Yearbook 2007...for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs David Miliband told the Charlie Rose Show December 15, 2008, that Islamabad’s nuclear weapons “are under pretty...Weapons in Pakistan,” Pakistan Security Research Unit Brief Number 22, University of Bradford, November 18, 2007. Available at http

  9. Pakistan’s Nuclear Weapons: Proliferation and Security Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-15

    www.fissilematerials.org/ipfm/ site_down/gfmr07.pdf; SIPRI Yearbook 2007. The International Panel on Fissile Materials estimates that Pakistan has enough fissile material...Adviser M. K. Narayanan said that the arsenal is safe and has adequate checks and balances.64 Similarly, Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth ...Pakistan Security Research Unit Brief Number 22, University of Bradford, November 18, 2007. Available at http://spaces.brad.ac.uk:8080/download

  10. Pakistan’s Nuclear Weapons: Proliferation and Security Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    2007,” ibid.; SIPRI Yearbook 2007. 5 “Nuclear Notebook,” ibid. 6 “Global Fissile Material Report 2007,” International Panel on Fissile Materials...State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs David Miliband told the Charlie Rose Show December 15, 2008, that Islamabad’s nuclear weapons “are under...Nuclear Weapons in Pakistan,” Pakistan Security Research Unit Brief Number 22, University of Bradford, November 18, 2007. Available at http

  11. Pakistan’s Nuclear Weapons: Proliferation and Security Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-09

    International Panel on Fissile Materials http://www.fissilematerials.org/ipfm/ site_down/gfmr07.pdf; SIPRI Yearbook 2007. The International Panel on Fissile...and Commonwealth Affairs David Miliband told the Charlie Rose Show December 15, 2008, that Islamabad’s nuclear weapons “are under pretty close lock...Pakistan,” Pakistan Security Research Unit Brief Number 22, University of Bradford, November 18, 2007. Available at http://spaces.brad.ac.uk:8080

  12. JPRS Report, Near East and South Asia: Pakistan.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-10-25

    and Pakistan and influence in this region. A U.S. diplomat took this was held in Pakistan. Rajiv Gandhi went as far as to say recorded conversation to a...ignores the U.N. resolution, no and the international community to use their influence superpower will come to its aid. It cannot control the to...fast changing international States and the enormous influence it exercises over US environment. The country he will be representing in the political

  13. Islamic Fundamentalism in Pakistan. Its Characters and Prospects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    For although Pakistan was founded as a Muslim homeland, it was not at all the intention of its founder, Muhammad Ali Jinnah , that the state should be...origin: "* The founder of Pakistan, Muhammad ’ Ali Jinnah , was of Isma’ili background; "* Yahya Khan, former Commander in Chief of the Army, and then...more interested in socialist policies or regional issues. Islam entered more fully into the political debate when former Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali

  14. Child health inequalities and its dimensions in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Murtaza, Fowad; Mustafa, Tajammal; Awan, Rabia

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective: Poverty and inequality in health is pervasive in Pakistan. The provisions and conditions of health are very dismal. A significant proportion of the population (16.34%) of Pakistan is under 5 years, but Pakistan is in the bottom 5% of countries in the world in terms of spending on health and education. It is ranked the lowest in the world with sub-Sahara Africa in terms of child health equality. The objective of this study was to examine child health inequalities in Pakistan. Materials and Methods: We analyzed data from Pakistan Integrated Household Survey/Household Integrated Economic Survey 2001–2002, collected by the Pakistan Bureau of Statistics, Government of Pakistan. Coverage of diarrhea and immunization were used as indicators of child health. Stata 11.0 was used for data analysis. Descriptive statistics including frequency distribution and proportions for categorical variables and mean for continuous variables were computed. Results: Children under 5 years of age account for about 16.34% of the total population, 11.76% (2.5 million) of whom suffered from diarrhea in 1-month. The average duration of a diarrheal episode was 7 days. About 72% of the children who had diarrhea lived in a house without pipe-borne water supply. Around 22% children who had diarrhea had no advice or treatment. More than one-third of the households had no toilet in the house, and only 29% of the households were connected with pipe-borne drinking water. About 7.73% (1.6 million) children had never been immunized. The main reason for nonimmunization was parents’ lack of knowledge and of immunization. Conclusion: Child health inequalities in Pakistan are linked with several factors such as severe poverty, illiteracy, lack of knowledge, and awareness of child healthcare, singularly inadequate provision of health services, and poor infrastructure. PMID:26392798

  15. Stem Cell Research in Pakistan; Past, Present and Future

    PubMed Central

    Zahra, Sayeda Anum; Muzavir, Sayed Raheel; Ashraf, Sadia; Ahmad, Aftab

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Stem cells have proved to have great therapeutic potential as stem cell treatment is replacing traditional ways of treatment in different disorders like cancer, aplastic anemia, stroke, heart disorders. The developed and developing countries are investing differently in this area of research so research output and clinical translation of research greatly vary among developed and developing countries. Present study was done to investigate the current status of stem cells research in Pakistan and ways to improve it. Results Many advanced countries (USA, UK and Canada etc.) are investing heavily in stem cell research and treatment. Different developing countries like Iran, Turkey and India are also following the developed countries and investing a lot in stem cells research. Pakistan is also making efforts in establishing this field to get desired benefits but unfortunately the progress is at very low pace. If Government plays an active role along with private sector, stem cell research in Pakistan can be boosted up. The numbers of publications from Pakistan are very less compared to developed and neighboring countries and Pakistan also has very less number of institutes working in this area of research. Conclusions Stem cells research is at its initial stages in Pakistan and there is great need to bring Government, academia and industry together so they could make serious efforts to promote research in this very important field. This will help millions of patients suffering from incurable disorders and will also reduce economic loss. PMID:26019749

  16. Stem cell research in pakistan; past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Zahra, Sayeda Anum; Muzavir, Sayed Raheel; Ashraf, Sadia; Ahmad, Aftab

    2015-05-01

    Stem cells have proved to have great therapeutic potential as stem cell treatment is replacing traditional ways of treatment in different disorders like cancer, aplastic anemia, stroke, heart disorders. The developed and developing countries are investing differently in this area of research so research output and clinical translation of research greatly vary among developed and developing countries. Present study was done to investigate the current status of stem cells research in Pakistan and ways to improve it. Many advanced countries (USA, UK and Canada etc.) are investing heavily in stem cell research and treatment. Different developing countries like Iran, Turkey and India are also following the developed countries and investing a lot in stem cells research. Pakistan is also making efforts in establishing this field to get desired benefits but unfortunately the progress is at very low pace. If Government plays an active role along with private sector, stem cell research in Pakistan can be boosted up. The numbers of publications from Pakistan are very less compared to developed and neighboring countries and Pakistan also has very less number of institutes working in this area of research. Stem cells research is at its initial stages in Pakistan and there is great need to bring Government, academia and industry together so they could make serious efforts to promote research in this very important field. This will help millions of patients suffering from incurable disorders and will also reduce economic loss.

  17. Analysis of misoprostol and chlorhexidine policy gains in Pakistan: the advocacy experience of Mercy Corps Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Sarwar, Zahida; Cutherell, Andrea; Noor, Arif; Naureen, Farah; Norman, Jennifer

    2015-11-25

    While Pakistan has made progress toward achieving Millennium Development Goal 5 for maternal health, it is unlikely to achieve the target; further, it is also not on track for Millennium Development Goal 4 regarding child health. Two low-cost, temperature stable and life-saving drugs, misoprostol and chlorhexidine, can respectively avert maternal and newborn deaths, and are particularly pertinent for poor and marginalized areas which bear the brunt of maternal and newborn deaths in Pakistan. In response, Mercy Corps led focused advocacy efforts to promote changes in policies, protocols, and regulatory environments for misoprostol (2012-2014) and for chlorhexidine (2014). These short-duration advocacy projects facilitated significant policy gains, such as inclusion of misoprostol and chlorhexidine into province-specific essential drug lists, development and endorsement of clinical protocols for the two drugs by provincial health departments, inclusion of misoprostol into pre-service training curriculum for several health cadres, and application for registration of chlorhexidine (at the concentration required for newborn care) by two pharmaceutical companies. These results were achieved by a consultative and evidence-based process which generated feedback from community members, program implementers, and policymakers, and ultimately put the government in the driver's seat to facilitate change. Community Action Dialogue forums were linked with provincial-level Technical Working Groups and Provincial Steering Committees, who passed on endorsed recommendations to the Health Secretary. The key factors which facilitated change were the identification of champions within the provincial health departments, prioritization of relationship building and follow-up, focus on concrete advocacy aims rather than broad objectives, and the use of multi-stakeholder forums to secure an enabling environment for the policy changes to take root. While these advocacy initiatives resulted in

  18. Thyroid dysfunction in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Attaullah, Shahnaz; Haq, Bibi Safia; Muska, Mairman

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research was to elucidate some of the major relation of thyroid dysfunctions, keeping in view the various selected demographic details of included patients. This study was approved by the ethical committee of Post Graduate Medical Institute (PGMI) Hayatabad Medical Complex Peshawar, and was conducted in the Institute of Radioactive Nuclear Medicine (IRNUM) Peshawar. The blood samples were collected, followed by their analysis for triiodothyronine (T3), tetraiodothyronine (T4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). The results obtained regarding the demographical aspects of the patients revealed that female gender has categorically significantly high percentage of occurrence of thyroid abnormality as compared to male gender (75.8% vs. 24.2%). Results regarding locality distribution of the patients depicted that majority of those belonged to the local population of Peshawar and Charsadda region. In Pakistan especially Khyber Pakhtunkwa (KPK), thyroid diseases are more common in females as compared to males. The most probable causes could be lactation and pregnancy.

  19. AID seeks proposals for Pakistan's CSM project.

    PubMed

    1985-01-01

    The US Agency for International Development (AID) has prepared a request for proposals (RFP) for an international contractor to provide technical advice to Pakistan's projected contraceptive social marketing program. Sales of both condoms and a low-dose oral contraceptive were planned for 1986. At this point, however, the social marketing project's implementation remains in doubt as a result of internal government opposition. The government had hoped to implement the project without an outside contractor, but this proved infeasible. The RFP prepared by USAID outlines a 4-year involvement for a resident advisor. Funds will come from a 5-year US$20 million contract signed in 1984 by USAID and the Pakistani government. USAID remains optimistic that the project will continue, despite this delay, and is proceeding to procure commodities.

  20. Pakistan: opening chinks in the armour.

    PubMed

    Chhabra, R

    1998-01-01

    In Pakistan, a dozen young women attended a "Girl Child Project (GCP) Supervisors Meeting" in a rural home. While this gathering hardly seems revolutionary, the young women had to take the unusual step of travelling unescorted to attend, relying on community recognition of their hard-earned status as Baiji (aunt/elder sister). Later, a effervescent leader conducted a tour of her project ward where girls do needlework, operate nursery schools, attend sewing or literacy classes, and tend a vegetable garden. At the start of her 7-year involvement with the GCP, this leader, who now inspires awe for her ability to call a public meeting, was a newly widowed mother of a baby who resented the workshops that forced her to talk to outsiders. Another role model is a leader who used the project to develop skills that landed her a full-time job as an extension worker in the National Rural Support Program. The recent arrangements for this young woman's marriage included the unprecedented agreement of her fiance to live with her widowed mother so his new bride could continue to help care for her three younger siblings. The GCP began in the early 1990s by training 500 young women who, in turn, trained others, has expanded to 10,000 girls in 200 locations, and is beginning another major expansion. While the GCP has achieved community support, it will require connections to governmental programs and nonexploitative market mechanisms in order to continue its success. This effort may be aided by the networking of the Family Planning Association of Pakistan and by the government's new educational policy that focuses on the needs of girls.

  1. Food poverty and its causes in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, S; Sheikh, K H; Mahmood, T

    1991-01-01

    Economists and a demographer analyzed data from the 1984-1985 Household and Income Expenditure Survey using the Foster and Thorbeke model to measure the poverty level in Pakistan. This model considers the minimum level of food expenditure/adult equivalent required to purchase the required daily allowance of energy intake. The analysts calculated the poverty lines to be Rs 246.00 for urban areas and Rs 149.00 for rural areas. They learned that the real poor and less poor households did not rank expenditures on food as a top priority despite deficient food intake. Thus traditional diet pattern did not differentiate the real poor from the less power, but rather lower purchasing power. They defined real poor households as those who had a negative or O relationship between income and food and less poor households as those who had a positive relationship even though the magnitude of the slope coefficient was extremely small (.024 for urban areas and .082 for rural areas). The larger the family size the more likely a household was poor and the members malnourished. This was especially true if the family size grew because of the addition of more dependents. On the other hand, the more education the head of the household and his wife the less likely the household was poor and the members malnourished. In fact, the negative effect of education on poverty and malnutrition was strongest for the wife. 2% of all urban households and 3% of all rural households ranked as real poor households. 59% and 35% respectively ranked as less poor households. Even though the difference in food poverty between extended and nuclear families was insignificant, extended families fared better than nuclear families. These findings showed that Pakistan should design its food policy to target the real poor by improving their nutritional status without forsaking that of the less poor.

  2. Barriers to Colorectal Cancer Screening in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Fariha; Mahmood Shah, Sayed Mustafa; Munaf, Misbah; Khan, Muhammad R; Marsia, Shayan; Haaris, Syed Muhammad; Shaikh, Muhammad Hammad; Abdur Rahim, Ismail; Anwar, Muhammad Salar; Qureshi, Kassam S; Iqbal, Maham; Qazi, Sara; Kasi, Burhanuddin A; Tahir, Mahnoor; Ur Rehman, Syed Inam; Fatima, Kaneez

    2017-07-16

    Background The prevalence of colorectal cancer (CRC) is growing in Pakistan; however, there are no national screening programs or guidelines in place to curb its development. This study was conducted with the aim of ascertaining public awareness and attitudes regarding CRC and current screening practices. Furthermore, the study assessed perceived barriers which could impact future screening processes. Methods A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study was conducted among urban dwellers of Karachi, Pakistan. We excluded any individuals belonging to the medical profession, those diagnosed previously with CRC or having any significant co-morbidity. The validated and pre-tested questionnaire was administered among the study participants to record demographic information, awareness of CRC risk factors, symptoms and screening tests. Attitudes towards screening and perceived barriers to screening were also assessed. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 20.0) (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY). A knowledge score, out of a total of 14 points was calculated to reflect a participant's overall knowledge regarding CRC risk factors and signs/symptoms. Results The prevalence of CRC screening in eligible individuals (50 years or older) was 2.6% in our study population. Positive attitudes towards CRC management and screening were observed, with 75.1% (n = 296) acknowledging the preventive role of screening tests. Despite this only 14.9% (n = 58) of study participants expressed a future desire to undergo screening. Major barriers to screening were reported to be "a lack of knowledge regarding the screening procedure", a "lack of screening facilities" and that the "screening procedure is too expensive". A majority (n = 285, 72.3%) of the participants expressed a greater willingness to undergo screening if their doctor recommended it. Conclusion A national CRC screening and awareness program should be launched to promote awareness and facilitate

  3. Daughter neglect, women's work, and marriage: Pakistan and Bangladesh compared.

    PubMed

    Miller, B D

    1984-01-01

    This article looks at juvenile sex ratios, juvenile mortality, women's work roles and marriage patterns in Pakistan and bangladesh in order to assess whether patterns previously observed in India, namely, daughter neglect in the northwest and equal juvenile sex ratios in the eastern part of the country, are carried over into the 2 adjacent nations, Pakistan and Bangladesh, respectively. The Indian study indicates that nationwide sex ratio data, sample survey data on childhood mortality, longitudinal population records in several locations and ethonographic evidence all point to inequalities in mortality as the prime cause of unbalanced sex ratios. The juvenile sex ratios of Pakistan and Bangladesh are very different from 1 another. Whereas there are no regional contrasts among juvenile sex ratios within Bangladesh, it is greater within Pakistan. Sex ratio data correspond roughly to what the mortality data indicate in terms of the contrast between Pakistan and Bangladesh. The evidence on juvenile mortality in both countries is too scant to support an airtight argument that juvenile females in Pakistan have much higher mortality rates than boys, while mortality rates are more balanced in Bangladesh. But the existing evidence clearly points to that conclusion. The immediate causes of the greater sex-differential mortality in Pakistan cannot be documented in the available ethnographic literature. Biased allocation of food, medical care, and love might be operating. Looking at the economic and sociocultural complex that promotes much differences between Pakistan and Bangladesh, it is argued that, in both countries, class-based variations in both women's work and marriage patterns exist and are important. It is hypothesized that females in Pakistan are little valued for agricultural labor, and pose an economic liability on their families who need to provide a large dowry with her marriage to compensate for the daughter's low economic utility to the agrucultural workforce

  4. K-means cluster analysis and seismicity partitioning for Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehman, Khaista; Burton, Paul W.; Weatherill, Graeme A.

    2014-07-01

    Pakistan and the western Himalaya is a region of high seismic activity located at the triple junction between the Arabian, Eurasian and Indian plates. Four devastating earthquakes have resulted in significant numbers of fatalities in Pakistan and the surrounding region in the past century (Quetta, 1935; Makran, 1945; Pattan, 1974 and the recent 2005 Kashmir earthquake). It is therefore necessary to develop an understanding of the spatial distribution of seismicity and the potential seismogenic sources across the region. This forms an important basis for the calculation of seismic hazard; a crucial input in seismic design codes needed to begin to effectively mitigate the high earthquake risk in Pakistan. The development of seismogenic source zones for seismic hazard analysis is driven by both geological and seismotectonic inputs. Despite the many developments in seismic hazard in recent decades, the manner in which seismotectonic information feeds the definition of the seismic source can, in many parts of the world including Pakistan and the surrounding regions, remain a subjective process driven primarily by expert judgment. Whilst much research is ongoing to map and characterise active faults in Pakistan, knowledge of the seismogenic properties of the active faults is still incomplete in much of the region. Consequently, seismicity, both historical and instrumental, remains a primary guide to the seismogenic sources of Pakistan. This study utilises a cluster analysis approach for the purposes of identifying spatial differences in seismicity, which can be utilised to form a basis for delineating seismogenic source regions. An effort is made to examine seismicity partitioning for Pakistan with respect to earthquake database, seismic cluster analysis and seismic partitions in a seismic hazard context. A magnitude homogenous earthquake catalogue has been compiled using various available earthquake data. The earthquake catalogue covers a time span from 1930 to 2007 and

  5. Effect of integrated responsive stimulation and nutrition interventions in the Lady Health Worker programme in Pakistan on child development, growth, and health outcomes: a cluster-randomised factorial effectiveness trial.

    PubMed

    Yousafzai, Aisha K; Rasheed, Muneera A; Rizvi, Arjumand; Armstrong, Robert; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2014-10-04

    Stimulation and nutrition delivered through health programmes at a large scale could potentially benefit more than 200 million young children worldwide who are not meeting their developmental potential. We investigated the feasibility and effectiveness of the integration of interventions to enhance child development and growth outcomes in the Lady Health Worker (LHW) programme in Sindh, Pakistan. We implemented a community-based cluster-randomised effectiveness trial through the LHW programme in rural Sindh, Pakistan, with a 2 × 2 factorial design. We randomly allocated 80 clusters (LHW catchments) of children to receive routine health and nutrition services (controls; n=368), nutrition education and multiple micronutrient powders (enhanced nutrition; n=364), responsive stimulation (responsive stimulation; n=383), or a combination of both enriched interventions (n=374). The allocation ratio was 1:20 (ie, 20 clusters per intervention group). The data collection team were masked to the allocated intervention. All children born in the study area between April, 2009, and March, 2010, were eligible for enrolment if they were up to 2·5 months old without signs of severe impairments. Interventions were delivered by LHWs to families with children up to 24 months of age in routine monthly group sessions and home visits. The primary endpoints were child development at 12 and 24 months of age (assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition) and growth at 24 months of age. Analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT007159636. 1489 mother-infant dyads were enrolled into the study, of whom 1411 (93%) were followed up until the children were 24 months old. Children who received responsive stimulation had significantly higher development scores on the cognitive, language, and motor scales at 12 and 24 months of age, and on the social-emotional scale at 12 months of age, than did those who

  6. Civil Airlines/Air Services in Bangladesh, India and Pakistan. Volumes 1 thru 4.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-03-01

    Calcutta-Dacca-Chittagong. The Indian subcontinent was partitioned into India and Pakistan in 1947; Bangladesh formed the eastern wing of Pakistan. Because...aircraft on following occasions: - Evacuation of refugees immediately after the partition of India and Pakistan during which period Indian civil aviation...year earlier to October 1946, when Mohammad Ali Jinnah , the founder of Pakistan, formed the Muslim-owned Orient Airways Limited in Calcutta. The

  7. Taming the `Wild West’ - Integrating the Federally Administered Tribal Areas of Pakistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah (the founder of Pakistan) for extending cooperation towards Pakistan in June 1947 at Delhi. One of the three30 conditions...Areas of Pakistan. 20. 10 NWFP.31 The Jinnah had a positive reaction to the proposal, but died before any...decision could be reached. After partition , the new state of Pakistan was to enter into fresh agreements and treaties with the tribal chiefs. The

  8. Potential for Expatriate Involvement with Handicapped Children in the N.W.F.P. of Pakistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, M.

    The North West Frontier Province of Pakistan plans to improve services and facilities for handicapped children and is encouraging expatriates to bring their skills to Pakistan. Staff of current institutions are either untrained or have received short courses of training within Pakistan. There are currently about five expatriates working in the…

  9. United States Treatment of the Subcontinent and the Indo-Pakistan Dispute

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1966-04-08

    this by citing the economic benefits she gains through membership and ignores the military implications. 1 OGustav F. Papanek , Pakistan - The...54 46. Papanek , Gustav F. Pakistan - The Development Miracle. Washington: Pakistan Embassy, 1965. 47. Patel, H. M. The Defence of India. New York: Asia

  10. Potential for Expatriate Involvement with Handicapped Children in the N.W.F.P. of Pakistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, M.

    The North West Frontier Province of Pakistan plans to improve services and facilities for handicapped children and is encouraging expatriates to bring their skills to Pakistan. Staff of current institutions are either untrained or have received short courses of training within Pakistan. There are currently about five expatriates working in the…

  11. Teacher Education in Pakistan: Analysis of Planning Issues in Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunzai, Zohra Nisar

    2009-01-01

    This article focuses on the status of teacher education and early childhood education in Pakistan. The paper analyzes planning issues in early childhood teacher education by examining education policies and existing practices in early childhood teacher education in Pakistan. Initiatives taken at public and private levels in Pakistan are also…

  12. Causes of blindness and visual impairment in Pakistan. The Pakistan national blindness and visual impairment survey

    PubMed Central

    Dineen, B; Bourne, R R A; Jadoon, Z; Shah, S P; Khan, M A; Foster, A; Gilbert, C E; Khan, M D

    2007-01-01

    Objective To determine the causes of blindness and visual impairment in adults (⩾30 years old) in Pakistan, and to explore socio‐demographic variations in cause. Methods A multi‐stage, stratified, cluster random sampling survey was used to select a nationally representative sample of adults. Each subject was interviewed, had their visual acuity measured and underwent autorefraction and fundus/optic disc examination. Those with a visual acuity of <6/12 in either eye underwent a more detailed ophthalmic examination. Causes of visual impairment were classified according to the accepted World Health Organization (WHO) methodology. An exploration of demographic variables was conducted using regression modeling. Results A sample of 16 507 adults (95.5% of those enumerated) was examined. Cataract was the most common cause of blindness (51.5%; defined as <3/60 in the better eye on presentation) followed by corneal opacity (11.8%), uncorrected aphakia (8.6%) and glaucoma (7.1%). Posterior capsular opacification accounted for 3.6% of blindness. Among the moderately visually impaired (<6/18 to ⩾6/60), refractive error was the most common cause (43%), followed by cataract (42%). Refractive error as a cause of severe visual impairment/blindness was significantly higher in rural dwellers than in urban dwellers (odds ratio (OR) 3.5, 95% CI 1.1 to 11.7). Significant provincial differences were also identified. Overall we estimate that 85.5% of causes were avoidable and that 904 000 adults in Pakistan have cataract (<6/60) requiring surgical intervention. Conclusions This comprehensive survey provides reliable estimates of the causes of blindness and visual impairment in Pakistan. Despite expanded surgical services, cataract still accounts for over half of the cases of blindness in Pakistan. One in eight blind adults has visual loss from sequelae of cataract surgery. Services for refractive errors need to be further expanded and integrated into eye care services

  13. Non-communicable diseases and injuries in Pakistan: strategic priorities.

    PubMed

    Jafar, Tazeen H; Haaland, Benjamin A; Rahman, Atif; Razzak, Junaid A; Bilger, Marcel; Naghavi, Mohsen; Mokdad, Ali H; Hyder, Adnan A

    2013-06-29

    Non-communicable diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, cancers, respiratory diseases, diabetes, and mental disorders, and injuries have become the major causes of morbidity and mortality in Pakistan. Tobacco use and hypertension are the leading attributable risk factors for deaths due to cardiovascular diseases, cancers, and respiratory diseases. Pakistan has the sixth highest number of people in the world with diabetes; every fourth adult is overweight or obese; cigarettes are cheap; antismoking and road safety laws are poorly enforced; and a mixed public-private health-care system provides suboptimum care. Furthermore, almost three decades of exposure to sociopolitical instability, economic uncertainty, violence, regional conflict, and dislocation have contributed to a high prevalence of mental health disorders. Projection models based on the Global Burden of Disease 2010 data suggest that there will be about 3·87 million premature deaths by 2025 from cardiovascular diseases, cancers, and chronic respiratory diseases in people aged 30-69 years in Pakistan, with serious economic consequences. Modelling of risk factor reductions also indicate that Pakistan could achieve at least a 20% reduction in the number of these deaths by 2025 by targeting of the major risk factors. We call for policy and legislative changes, and health-system interventions to target readily preventable non-communicable diseases in Pakistan.

  14. Molecular characterization of Ephedra species found in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ghafoor, S; Shah, M M; Ahmad, H; Swati, Z A; Shah, S H; Pervez, A; Farooq, U

    2007-12-11

    Ephedra, also known as "ma huang", is a dioecious, drought- and frost-resistant, perennial, evergreen shrub with compelling medicinal value. The genus is represented by 42 species around the world, 9 of which were provisionally reported from Pakistan. Species of the genus have a controversial taxonomy due to their overlapping morphological features. Conventional tools alone are not sufficient for characterizing the species. The objective of present study was to assess the genetic variability present in different biotypes of Ephedra growing in Pakistan using molecular markers. A total of six genotypes collected from diverse geographic zones of Pakistan were used. The DNA of all genotypes was amplified using nine randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers to study genetic variability at the molecular level. The dissimilarity coefficient matrix based on the data of 9 RAPD primers was used to construct a dendrogram which was then used to group the genotypes in clusters. Based on the dendrogram and dissimilarity coefficient matrix, the RAPD markers used here revealed a moderate to high level of genetic polymorphism (6 to 49%) among the genotypes. It was found that the collection of genotype accessions from Swat Valley in northwestern Pakistan was most distantly related to the other five collections. More molecular markers including functional genes and ribosomal spacer regions are suggested to find a better estimate of the genetic diversity present in Ephedra growing in Pakistan. The information provided here is useful for identifying valuable Ephedra variants which will be used for medicinal purposes and earning foreign currency.

  15. Regional Studies of the Potwar Plateau Area, Northern Pakistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warwick, Peter D.; Wardlaw, Bruce R.

    2007-01-01

    The papers in this volume are products of a cooperative program between the Geological Survey of Pakistan (GSP) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), sponsored by the Government of Pakistan and the U.S. Agency for International Development. The focus of the program, the Coal Resources Exploration and Assessment Program (COALREAP), was to explore and assess Pakistan?s indigenous coal resources. As part of COALREAP, GSP and USGS geologists conducted regional geologic studies from 1988 to 1991 of the coal-bearing areas in the Potwar region of northern Pakistan. A reference section was selected from which to obtain faunal and floral analyses. The composite sections at Nammal Pass and Nammal Dam served as the basis for this regional reference. Although this Bulletin 2078 is being released in 2007, the writing and technical reviews were completed in 1993, and the chapters reflect the work done until that time. During the long production process for the Bulletin, which ultimately resulted in the oversize plates being digitized, the scientific content of the chapters was not changed, and most reports published since 1993 were not cited. A change in the age of the Patala Formation is discussed below [in the full preface], but the age discussions and illustrations in the chapters were not updated.

  16. Progress toward poliomyelitis eradication--Pakistan and Afghanistan, 2007.

    PubMed

    2008-03-28

    Of the four countries worldwide where wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission has never been interrupted, Pakistan and Afghanistan are considered a single epidemiologic block. Use of intense poliomyelitis eradication measures, including close coordination between the two countries and increased use of monovalent oral poliovirus vaccines (mOPVs) against type 1 WPV (WPV1) and type 3 WPV (WPV3), has reduced WPV transmission to historically low levels. However, despite these efforts, in 2007 both types of WPV continued to circulate in areas of Pakistan and Afghanistan. Ongoing conflicts and security concerns in remote areas with rugged terrain limit access to children and decrease vaccination coverage from routine and supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) in border areas of both countries where WPV transmission is endemic. In other WPV-endemic areas of Pakistan, where security and access concerns do not exist, operational problems in implementing SIAs resulted in inadequate vaccination of children, which failed to interrupt WPV transmission. This report updates previous reports and describes polio eradication activities in Pakistan and Afghanistan during January-December 2007 (data as of March 22, 2008). Further progress toward polio eradication will require continued measures to address security concerns in portions of both countries and problems with implementing SIAs in secure areas of Pakistan.

  17. Progress toward poliomyelitis eradication - Afghanistan and Pakistan, 2009.

    PubMed

    2010-03-12

    Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, and Nigeria are the four remaining countries where indigenous wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission has never been interrupted. This report updates previous reports and describes polio eradication activities in Afghanistan and Pakistan during January-December 2009 and proposed activities in 2010 to address challenges. During 2009, both countries continued to conduct coordinated supplemental immunization activities (SIAs) and used multiple strategies to reach previously unreached children. These strategies included 1) use of short interval additional dose (SIAD) SIAs to administer a dose of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) within 1-2 weeks after a prior dose during negotiated periods of security; 2) systematic engagement of local leaders; 3) negotiations with conflict parties; and 4) increased engagement of nongovernmental organizations delivering basic health services. However, security problems continued to limit access by vaccination teams to large numbers of children. In Afghanistan, poliovirus transmission during 2009 predominantly occurred in 12 high-risk districts in the conflict-affected South Region; 38 WPV cases were confirmed in 2009, compared with 31 in 2008. In Pakistan, 89 WPV cases were confirmed in 2009, compared with 118 in 2008, but transmission persisted both in security-compromised areas and in accessible areas, where managerial and operational problems continued to affect immunization coverage. Continued efforts to enhance safe access of vaccination teams in insecure areas will be required for further progress toward interruption of WPV transmission in Afghanistan and Pakistan. In addition, substantial improvements in subnational accountability and oversight are needed to improve immunization activities in Pakistan.

  18. Determinants of aggregate fertility in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Soomro, G Y

    1986-01-01

    Data were obtained from the government of Pakistan's Census Organization and the Population Welfare Division to investigate and identify policy-relevant factors which influence fertility at an aggregate level by examining the supply, demand, and cost factors of fertility regulation. Information on fertility, mortality, nuptiality, and other socioeconomic variables was gathered for the 63 districts of Pakistan. The 3 districts of Karachi division were taken together as there appeared to be no appreciable variation among those districts. The unit of analysis was a district, which, as an administrative unit, ranks in importance after a province and a division. The dependent variable of an aggregate fertility measure is Total Fertility Rate (TFR). The TFR was measured indirectly from the age structure through the application of the stable population model. Only 2 variables appeared significant in their effect on fertility, i.e., enrollment ratio and marriage age, which tended to show a negative effect on fertility when controlled for other socioeconomic development variables. The effect of urbanization, although insignificant, showed a positive association with fertility; it was expected to have a negative association. The mean age at marriage was dropped from the equation in Table 2 because of its association with infant mortality. Only enrollment appeared to be a significant variable. In Table 3, only 3 variables, including urbanization, were controlled to rank individual variables in regard to their effect on their fertility. The results did not show any change from those of the 1st equation. In the 4th equation (Table 4), electrification substituted for the variable of urbanization; the results did not differ from those of the previous equation. In the 5th equation (Table 5), the composite variable was controlled with the family planning clinics variable. The effect of family planning clinics was insignificant. The enrollment variable appeared to be the most

  19. National External Quality Assurance Program Pakistan (NEQAPP) –A Milestone in Proficiency Testing in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Ijaz, Aamir

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to highlight current status and importance of National External Quality Assurance Program Pakistan (NEQAPP). Study Design: Cross sectional study Place and duration of study Department of Chemical Pathology and Endocrinology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP) from August to October 2015. Methods The study data was extracted from electronic NEQAPP database. Results from 2014-2015 were evaluated for clinical chemistry, hematology, microbiology, and immunoassay programs. Frequencies of unsatisfactory results of individual analytes as well as of all the participating laboratories were calculated. Results Failure rate of newly enrolled laboratories were more as compared to those which were participating for the last two years. The percentages of unsatisfactory results of all laboratories were 19% and 15% in 2014 and 2015, respectively. Fifteen analytes were selected according to their increasing percentage of participation. Failure rate was highest for alkaline phosphatase (35%) followed by creatinine (22%) and urea (20%) in two years analysis. Performance of laboratories in each quarter was evaluated depending upon number of analytes in which they fail to pass. The major failures were due to clerical and technical errors as determined during data compilation of results. Conclusion There is an increase in trend of participating in NEQAPP by health care laboratories which is a step towards laboratory quality management system in Pakistan. Nonetheless, there is a need for improving quality of laboratory results. PMID:28149266

  20. Effect of provision of home-based curative health services by public sector health-care providers on neonatal survival: a community-based cluster-randomised trial in rural Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Soofi, Sajid; Cousens, Simon; Turab, Ali; Wasan, Yaqub; Mohammed, Shah; Ariff, Shabina; Bhatti, Zaid; Ahmed, Imran; Wall, Steve; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2017-08-01

    Although the effectiveness of community mobilisation and promotive care delivered by community health workers in reducing perinatal and neonatal mortality is well established, evidence in support of home-based neonatal resuscitation and infection management is mixed. We assessed the effectiveness of adding training in neonatal bag and mask resuscitation and oral antibiotic therapy for suspected neonatal infections to a basic preventive and promotive interventions package delivered by public sector community-based lady health workers (LHWs) in rural Pakistan. We did a cluster-randomised controlled trial in two subdistricts of Naushahro Feroze in rural Sindh, Pakistan, between April 15, 2009, and Dec 10, 2012. LHWs, trained in basic newborn resuscitation and in recognition and treatment (with oral amoxicillin) of suspected neonatal respiratory infections, were linked with traditional birth attendants and encouraged to attend home births. Control clusters received routine care through the existing national programme. The primary outcome was all-cause neonatal mortality. Independent data collection teams recorded data for all pregnancies and their outcomes, morbidity, mortality, and household practices related to maternal and newborn care. Of the 27 randomised clusters with functional LHW programmes, 13 were allocated to the intervention group (n=242 749) and 14 to the control group (n=256 985). In the intervention group, LHWs did 80% of the planned community mobilisation sessions, but were able to attend only 1184 (14%) of 8425 deliveries and 4318 (25%) of 17 288 neonatal visits within 72 h of birth (p<0·0001 for both variables compared with the control group). The neonatal mortality rate was 42 deaths per 1000 livebirths in intervention clusters compared with 55 per 1000 in the control group (risk ratio 0·80, 95% CI 0·68-0·93; p=0·005). The reduction in neonatal mortality in intervention clusters occurred against a background of improvements in domiciliary

  1. Abnormally high formation pressures, Potwar Plateau, Pakistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Shah, S.H.A.; Malik, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormally high formation pressures in the Potwar Plateau of north-central Pakistan are major obstacles to oil and gas exploration. Severe drilling problems associated with high pressures have, in some cases, prevented adequate evaluation of reservoirs and significantly increased drilling costs. Previous investigations of abnormal pressure in the Potwar Plateau have only identified abnormal pressures in Neogene rocks. We have identified two distinct pressure regimes in this Himalayan foreland fold and thrust belt basin: one in Neogene rocks and another in pre-Neogene rocks. Pore pressures in Neogene rocks are as high as lithostatic and are interpreted to be due to tectonic compression and compaction disequilibrium associated with high rates of sedimentation. Pore pressure gradients in pre-Neogene rocks are generally less than those in Neogene rocks, commonly ranging from 0.5 to 0.7 psi/ft (11.3 to 15.8 kPa/m) and are most likely due to a combination of tectonic compression and hydrocarbon generation. The top of abnormally high pressure is highly variable and doesn't appear to be related to any specific lithologic seal. Consequently, attempts to predict the depth to the top of overpressure prior to drilling are precluded.

  2. Radiological implications of granite of northern Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Asghar, M; Tufail, M; Sabiha-Javied; Abid, A; Waqas, M

    2008-09-01

    Granite is an igneous rock that contains natural radioactivity of primordial radionuclides. In Pakistan, granite is distributed in a vast area called the Ambela Granitic Complex (AGC) in North West Frontier Province (NWFP). Granite is a hard rock that exists in different colours and is used to decorate floors, kitchen counter tops, etc. The use of granite in a building as a decor material is a potential source of radiation dose; therefore, natural radioactivity has been measured in 20 granite samples of the AGC with an HPGe (high purity germanium) based gamma ray spectrometer. The average specific activities and their range (given in parentheses) for primordial radionuclides (40)K, (226)Ra and (232)Th were 1218 (899-1927), 659 (46-6120) and 598 (92-3214) Bq kg(-1), respectively. The measured activity concentrations were used for the assessment of hazard indices and radiation dose which were evaluated based on the permissible limits defined for these parameters. The measured specific activities and the derived quantities, hazard indices and radiation dose, have been compared with those given in the literature for these parameters.

  3. Cholera vaccine field trials in East Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Benenson, A. S.; Joseph, P. R.; Oseasohn, R. O.

    1968-01-01

    Double-blind controlled cholera-vaccine trials were carried out in rural East Pakistan in 1963 and 1964. Pretrial studies indicated that a whole-cell cholera vaccine of high mouse protective potency, at a dose of 0.5 ml, produced an antibody response and reaction pattern consistent with use in such trials. A purified Ogawa antigen, given at a dose of 100 μg, elicited no adverse reactions and evoked both agglutinating and vibriocidal antibodies against both Inaba and Ogawa test suspensions. In the field, adverse reactions to the cholera vaccines occurred primarily among adults and were observed with both the whole-cell preparation and the purified Ogawa antigen. At the dose used in the field trials (0.4 ml), the reactions elicited by the whole-cell vaccine were acceptable to the population and no more marked than those following the locally prepared typhoid-paratyphoid vaccine. Delayed reactions to the whole-cell cholera vaccine were observed beginning 4 to 7 days after the vaccine was administered; the bulk of them (60%) did not interfere with work at any time; all resolved promptly; and none developed fluctuation or was associated with abscess formation. PMID:5302328

  4. Road traffic injuries in Rawalpindi city, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Farooq, U; Bhatti, J A; Siddiq, M; Majeed, M; Malik, N; Razzak, J A; Khan, M M

    2011-09-01

    Data on road traffic accident (RTA) injuries and their outcome are scarce in Pakistan. This study assessed patterns of RTA injuries reported in Rawalpindi city using standard surveillance methods. All RTA injury patients presenting to emergency departments of 3 tertiary care facilities from July 2007 to June 2008 were included. RTA injuries (n = 19 828) accounted for 31.7% of all injuries. Among children aged 0-14 years females suffered twice as many RTA injuries as males (21.3% versus 11.4%), whereas this trend reversed for the age group 15-24 years (41.9% versus 21.7%). One-fifth of injuries were either fractures or concussion. Severity and outcome of injuries were worse for the age group 45 years and older. For every road traffic death in Rawalpindi city, 29 more people were hospitalized and 177 more received emergency department care. These results suggest the need for better RTA injury surveillance to identify preventive and control measures for the increasingly high road disease burden in this city.

  5. Tectonics of the Himalayan thrust belt in northern Pakistan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeats, R. S.; Lawrence, R. D.

    1982-01-01

    It is pointed out that the Himalayan ranges of southern Asia represent a dilemma in modern plate tectonic theory. Alvarez (1982) has tried to resolve some of the problems, but inconsistencies remain. The present investigation considers some of the problems which are now encountered in light of present knowledge. The investigation is concerned mainly with the evolution of the Himalaya south of the Main Mantle Thrust (MMT) and the Indus-Tsangpo suture zone, taking into account the neotectonic setting of northern Pakistan. Attention is given to subdivisions of the central Indian Himalaya, the transition from central Himalaya to northern Pakistan, subdivisions of the Himalaya of northern Pakistan, and aspects of neotectonics. Problems for future work are also discussed.

  6. Beliefs about euthanasia among university students: perspectives from Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, M A; Kamal, A

    2011-10-01

    Opinions of university students about euthanasia were studied in 4 cities in Pakistan using convenience sampling. A total of 836 students (316 males and 520 females) completed a questionnaire in which euthanasia was defined as deliberate administration of an overdose of a drug by a doctor to relieve pain and suffering of a dying patient at his/her explicit request to end his/her life. Only 25.6% of students agreed that euthanasia should be legalized in Pakistan. The most common reason cited for legalization of euthanasia was to relieve patient's suffering but only when a committee of physicians agreed to recommend it. Students who opposed legalization (74.4%) cited impediments to future medical research as the most common reason, followed by the risk of misuse by physicians or family members. Only 8.9% of students cited religious beliefs as a reason against legalization. There is a need in Pakistan for more debate about euthanasia.

  7. Statistical Analysis of Factors Affecting Child Mortality in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Zoya; Kamal, Asifa; Kamal, Asma

    2016-06-01

    Child mortality is a composite indicator reflecting economic, social, environmental, healthcare services, and their delivery situation in a country. Globally, Pakistan has the third highest burden of fetal, maternal, and child mortality. Factors affecting child mortality in Pakistan are investigated by using Binary Logistic Regression Analysis. Region, education of mother, birth order, preceding birth interval (the period between the previous child birth and the index child birth), size of child at birth, and breastfeeding and family size were found to be significantly important with child mortality in Pakistan. Child mortality decreased as level of mother's education, preceding birth interval, size of child at birth, and family size increased. Child mortality was found to be significantly higher in Balochistan as compared to other regions. Child mortality was low for low birth orders. Child survival was significantly higher for children who were breastfed as compared to those who were not.

  8. Tectonics of the Himalayan thrust belt in northern Pakistan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeats, R. S.; Lawrence, R. D.

    1982-01-01

    It is pointed out that the Himalayan ranges of southern Asia represent a dilemma in modern plate tectonic theory. Alvarez (1982) has tried to resolve some of the problems, but inconsistencies remain. The present investigation considers some of the problems which are now encountered in light of present knowledge. The investigation is concerned mainly with the evolution of the Himalaya south of the Main Mantle Thrust (MMT) and the Indus-Tsangpo suture zone, taking into account the neotectonic setting of northern Pakistan. Attention is given to subdivisions of the central Indian Himalaya, the transition from central Himalaya to northern Pakistan, subdivisions of the Himalaya of northern Pakistan, and aspects of neotectonics. Problems for future work are also discussed.

  9. Regression in polio eradication in Pakistan: A national tragedy.

    PubMed

    Kanwal, Sumaira; Hussain, Abrar; Mannan, Shazia; Perveen, Shazia

    2016-03-01

    Polio is one out of 200 infections results to lasting paralysis, usually in the legs. The year 2014 has been the saddest year for the Pakistan when the World was about to eliminate Polio from all over the World. In year 1994 Pakistan took the initiative to eliminate Polio from the country. The efforts were going well until 2005, when Pakistan was on the wedge to overcome the Disease. The hopes were high that soon Pakistan will become a polio-virus-free country, but the drone strikes in FATA and the rise of different militant groups as a reaction of the drone attacks in FATA made it difficult for the health workers to continue their vaccination campaigns in these areas. However various factors ruined the efforts made to eradicate Polio. In Pakistan, polio is widespread to three sections. These are Karachi, Quetta block (Quetta, Pishin and Killah Abdullah district) and FATA and Peshawar district. Numerous things are accountable for polio flourishing in these regions. These comprise near to the ground socioeconomic rank of the families, not having the knowledge concerning hazard caused by polio and disinformation by limited significant people concerning how polio vaccines fabricate damage. In 2014, only 3 countries in the world remain polio-endemic: Nigeria, Pakistan and Afghanistan. From year 2012-2014 the number of registered Polio cases is on rise contrary to rest of the other two Polio-endemic countries. In spite of the extensive work done by Polio workers the number of Polio cases has broken the 16 year record. The situation is getting worse because it can also be threatening to the rest of the World.

  10. First ever Evaluation of Atmospheric Lightning Activity in Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahzad, M. I.; Qaiser, S.; Campbell, J. R.; Mahmud, S.

    2016-12-01

    In Pakistan, most of the atmospheric lightning occurs in monsoon and pre-monsoon seasons. To prevent or at least minimize the unforeseen property damages and human casuality, we need to identify the vulnerable locations to lightning in Pakistan. However, unfortunately, there has not been any study regarding the lightning hazards to date for Pakistan. In this study satellite based datasets of location and Time of Occurrence (TOA) along with ground data for subset of thunderstorms are used to identify lightning-prone locations in Pakistan for the years 2001-2014. This is the first study to compute climatologies for lighting activity, identifying locations that are susceptible to high, moderate and low lightning activities regionally. Results of the study indicate that lightning activity is comparatively higher over the mountain and sub-mountain regions in the Punjab, Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) and Khyber Pakhtoon Khwa (KPK) provinces. Overall, there is a significant increase in lighting activity in Pakistan from 2001-2014 with more than a 138 % increase near Islamabad and Karachi, indicating the development a lightening dipole. Interestingly, lightning data shows a strong correlation between flashes-per-year and El Niño and La Niña conditions. Atmospheric lightning in Pakistan shows a seasonal pattern, with significant dependencies on Convective Available Potential Energy (CAPE), Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD), Total Cloud Cover, Convective Precipitation, Soil Temperature and Total Column Ozone. Extreme lighting events are found significantly dependant on high surface temperatures, high CAPE and AOD values between 0-0.4 in pre monsoon and monsoon seasons that contribute to overall staggering high mean intra-seasonal value of 66832 flashes. The results surely demand urgent attention of the stakeholders and policy makers for proposing mitigation and adaptation strategies.

  11. Countering Terrorism Through Control of Pakistan’s Information Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    Ibid., 161. 16 Fernando M . Lujan, “How to Get Afghans to Trust Us Once Again,” Washington Post, March 2, 2012, http://www.washingtonpost.com...www.americanscientist.org/issues/issue.aspx?id=3269&y=0&no=&content=true&page=4&c ss=print. 44 Daniel L. Billquist and Jason M . Colbert, “Pakistan...2012), http://www.state.gov/j/ct/rls/crt/2012/210017.htm. 51 Zahid Hussain , “Frontline Pakistan: The Struggle with Militant Islam,” IB Tauris (2006

  12. Pakistan’s Nuclear Weapons: Proliferation and Security Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-10

    Arms Control Today Fact Sheet, http://www.armscontrol.org/factsheets/missiles.asp; and Mahmud Ali Durrani, “Pakistan’s Strategic Thinking and the Role...Pakistan Against Use Of Nuclear Weapons: Zardari,” Associated Press of Pakistan, November 22, 2008; “Interview with President Asif Ali Zardari,” CNN...under “total custodial controls.”122 More recently, President Asif Ali Zardari told CNN December 2, 2008, that the country’s nuclear command and control

  13. An AOGCM based assessment of interseasonal variability in Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmat, U.; Athar, H.; Nabeel, A.; Latif, M.

    2017-04-01

    The interseasonal variability of two basic climatic parameters (precipitation and temperature) is assessed, over vulnerable and data sparse region of Pakistan (23° to 37°N and 60° to 75°E), for two Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 3 (CMIP3) based Atmospheric-Oceanic General Circulation Model (AOGCM) versions: CM2.0 and CM2.1 by Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL), and two CMIP5 based AOGCM versions: CM2p1 and CM3.0. A recent historical 50-year period (1951-2000) is analyzed and compared with APHRODITE for precipitation and National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) re-analysis based gridded datasets for temperature for the following four seasons: DJF, MAM, JJA, and SON. The study area is divided into three regions: all Pakistan, northern Pakistan, and southern Pakistan. The interseasonal variability of the precipitation and the temperature are derived from all three (five) runs of CM2.0 (CM2.1) and from all ten (five) runs of CM 2p1 (CM3.0). The bias, root mean square error (RMSE), one-sigma standard deviation (SD) and correlation coefficient (CC) are used as assessing metrics. The following individual runs have positive CC with respect to APHRODITE at ≤1% Confidence Level (CL). On seasonal basis for CMIP5 based GFDL models during DJF: CM2p1R5 (for all Pakistan), CM2p1R5 (for northern Pakistan), and during MAM: CM2p1R5 (for southern Pakistan; this run has the lowest centered RMSE of 0.11 mm/day), whereas on annual basis: CM3.0R3 (for all Pakistan). However, out of these four runs, only CM2p1 (for southern Pakistan) has SD < SDobs (0.08 < 0.12 mm/day). There are 13 other runs for which the positive CC is at ≤5% CL, both relative to observed precipitation or temperature. Out of these 13 runs, only the average of runs of GFDL-CM2.1 in CMIP3 in JJA in southern Pakistan has SD < SDobs (0.56 < 0.59 °C) with a centered RMSE value of 0.65 °C. These characteristics of GFDL-CM2p1 runs are

  14. Ambulance use in Pakistan: an analysis of surveillance data from emergency departments in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background The utilization of ambulances in low- and middle-income countries is limited. The aim of this study was to ascertain frequency of ambulance use and characteristics of patients brought into emergency departments (EDs) through ambulance and non-ambulance modes of transportation. Methods The Pakistan National Emergency Departments Surveillance (Pak-NEDS) was a pilot active surveillance conducted in seven major tertiary-care EDs in six main cities of Pakistan between November 2010 and March 2011. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was performed to investigate the factors associated with ambulance use. Results Out of 274,436 patients enrolled in Pak-NEDS, the mode of arrival to the ED was documented for 94. 9% (n = 260,378) patients, of which 4.1% (n = 10,546) came to EDs via ambulances. The mean age of patients in the ambulance group was significantly higher compared to the mean age of the non-ambulance group (38 ± 18.4 years versus 32.8 ± 14.9 years, p-value < 0.001). The most common presenting complaint in the ambulance group was head injury (12%) while among non-ambulance users it was fever (12%). Patients of all age groups were less likely to use an ambulance compared to those >45 years of age (p-value < 0.001) adjusted for gender, cities, hospital type, presenting complaint group and disposition. The adjusted odds ratio of utilizing ambulances for those with injuries was 3.5 times higher than those with non-injury complaints (p-value < 0.001). Patients brought to the ED by ambulance were 7.2 times more likely to die in the ED than non-ambulance patients after adjustment for other variables in the model. Conclusion Utilization of ambulances is very low in Pakistan. Ambulance use was found to be more among the elderly and those presenting with injuries. Patients presenting via ambulances were more likely to die in the ED. PMID:26689242

  15. Some dimensions of child labour in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Jafri, S M; Raishad

    1997-01-01

    This paper reports on the prevalence of child labor among children 5-14 years of age in Pakistan. As reliable and comprehensive data on this age group are not available, the study was based on microdata of child labor in the 10-14 year age range from the latest Labor Force Surveys: 1990-91, 1991-92, and 1992-93. The study shows that child labor in the 1014 age cohort increased to 2.0 million during 1992-93 from 1.8 million during 1990-91. The growth of the number of girl workers is higher than that of the number of boys. Gender differential in participation is more obvious in urban areas. In urban areas, the services sector played the major role by employing 52.14% of all children, followed by the manufacturing sector, which employed 38.08%. In occupational structure, a majority of the children were engaged in farm activities (64.70% of all boys and 66.68% of all girls), as against production activities (22.53% of all boys and 28.70% of all girls). In addition, a high number of children have been working as unpaid family helpers (63.22% of all boys and 65.41% of all girls); this practice is more prevalent in the rural population. Moreover, it was reported that about 70% of the children worked beyond normal working hours (35 hours/week). A majority of those children were from urban areas. This paper concludes by suggesting that in order to produce a clearer picture of the socioeconomic characteristics and hazardous work conditions of child labor, independent household and establishment surveys should be carried out.

  16. Mortality from tetanus neonatorum in Punjab (Pakistan).

    PubMed

    Suleman, O

    1982-01-01

    Researchers conducted a survey study of 59,598 households in 3 major socioeconomic groups (urban slums, rural agricultural areas, and rural cattle and horse raising areas) in the Punjab province of Pakistan to estimate mortality from neonatal tetanus and to develop a strategy for its control. The investigators learned of 13,831 live births. 724 of these died in the 1st month of life with 432 (60%) dying from neonatal tetanus. Village untrained "dai" or trained midwives delivered all infants in all 3 areas. Often these deliverers placed cow dung on the stump of the severed umbilical cord and used a dirty cloth for cleaning the infant. In addition, the trained midwives would use unclean unsterilized tools to assist in delivery. In rural areas, animals sleep inside with the family and they are always with the family. Since Clostridium tetani is found in intestines of animals, especially horses, the neonatal tetanus rates as a percentage of all neonatal deaths for the rural agricultural and rural cattle and horse raising areas were higher (60% and 73%) than for the urban slums (45%). The village barber circumcises male infants on or before the 7th day of life. Since he stuffs the wound with ash or cow dung or rubs it with a dirty cloth, the chances of infecting the wound with C1. tetani increases. Therefore the total ratio of male deaths to female deaths was 1.61:1. Most males died during the last 3 weeks of the 1st month which can be attributed to circumcision. Overall most deaths occurred between 4-19 days. None of the mothers interviewed had been vaccinated with a tetanus toxoid during pregnancy which greatly contributed to the neonatal tetanus mortality rate.

  17. The demand for fertility control in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, N; Zahid, G M

    1993-01-01

    The analysis of fertility and contraceptive use data for Pakistan is directed toward estimating the likelihood of contraceptive use. Data are drawn from the 1975 Fertility Survey, the 1979-80 Population, Labor Force, and Migration Survey, the 1984-85 Contraceptive Prevalence Survey, and the 1990-91 Demographic and Health Survey. Increased demand for family planning is construed to be reflected in the excess number of children over the desired number of children according to the Easterlin and Crimmons and the Bulatao and Lee frameworks. A higher probability of contraceptive use is expected to be related to having a large family. Findings indicate that there was a lack of correspondence between the desire for no more children and actual use of contraception. The proportion desiring no more children was 40-50%. In the logistic model, the findings show that the likelihood of contraceptive use in all surveys was significantly increased with women's education, urban residence, and family planning accessibility. The number of living and desired children were independent of each other, and neither factor influenced significantly the demand for contraception. The nature of and magnitude of the effect varied for each survey. The generalized conclusion was that contraceptive use is not being used by women who desire no more children. Although contraceptive use has increased over time, the number of desired children has remained stable. The suggestion is to target women aged 35-44 years who appear to have achieved their desired fertility and to expand levels of education and economic and social opportunities for women.

  18. Comments on "Towards Balanced Development in Pakistan".

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, E V

    1992-01-01

    Critical comment on the proposal of Professor Pyatt for balanced development in Pakistan focused on broad methodological issues. Professor Pyatt's approach proposes to balance efficiency criteria with longterm objectives of sustainable economic and human development: changing asset distribution through new investment and shifting investment returns in the social sector to households. I is a systematic attempt to compensate for deficits in human development. Policies would include "tariffisation of quota allocation of goods such as water, differential pricing to protect the poor; national conservation and polluter penalties; foreign aid shift to human maintenance expenditure; and reform of fiscal policy on income and expenditure to allow for support of social objectives." Patterns of property and institutional privilege can be effectively altered through market practices, such that wage goods could be subsidized in order to increase productivity. Constructive rethinking of assumptions underlying the balanced development argument is suggested, because of Pyatt model is contrary to the Dornbusch assumptions behind structural adjustment of the standard World Bank model. The assumption in question is that nontraditional expenditure on health, education, and the environment reduces unit labor costs. Concern is also raised about the approach to "efficiency wages" and the inputs of health and education, and food and housing, which are required to supply labor. Real wages might be conceptualized as affecting labor productivity in a more dynamic way than Professor Pyatt recognized. Use of human capital would be maximized and would be equivalent to the formation of new human capital. Wages may be construed to act like internal trade, where prices and markets are effectively interchanged so that farmers receive not only agricultural products, but also essential and nonessential consumer goods. Professor Pyatt's article is relevant to any country's development planning and

  19. Gender and livelihoods in northern Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Joekes, S

    1995-01-01

    This article reports on findings from a study in 1993-94 on women and sustainable development in Hunza and Nagar districts in the Karakorum mountains of northern Pakistan. The study aims to explore the impact of development on women's work burden and sustainable use of natural resources. Local natural resource management has been a complex system of agro-pastoralist use, with poor yields. Modernization resulted in construction of the Karakorum Highway in 1978 and the Aga Khan Support Program, which mobilized the community in irrigation and agricultural projects. Village organizations were formed as a forum for community decision making and information exchange. These changes resulted in the doubling of household income during 1983-92. Agricultural productivity increased without compromising soil fertility. Livestock herds doubled during 1976-86. The road created the opportunity for new strategies for improving income. Wholesale markets became accessible. Tourism increased, the economy diversified in ways that increased women's income and control of income, and demand for education increased. Women reported that the increased demands on workload were worth the improved standard of living. Gendered work was reallocated, and division of labor changed among women of various ages. Village councils began protecting depleted forest reserves. Men collected wood on the higher slopes, according to anthropomorphic and spiritual beliefs. Women's knowledge of the environment was greater with age and specific to the tasks performed. Men and women did not have permanently fixed gender roles. Women were not exclusive managers of the environment. Women benefited the most from technology that was in their interest and not controlled by men.

  20. Pakistan acts on population. Country report.

    PubMed

    Malik, J

    1992-01-01

    In the 1950s Pakistan had a population program, but lack of political commitment prevented curbing of population growth so that the population grew at least 3.1% annually. 1969 was the last time the government committed itself to a population program. In July 1991, the Prime Minister began a population policy which recommitted the government to slowing population growth. Indeed, the Prime Minister's party campaigned to reduce population growth. The Prime Minister elevated the post of Adviser to the Prime Minister for Population Welfare to cabinet rank. This adviser has visited all parts of the country to build support for the government's population policy. The government plans to use a multisectoral, multidimensional accelerated program to implement the policy in which all sectors promote the small family norm. The program also plans to provide family planning services through several existing services, e.g., maternal and child health services. It also includes research and surveys to provide baseline data to evaluate the program's impact. In the past political leaders believed religious groups would react negatively to any strong promotion of a population policy, but today, they recognize that the people want to use family planning and, if the religious leaders object, the people will reject them. Besides, many Islamic scholars note that it is not anti-Islamic to practice family planning. Many people believed a high illiteracy rate of 60% was an obstacle to a successful population program in the past, but recent studies show that the people know about family planning but do not have access to family planning services. Further, it reveals that 60% of married women do not want any more children or want to space their births, yet just 20% have family planning access. The new program plans to increase coverage in rural areas by 20% by mid 1992. Top program managers claim that an inefficient and sometimes corrupt system of government will not pose obstacles to

  1. Urbanisation and environmental degradation in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Sahibzada, S A

    1993-01-01

    Environmental degradation in urban Pakistan is described and solutions offered for policy changes and changes in design of development projects. Government intervention should involve the development of institutional and legal structures for implementing effective pollution control laws and ordinances, the development of skills for evaluation of environmental consequences of development projects, and training in the aforementioned areas. Past development policies have ignored environmental consequences. The policy of incorporation of protectionists practices is feared as a strategy that would result in a decline in income and standard of living. The Report of the World Commission in 1987 revealed that environmental pollution would increase with rising urbanization. 52% of the urban population reside in the cities of Karachi, Lahore, Faisalabad, Rawalpindi/Islamabad, Hyderabad, Multan, and Gujranwala. Environmental degradation due to industrialization results in waste dumped into rivers and canals. In Karachi, industrial waste water is contaminated with toxic chemicals, which disrupts marine life, reduces quantities of fish for harvesting, and creates a health hazard for polluted fish that are eaten. The pollution in the Peshawar Vale and the Kabul River is threatening not only the water fishery industry but also irrigation of farmland. Transportation discharges due to leaded fuels are a major source of air pollution, with concomitant effects of lung cancer and mental retardation. Air emission standards established by the World Health Organization have not been met. Energy consumption is costly even without including the costs of pollution. Environmental degradation leads to poverty. Environmental problems must be included as externalities in market analyses. Command and control approaches need to be directed to industrial polluters. Public environmental education is needed. Policy should be directed to changing the residential energy consumptions patterns, and

  2. Burn Wound Infections and Antibiotic Susceptibility Patterns at Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Saaiq, Muhammad; Ahmad, Shehzad; Zaib, Muhammad Salman

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROND Burn wound infections carry considerable mortality and morbidity amongst burn injury victims who have been successfully rescued through the initial resuscitation. This study assessed the prevalent microrganisms causing burn wound infections among hospitalized patients; their susceptibility pattern to commonly used antibiotics; and the frequency of infections with respect to the duration of the burn wounds. METHODS This study was carried out at Burn Care Centre, Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS), Islamabad, Pakistan over a period of two years (i.e. from June 2010 to May 2012). The study included all wound-culture-positive patients of either gender and all ages, who had sustained deep burns and underwent definitive management with wound excisions and skin auto-grafting. Patients with negative cultures of the wounds were excluded. Tissue specimens for culture and sensitivity were collected from burn wounds using standard collection techniques and analyzed at microbiological laboratory. RESULTS Out of a total of 95 positive microbial growths, 36 were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (35.29%) as the most frequent isolate found, followed by 21 Klebsiella pneumoniae (20.58%), 19 Staphylococcus aureaus (18.62%), 10 Proteus (9.80%), 7 E. coli (6.86%), 7 Acinetobacter (6.86%), and 4 Candida (3.92%). A variable antibiotic susceptibility pattern was observed among the grown microbes. Positive cultures were significantly more frequent among patients with over two weeks duration of burn wounds. CONCLUSION P. aeruginosa, K. pneumoniae and S. aureus constituted the most common bacterial microbes of burn wounds in our in-patients cases. Positive cultures were more frequent among patients with over two weeks duration of burn wounds. Early excision and skin grafting of deep burns and adherence to infection control measures can help to effectively reduce the burden of these infections. PMID:25606471

  3. The Gateway Paper--preventive and promotive programs in Pakistan and health reforms in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Nishtar, Sania

    2006-12-01

    Pakistan's public health interventions include a range of programs lead by the federal government with implementation arms at the provincial and district levels. Some of the programs are disease specific such as the respective programs on HIV/AIDS, Malaria, Tuberculosis, non-communicable diseases and Hepatitis; others are specific to life cycle domains such as in the case of maternal and child health whereas still others such as the National Program for Family Planning and Primary Healthcare and the National Expanded Program for Immunization are cross-cutting. Although these programs have contributed to improving health outcomes at intermediate outcomes level, a number of critical impediments to maximizing their impact have been noted. These include lack of integration, institutional impediments to the implementation of programs with particular reference to problems at the federal/provincial level and unrealized implications of federal programs at the provincial level are amongst the foremost. These have been further compounded by the addition of another service delivery tier in Pakistan's health system through the introduction of the devolution initiative. Furthermore, the unsustainable and under-utilized BHUs which serve as the service delivery base of these programs add to the problems. The Gateway Paper makes a number of recommendations to obviate these issues such as recommendations to integrate programs, strengthen surveillance systems, and with reference to obviating issues to implementation, emphasis is laid on decentralizing decision-making and central control, institutionalizing managerial audit, and prioritizing specific governance and management reforms. The Paper also stresses on the need for establishing a national coordination mechanism for fostering federal/provincial harmony and ensuring the creation of appropriate counterpart institutional arrangements in the provinces and districts. Recommendations on restructuring BHUs at a management, oversight

  4. Sectoral assessment of greenhouse gas emissions in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Mir, Kaleem Anwar; Purohit, Pallav; Mehmood, Shahbaz

    2017-10-03

    In this study, an attempt has been made to develop inventory of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for Pakistan at the national and sectoral level. The emission profile includes carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O). In 2012, GHG emissions from different sectors of economy are estimated at 367 Tg CO2eq. Out of this, CO2 emissions were 179 Tg; CH4 emissions were 107 Tg CO2eq; and N2O emissions were 81 Tg CO2eq. Energy and agriculture sectors contribute approximately 89% of national GHG emissions. Industrial processes, waste, and land use change and forestry (LUCF) sectors contribute the remaining 11% GHG emissions. A comparison with the 1994 GHG emission inventory of Pakistan shows that GHG emissions in Pakistan from 1994 to 2012 have increased at an annual growth rate of 4.1% and yet anticipated to increase further for meeting the national developmental goals; however, the per capita emissions in Pakistan will remain low when compared with the global average.

  5. Simulating the Afghanistan-Pakistan opium supply chain

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, Jennifer H; MacKerrow, Edward P; Merritt, Terence M

    2010-04-08

    This paper outlines an opium supply chain using the Hilmand province of Afghanistan as exemplar. The opium supply chain model follows the transformation of opium poppy seed through cultivation and chemical alteration to brown heroin base. The purpose of modeling and simulating the Afghanistan-Pakistan opium supply chain is to discover and test strategies that will disrupt this criminal enterprise.

  6. Drinking Water Quality Status and Contamination in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Daud, M K; Nafees, Muhammad; Ali, Shafaqat; Rizwan, Muhammad; Bajwa, Raees Ahmad; Shakoor, Muhammad Bilal; Arshad, Muhammad Umair; Chatha, Shahzad Ali Shahid; Deeba, Farah; Murad, Waheed; Malook, Ijaz; Zhu, Shui Jin

    2017-01-01

    Due to alarming increase in population and rapid industrialization, drinking water quality is being deteriorated day by day in Pakistan. This review sums up the outcomes of various research studies conducted for drinking water quality status of different areas of Pakistan by taking into account the physicochemical properties of drinking water as well as the presence of various pathogenic microorganisms. About 20% of the whole population of Pakistan has access to safe drinking water. The remaining 80% of population is forced to use unsafe drinking water due to the scarcity of safe and healthy drinking water sources. The primary source of contamination is sewerage (fecal) which is extensively discharged into drinking water system supplies. Secondary source of pollution is the disposal of toxic chemicals from industrial effluents, pesticides, and fertilizers from agriculture sources into the water bodies. Anthropogenic activities cause waterborne diseases that constitute about 80% of all diseases and are responsible for 33% of deaths. This review highlights the drinking water quality, contamination sources, sanitation situation, and effects of unsafe drinking water on humans. There is immediate need to take protective measures and treatment technologies to overcome unhygienic condition of drinking water supplies in different areas of Pakistan.

  7. Teacher Governance Factors and Social Cohesion: Insights from Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halai, Anjum; Durrani, Naureen

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores teacher governance factors, particularly recruitment and deployment of teachers, in relation to inequalities and social cohesion. Pakistan introduced major reforms in education in the post 9/11 context of escalating conflict. These include a merit and needs-based policy on teacher recruitment to eliminate corruption in…

  8. The Determinants of Child Health in Pakistan: An Economic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shehzad, Shafqat

    2006-01-01

    This paper estimates linear structural models using LISREL and employs MIMIC models to find out factors determining child health in Pakistan. A distinction has been made in permanent and transitory health states that lend support to Grossman's (1972) stock and flow concepts of health. The paper addresses the issue of health unobservability and…

  9. Household Schooling Decisions in Rural Pakistan. Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawada, Yasuyuki; Lokshin, Michael

    A study of household schooling decisions in rural Pakistan found serious supply-side constraints on female primary education in the villages studied. Field surveys of 25 Pakistani villages were integrated with economic theory and econometric analysis to investigate the sequential nature of educational decisions. The full-information maximum…

  10. Dilemmas of Higher Education in Pakistan: A Political Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziring, Lawrence

    1978-01-01

    Relates problems of higher education in Pakistan since the 1950s. Intense student involvement in politics and conflict between traditional and modern versions of Islamic society have continually promoted turmoil in university life and government response to student unrest. Journal available from American-Asian Educational Exchange, Inc., 88…

  11. Drinking Water Quality Status and Contamination in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Nafees, Muhammad; Rizwan, Muhammad; Bajwa, Raees Ahmad; Shakoor, Muhammad Bilal; Arshad, Muhammad Umair; Chatha, Shahzad Ali Shahid; Deeba, Farah; Murad, Waheed; Malook, Ijaz

    2017-01-01

    Due to alarming increase in population and rapid industrialization, drinking water quality is being deteriorated day by day in Pakistan. This review sums up the outcomes of various research studies conducted for drinking water quality status of different areas of Pakistan by taking into account the physicochemical properties of drinking water as well as the presence of various pathogenic microorganisms. About 20% of the whole population of Pakistan has access to safe drinking water. The remaining 80% of population is forced to use unsafe drinking water due to the scarcity of safe and healthy drinking water sources. The primary source of contamination is sewerage (fecal) which is extensively discharged into drinking water system supplies. Secondary source of pollution is the disposal of toxic chemicals from industrial effluents, pesticides, and fertilizers from agriculture sources into the water bodies. Anthropogenic activities cause waterborne diseases that constitute about 80% of all diseases and are responsible for 33% of deaths. This review highlights the drinking water quality, contamination sources, sanitation situation, and effects of unsafe drinking water on humans. There is immediate need to take protective measures and treatment technologies to overcome unhygienic condition of drinking water supplies in different areas of Pakistan. PMID:28884130

  12. Kiran Libraries for Children in Prison in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shinji, Tajima

    2009-01-01

    In Pakistan, there are 7,000 children in 70 jails. From observations on why children commit crime, the author offers that the core cause is poverty; 99 per cent of young prisoners belong to deprived sections of society. They do not have access to education; living in prison is difficult; the degrading and harsh treatment adversely affects the…

  13. Effective Use of Action-Oriented Studies in Pakistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, M.

    1991-01-01

    This article summarizes results from action-oriented studies carried out at the Mental Heath Centre in Peshawar, Pakistan, dealing with such topics as attitudes toward disability, casual integration, and trends in polio paralysis. The article also considers problems associated with the dissemination of special education and rehabilitation research…

  14. Instructional Leadership Potential among School Principals in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niqab, Muhammad; Sharma, Sailesh; Wei, Leong Mei; Maulod, Shafinaz Bt A.

    2014-01-01

    This study highlights the pivotal role of the school principal in relation to organizational commitment and expected student outcomes in schools in Pakistan. By critically examining the available literature, and by evaluating relevant data, this study will draw attention to how successful principals manage their schools, by providing an…

  15. Kiran Libraries for Children in Prison in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shinji, Tajima

    2009-01-01

    In Pakistan, there are 7,000 children in 70 jails. From observations on why children commit crime, the author offers that the core cause is poverty; 99 per cent of young prisoners belong to deprived sections of society. They do not have access to education; living in prison is difficult; the degrading and harsh treatment adversely affects the…

  16. Diagnosis, Management And Prevention Of Hepatitis C In Pakistan 2017.

    PubMed

    Umar, Muhammad; Khaar, Hamama-Tul-Bushra; Akhter, Tayyab Saeed; Aslam, Faiza; Ahmad, Syed Irfan; Asghar, Rai Mohammad; Khurram, Mohammad; Hussain, Tassawar; Salamat, Amjad; Khan, Anwar A; Fazal-E-Hadi; Minhas, Zahid Mahmood; Shah, Hasnain Ali; Farooqui, Javed; Naqvi, Asif Abbas; Mohsin, Aftab; Waseem-Ud-Din; Bhutta, Sohail Iqbal; Hasnain Syed, Sibt Ul; Qureshi, Saleem; Adam, Tashfeen; Uddin, Moazzam; Tayyab, Ghias-U-Nabi; Najeeb Ul Haq; Shoaib, Atifa; Ambreen, Saima; Shahzad, Arslan; Ikram, Nadeem; Nisar, Gul; Khan, Mohammad Mujeeb; Osama, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Since the advent of direct acting antiviral agents, there is a revolutionary change in the management of HCV infection. Newer drugs with different mechanism of action are being introduced and are expected to be available in coming few months in Pakistan as well. The main purpose of the guideline is to review and induct the latest research in field of HCV infection in Pakistani perspective so that our healthcare professionals can apply the new recommendations in timely and judicial manner. Target groups of guidelines are general physicians treating hepatitis C, hepatologists and gastroenterologists. Other beneficiaries of these guidelines are public health institutions of Pakistan, which provide free treatment to deserving patients under National Hepatitis Prevention and Control Program and Pakistan Bait-ul- Mal Program. These guidelines are based on the review of National consensus practice guidelines: Diagnosis, Management and Prevention of Hepatitis C Pakistan 2009. Published data in National and International Journals searched with the help of Google search and pub med, and 2015-16 guidelines of HCV by AASLD, EASL, APASL and WHO. Local studies are preferably added with references to enhance the Pakistani perspective. Evidence was also taken from published studies. Recommendations have been based upon evidence from national publications on the subject and scientific presentations at national liver meeting as well from experts' personal experience and opinion.

  17. Library Web Sites in Pakistan: An Analysis of Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qutab, Saima; Mahmood, Khalid

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate library web sites in Pakistan, to analyse their content and navigational strengths and weaknesses and to give recommendations for developing better web sites and quality assessment studies. Design/methodology/approach: Survey of web sites of 52 academic, special, public and national libraries in…

  18. A Long-Term Investment in Pakistan: Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunzai, Zohra Nisar

    2006-01-01

    Despite the enormous demand for early childhood education care and education, it remains a privilege for young children in most of the world's nine high population countries, known as the E-9 group (Bangladesh, Brazil, China, Egypt, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Nigeria and Pakistan), according to a report published by UNESCO (2003). The World…

  19. Strategic Framework for Teacher Education and Professional Development: Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Agency for International Development, 2006

    2006-01-01

    It is common to find well-crafted and coherent policy designs failing to attain desired results in developing counties. Pakistan is no exception. Despite having taken a significant number of initiatives in a quest to further its Teacher Professional Development (TPD) objectives, progress remains less than satisfactory. While a number of studies…

  20. Early Childhood Teacher Education in Pakistan: Time for Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zada, Khan

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a critical account of early childhood education (ECE) in Pakistan. It moves from a general review of the benefits of ECE to focus on the issues and challenges connected to the professional development of early childhood teachers. It highlights problems encountered in developing practitioners who are highly skilled in the…

  1. Gender Representation in the Public Sector Schools Textbooks of Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullah, Hazir; Skelton, Christine

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines gender biases in school textbooks after a decade long effort by the ministry of education (MoE) Pakistan and international organisation (IOs) to eliminate all forms of gender inequality in education. The intention underpinning these initiatives was to nurture a view of gender equality based consciousness through the…

  2. Public sector health financing in Pakistan: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Khalif Bile; Hafeez, Assad; Nishter, Sania

    2007-06-01

    To assess the existing situation relating to investments made by development partners in the health sector in Pakistan. This was a retrospective study completed over a period of 6 months in which financial data for the year July 2004 to June 2005 was collected. A uniform matrix was circulated to all the stakeholders in public sector and international donors who had a stake in health. Details of expenses in health over the last 5 years and plans for the next 10 years were requested. Initial draft was shared with all concerned for concurrence before finalization. Simple analysis was carried out on the collected data. About 80% of the financial resources in the public sector are provided by the Government of Pakistan with non-development and recurring expenses predominating in these allocations. The study shows that Pakistan's per capita spending on health by the public sector is Rs 375.00 (US$ 6.4) out of which Rs 80 (US$ 1.3) is being contributed by the partners. Majority of the partners contributions are used for development projects. The study concludes that an additional amount of about 250 billion rupees per year (keeping in mind the recommendations of Commission for Macroeconomics and Health) are required by the health sector. This can only be achieved by allocating at least 50% more for health every year for next 10 years in order to catch up on the lagging targets set by Millennium Development Goals for Pakistan.

  3. A Long-Term Investment in Pakistan: Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunzai, Zohra Nisar

    2006-01-01

    Despite the enormous demand for early childhood education care and education, it remains a privilege for young children in most of the world's nine high population countries, known as the E-9 group (Bangladesh, Brazil, China, Egypt, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Nigeria and Pakistan), according to a report published by UNESCO (2003). The World…

  4. Positive Perceptions to Sustain the US-Pakistan Relationship

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    foreign policy. Pakistanis believe that GWOT is just another religious cru- sade against Islam.8 President Asif Ali Zardari noted, “The cordial relations...conventional-defence-250-hh-04. 40. Sue Pleming, “US Lawmakers Press Pakistan on Lashkar-e-Taiba,” Reuters, 11 March 2010. 41. Gannon. 42. Muhammad Arshad

  5. A Portrayal of Women Educational Leadership in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malik, Samina

    2011-01-01

    The researcher is stimulated to work on the growing trends of women leadership. The problem has been designed to investigate the factors influencing the emergence of women leadership at higher education level in Pakistan. On the basis of the studies conducted by Oplatka (2006) and Cubillo, Brown, 2003, it was assumed that specific factors…

  6. Makran Mountain Range, Indus River Valley, Pakistan, India

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1984-10-13

    41G-120-040 (5-13 Oct. 1984) --- Pakistan, featuring the city of Karachi, the Makran mountain range, the mouth of the Indus River and the North Arabian Sea were photographed with a medium format camera aboard the space shuttle Challenger during the 41-G mission. Photo credit: NASA

  7. Suicides in the Developing World: Case Study from Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Murad Moosa; Hyder, Adnan Ali

    2006-01-01

    There are no official data on suicide from Pakistan, a conservative South Asian Islamic country with traditionally low suicide rates. Both suicide and attempted suicide are illegal acts, as well as socially and religiously condemned, making research in this area difficult. Recent reports suggest an increase in suicide rates. In this study, police…

  8. Second-hand smoke in indoor hospitality venues in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, S M A; Moin, O; Khan, J A

    2011-07-01

    Second-hand smoke (SHS) constitutes a significant public health threat in countries with a high smoking prevalence. However, data assessing the quality of indoor air at public venues in Pakistan are limited. To measure mean concentrations of PM(2.5) (particulate matter ≤2.5 microns in diameter), a sensitive indicator of SHS, in hospitality venues in Pakistan. Data were collected discreetly from 39 indoor venues such as cafes, restaurants and shisha (water-pipe) bars from three major cities in Pakistan. Data were recorded using a portable air quality monitoring device. The overall mean PM(2.5) value for the visited venues was 846 μg/m(3) (95%CI 484-1205). The mean PM(2.5) value was 101 μg/m(3) (95%CI 69-135 μg/m(3)) for non-smoking venues, 689 μg/m(3) (95%CI 241-1138) for cigarette smoking venues and 1745 μg/m(3) (95%CI 925-2565) for shisha smoking venues. The significant levels of SHS recorded in this study, in particular from shisha smoking venues, could represent a major public health burden in Pakistan. Appropriate legislation needs to be enforced to protect the health of those exposed to the hazards of second-hand tobacco smoke.

  9. Weapons of Mass Destruction: Trade Between North Korea and Pakistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-11

    2 centrifuge design, which is a more advanced design, with greater efficiency, using maraging steel . 29 The International Atomic Energy Agency’s (IAEA...Pakistan that is typically used in uranium enrichment. Special steel containers were also seized. One source reports that uranium enrichment

  10. Early Childhood Teacher Education in Pakistan: Time for Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zada, Khan

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a critical account of early childhood education (ECE) in Pakistan. It moves from a general review of the benefits of ECE to focus on the issues and challenges connected to the professional development of early childhood teachers. It highlights problems encountered in developing practitioners who are highly skilled in the…

  11. Gender Representation in the Public Sector Schools Textbooks of Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullah, Hazir; Skelton, Christine

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines gender biases in school textbooks after a decade long effort by the ministry of education (MoE) Pakistan and international organisation (IOs) to eliminate all forms of gender inequality in education. The intention underpinning these initiatives was to nurture a view of gender equality based consciousness through the…

  12. Suicides in the Developing World: Case Study from Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Murad Moosa; Hyder, Adnan Ali

    2006-01-01

    There are no official data on suicide from Pakistan, a conservative South Asian Islamic country with traditionally low suicide rates. Both suicide and attempted suicide are illegal acts, as well as socially and religiously condemned, making research in this area difficult. Recent reports suggest an increase in suicide rates. In this study, police…

  13. Voices of out of School Children with Disabilities in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzoor, Afaf; Hameed, Abdul; Nabeel, Tanzila

    2016-01-01

    In Pakistan, 96% children with disabilities are out of school and are unreached for any educational services. According to UNESCO (2010), the unreached are those children and youth who are of school age but not attending school for some reasons. Some of these children may have never been to school; others may have attended school but eventually…

  14. Voices of out of School Children with Disabilities in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzoor, Afaf; Hameed, Abdul; Nabeel, Tanzila

    2016-01-01

    In Pakistan, 96% children with disabilities are out of school and are unreached for any educational services. According to UNESCO (2010), the unreached are those children and youth who are of school age but not attending school for some reasons. Some of these children may have never been to school; others may have attended school but eventually…

  15. A Strategy for Upgrading Primary Education in Pakistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastmond, Jefferson N.

    Upgrading education requires a systematic effort to resolve its problems, expand its impact, and improve its quality by (1) acquiring commitment, (2) determining the present status, (3) setting goals and establishing a plan, (4) executing the plan, and (5) monitoring and evaluating progress. In Pakistan, a national commitment is needed to solve…

  16. A socioeconomic survey of kidney vendors in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Naqvi, Syed Ali Anwar; Ali, Bux; Mazhar, Farida; Zafar, Mirza Naqi; Rizvi, Syed Adibul Hasan

    2007-11-01

    In recent years, Pakistan has emerged as one of the largest centres for commerce and tourism in renal transplantation. Kidney vendors belong to Punjab in eastern Pakistan, the agricultural heartland, where 34% people live below poverty line. We report results of a socioeconomic and health survey of 239 kidney vendors. The mean age was 33.6 +/- 7.2 years (M:F 3.5:1). Mean nephrectomy period was 4.8 +/- 2.3 years. Ninety per cent of the vendors were illiterate. Sixty-nine per cent were bonded labourers who were virtual slaves to landlords, labourers 12%, housewives 8.5% and unemployed 11%. Monthly income was $US15.4 +/- 8.9 with 2-11 dependents per family. Majority (93%), vended for debt repayment with mean debt of $1311.4 +/- 819. The mean agreed sale price was $1737 +/- 262. However, they received $1377 +/- 196 after deduction for hospital and travel expenses. Postvending 88% had no economic improvement in their lives and 98% reported deterioration in general health status. Future vending was encouraged by 35% to pay off debts and freedom from bondage. This study gives a snapshot of kidney vendors from Pakistan. These impoverished people, many in bondage, are examples of modern day slavery. They will remain exploited until law against bondage is implemented and new laws are introduced to ban commerce and transplant tourism in Pakistan.

  17. Teacher Governance Factors and Social Cohesion: Insights from Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halai, Anjum; Durrani, Naureen

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores teacher governance factors, particularly recruitment and deployment of teachers, in relation to inequalities and social cohesion. Pakistan introduced major reforms in education in the post 9/11 context of escalating conflict. These include a merit and needs-based policy on teacher recruitment to eliminate corruption in…

  18. The Changing Perspective of Art Education in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Muhammad Sher Ali

    2014-01-01

    The development of art education in Pakistan over the last five decades is explored through three major phases: Arts as traditional crafts together with proficiency in painting and calligraphy. Such skills; somewhat existed in academies but, were then transferred through apprenticeship system. Arts in the academies; the first turning point, that…

  19. Satellite-Based Study of Glaciers Retreat in Northern Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munir, Siraj

    Glaciers serve as a natural regulator of regional water supplies. About 16933 Km 2 area of glaciers is covered by Pakistan. These glaciers are enormous reservoirs of fresh water and their meltwater is an important resource which feed rivers in Pakistan. Glacier depletion, especially recent melting can affect agriculture, drinking water supplies, hydro-electric power, and ecological habitats. This can also have a more immediate impact on Pakistan's economy that depends mainly on water from glacier melt. Melting of seasonal snowfall and permanent glaciers has resulted not only in reduction of water resources but also caused flash floods in many areas of Pakistan. With the advent of satellite technology, using optical and SAR data the study of glaciers, has become possible. Using temporal data, based on calculation of snow index, band ratios and texture reflectance it has been revealed that the rate of glacier melting has increased as a consequent of global warming. Comparison of Landsat images of Batura glacier for October 1992 and October 2000 has revealed that there is a decrease of about 17 sq km in Batura glaciers. Although accurate changes in glacier extent cannot be assessed without baseline information, these efforts have been made to analyze future changes in glaciated area.

  20. Primary amebic meningoencephalitis caused by Naegleria fowleri, Karachi, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Shakoor, Sadia; Beg, Mohammad Asim; Mahmood, Syed Faisal; Bandea, Rebecca; Sriram, Rama; Noman, Fatima; Ali, Farheen; Visvesvara, Govinda S; Zafar, Afia

    2011-02-01

    We report 13 cases of Naegleria fowleri primary amebic meningoencephalitis in persons in Karachi, Pakistan, who had no history of aquatic activities. Infection likely occurred through ablution with tap water. An increase in primary amebic meningoencephalitis cases may be attributed to rising temperatures, reduced levels of chlorine in potable water, or deteriorating water distribution systems.

  1. Temperament Styles of Children from Pakistan and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakland, Thomas; Callueng, Carmelo; Rizwan, Muhammad; Aftab, Sobia

    2012-01-01

    Age, gender, and cross-national differences of children ages 9 through 16 in Pakistan (n = 463) and the United States (n = 500) are examined on four bipolar temperament styles: Extroversion-introversion, practical-imaginative, thinking-feeling, and organized-flexible. In general, Pakistani children prefer extroverted over introverted, practical…

  2. Stitching Footballs: Voices of Children in Sailkot, Pakistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcus, Rachel; Husselbee, David; Shah, Faiz; Harper, Annie; Ali, Bahar

    This report details a situation analysis of children working in football stitching around Sialkot, Pakistan. The analysis (1) examined the reasons that children work and the probable impact of eradicating children's involvement and phasing out home-based production and (2) determined a baseline for monitoring changes in children's and families'…

  3. Qualitative Inquiry into Local Education Administration in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komatsu, Taro

    2009-01-01

    The level of educational development in Pakistan is low. A decentralisation reform was introduced in 2000 to improve the delivery of basic education by designating the local government body with primary responsibility for administering it. A qualitative field study on local education administration at the North West Frontier Province found…

  4. Conflict, Development and Community Participation in Education: Pakistan and Yemen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Adele

    2005-01-01

    In development policy, community participation has increasingly come to be seen as a way to encourage community interest, involvement, ownership and ultimately, sustainability of projects. Education has also been affected by this discourse. The following paper examines two countries affected by conflict (Pakistan and Yemen), asking what type of…

  5. A Strategy for Upgrading Primary Education in Pakistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastmond, Jefferson N.

    Upgrading education requires a systematic effort to resolve its problems, expand its impact, and improve its quality by (1) acquiring commitment, (2) determining the present status, (3) setting goals and establishing a plan, (4) executing the plan, and (5) monitoring and evaluating progress. In Pakistan, a national commitment is needed to solve…

  6. Effective Use of Action-Oriented Studies in Pakistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, M.

    1991-01-01

    This article summarizes results from action-oriented studies carried out at the Mental Heath Centre in Peshawar, Pakistan, dealing with such topics as attitudes toward disability, casual integration, and trends in polio paralysis. The article also considers problems associated with the dissemination of special education and rehabilitation research…

  7. Qualitative Inquiry into Local Education Administration in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komatsu, Taro

    2009-01-01

    The level of educational development in Pakistan is low. A decentralisation reform was introduced in 2000 to improve the delivery of basic education by designating the local government body with primary responsibility for administering it. A qualitative field study on local education administration at the North West Frontier Province found…

  8. Attitudes to School Science Held by Primary Children in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iqbal, Hafiz Muhammad; Nageen, Tabassum; Pell, Anthony William

    2008-01-01

    Attitudes to science scales developed earlier in England have been used in and around a Pakistan city with children in Primary/Elementary Grades 4-8. The limitations of a "transferred scale" in a culturally different context are apparent in a failure to reproduce the English factor patterns, but items are identified to serve as a base…

  9. Humanization of Education in Pakistan through Freire's Concept of Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raja, Nazir

    2005-01-01

    Pakistan is an underdeveloped country, full of socio-economic problems where a few oppress and exploit many. One of the most significant reasons, in this context, is the high illiteracy rate in the country. However, can high literacy rates guarantee peace, prosperity, and justice in any society? Clearly, not. There are several countries where the…

  10. Perspectives of Aacademic Activities in Universities in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Akhtar; Tariq, Riaz H.; Topping, Keith J.

    2013-01-01

    The article explores perspectives on academic activities in public sector universities in Pakistan. Seven Pakistani universities yielded 290 teachers and 568 students in the sample. Factor analysis indicated five main factors in both teacher and student data sets. Both teachers and students were dissatisfied with the performance of the…

  11. Temperament Styles of Children from Pakistan and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakland, Thomas; Callueng, Carmelo; Rizwan, Muhammad; Aftab, Sobia

    2012-01-01

    Age, gender, and cross-national differences of children ages 9 through 16 in Pakistan (n = 463) and the United States (n = 500) are examined on four bipolar temperament styles: Extroversion-introversion, practical-imaginative, thinking-feeling, and organized-flexible. In general, Pakistani children prefer extroverted over introverted, practical…

  12. Home Economics Curricula in Pakistan: Time for Reform?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saeed, Fouzia; McClelland, Jerry

    1991-01-01

    Most home economics in Pakistan focuses on women's homemaking skills (food preparation, clothing, interior design), not career orientation; it caters to upper/middle class needs and traditional roles. Rural/lower class women's needs (agricultural production, nutrition, hygiene, family planning) are not generally served. (SK)

  13. Improving Public School Teachers in Pakistan: Challenges and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussain, Rana; Ali, Sajid

    2010-01-01

    This article tries to respond to a basic question: "can in-service teachers of public sectors in Pakistan be reformed?" The authors' response to this question is: "yes, public teachers can be reformed, if contextual possibilities are exploited efficiently". Although a straightforward and simplistic response to the question,…

  14. Library Web Sites in Pakistan: An Analysis of Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qutab, Saima; Mahmood, Khalid

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate library web sites in Pakistan, to analyse their content and navigational strengths and weaknesses and to give recommendations for developing better web sites and quality assessment studies. Design/methodology/approach: Survey of web sites of 52 academic, special, public and national libraries in…

  15. The Determinants of Child Health in Pakistan: An Economic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shehzad, Shafqat

    2006-01-01

    This paper estimates linear structural models using LISREL and employs MIMIC models to find out factors determining child health in Pakistan. A distinction has been made in permanent and transitory health states that lend support to Grossman's (1972) stock and flow concepts of health. The paper addresses the issue of health unobservability and…

  16. Pakistan embarks on new campaign to reduce fertility.

    PubMed

    1992-01-01

    There was both international and domestic significance in a plea for population stabilization issued by Pakistan's Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif in his address at the recent Earth Summit conference in Rio de Janeiro. Speaking as both a national leader and chairman of the Group of 77, a coalition of developing countries, Sharif said that to eradicate the abject poverty under which more than a billion people in the world live today "developing countries must assume their full responsibility in limiting population growth to manageable levels." Those words may seem odd coming from the leader of a country that has been indifferent about population problems for the past 2 decades. Until Prime Minister Sharif made a public commitment to a population program last July, the last leader of Pakistan to take such action was the late President Ayub Khan in 1969. With an annual 3.1% growth rate, Pakistan's population of 122 million is projected to double in only 23 years. The average Pakistani woman has 6.1 children in her reproductive lifetime. Reduction of population growth was an issue in the October 1990 election campaign. After his Islamic Democratic Alliance won, the government named Syeda Abida Hussain, a prominent and popular politician, to the cabinet post of Minister of Family Welfare. Hussain, who is now Pakistan's Ambassador to the US, recalls that many experts felt that starting a population program would be "an impossible undertaking, "that" attitudes were not conducive to family planning and government would never support it." In a speech on World Population Day in Rio, organized by the Population Institute, she said she soon found that "the problems were managerial, not attitudinal." She maintained that the relatively low acceptance of contraception among the people of Pakistan, Bangladesh and India is not because of religion or ideology "but because they are too poor to have access to birth control." Shortly after Hussain was names Minister of Family Welfare, she

  17. Quantitative Analyses of Esophageal Cancer Research in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Muhammad Asif; Khan, Saeed; Ujjan, Ikram Din; Iqbal, Asif; Khan, Ramsha; Khan, Bilal Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Healthcare research is a neglected discipline in Pakistan and research related to esophageal cancer (ranks 9th in Pakistani males and 5th in females) is no exception in this regard. Particularly, there are no data available to delineate the overall status of esophageal cancer epidemiological studies in Pakistan. This study describes the first ever effort to make a systematic quantification, in an attempt to provide a roadmap to all stakeholders for designing appropriate epidemiological, diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. International (PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge) and local (PakMedinet) scientific databases as well as Google search engine were searched using specified keywords to extract relevant publication. Well defined inclusion criteria were implemented to select publications for final analyses. All data were recorded by at least 3 authors and consensus data were entered into and analyzed for descriptive statistics (such as frequencies, percentages and annual growth rates) using Microsoft Excel and SPSS software. A total of 79 publications fulfilled the inclusion criteria including 20 publications for which full texts were not available. Of the 79 publications, 59 (74.6%) were original/research publications, 5 (6.3%) were case reports, 4 (5.1%) were research communications, 2 (2.5%) were review articles, 1 was (1.2%) correspondence and 8 (10.1%) were un defined categories. Only 13 <20%) cities of Pakistan contributed towards the 79 publications. On average, only 1.9 relevant publications/year were published from 1976 (year of first publication) to the present. Alarmingly, a decline in the annual growth at 4.1% was recorded in the last six years. Esophageal cancer research is largely unfathomed in Pakistan. Urgent/dramatic steps are required by all concerned to address this common (and under reported) cancer of Pakistan.

  18. Cooperative Development of the Pakistan Seismic Network System (PSNS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detweiler, S.; Mooney, W.; McDonald, S.

    2005-12-01

    We propose to cooperate with the Pakistan Meteorological Department for the design and construction of the new Pakistan Seismic Network System (PSNS) that has been funded by the government of Pakistan. The PSNS will consist of 12-15 broadband stations, 50 short-period stations, and 50 accelerometers. Our role will be to provide technical assistance in site selection, to prepare the Request for Proposals (RFP) from industry, and to evaluate performance. The relative importance of tsunami warnings, national earthquake and landslide hazards, and whether a largely urban or truly national network is envisioned will be determined early in the program. Final placement of stations will take many factors into consideration including proximity to faults and seismic activity, geographic accessibility, the consistency of bedrock, and various cultural or social effects. This cooperation has the potential to lead to the development of a desperately needed tsunami early warning network that could protect the Pakistani coastal population in the event of a natural disaster such as the Dec. 26, 2004 Sumatra earthquake and tsunami. The seismic hazard off the coast of Pakistan is high due to the proximity of the Makran and Sumatra subduction zones, the former of which could trigger tsunamis in Pakistan with heights of 12m within minutes. In addition to monitoring earthquake activity, the PSNS will provide seismic data of interest to the world-wide scientific community for a region in which there is little understanding of the upper crust and mantle. It will furthermore address educational outreach and diplomacy issues by providing training to Pakistani scientists in routine network operation and data processing.

  19. Governance and Higher Education in Pakistan: What Roles Do Boards of Governors Play in Ensuring the Academic Quality Maintenance in Public Universities versus Private Universities in Pakistan?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usman, Sidra

    2014-01-01

    There are major structural issues in the higher education system in Pakistan leading to poor governance of institutions and questionable quality of education. This paper looks at the differences in the role of boards of governors in maintaining quality of education in both the public and the private sector universities in Pakistan. After having…

  20. Evolution of Doctoral Education in Pakistan: Challenges and Successes of Doctoral Students of Education in a Public Sector University of Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halai, Nelofer

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a part of the findings from a larger study undertaken to explore the experience of graduate students in education in Pakistan. Analysis of a smaller slice of data collected from students who were enrolled in the PhD and MPhil programmes of the Department of Education in a large public sector university in Northern Pakistan was…

  1. Girl child marriage and its effect on fertility in Pakistan: findings from Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey, 2006-2007.

    PubMed

    Nasrullah, Muazzam; Muazzam, Sana; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Raj, Anita

    2014-04-01

    Child marriage (before 18 years) is prevalent in Pakistan, which disproportionately affects young girls in rural, low income and low education households. Our study aims to determine the association between early marriage and high fertility and poor fertility health indicators among young women in Pakistan beyond those attributed to social vulnerabilities. Nationally representative data from Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey, 2006-2007, a cross-sectional observational survey, were limited to ever-married women aged 20-24 years (n = 1,560; 15% of 10,023) to identify differences in poor fertility outcomes [high fertility (three or more childbirths); rapid repeat childbirth (<24 months between births); unwanted pregnancy (any ever); pregnancy termination (any stillbirth, miscarriage or abortion ever)] by early (<18) versus adult (≥18) age at marriage. Associations between child marriage and fertility outcomes were assessed by calculating adjusted odds ratios (AORs) using logistic regression models after controlling for demographics, social equity indicators (education, wealth index, rural residence), contraception use, marriage duration and culture-specific factors (husband's desire for more children, son preference). Overall, 50% of ever-married women aged 20-24 years in Pakistan were married before the age of 18 years. Girl child marriage was significantly (p < 0.001) associated with low social equity indicators (poverty, rural residence, and no formal education). Adjusted logistic regression models showed that girl child marriage was significantly associated with high fertility (AOR 6.62; 95% CI 3.53-12.43), rapid repeat childbirth (AOR 2.88; 95% CI 1.83-4.54), unwanted pregnancy (AOR 2.90; 95% CI 1.75-4.79), and pregnancy termination (AOR 1.75; 95% CI 1.10-2.78). Girl child marriage affects half of all ever-married women aged 20-24 years in Pakistan, and increases their risk for high fertility and poor fertility health indicators, highlighting the need of

  2. Motivational determinants among physicians in Lahore, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Human resource crises in developing countries have been identified as a critical aspect of poor quality and low accessibility in health care. Worker motivation is an important facet of this issue. Specifically, motivation among physicians, who are an important bridge between health systems and patients, should be considered. This study aimed to identify the determinants of job motivation among physicians, a neglected perspective, especially in developing countries. Methods A stratified random sample of 360 physicians was selected from public primary, public secondary and public and private tertiary health facilities in the Lahore district, Pakistan. Pretested, semi-structured, self-administered questionnaires were used. For the descriptive part of this study, physicians were asked to report their 5 most important work motivators and demotivators within the context of their current jobs and in general. Responses were coded according to emergent themes and frequencies calculated. Of the 30 factors identified, 10 were classified as intrinsic, 16 as organizational and 4 as socio-cultural. Results Intrinsic and socio-cultural factors like serving people, respect and career growth were important motivators. Conversely, demotivators across setups were mostly organizational, especially in current jobs. Among these, less pay was reported the most frequently. Fewer opportunities for higher qualifications was a demotivator among primary and secondary physicians. Less personal safety and poor working conditions were important in the public sector, particularly among female physicians. Among private tertiary physicians financial incentives other than pay and good working conditions were motivators in current jobs. Socio-cultural and intrinsic factors like less personal and social time and the inability to financially support oneself and family were more important among male physicians. Conclusion Motivational determinants differed across different levels of care

  3. Surface Deformation in Quetta Valley, Balochistan, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, J.; Shuhab, K.; Wulamu, A.; Crupa, W.; Khan, A. S.; Kakar, D. M.; Kasi, A.

    2015-12-01

    In February 2011, several ground fissures up to ~1.8 km in length appeared in the Quetta Valley, Balochsitan, Pakistan. It is not clear what caused the sudden occurrence of these fissures. The region is tectonically active and bounded to the west by several regional strike-slip faults including the north-south striking left-lateral Chaman fault system that slips at ~10 mm per year. Several large earthquakes have occurred recently in this area, one fatal 6.4 magnitude (Mw) earthquake occurred on October 28th, 2008. Some parts of Quetta Valley are subsiding; GPS data from two stations in Quetta that span mid-2006 - 2009 recorded subsidence rates of ~10 cm per year. Although subsidence in urban areas is generally attributed to groundwater depletion, it is not clear whether ground fissures are caused by water withdrawal or related to tectonics of the region. This study is designed to quantify and assess the source of surface deformation in Quetta Valley using InSAR, GPS, seismic and earthquake centroid moment tensor data. To detect and map the spatial-temporal features of the processes that led to the surface deformation, we used two time series, i.e., 15 European Remote Sensing (ERS-1/2) satellite images from 1992 - 1999 and 27 ENVISAT images spanning 2003 - 2010. A Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (DInSAR) Small Baseline Subset (SBAS) technique was used to investigate surface deformation. Eleven continuous-GPS stations within the InSAR antenna footprint were compared with the InSAR time series for quality control. Preliminary InSAR results revealed that the areas in and around the fissures are subsiding at 5 cm per year. Five seismic lines totaling ~60 km, acquired in 2003, were used to interpret faults beneath Holocene alluvium in the Quetta Valley. One of the blind faults is a north-south striking thrust fault mapped north into the Takatu range. However, a focal mechanism for the 2008 earthquake in this region indicated northwest

  4. Role of Pakistan in War against Terrorism with Particular Emphasis on its Tribal Area

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    Economic Issues Terrorism Reasons of economic backwardness of FATA Challenges faced by the Pakistan Myth or Misconception COUNTERMEASURES Pakistan’s...cold war, the gun running and drug culture was on the rise in Pakistan. It helped to arm the religious, ethnic and political groups to eliminate their...stop illegal immigrant and promote trade system. Myth or Misconception . Notwithstanding the above, the major reasons, for the failure of various

  5. Pakistan and water: new pressures on global security and human health.

    PubMed

    Pappas, Gregory

    2011-05-01

    The Indus River is the major source of water for the more than 180 million people of Pakistan. A rapidly increasing population over the past 60 years has created new pressures on water that was once a plentiful resource for the health and development of the country. Rising tensions between India and Pakistan, which share the Indus flow, may lead to violent confrontation in an already volatile part of the globe. The recent flooding, which affected more than 20 million people, drew attention to poor management of the rivers of Pakistan. Public health has the scientific knowledge and professional capacity to help develop water management practices that could improve population health in Pakistan.

  6. Geochemistry of the Bela Ophiolite, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, M.; Nicholson, K. N.; Mahmood, K.

    2008-12-01

    The Bela ophiolite complex of Balochistan, Pakistan has been the subject of several geochemical and tectonic studies in the past. However until now there has never been a combined structural, geochemical and tectonic assimilation study which adequately explains the observed geochemistry and structural geology in a global tectonic framework. Here we present the geochemical findings of our work. The Bela ophiolite complex consists of two major units: the basal section or Lower Unit, and the Upper Unit, between the two is a mélange zone. The Lower Unit is relatively homogeneous and consists almost entirely of flow basalts and pillow basalts. The base of the Upper Unit is the metamorphic sole which is overlain by a sequence of massive basalts flows and intrusions of gabbro and granites. The entire Upper Unit is cut by doleritic dykes and sills. Geochemically the Lower Unit is comprised of basaltic lavas with E-MORB affinities. These lavas are tholeiitic, low-K series lavas with trace element signatures of E-type MORB. For example ratios such as V/Ti, Zr/Y, Nb/Th, Th/La and Nb/U all suggest these lavas are E-MORB. Previous workers have suggested these lavas are back-arc basin (BAB) however the samples lack the characteristic signatures of subduction modified MORB. This conclusion is supported by chondrite and N-MORB normalized spider diagrams where the Lower Unit lavas are enriched in the LILE with respect to the HFSE. The Upper Unit of the Bela Ophiolite sequence has a slightly more complex history. The older lavas sequences, the massive basalt flows, gabbros and granites, all formed in an oceanic arc environment. These lavas exhibit classic arc signatures such as a negative Nb and Ti anomalies, are enriched in LILE and LREE relative to HSFE, and plot in the volcanic arc and island arc fields in classic ternary plots such as 2Nb- Zr/4-Y and Y/15-La/10-Nb/8. The younger sequence of intrusions found in the Bela ophiolite appear to have BAB signatures. These lavas have

  7. The role of son preference in reproductive behaviour in Pakistan.

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, R.; Fikree, F. F.; Berendes, H. W.

    2000-01-01

    The sex of surviving children is an important determinant of reproductive behaviour in South Asia in general and Pakistan in particular. This cohort study evaluates the role of the sex of children on reproductive intentions and subsequent behaviour of women in urban slums of Karachi, Pakistan. The analysis is based on two rounds of surveys conducted in 1990-91 and 1995 of a cohort of married women aged 15-49 years. The results show that pregnancies became increasingly unwanted as the number of surviving sons increased. The sex of surviving children was strongly correlated with subsequent fertility and contraceptive behaviour. However, rather than an exclusive son preference, couples strove for one or more sons and at least one surviving daughter. The policy implications of the link between overt son preference and low status of women are discussed. PMID:10812738

  8. Polio in Pakistan: Social constraints and travel implications.

    PubMed

    Mushtaq, Asim; Mehmood, Sajid; Rehman, Muhammad Ateeq Ur; Younas, Asma; Rehman, Muhammad Saif Ur; Malik, Muhamamd Faheem; Hyder, Muhammad Zeeshan

    2015-01-01

    The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) in Pakistan has faced failure despite being implemented successfully. Polio cases were successfully reduced by 99% until 2005. However, thereafter, new polio cases were registered, which continue to rise annually. This repeat polio outbreak has placed the country on watch by the World Health Organization (WHO) due to travelers, and Hajj and Umrah pilgrims. The present report reviews the published literature for determining the social constraints to the polio eradication initiative in Pakistan. Religion, politics, awareness, insecurity, inequity, governance, and social responsibility have been identified as key social factors in the failure of any vaccination campaign. Possible interventions have been proposed, which include effectively using modern mass media and educating vaccinators on the social and cultural background of the target community. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Road traffic crashes managed by Rescue 1122 in Lahore, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Tahir, Navid; Naseer, Rizwan; Khan, Samina Mohsin; Macassa, Gloria; Hashmi, Waseem; Durrani, Mohsin

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this retrospective study was to describe demographic characteristics, injury patterns and causes of road traffic crashes (RTCs) managed by Rescue 1122 in Lahore, Pakistan during the period 2005-2010. In total 123,268 RTCs were reported and responded by Rescue 1122 ambulance service during the study period. Of the 132,504 victims of RTCs, there were 67% male and 33% female subjects, and the maximum share (65%) was reported among people aged 16-35 years. Motorcyclists were involved in 45% of crashes, with over-speeding (40%) found to be the major reason of these collisions. Similarly, minor injuries (65%) and fractures (25%) were the most reported outcome of these crashes. It is concluded that data from ambulance services, if appropriately collected, can provide valuable epidemiological information to monitor RTCs in developing countries. However, in Pakistan, the collection of data as well as the registration process needs further improvement.

  10. Violence against women in Pakistan: a framework for analysis.

    PubMed

    Ali, Parveen Azam; Gavino, Maria Irma Bustamante

    2008-04-01

    Understanding violence against women is as complex as its process. As a perusal of literature shows that most of the explanations were contextually and culturally based, this review attempts to analyze the issue of violence against women using theories applicable within the Pakistani context. Literature examining the issue of violence against women and its various theories was reviewed. A framework using the determinants of violence against women as proposed, include intrinsic and extrinsic factors within the people, the socio-economic-political and cultural system of Pakistan and the influences of surrounding countries. The Pakistani scenario has been described and the theoretical bases were presented. Each determinant has been discussed with supporting literature. Further studies are needed to strengthen the framework; however, it provided a modest view of violence against women in Pakistan. The framework would help the policy and decision makers to understand the dynamics of violence against women and may move them to action to bring about improvements in women's' lives.

  11. The emerging threat of schistosomiasis spread in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Subhani, F; Nizamuddin, R; Qasim, A; Idrees, N; Ahmed, I; Nizami, S; Shakoor, S; Beg, M A

    2014-03-01

    Schistosomiasis is among the thirteen neglected tropical diseases of the world. While prevalent in a number of countries, it has only rarely been reported in Pakistan. Here we report a 25 year old male who acquired the infection during travel to Malawi and presented with haematuria and dysuria. He was successfully treated with praziquantel. The possibility of schistosomiasis becoming endemic in the country is discussed. A number of risk factors are present including dams, irrigation, increased travel and geographical proximity to endemic countries. The local presence of at least one snail species of potential hosts for Schistosoma mansoni is confirmed. We see that schistosomiasis endemicity is a possible threat in Pakistan. Solutions to prevent this include reducing travel to endemic areas, prompt recognition and treatment of cases, and health education.

  12. Estimates of outage costs of electricity in Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Ashraf, J.; Sabih, F.

    1993-12-31

    This article estimates outage costs of electricity for each of the four provinces in Pakistan (Punjab, North-West Frontier Province, Baluchistan, and Sind). The term {open_quotes}power outage{close_quotes} refers to all problems associated with electricity supply, such as voltage drops (brownouts), power failures (blackouts), and load shedding. The most significant of these in Pakistan is load shedding when power supply to different consumers is shut off during different times of the day, especially during peak hours when the pressure on the system is the highest. Power shortages mainly arise during the low-water months when the effective capacity of hydropower plants drops significantly. This decline in power supplied by hydro plants cannot be made up by operating thermal power plants because of the limited availability of gas and the high cost of alternative fuels required for the operation of gas turbines.

  13. Space technology in the mapping of desertification in Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, J.; Mirza, M. I.

    1993-11-01

    Various processes, that are collectively referred to as desertification, have in varying degrees resulted in the degradation of many productive areas in Pakistan. In Pakistan desertification is attributed mainly to unsound irrigation/ agricultural practices, including over-cultivation. The adverse effects of these desertification processes on the ecosystem are evident mainly in the form of salinisation of soil and ground water, waterlogging, soil erosion and sand dune migration. Repetitive high resolution satellite images, in conjunction with historical/existing ground-based data and maps, have been used to examine the nature, trend and quantum of the desertification processes in different environmental regimes. Delineation and mapping of affected areas has been performed to establish a reliable base-line for monitoring desertification processes and evolving suitable strategies for combating them.

  14. Pakistan’s Nuclear Future: Worries Beyond War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    seizure of the plants by subnational groups and the need to take them back by force, if necessary. Thomas Donnelly examines this issue in his analysis...They were made possible by the large freedom of manoeuvre given to A. Q. Khan’s activities until the end of the 1990s. But there has been, at least...Pakistan and basically ignored Afghanistan, Pakistani intelligence was cultivating the Taliban. The freedom fighters of the Afghan War were becoming

  15. Nuclear Threat Reduction Measures for India and Pakistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-02-17

    drive systems, and on-line fuel charging and discharging equipment for CANDU reactors. considered to have made “substantial progress in the...Reduction Measures for India and Pakistan Updated February 17, 2005 Sharon Squassoni Specialist in National Defense Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade...hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and

  16. Viable Circumstances for Financial Negotiations in Pakistan Contracting Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited 12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) In Pakistan, competitive forms...of procurement include only two-step sealed bidding. In the United States, negotiated procurement falls under competitive forms of procurement...PPRA rules in 2004, the model UNCITRAL was amended in 2011. The amended 2011 UNCITRAL law also allows negotiations, such as the competitive form of

  17. Human Papillomavirus Genotype Distribution in Invasive Cervical Cancer in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Loya, Asif; Serrano, Beatriz; Rasheed, Farah; Tous, Sara; Hassan, Mariam; Clavero, Omar; Raza, Muhammad; De Sanjosé, Silvia; Bosch, F Xavier; Alemany, Laia

    2016-07-30

    Few studies have assessed the burden of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in Pakistan. We aim to provide specific information on HPV-type distribution in invasive cervical cancer (ICC) in the country. A total of 280 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue blocks were consecutively selected from Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre (Lahore, Pakistan). HPV-DNA was detected by SPF10 broad-spectrum PCR followed by DNA enzyme immunoassay and genotyping by LiPA25. HPV-DNA prevalence was 87.5% (95%CI: 83.0-91.1), with 96.1% of cases histologically classified as squamous cell carcinoma. Most of the HPV-DNA positive cases presented single infections (95.9%). HPV16 was the most common type followed by HPV18 and 45. Among HPV-DNA positive, a significantly higher contribution of HPV16/18 was detected in Pakistan (78.4%; 72.7-83.3), compared to Asia (71.6%; 69.9-73.4) and worldwide (70.8%; 69.9-71.8) and a lower contribution of HPVs31/33/45/52/58 (11.1%; 7.9-15.7 vs. 19.8%; 18.3-21.3 and 18.5%; 17.7-19.3). HPV18 or HPV45 positive ICC cases were significantly younger than cases infected by HPV16 (mean age: 43.3, 44.4, 50.5 years, respectively). A routine cervical cancer screening and HPV vaccination program does not yet exist in Pakistan; however, the country could benefit from national integrated efforts for cervical cancer prevention and control. Calculated estimations based on our results show that current HPV vaccine could potentially prevent new ICC cases.

  18. Human Papillomavirus Genotype Distribution in Invasive Cervical Cancer in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Loya, Asif; Serrano, Beatriz; Rasheed, Farah; Tous, Sara; Hassan, Mariam; Clavero, Omar; Raza, Muhammad; De Sanjosé, Silvia; Bosch, F. Xavier; Alemany, Laia

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have assessed the burden of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in Pakistan. We aim to provide specific information on HPV-type distribution in invasive cervical cancer (ICC) in the country. A total of 280 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue blocks were consecutively selected from Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre (Lahore, Pakistan). HPV-DNA was detected by SPF10 broad-spectrum PCR followed by DNA enzyme immunoassay and genotyping by LiPA25. HPV-DNA prevalence was 87.5% (95%CI: 83.0–91.1), with 96.1% of cases histologically classified as squamous cell carcinoma. Most of the HPV-DNA positive cases presented single infections (95.9%). HPV16 was the most common type followed by HPV18 and 45. Among HPV-DNA positive, a significantly higher contribution of HPV16/18 was detected in Pakistan (78.4%; 72.7–83.3), compared to Asia (71.6%; 69.9–73.4) and worldwide (70.8%; 69.9–71.8) and a lower contribution of HPVs31/33/45/52/58 (11.1%; 7.9–15.7 vs. 19.8%; 18.3–21.3 and 18.5%; 17.7–19.3). HPV18 or HPV45 positive ICC cases were significantly younger than cases infected by HPV16 (mean age: 43.3, 44.4, 50.5 years, respectively). A routine cervical cancer screening and HPV vaccination program does not yet exist in Pakistan; however, the country could benefit from national integrated efforts for cervical cancer prevention and control. Calculated estimations based on our results show that current HPV vaccine could potentially prevent new ICC cases. PMID:27483322

  19. Progress Toward Poliomyelitis Eradication--Pakistan, January 2014-September 2015.

    PubMed

    Farag, Noha H; Wadood, Mufti Zubair; Safdar, Rana Muhammad; Ahmed, Nabil; Hamdi, Sabrine; Tangermann, Rudolph H; Ehrhardt, Derek

    2015-11-20

    Since Nigeria reported its last case of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) in July 2014, Pakistan and Afghanistan remain the only two countries where WPV transmission has never been interrupted. This report describes actions taken and progress achieved toward polio eradication in Pakistan during January 2014-September 2015 and updates previous reports. A total of 38 WPV1 cases were reported in Pakistan during January-September 2015, compared with 243 during the same period in 2014 (an 84% decline). Among WPV1 cases reported in 2015, 32 (84%) occurred in children aged <36 months, nine (32%) of whom had never received oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). Twenty-six (68%) of the 38 reported cases occurred in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) Province. During January-September 2015, WPV1 was detected in 20% (64 of 325) of environmental samples collected, compared with 34% (98 of 294) of samples collected during the same period in 2014. The quality and scope of polio eradication activities improved considerably following the establishment of a national Emergency Operations Center, which coordinated polio eradication partners' activities. All activities are following a National Polio Eradication Emergency Action Plan that includes a rigorous action plan for the polio low transmission season (January-April). The presence of WPV1 in environmental samples in areas where no polio cases are detected highlights the need to improve surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP). Focused efforts to close remaining immunity gaps by locating, tracking, and vaccinating continually missed children and improving coverage with OPV through the routine vaccination program are needed to stop WPV transmission in Pakistan.

  20. Progress toward poliomyelitis eradication - Pakistan, January 2012-September 2013.

    PubMed

    2013-11-22

    Pakistan is one of three countries where transmission of indigenous wild poliovirus (WPV) has never been interrupted. This report describes polio eradication activities and progress in Pakistan during January 2012-September 2013 and updates previous reports. During 2012, 58 WPV cases were reported in selected areas, compared with 198 cases throughout the country in 2011; 52 WPV cases were reported during January-September 2013, compared with 54 cases during the same period in 2012. Of the 110 WPV cases reported since January 2012, 92 cases (84%) occurred in the conflict-affected Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) and in security-compromised Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) Province. WPV type 3 (WPV3) was isolated from only three persons with polio in a single district in 2012; the most recent case occurred in April 2012. During August 2012-September 2013, 52 circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) cases were detected, including 30 cases (58%) identified in FATA during January-September 2013. Approximately 350,000 children in certain districts of FATA have not received polio vaccine during supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) conducted since mid-2012 because local authorities have banned polio vaccination. In some other areas of Pakistan, SIAs have been compromised by attacks targeting polio workers that started in mid-2012. Further efforts to reach children in conflict-affected and security-compromised areas, including vaccinating at transit points and conducting additional short-interval-additional-dose (SIAD) SIAs as areas become accessible, will be necessary to prevent reintroduction of WPV into other areas of Pakistan and other parts of the world.

  1. Makran Mountain Range, Indus River Valley, Pakistan, India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The enormous geologic pressures exerted by continental drift can be very well illustrated by the long northward curving parallel folded mountain ridges and valleys of the coastal Makran Range of Pakistan (27.0N, 66.0E). As a result of the collision of the northward bound Indian sub-continent into the Asian Continent, the east/west parallel range has been bent in a great northward arc and forming the Indus River valley at the interface of the collision.

  2. Pakistan’s Nuclear Weapons: Proliferation and Security Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-26

    Sheet, http://www.armscontrol.org/factsheets/missiles.asp; and Mahmud Ali Durrani, “Pakistan’s Strategic Thinking and the Role of Nuclear Weapons...continued) Pakistan, November 22, 2008; “Interview with President Asif Ali Zardari,” CNN Larry King Live, December 2, 2008...President Musharraf stated in November 2007 that Pakistan’s nuclear weapons are under “total custodial controls.”124 More recently, President Asif Ali

  3. Stabilizing US-Pakistan Relations: A Way Forward

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-15

    repeatedly pushed India and Pakistan to near war. But to great dismay, stability in Afghanistan and the destruction of Al Qaeda and Taliban networks in the...vis-à-vis India , or the US goal of helping new states mature into stable democracies were ignored. But it is those interests that must be addressed...desired to maintain a credible conventional deterrent against India . Little discussion was raised during this period (2003-2007) about the military’s

  4. Stability in Pakistan: Realizing the Vision of Enlightened Moderation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    waged against the crown – the diversified minority opposition would have had no other single “hero” to back.14 E. SUMMARY Khalid Mahmud Arif ...Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan, edited by Ali Banuazizi and Myron Weiner (Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 1986), 160-162. 15 Khalid Mahmud Arif , “The...Sufi tradition of Islam was developed into a guided tradition by Maulana Ahmad Riza Khan Barelwi (1856- 1921). Ahmad Riza called his group the Ahl

  5. US and Pakistan Relations: Muddling Towards Compelling Coincident Interests

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-20

    23 . 61 Tellis , Ashley, "The Real Meaning of Obama‟ s Visit." Forbes, November 24, 2010, http://www.moneycontrol.com/news/features/ashley- tellis -the...1990s. The subsequent events would further erode US-Pakistan relations and reinforce public sentiment already cynical of what appeared to most as US‟ s ...of media glare. But what comes in the media glare is not always what happens in private between us as allies," he added. 32 Ibid. 32 33 Epstein

  6. Pakistan Education Systems and the Radical Islamic Jihadist Ideology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-15

    government and religious leaders continue to negotiate these measures. After the 8 October 2005 earthquake that devastated Pakistan, al -Qaida-linked...exploit Islam and use terrorism for ideological ends.”19 An example, the Al Qaida Associated Movement--comprised of al Qaida and affiliated jihadists...jihadists, such as Osama Bin Laden and al -Qaida in general, believe that targeting and destroying the United States and the West is of primary

  7. Barriers to Implementation of Optimal Laboratory Biosafety Practices in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Shafaq, Humaira; Hasan, Rumina; Qureshi, Shahida M.; Dojki, Maqboola; Hughes, Molly A.; Zaidi, Anita K. M.; Khan, Erum

    2016-01-01

    The primary goal of biosafety education is to ensure safe practices among workers in biomedical laboratories. Despite several educational workshops by the Pakistan Biological Safety Association (PBSA), compliance with safe practices among laboratory workers remains low. To determine barriers to implementation of recommended biosafety practices among biomedical laboratory workers in Pakistan, we conducted a questionnaire-based survey of participants attending 2 workshops focusing on biosafety practices in Karachi and Lahore in February 2015. Questionnaires were developed by modifying the BARRIERS scale in which respondents are required to rate barriers on a 1-4 scale. Nineteen of the original 29 barriers were included and subcategorized into 4 groups: awareness, material quality, presentation, and workplace barriers. Workshops were attended by 64 participants. Among barriers that were rated as moderate to great barriers by at least 50% of respondents were: lack of time to read biosafety guidelines (workplace subscale), lack of staff authorization to change/improve practice (workplace subscale), no career or self-improvement advantages to the staff for implementing optimal practices (workplace subscale), and unclear practice implications (presentation subscale). A lack of recognition for employees' rights and benefits in the workplace was found to be a predominant reason for a lack of compliance. Based on perceived barriers, substantial improvement in work environment, worker facilitation, and enabling are needed for achieving improved or optimal biosafety practices in Pakistan. PMID:27400192

  8. Barriers to Implementation of Optimal Laboratory Biosafety Practices in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Shakoor, Sadia; Shafaq, Humaira; Hasan, Rumina; Qureshi, Shahida M; Dojki, Maqboola; Hughes, Molly A; Zaidi, Anita K M; Khan, Erum

    2016-01-01

    The primary goal of biosafety education is to ensure safe practices among workers in biomedical laboratories. Despite several educational workshops by the Pakistan Biological Safety Association (PBSA), compliance with safe practices among laboratory workers remains low. To determine barriers to implementation of recommended biosafety practices among biomedical laboratory workers in Pakistan, we conducted a questionnaire-based survey of participants attending 2 workshops focusing on biosafety practices in Karachi and Lahore in February 2015. Questionnaires were developed by modifying the BARRIERS scale in which respondents are required to rate barriers on a 1-4 scale. Nineteen of the original 29 barriers were included and subcategorized into 4 groups: awareness, material quality, presentation, and workplace barriers. Workshops were attended by 64 participants. Among barriers that were rated as moderate to great barriers by at least 50% of respondents were: lack of time to read biosafety guidelines (workplace subscale), lack of staff authorization to change/improve practice (workplace subscale), no career or self-improvement advantages to the staff for implementing optimal practices (workplace subscale), and unclear practice implications (presentation subscale). A lack of recognition for employees' rights and benefits in the workplace was found to be a predominant reason for a lack of compliance. Based on perceived barriers, substantial improvement in work environment, worker facilitation, and enabling are needed for achieving improved or optimal biosafety practices in Pakistan.

  9. Seeking explanations for high levels of infant mortality in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Sathar, Z A

    1987-01-01

    Data from the Fertility Module of the 1979 Population, Labour Force and Migration (PLM) Survey of Pakistan were analyzed to determine which of 4 factors were primarily responsible for the high infant mortality rate. The factors examined were poverty, childbearing and childrearing practices, distribution of health care and lack of individual attention given to children due to ignorance. These items were presented in a discussion format. Infant mortality in Pakistan is high at about 125-140/1000, for a country with mid-level per capita income. Income was not a good indicator of child mortality, primarily because it was difficult to determine, particularly in rural areas where non-cash income predominates. Wealth and status were good indicators of child survival. Child-rearing practices were somewhat important, as judged by birth order, breastfeeding duration and gender. Childbearing practices as shown by spacing were important determinants of survival. Health care facilities were somewhat important, indicated by higher mortality in rural areas. Rural neonates die from tetanus due to lack of immunization, or later from diarrheal disease due to lack of potable water or poor weaning practices. Maternal education was a strong indicator of survival, much more so than paternal education. Similarly, female heads of households increased survival, probably because they control financial allocations. The study suggested that rather than attempting to eliminate poverty overall, improvements in maternal education, nutrition, health care facilities and their use, and childbearing and child-rearing methods would do more to improve child survival in Pakistan.

  10. Molecular characterization of infectious bursal disease viruses from Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Shabbir, Muhammad Zubair; Ali, Muhammad; Abbas, Muhammad; Chaudhry, Umer Naveed; Zia-Ur-Rehman; Munir, Muhammad

    2016-07-01

    Since the first report of infectious bursal disease in Pakistan in 1987, outbreaks have been common even in vaccinated flocks. Despite appropriate administration of vaccines, concerns arise if the circulating strains are different from the ones used in the vaccine. Here, we sequenced the hypervariable region (HVR) of the VP2 gene of circulating strains of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) originating from outbreaks (n = 4) in broiler flocks in Pakistan. Nucleotide sequencing followed by phylogeny and deduced amino acid sequence analysis showed the circulating strains to be very virulent (vv) and identified characteristic residues at position 222 (A), 242 (I), 256 (I), 294 (I) and 299 (S). In addition, a substitution at positions 221 (Q→H) was found to be exclusive to Pakistani strains in our analysis, although a larger dataset is required to confirm this finding. Compared to vaccine strains that are commonly used in Pakistan, substitution mutations were found at key amino acid positions in VP2 that may be responsible for potential changes in neutralization epitopes and vaccine failure.

  11. Privatisation in reproductive health services in Pakistan: three case studies.

    PubMed

    Ravindran, T K Sundari

    2010-11-01

    Privatisation in Pakistan's health sector was part of the Structural Adjustment Programme that started in 1998 following the country's acute foreign exchange crisis. This paper examines three examples of privatisation which have taken place in service delivery, management and capacity-building functions in the health sector: 1) large-scale contracting out of publicly-funded health services to private, not-for-profit organisations; 2) social marketing/franchising networks providing reproductive health services; and 3) a public-private partnership involving a consortium of private players and the government of Pakistan. It assesses the extent to which these initiatives have contributed to promoting equitable access to good quality, comprehensive reproductive health services. The paper concludes that these forms of privatisation in Pakistan's health sector have at best made available a limited range of fragmented reproductive health services, often of sub-optimal quality, to a fraction of the population, with poor returns in terms of health and survival, especially for women. This analysis has exposed a deep-rooted malaise within the health system as an important contributor to this situation. Sustained investment in health system strengthening is called for, where resources from both public and private sectors are channelled towards achieving health equity, under the stewardship of the state and with active participation by and accountability to members of civil society.

  12. Management of wastes from hospitals: A case study in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mustafa; Wang, Wenping; Chaudhry, Nawaz

    2016-01-01

    Proper management of hospital waste is a critical concern in many countries of the world. Pakistan is the sixth most populous country in the world, with one of the highest urbanisation and population growth rates in South Asia. Data and analyses regarding hospital waste management practices in Pakistan are scarce in scientific literature. This study was meant to determine waste management practices at selected hospitals in a major city in Pakistan, Gujranwala. A total of 12 different hospitals were selected for the survey, which involved quantification of waste generation rates and investigation of waste management practices. The results were analysed using linear regression. The weighted average total, general and infectious hospital waste generation rates were found to be 0.667, 0.497 and 0.17 kg bed-day(-1), respectively. Of the total, 73.85% consisted of general, 25.8% consisted of hazardous infectious and 0.87% consisted of sharps waste. The general waste consisted of 15.76% paper, 13.41% plastic, 21.77% textiles, 6.47% glass, 1.99% rubber, 0.44% metal and 40.17% others. Linear regression showed that waste generation increased with occupancy and decreased with number of beds. Small, private and specialised hospitals had relatively greater waste generation rates. Poor waste segregation, storage and transportation practices were observed at all surveyed hospitals. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Quality of ceftriaxone in Pakistan: reality and resonance.

    PubMed

    Obaid, Ali

    2009-04-01

    The quality of pharmaceuticals is a global concern, counterfeit/ poor quality/ substandard medicines can cause harms in various ways: In a number of developing countries including Pakistan there is reportedly a high incidence of the availability of substandard drugs. The majority of these reports do not contain quantitative data to support these claims, nor do they describe the methodology employed for the quality assessment. Quality of drugs available in Pakistan are being questioned and topic of discussion in local news paper, TV channels in general public including journalist and physicians due to disparity of price among same generics, lack of knowledge for such science and unknown reasons. Since, quality of drugs can neither be assessed by naked eye or by every one therefore, randomly selected, 96 samples of different strength of injection ceftriaxone sodium and its generic, a widely used third generation cephalosporin in Pakistan since 1982 and 1994 till date respectively included in the said study to know the reality. 15.62% of ceftriaxone injection was found to be out of specification, however, not a single sample was found fake (spurious) out of 96 tested samples. Nevertheless, quality is a wide ranging concept covering all matters that individually or collectively influence the excellence of a product hence price and other related issues are also analyzed in the study.

  14. Changing trend of percentile-based temperature indices over Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleem, Farhan; Adrees, Muhammad; Abbas, Farhat; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Zeng, Xiaodong

    2017-04-01

    This study evaluates the annual to interannual trends of percentile-indices temperature extremes during 1981-2010 for 27 synoptic stations spatially distributed over Pakistan. The indices were estimated using homogenized daily minimum (Tmin) and maximum (Tmax) temperatures. Indices defining the cold and hot extremes were calculated with the help of RClimDex software. A nonparametric Mann-Kendall test and Sen's slope estimates were used to determine the statistical significance and magnitude of a trend, respectively. The magnitude of trend was determined for various agro-ecological zones across Pakistan. We found that spatially averaged trends of cool nights (TN10p) and hot nights (TN90p) are more pronounced for the Northern Irrigated Plains during winter and spring. The zone of Sandy Deserts experienced the largest decrease in the frequency of cool days (TX10p) while, hot days (TX90p) frequency index was found to be more pronounced and significant for the Wet Mountains zone during spring. On an annual timescale, the magnitude of trend in hot nights was found to be larger than for hot days. The rate of change of warming in cool nights and cool days was found to be higher during spring and fall when compared to that of winter and summer. Overall, we found significant differences within the spatial distribution of day and night temperature extremes, indicating a trend of regional warming across Pakistan.

  15. Genetic analysis of peste des petits ruminants virus from Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an endemic and highly contagious disease in small ruminants of Pakistan. Despite the fact that an effective vaccine is available, outbreaks are regularly occurring in the country. Thus so far, the diagnosis has primarily been made based on clinical outcome or serology. This study was carried out to characterize PPRV from an emerging wave of outbreaks from Punjab, Pakistan. Results A total of 32 blood samples from five different flocks were tested with real-time PCR for the presence of PPRV genome. The samples detected positive in real-time PCR (n = 17) were subjected to conventional PCR for the amplification of the nucleoprotein (N) gene. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequenced N genes (n = 8) indicated the grouping of all the sequences in lineage IV along with PPRV strains from Asian and Middle East. However, interestingly sequences were divided into two groups. One group of viruses (n = 7) clustered with previously characterized Pakistani isolates whereas one strain of PPRV was distinct and clustered with Saudi Arabian and Iranian strains of PPRV. Conclusions Results demonstrated in this study expanded the information on the genetic nature of different PPRV population circulating in small ruminants. Such information is essential to understand genetic nature of PPRV strains throughout the country. Proper understanding of these viruses will help to devise control strategies in PPRV endemic countries such as Pakistan. PMID:23537146

  16. Coal briquetting in Pakistan: A market and business assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Stevenson, G.G.; Willson, T.D.

    1988-04-01

    Our objectives are to evaluate the potential financial success of an unsubsidized, private sector coal briquetting venture in Pakistan, based on financial competitiveness in market niches, market size, and consumer acceptance; to examine private sector interest and potential business arrangements; to examine potential effects of government policies on such an undertaking; and to make recommendations to the private sector, USAID, and the Government of Pakistan on further work. Our results show that coal briquettes potentially can compete against firewood in some markets, particularly in certain urban areas of Punjab and most urban markets of the NWFP. Salt Range or Makerwal coal would be used for these briquettes. Coal briquettes will also compete against charcoal and kerosene in many areas of Pakistan. The most promising briquette is a coal/biomass mixture not requiring carbonization. A limited opportunity may also exist for a carbonized briquette using Makerwal coal. Smoky briquettes for space heating also are competitive in certain areas, but market size is limiting. The total penetrable residential market for coal briquettes in the Punjab and NWFP of 440,000 to 545,000 tonnes of briquettes per year replacing firewood is sufficiently large to support one or more plants of 50,000 tonnes per year. Charcoal, kerosene, and commercial uses of briquettes could add to this market. 9 refs., 20 figs., 39 tabs.

  17. Violence against women in Pakistan: contributing factors and new interventions.

    PubMed

    Karmaliani, Rozina; Pasha, Aneeta; Hirani, Saima; Somani, Rozina; Hirani, Shela; Asad, Nargis; Cassum, Laila; McFarlane, Judith

    2012-12-01

    Pakistan ranks 125th out of 169 countries on the Gender Development Index and has high prevalence rates of Violence against Women (VAW). Contributing factors toward gender based violence at the micro, meso and macro levels include the acceptability of violence amongst both men and women, internalization of deservability, economic disempowerment, lack of formal education, joint family systems, entrenched patriarchal norms and values, and a lack of awareness of legal and other support systems. These factors have a long-lasting impact on the health of women and children. The gender disparities in the experience of women seeking health care in Pakistan are well-recognized and documented. In the past, common government policy responses to these disparities have included developing the role of community health workers (CHWs) and lady health visitors (LHVs). Despite being commendable initiatives, these too have been unsuccessful in addressing these multi-faceted disparities. Within this complex scenario, new interventions to address VAW and its impact on health in Pakistan include Group Counselling, Economic Skills Building, Health-Based Microfinance, and Family-Based models that increase male involvement, especially at the primary health care level. The purpose of this article is to outline key contributing factors to VAW, explore tested and new interventions, and highlight the opportunities that exist in implementing them.

  18. Genetic characterization of norovirus strains in hospitalized children from Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Alam, Amna; Qureshi, Sohail A; Vinjé, Jan; Zaidi, Anita

    2016-02-01

    Norovirus is one of the most common causes of acute gastroenteritis among children in developing countries. No data on the prevalence and genetic variability of norovirus are available for Pakistan, where early childhood mortality due to acute gastroenteritis is common. We tested 255 fecal specimens from children under 5 years of age hospitalized between April 2006 and March 2008 with severe acute gastroenteritis in five hospitals in the four largest cities in Pakistan for norovirus by real-time RT-PCR. Positive samples were further genotyped by conventional RT-PCR targeting the 5'-end of the capsid gene followed by sequencing of the positive PCR products. Overall, 41 (16.1%) samples tested positive for norovirus with an equal frequency in rotavirus-positive and rotavirus-negative samples. Nine (22%) samples were genogroup (G)I positive, 30 (73%) GII positive and two (5%) samples contained a mixture of GI and GII viruses. Sequence analyses demonstrated co-circulation of 14 norovirus genotypes including four GI genotypes (GI.3, GI.5, GI.7, GI.8) and 10 GII genotypes (GII.2, GII.3, GII.4, GII.5, GII.6, GII.7, GII.9, GII.13, GII.16, and GII.21). The most prevalent genotypes were GI.7 and GII.4 both causing 12.2% of the infections. This report confirms the presence of multiple norovirus genotypes in hospitalized children with acute gastroenteritis in Pakistan and a lack of clear predominance of GII.4 viruses.

  19. Investigation of summer monsoon rainfall variability in Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Mian Sabir; Lee, Seungho

    2016-08-01

    This study analyzes the inter-annual and intra-seasonal rainfall variability in Pakistan using daily rainfall data during the summer monsoon season (June to September) recorded from 1980 to 2014. The variability in inter-annual monsoon rainfall ranges from 20 % in northeastern regions to 65 % in southwestern regions of Pakistan. The analysis reveals that the transition of the negative and positive anomalies was not uniform in the investigated dataset. In order to acquire broad observations of the intra-seasonal variability, an objective criterion, the pre-active period, active period and post-active periods of the summer monsoon rainfall have demarcated. The analysis also reveals that the rainfall in June has no significant contribution to the increase in intra-seasonal rainfall in Pakistan. The rainfall has, however, been enhanced in the summer monsoon in August. The rainfall of September demonstrates a sharp decrease, resulting in a high variability in the summer monsoon season. A detailed examination of the intra-seasonal rainfall also reveals frequent amplitude from late July to early August. The daily normal rainfall fluctuates significantly with its maximum in the Murree hills and its minimum in the northwestern Baluchistan.

  20. 75 FR 52712 - Notice of Decision To Issue Permits for the Importation of Fresh Mango Fruit From Pakistan Into...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-27

    ... Fresh Mango Fruit From Pakistan Into the Continental United States AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... issuing permits for the importation into the continental United States of fresh mango fruit from Pakistan... weeds via the importation of fresh mango fruit from Pakistan. DATES: Effective Date: August 27,...

  1. India and Pakistan`s nuclear arms race: Out of the closet but not in the street

    SciTech Connect

    Albright, D.

    1993-06-01

    CIA Director James Woolsey testified before the Senate on February 24, 1993, {open_quotes}The arms race between India and Pakistan poses perhaps the most probable prospect for future use of weapons of mass destruction, including nuclear weapons.{close_quotes} Currently, both countries are dependent on relatively crude nuclear bombs that do not appear to have been deployed. According to US officials, because of fears of accidental nuclear detonation, both sides would only assemble their nuclear weapons when absolutely necessary. Nevertheless, according to Woolsey, both nations {open_quotes}could, on short notice, assemble nuclear weapons.{close_quotes} Each has combat aircraft that could deliver these bombs in a crisis. India and Pakistan continue to improve their nuclear weapons. Unless their programs are stopped, they might succeed in moving from large, cumbersome bombs to miniaturized, easily armed and fuzed weapons able to be permanently deployed on attack aircraft or ballistic missiles, which are being developed or sought by both countries.

  2. ASSESSMENT OF PRACTICE AT RETAIL PHARMACIES IN PAKISTAN: EXTENT OF COMPLIANCE WITH THE PREVAILING DRUG LAW OF PAKISTAN.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Hanif; Zada, Wahid; Khan, Muhammad Sona; Iqbal, Muhammad; Chohan, Osaam; Raza, Naeem; Khawaja, Naeem Raza; Abid, Syed Mobasher Ali; Murtazai, Ghulam

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess the practice at retail pharmacies in Pakistan and to compare the same in rural and urban areas. The maintenance of pharmacy and drug inspectors' visit was also assessed. This cross sectional study was conducted in Abbottabad, Pakistan during October-November, 2012. A sample of 215 drug sellers or drug stores was selected by employing convenient sampling method. With a response rate of 91.6%, 197 drug sellers participated in this study. All the drug sellers were male. Overall, 35% (n = 197) of the drug sellers did not have any professional qualification. A majority of the drug sellers were involved in various malpractices like selling of medicines without prescription (80.7%), prescribing practice (60.9%), prescription intervention (62.4%) and selling of controlled substances (66%) without a license for selling it. These malpractices were significantly higher in rural area than that in urban area.

  3. Climate change and managing water crisis: Pakistan's perspective.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Mumtaz; Mumtaz, Saniea

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is a global phenomenon manifested mainly through global warming. The International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has reported its negative consequences on natural resources, anthropogenic activities, and natural disasters. The El Nino and La Nina have affected hydrologic regimes and ecosystems. It has been observed that the average temperature in 1995 was 0.4°C higher than that in 1895. By the end of the 21st century, 10% of the area of Bangladesh is likely to be submerged by the sea. Most of the islands of Pacific Ocean will disappear. A major part of Maldives will be submerged. The sea level is expected to rise by 30-150 cm. Extreme events such as floods, cyclones, tsunamis, and droughts have become regular phenomena in many parts of the world. Other adverse impacts are proliferation of water-borne diseases, sea water intrusion, salinization of coastal areas, loss of biodiversity, eco-degradation of watersheds and global glacial decline, and haphazard snow melts/thaws. In turn, these factors have serious effect on water resources. Pakistan is confronting similar climate change. Meteorological data reveal that winter temperatures are rising and summers are getting cooler. Temperature is expected to increase by 0.9°C and 1.5°C by years 2020 and 2050, respectively. Water resources in Pakistan are affected by climate change as it impacts the behavior of glaciers, rainfall patterns, greenhouse gas emissions, recurrence of extreme events such as floods and droughts. Severe floods have occurred in the years 1950, 1956, 1957, 1973, 1976, 1978, 1988, 1992, 2010, 2011, and 2012. Pakistan has faced the worst-ever droughts during the period from 1998 to 2004. Pakistan has surface water potential of 140 million acre feet (MAF) and underground water reserve of 56 MAF. It is one of the most water-stressed countries in the world. The per capita annual availability of water has reduced from 5140 m3 in 1950 to 1000 m3 now. It is fast approaching towards water

  4. Child survival and changing fertility patterns in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Sathar, Z A

    1992-01-01

    Pakistan is a country with high fertility and high infant and child mortality, and declines in total mortality and substantial development initiatives. The discussion considers whether fertility patterns in Pakistan can be related to changes in child mortality, and whether current and future changes in fertility influence child survival favorably. Omran's study linked large family size to child survival. Resources, which are divided, become more important deficits in households below the poverty line: a situation common in Pakistan. High fertility is associated with short birth intervals, which are related to higher infant and child mortality. In Pakistan, the spacing and mortality link was found among both poverty and higher socioeconomic households. There is some support for the notion that it is birth weight and general health that are linked to survival rather than competition for resources. Other studies link the maternal age at birth and birth order with child mortality (Alam and Cleland). Trussel argues for limiting births in high risk ages of under 20 years and over 35 years. The exact casual link is not well documented. Institutional and community factors are also considered important in influencing child survival: sanitation, potable water, access to roads, electricity, health and family planning services, and sewage. Young infants are more vulnerable to these factors. Bangladesh and some Indian states have shown that population programs and raising per captia incomes are necessary to fertility decline. In India, female autonomy, access to education, and more equal income distribution were considered more important than economic development to child survival. In Pakistan, Sathar and Kazi have linked at least 2 years of elementary, maternal education with reductions in child mortality. The pervasiveness of female illiteracy hinders the chances of child survival. Sex preferences also impact on female children. The probably impacts of declines in breast

  5. Determinants of maternal health care services utilization in Pakistan: evidence from Pakistan demographic and health survey, 2012-13.

    PubMed

    Zakar, Rubeena; Zakar, Muhammad Zakria; Aqil, Nauman; Chaudhry, Ashraf; Nasrullah, Muazzam

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the association between maternal utilisation of health-care services and socio-demographic factors among reproductive-age women in Pakistan. We used the sample of ever-married reproductive-age women (n = 7446) from the Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey (PDHS), 2012-13. We measured maternal utilisation of health-care services by using three dependent variables: number of antenatal care (ANC) visits, delivery assistance by a skilled health provider, and delivery in a health-care facility. Around 36.6% of women had made four or more ANC visits, 59% had received assistance from skilled health providers during delivery, and 55.3% had given birth in a health-care facility. On multivariable logistic regression, all three variables were positively associated with education and wealth, and negatively associated with birth order and women's autonomy. Policymakers and health planners may use our findings to develop efficient strategies, particularly for uneducated women and those with poor economic status, to improve the utilisation of maternal health-care services in Pakistan.

  6. 75 FR 53732 - In the Matter of the Designation of Tehrik-e Taliban Pakistan (TTP) also known as Tehrik-I...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ... Designation of Tehrik-e Taliban Pakistan (TTP) also known as Tehrik-I-Taliban Pakistan also known as Tehrik-e... (hereinafter ``INA'') (8 U.S.C. 1189), exist with respect to Tehrik-e Taliban Pakistan (TTP), also known as Tehrik-I-Taliban Pakistan, also known as Tehrik-e- Taliban, also known as Pakistani Taliban, also...

  7. Scaling up of Life Skills Based Education in Pakistan: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svanemyr, Joar; Baig, Qadeer; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman

    2015-01-01

    Young people between the ages of 10 and 19 make up 23% of Pakistan's population. In Pakistan, young people face many challenges in terms of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) issues. These include early marriage and pregnancy, low use of contraception, use of unsafe abortion, lack of relevant information and poor knowledge about bodily…

  8. Eliminating Educational Inequality through E-Learning: The Case of Virtual University of Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Din, Aisha Muhammad; Jabeen, Sadia

    2014-01-01

    This study aims at examining the role of e-learning in combating the issues of inequality in terms of access and quality in the field of higher education in Pakistan. The education system in Pakistan is mainly characterized by educational disparity. The standard of education is directly proportional to the investment students make in the form of…

  9. Exploring English-Language Teachers' Professional Development in Developing Countries: Cases from Syria and Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dayoub, Ruba; Bashiruddin, Ayesha

    2012-01-01

    This paper attempts to present the findings of a study carried out in Pakistan that explored English-language teachers' professional development in developing countries. The main guiding question for the study was: How do English-language teachers at secondary schools learn to teach and develop professionally in Syria and Pakistan? Two cases were…

  10. An Analysis of Bid Evaluation Procedures of Contemporary Models for Procurement in Pakistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    0188 Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response , including the time for reviewing...develop a guide for Pakistan defense contracting. 14. SUBJECT TERMS Pakistan, procurement, PPRA, bid evaluation, procurement models, corporate sector...INTRODUCTION......................................................................................5  B.  CORPORATE SECTOR’S PROCESSES AND EVALUATION OF BIDS

  11. Pakistan-Specific Cases for the Advanced Management Course in Public Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Gary N., Ed.

    A compilation of management case studies concerning public administration in Pakistan and accompanying teaching notes, this document is intended to foster discussion in classes such as the advanced management course in public administration at the National Institute of Public Administration in Lahore, Pakistan. Included are case studies entitled…

  12. Can Education Be a Path to Gender Equality in the Labour Market? An Update on Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslam, Monazza; Kingdon, Geeta

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates some of the economic outcomes of education in Pakistan with a view to understanding if education can act as a vehicle for labour market success. Data from a purpose-designed survey of more than 1000 households in Pakistan are utilised. Earnings functions are estimated for agricultural workers, the self-employed and wage…

  13. Age, Gender and Job Satisfaction among Elementary School Head Teachers in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghazi, Safdar Rehman; Maringe, Felix

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore general job satisfaction of elementary school head teachers in Pakistan with respect to their age and gender. One hundred and eighty head teachers were sampled from government elementary schools of Toba Tek Singh, Punjab, Pakistan, to collect the relevant data using a modified version of the Minnesota…

  14. Exploring English-Language Teachers' Professional Development in Developing Countries: Cases from Syria and Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dayoub, Ruba; Bashiruddin, Ayesha

    2012-01-01

    This paper attempts to present the findings of a study carried out in Pakistan that explored English-language teachers' professional development in developing countries. The main guiding question for the study was: How do English-language teachers at secondary schools learn to teach and develop professionally in Syria and Pakistan? Two cases were…

  15. Equality or Equity: Gender Awareness Issues in Secondary Schools in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halai, Anjum

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on gender awareness issues as a dimension of addressing the wider issue of the quality of education in Pakistan from the perspective of social justice. In Pakistan classrooms, boys and girls learn separately and therefore teachers and others tend to think that there are no gender issues once access is achieved and the learners…

  16. Professional Activities, Needed Competencies and Training Needs of Medical Librarians in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullah, Midrar; Ameen, Kanwal; Bakhtar, Salman

    2011-01-01

    The study aims to explore the professional activities, needed competencies and education/training needs of medical librarians in Pakistan. The following questions guided the study: what are the current professional activities of medical librarians in Pakistan? What is their perception of the competencies needed of medical librarians? And what are…

  17. REVIEW OF ’PAKISTAN’S DEVELOPMENT: SOCIAL GOALS AND PRIVATE INCENTIVES,’

    DTIC Science & Technology

    than a decade. As Director of Harvard’s Development Advisory Service, he uses this book to simultaneously describe Pakistan’s experience, to use the...lessons of this experience to question many concepts in the development literature and to find in Pakistan’s case ample evidence to destroy some of the

  18. Household Consequences of High Fertility in Pakistan. World Bank Discussion Paper Series No. 111.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochrane, Susan Hill; And Others

    The theory and evidence of the consequences of high fertility in Pakistan are reviewed in this paper. Several data sets are analyzed to examine the effects of the number of children on school participation and labor participation in urban Pakistan. Other data are utilized to examine the effects of children on savings in urban and rural areas.…

  19. Factors Affecting Teachers' Motivation: An HRM Challenge for Public Sector Higher Educational Institutions of Pakistan (HEIs)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasheed, Muhammad Imran; Humayon, Asad Afzal; Awan, Usama; Ahmed, Affan ud Din

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore/investigate various issues of teachers ' motivation in public sector Higher Educational Institutions of Pakistan. Design/methodology/approach: This is an exploratory research where surveys have been conducted in the well known public sector Universities of Pakistan; primary data have been collected…

  20. Factors Affecting Teachers' Motivation: An HRM Challenge for Public Sector Higher Educational Institutions of Pakistan (HEIs)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasheed, Muhammad Imran; Humayon, Asad Afzal; Awan, Usama; Ahmed, Affan ud Din

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore/investigate various issues of teachers ' motivation in public sector Higher Educational Institutions of Pakistan. Design/methodology/approach: This is an exploratory research where surveys have been conducted in the well known public sector Universities of Pakistan; primary data have been collected…

  1. Scaling up of Life Skills Based Education in Pakistan: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svanemyr, Joar; Baig, Qadeer; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman

    2015-01-01

    Young people between the ages of 10 and 19 make up 23% of Pakistan's population. In Pakistan, young people face many challenges in terms of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) issues. These include early marriage and pregnancy, low use of contraception, use of unsafe abortion, lack of relevant information and poor knowledge about bodily…

  2. The Mosque Schools in Pakistan: An Experiment in Integrating Nonformal and Formal Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, K. A.

    A wide-ranging study of the centrality of the mosque to Islamic education in Pakistan emphasizes Islamic educational traditions, the historical background of such education, the obstacles to educational improvement in Pakistan, and the attempt to provide universal primary education. Traditionally, the Prophet Mohammad and the Holy Quran have been…

  3. Exploring Leadership Practices of Principals of Government Elementary Colleges of Education in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bana, Zubeda; Khaki, Jan-e-Alam

    2015-01-01

    This article shares the findings from a case study conducted to explore the leadership practices of Principals of the Government Elementary Colleges of Education across Pakistan. The study focused on how these Principals understood their roles and responsibilities in the context of the changing role of teacher education in Pakistan and in the…

  4. Complete genome sequence of genotype VI Newcastle disease viruses isolated from pigeons in Pakistan

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two complete genome sequences of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are described here. Virulent isolates pigeon/Pakistan/Lahore/21A/2015 and pigeon/Pakistan/Lahore/25A/2015 were obtained from racing pigeons sampled in the Pakistani province of Punjab during 2015. Phylogenetic analysis of the fusion prot...

  5. Voices of Strength and Struggle: Women's Coping Strategies against Spousal Violence in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zakar, Rubeena; Zakar, Muhammad Zakria; Kramer, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    This article documents the coping strategies adopted by women victims of spousal violence in Pakistan. By drawing on 21 in-depth interviews conducted in Lahore and Sialkot (Pakistan), we found that the women tried to cope with violence by using various strategies, both emotion focused (e.g., use of religion, placating the husband, etc.) and…

  6. The Mosque Schools in Pakistan: An Experiment in Integrating Nonformal and Formal Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, K. A.

    A wide-ranging study of the centrality of the mosque to Islamic education in Pakistan emphasizes Islamic educational traditions, the historical background of such education, the obstacles to educational improvement in Pakistan, and the attempt to provide universal primary education. Traditionally, the Prophet Mohammad and the Holy Quran have been…

  7. A Dime a Day: The Possibilities and Limits of Private Schooling in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrabi, Tahir; Das, Jishnu; Khwaja, Asim Ijaz

    2008-01-01

    The authors of this article state that Pakistan is severely offtrack in its progress toward the Millennium Development Goals relating to education for all. Its educational performance is poor, both in absolute terms and relative to the average income of the country. Pakistan has received global attention because of the widespread perception that…

  8. Voices of Strength and Struggle: Women's Coping Strategies against Spousal Violence in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zakar, Rubeena; Zakar, Muhammad Zakria; Kramer, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    This article documents the coping strategies adopted by women victims of spousal violence in Pakistan. By drawing on 21 in-depth interviews conducted in Lahore and Sialkot (Pakistan), we found that the women tried to cope with violence by using various strategies, both emotion focused (e.g., use of religion, placating the husband, etc.) and…

  9. Exploring Leadership Practices of Principals of Government Elementary Colleges of Education in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bana, Zubeda; Khaki, Jan-e-Alam

    2015-01-01

    This article shares the findings from a case study conducted to explore the leadership practices of Principals of the Government Elementary Colleges of Education across Pakistan. The study focused on how these Principals understood their roles and responsibilities in the context of the changing role of teacher education in Pakistan and in the…

  10. Handling the Cerebral Palsied Child: Multi-Level Skills Transfer in Pakistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, M.; Frizzell, Yvonne

    1990-01-01

    The majority of children with cerebral palsy in developing countries have no access to trained therapists; for example, in Pakistan, there is less than one trained general physiotherapist per million population. In Pakistan, cerebral palsy handling skills were taught to a group of parents, teachers, and paraprofessionals in a series of practical…

  11. Can Education Be a Path to Gender Equality in the Labour Market? An Update on Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslam, Monazza; Kingdon, Geeta

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates some of the economic outcomes of education in Pakistan with a view to understanding if education can act as a vehicle for labour market success. Data from a purpose-designed survey of more than 1000 households in Pakistan are utilised. Earnings functions are estimated for agricultural workers, the self-employed and wage…

  12. Study on Instructional Paradigms of Virtual Education in Pakistan: A Learners' Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussain, Irshad

    2012-01-01

    The present study is aimed at examining instructional paradigms of virtual education in Pakistan. The population of the study consisted of learners from Master of Business Administration (MBA) Program at Virtual University (VU) of Pakistan. The researcher adopted convenient sampling technique and collected data from 600 learners through five-point…

  13. Are All Children Equal? Causative Factors of Child Labour in Selected Districts of South Punjab, Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haider, Syed Zubair; Qureshi, Ayesha

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates the causative factors of child labour in selected districts of South Punjab, Pakistan. As a member of the International Labour Organization (ILO) Pakistan has a responsibility to stamp out child labour from its regions. Our sample was selected from seven working environments (workshops, hotels, tea stalls,…

  14. The potential of the flora from different regions of Pakistan in phytoremediation: a review.

    PubMed

    Kamran, Muhammad Aqeel; Amna; Mufti, Rabia; Mubariz, Nadia; Syed, Jabir Hussain; Bano, Asghari; Javed, Muhammad Tariq; Munis, Muhammad Farooq Hussain; Tan, Zhiyuan; Chaudhary, Hassan Javed

    2014-01-01

    Soil and water quality is greatly affected by environmental pollution due to the increasing trend of urbanization and industrialization. In many developing countries, including Pakistan, the situation is more alarming as no preventive measures are still taken to tackle the problem. Although in developed countries, many techniques are used to remediate the environment including phytoremediation. It is the most eco-friendly technique in which plants are used to remove pollutants from the environment. Pakistan has also a great diversity of plants which could be used for the remediation of environmental pollutants. To our knowledge, few studies from Pakistan were reported about the use of flora for phytoremediation. According to recent literature, 50 plant species from Pakistan are studied for remediation purposes. In this review, the potential of different plant species for phytoremediation from Pakistan has been discussed along with their comparison to other countries to relate future perspectives.

  15. Microbial contamination of drinking water in Pakistan--a review.

    PubMed

    Nabeela, Farhat; Azizullah, Azizullah; Bibi, Roqaia; Uzma, Syeda; Murad, Waheed; Shakir, Shakirullah Khan; Ullah, Waheed; Qasim, Muhammad; Häder, Donat-Peter

    2014-12-01

    Water pollution with pathogenic microorganisms is one of the serious threats to human health, particularly in developing countries. The main objective of this article is to highlight microbial contamination of drinking water, the major factors responsible for microbial contamination, and the resulting health problems in Pakistan. Furthermore, this study will be helpful for researchers and administrative agencies to initiate relevant studies and develop new policies to protect further deterioration of water supply with pathogenic microbes and ensure clean and safe drinking water to the public in Pakistan. In Pakistan, water at the source, in the distribution network, and at the consumer tap is heavily polluted with coliforms and fecal coliforms all over the country. An overview of more than 7,000 water samples reviewed here reveals that an average of over 71 and 58 % samples in the country was contaminated with total coliforms and fecal coliforms, respectively. Drinking water contamination accounts for 20 to 40 % of all diseases in the country, which causes national income losses of Rs 25-58 billion annually (US$0.25-0.58 billion, approximately 0.6-1.44 % of the country's GDP). Improper disposal of industrial and municipal wastes is the most important factor responsible for water pollution in the country followed by cross-contamination due to old and leaking pipes and lack of water filtration and disinfection facilities. There is an urgent need for emergency steps to stop further deterioration of water quality and improve the existing water quality so as to protect the public from widespread waterborne diseases.

  16. Health Care Access and Utilization after the 2010 Pakistan Floods.

    PubMed

    Jacquet, Gabrielle A; Kirsch, Thomas; Durrani, Aqsa; Sauer, Lauren; Doocy, Shannon

    2016-10-01

    Introduction The 2010 floods submerged more than one-fifth of Pakistan's land area and affected more than 20 million people. Over 1.6 million homes were damaged or destroyed and 2,946 direct injuries and 1,985 deaths were reported. Infrastructure damage was widespread, including critical disruptions to the power and transportation networks. Hypothesis Damage and loss of critical infrastructure will affect the population's ability to seek and access adequate health care for years to come. This study sought to evaluate factors associated with access to health care in the aftermath of the 2010 Pakistan floods. A population-proportional, randomized cluster-sampling survey method with 80 clusters of 20 (1,600) households of the flood-affected population was used. Heads of households were surveyed approximately six months after flood onset. Multivariate analysis was used to determine significance. A total of 77.8% of households reported needing health services within the first month after the floods. Household characteristics, including rural residence location, large household size, and lower pre- and post-flood income, were significantly associated (P<.05) with inadequate access to health care after the disaster. Households with inadequate access to health care were more likely to have a death or injury in the household. Significantly higher odds of inadequate access to health care were observed in rural populations (adjusted OR 4.26; 95% CI, 1.89-9.61). Adequate health care access after the 2010 Pakistani floods was associated with urban residence location, suggesting that locating health care providers in rural areas may be difficult. Access to health services also was associated with post-flood income level, suggesting health resources are not readily available to households suffering great income losses. Jacquet GA , Kirsch T , Durrani A , Sauer L , Doocy S . Health care access and utilization after the 2010 Pakistan floods. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016;31(5):485-491.

  17. Analyzing mosquito (Diptera: culicidae) diversity in Pakistan by DNA barcoding.

    PubMed

    Ashfaq, Muhammad; Hebert, Paul D N; Mirza, Jawwad H; Khan, Arif M; Zafar, Yusuf; Mirza, M Sajjad

    2014-01-01

    Although they are important disease vectors mosquito biodiversity in Pakistan is poorly known. Recent epidemics of dengue fever have revealed the need for more detailed understanding of the diversity and distributions of mosquito species in this region. DNA barcoding improves the accuracy of mosquito inventories because morphological differences between many species are subtle, leading to misidentifications. Sequence variation in the barcode region of the mitochondrial COI gene was used to identify mosquito species, reveal genetic diversity, and map the distribution of the dengue-vector species in Pakistan. Analysis of 1684 mosquitoes from 491 sites in Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa during 2010-2013 revealed 32 species with the assemblage dominated by Culex quinquefasciatus (61% of the collection). The genus Aedes (Stegomyia) comprised 15% of the specimens, and was represented by six taxa with the two dengue vector species, Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti, dominant and broadly distributed. Anopheles made up another 6% of the catch with An. subpictus dominating. Barcode sequence divergence in conspecific specimens ranged from 0-2.4%, while congeneric species showed from 2.3-17.8% divergence. A global haplotype analysis of disease-vectors showed the presence of multiple haplotypes, although a single haplotype of each dengue-vector species was dominant in most countries. Geographic distribution of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus showed the later species was dominant and found in both rural and urban environments. As the first DNA-based analysis of mosquitoes in Pakistan, this study has begun the construction of a barcode reference library for the mosquitoes of this region. Levels of genetic diversity varied among species. Because of its capacity to differentiate species, even those with subtle morphological differences, DNA barcoding aids accurate tracking of vector populations.

  18. Analyzing Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) Diversity in Pakistan by DNA Barcoding

    PubMed Central

    Ashfaq, Muhammad; Hebert, Paul D. N.; Mirza, Jawwad H.; Khan, Arif M.; Zafar, Yusuf; Mirza, M. Sajjad

    2014-01-01

    Background Although they are important disease vectors mosquito biodiversity in Pakistan is poorly known. Recent epidemics of dengue fever have revealed the need for more detailed understanding of the diversity and distributions of mosquito species in this region. DNA barcoding improves the accuracy of mosquito inventories because morphological differences between many species are subtle, leading to misidentifications. Methodology/Principal Findings Sequence variation in the barcode region of the mitochondrial COI gene was used to identify mosquito species, reveal genetic diversity, and map the distribution of the dengue-vector species in Pakistan. Analysis of 1684 mosquitoes from 491 sites in Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa during 2010–2013 revealed 32 species with the assemblage dominated by Culex quinquefasciatus (61% of the collection). The genus Aedes (Stegomyia) comprised 15% of the specimens, and was represented by six taxa with the two dengue vector species, Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti, dominant and broadly distributed. Anopheles made up another 6% of the catch with An. subpictus dominating. Barcode sequence divergence in conspecific specimens ranged from 0–2.4%, while congeneric species showed from 2.3–17.8% divergence. A global haplotype analysis of disease-vectors showed the presence of multiple haplotypes, although a single haplotype of each dengue-vector species was dominant in most countries. Geographic distribution of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus showed the later species was dominant and found in both rural and urban environments. Conclusions As the first DNA-based analysis of mosquitoes in Pakistan, this study has begun the construction of a barcode reference library for the mosquitoes of this region. Levels of genetic diversity varied among species. Because of its capacity to differentiate species, even those with subtle morphological differences, DNA barcoding aids accurate tracking of vector populations. PMID:24827460

  19. Seroprevalence of Pediatric Malaria in Quetta, Balochistan, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, K; Shafee, M; Khan, N; Jan, S; Tareen, AM; Khan, MA

    2013-01-01

    Background Malaria is one of the most devastating protozoal diseases in under developing countries like Pakistan where health facilities are scarce. It is the second most frequently reported disease with 4.5 million suspected cases in Pakistan. The current study was designed to determine the incidence of pediatric malaria in Quetta, Balochistan. Methods The study was conducted at Children Hospital Quetta (CHQ) during July 2011march 2012. Blood samples were collected from 3418 clinically suspected and were evaluated using thin and thick blood films stained with Giemsa stain. Results Out of 3418 total of 230 (6.72%) children were found positive for any of the malarial parasitic infestation. Plasmodium vivax was observed to be more common 54.34% (n= 125/230) than P. falciparum 44.78% (n = 103/230). Male children were 65.21% (150/230) i.e. two times more commonly affected than female 34.78% (80/230) children. The prevalence among age groups was 7.41% (n = 89/1200) in preschool-aged children aged 1-5 years, 7.11% (n = 75/1054) in school-aged children aged 6—10 years while 6.78% (n = 46/678) in 11-15 years-old children, and 6.66% (n = 20/300) in >15 year-olds children. Peak prevalence was noted in summer and mild in winter. Mixed infection of (0.86%: 2/230) P. vivax and P. falciparum was also observed in two cases although no case of P. malariae or P. ovale infection was seen during entire study. Conclusion The results reflect the higher prevalence of malaria in Quetta, Pakistan that poses a significant health threat and requires urgent attention of high-ups to launch programme to control the disease in the area. PMID:23914251

  20. Seroprevalence of pediatric malaria in quetta, balochistan, pakistan.

    PubMed

    Hussain, K; Shafee, M; Khan, N; Jan, S; Tareen, Am; Khan, Ma

    2013-04-01

    Malaria is one of the most devastating protozoal diseases in under developing countries like Pakistan where health facilities are scarce. It is the second most frequently reported disease with 4.5 million suspected cases in Pakistan. The current study was designed to determine the incidence of pediatric malaria in Quetta, Balochistan. The study was conducted at Children Hospital Quetta (CHQ) during July 2011march 2012. Blood samples were collected from 3418 clinically suspected and were evaluated using thin and thick blood films stained with Giemsa stain. Out of 3418 total of 230 (6.72%) children were found positive for any of the malarial parasitic infestation. Plasmodium vivax was observed to be more common 54.34% (n= 125/230) than P. falciparum 44.78% (n = 103/230). Male children were 65.21% (150/230) i.e. two times more commonly affected than female 34.78% (80/230) children. The prevalence among age groups was 7.41% (n = 89/1200) in preschool-aged children aged 1-5 years, 7.11% (n = 75/1054) in school-aged children aged 6-10 years while 6.78% (n = 46/678) in 11-15 years-old children, and 6.66% (n = 20/300) in >15 year-olds children. Peak prevalence was noted in summer and mild in winter. Mixed infection of (0.86%: 2/230) P. vivax and P. falciparum was also observed in two cases although no case of P. malariae or P. ovale infection was seen during entire study. The results reflect the higher prevalence of malaria in Quetta, Pakistan that poses a significant health threat and requires urgent attention of high-ups to launch programme to control the disease in the area.