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Sample records for nbc protective clothing

  1. Effects of Wearing NBC (Nuclear, Biological and Chemical) Protective Clothing in the Heat on Detection of Visual Signals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-02-01

    agents, as well as nuclear weaponry. In the face of’ such threats, the United States Army has developed equinment and clothing systems designed to...AD_ REPORT NO. T7185 EFFECTS OF WEARING NBC PROTECTIVE CLOTHING IN THE HEAT ON DETECTION OF VISUAL SIGNALS U S ARMY RESEARCH INSTITUTE N OF...CATALOG NUMBER T7/•5 ( 4. TITLE (and Subtitle) 5. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Effects of Wearing NBC Protective Clothing in the Technical Report Heat

  2. Effects of Endurance Training on Heat-Exercise Tolerance in Men Wearing NBC Protective Clothing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-01

    carried on the head, hands, or feet. J Appl Physiol 27:687-690 39. Taylor NAS (1986) Eccrine sweat glands: adaptations to UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED 22...environments. The additional strains imposed by protective clothing arise mainly because it is difficult for sweat to evaporate through relatively...include improved physical fitness, increased sweating , and expanded plasma volume. However, it is unclear whether such responses develop and/or are

  3. Assessment of the effects of heat and NBC (nuclear, biological, and chemical) protective clothing on performance of critical military tasks. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fine, B.J.; Kobrick, J.L.

    1985-06-01

    Chemical protective clothing seriously degrades the performance of soldiers doing physical work in the heat. However, little is known about the combined effects of heat and protective clothing on mental performance. This study examined the effects of heat on the sustained cognitive performance of sedentary soldiers clad in NBC protective clothing. Twenty male soldiers trained for two weeks on tasks resembling those performed by fire direction center, forward observer and communications personnel. Then, they performed the tasks for seven-hour periods on four successive days in hot (91 F, 61% RH) and normal (70 F, 35% RH or 55 F, 35% RH) conditions, with and without protective clothing (MOPP IV). Conclusions: The data indicate quite conclusively that after four to five hours of exposure to a moderately hot environment, the cognitive performance of a group of highly trained soldiers, clad in the MOPP IV configuration of NBC protective clothing, began to deteriorate markedly. Two individuals became heat casualties and had to be evacuated from the chamber for medical reasons. A significant number of personnel had the integrity of their protective clothing compromised by sweat after as little as three hours of exposure to heat and virtually no physical activity.

  4. Protective Clothing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Beta Glass material, originating from the Apollo program is supplied to Fyrepel by Owens-Corning and incorporated into Fyrepel's Fyretex and Beta-Mex aluminized fabrics. Fabrics are used in fire entry suits, several other types of protective suits for wear in hot industrial environments and such accessory items as heat-reflecting curtains for industrial applications.

  5. UV radiation transmittance: regular clothing versus sun-protective clothing.

    PubMed

    Bielinski, Kenneth; Bielinski, Nolan

    2014-09-01

    There are many clothing options available for patients who are interested in limiting their exposure to UV radiation; however, these options can be confusing for patients. For dermatologists, there is limited clinical data regarding the advantages, if any, of sun-protective clothing. In this study, we examined the UV radiation transmittance of regular clothing versus sun-protective clothing. We found that regular clothing may match or even exceed sun-protective clothing in blocking the transmittance of UV radiation. These data will help dermatologists better counsel their patients on clothing options for sun protection.

  6. Protective Clothing for Pesticide Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This brief, largely pictorial guide to protective clothing for pesticide users addresses moderately to highly toxic pesticides. The guide discusses the potential hazards of pesticides and the kinds of clothing and equipment that should be worn for personal protection. It also explains how the type of pesticide formulation affects an individual's…

  7. The physiological consequences of simulated helicopter flight in NBC protective equipment.

    PubMed

    Thornton, R; Caldwell, J L

    1993-01-01

    The physiological effects of wearing U.S. Army aviator nuclear-biological-chemical (NBC) individual protective equipment (IPE) were evaluated in the USAARL UH-60 research flight simulator. There were 16 male aviators who flew the simulator in 4 test conditions: standard flight suit and cool cockpit, standard flight suit and hot cockpit, NBC IPE and cool cockpit, NBC IPE and hot cockpit. The cool condition was a WBGT of 17.9 degrees C, the hot 30.6 degrees C. Rectal temperature, mean skin temperature, and heart rate were monitored and showed significant increases for the NBC hot condition compared with the other three. Seven subjects failed to complete the sortie in the NBC hot condition, with a mean survival time of 298 min. All subjects flew for the target 6 h in the other conditions.

  8. Improvements in CB Protective Clothing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    GB protective clothing system is designed to " protect against toxic or corrosive chemical warfare agents capable of affecting or penetrating...to defeat chemical warfare agents that can enter through the auro- nasal route. Obviously, it also protects the face and eyes as well. The remainder...the same system exposed to the fire pit test provided over 24 hours protection when tested against both mustard gas and a nerve agent (

  9. 46 CFR 154.1840 - Protective clothing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1840 Protective clothing... operation, except those assigned to gas-safe cargo control rooms, wears protective clothing....

  10. Insertion Loss of Personal Protective Clothing

    SciTech Connect

    Shull D.J.; Biesel, V.B.; Cunefare, K.A.

    1999-05-13

    'The use of personal protective clothing that covers the head is a common practice in many industries. Such personal protective clothing will impact the sound pressure level and the frequency content of sounds to which the wearer will be exposed. The use of such clothing, then, may impact speech and alarm audibility. A measure of the impact of such clothing is its insertion loss. Insertion loss measurements were performed on four types of personal protective clothing in use by Westinghouse Savannah River Company personnel which utilize cloth and plastic hood configurations to protect the head. All clothing configurations tested at least partially cover the ears. The measurements revealed that insertion loss of the items tested was notable at frequencies above 1000 Hz only and was a function of material stiffness and acoustic flanking paths to the ear. Further, an estimate of the clothing''s noise reduction rating reveals poor performance in that regard, even though the insertion loss of the test articles was significant at frequencies at and above 1000 Hz.'

  11. 33 CFR 142.36 - Protective clothing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH Personal Protective Equipment § 142.36 Protective clothing. Personnel in areas where there are flying particles, molten metal, radiant energy,...

  12. 33 CFR 142.36 - Protective clothing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH Personal Protective Equipment § 142.36 Protective clothing. Personnel in areas where there are flying particles, molten metal, radiant energy,...

  13. 33 CFR 142.36 - Protective clothing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH Personal Protective Equipment § 142.36 Protective clothing. Personnel in areas where there are flying particles, molten metal, radiant energy,...

  14. 33 CFR 142.36 - Protective clothing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH Personal Protective Equipment § 142.36 Protective clothing. Personnel in areas where there are flying particles, molten metal, radiant energy,...

  15. FLUORESCENT TRACER EVALUATION OF PROTECTIVE CLOTHING PERFORMANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Field studies evaluating chemical protective clothing (CPC), which is often employed as a primary control option to reduce occupational exposures during pesticide applications, are limited. This study, supported by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), was designed to...

  16. Role of clothes in sun protection.

    PubMed

    Gambichler, Thilo; Altmeyer, Peter; Hoffmann, Klauss

    2002-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is the carcinogenic factor in sunlight. Damage to skin cells from repeated UV exposure can lead to the development of skin cancer. Apart from avoidance of the sun, the most frequently used form of UV protection has been the application of sunscreens. The use of textiles as a means of sun protection has been underrated in previous educational campaigns, even though suitable clothing offers usually simple and effective broadband protection against the sun. Apart from skin cancer formation, exacerbation of photosensitive disorders and premature skin aging could be prevented by suitable UV-protective clothing. Nevertheless, several studies have recently shown that, contrary to popular opinion, some textiles provide only limited UV protection. It has been found that one-third of commercial summer clothing items provide a UV protection factor (UPF) less than 15. Given the increasing interest in sun protection, recreationally and occupationally, test methods and a rating scheme for clothing were needed that would ensure sufficient UV protection. Various textile parameters have an influence on the UPF of a finished garment. Important parameters are the fabric porosity, type, color, weight and thickness. The application of UV absorbers into the yarns significantly improves the UPF of a garment. Under the conditions of wear and use several factors can alter the UV-protective properties of a textile, e.g., stretch, wetness and laundering. The use of UV-blocking cloths can provide excellent protection against the hazards of sunlight; this is especially true for garments manufactured as UV-protective clothing. However, further educational efforts are necessary to change people's sun behavior and raise awareness for the use of adequate sun-protective clothing.

  17. Thermal response properties of protective clothing fabrics

    SciTech Connect

    Baitinger, W.F.

    1995-12-31

    In the industrial workplace, it becomes increasingly incumbent upon employers to require employees to use suitable protective equipment and to wear protective apparel. When workers may be subjected to accidental radiant, flame, or electric arc heat sources, work clothing should be used that does not become involved in burning. It is axiomatic that work clothing should not become a primary fuel source, adding to the level of heat exposure, since clothing is usually in intimate contact with the skin. Further, clothing should provide sufficient insulation to protect the skin from severe burn injury. If the worker receives such protection from clothing, action then may be taken to escape the confronted thermal hazard. Published laboratory test methods are used to measure flame resistance and thermal responses of flame resistant fabrics in protective clothing. The purpose of this article is to review these test methods, to discuss certain limitations in application, and to suggest how flame resistant cotton fabrics may be used to enhance worker safety.

  18. 33 CFR 142.36 - Protective clothing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protective clothing. 142.36 Section 142.36 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH Personal Protective Equipment §...

  19. 30 CFR 75.1720 - Protective clothing; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protective clothing; requirements. 75.1720... clothing; requirements. On and after the effective date of this § 75.1720 each miner regularly employed in... clothing and devices: (a) Protective clothing or equipment and face-shields or goggles when...

  20. Radioactive contamination incidents involving protective clothing

    SciTech Connect

    Reichelt, R.; Clay, M.; Eichorst, J.

    1996-10-01

    The study focuses on incidents at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities involving the migration of radioactive contaminants through protective clothing. The authors analyzed 68 occurrence reports for the following factors: (1) type of work; (2) working conditions; (3) type of anti-contamination (anti-C) material; (4) area of body or clothing contaminated; and (5) nature of spread of contamination. A majority of reports identified strenuous work activities such as maintenance, construction, or decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) projects. The reports also indicated adverse working conditions that included hot and humid or cramped work environments. The type of anti-C clothing most often identified was cotton or water-resistant, disposable clothing. Most of the reports also indicated contaminants migrating through perspiration-soaked areas, typically in the knees and forearms. On the basis of their survey, the authors recommend the use of improved engineering controls and resilient, breathable, waterproof protective clothing for work in hot, humid, or damp areas where the possibility of prolonged contact with contamination cannot be easily avoided or controlled.

  1. Self-contained clothing system provides protection against hazardous environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Self-contained clothing system protects personnel against hazardous environments. The clothing has an environmental control system and a complete protection envelope consisting of an outer garment, inner garment, underwear, boots, gloves, and helmet.

  2. 46 CFR 153.933 - Chemical protective clothing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Chemical protective clothing. 153.933 Section 153.933... § 153.933 Chemical protective clothing. When table 1 refers to this section, the following apply: (a) The master shall ensure that the following chemical protective clothing constructed of...

  3. 46 CFR 153.933 - Chemical protective clothing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Chemical protective clothing. 153.933 Section 153.933... § 153.933 Chemical protective clothing. When table 1 refers to this section, the following apply: (a) The master shall ensure that the following chemical protective clothing constructed of...

  4. 46 CFR 153.933 - Chemical protective clothing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Chemical protective clothing. 153.933 Section 153.933... § 153.933 Chemical protective clothing. When table 1 refers to this section, the following apply: (a) The master shall ensure that the following chemical protective clothing constructed of...

  5. Impact of the NBC clothing ensemble on respiratory function and capacities during rest and exercise. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Muza, S.R.; Banderet, L.; Forte, V.A.

    1995-05-01

    This study examined the effects of wearing a modified MOPP (mMOPP) overgarment (Protective Clothing, PC), configured with body armor (BA), Load Bearing Equipment (LBE), and M40 CB mask on the pattern and mechanics of breathing and cognitive functioning in 15 male soldiers at rest and during sustained submaximal exercise (approx. 600 W). The M40 CB mask reduced breathing capacity 20%, and the PC+BA+LBE components of the mMOPP reduced it 5%. Total respiratory system compliance decreased by 16% in the mMOPP. Thus, wearing the PC+BA+LBE increased the stiffness of the soldier`s respiratory system. During exercise, the mMOPP decreased tidal volume and increased respiratory rate, a compensation for the decreased respiratory system compliance. Although the M40 CB mask imposes a significant impairment to breathing, the PC with BA and LBE presents a unique external constraint on breathing, which may be more aversive than that imposed by the CB mask. These impairments may be reduced by wearing BA and LBE that are properly fitted over the PC and incorporating, in future designs, enhancements that allow for outward expansion of the PC, BA or LBE with inhalation.

  6. Protective clothing ensembles and physical employment standards.

    PubMed

    McLellan, Tom M; Havenith, George

    2016-06-01

    Physical employment standards (PESs) exist for certain occupational groups that also require the use of protective clothing ensembles (PCEs) during their normal work. This review addresses whether these current PESs appropriately incorporate the physiological burden associated with wearing PCEs during respective tasks. Metabolic heat production increases because of wearing PCE; this increase is greater than that because of simply the weight of the clothing and can vary 2-fold among individuals. This variation negates a simple adjustment to the PES for the effect of the clothing on metabolic rate. As a result, PES testing that only simulates the weight of the clothing and protective equipment does not adequately accommodate this effect. The physiological heat strain associated with the use of PCEs is also not addressed with current PESs. Typically the selection tests of a PES lasts less than 20 min, whereas the requirement for use of PCE in the workplace may approach 1 h before cooling strategies can be employed. One option that might be considered is to construct a heat stress test that requires new recruits and incumbents to work for a predetermined duration while exposed to a warm environmental temperature while wearing the PCE.

  7. 33 CFR 150.614 - When is protective clothing required?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When is protective clothing... SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: OPERATIONS Workplace Safety and Health Clothing § 150.614 When is protective clothing required? The deepwater port operator must ensure that...

  8. 30 CFR 77.1710 - Protective clothing; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... footwear. (f) Snug-fitting clothing when working around moving machinery or equipment. (g) Safety belts and... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protective clothing; requirements. 77.1710... COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 77.1710 Protective clothing; requirements. Each employee working in...

  9. A test battery related to ergonomics of protective clothing.

    PubMed

    Havenith, George; Heus, Ronald

    2004-01-01

    Specialised protective clothing, such as that worn by firefighters, is usually tested only to standards which give requirements for the materials used (e.g. EN469). However, this testing often neglects the effect the manufacturing process of the garment has on the material properties, the effects of clothing design, sizing and fit, as well as the interaction of the clothing with other components of the standard gear for the profession. Such effects can only be tested by looking at the protective gear as a whole. This paper deals with methods to do additional testing on protective garments with firefighter clothing as example. In other words, methods which go beyond EN469. Human subject tests for physiological load, heat protection, ergonomic design, loss of performance, rain/moisture protection and conspicuity/visibility of the clothing are described and proposed for evaluation of protective clothing in general and for further development of standards on firefighters' clothing.

  10. Optimizing the protection against the physiological burden of CBRN clothing.

    PubMed

    Brasser, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Soldiers can wear chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN) protective clothing to be protected against warfare agents. The disadvantage of that clothing is that higher protection introduces higher physiological burden. Therefore an optimum between comfort and protection must be found. Models of all relevant processes were created to find this optimum. The airflow profile around a cylinder with clothing-representing a dressed human body part-was modelled. This flow profile was used for calculating the agent vapour breakthrough through the clothing and for calculating the deposition of agents onto the skin (as indicators for protection). The flow profile was also used for calculating the temperature profile around the body part and the relative humidity underneath and in the clothing (as representative for physiological burden). As a result a tool was created, which can be used to identify the optimum properties of CBRN protective clothing, depending on the intended mission of the soldiers.

  11. 46 CFR 151.50-73 - Chemical protective clothing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Chemical protective clothing. 151.50-73 Section 151.50... BARGES CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-73 Chemical... of cargo handling operations shall ensure that the following chemical protective clothing...

  12. 46 CFR 151.50-73 - Chemical protective clothing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Chemical protective clothing. 151.50-73 Section 151.50... BARGES CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-73 Chemical... of cargo handling operations shall ensure that the following chemical protective clothing...

  13. 46 CFR 151.50-73 - Chemical protective clothing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Chemical protective clothing. 151.50-73 Section 151.50... BARGES CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-73 Chemical... of cargo handling operations shall ensure that the following chemical protective clothing...

  14. 46 CFR 151.50-73 - Chemical protective clothing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Chemical protective clothing. 151.50-73 Section 151.50... BARGES CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-73 Chemical... of cargo handling operations shall ensure that the following chemical protective clothing...

  15. 46 CFR 151.50-73 - Chemical protective clothing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Chemical protective clothing. 151.50-73 Section 151.50... BARGES CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-73 Chemical... of cargo handling operations shall ensure that the following chemical protective clothing...

  16. Incidence of NBC Head Protections on the Efficiency of the Auditive Guards and the Helmets of Communication.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-04-06

    protection NBC sur les caract6ristiques d’att6nuation d’un serre-t~te passif et d’un serre-t~te actif ainsi que sur la transmission des communications...t6nuation d’un serre-t~te passif Peltor H6F et d’un serre-t~te actif Peltor 7003 ainsi que sur la transmission des communications radiophoniques. 2...techniques utilise’s 3.1 Mhe artificielle Nous avons utilis6 un ensemble t~te artificielle-oreille artificielle- capteur de pression r6alis6 6 l’ISL, pour

  17. Loss of Military Performance due to Individual NBC Protection in a Tropic Environment (belasting en prestatieverlies door individuele nbc-beschermin gin de tropen)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    uitrusting. Hiervoor wordt veelal gebruik gemaakt van laboratorium experimenten. Ten einde meer inzicht te krijgen in het werken onder NBC...soldiers are less clear. TNO report I TNO-DV3 2006 A060 6/23 Contents M anagem entuittreksel...Bibliotheek KMA 14 TNO Defensie en Veiligheid, vestiging Rijswijk, daarna reserve Manager BC-Bescherming (operaties). ir. R.J.A. Kersten 15 TNO Defensie en

  18. Hazard Assessment of Personal Protective Clothing for Hydrogen Peroxide Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, Ben; McClure, Mark B.; Johnson, Harry T.

    2004-01-01

    Selection of personal protective equipment (PPE) for hydrogen peroxide service is an important part of the hazard assessment process. But because drip testing of chemical protective clothing for hydrogen peroxide service has not been reported for about 40 years, it is of great interest to test new protective clothing materials with new, high-concentration hydrogen peroxide following similar procedures. The suitability of PPE for hydrogen peroxide service is in part determined by observations made when hydrogen peroxide is dripped onto swatches of protective clothing material. Protective clothing material was tested as received, in soiled condition, and in grossly soiled condition. Materials were soiled by pretreating the material with potassium permanganate (KMnO4) solution then drying to promote a reaction. Materials were grossly soiled with solid KMnO4 to greatly promote reaction. Observations of results including visual changes to the hydrogen peroxide and materials, times to ignition, and self-extinguishing characteristics of the materials are reported.

  19. 46 CFR 197.555 - Personal protective clothing and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.555 Personal protective clothing and..., tight-fitting eye goggles to limit dermal exposure to, and prevent eye contact with, liquid benzene....

  20. 46 CFR 197.555 - Personal protective clothing and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.555 Personal protective clothing and..., tight-fitting eye goggles to limit dermal exposure to, and prevent eye contact with, liquid benzene....

  1. 46 CFR 197.555 - Personal protective clothing and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.555 Personal protective clothing and..., tight-fitting eye goggles to limit dermal exposure to, and prevent eye contact with, liquid benzene....

  2. 46 CFR 197.555 - Personal protective clothing and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.555 Personal protective clothing and..., tight-fitting eye goggles to limit dermal exposure to, and prevent eye contact with, liquid benzene....

  3. 46 CFR 197.555 - Personal protective clothing and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.555 Personal protective clothing and..., tight-fitting eye goggles to limit dermal exposure to, and prevent eye contact with, liquid benzene....

  4. 30 CFR 77.1710 - Protective clothing; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... goggles shall be worn when welding, cutting, or working with molten metal or when other hazards to the eyes exist. (b) Suitable protective clothing to cover the entire body when handling corrosive or...

  5. Making the optimal decision in selecting protective clothing

    SciTech Connect

    Price, J. Mark

    2007-07-01

    Protective Clothing plays a major role in the decommissioning and operation of nuclear facilities. Literally thousands of employee dress-outs occur over the life of a decommissioning project and during outages at operational plants. In order to make the optimal decision on which type of protective clothing is best suited for the decommissioning or maintenance and repair work on radioactive systems, a number of interrelating factors must be considered, including - Protection; - Personnel Contamination; - Cost; - Radwaste; - Comfort; - Convenience; - Logistics/Rad Material Considerations; - Reject Rate of Laundered Clothing; - Durability; - Security; - Personnel Safety including Heat Stress; - Disposition of Gloves and Booties. In addition, over the last several years there has been a trend of nuclear power plants either running trials or switching to Single Use Protective Clothing (SUPC) from traditional protective clothing. In some cases, after trial usage of SUPC, plants have chosen not to switch. In other cases after switching to SUPC for a period of time, some plants have chosen to switch back to laundering. Based on these observations, this paper reviews the 'real' drivers, issues, and interrelating factors regarding the selection and use of protective clothing throughout the nuclear industry. (authors)

  6. Removal of residual contamination from clean protective clothing

    SciTech Connect

    Hylko, J.M. . Dept. of Nuclear Engineering); Miller, M.L. , Inc., Albuquerque, NM ); Brehm, L.E.; Peterson, S.K. )

    1988-06-01

    This paper reports that during 1986, a small but significant number of skin contamination incidents at Northern States Power Company's Monticello Nuclear Generating Plant were believed to have been caused by residual contamination in dry-cleaned protective clothing. A survey of 24 other nuclear power plants in May and June of 1986 indicated that about half of these facilities had experienced instances of sweat-induced skin contamination on persons wearing laundered, clean protective clothing, and a simple experiment showed that perspiration was indeed capable of removing residual contamination from the 100% cotton fabric used in the Monticello Plant's coveralls. In order to further study this problem, a series of tests were performed on samples of the plant's protective clothing coveralls to determine how effective wet washing methods would be in removing residual contamination from this clothing, which previously had been laundered exclusively by dry cleaning.

  7. Musical and clothing invitations to protection.

    PubMed

    Deniaud, F

    1993-01-01

    The Chaussez Capote Project interviewed 48 youths in Abidjan and Dabou aged 14-25 years on how to best get individuals in their age group to use condoms. 251 individuals aged 15-25 were also surveyed in Abidjan on the same subject. While more than 80% of this latter group had already discussed AIDS, sexually transmitted disease (STD), and prevention with others, 90% still wanted advice on these themes from medical staff and the media. 40% who had already used condoms did so incorrectly, while approximately 33% had experienced condom breakage during use. Respondents felt that condom promotion should be associated with information on AIDS, STDs, and contraception or information on general health. In response to this feedback, the project commissioned the creation of a promotional music cassette with French and African songs of different musical styles. Lyrics imparted technical information and correct misconceptions related to condom use. Free distribution of the cassette commenced August 1992, and approximately 800 were given to organizations and businesses. The cassette also aired on radio and Ivorian television, but met with only limited success. It is thought that its impact was limited due to the small number of copies duplicated and inefficient distribution. A new version was therefore created with different songs and short messages by popular African singers for local duplication and sale at a subsidized price starting December 1993. As a 2nd intervention, clothing metaphors applied to condoms and condom use were applied to the development of a clothing promotion loincloth designed Spring 1993. The cloth was pretested and revised to ultimately consist of panels depicting 2 young couples, a condom, a panther, and the words Entre nous. The cloth has been ordered for use by the National AIDS Committee, a condom social marketing project, and the French agency for development cooperation.

  8. LIMITED-USE CHEMICAL PROTECTIVE CLOTHING FOR EPA SUPERFUND ACTIVITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because contractor field personnel complained about the poor durability and fit of limited-use chemical protective clothing (CPC) most commonly used at hazardous waste site operations, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) initiated a study to • characterize use of CPC...

  9. The European standard for sun-protective clothing: EN 13758.

    PubMed

    Gambichler, T; Laperre, J; Hoffmann, K

    2006-02-01

    Clothing is considered one of the most important tools for sun protection. Contrary to popular opinion, however, some summer fabrics provide insufficient ultraviolet (UV) protection. The European Committee for Standardization (CEN), has developed a new standard on requirements for test methods and labelling of sun-protective garments. This document has now been completed and is published. Within CEN, a working group, CEN/TC 248 WG14 'UV protective clothing', was set up with the mission to produce standards on the UV-protective properties of textile materials. This working group started its activities in 1998 and included 30 experts (dermatologists, physicists, textile technologists, fabric manufacturers and retailers of apparel textiles) from 11 European member states. Within this working group, all medical, ethical, technical and economical aspects of standardization of UV-protective clothing were discussed on the basis of the expertise of each member and in consideration of the relevant literature in this field. Decisions were made in consensus. The first part of the standard (EN 13758-1) deals with all details of test methods (e.g. spectrophotometric measurements) for textile materials and part 2 (EN 13758-2) covers classification and marking of apparel textiles. UV-protective cloths for which compliance with this standard is claimed must fulfill all stringent instructions of testing, classification and marking, including a UV protection factor (UPF) larger than 40 (UPF 40+), average UVA transmission lower than 5%, and design requirements as specified in part 2 of the standard. A pictogram, which is marked with the number of the standard EN 13758-2 and the UPF of 40+, shall be attached to the garment if it is in compliance with the standard. The dermatology community should take cognizance of this new standard document. Garment manufacturers and retailers may now follow these official guidelines for testing and labelling of UV-protective summer clothes, and the

  10. 30 CFR 56.15006 - Protective equipment and clothing for hazards and irritants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protective equipment and clothing for hazards... NONMETAL MINES Personal Protection § 56.15006 Protective equipment and clothing for hazards and irritants. Special protective equipment and special protective clothing shall be provided, maintained in a...

  11. Heat Strain in Personal Protective Clothing: Challenges and Intervention Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLellan, T. M.; Daanen, H. A. M.

    Humans rely on sweat evaporation during exercise in the heat to promote cooling and to maintain thermal homeostasis. In protective clothing, however, sweat evaporation is severely hampered and this may lead to uncompensable heat strain, where core body temperature continues to rise leading to physical exhaustion and the cessation of work. The tolerance time depends on three main factors: (1) the initial core temperature that may be reduced by heat acclimation and pre-cooling, (2) the final core temperature, which can be increased due to physical training, and (3) the rate of change in body core temperature, which is dependent on the thermal environment, work rate and individual factors like body composition. Methods to reduce heat strain in protective clothing include: (1) increasing clothing permeability for air, (2) adjusting pacing strategy, including work/rest schedules, (3) physical training, and (4) cooling interventions.

  12. Physiological effects of a modification of the construction of impermeable protective clothing.

    PubMed

    Marszałek, Anna; Bartkowiak, Grazyna; Lezak, Krzysztof

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to improve the construction of impermeable clothing protecting against liquid chemical agents in order to lower the thermal strain caused by the clothing during work. Previous studies indicated that light work in a hot environment in this kind of clothing could last 30 min only. We propose a modification of the construction; new models of protective clothing were tested in wear trials. Then the results were compared with a basic model of impermeable protective clothing. Results indicated that all new models of protective clothing allowed workers to work 39-64% longer than in a basic model of protective clothing. Thus new clothing significantly improved comfort of work in impermeable protective clothing because of the lower thermal strain that it imposed on the user.

  13. LABORATORY EVALUATION OF THE LOW TEMPERATURE CHARACTERISTICS OF FOUR PROTECTIVE CLOTHING MATERIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of the study was to evaluate several low-temperature characteristics of Challenge 5100, a new protective clothing material developed by Chemical Fabrics Corporation. The low temperature characteristics of three other protective clothing materials were also evaluated...

  14. Protective clothing based on permselective membrane and carbon adsorption

    SciTech Connect

    Gottschlich, D.; Baker, R.

    1995-12-01

    This paper is a description of Phase I of the US DOE`s program to develop improved protective clothing for use by workers engaged in decommissioning and decontamination of former DOE sites, including those used for atomic weapons research and production. Membrane Technology and Research has been developing the clothing with an innovative feature of an ultrathin, permselective outer membrane that is extremely permeable to water but impermeable to toxic organic compounds. Phase I (as described herein) includes fabric optimization, commercial-scale fabric production, and prototype suit evaluation. This phase is complete, with the results discussed in this document.

  15. Heat stress in chemical protective clothing: porosity and vapour resistance.

    PubMed

    Havenith, George; den Hartog, Emiel; Martini, Svein

    2011-05-01

    Heat strain in chemical protective clothing is an important factor in industrial and military practice. Various improvements to the clothing to alleviate strain while maintaining protection have been attempted. More recently, selectively permeable membranes have been introduced to improve protection, but questions are raised regarding their effect on heat strain. In this paper the use of selectively permeable membranes with low vapour resistance was compared to textile-based outer layers with similar ensemble vapour resistance. For textile-based outer layers, the effect of increasing air permeability was investigated. When comparing ensembles with a textile vs. a membrane outer layer that have similar heat and vapour resistances measured for the sum of fabric samples, a higher heat strain is observed in the membrane ensemble, as in actual wear, and the air permeability of the textile version improves ventilation and allows better cooling by sweat evaporation. For garments with identical thickness and static dry heat resistance, but differing levels of air permeability, a strong correlation of microclimate ventilation due to wind and movement with air permeability was observed. This was reflected in lower values of core and skin temperatures and heart rate for garments with higher air permeability. For heart rate and core temperature the two lowest and the two highest air permeabilities formed two distinct groups, but they did not differ within these groups. Based on protection requirements, it is concluded that air permeability increases can reduce heat strain levels allowing optimisation of chemical protective clothing. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: In this study on chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN) protective clothing, heat strain is shown to be significantly higher with selectively permeable membranes compared to air permeable ensembles. Optimisation of CBRN personal protective equipment needs to balance sufficient protection with reduced heat

  16. PROTECTIVE CLOTHING BASED ON PERMSELECTIVE MEMBRANE AND CARBON ADSORPTION

    SciTech Connect

    J.G. Wijmans; J.O. Stull

    2001-11-07

    The goal of this project was to develop chemical protective clothing for use by DOE decontamination and decommissioning workers that is sufficiently water vapor permeable to keep the workers cool, thereby enhancing their productivity. This report describes the results of Phase II of a two-phase project to complete development of the novel permselective material and to test protective clothing made from the fabric. In Phase I a novel material incorporating a nonporous hydrophilic polyvinylacohol (PVA) layer, which is water vapor permeable but relatively impermeable to organic vapors, was developed. The results of the Phase I tests showed that the chemical resistance of the MTR material is comparable to that of Saranex/Tyvek materials, and that the comfort properties are closer to those of Tyvek (as measured in terms of CLO and permeability). Chemical resistance was measured using permeation tests against liquid dichloromethane. Comfort properties were ascertained by measuring the water vapor transmission of the material and by sweating manikin tests on whole protective suits. In addition, a cost/benefit analysis demonstrated that use of MTR's material technology could result in significant improvements in work productivity and cost savings if protective clothing items made from the new material were used more than once. In Phase II, MTR undertook a program to optimize the performance and production engineering for the new material technology. A partnership was formed with Kimberly-Clark Corporation to assist with a detailed evaluation of the MTR technology, and MTR used the services of Mr. Jeff Stull, President of the consulting firm International Personnel Protection, Inc., who conducted a detailed economic and application analysis for the developed fabric. The protective fabric manufacturing steps were simplified significantly, resulting in a 30% reduction in manufacturing costs and eliminating the necessity for capital investment in production equipment

  17. Material Development Study for a Hazardous Chemical Protective Clothing Outfit

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    innocuous. Literature review was used to establish a test plan. Test results showed that butyl rubber was 38% acceptable and polycarbonate 60...those chemicals found incompatible with butyl rubber and polycarbonate. I1. Otiluftetor’ Key Uerde 16. AvailabilSty State.,se Levels of protection... rubber , polycarbonate, protective clothing, lechnical Information Service,CHRIS list, swatch, penetration, decon tests, Springfield, VA 22161 R&D 19. U. S

  18. The Engineering Design of Intelligent Protective Textiles and Clothing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sungmee; Jayaraman, Sundaresan

    Terrorism has been on the rise in the past decade and continues to disrupt everyday life in many parts of the world. Protection against such threats is therefore critical for preserving peace and security around the world. In particular, the safety of defense personnel engaged in confronting and responding to such threats must be ensured. Since textiles and clothing are pervasive and are always "on" the soldier, they can serve as an excellent infrastructure or platform for such individual protection systems.

  19. 30 CFR 57.15006 - Protective equipment and clothing for hazards and irritants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protective equipment and clothing for hazards and irritants. 57.15006 Section 57.15006 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... clothing for hazards and irritants. Special protective equipment and special protective clothing shall...

  20. Decontamination of protective clothing against radioactive contamination.

    PubMed

    Vošahlíková, I; Otáhal, P

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the experimental results of external surface mechanical decontamination of the studied materials forming selected suits. Seven types of personal protective suits declaring protection against radioactive aerosol contamination in different price ranges were selected for decontamination experiments. The outcome of this study is to compare the efficiency of a double-step decontamination process on various personal protective suits against radioactive contamination. A comparison of the decontamination effectiveness for the same type of suit, but for the different chemical mixtures ((140)La in a water-soluble or in a water-insoluble compound), was performed.

  1. Numerical simulation of the influence of fabric's motion on protective clothing performance during flash fire exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazy, Ahmed; Bergstrom, Donald J.

    2013-06-01

    The motion of a person wearing protective clothing induces the clothing to move periodically towards the skin causing a cyclic variation in the air gap between the fabric and the skin. At the same time, the clothing movement causes cooling air to periodically flow into the air gap between the fabric and the skin. This paper uses a finite volume model to investigate these two effects and the resultant effect of the protective clothing movement on its performance during flash fire exposure. Special attention is drawn to the air gap model since it responds directly to the clothing movement. A parametric study is carried out to investigate the influence of a wider range of clothing movement. Specifically, the effect of the variation in the periodic movement frequency and amplitude on the clothing performance was investigated. The results show that increasing the movement frequency improves the clothing protective performance, while increasing the movement amplitude worsens the clothing performance.

  2. Three-layer knitted materials for protective clothing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mielicka, E.; Janicka, J.; Kozminska, R.; Walak, A.

    2016-07-01

    The results of investigating multifunctional 3D knitted materials dedicated for protective clothing were presented. The 3D design structures were made on a circular knitting machine using yarns with flame retardant or electrostatic properties. The functionality imparted to each of the assortments developed was verified during the tests in accredited laboratories as well as by assessing their biophysical properties. Based on the analysis of the test results, a beneficial effect of the raw materials and the 3D structure of knitted fabrics were demonstrated. Designed garments could be useful as individual protection clothing for workers exposed to harmful occupational environment factors, such as heat and static electricity. The study was conducted within the project EUREKA E! 5799 BATAN “Multifunctional knitted fabrics with barrier properties for clothing”.

  3. Terrestrial EVA Suit = Fire Fighter's Protective Clothing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foley, Tico; Brown, Robert G.; Burrell, Eddie; DelRosso, Dominic; Krishen, Kumar; Moffitt, Harold; Orndoff, Evelyne; Santos, Beatrice; Butzer, Melissa; Dasgupta, Rajib

    1999-01-01

    Firefighters want to go to work, do their job well, and go home alive and uninjured. For their most important job, saving lives, firefighters want protective equipment that will allow more extended and effective time at fire scenes in order to perform victim search and rescue. A team, including engineers at NASA JSC and firefighters from Houston, has developed a list of problem areas for which NASA technology and know-how can recommend improvements for firefighter suits and gear. Prototypes for solutions have been developed and are being evaluated. This effort will spin back to NASA as improvements for lunar and planetary suits.

  4. Flexible pressure sensors for smart protective clothing against impact loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fei; Zhu, Bo; Shu, Lin; Tao, Xiaoming

    2014-01-01

    The development of smart protective clothing will facilitate the quick detection of injuries from contact sports, traffic collisions and other accidents. To obtain real-time information like spatial and temporal pressure distributions on the clothing, flexible pressure sensor arrays are required. Based on a resistive fabric strain sensor we demonstrate all flexible, resistive pressure sensors with a large workable pressure range (0-8 MPa), a high sensitivity (1 MPa-1) and an excellent repeatability (lowest non-repeatability ±2.4% from 0.8 to 8 MPa) that can be inexpensively fabricated using fabric strain sensors and biocompatible polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). The pressure sensitivity is tunable by using elastomers with different elasticities or by the pre-strain control of fabric strain sensors. Finite element simulation further confirms the sensor design. The simple structure, large workable pressure range, high sensitivity, high flexibility, facile fabrication and low cost of these pressure sensors make them promising candidates for smart protective clothing against impact loading.

  5. Influence of the air gap between protective clothing and skin on clothing performance during flash fire exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazy, Ahmed; Bergstrom, Donald J.

    2011-10-01

    A finite volume model was developed to simulate transient heat transfer in protective clothing during flash fire exposure. The model accounts for the combined conduction-radiation heat transfer in the air gap between the fabric and skin. The variation in the fabric and air gap properties with temperature and the thermochemical reactions in the fabric are also considered. This study investigates the influence of the air gap in protective clothing on the energy transfer through the clothing and hence on its performance. Different parameters that affect the conduction-radiation heat transfer through the air gap such as the air gap absorption coefficient and the air gap width were studied. Finally, the paper demonstrates that an innovative and potentially significant way to improve protective clothing performance is to reduce the emissivity on the backside of the fabric.

  6. Protective clothing based on permselective membrane carbon adsorption

    SciTech Connect

    Gottschlich, D.; Baker, R.

    1995-10-01

    The objective of the program is to develop improved protective clothing for use by workers engaged in decommissioning and decontamination of former Department of Energy sites, including those used for atomic weapons research and production. Such sites are contaminated with a variety of hazardous compounds, ranging from asbestos, mercury and other heavy metals, to toxic organic compounds, such as PCB and chlorinated solvents, and radioactive metals and salts. Because of the hazards of exposure to these materials, workers must wear protective garments. These garments, which are made from Saran{reg_sign}, butyl rubber or other impermeable materials, provide excellent protection against particulates, liquids, aerosols, organic vapors and gases, but are impermeable to water vapor. Consequently, humidity and temperature within the suit rise rapidly during use, causing increasing discomfort. Heat stress occurs if the suit is worn for more than brief periods without resting. The proposed technology concerns a new protective clothing fabric that combines a permselective membrane layer with a sorptive layer. If successfully developed, suits made from this fabric will offer equivalent, or better, protection than current materials, combined with a very high water vapor transmission rate (1,000 g/m{sup 2}{sm_bullet} day or more) that will dramatically improve {open_quotes}breathability,{close_quotes} comfort, and worker productivity.

  7. Physiological Tolerance to Uncompensable Heat Stress: Effects of Exercise Intensity, Protective Clothing, and Climate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    Physiological tolerance to uncompensable heat stress: effects of exercise intensity, protective clothing , and climate SCOTT J. MONTAIN, MICHAEL N...effects of exercise 26), there remains little information to predict the inci- intensity, protective clothing , and climate. J. AppL PhysioL dence of...that pre- exercise intensity, protective clothing level, and climate on dict the physiological responses and work capability dur- physiological tolerance

  8. Effects of Chemical Protective Clothing, Exercise, and Diphenhydramine on Cognitive Performance During Sleep Deprivation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-02-01

    NAVAL HEALTH RESEARCH CENTER EFFECTS OF CHEMICAL PROTECTIVE CLOTHING , EXERCISE, AND DIPHENHYDRAMINE ON COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE DURING...release; distribution unlimited. NAVAL HEALTH RESEARCH CENTER P. O. BOX 85122

  9. 30 CFR 77.704-6 - Protective clothing; use and inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protective clothing; use and inspection. 77.704-6 Section 77.704-6 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 77.704-6 Protective clothing; use and inspection. All persons...

  10. 30 CFR 75.705-6 - Protective clothing; use and inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protective clothing; use and inspection. 75.705-6 Section 75.705-6 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL... Protective clothing; use and inspection. All persons performing work on energized high-voltage surface...

  11. Effects of Heat Acclimation on Heat-Exercise Tolerance in Untrained and Endurance-Trained Men Wearing NBC Protective Clothing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-01

    measurements HR was monitored utilizing a telemetry unit (Sport Tester) clipped to an elasticized electrode belt that was fitted around the chest. The receiver...1354 19. Kirwan JP, Costill DL, Kuipers H, Burrell MJ, Fink WJ, Kovaleski JE, Fielding RA (1987) Substrate utilization in leg muscle of men after heat

  12. Permeation of protective clothing materials by methylene chloride and perchloroethylene.

    PubMed

    Vahdat, N

    1987-07-01

    The permeation of methylene chloride and perchloroethylene through seven protective clothing materials was studied to determine the permeation parameters, and to investigate the effect of solubility (polymer weight gain) and material thickness on the permeation parameters. The materials tested were two different nitrile rubbers, neoprene, Combination (a blend of natural rubber, neoprene and nitrile), two different polyvinyl chlorides, and polyvinyl alcohol. Methylene chloride permeated through all materials, except PVA, with breakthrough times in the range of 2 to 8 min, and permeation rates in the range of 1250-5800 micrograms/cm2 X min. PVA and unsupported nitrile offered good protection against perchloroethylene with breakthrough time occurring after 2 hr. Perchloroethylene permeated through the other materials with breakthrough times in the range of 8 to 36 min and permeation rates in the range of 200 to 1600 micrograms/cm2 X min. It was shown that for both chemicals, there is a correlation between the solubility (weight gain) and the ratio of permeation rate to breakthrough time (PR/BT). For all material/chemical pairs, an increase in solubility, increased (PR/BT). The change in material thickness had an effect on breakthrough time and permeation rate, but no effect on normalized breakthrough time. An increase in thickness reduced permeation rate and increased breakthrough time.

  13. Energy cost of wearing chemical protective clothing during progressive treadmill walking

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, J.F.; Bidwell, T.E.; Murphy, M.M.; Mello, R.P.; Harp, M.E.

    1995-03-01

    While chemical protective (CP) clothing is known to adversely affect physical performance, few data exist regarding the physiological response of wearing US military cp clothing during incremental, dynamic exercise. To quantify the effects of CP clothing on energy cost and to test the hypothesis that the mask contributes little to this effect, oxygen uptake (vo2) and ventilation (VE) were determined in 14 male soldiers who walked on a treadmill at 1.56 m -5(-1) for 20 min each at 0, 5, and 10% grades in three clothing conditions: BDU (battledress uniform only).

  14. The Relationship between Physical Activity and Thermal Protective Clothing on Functional Balance in Firefighters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kong, Pui W.; Suyama, Joe; Cham, Rakie; Hostler, David

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between baseline physical training and the use of firefighting thermal protective clothing (TPC) with breathing apparatus on functional balance. Twenty-three male firefighters performed a functional balance test under four gear/clothing conditions. Participants were divided into groups by physical training status,…

  15. Analysing performance of protective clothing upon hot liquid exposure using instrumented spray manikin.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yehu; Song, Guowen; Li, Jun

    2013-07-01

    Hot liquid hazards existing in work environments present a common risk in workplace safety in numerous industries. In this study, a newly developed instrumented manikin system was used to assess the protective performance provided by protective clothing against hot liquid splash. The skin burn injury and its distribution for the selected clothing system were predicted and the effects of clothing design features (fabric properties and garment size) on protective performance were investigated. The air gap size and distribution existing between protective clothing and human skin were characterized using 3D body scanning, and their relation to skin burn injury was identified. The mechanism associated with heat and mass transfer under exposure to hot liquid splashes was discussed. The findings provided technical bases to improve the performance of protective clothing. For protective clothing design, minimizing mass transfer through clothing system is very important to provide high performance. Keeping the air gap between the garment and the human body is an essential approach to improve thermal performance. This can be achieved by proper design in size and fit, or applying functional textile materials.

  16. Perspectives in microclimate cooling involving protective clothing in hot environments

    SciTech Connect

    Speckman, K.L.; Allan, A.E.; Sawka, M.N.; Young, A.J.; Muza, S.R.

    1987-09-01

    The effectiveness of microclimate cooling systems in alleviating the thermal burden imposed upon soldiers by the wearing of chemical protective clothing under varying environmental conditions was examined in a series of studies conducted by the U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine on the copper manikin, in the climatic chambers and in the field. Liquid-cooled undergarments (LCU) and air-cooled vests (ACV) were tested under environmental conditions from 29 C, 85% rh to 52 C, 25% rh. These parameters were chosen to stimulate conditions that may be encountered in either armored vehicles or in desert or tropic climates. The authors reviewed seven studies using LCU (including two ice-cooled vests) and six studies using ACV. LXU tests investigated the effect on cooling when the proportion of total skin surface covered by the LCU was varied. ACV tests examined the effects on cooling during different combinations of air temperature, humidity, and air-flow rates. Additionally, these combinations were tested at low and moderate metabolic rates. The findings from these LCU and ACV studies demonstrate that a) cooling can be increased with a greater body-surface coverage by an LCU, and b) evaporative cooling with an ACV is enhanced at low metabolic rates with optimal combinations of air-flow rates and dry bulb/dew point temperatures, resulting in the extension of tolerance time. The application of these findings to industrial work situations is apparent.

  17. Expression and localization of rat NBC4c in liver and renal uroepithelium.

    PubMed

    Abuladze, Natalia; Pushkin, Alexander; Tatishchev, Sergei; Newman, Debra; Sassani, Pakan; Kurtz, Ira

    2004-09-01

    Previous studies provided functional evidence for electrogenic Na(+)-HCO(3)(-) cotransport in hepatocytes and in intrahepatic bile duct cholangiocytes. The molecular identity of the transporters mediating electrogenic sodium-bicarbonate cotransport in the liver is currently unknown. Of the known electrogenic Na(+)-HCO(3)(-) cotransporters (NBC1 and NBC4), we previously showed that NBC4 mRNA is highly expressed in the liver. In the present study, we performed RT-PCR, immunoblotting, and immunohistochemistry to characterize the expression pattern of NBC4 in rat liver and kidney. For immunodetection, a polyclonal antibody against rat NBC4 was generated and affinity purified. Of the known human NBC4 variants, only the rat NBC4c ortholog was detected by RT-PCR in rat liver, and the molecular mass of the NBC4c protein was approximately 145 kDa. NBC4c protein was expressed in hepatocytes and in the cholangiocytes lining the intrahepatic bile ducts. In hepatocytes, NBC4c was localized to the basolateral plasma membrane, whereas intrahepatic cholangiocytes stained apically. The NBC1 electrogenic sodium cotransporter variants kNBC1 and pNBC1 were not detected by immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry in rat liver. The pattern of localization of NBC4c in the liver suggests that the cotransporter plays a role in mediating Na(+)-HCO(3)(-) cotransport in hepatocytes and intrahepatic cholangiocytes. Unlike the liver, the rat kidney expressed electrogenic sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter proteins kNBC1 and NBC4c. In kidney, NBC4c also had a molecular mass of approximately 145 kDa and was immunolocalized to uroepithelial cells lining the renal pelvis, where the cotransporter may play an important role in protecting the renal parenchyma from alterations in urine pH.

  18. 30 CFR 57.15007 - Protective equipment or clothing for welding, cutting, or working with molten metal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Protective equipment or clothing for welding... equipment or clothing for welding, cutting, or working with molten metal. Protective clothing or equipment and face shields or goggles shall be worn when welding, cutting, or working with molten metal....

  19. 30 CFR 57.15007 - Protective equipment or clothing for welding, cutting, or working with molten metal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Protective equipment or clothing for welding... equipment or clothing for welding, cutting, or working with molten metal. Protective clothing or equipment and face shields or goggles shall be worn when welding, cutting, or working with molten metal....

  20. 30 CFR 57.15007 - Protective equipment or clothing for welding, cutting, or working with molten metal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Protective equipment or clothing for welding... equipment or clothing for welding, cutting, or working with molten metal. Protective clothing or equipment and face shields or goggles shall be worn when welding, cutting, or working with molten metal....

  1. 30 CFR 57.15007 - Protective equipment or clothing for welding, cutting, or working with molten metal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protective equipment or clothing for welding... equipment or clothing for welding, cutting, or working with molten metal. Protective clothing or equipment and face shields or goggles shall be worn when welding, cutting, or working with molten metal....

  2. Prediction of the physiological response of humans wearing protective clothing using a thermophysiological human simulator.

    PubMed

    Psikuta, Agnes; Wang, Li-Chu; Rossi, René M

    2013-01-01

    Most standards and devices for determining clothing properties ignore the physiological state of the wearer and are inadequate to evaluate the transient thermal properties of clothing ensembles. This study evaluated the physiological burden of different types of protective clothing and environmental conditions using the recently developed single-sector thermo-physiological human simulator and compared its performance with a thermal cylinder (without the physiological control model) and with an advanced physiological model (with a simple clothing model). A single-sector physiological simulator developed to simulate the dynamic thermal and perceptual behavior of humans over a wide range of environmental and personal conditions was successfully validated in this study through tests with clothed individuals exposed to hot and cold conditions. In comparative tests on water vapor permeable and impermeable clothing samples, the simulator provided a much more complete picture of actual clothing performance, for example, in terms of moisture retention within the clothing and the additional cooling due to the "heat pipe" effect in impermeable clothing.

  3. TEST KIT FOR FIELD EVALUATION OF THE CHEMICAL RESISTANCE OF PROTECTIVE CLOTHING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Personnel involved in emergency response and hazardous waste site activities often have the need to reach on-scene decisions regarding the effectiveness and limitations of chemical protective clothing. Three gravimetric techniques were evaluated as means for providing essential i...

  4. Advanced Textile Laminates for Chemical Biological Protective Clothing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    used by the military is based on the use of activated charcoal as a major component of a composite textile system. This clothing does a good job in...activated charcoal which serves as a universal vapor adsorbent. In general these CB clothing systems are still too heavy, uncomfortable, and subject...well suited to bonding fabrics with delicate textures and with nano -polymer finishes. It was hoped that these two techniques minimized pin-hole

  5. Study on Aerosol Penetration Through Clothing and Individual Protective Equipment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    significantly higher than the Poiseuille flow resistance through the outer clothing gap. This is the case for the clothing ensembles and gap geometries...penetrate through air permeable fabrics. Air flow and aerosol deposition models were used to determine the skin deposition rates of aerosols through up...liquid or solid, behave differently in air flows when compared to gases and vapours. Gases or chemical vapour are captured by the activated carbon

  6. Articles of protective clothing adapted for deflecting chemical permeation and methods there for

    DOEpatents

    Vo-Dinh, T.

    1996-02-27

    Apparatus and methods for detecting the permeation of hazardous or toxic chemicals through protective clothing are disclosed. The hazardous or toxic chemicals of interest do not possess the spectral characteristic of luminescence. The apparatus and methods utilize a spectrochemical modification technique to detect the luminescence quenching of an indicator compound which upon permeation of the chemical through the protective clothing, the indicator is exposed to the chemical, thus indicating chemical permeation. 12 figs.

  7. Numerical simulations of heat and moisture transport in thermal protective clothing under flash fire conditions.

    PubMed

    Song, Guowen; Chitrphiromsri, Patirop; Ding, Dan

    2008-01-01

    A numerical model of heat and moisture transport in thermal protective clothing during exposure to a flash fire was introduced. The model was developed with the assumption that textiles are treated as porous media. The numerical model predictions were compared with experimental data from different fabric systems and configurations. Additionally, with the introduction of a skin model, the parameters that affect the performance of thermal protective clothing were investigated.

  8. Articles of protective clothing adapted for deflecting chemical permeation and methods therefor

    DOEpatents

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    1996-01-01

    Apparatus and methods for detecting the permeation of hazardous or toxic chemicals through protective clothing are disclosed. The hazardous or toxic chemicals of interest do not possess the spectral characteristic of luminescence. The apparatus and methods utilize a spectrochemical modification technique to detect the luminescence quenching of an indicator compound which upon permeation of the chemical through the protective clothing, the indicator is exposed to the chemical, thus indicating chemical permeation.

  9. An empirical analysis of thermal protective performance of fabrics used in protective clothing.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Sumit; Song, Guowen

    2014-10-01

    Fabric-based protective clothing is widely used for occupational safety of firefighters/industrial workers. The aim of this paper is to study thermal protective performance provided by fabric systems and to propose an effective model for predicting the thermal protective performance under various thermal exposures. Different fabric systems that are commonly used to manufacture thermal protective clothing were selected. Laboratory simulations of the various thermal exposures were created to evaluate the protective performance of the selected fabric systems in terms of time required to generate second-degree burns. Through the characterization of selected fabric systems in a particular thermal exposure, various factors affecting the performances were statistically analyzed. The key factors for a particular thermal exposure were recognized based on the t-test analysis. Using these key factors, the performance predictive multiple linear regression and artificial neural network (ANN) models were developed and compared. The identified best-fit ANN models provide a basic tool to study thermal protective performance of a fabric.

  10. Potential applications of smart clothing solutions in health care and personal protection.

    PubMed

    Meinander, Harriet; Honkala, Markku

    2004-01-01

    The rapid development in the fields of sensor and telecommunication technologies has created completely new possibilities also for the textile and clothing field. New smart textile and clothing systems can be developed by integrating sensors in the textile constructions. Application fields for these added-value products are e.g. protective clothing for extreme environments, garments for the health care sector, technical textiles, sport and leisure wear. Some products have already been introduced on the markets, but generally it can be stated that the development is only in its starting phase, and the expectations for the future are big. Many different aspects have to be considered in the development of the wearable technology products for the health care sector: medical problems and their diagnosis, sensor choice, data processing and telecommunication solutions, clothing requirements. A functional product can be achieved only if all aspects work together, and therefore experts from all fields should participate in the RTD projects. In the EC-funded project DE3002 Easytex clothing and textiles for disabled and elderly people were investigated. Some recommendations concerning durability, appearance, comfort, service and safety of products for different special user groups were defined, based on user questionnaires and seminars, general textile and clothing requirements and on laboratory test series."Clothing Area Network--Clan" is a research project aiming to develop a technical concept and technology needed in enabling both wired and wireless data and power transfer between different intelligent modules (user interfaces, sensors, CPU's, batteries etc.) integrated into a smart clothing system. Fire-fighters clothing system is chosen as the development platform, being a very challenging application from which the developed technology can be transferred to other protective clothing systems.

  11. Procedures to evaluate the efficiency of protective clothing worn by operators applying pesticide.

    PubMed

    Espanhol-Soares, Melina; Nociti, Leticia A S; Machado-Neto, Joaquim Gonçalves

    2013-10-01

    The evaluation of the efficiency of whole-body protective clothing against pesticides has already been carried out through field tests and procedures defined by international standards, but there is a need to determine the useful life of these garments to ensure worker safety. The aim of this article is to compare the procedures for evaluating efficiency of two whole-body protective garments, both new and previously used by applicators of herbicides, using a laboratory test with a mannequin and in the field with the operator. The evaluation of the efficiency of protective clothing used both quantitative and qualitative methodologies, leading to a proposal for classification according to efficiency, and determination of the useful life of protective clothing for use against pesticides, based on a quantitative assessment. The procedures used were in accordance with the standards of the modified American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) F 1359:2007 and International Organization for Standardization 17491-4. The protocol used in the field was World Health Organization Vector Biology and Control (VBC)/82.1. Clothing tested was personal water repellent and pesticide protective. Two varieties of fabric were tested: Beige (100% cotton) and Camouflaged (31% polyester and 69% cotton). The efficiency in exposure control of the personal protective clothing was measured before use and after 5, 10, 20, and 30 uses and washes under field conditions. Personal protective clothing was worn by workers in the field during the application of the herbicide glyphosate on weed species in mature sugar cane plantations using a knapsack sprayer. The modified ASTM 1359:2007 procedure was chosen as the most appropriate due to its greater repeatability (lower coefficient of variation). This procedure provides quantitative evaluation needed to determine the efficiency and useful life of individual protective clothing, not just at specific points of failure, but according to dermal

  12. 10 CFR 850.29 - Protective clothing and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements... clothing and equipment to beryllium workers and ensure its appropriate use and maintenance, where dispersible forms of beryllium may contact worker's skin, enter openings in workers' skin, or contact...

  13. 10 CFR 850.29 - Protective clothing and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements... clothing and equipment to beryllium workers and ensure its appropriate use and maintenance, where dispersible forms of beryllium may contact worker's skin, enter openings in workers' skin, or contact...

  14. 10 CFR 850.29 - Protective clothing and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements... clothing and equipment to beryllium workers and ensure its appropriate use and maintenance, where dispersible forms of beryllium may contact worker's skin, enter openings in workers' skin, or contact...

  15. 10 CFR 850.29 - Protective clothing and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements... clothing and equipment to beryllium workers and ensure its appropriate use and maintenance, where dispersible forms of beryllium may contact worker's skin, enter openings in workers' skin, or contact...

  16. 10 CFR 850.29 - Protective clothing and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements... clothing and equipment to beryllium workers and ensure its appropriate use and maintenance, where dispersible forms of beryllium may contact worker's skin, enter openings in workers' skin, or contact...

  17. Modeling thermal insulation of firefighting protective clothing embedded with phase change material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yin; Huang, Dongmei; Qi, Zhengkun; He, Song; Yang, Hui; Zhang, Heping

    2013-04-01

    Experiments and research on heat transport through firefighting protective clothing when exposed to high temperature or intensive radiation are significant. Phase change material (PCM) takes energy when changes from solid to liquid thus reducing heat transmission. A numerical simulation of heat protection of the firefighting protective clothing embedded with PCM was studied. We focused on the temperature variation by comparing different thicknesses and position conditions of PCM combined in the clothing, as well as the melting state of PCM and human irreversible burns through a simplified one-dimensional model. The results showed it was superior to place PCM between water and proof layer and inner layer, in addition, greater thickness increased protection time while might adding extra burden to the firefighter.

  18. Experimental evaluation of personal protection devices against graphite nanoaerosols: fibrous filter media, masks, protective clothing, and gloves.

    PubMed

    Golanski, L; Guiot, A; Rouillon, F; Pocachard, J; Tardif, F

    2009-06-01

    In this study, different conventional personal protection devices (fibrous filters, cartridges for respirators, protective clothing, and gloves) well qualified for micron particles were tested with graphite nanoparticles ranging from 10 to 100 nm (electrical mobility diameter). For this purpose, two specific test benches were designed: one for filter-based devices which are tested under a controlled air flow and other for gloves and protective clothing based on the "through diffusion method." The penetration versus particle size shows for most tested filter media the behavior predicted by the theoretical Brownian capture: penetration decreases when particle diameter decreases. No thermal rebound was detected until 10 nm for graphite nanoparticles. Protective clothes were tested by two methods and same trends were obtained. Nonwoven fabrics (air-tight materials) are much more efficient against nanoparticles than cotton and paper. Gloves tested by "through diffusion technique," in static condition seem to efficiently protect against graphite nanoparticles in spite of their important porosity.

  19. 30 CFR 56.15007 - Protective equipment or clothing for welding, cutting, or working with molten metal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Protective equipment or clothing for welding... METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personal Protection § 56.15007 Protective equipment or clothing for welding... be worn when welding, cutting, or working with molten metal....

  20. 30 CFR 56.15007 - Protective equipment or clothing for welding, cutting, or working with molten metal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Protective equipment or clothing for welding... METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personal Protection § 56.15007 Protective equipment or clothing for welding... be worn when welding, cutting, or working with molten metal....

  1. 30 CFR 56.15007 - Protective equipment or clothing for welding, cutting, or working with molten metal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Protective equipment or clothing for welding... METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personal Protection § 56.15007 Protective equipment or clothing for welding... be worn when welding, cutting, or working with molten metal....

  2. 30 CFR 56.15007 - Protective equipment or clothing for welding, cutting, or working with molten metal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protective equipment or clothing for welding... METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personal Protection § 56.15007 Protective equipment or clothing for welding... be worn when welding, cutting, or working with molten metal....

  3. Heat gain from thermal radiation through protective clothing with different insulation, reflectivity and vapour permeability.

    PubMed

    Bröde, Peter; Kuklane, Kalev; Candas, Victor; Den Hartog, Emiel A; Griefahn, Barbara; Holmér, Ingvar; Meinander, Harriet; Nocker, Wolfgang; Richards, Mark; Havenith, George

    2010-01-01

    The heat transferred through protective clothing under long wave radiation compared to a reference condition without radiant stress was determined in thermal manikin experiments. The influence of clothing insulation and reflectivity, and the interaction with wind and wet underclothing were considered. Garments with different outer materials and colours and additionally an aluminised reflective suit were combined with different number and types of dry and pre-wetted underwear layers. Under radiant stress, whole body heat loss decreased, i.e., heat gain occurred compared to the reference. This heat gain increased with radiation intensity, and decreased with air velocity and clothing insulation. Except for the reflective outer layer that showed only minimal heat gain over the whole range of radiation intensities, the influence of the outer garments' material and colour was small with dry clothing. Wetting the underclothing for simulating sweat accumulation, however, caused differing effects with higher heat gain in less permeable garments.

  4. New advances in protection against solar ultraviolet radiation in textiles for summer clothing.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, José; de Gálvez, María Victoria; Sánchez-Roldán, Cristina; Herrera-Ceballos, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Clothing is considered one of the most important tools for photoprotection against harmful solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR). The standard for sun-protective clothing is based on erythema despite other biological effects of UVR on the skin. We analyzed the potential protection against UVR in fabrics destined for summer clothing based on several action spectra. We examined 50 garments classified by type of fabric composition, structure of the fiber yarn and color. The ultraviolet protection factor was calculated based on fabric ultraviolet transmittance corrected for erythema according to the EU standard E-13758 as well as the UVA transmittance of fabrics. UVR protection was also analyzed in base of different action spectra as for previtamin D3, nonmelanoma skin cancer, photoimmunosuppression and photoaging. Most knitted fabrics used for sports T-shirts offered excellent ratings for ultraviolet protection while normal shirts showed very low ratings, particularly against photoaging. The cover is the most influential variable in fabric photoprotection, having an exponential relationship with the UPF. The relation between cover and UVA protection was linearly negative. Information about ultraviolet protection in textiles used for summer clothing should be included in labeling as some types of fabrics, especially those used for shirts, offer very low UVR protection.

  5. Long-Lasting Permethrin-Impregnated Clothing Protects Against Mosquito Bites in Outdoor Workers.

    PubMed

    Londono-Renteria, Berlin; Patel, Jaymin C; Vaughn, Meagan; Funkhauser, Sheana; Ponnusamy, Loganathan; Grippin, Crystal; Jameson, Sam B; Apperson, Charles; Mores, Christopher N; Wesson, Dawn M; Colpitts, Tonya M; Meshnick, Steven R

    2015-10-01

    Outdoor exposure to mosquitoes is a risk factor for many diseases, including malaria and dengue. We have previously shown that long-lasting permethrin-impregnated clothing protects against tick and chigger bites in a double-blind randomized controlled trial in North Carolina outdoor workers. Here, we evaluated whether this clothing is protective against mosquito bites by measuring changes in antibody titers to mosquito salivary gland extracts. On average, there was a 10-fold increase in titer during the spring and summer when mosquito exposure was likely to be the highest. During the first year of the study, the increase in titer in subjects wearing treated uniforms was 2- to 2.5-fold lower than that of control subjects. This finding suggests that long-lasting permethrin-impregnated clothing provided protection against mosquito bites.

  6. Long-Lasting Permethrin-Impregnated Clothing Protects against Mosquito Bites in Outdoor Workers

    PubMed Central

    Londono-Renteria, Berlin; Patel, Jaymin C.; Vaughn, Meagan; Funkhauser, Sheana; Ponnusamy, Loganathan; Grippin, Crystal; Jameson, Sam B.; Apperson, Charles; Mores, Christopher N.; Wesson, Dawn M.; Colpitts, Tonya M.; Meshnick, Steven R.

    2015-01-01

    Outdoor exposure to mosquitoes is a risk factor for many diseases, including malaria and dengue. We have previously shown that long-lasting permethrin-impregnated clothing protects against tick and chigger bites in a double-blind randomized controlled trial in North Carolina outdoor workers. Here, we evaluated whether this clothing is protective against mosquito bites by measuring changes in antibody titers to mosquito salivary gland extracts. On average, there was a 10-fold increase in titer during the spring and summer when mosquito exposure was likely to be the highest. During the first year of the study, the increase in titer in subjects wearing treated uniforms was 2- to 2.5-fold lower than that of control subjects. This finding suggests that long-lasting permethrin-impregnated clothing provided protection against mosquito bites. PMID:26195460

  7. Manikin measurements versus wear trials of cold protective clothing (Subzero project).

    PubMed

    Meinander, Harriet; Anttonen, Hannu; Bartels, Volkmar; Holmér, Ingvar; Reinertsen, Randi E; Soltynski, Krzysztof; Varieras, Sabine

    2004-09-01

    The thermal insulation properties of clothing systems can be defined through physical measurements using thermal manikins or through wear trials using human test subjects. One objective of the European Subzero project was to define the relationship between physically measured thermal insulation values of cold-protective clothing and the corresponding physiological reactions on human test subjects. Four cold-protective clothing ensembles, intended for use in temperatures between 0 and -50 degrees C, were measured with manikins in eight European laboratories and on human test subjects in four of these laboratories. The results showed that reasonably good reproducible values from the manikin tests can be achieved (CV < 8%); however, the fit of the clothing on the manikin is a critical factor. There were greater individual differences in the wear trial results. Comparing the results from the manikin and the wear trials, good agreement in the thermal insulation values was shown if the amount of accumulated sweat was low. In these situations, which are normal when using cold protective clothing, the thermal comfort can also be determined with good accuracy by means of mathematical models based on manikin results. Special situations, e.g. for highly perspiring wearers, strong wind, or high friction between garment layers, need specific modelling; some suggestions have been made as a result of the Subzero project, but further research is required.

  8. Flame-retardant contamination of firefighter personal protective clothing - A potential health risk for firefighters.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Barbara M; Baxter, C Stuart

    2016-09-01

    There is a high incidence of cardiovascular disease and certain cancers in firefighters that may be related to their occupational exposure to hazardous substances. Exposure may result from contaminated personal protective gear, as well as from direct exposure at fire scenes. This study characterized flame-retardant contamination on firefighter personal protective clothing to assess exposure of firefighters to these chemicals. Samples from used and unused firefighter protective clothing, including gloves, hoods and a coat wristlet, were extracted with methylene chloride and analyzed by EPA method 8270D Specific Ion Method (SIM) for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Until recently PBDEs were some of the most common flame-retardant chemicals used in the US. Fifteen of the seventeen PBDEs for which analysis was performed were found on at least one clothing swatch. Every clothing sample, including an unused hood and all three layers of an unused glove, held a detectable concentration of at least one PBDE. These findings, along with previous research, suggest that firefighters are exposed to PBDE flame retardants at levels much higher than the general public. PBDEs are found widely dispersed in the environment and still persist in existing domestic materials such as clothing and furnishings. Firefighter exposure to flame retardants therefore merits further study.

  9. Plasma Surface Modification of Polyaramid Fibers for Protective Clothing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widodo, Mohamad

    2011-12-01

    ever. Plasma technology has made surface chemistry functionalization of Kevlar more straightforward and easier to perform, which opens new avenues for achieving functional and multifunctional Kevlar fabrics using a fast, more economic and environmentally friendly continuous process for niche market such as military applications and protective clothing for emergency responders.

  10. A novel approach for fit analysis of thermal protective clothing using three-dimensional body scanning.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yehu; Song, Guowen; Li, Jun

    2014-11-01

    The garment fit played an important role in protective performance, comfort and mobility. The purpose of this study is to quantify the air gap to quantitatively characterize a three-dimensional (3-D) garment fit using a 3-D body scanning technique. A method for processing of scanned data was developed to investigate the air gap size and distribution between the clothing and human body. The mesh model formed from nude and clothed body was aligned, superimposed and sectioned using Rapidform software. The air gap size and distribution over the body surface were analyzed. The total air volume was also calculated. The effects of fabric properties and garment size on air gap distribution were explored. The results indicated that average air gap of the fit clothing was around 25-30 mm and the overall air gap distribution was similar. The air gap was unevenly distributed over the body and it was strongly associated with the body parts, fabric properties and garment size. The research will help understand the overall clothing fit and its association with protection, thermal and movement comfort, and provide guidelines for clothing engineers to improve thermal performance and reduce physiological burden.

  11. Permethrin-Treated Clothing as Protection against the Dengue Vector, Aedes aegypti: Extent and Duration of Protection

    PubMed Central

    DeRaedt Banks, Sarah; Orsborne, James; Gezan, Salvador A.; Kaur, Harparkash; Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Lindsey, Steve W.; Logan, James G.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Dengue transmission by the mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti, occurs indoors and outdoors during the day. Personal protection of individuals, particularly when outside, is challenging. Here we assess the efficacy and durability of different types of insecticide-treated clothing on laboratory-reared Ae. aegypti. Methods Standardised World Health Organisation Pesticide Evaluation Scheme (WHOPES) cone tests and arm-in-cage assays were used to assess knockdown (KD) and mortality of Ae. aegypti tested against factory-treated fabric, home-dipped fabric and microencapsulated fabric. Based on the testing of these three different treatment types, the most protective was selected for further analysis using arm-in cage assays with the effect of washing, ultra-violet light, and ironing investigated using high pressure liquid chromatography. Results Efficacy varied between the microencapsulated and factory dipped fabrics in cone testing. Factory-dipped clothing showed the greatest effect on KD (3 min 38.1%; 1 hour 96.5%) and mortality (97.1%) with no significant difference between this and the factory dipped school uniforms. Factory-dipped clothing was therefore selected for further testing. Factory dipped clothing provided 59% (95% CI = 49.2%– 66.9%) reduction in landing and a 100% reduction in biting in arm-in-cage tests. Washing duration and technique had a significant effect, with insecticidal longevity shown to be greater with machine washing (LW50 = 33.4) compared to simulated hand washing (LW50 = 17.6). Ironing significantly reduced permethrin content after 1 week of simulated use, with a 96.7% decrease after 3 months although UV exposure did not reduce permethrin content within clothing significantly after 3 months simulated use. Conclusion Permethrin-treated clothing may be a promising intervention in reducing dengue transmission. However, our findings also suggest that clothing may provide only short-term protection due to the effect of washing and ironing

  12. Influence of relative humidity and temperature on quantity of electric charge of static protective clothing used in petrochemical industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yunpeng; Liu, Quanzhen; Liu, Baoquan; Li, Yipeng; Zhang, Tingting

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, the working principle of static protective clothing and its testing method of quantity of electric charge are introduced, and the influence of temperature and relative humidity on the quantity of electric charge (qe) of static protective clothing is studied by measuring qe of different clothing samples. The result shows that temperature and relative humidity can influence qe of static protective clothing to some extent and the influence of relative humidity is bigger than that of temperature. According to experimental results, the relationship of qe and relative humidity and temperature was analysed, and the safety boundary of quantity of electric charge is discussed. In order to reduce the occurrence of electrostatic accidents and ensure safe production and operation of petrochemical industry, some suggestions on choosing and using of static protective clothing are given for guaranteeing its static protective performance.

  13. A new penetration test method: protection efficiency of glove and clothing materials against diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI).

    PubMed

    Henriks-Eckerman, Maj-Len; Mäkelä, Erja

    2015-03-01

    Reported cases of allergic contact dermatitis caused by methylenediphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) have increased and thereby increased the need for adequate skin protection. Current standardized permeation and penetration test methods give information about efficacy of protective materials against individual components of the polyurethane systems. They do not give information of what kind of clothing materials workers should wear against splashes when handling mixed MDI-polyurethane formulations, which contain MDI, its oligomers, and polyols. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a sensitive penetration test method that can be used to select clothing that is protective enough against uncured splashes of MDI-polyurethane, still easy to use, and also, to find affordable glove materials that provide adequate protection during a short contact. The penetration of MDI through eight representative glove or clothing materials was studied with the developed test procedure. One MDI hardener and two polymeric MDI (PMDI)-polyol formulations representing different curing times were used as test substances. The materials tested included work clothing (woven) fabric, arm shields (nonwoven fabric), old T-shirt, winter gloves, and gloves of nitrile rubber, leather, vinyl (PVC), and natural rubber. A drop (50 µl) of test substance was added to the outer surface of the glove/clothing material, which had Tape Fixomull attached to the inner surface as a collection medium. After penetration times of 5 or 20min, the collecting material was removed and immediately immersed into acetonitrile containing 1-(2-methoxyphenyl)-piperazine for derivatization. The formed urea derivatives of 2,4'-MDI and 4,4'-MDI were analysed using liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric and UV detection. The precision of the test method was good for the material with high penetration (work clothing fabric) of MDI, as the relative standard deviation (RSD) was 14 and 20%. For the arm shield with a low

  14. Application of Heat-Transfer Calculations and Computational Fluid Mechanics to the Design of Protective Clothing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherunova, I.; Kornev, N.; Jacobi, G.; Treshchun, I.; Gross, A.; Turnow, J.; Schreier, S.; Paschen, M.

    2014-07-01

    Three examples of use of computational fluid dynamics for designing clothing protecting a human body from high and low temperatures with an incident air fl ow and without it are presented. The internal thermodynamics of a human body and the interaction of it with the surroundings were investigated. The inner and outer problems were considered separately with their own boundary conditions.

  15. 46 CFR 153.932 - Goggles and protective clothing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... or tight-fitting goggles for eye protection against splashing or spraying liquids if that person is...-fitting goggles for eye protection against splashing or spraying liquids if the person is: (1) In the...

  16. 46 CFR 153.932 - Goggles and protective clothing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... or tight-fitting goggles for eye protection against splashing or spraying liquids if that person is...-fitting goggles for eye protection against splashing or spraying liquids if the person is: (1) In the...

  17. Personal Protection of Permethrin-Treated Clothing against Aedes aegypti, the Vector of Dengue and Zika Virus, in the Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Orsborne, James; DeRaedt Banks, Sarah; Hendy, Adam; Gezan, Salvador A.; Kaur, Harparkash; Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Lindsay, Steve W.; Logan, James G.

    2016-01-01

    Background The dengue and Zika viruses are primarily transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, which are most active during day light hours and feed both in and outside of the household. Personal protection technologies such as insecticide-treated clothing could provide individual protection. Here we assessed the efficacy of permethrin-treated clothing on personal protection in the laboratory. Methods The effect of washing on treated clothing, skin coverage and protection against resistant and susceptible Ae. aegypti was assessed using modified WHO arm-in-cage assays. Coverage was further assessed using free-flight room tests to investigate the protective efficacy of unwashed factory-dipped permethrin-treated clothing. Clothing was worn as full coverage (long sleeves and trousers) and partial coverage (short sleeves and shorts). Residual permethrin on the skin and its effect on mosquitoes was measured using modified WHO cone assays and quantified using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. Results In the arm-in-cage assays, unwashed clothing reduced landing by 58.9% (95% CI 49.2–66.9) and biting by 28.5% (95% CI 22.5–34.0), but reduced to 18.5% (95% CI 14.7–22.3) and 11.1% (95% CI 8.5–13.8) respectively after 10 washes. Landing and biting for resistant and susceptible strains was not significantly different (p<0.05). In free-flight room tests, full coverage treated clothing reduced landing by 24.3% (95% CI 17.4–31.7) and biting by 91% (95% CI 82.2–95.9) with partial coverage reducing landing and biting by 26.4% (95% CI 20.3–31.2) and 49.3% (95% CI 42.1–59.1) respectively with coverage type having no significant difference on landing (p<0.05). Residual permethrin was present on the skin in low amounts (0.0041mg/cm2), but still produced a KD of >80% one hour after wearing treated clothing. Conclusion Whilst partially covering the body with permethrin-treated clothing provided some protection against biting, wearing treated clothing with

  18. Testing Penetration of Epoxy Resin and Diamine Hardeners through Protective Glove and Clothing Materials.

    PubMed

    Henriks-Eckerman, Maj-Len; Mäkelä, Erja A; Suuronen, Katri

    2015-10-01

    Efficient, comfortable, yet affordable personal protective equipment (PPE) is needed to decrease the high incidence of allergic contact dermatitis arising from epoxy resin systems (ERSs) in industrial countries. The aim of this study was to find affordable, user-friendly glove and clothing materials that provide adequate skin protection against splashes and during the short contact with ERS that often occurs before full cure. We studied the penetration of epoxy resin and diamine hardeners through 12 glove or clothing materials using a newly developed test method. The tests were carried out with two ERS test mixtures that had a high content of epoxy resin and frequently used diamine hardeners of different molar masses. A drop (50 µl) of test mixture was placed on the outer surface of the glove/clothing material, which had a piece of Fixomull tape or Harmony protection sheet attached to the inner surface as the collection medium. The test times were 10 and 30 min. The collecting material was removed after the test was finished and immersed into acetone. The amounts of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA), isophorone diamine (IPDA), and m-xylylenediamine (XDA) in the acetone solution were determined by gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. The limit for acceptable penetration of XDA, IPDA, and DGEBA through glove materials was set at 2 µg cm(-2). Penetration through the glove materials was 1.4 µg cm(-2) or less. The three tested chemical protective gloves showed no detectable penetration (<0.5 µg cm(-2)). Several affordable glove and clothing materials were found to provide adequate protection during short contact with ERS, in the form of, for example, disposable gloves or clothing materials suitable for aprons and as additional protective layers on the most exposed parts of clothing, such as the front of the legs and thighs and under the forearms. Every ERS combination in use should be tested separately to find the best skin protection material

  19. Numerical modelling of transient heat and moisture transport in protective clothing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Łapka, P.; Furmański, P.; Wisniewski, T. S.

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents a complex model of heat and mass transfer in a multi-layer protective clothing exposed to a flash fire and interacting with the human skin. The clothing was made of porous fabric layers separated by air gaps. The fabrics contained bound water in the fibres and moist air in the pores. The moist air was also present in the gaps between fabric layers or internal fabric layer and the skin. Three skin sublayers were considered. The model accounted for coupled heat transfer by conduction, thermal radiation and associated with diffusion of water vapour in the clothing layers and air gaps. Heat exchange due to phase transition of the bound water were also included in the model. Complex thermal and mass transfer conditions at internal or external boundaries between fabric layers and air gaps as well as air gap and skin were assumed. Special attention was paid to modelling of thermal radiation which was coming from the fire, penetrated through protective clothing and absorbed by the skin. For the first time non-grey properties as well as optical phenomena at internal or external boundaries between fabric layers and air gaps as well as air gap and skin were accounted for. A series of numerical simulations were carried out and the risk of heat injures was estimated.

  20. 30 CFR 75.1720 - Protective clothing; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., cutting, or working with molten metal or when other hazards to the eyes exist from flying particles. (b... toxic substances or other materials which might cause injury to the skin. (c) Protective gloves...

  1. 46 CFR 153.933 - Chemical protective clothing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Operations General Vessel Safety... tanks, piping, or pumps being used to transfer the cargo wears splash protective eyewear under...

  2. 46 CFR 153.933 - Chemical protective clothing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Operations General Vessel Safety... tanks, piping, or pumps being used to transfer the cargo wears splash protective eyewear under...

  3. Attenuation of X and Gamma Rays in Personal Radiation Shielding Protective Clothing.

    PubMed

    Kozlovska, Michaela; Cerny, Radek; Otahal, Petr

    2015-11-01

    A collection of personal radiation shielding protective clothing, suitable for use in case of accidents in nuclear facilities or radiological emergency situations involving radioactive agents, was gathered and tested at the Nuclear Protection Department of the National Institute for Nuclear, Chemical and Biological Protection, Czech Republic. Attenuating qualities of shielding layers in individual protective clothing were tested via spectra measurement of x and gamma rays, penetrating them. The rays originated from different radionuclide point sources, the gamma ray energies of which cover a broad energy range. The spectra were measured by handheld spectrometers, both scintillation and High Purity Germanium. Different narrow beam geometries were adjusted using a special testing bench and a set of various collimators. The main experimentally determined quantity for individual samples of personal radiation shielding protective clothing was x and gamma rays attenuation for significant energies of the spectra. The attenuation was assessed comparing net peak areas (after background subtraction) in spectra, where a tested sample was placed between the source and the detector, and corresponding net peak areas in spectra, measured without the sample. Mass attenuation coefficients, which describe attenuating qualities of shielding layers materials in individual samples, together with corresponding lead equivalents, were determined as well. Experimentally assessed mass attenuation coefficients of the samples were compared to the referred ones for individual heavy metals.

  4. Loss of effectiveness of protective clothing after its use in pesticide sprays and its multiple washes.

    PubMed

    Espanhol-Soares, Melina; Teodoro de Oliveira, Manuela; Machado-Neto, Joaquim Gonçalves

    2017-02-01

    Protective clothing is used as a barrier against pesticides when working with agricultural sprays. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pesticide penetration, retention, and repellence of the material and seams of a whole-body protective garment used by applicators of pesticides. The efficiency of the material and seams of the whole-body garment were determined for its classification as proposed by ISO 27065 (ISO, 2011). The evaluation method used was the pipette test of ISO 22608. The efficiency of the material and seams of the garment (100% cotton) were tested by contamination with formulations of Roundup Original® SL; Nufos EC® and Supera SC®. The presence of the seams in the protective clothing reduced its efficiency in the control of dermal exposure, except when protecting against the Supera SC® formulation. The number of washes and uses affected the efficiency of the material and seams of the garment. The type of formulation interfered significantly in the penetration of pesticides into the material and seams. Thus, the laboratory efficiency assessment of protective clothing is necessary to determine what types of formulations and use conditions are appropriate for workers.

  5. 30 CFR 57.15007 - Protective equipment or clothing for welding, cutting, or working with molten metal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., cutting, or working with molten metal. 57.15007 Section 57.15007 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... equipment or clothing for welding, cutting, or working with molten metal. Protective clothing or equipment and face shields or goggles shall be worn when welding, cutting, or working with molten metal....

  6. Can the PHS model (ISO7933) predict reasonable thermophysiological responses while wearing protective clothing in hot environments?

    PubMed

    Wang, Faming; Kuklane, Kalev; Gao, Chuansi; Holmér, Ingvar

    2011-02-01

    In this paper, the prediction accuracy of the PHS (predicted heat strain) model on human physiological responses while wearing protective clothing ensembles was examined. Six human subjects (aged 29 ± 3 years) underwent three experimental trials in three different protective garments (clothing thermal insulation I(cl) ranges from 0.63 to 2.01 clo) in two hot environments (40 °C, relative humidities: 30% and 45%). The observed and predicted mean skin temperature, core body temperature and sweat rate were presented and statistically compared. A significant difference was found in the metabolic rate between FIRE (firefighting clothing) and HV (high visibility clothing) or MIL (military clothing) (p < 0.001). Also, the development of heart rate demonstrated the significant effects of the exposure time and clothing ensembles. In addition, the predicted evaporation rate during HV, MIL and FIRE was much lower than the experimental values. Hence, the current PHS model is not applicable for protective clothing with intrinsic thermal insulations above 1.0 clo. The results showed that the PHS model generated unreliable predictions on body core temperature when human subjects wore thick protective clothing such as firefighting clothing (I(cl) > 1.0 clo). The predicted mean skin temperatures in three clothing ensembles HV, MIL and FIRE were also outside the expected limits. Thus, there is a need for further extension for the clothing insulation validation range of the PHS model. It is recommended that the PHS model should be amended and validated by individual algorithms, physical or physiological parameters, and further subject studies.

  7. Thermal and cardiovascular strain imposed by motorcycle protective clothing under Australian summer conditions.

    PubMed

    de Rome, Liz; Taylor, Elizabeth A; Croft, Rodney J; Brown, Julie; Fitzharris, Michael; Taylor, Nigel A S

    2016-04-01

    Motorcycle protective clothing can be uncomfortably hot during summer, and this experiment was designed to evaluate the physiological significance of that burden. Twelve males participated in four, 90-min trials (cycling 30 W) across three environments (25, 30, 35 °C [all 40% relative humidity]). Clothing was modified between full and minimal injury protection. Both ensembles were tested at 25 °C, with only the more protective ensemble investigated at 30 and 35 °C. At 35 °C, auditory canal temperature rose at 0.02 °C min(-1) (SD 0.005), deviating from all other trials (p < 0.05). The thresholds for moderate (>38.5 °C) and profound hyperthermia (>40.0 °C) were predicted to occur within 105 min (SD 20.6) and 180 min (SD 33.0), respectively. Profound hyperthermia might eventuate in ~10 h at 30 °C, but should not occur at 25 °C. These outcomes demonstrate a need to enhance the heat dissipation capabilities of motorcycle clothing designed for summer use in hot climates, but without compromising impact protection. Practitioner's Summary: Motorcycle protective clothing can be uncomfortably hot during summer. This experiment was designed to evaluate the physiological significance of this burden across climatic states. In the heat, moderate (>38.5 °C) and profound hyperthermia (>40.0 °C) were predicted to occur within 105 and 180 min, respectively.

  8. [Clothing in the protection of public safety and security forces].

    PubMed

    Caciari, T

    2006-01-01

    The Ministerial Decree 19 February 1992 indicates the characteristics of the equipment and of the different uniforms adopted by the Italian Police Forces. The paper describes the occupational risks (due to physical, chemical and biological agents) and the protective equipments of particular police activities and specialties: urban and road police, air and naval units, shooting instructors, laboratory technicians (scientific police), mechanic repair and maintenance, units working with dogs or horses.

  9. Physiological tolerance times while wearing explosive ordnance disposal protective clothing in simulated environmental extremes.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Ian B; Stewart, Kelly L; Worringham, Charles J; Costello, Joseph T

    2014-01-01

    Explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) technicians are required to wear protective clothing to protect themselves from the threat of overpressure, fragmentation, impact and heat. The engineering requirements to minimise these threats results in an extremely heavy and cumbersome clothing ensemble that increases the internal heat generation of the wearer, while the clothing's thermal properties reduce heat dissipation. This study aimed to evaluate the heat strain encountered wearing EOD protective clothing in simulated environmental extremes across a range of differing work intensities. Eight healthy males [age 25 ± 6 years (mean ± sd), height 180 ± 7 cm, body mass 79 ± 9 kg, VO2max 57 ± 6 ml(.) kg(-1.)min(-1)] undertook nine trials while wearing an EOD9 suit (weighing 33.4 kg). The trials involved walking on a treadmill at 2.5, 4 and 5.5 km ⋅ h(-1) at each of the following environmental conditions, 21, 30 and 37 °C wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) in a randomised controlled crossover design. The trials were ceased if the participants' core temperature reached 39 °C, if heart rate exceeded 90% of maximum, if walking time reached 60 minutes or due to fatigue/nausea. Tolerance times ranged from 10-60 minutes and were significantly reduced in the higher walking speeds and environmental conditions. In a total of 15 trials (21%) participants completed 60 minutes of walking; however, this was predominantly at the slower walking speeds in the 21 °C WBGT environment. Of the remaining 57 trials, 50 were ceased, due to attainment of 90% maximal heart rate. These near maximal heart rates resulted in moderate-high levels of physiological strain in all trials, despite core temperature only reaching 39 °C in one of the 72 trials.

  10. Protective clothing textile research for space activities in the 1980's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radnofsky, M. I.; Kosmo, J. J.

    1980-01-01

    Textile and clothing specifications for space activities are discussed, emphasizing a chronological and utilitarian role. New fabrication techniques led to the Mercury Space Suit, a constant-wear hybrid of the omni-environmental full pressure suit used by high-flying pilots of the 1950s. The Gemini program (1964-1966) provided the first specifically designed protective clothing assembly for both intra- and extravehicular operations. The G4C, used for EV (extravehicular) activities, protected the astronaut against solar radiation, heat loss, and meteoroid penetration. The clothing for the Apollo program (1968-1975) mirrored a greater concern for fire safety with Durette (a halogenated polyamide) and PBI (polybenzimadazole) widely used for intravehicular garments. With the advent of the Shuttle program, cabin pressure and composition were changed from 6 psi, 100% oxygen to 9-14 psi, 23.4% oxygen, 76.6% N2. As a result, 'off-the-shelf' materials were used without compromising fire safety. Reusability was stressed, as textile costs and durability were now important selection criteria noting that existing textile materials will probably be adequate for the next 20 years of space operations and research. A portable lunar survival shelter made of textiles is being developed; and a preliminary design for an EV 'tunnel suit system' (an access tunnel and homoform work station) is already in existence.

  11. Review of chamber design requirements for testing of personal protective clothing ensembles.

    PubMed

    Gao, Pengfei; King, William P; Shaffer, Ronald

    2007-08-01

    This review focuses on the physical requirements for conducting ensemble testing and describes the salient issues that organizations involved in the design, test, or certification of personal protective equipment (PPE) and protective clothing ensembles need to consider for strategic planning. Several current and proposed PPE ensemble test practices and standards were identified. The man-in-simulant test (MIST) is the primary procedure used by the military to evaluate clothing ensembles for protection against chemical and biological warfare agents. MIST has been incorporated into the current editions of protective clothing and equipment standards promulgated by the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). ASTM has recently developed a new test method (ASTM F 2588-06) for MIST evaluation of protective ensembles. Other relevant test methods include those described in International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standards. The primary differences among the test methods were the choice of test challenge material (e.g., sulfur hexafluoride, methyl salicylate, sodium chloride particles, corn oil, fluorophore-impregnated silica) and the exercise protocol for the subject(s). Although ensemble test methods and standards provide detailed descriptions of the test procedures, none give specific requirements for chamber design. A literature survey identified 28 whole-body exposure chambers that have been or could potentially be used for testing protective clothing ensembles using human test subjects. Median chamber size, median floor space, and median volume per subject were calculated from 15 chambers (involving human test subjects), where size information is available. Based on the literature survey of existing chambers and the review of the current and proposed standards and test methods, chamber design requirements will be dictated by the test methods selected. Due to widely different test conditions for aerosol/particulate and vapor ensemble testing, it is

  12. Prediction methods of skin burn for performance evaluation of thermal protective clothing.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Li-Na; Li, Jun

    2015-11-01

    Most test methods use skin burn prediction to evaluate the thermal protective performance of clothing. In this paper, we reviewed different burn prediction methods used in clothing evaluation. The empirical criterion and the mathematical model were analyzed in detail as well as their relationship and limitations. Using an empirical criterion, the onset of skin burn is determined by the accumulated skin surface energy in certain periods. On the other hand, the mathematical model, which indicates denatured collagen, is more complex, which involves a heat transfer model and a burn model. Further studies should be conducted to examine the situations where the prediction methods are derived. New technologies may be used in the future to explore precise or suitable prediction methods for both flash fire tests and increasingly lower-intensity tests.

  13. Tests of protective clothing for the safe handling of pressurized lamps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewashinka, J. G.

    1975-01-01

    Tests were made to find a clothing material combination for use in handling high-pressure lamps. Monofilament nylon, ballistic nylon, and ballistic felt grouped into various multilayer combinations and chromed leather were positioned around and 30 cm (12 in.) away from exploding high-pressure lamps of different manufacturers and wattages. The results are: (1) 5024 nylon/ballistic felt/5024 nylon in a layered configuration was not penetrated by fragments of lamps as large as 6.5 kW; (2) this layered combination is lightweight and pliable and offers greater mobility and comfort to the user than previous protective clothing; and (3) Lexan plastic 1.6 mm (1/6 in.) thick to be used for face shield material showed no penetration for lamps as large as 20 kW.

  14. The Relationship Between Physical Activity and Thermal Protective Clothing on Functional Balance in Firefighters

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Pui W.; Suyama, Joe; Cham, Rakié; Hostler, David

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between baseline physical training and the use of firefighting thermal protective clothing (TPC) with breathing apparatus on functional balance. Twenty-three male firefighters performed a functional balance test under four gear/clothing conditions. Participants were divided into groups by physical training status, and task performance was analyzed. There was an effect of equipment and training status on performance with the group reporting both aerobic and resistance training performing better than the group reporting no physical training. In conclusion, firefighters walk more slowly as a strategy to maintain balance when wearing TPC, which may be suboptimal given the emergent nature of fire suppression. This result was most prominent in the group reporting no physical training. PMID:23367817

  15. [Clothing and heat disorder].

    PubMed

    Satsumoto, Yayoi

    2012-06-01

    The influence of the clothing material properties(like water absorbency and rapid dryness, water vapor absorption, water vapor permeability and air permeability) and the design factor of the clothing(like opening condition and fitting of clothing), which contributed to prevent heat disorder, was outlined. WBGT(wet-bulb globe temperature) is used to show a guideline for environmental limitation of activities to prevent heat disorder. As the safety function is more important than thermal comfort for some sportswear and protective clothing with high cover area, clothing itself increases the risk of heat disorder. WBGT is corrected by CAF (clothing adjustment factor) in wearing such kind of protective clothing.

  16. Protective Clothing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-01-01

    WASHINGTON 0 C AEROSPACE TECHNOLOGY DIV HIGH -ALTITUDE PRESSURESUITS AND HERMETICALLY SEALED CABINS FOR STRATOSPHERIC FLIGHTS* (U) DESCRIPTIVE NOTE...TRANS. FROM VESTNIK VOZDUSNNOGO FLOTA, NO. So PP. 48൹, |938. DESCRIPTORS: (*PRESSURE SUITS. USSR)o PRESSURIZED CABINS. HERMETIC SEALS, HIGH ALTITUDE...STRATOSPHERE, BREATHING APPARATUS, OXYGEN EQUIPMENT, REVIEWS, DESIG(U) HIGH -ALTITUDE PRESSURE SUITS AND HERMETICALLY SEALED CABINS FOR STRATOSPHERIC

  17. Passive and Active Protective Clothing against High-Power Laser Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennigs, C.; Hustedt, M.; Kaierle, S.; Wenzel, D.; Markstein, S.; Hutter, A.

    The main objective of the work described in this paper was the development of passive and active protective clothing for the protection of the human skin against accidental laser irradiation and of active protective curtains. Here, the passive systems consist of functional multi-layer textiles, providing a high level of passive laser resistance. In addition, the active functional multi-layer textiles incorporate sensors that detect laser exposure and are, by means of a safety control, able to deactivate the laser beam automatically.Due to the lack of regulations for testing and qualifying textiles to be used as laser PPE, test methods were defined and validated. Additionally, corresponding testing set-ups were developed.Finally, the gap with respect to standardization was bridged by the definition of a test procedure and the requirements with respect to laser PPE.The developments were demonstrated by a set of tailored functional passive and active laser-protective clothing prototypes (gloves, jackets, aprons, trousers) and active curtains as well as by a prototype testing rig, providing the possibility to perform the specified low-power and high-power textile test procedure.

  18. Protection against ultraviolet radiation by commercial summer clothing: need for standardised testing and labelling

    PubMed Central

    Gambichler, Thilo; Rotterdam, Sebastian; Altmeyer, Peter; Hoffmann, Klaus

    2001-01-01

    Background The use of clothing as a means of sun protection has been recommended in recent education campaigns. Contrary to popular opinion, however, some fabrics provide insufficient ultraviolet (UV) protection. Material and methods We investigated 236 apparel textiles of the spring/summer collections 2000 and 2001. In accordance with the forthcoming European standard the UV protection factor (UPF) of the fabrics was determined spectrophotometrically. Results Seventy-eight (33%) fabrics had UPF < 15, 45 (19%) had UPF = or > 15 and < 30, and 113 (48%) had UPF = or > 30 (30+). More than 70% of the wool, polyester, and fabric blends, and only less than 30% of the cotton, linen, and viscose fabrics had UPF values of 30+. Fabrics with black, navy-blue, white, green, or beige colours provided most frequently UPF values of 30+. Conclusions It is difficult for the sun-aware consumer to choose the 'right' garment, with a third of summer clothing providing insufficient UV protection and only half of the fabrics having UPF 30+, the UPF recommended by the European standard. Therefore, apparel summer fabrics should be measured and labelled in accordance with a standard document. PMID:11710968

  19. Performance study of protective clothing against hot water splashes: from bench scale test to instrumented manikin test.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yehu; Song, Guowen; Wang, Faming

    2015-03-01

    Hot liquid hazards existing in work environments are shown to be a considerable risk for industrial workers. In this study, the predicted protection from fabric was assessed by a modified hot liquid splash tester. In these tests, conditions with and without an air spacer were applied. The protective performance of a garment exposed to hot water spray was investigated by a spray manikin evaluation system. Three-dimensional body scanning technique was used to characterize the air gap size between the protective clothing and the manikin skin. The relationship between bench scale test and manikin test was discussed and the regression model was established to predict the overall percentage of skin burn while wearing protective clothing. The results demonstrated strong correlations between bench scale test and manikin test. Based on these studies, the overall performance of protective clothing against hot water spray can be estimated on the basis of the results of the bench scale hot water splashes test and the information of air gap size entrapped in clothing. The findings provide effective guides for the design and material selection while developing high performance protective clothing.

  20. Evaluation of heat-strain-monitoring methods for workers in encapsulating, impermeable protective clothing. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Eley, W.D.

    1987-05-01

    Heat strain for six young, healthy, acclimized men (mean age 26.2 yrs., weight 84.1 kg) was measured during moderate exercise at various ambient conditions (21.5 C, 28 C, 31.5 C with sunshine) while wearing fully encapsulating chemical protective suits with self-contained breathing apparatus. The total weight of the Coast Guard Chemical Response Suit was 26.3 kg. The subjects performed a total of 35 minutes (20 minutes exercise, as determined by V(O2) measurements was 383 kcal/hr. Heart rate and mean skin temperature rose significantly as ambient temperature increased. Under the most adverse ambient condition (31.5 C with sunshine), the mean heart rate and skin temperature were elevated 39.6 bpm and 4.1 C, respectively, over those recorded for control conditions. Significant increases in rectal temperature were not noted. A mean difference in weight loss was only observed with significance between control conditions and the most severe ambient environment. The five-minute recovery heart rate, recorded at minute 25 after 20 minutes of exercise, increased significantly as ambient temperature conditions became more adverse. It is concluded that wearers of impermeable protective clothing show progressive increases in heat strain as ambient temperature increases. This study indicates that recovery heart rate is probably the best indicator of heat tolerance endpoints for work in encapsulating, impermeable protective clothing.

  1. Portable chemical protective clothing test method: application at a chemical plant

    SciTech Connect

    Berardinelli, S.P.; Rusczek, R.A.; Mickelsen, R.L.

    1987-10-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), in cooperation with Monsanto Chemical Company, conducted an on-site evaluation of chemical protective clothing at Monsanto's Nitro, West Virginia plant. The Monsanto plant manufactures additives for the rubber industry including antioxidants, pre-vulcanization inhibitors, accelerators, etc. This survey evaluated six raw materials that have a potential for skin absorption: aniline, cyclohexylamine, diisorpropylamine, tertiary butylamine, morpholine and carbon disulfide. Five generic glove materials were tested against these chemicals; nitrile, neoprene, polyvinylchloride, natural latex and natural rubber. The NIOSH chemical permeation portable test system was used to generate breakthrough time data. The results were compared to permeation data reported in the literature that were obtained by using the ASTM F739-85 test method. The test data demonstrated that aniline has too low a vapor pressure for reliable analysis on the portable direct reading detectors used. The chemical permeation test system, however provided comparable, reliable permeation data for the other tested chemicals. Monsanto has used this data to better select chemical protective clothing for its intended use.

  2. Beta reduction factors for protective clothing at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Franklin, G.L.; Gonzalez, P.L.

    1998-12-31

    Beta reduction factors (f{sub {beta}}) for protective clothing (PC) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have been determined for a variety of protective clothing combinations. Data was collected to determine the experimental f{sub {beta}} for several combinations of PCs under laboratory conditions. Radiation dose rates were measured with an open window Bicron{reg_sign} RSO-5 ion chamber for two distinct beta energy groups (E{sub max} = 1.218 {times} 10{sup {minus}13} J(0.860 MeV) and 3.653 {times} 10{sup {minus}13} J (2.280 MeV)). Data points determined, as the ratio of unattenuated (no PCs) to attenuated (PCs), were used to derive a set of equations using the Microsoft{reg_sign} Excel Linet function. Field comparison tests were then conducted to determine the validity of these beta reduction factors. The f{sub {beta}} from the field tests were significantly less than the experimental f{sub {beta}}, indicating that these factors will yield conservative results.

  3. A portable chemical protective clothing test method: application at a chemical plant.

    PubMed

    Berardinelli, S P; Rusczek, R A; Mickelsen, R L

    1987-09-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), in cooperation with Monsanto Chemical Company, conducted an on-site evaluation of chemical protective clothing at Monsanto's Nitro, West Virginia plant. The Monsanto plant manufactures additives for the rubber industry including antioxidants, pre-vulcanization inhibitors, accelerators, etc. This survey evaluated six raw materials that have a potential for skin absorption: aniline, cyclohexylamine, diisopropylamine, tertiary butylamine, morpholine and carbon disulfide. Five generic glove materials were tested against these chemicals: nitrile, neoprene, polyvinylchloride, natural latex and natural rubber. The NIOSH chemical permeation portable test system was used to generate breakthrough time data. The results were compared to permeation data reported in the literature that were obtained by using the ASTM F739-85 test method. The test data demonstrated that aniline has too low a vapor pressure for reliable analysis on the portable direct reading detectors used. The chemical permeation test system, however, provided comparable, reliable permeation data for the other tested chemicals. Monsanto has used this data to better select chemical protection clothing for its intended use.

  4. Fluorescent tracer evaluation of chemical protective clothing during pesticide applications in central Florida citrus groves.

    PubMed

    Fenske, R A; Birnbaum, S G; Methner, M M; Lu, C; Nigg, H N

    2002-08-01

    Chemical protective clothing (CPC) is often recommended as a method of exposure mitigation among pesticide applicators. This study evaluated four CPC regimens (cotton work shirts and work pants, cotton/polyester coveralls, and two non-woven garments) during 33 airblast applications of the organophosphorus insecticide ethion in central Florida citrus groves. CPC performance was determined by measurement of fluorescent tracer deposition on skin surfaces beneath garments with a video imaging analysis instrument (VITAE system), and by alpha-cellulose patches placed outside and beneath the garments. Non-woven coveralls allowed significantly greater exposure than did traditional woven garments, primarily because of design factors (e.g., large sleeve and neck openings). The greatest exposure occurred on the forearms beneath the non-woven garments. Fabric penetration was detected for all test garments; 5% to 7% of the ethion measured outside the garments was found beneath the garments. The clothing materials tested were not chemically resistant under these field conditions. Exposurepathways that would probably be undetected by the patch technique were characterized effectively with fluorescent tracers and video imaging analysis. However, the patch technique was more sensitive in detecting fabric penetration. CPC garments have been improved since this study was conducted, but performance testing under field conditions is not widespread. Workers conducting airblast applications would be better protected by closed cab systems or any technology that places an effective barrier between the worker and the pesticide spray.

  5. Exercise clothing and shoes

    MedlinePlus

    ... layer should also be breathable. In the hot sun, wear light-colored clothing that dries fast. You ... to block out the harmful rays of the sun. These clothes come with a sun protection factor ( ...

  6. Use of insecticide-treated clothes for personal protection against malaria: a community trial

    PubMed Central

    Kimani, Elizabeth W; Vulule, John M; Kuria, Isabel W; Mugisha, Fredrick

    2006-01-01

    Background The study sought to determine the effect of using insecticide-treated clothes (ITCs) on personal protection against malaria infection. The specific objectives were to determine the effect of using ITCs on the rate of infection with malaria parasites and the effect on indoor mosquito density. Methods This study was done in Dadaab refugee camps, North Eastern Province Kenya between April and August 2002, and involved a total of 198 participants, all refugees of Somali origin. The participants were selected through multi-stage cluster sampling. Half of the participants (treatment group) had their personal clothes worn on a daily basis (Diras, Saris, Jalbaabs, Ma'awis and shirts) and their bedding (sheets and blankets) treated with insecticide (permethrin). The other half (comparison group) had their clothes treated with placebo (plain water). Indoor mosquito density was determined from twelve households belonging to the participants; six in the treatment block and six in the comparison block. During pre-test and post-test, laboratory analysis of blood samples was done, indoor mosquito density determined and questionnaires administered. Using STATA statistical package, tests for significant difference between the two groups were conducted. Results Use of ITCs reduced both malaria infection rates and indoor mosquito density significantly. The odds of malaria infection in the intervention group were reduced by about 70 percent. The idea of using ITCs for malaria infection control was easily accepted among the refugees and they considered it beneficial. No side effects related to use of the ITCs were observed from the participants. Conclusion The use of ITCs reduces malaria infection rate and has potential as an appropriate method of malaria control. It is recommended, therefore, that this strategy be considered for use among poor communities like slum dwellers and other underprivileged communities, such as street children and refugees, especially during an

  7. Nuclear and NBC Contamination Survivability of Medical Materiel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-01

    to the cost of; a new program. kl- see air-blast. chemicl •uents - The category of NBC warfare that contains chemical agents designed to kill...positive pressure and filters , that provides a contamination-free environment. Combat Developer (CBTDEV) - Command or agency that formulates doctrine...protection is employed (e.g., protective circuits and devices, cable filters , electric shielding, and isolation). Semiconductor materials nre most

  8. Intermittent microclimate cooling during exercise-heat stress in US army chemical protective clothing.

    PubMed

    Cadarette, Bruce S; Cheuvront, Samuel N; Kolka, Margaret A; Stephenson, Lou A; Montain, Scott J; Sawka, Michael N

    2006-02-10

    The effectiveness of intermittent, microclimate cooling for men who worked in US Army chemical protective clothing (modified mission-oriented protective posture level 3; MOPP 3) was examined. The hypothesis was that intermittent cooling on a 2 min on-off schedule using a liquid cooling garment (LCG) covering 72% of the body surface area would reduce heat strain comparably to constant cooling. Four male subjects completed three experiments at 30 degrees C, 30% relative humidity wearing the LCG under the MOPP 3 during 80 min of treadmill walking at 224 +/- 5 W . m(-2). Water temperature to the LCG was held constant at 21 degrees C. The experiments were; 1) constant cooling (CC); 2) intermittent cooling at 2-min intervals (IC); 3) no cooling (NC). Core temperature increased (1.6 +/- 0.2 degrees C) in NC, which was greater than IC (0.5 +/- 0.2 degrees C) and CC (0.5 +/- 0.3 degrees C) ( p < 0.05). Mean skin temperature was higher during NC (36.1 +/- 0.4 degrees C) than IC (33.7 +/- 0.6 degrees C) and CC (32.6 +/- 0.6 degrees C) and mean skin temperature was higher during IC than CC ( p < 0.05). Mean heart rate during NC (139 +/- 9 b . min(-1)) was greater than IC (110 +/- 10 b . min(-1)) and CC (107 +/- 9 b . min(-1)) ( p < 0.05). Cooling by conduction (K) during NC (94 +/- 4 W . m(-2)) was lower than IC (142 +/- 7 W . m(-2)) and CC (146 +/- 4 W . m(-2)) ( p < 0.05). These findings suggest that IC provided a favourable skin to LCG gradient for heat dissipation by conduction and reduced heat strain comparable to CC during exercise-heat stress in chemical protective clothing.

  9. Analytical assessment of woven fabrics under vertical stabbing - The role of protective clothing.

    PubMed

    Hejazi, Sayyed Mahdi; Kadivar, Nastaran; Sajjadi, Ali

    2016-02-01

    Knives are being used more commonly in street fights and muggings. Therefore, this work presents an analytical model for woven fabrics under vertical stabbing loads. The model is based on energy method and the fabric is assumed to be unidirectional comprised of N layers. Thus, the ultimate stab resistance of fabric was determined based on structural parameters of fabric and geometrical characteristics of blade. Moreover, protective clothing is nowadays considered as a strategic branch in technical textile industry. The main idea of the present work is improving the stab resistance of woven textiles by using metal coating method. In the final, a series of vertical stabbing tests were conducted on cotton, polyester and polyamide fabrics. Consequently, it was found that the model predicts with a good accuracy the ultimate stab resistance of the sample fabrics.

  10. Protective clothing for pesticide operators: part II--data analysis of fabric characteristics.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Anugrah; Schiffelbein, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Development of objective measurements is an important requirement for establishing performance-based standards for protective clothing used while handling pesticide. This study, the second in a two-part series, reports on the work completed to evaluate the performance of approximately 100 fabrics that are either used or have the potential to be used for garments worn by operators while applying pesticides. Part I, published separately, provides an overview of these issues and describes research undertaken to select a test chemical for use in subsequent studies. The goals of this study were first to develop a comprehensive approach to evaluate the performance of garments currently being used by pesticide operators, and second, to use the laboratory and field data in the development of performance specifications.

  11. Dosemeter readings and effective dose to the cardiologist with protective clothing in a simulated interventional procedure.

    PubMed

    Schultz, F W; Zoetelief, J

    2008-01-01

    A personal dosemeter issued for individual monitoring is calibrated in terms of personal dose equivalent, usually H(P)(10). In general it yields a reasonable estimate of effective dose (E) when the exposed person does not wear protective clothing. In interventional cardiology, however, a lead equivalent apron is worn and often a thyroid collar. A correction factor will then be necessary to convert a dosemeter reading to E. To explore this factor an interventional cardiology procedure is simulated based on exposure conditions typical for a modern hospital in the BENELUX area. The dose to the cardiologist is investigated using Monte Carlo simulation of radiation transport. It is concluded that a personal dosemeter may best be worn outside the apron at a central position high on the chest for least dependence on the beam direction. It will overestimate E by roughly a factor of 20 (apron and thyroid collar of 0.25 mm Pb).

  12. Physiological and subjective responses to cooling devices on firefighting protective clothing.

    PubMed

    Chou, Chinmei; Tochihara, Yutaka; Kim, Taegyou

    2008-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effectiveness of ice-packs (ICE) and phase change material (PCM) cooling devices in reducing physiological load based on subjects' physiological and subjective responses while the subjects exercised on a bicycle ergometer while wearing firefighting protective clothing in a relatively high temperature environment (30 degrees C, 50%RH). Subjects were eight graduate students, aged 25.9 years (SD 3.2). Each subject participated in four 50-min exposures: control (CON), ICE, PCM of 5 degrees C [PCM(5)] and 20 degrees C [PCM(20)]. Each subject rested in a pre-test room for 10 min before entering the test-room where they rested for another 10 min, followed by 30 min-exercise and a 10 min-recovery period. The exercise intensity was set at 55%VO(2max). Cooling effects were evaluated by measuring rectal temperature (Tre), mean skin temperature (Tsk), body weight loss and subjective responses. An increase in Tre for PCM(5) and PCM(20) which was less than that for CON and ICE was observed. The increases in Tsk were depressed using cooling devices, but the cooling effects of PCMs were greater than ICE. The subjects with CON felt hotter and wetter than those in the other conditions. The larger surface cooling area, higher melting temperature and softer material of PCMs which reduces absorption capacity caused a decrease in Tre and Tsk for PCM(5) and PCM(20) which was more than that for CON and ICE. Furthermore, PCM(20) does not require refrigeration. These results suggest that PCM(20) is more effective than other cooling devices in reducing the physiological load while wearing firefighting protective clothing.

  13. 30 CFR 56.15007 - Protective equipment or clothing for welding, cutting, or working with molten metal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., cutting, or working with molten metal. 56.15007 Section 56.15007 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH..., cutting, or working with molten metal. Protective clothing or equipment and face shields, or goggles shall be worn when welding, cutting, or working with molten metal....

  14. Protective clothing for workers with 5-kW and 20-kW short-arc lamps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Argoud, M. J.

    1969-01-01

    Two suits of protective clothing reduce hazards to personnel working near short-arc lamps. One suit is worn during assembly or servicing of inoperative 5- and 20-kw lamps. The other suit is worn during adjustment or focusing of operating 5-kw lamps.

  15. Plasticizer contamination of firefighter personal protective clothing--a potential factor in increased health risks in firefighters.

    PubMed

    Lacey, Steven; Alexander, Barbara M; Baxter, C Stuart

    2014-01-01

    Chemical exposures may be responsible for firefighters' elevated incidences of cancer and cardiovascular disease. This study characterized semivolatile chemical contamination on firefighter personal protective clothing to assess exposure of firefighters to these chemicals. Samples from used firefighter protective clothing, including gloves, hood, and one coat wristlet, were extracted with methylene chloride and analyzed by EPA method 8270 for semivolatile contaminants, including 20 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 6 phthalate diesters. Twenty-two of the chemicals of interest were found on at least one clothing swatch. Only di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), a plasticizer, added to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) to increase flexibility, was found on every swatch. DEHP concentrations were the highest of any chemical measured, and were 52 to 875 times higher than any PAH concentration measured. DEHP was also detected on most items of unused firefighter personal protective clothing, although at much lower levels. These findings suggest that firefighters are exposed to high levels of DEHP, a probable human carcinogen, and at levels much higher than PAHs, the semivolatile toxic combustion products most extensively studied historically. Firefighter exposure to DEHP and other phthalate diesters therefore merits further study.

  16. Quantitative assessment of the relationship between radiant heat exposure and protective performance of multilayer thermal protective clothing during dry and wet conditions.

    PubMed

    Fu, M; Weng, W G; Yuan, H Y

    2014-07-15

    The beneficial effect of clothing on a person is important to the criteria for people exposure to radiant heat flux from fires. The thermal protective performance of multilayer thermal protective clothing exposed to low heat fluxes during dry and wet conditions was studied using two designed bench-scale test apparatus. The protective clothing with four fabric layers (outer shell, moisture barrier, thermal linear and inner layer) was exposed to six levels of thermal radiation (1, 2, 3, 5, 7 and 10kW/m(2)). Two kinds of the moisture barrier (PTFE and GoreTex) with different vapor permeability were compared. The outside and inside surface temperatures of each fabric layer were measured. The fitting analysis was used to quantitatively assess the relationship between the temperature of each layer during thermal exposure and the level of external heat flux. It is indicated that there is a linear correlation between the temperature of each layer and the radiant level. Therefore, a predicted equation is developed to calculate the thermal insulation of the multilayer clothing from the external heat flux. It can also provide some useful information on the beneficial effects of clothing for the exposure criteria of radiant heat flux from fire.

  17. Fan-precooling effect on heat strain while wearing protective clothing.

    PubMed

    Tokizawa, Ken; Sawada, Shinichi; Oka, Tatsuo; Yasuda, Akinori; Tai, Tetsuo; Ida, Hirofumi; Nakayama, Kazumi

    2014-11-01

    This study compared heat strain during walking while wearing impermeable protective suits between fan-precooling and nonprecooling conditions. Six males engaged in 60 min of walking at a moderate speed (∼2.5 km/h) in a hot environment (37 °C, 40% relative humidity). Fanning using a fan (4.5 m/s) and spraying water over the body before wearing the suits produced significantly lower rectal temperature before the walking (37.3 ± 0.1 °C vs. 37.0 ± 0.1 °C, P < 0.05). In addition, whilst walking, rectal temperature was significantly lower in the precooling condition (maximum difference: 0.4 °C at 15 min of walking; 38.0 ± 0.1 °C vs. 37.8 ± 0.1 °C at the end of walking, P < 0.05). Although skin temperature decreased during fanning, no difference was observed during walking. Heart rate was lower in the precooling condition during the early stages of walking. Thermal and fatigue perceptions whilst walking did not differ between the conditions. Body weight loss was significantly lower in the precooling condition. These results may indicate that fan precooling attenuates exertional heat strain while wearing impermeable protective clothing. The fan-cooling method is practical, convenient, and yields lower heat strain during prolonged moderate exertion.

  18. Swedish Farmers’ Opinions about Biosecurity and Their Intention to Make Professionals Use Clean Protective Clothing When Entering the Stable

    PubMed Central

    Nöremark, Maria; Sternberg Lewerin, Susanna; Ernholm, Linda; Frössling, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    The study was part of a series of studies aiming to increase knowledge about spread and prevention of livestock diseases in Sweden. A specific biosecurity behavior, i.e., making professionals (e.g., veterinarian, repairman, livestock transporter) wear clean protective clothing when entering the stables was investigated through focus groups and a questionnaire survey. This behavior was seen as a proxy for other biosecurity behaviors. As part of questionnaire development, three focus group discussions with a total of 11 participating livestock farmers were held. The questionnaire was based on the model of Theory of Planned Behavior. Response was received from 2,081 farmers. In the focus groups, farmers expressed a willingness to provide visitors with clean protective clothing. However, some had experienced difficulties in making veterinarians use protective clothing, and mentioned a reluctance to correct their veterinarians. The participants mostly focused on diseases regulated by control programs, especially Salmonella. In parts, participants were well informed but some showed a lack of knowledge concerning routes of disease spread. They also mentioned external factors that made them deviate from biosecurity recommendations. Farmers called for biosecurity advice with focus on cost–benefit return. Among survey respondents, the intention to make visitors wear protective clothing was moderate. Analysis of underlying elements showed that a majority of farmers (88%) had a neutral attitude, i.e., they were neither in favor nor against this behavior. Measures of subjective norm indicated a varying degree of social pressure among respondents. However, the majority (63%) indicated a strong behavioral control, thus suggesting that they could make visitors use protective clothing if they wanted to. Although most farmers (84%) indicated a strong willingness to comply with the opinion of their veterinarians in biosecurity matters, 30% replied that their farm veterinarian is

  19. Evaluation of Surface Characteristics of Fabrics Suitable for Skin Layer of Firefighters’ Protective Clothing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawaz, Nazia; Troynikov, Olga; Watson, Chris

    Sensorial comfort, usually described as "fabric hand or feel", is the sensation of how the fabric feels when it is worn next to the skin. This feeling deals with properties of the fabric such as prickling, itching, stiffness or smoothness. It can also be related to its attributes related to physiological comfort, as for instance when a fabric is wet its sensorial properties change and fabric may cling to the skin. Wet feeling and wet clinging can be a major source of sensorial discomfort in situations of profuse sweating like in firefighters' working environment. For the objective evaluation of this aspect of comfort Kawabata Evaluation System (KES) was used for the present study. Seven commercially available knitted fabrics of different fibre blends in different knitted structures suitable for skin layer of firefighters' protective clothing were evaluated in virgin (original non-treated) state and then in wet state. The influence of fabric physical parameters, fibre content, fabric construction and moisture content on fabric surface properties were determined. For statistical evaluation of results student's-test was carried out to predict the level of significance on coefficient of friction (MIU) and geometrical surface roughness (SMD) due to presence of moisture. Pearson correlation coefficients were also calculated between MIU and SMD in virgin state and in wet state.

  20. An advanced model of heat and mass transfer in the protective clothing - verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Łapka, P.; Furmański, P.

    2016-09-01

    The paper presents an advanced mathematical and numerical models of heat and mass transfer in the multi-layers protective clothing and in elements of the experimental stand subjected to either high surroundings temperature or high radiative heat flux emitted by hot objects. The model included conductive-radiative heat transfer in the hygroscopic porous fabrics and air gaps as well as conductive heat transfer in components of the stand. Additionally, water vapour diffusion in the pores and air spaces as well as phase transition of the bound water in the fabric fibres (sorption and desorption) were accounted for. The thermal radiation was treated in the rigorous way e.g.: semi-transparent absorbing, emitting and scattering fabrics were assumed a non-grey and all optical phenomena at internal or external walls were modelled. The air was assumed transparent. Complex energy and mass balance as well as optical conditions at internal or external interfaces were formulated in order to find exact values of temperatures, vapour densities and radiation intensities at these interfaces. The obtained highly non-linear coupled system of discrete equation was solve by the in-house iterative algorithm which was based on the Finite Volume Method. The model was then successfully partially verified against the results obtained from commercial software for simplified cases.

  1. Methods of Evaluating Protective Clothing Relative to Heat and Cold Stress: Thermal Manikin, Biomedical Modeling, and Human Testing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    code) 2011 Journal Article-Journal of Occup and Env Hygiene Methods of Evaluating Protective Clothing Relative to Heat and cold Stress: Thermal...of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene , 8: 588–599 ISSN: 1545-9624 print / 1545-9632 online DOI: 10.1080/15459624.2011.613291 Methods of...increases insulation and reduces water vapor permeability, both of which 588 Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene October 2011 D ow nl oa de

  2. Active versus passive cooling during work in warm environments while wearing firefighting protective clothing.

    PubMed

    Selkirk, G A; McLellan, T M; Wong, J

    2004-08-01

    This study examined whether active or passive cooling during intermittent work reduced the heat strain associated with wearing firefighting protective clothing (FPC) and self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) in the heat (35 degrees Celsius, 50% relative humidity). Fifteen male Toronto firefighters participated in the heat-stress trials. Subjects walked at 4.5 km.h(-1) with 0% elevation on an intermittent work (50 min) and rest (30 min) schedule. Work continued until rectal temperature (T(re)) reached 39.5 degrees Celsius, or heart rate (HR) reached 95% of maximum or exhaustion. One of three cooling strategies, forearm submersion (FS), mister (M), and passive cooling (PC) were employed during the rest phases. Tolerance time (TT) and total work time (WT) (min) were significantly increased during FS (178.7 +/- 13.0 and 124.7 +/- 7.94, respectively) and M (139.1 +/- 8.28 and 95.1 +/- 4.96, respectively), compared with PC (108.0 +/- 3.59 and 78.0 +/- 3.59). Furthermore, TT and WT were significantly greater in FS compared with M. Rates of T(re) increase, HR and T-(sk) were significantly lower during active compared with passive cooling. In addition, HR and T(re) values in FS were significantly lower compared with M after the first rest phase. During the first rest phase, T(re) dropped significantly during FS (approximately 0.4 degree Celsius) compared with M (approximately 0.08 degree Celsius) while PC increased (approximately 0.2 degree Celsius). By the end of the second rest period T(re) was 0.9 degree Celsius lower in FS compared with M. The current findings suggest that there is a definite advantage when utilizing forearm submersion compared with other methods of active or passive cooling while wearing FPC and SCBA in the heat.

  3. Improvement of thermophysiological stress in participants wearing protective clothing for spraying pesticide, and its application in the field.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, C; Tokura, H

    2000-04-01

    Thermoregulatory responses were compared under two experimental conditions, in the laboratory (Experiment I), and in the field (Experiment II), between two kinds of protective clothing for spraying pesticides. One was currently being used (Type A), and was composed of ready made Gore-Tex clothing, mask, polyurethane gloves and rubber boots. The other one was newly designed (Type B), and was composed of pesticide-proof clothing (100% cotton with water repellent finish), mask, Gore-Tex gloves, and special boots consisting of rubber for the feet and ankle and Gore-Tex around the legs. In addition, the head and chest were cooled by frozen gel strips fixed in the cap and undershirt. In Experiment I, five female adults took part, in a climate-chamber controlled at an ambient temperature of 28 degrees C and a relative humidity of 60%. In Experiment II, five farmers (one male and four female) were tested in an apple orchard in July, August and September. The main results are summarized as follows: (1) change of rectal temperature was inhibited more effectively in Type B in Experiment I, (2) change of heart rate tended to be lower in Type B than in Type A in both experiments, (3) salivary lactic acid concentration at the end of the first exercise was significantly higher in Type A than in Type B in Experiment I, (4) the number of contractions in the handgrip exercise which was performed immediately after the third exercise, was significantly smaller in Type A than in Type B in Experiment I, (5) subjective comfort sensation was significantly improved in Type B in Experiments I and II. Thus, it was concluded that the newly designed protective clothing could reduce thermal stress during the spraying of pesticides in an apple orchard in summer.

  4. A suggested approach to the selection of chemical and biological protective clothing--meeting industry and emergency response needs for protection against a variety of hazards.

    PubMed

    Stull, Jeffrey O

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes the development of a comprehensive decision logic for selection and use of biological and chemical protective clothing (BCPC). The decision logic recognizes the separate areas of BCPC use among emergency, biological, and chemical hazards. The proposed decision logic provides a system for type classifying BCPC in terms of its compliance with existing standards (for emergency applications), the overall clothing integrity, and the material barrier performance. Type classification is offered for garments, gloves, footwear, and eye/face protection devices. On the basis of multiple, but simply designed flowcharts, the type of BCPC appropriate for specific biological and chemical hazards can be selected. The decision logic also provides supplemental considerations for choosing appropriate BCPC features.

  5. NBC detection in air and water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, Frank T.; Smith, Steven J.; McMurtry, Gary M.

    2003-01-01

    Participating in a Navy STTR project to develop a system capable of the 'real-time' detection and quanitification of nuclear, biological and chemical (NBC) warfare agents, and of related industrial chemicals including NBC agent synthesis by-products in water and in air immediately above the water's surface. This project uses JPL's Soft Ionization Membrane (SIM) technology which totally ionizes molecules without fragmentation (a process that can markedly improve the sensitivity and specificity of molecule compostition identification), and JPL's Rotating Field Mass Spectrometer (RFMS) technology which has large enough dynamic mass range to enable detection of nuclear materials as well as biological and chemical agents. This Navy project integrates these JPL Environmental Monitoring UnitS (REMUS) an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV). It is anticipated that the REMUS AUV will be capable of 'real-time' detection and quantification of NBC warefare agents.

  6. Lightweight protective clothing for the safe handling of high-intensity pressurized lamps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewashinka, J. G.

    1975-01-01

    Five commercially available clothing materials, selected for their high cutting resistance, high strength, light weight and pliability, were tested by exposing them to exploding lamps located less than 60 cm (2 ft) away. Face shield material tested initially was commercial high-strength polycarbonate plastic.

  7. Shielding properties of lead-free protective clothing and their impact on radiation doses.

    PubMed

    Schlattl, Helmut; Zankl, Maria; Eder, Heinrich; Hoeschen, Christoph

    2007-11-01

    The shielding properties of two different lead-free materials-tin and a compound of 80% tin and 20% bismuth-for protective clothing are compared with those of lead for three typical x-ray spectra generated at tube voltages of 60, 75, and 120 kV. Three different quantities were used to compare the shielding capability of the different materials: (1) Air-kerma attenuation factors in narrow-beam geometry, (2) air-kerma attenuation factors in broad-beam geometry, and (3) ratios of organ and effective doses in the human body for a whole-body irradiation with a parallel beam directed frontally at the body. The thicknesses of tin (0.45 mm) and the tin/bismuth compound (0.41 mm) to be compared against lead correspond to a lead equivalence value of 0.35 mm for the 75 kV spectrum. The narrow-beam attenuation factors for 0.45 mm tin are 54% and 32% lower than those for 0.35 mm lead for 60 and 120 kV; those for 0.41 mm tin/bismuth are 12% and 32% lower, respectively. The decrease of the broad-beam air-kerma attenuation factors compared to lead is 74%, 46%, and 41% for tin and 42%, 26%, and 33% for tin/bismuth and the spectra at 60, 75, and 120 kV, respectively. Therefore, it is recommended that the characterization of the shielding potential of a material should be done by measurements in broad-beam geometry. Since the secondary radiation that is mainly responsible for the shielding reduction in broad-beam geometry is of low penetrability, only more superficially located organs receive significantly enhanced doses. The increase for the dose to the glandular breast tissue (female) compared to being shielded by lead is 143%, 37%, and 45% when shielded by tin, and 35%, 15%, and 39% when shielded by tin/bismuth for 60, 75, and 120 kV, respectively. The effective dose rises by 60%, 6%, and 38% for tin, and 14%, 3% and, 35% for tin/bismuth shielding, respectively.

  8. Non-evaporative effects of a wet mid layer on heat transfer through protective clothing.

    PubMed

    Bröde, Peter; Havenith, George; Wang, Xiaoxin; Candas, Victor; den Hartog, Emiel A; Griefahn, Barbara; Holmér, Ingvar; Kuklane, Kalev; Meinander, Harriet; Nocker, Wolfgang; Richards, Mark

    2008-09-01

    In order to assess the non-evaporative components of the reduced thermal insulation of wet clothing, experiments were performed with a manikin and with human subjects in which two layers of underwear separated by an impermeable barrier were worn under an impermeable overgarment at 20 degrees C, 80% RH and 0.5 ms(-1) air velocity. By comparing manikin measurements with dry and wetted mid underwear layer, the increase in heat loss caused by a wet layer kept away from the skin was determined, which turned out to be small (5-6 W m(-2)), irrespective of the inner underwear layer being dry or wetted, and was only one third of the evaporative heat loss calculated from weight change, i.e. evaporative cooling efficiency was far below unity. In the experiments with eight males, each subject participated in two sessions with the mid underwear layer either dry or wetted, where they stood still for the first 30 min and then performed treadmill work for 60 min. Reduced heat strain due to lower insulation with the wetted mid layer was observed with decreased microclimate and skin temperatures, lowered sweat loss and cardiac strain. Accordingly, total clothing insulation calculated over the walking period from heat balance equations was reduced by 0.02 m(2) degrees C W(-1) (16%), while for the standing period the same decrease in insulation, representing 9% reduction only showed up after allowing for the lower evaporative cooling efficiency in the calculations. As evaporation to the environment and inside the clothing was restricted, the observed small alterations may be attributed to the wet mid layer's increased conductivity, which, however, appears to be of minor importance compared to the evaporative effects in the assessment of the thermal properties of wet clothing.

  9. The Effects of Wearing Protective Chemical Warfare Combat Clothing on Human Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-08-01

    Goldman, 1974). A more recent version of the model is described by Pandolf, Stroschein, Drolet, Gonzales , and Swaka (1986). Given data concerning the...quantifying the relationship of several independent variables: 0 T o To + a(x) + b( y ) + e where: T m the time in minutes to complete the task To - the...practiced, unencumbered time x - clothing type y w order in which an event was started e - the error term. Wick and Morrissey (1987) assumed that x would

  10. Tick bite protection with permethrin-treated summer-weight clothing.

    PubMed

    Miller, Nathan J; Rainone, Erin E; Dyer, Megan C; González, M Liliana; Mather, Thomas N

    2011-03-01

    The number of tick bites received by individuals wearing either permethrin-treated or untreated summer clothing (T-shirt, shorts, socks, and sneakers) was compared during a controlled indoor study. Pathogen-free nymphal Ixodes scapularis Say were placed on the left shoe, right leg, and left arm of 15 (5/treatment group/d) human volunteers wearing untreated outfits or outfits treated with permethrin either commercially or using a do-at-home treatment kit. The number and location of ticks attached to subjects' skin were recorded 2.5 h postinfestation. Subjects wearing outfits treated with permethrin received 3.36 times fewer tick bites than subjects wearing untreated outfits. No statistically significant differences in number of tick bites were detected between commercial permethrin treatment (19.33%) and the do-at-home permethrin application method (24.67%). The success of permethrin-treated clothing in reducing tick bites varied depending on the specific article of clothing. Subjects wearing permethrin-treated sneakers and socks were 73.6 times less likely to have a tick bite than subjects wearing untreated footware. Subjects wearing permethrin-treated shorts and T-shirts were 4.74 and 2.17 times, respectively, less likely to receive a tick bite in areas related to those specific garments than subjects wearing untreated shorts and T-shirts. Ticks attached to subjects were classified as alive or dead before removal. On subjects wearing untreated outfits, 97.6% of attached nymphs were alive, whereas significantly fewer (22.6%) attached nymphs were alive on subjects wearing repellent-treated outfits. Results of this study demonstrate the potential of permethrin-treated summer clothing for significantly reducing tick bites and tick-borne pathogen transmission.

  11. Guidelines for the Selection of Chemical Protective Clothing. Volume 2. Technical and Reference Manual.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-02-01

    86) that can serve as a standard battery for ranking clothing barrier properties. The fifteen chemicals represent a wide range of chemical families and...536 (1970) 118 Ferguson, J.S., and W.F Martin An Overview of Occupational Safety and Health Guidelines for Superfund Sites, Am. Ind. Hyg. Assoc. J...Mar-Mac Manufacturing Company, Inc. Catalogue 1986 197 Marathon Rubber Catalogue 1986 198 Martone, J.A., and Bergen, G.A. A Rocket Propellant

  12. A coupling system to predict the core and skin temperatures of human wearing protective clothing in hot environments.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Weng, Wenguo; Fu, Ming

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study is to predict the core and skin temperatures of human wearing protective clothing in hot environments using the coupling system. The coupling system consisted of a sweating manikin Newton controlled by a multi-node human thermal model, and responded dynamically to the thermal environment as human body. Validation of the coupling system results was conducted by comparison with the subject tests. Five healthy men wearing protective clothing were exposed to the thermal neutral and high temperature environments. The skin temperatures of seven body segments and the rectal temperatures were recorded continuously. The predictions of core temperatures made by the coupling system showed good agreement with the experimental data, with maximum difference of 0.19 °C and RMSD of 0.12 °C. The predicted mean skin temperatures fell outside of the 95% CI for most points, whereas the difference between the simulated results and measured data was no more than 1 °C which is acceptable. The coupling system predicted the local skin temperatures reasonably with the maximum local skin temperature of 1.30 °C. The coupling system has been validated and exhibited reasonable accuracy compared with the experimental results.

  13. Validity of infrared tympanic temperature for the evaluation of heat strain while wearing impermeable protective clothing in hot environments.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joo-Young; Nakao, Kouhei; Takahashi, Naoki; Son, Su-Young; Bakri, Ilham; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the validity of infrared tympanic temperature (IR T(ty)) as a thermal index to evaluate the heat strain of workers in hot environments, in comparison with rectal temperatures at various depths (T(re-4, -8, and -16) for 4, 8 and 16 cm from the anal sphincter). Eight males underwent twelve experimental conditions: two activities (rest and exercise) × three clothing levels [Control, HDPE (high-density polyethylene coverall) and PVC (polyvinyl chloride coverall) condition] × two air temperatures (25 and 32℃ with 50%RH). The results showed that 1) in the conditions with most heat strain (HDPE or PVC condition at 32℃), IR T(ty) was equal to or even higher than T(re); 2) during exercise, physiological strain index (PSI) using IR T(ty) did not underestimate PSI-values using T(re-16), and overestimated those PSI-values from T(re-16) in HDPE and PVC conditions at 32℃; 3) during exercise, the relationships between IR T(ty) and heart and total sweat rate were stronger than those between T(re-16) and heart and total sweat rate. These results indicated that IR T(ty) is valid as a thermal index to evaluate the heat strain of workers wearing impermeable protective coveralls in hot environments. However, the application of IR T(ty) is limited only for strenuous works wearing encapsulated personal protective clothing with a hood in heat.

  14. Cold and heat strain during cold-weather field training with nuclear, biological, and chemical protective clothing.

    PubMed

    Rissanen, Sirkka; Rintamäki, Hannu

    2007-02-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the thermal strain of soldiers wearing nuclear, biological, and chemical protective clothing during short-term field training in cold conditions. Eleven male subjects performed marching exercises at moderate and heavy activity levels for 60 minutes. Rectal temperature (Tre), skin temperatures, and heart rate were monitored. Ambient temperature (Ta) varied from -33 to 0 degrees C. Tre was affected by changes in metabolism, rather than in Ta. Tre increased above 38 degrees during heavy exercise even at -33 degrees C. The mean skin temperature decreased to tolerance level (25 degrees C) at Ta below -25 degrees C with moderate exercise. Finger temperature decreased below 15 degrees C (performance degradation) at Ta of -15 degrees C or cooler. The present results from the field confirm the previous results based on laboratory studies and show that risk of both heat and cold strain is evident, with cooling of extremities being most critical, while wearing nuclear, biological, and chemical protective clothing during cold-weather training.

  15. Nonflammable Clothing Development Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Richard; Radnofsky, Matthew I.

    1968-01-01

    Protective clothing is of major importance in our space program. The authors discuss the requirements, selection, and testing of materials considered for use in the program. The various types of garments worn by astronauts and support personnel are briefly described.

  16. [Clothing and protective gear for nursing occupations from the hygienic viewpoint: consensus of the DGKH section "Hygiene in Inpatient and Outpatient Care and Rehabilitation", May 2nd 2005].

    PubMed

    2005-09-01

    Both in inpatient and outpatient care institutions often questions arise what kind of working clothes and additional protective equipment nurses have to wear in specific situations. To overcome these uncertainties, the section "Hygiene in inpatient and outpatient care and rehabilitation" of the German society for hospital hygiene (DGKH) has developed an overview, that shows which elements of working clothes and protective devices, especially gloves, should be used in the different fields of nursing practice. The comprehensive and well structured information should be considered as minimum standard for hygienic purposes.

  17. Evaluation of stress experienced by soldiers wearing chemical protective clothing during varying work loads in desert or tropical environments. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hudgens, G.A.; Banderet, L.E.; Cadarette, B.S.

    1994-04-01

    A stress evaluation was conducted in a laboratory test in which the physiological and psychological reactions of soldiers were monitored while they wore either the standard battle dress overgarment (MOPPI) or the full complement of chemical protective clothing with mask (MOPPIV) and worked at low, moderate, or high work loads in simulated desert (hot and dry) or tropic (hot and humid) environments. The psychological instruments indicated greater stress responses for soldiers wearing MOPPIV than wearing MOPPI and for soldiers working at a high work load than working at a low work load. Chemical protective clothing, MOPPIV, Tropics, Desert, Psychological stress, Work load, MOPPI, Stress evaluation.

  18. Decontamination of spills and residues of some pesticides and of protective clothing worn during the handling of the pesticides

    SciTech Connect

    Armour, M.A.; Nelson, C.; Sather, P. Briker, Y.

    1996-12-31

    Users of pesticides may have waste or surplus quantities or spills for disposal. One alternative is to deactivate the pesticide at the handling site by using a straightforward chemical reaction. This option can be practical for those who use relatively small quantities of a large variety of pesticides, for example, greenhouse workers, small farmers, and agricultural researchers. This paper describes practical on-site methods for the disposal of spills or small waste quantities of five commonly used pesticides, Diazinon, Chlorpyrifos, Iprodione, 2,4-D, and Captan. These have been tested in the laboratory for the rate of disappearance of the pesticide, the degree of conversion to nontoxic products, the nature and identity of the products, the practicality of the method, and the ease of reproducibility. Methods selected were shown to be safe for the operator, reliable, and reproducible. Greater than 99% of the starting material had to be reacted under reasonable conditions and length of time. Detailed descriptions of the reactions are presented, so that they can be performed with reproducible results. Protective clothing worn during the handling and application of pesticides may become contaminated. Simple laundering does not always remove all of the pesticide residues. Thus, chronic dermal exposure may result from the pesticide-contaminated clothing. Appropriate methods of laundering using specific pretreatments have been determined. 7 refs.

  19. Factors limiting endurance of armor, artillery, and infantry units under simulated NBC conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Rauch, T.M.; Tharion, W.J.; Banderet, L.E.; Lussier, A.R.

    1986-03-13

    The war of the future will require 72-hour operations in environments contaminated with nuclear/biological/chemical (NBC) agents. The 1985 P2NBC2 (Physiological and Psychological Effects of NBC and Extended Operations on Combined Arms Crews) Program assessed soldier endurance and performance under simulated NBC conditions. A total of 175 soldiers were observed during four tests differing in design, site, climatic conditions, and performance demands. In all but one of the iterations where the full chemical-protective ensemble (MOPP 4) was used without cooling, soldier endurance fell far short of the projected requirement. Psychological data were analyzed to determine which factors were associated with the incidence of casualties. The findings showed that perceived intensity of symptoms resembling the hyperventilation syndrome was significantly greater in soldiers classified as Casualties. Five of these symptoms (painful breathing, difficulty breathing, shortness of breath, headache, and nausea) showed Casualty-Survivor differences in all tests. Symptom intensity was attributed to two factors. (1) External conditions. Thermal stress exacerbated the five basic symptoms, induced others (tetany and paresthesia), and decreased endurance. Periodic relief from respirator use attenuated these symptoms and enhanced endurance. (2) Individual differences. Significant Casualty-Survivor differences in anxiety, depression, and cognitive strategy scores indicated that perception of hyperventilation symptoms and endurance were related to personality variables. Hyperventilation symptoms could incapacitate the soldier or induce removal of the protective mask under actual chemical attack.

  20. Protective clothing for pesticide operators: part I--selection of a reference test chemical for penetration testing.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Anugrah; Schiffelbein, Paul

    2016-01-01

    A systematic approach was taken to develop a database for protective clothing for pesticide operators; results are reported as a two-part series. Part I describes the research studies that led to identification of a pesticide formulation that could serve as a reference test chemical for further testing. Measurement of pesticide penetration was conducted using different types of pesticide formulations. Six fabrics were tested using 10 formulations at different concentrations. Three formulations were subsequently selected for further testing. Analysis of the data indicated that, when compared with other formulations, mean percent penetration of 5% Prowl 3.3 EC [emulsifiable concentrate diluted to 5% active ingredient (pendimethalin)] is either similar to or higher than most test chemicals. Those results led to choosing 5% Prowl 3.3 EC as a reference test liquid. Part II of the study, published as a separate paper, includes data on a wide range of textile materials.

  1. Development of electronic textiles to support networks, communications, and medical applications in future U.S. military protective clothing systems.

    PubMed

    Winterhalter, Carole A; Teverovsky, Justyna; Wilson, Patricia; Slade, Jeremiah; Horowitz, Wendy; Tierney, Edward; Sharma, Vikram

    2005-09-01

    The focus of this paper is on the development of textile-based wearable electronics that can be integrated into military protective clothing. A materials and manufacturing survey was conducted to determine the best performing and most durable materials to withstand the rigors of textile manufacturing and potential military use. Narrow woven technology was selected as one of the most promising textile manufacturing methods. A working wearable narrow fabric version of the Universal Serial Bus (USB), as well as a radiating conductor, were successfully developed and fabricated. A circular knit T-shirt with an integrated spiral bus was also developed. Military products developed include components of a personal area network providing data and power transport, and a body-borne antenna integrated into a load-bearing vest.

  2. A Highly Sensitive Assay Using Synthetic Blood Containing Test Microbes for Evaluation of the Penetration Resistance of Protective Clothing Material under Applied Pressure.

    PubMed

    Shimasaki, Noriko; Hara, Masayuki; Kikuno, Ritsuko; Shinohara, Katsuaki

    2016-01-01

    To prevent nosocomial infections caused by even either Ebola virus or methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), healthcare workers must wear the appropriate protective clothing which can inhibit contact transmission of these pathogens. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the performance of protective clothing for penetration resistance against infectious agents. In Japan, some standard methods were established to evaluate the penetration resistance of protective clothing fabric materials under applied pressure. However, these methods only roughly classified the penetration resistance of fabrics, and the detection sensitivity of the methods and the penetration amount with respect to the relationship between blood and the pathogen have not been studied in detail. Moreover, no standard method using bacteria for evaluation is known. Here, to evaluate penetration resistance of protective clothing materials under applied pressure, the detection sensitivity and the leak amount were investigated by using synthetic blood containing bacteriophage phi-X174 or S. aureus. And the volume of leaked synthetic blood and the amount of test microbe penetration were simultaneously quantified. Our results showed that the penetration detection sensitivity achieved using a test microbial culture was higher than that achieved using synthetic blood at invisible leak level pressures. This finding suggested that there is a potential risk of pathogen penetration even when visual leak of contaminated blood through the protective clothing was not observed. Moreover, at visible leak level pressures, it was found that the amount of test microbe penetration varied at least ten-fold among protective clothing materials classified into the same class of penetration resistance. Analysis of the penetration amount revealed a significant correlation between the volume of penetrated synthetic blood and the amount of test microbe penetration, indicating that the leaked volume of synthetic

  3. MICROCLIMATE-CONTROLLED (THERMALIBRIUM) CLOTHING SYSTEMS FOR MILITARY APPLICATIONS,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    PROTECTIVE CLOTHING, CONTROLLED ATMOSPHERES), REVIEWS, AMMUNITION, TOXICITY, VENTILATION, AIR CONDITIONING EQUIPMENT, HEATING, GAS FLOW, CONTROL , AIRCRAFT , TROPICAL REGIONS, THERMAL RADIATION, FLIGHT CLOTHING

  4. Clothing and personal hygiene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finogenov, A. M.; Azhayev, A. N.; Kaliberdin, G. V.

    1975-01-01

    The biomedical maintenance of astronauts is discussed in terms of personal hygiene. Principal characteristics and general requirements are described which must be followed in perfecting a system of hygienic practices and in devising means to maintain personal hygiene, flight clothing, underwear, bedding, and medical-domestic equipment for manned space flights of varying durations. Factors discussed include: disposable clothing, thermal protection, oral hygiene, cleansing of the skin, and grooming of the hair.

  5. The production and characterization of a multi-functional fiber-based composite for use in protective clothing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Jessica Marie

    A fiber-based composite comprised of two functional components which work concurrently to adsorb toxic organic compounds was developed and characterized for use in chemical threat protective clothing. The first functional component, the sorptive layer, consists of a carded nonwoven loaded with adsorptive particles. In this layer, Capillary-Channeled Polymer(TM) (C-CP(TM)) fibers were used instead of traditional round fibers since the grooved nature of the C-CP(TM) fibers enables increased adsorptive particle loading. The species of adsorptive particles investigated, zeolite and modified PS, are considered as a replacement for more commonly used activated carbon spheres. The second functional component, the flow restrictive layer, consisted of a meltblown polypropylene (PP) nonwoven, which significantly retards air flow due its inherent nanoporous nature thus allowing increased residence time between vapor (molecules) and adsorbent particles. The fabrication of these layers into a composite structure as well as particle loading of the sorptive layer was examined. Testing of the developed composite showed that it has the adsorptive capacity required to protect the wearer from a lethal dermal dose of toxic compounds.

  6. Why do we power our cars with gas? NBC Chicago

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Why can we only power our cars with gas? NBC-Chicago tackles this question with a trip to Argonne National Lab, where work on the Omnivorous Engine (runs on any blend of ethanol, butanol, and gasoline) and electric vehicles continues. A segment from NBC-Chicago's "Good Question" series.

  7. Why do we power our cars with gas? NBC Chicago

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-01

    Why can we only power our cars with gas? NBC-Chicago tackles this question with a trip to Argonne National Lab, where work on the Omnivorous Engine (runs on any blend of ethanol, butanol, and gasoline) and electric vehicles continues. A segment from NBC-Chicago's "Good Question" series.

  8. Using of BRDF models for evaluation of properties of personal protective clothes for work with lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gołebiowski, Wojciech; Grabowiecki, Krzysztof; Wenzel, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    In applications of high power hand lasers, as addition to the standard eyes protection, it is suggested to use protective garment to avoid skin burns. Fabrics used for this kind of garment have to pass respective qualification tests. One of test procedures is optical characterization of the fabric - measurement of its reflectance, transmittance and angular characteristics of reflection of laser radiation. In this article a method for simplified measurement of these features is presented, which uses light reflection models called BRDF (Bidirectional Reflection Distribution Function) and function fitting with numerical optimization. It allows for quantitative estimation of mentioned optical properties with lower effort and shorter time than with classical methods.

  9. A summary of research on heat resistant fabrics for protective clothing

    SciTech Connect

    Brewster, E.P.; Barker, R.L.

    1983-02-01

    Reference is made to research on the performance of heat-resistant safety fabrics. General requirements for fabrics used for thermal protection are discussed, and laboratory methods of testing are summarized. A need is seen for a specific programme to evaluate the suitability of the variety of fabrics that might be used in industrial safety apparel.

  10. A recirculation aerosol wind tunnel for evaluating aerosol samplers and measuring particle penetration through protective clothing materials.

    PubMed

    Jaques, Peter A; Hsiao, Ta-Chih; Gao, Pengfei

    2011-08-01

    A recirculation aerosol wind tunnel was designed to maintain a uniform airflow and stable aerosol size distribution for evaluating aerosol sampler performance and determining particle penetration through protective clothing materials. The oval-shaped wind tunnel was designed to be small enough to fit onto a lab bench, have optimized dimensions for uniformity in wind speed and particle size distributions, sufficient mixing for even distribution of particles, and minimum particle losses. Performance evaluation demonstrates a relatively high level of spatial uniformity, with a coefficient of variation of 1.5-6.2% for wind velocities between 0.4 and 2.8 m s(-1) and, in this range, 0.8-8.5% for particles between 50 and 450 nm. Aerosol concentration stabilized within the first 5-20 min with, approximately, a count median diameter of 135 nm and geometric standard deviation of 2.20. Negligible agglomerate growth and particle loss are suggested. The recirculation design appears to result in unique features as needed for our research.

  11. Burns and military clothing.

    PubMed

    McLean, A D

    2001-02-01

    Burn injury is a ubiquitous threat in the military environment. The risks during combat are well recognised, but the handling of fuel, oil, munitions and other hot or flammable materials during peacetime deployment and training also imposes an inherent risk of accidental burn injury. Over the last hundred years, the burn threat in combat has ranged from nuclear weapons to small shoulder-launched missiles. Materials such as napalm and white phosphorus plainly present a risk of burn, but the threat extends to encompass personnel in vehicles attacked by anti-armour weapons, large missiles, fuel-air explosives and detonations/conflagrations on weapons platforms such as ships. Large numbers of burn casualties were caused at Pearl Harbor, in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Vietnam, during the Arab/Israeli Wars and in the Falkland Islands conflict. The threat from burns is unlikely to diminish, indeed new developments in weapons seek to exploit the vulnerability of the serviceman and servicewoman to burns. Clothing can be a barrier to some types of burn--both inherently in the properties of the material, but also by trapping air between clothing layers. Conversely, ignition of the clothing may exacerbate a burn. There is hearsay that burnt clothing products within a wound may complicate the clinical management, or that materials that melt (thermoplastic materials) should not be worn if there is a burn threat. This paper explores the incidence of burn injury, the mechanisms of heat transfer to bare skin and skin covered by materials, and the published evidence for the complication of wound management by materials. Even light-weight combat clothing can offer significant protection to skin from short duration flash burns; the most vulnerable areas are the parts of the body not covered--face and hands. Multilayered combat clothing can offer significant protection for short periods from engulfment by flames; lightweight tropical wear with few layers offers little protection. Under

  12. Chemical protective clothing; a study into the ability of staff to perform lifesaving procedures

    PubMed Central

    Coates, M.; Jundi, A.; James, M.

    2000-01-01

    Objective—To investigate the ability of medical and nursing staff to perform certain tasks while wearing a chemical protection suit with a respirator. Tasks chosen were those that would be required before decontamination. Methods—Ten experienced accident and emergency doctors (middle grade and consultants) and 10 nurses were asked to perform certain tasks that were judged to be life saving, relevant to triage, or necessary to confirm death, on an advanced life support manikin, while wearing a TST-Sweden chemical protection suit. The operators were objectively assessed by one of the authors for achieving each task, then asked to make a subjective assessment of the difficulty experienced. Results—Medical staff were asked to ventilate the manikin using a bag-valve-mask, intubate within 30 seconds, apply monitor electrodes and cables and check cardiac rhythm, apply gel pads and defibrillate safely, and finally, fold the cruciform triage card to show "RED", and attach it to the manikin. All the doctors completed these tasks, except for one, who could only intubate the manikin after several attempts. Nursing staff were asked to open and apply an oxygen mask, adjust oxygen flow, size and insert an oropharyngeal airway, ventilate the manikin using a bag-valve-mask, apply a pressure bandage to a limb, and fold the cruciform triage card to show "YELLOW", and attach it to the manikin. All the nurses completed these tasks. Operators reported varying degrees of difficulty, the most difficult tasks were those requiring fine movements or delicate control. Generally, operators found the butyl rubber gloves cumbersome. Communication difficulties were frequently reported. Although only intubation was formally timed, tasks were perceived to take longer. Some operators found the suits too warm and uncomfortable. Conclusion—Should the need arise, the TST-Sweden chemical protection suits would enable experienced doctors and nurses to perform lifesaving measures effectively

  13. Emission of fluorescent x-radiation from non-lead based shielding materials of protective clothing: a radiobiological problem?

    PubMed

    Schmid, E; Panzer, W; Schlattl, H; Eder, H

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of different shielding materials in protective clothing using dicentric frequency in human peripheral lymphocytes as a marker of radiation-induced damage. Blood samples from a healthy donor were exposed to 70 kV x-rays behind shielding materials lead (Pb), tin/antimony (Sn + Sb) and bismuth barrier/tin/tungsten (Bi + Sn + W) with the same nominal lead equivalent value of 0.35 mm lead. Irradiation was performed either in contact (exposure position A, containing secondary radiation) or at a distance of 19 cm behind the shielding materials (exposure position B, containing only the unaffected transmitted photons). Using shielding material Sn + Sb, a significantly higher dicentric yield was determined at exposure position A relative to position B, whereas no significant differences were found between the exposure positions using shielding materials Pb or Bi + Sn + W. For doses up to 434.4 mGy at exposure position A, the slopes of the linear dose-response curves for dicentrics obtained behind shielding materials Pb and Bi + Sn + W were not significantly different, whereas a significantly higher slope was determined behind Sn + Sb relative to Pb and Bi + Sn + W. Using moderately filtered 220 kV x-rays as a reference, maximum RBE values at low doses (RBE(M)) of 1.22 ± 0.10, 2.28 ± 0.19 and 1.03 ± 0.12 were estimated immediately behind shielding materials Pb, Sn + Sb and Bi + Sn + W, respectively. These findings indicate a significantly higher RBE(M) of 70 kV x-rays behind shielding material Sn + Sb with respect to Pb or Bi + Sn + W. Using previous dicentric data obtained for exposure of blood from the same donor to x-rays at energies lower than 70 kV, it can be assumed that the increased RBE(M) of the broad spectrum of 70 kV x-rays (mean energy of 44.1 keV) may be attributed predominately to secondary (mainly fluorescence) radiation generated in the shielding material Sn + Sb that is able to leave the shielding

  14. Exertional thermal strain, protective clothing and auxiliary cooling in dry heat: evidence for physiological but not cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Joanne N; Patterson, Mark J; Taylor, Nigel A S

    2012-10-01

    Individuals exposed to extreme heat may experience reduced physiological and cognitive performance, even during very light work. This can have disastrous effects on the operational capability of aircrew, but such impairment could be prevented by auxiliary cooling devices. This hypothesis was tested under very hot-dry conditions, in which eight males performed 2 h of low-intensity exercise (~30 W) in three trials, whilst wearing biological and chemical protective clothing: temperate (control: 20°C, 30% relative humidity) and two hot-dry trials (48°C, 20% relative humidity), one without (experimental) and one with liquid cooling (water at 15°C). Physiological strain and six cognitive functions were evaluated (MiniCog Rapid Assessment Battery), and participants drank to sustain hydration state. Maximal core temperatures averaged 37.0°C (±0.1) in the control trial, and were significantly elevated in the experimental trial (38.9°C ± 0.3; P < 0.05). Similarly, heart rates peaked at 92 beats min(-1) (±7) and 133 beats min(-1) (±4; P < 0.05), respectively. Liquid cooling reduced maximal core temperatures (37.3°C ± 0.1; P < 0.05) and heart rates 87 beats min(-1) (±3; P < 0.05) in the heat, such that neither now differed significantly from the control trial (P > 0.05). However, despite inducing profound hyperthermia and volitional fatigue, no cognitive degradation was evident in the heat (P > 0.05). Since extensive dehydration was prevented, it appears that thermal strain in the absence of dehydration may have minimal impact upon cognitive function, at least as evaluated within this experiment.

  15. Testing the capacity of clothing to act as a vector for non-native seed in protected areas.

    PubMed

    Mount, Ann; Pickering, Catherine Marina

    2009-10-01

    Although humans are a major mechanism for short and long distance seed dispersal, there is limited research testing clothing as a vector. The effect of different types of material (sports vs hiking socks), or different items of clothing (boots, socks, laces vs legs) or the same item (socks) worn in different places on seed composition were assessed in Kosciuszko National Park, Australia. Data was analyzed using Repeated Measures ANOVA, independent and paired t-tests, Multi-dimensional Scaling Ordinations and Analysis of Similarity. A total of 24,776 seeds from 70 taxa were collected from the 207 pieces of clothing sampled, with seed identified from 31 native and 19 non-native species. Socks worn off-track collected more native seeds while those worn on roadsides collected more non-native seeds. Sports socks collected a greater diversity of seeds and more native seeds than hiking socks. Boots, uncovered socks and laces collect more seeds than covered socks and laces, resulting in 17% fewer seeds collected when wearing trousers. With seeds from over 179 species (134 recognized weeds) collected on clothing in this, and nine other studies, it is clear that clothing contributes to unintended human mediated seed dispersal, including for many invasive species.

  16. Validation of standard ASTM F2732 and comparison with ISO 11079 with respect to comfort temperature ratings for cold protective clothing.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chuansi; Lin, Li-Yen; Halder, Amitava; Kuklane, Kalev; Holmér, Ingvar

    2015-01-01

    American standard ASTM F2732 estimates the lowest environmental temperature for thermal comfort for cold weather protective clothing. International standard ISO 11079 serves the same purpose but expresses cold stress in terms of required clothing insulation for a given cold climate. The objective of this study was to validate and compare the temperature ratings using human subject tests at two levels of metabolic rates (2 and 4 MET corresponding to 116.4 and 232.8 W/m(2)). Nine young and healthy male subjects participated in the cold exposure at 3.4 and -30.6 °C. The results showed that both standards predict similar temperature ratings for an intrinsic clothing insulation of 1.89 clo and for 2 MET activity. The predicted temperature rating for 2 MET activity is consistent with test subjects' thermophysiological responses, perceived thermal sensation and thermal comfort. For 4 MET activity, however, the whole body responses were on the cold side, particularly the responses of the extremities. ASTM F2732 is also limited due to its omission and simplification of three climatic variables (air velocity, radiant temperature and relative humidity) and exposure time in the cold which are of practical importance.

  17. Clothing Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for clothing management is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a career ladder, a matrix relating duty/task numbers to job titles, and a task list. Each task is…

  18. Chemical Defense Collective Protection Technology. Volume 1. Effects of Airlock Dimension, Clothing, and Exposure Concentration on Vapor Transport

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-12-01

    Exposure Concentratioh on Vapor Transport James P. Conkle, Ph.D. Roberto E. Miranda , B.S. Joseph R. Fischer, Jr,, M.S. Roger W. Page, Jr., Lieutenant...1 Effects of Airlock Dimension, Clothing, and EXoosure Concentration on Vaoor Transoort- ~ESONAL AUTHOR(S) Conkle, James P,.; Miranda , Roberto E... porous ("Thirsty") glass, with 40-ý pore diameter, extend through Cajon Ultra-torr S-4UTI-4 fittings, which have *• been modified. "These porous glass

  19. Feasibility study and preliminary design of load-assisting clothes for lumbar protection inspired by human musculoskeletal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Riho; Masuda, Arata; Chen, Hao; Kobayashi, Sou

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop load assisting clothes for caregivers. Low back pain is one of the most major reasons for caregivers to leave their jobs. In this study, load assisting clothes which reduce the risks of low back pain of caregivers are designed and manufactured, targeting at the use in small care-houses and family caregiving. The load assisting clothes should have two functions. One is to reduce the compressive load acting on the lumbar spine as well as the tensile load on the lumbar muscles by providing an appropriate assisting force. The other is not to interfere with wearers' motion. The proposed approach in this study is to put elastic compressive members and tensioner belts integrated in the garment to provide the assisting forces without hindering natural movement and comfortable feeling. We study human musculoskeletal systems in the lumbar part, and consider to construct a parallel reinforcement of it on the body surface by embedding passive support structures. The arrangement of those elements is determined based on the study of the principal strain directions and the non-extension directions of the body surface to manage the appropriate assisting force without spoiling the mobility. The effectiveness of the proposed support principle is verified through experimental studies.

  20. Clothing and thermoregulation during exercise.

    PubMed

    Gavin, Timothy P

    2003-01-01

    Exercise increases heat production. During exercise in both warm and cold conditions, the major dilemma is the dissipation of the heat produced from muscular activity. The use of clothing generally represents a layer of insulation and as such imposes a barrier to heat transfer and evaporation from the skin surface. In warm environments, additional clothing increases thermal insulation causing more rapid increases in temperature during exercise and imposes a barrier to sweat evaporation. However, clothing can serve a protective function by reducing radiant heat gain and thermal stress. Recent research suggests that neither the inclusion of modest amounts of clothing nor the clothing fabric alter thermoregulation or thermal comfort during exercise in warm conditions. In the cold, most reports do not support an effect of clothing fabric on thermoregulation; however, there are reports demonstrating an effect. Clothing construction does alter thermoregulation during and following exercise in the cold, where fishnet construction offers greater heat dissipation. Future research should include conditions that more closely mimic outdoor conditions, where high work rates, large airflow and high relative humidity can significantly impact thermoregulation.

  1. Functional characterization of NBC4: a new electrogenic sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter.

    PubMed

    Sassani, Pejvak; Pushkin, Alexander; Gross, Eitan; Gomer, Alla; Abuladze, Natalia; Dukkipati, Ramanath; Carpenito, Gerardo; Kurtz, Ira

    2002-02-01

    Sodium-bicarbonate cotransporters are homologous membrane proteins mediating the electrogenic or electroneutral transport of sodium and bicarbonate. Of the functionally characterized sodium-bicarbonate cotransporters (NBC), NBC1 proteins are known to be electrogenic. Here we report the cloning and functional characterization of NBC4c, a new splice variant of the NBC4 gene. At the amino acid level, NBC4c is 56% identical to NBC1 protein variants and 40% identical to electroneutral NBC3. When expressed in mammalian cells, NBC4c mediates electrogenic sodium-bicarbonate cotransport. The transport of sodium and bicarbonate is chloride independent and is completely inhibited by DIDS. NBC4c transcripts were detected in several tissues including brain, heart, kidney, testis, pancreas, muscle, and peripheral blood leukocytes. The data indicate that NBC4c is an electrogenic sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter. The finding that both NBC1 and NBC4c proteins function as electrogenic sodium-bicarbonate cotransporters will aid in determining the structural motifs responsible for this unique functional property, which distinguishes these transporters from other members of the bicarbonate transporter superfamily.

  2. Department of Defense Nuclear/Biological/Chemical (NBC) warfare defense. Annual report to Congress, June 1994. Final report, 1 October 1992-30 September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1994, Public Law 103-160, Title XVII, Chemical and Biological Weapons Defense, section 1703, directed the Secretary of Defense to submit an assessment and a description of plans to improve readiness. The DoD objective is to enable our forces to survive, fight and win in NBC contaminated environments. Discussed are new management objectives impacted by declining resources and force structure versus an ever changing threat environment. Nuclear biological, Chemical, NBC, Defense, Logistics, Readiness, Training, Contamination avoidance, Protection, Decontamination.

  3. Scripting patienthood with patient clothing.

    PubMed

    Topo, Päivi; Iltanen-Tähkävuori, Sonja

    2010-06-01

    The potential of care environments to promote patient healing has gained increasing attention over the last decade, with evidence-based designs used to explore developments in this field. Medical textiles, such as clothes provided to patients, are part of the care environment in many countries. Our study focuses on patients' experiences of such clothing. The goal of this research is to understand how patienthood is constructed in relation to patient clothing and the practices around their use. The study is based on four group interviews involving a total of 12 people with experience of being patients in a hospital or of visiting residential care environments. We employed an active interview format, and the medical textiles currently used in Finnish hospitals and residential care facilities were available for scrutiny during the interviews. Content analyses were carried out on the interview transcripts. Patient clothing was critically evaluated by the participants; they experienced giving up their own clothes as akin to a rite of passage into their new role as a patient. The low status of a patient in a hospital environment was symbolised by the outworn appearance of patient clothing and the problems in protecting privacy. Patient clothing was also felt to provide limited possibilities for being active and in some cases was found to be annoying or even harmful and upsetting. For patients, being dressed in patient clothing may be symbolic of lower status and narrowed agency in everyday life. We can conclude that artefacts such as clothing worn in care environments need to be given attention when considering possibilities for improving care.

  4. Simple respiratory protection--evaluation of the filtration performance of cloth masks and common fabric materials against 20-1000 nm size particles.

    PubMed

    Rengasamy, Samy; Eimer, Benjamin; Shaffer, Ronald E

    2010-10-01

    A shortage of disposable filtering facepiece respirators can be expected during a pandemic respiratory infection such as influenza A. Some individuals may want to use common fabric materials for respiratory protection because of shortage or affordability reasons. To address the filtration performance of common fabric materials against nano-size particles including viruses, five major categories of fabric materials including sweatshirts, T-shirts, towels, scarves, and cloth masks were tested for polydisperse and monodisperse aerosols (20-1000 nm) at two different face velocities (5.5 and 16.5 cm s⁻¹) and compared with the penetration levels for N95 respirator filter media. The results showed that cloth masks and other fabric materials tested in the study had 40-90% instantaneous penetration levels against polydisperse NaCl aerosols employed in the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health particulate respirator test protocol at 5.5 cm s⁻¹. Similarly, varying levels of penetrations (9-98%) were obtained for different size monodisperse NaCl aerosol particles in the 20-1000 nm range. The penetration levels of these fabric materials against both polydisperse and monodisperse aerosols were much higher than the penetrations for the control N95 respirator filter media. At 16.5 cm s⁻¹ face velocity, monodisperse aerosol penetrations slightly increased, while polydisperse aerosol penetrations showed no significant effect except one fabric mask with an increase. Results obtained in the study show that common fabric materials may provide marginal protection against nanoparticles including those in the size ranges of virus-containing particles in exhaled breath.

  5. Cloning, characterization and chromosomal assignment of NBC4, a new member of the sodium bicarbonate cotransporter family.

    PubMed

    Pushkin, A; Abuladze, N; Newman, D; Lee, I; Xu, G; Kurtz, I

    2000-09-07

    We report the cloning, characterization and chromosomal assignment of a new member of the sodium bicarbonate cotransporter (NBC) family, NBC4, from human heart. NBC4 maps to chromosome 2p13 and is a new candidate gene for Alstrom syndrome. NBC4 encodes a 1074-residue polypeptide with 12 putative membrane-spanning domains. Unlike other members of the NBC family, NBC4 has a unique glycine-rich region (amino acids 438-485). In addition, NBC4 lacks the lysine-rich C-terminus of NBC1 with which it is most homologous. The first of two putative stilbene binding motifs (K(M/L)(X)K) is lacking in NBC4 (amino acids 655-658). The approximately 6 kb NBC4 transcript is moderately expressed in heart, with the highest expression in liver, testes and spleen.

  6. The Pandolf load carriage equation is a poor predictor of metabolic rate while wearing explosive ordnance disposal protective clothing.

    PubMed

    Bach, Aaron J E; Costello, Joseph T; Borg, David N; Stewart, Ian B

    2016-04-25

    This investigation aimed to quantify metabolic rate when wearing an explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) ensemble (~33kg) during standing and locomotion; and determine whether the Pandolf load carriage equation accurately predicts metabolic rate when wearing an EOD ensemble during standing and locomotion. Ten males completed 8 trials with metabolic rate measured through indirect calorimetry. Walking in EOD at 2.5, 4.0 and 5.5km·h(-1) was significantly (p < 0.05) greater than matched trials without the EOD ensemble by 49% (127W), 65% (213W) and 78% (345W), respectively. Mean bias (95% limits of agreement) between predicted and measured metabolism during standing, 2.5, 4 and 5.5km·h(-1) were 47W (19 to 75W); -111W (-172 to -49W); -122W (-189 to -54W) and -158W (-245 to -72W), respectively. The Pandolf equation significantly underestimated measured metabolic rate during locomotion. These findings have practical implications for EOD technicians during training and operation and should be considered when developing maximum workload duration models and work-rest schedules. Practitioner Summary: Using a rigorous methodological design we quantified metabolic rate of wearing EOD clothing during locomotion. For the first time we demonstrated that metabolic rate when wearing this ensemble is greater than that predicted by the Pandolf equation. These original findings have significant implications for EOD training and operation.

  7. [The estimation of penetrating of microbes by the protective clothing and textile medical devices, according to obligatory norms].

    PubMed

    Zareba, Tomasz; Zych, Magdalena; Kruszewska, Hanna; Mrówka, Agnieszka; Wasińska, Ewa; Tyski, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Textile medical products can be widely used as barrier materials and individual protection against biological threats. Rules of introducing such products to market are regulated by the Directive 93/42/ EEC. Detailed requirements and testing methods of textile medical products are presented in obligatory norms. The required level of protection of these products against the penetration of microbes depends on the risk connected with planned type surgical procedure, the duration of the surgical intervention, risks of bleeding or presences of other body liquids of the patient and susceptibilities of the patient to infection. The aim of the study was to establish resistance of medical textiles to wet bacterial penetration. Materials were examined by the apparatus dedicated to this type of testing and obtained results were rated with reference to obligatory contracted requirements. assured Textiles laminated with foils possessed best protective proprieties, whereas medical products made from the cotton do not provide the sufficient level of the protection against microbes.

  8. Regulation of the sodium bicarbonate cotransporter kNBC1 function: role of Asp(986), Asp(988) and kNBC1-carbonic anhydrase II binding.

    PubMed

    Gross, Eitan; Pushkin, Alexander; Abuladze, Natalia; Fedotoff, Olga; Kurtz, Ira

    2002-11-01

    The HCO(3)(-) : Na(+) cotransport stoichiometry of the electrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransporter kNBC1 determines the reversal potential (E(rev)) and thus the net direction of transport of these ions through the cotransporter. Previously, we showed that phosphorylation of kNBC1-Ser(982) in the carboxy-terminus of kNBC1 (kNBC1-Ct), by cAMP-protein kinase A (PKA), shifts the stoichiometry from 3 : 1 to 2 : 1 and that binding of bicarbonate to the cotransporter is electrostaticaly modulated. These results raise the possibility that phosphorylated kNBC1-Ser(982), or other nearby negatively charged residues shift the stoichiometry by blocking a bicarbonate-binding site. In the current study, we examined the role of the negative charge on Ser(982)-phosphate and three aspartate residues in a D986NDD custer in altering the stoichiometry of kNBC1. mPCT cells expressing kNBC1 mutants were grown on filters and mounted in an Ussing chamber for electrophysiological studies. Enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP)-tagged mutant constructs expressed in the same cells were used to determine the phosphorylation status of kNBC1-Ser(982). The data indicate that both kNBC1-Asp(986) and kNBC1-Asp(988), but not kNBC1-Asp(989), are required for the phosphorylation-induced shift in stoichiometry. A homologous motif (D887ADD) in the carboxy-terminus of the anion exchanger AE1 binds to carbonic anhydrase II (CAII). In isothermal titration calorimetry experiments, CAII was found to bind to kNBC1-Ct with a K(D) of 160 +/- 10 nM. Acetazolamide inhibited the short-circuit current through the cotransporter by 65 % when the latter operated in the 3 : 1 mode, but had no effect on the current in the 2 : 1 mode. Acetazolamide did not affect the cotransport stoichiometry or the ability of 8-Br-cAMP to shift the stoichiometry. Although CAII does not affect the transport stoichiometry, it may play an important role in enhancing the flux through the transporter when kNBC1-Ser(982) is

  9. An investigation into the effectiveness of ELF protective clothing when exposed to RF fields between 65 MHz and 3 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Findlay, R. P.; Dimbylow, P. J.

    2012-05-01

    Protective garments are worn by electric power workers to shield the body against electromagnetic fields. This paper uses the finite-difference time-domain method to calculate SAR in the heterogeneous human voxel model NORMAN, clad in a protective suit and exposed to radio-frequency (RF) electromagnetic fields between 65 MHz and 3 GHz. The representation of the suit was produced for this work by the modelling and voxelization of a surface-rendered object, based on the dimensions of the male voxel phantom. The calculations showed that the peak-localized SAR in the head was higher than that calculated for a model without a protective suit for a number of exposure situations. These localized SAR values could be up to three times the values of those calculated for a model without a protective suit for a particular frequency. It is thought that the SAR hotspots in the head are caused by resonances in a cavity, which in this case is the conductive hood of the suit. This work shows that the increase in the peak-localized SAR in the head due to wearing the suit meant that, in certain situations, the ICNIRP and IEEE reference levels were no longer conservative. Therefore, it is important that power line workers exposed to RF fields wear the correct high-frequency protective suits with conducting visors.

  10. An investigation into the effectiveness of ELF protective clothing when exposed to RF fields between 65 MHz and 3 GHz.

    PubMed

    Findlay, R P; Dimbylow, P J

    2012-05-07

    Protective garments are worn by electric power workers to shield the body against electromagnetic fields. This paper uses the finite-difference time-domain method to calculate SAR in the heterogeneous human voxel model NORMAN, clad in a protective suit and exposed to radio-frequency (RF) electromagnetic fields between 65 MHz and 3 GHz. The representation of the suit was produced for this work by the modelling and voxelization of a surface-rendered object, based on the dimensions of the male voxel phantom. The calculations showed that the peak-localized SAR in the head was higher than that calculated for a model without a protective suit for a number of exposure situations. These localized SAR values could be up to three times the values of those calculated for a model without a protective suit for a particular frequency. It is thought that the SAR hotspots in the head are caused by resonances in a cavity, which in this case is the conductive hood of the suit. This work shows that the increase in the peak-localized SAR in the head due to wearing the suit meant that, in certain situations, the ICNIRP and IEEE reference levels were no longer conservative. Therefore, it is important that power line workers exposed to RF fields wear the correct high-frequency protective suits with conducting visors.

  11. Two C-terminal variants of NBC4, a new member of the sodium bicarbonate cotransporter family: cloning, characterization, and localization.

    PubMed

    Pushkin, A; Abuladze, N; Newman, D; Lee, I; Xu, G; Kurtz, I

    2000-07-01

    We report the cloning, characterization, and chromosomal assignment of a new member of the sodium bicarbonate cotransporter (NBC) family, NBC4. The NBC4 gene was mapped to chromosome 2p13 and is a new candidate gene for Alstrom syndrome. Two variants of the transporter have been isolated from human testis and heart, which differ in their C termini. NBC4a encodes a 1137-residue polypeptide and is widely expressed in various tissues, including liver, testis, and spleen. NBC4b is identical to NBC4a except that it has a 16-nucleotide insert, creating a C-terminal frame shift. NBC4b encodes a 1074-residue polypeptide and is highly expressed in heart. Amino acids 1-1046 are common to both NBC4 variants. NBC4a has two protein-interacting domains that are lacking in NBC4b: a proline-rich sequence, PPPSVIKIP (amino acids 1102-1110), and a consensus PDZ-interacting domain, SYSL (1134-1137). NBC4b lacks the stretch of charged residues present in the C terminus of NBC4a and other members of the NBC family. Unlike other members of the NBC family, both NBC4a and NBC4b have a unique glycine-rich region (amino acids 440-469). In comparison with other members of the bicarbonate transport superfamily, NBC4a and NBC4b are most similar structurally to the electrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransporters (NBC1).

  12. Repellent-Treated Clothing

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA regulates the pesticide permethrin to pre-treat clothing. We evaluate the safety and effectiveness of such insecticide uses, by exposure scenarios and risk assessment. Read and follow the label directions for use of permethrin-treated clothing.

  13. Why We Wear Clothes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowles, Jib

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the importance of clothing as a means of communicating nonverbally in social situations and urges that a "semantics of clothing communication" be compiled to increase understanding of human life. (RB)

  14. Comparison of active cooling devices to passive cooling for rehabilitation of firefighters performing exercise in thermal protective clothing: A report from the Fireground Rehab Evaluation (FIRE) trial

    PubMed Central

    Hostler, David; Reis, Steven E; Bednez, James C; Kerin, Sarah; Suyama, Joe

    2010-01-01

    Background Thermal protective clothing (TPC) worn by firefighters provides considerable protection from the external environment during structural fire suppression. However, TPC is associated with physiological derangements that may have adverse cardiovascular consequences. These derangements should be treated during on-scene rehabilitation periods. Objective The present study examined heart rate and core temperature responses during the application of four active cooling devices, currently being marketed to the fire service for on-scene rehab, and compared them to passive cooling in a moderate temperature (approximately 24°C) and to an infusion of cold (4°C) saline. Methods Subjects exercised in TPC in a heated room. Following an initial exercise period (BOUT 1) the subjects exited the room, removed TPC, and for 20 minutes cooled passively at room temperature, received an infusion of cold normal saline, or were cooled by one of four devices (fan, forearm immersion in water, hand cooling, water perfused cooling vest). After cooling, subjects donned TPC and entered the heated room for another 50-minute exercise period (BOUT 2). Results Subjects were not able to fully recover core temperature during a 20-minute rehab period when provided rehydration and the opportunity to completely remove TPC. Exercise duration was shorter during BOUT 2 when compared to BOUT 1 but did not differ by cooling intervention. The overall magnitude and rate of cooling and heart rate recovery did not differ by intervention. Conclusions No clear advantage was identified when active cooling devices and cold intravenous saline were compared to passive cooling in a moderate temperature after treadmill exercise in TPC. PMID:20397868

  15. Chemical Defense Collective Protection Technology. Volume 2. Effects of Airlock Airflow Pattern, Clothing, and Exposure Concentration on Vapor Transport

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-01

    Exposure Concentra’tion on Vapor Transport James P. Conklo, Ph.D. U Roberto E. Miranda , B.S. 0 Janeile Thomas, B.S. M Joseph R. Fischer, Jr., M.S. Roger W...collective protection facil- ities and their associated contaminant control areas. REFERENCES 1. Conkle, J. P., R. E. Miranda , J. R. Fischer, Jr., R...one or more tubes of Vycor brand porous ("Thirsty") glass, with 40-R pore diameter, extend through Cajon Ultra-torr S-4UT1-4 fittings, which have

  16. How clean is clean enough? Maintaining thermal protective clothing under field conditions in the oil and gas sector.

    PubMed

    Crown, Elizabeth M; Feng, Aifen; Xu, Xia

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop practical care procedures to help maintain the protective quality of flame resistant workwear laundered by workers in the field. Based on observed field conditions, experiments were conducted that simulated domestic laundry procedures. The first experiment involved two flame resistant (FR) fabrics, contaminated or not contaminated with oil. Independent variables also included detergent type and laundry pre-treatment. Other laundry parameters were controlled. Results indicated that it is easier to maintain the FR performance of the FR-treated blend than it is for the aramid fabric. It is hypothesized that energy generated by initial ignition of oil on the specimens triggers the FR mechanism of the treatment, which in turn inhibits further combustion. A second experiment using larger specimens and a domestic washing machine also supported the hypothesized mechanism.

  17. Aligned carbon nanotubes sandwiched in epitaxial NbC film for enhanced superconductivity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yingying; Ronning, Filip; Gofryk, Krzysztof; Mara, Nathan A; Haberkorn, Nestor; Zou, Guifu; Wang, Haiyan; Lee, Joon H; Bauer, Eve; McCleskey, Thomas M; Burell, Anthony K; Civale, Leonardo; Zhu, Y T; Jia, Quanxi

    2012-04-07

    Highly aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) ribbons were sandwiched in epitaxial superconducting NbC films by a chemical solution deposition method. The incorporation of aligned long CNTs into NbC film enhances the normal-state conductivity and improves the superconducting properties of the assembly.

  18. Molecular mechanism of kNBC1-carbonic anhydrase II interaction in proximal tubule cells.

    PubMed

    Pushkin, Alexander; Abuladze, Natalia; Gross, Eitan; Newman, Debra; Tatishchev, Sergei; Lee, Ivan; Fedotoff, Olga; Bondar, Galyna; Azimov, Rustam; Ngyuen, Matt; Kurtz, Ira

    2004-08-15

    We have recently shown that carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) binds in vitro to the C-terminus of the electrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransporter kNBC1 (kNBC1-ct). In the present study we determined the molecular mechanisms for the interaction between the two proteins and whether kNBC1 and CAII form a transport metabolon in vivo wherein bicarbonate is transferred from CAII directly to the cotransporter. Various residues in the C-terminus of kNBC1 were mutated and the effect of these mutations on both the magnitude of CAII binding and the function of kNBC1 expressed in mPCT cells was determined. Two clusters of acidic amino acids, L(958)DDV and D(986)NDD in the wild-type kNBC1-ct involved in CAII binding were identified. In both acidic clusters, the first aspartate residue played a more important role in CAII binding than others. A significant correlation between the magnitude of CAII binding and kNBC1-mediated flux was shown. The results indicated that CAII activity enhances flux through the cotransporter when the enzyme is bound to kNBC1. These data are the first direct evidence that a complex of an electrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransporter with CAII functions as a transport metabolon.

  19. NBC3 expression in rabbit collecting duct: colocalization with vacuolar H+-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Pushkin, A; Yip, K P; Clark, I; Abuladze, N; Kwon, T H; Tsuruoka, S; Schwartz, G J; Nielsen, S; Kurtz, I

    1999-12-01

    We have recently cloned and characterized a unique sodium bicarbonate cotransporter, NBC3, which unlike other members of the NBC family, is ethylisopropylamiloride (EIPA) inhibitable, DIDS insensitive, and electroneutral (A. Pushkin, N. Abuladze, I. Lee, D. Newman, J. Hwang, and I. Kurtz. J. Biol. Chem. 274: 16569-16575, 1999). In the present study, a specific polyclonal antipeptide COOH-terminal antibody, NBC3-C1, was generated and used to determine the pattern of NBC3 protein expression in rabbit kidney. A major band of approximately 200 kDa was detected on immunoblots of rabbit kidney. Immunocytochemistry of rabbit kidney frozen sections revealed specific staining of the apical membrane of intercalated cells in both the cortical and outer medullary collecting ducts. The pattern of NBC3 protein expression in the collecting duct was nearly identical to the same sections stained with an antibody against the vacuolar H+-ATPase 31-kDa subunit. In addition, the NBC3-C1 antibody coimmunoprecipitated the vacuolar H+-ATPase 31-kDa subunit. Functional studies in outer medullary collecting ducts (inner stripe) showed that type A intercalated cells have an apical Na+-dependent base transporter that is EIPA inhibitable and DIDS insensitive. The data suggest that NBC3 participates in H+/base transport in the collecting duct. The close association of NBC3 and the vacuolar H+-ATPase in type A intercalated cells suggests a potential structural/functional interaction between the two transporters.

  20. Advanced Clothing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broyan, James; Orndoff, Evelyne

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the Advanced Clothing System (ACS) is to use advanced commercial off-the-shelf fibers and antimicrobial treatments with the goal of directly reducing the mass and volume of a logistics item. The current clothing state-of-the-art on the International Space Station (ISS) is disposable, mostly cotton-based, clothing with no laundry provisions. Each clothing article has varying use periods and will become trash. The goal is to increase the length of wear of the clothing to reduce the logistical mass and volume. The initial focus has been exercise clothing since the use period is lower. Various ground studies and an ISS technology demonstration have been conducted to evaluate clothing preference and length of wear. The analysis indicates that use of ACS selected garments (e.g. wool, modacrylic, polyester) can increase the breakeven point for laundry to 300 days.

  1. Advanced Clothing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlesinger, Thilini; Broyan, James; Orndoff, Evelyne

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the Advanced Clothing System (ACS) is to use advanced commercial off-theshelf fibers and antimicrobial treatments with the goal of directly reducing the mass and volume of a logistics item. The current clothing state-of-the-art on the International Space Station (ISS) is disposable, mostly cotton-based, clothing with no laundry provisions. Each clothing article has varying use periods and will become trash. The goal is to increase the length of wear of the clothing to reduce the logistical mass and volume. The initial focus has been exercise clothing since the use period is lower. Various ground studies and an ISS technology demonstration have been conducted to evaluate clothing preference and length of wear. The analysis indicates that use of ACS selected garments (e.g. wool, modacrylic, polyester) can increase the breakeven point for laundry to 300 days.

  2. Thermoregulatory responses to layered personal protective clothing: practical implications for oil spill clean-up and remediation.

    PubMed

    Sirikul, Bovorn; Bishop, Phillip A; Nevett, Michael E

    2011-01-01

    Many jobs in toxic environments and in less than ideal surroundings, such as oil spill remediation, require the use of 2 layers of personal protective equipment (PPE) to maximize worker safety. This study was designed to assess physiological and subjective responses while working in a single-layer (SL) or double-layer (DL) ensemble during a continuous work protocol in a hot environment of 31 °C WBGT. Eleven men in a repeated-measures design performed 2 counterbalanced work-bouts at a time-weighted work rate of 300 kcal/h. All tests were terminated when a rectal temperature (Tre) of 38.7 °C was attained. Total work time was significantly (P < 0.05) shorter in DL (60.5 ± 3.9 versus 66.4 ± 4.6 min in SL), and final microenvironmental temperature (MEt) (35.6 ± 0.9 °C vs 37.1 ± 0.3 °C) and humidity (MEh) (90.0 ± 4.0% vs 95.4 ± 1.1%) were higher in DL. There were no differences for Tre, mean skin temperature, or sweat rate over time. These data have practical implications in that although the physiological strain on workers in DL was not substantially greater than in SL, worker safety, and productivity can be reduced while working in layered PPE.

  3. Effects of Defects on Hydrogen Diffusion in NbC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salehinia, Iman; Mastorakos, Ioannis; Zbib, Hussein M.

    2017-04-01

    Exceptional mechanical and physical properties of transition metal carbides and nitrides make them good coating-material candidates for extreme corrosive environments such as oil and natural gas wells. However, existence of small pores, pinholes and columnar structures of these ceramics significantly affect their resistance to corrosion, as pore sites would accelerate the diffusion of corrosive media into the substrate. In this research, molecular dynamics atomistic simulations are employed to investigate the effects of the isolated vacancies and the columnar structure on the diffusion rate of H atoms in NbC single crystal at various temperatures. Diffusion coefficient (D) of H atoms in NbC increased with C vacancy concentration. At elevated temperatures, the trapping effect of Nb vacancies is less effective when C vacancies are also present, as H atoms gain enough energy to jump back and forth between the C vacancies. Atomistic simulations also showed a jump in diffusion coefficient for cylindrical pore size of larger than 3 Å radius. Furthermore, D increased monotonically with temperature up to 1000 K in the presence of cylindrical pores. Further increase in temperature resulted in a drop in the diffusion coefficient for small pores while the large pores only showed a lower increasing trend in diffusion coefficient with the temperature.

  4. Thermal Clothing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Gateway Technologies, Inc. is marketing and developing textile insulation technology originally developed by Triangle Research and Development Corporation. The enhanced thermal insulation stems from Small Business Innovation Research contracts from NASA's Johnson Space Center and the U.S. Air Force. The effectiveness of the insulation comes from the microencapsulated phase-change materials originally made to keep astronauts gloved hands warm. The applications for the product range from outer wear, housing insulation, and blankets to protective firefighting gear and scuba diving suits. Gateway has developed and begun marketing thermal regulating products under the trademark, OUTLAST. Products made from OUTLAST are already on the market, including boot and shoe liners, winter headgear, hats and caps for hunting and other outdoor sports, and a variety of men's and women's ski gloves.

  5. Weed seeds on clothing: a global review.

    PubMed

    Ansong, Michael; Pickering, Catherine

    2014-11-01

    Weeds are a major threat to biodiversity including in areas of high conservation value. Unfortunately, people may be unintentionally introducing and dispersing weed seeds on their clothing when they visit these areas. To inform the management of these areas, we conducted a systematic quantitative literature review to determine the diversity and characteristics of species with seeds that can attach and be dispersed from clothing. Across 21 studies identified from systematic literature searches on this topic, seeds from 449 species have been recorded on clothing, more than double the diversity found in a previous review. Nearly all of them, 391 species, are listed weeds in one or more countries, with 58 classified as internationally-recognised environmental weeds. When our database was compared with weed lists from different countries and continents we found that clothing can carry the seeds of important regional weeds. A total of 287 of the species are listed as aliens in one or more countries in Europe, 156 are invasive species/noxious weeds in North America, 211 are naturalized alien plants in Australia, 97 are alien species in India, 33 are invasive species in China and 5 are declared weeds/invaders in South Africa. Seeds on the clothing of hikers can be carried to an average distance of 13 km, and where people travel in cars, trains, planes and boats, the seeds on their clothing can be carried much further. Factors that affect this type of seed dispersal include the type of clothing, the type of material the clothing is made from, the number and location of the seeds on plants, and seed traits such as adhesive and attachment structures. With increasing use of protected areas by tourists, including in remote regions, popular protected areas may be at great risk of biological invasions by weeds with seeds carried on clothing.

  6. Study of NbC thin films for soft X-ray multilayer applications

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Amol E-mail: rrcat.amol@gmail.com; Modi, Mohammed H.; Lodha, G. S.; Rajput, Parasmani; Jha, S. N.

    2015-06-24

    Compound materials are being used in soft x-ray and Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) optics applications. Structural properties of compound materials changes drastically when ultrathin films are formed from bulk material. Structural properties need to be investigated to determine the suitability of compound materials in soft x-ray multilayer applications. In the present study Niobium carbide (NbC) thin films were deposited using ion beam sputtering of an NbC target on Si (100) substrate. Thickness roughness and film mass density was determined from the X-ray reflectivity (XRR) data. XRR data revealed that the film mass density was increasing with increase in film thickness. For 500Ǻ thick film, mass density of 6.85 g/cm{sup 3}, close to bulk density was found. Rms roughness for all the films was less than 10Å. Local structure of NbC thin films was determined from EXAFS measurements. The EXAFS data showed an increase in Nb-C and Nb-(C)-Nb peak ratio approaches towards bulk NbC with increasing thickness of NbC. From the present study, NbC thin films were found suitable for actual use in soft x-ray multilayer applications.

  7. The Progress of the Clothing for Cold Weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuda, Takeshi; Ijiri, Tokiko

    The clothing for cold weather were discused. The total insulation in man is made up of sum of the insulation afforded by clothes, air and tissues. A function of clothing is to protect the body from the environment, this is especially true when himalayan expedition. Many expedition to the himalayan high altitude have had useful experiences in the textile and clothing field. Historical development and fundamental matters of clothing for himalayan expedition were explained. The insulating properties of a fabric are due not to the fibers of the fabric itseif, but to the air trapped with in the fabric. it is impotant to realise that the thermal insulation of clothing is proportional to the thickness of the dead space air trapped within the clothing. Down clothes are extremely warm, light and comfortable. A windproof outer layer is necessary to prevent penetration by external air. If air penetrates, clothing the trapped dead air is moved and insu1ation will diminish. Overheating when exercising in the cold with loss of insulation associated with the production of sweat, and thus of darnp clothing, is a well recognized hazard. It was considered that we must make every effort to be as safe as possible in clothing science field for cold environment.

  8. Ordering Effects in NbC and TaC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venables, J. D.; Meyerhoff, M. H.

    1972-01-01

    By means of transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction, evidence has been obtained for the existence of long range carbon atom ordering in single-crystal niobium carbide that has a carbon-to-metal ratio close to the integral composition Nb6C5. The ordering, which gives rise to superlattice and domain structures similar to those observed in V6C5, appears, however, only in samples that have been cooled slowly through the order-disorder temperature of 1025 C. In TaC of similar composition, the ordering, although present, remains very imperfect even after the crystals are subjected to the same thermal treatment. The results are interpreted in terms of the electronic structure of the transition metal carbides as it is currently understood, and their relevance to the mechanical properties of NbC and TaC are discussed.

  9. Laundering Your Baby's Clothes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Birth to 3 Years) Feeding Your 1- to 3-Month-Old Feeding Your 4- to 7-Month-Old Feeding Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Laundering Your Baby's Clothes KidsHealth > For Parents > Laundering Your Baby's Clothes Print A A A ...

  10. Immunolocalization of NBC3 and NHE3 in the rat epididymis: colocalization of NBC3 and the vacuolar H+-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Pushkin, A; Clark, I; Kwon, T H; Nielsen, S; Kurtz, I

    2000-01-01

    In the male reproductive tract, the epididymis plays an important role in mediating transepithelial bicarbonate transport and luminal acidification. In the proximal vas deferens, a significant component of luminal acidification is Na+-independent, and mediated by specific cells that possess apical vacuolar proton pumps. In contrast, luminal acidification in the cauda epididymidis is an Na+-dependent process. The specific apical Na+-dependent H+/base transport process(es) responsible for luminal acidification have not been identified. A potential clue as to the identity of these apical Na+-dependent H+/base transporter(s) is provided by similarities between the transport properties of the epididymis and the mammalian nephron. Specifically, the H+/base transport properties of caput epididymidis resemble the mammalian renal proximal tubule, whereas the distal epididymis and vas deferens have characteristics in common with renal collecting duct intercalated cells. Given the known expression of the Na+/H+ antiporter, NHE3, in the proximal tubule, and of the electroneutral sodium bicarbonate cotransporter, NBC3, in renal intercalated cells, we determined the localization of NHE3 and NBC3 in various regions of rat epididymis. NBC3 was highly expressed on the apical membrane of apical (narrow) cells in caput epididymidis, and light (clear) cells in corpus and cauda epididymidis. The number of cells expressing apical NBC3 was highest in cauda epididymidis. The localization of NBC3 in the epididymis was identical to the vacuolar H+-ATPase. The results indicate that colocalization of NBC3 and the vacuolar H+-ATPase is not restricted to kidney intercalated cells. Moreover, the close association of the two transporters appears to be a more generalized phenomenon in cells that express high levels of vacuolar H+-ATPase. Unlike NBC3, NHE3 was most highly expressed on the apical membrane of all epithelial cells in caput epididymidis, with less expression in the corpus, and no

  11. Anthropometric Cockpit Compatibility Assessment of US Army Aircraft for Large and Small Personnel Wearing A Cold Weather, Armored Vest, Chemical Defense Protective Clothing Configuration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-01

    identify by block number) Anthropometry, Aircraft, Cockpit-Compatibility, Chemical Defense, Cold Weather Clothing, Helicopters, Fixed- Wing Aircraft...5th percentiles of the Army male population were placed in the cockpits of all current US ArmY helicopters (except AAH-64) and fixed- wing aircraft, and...Fixed Wing Aircraft .... 0........................ 24 References.o........*..e.......o......o............ 29 LIST OF FIGURES FIGURES 1 . Up pe r B o dy

  12. Breather cloth for vacuum curing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, M. W.

    1979-01-01

    Finely-woven nylon cloth that has been treated with Teflon improves vacuum adhesive bonding of coatings to substrates. Cloth is placed over coating; entire assembly, including substrate, coating, and cloth, is placed in plastic vacuum bag for curing. Cloth allows coating to "breathe" when bag is evacuated. Applications include bonding film coatings to solar concentrators and collectors.

  13. Modelling of Heat and Moisture Loss Through NBC Ensembles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-11-01

    nsuits mext = 0 ’g - mass of surplus sweat; stays in clothing thyme = 0 tcorejml =tcorei tskinjml =tskini PRINT #2, USING -#####.#" thyme ; tcorejml...tskinjml FOR thyme =tstep TO tdur STEP tstep j j + CLS nmin = thyme \\ 60 PRINT "Analysing suit " i; " of" nsuits PRINT "Computation is at time " nin...34 minutes of " tdur / 60 Determine which phase of the work/rest cycle you are in and select the appropriate work rate ft = ((thymne / tcyc) - ( thyme

  14. Range, energy, heat of motion in the modified NBC, anti-g, tank suit

    SciTech Connect

    Mastropaolo, J.A.; Gaston, A.N. de; Durck, C.H.; Van Santen, A.R. McDonnell Douglas Corp., Long Beach, CA )

    1992-08-01

    The modified nuclear, biologic pathogen, chemical (NBC), anti-g, anthropomorphic tank suit (ATS 2), was designed and modified. The ATS 2 provided a protective liner of water around, but not in contact with, the subject to the neck. For three subjects in the ATS 2, range of motion was lost in 30 of 32 tests by an average of 39 percent dry and 40 percent wet, p less than 0.001. For work rates from 49 to 151 W, all blood pressures were significantly elevated, p less than 0.05, but no other significant differences were found. The factors dry and wet, for heart rate were 1.2, 1.3; for systolic blood pressure 1.2, 1.4; for diastolic blood pressure 1.1, 1.3; for estimated mean blood pressure 1.1, 1.3; for ventilation 1.7, 2.0 and for energy of motion 1.40, 1.53. The factor 1.53 was an underestimation because of a suppressed maximal oxygen consumption. Special joints, pressure breathing and water cooling seemed desirable for future suits. 24 refs.

  15. Flexible cloth seal assembly

    DOEpatents

    Bagepalli, B.S.; Taura, J.C.; Aksit, M.F.; Demiroglu, M.; Predmore, D.R.

    1999-06-29

    A seal assembly is described having a flexible cloth seal which includes a shim assemblage surrounded by a cloth assemblage. A first tubular end portion, such as a gas turbine combustor, includes a longitudinal axis and has smooth and spaced-apart first and second surface portions defining a notch there between which is wider at its top than at its bottom and which extends outward from the axis. The second surface portion is outside curved, and a first edge of the cloth seal is positioned in the bottom of the notch. A second tubular end portion, such as a first stage nozzle, is located near, spaced apart from, and coaxially aligned with, the first tubular end portion. The second tubular end portion has a smooth third surface portion which surrounds at least a portion of the first tubular end portion and which is contacted by the cloth seal. 7 figs.

  16. Flexible cloth seal assembly

    DOEpatents

    Bagepalli, Bharat Sampathkumar; Taura, Joseph Charles; Aksit, Mahmut Faruk; Demiroglu, Mehmet; Predmore, Daniel Ross

    1999-01-01

    A seal assembly having a flexible cloth seal which includes a shim assemblage surrounded by a cloth assemblage. A first tubular end portion, such as a gas turbine combustor, includes a longitudinal axis and has smooth and spaced-apart first and second surface portions defining a notch therebetween which is wider at its top than at its bottom and which extends outward from the axis. The second surface portion is outside curved, and a first edge of the cloth seal is positioned in the bottom of the notch. A second tubular end portion, such as a first stage nozzle, is located near, spaced apart from, and coaxially aligned with, the first tubular end portion. The second tubular end portion has a smooth third surface portion which surrounds at least a portion of the first tubular end portion and which is contacted by the cloth seal.

  17. Clean room wiping cloths

    SciTech Connect

    Harding, W.B.

    1981-01-01

    The suitability of various fabrics for use as clean room wiping cloths was investigated. These fabrics included knit polyester, knit nylon, urethane foam, woven cotton, nonwoven polyester, nonwoven rayon, nonwoven polyethylene and polypropylene, and woven nylon. These materials were tested for detachable lint and fibers, deterioration, and oil content which could leave contaminating films on wiped surfaces. Well-laundered nylon and polyester cloths knitted from filamentary yarn, with hems, were found to be suitable. (LCL)

  18. Clothing and exercise. I: Biophysics of heat transfer between the individual, clothing and environment.

    PubMed

    Pascoe, D D; Shanley, L A; Smith, E W

    1994-07-01

    Despite large environmental variations, the human body maintains a tightly regulated core temperature. Effective thermoregulation must balance the interaction between skin surface, clothing and ambient air. Indices of thermal stress (wet bulb globe temperature, heat stress index, maximum evaporation rate, required evaporative rate and wind chill) provide valuable information concerning the heat exchange between the individual and the environment, and serve as protective guidelines while working in environmental extremes. The role of clothing, as an interactive barrier, greatly affects thermal balance. Clothing is varied according to prevailing environmental conditions, metabolic heat production, gender and age differences, fabric thermal properties, garment design and intended use. Models (static, dynamic and human) have investigated the biophysical transfer of heat between the skin surface area, clothing and ambient air. Additionally, the role of metabolic heat production during exercise can greatly influence tolerance to thermal stress during a variety of environmental conditions.

  19. Modern cleanroom clothing systems: people as a contamination source.

    PubMed

    Reinmüller, Berit; Ljungqvist, Bengt

    2003-01-01

    Today, clothing and clothing systems for cleanrooms are mainly tested with regard to material properties such as particle generation, particle filtration, and resistance to wear. The dispersal chamber or "body-box" has been used for studying the protective efficacy of clothing systems in use, for example by Hoborn in 1981 (1) and Whyte and Bailey in 1985. A modified dispersal chamber has recently been installed at KTH. Tests and comparative studies have been performed in the dispersal chamber on selected clothing systems. The latest tests have been performed in two parts. In Part 1, each person performed 12 sequences dressed in new, modern cleanroom clothing systems with small variations, such as with and without goggles, different face masks, and different sizes of hoods. In Part 2, each person performed six test sequences with new, modern cleanroom clothing systems with variations in fabrics, and as a comparison, two sequences with pharmaceutical clothing system and surgical clothing system, respectively. The results are given in total number of airborne particles (> or = 0.5 microm per cubic meter) and airborne aerobic CFU per cubic meter. Statistical evaluations of the results have been performed. The source strengths of the contamination source people wearing modern cleanroom clothing systems have been estimated.

  20. Sweat responses to pesticide-proof clothing influenced by textile materials.

    PubMed

    Hirabayashi-Yamashita, Y; Hayashi, C; Imamura, R; Tokura, H

    1995-05-01

    Themoregulatory responses were compared at an ambient temperature of 30 degrees C and a relative humidity of 50% between two kinds of protective clothing for pesticide spraying. One was made of nylon with wet coating polyurethane (A) and another was made of cotton with water repellent finish (B). The clothing ensemble was composed of a short-sleeved cotton shirt, long cotton underpants, cotton socks, shoes and the protective clothing. Five young female adults served as subjects. They took a rest with protective clothing ensemble for 15 min and then walked on a motor-driven treadmill (80m/min, 5% uphill grade) for 40 min, followed by 20-min rest. The increase of forearm sweat rate was higher in clothing A than in clothing B in 4 out of 5 subjects, although the average values were not significantly different. The total sweat rate of the whole body was also significantly larger in clothing A. Mean skin temperature and local skin temperatures in the arm, the chest and the thigh were significantly higher in clothing A than in clothing B. Clothing microclimate humidity was significantly higher in clothing A, while clothing microclimate temperature tended to be higher in clothing A. Individual observations about thermal, humidity and comfort sensation disclosed that the sensation was improved as a whole in clothing B. Local sweat rate was linearly related to mean body temperature and the regression line for clothing A was located above that for clothing B in 4 out of 5 subjects.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. UV clothing and skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Tarbuk, Anita; Grancarić, Ana Marija; Situm, Mirna; Martinis, Mladen

    2010-04-01

    Skin cancer incidence in Croatia is steadily increasing in spite of public and governmental permanently measurements. It is clear that will soon become a major public health problem. The primary cause of skin cancer is believed to be a long exposure to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The future designers of UV protective materials should be able to block totally the ultraviolet radiation. The aim of this paper is to present results of measurements concerning UV protecting ability of garments and sun-screening textiles using transmission spectrophotometer Cary 50 Solarscreen (Varian) according to AS/NZS 4399:1996; to show that standard clothing materials are not always adequate to prevent effect of UV radiation to the human skin; and to suggest the possibilities for its improvement for this purpose.

  2. The Use of Counter-Attack in Apologetic Public Relations Crises: The Case of General Motors vs. Dateline NBC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hearit, Keith Michael

    1996-01-01

    Analyzes an apologetic exchange between General Motors (GM) and NBC in 1992-93 over the safety of GM's C/K trucks. Concludes that NBC and GM used "kategoria-based apologiae," a heavy-handed strategy, in their interchange, but that, when used correctly, the strategy can be an important resource in challenging inaccurate and/or misleading…

  3. Photoprotection: clothing and glass.

    PubMed

    Almutawa, Fahad; Buabbas, Hanan

    2014-07-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation (UVR) has well-known adverse effects on the skin and eyes. Little attention is given to physical means of photoprotection, namely glass, window films, sunglasses, and clothing. In general, all types of glass block UV-B. For UV-A, the degree of transmission depends on the type, thickness, and color of the glass. Adding window films to glass can greatly decrease the transmission of UV-A. Factors that can affect the transmission of UVR through cloth include tightness of weave, thickness, weight, type of fabrics, laundering, hydration, stretch, fabric processing, UV absorbers, color, and fabric-to-skin distance.

  4. Efficacy of Liquid, Air, and Phase Change Material Torso Cooling During Light Exercise While Wearing NBC Clothing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-03-01

    and Thermal Comfort 6 Blood Sampling 6 Statistical Analyses 6 RESULTS 7 Indices of Hydration Status 7 Liquid-Cooling and PCM Cooling Vests...of Uncooled Sites 12 Vapour Pressure 12 Ratings of Thermal Comfort and Perceived Exertion 18 Indices of Heat Tolerance 18 DISCUSSION 20...ill Figures 8A and B Changes in ratings of thermal comfort of the torso and whole body during light exercise at 40°C and 30% relative humidity while

  5. Cloning, tissue distribution, genomic organization, and functional characterization of NBC3, a new member of the sodium bicarbonate cotransporter family.

    PubMed

    Pushkin, A; Abuladze, N; Lee, I; Newman, D; Hwang, J; Kurtz, I

    1999-06-04

    Previous functional studies have demonstrated that muscle intracellular pH regulation is mediated by sodium-coupled bicarbonate transport, Na+/H+ exchange, and Cl-/bicarbonate exchange. We report the cloning, sequence analysis, tissue distribution, genomic organization, and functional analysis of a new member of the sodium bicarbonate cotransporter (NBC) family, NBC3, from human skeletal muscle. mNBC3 encodes a 1214-residue polypeptide with 12 putative membrane-spanning domains. The approximately 7.8-kilobase transcript is expressed uniquely in skeletal muscle and heart. The NBC3 gene (SLC4A7) spans approximately 80 kb and is composed of 25 coding exons and 24 introns that are flanked by typical splice donor and acceptor sequences. Expression of mNBC3 cRNA in Xenopus laevis oocytes demonstrated that the protein encodes a novel stilbene-insensitive 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl)-amiloride-inhibitable sodium bicarbonate cotransporter.

  6. Clothing and Textile Student Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    Forty-seven performance-based instructional modules on six major topics are provided for the home economics content area of clothing and textiles. The six topics are (1) planning basics (psychological, physical, social, and behavioral aspects of clothing; elements of design; principles of design; and style and fashion in clothing), (2) buyership…

  7. Painting Cloth with Crayons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asch, Rosalie L.

    1979-01-01

    Painting cloth with crayons is suggested as a challenging art project, especially for students who have difficulty with the complex tools and processes typical of more advanced textile work. Instructions are given for creating decorative banners with this technique. One of seven articles in this issue on fiber arts. (Author/SJL)

  8. Chiang Xiong: Story Cloth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cappetta, Ann; Fitzgerald, Donna

    1989-01-01

    Describes a lesson plan that introduces students in grades 10-12 to the decorative arts as a vehicle for exploring the cultural framework as a means of communicating various aspects of the human experience. Students design a story cloth based on a visual symbol they have developed to represent a human issue such as famine or war. (LS)

  9. Carbon cloth supported electrode

    DOEpatents

    Lu, Wen-Tong P.; Ammon, Robert L.

    1982-01-01

    A flow-by anode is disclosed made by preparing a liquid suspension of about to about 18% by weight solids, the solids comprising about 3.5 to about 8% of a powdered catalyst of platinum, palladium, palladium oxide, or mixtures thereof; about 60 to about 76% carbon powder (support) having a particle size less than about 20 m.mu.m and about 20 to about 33% of an inert binder having a particle size of less than about 500 m.mu.m. A sufficient amount of the suspension is poured over a carbon cloth to form a layer of solids about 0.01 to about 0.05 cm thick on the carbon cloth when the electrode is completed. A vacuum was applied to the opposite side of the carbon cloth to remove the liquid and the catalyst layer/cloth assembly is dried and compressed at about 10 to about 50 MPa's. The binder is then sintered in an inert atmosphere to complete the electrode. The electrode is used for the oxidation of sulfur dioxide in a sulfur based hybrid cycle for the decomposition of water.

  10. Sex and Clothing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stember, Charles H.; And Others

    1970-01-01

    This roundtable discussion focusos on fashion which may be indicative of the prevailing social climate. Clothing may be a reflection of ambivalence toward the body, used to cover it from shame" while also displaying it to advantage. A discussion of historical changes in dress, together with psychological implications, is presented. (Author/CJ)

  11. Men's Clothing Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margerum, B. Jean; And Others

    1977-01-01

    An informal consumer interview study, using 187 men, was conducted to highlight directions that clothing and textiles education and research might take. Mentioned most often were problems of fabric durability and garment construction as well as size and fit. Suggestions for curbing economic waste in the male fashion industry and implications for…

  12. Hmong Story Cloths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkenberg, Rebecca

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author provides a brief history of Hmong and traces the origin of Hmong story cloths. The Hmong, a nomadic and agrarian people, may date back 5000 years. Today they live in China, Vietnam, Thailand, and Laos, where during the Vietnam War and its aftermath, many Hmong were killed or persecuted for siding with the American…

  13. Occupational Clothing Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Annette J.

    Designed to provide individualized, hands-on experience for secondary or postsecondary students in gainful homemaking programs, this occupational clothing curriculum contains eight learning modules. The following topics are covered in the modules: plant production for the needle trades (needle trade structure and operation, terminology, history,…

  14. Interrelation of Resistivity and Inelastic Electron-Phonon Scattering Rate in Impure NbC Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Il'in, K. S.; Ptitsina, N. G.; Sergeev, A. V.; Goltsman, G. N.; Gershenzon, E. M.; Karasik, B. S.; Pechen, E. V.; Krasnosvobodtsev, S. I.

    1998-01-01

    A complex study of the electron-phonon interaction in thin NbC films with electron mean free path l=2-13 nm gives strong evidence that electron scattering is significantly modified due to the interference between electron-phonon and elastic electron scattering from impurities.

  15. Growth Kinetics of In Situ Fabricated Dense NbC Coatings on Gray Cast Iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Liuliu; Xu, Yunhua; Zhao, Nana; Zhao, Ziyuan; Zhong, Lisheng; Song, Ke; Cai, Xiaolong; Wang, Juan

    2016-12-01

    In the present study, dense niobium carbide (NbC) coatings are fabricated by in situ techniques on gray cast iron (Fe) substrates at 1150 °C for 5 min, followed by a heat treatment at 990, 1010 and 1030 °C for 5, 10, 15 and 20 min. The microstructure, element composition and metallographic phase of the coating are characterized by scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive spectral and x-ray diffraction, respectively. Results show that the coating consists of NbC and α-Fe phases. NbC coating thickness ranges from 12.51 ± 1.4 to 29.17 ± 2.0 µm depending on the heat treatment temperature and time. In addition, the growth kinetics of dense niobium carbide coatings are estimated. A diffusion model based on Fick's laws is used to explore the carbon diffusion coefficients of the dense NbC coating in the range of heat treatment temperatures in which the experimental results of the kinetics of the niobium carbide coating are in good agreement with those estimated using diffusion model.

  16. Ultrasonic Clothes Drying Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, Viral; Momen, Ayyoub

    2016-05-09

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory researchers Ayyoub Momen and Viral Patel demonstrate a direct contact ultrasonic clothes dryer under development by ORNL in collaboration with General Electric (GE) Appliances. This novel approach uses high-frequency mechanical vibrations instead of heat to extract moisture as cold mist, dramatically reducing drying time and energy use. Funding for this project was competitively awarded by DOE’s Building Technologies Office in 2014.

  17. Ultrasonic Clothes Drying Technology

    ScienceCinema

    Patel, Viral; Momen, Ayyoub

    2016-07-12

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory researchers Ayyoub Momen and Viral Patel demonstrate a direct contact ultrasonic clothes dryer under development by ORNL in collaboration with General Electric (GE) Appliances. This novel approach uses high-frequency mechanical vibrations instead of heat to extract moisture as cold mist, dramatically reducing drying time and energy use. Funding for this project was competitively awarded by DOE’s Building Technologies Office in 2014.

  18. Clothing adaptations: the occupational therapist and the clothing designer collaborate.

    PubMed

    White, L W; Dallas, M J

    1977-02-01

    An occupational therapist and a clothing designer collaborated in solving the dressing problem of a child with multiple amputations. The dressing problems were identified and solutions for clothing adaptations relating to sleeves, closures, fasteners, fit, and design were incorporated into two test garments. Evaluation of the garments was based on ease in dressing and undressing, the effect on movement and mobility, the construction techniques, and their appearance. A description is given of the pattern adjustments, and considerations for clothing adaptations or selection or both are discussed. These clothing adaptations can be generalized to a wider population of handicapped persons.

  19. Critical amino acid residues involved in the electrogenic sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter kNBC1-mediated transport.

    PubMed

    Abuladze, Natalia; Azimov, Rustam; Newman, Debra; Sassani, Pakan; Liu, Weixin; Tatishchev, Sergei; Pushkin, Alexander; Kurtz, Ira

    2005-06-15

    We have previously reported a topological model of the electrogenic Na(+)-HCO(3)(-) cotransporter (NBC1) in which the cotransporter spans the plasma membrane 10 times with N- and C-termini localized intracellularly. An analysis of conserved amino acid residues among members of the SLC4 superfamily in both the transmembrane segments (TMs) and intracellular/extracellular loops (ILs/ELs) provided the basis for the mutagenesis approach taken in the present study to determine amino acids involved in NBC1-mediated ion transport. Using large-scale mutagenesis, acidic and basic amino acids putatively involved in ion transport mediated by the predominant variant of NBC1 expressed in the kidney (kNBC1) were mutated to neutral and/or oppositely charged amino acids. All mutant kNBC1 cotransporters were expressed in HEK-293T cells and the Na(+)-dependent base flux of the mutants was determined using intracellular pH measurements with 2',7'-bis-(carboxyethyl)-5(6)-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF). Critical glutamate, aspartate, lysine, arginine and histidine residues in ILs/ELs and TMs were detected that were essential for kNBC1-mediated Na(+)-dependent base transport. In addition, critical phenylalanine, serine, tyrosine, threonine and alanine residues in TMs and ILs/ELs were detected. Furthermore, several amino acid residues in ILs/ELs and TMs were shown to be essential for membrane targeting. The data demonstrate asymmetry of distribution of kNBC1 charged amino acids involved in ion recognition in putative outward-facing and inward-facing conformations. A model summarizing key amino acid residues involved in kNBC1-mediated ion transport is presented.

  20. Critical amino acid residues involved in the electrogenic sodium–bicarbonate cotransporter kNBC1-mediated transport

    PubMed Central

    Abuladze, Natalia; Azimov, Rustam; Newman, Debra; Sassani, Pakan; Liu, Weixin; Tatishchev, Sergei; Pushkin, Alexander; Kurtz, Ira

    2005-01-01

    We have previously reported a topological model of the electrogenic Na+–HCO3− cotransporter (NBC1) in which the cotransporter spans the plasma membrane 10 times with N- and C-termini localized intracellularly. An analysis of conserved amino acid residues among members of the SLC4 superfamily in both the transmembrane segments (TMs) and intracellular/extracellular loops (ILs/ELs) provided the basis for the mutagenesis approach taken in the present study to determine amino acids involved in NBC1-mediated ion transport. Using large-scale mutagenesis, acidic and basic amino acids putatively involved in ion transport mediated by the predominant variant of NBC1 expressed in the kidney (kNBC1) were mutated to neutral and/or oppositely charged amino acids. All mutant kNBC1 cotransporters were expressed in HEK-293T cells and the Na+-dependent base flux of the mutants was determined using intracellular pH measurements with 2′,7′-bis-(carboxyethyl)-5(6)-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF). Critical glutamate, aspartate, lysine, arginine and histidine residues in ILs/ELs and TMs were detected that were essential for kNBC1-mediated Na+-dependent base transport. In addition, critical phenylalanine, serine, tyrosine, threonine and alanine residues in TMs and ILs/ELs were detected. Furthermore, several amino acid residues in ILs/ELs and TMs were shown to be essential for membrane targeting. The data demonstrate asymmetry of distribution of kNBC1 charged amino acids involved in ion recognition in putative outward-facing and inward-facing conformations. A model summarizing key amino acid residues involved in kNBC1-mediated ion transport is presented. PMID:15817634

  1. Advanced Clothing Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orndoff, Evelyne; Poritz, Darwin

    2014-01-01

    All human space missions require significant logistical mass and volume that add an unprecedented burden on longduration missions beyond low-Earth orbit. For these missions with limited cleaning resources, a new wardrobe must be developed to reduce this logistical burden by reducing clothing mass and extending clothing wear. The present studies have been undertaken, for the first time, to measure length of wear and to assess the acceptance of such extended wear. Garments in these studies are commercially available exercise T-shirts and shorts, routine-wear T-shirts, and longsleeved pullover shirts. Fabric composition (cotton, polyester, light-weight, superfine Merino wool, modacrylic, cotton/rayon, polyester/Cocona, modacrylic/Xstatic, modacrylic/rayon, modacrylic/lyocell/aramid), construction (open knit, tight knit, open weave, tight weave), and finishing treatment (none, quaternary ammonium salt) are the independent variables. Eleven studies are reported here: five studies of exercise T-shirts, three of exercise shorts, two of routine wear Tshirts, and one of shirts used as sleep-wear. All studies are conducted in a climate-controlled environment, similar to a space vehicle's. For exercise clothing, study participants wear the garments during aerobic exercise. For routine wear clothing, study participants wear the T-shirts daily in an office or laboratory. Daily questionnaires collected data on ordinal preferences of nine sensory elements and on reason for retiring a used garment. Study 1 compares knitted cotton, polyester, and Merino exercise T-shirts (61 participants), study 2, knitted polyester, modacrylic, and polyester/Cocona exercise T-shirts (40 participants), study 3, cotton and polyester exercise shorts, knitted and woven (70 participants), all three using factorial experimental designs with and without a finishing treatment, conducted at the Johnson Space Center, sharing study participants. Study 4 compares knitted polyester and ZQ Merino exercise T

  2. Blindness and auditory impairment caused by loss of the sodium bicarbonate cotransporter NBC3.

    PubMed

    Bok, Dean; Galbraith, Gary; Lopez, Ivan; Woodruff, Michael; Nusinowitz, Steven; BeltrandelRio, Hector; Huang, Wenhu; Zhao, Shulei; Geske, Robert; Montgomery, Charles; Van Sligtenhorst, Isaac; Friddle, Carl; Platt, Kenneth; Sparks, Mary Jean; Pushkin, Alexander; Abuladze, Natalia; Ishiyama, Akira; Dukkipati, Ramanath; Liu, Weixin; Kurtz, Ira

    2003-07-01

    Normal sensory transduction requires the efficient disposal of acid (H+) generated by neuronal and sensory receptor activity. Multiple highly sensitive transport mechanisms have evolved in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms to maintain acidity within strict limits. It is currently assumed that the multiplicity of these processes provides a biological robustness. Here we report that the visual and auditory systems have a specific requirement for H+ disposal mediated by the sodium bicarbonate cotransporter NBC3 (refs. 7,8). Mice lacking NBC3 develop blindness and auditory impairment because of degeneration of sensory receptors in the eye and inner ear as in Usher syndrome. Our results indicate that in certain sensory organs, in which the requirement to transduce specific environmental signals with speed, sensitivity and reliability is paramount, the choice of the H+ disposal mechanism used is limited.

  3. Taiwanese farm workers' pesticide knowledge, attitudes, behaviors and clothing practices.

    PubMed

    Weng, Chen-Yu; Black, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess Taiwanese fruit farm workers' knowledge, attitudes, behaviours, and clothing practices regarding pesticide activities. Seventy-seven fruit farm workers from four districts of Tainan City, Taiwan completed the questionnaire. Results indicated that farmer workers had a good overall level of knowledge of the adverse effects of pesticides on human health and most had experienced symptoms of pesticide poisoning. Farm workers' attitudes toward pesticide use and handling indicated that they saw pesticides useful in controlling pests. Farm workers indicated the limited availability of comfortable clothing designed for a hot and humid climate while still providing sufficient protection was the main reason for not wearing personal protective clothing (PPC) and personal protective equipment (PPE). Emphasis on safety precautions is needed when using pesticides, and the importance of PPC and PPE is essential for the health of farm workers.

  4. Carbon Cloth Supports Catalytic Electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, W. T. P.; Ammon, R. L.

    1983-01-01

    Carbon cloth is starting material for promising new catalytic electrodes. Carbon-cloth electrodes are more efficient than sintered-carbon configuration previously used. Are also chemically stable and require less catalyst--an important economic advantage when catalyst is metal such as platinum.

  5. New Clothing for Handheld Devices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2013-01-01

    Clothing is influenced by many factors, trends, and social happenings. Much of what is worn today had utilitarian roots in the past. In the activitiy presented in this article, students will have the opportunity to redesign clothing for new trends, in this case, the explosion of handheld electronic devices.

  6. Absolute vs. Weight-Related Maximum Oxygen Uptake in Firefighters: Fitness Evaluation with and without Protective Clothing and Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus among Age Group

    PubMed Central

    Perroni, Fabrizio; Guidetti, Laura; Cignitti, Lamberto; Baldari, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    During fire emergencies, firefighters wear personal protective devices (PC) and a self-contained breathing apparatus (S.C.B.A.) to be protected from injuries. The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences of aerobic level in 197 firefighters (age: 34±7 yr; BMI: 24.4±2.3 kg.m-2), evaluated by a Queen’s College Step field Test (QCST), performed with and without fire protective garments, and to analyze the differences among age groups (<25 yr; 26-30 yr, 31-35 yr, 36-40 yr and >40 yr). Variance analysis was applied to assess differences (p < 0.05) between tests and age groups observed in absolute and weight-related values, while a correlation was examined between QCST with and without PC+S.C.B.A. The results have shown that a 13% of firefighters failed to complete the test with PC+S.C.B.A. and significant differences between QCST performed with and without PC+S.C.B.A. in absolute (F(1,169) = 42.6, p < 0.0001) and weight-related (F(1,169) = 339.9, p < 0.0001) terms. A better correlation has been found in L•min-1 (r=0.67) than in ml•kg-1•min-1 (r=0.54). Moreover, we found significant differences among age groups both in absolute and weight-related values. The assessment of maximum oxygen uptake of firefighters in absolute term can be a useful tool to evaluate the firefighters' cardiovascular strain. PMID:25764201

  7. Absolute vs. weight-related maximum oxygen uptake in firefighters: fitness evaluation with and without protective clothing and self-contained breathing apparatus among age group.

    PubMed

    Perroni, Fabrizio; Guidetti, Laura; Cignitti, Lamberto; Baldari, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    During fire emergencies, firefighters wear personal protective devices (PC) and a self-contained breathing apparatus (S.C.B.A.) to be protected from injuries. The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences of aerobic level in 197 firefighters (age: 34±7 yr; BMI: 24.4±2.3 kg.m-2), evaluated by a Queen's College Step field Test (QCST), performed with and without fire protective garments, and to analyze the differences among age groups (<25 yr; 26-30 yr, 31-35 yr, 36-40 yr and >40 yr). Variance analysis was applied to assess differences (p < 0.05) between tests and age groups observed in absolute and weight-related values, while a correlation was examined between QCST with and without PC+S.C.B.A. The results have shown that a 13% of firefighters failed to complete the test with PC+S.C.B.A. and significant differences between QCST performed with and without PC+S.C.B.A. in absolute (F(1,169) = 42.6, p < 0.0001) and weight-related (F(1,169) = 339.9, p < 0.0001) terms. A better correlation has been found in L•min-1 (r=0.67) than in ml•kg-1•min-1 (r=0.54). Moreover, we found significant differences among age groups both in absolute and weight-related values. The assessment of maximum oxygen uptake of firefighters in absolute term can be a useful tool to evaluate the firefighters' cardiovascular strain.

  8. Role of clothing in both accelerating and impeding dermal absorption of airborne SVOCs.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Glenn C; Weschler, Charles J; Bekö, Gabriel; Koch, Holger M; Salthammer, Tunga; Schripp, Tobias; Toftum, Jørn; Clausen, Geo

    2016-01-01

    To assess the influence of clothing on dermal uptake of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs), we measured uptake of selected airborne phthalates for an individual wearing clean clothes or air-exposed clothes and compared these results with dermal uptake for bare-skinned individuals under otherwise identical experimental conditions. Using a breathing hood to isolate dermal from inhalation uptake, we measured urinary metabolites of diethylphthalate (DEP) and di-n-butylphthalate (DnBP) from an individual exposed to known concentrations of these compounds for 6 h in an experimental chamber. The individual wore either clean (fresh) cotton clothes or cotton clothes that had been exposed to the same chamber air concentrations for 9 days. For a 6-h exposure, the net amounts of DEP and DnBP absorbed when wearing fresh clothes were, respectively, 0.017 and 0.007 μg/kg/(μg/m(3)); for exposed clothes the results were 0.178 and 0.261 μg/kg/(μg/m(3)), respectively (values normalized by air concentration and body mass). When compared against the average results for bare-skinned participants, clean clothes were protective, whereas exposed clothes increased dermal uptake for DEP and DnBP by factors of 3.3 and 6.5, respectively. Even for non-occupational environments, wearing clothing that has adsorbed/absorbed indoor air pollutants can increase dermal uptake of SVOCs by substantial amounts relative to bare skin.

  9. Silicon on graphite cloth

    SciTech Connect

    Rand, J.A.; Cotter, J.E.; Thomas, C.J.; Ingram, A.E.; Bai, Y.B.; Ruffins, T.R.; Barnett, A.M.

    1994-12-31

    A new polycrystalline silicon solar cell has been developed that utilizes commercially available graphite cloth as a substrate. This solar cell has achieved an energy conversion efficiency of 13.4% (AM1.5G). It is believed that this is a record efficiency for a silicon solar cell formed on a graphite substrate. The silicon-on-fabric structure is comprised of a thin layer of polycrystalline silicon grown directly on the graphite fabric substrate. The structure is fabricated by a low-cost ribbon process that avoids the expense and waste of wafering. The fabric substrate gives structural support to the thin device. Critical to the achievement of device quality silicon layers is control over impurities in the graphite fabric. The silicon-on-fabric technology has the potential to supply lightweight, low-cost solar cells to weight-sensitive markets at a fraction of the cost of conventionally thinned wafers.

  10. Post mortem changes in relation to different types of clothing.

    PubMed

    Teo, C H; Pawita, A H; Khairul, O; Atiah Ayunni, A G; Noor Hazfalinda, H

    2013-06-01

    Post mortem changes are important in estimating post mortem interval (PMI). This project's aim was to study the effect of burial and type of clothing on rate of decomposition, which can contribute to estimating PMI for victims. 12 rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) carcasses were separated into 3 groups: no clothing, light clothing and heavy clothing. Control subjects were placed on the ground surface while test subjects were buried at 30 cm depth graves. Soil samples prior and after decomposition were collected for soil pH and moisture analysis. Post mortem change was assessed using a Total Body Score system. The head, neck and limb regions were found to decay faster than the body trunk region. Mummifi cation occurred on body parts that were exposed directly to the atmosphere while adipocere formed on some buried subjects. Burial delayed decomposition due to lower insect activity and lower soil temperature. The soil layer also blocked the accessibility of majority of the arthropods, causing further delay in decomposition. Clothing enhanced decay for bodies on ground surface because it provided protection for maggots and retained moisture on tissues. However, clothing delayed decomposition in buried bodies because it physically separated the bodies from soil and arthropods. Higher sun exposure and repetitive exhumation showed acceleration of decomposition. The decomposition process increased soil pH and moisture percentage values. Soil pH initially increased until pH 8.0-8.4 followed by a slight decrease while soil moisture percentage changed inconsistently. Burial was significant in affecting post mortem change, F(1,11)=12.991, p<0.05 while type of clothing was not significant, F(2,9)=0.022, p=0.978 and combination of both type of clothing and burial factors were also not significant, F(2,3)=0.429, p=0.686. For validation, an accuracy of 83.33% was achieved based on soil pH and soil moisture percentage analysis.

  11. The effect of intermediate clothing targets on shotgun ballistics.

    PubMed

    Cail, Kenneth; Klatt, Edward

    2013-12-01

    The ballistic properties of shotgun shells are complex because of multiple projectiles fired simultaneously that interact and spread out to affect their energy relayed to a human target. Intermediate targets such as clothing can affect penetration into tissues. We studied the effect of common clothing fabrics as intermediate targets on penetration of shotgun shell pellets, using ordnance gelatin to simulate soft tissue and thin cowhide to simulate skin. A standard 12-gauge shotgun with modified choke was used with no. 8 shot ammunition. We found that protection afforded by fabrics to reduce penetration of shotgun pellets into tissues was greater at increasing distance from the muzzle beyond 40 yd (36.6 m). The thicker denim and cotton fabrics provided slightly greater protection than polyester. This study demonstrates that clothing modifies the potential wound patterns to victims of shotgun injuries.

  12. 38 CFR 3.810 - Clothing allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clothing allowance. 3.810..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Special Benefits § 3.810 Clothing allowance. (a) Except... therefor, to an annual clothing allowance as specified in 38 U.S.C. 1162. The annual clothing allowance...

  13. 20 CFR 638.525 - Clothing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Clothing. 638.525 Section 638.525 Employees... THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.525 Clothing. The Job Corps Director shall establish procedures to provide clothing for all students by means of a clothing purchase allowance and...

  14. Testing Adhesive Bonds to Cloths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomann, David G.

    1987-01-01

    Nondestructive tool simple and inexpensive. Easy-to-use tool nondestructively tests strength of adhesive bond between cloth and straight rigid edge. Developed for testing advanced flexible reusable surface insulation.

  15. Designing Clothing for Coal Miners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Susan M.

    1977-01-01

    Describes procedures taken by apparel design students, working in an industrial setting, in designing functional clothing for coal miners as part of the Armco Steel Corporation's Student Design Program. (TA)

  16. Molecular characterization of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) sodium bicarbonate cotransporter (NBC) and its role in response to pH stress.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yi-Ming; Chen, Ting; Ren, Chun-Hua; Huang, Wen; Jiang, Xiao; Gao, Yan; Huo, Da; Hu, Chao-Qun

    2017-02-28

    The sodium bicarbonate cotransporter (NBC) is an integral membrane ion transporter that can transport HCO3(-) (or a related species, such as CO3(2-)) across the plasma membrane. Previous researches revealed that NBC might play an important role in the regulation of intracellular pH in vertebrates. In the present study, an NBC cDNA was identified from Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) and designated as Lv-NBC. The full-length Lv-NBC cDNA is 4479 bp in size, containing a 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of 59 bp, a 3'-UTR of 835 bp and an open reading frame (ORF) of 3585 bp that encodes a protein of 1194 amino acids with a deduced molecular weight of 134.34 kDa. The Lv-NBC protein contains two functional domains (Band_3_cyto and HCO3_cotransp) and twelve transmembrane (TM) domains. Expression of the Lv-NBC mRNA was ubiquitously detected in all selected tissues, with the highest level in the gill. By in situ hybridization (ISH) with Digoxigenin-labeled probe, the Lv-NBC positive cells were shown mainly located in the secondary gill filaments. After low or high pH challenge, the transcript levels of Lv-NBC in the gill were found to be up-regulated. After knockdown of the Lv-NBC level by siRNA, the mortality of shrimp significantly increased under pH stress. Our study, as a whole, may provide evidences for the role of NBC in shrimp responding to pH stress, and give a new insight of the acid/base homeostasis mechanism in crustaceans.

  17. Waterless Clothes-Cleaning Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Glenn; Ganske, Shane

    2013-01-01

    A waterless clothes-cleaning machine has been developed that removes loose particulates and deodorizes dirty laundry with regenerative chemical processes to make the clothes more comfortable to wear and have a fresher smell. This system was initially developed for use in zero-g, but could be altered for 1-g environments where water or other re sources are scarce. Some of these processes include, but are not limited to, airflow, filtration, ozone generation, heat, ultraviolet light, and photocatalytic titanium oxide.

  18. The UTCI-clothing model.

    PubMed

    Havenith, George; Fiala, Dusan; Błazejczyk, Krzysztof; Richards, Mark; Bröde, Peter; Holmér, Ingvar; Rintamaki, Hannu; Benshabat, Yael; Jendritzky, Gerd

    2012-05-01

    The Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) was conceived as a thermal index covering the whole climate range from heat to cold. This would be impossible without considering clothing as the interface between the person (here, the physiological model of thermoregulation) and the environment. It was decided to develop a clothing model for this application in which the following three factors were considered: (1) typical dressing behaviour in different temperatures, as observed in the field, resulting in a model of the distribution of clothing over the different body segments in relation to the ambient temperature, (2) the changes in clothing insulation and vapour resistance caused by wind and body movement, and (3) the change in wind speed in relation to the height above ground. The outcome was a clothing model that defines in detail the effective clothing insulation and vapour resistance for each of the thermo-physiological model's body segments over a wide range of climatic conditions. This paper details this model's conception and documents its definitions.

  19. The UTCI-clothing model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havenith, George; Fiala, Dusan; Błazejczyk, Krzysztof; Richards, Mark; Bröde, Peter; Holmér, Ingvar; Rintamaki, Hannu; Benshabat, Yael; Jendritzky, Gerd

    2012-05-01

    The Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) was conceived as a thermal index covering the whole climate range from heat to cold. This would be impossible without considering clothing as the interface between the person (here, the physiological model of thermoregulation) and the environment. It was decided to develop a clothing model for this application in which the following three factors were considered: (1) typical dressing behaviour in different temperatures, as observed in the field, resulting in a model of the distribution of clothing over the different body segments in relation to the ambient temperature, (2) the changes in clothing insulation and vapour resistance caused by wind and body movement, and (3) the change in wind speed in relation to the height above ground. The outcome was a clothing model that defines in detail the effective clothing insulation and vapour resistance for each of the thermo-physiological model's body segments over a wide range of climatic conditions. This paper details this model's conception and documents its definitions.

  20. Recent Advances in Protective Clothing Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-04-01

    compressible insulating medium packaged in waterproof bladders. Use of a compressible medium, allows one to significantly reduce suit volume via vacuum ... packaging . The prototype suit is configured into a wearable "fanny" package with a total volume and weight of 5.5 litres and 2.4 kg, respectively. Since the

  1. HITECHCLO (High Technologies for Protective Military Clothing)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-02-01

    core of his natural cooling system is the eccrine gland, an ex- tremely efficient mechanism of a simple coil and duct that can pump 40 times its...weight in moisture. These 3 million glands resident just below the surface of the skin can produce about 10 quarts of sweat daily. The evaporation of this... sweat cools the individual. Unevaporated sweat , however, incurs a penalty, is useless, causes discomfort, takes energy to produce, and requires

  2. The Structure and Properties of Parachute Cloths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcnicholas, H J; Hedrick, F

    1930-01-01

    The requisite properties of a parachute cloth are discussed and the methods for measuring these properties described. In addition to the structural analysis of the cloths, the properties measured were weight, breaking strength, tear resistance, elasticity, and air permeability. Thirty-six silk cloths of domestic manufacture, not previously used in parachute construction are compared with some silk cloths of foreign manufacture. These foreign cloths were ones proven by trial and extended use to be suitable materials for parachute construction. Contrary to the belief that domestic woven cloths were not suitable materials for parachute construction, it is shown that many domestic silk cloths are satisfactory and in some respects superior to the foreign products. Based on a comparative study of all the cloths, specifications are drawn for the manufacture of silk parachute cloth.

  3. Improved Clothing for Firefighters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abeles, F. J.

    1982-01-01

    Application of space technology should reduce incidence of injuries, heat exhaustion, and fatigue in firefighters. Using advanced materials and design concepts of aerospace technology, protective gear was fabricated and tested for the heat, face, torso, hand and foot. In tests, it was found that new gear protects better than conventional firefighter gear, weighs 40 percent less, and reduces wearer's energy expenditure by 25 percent.

  4. Evaluating the efficacy of cloth facemasks in reducing particulate matter exposure.

    PubMed

    Shakya, Kabindra M; Noyes, Alyssa; Kallin, Randa; Peltier, Richard E

    2016-08-17

    Inexpensive cloth masks are widely used in developing countries to protect from particulate pollution albeit limited data on their efficacy exists. This study examined the efficiency of four types of masks (three types of cloth masks and one type of surgical mask) commonly worn in the developing world. Five monodispersed aerosol sphere size (30, 100, and 500 nm, and 1 and 2.5 μm) and diluted whole diesel exhaust was used to assess facemask performance. Among the three cloth mask types, a cloth mask with an exhaust valve performed best with filtration efficiency of 80-90% for the measured polystyrene latex (PSL) particle sizes. Two styles of commercially available fabric masks were the least effective with a filtration efficiency of 39-65% for PSL particles, and they performed better as the particle size increased. When the cloth masks were tested against lab-generated whole diesel particles, the filtration efficiency for three particle sizes (30, 100, and 500 nm) ranged from 15% to 57%. Standard N95 mask performance was used as a control to compare the results with cloth masks, and our results suggest that cloth masks are only marginally beneficial in protecting individuals from particles<2.5 μm. Compared with cloth masks, disposable surgical masks are more effective in reducing particulate exposure.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication, 17 August 2016; doi:10.1038/jes.2016.42.

  5. Dielectric-constant measurements in a system of NbC grains near the percolation threshold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLachlan, D. S.; Oblakova, I. I.; Pakhomov, A. B.

    1994-06-01

    Measurements of the complex dielectric constant (ε‧ + iε″) on a series on NbC-KCl composites in a wide range of concentrations are performed as a function of φ (the volume fraction of the 1-3 μm NbC grains) at frequencies of 10 2, 10 3, 10 4 and 10 5 Hz. Frequency scaling of ε = ε‧ + iε″ at the metal-insulator transition is different from one which follows from the scaling theory of an ideal percolation system. We observe two different values of the critical volume fraction of metal. The first critical concentration, φ c1, is a cross-over point where the dielectric-constant frequency dependence changes and the loss factor is on the order of unity. The temperature behavior of the complex dielectric constant below the superconducting transition temperature Tc reveals a transformation of a system of isolated NbC grains into a system of weakly coupled tunneling junctions at φ c1. The expected divergence of ε‧ is observed as the second critical volume concentration φ c2 > φ c1 is approached. At this concentration a cross-over from the capacitive tunneling junction medium to a truly metallic state occurs. At φ > φ c2, ε‧ decreases rapidly as a function of φ and becomes negative at φ - φ c2∼0.01, due to the negative effective real dielectric constant of the percolation metallic cluster which spans the system.

  6. NBC's ``10.5'' May Answer An Age-Old Seismologic Question

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, Andrew V.

    2004-04-01

    There is a new NBC 4-hour miniseries set to air during the May sweeps period (2-3 May) titled simply enough ``10.5.'' No, this is not a sequel to ``9 and ½ weeks'', nor is it a mini-sequel to ``10''. This number instead refers to a mega-earthquake that rocks the west coast of the United States. One may think that the network writers have done their homework and have consulted a geophysicist or two regarding the realism of their program, let alone the title. This is just a short note to comment on their potential folly. I would like to clarify to the network writers, as well as to the non-seismologists in the Earth science community what exactly a magnitude 10.5 earthquake could be, and why, if such were to occur, it may be more than just a west coast problem. Alternatively, NBC may just soon answer an age-old seismologic question...

  7. Clothing creator trademark : Business plan

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, B.

    1990-10-01

    SYMAGERY has developed a patented process to manufacture clothing without direct human labor. This CLOTHING CREATOR{trademark}, will have the ability to produce two (2) perfect garments every 45 seconds or one (1) every 30 seconds. The process will combine Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) technology with heat molding and ultrasonic bonding/cutting techniques. This system for garment production, will have the capacity to produce garments of higher quality and at lower productions costs than convention cut and sew methods. ADVANTAGES of the process include: greatly reduced production costs; increased quality of garments; reduction in lead time; and capacity to make new class of garments. This technology will accommodate a variety of knit, woven and nonwoven materials containing a majority of synthetic fibers. Among the many style of garments that could be manufactured by this process are: work clothing, career apparel, athletic garments, medical disposables, health care products, activewear, haz/mat garments, military clothing, cleanroom clothing, outdoor wear, upholstery, and highly contoured stuffed toy shells. 3 refs.

  8. Clothing burns in Canadian children

    PubMed Central

    Stanwick, Richard S.

    1985-01-01

    A Canadian survey of 11 tertiary care pediatric centres with specialized burn facilities revealed that an estimated 37 children up to 9 years of age are admitted annually to such hospitals because of clothing burns. Sleepwear accounts for an estimated 21 such burns per year. Girls were found to suffer the most severe burns and represented eight of the nine children in the series who died. Loose and flowing garments dominated the girls' styles. The results of multiple-regression analysis confirmed that style of clothing (loose and flowing as opposed to snug) was the most significant predictor of burn severity, length of hospital stay, the need for skin grafting and survival. The ignition situation (avoidance of parental supervision at the time of injury) was the only other important predictor. The success of regulatory actions in other countries in reducing the incidence of severe clothing burns is reviewed, and preventive strategies for Canada are explored. ImagesFig. 2 PMID:3995433

  9. Detecting ticks on light versus dark clothing.

    PubMed

    Stjernberg, Louise; Berglund, Johan

    2005-01-01

    It is a common belief that ticks are more visible and easier to detect on light clothing in comparison with dark clothing. We studied which of the clothing, light or dark, had the least attractive effect on Ixodes ricinus, thus minimizing exposure and thereby in theory helping to prevent tick-borne diseases in humans. 10 participants, exposed by walking in tick endemic areas, wore alternately light and dark clothing before every new exposure. Nymphal and adult ticks on the clothing were collected and counted. In total, 886 nymphal ticks were collected. The overall mean in found ticks between both groups differed significantly, with 20.8 more ticks per person on light clothing. All participants had more ticks on light clothing in all periods of exposure. Dark clothing seems to attract fewer ticks.

  10. Advocating for Normal Birth With Normal Clothes

    PubMed Central

    Waller-Wise, Renece

    2007-01-01

    Childbirth educators need to be aware that the clothes they wear when teaching classes send a nonverbal message to class participants. Regardless of who wears the clothing or what is worn, clothes send a message; thus, both the advantages and disadvantages related to clothing choice should be considered. Ultimately, the message should reflect the values of supporting normal birth. For childbirth educators who are allowed to choose their own apparel to wear in their classes, street clothes may be the benchmark for which to strive. This article discusses the many nonverbal messages that clothes convey and provides support for the choice of street clothes as the dress for the professional childbirth educator; thus, “normal clothes to promote normal birth.” PMID:18408807

  11. Shopping for clothes: Body satisfaction, appearance investment, and functions of clothing among female shoppers.

    PubMed

    Tiggemann, Marika; Lacey, Catherine

    2009-09-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the link between clothing and body experience in women of different ages. Participants were 162 female clothes shoppers between the ages of 18 and 55 who completed questionnaire measures of body image, functions of clothing, self-esteem, and enjoyment of clothes shopping. It was found that clothing was worn primarily for assurance and fashion by women of all ages. On the other hand, BMI and body dissatisfaction were related to the use of clothing for camouflage purposes and to a more negative clothes shopping experience. Both components of appearance investment were related to choice of clothes for fashion and assurance. However, the self-evaluative salience component was negatively related, while the motivational salience was positively related, to enjoyment of clothes shopping. It was concluded that although clothing is an under-researched aspect of body image, it represents an important part of women's appearance management, whatever their age.

  12. Effect of clothing weight on body weight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: In clinical settings, it is common to measure weight of clothed patients and estimate a correction for the weight of clothing, but we can find no papers in the medical literature regarding the variability in clothing weight with weather, season, and gender. Methods: Fifty adults (35 wom...

  13. Clothing Production. Student Learning Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridge Vocational-Technical Center, Winter Haven, FL.

    These 59 learning guides are self-instructional packets for 59 tasks identified as essential for performance on an entry-level job in clothing production. Each guide is based on a terminal performance objective (task) and 2-5 enabling objectives. For each enabling objective, some or all of these materials may be presented: learning steps (outline…

  14. Kids, Clothes and Peer Pressure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Ellen

    1989-01-01

    Parents are advised on ways to cope with the peer pressure associated with clothes. Techniques focus on countering and preventing peer pressure or, at least, putting it into healthier perspective. A list of retorts children can make to peer critics is included. (IAH)

  15. 76 FR 70883 - Clothing Allowance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ... out or tears a single article of the veteran's clothing and for each physician-prescribed medication... uses more than one qualifying prosthetic or orthopedic appliance, physician- prescribed medication for more than one skin condition, or an appliance and a medication for a service-connected disability...

  16. The COOH termini of NBC3 and the 56-kDa H+-ATPase subunit are PDZ motifs involved in their interaction.

    PubMed

    Pushkin, Alexander; Abuladze, Natalia; Newman, Debra; Muronets, Vladimir; Sassani, Pejvak; Tatishchev, Sergei; Kurtz, Ira

    2003-03-01

    The electroneutral sodium bicarbonate cotransporter 3 (NBC3) coimmunoprecipitates from renal lysates with the vacuolar H(+)-ATPase. In renal type A and B intercalated cells, NBC3 colocalizes with the vacuolar H(+)-ATPase. The involvement of the COOH termini of NBC3 and the 56-kDa subunit of the proton pump in the interaction of these proteins was investigated. The intact and modified COOH termini of NBC3 and the 56-kDa subunit of the proton pump were synthesized, coupled to Sepharose beads, and used to pull down kidney membrane proteins. Both the 56- and the 70-kDa subunits of the proton pump, as well as a PDZ domain containing protein Na(+)/H(+) exchanger regulatory factor 1 (NHERF-1), were bound to the intact 18 amino acid NBC3 COOH terminus. A peptide truncated by five COOH-terminal amino acids did not bind these proteins. Replacement of the COOH-terminal leucine with glycine blocked binding of both the proton pump subunits but did not affect binding of NHERF-1. The 18 amino acid COOH terminus of the 56-kDa subunit of the proton pump bound NHERF-1 and NBC3, but the truncated and modified peptide did not. A complex of NBC3, the 56-kDa subunit of the proton pump, and NHERF-1 was identified in rat kidney. The data indicate that the COOH termini of NBC3 and the 56-kDa subunit of the vacuolar proton pump are PDZ-interacting motifs that are necessary for the interaction of these proteins. NHERF-1 is involved in the interaction of NBC3 and the vacuolar proton pump.

  17. Density and particle size of cubic niobium carbide NbC y nanocrystalline powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurlov, A. S.; Gusev, A. I.

    2017-01-01

    The density of coarse-crystalline and nanocrystalline powders of niobium carbide NbC y (0.77 ≤ y ≤ 0.96) (with a different average particle sizes of 3-5 μm and 60-30 nm, respectively) was measured by helium pycnometry. The nanopowders were obtained via the high-energy ball milling of initial coarse-crystalline niobium carbide powders. The particle size of niobium carbide powders was estimated by X-ray diffraction and the Brunauer-Emmet-Taylor (BET) method. The nanopowder density measured by helium pycnometry was shown to be underestimated in comparison with the true density due to the adsorption of helium by the highly developed surface of carbide nanopowders.

  18. Evaluation of cloths for decontamination by wiping

    SciTech Connect

    Rankin, W.N.; Reiff, D.J.; Fink, S.D. ); Luckenbach, R.L. )

    1990-01-01

    Treated polyester cloth was evaluated in laboratory-scale and larger-scale tests as an alternative to atomic wipes and cotton cloth for use in decontamination by wiping. The advantages of the treated polyester are as follows: does not react with nitric acid to form unstable product, more fire resistant, less volume of radioactive waste generated (versus atomic wipes), and product can be recovered by soaking the polyester cloths in nitric acid. Results are that even though treated polyester wiping cloths are slightly less effective than atomic wipes and cotton cloth, its many other benefits greatly outweigh this slight disadvantage. 5 figs.

  19. Knockdown and repellent effect of permethrin-impregnated army uniform cloth against Aedes aegypti after different cycles of washings.

    PubMed

    Sukumaran, D; Sharma, Ajay Kumar; Wasu, Yogesh H; Pandey, Pratibha; Tyagi, Varun

    2014-05-01

    Personnel protection is one of the methods for protection from bites of mosquitoes and other arthropod vectors transmitting many dreadful diseases. Insect repellents and other plant products are normally used to ward off mosquitoes. Application of synthetic pyrethroid permethrin on cloth is adopted for repelling arthropod vectors in many countries for military and civil purposes. In the present study, attempt has been made to impregnate permethrin in the army uniform cloth and to evaluate for its knockdown and repellency against unfed female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in laboratory condition. WHO protocols were adopted for impregnation of permethrin on cloth and evaluation for its knockdown and repellency after different cycles of washing. Results showed that 93.33% of mosquitoes were knocked down within 1 h after the first washing while its efficacy reduced gradually till the fifty-fifth washing. Landing of mosquitoes on the permethrin-treated cloth was found to increase with respect to number of washings as compared to the untreated cloth. Within 24 h, 100% mortality of all the mosquitoes exposed to permethrin-impregnated cloth was observed. SEM-EDX studies on the texture of untreated cloth and permethrin-treated cloth after different cycles of washing also revealed presence of permethrin on treated cloth.

  20. Modeling Neanderthal clothing using ethnographic analogues.

    PubMed

    Wales, Nathan

    2012-12-01

    Although direct evidence for Neanderthal clothing is essentially nonexistent, information about Paleolithic clothing could provide insights into the biological, technological, and behavioral capabilities of Neanderthals. This paper takes a new approach to understanding Neanderthal clothing through the collection and analysis of clothing data for 245 recent hunter-gatherer groups. These data are tested against environmental factors to infer what clothing humans tend to wear under different conditions. Beta regression is used to predict the proportion of the body covered by clothing according to a location's mean temperature of the coldest month, average wind speed, and annual rainfall. In addition, logistic regression equations predict clothing use on specific parts of the body. Neanderthal clothing patterns are modeled across Europe and over a range of Pleistocene environmental conditions, thereby providing a new appreciation of Paleolithic behavioral variability. After accounting for higher tolerances to cold temperatures, it is predicted that some Neanderthals would have covered up to 80% of their bodies during the winter, probably with non-tailored clothing. It is also likely that some populations covered the hands and feet. In comparison with Neanderthals, Upper Paleolithic modern humans are found to have worn more sophisticated clothing. Importantly, these predictions shed new light on the relationship between Neanderthal extinction and their simple clothing.

  1. Clothing Matching for Visually Impaired Persons

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Shuai; Tian, YingLi; Arditi, Aries

    2012-01-01

    Matching clothes is a challenging task for many blind people. In this paper, we present a proof of concept system to solve this problem. The system consists of 1) a camera connected to a computer to perform pattern and color matching process; 2) speech commands for system control and configuration; and 3) audio feedback to provide matching results for both color and patterns of clothes. This system can handle clothes in deficient color without any pattern, as well as clothing with multiple colors and complex patterns to aid both blind and color deficient people. Furthermore, our method is robust to variations of illumination, clothing rotation and wrinkling. To evaluate the proposed prototype, we collect two challenging databases including clothes without any pattern, or with multiple colors and different patterns under different conditions of lighting and rotation. Results reported here demonstrate the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed clothing matching system. PMID:22523465

  2. Clothing Matching for Visually Impaired Persons.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Shuai; Tian, Yingli; Arditi, Aries

    2011-01-01

    Matching clothes is a challenging task for many blind people. In this paper, we present a proof of concept system to solve this problem. The system consists of 1) a camera connected to a computer to perform pattern and color matching process; 2) speech commands for system control and configuration; and 3) audio feedback to provide matching results for both color and patterns of clothes. This system can handle clothes in deficient color without any pattern, as well as clothing with multiple colors and complex patterns to aid both blind and color deficient people. Furthermore, our method is robust to variations of illumination, clothing rotation and wrinkling. To evaluate the proposed prototype, we collect two challenging databases including clothes without any pattern, or with multiple colors and different patterns under different conditions of lighting and rotation. Results reported here demonstrate the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed clothing matching system.

  3. A primer on clothing systems for cold-weather field work

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Denner, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    Hypothermia in cold environments can be prevented by physiological adaptation and by the proper use of cold weather clothing. The human body adjusts to cold temperature by increasing the rates of basal metabolism, specific dynamic action, and physical exercise. Heat loss is reduced by vasoconstriction. Clothing systems for cold weather reduce loss by providing insulation and protection from the elements. Satisfactory cold- weather clothing is constructed of wool fabrics or the synthetic fibers polypropylene and polyester. Outerwear suitable for cold climates is insulated with down, high-loft polyester fiberfills, or the new synthetic thin insulators. (USGS)

  4. A primer on clothing systems for cold-weather field work

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Denner, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    Hypothermia in cold environments can be prevented by physiological adaptation and by the proper use of cold weather clothing. The human body adjusts to cold temperature by increasing the rates of basal metabolism, specific dynamic action, and physical exercise. Heat loss is reduced by vasoconstriction. Clothing systems for cold weather reduce loss by providing insulation and protection from the elements. Satisfactory cold- weather clothing is constructed of wool fabrics or the synthetic fibers polypropylene and polyester. Outerwear suitable for cold climates is insulated with down, high-loft polyester fiberfills, or the new synthetic thin insulators. (USGS)

  5. Impact of the medical clothing on the thermal stress of surgeons.

    PubMed

    Zwolińska, M; Bogdan, A

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the presented experiments was to determine thermal stress of surgeons performing their work with a high metabolic rate, wearing clothing characterized by high insulation and impermeability protecting them against water vapour but also in thermal conditions of a warm climate protecting patients against hypothermia. The experiments were conducted with the participation of 8 volunteers. Each subject took part in the experiment four times, i.e. in each of the four tested surgical gowns. The experiments were conducted in a climatic chamber where thermal conditions characteristic of an operating theatre were simulated. The parameters to be measured included: skin temperature, temperature measured in the auditory canal, sweat rate as well as temperature and humidity between clothing and a human body. The conducted experiments provided the grounds to conclude that medical clothing can be regarded as barrier clothing and it can influence thermal load of a human body.

  6. A Systems Analysis of Alternative Concepts for Aircrew Cold Weather Clothing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-01

    requirements specIfied ’in the Letter of Agreement. I Two analytical models which simulate body cooling for various metabolic anc environmental...of Heat Loss and the Application of Clothing 45 Theory Modeling of Whole Body Cooling 45 Modeling of Extremity Cooling 48 4. Auxiliary Heat for...feasibility of conventional clothing to protect from the cold is assessed by applying cooling models . The results of the analysis of the insulation requirements

  7. Cushioning and lateral stability functions of cloth sport shoes.

    PubMed

    Fong, Daniel Tik-Pui; Hong, Youlian; Li, Jing Xian

    2007-09-01

    In this study, we evaluated the protective functions of cloth sport shoes, including cushioning and lateral stability. Twelve male students participated in the study (mean +/- s: age 12.7 +/- 0.4 years, mass 40.7 +/- 5.9kg, height 1.50 +/- 0.04m). Cloth sport shoes, running shoes, basketball shoes, crosstraining shoes, and barefoot conditions were investigated in random sequence. Human pendulum and cutting movement tests were used to assess cushioning performance and lateral stability, respectively. For cushioning, the running shoes (2.06 body weight, BW) performed the best, while the cross-training shoes (2.30 BW) and the basketball shoes (2.37 BW) both performed better than the cloth sport shoes (2.55 BW) and going barefoot (2.63 BW). For the lateral stability test, range of inversion--eversion was found to be from 3.6 to 4.9 degrees, which was far less than that for adult participants (> 20 degrees). No significant differences were found between conditions. All conditions showed prolonged durations from foot-strike to maximum inversion (66-95 ms), which was less vigorous than that for adult participants (< 40 ms) and was unlikely to evoke intrinsic stability failure. In conclusion, the cloth sport shoe showed inferior cushioning capability but the same lateral stability as the other sports shoes for children.

  8. Pre-Flight Advanced Clothing Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orndoff, Evelyne; Poritz, Darwin; Schlesinger, Thilini; Byme, Vicky

    2014-01-01

    All human space missions require significant logistical mass and volume that will become an excessive burden for long duration missions beyond low Earth orbit. The current International Space Station (ISS) crew wardrobe has already evolved not only to reduce some of the logistical burden but also to address crew preference. The present study was undertaken to find ways further to reduce this logistical burden while examining human response to different types of clothes. The primary objective of the study is to measure how long people can wear the same exercise garment, depending on the type of fabric and the presence of antimicrobial treatment. The secondary objective is to assess the reasons for length of wear from perceptions of clothing characteristics, including nine ordinal scales. Cardiovascular exercise was chosen as the activity in this experiment for its profuse sweating effect and because it is considered a more severe treatment applied to the clothes than every-day usage. Study garments were exercise T-shirts and shorts purchased from various vendors. Fabric construction, fabric composition, and finishing treatment were defined as the key variables. A web-based questionnaire was used for self-reported data collection. The study was divided in three balanced experiments: a cotton-polyester-wool (CPW) T-shirts study with 61 participants, a polyester-modacrylic-polyester/cocona (PMC) T-shirts study with 40 participants, and a shorts study with 70 participants. In the CPW study, the T-shirts were made of 100% cotton, or of 100% polyester or of 100% wool, and categorized into open and tight knit constructions. In the PMC study, the T-shirts were made of 100% polyester, or of 82% modacrylic, or of 95% polyester with 5% cocona fiber, without construction distinction. The shorts were made either of 100% cotton or of 100% polyester, and were knitted or woven. Some garments were treated with Bio-Protect 500 antimicrobial finish according the experimental design

  9. Clothes Dryer Automatic Termination Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.

    2014-10-01

    Volume 2: Improved Sensor and Control Designs Many residential clothes dryers on the market today provide automatic cycles that are intended to stop when the clothes are dry, as determined by the final remaining moisture content (RMC). However, testing of automatic termination cycles has shown that many dryers are susceptible to over-drying of loads, leading to excess energy consumption. In particular, tests performed using the DOE Test Procedure in Appendix D2 of 10 CFR 430 subpart B have shown that as much as 62% of the energy used in a cycle may be from over-drying. Volume 1 of this report shows an average of 20% excess energy from over-drying when running automatic cycles with various load compositions and dryer settings. Consequently, improving automatic termination sensors and algorithms has the potential for substantial energy savings in the U.S.

  10. Genomic organization of the DCTN1-SLC4A5 locus encoding both NBC4 and p150(Glued).

    PubMed

    Pushkin, A; Abuladze, N; Newman, D; Tatishchev, S; Kurtz, I

    2001-01-01

    In eukaryotes, it is rare for a single gene to encode two functionally unrelated proteins. p150(Glued) is a component of the dynactin heteromultimeric complex of proteins which is required for dynein-mediated vesicle and organelle transport by microtubules. NBC4 is an electrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransporter, which regulates intracellular pH. Here we report that NBC4 and p150(Glued) are encoded by the same locus, DCTN1-SLC4A5. We have characterized the genomic organization of the human DCTN1-SLC4A5 locus which spans approximately 230 kilobases on chromosome 2p13 and contains 66 exons. This information should allow the study of potential genomic alterations of DCTN1-SLC4A5 in patients with diseases mapping to this genomic region.

  11. The development of anti-heat stress clothing for construction workers in hot and humid weather.

    PubMed

    Chan, Albert P C; Guo, Y P; Wong, Francis K W; Li, Y; Sun, S; Han, X

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop anti-heat stress clothing for construction workers in hot and humid weather. Following DeJonge's functional clothing design process, the design situation was explored, including clothing fabric heat/moisture transporting properties and UV protection and the aspects of clothing ergonomic design (mobility, convenience, and safety). The problem structure was derived from the results of the surveys in three local construction sites, which agreed well with the task requirements and observations. Specifications were consequently described and 30 commercially available fabrics were identified and tested. Fabric testing data and design considerations were inputted in S-smart system to predict the thermal functional performance of the clothing. A new uniform prototype was developed and evaluated. The results of all measurements suggest that the new uniform which incorporated fabrics with superior heat/moisture transporting properties and loose-fitting design could reduce the workers' heat stress and improve their comfort and work performance. Practitioner Summary: The construction workers' uniform currently used in Hong Kong during summer was unsatisfactory. Following DeJonge's functional clothing design process, an anti-heat stress uniform was developed by testing 30 fabrics and predicting clothing thermal functional performance using S-smart system. The new uniform could reduce the workers' heat stress and improve their comfort and work performance.

  12. [Clothes of the HOUSE, or Clothes of REASON? Children's clothing during the Age of Enlightenment].

    PubMed

    Kottek, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Children's clothing is a subject that forms part of the history of pediatrics. Many studies focus on the ideas developed by Locke and Rousseau. Here we choose to focus our study on an author who is rarely quoted: Jacques Ballexserd (1726-1774), "citizen of Geneva," who is little known to historians of pediatrics. However, George Frederic Still (1868-1941) devotes two pages to his views in his Histoire de la Pédiatrie.

  13. Physics model for wringing of wet cloth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dany Rahmayanti, Handika; Utami, Fisca Dian; Abdullah, Mikrajuddin

    2016-11-01

    One activity that has been performed by human beings for a long time is washing clothes. Before the invention of the washing machine, clothes were washed by hand and then wrung before drying in the open air. When observed carefully, the wringing of cloth presents some interesting phenomena. However, there are no reports on the physical modelling of this very old activity. This paper reports a simple model to explain the discharge of water from clothes when squeezed. A simple tool was also designed to retrieve data to confirm the theory. We found that the theoretical predictions accurately explained the experimental results. The experiments were conducted on two types of cloth: towels and batik cloth. We also obtained a universal curve to which all the data converged.

  14. Origin of clothing lice indicates early clothing use by anatomically modern humans in Africa.

    PubMed

    Toups, Melissa A; Kitchen, Andrew; Light, Jessica E; Reed, David L

    2011-01-01

    Clothing use is an important modern behavior that contributed to the successful expansion of humans into higher latitudes and cold climates. Previous research suggests that clothing use originated anywhere between 40,000 and 3 Ma, though there is little direct archaeological, fossil, or genetic evidence to support more specific estimates. Since clothing lice evolved from head louse ancestors once humans adopted clothing, dating the emergence of clothing lice may provide more specific estimates of the origin of clothing use. Here, we use a Bayesian coalescent modeling approach to estimate that clothing lice diverged from head louse ancestors at least by 83,000 and possibly as early as 170,000 years ago. Our analysis suggests that the use of clothing likely originated with anatomically modern humans in Africa and reinforces a broad trend of modern human developments in Africa during the Middle to Late Pleistocene.

  15. Origin of Clothing Lice Indicates Early Clothing Use by Anatomically Modern Humans in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Toups, Melissa A.; Kitchen, Andrew; Light, Jessica E.; Reed, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Clothing use is an important modern behavior that contributed to the successful expansion of humans into higher latitudes and cold climates. Previous research suggests that clothing use originated anywhere between 40,000 and 3 Ma, though there is little direct archaeological, fossil, or genetic evidence to support more specific estimates. Since clothing lice evolved from head louse ancestors once humans adopted clothing, dating the emergence of clothing lice may provide more specific estimates of the origin of clothing use. Here, we use a Bayesian coalescent modeling approach to estimate that clothing lice diverged from head louse ancestors at least by 83,000 and possibly as early as 170,000 years ago. Our analysis suggests that the use of clothing likely originated with anatomically modern humans in Africa and reinforces a broad trend of modern human developments in Africa during the Middle to Late Pleistocene. PMID:20823373

  16. Influence of structural disorder on soft x-ray optical behavior of NbC thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Amol E-mail: rrcat.amol@gmail.com; Modi, Mohammed H.; Sinha, A. K.; Lodha, G. S.; Rajput, Parasmani

    2015-05-07

    Structural and chemical properties of compound materials are modified, when thin films are formed from bulk materials. To understand these changes, a study was pursued on niobium carbide (NbC) thin films of different thicknesses deposited on Si (100) substrate using ion beam sputtering technique. Optical response of the film was measured in 4–36 nm wavelength region using Indus-1 reflectivity beamline. A discrepancy in soft x-ray performance of NbC film was observed which could not be explained with Henke's tabulated data (see http://henke.lbl.gov/optical{sub c}onstants/ ). In order to understand this, detailed structural and chemical investigations were carried out using x-ray reflectivity, grazing incidence x-ray diffraction, x-ray absorption near edge structure, extended x-ray absorption fine structure, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy techniques. It was found that the presence of unreacted carbon and Nb deficiency due to reduced Nb-Nb coordination are responsible for lower soft x-ray reflectivity performance. NbC is an important material for soft x-ray optical devices, hence the structural disorder need to be controlled to achieve the best performances.

  17. Cloth Ballistic Vest Alters Response to Blast

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    Detrick, Frederick, MD 21701-501 ELEMENT NO. NO. NO. jACCESSION NO. 11. TITLE (include Security Classification) CLOTH BALLSISTIC VEST ALTERS RESPONSE...Suppl. ’rintd in USA Cloth Ballistic Vest Alters Response to Blast YANCY Y. PHILLIPS, M.D., THOMAS G. MUNDIE, PH.D., JOHN T. YELVERTON, M.S., AND DONALD R...RICHMOND, PH.D. Ballistic wounds have been and will remain the principal cause of casualties in combat. Cloth ballistic vests (CBV) play an

  18. Awareness of the Social Implications of Clothing in Relation to Fashion Awareness and Clothing Economic Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horridge, Patricia; Richards, Mary Lynne

    1986-01-01

    The Sproles Consumer Interests and Priorities questionnaire was administered to 3,036 home economists. Awareness of social implications of clothing, correlated positively with fashion awareness and clothing economic practices. Results suggest that persons exhibiting substantial awareness of social importance of clothing also tend to evidence…

  19. Astronaut Clothing for Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poritz, Darwin H.; Orndoff, Evelyne; Kaspranskiy, Rustem R.; Schesinger, Thilini; Byrne, Vicky

    2016-01-01

    Astronaut clothes for exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit need to satisfy several challenges not met by the currently-used mostly-cotton clothing. A laundering system is not expected to be available, and thus soiled garments must be trashed. Jettisoning waste does not seem feasible at this time. The cabin oxygen concentration is expected to be higher than standard, and thus fabrics must better resist ignition and burning. Fabrics need to be identified that reduce logistical mass, that can be worn longer before disposal, that are at least as comfortable as cotton, and that resist ignition or that char immediately after ignition. Human factors and psychology indicate that crew well-being and morale require a variety of colors and styles to accommodate personal identity and preferences. Over the past four years, the Logistics Reduction Project under NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems Program has sponsored the Advanced Clothing System Task to conduct several ground studies and one ISS study. These studies have evaluated length of wear and personal preferences of commercially-available exercise- and routine-wear garments made from several fabrics (cotton, polyester, Merino wool, and modacrylic), woven and knitted. Note that Merino wool and modacrylic char like cotton in ambient air, while polyester unacceptably melts. This paper focuses on the two components of an International Space Station study, onboard and on the ground, with astronauts and cosmonauts. Fabrics were randomized to participants. Length of wear was assessed by statistical survival analysis, and preference by exact binomial confidence limits. Merino wool and modacrylic t-shirts were worn longer on average than polyester t-shirts. Interestingly, self-assessed preferences were inconsistent with length-of-wear behavior, as polyester was preferred to Merino wool and modacrylic.

  20. Design for end-user acceptance: requirements for work clothing for fishermen in Mediterranean and northern fishing grounds.

    PubMed

    Storholmen, Tore Christian Bjorsvik; Naesgaard, Ole Petter; Faerevik, Hilde; Reitan, Jarl; Holmen, Ingunn Marie; Reinertsen, Randi Eidsmo

    2012-01-01

    Fishing is one of the most dangerous occupations, and as many as 24,000 fishermen around the world suffer fatal injuries or drowning at sea every year. Although fishermen in the European fishing fleet work in harsh and dangerous environments, many fishermen do not use personal protective clothing and buoyancy aids due to reduced work comfort and poor functionality. This emphasizes the importance of designing work clothing and personal protective equipment (PPE) with functionality that matches the fishermen's needs. The aim of this study was to identify the requirements for work clothing in terms of comfort, protection, and safety for fishermen operating in northern fishing grounds and in the Mediterranean. Furthermore, we investigated whether fishermen in the Mediterranean prioritize work-clothing requirements differently from fishermen in northern fishing grounds. Interviews and observations of fishermen provided us with the requirements for work clothing for fishermen. A questionnaire was then distributed to a selection of European fishermen. The study showed that fishermen operating in the Mediterranean prioritized their requirements differently from fishermen in northern fishing grounds. There was good agreement on requirements regarding work comfort. Safety requirements, such as integrated buoyancy, were ranked as less important by the Mediterranean fishermen compared to fishermen in northern fishing grounds. The results of this study provide a basis for the development of work clothing and PPE for fishermen. Work clothing and PPE that fulfil the requirements are likely to obtain end-user acceptance and thus improve safety for fishermen at sea.

  1. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Presenting for Redundant Clothing

    PubMed Central

    Uvais, N. A.; Sreeraj, V. S.

    2016-01-01

    This is a case report of a 15-year-old girl who presented with redundant clothing. On evaluation, it was found that she had obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), and redundant clothing was a symptom of OCD, which has hitherto not been reported. PMID:27011408

  2. Your Clothing Dollar. [Revised.] Money Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baran, Nancy H., Ed.; Tarrant, Sharon M., Ed.

    This booklet on clothing, 1 in a series of 12 covers all the basic aspects of personal- and family-money management. Suitable for use by high school and college students as well as adults, this handbook gives wardrobe planning, buying, and care information. The first three sections consider the functions of clothing, the importance of…

  3. Kente Cloth-Inspired Reduction Prints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    The textiles of Africa are rich with possibilities for art lessons. With their unique balance of color, pattern, symmetry and repetition, they lend themselves to exciting art lessons with cultural significance. Asante cloth--or Kente cloth, as it is commonly known--is a perfect example. These rich, colorful repeat patterns from Ghana are woven in…

  4. The Role of Clothing in Perpetuating Ageism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Workman, Jane E.; Johnson, Kim K. P.

    1989-01-01

    A study examined 197 college students' impressions of memory skills and personality of older adults and the relation of these impressions to clothing cleanliness and condition. It found that clothing cleanliness and coordination affected attitudes and also interacted with the gender of the older person to affect those impressions. (JOW)

  5. Advanced modelling of the transport phenomena across horizontal clothing microclimates with natural convection.

    PubMed

    Mayor, T S; Couto, S; Psikuta, A; Rossi, R M

    2015-12-01

    The ability of clothing to provide protection against external environments is critical for wearer's safety and thermal comfort. It is a function of several factors, such as external environmental conditions, clothing properties and activity level. These factors determine the characteristics of the different microclimates existing inside the clothing which, ultimately, have a key role in the transport processes occurring across clothing. As an effort to understand the effect of transport phenomena in clothing microclimates on the overall heat transport across clothing structures, a numerical approach was used to study the buoyancy-driven heat transfer across horizontal air layers trapped inside air impermeable clothing. The study included both the internal flow occurring inside the microclimate and the external flow occurring outside the clothing layer, in order to analyze the interdependency of these flows in the way heat is transported to/from the body. Two-dimensional simulations were conducted considering different values of microclimate thickness (8, 25 and 52 mm), external air temperature (10, 20 and 30 °C), external air velocity (0.5, 1 and 3 m s(-1)) and emissivity of the clothing inner surface (0.05 and 0.95), which implied Rayleigh numbers in the microclimate spanning 4 orders of magnitude (9 × 10(2)-3 × 10(5)). The convective heat transfer coefficients obtained along the clothing were found to strongly depend on the transport phenomena in the microclimate, in particular when natural convection is the most important transport mechanism. In such scenario, convective coefficients were found to vary in wavy-like manner, depending on the position of the flow vortices in the microclimate. These observations clearly differ from data in the literature for the case of air flow over flat-heated surfaces with constant temperature (which shows monotonic variations of the convective heat transfer coefficients, along the length of the surface). The flow

  6. Advanced modelling of the transport phenomena across horizontal clothing microclimates with natural convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayor, T. S.; Couto, S.; Psikuta, A.; Rossi, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    The ability of clothing to provide protection against external environments is critical for wearer's safety and thermal comfort. It is a function of several factors, such as external environmental conditions, clothing properties and activity level. These factors determine the characteristics of the different microclimates existing inside the clothing which, ultimately, have a key role in the transport processes occurring across clothing. As an effort to understand the effect of transport phenomena in clothing microclimates on the overall heat transport across clothing structures, a numerical approach was used to study the buoyancy-driven heat transfer across horizontal air layers trapped inside air impermeable clothing. The study included both the internal flow occurring inside the microclimate and the external flow occurring outside the clothing layer, in order to analyze the interdependency of these flows in the way heat is transported to/from the body. Two-dimensional simulations were conducted considering different values of microclimate thickness (8, 25 and 52 mm), external air temperature (10, 20 and 30 °C), external air velocity (0.5, 1 and 3 m s-1) and emissivity of the clothing inner surface (0.05 and 0.95), which implied Rayleigh numbers in the microclimate spanning 4 orders of magnitude (9 × 102-3 × 105). The convective heat transfer coefficients obtained along the clothing were found to strongly depend on the transport phenomena in the microclimate, in particular when natural convection is the most important transport mechanism. In such scenario, convective coefficients were found to vary in wavy-like manner, depending on the position of the flow vortices in the microclimate. These observations clearly differ from data in the literature for the case of air flow over flat-heated surfaces with constant temperature (which shows monotonic variations of the convective heat transfer coefficients, along the length of the surface). The flow patterns and

  7. 30 CFR 75.705-7 - Protective equipment; inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... equipment; inspection. Each person shall visually inspect protective equipment and clothing provided him in connection with work on high-voltage surface lines before using such equipment and clothing, and any equipment or clothing containing any defect or damage shall be discarded and replaced with proper...

  8. The effect of air permeability and water vapor permeability of cleanroom clothing on physiological responses and wear comfort.

    PubMed

    Chen, Te-Hung; Chen, Wan-Ping; Wang, Mao-Jiun J

    2014-01-01

    The function of cleanroom clothing is to protect the product from contamination by people, and to dissipate electrostatic discharge. People in the cleanroom work environment often complain about the discomforts associated with the wearing of cleanroom clothing. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of air permeability and water vapor permeability of cleanroom clothing on the subject's physiological and subjective responses. Five male and five female subjects participated in this study. The experimental goal was to simulate the operator's regular tasks in a semiconductor manufacturing cleanroom. Each subject completed three treatment combinations with three different cleanroom clothing types. A three-factor experiment was designed (significance level p = 0.05). The independent variables included gender, cleanroom clothing, and duration. The dependent measures included heart rate, core temperature, skin temperature, micro-climate relative humidity, micro-climate temperature, and subjective responses. A total of 40 min was involved for each treatment condition. The results indicate that skin temperature, micro-climate temperature and micro-climate relative humidity were lower while wearing cleanroom clothing with high air permeability and high water vapor permeability. The significant gender difference was found in skin temperature. As the task time increased, the micro-climate temperature also increased but the micro-climate relative humidity decreased at first and then increased. In addition, the physiological responses showed significant positive correlations with the subjective perception of clothing comfort. The findings of this study may provide useful information for cleanroom clothing design and selection.

  9. IRBIT coordinates epithelial fluid and HCO3– secretion by stimulating the transporters pNBC1 and CFTR in the murine pancreatic duct

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dongki; Shcheynikov, Nikolay; Zeng, Weizhong; Ohana, Ehud; So, Insuk; Ando, Hideaki; Mizutani, Akihiro; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko; Muallem, Shmuel

    2008-01-01

    Fluid and HCO3– secretion are vital functions of secretory epithelia. In most epithelia, this entails HCO3– entry at the basolateral membrane, mediated by the Na+-HCO3– cotransporter, pNBC1, and exit at the luminal membrane, mediated by a CFTR-SLC26 transporters complex. Here we report that the protein IRBIT (inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate [IP3] receptors binding protein released with IP3), a previously identified activator of pNBC1, activates both the basolateral pNBC1 and the luminal CFTR to coordinate fluid and HCO3– secretion by the pancreatic duct. We used video microscopy and ion selective microelectrodes to measure fluid secretion and Cl– and HCO3– concentrations in cultured murine sealed intralobular pancreatic ducts. Short interference RNA–mediated knockdown of IRBIT markedly inhibited ductal pNBC1 and CFTR activities, luminal Cl– absorption and HCO3– secretion, and the associated fluid secretion. Single-channel measurements suggested that IRBIT regulated CFTR by reducing channel mean close time. Furthermore, expression of IRBIT constructs in HEK cells revealed that activation of pNBC1 required only the IRBIT PEST domain, while activation of CFTR required multiple IRBIT domains, suggesting that IRBIT activates these transporters by different mechanisms. These findings define IRBIT as a key coordinator of epithelial fluid and HCO3– secretion and may have implications to all CFTR-expressing epithelia and to cystic fibrosis. PMID:19033647

  10. Effects of Hoods and Flame-Retardant Fabrics on WBGT Clothing Adjustment Factors.

    PubMed

    Ashley, Candi D; Bernard, Thomas E

    2008-01-01

    Personal protective clothing (PPC) may include hoods and flame-retardant (FR) fabrics that may affect heat transfer and, thus, the critical wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT crit) to maintain thermal equilibrium. The purpose of this study was to compare the differences in WBGT crit for hooded vs. nonhooded versions of particle barrier and vapor barrier coveralls as well as for coveralls made of two flame-retardant fabrics (INDURA cotton and Nomex). Acclimated men (n = 11) and women (n = 4) walked on a treadmill in a climatic chamber at 180 W/m2 wearing four different ensembles: limited-use, particle barrier coveralls with and without a hood (Tyvek 1427), and limited-use vapor barrier coveralls with and without a hood (Tychem QC, polyethylene-coated Tyvek). Twelve of the participants wore one of two flame-retardant coveralls. All participants wore standard cotton clothing. Progressive exposure testing at 50% relative humidity (rh) was designed so that each subject established a physiological steady-state followed by a clear loss of thermal equilibrium. WBGT crit was the WBGT 5 min prior to a loss of thermal equilibrium. Hooded ensembles had a lower WBGT crit than the nonhooded ensembles. The difference suggested a clothing adjustment of 1 degrees C for hoods. There were no significant differences among the FR ensembles and cotton work cloths, and the proposed clothing adjustment for FR coveralls clothing is 0 degrees C.

  11. Identification of membrane topography of the electrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransporter pNBC1 by in vitro transcription/translation.

    PubMed

    Tatishchev, Sergei; Abuladze, Natalia; Pushkin, Alexander; Newman, Debra; Liu, Weixin; Weeks, David; Sachs, George; Kurtz, Ira

    2003-01-28

    The transmembrane topography of the human pancreatic electrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransporter pNBC1 was investigated using in vitro transcription/translation of HK-M0 and HK-M1 fusion vectors designed to test membrane insertion properties of pNBC1 hydrophobic sequences (H). These vectors encode N-terminal 101 (HK-M0) or 139 (HK-M1) amino acids of the H,K-ATPase alpha-subunit, a linker region and the C-terminal 177 amino acids of the H,K-ATPase beta-subunit that contain five N-linked glycosylation consensus sites (Bamberg, K., and Sachs, G. (1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269, 16909-16919). The glycosylation status of the beta-region was used as a reporter to determine whether a given hydrophobic sequence possesses signal anchor and/or stop transfer properties in the HK-M0 and HK-M1 vectors. The linker region of each vector was replaced either with individual hydrophobic sequences or combinations thereof. The transcription/translation products of these fusion vectors in reticulocyte lysate system +/- microsomal membranes were identified by [(35)S]-autoradiography following separation using SDS-PAGE. The results of the in vitro transcription/translation analysis indicated that 10 (H1, H2N, H3, H5, H6, H7, H8, H9, H11, and H12) out of 12 hydrophobic sequences were able to insert into the plasma membrane. Two hydrophobic sequences, H4 and H10, had no membrane insertion activity even when upstream and downstream sequences were present. These data and immunocytochemical studies indicate that pNBC1 contains 10 transmembrane domains with N- and C-termini oriented intracellularly. This is the first characterization of the membrane topography of a sodium bicarbonate cotransporter.

  12. An investigation of cotton for parachute cloth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appel, Wm D; Worner, R K

    1931-01-01

    This is a resume of the work of the Bureau of Standards on a cotton parachute cloth for use as a substitute for silk in the event of an emergency curtailing the supply. Cotton yarn of high strength in proportion to its weight and otherwise specially suitable for parachute cloth was developed. Cloth woven from this yarn in the bureau mill was equal or superior to parachute silk in strength and tear resistance, met the requirements with respect to air permeability, and weighed only a few tenths of an ounce per square yard more than the silk cloth. Practical trials of cotton parachutes carried out by the Navy Department clearly indicate that the cotton parachute closely approaches the silk parachute in performance as to rate of descent, opening time, strength and ability to function when stored in the pack for sixty days. The increase in weight of the equipment resulting from the use of cotton cloth instead of silk is considered to be well within practicable limits. A specification for cotton parachute cloth and the way in which the requirements of the specification have been met are given. Cotton yarns suitable for parachute cloth are now being woven commercially in the United States.

  13. Unexpected behavioural consequences of preterm newborns' clothing.

    PubMed

    Durier, Virginie; Henry, Séverine; Martin, Emmanuelle; Dollion, Nicolas; Hausberger, Martine; Sizun, Jacques

    2015-03-17

    Restrictions of preterm newborns' movements could have consequences ranging from stress enhancement to impairment of their motor development. Therefore, ability to freely express motor activities appears crucial for their behavioural and physiological development. Our aim was to evaluate behavioural issues of two types of clothing used in NICU. We observed 18 healthy 34-37 post-conception week-old preterm newborns, during resting periods, when they were undisturbed by any interventions. Newborns wore either light clothing (bodysuit and a light wrapping) or heavy clothing (pyjamas, cardigan and sleep-sack). The percentages of time each subject spent in different postures were compared between clothing situations. Arm and hand postures differed in relation to clothing: babies bent their arms more and held their hands nearer their heads when in bodysuits than when in sleepwear. Consequently, babies in bodysuits spent more time touching their body or their environment whereas the others generally were touching nothing. Self-touch is an important way to comfort one's self. Heavy clothing may impair self-soothing behaviours of preterm newborn babies that already lack other forms of contact. Results suggest that more attention should be paid to apparently routine and marginal decisions such as choice of clothes.

  14. A 15-year review of ABC, CBS, and NBC news coverage of organ donation: implications for organ donation campaigns.

    PubMed

    Quick, Brian L; Kim, Do Kyun; Meyer, Kevin

    2009-03-01

    This content analysis represents news coverage of organ donation from January 1990 to December 2005. Specifically, ABC, CBS, and NBC news broadcasts were examined to gain a greater understanding of organ donation coverage on TV. Overall this investigation revealed that organ donation received modest coverage (N = 1,507). Although the majority of coverage was positive, attention to the need for organs and the process of becoming a potential organ donor received modest exposure. In addition, non-living donor and living-donor donations received approximately equal coverage. Results are discussed with a focus on message design for practitioners and advocates of organ donation.

  15. Asbestos penetration test system for clothing materials

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, O.D.; Stampfer, J.F.; Sandoval, A.N.; Heath, C.A.; Cooper, M.H.

    1997-04-01

    For hazardous work such as asbestos abatement, there is a need to assess protective clothing fabrics and seam constructions to assure an adequate barrier against hazardous material. The penetration of aerosols through fabrics usually is measured by challenging fabric samples with an aerosol stream at a constant specified airflow. To produce the specified airflow, pressure differentials across the samples often are higher than exist in a work environment. This higher airflow results in higher aerosol velocities through the fabric and, possibly, measured penetration values not representative of those actually experienced in the field. The objective of the reported work was to develop a test method that does not require these higher airflows. The authors have designed and fabricated a new system that tests fabric samples under a low, constant, specified pressure differential across the samples. This differential is adjustable from tenths of a mm Water Gauge (hundredths of an in WG) to over 25-mm WG (1-in WG). The system operates at a pressure slightly lower than its surroundings. Although designed primarily for asbestos, the system is equally applicable to the testing of other aerosols by changing the aerosol generator and detector. Through simple modification of the sample holders, the test apparatus would be capable of evaluating seam and closure constructions.

  16. Ergonomics principles to design clothing work for electrical workers in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Juan; Cubillos, A

    2012-01-01

    The recent development of the Colombian legislation, have been identified the need to develop protective clothing to work according to specifications from the work done and in compliance with international standards. These involve the development and design of new strategies and measures for work clothing design. In this study we analyzes the activities of the workers in the electrical sector, the method analyzes the risks activity data in various activities, that activities include power generation plants, local facilities, industrial facilities and maintenance of urban and rural networks. The analyses method is focused on ergonomic approach, risk analysis is done, we evaluate the role of security expert and we use a design algorithm developed for this purpose. The result of this study is the identification of constraints and variables that contribute to the development of a model of analysis that leads to the development the work protective clothes.

  17. 19 CFR 10.58 - Bolting cloths; marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... § 10.58 Bolting cloths; marking. (a) As a prerequisite to the free entry of bolting cloth for milling... expressly for milling purposes” in block letters 7.62 centimeters in height. Bolting cloths composed of silk imported expressly for milling purposes shall be considered only such cloths as are suitable for and...

  18. 19 CFR 10.58 - Bolting cloths; marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... § 10.58 Bolting cloths; marking. (a) As a prerequisite to the free entry of bolting cloth for milling... expressly for milling purposes” in block letters 7.62 centimeters in height. Bolting cloths composed of silk imported expressly for milling purposes shall be considered only such cloths as are suitable for and...

  19. 19 CFR 10.58 - Bolting cloths; marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... § 10.58 Bolting cloths; marking. (a) As a prerequisite to the free entry of bolting cloth for milling... expressly for milling purposes” in block letters 7.62 centimeters in height. Bolting cloths composed of silk imported expressly for milling purposes shall be considered only such cloths as are suitable for and...

  20. 19 CFR 10.58 - Bolting cloths; marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... § 10.58 Bolting cloths; marking. (a) As a prerequisite to the free entry of bolting cloth for milling... expressly for milling purposes” in block letters 7.62 centimeters in height. Bolting cloths composed of silk imported expressly for milling purposes shall be considered only such cloths as are suitable for and...

  1. 28 CFR 571.22 - Release clothing and transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Release clothing and transportation. 571... AND RELEASE RELEASE FROM CUSTODY Release Gratuities, Transportation, and Clothing § 571.22 Release clothing and transportation. (a) Staff shall provide release clothing appropriate for the time of year...

  2. Testing of protective coatings in hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Vanier, P.E.; Barletta, R.; Adams, J.; Svandrlik, J.

    1993-07-01

    A series of tests of protective coatings on carbon-carbon substrates were performed. The tests involved exposure of the coated material to hydrogen at high temperatures, the examination of the coatings by scanning electron microscopy and the measurement of weight losses. The coatings included Re, TaHfC, TaC and NbC, with thicknesses of the order of 20--60 {mu}m.

  3. 38 CFR 3.810 - Clothing allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... a wheelchair) because of such disability and such disability is the loss or loss of use of a hand or... wheelchair. (b) Effective August 1, 1972, the initial lump sum clothing allowance is due and payable...

  4. Cloth colorization caused by microbial biofilm.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Yuki; Ohta, Jun; Ishida, Yoshiki; Morisaki, Hisao

    2008-07-15

    In this study, cloth disfeaturement was investigated biologically. To clarify whether or not microbes can cause cloth disfeaturement, and to identify the microbes causing the disfeaturement, worn cloth samples were incubated on sweat-ingredient agar medium. Non-sterilized cloth samples became yellow-colored during incubation, and bacterial strains belonging to the genera Bacillus, Brevibacterium, Kocuria, Micrococcus and Staphylococcus were isolated from the yellow-colored parts. Two major isolates close to the genera Bacillus and Micrococcus were inoculated separately or together on cloth samples to examine whether or not these isolates can cause colorization. When the isolate close to Micrococcus was inoculated on its own or mixed with the isolate close to Bacillus, the samples turned yellow to a greater extent and a biofilm-like structure was observed by SEM on the colored areas. In contrast, the isolate close to Bacillus alone barely caused any colorization, and no biofilm-like structure was observed. From the yellow-colored samples, bacterial strains with the same 16S rRNA gene sequences as those of the inoculated strains were re-isolated. These results strongly suggest that the bacterial strain belonging to genus Micrococcus causes cloth colorization by forming a biofilm structure.

  5. Shooting through clothing in firearm suicides.

    PubMed

    Hejna, Petr; Safr, Miroslav

    2010-05-01

    There is a longstanding empirical rule that people who commit suicide rarely shoot through their clothing, but rather put it aside to expose the nude skin. Signs of shots through clothing have always been considered suspicious, raising presumptions of the presence of an abettor. Our report, based on a retrospective study of fatal suicidal firearm injuries from the years 1980 to 2007, points out that suicide victims only rarely remove clothing from the site of the future entry wound. The report covered 43 cases with fatal gunshot wounds in the area of the thorax, with only four persons (9%) removing the clothing present in the area of the subsequent self-inflicted wound. Defects present on the clothing of a victim cannot, therefore, be understood as an absolute criterion for disproving the possibility of suicide, and nor do they necessarily indicate an unfortunate accident or homicide. If, however, the suicide victim removes the clothing from the area of the future wound, then this is almost always an indication of suicide.

  6. Portrayal of Tanning, Clothing Fashion and Shade Use in Australian Women's Magazines, 1987-2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Helen; Dobbinson, Suzanne; Wakefield, Melanie; Jamsen, Kris; McLeod, Kim

    2008-01-01

    To examine modelling of outcomes relevant to sun protection in Australian women's magazines, content analysis was performed on 538 spring and summer issues of popular women's magazines from 1987 to 2005. A total of 4949 full-colour images of Caucasian females were coded for depth of tan, extent of clothing cover, use of shade and setting. Logistic…

  7. Relationship between clothing ventilation and thermal insulation.

    PubMed

    Bouskill, L M; Havenith, G; Kuklane, K; Parsons, K C; Withey, W R

    2002-01-01

    Air layers trapped within a clothing microenvironment contribute to the thermal insulation afforded by the ensemble. Any exchange of air between the external environment and these trapped air layers results in a change in the ensemble's thermal insulation and water vapor resistance characteristics. These effects are seldom taken into account when considering the effects of clothing on human heat balance, the thermal characteristics usually being restricted to intrinsic insulation and intrinsic evaporative resistance measurements on static manikins. Environmental assessments based on these measurements alone may therefore lead to under-(or over-) estimation of thermal stress of the worker. The aim of this study was to quantify the relationship between clothing ventilation and thermal insulation properties. A one-layer, air-impermeable ensemble and a three-layer, air-permeable ensemble were tested using an articulated, thermal manikin in a controlled climate chamber (ta = tr = 10 degrees C, PaH2O = 0.73 kPa). The manikin, which was designed for thermal insulation measurements, was also equipped with a system to determine clothing ventilation. Baseline measurements of clothing ventilation (VT) and thermal insulation (total clothing insulation: I(T)--measured, intrinsic insulation: Icl--calculated) were made of the clothing with the manikin standing stationary in still air conditions. Increased clothing ventilation was induced when the manikin "walked" (walking speeds of 0.37 m/sec and 0.77 m/sec) and by increasing the environmental air speed (Va = 1.0 m/sec). These increases in VT reduced Icl, this being ascribed to the increased heat transfer from the manikin skin surface to the cooler external environment due to the exchange of air between the clothing microenvironment and the external environment. Measured air exchanges were shown to have a potential heat exchange capacity of up to 17 and 161 W/m2 for the one- and three-layer ensembles, respectively, emphasizing

  8. Determination of body heat storage: how to select the weighting of rectal and skin temperatures for clothed subjects.

    PubMed

    Aoyagi, Y; McLellan, T M; Shephard, R J

    1996-01-01

    Two methods of estimating body heat storage were compared under differing conditions of clothing and acclimation to heat. Sixteen male subjects underwent 6 consecutive days or two 6-day periods, separated by a 1-day rest period of heat acclimation, exercising 60 min.day-1 at 45%-55% of maximal aerobic power in a hot, dry environment (dry bulb temperature 40 degrees C; relative humidity 30%; and wind speed 0.3 m.s-1). Before and after acclimation, the subjects entered the same environment, wearing either normal light combat clothing or clothing protective against nuclear, biological, and chemical agents; they walked on a treadmill at 1.34 m.s-1, 0% slope continuously (n = 11 for normal clothing) or as repeated 15-min bouts of exercise followed by 15-min sitting rest (n = 5 for normal clothing and n = 16 for protective clothing). Average exposure times were 147 min (preacclimation) and 150 min (postacclimation) for continuous exercise and 150 min (both pre- and postacclimation) for intermittent exercise while wearing normal clothing, and 103 min (preacclimation) and 116 min (postacclimation) for intermittent exercise while wearing protective clothing. Heat storage was determined calorimetrically (from heat gains and heat losses) and thermometrically [using various weightings of rectal temperature (Tre) and mean skin temperature (Tsk)]. There were only minor (<5%) differences in estimated heat storage, whether calculations used a single specific heat (3.47 kJ.kg-1.degree C-1) or a value computed according to the subject's body composition. When wearing normal clothing, a formula with an invariant relative weighting for Tre to Tsk of 4:1 provided the best thermometric estimate of heat storage. When wearing protective clothing, the invariant relative weighting of 4:1 underestimated heat storage by 2%-12%; underestimation was attenuated by using respective relative weightings for a thermoneutral and hot environment of 2:1 and 2:1 or 4:1 and 9:1 before acclimation and 4

  9. First Clothes Dryers to Earn EPAs Energy Star Label Now Available Nationwide/Energy Star dryers offer Americans savings of up to $1.5 billion annually

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced today that Energy Star certified clothes dryers are now available nationwide through major retailers. At least 45 models of dryers earning the Energy Star label, including Whirlpoo

  10. European Cloth and “Tropical” Skin:

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Ryan

    2009-01-01

    As Britain’s imperial and colonial ambitions intensified toward the end of the nineteenth century, the preservation of white European health in tropical climates became an increasingly important concern. Since at least the seventeenth century, the “tropics” had been seen as spaces holding vast potential wealth but also death and disease. To combat these deadly but desirable landscapes, the British built a considerable commodity culture around the preservation of white European health, and for many, tropical clothing was one of the most important and essential items in their “kits.” This article investigates the composition and use of such clothing in relation to British ideas of health and hygiene in tropical climates. First, it considers debates that ensued over the best material—wool, cotton, linen, silk, or a combination of these materials—and the role of “black” skin and local practice in the development of tropical clothing. Second, it demonstrates the importance of location in any discussion of tropical medicine and hygiene, and the tension and ambiguity that still surrounded British ideas of health and hygiene in the tropical colonies. Third, it argues that tropical clothing was important in the maintenance of climatic etiologies despite advances in parasitology and sanitary science. Finally, it considers the relationship of tropical clothing to the formation of a unique colonial identity. To British men and women embarking for any number of tropical destinations, proper clothing was not a banal and mundane component of their outfitting. For many, the clothing signified a departure from the safe and “civil” climes of Britain for adventure in the expanding tropical empire. PMID:19801795

  11. Insecticide-treated clothes for the control of vector-borne diseases: a review on effectiveness and safety.

    PubMed

    Banks, S D; Murray, N; Wilder-Smith, A; Logan, J G

    2014-08-01

    Insecticide-treated clothing has been used for many years by the military and in recreational activities as personal protection against bites from a variety of arthropods including ticks, chigger mites, sandflies and mosquitoes. Permethrin is the most commonly used active ingredient, but others, including bifenthrin, deltamethrin, cyfluthrin, DEET (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenz-amide) and KBR3023, have also been trialled. Treatment is usually carried out by home or factory dipping. However, new microencapsulation technologies which may prolong the activity of insecticides on clothing are now available and may help to overcome the inevitable reduction in efficacy over time that occurs as a result of washing, ultraviolet light exposure, and the normal wear and tear of the fabric. The aim of this article is to review the evidence base for the use of insecticide-treated clothing for protection against bites from arthropods and its effect on arthropod-borne pathogen transmission. Although some studies do demonstrate protection against pathogen transmission, there are surprisingly few, and the level of protection provided varies according to the disease and the type of study conducted. For example, insecticide-treated clothing has been reported to give between 0% and 75% protection against malaria and between 0% and 79% protection against leishmaniasis. Studies vary in the type of treatment used, the age group of participants, the geographical location of the study, and the pathogen transmission potential. This makes it difficult to compare and assess intervention trials. Overall, there is substantial evidence that insecticide-treated clothing can provide protection against arthropod bites. Bite protection evidence suggests that insecticide-treated clothing may be useful in the prevention of pathogen transmission, but further investigations are required to accurately demonstrate transmission reduction.

  12. A case of contact urticaria syndrome due to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DOP) in work clothes.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Keiji; Sugiura, Mariko; Hayakawa, Ritsuko; Shamoto, Mikihiro; Sasaki, Kazumi

    2002-01-01

    We previously reported a case of contact urticaria syndrome (CUS) due to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DOP) in a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) grip on cotton gloves. The patient reported in this previous paper was careful not to have any contact with PVC products in his daily life or in his working environment. He discontinued the use of protective gloves with a PVC grip that was the cause of CUS. When working, he used cotton gloves without a PVC grip. We prescribed antihistamines which slightly improved his condition. However, when he wore work clothes while on duty, CUS relapsed. This condition was severe and made him feel anxious. When we advised him to wear a cotton shirt under his work clothes, the contact urticaria did not develop. We suspected that some component of the work clothes was the cause of his symptoms. A prick test with the extract solution of his work clothes showed a wheal and flare at the 15 min reading. The common component of the grip and the work clothes was found by analysis to be DOP.

  13. Clothing choices, weight, and trait self-objectification.

    PubMed

    Tiggemann, Marika; Andrew, Rachel

    2012-06-01

    The present study aimed to assess the link between clothing choice and aspects of body image. Participants were 112 female undergraduate students who completed a questionnaire containing a measure of clothing functions, as well as BMI, self-classified weight, and trait self-objectification. Results indicated that BMI and self-classified weight were positively correlated with the choice of clothes for camouflage. Self-objectification was positively correlated with choice of clothes for fashion, and negatively correlated with choosing clothes for comfort. It was concluded that clothing represents an important but neglected aspect of contemporary women's management of their body's appearance.

  14. Arcjet Testing of Woven Carbon Cloth for Use on Adaptive Deployable Entry Placement Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, James O.; laub, Bernard; Chen, Yih-Kang; Prabhu, Dinesh K.; Bittner, M. E.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes arcjet testing and analysis that has successfully demonstrated the viability of three dimensional woven carbon cloth for dual use in the Adaptive Deployable Entry Placement Technology (ADEPT). ADEPT is an umbrella-like entry system that is folded for stowage in the launch vehicle s shroud and deployed in space prior to reaching the atmospheric interface. A key feature of the ADEPT concept is its lower ballistic coefficient for delivery of a given payload than those for conventional, rigid body entry systems. The benefits that accrue from the lower ballistic coefficient include factor of ten reductions of deceleration forces and entry heating. The former enables consideration of new classes of scientific instruments for solar system exploration while the latter enables the design of a more efficient thermal protection system. The carbon cloth now base lined for ADEPT has a dual use in that it serves as ADEPT s thermal protection system and as the "skin" that transfers aerodynamic deceleration loads to its umbrella-like substructure. The arcjet testing described in this paper was conducted for some of the higher heating conditions for a future Venus mission using the ADEPT concept, thereby showing that the carbon cloth can perform in a relevant entry environment. The ADEPT project considered the carbon cloth to be mission enabling and was carrying it as a major risk during Fiscal Year 2012. The testing and analysis reported here played a major role in retiring that risk and is highly significant to the success and possible adoption of ADEPT for future NASA missions. Finally, this paper also describes a preliminary engineering level code, based on the arcjet data, that can be used to estimate cloth thickness for future missions using ADEPT and to predict carbon cloth performance in future arcjet tests.

  15. Quasielastic neutron scattering study of hydrogen motion in NbC0.71H0.28

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skripov, A. V.; Udovic, T. J.; Cook, J. C.; Hempelmann, R.; Rempel, A. A.; Gusev, A. I.

    2009-04-01

    In order to study the mechanism and parameters of H jump motion in the nonstoichiometric Nb carbides, we have performed quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) measurements for NbC0.71H0.28 over the temperature range 11- 475 K. Our results indicate that about 30% of H atoms in this system participate in a fast diffusive motion. The temperature dependence of the corresponding H jump rate in the range 298-475 K follows the Arrhenius law with an activation energy of 328 ± 9 meV. The Q dependence of the QENS data suggests that the observed jump motion corresponds to long-range diffusion of H atoms along chains of the off-centre sites in carbon vacancies.

  16. Otzi, the iceman and his leather clothes.

    PubMed

    Püntener, Alois G; Moss, Serge

    2010-01-01

    Over 5000 years ago, a man climbed up to the icy heights of the glacier in South Tyrol, Italy and died. He was found by accident in 1991, with his clothes and equipment, mummified and frozen: an archaeological sensation and a unique snapshot of a Copper Age man. For several years highly specialised research teams have examined the mummy and all accompanying items. This paper describes how fur and leather clothes of the iceman could have been tanned. Details of the analytical tests undertaken on the 5000 year old leather samples and what they revealed are presented.

  17. Chemical scavenging of post-consumed clothes.

    PubMed

    Barot, Amit A; Sinha, Vijay Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Aiming toward the rectification of fiber grade PET waste accumulation as well as recycling and providing a technically viable route leading to preservation of the natural resources and environment, the post consumed polyester clothes were chemically recycled. Post consumed polyester clothes were recycled into bis(2-hydroxyethyl) terephthalate (BHET) monomer in the presence of ethylene glycol as depolymerising agent and zinc acetate as catalyst. Depolymerized product was characterized by chemical as well as analytical techniques. The fiber grade PET was eventually converted into BHET monomer with nearly 90% yield by employing 1% catalyst concentration and at optimum temperature of 180°C without mechanical input of stirring condition.

  18. 20 CFR 670.640 - Are students provided with clothing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Are students provided with clothing? 670.640...) THE JOB CORPS UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Student Support § 670.640 Are students provided with clothing? Yes, Job Corps students are provided cash clothing allowances and/or articles...

  19. 20 CFR 670.640 - Are students provided with clothing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Are students provided with clothing? 670.640...) THE JOB CORPS UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Student Support § 670.640 Are students provided with clothing? Yes, Job Corps students are provided cash clothing allowances and/or articles...

  20. 20 CFR 670.640 - Are students provided with clothing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Are students provided with clothing? 670.640...) THE JOB CORPS UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Student Support § 670.640 Are students provided with clothing? Yes, Job Corps students are provided cash clothing allowances and/or articles...

  1. 20 CFR 670.640 - Are students provided with clothing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Are students provided with clothing? 670.640... CORPS UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Student Support § 670.640 Are students provided with clothing? Yes, Job Corps students are provided cash clothing allowances and/or articles of...

  2. 20 CFR 670.640 - Are students provided with clothing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Are students provided with clothing? 670.640... CORPS UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Student Support § 670.640 Are students provided with clothing? Yes, Job Corps students are provided cash clothing allowances and/or articles of...

  3. 10 CFR 429.21 - Residential clothes dryers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Residential clothes dryers. 429.21 Section 429.21 Energy... COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.21 Residential clothes dryers. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for testing. (1) The requirements of § 429.11 are applicable to clothes dryers; and...

  4. 10 CFR 429.21 - Residential clothes dryers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Residential clothes dryers. 429.21 Section 429.21 Energy... COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.21 Residential clothes dryers. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for testing. (1) The requirements of § 429.11 are applicable to clothes dryers; and...

  5. 10 CFR 429.21 - Residential clothes dryers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Residential clothes dryers. 429.21 Section 429.21 Energy... COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.21 Residential clothes dryers. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for testing. (1) The requirements of § 429.11 are applicable to clothes dryers; and...

  6. 28 CFR 551.7 - Bathing and clothing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bathing and clothing. 551.7 Section 551.7... Grooming § 551.7 Bathing and clothing. Each inmate must observe the standards concerning bathing and clothing that exist in the institution as required by standards of § 551.1....

  7. Alcohol Promotional Clothing Items and Alcohol Use by Underage Consumers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Workman, Jane E.

    2003-01-01

    Of 154 female and 106 male adolescents, 76.3% had tried alcohol; more than 36% owned alcohol promotional clothing and more than half had seen such clothing at school. Ownership increased with alcohol use status. Those who received such clothing from their parents were more likely to perceive parental approval of their drinking. (Contains 59…

  8. [Resources on Clothing for Persons with Special Needs].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    P.R.I.D.E. Foundation, Inc., Groton, CT.

    The resource guide to the modification of clothing for disabled individuals suggests solutions to clothing, grooming, and home management problems for a variety of handicapping conditions. Services of PRIDE (Promote Real Independence for the Disabled and Elderly) are noted, including manuals on clothing for the disabled, a workshop, a curriculum…

  9. 7 CFR 58.225 - Clothing and shoe covers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Clothing and shoe covers. 58.225 Section 58.225 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....225 Clothing and shoe covers. Clean clothing and shoe covers shall be provided exclusively for...

  10. 7 CFR 58.225 - Clothing and shoe covers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Clothing and shoe covers. 58.225 Section 58.225 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....225 Clothing and shoe covers. Clean clothing and shoe covers shall be provided exclusively for...

  11. 7 CFR 58.225 - Clothing and shoe covers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Clothing and shoe covers. 58.225 Section 58.225 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....225 Clothing and shoe covers. Clean clothing and shoe covers shall be provided exclusively for...

  12. 7 CFR 58.225 - Clothing and shoe covers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clothing and shoe covers. 58.225 Section 58.225 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....225 Clothing and shoe covers. Clean clothing and shoe covers shall be provided exclusively for...

  13. 7 CFR 58.225 - Clothing and shoe covers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Clothing and shoe covers. 58.225 Section 58.225 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....225 Clothing and shoe covers. Clean clothing and shoe covers shall be provided exclusively for...

  14. Dry and wet heat transfer through clothing dependent on the clothing properties under cold conditions.

    PubMed

    Richards, Mark G M; Rossi, René; Meinander, Harriet; Broede, Peter; Candas, Victor; den Hartog, Emiel; Holmér, Ingvar; Nocker, Wolfgang; Havenith, George

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of moisture on the heat transfer through clothing in relation to the water vapour resistance, type of underwear, location of the moisture and climate. This forms part of the work performed for work package 2 of the European Union THERMPROTECT project. Thermal manikin results of dry and wet heat loss are presented from different laboratories for a range of 2-layer clothing with similar dry insulations but different water vapour permeabilities and absorptive properties. The results obtained from the different manikins are generally consistent with each other. For each climate, total wet heat loss is predominately dependent on the permeability of the outer layer. At 10 degrees C, the apparent evaporative heat loss is markedly higher than expected from evaporation alone (measured at 34 degrees C), which is attributed to condensation within the clothing and to increased conductivity of the wet clothing layers.

  15. 38 CFR 3.810 - Clothing allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... prosthetic or orthopedic appliance (including, but not limited to, a wheelchair) which tends to wear or tear... appliance (including, but not limited to, a wheelchair) which tends to wear or tear clothing; or (B) A... allowance for each prosthetic or orthopedic appliance (including, but not limited to, a wheelchair)...

  16. Physiological Acceptance Criteria for Cold Weather Clothing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-01

    subjective feelings of thermal comfort and temperature sensation were examined. Under many conditions that Navy cold weather clothing items are worn, it...is not practical to expect that the optimal level of thermal comfort can be obtained. Allowing for a moderate level of cold sensation and thermal

  17. Clothing Services: Coordinated Vocational Academic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin. Dept. of Occupational Education and Technology.

    Designed for junior or senior high school students with academic, socio-economic, or other handicaps, the Coordinated Vocational-Academic Education (CVAE) Clothing Services curriculum guide is also useful in other vocational education programs. Information is presented in three sections. Section one is an overview for teacher preparation;…

  18. Clothing and Textiles II. Semester Course. Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanton, Harriet; And Others

    The clothing and textiles guide for a second level semester course for grades 10-12 identifies objectives and learning experiences with basic reference to developmental tasks, needs, interests, capacities, and prior learning experiences of students. It was developed for use with students who exhibited skill and a high degree of satisfaction from…

  19. Airborne phthalate partitioning to cotton clothing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Glenn; Li, Hongwan; Mishra, Santosh; Buechlein, Melissa

    2015-08-01

    Accumulation on indoor surfaces and fabrics can increase dermal uptake and non-dietary ingestion of semi-volatile organic compounds. To better understand the potential for dermal uptake of phthalates from clothing, we measured the mass accumulation on cotton fabrics of two phthalate esters commonly identified in indoor air: diethylphthalate (DEP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP). In 10-day chamber experiments, we observed strong air-to-cloth partitioning of these phthalates to shirts and jean material. Area-normalized partition coefficients ranged from 209 to 411 (μg/m2)/(μg/m3) for DEP and 2850 to 6580 (μg/m2)/(μg/m3) for DnBP. Clothing volume-normalized partition coefficients averaged 2.6 × 105 (μg/m3)/(μg/m3) for DEP and 3.9 × 106 (μg/m3)/(μg/m3) for DnBP. At equilibrium, we estimate that a typical set of cotton clothing can sorb DnBP from the equivalent of >10,000 m3 of indoor air, thereby substantially decreasing external mass-transfer barriers to dermal uptake. Further, we estimate that a significant fraction of a child's body burden of DnBP may come from mouthing fabric material that has been equilibrated with indoor air.

  20. The Art of African Senufo Cloth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, Jane

    2009-01-01

    The Senufo people create paintings on hand-woven fabric using natural fibers, natural dyes made from leaves, and mud dug from the roots of trees. The fabric of the Senufo is woven in strips approximately six-to-eight inches wide, and sewn together to make a larger fabric for painting. The stylized drawings painted on the cloth are of masked…

  1. Abstract Sculptures: Wire and Plaster Cloth Creations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiller, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Presents a three-dimensional art project for middle-school students in which they create sculptures of plaster cloth and wire. The introduction explains that they learn about Alexander Calder, a master of using wire in art. Discusses how to make the sculptures. (CMK)

  2. North Carolina Clothing and Textiles Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This guide was developed to be used by consumer home economics teachers as a resource in planning and teaching a year-long course in clothing and textiles for high school students in North Carolina. The guide is organized in units of instruction for a first semester course and a second semester course. Each unit contains a content outline,…

  3. Heat Pump Clothes Dryer Model Development

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Bo

    2016-01-01

    A heat pump clothes dryer (HPCD) is an innovative appliance that uses a vapor compression system to dry clothes. Air circulates in a closed loop through the drum, so no vent is required. The condenser heats air to evaporate moisture out of the clothes, and the evaporator condenses water out of the air stream. As a result, the HPCD can achieve 50% energy savings compared to a conventional electric resistance dryer. We developed a physics-based, quasi-steady-state HPCD system model with detailed heat exchanger and compressor models. In a novel approach, we applied a heat and mass transfer effectiveness model to simulate the drying process of the clothes load in the drum. The system model is able to simulate the inherently transient HPCD drying process, to size components, and to reveal trends in key variables (e.g. compressor discharge temperature, power consumption, required drying time, etc.) The system model was calibrated using experimental data on a prototype HPCD. In the paper, the modeling method is introduced, and the model predictions are compared with experimental data measured on a prototype HPCD.

  4. Evaluation of the thermal insulation of clothing of infants sleeping outdoors in Northern winter.

    PubMed

    Tourula, Marjo; Fukazawa, Takako; Isola, Arja; Hassi, Juhani; Tochihara, Yutaka; Rintamäki, Hannu

    2011-04-01

    It is a common practice in Northern countries that children aged about 2 weeks to 2 years take their daytime sleep outdoors in prams in winter. The aim was to evaluate the thermal insulation of clothing of infants sleeping outdoors in winter. Clothing data of infants aged 3.5 months was collected, and sleep duration, skin and microclimate temperatures, humidity inside middle wear, air temperature and velocity of the outdoor environment were recorded during sleep taken outdoors (n = 34) and indoors (n = 33) in families' homes. The insulation of clothing ensembles was measured by using a baby-size thermal manikin, and the values were used for defining clothing insulation of the observed infants. Required clothing insulation for each condition was estimated according to ISO 11079. Clothing insulation did not correlate with ambient air temperature. The observed and required insulation of the study group was equal at about -5 °C, but overdressing existed in warmer and deficiency in thermal insulation in colder temperatures (r (s) 0.739, p < 0.001). However, even at -5 °C a slow cooling (ca. 0.012 °C/min) of mean skin temperature (T (sk)) was observed. When the difference between observed and required insulation increased, the cooling rate of T (sk) increased linearly (r (s) 0.605, p < 0.001) and the infants slept for a shorter period (r (s) 0.524, p = 0.001). The results of this study show the difficulty of adjusting systematically the optimal thermal insulation for outdoor sleeping infants during northern winter. Therefore, the necessity for guidelines is obvious. The study provides information for adequate cold protection of infants sleeping in cold conditions.

  5. Cloth destruction and haemolysis with totally cloth-covered Starr-Edwards prostheses

    PubMed Central

    Schottenfeld, M.; Wisheart, J. D.; Ross, J. K.; Lincoln, J. C. R.; Ross, D. N.

    1971-01-01

    Four cases are described in which totally cloth-covered Starr-Edwards valves (model 2300) had to be removed. All were causing significant haemolysis, two in the absence of a peripheral leak. The principal operative finding was destruction of the Dacron covering the struts. Following replacement of these prostheses there was complete resolution of signs and symptoms. The possible causes of haemolysis and consequences of cloth destruction are discussed. Images PMID:5576531

  6. Chemical and Biological Resistant Clothing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    tributyl phosphate (TBP) and methyl salicylate (MS) at room temperature, high temperature and co-feeding mixture settings. To evaluate the...ISO International Organization for Standardization MS methyl salicylate MVTR moisture vapor transport rate NFPA National Fire Protection...methylpropene-co-2- methyl -1,3-butadiene)), working on the principle of total blockage. 2 The lack of breathability of butyl rubber, however, results in

  7. Hierarchically Arranged Helical Fiber Actuators Derived from Commercial Cloth.

    PubMed

    Gong, Jiang; Lin, Huijuan; Dunlop, John W C; Yuan, Jiayin

    2017-02-20

    The first hygroscopically tunable cloth actuator is realized via impregnation of a commercial cloth template by a three dimensionally (3D) nanoporous polymer/carbon nanotube hybrid network. The nanoporous hybrid guarantees diffusion of water into the cloth actuator and amplifies the deformation scale. The cloth actuators are mechanically stable with high tensile strength. Because the commercial cotton cloth is inexpensive, such actuators capable of complex motions can be produced in a large size and scale for a wide variety of utilities (e.g. electric generators and "smart" materials).

  8. The professional clothing bank as evidence-based practice.

    PubMed

    Bishop, SueZanne Monique

    2015-01-01

    Little research exists linking interview-appropriate attire to improved employment outcomes for women. Thus, it appears that the professional clothing bank has not been investigated as evidence-based practice. To provide preliminary evidence for clothing banks, in this article the author synthesizes findings from existing research on the provision of a professional clothing bank as a means for offering interview-appropriate attire to poor women in job readiness programming. For context, job readiness programs are explored and a case study of one program operating a professional clothing bank is presented. Finally, preliminary considerations for planning and implementing clothing banks based on this literature review are given.

  9. Simulations of densely-packed cloth motion in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akcabay, Deniz T.

    2005-11-01

    Fluid-structure simulations of densely-packed immersed fabric model the clothes washing process. We have modified the Immersed Boundary Method (Peskin 1977) to handle the known but complex geometry of the washing machine and agitator as well as the unknown cloth structure immersed in the fluid. Extending the technique to three-dimensions has required improved computational efficiency and causes geometric singularities when cloth that is not sufficiently extensible bends in two directions. We present some preliminary comparisons to primarily two-dimensional experiments in the dilute cloth limit. Computational difficulties caused by cloth permeability and bending stiffness will be discussed.

  10. 3D quantification of microclimate volume in layered clothing for the prediction of clothing insulation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yejin; Hong, Kyunghi; Hong, Sung-Ae

    2007-05-01

    Garment fit and resultant air volume is a crucial factor in thermal insulation, and yet, it has been difficult to quantify the air volume of clothing microclimate and relate it to the thermal insulation value just using the information on the size of clothing pattern without actual 3D volume measurement in wear condition. As earlier methods for the computation of air volume in clothing microclimate, vacuum over suit and circumference model have been used. However, these methods have inevitable disadvantages in terms of cost or accuracy due to the limitations of measurement equipment. In this paper, the phase-shifting moiré topography was introduced as one of the 3D scanning tools to measure the air volume of clothing microclimate quantitatively. The purpose of this research is to adopt a non-contact image scanning technology, phase-shifting moiré topography, to ascertain relationship between air volume and insulation value of layered clothing systems in wear situations where the 2D fabric creates new conditions in 3D spaces. The insulation of vests over shirts as a layered clothing system was measured with a thermal manikin in the environmental condition of 20 degrees C, 65% RH and air velocity of 0.79 m/s. As the pattern size increased, the insulation of the clothing system was increased. But beyond a certain limit, the insulation started to decrease due to convection and ventilation, which is more apparent when only the vest was worn over the torso of manikin. The relationship between clothing air volume and insulation was difficult to predict with a single vest due to the extreme openings which induced active ventilation. But when the vest was worn over the shirt, the effects of thickness of the fabrics on insulation were less pronounced compared with that of air volume. In conclusion, phase-shifting moiré topography was one of the efficient and accurate ways of quantifying air volume and its distribution across the clothing microclimate. It is also noted

  11. Changes in exercise and post-exercise core temperature under different clothing conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenny, Glen P.; Reardon, Francis D.; Thoden, Jim S.; Giesbrecht, Gordon G.; Kenny, G.

    This study evaluates the effect of different levels of insulation on esophageal (Tes) and rectal (Tre) temperature responses during and following moderate exercise. Seven subjects completed three 18-min bouts of treadmill exercise (75% VO2max, 22°C ambient temperature) followed by 30 min of recovery wearing either: (1) jogging shoes, T-shirt and shorts (athletic clothing); (2) single-knit commercial coveralls worn over the athletic clothing (coveralls); or (3) a Canadian Armed Forces nuclear, bacteriological and chemical warfare protective overgarment with hood, worn over the athletic clothing (NBCW overgarment). Tes was similar at the start of exercise for each condition and baseline Tre was 0.4°C higher than Tes. The hourly equivalent rate of increase in Tes during the final 5 min of exercise was 1.8°C, 3.0°C and 4.2°C for athletic clothing, coveralls and NBCW overgarment respectively (P<0.05). End-exercise Tes was significantly different between conditions [37.7°C (SEM 0.1°C), 38.2°C (SEM 0.2°C and 38.5°C (SEM 0.2°C) for athletic clothing, coveralls and NBCW overgarment respectively)] (P<0.05). No comparable difference in the rate of temperature increase for Tre was demonstrated, except that end-exercise Tre for the NBCW overgarment condition was significantly greater (0.5°C) than that for the athletic clothing condition. There was a drop in Tes during the initial minutes of recovery to sustained plateaus which were significantly (P<0.05) elevated above pre-exercise resting values by 0.6°C, 0.8°C and 1.0°C, for athletic clothing, coveralls, and NBCW overgarment, respectively. Post-exercise Tre decreased very gradually from end-exercise values during the 30-min recovery. Only the NBCW overgarment condition Tre was significantly elevated (0.3°C) above the athletic clothing condition (P<0.05). In conclusion, Tes is far more sensitive in reflecting the heat stress of different levels of insulation during exercise and post-exercise than Tre

  12. Coarsening Behavior of the (Ti, Nb)(C, N) Complex Particle in a Microalloyed Steel Weld Heat-Affected Zone Considering the Critical Particle Size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Joonoh; Kim, Sanghoon; Lee, Jongbong; Lee, Changhee

    2007-11-01

    Our recent report revealed the effect of critical particle size on the particle coarsening behavior of the TiN particle. In the present work, the equation for critical particle size is extended by considering the change of particle volume fraction during the continuous thermal cycle. By considering the concept of modified critical particle size, coarsening of the (Ti, Nb)(C, N) complex particle is calculated, and the calculated results are in good agreement with experimental data.

  13. Microbial Odor Profile of Polyester and Cotton Clothes after a Fitness Session

    PubMed Central

    Callewaert, Chris; De Maeseneire, Evelyn; Kerckhof, Frederiek-Maarten; Verliefde, Arne; Van de Wiele, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Clothing textiles protect our human body against external factors. These textiles are not sterile and can harbor high bacterial counts as sweat and bacteria are transmitted from the skin. We investigated the microbial growth and odor development in cotton and synthetic clothing fabrics. T-shirts were collected from 26 healthy individuals after an intensive bicycle spinning session and incubated for 28 h before analysis. A trained odor panel determined significant differences between polyester versus cotton fabrics for the hedonic value, the intensity, and five qualitative odor characteristics. The polyester T-shirts smelled significantly less pleasant and more intense, compared to the cotton T-shirts. A dissimilar bacterial growth was found in cotton versus synthetic clothing textiles. Micrococci were isolated in almost all synthetic shirts and were detected almost solely on synthetic shirts by means of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprinting. A selective enrichment of micrococci in an in vitro growth experiment confirmed the presence of these species on polyester. Staphylococci were abundant on both cotton and synthetic fabrics. Corynebacteria were not enriched on any textile type. This research found that the composition of clothing fibers promotes differential growth of textile microbes and, as such, determines possible malodor generation. PMID:25128346

  14. Microbial odor profile of polyester and cotton clothes after a fitness session.

    PubMed

    Callewaert, Chris; De Maeseneire, Evelyn; Kerckhof, Frederiek-Maarten; Verliefde, Arne; Van de Wiele, Tom; Boon, Nico

    2014-11-01

    Clothing textiles protect our human body against external factors. These textiles are not sterile and can harbor high bacterial counts as sweat and bacteria are transmitted from the skin. We investigated the microbial growth and odor development in cotton and synthetic clothing fabrics. T-shirts were collected from 26 healthy individuals after an intensive bicycle spinning session and incubated for 28 h before analysis. A trained odor panel determined significant differences between polyester versus cotton fabrics for the hedonic value, the intensity, and five qualitative odor characteristics. The polyester T-shirts smelled significantly less pleasant and more intense, compared to the cotton T-shirts. A dissimilar bacterial growth was found in cotton versus synthetic clothing textiles. Micrococci were isolated in almost all synthetic shirts and were detected almost solely on synthetic shirts by means of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprinting. A selective enrichment of micrococci in an in vitro growth experiment confirmed the presence of these species on polyester. Staphylococci were abundant on both cotton and synthetic fabrics. Corynebacteria were not enriched on any textile type. This research found that the composition of clothing fibers promotes differential growth of textile microbes and, as such, determines possible malodor generation.

  15. Tween consumers: catalog clothing purchase behavior.

    PubMed

    Simpson, L; Douglas, S; Schimmel, J

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the catalog shopping behavior of students in their tween years (i.e., between childhood and adolescence; ages 12-14) with that of older students (ages 15-18). Junior high and high school students who had purchased clothing from a catalog in the past 12 months responded to a questionnaire that examined the label information sought and product-specific attributes considered. Results indicated that tweens were more concerned with style, brand names, and the latest fashion than were older students. This finding was especially interesting, as these attributes all relate to status; the tweens were more interested than the older students in wearing the latest fashions, being in style, and gaining the prestige of wearing brand-name clothing. This supports previous findings indicating that the tween years are a time when peer pressure and "fitting in" are very important.

  16. Clothing insulation and temperature, layer and mass of clothing under comfortable environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Kwon, JuYoun; Choi, Jeongwha

    2013-07-01

    This study was designed to investigate the relationship between the microclimate temperature and clothing insulation (Icl) under comfortable environmental conditions. In total, 20 subjects (13 women, 7 men) took part in this study. Four environmental temperatures were chosen: 14°C (to represent March/April), 25°C (May/June), 29°C (July/August), and 23°C (September/October). Wind speed (0.14ms-1) and humidity (45%) were held constant. Clothing microclimate temperatures were measured at the chest (Tchest) and on the interscapular region (Tscapular). Clothing temperature of the innermost layer (Tinnermost) was measured on this layer 30 mm above the centre of the left breast. Subjects were free to choose the clothing that offered them thermal comfort under each environmental condition. We found the following results. 1) All clothing factors except the number of lower clothing layers (Llower), showed differences between the different environmental conditions (P<0.05). The ranges of Tchest were 31.6 to 33.5°C and 32.2 to 33.4°C in Tscapular. The range of Tinnermost was 28.6 to 32.0°C. The range of the upper clothing layers (Lupper) and total clothing mass (Mtotal) was 1.1 to 3.2 layers and 473 to 1659 g respectively. The range of Icl was 0.78 to 2.10 clo. 2) Post hoc analyses showed that analysis of Tinnermost produced the same results as for that of Icl. Likewise, the analysis of Lupper produced the same result as the analysis of the number of total layers (Ltotal) within an outfit. 3) Air temperature (ta) had positive relationships with Tchest and Tscapular and with Tinnermost but had inverse correlations with Icl, Mtotal, Lupper and Ltotal. Tchest, Tscapular, and Tinnermost increased as ta rose. 4) Icl had inverse relationships with Tchest and Tinnermost, but positive relationships with Mtotal, Lupper and Ltotal. Icl could be estimated by Mtotal, Lupper, and Tscapular using a multivariate linear regression model. 5) Lupper had positive relationships with Icl

  17. Clothing insulation and temperature, layer and mass of clothing under comfortable environmental conditions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the relationship between the microclimate temperature and clothing insulation (Icl) under comfortable environmental conditions. In total, 20 subjects (13 women, 7 men) took part in this study. Four environmental temperatures were chosen: 14°C (to represent March/April), 25°C (May/June), 29°C (July/August), and 23°C (September/October). Wind speed (0.14ms-1) and humidity (45%) were held constant. Clothing microclimate temperatures were measured at the chest (Tchest) and on the interscapular region (Tscapular). Clothing temperature of the innermost layer (Tinnermost) was measured on this layer 30 mm above the centre of the left breast. Subjects were free to choose the clothing that offered them thermal comfort under each environmental condition. We found the following results. 1) All clothing factors except the number of lower clothing layers (Llower), showed differences between the different environmental conditions (P<0.05). The ranges of Tchest were 31.6 to 33.5°C and 32.2 to 33.4°C in Tscapular. The range of Tinnermost was 28.6 to 32.0°C. The range of the upper clothing layers (Lupper) and total clothing mass (Mtotal) was 1.1 to 3.2 layers and 473 to 1659 g respectively. The range of Icl was 0.78 to 2.10 clo. 2) Post hoc analyses showed that analysis of Tinnermost produced the same results as for that of Icl. Likewise, the analysis of Lupper produced the same result as the analysis of the number of total layers (Ltotal) within an outfit. 3) Air temperature (ta) had positive relationships with Tchest and Tscapular and with Tinnermost but had inverse correlations with Icl, Mtotal, Lupper and Ltotal. Tchest, Tscapular, and Tinnermost increased as ta rose. 4) Icl had inverse relationships with Tchest and Tinnermost, but positive relationships with Mtotal, Lupper and Ltotal. Icl could be estimated by Mtotal, Lupper, and Tscapular using a multivariate linear regression model. 5) Lupper had positive relationships with Icl

  18. Report on Activities and Programs for Countering Proliferation and NBC Terrorism. Volume 1. Executive Summary

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    Portal Monitor Program (RPMP) deploys radiation detection systems at the nation’s land, sea, and air ports of entry. Deployment of these systems is... Biosurveillance Matrix Team serves as the single point of contact for coordination of information on biosurveillance capabilities across components...and manufacturing services to protect the nation and facilitate surge capacity as needed in an emergency. The OASD(NCB) Biosurveillance Matrix Team

  19. Electrostatic sampling of trace DNA from clothing.

    PubMed

    Zieger, Martin; Defaux, Priscille Merciani; Utz, Silvia

    2016-05-01

    During acts of physical aggression, offenders frequently come into contact with clothes of the victim, thereby leaving traces of DNA-bearing biological material on the garments. Since tape-lifting and swabbing, the currently established methods for non-destructive trace DNA sampling from clothing, both have their shortcomings in collection efficiency and handling, we thought about a new collection method for these challenging samples. Testing two readily available electrostatic devices for their potential to sample biological material from garments made of different fabrics, we found one of them, the electrostatic dust print lifter (DPL), to perform comparable to well-established sampling with wet cotton swabs. In simulated aggression scenarios, we had the same success rate for the establishment of single aggressor profiles, suitable for database submission, with both the DPL and wet swabbing. However, we lost a substantial amount of information with electrostatic sampling, since almost no mixed aggressor-victim profiles suitable for database entry could be established, compared to conventional swabbing. This study serves as a proof of principle for electrostatic DNA sampling from items of clothing. The technique still requires optimization before it might be used in real casework. But we are confident that in the future it could be an efficient and convenient contribution to the toolbox of forensic practitioners.

  20. Protective Clothing Part 4. Industrial Environments (A Bibliography with Abstracts)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-04-01

    Ingredients (253) April 75 NTIS/PS-75/356/6GSB Medical Entomology . Vol. 2. 1970-1975 (192) 1970-Jan 1975 NTIS/PS-75/360/8GSB Medical Entomology ...240/2GSB Forensic Medicine (39) Jan 75 NTIS/PS-75/245/1GSB Social Change (147) Feb 75 NTIS/PS-75/266/7GSB Human Aggression (41) Feb 75 NTIS/PS-75...OGSB Altitude Hypoxia (166) Jan 75 NTIS/PS-75/237/8GSB Forensic Medicine (39) Jan 75 NTIS/PS-75/245/1GSB Hemophilia (22) Jan 75 NTIS/PS-75/260

  1. Multiscale Modeling of Polymer Membranes for Soldiers Protective Clothing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    SIBS. Considering that both cyclohexanone and PS have similar solubility parameters of 20.3 and 19.8, respectively, that should lead to a wetting...cylinders cylinders lamella Density fields for polystyrene and polyisobutylene Cyclohexanol cyclohexanone

  2. Data-Driven Property Estimation for Protective Clothing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    CV1 VD x C CV1 VD dt dh          hx  ses CC  seC     se2sesese aln11ln  ssese VC sss VC .1ase  1ase  0ase  0Csese...The governing equations and the external boundary condition (Eqs. 32 to 35) change accordingly: (40) (41)   sss VC

  3. Development of Self-Detoxifying Materials for Chemical Protective Clothing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-07-01

    oxide and modified cyclodextrins . Polyoxometalates (POMs), prepared at Emory University, have been incorporated into activated carbon for use in carbon...MgO, POM/Al2O3, and POM alone in solution were compared to activities in organic fibers and films. Substituted cyclodextrins that were reported in...reactivity of a catalytic derivative of β- cyclodextrin (2-O-(4-carboxy-3- iodosobenzoyl)-β- cyclodextrin [IBA-βCD]) on fibers and films reacted against

  4. Effects of Protective Clothing on Personnel Performance--Annotated Index

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-08-20

    heart rate. The data were analyzed by analyses of variance of the absolute values of each physiological measure, and also in increments above the mean... Documentaires . No. 58. 2nd Trimester, Pp. 185-193 DATE 0069 ABSTRACT Psychophysiological problems presented by safety glasses are reviewed. Topics

  5. Will Astronauts Wash Clothes on the Way to Mars?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewert, Michael K.; Jeng, Frank F.

    2015-01-01

    Future human space exploration missions will lengthen to years, and keeping crews clothed without a huge resupply burden is an important consideration for habitation systems. A space laundry system could be the solution; however, the resources it uses must be accounted for and must win out over the reliable practice of simply bringing along enough spare underwear. NASA has conducted trade-off studies through its Logistics Reduction Project to compare current space clothing systems, life extension of that clothing, traditional water-based clothes washing, and other sanitizing techniques. The best clothing system depends on the mission and assumptions but, in general, analysis results indicate that washing clothes on space missions will start to pay off as mission durations approach a year.

  6. How an Electron Beam (Eventually) Penetrates Ceramic Cloth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nunes, A. C., Jr.; Russell, C. K.; Zimmerman, F. R.; Fragomeni, J. M.

    1999-01-01

    In anticipation of the International Space Welding Experiment (ISWE) the effect of an electron beam was investigated on Nextel AF-62 ceramic cloth designed to withstand temperatures up to 1427 C. It was anticipated that the cloth would take a static charge that would repel the beam and remain undamaged. It was found that after some seconds the impinging beam penetrated penetrated the cloth. Further, the penetration time went up significantly both at longer and at closer standoff distances. A tentative explanation appears to fit the observed facts. The electrons in the beam generate positive ions by collisions with the contaminant gas molecules in the vacuum chamber. The positive ions transfer a small but significant fraction of the beam power to the cloth. Under the impingement of the positive ions the cloth heats up until sufficient outgassing occurs to initiate arcing. Once arcing occurs the full beam power impinges on the cloth and, almost instantaneously, burns a hole.

  7. Cold Regions - Environmental Testing of Individual Soldier Clothing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-17

    This Test Operations Procedure (TOP) provides testing guidelines for individual Soldier cold weather clothing and footwear in a cold regions...Cold weather clothing test Cold weather footwear test Environmental clothing test Environmental footwear test 16...1983; TOP 10-3-512 Cold Regions Environmental Test of Boot and Similar Footwear , dated 9 May 1980; and TOP 10-4-005 Arctic Environmental Test of

  8. Estimating Clothing Thermal Insulation Using an Infrared Camera

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeong-Hoon; Kim, Young-Keun; Kim, Kyung-Soo; Kim, Soohyun

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a novel algorithm for estimating clothing insulation is proposed to assess thermal comfort, based on the non-contact and real-time measurements of the face and clothing temperatures by an infrared camera. The proposed method can accurately measure the clothing insulation of various garments under different clothing fit and sitting postures. The proposed estimation method is investigated to be effective to measure its clothing insulation significantly in different seasonal clothing conditions using a paired t-test in 99% confidence interval. Temperatures simulated with the proposed estimated insulation value show closer to the values of actual temperature than those with individual clothing insulation values. Upper clothing’s temperature is more accurate within 3% error and lower clothing’s temperature is more accurate by 3.7%~6.2% error in indoor working scenarios. The proposed algorithm can reflect the effect of air layer which makes insulation different in the calculation to estimate clothing insulation using the temperature of the face and clothing. In future, the proposed method is expected to be applied to evaluate the customized passenger comfort effectively. PMID:27005625

  9. Making Complex Electrically Conductive Patterns on Cloth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Andrew; Fink, Patrick W.; Dobbins, Justin A.; Lin, Greg Y.; Scully, Robert C.; Trevino, Robert

    2008-01-01

    A method for automated fabrication of flexible, electrically conductive patterns on cloth substrates has been demonstrated. Products developed using this method, or related prior methods, are instances of a technology known as 'e-textiles,' in which electrically conductive patterns ar formed in, and on, textiles. For many applications, including high-speed digital circuits, antennas, and radio frequency (RF) circuits, an e-textile method should be capable of providing high surface conductivity, tight tolerances for control of characteristic impedances, and geometrically complex conductive patterns. Unlike prior methods, the present method satisfies all three of these criteria. Typical patterns can include such circuit structures as RF transmission lines, antennas, filters, and other conductive patterns equivalent to those of conventional printed circuits. The present method overcomes the limitations of the prior methods for forming the equivalent of printed circuits on cloth. A typical fabrication process according to the present method involves selecting the appropriate conductive and non-conductive fabric layers to build the e-textile circuit. The present method uses commercially available woven conductive cloth with established surface conductivity specifications. Dielectric constant, loss tangent, and thickness are some of the parameters to be considered for the non-conductive fabric layers. The circuit design of the conductive woven fabric is secured onto a non-conductive fabric layer using sewing, embroidery, and/or adhesive means. The portion of the conductive fabric that is not part of the circuit is next cut from the desired circuit using an automated machine such as a printed-circuit-board milling machine or a laser cutting machine. Fiducials can be used to align the circuit and the cutting machine. Multilayer circuits can be built starting with the inner layer and using conductive thread to make electrical connections between layers.

  10. Aesthetic and Utilitarian Qualities of Clothing: Use of a Multidimensional Clothing Value Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morganosky, Michelle

    1984-01-01

    This study investigated consumers' valuation of clothing on the basis of aesthetic and utilitarian qualities. Findings indicated that subjects were willing to pay the most for high aesthetic items regardless of utility and the least for low aesthetic, low utility items. (JB)

  11. Polishing is made cheaper by disposable diamond-impregnated abrasive cloth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harper, F. J.

    1972-01-01

    Diamond impregnated abrasive cloth eliminated expensive diamond pastes and was economically disposed of to avoid contamination. Cloth was spunbonded nylon, but any napless fabric could be used. Cloth was sprayed with diamond abrasive gel.

  12. 77 FR 3845 - Agency Information Collection Activity (Application for Annual Clothing Allowance) Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection Activity (Application for Annual Clothing Allowance) Under OMB... No. 2900-0198.'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Application for Annual Clothing Allowance (Under... ] determine if a veteran is eligible for clothing allowance benefits due to a service connected...

  13. N, N-diethyl-m-toluamide-containing microcapsules for bio-cloth finishing.

    PubMed

    Fei, Bin; Xin, John H

    2007-07-01

    To obtain long-duration protection from mosquitoes using insect repellent N, N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET), this compound was incapsulated in situ during the graft copolymerization of butyl acrylate onto chitosan in an aqueous solution. Morphology of microcapsules was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, scanning probe microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. This morphology supported successful encapsulation of DEET into polymer capsules. The encapsulation ratio of DEET was greater than 33%, as estimated from thermo-gravimetric results. The aqueous emulsions were applied to cotton textiles by spraying. Treated cloth showed high bactericidal activity against Staphylococcus aureus. Mosquito repellency of the bio-cloth was evaluated with Aedes albopictus. The 90% effective dose of emulsions on textiles was compared with that of DEET in ethanol. A time profile showed that the repellency of an optimized emulsion was 100% after eight hours, and partially preserved even after exposure to air for 48 hours.

  14. WBGT clothing adjustments for four clothing ensembles under three relative humidity levels.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Thomas E; Luecke, Christina L; Schwartz, Skai W; Kirkland, K Scott; Ashley, Candi D

    2005-05-01

    Threshold limit values for heat stress and strain are based on an upper limit wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) for ordinary work clothes, with clothing adjustment factors (CAF) for other clothing ensembles. The purpose of this study was to determine the CAF for four clothing ensembles (Cotton Coveralls, Tyvek 1424 Coveralls, NexGen Coveralls, and Tychem QC Coveralls) against a baseline of cotton work clothes and to determine what effect relative humidity may have. A climatic chamber was used to slowly increase the level of heat stress by increasing air temperature at three levels of relative humidity (20%, 50%, and 70%). Study participants wore one of the five ensembles while walking on a treadmill at a moderate metabolic rate of 155 W m-2 (about 300 W). Physiological data and environmental data were collected. When the participant's core temperature reached a steady state, the dry bulb temperature was increased at constant relative humidity. The point at which the core temperature began to increase was defined as the inflection point. The environmental temperature recorded 5 min before the inflection point was used to calculate the critical WBGT for each ensemble. A three-way analysis of variance with ensemble by humidity protocol interactions and a multiple comparison test were used to make comparisons among the mean values. Only the vapor-barrier ensemble (Tychem QC) demonstrated an interaction with humidity level. The following CAFs are proposed: Cotton Coveralls (0 degrees C-WBGT), Tyvek 1424 Coveralls (+1), NexGen Coveralls (+2), and Tychem QC Coveralls (+10).

  15. Outdoor clothing: its relationship to geography, climate, behaviour and cold-related mortality in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donaldson, G. C.; Rintamäki, H.; Näyhä, S.

    It has been suggested, that the inhabitants of northern European regions, who experience little cold-related mortality, protect themselves outdoors by wearing more clothing, at the same temperature, than people living in southern regions where such mortality is high. Outdoor clothing data were collected in eight regions from 6583 people divided by sex and age group (50-59 and 65-74 years). Across Europe, the total clothing worn (as assessed by dry thermal insulation and numbers of items or layers) increased significantly with cold, wind, less physical activity and longer periods outdoors. Men wore 0.14 clo (1 clo=0.115 m2 K W-1) more than women and the older people wore 0.05 clo more than the younger group (both P<0.001). After allowance for these factors, regional differences in insulation and item number were correlated (r=-0.74, P=0.037; r=-0.74, P=0.036 respectively), but not those in clothing layers (r=-0.21 P=0.61), with indices of cold-related mortality. Cold weather most increased the wearing of gloves, scarves and hats. The geographical variation in the wearing of these three together items more closely matched that in cold-related mortality (r=-0.89, P=0.003). A possible explanation for this may be that they protect the head and hands, where stimulation by cold greatly increases peripheral vasoconstriction causing a rise in blood pressure that procedure haemoconcentration and raised cardiovascular risk.

  16. Permeation tests of glove and clothing materials against sensitizing chemicals using diphenylmethane diisocyanate as an example.

    PubMed

    Mäkelä, Erja A; Henriks-Eckerman, Maj-Len; Ylinen, Katriina; Vuokko, Aki; Suuronen, Katri

    2014-08-01

    Diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI) is a sensitizing chemical that can cause allergic contact dermatitis and asthma. Protective gloves and clothing are necessary to prevent skin exposure. Breakthrough times are used for the selection of chemical protective gloves and clothing. In the EN 374-3:2003 European standard, breakthrough time is defined as the time in which the permeation reaches the rate of 1.0 µg min(-1) cm(-2) through the material. Such breakthrough times do not necessarily represent safe limits for sensitizing chemicals. We studied the permeation of 4,4'-MDI through eight glove materials and one clothing material. The test method was derived from the EN 374-3 and ASTM F 739 standards. All measured permeation rates were below 0.1 µg min(-1) cm(-2), and thus, the breakthrough times for all the tested materials were over 480min, when the definitions of EN 374-3 and ASTM F 739 for the breakthrough time were used. Based on the sensitizing capacity of MDI, we concluded that a cumulative permeation of 1.0 µg cm(-2) should be used as the end point of the breakthrough time determination for materials used for protection against direct contact with MDI. Using this criterion for the breakthrough time, seven tested materials were permeated in <480min (range: 23-406min). Affordable chemical protective glove materials that had a breakthrough time of over 75min were natural rubber, thick polyvinylchloride, neoprene-natural rubber, and thin and thick nitrile rubber. We suggest that the current definitions of breakthrough times in the standard requirements for protective materials should be critically evaluated as regards MDI and other sensitizing chemicals, or chemicals highly toxic via the skin.

  17. Transfer of radiative heat through clothing ensembles.

    PubMed

    Lotens, W A; Pieters, A M

    1995-06-01

    A mathematical model was designed to calculate the temperature and dry heat transfer in the various layers of a clothing ensemble, and the total heat loss of a human who is irradiated for a certain fraction of his or her area. The clothing ensemble that is irradiated by an external heat source is considered to be composed of underclothing, trapped air, and outer fabric. The model was experimentally tested with heat balance methods, using subjects, varying the activity, wind, and radiation characteristics of the outer garment of two-layer ensembles. In two experiments the subjects could only give off dry heat because they were wrapped in plastic foil. The model appeared to be correct within about 1 degree C (rms error) and 10 Wm-2 (rms error). In a third experiment, sweat evaporation was also taken into account, showing that the resulting physiological heat load of 10 to 30% of the intercepted additional radiation is compensated by additional sweating. The resulting heat strain was rather mild. It is concluded that the mathematical model is a valid tool for the investigation of heat transfer through two-layer ensembles in radiant environments.

  18. Reversible Humidity Sensitive Clothing for Personal Thermoregulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Ying; Zhang, Fenghua; Wang, Meng; Gardner, Calvin J.; Kim, Gunwoo; Liu, Yanju; Leng, Jinsong; Jin, Sungho; Chen, Renkun

    2017-03-01

    Two kinds of humidity-induced, bendable smart clothing have been designed to reversibly adapt their thermal insulation functionality. The first design mimics the pores in human skin, in which pre-cut flaps open to produce pores in Nafion sheets when humidity increases, as might occur during human sweating thus permitting air flow and reducing both the humidity level and the apparent temperature. Like the smart human sweating pores, the flaps can close automatically after the perspiration to keep the wearer warm. The second design involves thickness adjustable clothes by inserting the bent polymer sheets between two fabrics. As the humidity increases, the sheets become thinner, thus reducing the gap between the two fabrics to reduce the thermal insulation. The insulation layer can recover its original thickness upon humidity reduction to restore its warmth-preservation function. Such humidity sensitive smart polymer materials can be utilized to adjust personal comfort, and be effective in reducing energy consumption for building heating or cooling with numerous smart design.

  19. Reversible Humidity Sensitive Clothing for Personal Thermoregulation

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Ying; Zhang, Fenghua; Wang, Meng; Gardner, Calvin J.; Kim, Gunwoo; Liu, Yanju; Leng, Jinsong; Jin, Sungho; Chen, Renkun

    2017-01-01

    Two kinds of humidity-induced, bendable smart clothing have been designed to reversibly adapt their thermal insulation functionality. The first design mimics the pores in human skin, in which pre-cut flaps open to produce pores in Nafion sheets when humidity increases, as might occur during human sweating thus permitting air flow and reducing both the humidity level and the apparent temperature. Like the smart human sweating pores, the flaps can close automatically after the perspiration to keep the wearer warm. The second design involves thickness adjustable clothes by inserting the bent polymer sheets between two fabrics. As the humidity increases, the sheets become thinner, thus reducing the gap between the two fabrics to reduce the thermal insulation. The insulation layer can recover its original thickness upon humidity reduction to restore its warmth-preservation function. Such humidity sensitive smart polymer materials can be utilized to adjust personal comfort, and be effective in reducing energy consumption for building heating or cooling with numerous smart design. PMID:28281646

  20. Reversible Humidity Sensitive Clothing for Personal Thermoregulation.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Ying; Zhang, Fenghua; Wang, Meng; Gardner, Calvin J; Kim, Gunwoo; Liu, Yanju; Leng, Jinsong; Jin, Sungho; Chen, Renkun

    2017-03-10

    Two kinds of humidity-induced, bendable smart clothing have been designed to reversibly adapt their thermal insulation functionality. The first design mimics the pores in human skin, in which pre-cut flaps open to produce pores in Nafion sheets when humidity increases, as might occur during human sweating thus permitting air flow and reducing both the humidity level and the apparent temperature. Like the smart human sweating pores, the flaps can close automatically after the perspiration to keep the wearer warm. The second design involves thickness adjustable clothes by inserting the bent polymer sheets between two fabrics. As the humidity increases, the sheets become thinner, thus reducing the gap between the two fabrics to reduce the thermal insulation. The insulation layer can recover its original thickness upon humidity reduction to restore its warmth-preservation function. Such humidity sensitive smart polymer materials can be utilized to adjust personal comfort, and be effective in reducing energy consumption for building heating or cooling with numerous smart design.

  1. Vocational Education for the Handicapped. Clothing Service Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin. Dept. of Occupational Education and Technology.

    Designed for use in teaching a clothing service program, this clothing service guide is suitable for use with students in vocational education for the handicapped (VEH) programs and with mainstreamed special education students in other occupational home economics programs. The first section deals with various aspects of home economics VEH,…

  2. Impact of clothing on exercise in the heat.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jon-Kyle; Bishop, Phillip A

    2013-08-01

    Clothing targeting the exercise enthusiast has been advertised to keep individuals drier, cooler, and more comfortable during exercise in the heat. The marketing of such clothing has increased dramatically within the last decade. In hot environments, clothing acts as a barrier to thermal balance by inhibiting evaporative and convective cooling. Clothing construction, fit, and fabric are all critical influences on the amount of sweat absorbed from the skin and transported throughout the clothing. The majority of the research analyzing advertised synthetic fabrics has shown no difference in thermoregulation or clothing comfort while exercising in those fabrics in the heat compared to natural fabrics. The influence of clothing construction on thermal balance has received minimal research in regards to exercise. Further research is needed in this area, since it is poorly understood from ecologically valid human testing. Future research should also consider examining the effects of clothing characteristics on comfort during exercise and recovery. The incorporation of protocols that more closely mirror sporting and recreational activity lasting >60 min as well as simulated work-related protocols lasting >120 min is warranted.

  3. Acquisition: Buy American Act Issues on Procurements of Military Clothing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    mandatory uniform items (shirts, trousers, coats, headwear , etc.) that are procured by the Defense Supply Center Philadelphia and requisitioned by...FSC codes cover the following types of military clothing and related items: • FSC 8415-Special purpose clothing: special purpose headwear

  4. Graphite cloth facilitates vacuum evaporation of silicon monoxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carithers, M. D.

    1968-01-01

    Woven graphite cloth facilitates the vacuum deposition of thin films of silicon monoxide on substrate surfaces. The cloth serves both as a container and electric heating element for the silicon monoxide. It minimizes and prevents the silicon monoxide particle ejection, provides uniform heat distribution, and cools rapidly by radiation.

  5. 10 CFR 429.46 - Commercial clothes washers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Commercial clothes washers. 429.46 Section 429.46 Energy... COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.46 Commercial clothes washers. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for testing. (1) The requirements of § 429.11 are applicable to commercial...

  6. 10 CFR 429.46 - Commercial clothes washers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Commercial clothes washers. 429.46 Section 429.46 Energy... COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.46 Commercial clothes washers. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for testing. (1) The requirements of § 429.11 are applicable to commercial...

  7. 10 CFR 429.20 - Residential clothes washers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Residential clothes washers. 429.20 Section 429.20 Energy... COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.20 Residential clothes washers. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for testing. (1) The requirements of § 429.11 are applicable to residential...

  8. 45. 1915 CLOTH ROOM ADJACENT TO PICKER ROOM, SECOND FLOOR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. 1915 CLOTH ROOM ADJACENT TO PICKER ROOM, SECOND FLOOR, NORTH END OF MILL NO. 2, WALL ON LEFT DIVIDING CLOTH ROOM ADDED LATER (PROBABLY C. 1970s). - Prattville Manufacturing Company, Number One, 242 South Court Street, Prattville, Autauga County, AL

  9. Effect of Clothing on Measurement of Bone Mineral Density.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Elizabeth A; Feldman, Anna Z; Malabanan, Alan O; Abate, Ejigayehu G; Whittaker, LaTarsha G; Yano-Litwin, Amanda; Dorazio, Jolene; Rosen, Harold N

    2016-01-01

    It is unknown whether allowing patients to have BMD (bone mineral density) studies acquired while wearing radiolucent clothing adlib contributes appreciably to the measurement error seen. To examine this question, a spine phantom was scanned 30 times without any clothing, while draped with a gown, and while draped with heavy winter clothing. The effect on mean BMD and on SD (standard deviation) was assessed. The effect of clothing on mean or SD of the area was not significant. The effect of clothing on mean and SD for BMD was small but significant and was around 1.6% for the mean. However, the effect on BMD precision was much more clinically important. Without clothing the spine phantom had an least significant change of 0.0077 gm/cm(2), while when introducing variability of clothing the least significant change rose as high as 0.0305 gm/cm(2). We conclude that, adding clothing to the spine phantom had a small but statistically significant effect on the mean BMD and on variance of the measurement. It is unlikely that the effect on mean BMD has any clinical significance, but the effect on the reproducibility (precision) of the result is likely clinically significant.

  10. This Specialty Line of Clothing Really Is the "Bee's Knees"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollingsworth, Jan Carter

    2009-01-01

    This article features "Bee's Knees," a specialty line of clothing. While not the typical product one would think of when considering mobility equipment, this line of clothing certainly does aid in helping those with disabilities access their world more safely and comfortably. "Bee's Knees" offers pint-sized pants made of kid-friendly, durable…

  11. Stories in the Cloth: Art Therapy and Narrative Textiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garlock, Lisa Raye

    2016-01-01

    In this article I weave together the relevance of narrative textile work in therapeutic and human rights contexts; showcase Common Threads, an international nonprofit that uses story cloths with survivors of gender-based violence; outline a master's level art therapy course in story cloths; and relate how textiles helped build a sibling…

  12. Exercise Clothing for Children in a Weight-Management Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Kate; Alexander, Marina; Spencer, Virginia

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated whether clothing can be perceived as a form of encouragement for success in a weight management exercise program. A small (n = 30) sample of children and parents, enrolled in a weight-management exercise program, responded to a survey instrument that included questions regarding fit and comfort of the clothing children wore…

  13. Dressing with Pride. Volume One: Clothing Changes for Special Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Evelyn S.

    This book of sewing instructions is designed to solve many clothing problems for the disabled and elderly. Written in lay terms, it contains easy-to-follow, illustrated directions to assist the inexperienced sewer to modify and adapt ready-to-wear clothing for the handicapped. Suggestions for getting started are given in an overview of clothing…

  14. Pre-Employment Laboratory Education. Clothing/Fashion Design Guidebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Instructional Materials Center.

    This guidebook is designed for use in teaching students enrolled in preemployment laboratory education (PELE) clothing/fashion design programs. The first of two major sections includes an overview for teachers on planning, conducting, and evaluating a PELE clothing/fashion design program. Specific topics discussed in section 1 include (1)…

  15. The effects of clothes on independent walking in toddlers.

    PubMed

    Théveniau, Nicolas; Boisgontier, Matthieu P; Varieras, Sabine; Olivier, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    The spatiotemporal features of walking in toddlers are known to be related to the level of maturation of the central nervous system. However, previous studies did not assess whether there could be an effect of clothes on the acquisition of walking. In this study, it was hypothesized that clothes modify the toddlers' walking. To test this hypothesis, 22 healthy toddlers divided into 3 groups of walking experience were assessed in four clothing conditions (Diaper+Trousers; Diaper+Pants of tracksuit; Diaper; Underwear). Results revealed significant effects of clothing on velocity and step length of toddlers from 6 to 18 months of walking experience. These results suggested that biomechanical constraints induced by the textile features alter the walking of toddlers. Therefore, in studies of toddler's gait, the clothing worn should be carefully mentioned and controlled.

  16. Fatal asphyxiations in children involving drawstrings on clothing.

    PubMed Central

    Petruk, J; Shields, E; Cummings, G E; Francescutti, L H

    1996-01-01

    Injuries account for more deaths and hospital admissions among children and adolescents than all diseases combined. The authors report two deaths by asphyxiation that resulted from drawstrings on the children's clothing becoming entangled on slides. Although such incidents are not common, they are preventable. The authors urge physicians to counsel parents and guardians to remove drawstrings from children's clothing, and they call upon the government and the clothing industry to work toward improving the safety standards for the design, manufacture and importation of children's clothing and banning the sale of children's clothing with drawstrings in Canada. In addition, they provide several resources for readers interested in helping reduce playground hazards in their communities. PMID:8943929

  17. Effects of air velocity and clothing combination on heating efficiency of an electrically heated vest (EHV): a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Faming; Gao, Chuansi; Holmér, Ingvar

    2010-09-01

    Cold endangers the heat balance of the human body. Protective clothing is the natural and most common equipment against cold stress. However, clothing for cold protection may be bulky and heavy, affecting human performance and increasing the work load. In such cases, a heated garment with built-in heating elements may be helpful. This pilot study presents a method based on a thermal manikin to investigate the effects of air velocity and clothing combination on the heating efficiency of an electrically heated vest (EHV). An infrared thermal camera was used to detect surface temperature distributions of the EHV on the front and back. Results show that the heating efficiency of the EHV decreases with increasing air velocity. Changes in EHV sequence in the three-layer clothing combination also significantly affect the heating efficiency: it increases with the increasing number of layers on top of the EHV. The highest mean temperature on the inner surface of the EHV was 40.2 degrees C, which indicates that it is safe for the wearers. For the EHV to heat the human body effectively, we suggest that it be worn as a middle layer. Finally, the EHV is especially suitable for occupational groups whose metabolic rate is below 1.9 Mets.

  18. Beta cloth durability assessment for Space Station Freedom (SSF) Multi-Layer Insulation (MLI) blanket covers

    SciTech Connect

    Koontz, S.L.; Jacobs, S.; Le, J.

    1993-03-01

    MLI blankets for the Space Station Freedom (SSF) must comply with general program requirements and recommendations for long life and durability in the low-Earth orbit (LEO) environment. Atomic oxygen and solar ultraviolet/vacuum ultraviolet are the most important factors in the SSF natural environment which affect materials life. Two types of Beta cloth (Teflon coated woven glass fabric), which had been proposed as MLI blanket covers, were tested for long-term durability in the LEO environment. General resistance to atomic oxygen attack and permeation were evaluated in the high velocity atomic oxygen beam system at Los Alamos National Laboratories. Long-term exposure to the LEO environment was simulated in the laboratory using a radio frequency oxygen plasma asher. The plasma asher treated Beta cloth specimens were tested for thermo-optical properties and mechanical durability. Space exposure data from the Long Duration Exposure Facility and the Intelsat Solar Array Coupon were also used in the durability assessment. Beta cloth fabricated to Rockwell specification MBO 135-027 (Chemglas 250) was shown to have acceptable durability for general use as an MLI blanket cover material in the LEO environment while Sheldahl G414500 should be used only in locations which are protected from direct Ram atomic oxygen.

  19. Beta cloth durability assessment for Space Station Freedom (SSF) Multi-Layer Insulation (MLI) blanket covers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koontz, Steven L.; Jacobs, Stephen; Le, Julie

    1993-01-01

    MLI blankets for the Space Station Freedom (SSF) must comply with general program requirements and recommendations for long life and durability in the low-Earth orbit (LEO) environment. Atomic oxygen and solar ultraviolet/vacuum ultraviolet are the most important factors in the SSF natural environment which affect materials life. Two types of Beta cloth (Teflon coated woven glass fabric), which had been proposed as MLI blanket covers, were tested for long-term durability in the LEO environment. General resistance to atomic oxygen attack and permeation were evaluated in the high velocity atomic oxygen beam system at Los Alamos National Laboratories. Long-term exposure to the LEO environment was simulated in the laboratory using a radio frequency oxygen plasma asher. The plasma asher treated Beta cloth specimens were tested for thermo-optical properties and mechanical durability. Space exposure data from the Long Duration Exposure Facility and the Intelsat Solar Array Coupon were also used in the durability assessment. Beta cloth fabricated to Rockwell specification MBO 135-027 (Chemglas 250) was shown to have acceptable durability for general use as an MLI blanket cover material in the LEO environment while Sheldahl G414500 should be used only in locations which are protected from direct Ram atomic oxygen.

  20. Characteristics of contaminant deposition onto a cylindrical body surrounded by porous clothing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Minki; Lee, Jinwon; Jung, Hyunsuk; Lee, Haewan; Pohang Univ of Sci; Tech Team; AgencyDefense Development Team

    2014-11-01

    In order to characterize the deposition pattern of air-borne contaminants on a human body protected by a garment, the air flow through the clothing and in the air gap between the clothing and the skin was numerically solved, and the deposition of the suspended contaminants on the skin was obtained over a wide variety of conditions-wind speed, human motion and clothing conditions. The penetrating air flow was sensitive to the pressure inside the air gap, for which a simple model was successfully formulated. Also the profile of the non-uniform deposition velocity or the Sherwood number could be well modeled based on the developing concentration boundary layer inside the air gap. The boundary layer thickness grew vary rapidly, nearly proportional to the square of the distance from the front stagnation point, which is much different from any other boundary layer studied in many engineering fields before. A rather universal function for the distribution of deposition speed over a cylindrical body was obtained, which remained valid for a very wide range of conditions. The characteristics for non-uniform and/or periodic external wind due to human motion were also analyzed. This study is supported by Agency for Defense Development.

  1. Thermoelectric Fabrics: Toward Power Generating Clothing

    PubMed Central

    Du, Yong; Cai, Kefeng; Chen, Song; Wang, Hongxia; Shen, Shirley Z.; Donelson, Richard; Lin, Tong

    2015-01-01

    Herein, we demonstrate that a flexible, air-permeable, thermoelectric (TE) power generator can be prepared by applying a TE polymer (e.g. poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(4-styrenesulfonate)) coated commercial fabric and subsequently by linking the coated strips with a conductive connection (e.g. using fine metal wires). The poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(4-styrenesulfonate) coated fabric shows very stable TE properties from 300 K to 390 K. The fabric device can generate a TE voltage output (V) of 4.3 mV at a temperature difference (ΔT) of 75.2 K. The potential for using fabric TE devices to harvest body temperature energy has been discussed. Fabric-based TE devices may be useful for the development of new power generating clothing and self-powered wearable electronics. PMID:25804132

  2. Thermoelectric Fabrics: Toward Power Generating Clothing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Yong; Cai, Kefeng; Chen, Song; Wang, Hongxia; Shen, Shirley Z.; Donelson, Richard; Lin, Tong

    2015-03-01

    Herein, we demonstrate that a flexible, air-permeable, thermoelectric (TE) power generator can be prepared by applying a TE polymer (e.g. poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(4-styrenesulfonate)) coated commercial fabric and subsequently by linking the coated strips with a conductive connection (e.g. using fine metal wires). The poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(4-styrenesulfonate) coated fabric shows very stable TE properties from 300 K to 390 K. The fabric device can generate a TE voltage output (V) of 4.3 mV at a temperature difference (ΔT) of 75.2 K. The potential for using fabric TE devices to harvest body temperature energy has been discussed. Fabric-based TE devices may be useful for the development of new power generating clothing and self-powered wearable electronics.

  3. Affordable Hybrid Heat Pump Clothes Dryer

    SciTech Connect

    TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.; Butterfield, Andrew; Caldwell, Dustin D.; Crook, Alexander

    2016-06-30

    This project was successful in demonstrating the feasibility of a step change in residential clothes dryer energy efficiency by demonstrating heat pump technology capable of 50% energy savings over conventional standard-size electric dryers with comparable drying times. A prototype system was designed from off-the-shelf components that can meet the project’s efficiency goals and are affordable. An experimental prototype system was built based on the design that reached 50% energy savings. Improvements have been identified that will reduce drying times of over 60 minutes to reach the goal of 40 minutes. Nevertheless, the prototype represents a step change in efficiency over heat pump dryers recently introduced to the U.S. market, with 30% improvement in energy efficiency at comparable drying times.

  4. Bern clothes washer study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Tomlinson, J.J.; Rizy, D.T.

    1998-03-01

    The US market for domestic clothes washers is currently dominated by conventional, vertical axis washers, which typically require about 40 gallons of water for each load. Although small for an individual load, the fact that 35 billion loads of laundry are washed annually in the US results in a substantial quantity of water and energy use. Although much smaller, today`s market for high-efficiency clothes washers which use much less water and energy is growing albeit slowly as manufacturers are making washers based around tumble-action, horizontal axis designs available, information about their performance and benefits is being developed, and consumers are made aware of these benefits. To help build awareness of these benefits and to accelerate markets for high-efficiency washers, DOE, under its Energy Star Program and in cooperation with Maytag Appliances, conducted a field-evaluation of high-efficiency washers using Bern, Kansas (population approximately 200) as a test bed. Baseline washer performance data as well as customer washing behavior were obtained from data collected on the existing washers of more than 100 participants in this instrumented study. Following a 2-month initial study period, all conventional washers were replaced by high-efficiency, tumble action washers, and the experiment continued for another 3-month period. Based on measured data from over 20,000 loads of laundry, the impact of the washer replacement on (1) individual customers` energy and water consumption, (2) customers` laundry habits and perceptions, and (3) the community`s water supply and waste water systems were determined and reported.

  5. Non-iterative distance constraints enforcement for cloth drapes simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidajat, R. L. L. G.; Wibowo, Arifin, Z.; Suyitno

    2016-03-01

    A cloth simulation represents the behavior of cloth objects such as flag, tablecloth, or even garments has application in clothing animation for games and virtual shops. Elastically deformable models have widely used to provide realistic and efficient simulation, however problem of overstretching is encountered. We introduce a new cloth simulation algorithm that replaces iterative distance constraint enforcement steps with non-iterative ones for preventing over stretching in a spring-mass system for cloth modeling. Our method is based on a simple position correction procedure applied at one end of a spring. In our experiments, we developed a rectangle cloth model which is initially at a horizontal position with one point is fixed, and it is allowed to drape by its own weight. Our simulation is able to achieve a plausible cloth drapes as in reality. This paper aims to demonstrate the reliability of our approach to overcome overstretches while decreasing the computational cost of the constraint enforcement process due to an iterative procedure that is eliminated.

  6. Clothing selection behavior of the aged women for thermal comfort.

    PubMed

    Jeong, W S

    1999-05-01

    Wearing behavior and thermoregulatory responses of five young women (YG; 20 +/- 1 yr) and five aged women (AG; 65 +/- 3 yr) to indoor cold in summer were investigated in this study. The subjects were exposed to 21.0 +/- 0.5 degrees C and 55 +/- 5% RH while seated during a 90-minute experiment. The subjects were allowed to select and wear for thermal comfort clothing whenever they needed additional clothing during the experiment. Rectal temperature (Tre) and temperatures of 7 sites (head, chest, forearm, hand, thigh, leg, foot) of the skin of the subjects were measured every 10 minutes. Mean skin temperature (Tsk) of the subject was obtained every 10 minutes. First selection time of additional clothing was monitored and weight of selected total clothing was calculated. The results for this study were as follows: Tre and Tsk gradually decreased in YG and AG, however Tre decreased less than Tsk which decreased greater in AG than YG (p < 0.01). AG's first selection of additional clothing and thermal sensation response were slower than YG's. Furthermore, total clothing weight was less in AG than YG. It was concluded that clothing selection behavior would modify the intrinsic thermoregulatory responses of the aged women to the cold stress in the summer.

  7. Insect repellents and associated personal protection for a reduction in human disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Personal protection measures against biting arthropods include topical insect repellents, area repellents, insecticide-treated bednets and treated clothing. The literature on the effectiveness of personal protection products against arthropods is mainly limited to studies of prevention of bites, rat...

  8. The Medical NBC Battlebook

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-05-01

    often the only treatment for viral infections. (3) Rickettsiae . Rickettsiae are microorganisms that have characteristics common to both bacteria and...Unknown Plague Yersinia pestis Bacteria Probable Q fever Coxiella burnetii Rickettsia Yes Epidemic Typhus Rickettsia prowazekii Rickettsia Probable... rickettsii Rickettsia Unknown Argentine hemorrhagic fever (Junin) Tacaribe Virus complex Arenavirus Virus Probable Bolivian hemorrhagic fever (Muchupo

  9. Measurements of clothing insulation with a thermal manikin operating under the thermal comfort regulation mode: comparative analysis of the calculation methods.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, A Virgílio M; Gaspar, Adélio R; Quintela, Divo A

    2008-11-01

    The present work is dedicated to a comparative analysis of calculation methods about clothing insulation with a thermal manikin operating under the thermal comfort regulation mode. The serial, global, and parallel calculation methods are considered and the thermal insulation results for garments (30) and ensembles (9) are discussed. The serial and parallel methods presents the higher and lower values, respectively, and the differences were sometimes significant. Considering the results for the effective thermal insulation, the mean values of the relative differences between the serial and global methods were 25.7% for the daily wear garments, 45.2% for the cold protective garments and 38.5% for the ensembles. The corresponding mean values for the global and parallel methods were 8.7, 15.8, and 10.5%, respectively. Since any uneven clothing insulation is to be expected as a source of error, particular care must be required when the calculation methods deal with cold protective clothing.

  10. Wire Cloth as Porous Material for Transpiration-cooled Walls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckert, E R G; Kinsler, Martin R; Cochran, Reeves B

    1951-01-01

    The permeability characteristics and tensile strength of a porous material developed from stainless-steel corduroy wire cloth for use in transpiration-cooled walls where the primary stresses are in one direction were investigated. The results of this investigation are presented and compared with similar results obtained with porous sintered metal compacts. A much wider range of permeabilities is obtainable with the wire cloth than with the porous metal compacts considered and the ultimate tensile strength in the direction of the primary stresses for porous materials produced from three mesh sizes of wire cloth are from two to three times the ultimate tensile strengths of the porous metal compacts.

  11. An Investigation of Self-Concept, Clothing Selection, and Life Satisfaction among Disabled Consumers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Hyo Jung

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the relationships between various aspects of self-concept (i.e., generalized self-efficacy, public self-consciousness, state hope, and self-esteem), clothing selection (i.e., clothing that expresses individuality, clothing that improves the emotional state, clothing that camouflages the body), and life satisfaction…

  12. 41 CFR 109-25.350 - Furnishing of Government clothing and individual equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... clothing and individual equipment. 109-25.350 Section 109-25.350 Public Contracts and Property Management... clothing and individual equipment. (a) Government-owned clothing and individual equipment may be furnished... could not reasonably be required to furnish them as a part of the personal clothing and equipment...

  13. 28 CFR 97.16 - Clothing requirements for transported violent prisoners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clothing requirements for transported... FOR PRIVATE ENTITIES PROVIDING PRISONER OR DETAINEE SERVICES § 97.16 Clothing requirements for... transport are clothed in brightly colored clothing that clearly identifies them as violent prisoners,...

  14. 29 CFR 1915.157 - Hand and body protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hand and body protection. 1915.157 Section 1915.157 Labor... (PPE) § 1915.157 Hand and body protection. (a) Use. The employer shall ensure that each affected employee uses appropriate hand protection and other protective clothing where there is exposure to...

  15. 29 CFR 1915.157 - Hand and body protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hand and body protection. 1915.157 Section 1915.157 Labor... (PPE) § 1915.157 Hand and body protection. (a) Use. The employer shall ensure that each affected employee uses appropriate hand protection and other protective clothing where there is exposure to...

  16. 29 CFR 1915.157 - Hand and body protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hand and body protection. 1915.157 Section 1915.157 Labor... (PPE) § 1915.157 Hand and body protection. (a) Use. The employer shall ensure that each affected employee uses appropriate hand protection and other protective clothing where there is exposure to...

  17. 29 CFR 1915.157 - Hand and body protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hand and body protection. 1915.157 Section 1915.157 Labor... (PPE) § 1915.157 Hand and body protection. (a) Use. The employer shall ensure that each affected employee uses appropriate hand protection and other protective clothing where there is exposure to...

  18. 29 CFR 1915.157 - Hand and body protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hand and body protection. 1915.157 Section 1915.157 Labor... (PPE) § 1915.157 Hand and body protection. (a) Use. The employer shall ensure that each affected employee uses appropriate hand protection and other protective clothing where there is exposure to...

  19. Protecting Workers from Heat Stress

    MedlinePlus

    ... temperatures are high and the job involves physical work. Risk Factors for Heat Illness • High temperature and humidity, ... heat or those that have been away from work to adapt to working in the heat (acclimatization). • Routinely check workers who are at risk of heat stress due to protective clothing and ...

  20. Effectiveness of permethrin-treated clothing to prevent tick exposure in foresters in the central Appalachian region of the USA.

    PubMed

    L Richards, Stephanie; G Balanay, Jo Anne; W Harris, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Outdoor workers are at risk from mosquito and tick bites and the extent to which exposures are linked to vector-borne disease is not understood. This pilot study characterizes for ester exposure to mosquitoes and ticks, and assesses effectiveness of permethrin-treated clothing for prevention of tick bites. Foresters (N = 34) from Kentucky, North Carolina, Ohio, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia were placed into treatment (permethrin-treated clothing) or control (untreated clothing) groups. Foresters completed questionnaires about work-related tick/mosquito exposure and 454 ticks were collected/identified from May to June 2013. A time-weighted analysis based on information submitted by foresters about time working outdoors showed that control participants received a lower rate of tick exposure (0.15 tick bites/hour; 13 bites/person) compared to treatment participants (0.27 bites/hour; 21 bites/person). However, more control participants (85 %) received at least one tick bite compared to treatment participants (52 %). Outdoor workers should be aware of available protective measures, such as permethrin-treated clothing, that may mitigate occupational risks.

  1. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey PHOTOCOPY OF CLOTH TRACING OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey PHOTOCOPY OF CLOTH TRACING OF HOSPITAL AND SURROUNDINGS, October 8, 1884 Original in National Archives, Washington, D.C. - U. S. Marine Hospital & Gates, 800 Saint Anthony Street, Mobile, Mobile County, AL

  2. Exploration of Home Economics Related Occupations in Clothing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Virginia F.; Plumb, Sandra

    1976-01-01

    A five-unit lesson plan is presented titled "Introduction to Careers in the Fashion Industry" which involved three sections of a ninth grade home economics class in an assembly line sewing experience in a clothing production factory. (JT)

  3. Extraction of diatoms from (cotton) clothing for forensic comparisons.

    PubMed

    Uitdehaag, Stefan; Dragutinovic, Aleksandar; Kuiper, Irene

    2010-07-15

    Diatoms in clothing can be used to determine contact with surface water and contact with a specific water source, which can help link suspects to crime scenes. However, for the study of diatoms it is imperative that they are first extracted from the clothing under investigation. In this study we tested three methods for extracting diatoms from cotton clothing: rinsing with water (RW), rinsing with ethanol (RE) and the dissolution of cotton with nitric and sulphuric acid (DI). The DI method produced the highest average yield and can be used to determine contact with water. The RE method extracted reproducible numbers of diatoms from two different T-shirts and the resulting species compositions were similar to their relevant reference water samples. Therefore, we present rinsing with ethanol as an effective extraction method for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of diatoms in (cotton) clothing.

  4. 19 CFR 10.58 - Bolting cloths; marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... materials, or dry materials mixed with water, if the water is merely a carrying medium. (b) Bolting cloths... in public stores under the supervision of customs officers. Withdrawal of Supplies and Equipment...

  5. 7. Band Wheel, Showing Cloth Web Belt and Wooden Bearing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Band Wheel, Showing Cloth Web Belt and Wooden Bearing Blocks, Looking West - David Renfrew Oil Rig, East side of Connoquenessing Creek, 0.4 mile North of confluence with Thorn Creek, Renfrew, Butler County, PA

  6. 9. FLOOR 1: FLOUR BOLTER, REEL IN PLACE BUT CLOTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. FLOOR 1: FLOUR BOLTER, REEL IN PLACE BUT CLOTH MISSING: LAYSHAFT WHICH FORMERLY DROVE BOLTER IS STORED AGAINST WALL - Windmill at Water Mill, Montauk Highway & Halsey Lane, Water Mill, Suffolk County, NY

  7. Clothed Particles in Quantum Electrodynamics and Quantum Chromodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shebeko, Alexander

    2016-03-01

    The notion of clothing in quantum field theory (QFT), put forward by Greenberg and Schweber and developed by M. Shirokov, is applied in quantum electrodynamics (QED) and quantum chromodynamics (QCD). Along the guideline we have derived a novel analytic expression for the QED Hamiltonian in the clothed particle representation (CPR). In addition, we are trying to realize this notion in QCD (to be definite for the gauge group SU(3)) when drawing parallels between QCD and QED.

  8. Cloth Simulation Based Motion Capture of Dressed Humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasler, Nils; Rosenhahn, Bodo; Seidel, Hans-Peter

    Commonly, marker based as well as markerless motion capture systems assume that the tracked person is wearing tightly fitting clothes. Unfortunately, this restriction cannot be satisfied in many situations and most preexisting video data does not adhere to it either. In this work we propose a graphics based vision approach for tracking humans markerlessly without making this assumption. Instead, a physically based simulation of the clothing the tracked person is wearing is used to guide the tracking algorithm.

  9. Space environment durability of beta cloth in LDEF thermal blankets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linton, Roger C.; Whitaker, Ann F.; Finckenor, Miria M.

    1993-01-01

    Beta cloth performance for use on long-term space vehicles such as Space Station Freedom (S.S. Freedom) requires resistance to the degrading effects of the space environment. The major issues are retention of thermal insulating properties through maintaining optical properties, preserving mechanical integrity, and generating minimal particulates for contamination-sensitive spacecraft surfaces and payloads. The longest in-flight test of beta cloth's durability was on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF), where it was exposed to the space environment for 68 months. The LDEF contained 57 experiments which further defined the space environment and its effects on spacecraft materials. It was deployed into low-Earth orbit (LEO) in Apr. 1984 and retrieved Jan. 1990 by the space shuttle. Among the 10,000 plus material constituents and samples onboard were thermal control blankets of multilayer insulation with a beta cloth outer cover and Velcro attachments. These blankets were exposed to hard vacuum, thermal cycling, charged particles, meteoroid/debris impacts, ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and atomic oxygen (AO). Of these space environmental exposure elements, AO appears to have had the greatest effect on the beta cloth. The beta cloth analyzed in this report came from the MSFC Experiment S1005 (Transverse Flat-Plate Heat Pipe) tray oriented approximately 22 deg from the leading edge vector of the LDEF satellite. The location of the tray on LDEF and the placement of the beta cloth thermal blankets are shown. The specific space environment exposure conditions for this material are listed.

  10. DNA Extraction and Amplification from Contemporary Polynesian Bark-Cloth

    PubMed Central

    Moncada, Ximena; Payacán, Claudia; Arriaza, Francisco; Lobos, Sergio; Seelenfreund, Daniela; Seelenfreund, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Background Paper mulberry has been used for thousands of years in Asia and Oceania for making paper and bark-cloth, respectively. Museums around the world hold valuable collections of Polynesian bark-cloth. Genetic analysis of the plant fibers from which the textiles were made may answer a number of questions of interest related to provenance, authenticity or species used in the manufacture of these textiles. Recovery of nucleic acids from paper mulberry bark-cloth has not been reported before. Methodology We describe a simple method for the extraction of PCR-amplifiable DNA from small samples of contemporary Polynesian bark-cloth (tapa) using two types of nuclear markers. We report the amplification of about 300 bp sequences of the ITS1 region and of a microsatellite marker. Conclusions Sufficient DNA was retrieved from all bark-cloth samples to permit successful PCR amplification. This method shows a means of obtaining useful genetic information from modern bark-cloth samples and opens perspectives for the analyses of small fragments derived from ethnographic materials. PMID:23437166

  11. Falling clothes irons rarely cause burns.

    PubMed

    Allasio, David; Shanti, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Children's Hospital of Michigan's Burn Center treats approximately three pediatric contact burns annually related to clothes irons, which involve the face, torso, and extremities. These burns leave well-demarcated burn patterns, including the steam holes from the heat plate of the iron. The average age of these children is 15 months. The history given by the parent is that the child pulled the cord of an iron that was on an ironing board or high shelf. It seemed unlikely to the investigators that a falling iron would produce such demarcated burns. A free-standing shelf unit was built with shelf heights of 36, 60, and 72 inches (the height of an ironing board and shelves at home). Three irons of different weights were put in three different positions on each shelf, with the cord dangling. A doll the approximate size of a 15-month old was positioned in front of the shelf. The dangling cord was pulled, and the falling iron was videotaped. The video was edited in freeze frame at the point at which the iron hit the doll. Two hundred seventy falls were recorded. The flat heat plate of the iron never hit the doll. The linear edge of the heat plate hit the doll on only seven falls. This study demonstrates that it is very unlikely for the flat heat plate of a falling iron to contact a toddler-sized doll. Children who allegedly sustain demarcated burns in this manner need to be investigated for nonaccidental injury.

  12. Method for Evaluating Energy Use of Dishwashers, Clothes Washers, and Clothes Dryers: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Eastment, M.; Hendron, R.

    2006-08-01

    Building America teams are researching opportunities to improve energy efficiency for some of the more challenging end-uses, such as lighting (both fixed and occupant-provided), appliances (clothes washer, dishwasher, clothes dryer, refrigerator, and range), and miscellaneous electric loads, which are all heavily dependent on occupant behavior and product choices. These end-uses have grown to be a much more significant fraction of total household energy use (as much as 50% for very efficient homes) as energy efficient homes have become more commonplace through programs such as ENERGY STAR and Building America. As modern appliances become more sophisticated the residential energy analyst is faced with a daunting task in trying to calculate the energy savings of high efficiency appliances. Unfortunately, most whole-building simulation tools do not allow the input of detailed appliance specifications. Using DOE test procedures the method outlined in this paper presents a reasonable way to generate inputs for whole-building energy-simulation tools. The information necessary to generate these inputs is available on Energy-Guide labels, the ENERGY-STAR website, California Energy Commission's Appliance website and manufacturer's literature. Building America has developed a standard method for analyzing the effect of high efficiency appliances on whole-building energy consumption when compared to the Building America's Research Benchmark building.

  13. The interaction between clothing and air weapon pellets.

    PubMed

    Wightman, G; Wark, K; Thomson, J

    2015-01-01

    Comparatively few studies have been carried out on air weapon injuries yet there are significant number of injuries and fatalities caused by these low power weapons because of their availability and the public perception that because they need no licence they are assumed to be safe. In this study ballistic gel was tested by Bloom and rupture tests to check on consistency of production. Two series of tests were carried out firing into unclothed gel blocks and blocks loosely covered by different items of clothing to simulate attire (tee shirt, jeans, fleece, and jacket). The damage to the clothing caused by different shaped pellets when fired at different ranges was examined. The apparent hole size was affected by the shape of pellet (round, pointed, flat and hollow point) and whether damage was predominantly caused by pushing yarn to one side or by laceration of the yarn through cutting or tearing. The study also compared penetration into clothed gel and unclothed gel under identical conditions, and loose clothing greatly reduced penetration. With loose clothing at 9.1 m range clothing reduced penetration to 50-70% of the penetration of unclothed gel but at 18.3m range only 7 out of 36 shots penetrated the gel. This cannot be accounted for by the energy loss at the longer range (3-7% reduction from 9.1 m to 18.3 m range in unclothed gels) and it is suggested that impulse may have a role to play. Shots that did not penetrate the gel were used to estimate the possible stopping time for the pellet (around 75 μs) and force (1700 N) or stress (100 MPa) required to bring the pellet to a halt. Even with these low energy projectiles, cloth fibres were entrained in the gel showing the potential for penetration of the body and subsequent infection.

  14. Thermal insulation and clothing area factors of typical Arabian Gulf clothing ensembles for males and females: measurements using thermal manikins.

    PubMed

    Al-ajmi, F F; Loveday, D L; Bedwell, K H; Havenith, G

    2008-05-01

    The thermal insulation of clothing is one of the most important parameters used in the thermal comfort model adopted by the International Standards Organisation (ISO) [BS EN ISO 7730, 2005. Ergonomics of the thermal environment. Analytical determination and interpretation of thermal comfort using calculation of the PMV and PPD indices and local thermal comfort criteria. International Standardisation Organisation, Geneva.] and by ASHRAE [ASHRAE Handbook, 2005. Fundamentals. Chapter 8. American Society of Heating Refrigeration and Air-conditioning Engineers, Inc., 1791 Tullie Circle N.E., Atlanta, GA.]. To date, thermal insulation values of mainly Western clothing have been published with only minimal data being available for non-Western clothing. Thus, the objective of the present study is to measure and present the thermal insulation (clo) values of a number of Arabian Gulf garments as worn by males and females. The clothing ensembles and garments of Arabian Gulf males and females presented in this study are representative of those typically worn in the region during both summer and winter seasons. Measurements of total thermal insulation values (clo) were obtained using a male and a female shape thermal manikin in accordance with the definition of insulation as given in ISO 9920. In addition, the clothing area factors (f cl) determined in two different ways were compared. The first method used a photographic technique and the second a regression equation as proposed in ISO 9920, based on the insulation values of Arabian Gulf male and female garments and ensembles as they were determined in this study. In addition, fibre content, descriptions and weights of Arabian Gulf clothing have been recorded and tabulated in this study. The findings of this study are presented as additions to the existing knowledge base of clothing insulation, and provide for the first time data for Arabian Gulf clothing. The analysis showed that for these non-Western clothing designs, the

  15. Advanced worker protection system

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, B.; Duncan, P.; Myers, J.

    1995-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D&D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D&D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project describes the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS) which will include a life-support backpack with liquid air for cooling and as a supply of breathing gas, protective clothing, respirators, communications, and support equipment.

  16. Fire Protection Jacket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    NERAC, Inc., Tolland, CT, aided Paul Monroe Engineering, Orange, CA, in the development of their PC1200 Series Fire Protection Jacket that protects the oil conduit system on an offshore drilling platform from the intense hydrocarbon fires that cause buckling and could cause structural failure of the platform. The flame-proof jacketing, which can withstand temperatures of 2000 degrees Fahrenheit for four hours or more, was developed from a combination of ceramic cloth (similar to the ceramic in Space Shuttle tiles), and laminates used in space suits.

  17. Effect of different professions' clothing on children's height perception.

    PubMed

    Rashidi, Mahmoud; Keshtkaran, Katayoun; Zabihidan, Sahar; Hosseinchari, Masoud; Pazhoohi, Farid

    2012-11-01

    Height is a biological factor that can affect how others perceive and behave toward an individual. Height is a biological factor that can affect how others perceive and behave toward an individual. Clothing, as a non-biological factor, can affect these perceptions of height. In this study weClothing, as a non-biological factor, can affect these perceptions of height. In this study we investigated the effect of different professions' clothing on children's perceptions of height. One investigated the effect of different professions' clothing on children's perceptions of height. One hundred and eighty primary school students participated in this study and estimated the height of an actor in the clothing of four different professions which differed in terms of prestige. The results of study showed that the difference between the perceived and actual height was larger when participants estimated the height of socially esteemed professions. Also there was no difference between girls' and boys' estimation of different professions' height. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  18. Performance and Characteristics of Heat Pump Clothes Drier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambarita, H.; Nasution, D. M.; Gunawan, S.; Nasution, A. H.

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, a study of clothes drying using a heat pump drier has been carried out. The objective is to examine the performance and drying characteristics of the heat pump clothes dryer. The result of performances and drying characteristics were compared with waste heat drying system of split-type residential air conditioner (RAC). A drying chamber with volume 1 m3 integrated with heat pump component had been designed and fabricated. The heat pump operated by vapor compression cycle with power input of 800W and refrigerant R22 as a working fluid. The clothes dried made of pure cotton with initial weight varied from 3.00 kg, 5.25 kg, and 6.38 kg, respectively. The results shown that the drying time and drying rate of heat pump drier are faster than waste heat drying system. The average total performance of heat pump clothes drier is 6.56. On the other hand, SMER which is obtained 1.492 kg/kWh. These values are lower than the SMER of waste heat drying system which shown the average value of 2.492 kg/kWh. In the case of drying clothes, waste heat drying of RAC shows a better performance in comparison with heat pump drying system.

  19. Near infrared transmission through clothing: applications in sensing and screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchins, D. A.; Canal, C. M.; Saleem, A.; Davis, L. A. J.; Green, R. J.

    2011-11-01

    Experiments have been performed to demonstrate that near infrared (NIR) transmission through a wide range of clothing materials is possible. Studies have shown that the characteristics of NIR transmission are affected by both the type of fibre used, and the weave pattern. A series of experiments has indicated that NIR transmission is also dependent on other variables such as fabric porosity and dye colour. It is shown that, in many cases, transmission coefficients are sufficiently high that imaging and spectroscopy of objects hidden behind clothing samples should be possible. However, while transmission through clothing at NIR wavelengths in the 750-1,700 nm range is often more effective than in the visible or IR regions, the fabrics themselves will modify the transmitted signal in terms of spatial effects, intensity and spectral content. The paper also describes the possible use of near infrared signals to identify objects that are hidden behind clothing layers. This can be done using spectroscopy. It is important, however, to distinguish the various contributions that exist within the backscattered signal. A set of careful laboratory experiments have demonstrated that transmission through a set of different clothing fabrics does modify the spectral content of signals, but that the spectrum of a particular chemical can still be identified, provided certain steps are taken. These involve a set of careful calibration measurements, and the use of processing techniques for the retrieval of data. It will be shown that this is possible for both granular solids and selected liquids.

  20. Body dissatisfaction, bulimic symptoms, and clothing practices among college women.

    PubMed

    Trautmann, Julianne; Worthy, Sheri Lokken; Lokken, Kristine L

    2007-09-01

    Clothing use may be a behavioral avoidance strategy for individuals with body dissatisfaction and eating pathology. The authors administered the Body Image Avoidance Questionnaire (J. C. Rosen, D. Srebnik, E. Saltzberg, & S. Wendt, 1991), the Bulimia Test-Revised (M. Thelen, J. Farmer, S. Wonderlich, & M. Smith, 1991), and the Body dissatisfaction subscale of the Eating Disorder Inventory (D. M. Garner, M. P. Olmstead, & J. Polivy, 1983) to undergraduate college women from two universities (N = 540). Results indicated that women who were more dissatisfied with their bodies (beta = .396) and had greater disordered eating behaviors (beta = .378) were more likely to engage in clothing-related appearance-management behaviors (p < .001), including wearing apparel to camouflage their bodies; avoiding revealing, brightly colored, or tightly fitting clothing; and avoiding shopping for clothing. These findings suggest that the presence of certain clothing-related appearance-management behaviors may be a warning sign that an individual is at risk for developing an eating disorder or may currently have an eating disorder.

  1. Viability of 3 D Woven Carbon Cloth and Advanced Carbon-Carbon Ribs for Adaptive Deployable Entry Placement Technology (ADEPT) for Future NASA Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Arnold, James O.; Peterson, K. H.; Blosser, M. L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes aerothermodynamic and thermal structural testing that demonstrate the viability of three dimensional woven carbon cloth and advanced carbon-carbon (ACC) ribs for use in the Adaptive Deployable Entry Placement Technology (ADEPT). ADEPT is an umbrella-like entry system that is folded for stowage in the launch vehicle's shroud and deployed prior to reaching the atmeopheric interface. A key feature of the ADEPT concept is a lower ballistic coefficient for delivery of a given payload than seen with conventional, rigid body entry systems. The benefits that accrue from the lower ballistic coefficient incllude factor-of-ten reductions of deceleration forces and entry heating. The former enables consideration of new classes of scientific instruments for solar system exploration while the latter enables the design of a more efficient thermal protection system. The carbon cloth base lined for ADEPT has a dual use in that it serves as the thermal protection system and as the "skin" that transfers aerdynamic deceleration loads to its umbrella-like substructure. Arcjet testing described in this paper was conducted for some of the higher heating conditions for a future Venus mission using the ADEPT concept, thereby showing that the carbon cloth can perform in a relevant entry environment. Recently completed the thermal structural testing of the cloth attached to a representative ACC rib design is also described. Finally, this paper describes a preliminary engineering level code, based on the arcjet data, that can be used to estimate cloth thickness for future ADEPT missions and to predict carbon cloth performance in future arcjet tests.

  2. 29 CFR 1917.95 - Other protective measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Personal Protection § 1917.95 Other protective measures. (a) Protective clothing..., or for use on vessels. (3) Personal flotation devices shall be maintained in safe condition and...

  3. Controlling adverse and beneficial effects of solar UV radiation by wearing suitable clothes - spectral transmission of different kinds of fabrics.

    PubMed

    Sobolewski, Piotr S; Krzyścin, Janusz W; Jarosławski, Janusz; Wink, Jakub; Lesiak, Aleksandra; Narbutt, Joanna

    2014-11-01

    Humans should avoid prolonged exposure to the Sun during the warm subperiod of the year with naturally high solar UV level. One of the known recommendations to avoid excessive UV radiation is wearing clothes with UV protection additives. However there is an important question: how do we get an adequate solar UV radiation, which maintains a healthy status of vitamin D, without facing overexposure risks? It is found that some kind of 100% cotton knitted fabric, used in the production of normal daily clothing, has ∼15% transmittance of solar UV. Model studies show that a garment made of this fabric allows larger synthesis of vitamin D3 in human body without the erythema risks (skin redness). Thus the adequate level of vitamin D could be attained safely by a person exposing only small part of the body (face, palms) during the period (May-August) of the year.

  4. Cloth-Based Power Shirt for Wearable Energy Harvesting and Clothes Ornamentation.

    PubMed

    Li, Suling; Zhong, Qize; Zhong, Junwen; Cheng, Xiaofeng; Wang, Bo; Hu, Bin; Zhou, Jun

    2015-07-15

    Harvesting ambient mechanical energy from human body motion has attracted great research interest. In this work, a power shirt based on triboelectrification and the electrostatic induction effect between fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) and external objects is demonstrated. This power shirt can effectively convert the ambient mechanical energy into electric power, and the working mechanism is systematically discussed. A maximum short-circuit current density of ∼0.37 μA/cm2 and a maximum peak power density of ∼4.65 μW/cm2 were achieved. Simultaneously, 11 blue LEDs were lit by sliding the sleeve and power shirt, indicating the potential application of the power shirt in clothes ornamentation and risk warning. This study develops an efficient path for harvesting human body energy and promoting the development of wearable electronics and smart garments.

  5. Fracture detection in concrete by glass fiber cloth reinforced plastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Soon-Gi; Lee, Sung-Riong

    2006-04-01

    Two types of carbon (carbon fiber and carbon powder) and a glass cloth were used as conductive phases and a reinforcing fiber, respectively, in polymer rods. The carbon powder was used for fabricating electrically conductive carbon powder-glass fiber reinforced plastic (CP-GFRP) rods. The carbon fiber tows and the CP-GFRP rods were adhered to mortar specimens using epoxy resin and glass fiber cloth. On bending, the electrical resistance of the carbon fiber tow attached to the mortar specimen increased greatly after crack generation, and that of the CP-GFRP rod increased after the early stages of deflection in the mortar. Therefore, the CP-GFRP rod is superior to the carbon fiber tow in detecting fractures. Also, by reinforcing with a glass fiber cloth reinforced plastic, the strength of the mortar specimens became more than twice as strong as that of the unreinforced mortar.

  6. Clothed particle representation in quantum field theory: Mass renormalization

    SciTech Connect

    Korda, V.Yu.; Shebeko, A.V.

    2004-10-15

    We consider the neutral pion and nucleon fields interacting via the pseudoscalar (PS) Yukawa-type coupling. The method of unitary clothing transformations is used to handle the so-called clothed particle representation, where the total field Hamiltonian and the three boost operators in the instant form of relativistic dynamics take on the same sparse structure in the Hilbert space of hadronic states. In this approach the mass counterterms are cancelled (at least, partly) by commutators of the generators of clothing transformations and the field interaction operator. This allows the pion and nucleon mass shifts to be expressed through the corresponding three-dimensional integrals whose integrands depend on certain covariant combinations of the relevant three-momenta. The property provides the momentum independence of mass renormalization. The present results prove to be equivalent to the results obtained by Feynman techniques.

  7. Impact of Clothing on Dermal Exposure to Phthalates: Observations and Insights from Sampling Both Skin and Clothing.

    PubMed

    Gong, Mengyan; Weschler, Charles J; Zhang, Yinping

    2016-04-19

    Clothing can either retard or accelerate dermal exposure to phthalates. To investigate the impact of clothing on dermal exposure to six phthalates (DMP/DEP/DiBP/DnBP/BBzP/DEHP) in real environments, two sets of experiments have been conducted: (1) Skin wipes were collected from 11 adults to examine the phthalate levels on both bare-skin (hand/forehead) and clothing-covered body locations (arm/back/calf); (2) Five adults were asked to wear just-washed jeans for 1 day (1(st) experiment), 5 days (2(nd) experiment), and 10 days (3(rd) experiment). Phthalate levels on their legs were measured on selected days during the wearing period, and phthalate levels in the jeans were measured at the end of each experiment and again after washing. Measured phthalate levels on body locations covered by clothing were lower than those on uncovered locations, but still substantial. Dermal uptake would be underestimated by a factor of 2 to 5 if absorption through body locations covered by clothing were neglected. Phthalate levels in the jeans and on the legs increased with the wearing time. However, the levels in the jeans and on the legs were not strongly correlated, indicating that other pathways, e.g, contact with bedding or bedclothes, likely contribute to the levels on the legs. The efficiency with which laundering washing removed phthalates from the jeans increased with decreasing Kow; median values ranged from very low (<5%) for DEHP to very high (∼75%) for DMP.

  8. Attempts to control clothes-borne infection in a burn unit. I. Experimental investigations of some clothes for barrier nursing.

    PubMed Central

    Hambraeus, A.; Ransjö, U.

    1977-01-01

    Clothes-borne transmission is an important way of spread of infection from patient to patient which is not interrupted by common cotton gowns. New barrier garments were designed from spun-bonded olefin that, in particle penetration tests, was 100 times better as a filter than cotton cloth. Three designs, a gown, a loose coverall and a close overall, were compared with each other and with conventional cotton gowns in experimental exercise and nursing procedures. Staphylococcus aureus from burned patients were used as markers. The close coverall was 4-7 times better than the loose coverall or gown in preventing the soiling of clothes worn underneath it, but appeared to permit substantially more transfer from garments underneath it to a mock 'patient' and to the air than did the looser garments. A cotton gown reduced the soiling of clothes underneath it by more than 10 times and the contamination of a mock patient by more than 30 times as compared with no barrier garment. The close coverall further diminished the contamination of clothes but not the transfer to the patient. The possible mechanisms for the discrepancy between particle transmission tests annd experimental porcedures are discussed. Images Plate 1 PMID:269195

  9. Sustaining Health and Performance in the Cold: A Pocket Guide to Environmental Medicine Aspects Of Cold-Weather Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    SUNBURN, WINDBURN AND CHAPPING WITH e. Sunburn and snow MOISTURIZING LOTIONS, AND blindness can last hours to days ASPIRIN OR TYLENOL , BUT and can cause...where run-off from rain or melting snow accumulates and 48 concentrates toxic substances. 3. Practice integrating NBC protective clothing with cold

  10. Effect of body mass and clothing on carrion entomofauna.

    PubMed

    Matuszewski, Szymon; Frątczak, Katarzyna; Konwerski, Szymon; Bajerlein, Daria; Szpila, Krzysztof; Jarmusz, Mateusz; Szafałowicz, Michał; Grzywacz, Andrzej; Mądra, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Carcass mass largely affects pattern and rate of carrion decomposition. Supposedly, it is similarly important for carrion entomofauna; however, most of its likely effects have not been tested experimentally. Here, simultaneous effects of carcass mass and clothing are analyzed. A factorial block experiment with four levels of carcass mass (small carcasses 5-15 kg, medium carcasses 15.1-30 kg, medium/large carcasses 35-50 kg, large carcasses 55-70 kg) and two levels of carcass clothing (clothed and unclothed) was made in a grassland habitat of Western Poland. Pig carcasses (N = 24) were grouped into spring, early summer, and late summer blocks. Insects were sampled manually and with pitfall traps. Results demonstrate that insect assemblages are more complex, abundant, and long-lasting on larger carcasses, whereas clothing is of minor importance in this respect. Only large or medium/large carcasses were colonized by all guilds of carrion insects, while small or medium carcasses revealed high underrepresentation of late-colonizing insects (e.g., Cleridae or Nitidulidae). This finding indicates that carcasses weighing about 23 kg-a standard in forensic decomposition studies-give an incomplete picture of carrion entomofauna. Residencies of all forensically relevant insects were distinctly prolonged on larger carcasses, indicating that cadaver mass is a factor of great importance in this respect. The pre-appearance interval of most taxa was found to be unrelated to mass or clothing of a carcass. Moreover, current results suggest that rate of larval development is higher on smaller carcasses. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that carcass mass is a factor of crucial importance for carrion entomofauna, whereas the importance of clothing is small.

  11. Microfibrous metallic cloth for acoustic isolation of a MEMS gyroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dean, Robert; Burch, Nesha; Black, Meagan; Beal, Aubrey; Flowers, George

    2011-04-01

    The response of a MEMS device that is exposed to a harsh environment may range from an increased noise floor to a completely erroneous output to temporary or even permanent device failure. One such harsh environment is high power acoustic energy possessing high frequency components. This type of environment sometimes occurs in small aerospace vehicles. In this type of operating environment, high frequency acoustic energy can be transferred to a MEMS gyroscope die through the device packaging. If the acoustic noise possesses a sufficiently strong component at the resonant frequency of the gyroscope, it will overexcite the motion of the proof mass, resulting in the deleterious effect of corrupted angular rate measurement. Therefore if the device or system packaging can be improved to sufficiently isolate the gyroscope die from environmental acoustic energy, the sensor may find new applications in this type of harsh environment. This research effort explored the use of microfibrous metallic cloth for isolating the gyroscope die from environmental acoustic excitation. Microfibrous cloth is a composite of fused, intermingled metal fibers and has a variety of typical uses involving chemical processing applications and filtering. Specifically, this research consisted of experimental evaluations of multiple layers of packed microfibrous cloth composed of sintered nickel material. The packed cloth was used to provide acoustic isolation for a test MEMS gyroscope, the Analog Devices ADXRS300. The results of this investigation revealed that the intermingling of the various fibers of the metallic cloth provided a significant contact area between the fiber strands and voids, which enhanced the acoustic damping of the material. As a result, the nickel cloth was discovered to be an effective acoustic isolation material for this particular MEMS gyroscope.

  12. Arc Synthesis of Fullerenes from the Carbide of Waste Cloths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Koichiro; Mieno, Tetsu

    2000-09-01

    A great many scraps of cotton cloth are disposed of as industrial waste through making clothes. The purpose of this study is to transform the waste into very valuable carbon compounds, that is, fullerenes. The scraps were piled and carbonized in air at 1050°C. By carbonization, the weight of the scraps decreased to 16-18%. Carbide from the scraps was used as the raw material for synthesizing fullerenes with the \\mbi{J}×\\mbi{B} arc discharge method. The soot that was deposited on the inside of the vacuum chamber contained C60 (>0.05 wt%), C70 and higher fullerenes.

  13. Apparent evaporative resistance at critical conditions for five clothing ensembles.

    PubMed

    Caravello, Victor; McCullough, Elizabeth A; Ashley, Candi D; Bernard, Thomas E

    2008-09-01

    A limiting factor for clothing ensembles inherent during heat stress exposures is the evaporative resistance, which can be used to compare candidate ensembles and in rational models of heat exchange. In this study, the apparent total evaporative resistance of five clothing ensembles (cotton work clothes, cotton coveralls, and coveralls made of Tyvek 1424 and 1427, NexGen and Tychem QC was estimated empirically from wear trials using a progressive heat stress protocol and from clothing insulation adjustments based on ISO 9920 (2007) and wetness. The metabolic rate was moderate at 165 W m(-2) and relative humidity was held at 50%. Twenty-nine heat-acclimated participants (20 men and 9 women) completed trials for all clothing ensembles. A general linear mixed effects model (ensemble and participants as a random effect) was used to analyze the data. Significant differences (p < 0.0001) among ensembles were observed for apparent total evaporative resistance. As expected, Tychem QC had the highest apparent total evaporative resistance at 0.033 kPa m(2) W(-1). NexGen was next at 0.017 kPa m(2) W(-1). These were followed by Tyvek 1424 at 0.015 kPa m(2) W(-1), and Tyvek 1427, Cotton Coveralls and Work Clothes all at 0.013 kPa m(2) W(-1). This wear test method improves on past methods using the progressive protocol to determine evaporative resistance by including the effects of movement, air motion and wetness on the estimate of clothing insulation. The pattern of evaporative resistance is the same as that for critical WBGTs and a linear relationship between apparent total evaporative resistance and WBGT clothing adjustment factor is suggested. With the large sample size, a good estimate of sample variance associated with progressive method can be made, where the standard error is 0.0044 kPa m(2) W(-1) with a 95% confidence interval of 0.0040-0.0050 kPa m(2) W(-1).

  14. Microbial contamination of a disinfectant-soaked unwoven cleaning cloth.

    PubMed

    Oie, S; Arakawa, J; Furukawa, H; Matsumoto, S; Matsuda, N; Wakamatsu, H

    2012-09-01

    In December 2009, a 76-year-old male patient developed pneumonia due to Burkholderia cepacia whilst in an intensive care unit at a Japanese university hospital. During the subsequent environmental investigation to find the source, B. cepacia with an identical DNA type was found in his denture storage solution. Open packets of unwoven rayon cloths soaked in 0.2% alkyldiaminoethylglycine hydrochloride, used for environmental cleaning, were shown to be contaminated with B. cepacia, Alcaligenes xylosoxidans, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. B. cepacia of a different DNA type was found in five of 42 samples from sealed packets of cloths.

  15. 8. Cloth Room Building/Bleach House of the Monadnock Mills complex. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Cloth Room Building/Bleach House of the Monadnock Mills complex. The Cloth Room structure dates from 1895; the Bleach House, in the background, from 1902. - Monadnock Mills, 15 Water Street, Claremont, Sullivan County, NH

  16. The antibacterial action of cloths and sanitizers and the use of environmental alternatives in food industries.

    PubMed

    Lalla, Fairuz; Dingle, Peter; Cheong, Cedric

    2005-12-01

    The use of cleaning cloths in food industries has been implicated in the spread and growth of infective bacteria. Generic cloths sanitized with hot water at 75 degrees C and chemical sanitizers such as quaternary ammonium compounds (QAC) and hypochlorites currently used in food industries were compared with environmentally conscious alternatives such as fiber cloths sanitized with hot water at 75 degrees C. The results indicated that concentrations of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli on the fiber cloths were significantly lower than concentrations of bacteria on most of the generic cloths sanitized with hot water at 75 degrees C or a chemical sanitizer. Concentrations of bacteria on the fiber cloths sanitized with hot water at 75 degrees C also were lower than concentrations on cloths sanitized with chemical sanitizers. Concentrations of bacteria on the generic cloths, however, were significantly increased.

  17. Length of tick repellency depends on formulation of the repellent compound (icaridin = Saltidin®): tests on Ixodes persulcatus and Ixodes ricinus placed on hands and clothes.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2015-08-01

    The present study had the aim to test the repellent potential of the compound icaridin = Saltidin® against the tick species Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes persulcatus using different formulations of the compound. Tests were done on backs of impregnated human hands, on impregnated linen cloth and versus impregnated dog hair. It was found that 1. Ixodes persulcatus-the common Eastern European, Russian Ixodes species is significantly sensitive to icaridin = Saltidin® as I. ricinus protecting for the test period of 5 h. This is an important finding, since I. persulcatus is the vector of agents of the severe Eastern meningoencephalitis; 2. that this repellent compound acts similarly on both I. ricinus and I. persulcatus, when sprayed either on naked skin or on cloths; 3. that there are only slight differences in duration of the repellency when using different formulations containing icaridin = Saltidin®; 4. that icaridin = Saltidin® sprayed on dog hair has identical repellent effects like those seen on human skin and cloths; thus, this compound can also be used to protect animals such as dogs, cats, horses; and 5. that the icaridin = Saltidin® did not induce a bad sensation on skin, nor bad smells; furthermore, it was not sticky and did not leave residuals neither on clothes nor on dog's hair.

  18. Residual analysis in the determination of factors affecting the estimates of body heat storage in clothed subjects.

    PubMed

    Aoyagi, Y; McLellan, T M; Shephard, R J

    1996-01-01

    Body heat storage can be estimated by calorimetry (from heat gains and losses) or by thermometry [from changes (delta) in mean body temperature (T b) calculated as a weighted combination of rectal (Tre) and mean skin temperatures (T sk)]. If an invariant weighting factor of Tre and T sk were to be used (for instance, delta T b = 0.8.delta Tre + 0.2 delta T sk under hot conditions), body heat storage could be over- or underestimated substantially relative to calorimetry, depending on whether the subject was wearing light or protective clothing. This study investigated whether discrepancies between calorimetry and thermometry arise from methodological errors in the calorimetric estimate of heat storage, from inappropriate weightings in the thermometric estimate, or from both. Residuals of calorimetry versus thermometric estimates were plotted against individual variables in the standard heat balance equation, applying various weighting factors to Tre and T sk. Whether light or protective clothing was worn, the calorimetric approach generally gave appropriate estimates of heat exchange components and thus heat storage. One exception was in estimating latent heat loss from sweat evaporation. If sweat evaporation exceeded 650 g.h-1 when wearing normal clothing, evaporative heat loss was overestimated and thus body heat storage was underestimated. Nevertheless, if data beyond this ceiling were excluded from the analyses, the standard 4:1 weighting matched calorimetric heat storage estimates quite well. When wearing protective clothing, the same 4:1 weighting approximated calorimetric heat storage with errors of less than approximately 10%, but only if environmental conditions allowed a subject to exercise for more than 90 min. The best thermometric estimates of heat storage were provided by using two sets of relative weightings, based upon the individual's metabolic heat production (M in kilojoules per meter squared per hour): (4 - [(M - x).x-1].2): 1 for an initial

  19. Adjustments for weighing clothed babies at high altitude or in cold climates.

    PubMed

    Roche, Marion L; Gyorkos, Theresa W; Sarsoza, Julieta; Kuhnlein, Harriet V

    2015-01-01

    Public health nutritionists rely on anthropometry for nutritional assessment, program planning, and evaluation. Children are usually heavily clothed at high altitudes and in cold climates. Failing to adjust for clothing weight could underestimate malnutrition prevalence. The objective of this paper is to validate an adjustment process for estimating clothing weight and quantify potential misclassification error. In March and September 2009, 293 and 272 children under 2 years of age, respectively, were measured for weight and length in 14 highlands communities in Ecuador. Weight-for-age z-scores (WAZ) and weight-for-height z-scores (WHZ) were compared using clothing-unadjusted weights and two types of clothing-adjusted weights: individual clothing-weights and population-mean clothing-weights. Modelling showed up to 24% of children's nutritional status and degree of malnutrition were misclassified for WAZ, and 13% for WHZ, when clothing was not taken into account in this cold climate. Compared with the more time-intensive individual clothing-weight adjustment, the population-mean clothing-weight adjustments had high specificity and sensitivity for WAZ. In cold climates, adjusting for population mean clothing weight provides a better estimate of the prevalence of malnutrition to inform appropriate program decisions for addressing underweight. An individual clothing weight adjustment may also be essential to classify a specific child's nutritional status when acute malnutrition is a concern.

  20. 16 CFR Appendix F1 to Part 305 - Standard Clothes Washers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Standard Clothes Washers F1 Appendix F1 to... LABELING RULEâ) Pt. 305, App. F1 Appendix F1 to Part 305—Standard Clothes Washers Range Information “Standard” includes all household clothes washers with a tub capacity of 1.6 cu. ft. or more. Capacity...